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#s .: V*. 























73, st. paul's churchyard. 















67, line 6, for them, read that. 




(Removed from the Walworth Road). 


The limited number of twelve pupils are received into this 
Establishment, and instructed in Articulation, Composition, 
and the other usual branches of education. The pupils are 
all parlour boarders, and enjoy every domestic comfort and 


Board and Instruction 50 Guineas per annum. 

Washing and Seat at Chapel 5 

Drawing 5 

References may be made to the following gentlemen, whose 
children have been some length of time under instruction. 
Lieut. Noble, Peckham, 
Capt. Stewart, Woolwich, 
H. Fellows, Esq. Queenhithe. 

*„* Payments to be made quarterly, and each pupil to be 
provided with six towels and a silver spoon. 


The instruction of the deaf and dumb is 
certainly a subject of some importance ; and 
the developement of the means, however sim- 
ple, by which beings, apparently shut out 
from all opportunity of making the acquisi- 
tion, are, nevertheless, enabled to comprehend 
and apply a written language, must prove in- 
teresting, both to individuals more immedi- 
ately concerned in the discussion, and to the 
curious inquirer in general. 

It is, therefore, certainly singular, and the 
fact is much to be lamented, that of all the 



persons who have at various times, and in 
different parts of Great Britain, devoted them- 
selves to the occupation of instructing the 
deaf and dumb, none have hitherto clearly- 
developed the methods they have adopted, 
nor attempted to benefit the public by a faith- 
ful exposition of those principles, which, from 
this unaccountable concealment, have by some 
been undervalued and contemned, and by 
others considered as involving mysteries too 
recondite to be unfolded to common minds. 

We have, it is true, several works avowedly 
written in reference to this subject, and in 
some of them will be found many judicious 
remarks, bearing more or less upon the par- 
ticular topic proposed. But as books profess- 
ing to unfold to the inquiring reader the 


" art" of instructing the deaf and dumb, they 
have been the means, in most instances, of 
misleading rather than benefiting; for al- 
though they may contain much curious, and 
even valuable information, yet it has been 
found to be not precisely that kind of informa- 
tion that was most needed and expected. 

While making these observations, I have 
more particularly in my eye Dr. Watson's book 
on the instruction of the deaf and dumb; 
a performance which, whatever may be its 
peculiar merits, I am persuaded no person 
ever perused, with a desire to be made ac- 
quainted with the method of commencing 
and carrying on the education of a deaf and 
dumb child, who did not rise from that pe- 
rusal with disappointment and regret. 

B 2 


Some writers, in delivering their opinions 
on this subject, have advanced very novel as- 
sertions. They have endeavoured to persuade 
the public that for a child to be born deaf is 
no calamity at all, and as to his education, 
" let him," say they, " be sent to school as 
other children are, and he will learn as they 
do." This advice, however, I think very few 
reflecting persons will be disposed to follow. 

That a peculiar method must be employed 
in the education of a deaf and dumb child 
cannot, I am sure, admit of any rational 
doubt ; for there is more than usual difficulty 
to contend with — more than ordinary obsta- 
cles to overcome, and, consequently, ordinary 
means must prove insufficient. 


It does not, however, from this follow, that 
because there is peculiarity there must neces- 
sarily be mystery ; or that because there is a 
departure from the ordinary course there must 
be a correspondent deviation from natural 
simplicity and common sense. If, however, 
these inferences have been drawn, I hope the 
perusal of the following pages will tend to 
show their fallacy. Of the published systems 
that have appeared on the Continent, from the 
celebrated teachers the abbe" de l'Ep^e and 
the abbe Sicard, it is not my intention, at 
present at least, to offer any opinion ; al- 
though, if this attempt meet with a favourable 
reception from the public, I may perhaps pre- 
fix to a future edition thereof an impartial 
examination, and a candid statement, of what 


appears to me to be the principal merits and 
defeets of those systems. 

I shall at present content myself with ob- 
serving, that, in the hands of their propagators, 
I see no reason to dispute the good effects that 
have been imputed to them on the Continent, 
although denied to them, perhaps somewhat 
unjustly, by English teachers. 

Neither shall I here point out wherein the 
course I think it expedient to adopt in in- 
structing the deaf and dumb differs from that 
pursued at the public institution in the Kent 
Road ; suffice it to say, that, as a whole, it 
differs more or less from each of these me- 
thods. Indeed, they .all appear to me to have, 


in a greater or less degree, one common prac- 
tical fault, that of dictating to the pupil cer- 
tain set questions and answers by way of les- 
sons to be committed to memory, and thus 
employing too* much of his time in the 
drudgery of learning by rote *. 

In putting a question to a deaf and dumb 
pupil, I would advise, by all means, that he 
be left to the exercise of his own ingenuity in 

* If any person ask a boy, who has been three or four 
years under instruction in the institution above alluded 
to, "What is butter?" he will invariably receive for an- 
swer (if the boy's memory be good), " Butter is a sub- 
stance obtained from cream by agitation " The question- 
ist, therefore, will not gain the object he has in view, 
which isj doubtless, to ascertain the child's capability of 
expressing his ideas by written language j for instead of 
evidence as to his qualifications in this respect, he will 
obtain merely a proof of the retentiveness of his memory- 


framing a reply. If he fail, his failure may 
arise either from his not having correct ideas 
of the subject, or if his ideas be correct, from 
his inability to embody them in language. 
In either case, the assistance of his instructor 
should be afforded, but assistance should not 
be obtruded where it is not absolutely needed. 
The pupil should be made to depend as much 
as possible upon his own unassisted powers ; 
and the practice of learning set questions and 
answers by heart should, I think, be entirely 
abolished, as affording no real advantage to 
the learner. 

With respect to the origin of the art of in- 
structing the deaf and dumb, it may here be 
briefly mentioned, that writers on this subject 
generally refer the first practice of it to Spain, 


where Bonnet applied himself to it with con- 
siderable success, and published an account of 
his method in 1620. But it is also said to 
have been practised by others before this pe- 
riod, and particularly by a countryman of his, 
one Peter Ponce, a Benedictine monk, who, 
as early as the latter end of the preceding 
century, is said to have instructed a person 
born deaf and dumb. In Holland, Amman, 
a Swiss physician, taught a deaf and dumb 
young lady with success in 1690; and he 
also published an account of his system. In 
England this subject was first discussed in 
1 670, by the celebrated Dr. John Wallis, Sa- 
vilian professor of geometry in the University 
of Oxford. Several deaf and dumb persons 
were at different times taught by him to com- 


municate by written language; and he, as 
well as the above-named foreign teachers, all 
taught their pupils to articulate, and there is 
every reason to suppose by one common me- 
thod * ; although Dr. Wallis was not aware 
that the idea had ever been conceived by any 
other person, judging at least from his papers 
on this subject in the Philosophical Transac- 
tions for 1670 and for 1698. As might be 
expected by any one at all acquainted with 
Dr. Wallis's eminent abilities, his method of 

* " There being no other way to direct his speech than 
by teaching him how the tongue, the lips,, the palate, 
aud other organs of speech are to be applied and moved 
in the forming of such sounds as are required, to the 
end that he may by art pronounce those sounds which 
others do by custom." Dr. Wallis's Letter in the Phil. 
Trans, for July, 1670. 


proceeding was rational and judicious; and 
from the very brief account which he has 
given of it, it appears that the process, which 
it is here proposed to explain, is very nearly 
allied to it. 

Dr. Wallis, it seems, enabled only two out 
of all his pupils to speak ; but it ought not 
from this circumstance to be inferred, that he 
never attempted it in other instances ; for if 
he had abandoned it after having succeeded 
with these two persons, it is most probable 
that he would have stated his reasons for so 
doing, which, however, he has not done. I 
therefore think it more reasonable to suppose, 
that he taught all his pupils to articulate, al- 
though only two of them arrived at such a 
degree of perfection as to be adduced by him 


as instances of his success in teaching the deaf 
and dumb to speak*. 

I shall now proceed to lay before the reader 
what experience has induced me to consider 
the simplest method of proceeding, in order 
to enable a deaf and dumb child to compre- 
hend a language. I do not affect to call it a 
system — it has perhaps no claim to that de- 
signation; it is, in short, nothing more than 
that plain and natural course which any per- 

* It is but fair to state, that of these two persons, one 
only was born deaf and dumb, the other having lost his 
hearing at about five years of age. 

And with respect to the former of these, Mr. Alex- 
ander Popham, Dr. Holder asserts his claim to having 
taught him to speak before he was placed under Dr. 
Wallis, at which time, it seems, he had quite forgotten 
Dr. Holder's instructions. 


son's judgment, after due reflection on the 
subject, would be most likely to suggest in 
reference to an undertaking of this kind: 
every one, therefore, will be capable of judg- 
ing of its efficiency as a means to the attain- 
ment of the end proposed. 




Since what is usually termed the faculty 
of speech is in reality nothing else than an 
attainment acquired by imitation, through the 
means of the organ of hearing, it follows, that 
when the possession of this organ is denied 
from birth, or when its essential parts are 
destroyed in infancy, by whatever cause, the 
unfortunate subject of the calamity must ne- 
cessarily remain dumb. 

The natural difference then between a per- 
son deaf and dumb and an ordinary individual 
does not necessarily consist in more than this, 


that upon the one, nature has bestowed five 
senses, and upon the other but four: the 
one, from his superior endowment, grows up a 
speaking being, the other, from his deficiency, 
continues mute ; his inability to speak arising 
solely from the ordinary channel through 
which language is acquired being closed. 

When it is beyond all hope ascertained 
that a child is deaf and dumb, the attention 
and inquiries of its parents and friends natu- 
rally become very anxiously directed to the 
most rational and available means of com- 
municating to the little unfortunate, as early 
as possible, the knowledge of a written lan- 
guage, thereby narrowing the chasm which 
nature appears to have created between him 
and others, and elevating him ultimately to 
the level occupied by his fellow-men. 

