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Itibsrul  HrU 





Coos  County, 

New  Hampshire, 


Land  of  the  Forest  and  the  Rock! 

Of  dark-blue  Lake  and  mighty  River! 

Of  Mountains,  reared  aloft  to  mock 

The  storm's  career,  the  earthquake's  shock. 

Our  own  Coos  forever! 

— Adapted. 

W  .    A  .    F  E  R  G  U  S  S  O  N    &    Co. 


Copyright,  1888, 

By  W.  A.  Fergusson  &  Co. 

All  Rights  Reserved. 

1111    JOURNA1    CO., 

i-KIN  I  liKS   AND    BINDERS, 

SYRACUSE,    N.   Y. 

TO  those  who  have  secured  the  preparation  of  this  history:  to  those 
who  have  so  generously  and  liberally  furnished  the  illustrations;  to 
those  who  have  contributed  their  time  and  labor  to  make  this  a  reli- 
able repository  of  valuable  information  of  the  days  of  "auld  Jang  syne"; 
to  those  well-wishers  of  the  enterprise  whose  cheering  words  and  willing 
assistance  have  ever  been  at  our  service;  to  these,  and  those  unnumbered 
ones  who  have  extended  manifold  courtesies  to  us,  we  hereby  express  our 
hearty  thanks,  and  trust  that  the  perusal  of  this  volume  will  be  a  pleasure 
and  a  satisfaction  to  them  during  long  years  to  come.  To  compile  even 
the  history  of  a  single  county  requires  much  time,  research,  watchful  care 
and  discrimination  in  order  to  record  facts  and  not  hearsay.  "  Out  of 
monuments,  names,  words,  proverbs,  traditions,  records,  fragments  of 
stone,  passages  of  books,  and  the  like,  we  doe  save  and  recover  somewhat 
from  the  deluge  of  time." 



I.     "THE  COUNTY  OF  COOSS." 17 

Organization— Towns  Included—  Extent- 
Boundaries  —  Population,  Agricultural  and 
Manufacturing  Statistics.  Etc.,  1880— Loca- 
tions, Grants,  and  Purchases— Altitudes. 

II     Geology 20 

Rock  Formations— The  Age  of  Ice— Glacial 
Drift— Upper  Till— Lower  Till— Champlain 
Drift— Recent  or  Terrace  Period— Modified 
Drift  of  Connecticut  River,  Connecticut 
Lake,  to  West  Stewartstown — Upper  Con- 
necticut Valley — Karnes— Deltas. 

III.  Topography 26 

The  Water  Sheds— Carriage  Roads— Lumber 
Roads— The  Water  Basins— The  Streams, 
Connecticut.  Magalloway,  Androscoggin — 
Source  of  the  Connecticut— Description  and 
Scenery — Second  Lake,  Connecticut  Lake — 
Tributaries  of  the  Connecticut — Lake  Ma- 
galloway —  Magalloway  River  —  Androscog- 
gin River— Their  Tributaries— Ci  >untry  along 
the  Maine  Line— Bogs  and  Peat  Swamps. 

IV.  Scenery  of  Coos 34 

Pittsburg  —  Crown  Monument  —  Megantic 
Mountain —Headwaters  of  St.  Francis  and 
Chaudiere  Rivers— Along  the  New  Hamp- 
shire and  Quebec  Boundary— Third  Lake— 
Mt.  Carmel— Mt.  Agizcoos— Cascades— Little 
Diamond  Falls—  Huggins  Branch— Dixville 
Notch— 'The  Old  Man  of  Dixville"— The 
Flume— Cascade  Brook— Huntington  Cas- 
cade—Scenery of  Errol—  West  Stewartstown 
to  North  Stratford  — Groveton— Stark— Mi- 
lan—Lancaster— Jefferson — Randolph— Dal- 
ton — Shelburne — Gorham. 

Y.     Indian  History 40 

Aboriginal  Indians  —  Iroquois  —  Mohawks  — 
Algonquins  —  New  England  Tribes  —  Wig- 
wams—Social Life,  Government,  and  Lan- 
guage—Food—Religion—The St. Francis  In- 
dians— Gen.  Amherst  —Rogers'  Expedition — 
Destruction  of  St.  Francis  Village— Retreat 
and  Sufferings  of  tin-  "Rangers." 


VI.  White  Mountains 46 

Topography— Mt.  Starr  Kin-  Group— Mt. 
Carter  Group— .Alt.  Washington  Range- 
Cherry  Mountain  District— Mt.  Willey  I. 
—History— Mythology— First  Yisited—  Win- 
throp's  Account—Darby  Field's  Route  up 
the  Mountains  —  Josselyn's  Description  of 
Scenery— The  Crystal  Hills— Eater  Visits- 
Western  Pass,  or  •'Notch"— First  Settlemenl 
— Scientific  Visitors — Sceneryofthe  Notch 
Nash  and  Sawyer's  Grant— "A  Horse  through 
the  Notch"— Sawyer's  Rock— First  Articles 
of  Commerce— Tenth  New  Hampshire  Turn- 
pike—Scientific Explorations— First  Settlers 
Among  the  Mountains— Nancy's  Rock  and 
Brook— First  House  in  the  Notch— Craw- 
ford's Cabin  on  the  Summit — Summit  House 
— Tip-Top  House  —  Carriage  Road — Glen 
House — Mt.  Washington  Railway— Mountain 
Tragedies— ••Among  the  Clouds" —Signal 
Station— Summer  Hotels. 

VII.  Flants 58 

Trees — Shrubs— Grasses— Introduced  Plants 
— Alpine  Plants. 

VIII.  Game  of  Coos  Counts 60 

Beaver — Dams— Moose— Description,  I 
Etc. — Deer,  Caribou,  Etc.  — Horns — Bear — 
Wolverine  —  Lynx — Otter-  Fisher  Sable — 
Raccoon — Gray  Squirrel — Wild  (feese  and 
Ducks — Ruffed  Grouse  or  Partridge  Canada 
Grouse  or  Spruce  Partridge— Wild    Pigeons. 

IX.  Early  History 72 

Early  Trappers  and  Hunters  -Indian  Threats 
— Capture  of  Stark  ami  Eastman  Powers' 
Expedition — Extracts  from  Journal  —  Fort 
Wentworth  first  Settlers  Townships,  and 
Date  of  ( rrants     Earlj  Population. 

X.  Early   Settlers 77 

Character  of  Early  Settlers  of  New  Hamp- 
shire— characteristics  of  Pioneers  of  <  loos- 
Hardships  Endured  Religion  ami  Educa- 
tion Traditional  stories  —  Improvement  in 
Condition    -Primitive    Houses.    Furniture, 










Etc.— Manners,  Customs.  Labor,  Dress,  Fare, 
Etc.— Description  of  Early  Homes,  Kitchens, 
Utensils,  Stoves,  Etc. 
Bevolutionar?  Period  and  Early  Roads.  . .  85 
"War  of  the  Revolution— Frontier  and  Scout- 
ing Parties— Proposed  Expedition— Conven- 
tion of  Towns— Orders.  Receipts,  Etc.— Early 
Roads— Petitions  Concerning  Roads  and  New 
County  — Roads  in  1797  and  1803  — Tenth 
New  Hampshire  Turnpike— Jefferson  Turn- 
pike, Etc. 
Survey  and  Marking  of  New  Hampshire 

and  Maine  Boundary 93 

Boundary  Surveys— Smuggling,  Etc.,  1812- 
1815  —  Boundary  Commissions  —  "  Indian 
Stream  Territory"— Indian  Stream  War- 
Musters  and  Militia. 

Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions. 
Sports,  and  Policy  of  Coos  Concern- 
ing Fish  and  Came 106 

Upper  Cohos— Coos— Abenaquis— "Captain 
Joe"    and    "Captain   John—  King  Philip— 
Metallak—  Robbins  and  Hinds —Mountain 
Ranges— Lakes— Rivers— Fish    and   Game— 
Si  „  ,Se~-W(  lives— Deer— Bear— Fox—  Salmon 
—Trout— Summer  Travel-Railroad  Facihties 
—  Protection    of    Forests  —  Sports  —  Game 
Laws— True  Legislation . 
The  Timber  Interests  of  Northern  Coos .  123 
Spruce  Belt— Hard  Wood  Timber— The  Sugar 
Maple— Other  Woods— Resources  and  Man- 
ufacture—Opportunities for  Investment. 
Coos  County  Press:  Agricultural  Socie- 
ties; Railroads •  131 

White  Mountain  3Egis— Coos  County  Demo- 
crat— Coos  Republican  —Prohibition  Her- 
ald—Independent (now  Lancaster)  Ga- 
zette— Coos  Herald.  Etc.— Northern  Sentinel 
— Colebrook  Weekly  News— News  and  S 
nel— Whitefield  Blade  —  Coos  Advertiser— 
The  Mountaineer.  Etc.— Coos  Agricultural 
Society— Coos  and  Essex  County  Agricultural 
i  ity— Railroads:  Atlantic  and  St.  Law- 
rence—White Mountains —Portland  and 
Ogdensburg— Upper  Coos. 

Masi  >nry  in  Coos 139 

North  Star  Lodge,  Lancaster  —  Templar 
Masonry  in  Northern  New  Hampshire- 
North  Star  Chapter,  Lancaster —  Evening 
Star  Lodge,  Colebrook  — Gorham  Lodge. 
Gorham  -White  Mountain  Lodge,  Whitefield 
—Officers  of  Grand  Lodge,  Grand  Chapter 
and  Grand  Commandi  >s  County. 

Tin.  Soldiers  of  Coos 16° 

Public  Buildings 195 


XIX.  National  and  State  Officers 199 

Early  Representatives  —Classed  Representa- 
tives— Senators — County  Officers. 

XX.  Bench  and  Bar 207 

History   of  the   Courts— Bench    and    Bar- 
Northern  Judicial  District. 




XXI.  LANCASTER ....261 

Origin  of  Name — Charter— Names  of  Grant- 
ees —  Situation  —  Scenery.  Etc.  —  Climate, 
Reason  of  Its  Pleasantness— Change  of 
Boundaries  and  Location. 

XXII.  Lancaster.— (Continued.) 268 

First  Settlements—  Corn  planted  —Frost — 
Difficulty  of  Travel  — Canoes  — First  White 
Woman  — Supplies  from  Portsmouth  or 
Haverhill  —"Samp  Mortar"— ••Cars"—  First 
Mills  —  Revolution  —  Emmons  Stockwell 
•would  stay"— Major  Jonas  Wilder— Rich 
S,,il— Manure  thrown  away— Village  Plot- 
First  two-story  house  in  Coos  County— First 
Bridge  —  First  Schools  —  Early  Prices  — 
••Alarms  During  the  War"— Early  Settlers- 
Residents,  Polls,  and  Stock,  1793— David 
Page  petitions  for  more  Land— Why  '-Upper 
Coos"  did  not  elect  Representative— Edwards 
Bucknam  granted  mill  privilege  at  North- 
umberland Falls— Petition.  Etc.,  Concerning 

XXIII.    Lancaster.— i  Continued.) 276 

Lancaster  in  1795  and  1804  —  Lancaster 
Bridge  Co.— Extracts  from  Joseph  Brackett's 
Diary,  1799  to  1801— Gen.  Moses  Hazen— 
South  Lancaster  or  "Cat  Bow"— Lancaster 
in  1810  —First  Sabbath-School  —  1820  - 
1830  —  Stores,  Articles  of  Traffic,  Etc.— 
Freight  —Mail.  Vehicles.  Etc.  —  1810  —  Ex- 
tracts from  A.  N.  Brackett's  Diary  — The 
Great  Hail  Storm— Climatic  and  Weather 
Records— Hon.  John  W.Weeks  on  Lancaster 
in  1839—1840  to  1850— J.  S.  Brackett's  Sum- 
mary from  1850  to  1876— Village  Streets— 
1870  to  1887— Real  Estate  and  Personal  Prop- 

XXIV.     Lancaster.— (Continued.) -287 

Brief  Extracts  from  town  Records.  1769  to 
1834— First  Town  Meeting— First  Town  Clerk 
—First  Representative  of  "Upper  Coos"— 
Burying  Field— Pound— Vote  for  President 
and  Senator— Assessment  for  Roads  payable 
in  Wheat— Standard  "half  bushel"— Preach- 
in-',  Etc.— Concerning  building  Mills— Em- 
mons  Stockwell,  Inn   Keeper— Town  Meet- 



ings,  where  held— School  Districts— Meeting 
House— Rev.  Joseph  Willard  -Early  Taverns 
—Prices  of  Produce  paid  as  Minister's  Salary 
— Licenses  Granted  -Barker's  Location  An- 
nexed -First  Fire  Wards— Miscellaneous 
tracts  from  later  Town   1;  Action  of 

Town  in  the  Rebellion,  Etc.  —  Centennial 
Celebration — Freshets. 

XXV.  Lancaster. — (Continued.} 29 1 

The  Old   Meeting    House,    Description  of— 
Pews  — Pulpit— "Singers  Seats"     Dr 
Foot  Stove — Location  of   Meeting  Hoi 
Parson  Willard— Members  of  the  Congrega- 
tion, Description  of— Choir,  Eti  . 

XXVI.  Lancaster.— (Continued.) 299 

Ecclesiastical  —  Early  Pre  a  c  h  ing  —  First 
Church — Confession  of  Faith  and  Covenant — 
Original  Members— First  Pastor— "Parson" 
Willard's  Letter— "Parson"  Willard's  Dis- 
missal— Other  Pastors. — Orthodox  Congre- 
gational Church — Organization — Faith  and 
Covenant— Original  Members  -Pastors — New 
Articles  of  Faith,  Etc.— First  Unitarian  So- 
ciety— Church  Covenant — First  Members- 
Pastors — Prominent  Men  in  the  Church- 
Officers — Ladies'  Benevolent  Society — Sun- 
day-School— Rev.  J.  B.  Morrison. —  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church — Early  Methodism — Or- 
ganization— Pastors — Financial  Condition. 
—  Baptist  Church,  Formation— Original  Mem- 
bers— Church  Building.  -St.  Paul's  Episco- 
pal Church — Confirmation— Church  Edifice 
— Rectors.-— Catholicity  in  Coos  -First  Pub- 
lic Service  at  Lancaster— Priests— Church 
Building — Missions. 

XXVII.  Lancaster.— (Continued.) 323 

Chronicles  from  B.  I'.  Kent's  Diary. 

XXVIII.  Lancaster. — (Continued.) 333 

Early  Education,  Etc. — The  Public  Library 
— Schools— Union  Graded  School— Lancaster 
Academy — Sketch  of  the  First  Principal— 
••  Raising  Men." 

XXIX.  Lancaster. — (Continued.) 342 

Merchants  —  Manufacturers  —  Physicians, 
Apothecaries  and  Druggists — Hoti 

XXX.  Lancaster. — (Continued.) 350 

Civil  List.  Town  Clerks.  Selectmen,  and  Rep- 
resentatives—  Mails.  Postoffices  and  Post- 
masters— Lancaster  Bank — White  Mountain 
Bank — Lancaster  National  Bank  Lanca 
Savings  Bank — Siwooganock  Savings  Bank— 
The  New  Cemetery— Societies,  Grand  Army, 
Belief  Corps,  Etc. 

XXXI.  Lancaster. — (Continued. ) 359 

Brief  Personal  Sketches— Miscellaneous. 

i  II  upter.  paq 


Name  and  Territory  Embraced—] 
Second  Grants    Second  Charter — Petition 
Incorporation— Record  of  First  Town   Meet- 
ing—Names lit'  Voters  — Roads  —  J: 
Taverns      i:<  sidi  uts,  Polk  -  and  Im- 

provements  in  1812. 

XXXIII.  Jefferson.— i  Continued.) 40  I 

Population  in  177.")  1790-1800— Scenery 
ferson  Hill  —  Traditions   -Early  Propri 
—Col.  Joseph  Whippli — Early  S  First 

Child— Pond  of  Safety— First  White  Woman 
—Deborah  Vieker  or  "Granny  Stalbird" 
First  Communication — First  Cows — Firs! 
Barrel  of  Rum— Adino  N.  Brackett's Descrip- 
tion of.  Jefferson  in  1821 — Boundaries — Pop- 
ulation -Valuation. 

XXXIV.  Jefferson.— (Continued.) 11" 

Civil  List  —  Representatives,  Town  Clerks. 
Selectmen.  Supervisors. 

XXXV.  Jefferson.  —  i  ( lontinued.) 113 

Educational  Interests— Action  of  th<  Town 
in  Relation  to  Schools  1798-1827— "Old  North 
School-House"  -School  Officers— Superin- 
tending Committee — Board  of  Education. 

XXXVI.  Jefferson. — (Continued.) U5 

Ecclesiastical  History— First  Sermon  -Bap- 
tist  Church-  -Names  of  Early  Members-  Pas- 
tors—Free Will  Baptist  Church— Mem1 
Pastors  —  Elder  Morse  —  Methodism— Prog- 
ress Leaders—  Class  —  Members —  Church 
Organized — Pastors— Sabbath-School. 

XXXVII.  Jefferson.— (Continued.) 117 

Miscellaneous— Cherry  Mountain  Slidf — Jef- 
ferson   Meadows       Postoffices —Lumber  — 

Merchants— Physician  — Summer  Hotels  and 
Boarding  Houses  -Benjamin  Hicks— Benja- 
min H.Plaisted— Daniel  Austin— A  goodstory. 


A.N.  Brackett's  Description  —  Settled  Por- 
tions Attached  to  Jeffi  i  -on. 


Carroll,  location  of  —  Boundaries  -Bn 
Woods    Soil— Pioneers,  Etc.-    I  Early 


XL.    Carroll—  (Continued.  | 130 

First  Town  Record—  Bretton  Woods— First 
dents    Inventory  —  Non-resident    Land 
Owners  —  Highway  Districts  Established  — 
School  Mi  larly  Births  Recorded. 

XLI.    Carroll.     (Continued.) 134 

Civil  List— Action  in  the  Rebellion— Popula- 
tion    Relii  Valuation  —  I 

ness  Interests  —Hoi 






Whitefield's  Petition  for  Grant  — The  Grant 
— Charter  of  Whitefields— Considerations  for 
Land  Granted  —  Paul  and  Benning  Went- 
worth  —  Other  Grantees —  Gerrish  Survey — 
The  First  Moderator— Capt.  Jonas  Minot — 
Samuel  Minot. 

XLIII.     Whitefield.— (Continued.) 455 

Organizing  under  the  Grant — First  Recorded 
Civil  Officers — Important  Sale  of  Lands,  1795 
— Col.  Joseph  Kimball— Proprietors'  Meet- 
ing, December  3,  1800 — Committee  and  its 
Powers— Abstract  of  Proprietors'  Records — 
First  Draft  of  Lots— Names  of  Grantees  with 
Number  of  Lot. 

XLIV.     Whitefield.— (Continued. ) ...  .460 

"What's  in  a  Name" — Rev.  George  Whitefield 

—  Whitefield  —  Petition  for  Incorporation, 
Etc.— First  Town  Meeting  and  Officers,  1805 
— Major  John  Burns  —  Capt.  David  Burns, 
Etc. — Col.  Josepli  Kimball — John  McMaster 

—  First  Innkeeper,  Asa  King  —  Col.  Joseph 
Colby  —  First  Merchant,  William  Dodge  — 
First  Inventory — Early  Roads. 

XLV.     Whitefield.— (Continued.) 469 

Ecclesiastical.  Provisions  for  Religious  Wor- 
ship— Free  Will  Baptists — Congregationalists 
— Adventists— Union  Meeting-Honse — Meth- 
odism— Young  Men's  Christian  Association 
— Catholicism — Temperance — Schools- -Soci- 

XL  VI.     Whitefield. — (Continued.) 479 

lit  cords  Concerning  School-House,  Indian 
Stream  Soldiers  and  Town  House — Action  of 
the  Town  Concerning  the  Rebellion — Repre- 
sentatives—Town Officers. 

XLVTI.     Whitefield.— (Continued.) 482 

Physicians — Lawyers,  Etc. — Merchants,  Man- 
ufacturers, and  Mills— White  Mountain  Lum- 
ber Co. — Present  Business  Interests — East 
Whitefield  Farmers'  Club  and  White  Mount- 
ain Grange — White  Mountain  View  House. 

XLVIH.     DALTON 506 

Grantees  —  Name,  Apthorp  —  Dalton — Tris- 
tram Dalton — Petition  for  a  Division — Moses 
Blake  Petitions  for  a  Ferry — Recommenda- 
tion of  Bloss — Petitions  for  Taxing  Non- 
i;(  sidents — Petitions  for  Tax  for  Repairing 
Roads — Petition  of  Walter  Bloss  for  a  Ferry 
— First  Settlers. 

XLIX.     Dalton.— (Continued.) 512 

Art  Authorizing  First  Town  Meeting — First 
Town  Meeting  —  Dalton  —  Lands  and  Live 
Stock,  1809— Town  Officers— Town  Expenses 
— First  Three  School  Districts — John's  River 
Bridge — Extracts  from  Town  Records,  1810- 

chapter.                                                                  page. 
L.     Dalton. — (Continued.) 519 

Early  Births— Early  Marriages— Early  Resi- 
dents—Ear  Marks  —  Dalton  in  1821  —  Early 
Inn  Keepers— Whitefield  Road— Bridge  across 
the  Connecticut  —  Carriages  —  Mills  — Resi- 
dents' Names,  1849— Civil  War,  Action  of  the 
Town,  Etc.  —  Mines  —  Murder  —  Personal 

LI.     Dalton.— (Continued.) 529 

Ecclesiastical.  Organization  of  Congrega- 
tional Church  —  Original  Members  —  Addi- 
tional Members  —  Action  in  Relation  to  a 
Church  Building— Erection  of  Church — Dea- 
cons —  Ministers  — Meeting  House — Parson- 
age— Methodist  Church. 

LH.     Dalton. — (Continued.) 535 

Civil  List,  Representatives,  Selectmen,  Town 


Origin  of  the  Name  "Northumberland" — 
Township  first  Granted — Regranted — Incor- 
porated— Soil — Rivers— Cape  Horn  Mountain 
— Scenery — Early  Population — Early  Build- 
ings —  Charter  — ■  Names  of  Grantees — Diffi- 
culty with  Woodbury. 

LIV.     Northumberland. — (Continued.) 542 

Early  Settlers  —  Thomas  Burnside  —  Daniel 
Spaulding  —  Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames  —  Early 
Proprietors — Proprietors'  Meetings — Action 
of  the  Same — First  Bridges — Last  Meeting  of 
the  Proprietors,  1810. 

LV.     Northumberland. — (Continued.) 546 

Petition  for  Road  from  Couway  1780 — Report 
of  Committee  relative  to  said  Road  1780 — 
Petition  of  Enoch  Bartlett  1780— Petition 
for  a  Ferry  1785— Petition  for  a  Lottery  1791 
— Petition  for  a  New  County  1791 — Petition 
to  Tax  for  a  Bridge  1799. 

LVI.     Northumberland. — (Continued.) 549 

Town  Officers — Selectmen  —  Town  Clerks  — 
Treasurers  —  Representatives  — -Action  of 
Town  on  Various  Matters. 

LVII.     Northumberland. — (Continued.) 554 

Ecclesiastical— Methodist  Episcopal  Church 
— Present  Members— Ammonoosuc  Lodge,  I. 
O.  O.  F.  —Members— Lodge  of  Good  Templars 
— M  ember  s— S  c  h  o  o  1  s — Physicians — Fort 
Wentworth  and  Revolution — Soldiers  of  the 
War  of  1812  and  Mexican  War — First  Judge 
of  Probate — First  Register  of  Probate — Bus- 
iness Interests,  Etc. 