How this very important object is to be 
accomplished, it is my present endeavour 


briefly, but simply, and clearly, to point 

With respect to the period when a course 
of instruction may be most advantageously 
entered upon, no precise time can be fixed, as 
much will, of course, depend upon the child's 
natural ability, or upon the developement of 
intellect which he exhibits; generally speaking, 
however, at about five years of age will be a 
very suitable period to commence. 

By this time, the child will have had abun- 
dant opportunities of observing that there 
exists between himself and those around him a 
very considerable difference. He will not have 
failed to remark, that, among others, the will 
may be communicated, and the thoughts con- 
veyed, in a manner very different from that 
which he himself employs for the same pur- 
poses. He will have discovered, that, instead 
of intercourse being carried on by signs ad- 



dressed to the eye, the motion of the lips is 
employed, and the organ addressed is the ear. 

How communications are thus interchanged, 
he will, of course, be utterly at a loss to con- 
ceive; he gradually, however, becomes fami- 
liar with, and at length reconciled to the fact, 
however incomprehensible to him, that inter- 
course is maintained in this way with great 
ease and rapidity ; that his own method of 
gesture is peculiar to himself, abounding with 
imperfections, intelligible only to his imme- 
diate friends, and often, even to them, from 
the paucity of its resources, very inadequate 
to the full expression of his feelings ; but it 
is the only one, alas ! of which he can avail 
himself. He thus becomes practically ac- 
quainted with his situation — he finds that he 
is deaf. 

In this state of things, let the business of 
education commence by teaching the pupil, in 


the usual way, the formation of letters. The 
art of writing being entirely imitative, and 
requiring only the use of the fingers and eye- 
sight, may be acquired by deaf and dumb 
children as readily as by others; a circum- 
stance of peculiar importance to the former, 
as to them it must constitute the only perfect 
channel for the conveyance of information to 
the mind. 

It may here be proper to remark, that every 
attention should at all times be paid to the 
pupil's signs, even from his earliest attempts 
at this imperfect but expressive mode of mak- 
ing known his wants and his feelings. By 
affording this attention, it will be seen that 
the child constantly employs distinct signs to 
denote different objects and feelings, accom- 
panying his gestures by expressions of coun- 
tenance naturally indicative of the existing 
emotions of his mind. The parent or 
teacher should use every endeavour to recollect 

c 2 


and familiarize himself with these signs, and 
in communicating with the child, to be care- 
ful to apply them in a similar manner, and 
under precisely the same circumstances as he 
does, in order that they may thus acquire a 
definite value. Endeavours should likewise 
be used to establish, as far as practicable, a 
system of signs; in which endeavours, the 
pupil will, as it were instinctively, assist his 
instructor; indeed, signs being his peculiar 
language, he will generally be found to evince 
great fertility in their invention. 

The collection of signs thus agreed upon 
and established, should, at every favourable 
opportunity, be amplified and extended, so as 
to approach, as nearly as possible, towards an 
efficient medium of communication; for it 
must, I think, appear very obvious, that in 
teaching a language to the deaf and dumb, 
great assistance may be derived from a copious 
collection of signs, the import of which is al- 


ready understood, and their signification fully 

If it were possible for us to arrive at such a 
degree of perfection in the language of signs, 
as to be able effectively to avail ourselves of it 
for all the purposes of communication, it would 
be a happy circumstance ; as then the diffi- 
culty of teaching a written language to the 
deaf and dumb would little exceed that com- 
mon to every foreign language, attempted by 
an ordinary individual ; little more would be 
required than the translation of the one lan- 
guage into the other ; attention being at the 
same time paid to the idiom and construction 
peculiar to each. This degree of perfection, 
however, must not be expected*. 

* It must uot be here supposed that I recommend 
the establishment of any system of signs, constructed in 
reference to the words or idioms of >ur own language. 
All that I advise is, that we make our collection as co- 
pious as possible, in order that we may communicate by 


While adverting to the attention which the 
child should at this early period receive, I can- 

their aid as much as possible ; the signs employed being 
in conformity to the suggestions of nature, and not to 
the construction of our language. I am not 'therefore 
advocating the Abbe de l'Epee's system of methodical 
signs, although I am persuaded that every teacher of 
the deaf and dumb will derive advantage from a perusal 
of the Abbess work on that subject. 

Dr. Watson ridicules the attempt to teach signs to 
the deaf and dumb. " Never," says he, " let any thing 
so chimerical be thought of, as an attempt to turn mas- 
ter to the deaf and dumb in the art of signing/' and, 
in order to show the absurdity of such an attempt, he 
adduces the following a&a parallel case. 

" What should we expect from a European who 
should undertake to teach his own regular, copious, and 
polished language to a South Sea Islander, who was 
henceforward to live among Europeans, and whose scanty 
vocabulary extended only to a very few words, barely suf- 
ficient to enable him to express in a rude manner, what 
was required by the uniformity of his condition, and his 
paucity of thoughts ? Should we suspecj that the teacher 
would set about new-modelling, methodizing, and en- 
larging this rude and imperfect language, as the readiest 


not help making a few observations upon the 
conduct of those parents who, from some mis- 
taken view, confine their mute offspring almost 
entirely within the precincts of a nursery du- 
ring his earlier years, and deny to him that 

method to make the islander acquainted with the Eu- 
ropean tongue; especially, though this new-modelled 
language were the thing practicable, which, I appre- 
hend, few will contend for, could be of use but to these 
two persons?" To these queries, I shall merely reply, 
that, however ridiculous this project might appear, it 
would be equally ridiculous to attempt to teach one 
language without the aid of another — without a vehicle 
nothing can be conveyed. And with respect to the lan- 
guage of signs, depending, as it does, entirely upon ges- 
ture and expression of countenance, it can hardly be 
called conventional,— it is natural; and, therefore, to 
compare it with any other language, in reference to the 
practicability of its enlargement, is absurd. Every new 
emotion in the mind, every new stimulus offered to the 
senses, manifests itself, even in persons who hear and 
speak, unless nature is subdued, by external appearances 
of action or expression ; so that, in fact, nature suggests 
her own signs. 


freedom of ingress to their presence, which 
his more fortunate brothers and sisters enjoy. 
Let it be recollected, that the deaf child, 
though less favoured by nature, has, at least, 
as much claim to these privileges as they, and 
though mute, does not surely less powerfully 
recommend himself to the fostering care and 
attention of his parents. The deaf child, 
moreover, possesses quite as much natural 
sensibility, and is capable of feeling as acutely 
any slight offered to him, as other children of 
the same age, and the continuance of such 
treatment as this toward him cannot fail at 
length to engender feelings in his mind, which, 
added to the consciousness he already has of 
his natural deficiency, must tend to make him 
deeply sensible of the forlornness of his situ- 
ation. He will naturally look up to his bro- 
thers and sisters as his acknowledged supe- 
riors; readily yield on all occasions to their 
directions, and will thus, not unfrequently, 


become the unhappy subject, either of their 
ridicule, or of their imposition. 

In opposition to this too frequent practice, 
I would strenuously recommend that the deaf 
and dumb infant enjoy as much of his parents' 
personal care and regard as the other children 
of the family, ; for although naturally different 
from them by an organic defect, let him have 
no cause, as far as you can avoid it, to feel that 
difference. Let him see that you view him 
as occupying a place in the family of equal 
importance with the other children and that 
you strongly discountenance every attempt to 
take advantage of his calamity. If you have 
company, do not let his affliction induce you 
to exclude him alone, merely because you ap- 
prehend that his inarticulate noises may be 
offensive or his gestures troublesome ; for by 
thus excluding him from all opportunities for 
observation, you strengthen the barrier which 
nature has opposed to the expansion of his 


mental faculties, and effectually check that 
natural inquisitiveness and disposition for in- 
quiry, which it is so desirable should exist 
when education is to commence*. But to 
return to our pupil. 

* Alluding to former times, the writer of the article 
Deaf and Dumb, in the Supplement to the Encyclo- 
paedia Britannica, observes, that " In France the very 
birth of such children was accounted a sort of disgrace 
to the family from which they sprung ; and the duties 
of humanity were deemed to extend no further in their 
behalf, than to the maintenance of their animal exist- 
ence, while they were carefully excluded from the eyes 
of the world, either within the walls of a convent, or in 
some hidden asylum in the country. Abandoned thus 
early to their fate, and regarded as little better than 
idiots, it is not surprising that their future behaviour 
should have been such as might seem to justify the 
narrow views which prompted this ungenerous treat- 
ment. All motive to exertion being withheld, and all 
desire of improvement being repressed, the faculties soon 
languished and became paralyzed for want of proper ob- 
jects on which they could be exercised — and man was 
sunk to the condition of the brute." 


While occupied in tracing the forms of the 
letters, the learner may at the same time be 
taught to acquire their articulation, or to imi- 
tate, by means of the organs of speech, which 
he is here supposed to possess in as much per- 
fection as others, the formation peculiar to 
each letter *. 

For this purpose, the position which the 
external organs assume in the production of 
the several sounds must be distinctly shown 
to the pupil ; while he is made to feel with his 
finger applied to the throat the vibration which 
the sound there creates. He will immediately 
endeavour to imitate what he observes, and 
after a few trials will generally succeed. 

The several positions of the organs neces- 
sary for the production of the various articu- 
late sounds in our language are here explained. 

* When it happens that the organs of speech are im- 
perfect, which is, however, an exceedingly rare occur- 
rence, articulation will not, of course, be attempted. 


With respect to the vowel sounds, which are 
to be taught first, the position of the organs 
of speech requisite to produce them are too 
simple to need any minute description of them 

The vowel a has four distinct sounds ; they 
are observable in the words fat, fate, father, 
and fall. The sound which the pupil should 
be required to produce, is that heard in the 
word father, this being the most open. 