LVIII.    STARK 562 

Stark— "Devil's  Slide"— "Devil's  Hop-yard" 
— Christine  Lake  and  Percy  Summer  Club— 
Soil— Minerals— Percy— Boundaries  —  Legis- 
lative  Acts— Petition  for  Incorporation — 



N;unes  of  Grantees— Proprietors'  Meeting — 
Records,  Etc. 

LIX.     Stark.— (Continued.') 570 

i  arly  Setters— Residents  in  1803— E a r  1  y 
Births  and  Marriages— First  Town  Meeting 
—Extracts  from  Records  in  Relation  to 
Schools,  Roads.  Etc.— Civil  List. 

LX.     Stabk. — (Continued.) 575 

Union  Church — Missionaries— Schools  and 
Districts  —  Town  Hall  —  Town  Library  — 
Action  of  Town  in  the  Rebellion — Lumber 

— Business  Interests— Brief  Sketches. 



I. XI.     (  OLEBROOK 583 

Location,  Size,Topography  and  General  Feat- 
ures —  Soil  —  Productions  —  First  Settlers- 
Indians,  Metallak  and  Wife— Petition  for 
Incorporation— Sketch  of  Petitioners. 

LXII.     Colebrook.— (Continued.) 587 

Colebrook  from  1796  to  1815— Road  through 
Dixville  Notch— Whiskey  Manufacture— Con- 
tract of  Smith  &  Pratt— Their  Various  En- 
terprises —  McAllaster  Mills  —  Dagway  — 
Amount  Invested  by  Smith  &  Pratt. 

LXIII.     Colebrook. — (Continued.) 590 

Invoice  of  1816— Residence  of  Tax  Payers- 
Number  of  Polls,  Horses  and  Cattle— Taxes 
of  1816— Cold  Seasons  of  1816  and  1817— 
Burning  of  Cotton  Factory— Rebuilding  of 

the  Same  — Roasting  Pigs  — John  Whitte- 

LXIV.     Colebrook.— (Continued  ) 594 

Education  in  Colebrook  —  The  Common 
Schools  —  Colebrook  Academy  —  Original 
Grantees— Grant  of  land  from  the  State- 
Mercantile  Interests  —Traders  of  former  Days 
and  Now— Fire  of  July  24,  1870 -Rebuilding 
of  Village— Odd  Fellows— Physicians. 

LXV.     Colebrook.— (Continued.) 600 

Postoffices  and  Postmasters  in  Colebrook — 
Saw-mills  —Grist-mills—  Starch-mills— Man- 
ufacture of  Potasli  and  Pearlash. 

LXVI.     Colebrook.— (Continued.) 604 

The  Churches  of  Colebrook— Organization 
of  Congregational  Church— Creed  and  Doc- 
trine -Pastors  of  the  Church— The  Metho- 
dist Church— Sketches  of  Members  of  the 
Churches— East  Colebrook  Church. 

LXYII.     Colebrook.— (Continued.) 616 

Early  Settlers— old  Documents. 

LXYIII.    Colebrook.— (Continued.) 626 

Civil  List  —  Selectmen,  Treasurers,  Town 
Clerks  and  Representatives—*' lusion. 





Roads     Boti  Is     Scenery,  i 

Grants  and   Grantees  —  Pi  tition   i  1795)   to 

Assi  ss  Tax  on  Non-Residen1  Lands  -Petition 
to  Amend  Acl  of  Incorporation— Call  for 
First  Town  Meeting— Action  of  Said  Meeting 
—  Boundaries  —  Second  Town  Meeting  — 
Election  of  First  Representative  First  In- 
ventory—Settlers before  1800— Early  Times 
— Hardships  Endured— First  Licenses— War 
of  1812— Historic  half-bushel— First  River 
Road  —  Earmarks  —  Taverns  and  Hoi 
Corporations  -Diamond  and  Nathan  Ponds, 
how  named— Metallak— Janus  Miner  Halliard 
— The  Great  Hail  Storm— Bridges  across  the 

LXXI.    Stewartstown.-- (Continued.) 659 

Description,  Lots,  and  Settlement— West 
Stewartstown  -Settled  and  Unsettled  Terri- 
tory— Ponds  and  Streams— Soil  and  Minerals 
— Game— Horses,  Cattle  and  Sheep— Grasses 
— Grass  Seed — Journeys  to  Portland — Roads 
and  Sleighs—  Clothing  — Potatoes  — Wheat, 
Oats,  and  other  Products. 

LXXII.     Stewartstown. — (Continued.) 664 

Settlers  prior  to  1800— Non-Resident  Land 
—Settlers  Early  in  this  Century— Settlers  in 
1856 — Extracts  from  Records  giving  Action 
of  Town  on  Roads,  Soldiers.  Etc. --Civil  List: 
Representatives,  Selectmen,  Town  Clerks  - 
Votes  for  Governor. 

LXXHI.     Stewartstown.— (Continued.) 669 

Salts  and  Pearlashes— Flax — Brick— Leather 
— Shoes  and  Harnesses — Blacksmiths — Saw- 
Mills— Grist-Mills-Starch  Factories-Shingle 
and  Clapboard  Mills— Planing  and  Wood- 
turning — Machine  Shops  —  Wheelwrights  -- 
Furniture  and  House  Furnishings— Woolen 
and  Carding  Mills — Foundry  and  Tinsmith— 
Merchants  and  Traders— Physicians,  Etc. 

LXXIV.     Stewartstown.-  (('ontinued.) 674 

Ecclesiastical--  Congregational      Church  — 
Organization— Names  of    First   Membi 
Pastors — Sunday-school.  Christian  Church  - 
Organization        Action     of     the     Church 
Original  Membership— Extracts  from  Records 
Organization     of     "Union"     Church  — 
Membership   and    Dal   -   oi    l;<  ci  ptior     E 
tracts  from  Records  and  other  Bistorj  -Ed- 
ucational Intel .  3ts-  First  School  District.  I  .:■■. 


Boundaries-  Origin  <<i'  Xante-  First  Propri- 
etors   Early  Settlers-  First    Town    Meel 
—Early  Man 





Pit1  sburg  —  Boundaries  —  First  Explored — 
To] » tgraphy  —  Lakes  —  Streams  —  Ponds  — 
Rocks — Minerals. 

LXXYII.     Pittsbdbg. — (Continued.) .700 

Exploration  in  1789  —  Resources  —  First 
Settlers  —  Permanent  Settlers  —  Ebenezer 
Fletcher — Growth  of  the  Settlement. 

LXXVIII.    Pittsburg.— (Continued.) 705 

Action  and  Report  of  Legislative  Com- 
mittees in  1824  Concerning  Titles  under 
King  Philip's  Deed. 

LXXIX.     Pittrburg.— (Continued.) 707 

Progress  and  Growth  for  the  Next  Decade — 
Independent  Government — Blanchard's  Ar- 
rest—Incorporation— Kimball  B.  Fletcher — 

LXXX.     Pittsburg. — (Continued.) 712 

Legislative  Action  Concerning  Pittsburg, 
is  if  1867— Action  of  Town  in  the  Rebellion 
—Civil  List. 

LXXXI.     Pittsburg.— (Continued.) 717 

The  First  Church — Religious  Societies  - 
Schools  —  Agriculture  —  Connecticut  River 
Lumber  Co.— Business,  Etc.— Upper  Con- 
necticut River  and  Lake  Improvement  Co. — 
Upper  Coos  Railroad — Advantages  to  Pitts- 


Grant  of  Township — Signers  to  Petition — 
Wales's  Location — Boundaries — Lime  Pond- 
First  Town  Meeting-  Resident  Tax  List — 
Polls  and  Ratable  Estate  in  1810— Valuation 
of  Buildings  in  1824— Schools— Town  Offi- 
cers' Fees— Politics— Cemeter 

LXXXIII.     Columbia.— (Continued.) 725 

Pioneers.  Abel  Larnard — Abel  Hobart— 
The  Wallaces  —  Noah  Buffington — Philip 
Jordan — Benjamin  Jordan. 

LXXXIV.    Columbia.— (Continued.) 731 

Mills— Pearlashes  and  Potash— Tanning  and 
Shoe-making —  Cloth    Dressing — Pot- 
Distilleries    and    Starch-Mills  —Ferry     and 
Toll  Bridge— Merchants-  Stores. 

LXXXV.—  Columbia.— (Continued.) 735 

Civil  List — Representatives,  Town  Clerks 
and  Selectmen — War  of  tl  llion— -Sta- 

tistics of  1S8G. 

LXXXYI.     Columbia.— Continued.) 738 

Church  History— Early  Services— Columbia 
Church — Christian  Church— Profession  of 
Faith— Preachers— Church  Edifice— Deacon 

John  Annis. 



Introductory — Woodbury — Names  of  Gran- 
tees— Difficulty  Concerning  Boundaries — 
Transfers  Prior  to  1772— Proprietors'  Action 
— Call  for  Meeting — Gov.  Wentworth's  De- 

LXXXVIII.     Stratford.  -( Continued. ) 748 

Stratford — Conditions  of  Charter — Grantees' 
Names,  with  Number  of  Lot — First  Settlers 
— First  Woman  Settler — Contest  of  Skill- 
Brief  Description  of  Settlers  and  their 
Families— Description  and  Topography  of 
Town— The  First  Settlements — Pitches  Al- 
lotted— Extracts  From  Proprietors'  Records; 
Concerning  Mills,  Town  Plot,  Lots  and 
Roads,  Trouble  about  First  Grist-Mill— First 
Settlers  have  First  Pitches. 

LXXXIX.     Stratford.— (Continued.) 754 

The  Revolution— Soldiers'  Claims  and  Orders 
—Condition  of  Matters,  Taxes,  Etc.,  in  1778 
— Petition  for  Abatement  and  Incorporation. 
1778 — First  Settlers,  Improvements  and 
Stock,  1777— Petition  for  a  Guard,  1780— 
Certificate,  Burnside's  Ferry,  1786— Petition 
for  a  New  County,  1791— Petition  for  Abate- 
ment of  Taxes. 

XC.     Stratford. — (Continued.) 759 

Development,  Growth  and  Population  — 
Early  Officers— First  Marriage— The  Town 
of  Stratford— Call  for  First  Town  Meeting, 
Etc.— Survey — Extract  from  Town  Records 
—War  of  1812— Great  Civil  War— Stratford 
Hollow;  Business,  Etc.— Methodist   Church. 

XCI.     Stratford.— I  Continued.) 765 

Civil  List:  Clerks,  Selectmen,  Treasurers, 

XCII.     Stratford.— (Continued.) 7G7 

North  Stratford;  Business  Interests,  Rail- 
road, Postoiliec— Hinman's  Island— Baptist 
Church  —  Education  —  Hotels— Societies — 
Granite  State  Stoek-Farm— Mills—  Physi- 
cians— Lawyers — Brief  Personal  Sketches. 


XCI1I.     BERLIN 783 

Intrc idue tory— T  o  p  o  g  r  a p  h  y— S  c  e  n  e  r  y— 
Mountains.  Streams,  Etc.— Tinkers  Brook. 
Minerals,  Etc. — Act  of  Incorporation— Call 
for  First  Town  Meeting— Action  of  First 
Town  Meeting  -Residents'  Names  and  Ages, 
1829— Residents,  Stock,  and  Improvements 
in  1830— Name*  of  Voters,  by  Decades. 

XCTV.     Berlin.— (Continued.) 788 

Early  Settlers  -First  House  (William  Ses- 
sions) —  Second    House     (The    Lowes   and 

( '( INTENTS. 



Cates) —  Simon  Evans  —Joseph  Wheeler  — 
The  Thompsons — Samuel  Blodgett — Th< 
Wheeler  Daniel  Davis— The  Bean  Family — 
Joseph  Blodgett-  Hazen  and  John  chand- 
ler- Merrill  C.  Forist  John  V.  Dustin- 
Lorenzo  Mason— Past  and  Present  Business 
Interests — Thomas  Green  -J.  D.  Horner  & 
Co. — Daniel  Green — Ira  and  Oliver  H.  Mason 
and  other  Early  Traders  and  Manufactur- 
ers— Railroad,  Station  Agents,  Ere. 

KCV.     Berlin.— (Continued.) 795 

Civil  List:  Town  Clerks,  Selectmen,  Treas- 
urers. Representatives — Extracts  from  Town 
Records — Berlin  in  the  Rebellion — Action  of 
the  Town. 

XCVI.     Berlin.—  (Continued.  > 799 

Ecclesiastical:  Church  of  Christ  —  Forma- 
tion—Original Members  —  Confession  of 
Faith  —  Action  of  Church  Meetings —  Pas- 
tors— Progress  of  the  Church— Young  Peo- 
ple's Society  of  Christian  Endeavor — The 
Sunday-School  —  Organization  of  Parish  — 
Church  Structure — Origin,  Etc.,  Universalist 
Church — Meetings— Articles  of  Faith— Par- 
ish Society  Organized— Church  Building — 
Sabbath-School— Catholic  Church — Priests — 
Church  —  Parsonage — St.  Paul  Evangelical 
Lutheran  Church  Parish  —Member s — Pas- 
tor—Second Advent  Meetings. 

XCVII.     Berlin.— (Continued.) 804 

Education— First  School— First  Teacher — 
School  Districts— Amos  Mann — Berlin  High 


XCVIII.     Berlin.— (Continued,  i 808 

Early  Roads  and  Bridges— First  Church  Or- 
ganization— Unusual  Phenomena  — Hotels — 
Burial  Places— Societies— Berlin  Mills — For- 
est Fibre  Company — Glen  Manufacturing 
Compauy—  White  Mountain  Pulp  and  Paper 
Ci  impany  —  Physicians  —  Lawyers — Mercan- 
tile and  Business  Houses.  1887 — Report  of 
Selectmen,  1887. 

XCIX.     MILAN 830 

Introductory — S  u  r  f  a  c  e— S  o  i  1— G  rant  — 
Boundaries  —  Pioneers  —  Character  of  Set- 
tlers— Inventory  for  1825— Early  Convey- 

C.    Milan.— (Continued.) 835 

Act  of  Incorporation — First  Town  Meeting- 
Extracts  from  Town  Records— -Action  in  the 
Rebellion— Civil  List:    Town  Clerks,   s 
men,  Treasurers,  Representatives. 

CI.    Milan.— (Continued.) 838 

Mills— Milan  Mine— Business  Interests. 


CH.    Mii.av.    (Continued.) 842 

( Ihurch  History    Mi  thodism    Pasti 

ent  Society    Original  Members  of  Methodist 

Church    Church  Building    Calvinist  Baptist 

Society      Free-Will    Bap;  ty      Civil 


CHI.     Milan.    (Continued.) 

Physicians,  Past  and  Present  A  Model  Mar- 
riage Certificate. 


B  lundaries      Origin  of   Name      1 
Granted    Surveyed— Early   and     Late] 

Inventory  of  Polls  and  Personal  Prop- 
erty, 1849. 

CV.     Dcmmeu (Continued.  1 859 

Petition  for  Incorporation— Civil  List:  Town 
Clerks,  Treasurers,  Selectmen,  and  Repre- 
sentatives   Schoi 


Name  -Scenery  and  Attractions  —  Bound- 
aries— First  Grant  Names  of  Grantees  De- 
scriptions of  the  Original  Grant. 

CVII.     Shelburne.— (Continued . ) 871 

Early  Settlers:  Hope  Austin  —  Daniel  Ox- 
galls—Stephen  Messer— Thomas  Green  Sam- 
uel Wheeler  — Jonathan  Evans  —  Benjamin 
Clemens— Bazeleel  Gates— Simeon  E\ 
Jonathan  Peabody— Jonathan  Lary— Peter 
Poor— Nathaniel  Loiter.  Etc. 

CVHI.     Shelburne.— (Continued.) 876 

Industries      "Peggy"     Davis's     Mittens 
Transportation  —  Mills  —  First  Merchant 
Early  Business  Interests  -Loads -Taverns- 

CIX.     Shelburne.— (Continued.) 880 

Religion— Church  of  Christ-  Original  Mem- 
bers—Free Chinch  -Free-Will  Baptist 
Church  Reform  Club  —  Union  Mei 
House  Schools-  Teachers  White  Mount- 
ain Stock-Farm  Judge  Burbank 
Mine-  Hotels  Soldiers  Town  Clerks  and 
ctmen  from  1839. 

CX.     GOL1IAM 

Scenery  and  Attractions -Boundaries    Shel- 
burne Addition    Survey    First  Set: 
Permanent  Settler    Other  Settlers. 

CXI.     Gobham.    (Continued.) 

Early  Difficulties  in   Way  of    Settlement 
The    "Addition"    in  1821   and   lal 
School     \n  icdote    Tl  shet    In- 

crease   in    Population-   Commencemen 
Prosperity    Andrew  G.  and  Jonathan    I 

First    Mills    Village    Site   in  1835    Trade, 
Traffic  and  Boti 


Contents — Index  to  Towns. 


CXII.     Gorham.— (Continued.) 900 

Act  of  Incorporation  of  Gorham— First  Town 
Meeting— Town  Officers— Tax-payers  in  1836 
School    Districts  Formed— Extracts   from 
Records  and  Civil  List. 

(  XIII.     Gorham  — (Continued.) 906 

Ecclesiastical  History  —  Free-Will  Baptist 
Society  —  Congregational  Church,  Society, 
Pastors— Methodist  Episcopal  Church— Uni- 
versalist  Society— Catholic  Church— Schools. 

CXLV.     Gorham.— (Continued.) 911 

Railroads— Grand  Trunk  Railway,  Shops, 
and  Employes  —  Gorham  Village  —  Hazen 
Evans— Valentine  L.  Stiles— Progress  of  Gor- 
ham—Fires— Buildings— Lawyers  and  Phy- 
sicians—Business Interests,  Manufacturers, 
Bank,  Merchants  and  Tradesmen. 

CXV.     Gorham.— (Continued.) 921 

Hotels  —  Societies  —  Postmasters  —  Mascot 
Mine — Thirty  Years  Changes. 


First  Grant  —  Location  —  Scenery—  Hotels- 
Lots,  Ranges,  Improvements— Early  Settlers. 

chapter.  PAGE, 

CXVH.     Randolph.— (Continued.) 941 

Act  of  Incorporation— First  Town  Meeting 
Called  —  Representatives— Town  Clerks— Se- 
lectmen—Town  Treasurers. 

CXVIII.     Randolph.— (Continued.) 943 

Schools—  Church  History  —  Organization  of 
"Union  Congregational  Society  "—War 
Record— Pond  of  Safety  —  Prominent  Citi- 

CXIX.     ERROL 948 

Grantees  —Lumbering—  Soil— Boundaries— 
Umbagog  Lake  —  Androscoggin  River  Im- 
provement Company— Errol  Dam  Company 
—Old  Families  — Petitions  of  Proprietors, 
Action  of  Town,  Etc. 

CXX.     Errol.— (Continued.) 951 

Application  for  Call  of  a  Town  Meeting- 
Call,  Notification  and  Action  of  First  Town 
Meeting— Act  of  Incorporation— Warrant  for, 
and  First  Town  Meeting  after  Incorporation 
—List  of  Voters,  1837— Civil  List. 











ERROL 948 






MILAN 830 






STARK 562 










ALGER,  L.  W 683 

ARMINGTON,  W.  N 237 


BALDWIN,  W.  L engraving  778 



BEDEL,  COL.  HAZEN engraving 637 



BERLIN  HIGH  SCHOOL engraving 806 


BROWN,  A.  L engraving 493 

BROWN.  W.  G engraving  194 

BROWNS'  LUMBER  MILLS engraving 496 


BURBANK,  JUDGE  R.  1 884 


BURNS,  HON.  WILLIAM engraving 218 

BURT,  CHAS.  W : 247 


CHAMBERLIN,  R.  N engraving 237 

COOPER,  S.   W 247 

COOS  COUNTY  MAP Facing  16 

COSSITT,  GEO.  A 217 


DALEY,  D.J 240 

DREW,  HON.  A.  W engraving 

DREW,  EDWIN  W 682 

DREW.  HON.  I.  W engraving 

DUDLEY.  J.   II   engraving 252 

EATON,  GEO.  R engraving 

EVANS.  A.  1!    233 

EVERETT,  R.  C 209 


FLETCHER    II.  A 215 


FLINT.  L.  T 247 


FURBISH.   II.  II Qgraving. 


GOVE,  DR.  GEO.  S engravin 

GOSS,  II.  I 

14:  Biographies  and  Illustrations. 


GRAY,  HOSEA engraving 385 


GREEN,  DANIEL   engraving 819 

GREEN,  S.  D 821 

HANNAFORD,  S.  G engraving 686 

HARTSHORN,  G.  W 257 

HASTINGS,  M.  A 230 

HAZEN.  L.  T engraving 498 

HEYWOOD.  HON.  WILLIAM engraving 214 



HITCHCOCK.  J.  II engraving 927 

HUTCHINS,  F.  D 237 


HUTCHINSON,  T.  H engraving 931 

JACOBS.  F.  C engraving 687 

JORDAN,  HON.  C.  B engraving 233 

KENT,  R.  F engraving 366 

KENT,  HON.  H.  O engraving 372 

KEYSAR,  JOHN engraving 694 



LADD,  HON.  W.  S engraving 227 


LARY,  A.  G engraving 926 

LOMBARD,  DR.  LYMAN engraving 635 

LOWE,  PROF.  T.  S.  C 425 

LUND,  H.  W 257 

MARSHALL,  A.  J engraving 394 

McGREGORY,  JOEL engraving 502 

MERRILL,  HON.  S.  R engraving 640 

MERRILL,  S.  S engraving 646 

MORRISON,  REV.  J.  B 317 

NO  YES,  CAPT.  WARREN engraving   929 

PAINE.  HON.  S.  E 815 


PARSONS,  HEZEKIAH   engraving 629 

PARSONS,  HEZEKIAH engraving 633 

PARSONS,  JAMES  I engraving 251 

PEARSON,  S.  A 210 

PERKINS,  HON.  N.  R engraving 421 



PHIPPS,  P.  A.  G.  W 852 

PICKARD,  I.  H 687 

RAMSAY,  IRA  A 249 

RAY,  HON.  OSSIAN engraving 222 

RAY,  O.  P 250 

REMICK,  S.  K 648 

REMICK,  D.  C 256 

REMICK,  J.  W 256 

ROGERS,  D.  A 248 


ROSEBROOK,  PH1NEAS engraving 444 

SCRIBNER,  E.  W engraving 827-828 


SHURTLEFF,  W.  H 250 

SMITH,  FRANK engraving 392 

Biographies  and  [llust ration; 


SOULE,  CAPT.  GILBERT  engraving     559 

SPAULDING.  J.  II engraving 387 


STUART,  C.J     21] 

THOMPSON,  ALEX engraving 396 

TRUE,  DR.  N.  T 934 

TWITCHEL,  ADAMS engraving 848 

TWITCHELL,  GEN.  A.  S 229 


VANDYKE,  GEORGE engraving  390 


WEEKS.  HON.  J.  W engraving 382 

WELLS.  JOHN  S 212 

WHEELER,  DEXTER  , engraving 822 

WHEELER,  R.  H " engraving B24 

WHIDDEN.  HON.  B.  F 220 

WIGHT,  I.  C engraving 



WILLIAMS.  J.  1 221 

WISWALL,  B.  C engraving 692 

YOUNG,  GEN.  IRA 245 





"the  county  of  cooss." 

Organization  —  Towns  Included  —  Extent  —  Boundaries  —  Population,  Agricultural  and  Man- 
ufacturing Statistics,  etc.,  1880  —  Locations,  Grants,  and  Purchases  —  Altitudes. 