The teacher then is to pronounce this sound 
slowly and in a strong voice, the pupil's finger 
being placed on the throat to feel the vibra- 
tion, and his eyes being at the same time di- 
rected to the organs employed. 

The teacher must now in his turn place 
his own finger on the pupil's throat, and seem 
to require from him a similar performance to 
that which he has been witnessing, and which 
he will now attempt ; if, however, he do not 
produce sound, let him be made to apply his 


own finger to his throat, and he will discover, 
by feeling no vibration there, that his imitation 
is imperfect, and he will further try till sound 
is produced. 

Having practised this sound a little, the 
pupil may proceed to e ; the teacher dwelling 
on the sound sufficiently long to enable the 
pupil distinctly to see the formation, while he 
feels the sound as before. 

The sound of /, consisting of the sounds of 
a and e combined, is, by their help, instantly 

O is a simple sound, the formation of which 
is very easily shown. 

U is composed of two sounds, the first is 
that of e, and the second is produced by the 
double o in pronouncing the word ooze; two 
very distinct formations then are to be ex- 
hibited to the pupil. 

Y, at the end of a syllable, has the same 
sound as i; at the beginning of a syllable, it 


takes the sound of e, the former only is to be 
attended to at present. 

When the pupil has sufficiently practised 
these sounds to be able to produce the correct 
articulation of any vowel when promiscuously 
pointed to, the teacher may proceed to show 
him the power of b. 

This power is soon learnt ; nothing more 
is necessary to produce it than to close the 
lips, and with a propulsion of the breath force 
them apart, sounding at the same time in the 

As soon as b is acquired, the pupil will be 
able to produce the sounds of the following 
syllables, which are to be given him. 
ba, be, bi, bo, bu, by, 
ab, eb, ib, ob, ub. 

The power of c is not so easily shown ; it 
is produced by pressing the back part of the 
tongue to the roof of the mouth, and then 
forcing it down by propelling the breath. The 


pupil will ascertain this formation best, by his 
finger being put into the teacher's mouth. 

When this sound is produced, the pupil 
will readily run over the syllables, 
ca, co, cu, 

ac, ec, ic, oc, uc. 
Here we omit ce, ci, cy, because whenever they 
occur in a word the c takes the soft sound. 

The formation of d will be best shown to 
the pupil by advancing the tip of the tongue 
a little beyond the teeth, closing them rather 
forcibly upon it, and making him feel with 
the back of his hand, that, upon unclosing 
them you thrust the breath through; his 
other hand feeling sound in the throat. 

With the help of d he will pronounce the 

da, de, di, do, du, dy, 
ad, ed, id, od, ud. 

F is formed by bringing into contact the 


upper teeth and the under lip, and emitting 
the breath through. From this letter the 
pupil goes to the syllables 

a f> <>/'> ifiof, uf. 
G is formed in exactly the same way as c, 
with respect to the position of the organs ; and 
the difference of sound arises from this letter 
being accompanied by a deep sound in the 
throat very easily felt. This letter combined 
with the vowels, gives 

ga, ge, gi, go, gu, gy, 
ag, eg, ig, og, ug. 
H is nothing more than an emission of the 
breath ; it is not worth the pupil's attention. 
The teacher may intimate to him that the 

ha, he, hi, ho, hu, hy, 
are sounded as the vowels. 

The letter j has two distinct sounds, that 


of d and that of sh; it may be omitted till sh 
has been learned. 

K has the same formation as c; and the 

ka, Ice, ki, ko, ku, ky, 
ak, ek, ik, ok, uk, 
have been already pronounced. 

The formation of / is shown by bringing 
the tip of the tongue in close contact with the 
roof of the mouth and upper front ' teeth, 
sounding at the same time in the throat. 
This enables the pupil to go over the sylla- 

la, le, )i, lo, hi, ly, 
a I, el, il, ol, ul. 

The formation of m is very simple; its 
sound is produced by closing the lips and 
sounding in the throat ; the pupil feeling the 
vibration both when his hand is applied to 
the throat and to the lips ; this power is to 
be combined with the vowels as before. 



N is formed by bringing the upper surface 
of the tongue in contact with the palate, so as 
to prevent the escape of the breath but through 
the nose ; the mouth must be a little open, 
and vibration felt both in the throat and nose. 
The syllables formed by combining this letter 
with the vowels are next to be pronounced. 

The formation of p differs from that of b 
only in this ; the lips are here to be pressed 
rather more closely, and there is to be no 
sound in the throat. The syllables follow 
here as usual. 

The letter q always occurs in conjunction 
with u; the teacher, therefore, is to show the 
formation of qu ; this syllable is composed of 
the hard sound of c, and that produced by 
pronouncing oo in the word ooze. When the 
correct sound is produced, the pupil is to go 
over the syllables 

qua, que, qui, quo, quy, 
aqu, equ, iqu, oqu. 


To form r the tongue must be turned back 
almost as far as possible, the tip of it coming 
nearly in contact with the roof of the mouth ; 
and the breath must be gently emitted between, 
with but little sound in the throat ; by put- 
ting the pupil's finger in the mouth this for- 
mation will be discerned. This power is to 
be combined with the vowels as in the pre- 
ceding instances. 

To produce the power of s, let the teeth and 
lips be a little open, and the latter somewhat 
distended, so that the front teeth may be vi- 
sible, then the tongue is to be brought into 
close contact with the under teeth and the 
breath forced through. 

The formation of t is similar to that of d, 
but for the former there must not be sound 
in the throat. 

For v the formation is similar to that for/ ; 
but here vibration will be felt in the throat, 

D 2 


as also by placing the finger in contact with 
the upper teeth and under lip. 

W is easily shown by pronouncing clearly 
the double o as heard in the word ooze; the 
pupil should here be told that the sound 
of the double o is exactly the same as that 
of w. 

X never begins a word in our language ; it 
is composed of the sounds of k and s. 

Z is formed in like manner to s, with the 
addition of vibration in the throat, which may 
be also felt by the finger when in contact with 
the teeth. 

The whole of the above powers and sylla- 
bles should be gone carefully through by the 
pupil four or five times every day, till he is 
able to produce the correct sound when any 
letter or syllable is promiscuously pointed to. 
When he has become thus familiar with them, 
he may proceed to the five following combi- 


nations of consonants, each, with the excep- 
tion of ch, having but one simple sound, ph, 
sh, th, ch, and ng. 

Ph has the same power a&f. 

The formation of sh differs from that of s 
only in this, that the lips instead of being 
distended, are protruded a little, and the 
tongue is not used. 

If the tip of the tongue rest upon the under 
lip, and the upper teeth be brought very 
nearly in contact with it, the emission of the 
breath between will produce the sound of th. 

Ch is formed by combining t and sh. 

To produce the sound due to ng the mouth 
must be a little open, the back part of the 
tongue raised to the roof of the mouth, and 
vibration felt both in the throat and nose; 
none of the breath must pass through the 

These double consonants may be combined 
with the vowels, as was done with the conso- 


nants singly, and the pupil will easily pro- 
nounce the various syllables at sight. 

When all this has been gone through, the 
pupil will have acquired all the elements of 
articulation, and will be able to pronounce 
with tolerable accuracy any word in the En- 
glish language ; I must not say with perfect 
accuracy, because the sound due to the same 
letter, or to the same combination of letters, 
undergoes different modifications in different 
words, easily discernible indeed by the ear, 
but not produced by any very distinctly ob- 
servable alteration in the organs of speech. 
These changes chiefly relate to modulation, 
quantity, and accent, all more or less depend- 
ing on the ear, and, therefore, strict attention 
to these circumstances it is not in the power 
of a deaf person to pay. The sound of the 
letter y for instance, which, when a consonant, 
we have considered as equivalent to that of e 
long, undergoes a modification of this kind in 


the words yield and year; although there is 
no observable alteration in the organs whether 
we pronounce the y in these words, or in the 
words, young, and yarn, but the ear can discover 
a difference in the sound ; these last words 
have the sound of eang, earn *>; in the former 
words the y has a sound peculiar to itself. 
These distinctions, however, are so nice, and 
to a deaf person so unimportant, that it is 
scarcely worth while to advert to them. But 
there is in connexion with this subject a much 
greater difficulty : it arises out of the circum- 
stance, that in our language, a great number 
of words have a pronunciation composed of 
sounds different from those strictly due to 
the letters which form them. For example, 
the words industry,. beauty, table, waistcoat, 
&c, are pronounced as if they were spelt en- 
dustre, bu-te, ta-bl, iva's-cot, &c. Hence when 

* The sound of the a in these words being that heard 
in the word father. 


the pupil first learns to pronounce words, the 
teacher must analyze the sounds for him in 
this way, and he will gradually become ac- 
quainted with the nature of our language, as 
far as pronunciation is concerned, by means 
of these helps, and will, in a short time, be 
able to pronounce any word at sight as other 
people do. The various sounds of the letter 
a the pupil will also gradually notice, and will 
discontinue to use the broad sound in every 
instance, if the teacher be careful to show him 
the difference in the various words which he 
will meet with in the course of his lessons, 
since all the sounds of this letter depend sim- 
ply upon the mouth being more or less open. 
The preceding observations on the subject of 
teaching articulation will, I fear, notwithstand- 
ing my endeavours to be explicit, be still some- 
what unsatisfactory to inexperienced persons. 
Indeed, in order to convey correct and satis- 
factory notions of any series of delicate me- 


chanical operations, it is desirable that those 
operations should be exhibited to the eye, 
rather than depend for explanation upon 
written description. It must not, therefore, 
be inferred, merely because the present sub- 
ject may not be susceptible of satisfactory 
elucidation in this latter way, that it involves 
any real difficulty, or that it offers to the deaf 
pupil any thing that is not, under a competent 
teacher, very easily attainable by him ; and, 
in fact, it is generally found, that he goes 
through it with great pleasure and rapidity, 
and that in most instances, he will have ac- 
complished his task before he has learnt to 
form all the letters of the alphabet, so that 
by the time he has arrived at the letter z in 
his copy-book, he will have acquired the ele- 
ments of both written and articulate language. 
From this statement, it appears that the time 
occupied in attending to articulation has not 
been employed at the expense of any other 


object, inasmuch as a familiarity with the 
letters of the alphabet must, of course, be 
acquired previously to their combination in 
the form of words being attempted. 

Much objection has, however, at various 
times and in different forms, been made to 
the practice of teaching articulation to the 
deaf and dumb, chiefly on the ground of its 
asserted inutility to the learner. But, not- 
withstanding all the opposition it has met 
with, I cannot help still considering it as a 
very desirable preliminary in facilitating the 
acquisition of a language. It must be ad- 
mitted, that in commencing a course of in- 
struction, whatever be the subject, and who- 
ever the object of it, the application of the 
pupil must be influenced by the preparation 
existing in his mind favourable to a correct 
estimation, and cordial reception of the par- 
ticular subject offered to its notice. When 
there are clear views of the end contemplated, 


and full conviction of the desirableness of ac- 
complishing that end, the teacher may reason- 
ably calculate, with a greater degree of proba- 
bility, upon the success of his attempts, than 
when these stimuli to exertion do not operate. 
The truth of this remark being admitted, let 
us here consider a little the actual state of the 
pupil's mind, in reference to the undertaking 
before him, at the very early stage of his pro- 
gress in which we. now find him, nothing of 
the mystery of words having as yet been un- 
folded to him. Under these circumstances, 
it cannot be supposed that the learner can 
have the remotest idea that things and thoughts 
can be expressed by written characters; for 
he could not have a knowledge of the fact by 
intuition, and his observation has not fur- 
nished him with the means of arriving at it. 
But he has repeatedly observed that, by per- 
sons in general, communications are conducted 
by means of those very organs which he is 


now attempting to employ ; he has had al- 
ready numerous opportunities of remarking 
that, by means of a few simple movements of 
these organs, a command is obeyed, an order 
executed, or an object produced. Can it then 
be supposed, that, while occupied in this way, 
the learner will not have some faint idea of 
his teacher's views with him, or that he will 
be entirely ignorant of the purpose intended ? 
Certainly not. Almost every child must feel 
conscious that he is placed in the road to ac- 
quire that powerful, and to him, mysterious 
instrument, language, so often the object of 
his wonder and desire ; and with this stimulus 
operating upon his mind, he will labour on 
with confidence and delight, as much to his 
own advantage as to his teacher's satisfaction. 
If, on the contrary, it be attempted to con- 
vey the ideas of objects and feelings to the 
mind of a beginner by means of written cha- 
racters only, there must be much increase of 


difficulty. The subject comes before him as 
a perfect mystery, inexplicable by any refer- 
ence to circumstances which have ever pre- 
sented themselves to his notice ; for, as before 
remarked, he has. had no opportunity of be- 
coming acquainted with the fact that inter- 
course may be carried on by means of written 
characters, as well as by means of the organs of 
speech ; a much longer time, therefore, must 
elapse before he can have any insight into his 
teacher's views, he will, consequently, proceed 
with less pleasure, and there must remain for 
some time, in his mind, much uncertainty and 
confusion, respecting the connexion of any 
given object, and the apparently arbitrary 
collection of characters denoting its name. 

I do not however, by any means, intend to 
say that a language may not be taught to a 
deaf and dumb child without attending to 
articulation, nor to deny that, in numerous 
instances, a language has been so taught. I 


enforce its importance, viewing it merely as a 
facilitating principle, and valuing it chiefly in 
reference to its collateral advantages. 

With respect to the objections above re- 
ferred to, they have arisen, I apprehend, prin- 
cipally from a notion that the teacher's object 
in instructing a deaf and dumb child to arti- 
culate, is to furnish him with the same means 
that others possess, of cotwmunicating his 
thoughts as they do, and that, when he mixes 
in society, he may be enabled, in virtue of this 
attainment, to avail himself of it with equal 
facility and success. Viewing it in this light, 
I can pnly say, that whatever others may pre- 
tend to, I candidly confess that I aspire to no 
such object*. But, notwithstanding this 

* What has very much contributed to confirm and 
encourage the opinion of the inutility of articulation, is 
the very silly practice adopted at one or two public in- 
stitutions for the deaf and dumb, at the periodical meet- 
ings of the subscribers to which, two or three of the 


avowal, it must not be supposed that I would 
by any means discourage the pupil's attempts 
to express himself in this way. So convinced 
indeed am I of the advantages of keeping up 
this method of communication, that, in my 
own school, I use every endeavour to encou- 
rage and enforce the practice of it : for to his 
teacher the pupil will always be intelligible; and 
he will, at all tiroes, be more gratified at being 

pupils are made to recite a set of rhymes, got up for 
the purpose, as an evidence of the advantages they have 
derived from instruction. 

In what way these absurd and meaningless exhibitions 
can set forth the benefits, or further the interests of 
these institutions, or how they can possibly satisfy the 
minds of discerning individuals who pay for the support 
of them, I am utterly at a loss to conjecture. The di- 
rect advantages of articulation are certainly very unim- 
portant ; it is acquired solely by an imitation of mecha- 
nical operations, and, therefore, whatever displays may 
be made of it, the exhibitants can be properly regarded 
only as machines, and not as intelligent beings. 


able to make himself understood in this way, 
than in any other. I must also here remark 
that in some cases, where the voice is particu- 
larly agreeable, and proper attention is paid, 
a very considerable approach may be made to- 
wards that perfection natural to others. But 
to return from this digression. 

The pupil having then learnt to form the 
letters and to produce their powers, both 
singly and in combination, he is prepared to 
set about learning the names of the more 
familiar objects by which he is surrounded. 

At this stage of his progress, the instruc- 
tions of the teacher begin to assume a different 
character. Hitherto, little more has been re- 
quired of the pupil than an observation and 
imitation of visible and mechanical operations : 
the only mental exertion that has been ex- 
pected from him is to recollect the connexion 
of one symbol with another— the written cha- 
racter with the articulate formation ; but now 


something more than this becomes necessary ; 
he is here required, not to imitate, but to as- 
sociate—to connect the symbol with the thing 

Having shown the pupil the name of an 
object, and having directed him to copy it on 
his slate, the teacher will desire him to pro- 
nounce this name, directing his attention at 
the same time, to the object named ; this is 
to be repeated once or twice, the teacher ex- 
pressing satisfaction in his countenance at his 
performances ; and the pupil will, in general, 
show every indication that he fully compre- 
hends what he has, for the first time in his 
life, accomplished, —named an object. 

With respect to the objects fittest to be at 
first selected, let them be those with which 
he is most familiar, or which he is in the fre- 
quent habit of using. He should not be conr 
fined to any particular class of substantives, 
nor should they be selected in reference to 



alphabetical arrangement ; for this is not the 
plan Nature adopts with children in general ; 
and the end in view will be most speedily at- 
tained by imitating, as much as possible, the 
simplicity of her operations. Children who 
hear do not learn the names of objects in clas- 
sified parcels, nor in alphabetical order. 

The following names are among those very 
suitable to begin with. 
























Horse, &c. 

In this business of learning the names of 
objects, much assistance will be derived from 
pictures of the objects to be named ; since an 
idea of any visible object may. be very well 
conveyed by a correctly executed represent- 
ation thereof. For this purpose, the teacher 


may use the collection of plates employed in 
the Asylum in the Kent Road. Another very 
amusing help will also be found in the use of 
alphabetical counters. 

When the pupil has acquired the names of 
a few familiar objects, the practical applica- 
tion of his knowledge, scanty as it is, must, at 
every opportunity, be called forth. At dinner, 
for instance, he is to name, as far as his at- 
tainments enable him, every thing brought to 
table, or to which he is helped ; this, it should 
be seen, is regularly expected from him as 
matter of necessity. 

The names of the objects in most common 
use being learned in this way, the teacher may 
vary the lessons of his pupil by presenting to 
him a few adjectives. Now it is here sup- 
posed, that teacher and pupil have been ac- 
customed to use signs in the relation of adjec- 
tives already : as they must undoubtedly have 
found frequent occasion to express by signs 


the phrases, good boy, bad boy, dirty hands, 
clean hands, new hat, old coat, &c. ; the teacher 
then has nothing more to do than to exhibit 
the sign which they have been mutually ac- 
customed to employ in any of these cases, and 
to point to the written signification, which 
the pupil will pronounce ; thus naming that 
which before he had been in the habit of 
signing. The nature of the adjective is thus 
soon understood, and the teacher may extend 
his list of them at pleasure ; he will, however, 
often find occasion to invent new signs as he 
proceeds, so that his collection will be con- 
tinually augmenting. 

Having arrived thus far, the pupil is en- 
abled to say, of his own accord, good boy, tall 
man, fat man, &c. ; and it will be very easy 
here to inform him, that when he refers in 
these expressions to but one object, he must in- 
dicate that by prefixing a before the adjective, 
or an, if it commences with a vowel ; by writing 


down a few illustrative expressions, he will 
soon see the distinction, and the teacher may 
then further- intimate to him, that when more 
than one object is referred to, it must be indi- 
cated by adding s or es to the object's name. 
The teacher will not, of course, stop here to 
point out the exceptions to this, but will 
merely select a few expressions as suitable il- 

The teacher is now, by way of exercising 
his pupil, and in order at the same time to 
ascertain how far his efforts have succeeded, 
to express by signs the sentences a good boy, 
an old man, a new book, a clean slate, dirty 
shoes, clean hands, &c. requiring the pupil 
to translate these signs in order, as they are 
exhibited to him, which if he is found able to 
do, promptly and correctly, satisfactory evi- 
dence will be afforded that he thoroughly 
comprehends what has been taught. 