THE  act  establishing  ' '  The  County  of  Cooss "  was  approved  December 
24,  1803,  and  took  effect  March  5,  1805.  It  contained  the  towns  of 
Dalton,  Whitefield,  Bretton  Woods,  Bartlett,  Adams,  Chatham,  Shel- 
burne,  Shelburne  Addition,  Durand,  Kilkenny,  Jefferson,  Lancaster,  Mills- 
field,  Northumberland,  Stratford,  Wales'  Gore,  Cockburne,  Colebrook, 
Stewartstown,  Piercy,  Paulsburg,  Mainesborough,  Dummer,  Errol,  Cam- 
bridge and  Success,  with  a  population  of  about  3,000  in  1803. 

The  General  Court  had  a  defective  knowledge  of  the  line  they  under- 
took to  make  the  southern  boundary,  for,  in  describing  it,  it  is  made  to  go 
to  the  northwest  corner  of  Tamworth,  and  from  thence  on  the  line  of  the 
county  of  Strafford  to  the  Maine  line.  To  reach  the  northwest  corner  of 
Tamworth,  it  had  to  follow  the  west  line  of  Albany  south  the  whole  width 
of  the  town,  and  then,  to  reach  the  north  line  of  Strafford  county,  which 
it  was  to  follow,  it  had  to  go  back  north  on  the  same  west  line  of  Albany 
without  including  any  land. 

June  18,  1805,  Nash  and  Sawyer's  Location  was  annexed  to  Coos  county, 
and  January  5, 1853,  Bartlett,  Jackson  (Adams),  and  Hart's  Location  were 
annexed  to  Carroll  county.  Not  long  after  the  formation  of  Coos  county, 
Chatham  was  annexed  to  Strafford  county,  and  upon  the  erection  of  Carroll 
county,  Chatham  was  included  in  that  county. 

18  History  of  Coos  County. 

Coos  was  taken  from  Grafton,  one  of  the  five  original  counties  of  the 
State — Eockingham,  Strafford,  Hillsborough,  Cheshire.  Grafton — and  com- 
prises all  New  Hampshire  north  of  the  present  counties  of  Grafton  and 
Carroll.  Its  western  boundary  is  the  western  bank  of  the  Connecticut 
river,  and  it  extends  from  latitude  4S°  58'  to  the  extreme  north  part  of 
the  State,  being  seventy- six  miles  in  length,  with  a  mean  width  of  about 
twenty  miles.  It  contains  about  one  million  acres  of  land.  The  distance 
by  traveled  highway  from  the  north  line  of  Grafton  county  at  Littleton  to 
the  Canada  line  at  West  Stewartstown  is  about  sixty -two  miles.  On  the 
Maine  line,  it  is  seventy-three  miles  from  Carroll  county  to  the  iron  post 
on  the  highlands,  in  the  wilderness  on  the  northern  boundary. 

It  is  bounded  north  and  northwest  by  Canada,  east  by  Maine,  south  by 
Carroll  and  Grafton  counties,  and  west  by  Vermont. 

The  census  of  1880  gives  the  total  population  of  the  county  as  18,580. 
By  the  same  census  we  learn  that  in  that  year  Lancaster  has  a  population 
of  2,721;  Whitefield,  1,828;  Colebrook,  1,580;  Gorham,  1,383;  Berlin, 
1,114  ;  Northumberland,  1,062  ;  and  Stratford,  1,016.  Jefferson  only  wants 
49  to  make  a  round  1,000,  while  Stewartstown  only  42.  The  other  towns 
exceeding  500  are :  Milan,  892  ;  Columbia,  762  ;  Stark,  690  ;  Carroll,  632 ; 
Pittsburg,  5S1  ;  Dalton,  570.  The  remaining  towns  and  grants  give  the 
following  :  Dummer,  464  ;  Clarksville,  328  ;  Shelburne,  252  ;  Eandolph,  203  ; 
Errol,  161;  Nash  and  Sawyer's  Location,  101;  Millsfield,  62  ;  Wentworth's 
Location,  55  ;  Cambridge,  36  ;  Martin's  Location,  33  ;  Dixville,  32  ;  Craw- 
ford's Grant,  28  ;  Thompson  and  Meserve's  Purchase,  20  ;  Second  College 
Grant,  18  ;  Green's  Grant,  8  ;  Dix's  Grant,  4  ;  and  Sargent's  Purchase,  2. 
There  are  in  this  county  1,939  farms,  having  a  total  of  139,089  acres  of 
improved  land  ;  aggregate  value  of  said  farms,  including  buildings,  fences, 
etc.,  $4,350,042  ;  implements  and  the  machinery  thereon,  $192,544  ;  stock, 
$774,838  ;  estimated  value  of  annual  farm  products,  $943,427.  The  vege- 
table productions  :  potatoes,  623,183  bushels  ;  barley,  1,8^3  ;  buckwheat, 
43,431;  Indian  corn,  10,129;  oats,  228,698;  rye,  923;  wheat,  3t,164;  tobacco, 
1,000  pounds;  hay,  49,734  tons;  orchard  products,  annual  value,  $3,979. 
The  number  of  horses  raised  in  the  county,  3,941;  mules  and  asses,  4; 
working  oxen,  1,615;  milch  cows,  6,47-1;  other  cattle,  10,723;  sheep,  16,832; 
swine,  2,784;  wool,  71,504  pounds;  butter,  632,822;  cheese,  36,795.  The 
assessed  valuation  of  real  estate  and  personal  property  is  $5,911 ,  552.  There 
are  194  manufacturing  establishments,  using  $2,107,250  capital,  paying 
$336,010  annually  to  1,262  operatives,  and  turning  out  products  valued  at 
$2,490,356.     The  next  census  will  show  a  change. 

Locations,  Grants  and  Purchases. — In  addition  to  the  towns  which  are 
organized  in  this  county  there  are  the  following  unorganized  grants,  pur- 
chases, locations,  etc.,  which  contain  between  three  and  four  hundred  inhabi- 
tants, and  lie  mostly  among  wild  mountains,  and  whose  chief  value  is  in  the 

Organization  —  Altitudes.  l ! » 

timber  they  produce  and  the  incentive  they  present  of  romantic  scenery  to 
the  summer  traveler:  Bean's  Purchase,  Carlisle,  Cambridge,  Hubbard, 
Webster,  Chandlers  Purchase,  Crawford's  Grant,  Craw  lord's  Purchase, 
Cutt's  Grant,  Dix's  Grant,  Ervin's  Grant,  Gilmanton  and  Atkinson  Acad- 
emy Grant,  Green's  Grant,  Lowe  and  Burbank's  Grant,  Martin's  Location, 
Nash  and  Sawyer's  Location,  Odell,  Pinkham's  Grant,  Sargent's  Purchase, 
Second  College  Grant,  Thompson  and  Meserve's  Purchase,  Wentworth's 
Location.  Millsfield  and  Cambridge,  after  being  organized  as  towns  for 
some  years,  gave  up  their  organization. 

Altitudes.—  Mt.  Washington,  6,293  ft.;  Mt.  Adams,  5,794  ft.;  Alt.  Jef- 
ferson, 5,714  ft.;  Mt.  Clay,  5,553  ft.;  Mt.  Monroe,  5,384  ft.;  Mt.  Little 
Monroe,  5,204  ft.;  Mt.  Madison,  5,365  ft.;  Mt,  Franklin,  4,904  it.: 
Mt.  Pleasant,  4,764  ft.;  Mt.  Clinton,  4.320  ft.;  Mt,  Jackson,  4,100 
ft.;  Mt.  Webster,  4,000  ft.;  Mt.  Crawford,  3,134  ft;  Giant's  Stairs, 
3,500  ft.;  Boott  Spur,  5,524  ft.;  Boott  Deception,  2,448  ft.;  Carter  Dome. 
South  Peak,  4,830  ft,;  Carter  Dome,  North  Peak,  4,702  ft,;  Mt.  Moriah, 
4,053  ft.;  Mt.  Wildcat,  4,350  ft.;  Mt.  Kearsarge,  3,251  ft,;  Mt.  Moat, 
North  Peak,  3,200  ft.;  Mt.  Moat,  South  Peak,  2,700  ft.;  Mt.  Starr  Kin-. 
3,800  ft.;  Mt.  Pilot,  3,640  ft;  Boy  mountain,  2,278  ft,;  Mt.  Prospect.  2,090 
ft.;Mt.  Percy,  North  Peak,  3,336  ft.;  Mt.  Percy,  South  Peak,  3,140  ft.;  Cape 
Horn,  2,735  ft.;  Twin  Mountain  station,  1,446  ft.;  White  Mountain  House, 
1,556  ft.;  Fabyan's,  1,571  ft.;  White  Mountain  notch,  1,914  ft.;  base  of  Mt. 
Washington,  2,668  f  t. ;  Cherry  mountain,  3,500  ft.;  Kandolph  mountain, 
3,043  ft.;  Pliny  mountain,  2,1-00  ft.;  Mt.  Eoyce,  2,600ft.;  Pond  of  Safety, 
1,973ft.;  Lake  of  the  Clouds  (Blue  Pond),  5,009  ft.;  Jefferson  mills,  1,180 
ft.;  Whitefield,  931  ft. ;  Jewell  hill,  1,467  ft.;  Connecticut  river  at  Dalton 
(high  water),  832  ft.;  Dalton  station,  866  ft.;  South  Lancaster,  867  ft.; 
Lancaster,  870  ft. ;  Groveton  depot,  901ft.;  Stark,  972  ft.;  Milan  summit, 
1,087  ft.;  Berlin  falls,  1,035  ft.;  Gorham  812  ft.;  Shelburne,  723  ft.;  Mt. 
Ingalls,  2,520  ft.;  Mt.  Forest,  1,950  ft.;  North  Stratford,  915  ft.:  Stratford 
Hollow,  877  ft.;  Sugarloaf,  est,,  3,47o  ft.;  Mt.  Lyon,  2,735  ft,;  Dixville 
Notch,  1,858  ft.;  Table  rock,  2,454  ft.;  Colebrook,  1,030  ft.;  West  Stew- 
artstowm,  1,055  ft.;  Mt.  Carmel,  3,711  ft  ;  Crescent  mountain,  2,700  ft.; 
Connecticut  lake,  1,618  ft.;  Mt.  Dustan,  2,575  ft.;  Half  Moon  mountain, 
2,526  ft.;  South  hill,  2,000  ft.;  South  peak,  Kilkenny.  3,827  ft.;  Green's 
ledge,  2,708  ft. 

20  History  of  Coos  County. 



Rock  Formations— The  Age  of  Ice — Glacial  Drift — Upper  Till — Lower  Till— Chaniplain 
Drift — Recent  or  Terrace  Period — Modified  Drift  of  Connecticut  River,  Connecticut  Lake,  to 
West  Stewartstown— Upper  Connecticut  Valley — Karnes— Deltas. 

*7~\OCK  FORMATIONS.— The  groups  of  rocks  of  Coos  County,  com- 
r*A  mencing  with  the  lowest,  are  the  Acidic  and  Basic  of  the  unstratified, 
X  and  the  Azoic,  Eozoic,  and  Paleozoic  of  the  stratified  rocks.  The  oldest, 
or  bed  rock,  a  very  coarse  granite  or  gneiss,  conceded  now  to  be  of  eruptive  or 
volcanic  origin,  which  varies  its  name  with  a  different  arrangement  of  the 
same  constituents.  Ledges  of  these  rocks  present  large  quadrangular  patches 
of  light-colored  feldspar,  varying  from  a  fraction  of  an  inch  to  three  inches 
in  length.  Quartz  and  feldspar,  with  black  and  white  mica,  and  some- 
times hornblende,  are  the  constituent  elements  of  these  primitive  or  acidic 
rocks,  which  are  known  as  sienite,  granite,  and  porphyry.  These  funda- 
mental unstratified  rocks  form  the  vast  volume  of  the  White  Mountains, 
and  are  the  oldest  rocks  in  the  State.  Nowhere  in  New  England  is  there  a 
better  opportunity  to  read  extensively  in  the  "  Book  of  Nature  "  than  on 
the  granite  pages  of  our  wild  mountains  and  precipitous  gorges.  A  mere 
mention  of  the  rock  formation  is  sufficient  for  our  purpose  here,  but  those 
who  desire  to  pursue  the  subject  from  a  love  of  science,  will  find  that  Prof. 
Hitchcock  and  his  co-laborers  have  thoroughly  and  exhaustively  treated  it 
in  that  great  work,  "Geology  of  New  Hampshire." 

The  Age  of  Ice. — It  is  of  great  importance  that  the  Glacial  and  Modi- 
fied Drift  periods  be  treated  in  detail,  for,  during  the  xYge  of  Ice,  the 
removal  of  the  great  ice-sheet  which  extended  above  the  top  of  Mt.  Wash- 
ington, and  the  subsequent  period,  the  surface,  soil,  and  water-courses  of 
the  county  were  formed,  and  the  conditions  for  civilized  occupancy  were 
prepared.  It  is  well  that  all  should  become  conversant  with  the  causes 
which  have  brought  about  these  conditions,  and  we  make  no  apology  for 
the  space  we  have  devoted  to  this  purpose.  The  indications  of  a  glacial 
period  arc  probably  as  well  shown  in  New  Hampshire  as  anywhere  in  the 
world.  Underlying  the  modified  drift  are  often  found  masses  of  rocks  and 
earth  mingled  confusedly  together,  having  neither  stratification  or  any 
appearance  of  being  deposited  in  water.  These  are  the  glacial  drift  or  till. 
This  drift  frequently  covers  the  slopes  or  lies  on  the  summits  of  the  highest 
hills  and  mountains.  It  contains  bowlders  of  all  sizes,  up  to  thirty  feet  in 
diameter,  which  have  nearly  all  been  carried  southward  from  their  native 
ledges,  and  can  be  traced,  in  some  instances,  for  a  hundred  miles,  south- 
ward or  southeastward.  Wherever  till  occurs,  the  ledges  have  mostly 
been  worn  to  a  rounded  form,  and,  if  the  rock  be  hard,  it  is  covered  with 

Geology.  21 

long  scratches  or  strice,  in  the  direction  of  the  course  taken  by  the  bowl- 
ders. Geology  now  refers  these  to  amoving  ice-sheet,  which  overspread 
this  continent  from  the  north,  and  had  formed  of  sufficieni  thickness  to 
cover  even  Mt.  Washington.  This  ice-sheet  was  so  much  thicker  at  the 
north  than  in  this  latitude  that  its  great  weight  pressed  the  ice  steadily  out- 
ward to  the  south-southeast.  The  termination  of  this  ice-sheet  in  the 
Atlantic,  southeast  of  New  England,  was  probably  like  the  great  ice- wall 
of  the  Antarctic  continent,  along  which  Sir  J.  C.  Ross  sailed  450  miles, 
finding  only  one  point  low  enough  to  allow  the  smooth  white  plain  of  the 
upper  surface  to  be  seen.  This  extended,  dazzling  white,  as  far  as  the  eye 
could  see.  There  was  a  long,  continuous  period  of  glacial  action,  with 
times  of  retreat  and  advance,  but  never  a  complete  departure  and  return 
of  a  continental  ice-sheet.  The  motion  of  this  ice  being  caused  by  its  own 
weight,  must  have  been  very  slow  indeed  Over  the  highlands  between 
the  St.  Lawrence  river  and  Hudson  bay  the  ice-sheet  was  three  or  four 
miles  in  thickness,  over  Greenland  very  much  thicker,  and  over  the  White 
mountains  it  reached  nearly  or  quite  to  the  line  of  perpetual  snow.  The 
till,  or  coarse  glacial  drift,  was  made  by  the  long-continued  wearing  and 
grinding  of  the  ice-sheet.  As  this  slowly  advanced,  fragments  were  torn 
from  the  ledges,  held  in  the  bottom  of  the  ice,  and  worn  by  friction  upon 
the  surface  over  which  it  moved.  This  material,  crushed  below  the  ice 
into  minute  fragments  or  fine  powder,  is  called  the Loiver  Till.  While  this 
was  being  made  below  the  ice,  large  quantities  of  coarse  and  fine  matter 
were  swept  away  from  hill-slopes  and  mountain-sides,  and  carried  forward 
in  the  ice.  As  this  melted  much  of  this  matter  fell  loosely  on  the  surface, 
forming  an  unstratified  deposit  of  gravel,  earth  and  bowlders.  This  deposit 
is  called  the  Upper  Till.  This  usually  is  found  above  the  Lower  Till,  the 
line  of  separation  being  at  a  distance  of  from  two  to  twenty  feet.  The 
departure  of  the  ice-sheet  was  attended  by  a  rapid  deposition  of  the  abun- 
dant materials  therein  contained.  The  retreat  of  the  ice-sheet  was  toward 
the  northwest  and  north,  and  it  is  probable  that  its  final  melting  took  place 
mostly  upon  the  surface,  so  that,  at  the  last,  great  amounts  of  its  deposits 
were  exposed  to  the  washing  of  its  many  streams.  The  finer  particles  were 
generally  carried  away,  and  the  strong  current  of  the  glacial  rivers  trans- 
ported coarse  gravel  and  bowlders  of  considerable  size.  When  these  streams 
entered  the  valley  from  which  the  ice  had  retreated,  or  their  currents  were 
slackened  by  less  rapid  descent,  where  the  channel  wasstill  walled  by  ice, 
a  deposition  took  place,  in  succession  of  coarse  gravel,  fine  gravel,  sand  and 
fine  silt  or  clay.  These  deposits  filled  the  valleys,  and  increased  in  depth 
in  the  same  way  that  additions  are  now  made  to  the  bottom-land  or  inter- 
vals of  our  large  rivers  by  the  floods  of  spring.  They  are  called  the  Modi- 
fied Drift,  and  geology  gives  this  name  to  the  period  from  the  departure  of 
the  ice  sheet  to  the  present.     This  modified  drift  occurs  in  almost  every 

22  History  of  Coos  County. 

valley  of  New  Hampshire,  and  comprises  the  intervals,  which  are  annually 
overflowed,  and  the  successive  terraces  which  rise  in  steps  upon  the  sides 
of  the  valley,  the  highest  often  forming  extensive  plains.  Dr.  Dana  has 
given  the  name  of  Champlain  Period  to  the  time  of  the  deposition  of  the 
modified  drift  during  the  melting  of  the  ice-sheet.  During  the  Champlain 
period,  the  ice  became  molded  upon  the  surface,  by  the  process  of  destruc- 
tion, into  great  basins  and  valleys;  and,  at  the  last,  the  passages  through 
which  the  melting  waters  passed  off,  came  gradually  to  coincide  with  the 
depressions  of  the  present  surface.  These  lowest  and  warmest  portions  of 
the  land  were  first  freed  from  the  ice;  and,  as  the  melted  area  slowly 
extended  into  the  continental  glacier,  its  vast  floods  found  their  outlet  at 
the  head  of  the  advancing  valley.  (In  the  Connecticut  valley  this  took  place 
by  a  single  channel  bordered  by  ice- walls.)  In  these  channels  were  depos- 
ited materials  gathered  by  the  streams  from  the  melting  glacier.  By  the 
low  water  of  winter,  layers  of  sand  were  formed,  and  by  the  strong  cur- 
rents of  summer,  layers  of  gravel,  often  very  coarse.  These  layers  are 
irregularly  bedded,  here  sand  and  there  gravel  accumulating,  and  inter- 
stratified  without  much  order  with  each  other.  These,  the  oldest  of  our 
deposits  of  modified  drift,  are  long  ridges  or  intermixed  short  ridges  and 
mounds,  composed  of  very  coarse  water- worn  gravel,  or  of  alternate  gravel 
and  sand  irregularly  bedded,  a  section  of  which  shows  an  arched  or  anti- 
clinal stratification.  Wherever  the  ordinary  fine  alluvium  occurs,  it  over- 
lies, or  partly  covers,  these  deposits.  To  these  ridges  geologists  give  the 
name  of  Karnes.  The  extensive  level  plains  and  high  terraces  bordering 
the  New  Hampshire  rivers  were  also  deposited  in  the  Champlain  period,  as 
the  open  valleys  become  gradually  filled  with  great  depths  of  gravel,  sand, 
and  clay  (alluvium),  which  were  brought  down  by  the  glacier  rivers  from 
the  melting  ice-sheet,  or  washed  from  the  till  after  the  ice  had  retreated,  and 
which  were  deposited  in  the  same  way,  as  by  high  floods  at  the  present 
time.  During  the  recent  or  terrace  period,  the  rivers  have  cut  deep  and 
wide  channels  in  this  alluvium.  The  terraces  mark  heights,  at  which,  in 
this  work  of  erosion,  they  have  left  portions  of  their  successive  flood- 
plains.  The  Connecticut  river,  along  the  greater  part  of  its  course  in  this 
state,  has  excavated  its  ancient  high  flood-plain  of  the  Champlain  period 
to  a  depth  of  from  one  hundred  and  fifty  to  two  hundred  feet  for  a  width 
varying  from  one-eighth  mile  to  one  mile. 

The  exploration  of  the  modified  drift  in  this  state  was  principally  made 
in  IS 75,  under  direction  of  the  state  geologist,  C.  H.  Hitchcock,  by  War- 
ren Upham.  Esq.,  from  whose  valuable  report  we  have  condensed  the 
above  and  extract  the  following  : — 

Modified  Drift  of  Connecticut  Biver,  Connecticut  Lake  to  West  Stew- 
artstown. — For  the  first  four  miles  below  Connecticut  lake  the  river  has  a 
rapid  descent,  with  a  southerly  course.     It  then  bends  to  the  west  and 

Geology.  23 

winds  with  a  sluggish  current  through  a  narrow  swamp  three  miles  in 
length,  which  is  the  first  aJluvium  seen  on  the  river.  Its  lower  end  is  at 
the  mouth  of  Dead  water  stream.  One  half  mile  farther  down,  at  the  out- 
let from  Back  lake,  the  road  passes  over  a  sand  and  gravel  plain  thirty  feet 
above  the  river.  This  is  material  deposited  in  the  Champlain  period  by  the 
tributary  stream.  Much  of  it  has  been  excavated  during  the  terrace  peri<  ><  1 ; 
and  till  extends  to  the  river  on  the  opposite  side  in  a  very  gentle,  regular 

On  Indian  stream  there  is  a  large  extent  of  low  alluvial  land,  compris- 
ing several  valuable  farms.  This  consists  mainly  of  a  wide  interval,  from 
ten  to  fifteen  feet  high,  which  is  bordered  on  the  east  by  a  narrow  lateral 
terrace  from  thirty  to  forty  feet  above  the  river.  In  the  next  four  miles 
scarcely  anything  but  glacial  drift  and  ledges  is  found.  The  scanty  por- 
tions which  may  be  called  modified  drift  consist  of  very  coarse,  somewhat 
water  worn  gravel,  in  terraces  from  ten  to  forty  feet  above  the  river,  which 
has  probably  in  many  places  cut  its  channel  to  this  depth  through  the  till. 
About  the  mouth  of  Bishop's  brook  considerable  low  alluvium  occurs, 
partly  brought  by  the  main  river  and  partly  by  its  tributary.  Thence  we 
have  a  narrow  width  of  modified  drift  on  the  north  side  of  the  river  to 
Hall's  stream,  which  is  bordered  by  an  interval  from  five  to  ten  feet,  and 
two  terraces,  twenty  and  thirty-five  feet,  above  the  river.  On  the  south 
side  here,  and  on  both  sides  for  nearly  two  miles  below,  the  river  is  closely 
bordered  by  hills,  and  no  modified  drift  is  seen. 