The pupil may now conveniently proceed 


to the possessive pronouns my, your, his, her, 
&c. ; the import of which, as signs, is already 
well understood ; and when the pupil has been 
shown their translation into words, he may be 
made to apply them in expressions similar to 
the following, the teacher dictating to him the 
signs : my book, his hat, your pen, our slates, 
their books, &c. These little phrases may be 
multiplied, till, from the .promptness with 
which the pupil presents the translation, the 
teacher is satisfied that the lesson is properly 
understood ; for great care must all along be 
taken that the nature and import of the words 
are correctly conveyed before another class is 
proceeded to. 

The possessive pronouns being dispatched, 
it will be expedient to proceed to the personal 
pronouns, I, you, he, she, it, &c. the import 
of which may be very easily shown. For I, 
the teacher will point to himself, without ex- 
hibiting any particular expression of counte- 


nance ; you, will be shown by pointing, in a 
similar way, to the pupil, or to the person ad- 
dressed ; he and she, by pointing, in a similar 
manner, to a third individual ; it, by pointing 
to any one of the surrounding objects. The 
plural of these pronouns is just as easily 

This being gone over a few times, and the 
pupil being enabled to apply correctly the 
different pronouns when promiscuously exer- 
cised, it will be proper to proceed immediately 
to the present tense of the indicative mood of 
the verb to be, considering it, not as an aux- 
iliary, but as a principal verb of the neuter 
kind ; for without a verb it will be impossible 
to illustrate the application of the personal 
pronouns, and yet it is advisable that we do 
illustrate, as far as possible, as we go on. The 
teacher will, therefore, direct the pupil to 
write under the preceding lesson; / am, you 
are, he is, she is, it is, &c. explaining / am, 


by pointing to himself, as in the preceding 
lesson for I, at the same time nodding his 
head, expressive of acknowledgment or assent ; 
he will point in a similar manner to the other 
persons, and accompany the action by the 
same expression of countenance. After the 
pupil has been for some time exercised in this 
lesson, the teacher is again to try the effect of 
his instructions by eliciting from him little 
sentences, in which the words and expressions 
already taught must necessarily occur; and 
the best way of doing this, will be for the 
teacher to require him, as in the preceding 
lessons, to turn into words the signs which he 
proposes to him for that purpose; for the 
pupil now possesses sufficient materials to say 
I am well, he is idle, she is tall, it is dirty, my 
slate is clean, his shoes are old, &c. or to trans- 
late the signs expressive of these sentences. 
A convenient opportunity now offers itself to 
convey the import of the definite article, 


which he may apply in such expressions, as 
the sky is blue, the fire is hot, the fioor is 
dirty, &c. 

When sufficient satisfaction has been given 
that so far has been well understood, the pu- 
pil's lesson may be extended, by giving him 
the negative form of the verb in this simple 
tense. The teacher will therefore direct him 
to write under the preceding lesson, / am not, 
you are not, he is not, she is not, it is not, &c. 
To explain I am not, the teacher will point 
to himself, as in the former lessons, at the 
same time shaking his head, indicative of 
denial ; and he will, as before, immediately 
proceed to illustrate the lesson by suitable 
examples, the pupil being here required to 
translate the signs for / am. not ill, he is not 
idle, my slate is not dirty, your gloves are 
not old, Sec. It will be necessary to exercise 
the pupil in this way for some time, in order 
that an indelible impression may remain of 


the true import of the words he has been 
learning. After the negative form, it will be 
proper to proceed to the interrogative, Am I? 
Are you? Is he? Is she? Is it? &c. ; which 
terms are to be explained by pointing to the 
persons as before, accompanying the act by 
an expression of inquiry in the countenance. 
The teacher may then proceed to ask him in 
this way, Are you good? he will, without 
doubt, nod his head, and the teacher will im- 
mediately show him the translation of that 
nod, Yes, sir, and require the pupil to add 
thereto, I am good, so that the complete sen- 
tence may be exhibited, Yes, sir, I am good. 
The teacher may now inquire if he is bad; 
the pupil will shake his head, and the trans- 
lation, No, sir, is. to be shown him, and he is 
to complete the sentence as before, which will 
stand, No, sir, I am not bad. 

The pupil should be repeatedly exercised 
in answering simple questions of this descrip- 


tion, as, Is he tall? Are they idle? Are my 
shoes dirty? &c. the answers always being 
required in the form of a complete sentence 
as above ; for the teacher does not absolutely 
want information of these particulars, which a 
simple " yes" or " no" would suffice to convey, 
but his object is to ascertain, explicitly, whe- 
ther the question be correctly understood, and 
at the same time to exercise the pupil in the 
formation of sentences. 

Should these examinations prove satisfac- 
tory, the teacher may avail himself of the 
knowledge which the pupil now has of the 
use and application of this portion of the verb 
to be, to convey the import of the demonstra- 
tive pronouns, this, that, these, and those. 
Thus the teacher may say, presenting the ob- 
ject at the same time, This is my pen, or, 
pointing to a remote object, That is your 
hat, &c. immediately showing, in each case, 
the written form. In a similar manner, for 


the plural, he may say, These are my pens, 
Those are his gloves, &c. After the exhibi- 
tion of a few examples of this kind, it will be 
proper for the teacher to rub them out, and, 
from his dictation by signs, to require the 
pupil to present the written form. Supposing, 
after a little practice, this to be correctly done, 
the teacher may write underneath each of the 
pupil's expressions, the respective equivalent 
forms as below, and intimate to the pupil that 
they are both equally correct. 
This is my pen These are my pens 

This pen is mine These pens are mine 

That is your hat Those are his gloves 

That hat is yours Those gloves are his 

& c &c. 

He may be still further exercised in all this 
by means of the questions, Whose pen is this? 
Whose book is that? Whose pens are these? 
&c. ; the answers to these questions being de- 
manded in both the above forms. 


By thus making the most of every oppor- 
tunity that occurs favourable to the extension 
of the pupil's stock of words, much time and 
trouble will be .spared. But it may not be 
amiss to remark here, that although I have 
been very brief in the directions I have hi- 
therto given, yet it must not be supposed that 
the pupil will be able to run over the ground 
with the same dispatch ; and I would parti- 
cularly caution against his progress being hur- 
ried, or against more being required from him 
than he has ample capability of performing. 

In an analogous manner to the above, the 
pupil may go through the present tense of 
the indicative mood of the verb to have, it 
being used as a principal verb signifying to 
possess. It will be very easy to explain the 
signification of this verb, and to exhibit its 
application in phrases like the following, / 
have one slate, I have two hats, he has one 
book, &c. 


The pupil should be employed for several 
days in the formation of little sentences of 
this kind, bringing into use the substantives, 
adjectives, pronouns, and verbs, which he has 
already acquired, till he is quite ready in the 
use of his materials. He will by this time 
most probably have felt, or if not, he may 
easily be made to feel, the want of expressions 
adequate to convey his meaning when alluding 
to any circumstance, not as at present exist- 
ing, but in connexion with some distant pe- 
riod of time, past or future. The teacher 
then may pass from the present, to these other 
tenses of the indicative mood of. the verb to 
be; and as it is here supposed that the di- 
stinction between past and future have already 
been denoted by signs ; of course, upon the ex- 
hibition of these signs, the correct ideas are pro- 
duced, and nothing more will be necessary than 
to point to the written forms as equivalent 
translations of the signs employed. As has been 


before observed, the teacher will have to depend 
greatly upon his collection of signs ; for if a 
correct idea can be conveyed by certain signs, 
there can be no doubt that, by exhibiting the 
written translation of those signs, the correct 
idea will be annexed to them also. 

As applications of the past and future tenses 
of the verb to be, the pupil may be exercised 
in such examples as the following, / was idle 
yesterday, I will not be idle to-morrow, &c. ; 
the teacher may here also inform him, that 
when he refers to more than one day back, he 
must employ the word last, and when to more 
than one day forward, he is to use the word next. 
As, / was ill last Tuesday, I was naughty 
last Sunday, I will not be naughty neat Sun- 
day, &c. By means of a few illustrative ex- 
amples of this kind, the pupil will become 
quite capable of expressing himself in this way 
with correctness, and will also be able to an- 
swer with readiness the questions, Are you ill 


to-day? Were you ill last Tuesday? Were 
you naughty last Sunday? Will you be 
naughty next Sunday ? &c. 

When the teacher is fully satisfied thai the 
pupil understands what he has done thus far, 
it will be proper to direct his attention to 
verbs in general. 

To begin with, the teacher should select 
some regular active verb, in which the implied 
action is easily exhibited to him, as the verb 
to walk, for instance, which, however, he must 
not be required to carry at first through all 
its moods and tenses ; the present, past, and 
future tenses only of the indicative mood 
being at first learned. 

Tp make the pupil's task more easy, he 
may be provided with the following skeleton. 

I > I do , I am ing. you , 

you do , you are ing. he s, 

he does , he is ing. she s, 

she does , she is ing. it s, 


it does , it is ing. we , we do 

, we are ing. they , they do , 

they are ing. 

I ed, I did , I was ing. 

you ed, you did , you were ing. 

he ed, he did , he was ing. 

she ed, she did , she was ing. 

it ed, it did , it was ing. we 

ed, we did , we were ing. they 

ed, they did , they were ing. 

I have ed, you have ed, he has 

— ed, she has ed, it has — ed, we 

have ed, they have ed. 

I shall , you shall , he shall — 

it shall , we shall , they shall — 

I will , you will , he will — 

she will , it will , we will — - 

they will 


In the above skeleton, the pluperfect and 
the second future tenses are omitted, as they 
are not susceptible of very clear illustration to 
the pupil at present ; they must therefore be 
deferred till opportunities offer favourable to 
the exhibition of their application. When 
the distinction between the pluperfect and the 
perfect tenses is understood, there will be no 
difficulty in showing that between the first and 
the second future tenses ; since the distinction 
between the k former tenses, in reference to past 
time, is analogous to the distinction between 
the latter tenses, in reference to future time. 