The  portion  of  the  river  which  we  have  now  described  extends  south- 
westerly about  eighteen  miles  from  the  mouth  of  Connecticut  lake.  The 
descent  in  this  distance  is  583  feet.  High  wooded  hills  border  the  valley, 
which  is  destitute  of  modified  drift  for  half  the  way.  The  largest  alluvial 
area  is  on  Indian  stream;  and  the  highest  terraces  are  from  thirty  to  forty 
feet  above  the  river. 

Upper  Connecticut  Valley. — Below  West  Stewartstown  the  course  of 
the  river  is  southerly,  having  a  descent  in  nearly  fifty  miles,  to  the  bead 
of  Fifteen-mile  falls,  in  Dalton,  of  only  205  feet;  one-half  of  which  takes 
place  in  nine  miles  between  Columbia  bridge  and  North  Stratford.  Along 
this  whole  distance  the  modified  drift  is  continuous,  and,  including  both 
sides,  is  usually  a  half  to  a  mile  and  a  half  wide.  It  is  very  simple,  having 
two  heights,  and  consists  of  the  present  flood-plain,  bordered  by  remnants 
of  that  which  filled  the  valley  in  the  Champlain  period.  The  former  is 
about  ten  feet  above  low  water,  being  annually  overflowed  by  floods  of 
spring.  This  would  be  called  bottom-land  in  the  western  United  States. 
In  Xew  England  it  is  commonly  termed  interval;  but  along  the  Connect  i<  ut 
river  it  is  frequently  known  as  meadow.  On  all  our  large  rivers  this  low- 
est terrace  has  a  firm  and  well-drained  surface,  much  different  from  the 
marshy  areas  bordering  small  streams,  to  which  the  name  meadow  is 

24  History  of  Coos  County. 

restricted  in  other  parts  of  the  state.  It  is  the  most  valuable  portion  of 
these  alluvial  lands,  having  a  more  finely-pulverized  and  more  fertile  soil 
than  that  of  the  higher  terraces.  The  ancient  flood-plain  is  here  repre- 
sented by  a  lateral  terrace  from  forty  to  one  hundred  and  twenty  feet  above 
the  river,  usually  remaining  at  both  sides,  and  in  many  places  forming 
considerable  plains. 

From  West  Stewartstown  to  Colebrook  the  only  alluvium  of  import- 
ance on  the  New  Hampshire  side  is  the  interval;  but  small  remnants  of 
the  upper  terrace  are  found,  especially  where  there  is  a  tributary  stream. 
On  the  Vermont  side  the  upper  terrace,  composed  of  sand  or  fine  gravel,  is 
usually  well  shown,  having  a  nearly  constant  but  small  elevation  of  forty 
to  sixty  feet  above  the  river,  with  which  it  slopes.  It  appears  that  this 
formerly  had  possession  of  the  whole  valley,  and  that  the  channelling  of 
the  river  has  swept  it  away  from  the  area  now  occupied  by  the  interval  or 
meadows.  Portions  of  it  still  remain,  entirely  surrounded  by  the  low 
flood-plain.  Such  a  plateau  may  be  seen  in  Canaan,  nearly  opposite  the 
south  side  of  Stewartstown.  The  upper  terrace  and  its  isolated  remnant 
have  both  a  height  of  forty  feet  above  the  river,  while  the  lower  level  is 
only  fifteen  feet  in  height.  Northeast  from  this,  in  Stewartstown,  a  rivu- 
let has  effected  a  like  result  on  a  small  scale  in  the  meadow,  cutting  a  chan- 
nel wholly  around  a  small  area  which  still  preserves  the  height  of  the  rest 
of  the  meadow. 

Karnes. — At  Colebrook  we  find  an  interesting  gravel-ridge  or  kame 
portions  of  which  remain  north  of  the  junction  of  Beaver  brook  and 
Mohawk  river,  but  most  noticeably  west  of  the  village,  extending  nearly 
a  mile  parallel  with  the  river.  Its  height  is  about  seventy  feet  above  the 
river,  and  fifty  above  the  low  alluvium  on  each  side.  Its  material  is  the 
same  as  that  of  the  long  kame  farther  south  in  this  valley,  being  princi- 
pally coarse,  water- worn  gravel,  with  abundant  pebbles  six  inches  to  one 
foot  in  diameter.  This  ridge  was  deposited  in  the  glacial  channel  of  the 
river  which  flowed  from  the  ice-sheet  at  its  final  melting. 

We  must  refer  to  a  similar  cause,  the  slightly  modified  drift  in  Leming- 
ton,  just  northwest  from  Colebrook  bridge;  in  Columbia,  the  high  gravel 
terrace  north  of  Sims'  stream;  thence  for  a  mile  southward  the  moraine- 
like, level-topped  or  irregular  drift,  slightly  modified,  at  about  100  feet 
above  the  river;  and  the  coarse  drift  ridge  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  a 
half  mile  above  Columbia  bridge.  The  last  is  a  distinct  ridge,  one-third 
of  a  mile  long,  parallel  with  the  river,  and  from  fifty  to  seventy-five  feet 
above  it,  being  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  feet  above  the  adjoining  lowland. 
This  may  have  been  a  medial  moraine.  It  contains  many  angular  rock- 
fragments  from  two  to  three  feet  in  size,  and  seems  scarcely  modified, 
appearing  like  portions  of  the  kames  along  Merrimack  river. 

Between  Columbia  bridge  and  North  Stratford  the  descent  is  rapid  and 

Geology.  25 

the  terraces  are  irregular.  At  Columbia  bridge  the  highest  alluvial  banks 
are  forty-eight  feet  above  the  rive),  at  North  Stratford,  119.  Where  the 
river  now  descends  101  feet  the  stratified  drift  of  the  valley  shows  a  slope 
of  ouly  thirty  feet,  or  about  three  feet  to  a  mile.  After  we  pass  this  steep  and 
narrow  portion,  and  enter  a  wide  valley  again  where  the  river  is  compara- 
tively level,  we  find  the  upper  terrace  falling  much  more  rapidly,  or  nine 
feet  to  a' mile.  At  Groveton  it  has  again  descended  to  a  height  fifty  feet 
above  the  river.  As  we  approach  Fifteen-mile  falls  the  upper  terrace  slopes 
very  slowly  down  to  the  lower  and  they  can  scarcely  be  distinguished  as 
separate  heights  below  South  Lancaster.  The  wide  river-pJain  here  rises 
gradually  from  five  to  ten  to  perhaps  twenty  or  thirty  feet  above  the  river. 

In  Stratford  and  Brunswick  both  heights  of  the  alluvium  are  well 
shown,  the  highway  being  on  the  upper  terrace  and  the  railroad  on  the 
meadow.  The  former  is  about  100  feet  above  the  river,  and  at  Brunswick 
springs,  and  for  much  of  the  way  through  Stratford,  is  from  one  fourth 
to  one-third  of  a  mile  wide.  At  Stratford  Hollow  depot  the  railroad  has 
cut  through  a  narrow  spur  of  this  terrace,  which  escaped  erosion  by  water. 
Here  the  alluvium  of  the  main  valley  has  been  excavated  into  secondary 
terraces  by  Bog  brook.  In  the  south  part  of  Stratford,  and  in  Northum- 
berland, the  meadow  or  interval  occupies  more  space  than  the  terrace, 
which  has  its  greatest  extent  in  the  level,  swampy  plain  west  of  Groveton 

Deltas. — At  Lancaster  the  upper  terrace  of  Connecticut  river  is  only 
fifteen  or  twenty  feet  above  the  interval.  The  only  higher  modified  drift 
has  been  brought  down  by  tributaries.  Part  of  Lancaster  village  is  built 
on  one  of  these  deltas,  formed  by  Israel's  river  on  its  south  side,  fifty  feet 
above  the  terrace  of  the  main  valley.  This  delta  sloped  rapidly  westward, 
and  formerly  occupied  the  whole  area  of  the  village;  a  portion  of  it,  twenty 
feet  lower  than  the  former,  remains  at  the  cemetery,  opposite  the  court- 
house. Similar  deposits  also  occur  two  miles  southwest  from  Lancaster, 
and  on  John's  river. 

Between  South  Lancaster  and  Fifteen-mile-falls  the  broad  river-plain  is 
unterraced.  It  seems  probable  that  a  lake  existed  here  while  the  original 
high  plain  northward  was  being  deposited.  * 

When  this  was  channelled  out  by  the  river,  so  as  to  leave  only  terraces 
as  we  now  see  them,  the  materials  excavated  were  sufficienl  to  fill  up  the 
lake.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  the  depth  of  the  stratified  drift  in 
this  basin;  it  is  probably  deeper  than  the  height  of  the  highest  modified 
drift  northward  above  the  rivar 

Kame-like  materials  of  small  extent  were  noticed  at  North  Stratford, 

*The  Connecticut  river,  geologists  consider,  left  this  lake  by  a  channel  which  passed  up  the 
present  valley  of  John's  river  to  Whitefleld,  from  there  across  to  Lower  Ammonoosuc  below  \Ving 
Road,  and  struck  its  present  bed  at  Wells  River,  by  following  down  the  Aimuonoosuc  valley. 

26  History  of  Coos  County. 

forming  the  high  bank  on  the  east  side  of  the  railroad,  one-fourth  mile 
southeast  from  the  station,  and  in  Guildhall,  about  two  miles  north  from 
Lancaster  bridge.  A  remarkable  moraine  of  granite  bowlders  occurs  in 
Stratford,  covering  a  large  area  of  hillside  just  above  the  upper  terrace, 
one  mile  south  from  what  was  Beattie's  station.  Two  miles  northwest  from 
Groveton  a  ridge  of  till,  from  sixty  to  100  feet  above  the  river,  projects  half 
a  mile  westerly  into  the  valley,  or  half  way  across  it,  appearing  like  a  ter- 
minal moraine.  Horse-shoe  pond,  on  the  northwest  side  of  this  ridge,  occu- 
pies a  portion  of  a  deserted  river- channel.  These  ancient  river-beds  are 
frequently  shown  by  such  ponds,  commonly  called  sloughs  or  moats,  of 
which  Baker's  pond,  near  Lancaster,  is  another  example. 



The  Water  Sheds — Carriage  Roads— Lumber  Roads — The  Water  Basins — The  Streams,  Con- 
necticut, Magalloway,  Androscoggin— Source  of  the  Connectirut — Description  andScenery — Second 
Lake,  Connecticut  Lake — Tributaries  of  the  Connecticut— Lake  Magalloway — Magalloway  River 
—  Androscoggin  River  —  Their  Tributaries— Country  along  the  Maine  Line — Bogs  and  Peat 

FROM  Professor  Huntington's  elaborate  description  we  extract :  The 
extreme  northern  part  of  New  Hampshire  is  covered  by  a  continuous 
primeval  forest;  and  the  surface  of  the  country  is  broken  by  undulat- 
ing ridges,  which  here  and  there  rise  to  mountain  heights.  In  these  forests, 
almost  on  the  boundary  of  Quebec,  is  the  source  of  the  Connecticut  river; 
and  in  the  extreme  northeast  corner  of  the  state  is  a  small  lake,  which  is 
the  principal  source  of  the  Magalloway  river.  Scarcely  anything  more  is 
known  to  the  dwellers  on  the  banks  of  the  Connecticut  as  to  its  source, 
than  they  know  of  the  source  of  the  Nile.  Hence  a  somewhat  minute  de- 
scription  will  be  given. 

Water-Sheds  — Along  the  water-shed  that  separates  the  headwaters  of 
the  Connecticut  and  Magalloway  from  those  of  the  St.  Lawrence,  runs  the 
boundary-line  between  New  Hampshire  and  Quebec.  Although  its  general 
direction  from  Crown  monument  to  the  head  of  Hall's  stream  is  a  little 
south  of  west,  yet  so  crooked  is  it  that  in  its  course  it  runs  towards  nearly 
every  point  of  the  compass,  making  the  distance  nearly  twice  as  great  as 
it  is  in  a  direct  line  between  these  points.  At  Crown  monument  the  height 
of  the  water-shed  is  2,568  feet.     It  descends  gently  for  a  short  distance  as 

Topography  27 

we  go  west,  but  soon  rises  again,  until,  near  Lake  Magalloway,  it  has  an 
elevation  of  2,812  feet.  The  summit  of  the  ridge  here  is  587  feel  above  the 
lake  just  mentioned.  Then,  northwest  of  the  lake,  there  is  quite  a  gap, 
but  it  soon  rises  again  into  a  mountain  ridge.  But  two  miles  west  of  the 
lake  is  another  depression:  in  this  rises  the  most  northwesterly  branch  of 
the  Magalloway.  West  of  this  the  ridge  rises  again,  and  forms  a  moun- 
tain range  which  extends  west  two  miles  to  the  gap  near  Third  lake. 
Extending  south  from  this  height  of  land  is  the  water-shed  between  the 
Connecticut  and  Magalloway.  The  gap  at  Third  lake  has  a  height  of  2, 140 
feet.  Then  there  is  a  slight  rise,  and  again  a  depression  of  about  the  same 
height  as  the  last.  Then  the  water-shed  rises  again  to  the  summit  of  Mt 
Prospect,  and  an  elevation  of  2,62!)  feet.  It  then  descends,  but  continues 
with  varying  undulations,  until,  near  the  head  of  Hall's  stream,  it  spreads 
out  into  an  immense  plateau. 

The  water-shed  that  separates  the  waters  of  the  Connecticut  from 
the  Magalloway,  Androscoggin,  and  Saco  rivers,  runs  as  follows:  Starting 
from  the  boundary  of  Quebec,  five  miles  southwest  of  Crown  monument, 
and  not  far  from  three  miles  east  of  Third  lake,  the  line  runs  nearly  south 
four  miles;  then  it  turns  almost  directly  east,  and  extends  to  Mt.  Kent, 
on  the  boundary  between  New  Hampshire  and  Maine;  thence  it  follows 
the  boundary  to  Mt.  Carmel;  thence  it  runs  a  little  south  of  west,  to  a 
point  two  miles  south  of  Second  lake;  thence  south  to  the  Magalloway 
mountain;  thence  it  follows  a  ridge,  west,  nearly  a  mile;  thence  it 
runs  southwest  to  Mt.  Pisgah ;  then  it  bends  still  to  the  west,  and  reaches 
its  western  limit  near  the  Diamond  ponds  in  the  eastern  part  of  Stewarts- 
town;  thence  it  runs  southeast  to  Dixville  notch;  thence  a  little  east  of 
south,  through  the  western  part  of  Millsfield;  thence  south  through  Milan, 
Berlin  and  Randolph;  thence  over  the  White  Mountains  to  the  Notch. 
Along  this  water-shed  is  some  of  the  highest  land  in  New  Hampshire;  but 
there  are  occasional  gaps  where  roads  are,  or  can  be,  constructed.  Some 
of  these  passes  are  well  known.  Going  north  from  the  Net  eh.  the  first  is 
in  Randolph:  the  next  is  where  the  Grand  Trunk  railway  passes;  then 
there  is  the  road  through  Dixville  notch;  but  north  of  this  no  carriage  road 
has  ever  been  constructed,  — and  there  are  only  three  winter  roads,  and 
these  for  lumbering  purposes.  The  first  of  these  roads  crosses  the  Con- 
necticut three  and  a  half  miles  south  of  Connecticut  lake,  and  runs  south- 
east. After  passing  the  height  of  land,  it  strikes  one  of  the  brandies  of 
the  Swift  Diamond,  and  following  this,  it  extends  down  to  the  Magalloway. 
The  second  road  begins  at  the  last  settlement  in  Pittsburg,  crosses  the  Con- 
necticut one  mile  north  of  Connecticut  lake,  and  strikes  the  Magalloway 
four  miles  south  of  Parmachenee  lake.  It  is  several  }rears  since  either  of 
these  roads  was  used,  but  through  the  evergreen  forests  they  are  as  dis- 
tinct as  when  first  made, — yet  through  the  deciduous  trees  the  underbrush 

2S  History  of  Coos  County. 

has  so  obstructed  the  way  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  pass,  even  on  foot. 
Along  either  of  these  routes  there  is  nothing  to  hinder  the  construction  of 
a  carriage-road,  and  probably  along  the  most  northern,  one  will  never  be 
called  for;  but  it  may  be  opened  again  as  a  "tote"  road  when  lumbering 
is  carried  on  along  the  Upper  Magalloway.  The  third,  a  "tote'1  road  to 
the  Magalloway  by  the  way  of  Second  lake,  is  the  one  latest  used,  and 
strikes  farther  up  the  river.  (The  supplies  now  are  mostly  taken  from 
Berlin  up  the  Androscoggin  and  the  Magalloway.)  The  water  shed  itself, 
and  the  country  east,  is  broken  up  into  irregular  groups  of  mountains  and 
hills,  but  no  two  groups  have  exactly  the  same  kind  of  rocks.  The  axis  of 
all  the  higher  groups  is  either  gneiss  or  schist. 

The  Water  Basins. — The  northern  portion  of  the  water  basin  of  the 
Connecticut,  the  Magalloway,  the  Androscoggin  and  the  Saco  is  embraced 
in  this  section.  North  of  latitude  45°,  it  embraces  nearly  the  whole  of 
that  of  the  Connecticut.  West  of  the  Connecticut  river,  and  north 
of  latitude  45°,  there  are  three  nearly  parallel  ridges.  The  first, 
going  west,  is  somewhat  irregular,  and  is  cut  off  where  Perry's 
stream  turns  east  and  flows  into  the  Connecticut.  But  two, — one 
between  Perry's  and  Indian  streams,  and  the  other  between  Indian  and 
HalFs  streams, — are  more  uniform,  and  they  have  a  mean  height  of  about 
600  feet  above  the  streams.  South  of  latitude  45°,  and  east  of  the  Con- 
necticut, the  ridges  are  everywhere  irregular.  North  Hill,  in  Clarksville, 
rises  1,971  feet  where  the  road  crosses.  South  Hill,  in  Stewartstown,  is 
2,000  feet,  ascending  to  Jackson.  In  Colebrook,  and  below,  the  high  ridges 
branching  from  the  water-shed  have  generally  a  westerly  trend.  South  of 
Sims'  stream,  the  ridge  extends  nearly  to  the  Connecticut,  as,  also,  the  one 
in  Stratford,  south  of  Lyman  brook.  Below  North  Stratford  the  ridges 
run  more  to  the  south.  In  Northumberland,  south  of  the  Upper  Ammo- 
noosuc,  they  again  run  more  nearly  west,  and  continue  thus  until  we  reach 
Dalton,  where  the  principal  ridge  runs  north  and  south. 

Seven  miles  south  of  Crown  monument  the  water-shed  touches  the 
boundary  line  of  Maine.  The  portion  of  the  water  basin  of  the  Magallo- 
way north  of  this  is  a  level  tract  of  country,  penetrated  by  spurs  from  the 
boundary  line  towards  Quebec.  South  of  the  point  mentioned  above,  the 
water  basin  of  the  Magalloway  occupies  a  large  tract  of  country  in  New 
Hampshire.  It  is  everywhere  broken  into  irregular  mountain  ridges,  but 
these  have  generally  a  southern  trend  until  we  reach  the  Swift  Diamond 
in  Dartmouth  College  grant.  South  of  this  stream  there  is  a  high  contin- 
uous ridge  from  Dixville  notch  to  the  Magalloway;  then  there  is  a  high 
ridge  that  runs  south,  parallel  with  the  stream  last  mentioned.  The  tri- 
angular area  embraced  by  the  Swift  Diamond,  Clear  stream,  and  the 
Magalloway  and  Androscoggin,  is  a  succession  of  hills  and  mountain 
ridges.     The  high  point  north  of  Dixville  notch  forms  the  apex  of  the  tri- 

Topography.  29 

angle;  and  Mt.  Dustan  is  in  the  northeast  angle.  South  of  Clear  stream 
the  hills  are,  if  possible,  more  irregular  in  their  contour  than  those  north- 

The  Streams. — The  principal  streams  are  the  Connecticut,  the  Magal- 
loway,  and  the  Androscoggin.  Almost  on  the  very  northern  boundary  of  New 
Hampshire,  and  nearly  on  the  very  summit  of  the  dividing  ridge  that  sep- 
arates the  waters  of  the  St.  Lawrence  from  those  that  flow  southward,  there 
is  a  small  lake  containing  only  a  few  square  acres;  and  this  is  the  source  of 
the  Connecticut  river.  It  has  an  elevation  of  2,551  feet,  and  is  only  sev- 
enty-eight below  the  summit  of  Mount  Prospect;  and  so  remote  is  it  from 
the  habitations  of  men  that  it  is  rarely  seen.  A  place  more  solitary  is  not 
known  in  northern  New  Hampshire.  Surrounded  as  it  is  by  dense  forests 
of  evergreen,  you  can  see  only  these  and  the  waters  of  the  lake.  Almost 
the  only  sound  that  relieves  the  monotony  of  the  place  is  the  croaking  of 
the  frogs,  and  this  must  be  their  paradise.  A  few  steps  to  the  summit  of 
Mt.  Prospect,  and  we  can  overlook  thousands  and  thousands  of  square 
miles  of  forests  in  Quebec,  while  in  the  extreme  distance  to  the  northwest 
can  be  seen  the  habitations  of  men.  Southward  the  view  is  not  extensive. 
This  lake  is  half  a  mile  directly  south  of  the  boundary,  and  has  an  area  of 
three-fourths  of  a  square  mile,  and  its  height  is  2,038  feet.  It  is  trapezoidal 
in  shape,  and  has  its  greatest  width  in  the  south,  while  its  northern  shore  is 
not  more  than  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  length.  Its  outlet  is  at  the  southeast 
corner,  and  its  width  is  eight  feet,  and  its  depth  six  or  seven  inches. 
Besides  the  spruce  and  firs  and  cedars  of  immense  size,  it  has  a  sub- Alpine 
vegetation.  Labrador  tea,  the  led  inn  pahtstre,  is  found  in  abundance 
along  its  shores.  In  early  summer,  before  the  swarms  of  insects  come,  it 
is  charming  to  stand  upon  its  border,  when  not  a  ripple  disturbs  its  placid 
waters,  and  the  trees  are  mirrored  along  its  shores.  On  every  side  except 
the  south,  the  hills,  which  rise  to  mountain  heights,  approach  almost  to 
its  very  shores.  The  Connecticut,  which  is  its  outlet,  is  nowhere  remark- 
ably rapid.  About  five  miles  from  the  lake  it  receives  a  tributary  from  the 
east,  the  principal  branch  of  which  rises  near  the  boundary.  This  stream 
is  nearly  as  large  as  that  into  which  it  flows.  A  mile  and  a  half  from 
where  it  receives  this  tributary,  it  flows  into  Second  lake,  lis  area  is  about 
oneand  three-fourths  square  miles,  and  it  is  two  miles  and  three-fourths  in 
length,  and  in  the  widest  part  is  a  little  more  than  a  mile,  and  I  he  heighl 
above  the  sea  is  1,882  feet.  It  is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  of  our  northern 
lakes.  The  graceful  contour  of  its  shores,  the  symmetry  of  its  projecting 
points,  the  stately  growth  of  its  primeval  forests,  (he  carpel  of  green  that 
is  spread  along  its  border  and  extends  through  the  long  vista  of  the  woods, 
the  receding  hills  and  the  distant  mountains,  presenl  a  combination  of  the 
wild,  the  grand,  and  the  beautiful  that  is  rarely  seen.  Near  its  northern  bor- 
der, besides  the  Connecticut,  it  receives  two  t  ributaries,  one  from  1  lie  north- 

30  History  of  Coos  County. 

east  and  one  from  the  northwest.  Its  outlet  is  on  the  west  side,  near  its 
southern  limit;  it  is  forty  feet  in  width,  and  has  a  depth  of  eighteen  inches. 
Twenty  rods  from  the  lake  it  has  a  fall  of  eighteen  feet  or  more;  then  its 
descent  is  quite  gradual,  but  forms  here  and  there  deep  eddies.  A  mile 
from  the  lake  it  becomes  more  rapid,  and  rushes  down  between  precipitous 
walls  of  rock  in  a  series  of  wild  cascades,  which  continue  for  half  a  mile. 
It  receives  two  tributaries  from  the  west  before  it  flows  into  Connecticut 
lake.  Here  we  find  a  sheet  of  water  exceedingly  irregular  in  its  outline. 
Its  length  is  four  miles,  and  its  greatest  width  two  and  three-fourths,  and 
it  contains  not  far  from  three  square  miles.  Its  general  direction  is  east 
and  west,  but  near  its  outlet  it  turns  towards  the  south.  None  of  these 
lakes  contain  islands  to  any  extent.  Second  lake  has  only  one,  and  this 
has  two,  but  they  are  very  near  the  southeast  shore.  On  the  west  shore 
of  this  lake  the  country  is  settled,  and  the  grassy  pastures  extend  down  to 
its  border;  but  for  the  most  part  it  is  still  surrounded  by  a  primeval  forest. 
As  many  of  the  neighboring  hills  are  crowned  with  deciduous  trees,  par- 
ticularly the  maple,  in  autumn,  when  the  frost  comes  and  these  have  put 
on  their  crown  of  beauty,  of  crimson  and  scarlet,  of  yellow  and  gold,  and 
mingled  as  they  often  are  with  the  dark  foliage  of  the  spruce  and  fir,  we 
have  a  scene  which,  in  brilliancy  and  beauty,  is  rarely  if  ever  excelled. 
There  is  another  element  characteristic  of  this  high  elevation,  for  the  lake 
is  1,619  feet  above  the  sea.  It  often  happens,  when  the  forest  has  put  on 
this  robe  of  beauty,  that  all  the  neighboring  heights  are  of  immaculate 
whiteness  from  the  frozen  mist  that  clings  to  every  spray  of  the  evergreen 
foliage.  Embraced  in  the  picture  are  the  blue  waters  of  the  lake,  the  belt 
of  deciduous  forests,  with  their  brilliant,  gorgeous  colors,  the  dark  bands  of 
the  evergreens,  and  the  snow-white  summits-  The  water  at  the  outlet  flows 
over  a  rocky  barrier,  the  stream  falling  abruptly  nearly  thirty  seven  feet. 
The  fall  is  quite  rapid  for  two  miles  and  a  half;  then  the  flow  is  more  gen- 
tle for  about  four  miles;  then  it  becomes  more  rapid  again,  and  continues 
thus  until  after  it  passes  West  Stewartstown.  It  is  then  nowhere  a  slug- 
gish stream,  and  has  rapids  in  many  places  until  it  gets  below  the  falls  of 
Northumberland;  then  it  is  the  most  placid  of  streams  until  it  reaches  the 
Fifteen-mile  falls,  which  begin  in  Dalton.  The  fall  from  Connecticut  lake 
to  Lancaster  is  785  feet.  In  Pittsburg,  below  Connecticut  lake,  the  Con- 
necticut river  receives  three  large  tributaries, — Ferry's  stream,  which 
rises  near  Third  lake,  and  has  a  rapid  descent,  including  two  falls,  three 
and  five  miles  from  its  confluence,  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  lake;  Indian 
stream,  which  rises  on  the  boundary,  has  a  very  rapid  descent  for  five  or 
six  miles,  when  it  becomes  a  very  quiet  stream  until  it  flows  into  the  Con- 
necticut about  eleven  miles  from  the  lake;  Hall's  stream,  which  also  rises 
on  the  boundary,  and  is  the  dividing  line  between  New  Hampshire  and 
Quebec.     Besides  these  there  are  several  smaller  streams.     The  principal 

Topography.  ;:i 

streams  from  the  east  ai^e  Cedar  stream  in  Pittsburg,  Labrador  brook  and 
Dead  Water  stream  in  Clarksville,  the  Mohawk  in  Colebrook,  Sim'sstream 
and  Lyman  brook  in  Columbia,  Bog  brook  in  Stratford,  the  Upper  Ammo- 
noosuc  in  Northumberland,  Israel's  river  in  Lancaster,  and  John's  river  in 

The  Magalloway  has  its  principal  source  in  Lake  Magalloway,  about  a 
mile  and  a  half  southwest  of  Crown  monument.  This  lake  is  one  of  the 
most  romantic  in  New  Hampshire.  It  has  an  elevation  of  2,225  feet  above 
the  sea.  Its  area  is  not  far  from  320  square  acres,  and  is  surrounded  by 
hills  that  rise  to  mountain  heights,  the  elevation  on  the  northeast  being  587 
feet  above  the  lake,  and  from  its  summit  we  look  immediately  down  upon 
it.  The  stream  which  is  its  outlet  forms,  a  few  steps  from  the  lake,  a 
beautiful  cascade  some  twenty  feet  in  height.  Of  all  the  men  who  have 
hunted  in  these  forests,  I  have  found  only  one  who  had  ever  seen  this  lake. 
If  it  were  within  the  reach  of  travel,  it  would  no  doubt  attract  many  per- 
sons, for  in  wildness  and  grandeur  it  is  not  surpassed.  Its  outlet  is  soon 
augmented  by  streams  both  from  New  Hampshire  and  Maine. 

The  Magalloway,  soon  after  it  enters  the  state  of  Maine,  forms  one  of 
the  peculiar  streams  in  this  northern  country.  It  flows  for  a  time  with  a 
rapid  current,  and  then  for  a  long  distance  it  is  the  most  sluggish  of 
streams,  often  deeper  than  it  is  wide,  while  on  either  side  there  are  numer- 
ous ponds  and  bogs.  Parmachenee  lake,  into  which  it  flows,  is  about  the  size 
of  Connecticut  lake.  For  four  miles  below  Parmachenee  the  stream  is  very 
rapid,  and  then,  for  almost  the  entire  distance  to  Escahos  falls,  the  descent 
is  slight.  Upper  Magalloway  settlement  lies  above  the  falls.  The 
Magalloway  enters  New  Hampshire  in  Dartmouth  College  grant. 
It  flows  about  a  mile  and  then  goes  into  Maine,  but  enters  New 
Hampshire  again  in  the  northeast  corner  of  Wentworth's  Location, 
and  flows  into  the  Androscoggin  a  mile  and  a  quarter  from  Umbagoglake. 
Although  the  river  is  very  crooked  yet  the  water  is  of  sufficient  depth  so 
that  a  steamer  runs  up  nearly  to  the  Maine  line,  and  down  the  Androscog- 
gin to  Errol  dam;  below  this,  the  Androscoggin  is  for  the  most  part  quite 
rapid,  and,  in  the  sixty-six  miles  of  this  river  in  New  Hampshire,  the  fall 
is  464  feet.  The  tributaries  of  the  Magalloway  and  Androscoggin  from 
New  Hampshire  are  the  Little  Magalloway,  four  and  a  half  miles  south  of 
Parmachenee  lake,  and  the  Swift  Diamond,  which  has  its  source  in  the 
Diamond  ponds  in  Stewartstown,  and  has  a  tributary,  the  Dead  Diamond, 
which  rises  two  and  a  half  miles  southeast  of  Second  lake,  and  flows  into 
the  Swift  Diamond  a  mile  and  a  half  from  its  confluence  with  the  Magal- 
loway in  Dartmouth  College  grant.  Clear  stream  flows  into  the  Andros- 
coggin in  Errol.  In  Gorham  the  tributaries  are  Moose  and  Peabody  rivers, 
the  latter  of  which  rises  in  the  Great  gulf  between  Mt.  Washington  and 
Mt.  Adams.     A  considerable  tributary,  Wild  river,  rises  in  Bean's  Purchase. 

32  History  of  Coos  County. 

but  flows  into  the  Androscoggin  in  Maine.  Besides  these  from  the  west, 
the  Androscoggin  has  three  tributaries  in  New  Hampshire  from  the  east, 
the  Molichewort  in  Errol,  and  the  Chick walnepy  and  Stearns  brooks  in 

Country  Along  the  Maine  Line.  -  -  The  northern  extremity  of  New 
Hampshire  is  a  mere  point  of  upland — sterile  and  comparatively  destitute 
of  lumber  of  value.  In  those  townships  formed  from  the  Carlisle  grant 
large  spruces  are  now  standing,  and  the  different  branches  of  the  Magal- 
loway  are  so  located  as  to  afford  for  them  egress  without  excessive  expense. 

The  tracts  on  Stearns  brook  and  Chickwalnepy  river  in  Success,  afford 
good  settling  land.  Considerable  pine  is  still  standing  upon  the  township. 
Standing  upon  Mt.  Ingalls  the  eye  takes  in  a  valuable  tract  of  this  land  and 
the  adjoining  town  of  Riley  in  Maine,  which,  situated  as  they  are,  near  the 
Grand  Trunk  Railroad,  and  possessing  the  advantages  of  the  Androscoggin, 
besides  excellent  water-power,  must  at  no  distant  clay  be  of  increased  value. 
No  better  land  can  be  found  than  some  of  that  in  the  towns  of  Chatham 
and  Stowe,  while  more  northerly  the  farms  in  Errol  and  Wentworth's 
Location,  possess  natural  advantages,  which,  together  with  those  of  the 
rich  bottom  meadows  on  the  Diamond  in  the  second  grant  to  Dartmouth 
College,  are  of  a  high  order.  Although  the  general  surface  of  the  ground 
along  the  line  is  uneven  and  broken,  yet  there  are  large  tracts  of  fertile 
lands  which  must  at  some  period  yield  a  handsome  remuneration  to  their 
holders.  The  eastern  portion  of  New  Hampshire  lying  north  of  Mt.  Royce, 
is  drained  by  the  Androscoggin  and  Magalloway  rivers,  the  former  of 
which,  after  serving  as  the  outlet  of  those  great  lakes  extending  from 
Umbagog  far  into  the  wilderness  to  the  northeast,  debouches  from  this  lake, 
receiving,  one  mile  below,  tribute  from  the  Magalloway,  a  stream  equal  in 
size  to  the  Connecticut  at  Hanover,  which,  taking  its  rise  on  the  boundary 
range,  drains  that  whole  water-shed  north  and  west  of  Umbagog. 

The  soil  along  the  valley  of  the  Magalloway.  Androscoggin,  Diamond 
and  their  branches,  is  rich  and  alluvial.  The  highlands  are  characterized 
by  an  argillaceous  formation  entirely  different  from  the  granitic  structures 
of  the  White  and  other  mountain  ranges  in  our  State.  Mineral  wealth 
exists  in  the  township  of  Riley,  Success  and  Shelburne,  and  probably  along 
that  portion  of  the  line  lying  between  Lake  Umbagog  and  the  Androscog- 
gin, at  the  latter  town.  Spruces  of  fine  proportions  were  frequently  met  in 
large  tracts  north  of  Umbagog,  while  the  maple,  the  birch,  the  beech,  and 
those  other  forest  trees  indigenous  to  our  latitude  flourish  in  regal  lux- 
uriance in  the  forests  north.  The  cedar  is  found  in  great  quantities  on  the 
low  lands  around  Umbagog.  In  fine,  the  country  and  its  natural  charac- 
teristics are  such  as  to  warrant  the  belief  that  it  will  be  at  some  time 
reclaimed  from  its  present  state  and  yield  ample  remuneration  for  the  labor 

Topography.  33 

Bogs  and  Swamps. — Bogs  and  peat  swamps  are  very  numerous  in  the 
northern  part  of  this  county.  These  are  often  of  greal  extenl  and  found 
in  every  town.  Sometimes  they  present  a  broad  surface,  without  a  tree  or 
shrub,  except  along  their  borders,  the  whole  surface  being  covered  with  a 
luxuriant  growth  of  grass.  One  of  the  largest  of  these  bogs  is  at  the  head 
of  Bog  brook,  a  mile  and  a  half  west  of  Second  lake,  and  has  an  area  of 
fifteen  or  twenty  acres.  West  of  Perry  stream  there  is  another  extensive 
bog,  directly  west  of  the  one  previously  described.  Near  the  head  of  Perry 
stream  there  are  several,  more  or  less  occupied  by  shrubs  and  trees;  here 
and  there  a  hackmatack  or  larch  rises  from  the  surface  covered  with  lau- 
rels, Labrador  tea,  and  other  swamp  plants.  North  of  Second  lake  is  a  very 
extensive  swamp  where,  besides  the  laurel,  Labrador  tea  and  larch,  we  fre- 
quently find  the  cedar  and  alder.  A  short  distance  south  of  Connecticut 
lake  are  two  small  open  bogs,  on  which  cranberries  grow  abundantly.  The 
peat  here  is  not  more  than  six  feet  in  depth.  One  of  the  most  extensive 
swamps  in  the  State  is  in  the  Dartmouth  College  grant.  The  distance 
across  it,  north  and  south,  is  about  three  hundred  rods,  and  the  distance 
east  and  west  is  much  greater.  Several  interesting  peat  deposits  exist 
along  the  Androscoggin.  One  in  Milan  contains  many  well-preserved 
trunks  of  fallen  trees,  principally  tamarack.  In  Shelburne  the  reclamation 
of  a  peat-swamp  has  been  quite  successfully  carried  on. 

These  bogs  when  drained  and  dressed  with  sand  or  sand  and  lime  are 
excellent  soils,  very  productive  in  hay  and  oats.  Many  of  them  may  in 
this  way  be  reclaimed,  for,  in  time,  the  peat  will  be  used  as  fuel  and  as  a 
fertilizer.  Peat  makes  a  valuable  fertilizer.  It  absorbs  and  retains  water 
and  ammonia,  promotes  the  disintegration  of  the  rocks,  renders  light  soils 
more  productive,  and  acts  valuably  in  other  ways.  Those  who  have  experi- 
mented with  it,  and  compared  its  properties  with  ordinary  stable  manure, 
find  that  it  gives,  in  a  certain  quantity,  an  equal  amount  of  lime  and  nitro- 
gen and  one-third  more  organic  matter,  but  is  deficient  in  magnesia,  potash, 
phosphoric  and  sulphuric  acids.  These  elements  may  be  given  by  add  i  ng  to  one 
hundred  pounds  of  fresh  peat  one  pound  of  commercial  potash,  or  five 
pounds  of  unleached  wood  ashes,  one  pound  of  good  superphosphate,  or 
one  pound  each  of  bone-dust  and  gypsum. 

In  view  of  the  small  amount  and  the  cheapness  of  the  materials  to  bring 
peat  to  the  fertilizing  standard  of  stable  manure,  it  would  appear  as  if  our 
farmers  could  greatly  enrich  their  lands  at  small  expense. 

34  History  of  Coos  County 



Pittsburg — Crown  Monument— Megantic  Mountain— Head  waters  of  St  Francis  and  Chaudiere 
Kivers— Along  the  New  Hampshire  and  Quebec  Boundary— Third  Lake— Mt.  Carmel— Mt  Agiz- 
coos — Cascades— Little  Diamond  Falls— Hoggins  Branch — Dixville  Notch— "  The  Old  Man  of 
Dixville" — The  Flume — Cascade  Brook — Huntington  Cascade — Scenery  of  Errol — West  Stewarts- 
tow  n  to  North  Stratford — Groveton — Stark — Milan — Lancaster — Jefferson — Randolph — Dalton — 
Shelburne — Gorham. 

PROFESSOR  HUNTINGTON  says  that  the  lovers  of  the  grand,  wild 
and  picturesque  in  nature,  will  especially  delight  in  the  primeval  for- 
ests of  Coos  county.  A  journey  of  a  day  and  a  half  in  Pittsburg, 
from  Connecticut  lake  through  an  unbroken  forest,  will  take  one  to  Crown 
monument,  which  is  at  the  extreme  northeast  corner  of  the  state.  It  is 
on  the  water- shed  between  the  waters  of  the  St.  Lawrence  and  the  streams 
running  south  into  the  Atlantic,  and  it  is  so  called  because  a  monument 
was  placed  there  by  the  commissioners  who  established  the  boundary 
between  the  states  and  the  provinces.  From  a  ridge  of  land  2,568  feet 
above  the  level  of  the  sea,  where,  looking  northward,  the  land  slopes 
toward  the  St.  Lawrence,  and  southward,  toward  the  Atlantic,  the  view 
must  be  extensive.  In  either  direction  we  look  over  only  illimitable  for- 
ests, except  that  in  the  dim  distance,  a  little  to  the  east  of  north,  there  is  a 
small  settlement,  probably  at  the  north  end  of  Megantic  lake, — otherwise 
the  view  embraces  a  boundless  forest.  Immediately  north,  the  slope  is 
quite  gradual,  and,  as  it  stretches  northward,  the  country  seems  like  a 
plain  extending  to  the  horizon.  To  the  northeast  is  Saddle  mountain,  with 
hills  and  ridges,  to  the  north wrest,  Megantic  mountain  rises  as  from  an 
immense  plain.  Embraced  in  the  view-  northward  are  the  headwaters  of 
the  St.  Francis  and  Chaudiere  rivers,  while  east  and  west  is  the  high  ridge 
that  forms  the  water-shed.  The  view  directly  south  is  limited,  for  a  moun- 
tain ridge  runs  from  the  Magallow^ay  directly  west  into  New  Hampshire. 
To  the  southwest,  the  high  ridge  that  encircles  the  basin  where  the  many 
branches  of  the  Magalloway  have  their  source,  obstructs  the  view  in  that 
direction.  To  the  southeast  there  is  nothing,  as  far  as  the  eye  can  see,  but 
high  ridges  and  mountain  peaks,  which  follow  each  other  in  rapid  succes- 
sion until  in  the  far  distance  they  seem  to  pierce  the  sky. 

If  we  should  follow  along  the  boundary  between  New  Hampshire  and 
Quebec,  there  w~ould  be  many  points  where  wre  should  wish  to  stop  and 
view  the  grand  panorama  spread  out  before  us.  Two  of  the  most  remark- 
able outlooks  we  will  notice.     Not  far  from  three  and  a  half  miles  south- 

Scenery  of  Coos.  35 

west  from  Crown  monument  there  is  a  point  of  land  2,812  feel  in  height. 
The  distant  view  is  not  unlike  that  from  Crown  monument,but  the  immedi- 
ate surroundings  are  much  more  grand;  among  the  attractions  is  a  moun- 
tain lake,  which  lies  in  a  depression  to  the  west  800  feet  below  the  sum- 
mit, and  it  is  so  near  that  we  seem  to  look  directly  clown  upon  it.  Another 
point  of  interest  is  in  the  vicinity  of  Third  lake.  The  view  northward 
embraces  a  continuous  forest,  extending  fifty  miles  or  more;  and  in  the 
distance,  Megan  tic  mountain  stands  massive  and  alone.  The  only  habita- 
tions to  be  seen  are  one  or  two  houses  in  Ditton  (Canada). 

South,  half  a  mile  distant,  we  look  down  on  Third  lake.  On  a  bright 
day  in  early  summer,  when  the  stately  forests  are  mirrored  in  its  clear 
waters,  it  presents  a  scene  of  quiet  beauty  that  cannot  be  surpassed.  Gen- 
erally the  view  southward  is  not  extensive,  but  on  some  of  the  higher 
points  we  can  overlook  the  nearer  hills,  and  some  of  the  peaks  of  the 
White  Mountains  can  be  seen. 

Mt.  Carmel. — Mt.  Carmel  rises  3,711  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  It 
is  on  the  line  of  New  Hampshire  and  Maine,  and  consists  of  a  long  ridge, 
on  which  there  are  two  points  of  nearly  equal  height,  half  or  three-quar- 
ters of  a  mile  apart;  from  the  point  east  there  is  a  gradual  slope  for  half  a 
mile,  then  the  descent  is  almost  perpendicular  down  to  the  debris  formed 
from  the  fallen  rocks.  Before  we  reach  this  precipitous  height,  there  is  a 
ridge  that  branches  off  and  runs  towards  the  northeast;  and  along  the  east 
side  of  this  there  are  perpendicular  walls  of  rock.  As  Mt  Carmel  is  some- 
what isolated,  the  view  from  the  summit  is  extensive. 

Immediately  northward  is  the  great  basin  where  rise  the  many  streams 
that  unite  to  form  the  Magalloway.  Beyond  is  the  ridge  that  forms  the 
boundary  between  the  states  and  the  provinces,  and,  through  gaps  in  this, 
we  can  see  a  peak  far  to  the  northeast.  To  the  east  the  view  is  fine,  while 
near  at  hand  you  look  down  into  the  valley  of  the  Magalloway.  Here  you 
catch  glimpses  of  the  stream,  and,  save  here  and  there,  where  the  water 
reflects  the  sunlight,  the  valley  is  a  dark  forest  of  evergreen.  Eastward 
from  the  summit  of  Mt.  Carmel  we  can  see  far  beyond  the  valley,  and  such 
an  array  of  hills,  ridges,  and  mountain  is  rarely  seen.  Hero  a  mountain, 
irregular  in  outline  and  broken  abruptly  off ;  there  two,  similar  in  shape, 
while  beyond,  and  farther  south,  is  a  mountain  summit  that  has  a  grace- 
ful contour  in  its  curving  lines  of  beauty.  Southward  for  twenty  miles  the 
view  is  unobstructed  down  the  Magalloway;  then  from  the  east,  Mt.  Agiz- 
coos,  with  its  bare  summit,  extends  partly  across  the  valley.  Southward, 
sixty-five  miles  distant  from  our  view-point,  wo  can  see  the  dim  yet  per- 
fect outline  of  the  White  Mountains.  In  some  respects  the  view  to  the 
west  and  southwest  is  the  most  interesting.  Here  is  a  succession  of  undu- 
lating ridges  and  hills,  which,  with  their  shadows  and  ever-changing  color, 
give  a  peculiar  charm  to  the  scene;  then,  in  the  midst  of  the  forests  we  can 

36  History  of  Coos  County. 

see  the  Connecticut  lakes.  There  is  not  probably  another  mountain-peak 
in  New  Hampshire  of  this  height,  where  oue  feels  so  entirely  away  from 
the  habitations  of  men.  In  every  direction,  the  whole  country,  embracing 
thousands  of  square  miles,  is  one  vast  wilderness,  except  at  the  outlet  of 
Connecticut  lake.  From  the  summit  of  Magalloway  mountain,  three  miles 
east  from  Connecticut  lake,  there  is  a  fine  view  of  mountains,  hills  and 

Cascades. — Though  not  numerous  in  the  northern  part  of  Coos  county, 
there  are  two  or  three  cascades  that  should  be  mentioned.  On  one  of  the 
western  branches  of  Indian  stream,  near  the  north  line  of  the  Colebrook 
Academy  grant,  there  is  a  cascade  which,  on  account  of  its  rare  beauty, 
deserves  especial  notice.  It  is  in  a  deep  ravine,  and  on  either  side  there  is 
a,  dense  forest  of  evergreens.  Here  the  extreme  heat  of  summer  is  unknown, 
for  the  coolness  of  the  water  tempers  the  atmosphere.  The  cascade  has  a 
height  of  forty  feet, — the  first  twelve  feet  the  water  is  broken  by  jutting  rocks; 
for  the  remaining  twenty-eight  it  flows  over  a  ledge,  which  has  a  descent 
of  sixty  degrees.  At  the  top  the  stream  is  four  feet  wide,  and  at  the  base 
twenty  feet.  The  pure  water,  the  white  spray,  the  dark,  moss-covered 
rocks,  the  cool,  delicious  atmosphere,  the  shimmering  light  through  the 
trees,  the  mossy  banks  of  the  stream,  the  perfect  stillness,  broken  only  by 
the  music  of  the  waters  and  the  songs  of  birds,  form  an  attractive  combi- 

East  from  Connecticut  lake,  and  southeast  from  the  summit  of  Magal- 
loway mountain,  the  Little  Diamond  falls  in  a  series  of  rapid,  wide  cascades. 
The  rapids  extend  for  half  a  mile;  and  the  fall  in  that  distance  is  150  feet, 
with  perpendicular  falls  of  from  three  to  ten  feet.  Southwest  of  the  same 
mountain  there  is  a  fall  on  Huggins's  branch.  There  are  rapids  for  half  a 
mile  before  we  come  to  the  falls;  then  a  slope  of  fifty  degrees  and  a  fall  of 
fifteen  feet;  then  a  fall  of  twelve  feet  perpendicular;  then  a  slope  of  forty- 
two  degrees  and  a  fall  of  about  forty  feet,  confined  between  nearly  perpen- 
dicular strata  of  rock,  and  the  water  finally  rests  in  a  great  basin  at  the 
base.  Just  below  the  stream  turns  east,  with  a  fall  of  ten  feet.  This  is  a 
beautiful  cascade,  and  well  worthy  of  a  visit. 