In order to illustrate" the difference between 
the expressions / do walk, and / am walking, 
the teacher while performing the act will as- 
sett with energy and emphasis, that he is in 
the act of walking, pronouncing at the same 
time in a positive manner, I do walk. To 
show the meaning of / am walking, he will 
put aside all stress and emphasis both in his 


manner of walking and speaking, simply pro- 
nouncing in an easy way, / am walking ; by 
thus marking the difference in a distinct and 
forcible manner, the pupil will be enabled, 
when he himself wishes to express the act, 
either as simply in performance, or as a posi- 
tive assertion, to use the correct form. In a 
similar manner, may the analogous forms of 
the past tense be explained. 

In order to ascertain whether this lesson has 
been understood, the teacher may propose a 
walk with his pupil in the garden, or elsewhere, 
when the latter may be required to name the act 
in reference to himself and his teacher, both 
singly and conjointly. On the morrow he may 
be required to express the past action of the 
preceding day. The teacher may also further 
exercise him by means of questions such as 
the following, the import of the question, if 
not clearly understood, being explained by 
signs. Are you walking? Am I walking? 

f 2 


Is he walking? Are toe 'walking? Have you 
walked to-day? Did you walk yesterday? 

Did you walk last ? Shall you walk 

next ? &c. When the pupil can answer 

correctly questions of this description, he may 
proceed to another verb, and go through a 
similar portion of it as before. The verb to 
jump, being susceptible of obvious illustration, 
may come next : then from this the pupil may 
go to the verb to wash, &c. ; the teacher fre- 
quently exercising the pupil by requiring him 
to show the application of the various forms 
in sentences of his own construction, and also 
by putting to him questions in every suitable 
variety of form. 

But there are actions of mind as well as of 
body, and the pupil has yet to learn that not 
only visible objects, qualities, and actions are 
expressible by words, but that mental ope- 
rations and feelings are equally capable of 
being so expressed. The pupil, therefore, 


may be presented with some verb indicating 
mental feeling, and to begin with, that which 
admits of the easiest exemplification should 
be chosen. The verb to want, will be very 
suitable, and the pupil may write it out as far 
as the skeleton form extends, but without re- 
ference thereto, and the teacher must endea- 
vour to convey the meaning of the verb by 
some significant gesture, accompanied by the 
appropriate expression of desire in the counte- 
nance. There may, however, here be some 
liability to ambiguity, and therefore in order 
to be quite certain that the correct idea has 
been affixed to this verb, before another is 
proposed, the teacher must seek an opportunity 
of observing when the pupil himself desires to 
express this idea by his own signs, and then 
seize the occasion to demand from him, or to 
exhibit to him, if need be, the written form. 
Indeed it should all along be the object of the 
teacher, when conversing with his pupil, to 
avail himself of every occasion that presents 


itself to ascertain how far the correct ideas 
have accompanied the words which have been 
learned, by requiring from him a translation 
of every phrase which he employs that can 
be translated by those words. Time should 
everyday be set apart for familiar conversation, 
with this object expressly in view; indeed, 
this should be considered as a most important 
part of the teacher's duty, and it will be found 
of more advantage to the pupil, even than 
the formal lessons of the day. It is in fact 
the only way in which the good effects of the 
teacher's labours can be decidedly verified, 
and the pupil's mistakes discovered and cor- 

In endeavouring to convey the import of any 
word or expression not capable of immediate 
illustration, and when no favourable opportu- 
nity presents itself for the purpose, the teacher 

* It is manifestly evident from experience, that the 
most advantageous way of teaching a child his first lan- 
guage is that of perpetual discourse. Dr. Wallis. 


must endeavour to create a suitable occasion, 
by bringing the pupil into the desired circum- 
stances. In the case before us, for instance ; the 
verb to want. When dinner is brought upon 
table let every person be helped, except the pu- 
pil, omitting him apparently undesignedly, and 
let each person go on with his dinner without 
noticing him. He will very soon signify that 
he has been omitted, pretend to misunderstand 
him, and he will point to the meat, and intir 
mate that he wants some. Let him now be 
required to express himself by words ; he will 
probably, at the moment, be able to say only 
meat. Let his slate be brought, and show 
him in his lesson / want: he will see your ob- 
ject, and will immediately say, / want meat; 
and there can exist no doubt as to the correct 
application of the words employed to the ope- 
rating feeling in his mind. In a similar 
manner he may be made to ask for bread, 
potatoes, Sic. of which he has till now been 


accustomed simply to pronounce the names. 
On the morrow he will not fail to, use this 
form, which being continued for a day or two 
the teacher may avail himself of the oppor- 
tunity afforded to convey the import of the 
little word some. When the pupil says I want 
meat, the teacher may pretend to help him to 
the whole joint : he will immediately show dis- 
approbation, and express by a sign, that he 
requires only a part. Let him then be told 
that the additional sign which he now employs 
corresponds to the word some; so that in or- 
der to be more explicit, this additional word 
must be introduced into his sentence, when 
the more accurate form will be / want some 
meat. The pupil will thus feel satisfied of 
the propriety of this addition, and will employ 
it under like circumstances in future. He 
may also here be made to see the meaning of 
the word all, in contradistinction to some. In 
this way, the teacher will very frequently find 


it necessary to exercise his ingenuity, and 
opportunities may in a similar manner be 
created, that shall be favourable both to call 
into exercise the words and phrases which the 
pupil has already learnt, and at the same time 
to convey to him the meaning of other words, 
the want of which he may, as in the preceding 
instance, be made to feel, and then the supply 
be afforded. Most of his expressions, when first 
elicited from him, will be presented in little 
more than an outline or skeleton form, which 
suitable occasions must be sought for, or cre- 
ated, to fill up and complete, the pupil being 
always brought to feel, as much as possible, 
the inadequacy of the imperfect form to the 
conveyance of his precise meaning, and the 
necessity of the additions and alterations in- 

The pupil may, in this stage of his pro- 
gress, be shown the application of the infinitive 
mood. Thus instead of saying, as he would 
at first do, / want walk, I want play, &c. he 


must be told that the verbs are to be separated 
by the particle to. All this may now be illus- 
trated by examples, and the pupil examined by 
proposing to him the questions, Do you want 
to play now? Shall you want to play to-mor- 
row? Did you want to walk yesterday ? &c. 

Since the pupil has by this time a very 
correct idea of the verb to want, he may pro- 
ceed to the verbs to love, to hate, &c. the 
teacher furnishing him with suitable exempli- 
fications as he goes on. It must be observed, 
however, that these exercises on -the verbs are 
not to occupy the whole of the pupil's time ; 
he is still to devote a portion of every day to 
his vocabulary of substantives and adjectives. 

Having gone thus far, the pupil may now 
turn back to the verb to walk, and carry it 
through all its moods and tenses ; a task which 
was deemed too tedious for him at first, but 
which he will now be well prepared to accom- 
plish. He may in a similar manner go through, 
in ordei?, all those verbs which he has partially 


conjugated, and with the meaning of which 
he is already familiar: from these he may 
proceed to the irregular verbs, active, passive, 
and neuter; their inflexions and variations 
being pointed out to him in skeleton forms of 
the various conjugations. The teacher will 
not now find that difficulty in explaining the 
conditional, and other moods of the verb, that 
he would have done had a full-length conju- 
gation been given to the pupil at first, before 
he was able to express the simple past and 
future -tenses, of which these other are only 
modifications. By the aid of a simple sign or 
two, and a few well chosen examples, he will 
very soon become acquainted with the value 
and intent of the different variations which a 
verb undergoes ; and by dictating the signs, 
phrases such as the following, where the aux- 
iliaries are employed, may be elicited from 
him. / can write, the cat cannot write, or, 
referring to the past, before his instruction 


commenced, i" could not write, &c. ; in a si- 
milar way may be illustrated the expressions 
/ may write, I must write, I ought to write, 
I must not play, &c. 

It may not be amiss at this stage of the 
pupil's progress, to pause a little, and inquire 
how far the end, which was at the outset con- 
templated, has as yet been accomplished. By 
reviewing the ground that has already been 
gone over, it appears that the pupil has ac- 
quired the knowledge of a great number of 
words. From the copious collection of sub- 
stantives, adjectives, and verbs which he has 
possessed himself of, he is enabled to name, as 
others do, the objects, qualities, and actions 
which most commonly present themselves to 
his notice. He is acquainted with the use of 
the personal, possessive, and demonstrative pro- 
nouns ; and is also familiar with many other 
words which the teacher has on various occa- 
sions found eligible opportunities of explaining 


to him. The grand outline then of the plari 
originally proposed has heen executed, and it 
now only remains to supply the detail. 

Being then in possession of materials for 1 
the formation of sentences for the expression 
of his wants and his feelings, let the pupil he 
required from this time, to produce something 
of his own composition every day. Let the 
subjects be of his own choosing, either relative 
to his play or to his studies, to what passes 
before his eyes or to the operations of his mind. 
His efforts in this way will, at first, be very 
feeble and imperfect, consisting perhaps of but 
a single sentence, generally with the omission 
of most of the connecting particles. These 
attempts at composition are to be submitted 
to the teacher for his examination and correc- 
tion, the errors being clearly pointed out, and 
the pupil being made sensible of the propriety 
of the alterations Which it is found necessary 
to make. If however the pupil make himself 


tolerably Intelligible, his composition should 
be allowed to pass with commendation, as too 
much nicety must not be enforced at first, as 
it is desirable that he be not made to feel dis- 
satisfied with his first efforts. Not a single 
day should now be allowed to pass without 
the production of an exercise. These exer- 
cises when corrected should be neatly regi- 
stered in a book by the pupil, and be carefully 
preserved. The teacher should particularly 
enjoin this, that the pupil may see that value 
and importance is, attached to his productions. 
Every one of these exercises will afford the 
teacher opportunities for the conveyance of 
new words and expressions, for the furnishing 
of which occasions, they will indeed be found 
peculiarly well calculated ; for the success of 
the teacher is always more to be depended on 
when explaining by words the pupil's mean- 
ing, than when aiming to convey his own. 
His stock of words and familiar expressions 


will, by these means, be rapidly augmenting, 
and his compositions will gradually assume a 
more correct, and a more lengthened form. 

In addition to the opportunities thus af- 
forded for the introduction of new words and 
forms of expression, the teacher will also de- 
vote a portion of every day to the explanation 
of words not yet' acquired, by showing their 
application in suitable examples. In this way 
the use and application of the connecting 
particles with, by, and, but, from, to, he. may 
be easily illustrated. Thus, / am writing with 
a pencil on my slate. I am standing by you 
and writing with a pencil on my slate. I am 
deaf, but I am not blind. The cat can hear, 
but she cannot speak. I came from my seat. 
I came from my seat to you, &c. &c. There are 
some words the import of which cannot in any 
other manner be conveyed, inasmuch as they 
are not susceptible of individual illustration, 
their value being ascertained only from ob- 


serving in what way they tell in a sentence. 
Suppose it be required to explain the meaning 
of the words on and off; in order to this the 
teacher may lay his penknife on the table, 
directing the pupil to observe him, and then 
to express by words what he has seen him do. 
He will perhaps say you put your penknife 
table. If the teacher removes the penknife, 
he will most likely say you took your penknife 
table. The opportunities for showing the 
application of the words on and off are then 
here produced. In a similar way, to explain 
the words out of and into, the teacher may 
take his penknife out of his pocket, directing 
the pupil to express the action. He will pro- 
bably say you took your penknife pocket, and 
when the teacher returns the penknife, he will 
say you put your penknife pocket. Nothing 
then can be more easy than to inform him, that 
in the former instance the words out ojTmust 
be supplied, and in the latter, the word into, 


showing him the difference observable in the 
actions themselves. This may be farther il- 
lustrated by taking a book out of the book- 
case, a pen out of the desk, &c. or by put- 
ting a book into the bookcase, &c. requiring 
the pupil to relate that which he has been 
observing. In an analogous manner, the 
teacher may explain the meaning of the 
words behind, before, above, below, near to, 
Jar from, &c. taking care that the other com- 
ponent parts of the several sentences employed 
to illustrate these expressions shall need only 
words with which the pupil is already familiar. 
These explanations and illustrations, in com- 
bination with the daily exercises, and the ad- 
vantages of familiar conversation, will greatly 
tend to increase the pupil's knowledge of lan- 
guage, and will gradually enable him to relate 
circumstances with more of detail and minute- 
ness, and to express his meaning on all occa- 
sions with greater clearness and precision. 



Indeed, his progress and the gratification he 
will experience, will be commensurate with 
his teacher's zeal and assiduity. It must still, 
however, be borne in mind, that a portion of 
every day is all along to be devoted to the 
enlargement of his collection of substantives, 
adjectives, and verbs ; the conjunctions, pre- 
positions, and other parts of speech being 
conveyed by means of examples, as in the 
instances just adduced. 

This is perfectly analogous to the method 
which nature adopts in conveying a first lan- 
guage to children in general. The import of 
words is not taught to them by individual 
illustration, nor by formal definition ; but they 
are left to discover their signification by at- 
tending to the effect which they constantly 
produce whenever they are employed. They 
thus affix a definite value to the words used as 
significant expressions of thoughts and feel- 
ings, and the knowledge thus obtained is ob- 


viously derived in the most simple and natural 
manner possible. There is, indeed, as before 
remarked; very often no other way of arriving 
at the exact import of a word but by viewing 
it in connexion with other words in a sentence. 
It would not be an easy matter to convey, by 
definition, the true import of the word since, 
for example, as every person will readily ad- 
mit who reflects a little upon the signification 
of this word ; and there are numerous other 
words of a similar nature, the meaning of 
which may, nevertheless, be very accurately 
conveyed by means of a few well-chosen ex- 
amples. Thus, to explain the meaning of the 
word since to a deaf pupil, I would write upon 
his slate the phrase, It has not rained since 
last Wednesday, (supposing that it did rain 
then, and that to-day is Saturday), then, un- 
derneath this, I should write the following 
phrases, which the pupil would, of course, 
instantly comprehend : 

G 2 


It rained last- Wednesday, 

It did not rain last Thursday, 

It did not rain yesterday, 

It has not rained to-day. 
I should then immediately inform the pupil, 
that the phrase first presented to him conveys 
the same import that these four phrases com- 
bined convey, and that it may therefore be sub- 
stituted for them. Other similar examples 
wouldthenbeproposed,and be illustrated in the 
same way ; such phrases as these, for instance : 
It is two weeks since I saw my papa, 
I have not written a copy since last Monday, 
I have not been in the playground since yes- 
terday morning, &c. 

In a similar manner is the meaning of every 
word to be conveyed that does not admit of 
obvious and clear explanation in its separate 
state, the illustrative phrases being multiplied 
by the teacher till the correct impression is 
produced, which impression can be preserved 


or retained in the mind, only by furnishing 
repeated occasions for the practical application 
of the word which produced it. 

When, by following the preceding direc- 
tions, the pupil has arrived at such a degree 
of proficiency as to be enabled to exhibit his 
daily compositions with but few errors, and 
can express himself with readiness and tolerable 
accuracy on all ordinary occasions, it will be 
proper to furnish him with some very simple 
book, carefully selected in reference to his own 
attainments in language. Books should not, 
however, be promiscuously thrown in his way, 
as he will be induced to look into them, and will 
feel disappointment at being unable to com- 
prehend them. For be it remembered, that 
although a deaf and dumb child may be very 
capable of expressing his ideas correctly upon 
every occasion, he may, nevertheless, find great 
difficulty in comprehending even a very easy 
book; because, in order to express his own 


meaning, he has his own choice of words, and 
if his acquaintance with language be so limited 
as to supply him with but one suitable col- 
lection for this purpose, it will suffice ; but to 
comprehend the meaning of the language em- 
ployed by another, it is requisite that he be 
acquainted with every form of expression, 
since this language has not been framed with 
any view to its adaptation to the pupil's ca- 
pabilities, or so that the words employed shall 
necessarily fall within the limits of the pupil's 
collection. Hence, in conversing with a deaf 
and dumb child, if he be at a loss to compre- 
hend any remark or question, it will be ad- 
visable to vary the form of expression, as it is 
very probable the impediment in his way may 
arise entirely from the use of some word, 
new to him, and upon which the sense of the 
sentence may very materially depend. From 
one book the pupil may proceed to another, 
and so on as other children do. 


At this period the teacher will employ 
some portion of his time in conveying to the 
pupil's mind what is more generally under- 
stood by the term information. Hitherto, his 
object has been principally to create and per- 
fect an efficient channel through which in- 
struction may be communicated, and he may 
now avail himself of what has already been 
accomplished for this purpose. The advan- 
tages arising from frequent and familiar dis- 
course with the pupil have been before adverted 
to, as connected with his progress in the ac- 
quirement of language. These conversations 
have, in addition, supplied many opportunities 
of communicating, by signs, information upon 
subjects in which the pupil is more nearly 
and deeply interested, although in a somewhat 
vague and imperfect manner. However, his. 
mind has by these means been prepared for the 
reception of more accurate and detailed in- 
formation upon these topics. In this way the 


principles of natural religion have been incul- 
cated ; some idea has been conveyed of the ex- 
istence of a Supreme Being, who governs and 
arranges all the affairs of nature. His attention 
has, with this view, often been directed to the 
more grand and imposing phenomena of cre- 
ation ; the sun, the moon, and the stars, the 
regular succession of day and night, of summer 
and winter, &c. ; all these stupendous objects 
and striking occurrences have been referred to 
the wisdom and power of this Supreme Being, 
whose existence he will necessarily infer, and 
of whom he will feel anxious to obtain farther 
information, which now, by the aid of lan- 
guage, his teacher will be better enabled to 
communicate to him. He may proceed to 
inform him of the purity of this Being, and 
of his other attributes ; of his hatred of sin, 
and his love of holiness, of our incessant 
obligations to him as our Creator and constant 
Preserver, and of the responsibility attached 


to us as moral and accountable beings ; of a 
future state of blessedness or misery, as they 
stand connected with our present conduct : 
these, and various other important topics, may 
be pressed upon his attention, and generally 
With the best effect. It will not be prudent to 
attempt tooearly to unfold to him the mysteries 
of salvation ; his mind must be gradually pre- 
pared for this vast topic. The tendency of 
his lessons should be to make him feel sensible 
of the hopelessness of man's situation as a 
sinful creature naturally, since God cannot, 
consistently with his holy character, bless a 
sinful creature, but sin is inherent in the na- 
ture of every individual. He may be thus 
made to feel the absolute necessity of divine 
assistance, and to perceive that nothing short 
of that which has been actually provided 
could have fully met the exigencies of his case. 
In this way religious instruction may be suc- 
cessfully communicated. 


The teacher may in a similar manner now 
introduce to the attention of his pupil any 
of the usual subjects of education, such as 
grammar, arithmetic, geography, &c. ; but it 
will in every case, be found to be the surest 
and shortest method of procedure to leave 
every one of these subjects untouched, until a 
considerable progress in the knowledge of 
language has been made. So that, like other 
children, when the pupil devotes himself to 
any of these studies, he may have to contend 
only with the difficulties inseparable from the 
subject, and not be at the same time perplexed 
and embarrassed through inability to compre- 
hend the language employed. 