Dixville  Notch  is  one  of  the  most  remarkable  exhibitions  of  natural 
■scenery  in  the  state,  equaling,  if  not  surpassing  the  White  Mountain  notch 
in  picturesque  grandeur.  The  angular  and  precipitous  appearance  of  the 
rocks,  rising  hundreds  of  feet,  almost  perpendicularly,  on  either  side,  is 
strikingly  different  from  the  rounded  and  water  worn  appearance  of  most 
of  the  crystalline  rocks  throughout  the  northern  part  of  the  United  States, 
and  seems  to  come  nearer  to  the  scenery  of  the  Alps  than  anything  else  in 
New  England.  This  notch  is  easy  of  access,  being  only  ten  miles  from 
Colebrook  village;  and  although  the  highest  point  in  the  road  through  the 
notch  is  830  feet  above  that  village,  yet  the  ascent  is  so  gradual  that  few 

Scenery  of  Coos.  37 

would  believe  they  had  reached  so  great  an  elevation.  It  surpasses  most 
other  notches  in  the  vertical  height  of  its  walls,  one  point  being  560  feet 
above  the  highest  part  of  the  road.  Sonic  of  the  highest  precipitous  masses 
stand  out  in  bold  relief  from  the  sides.  Table  rock  projects  167  feet,  while 
the  ragged,  serrated  edges  every  where  form  projecting  points.  One  can 
easily  imagine  that  he  sees  here  the  turrets  and  spires  of  some  ruined  cathe- 
dral, or  the  battlements  and  towers  of  castles  of  the  medieval  age;  or,  as 
one  stands  on  Table  rock,  he  can  imagine  that  a  bridge  once  spanned  the 
chasm  below,  and  that  these  masses  of  rock  standing  in  the  debris  are  the 
ruins  of  piers  on  which  it  might  have  been  built.  The  rock  here  differs  in 
cleavage  from  that  of  similar  composition  elsewhere  in  New  Hampshire. 
It  splits  in  huge  longitudinal  fragments;  and  Nature  has  here  quarried 
posts  that  equal  in  just  proportion  those  wrought  by  human  hands. 

On  Table  rock  the  view  embraces  a  wide  sweep  of  country.  One  can  see 
quite  a  distance  in  Maine,  a  part  of  Vermont,  and,  when  clear,  places  in 
Quebec  can  be  recognized;  and  from  Table  rock  the  view  down  through 
the  Notch  is  always  grand.  After  passing  the  height  of  the  Notch,  going 
east  on  the  right,  we  can  see  a  profile,  — ''  The  Old  Man  of  Dixville," — which 
has  very  fair  proportions.  On  the  left,  still  farther  east,  there  is  an  excel- 
lent representation  of  the  walls  and  turrets  of  a  ruined  castle. 

The  "  Flume  "  shows  itself  on  the  north  side  of  the  road,  thirty  or  forty 
rods  back  in  the  forest.  It  is  a  chasm,  in  granite,  about  fifteen  feet  wide 
and  fifteen  rods  long;  and  the  stream  running  through  it  falls  about  thirty 
feet  in  cascades.  In  one  place  there  is  a  pot-hole  seven  feet  deep,  with  a 
diameter  of  four  feet.  The  granite  is  divided  try  two  vertical  sets  of  seams 
or  joints,  so  that  large  columnar  blocks  could  be  taken  out  without  quar- 
rying. The  excavated  rock  seems  to  have  been  a  trap-dyke,  part  of  which 
may  still  be  seen.  Nearly  opposite  the  Flume,  but  farther  down  the  val- 
ley, is  "Cascade  brook,"  a  branch  of  Clear  stream.  Upon  this  may  be 
seen  a  series  of  cascades  for  more  than  half  a  mile.  They  were  named  ' '  Hunt- 
ington cascades"  by  the  New  Hampshire  Press  Association.  The  top  of  the 
most  interesting  cascade  is  274  feet  above  its  base.  Here  the  stream  is 
divided  by  a  trap-dyke  two  feet  wide;  and  the  water  falls  on  each  side  a 
distance  of  forty  feet.  The  rock  here  is  the  same  argillaceous  schist  as  in 
the  Notch;  besides  there  is  an  interesting  trap-dyke,  containing  glassy 
feldspar  and  basaltic  hornblende,  which,  Dr.  Jackson  says,  resembles  more 
a  volcanic  rock  than  any  other  found  in  the  state.  Most  other  notches 
we  can  see  a  long  distance  before  wereach  them,  hut  here  we  have  scarcely 
any  intimation  that  there  is  such  a  vast  rent  in  the  mountain  until  we  are 
almost  in  the  very  gap  itself. 

Errol. — In  Errol  there  is  one  of  the  grandest  outlooks  in  New  Hamp- 
shire, which  can  be  seen  while  driving  along  the  road.  In  the  distance  are 
the  grandest  of  mountain  summits.     After  crossing  the  Androscoggin. 

38  History  of  Coos  County. 

from  Errol  Dam  to  Upton,  Me.,  the  road  winds  along  and  over  the  ridge 
of  land  between  that  river  and  Umbagog  lake.  As  we  ascend  the  hill  the 
grandeur  of  the  scenery  begins  to  unfold  itself.  On  our  right,  and  a  little 
south  of  west,  is  the  Androscoggin,  which  pours  along  over  rapids  until  it 
rests  in  a  quiet  bay,  where  the  river  widens  to  receive  the  waters  of  Clear 
stream.  After  leaving  the  bay,  the  river  becomes  rapid  again,  and  pours 
along  between  the  hills,  and  soon  is  lost  to  sight.  Westward,  among  the 
hills,  is  Aker's  pond,  and,  following  up  the  valley  of  Clear  stream,  the 
view  is  limited  by  the  high  ridge  running  through  Dixville.  A  little  farther 
south  we  look  over  the  hills  in  Errol  and  Millsfield,  and  we  can  see  a  few 
peaks  in  Odell.  To  the  southwest  there  is  nearly  thirty  miles  of  unbroken 
wilderness.  For  a  distant  view,  I  know  not  where  the  White  Mountains 
can  be  seen  to  such  advantage  as  just  south  of  this  height  of  land;  neither 
do  I  know  of  any  distant  point  where  they  appear  so  high. 

On  the  Connecticut  there  are  many  places  where  the  scenery  is  enchant- 
ing. At  almost  every  turn  in  the  road,  from  West  Stewartstown  to  North 
Stratford,  there  is  something  that  attracts  the  attention, — a  mountain  of 
grand  proportions,  a  hill  with  graceful  outline,  the  trees,  the  forests,  or 
the  river,  as  it  runs  through  grassy  meadows  or  along  a  wooded  hillside. 
There  is  some  remarkable  scenery  in  the  vicinity  of  Groveton.  Coming 
from  the  south  towards  the  village,  Percy  peaks  will  attract  the  attention 
for  their  symmetrical  form  and  color.  The  village  itself  is  surrounded  by 
mountains.  The  summits  of  those  that  are  farthest  away  are  scarcely 
more  than  ten  miles  distant,  while  Mt.  Lyon,  on  the  south,  is  not  more 
than  four.  Although  the  hills  and  mountains  are  so  near,  yet,  on  account 
of  the  broad  interval  of  the  Connecticut,  we  do  not  feel  as  though  the  out- 
look had  too  narrow  limits,  but  rather  that  in  the  whole  view  there  is  a 
beautiful  symmetry.  It  is  especially  grand  to  watch  the  moon  as  it  rises 
above  the  Pilot  hills,  breaks  through  the  passing  cloud,  and  throws  its 
gentle  light  across  the  forests.  There  are  hills  on  every  side,  climbing 
which  we  have  distant  views.  From  Percy  peaks,  northward,  we  have 
forests  and  wooded  summits;  southeast,  the  White  hills  rise  in  all  their 
grandeur;  south,  we  have  the  long  line  of  the  Pilot  hills;  and,  a  little  west 
of  south,  we  look  down  the  valley  of  the  Connecticut,  and,  in  the  distance, 
Moosilauke  rises  against  the  sky. 

The  summit  of  the  south  peak  is  easily  gained  from  the  southeast,  but 
the  western  slope  of  this,  as  well  as  the  north  peak,  is  so  steep  that  it  would 
require  an  expert  in  climbing  to  be  able  to  reach  the  summit  of  either  peak 
from  that  direction. 

Stark  is  a  town  of  mountains  and  hills.  Approaching  Stark  station, 
either  from  the  east  or  the  west,  the  points  of  the  mountains  from  the 
opposite  sides  of  the  valley,  project  by  each  other  so  that  there  seems  to  be 
an  impassable  barrier  across  the  valley;  but  we  know  that  the  stream 

Scenery  of  Coos.  39 

must  pass  through  the  mountains,  and  Stark  station  is  in  the  gap  of  1  lie 
mountain  through  which  it  passes.  On  the  north  is  a  perpendicular  wall 
of  rock  forming  a  vast  amphitheatre,  while  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  val- 
ley, and  a  little  east,  is  Mill  mountain.  Although  in  every  other  din  ction 
surrounded  by  high  mountains,  yet,  looking  a  little  west  of  south,  we  can 
see  in  the  distance  some  of  the  high  peaks  of  the  Pilot  range. 

West  Milan. — Here  the  peaks  of  the  White  Mountains  begin  to  appear, 
and  besides,  there  is  quite  an  array  of  mountains  westward.  In  the  south- 
east part  of  Milan,  near  the  line  of  Berlin,  and  about  a  mile  east  of  the 
Androscoggin,  we  have  one  of  the  most  striking  views  of  the  White 

In  Lancaster  the  view  is  always  grand.  Mt.  Lyon  to  the  north,  and 
thence  eastward  the  broad  sweep  of  the  Pilot  range,  and  the  group  of 
mountains  of  which  Starr  King  is  the  culminating  point,  are  so  situated 
that  every  fine  sunset  gives  to  them  that  deep  coloring  which  is  the  charm 
of  mountain  scenery.  Most  of  the  White  Mountain  peaks  can  be  seen 
from  the  village,  but  two  miles  east,  on  the  road  to  Jefferson,  to  a  point 
between  three  and  four  hundred  feet  above  the  Connecticut,  brings  them 
out  in  bolder  relief,  and  at  the  same  time  gives  a  charming  view  of  the 
Connecticut  valley  and  the  village  of  Lancaster.  FromMt.  Pleasant,  which 
is  easv  of  access,  the  view  is  more  extended,  and  embraces  the  mountains 

From  Jefferson  hill  and  thence  on  the  road  to  Randolph,  we  get  a  nearer 
view  of  the  mountains.  At  the  Mt.  Adams  the  broad  sweep  of  forests,  reach- 
ing from  Israel's  river  almost  to  the  summits  of  the  mountains,  gives  us 
one  of  our  grandest  views.  From  Dalton  mountain  we  have  the  sweep  of 
the  whole  horizon;  westward,  the  mountains  in  Vermont;  the  Connecti- 
cut valley  northward;  the  mountains  of  Stratford,  Mt.  Lyon,  the  Pilot 
range,  Starr  King,  all  of  the  White  Mountains,  the  chief  of  the  Franconia 
mountains,  and  Moosilauke,  southward. 

Shelburne. — The  scenery  is  varied  and  lovely  to  those  artistic  enough 
to  appreciate  it.  Artists  say  that  nowhere  have  they  seen  such  rich 
autumnal  coloring  as  in  Shelburne.  Several  picturesque  spots  may  be 
found  on  the  Lead  Mine  brook,  and  the  little  flat  called  The  ( rarden  is  used 
as  a  camping  ground  by  tourists.  On  the  north  side  of  Mt.  Winthrop  is 
Moses1  rock,  so-called,  sixty  feet  high,  and  rising  at  an  angle  of  fifty 
degrees.  In  the  winter  water  trickles  over  it,  forming  a  beautiful  ice  cas- 
cade. Near  by  was  the  Granny  Starbird  rock,  where  the  old  doctress  held 
her  horse  by  the  bridle  through  a  stormy  night.  It  has  since  been  split  up 
for  railroad  bridges  and  underpinnings.  On  Peabody  brook,  between  Ked 
hill  and  Baldcap,  are  Shelburne  falls.  In  the  spring  they  can  be  seen  two- 
thirds  the  length  of  the  town,  appearing  like  a  great  drift  of  snow.  The 
Falls  are  one  of  the  objects  of  interest  to  summer  visitors. 

40  History  of  Coos  County. 

Baldcap,  as  its  name  implies,  is  a  bare  ledge  at  the  top,  and  in  height 
ranks  next  to  Moriah.  It  is  easy  to  ascend  and  affords  a  delightful  view. 
A  little  pond  of  clear,  cool  water  near  the  summit  was  christened  Dream 
lake  by  some  romantic  visitor. 

Gorham. — The  mountain  scenery  here  is  not  surpassed  in  the  whole 
mountain  region.  At  the  southeast,  distant  but  a  few  miles,  stand  Mounts 
Moriah  and  Carter,  each  about  5,000  feet  in  height;  at  the  west  can  be  seen 
Mt.  Madison;  at  the  northwest  the  Pilot  range,  while  at  the  east  are  the 
Androscoggin  hills,  the  most  prominent  of  which  is  Mt.  Hayes.  It  is  only 
eight  miles  to  the  Glen  House  at  the  base  of  Mt.  Washington. 



Aborigiual  Indians  —  Iroquois  —  Mohawks  —  Algonquins  —  New  England  Tribes  —  Wigwams 
—  Social  Life,  Government,  and  Language  —  Food — Religion  —  The  St.  Francis  Indians  — Gen. 
Amherst  —  Rogers'  Expedition  —  Destruction  of  St.  Francis  Village  —  Retreat  and  Sufferings  of 
the  "Rangers." 

WHEN  the  Europeans  first  landed  on  the  Continent  of  America,  the 
Indians  who  inhabited  the  Atlantic  slope,  and  dwelt  in  the  valleys 
of  the  Connecticut  and  St.  Lawrence,  in  the  basin  of  the  Great 
Lakes,  and  the  fertile  valleys  of  the  Alleghany  region,  were  composed  of 
two  great  nations  and  their  sub-divisions.  These  were  soon  known  to  the 
whites  under  the  French  appellation  of  Iroquois  and  Algonquins.  These 
nations  differed  in  language  and  lineage,  in  manners  and  customs,  in  the 
construction  of  their  dwellings  and  boats,  and  were  hereditary  enemies. 

The  Iroquois  proper,  who  gave  their  name  to  one  division,  the  ablest 
and  most  powerful  of  this  family,  were  the  Five  Nations,  called  by  them- 
selves the  Ho  de-no-sau-nee,  "the  people  of  the  long  house.''  They  com- 
pared their  union  of  five  tribes,  stretched  along  a  narrow  valley  for  more 
than  two  hundred  miles  in  Central  New  York,  to  one  of  their  long  wig- 
wams containing  many  families.  Among  all  the  Aborigines  of  America 
there  were  none  so  politic  and  intelligent,  none  so  war-like  and  fierce,  none 
with  such  a  contrasting  array  of  virtues  and  vices  as  the  true  Iroquois. 
All  surrounding  tribes,  whether  of  their  own  family,  or  of  the  Algonquins, 
stood  in  awe  of  them.  They  followed  the  war-path,  and  their  war-cry 
was  heard  on  the  banks  of  the  Mississippi,  on  the  shores  of  the  Gulf  of 

Indian  History.  4t 

Mexico,  and  where  the  Atlantic  breakers  dash  in  Massachusetts  Bay. 
"Some  of  the  small  tribes  were  nearly  exterminated  by  their  ferocity  and 
barbarity.  They  were  more  cruel  to  the  Eastern  Indians  than  those  [ndians 
were  to  the  Europeans. "  The  New  England  tribes,  with  scarce  an  excep- 
tion, paid  them  tribute;  and  the  Montagnais,  fai  north  on  the  Saguenay, 
called  by  the  French  "  the  paupers  of  the  wilderness, "  would  start  from 
their  midnight  slumbers  at  dreams  of  the  Iroquois,  and  run,  terror-st  ricken, 
into  the  forest.  They  were  the  conquerors  of  the  Mew  World,  and  justly 
carried  the  title  of  "The  Romans  of  the  West."  The  .Jesuit  Father. 
Ragueneau,  wrote,  in  1650,  in  his  " Revelations  des  Hurons, "  "My  pen 
has  no  ink  black  enough  to  paint  the  fury  of  the  Iroquois."     The  tribe 

which  guarded  the  eastern  door  of  the  typical  long  house,  was  the  si 

active  and  most  blood-thirsty  one  of  this  fierce  family,  the  dreaded  Mo- 
hawks, to  whom  the  Connecticut  River  Indians  gave  the  appellation  of 
Ma-qua  hogs,  or  Maquas— "Man-eaters."  The  Mohawk  country  proper 
was  west  of  the  Hudson  river,  but,  by  right  of  conquest,  they  claimed  all 
the  country  between  the  Hudson  and  the  sources  of  the  north  and  easterly 
branches  of  the  Connecticut,  and,  by  virtue  of  this  claim,  all  the  Indians 
of  the  Connecticut  valley  paid  them  annual  tribute. 

The  few  tribes  of  the  Iroquois  were  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  the  much 
more  numerous  Algonquins,  to  which  family  all  the  New  England  trib<  - 
belonged,  Along  the  valley  of  the  St.  Lawrence  dwelt  the  Algonquins 
proper,  the  Abinaquis,  the  Montagnais,  and  other  roving  tribes.  Th 
tribes  were  often  forced,  during  the  long  Canadian  winters  when  game 
grew  scarce,  to  subsist  on  buds  and  bark,  and  sometimes  even  on  the 
wood  of  forest  trees,  for  many  weeks  together.  From  this  they  were 
called  in  mockery  by  their  bitter  enemies,  the  Mohawks,  "Ad-i-ron-daks" 
tree-eaters.  The  New  England  tribes  of  the  Algonquin  family  dwelt  along 
the  sea,  and  on  the  banks  of  the  larger  streams.  The  Et-it-che-mi-as 
dwelt  farthest  east  in  the  St.  Croix  region.  The  confederation  of  Abina- 
quis, and  their  kindred  tribes,  the  Taratines,  had  their  hunting-grounds  in 
the  valleys  of  the  Penobscot,  Saco,  and  Piscataqua,  and  held  possession  of 
Northern  New  Hampshire.  The  Anasagunticooks,  a  powerful  tribe,  con- 
trolled the  territories  of  the  Ameriscoggin  (Androscoggin).  Savage,  and 
given  to  war,  they  dwindled  away,  until  in  1747.  they  could  number  but 
160  warriors.  The  Pequawkets  (Pigwackets)  occupied  the  Saco  valley.  In 
the  southeastern  part  of  New  Hampshire  and  northeastern  Massachusetts 
dwelt  the  Penobscot  or  Pawtucket tribe;  while  the  Massachusetts  occupied 
the  lands  around  the  bay  known  by  their  name,  and  the  neighboring  islands. 
In  what  is  now  the  state  of  Vermont,  no  permanent  home  existed  of  any 
Indian  tribe.  It  was  the  beaver- hunting  country  of  the  [roquois,  but  also 
claimed,  and  at  times  occupied,  by  the  Abenaquis. 

Wigwams. — The  Algonquin  Indians  made  their   wigwams  small  and 

42  History  of  Coos  County. 

round,  and  for  one  or  two  families  only;  while  the  Iroquois  built  theirs  long 
and  narrow,  each  for  the  use  of  many  families.  The  Algonquin  wigwam 
was  made  of  poles  set  up  around  a  circle,  from  ten  to  twelve  feet  across. 
The  poles  met  at  the  top,  forming  a  circular  frame- work,  which  was  cov- 
ered with  bark-mats  or  skins;  in  the  center  was  the  fire,  the  smoke  escap- 
ing from  a  hole  in  the  top.  In  these  wigwams  men,  women,  children,  and 
dogs,  crowded  promiscuously  together  in  complete  violation  of  all  our 
rules  of  modern  housekeeping. 

Social  Life,  Government,  and  Language. — The  government  of  the  Indian 
was  completely  patriarchal.  The  only  law  was  the  custom  of  the  tribe; 
conforming  to  that,  he  was  otherwise  as  free  as  the  air  he  breathed  to  fol- 
low the  bent  of  his  own  wild  will.  In  his  solitary  cabin  he  was  the  head 
of  his  family,  and  his  "squaw"  was  but  his  slave  to  do  the  drudgery. 
Over  tribes  were  principal  chiefs  called  sachems,  and  lesser  ones  called 
sagamores.  The  direct  succession  was  invariably  in  the  female  line.  The 
war-chiefs  were  only  leaders  in  times  of  war,  and  won  their  distinction  only 
by  their  valor  on  the  war-path.  The  Indian  language,  in  the  language  of 
modern  comparative  philology,  was  neither  monosyllabic  like  the  Chinese, 
nor  inflecting  like  that  of  the  civilized  Caucasian  stock,  but  was  agglutin- 
ating, like  that  of  the  northwestern  Asiatic  tribes,  and  those  of  south- 
eastern Europe.  They  express  ideas  by  stringing  words  together  in  one 
compound  vocable.  The  Algonquin  languages  were  harsh  and  gutteral; 
not  euphonious  like  that  of  the  Iroquois.  Contrast  the  Algonquin  names 
A-gi-o-cho-ok,  Co-os,  Squa-ke-ag,  Am-os-ke-ag,  Win  ne-pi-se-o-gee,  Waum- 
bek  meth-na,  with  Hi-a-wath-a,  O-no-a-la-go-na,  Kay-ad-ros-se-ra,  Ska- 

Food. — The  Indians  had  fish,  game,  nuts,  berries,  roots,  corn,  acorns, 
squashes,  a  kind  of  bean  called  now  "seiva  bean,"  and  a  species  of  sun- 
flower, with  roots  like  an  artichoke.  Fish  were  speared  or  taken  with 
lines,  nets  or  snares,  made  of  the  sinews  of  deer,  or  fibres  of  moose- 
wood.  Their  fish-hooks  were  made  of  the  bones  of  fishes  or  of  birds. 
They  caught  the  moose,  the  deer,  and  the  bear  in  the  winter  season  by 
shooting  with  I  tows  and  arrows,  by  snaring,  or  in  pitfalls  They  cooked 
their  fish  by  roasting  before  the  fire  on  the  end  of  a  long  stick,  or  by  boil- 
ing in  closely  woven  baskets,  or  stone  or  wooden  vessels.  They  made 
water  boil,  not  by  hanging  over  the  fire,  but  by  the  constant  immersion  of 
hot  stones.  The  corn  boiled  alone  was  "hominy;"  with  beans,  "succo- 

Religion. — The  aborigines  had  but  a  vaguely  crude  idea,  if  an  idea  at 
all,  of  religion.  They  had  no  priests,  no  altars,  no  sacrifice.  They  had 
"medicine-men  "  -mere  conjurors— who  added  nothing  to  the  mysterious 
awe  and  superstition  which  enveloped  the  whole  race.  The  Indian  spirit- 
ualized everything  in  nature;  heard  ' k  aery  tongues  on  sands  and  shores 

Indian  History.  i:; 

and  desert  wildernesses,"  saw  "calling  shapes  and  beckoning  shadows 
dire"  on  every  hand.  The  flight  or  cry  of  a  bird,  the  humming  of  a  bee, 
the  crawling  of  an  insect,  the  turning  of  a  leaf,  the  whisper  of  a  breeze, 
all  were  mystic  signals  of  good  or  evil  import,  by  which  he  was  guided  in 
the  most  important  undertakings.  He  placed  the  greatest  confidence  in 
dreams,  which  were  to  him  revelations  from  the  spirit-world,  guiding  him 
to  the  places  where  his  game  lurked,  and  to  the  haunts  of  Ins  enemies. 
He  invoked  their  aid  on  all  occasions  to  instruct  him  how  to  cure  the  sick, 
or  reveal  to  him  his  enemies. 