I have thus endeavoured very briefly to 
explain what appears to be the most simple 
and rational course to be pursued in the in- 
struction of a child born deaf and dumb ; but 
notwithstanding the simplicity of the process, 
it is still very obvious, that much assiduity 


and devotedness is absolutely necessary on the 
part of the teacher. That person who under- 
takes the education of deaf and dumb pupils, 
and who imagines that, by confining his in-^ 
structions within the limits of the ordinary 
school-hours merely, his object will be effected, 
will find himself grievously disappointed. He 
must devote a considerable portion of his time, 
out of school, to illustrate the practical appli- 
cation of his instructions in school : for these 
are valuable only as far as their practical ap- 
lication is felt and understood. Language, in 
itself, is nothing more than a collection of 
arbitrary symbols ; it can neither benefit the 
mind directly, by contributing to its gratifi- 
cation, nor indirectly, by strengthening or 
improving any of its faculties. As an acqui- 
sition, therefore, independently of its practical 
application to the specific purpose for which 
it is intended, it is entirely useless. It is 
hence unlike any topic of information, or any 


substantial attainment, for this may be studied 
and valued purely for the direct gratification 
which it affords the mind, independently of 
any advantage derivable from its practical 
employment. The deaf pupil then must be 
made to regard language in its true light, that 
is, as a vehicle for the communication of his 
thoughts, and as such must be enjoined to 
employ it, as far as he is able, as a substitute 
for the less perfect language of gesticulation, 
till, by degrees, the one is made entirely to 
supersede the other. In order to effect this, 
there must be something more than the mere 
school lessons. The teacher must watch the 
pupil's signs in all his communications with 
him, and require him to substitute for those 
signs the corresponding words, as far as his 
ability to do so extends. He must put him- 
self upon terms of equality with his pupil, 
enter into his amusements with pleasure and 
familiarity, and into his little troubles with 


interest and concern: he must, in short, be 
both his companion and his instructor. He 
should possess a patient and forbearing dis- 
position, must feel a fondness for his occu- 
pation, and should not be wholly destitute of 
ingenuity ; but as for any peculiar talent, or 
extraordinary portion of ability, the under- 
taking does not in the least require it. There 
is no miracle to be performed, and, conse- 
quently, no extraordinary powers are de- 
manded. The course to be pursued is ob- 
vious, simple, and natural ; and any one, who 
will devote himself cheerfully and assiduously 
to the task, will, under the blessing of Provi- 
dence, meet with the most satisfactory success. 

By way of exemplifying the beneficial re- 
sults of a course of instruction conducted upon 
the above principles, I here subjoin a specimen 
or two of one of my eldest pupil's compositions. 


He is the son of Henry Fellows, esq. of Queen- 
hithe, London. He was born deaf and dumb, 
is now about ten years of age, and has been 
under my care about two years and a quarter. 
The following exercises are a very fair spe- 
cimen of his present acquaintance with lan- 
guage ; they have not undergone the slightest 
correction or alteration, nor has any other 
person assisted in any manner in their com- 


sir, February 10, 1826. 

You took me and Miss Noble to Mr. 
Noble's house lately, and we went into the par- 
lour, and I saw a gentleman who was there, 
and I asked him to tell me his name, and he 
told me that his name was Mr. Wallis ; and 
you conversed with Mr. and Mrs. Noble and 
Mr. Wallis a long time, and we drank tea 
with them, and after tea I showed my exercise- 


book to them, and I asked you to tell me what 
business Mr. Wallis was, and you told me that 
he was a portrait-painter, and I asked him if 
he would draw my likeness, and he said " Yes ;" 
and he told me that my papa must pay him 
seven guineas for it, and then he drew my 
likeness in my exercise-book, and after that 
we came here. 

Henry Fellows. 

sir, Feb. 12, 1826. 

My papa sent the servant and my 
sister here with my new towels last Saturday, 
and they spoke to Mrs. Young, and my sister 
gave me a sixpence, and I went into the 
school, and I wrote on a paper, and told the 
servant to ask my papa to let me go home 
next Sunday, and my sister told me that 
my sister Jemima has been ill, and I was 
very sorry for it, and the next day you told 


me that I shall go home next Saturday if the 
weather is fine. 

Henry Fellows. 

sir, March 2, 1826. 

My papa and my sister came here last 
Sunday, and they went into the playground, 
and you spoke to them, and my papa gave 
me some cakes and some oranges, and I gave 
each of the children a piece of orange, and 
my papa took me home, and I was very glad 
to see my mamma, and my papa had a leg of 
mutton for dinner, and after dinner I con- 
verged with my parents, and after tea, my 
mamma told me that my sister Jemima has 
been ill lately, and her face was swelled, and 
the next day my papa told me that I shall 
have a new blue great coat next winter, and 
then my papa gave me a sixpence, and you 
came to my papa's house on Tuesday, and 


you told me by signs, that I had stopt at 
home for two days, and you took me back to 
school in the evening. 

Henry Fellows. 

sib, March 3, 1826. 

I remember that before I came here 
my papa's servant took me and my sister Ca- 
roline to the Park, and I saw many soldiers, 
and I saw some cannons, and I touched a 
cannon, and one of the soldiers told the ser- 
vant to take me away. I think that the 
king sends the soldiers to fight, and perhaps 
they have killed many people, and I think 
God is very angry to see them, but I think 
the devil is very happy to see them murder 
people. When I am a man I should not like 
to be a soldier, because they will kill me, but 
I should like to be a paper-maker when I leave 

Henry Fellows, 


sin, March 6, 1826. 

I think many wicked men go into 
public houses every Sunday, and I think they 
drink ale, brandy, &c. and I think they never 
go to chapel, and they are very wicked, and 
perhaps they never pray to God, and I think 
they will go to hell when they die, and they 
will stop there for ever. When I am a man 
I will not go to the public house on Sunday, 
but I will go to chapel every Sunday, and I will 
read the Bible every evening and e*ery morn- 
ing, and I hope that God will love me, and 
take me to heaven when I die, and I shall be 
very happy to see God, and I will live with 
God for ever, and perhaps I shall see Jesus 
Christ, and many angels, and my sister Louisa, 
and my brother William. 

Henry Fellows. 

These specimens may suffice to show that 
when the natural abilities are good, and a 


rational course of instruction pursued, a deaf 
and dumb child, entirely ignorant of language, 
may, in the short space of two or three years, 
be brought to an acquaintance therewith, 
amply sufficient for the communication of his 
ideas in an intelligible form. The pupil here 
alluded to has been thus faf- instructed upon 
the most simple and natural principles. He 
has no notion of grammar, he has no notion 
of what a verb is, nor of an adjective, a noun, 
&c. and Still he is fully acquainted with the 
use and import of the various classes of words 
which grammarians have so designated. The 
object of his instruction at present, is simply 
to raise him as nearly as possible to the level 
of other children, as it respects their acquaint- 
ance with language before their education 
commences, in order that when this is accom- 
plished, he may be as fully prepared as they 
to commence the same course. He is not, 
therefore, to learn grammar in order to be- 


come acquainted with language, but, on the 
contrary, he must first become acquainted 
with language in order to learn grammar; 
and, in fact, when a perfect medium of com- 
munication is opened, the instruction of the 
deaf and dumb loses all its peculiarity of cha- 
racter ; the method of proceeding must then 
be the same as that adopted with other child- 
ren, with this exception merely, that although 
our instructions are to flow through the same 
medium, this medium must be reiiered au- 
dible to the one, and visible to the other. 

I have not, in the course of this small 
tract, said any thing in reference to the ma- 
nual alphabet. It may be necessary just to 
remark, that as it is very easily acquired, and 
as it furnishes a ready medium of intercourse, 
it should be early taught to the pupil, who 
will, in his turn, be glad to teach it to his 
parents and friends. One remark, however, 
in reference to this subject, I must beg here 


to press upon the attention of teachers and 
parents, which is of some importance, al- 
though, in general, entirely overlooked. It 
is this, that in conversing with a deaf and 
dumb child, writing should always be em- 
ployed in preference to any other medium of 
communication, particularly when the child's 
acquaintance with language is but imperfect. 
It is true that this is the more tedious method, 
but it is, nevertheless, attended with superior 
advantages to the child, and those interested 
in his improvement will, of course, be influ- 
enced by this consideration. Writing pos- 
sesses these two striking advantages over 
every other medium of communication : First, 
the written communication is embodied in a 
visible form, and is submitted at once perfect 
and complete ; Secondly, it remains before the 
eye, allowing sufficient time for its examina- 
tion, and for the discovery of its true import. 
Neither of these advantages attach to the 


manual alphabet, nor to articulate sounds, for 
in each of these the communication is for- 
warded piecemeal, or in successive fragments, 
and is entirely destitute of that permanency 
which belongs to the written form. The let- 
ters of the manual alphabet vanish with their 
formation, and articulate sounds vanish with 
their delivery. It follows then, that to a 
person but imperfectly acquainted with lan- 
guage, written communications oppose to him 
fewest difficulties, and are therefore most 
likely to be understood. 




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difficulties, and shown inconsistencies into which some celebrated ma- 
thematicians have fallen on the subject." 

" The investigation of the binomial theorem is a subject that has 
occasionally occupied the attention of many of the ablest mathematicians 
since the days of Newton, its immortal inventor. Yet among all the 
general investigations that have been given, one purely algebraical, and 
adapted to elementary instruction, has not till now been met with, by 
us at least, if we except that given by Mr. Woodhouse, in his excellent 
Treatise on the Principles of Analytical Calculation, than which, 
however, (although, like every thing we have seen entered into by that 
gentleman, it is very clear and logical), we have no hesitation in saying 
that Mr. Young's is more simple in principle, and quite as satisfactory." 
Newcastle Magazine for Nov. 1825. 

" For the summation of infinite - series the author gives a new and 
ingenious method, which is very easy and extensive in its application. 
De Moivre's method is also given, and exemplified with recurring series. 
The Multinomial Theorem, &c." •* 

" Chapter 9 contains another of the author's improvements in the 
science ; viz. a new, direct, and concise rule for the solution of inde- 
terminate equations involving two unknown quantities." 

New. Mag. 



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