Three  centuries  of  contact  with  our  civilization  has  unchanged  him, 
and  he  is  still  the  wild,  untamed  child  of  nature.  "He  will  not."'  says 
Parkman,  "learn  the  arts  of  civilization,  and  he  and  his  forest  must  per- 
ish together.  The  stern,  unchanging  features  of  his  mind  excite  our 
admiration  from  their  immutability;  and  we  look  with  deep  interest  on 
the  fate  of  this  irreclaimable  son  of  the  wilderness,  the  child  who  will  not 
be  weaned  from  the  breast  of  his  rugged  mother.*' 

St.  Francis  Indians. — The  central  metropolis  of  the  Abenaquis  Indians 
was  situated  on  the  St.  Lawrence  river  at  the  mouth  of  the  St.  Francis. 
This  was  midway  between  Montreal  and  Quebec,  and  in  easy  communica- 
tion with  the  New  England  frontiers.  These  St.  Francis  Indians  were 
strong  in  numbers,  power,  and  enterprise,  and  the  staunch  allies  of  the 
French.  Here  was  planned  expedition  after  expedition  against  the  border 
English  settlements,  and  here  was  paid  the  bounties  offered  for  scalps  and 
prisoners.  Here,  too,  was  a  city  of  refuge  for  all  the  outlawed  savages 
driven  from  the  English  country.  Among  these  were  what  remained  of 
the  followers  of  Philip,  Paugus,  Mesaudowit,  Kancamagus,  and  Wahawah. 
From  this  strong  protected  citadel  for  many  years  went  out  war  parties, 
thirsting  with  revenge,  to  glut  it  in  the  blood  of  the  New  Englanders. 
"Hundreds  of  people  had  fallen  by  the  rifle  and  hatchet,  burnished  and 
sharpened  at  the  hearth-stones  of  this  village  "  These  Indians  claimed  the 
"Cowasse"  country  as  their  own.  They  enjoyed  the  rich  profusion  of 
game  and  fish  of  the  upper  Connecticut.  The  bear,  moose,  and  feathered 
game  were  of  a  superior  quality,  while  from  the  clear,  cold  waters  of  the 
streams  they  brought  ample  supplies  of  those  delicate  fish— salmon  and 
trout.  The  fertile  soil  yielded  large  crops  of  corn  wherever  their  rude 
planting  covered  the  kernels.  It  was  a  select  and  paradisaical  country, 
this  "Cowasse"— and  no  wonder  that  they  stoutly  resisted  all  encroach- 
ments of  the  English  or  their  attempts  to  occupy  their  last  hold  upon  New- 
England.  Here  the  Indians,  during  the  strong  rule  of  the  French  in 
Canada,  and  blest  by  their  aid,  grew  fat  and  uumerous.  Through  this 
country  passed  their  trails  when  they  carried  death  and  destruction  to  the 
frontier  settlements  of  lower  New  Eampshire,  and  their  jubilant  cries,  as 
they  returned  laden  with  spoils,  scalps,  and  prisoners,  resounded  along  the 

44  History  of  Coos  County. 

"Notch,"  and  other  defiles  of  the  White  Mountains,  and  among  the  tall 
white  pines  of  the  upper  Connecticut.  Until  the  power  of  the  French  was 
broken,  and  while  the  St.  Francis  Indians  preserved  their  strength,  no 
paleface,  except  a  captive,  was  allowed  even  a  lodging,  or  an  occupancy  in 
the  "Coos." 

After  the  fall  of  Louisburg,  in  17T.S.  Gen.  Abercrombie  was  recalled  to 
England,  and  General  Amherst  made  commander  of  the  British  forces 
warring  against  the  French  and  Indians  in  America.  He  took  personal 
command  at  Lake  Champlain,  brought  order  out  of  confusion,  called  for 
seventeen  hundred  more  recruits  from  the  already  depleted  numbers  of  the 
colonists,  and  gained  success  by  the  excellence  of  his  judgment,  his  circum- 
spection, and  other  needed  qualities  for  winning  conquests  and  preserving- 
acquisitions.  In  1750  Gen.  Amherst  ordered  two  measures  of  great 
importance  to  New  England.  One  was  the  construction  of  a  military  road 
from  Crown  Point  to  Number  Four  (Charlestown)  on  the  Connecticut 
river.  This  improvement  was  of  great  value,  and  opened  a  large  territory 
to  immediate  settlement.  The  other  measure  was  of  full  more  importance. 
It  was  the  destruction  of  the  chief  village  of  the  St.  Francis  tribe.  The 
daring  Indian-fighter,  Major  Robert  Rogers,  with  two  hundred  of  his  fam- 
ous Rangers,  was  selected  for  the  undertaking.  A  large  part  of  this 
detachment,  both  of  officers  and  men,  was  from  New  Hampshire,  and 
chosen,  by  Rogers  himself,  for  their  bravery  and  experience.  Starting 
from  Crown  Point,  they  passed  down  Lake  Champlain  to  Missisquoi  Bay, 
and  there  left  their  boats  in  charge  of  two  Indians,  who  were  to  remain 
until  the  party  returned,  unless  the  enemy  discovered  the  boats.  In  such 
case  the  guard  was  to  follow  and  inform  Rogers  of  the  fact.  Major  Rogers 
and  his  party,  reduced  by  casualties  to  one  hundred  and  forty-two,  the  23d 
of  September,  left  the  bay  and  struck  boldly  into  the  wilderness,  but,  on 
the  25th,  were  overtaken  by  the  Indians  left  in  charge  of  the  boats,  with 
the  disheartening  intelligence  that  the  enemy  had  discovered  them  and 
were  in  pursuit.  There  was  no  alternative  but  to  push  on,  outmarch  the 
pursuers,  destroy  the  fated  village,  return  by  Lake  Memphremagog  and 
the  Connecticut,  and  thus  accomplish  their  object  and  elude  their  pursuers. 
Lieut.  McMillen  was  sent  back  across  the  country  to  Crown  Point,  to 
inform  Gen.  Amherst  of  their  situation,  that  he  might  order  provisions  to 
be  sent  up  the  Connecticut  to  the  Lower  Coos  for  the  use  of  the  party, 
should  they  live  to  return  that  way.  The  Rangers  then,  nothing  daunt- 
ed, continued  their  march  through  the  wet,  marshy  ground  for  nine  days; 
sleeping  nights  upon  a  sort  of  hammock  made  of  boughs  to  keep  them 
from  the  water.  The  tenth  day  they  arrived  within  fifteen  miles  of  the 
doomed  town.  The  place  was  reconnoitred  by  Rogers  and  two  of  his 
officers  on  the  6th  of  October,  and  the  Indians  were  discovered  in  the  great- 
est glee,  celebrating  a  wedding.     Rogers  returned  to  his  part}',  and,  at 

Indian  History.  i:. 

three  o'clock  the  next  morning,  the  Rangers  advanced  to  within  four  hun 
dred  yards  of  the  village.  Before  sunrise  the  attack  was  made  by  an 
advance  in  three  divisions.  The  surprise  was  so  complete  thai  the  [ndians 
had  no  time  to  rally,  defend,  or  escape.  Two  hundred  were  killed  upon 
the  spot;  twenty  of  their  women  and  children  were  taken  prisoners.  I  ^ay- 
light  revealed  to  the  victors  the  horrible  sight  of  more  than  six  hundred 
scalps  of  both  sexes  and  ail  ages  floating  from  the  lodge-poles  of  the  wig- 
wams. Nothing  can  give  us  a  more  vivid  picture  of  the  honors  of  an 
Indian  war,  or  the  dangers  besetting  the  early  days  of  the  pioneers  of  this 
country.  If  the  massacre  of  this  village  of  surprised  savages  seem  a  cold 
and  blood-thirsty  deed,  the  discovery  of  these  dread  trophies  of  savage 
atrocity  showed  it  to  be  but  a  just  reprisal.  All  of  the  houses  were  burned, 
except  three,  and,  it  was  supposed,  many  Indians.  Upon  roll-call  it  was 
found  that  seven  were  wounded  and  one  killed.  They  then  commenced 
their  march  for  Connecticut  river.  It  was  Rogers'  intention  to  occupy  for 
a  time  the  fort  he  had  built  in  1755,  in  what  is  now  Stratford.  After 
marching  eight  days  their  provisions  failed  upon  the  shore  of  Lake  Mem- 
phremagog,  and  they  separated  into  parties,  the  better  to  obtain  game, 
and  made  for  "  the  mouth  of  the  Ammonoosuck"  as  best  they  might.  It 
was  a  march  for  life.  Twenty  were  killed  or  taken  prisoners.  Rogers 
took  one  party  with  him  by  the  way  of  Magog  lake  and  the  Passumpsic 
river.  Another  party  was  to  gain  the  upper  Connecticut  and  follow  down 
that  stream.  Other  parties  took  independent  courses. ;:  Some,  after 
months  of  weary  journeying,  reached  the  settlement,  while  others  perished 
in  the  wilderness.  A  Toledo  blade,  found  on  Meeting  House  hill,  Lancas- 
ter, no  doubt  belonged  to  one  of  the  "Rangers."  In  the  early  settlement 
of  the  country  gnus  were  found  on  the  Fifteen-mile  falls,  and  it  is  sup- 
posed one  of  the  parties  was  overtaken  by  Indians  here,  that  a  tight 
ensued  in  which  several  were  killed,  that  the  whites  were  victorious,  and 
that  they  put  the  guns  of  those  who  were  killed  in  the  river  so  they  would 
not  be  found  by  the  Indians.  One  historian  says  that  many  died  at  the 
head  of  the  Fifteen-mile  falls  from  exhaustion  and  hunger.  They  had  in 
vain  tried  to  appease  their  hunger  by  boiled  powder-horns,  bullet-pouches, 
leather-aprons,  bark  of  trees,  ground  nuts  and  lily  pads.  There  can  be  no 
doubt  that  some  of  them  even  ate  human  flesh. 

There  is  a  tradition  that  relics  of  Rogers'  "  Rangers"  have  been  found 
on  the  north  side  of  the  White  Mountains.  (See  Jefferson.)  The  party  which 
arrived  at  the  Lower  Coos  found  the  fresh  embers  of  the  tires  Left  by  the 
party  which  Gen.  Amherst  had  sent  there  with  provisions,  which  had.jusl 
a  few  hours   before,  returned  to  Charlestown  without   leaving  supplies. 

*  According  to  James  W.  Weeks,  the  old  settlers  of  Co5s  had  a  tradition  thai  most  of  the 
parlies,  with  Major  Rogers,  met  at  Fort  Wentworth,  and  waited  three  days  foi  stragglers  to  come 
in,  before  starting  down  the  river. 

46  History  of  Coos  County. 

Months  elapsed  before  the  scattered  men  were  reunited  at  Crown  Point. 
Fifty  of  the  gallant-band  were  reported  lost.  From  this  time  the  St.  Fran- 
cis Indians  were  scattered  in  small  bands,  and  in  different  localities.  Their 
spirit  was  broken,  their  prestige  gone.  Major  Rogers  and  his  ''Rangers" 
had  humbled  them,  and  as  the  war  had  made  them  British  subjects,  "  they, 
with  silence  and  sorrow,  permitted  new  coming  whites  to  live  among 
them,"  and  the  whole  extent  of  the  "Cowasse"  was  ready  for  English 
occupancy  and  settlement. 



Topography  —  Mt.  Starr  King  Group  —  Mt.  Carter  Group  —  Mt.  Washington  Ratige  —  Cherry 
Mountain  District  —  Mt.  Willey  Range— History — Mythology — First  Visited— Winthrop's  Account 
—Darby  Field's  Route  up  the  Mountains  —  Josselyn's  Description  of  Scenery  —  The  Chrystal 
Hills  —  Later  Visits — Western  Pass,  or  "  Notch'"—  First  Settlement  —  Scientific  Visitors— Scenery 
of  the  Notch  —  Nash  and  Sawyer's  Grant  —  "A  Horse  through  the  Notch  "  —  Sawyer's  Rock  — 
First  Articles  of  Commerce  —  Tenth  New  Hampshire  Turnpike — Scientific  Explorations  —  First 
Settlers  Among  the  Mountains  —  Nancy's  Rock  and  Brook  — First  House  in  the  Notch — Craw- 
ford's Cabin  on  the  Summit  —  Summit  House —  Tip-top  House  —  Carriage  Road  —  Glen  House  — 
Mt.  Washington  Railway  —  Mountain  Tragedies  —  "Among  the  Clouds  " —  Signal  Station  —  Sum- 
mer Hotels. 

THE  White  Mountains  cover  an  area  of  1,270  square  miles,  bounded 
by  the  state  line  on  the  east  ;  the  Androscoggin  river  and  the  Grand 
Trunk  Railway  on  the  northeast  and  north  ;  the  Connecticut  river 
valley,  or  an  irregular  line  from  Northumberland  to  Warren,  on  the  west  ; 
the  region  of  Baker's  river  on  the  southwest  ;  the  Pemigewasset  river  and 
the  lake  district  on  the  south.  The  Saco  river  cuts  the  White  Mountains 
into  two  nearly  equal  parts.  Prof.  Huntington  groups  the  mountains  in 
ten  sub-divisions  :  1.  Mt.  Starr  King  group.  2.  Mt.  Carter  group.  3.  Mt. 
Washington  range,  with  a  Jackson  branch.  4.  Cherry  mountain  district. 
5.  Mt.  Willey  range.  6.  Mt.  Carrigain  and  Osceola  group.  7.  Mt.  Pas- 
saconnaway  range.  8.  Mts.  Twin  and  Lafayette  group.  9.  Mts.  Moosi- 
lauke  and  Profile  division.  10.  Mt.  Pequawket  area.  The  first  five  em- 
brace all  really  connected  with  this  county.  These  mountain  groups  differ 
much  in  geological  character,  age,  and  topographical  features. 

1.  Mt.  Starr  Kin'/  < ! roup  is  embraced  in  the  remote  portions  of  the  towns 
of  Gorham,  Randolph,  Jefferson,  Lancaster,  Stark,  Milan,  Berlin,  and  the 

W'niTK  Mountains. 

whole  of  Kilkenny.  It  is  bounded  by  the  Upper  Ammonoosucand  Andro- 
scoggin  rivers  on  the  north  and  east,  by  Moose  and  [srael's  livers  on  the 
south,  and  the  Connecticut  slope  on  the  west.  The  longest  diameter  of 
this  group  is  sixteen  miles  ;  the  greatest  width  thirteen  miles.  The  shape 
of  the  area  is  oval  elliptical,  more  pointed  at  the  north  than  south,  and 
comprises  about  150  square  miles.  The  Upper  Ammonoosuc  river  Hows  in 
a  broad  valley  in  Randolph  and  Berlin,  and  thereby  divides  the  group  into 

two  parts.     The  source,  called  the  "Pond  of  Safety,1'  is  nearly! feel 

above  Milan  water-station,  and  there  is  a  depression  in  the  ridge  in  the 
south  towards  Jefferson.  Geologists  state  that  the  northern  portion  of  the 
Starr  King  region  was  once  a  large  plateau  through  which  water  has  cut 
the  numerous  valleys  now  found.  Not  less  than  seven  streams  have  cut 
notches  into  this  plateau, — the  three  most  prominent  ones  being  from 
Berlin,  Stark  (Mill  Brook),  and  Lancaster.  There  is  a  central  ridge  through 
Kilkenny,  the  Pilot  mountain  range,  connected  by  a  valle}7  with  Mt.  Stan- 
King  in  Jefferson.  A  branch  diverges  from  this  range  to  Pilot  mountain 
in  Stark.  Green's  ledge  and  Black  mountain  are  spurs  to  the  east  from 
the  Pilot  range.  From  Mt.  Starr  King  to  Berlin  Falls  runs  an  irregularly 
curved  range,  composed  of  Pliny,  Randolph,  and  Crescent  mountains,  and 
Mt.  Forest.  Mts.  Starr  King,  Pilot,  and  Randolph,  are  the  culminating 
points,  being  in  height  3,800,  3,640,  and  y>j"'i?>  feet   respectively. 

2.  Mt.  Carter  Group  lies  in  Shelburne,  Bean's  Purchase,  Chatham,  and 
Jackson.  There  is  a  heavy  range  from  Gorham  to  Jackson,  quite  near  the 
Peabody  and  Ellis  valleys,  while,  on  the  east,  the  slope  towards  the  Andros- 
coggin is  quite  gradual.  Mt.  Moriah  is  one  of  the  most  northern  peaks  of 
this  chain.  Rev.  T.  Starr  King  says  "  Mount  Moriah  should  be  seen  from 
the  bend  of  the  Androscoggin,  a  little  more  than  a  mile  north  of  the  hotel 
(in  Gorham).  Here  its  charming  outline  is  seen  to  the  best  advantage. 
Its  crest  is  as  high  over  the  valley  as  Lafayette  rises  over  the  Profile  House." 
Mt.  Moriah  and  Mt.  Carter  are  separated  by  Imp  mountain  Wild  river 
occupies  a  broad  valley  in  Bean's  Purchase,  trending  northeasterly.  The 
highest  part  of  Carter  range  is  next  Peabody  river.  The  western  slope 
is  much  steeper  than  the  eastern.  Several  tributaries  How  to  Wild  river 
from  the  south,  from  the  range  which  runs  easterly  to  form  the  entire 
western  and  southern  edge  of  the  Wild  river  basin.  This  range  curves  to 
the  north,  near  the  Maine  line,  where  Mt.  Royce  stands  immediately  on 
the  border.  Some  of  the  wildest,  grandest,  and  most  beautiful  scenery  of 
the  White  Mountains  is  in  this  district. 

3.  Mt.  Washington  Range. — The  main  range  of  Mt. Washington  extends 
from  Gorham  to  Bartlett,  about  twenty-two  miles.  The  culminating  point 
is  central,  with  a  deep  gulf  towards  Gorham,  a  slope  on  the  north,  formed 
partially  by  the  westerly  Mt.  Deception  range,  which  also  produces  the 
broad  Ammonoosuc  valley  on  the  west,  in  connection  with  the  axial  line 

48  History  of  Coos  County. 

of  summits.  There  are  two  principal  valleys  on  the  south,  the  more 
westerly  occupying  the  depression  of  Dry  or  Mt.  Washington  river,  and 
the  easterly  passing  down  the  slope  of  Eocky  branch,  which  travels  easterly 
near  its  termination,  and  parallel  with  the  Saco  in  Bartlett.  Starting  with 
the  Androscoggin  valley,  the  range  commences  in  the  low  Pine  mountain. 
In  the  southeast  corner  of  Gorham  this  is  intersected  by  the  pass  of  the 
Pinkham  road  between  Randolph  and  the  Glen  House.  Next,  the  land 
rises  rapidly  to  the  top  of  Mt.  Madison,  5,400  feet.  The  range  now  curves 
westerly,  passing  over  the  summits  of  Adams,  Jefferson,  and  Clay.  From 
the  gap  between  Clay  and  Washington  the  best  view  can  be  obtained 
of  the  deep  abyss  in  which  the  west  branch  of  Peabody  river  rises.  From 
Washington  the  east  rim  of  the  Great  Gulf  is  easily  discerned,  for  on  it 
the  carriage  road  to  the  Glen  House  is  located.  From  "Blue  Pond,"  or 
"  Lake  of  the  Clouds,"  and  the  height  south  of  Tuckerman's  ravine  to 
Madison,  it  is  easy  to  imagine  an  elevated  plateau  out  of  Washington, 
which  rises,  say  S00  feet.  Tuckerman's  and  Huntington's  ravines  have 
been  cut  out  east  of  Washington.  Tuckerman's  runs  easterly,  holding 
the  head  waters  of  Ellis  river.  Huntington's  commences  at  the  southern 
angle  of  the  carriage  road,  at  the  fifth  mile  post,  and  runs  towards  the  first. 
Past  Mt.  Washington  the  main  range  drops  to  the  pass  of  the  Lake  of 
the  Clouds, — the  source  of  the  Ammonoosuc  river.  The  first  mountain  is 
Monroe,  then  comes  Mts.  Franklin,  Pleasant,  Clinton,  Jackson,  and  Web- 
ster, as  named.  Mt.  Webster  is  a  long  mountain  with  a  steep  side  towards 
the  Saco,  and  being  directly  opposite  the  Willey  House,  forms  one  of  the 
chief  features  of  the  Notch.  From  Monroe  to  Webster,  the  east  flank  of 
the  mountains  is  washed  by  the  powerful  Mt.  Washington  river,  the  proper 
continuance  of  the  Saco  valley,  which  formerly  was  called  Dry  river.  This 
heads  in  Oakes's  gulf,  from  the  east  side  of  which  two  ranges  run  south- 
erly. The  western  one  follows  the  Saco  to  a  point  opposite  ki  Sawwer's 
rock,"  having,  in  the  lower  part  of  its  course,  Giant's  Stairs,  Mt.  Resolu- 
tion, Mt.  Crawford.  Mt.  Hope,  and  "Hart's  ledge."  The  eastern  one  is 
not  conspicuous,  and  not  named. 

4.  Cherry  Mountain  District. — Mt.  Deception  range  consists  of  four 
peaks, — Mt.  Mitten,  Mt.  Dartmouth,  Alt.  Deception,  and  Cherry  mountain. 
It  is  separated  by  a  considerable  valley  from  Mt.  Jefferson,  and  its  gentler 
slope  lies  on  the  northern  flank  towards  Israel's  river.  The  road  from  Fa- 
byan's  to  Jefferson  passes  between  Cherry  and  Deception.  Cherry  moun- 
tain lias  a  northerly  spur  of  large  dimensions,  called  Owls  Head,  where 
occurred  the  great  slide  of   L885. 

5.  Mt.  Willey  Range  starts  from  near  the  White  Mountain  House  in 
Carroll,  and  ends  in  Mt.  Willey.  Its  northern  terminus  is  low,  the  highest 
peak  being  at  the  southern  end  of  the  range.  Six  granitic  summits  appear 
before  reaching  the  high  summit  of  Mt.  Tom,  just  back  of  the  Crawford 

White  Mountains.  i:t 

House.  The  stream  forming  "  Beech er's  Cascade"  passes  between  Mt. 
Tom  and  the  next  summit  south,  which  was  named  Mt.  Lincoln,  but,  as 
that  name  was  already  occupied  by  a  peak  in  Franconia,  was  re-christened 
Mt.  Field  by  Prof.  Huntington.  From  Mt.  Field  to  Mt.  Willey,  the  high 
land  is  continuous,  reaching  an  elevation  of  4,300  feet.  It  then  drops  off 
abruptly,  and  terminates.  Ethan's  pond,  the  head  of  the  Merrimack  river 
waters,  lies  a  little  to  the  southwest  of  the  precipice.  The  Field- Willey 
range  is  directly  opposite  Mt.  Webster,  and  the  valley  between  is  the  most 
striking  part  of  the  White  Mountain  notch,  the  head  of  which  is  formed 
by  Mt.  Willard,  only  about  550  feet  above  the  Crawford  plain. 

History. — The  first  mention  of  the  White  Mountains  in  print,  occurs  in 
Josselyn's  "New  England  Rarities  Discovered,"  printed  in  1672.  This 
writer,  in  his  "  Voyages,"  published  a  year  or  two  later,  gives  us  the  best 
part  of  the  mythology  of  our  highest  hills.  The  story,  as  Josselyn  tells  it, 
is  curious  enough;  and  its  resemblance  to  one  of  the  most  venerable  of 
Caucasian  traditions  should  seem  to  suggest  some  connection  of  the  peo- 
ple which  transmitted  it  with  the  common  Asiatic  home  of  the  bearded 
races.  "Ask  them,"  says  Josselyn,  "whither  they  go  when  they  dye? 
they  will  tell  you,  pointing  with  their  finger  to  Heaven  beyond  the  White 
Mountains,  and  do  hint  at  Noah's  Flood,  as  may  be  conceived  by  a  story 
they  have  received  from  father  to  son,  time  out  of  mind,  that  a  great  while 
agon  their  Countrey  was  drowned,  and  all  the  People  and  other  Creatures 
in  it,  only  one  Poivaw  and  his  Webb  foreseeing  the  Flood  fled  to  the  White 
Mountains  carrying  a  hare  along  with  them  and  so  escaped;  after  a  while 
the  Poivaw  sent  the  Hare  away,  who  not  returning,  emboldened  thereby, 
they  descended,  and  lived  many  years  after,  and  had  many  children,  from 
whom  the  Countrie  was  filled  again  with  Indians."  The  Indians  gave  the 
mountains  the  name  of  Agiocochook.  The  English  name  of  our  moun- 
tains, which  had  its  origin,  perhaps,  while  as  yet  they  were  only  known  to 
adventurous  mariners,  following  the  still  silent  coasts  of  New  England, 
relates  them  to  all  other  high  mountains,  from  Dhawala-Giri,  the  White 
Mountain  of  the  Himmalayah  to  Craig  Eryri  of  Snowdon  of  Wales;  but 
it  is  interesting  to  find  them  also,  in  this  legend,  in  some  sort  of  mythical 
connection  with  traditions  and  heights  of  the  ancient  continent,  the  first 
knowledge  of  which  carries  us  back  to  the  very  beginnings  of  human  his- 
tory. Dr.  Belknap  says  that  Capt.  Walter  Neale,  accompanied  by  Josselyn 
and  Darby  Field,  set  out,  in  1632,  to  discover  the  "  beautiful  lakes  "  report 
placed  in  the  interior,  and  that,  in  the  course  of  their  travels,  they  visited 
the  White  Mountains.  Merrill,  in  1817,  after  an  examination  of  the 
best  authorities,  concludes  that  Walter  and  Robert  Neal,  and  others,  visited 
the  mountains  in  1631,  but  it  is  to  Darby  Field,  of  Pascataquack,  that  the 
credit  is  now  generally  assigned  of  being  the  first  explorer  of  the  White 
Mountains.   Accompanied  by  two  Indians,  Winthrop  tells  us,  Feld  climbed 

50  History  of  Coos  County. 

the  highest  summit  in  1(>42.  We  believe  with  C.  E.  Potter  that  Belknap's 
account  is  correct,  and  Field's  first  visit  was  in  1682.  It  appears  that 
' '  within  twelve  miles  of  the  top  was  neither  tree  nor  grass,  but  low  savins, 
which  they  went  upon  the  top  of,  sometimes,  but  a  continual  ascent  upon 
rocks,  on  a  ridge  between  two  valleys  filled  with  snow,  out  of  which  came 
two  branches  of  Saco  river,  which  met  at  the  foot  of  the  hill  where  was  an 
Indian  town  of  some  200  people.  *  *  *  *  By  the  way,  among 
the  rocks,  there  were  two  ponds,  one  a  blackish  water,  and  the  other  a  red- 
dish. The  top  of  all  was  a  plain  about  sixty  feet  square.  On  the  north 
side  was  such  a  precipice,  as  they  could  scarce  discern  to  the  bottom.  They 
had  neither  cloud  nor  wind  on  the  top  and  moderate  heat."  Tins  appears 
to  have  been  in  June,  and  a  short  time-af  ter  he  went  again,  with  five  or  six 
in  his  company,  and  "the  report  he  brought  of  'shining  stones,'  etc., 
caused  divers  others  to  travel  tither,  but  they  found  nothing  worth  their 
pains."  It  is  passing  strange  that  men,  reputed  honest,  could  make  such 
a  wild  report  of  regions  that  required  no  invention  to  make  them  attrac- 
tive and  wonderful.  Among  those  who  expected  rich  treasure  from  these 
mountains  were  the  proprietors,  Mason  and  Gorges,  and  no  discourage- 
ment could  lessen  their  hopes.  The  Spaniards  had  found  riches  in  the 
mountains  of  Mexico  and  Peru;  why  should  not  these  New  Hampshire 
mountains  prove  equally  rich  in  the  precious  metals  ?  In  August,  of  the 
same  year,  another  party,  led  by  Thomas  Gorges,  Esq.,  and  Richard  Vines, 
two  magistrates  of  the  province  of  Sir  Ferdinando  Gorges,  set  out  on  foot 
to  explore  "the  delectable  mountains."  (Winthrop's  History  calls  this 
"  Darby  Field's  second  visit.")  "They  went  up  Saco  river  in  birch  canoes 
to  Pegwaggett,  an  Indian  town.  From  the  Indian  town  they  went  up  hill, 
mostly  for  about  thirty  miles  in  woody  lands,  then  about  seven  or  eight 
miles  upon  shattered  rocks,  without  tree  or  grass,  very  steep  all  the  way. 
At  the  top  is  a  plain  about  three  or  four  miles  over,  all  shattered  stones. 
and  upon  that  is  another  rock  or  spire,  about  a  mile  in  height,  and  about 
an  acre  of  ground  at  the  top.  At  the  top  of  the  plain  arise  four  great  riv- 
ers, each  of  them  so  much  water,  at  the  first  issue,  as  would  drive  a  mill, 
Connecticut  river  from  two  heads,  at  the  N.  W.  and  S.  W.,  which  join  in 
one  about  sixty  miles  off,  Saco  river  on  the  S.  E  ,  Amascoggin  which  runs 
into  Casco  bay  at  the  N.  E,  and  Kennebeck,  at  the  N.  by  E.  The  moun- 
tain runs  E.  and  W.  thirty  miles,  but  the  peak  is  above  the  rest." 

There  can  be  but  little  doubt  that  Darby  Field,  the  first  explorer,  enter- 
ing the  valley  of  Ellis  river,  left  it  for  the  great  southeastern  ridge  of 
Mt.  Washington,  the  same  which  has  since  been  called  Boott's  Spur.  This 
was  the  "  ridge  between  two  valleys  filled  with  snow,  out  of  which  came 
two  branches  of  Saco  river,"  and  it  led  him,  as  probably  the  other  party 
also,  to  the  broadest  spread  of  that  great  plain,  of  which  the  southeastern 
grassy  expanse,  of  some  forty  acres,  has  long  been  known  as  Bigelow's 

White  Mountains.  :>1 

Lawn,  and  the  "top,1'  to  the  north,  where  the  two  ponds  arc,  furnished 
Gorges  with  a  part,  no  doubt,  of  the  sources  of  his  rivers. 

"  Fourscore  miles,"  says  Josselyn,  "(upon  a  direct  line)  to  the  north- 
west of  Scarborow,  a  ridge  of  mountains  run  northwest  and  northeast  an 
hundred  leagues,  known  by  the  name  of  the  White  Mountains,  upon  which 
lieth  snow  all  the  year,  and  is  a  Land-mark  twenty  miles  off  at  sea.  It  is 
rising  ground  from  the  seashore  to  these  Hills,  and  they  are  inaccessible 
but  by  the  Gullies  which  the  dissolved  Snow  hath  made,  in  these  ( !  allies 
grow  Savin  bushes,  which  being  taken  hold  of  are  a  good  help  to  the  climb- 
ing discoverer;  upon  the  top  of  the  highest  of  these  Mountains  is  a  large 
Level  or  Plain  of  a  day's  journey  over,  whereon  nothing  grows  but  Moss;  at 
the  farther  end  of  this  Plain  is  another  Hill  called  the  Sugar  loaf,  t<  >  out  ward 
appearance,  a  rude  heap  of  massie  stones  piled  one  upon  another,  and  you 
may,  as  you  ascend,  step  from  one  stone  to  another,  as  if  you  were  going 
up  a  pair  of  stairs,  but  winding  still  about  the  Hill  till  you  come  to  the  top, 
which  will  require  half  a  day's  time,  and  yet  it  is  not  above  a  Mile,  where 
there  is  also  a  Level  of  about  an  acre  of  ground,  with  a  pond  of  clear  water 
in  the  midst  of  it;  which  you  may  hear  run  down,  but  how  it  ascends  is 
a  mystery.  From  this  rocky  Hill  you  may  see  the  whole  Country  round 
about ;  it  is  far  above  the  lower  Clouds,  and  from  hence  we  beheld  a  Vapour 
(like  a  great  Pillar)  drawn  up  by  the  Sun  Beams  out  of  a  great  Lake  or 
Pond  into  the  air,  where  it  was  formed  into  a  Cloud.  The  Country  beyond 
these  Hills  Northward  is  daunting  terrible,  being  full  of  rocky  Hills,  as 
thick  as  Mole-hills,  in  a  Meadow,  and  cloathed  with  infinite  thick  Woods." 
Gorges  and  Vines'  party  named  these  mountains  the  "  Crystal  Hills,"  but 
their  provisions  failed  them  before  the  beautiful  lake  was  reached,  and 
though  they  wTere  within  one  day's  journey  of  it,  they  were  obliged  to 
return  home.  Josselyn  also  says  :  "One  stately  mountain  there  is,  sur- 
mounting all  the  rest,  about  four-score  miles  from  the  sea;  between  the 
mountains  are  many  rich  and  pregnant  valleys  as  ever  eye  beheld,  beset 
on  each  side  with  variety  of  goodly  trees,  the  grass  man  high,  unmowed, 
uneaten,  and  uselessly  withering,  and  within  these  valleys  spacious  lakes 
or  ponds  well  stored  with  fish  and  beavers;  the  original  of  all  the  great 
rivers  in  the  countrie,  the  snow  lies  upon  the  mountains  the  whole  year 
excepting  the  month  of  August;  the  black  flies  are  so  numerous  thai  a  man 
cannot  draw  his  breath  but  he  will  suck  of  them  in.  Some  suppose 
that  the  White  Mountains  were  first  raised  by  earthquakes,  but  they  are 
hollow,  as  may  be  guessed  by  the  resounding  of  the  rain  upon  the  level  on 
the  top."  The  pond  on  the  top  in  this  account,  may  have  been  due  to 
extraordinary  transient  causes;  it  is  not  mentioned  by  the  other  visitors  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  and  has  not  been  heard  of  since. 

We  next  hear  of  an  ascent  of  the  White  Mountains  by  a   '"  ranging 
company,"  which  "ascended  the  highest  mountain,  on  the  N.  W.  part." 

52  History  of  Coos  County. 

so  far,  as  appears,  the  first  ascent  on  that  side,  April  29,  1725,  and  found, 
as  was  to  be  expected,  the  snow  deep,  and  the  Alpine  ponds  frozen.  Another 
ranging  party,  which  was  "in  the  neighborhood  of  the  White  Mountains, 
on  a  warm  day  in  the  month  of  March,"  in  the  year  17-i^,  had  an  interest- 
ing and  the  first  recorded  experience  of  a  force,  which  has  left  innumer- 
able proofs  of  its  efficiency  all  through  the  mountains.  It  seems  that  this 
party  was  "  alarmed  with  a  repeated  noise,  which  they  supposed  to  be  the 
firing  of  guns.  On  further  search  they  found  it  to  be  caused  by  rocks  fall- 
ing from  the  south  side  of  a  steep  mountain." 

The  Western  Pass  (Notch)  of  the  mountains  was  undoubtedly  known 
to  the  Indians,  but  we  have  no  account  of  its  use  by  the  English,  till  after 
1771,  when  two  hunters,  Timothy  Nash  and  Benjamin  Sawyer,  passed 
through  it.  It  is  said  that  Nash,  in  pursuit  of  a  moose,  drove  it  into  a  deep 
gorge,  and  expected  an  easy  capture.  The  moose,  however,  took  an  old 
Indian  trail,  which  brought  it  safely  to  the  other  side  of  the  mountain.  A 
road  was  soon  after  opened  by  the  proprietors  of  lands  in  the  upper  Cohos, 
and  another,  through  the  Eastern  Pass,  was  commenced  in  1771.  Settlers 
began  now  to  make  their  way  into  the  immediate  neighborhood  of  the  moun- 
tains. The  townships  of  Jefferson,  Shelburne  (which  included  Gorham), 
and  Adams  (now  Jackson),  successively  received  inhabitants  from  1773  to 
1779,  and  the  wilderness,  if  as  yet  far  enough  from  blossoming,  was 
opened,  and,  to  some  extent,  tamed. 

It  was  now  that  the  first  company  of  scientific  inquirers  approached  the 
White  hills.  In  July,  1784,  the  Eev  Manasseh  Cutler,  of  Ipswich,  a  zeal- 
ous member  of  the  American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  the  Eev. 
Daniel  Little,  of  Kennebunk,  also  a  member  of  the  Academy,  and  Col. 
John  Whipple,  of  Dartmouth  (now  Jefferson),  the  most  prominent  inhabi- 
tant of  the  Cohos  country,  visited  the  mountains,  "with  a  view  to  make 
particular  observations  on  the  several  phenomena  that  might  occur  The 
w; iv  by  which  Cutler  ascended  the  mountain  is  indicated  by  the  sti earn 
which  bears  his  name  in  Belknap's  and  Bigelow's  narratives,  and  was 
doubtless  very  much  the  same  taken  and  described  by  Bigelow.  President 
Dwight  passed  through  the  Notch  in  1797,  and  a  second  time  in  1803,  and 
his  beautiful  description  of  the  scenery  is  still  valuable  and  correct.  He 
says:  "The  Notch  of  the  White  Mountains  is  a  phrase  appropriated  to  a 
very  narrow  defile  extending  two  miles  in  length  between  two  huge  cliffs, 
apparently  rent  asunder  by  some  vast  convulsion  of  nature.  The  entrance 
to  the  chasm  is  formed  by  two  rocks,  standing  perpendicularly  at  the  dis- 
tance of  twenty-two  feet  from  each  other;  one  about  twenty,  the  other 
about  twelve  feet  in  height.  Half  of  the  space  is  occupied  by  the  brook, 
the  bead  stream  of  the  Saco;  the  other  half  by  the1  road.  When  we  entered 
the  Notch  we  were  struck  with  the  wild  and  solemn  appearance  of  every- 
thing before  us.     The  scale,  on  which  all  objects  in  view  were  formed,  was 

White  Mountains.  :,:; 

the  scale  of  grandeur  only.  The  rocks,  rude  and  ragged  in  a  manner  hardly 
paralleled,  were  fashioned,  and  piled  on  each  other,  by  a  hand  operating 
only  in  the  boldest  and  most  irregular  manner.  As  we  advanced,  these 
appearances  increased  rapidly.  Huge  masses  of  granite  of  every  abrupt 
form,  and  hoary  with  a  moss  which  seemed  the  product  of  ages,  recalling 
to  the  mind  the  c Saxmn  vetustum1  of  Virgil,  speedily  rose  to  a  mountain- 
ous height.  Before  us  the  view  widened  fast  to  the  southeast.  Behind  us 
it  closed  almost  instantaneously;  and  presented  nothing  to  the  eye  but  an 
impassable  barrier  of  mountains.  About  half  a  mile  from  the  entrance 
of  the  chasm,  we  saw  in  full  view  the  most  beautiful  cascade,  perhaps,  in 
the  world.  It  issued  from  a  mountain  on  the  right,  about  eight  hundred 
feet  above  the  subjacent  valley,  and  at  the  distance  of  about  two  miles 
from  us.  The  stream,  which  I  shall  denominate  the  '  Silver  cascade/  ran 
over  a  series  of  rocks,  almost  perpendicular,  with  a  course  so  little  broken 
as  to  preserve  the  appearance  of  an  uniform  current,  and  yet  so  far  dis- 
turbed as  to  be  perfectly  white.  At  the  distance  of  three  quarters  of  a  mile 
from  the  entrance,  we  passed  a  brook  known  as  the  'Flume.'  The  stream 
fell  from  a  height  of  240  or  250  feet  over  three  precipices;  down  the  first 
and  second  it  fell  in  a  single  current,  and  down  the  third  in  three,  which 
united  their  streams  at  the  bottom  in  a  fine  basin  immediately  below  us. 
It  is  impossible  for  a  brook  of  this  size  to  be  modelled  into  more  diversified, 
or  more  delightful,  forms;  or  for  a  cascade  to  descend  over  precipices  more 
happily  fitted  to  finish  its  beauty.  The  sunbeams,  penetrating  through  the 
trees,  painted  a  great  variety  of  fine  images  of  light,  and  edged  an  equally 
numerous,  and  diversified,  collection  of  shadows;  both  dancing  on  the 
waters,  and  alternately  silvering  and  obscuring  their  course  Purer  water 
never  was  seen.  Exclusively  of  its  murmurs,  the  world  around  us  was 
solemn  and  silent.  Everything  assumed  the  character  of  enchantment; 
and,  had  I  been  educated  in  the  Grecian  mythology,  I  should  have  be»'ii 
scarcely  surprised  to  find  an  assemblage  of  Dryads,  Naiads,  and  Oreades 
sporting  on  the  little  plain  beneath  our  feet.  As  we  passed  onward  through 
this  singular  valley,  occasional  torrents,  formed  by  the  rains  and  dissolv- 
ing snows,  at  the  close  of  winter,  had  left  behind  them,  in  many  places, 
perpetual  monuments  of  their  progress  in  perpendicular,  narrow,  and  irreg- 
ular paths,  of  immense  length;  where  they  had  washed  the  precipices 
naked  and  white,  from  the  summit  of  the  mountain  to  the  base.  Wide 
and  deep  chasms,  also,  at  times  met  the  eye,  both  on  the  summits  and  the 
sides;  and  strongly  impressed  the  imagination  with  the  thought,  that  a 
hand  of  immeasurable  power  had  rent  asunder  the  solid  rocks,  and  tum- 
bled them  into  the  subjacent  valley.  Over  all,  hoary  cliffs  rising  with 
proud  supremacy,  frowned  awfully  on  the  world  below,  and  finished  the 

This  incident  connected  with  the  re-discovery  of  the  Notch  is  interesting. 

51  History  of  Coos  County. 

On  the  report  of  its  re-discovery  to  Governor  Wentworth.  he  warily 
agreed  to  grant  Nash  and  Sawyer  a  tract  of  land  if  they  would  bring  him 
down  a  horse  from  Lancaster,  through  this  Notch.  By  means  of  ropes  they 
succeeded  in  getting  the  horse  over  the  projecting  cliff,  and  down  the  rug- 
ged pathway  of  the  mountain  torrent,  and  brought  him  to  the  governor. 
When  they  saw  the  horse  safely  lowered  on  the  south  side  of  the  last  pro- 
jection, it  is  said  that  Sawyer,  draining  the  last  drop  of  rum  from  his  junk 
bottle,  broke  the  empty  flask  on  the  rock,  and  named  it  "Sawyer's  rock," 
by  which  name  it  has  ever  since  been  known.  The  earliest  articles  of  com- 
merce  taken  through  the  Notch  appear  to  have  been  a  barrel  of  tobacco, 
raised  at  Lancaster,  which  was  carried  to  Portsmouth,  and  a  barrel  of  rum 
which  a  company  in  Portland  offered  to  any  one  who  should  succeed  in 
taking  it  through  the  pass.  This  was  done  by  Captain  Rosebrook,  with 
some  assistance,  though  it  became  nearly  empty,  "through  the  politeness 
of  those  who  helped  to  manage  the  affair."  The  difficulty  of  communica- 
tion was  often  the  occasion  of  serious  want,  and  it  was  no  rare  thing  to 
suffer  from  scarcity  of  provisions. 

The  first  person  passing  through  the  Notch  to  settle  in  the  lands  north- 
west was  Col.  Joseph  Whipple,  who  came  from  Portsmouth  in  1772.  He 
brought  tackles  and  ropes  by  which  his  cattle  were  brought  over  the  preci- 
pices along  the  way.  In  1803  the  legislature  authorized  a  lottery  for  the 
building  of  a  turnpike  through  the  Notch  of  the  White  Mountains,  twenty 
miles  in  extent,  at  an  expense  of  forty  thousand  dollars.  (It  was  custom- 
ary in  the  early  history  of  the  country  to  raise  money  by  lottery  for  the 
general  welfare.  Roads  were  built, literary  institutions  founded  and  religious 
societies  aided,  by  such  questionable  means.)  Tickets  were  issued  exceed- 
ing the  prizes  by  the  sum  of  thirty -two  thousand  one  hundred  dollars;  but, 
through  the  failure  of  agents,  the  loss  of  tickets,  and  the  expense  of  man- 
agement, only  fifteen  hundred  dollars  came  into  the  state  treasury.  This 
road,  winding  down  to  the  west  line  of  Bartlett  through  this  gigantic  cleft  in 
the  mountains,  presents  to  the  traveller  "some  of  the  most  sublime  and 
beautiful  scenery  which  the  sun,  in  his  entire  circuit,  reveals  to  the  curious 
eye."  In  July  of  this  year,  Dr.  Cutler  visited  the  mountains  a  second 
time,  in  company  with  Dr.  W.  D.  Peck,  afterwards  Professor  of  Natural 
History  at  Cambridge,  Mass.  In  1816  Dr.  Bigelow,  Dr.  Francis  Boott, 
Francis  C.  Gray,  and  Chief  Justice  Shaw  visited  the  mountains.  In  1819 
Abel  Crawford  opened  the  footway  to  Mt.  Washington,  which  follows  the 
southwestern  ridge  from  Mt.  Clinton.  July  31, 1820,  Messrs.  A.  N.  Brack- 
et!, J.  W.  Weeks,  Charles  J.  Stuart,  Esq.,  Gen.  JohnWillson,  Noyes  S. 
Dennison,  and  S.  A.  Pearson,  Esq.,  of  Lancaster, with  Philip  Carrigain,  and 
Ethan  Crawford  as  guide,  ascended  the  southwestern  ridge  by  the  new 
path,  from  the  head  of  the  Notch,  and  explored  the  summits  of  the  whole 
range  as  far  as  Mt.  Washington.     They  took  the  height  of  the  mountains 

White  Mountains. 

with  a  spirit-level,  and  were  seven  days  in  this  slow,  fatiguing  labor.  They 
must  have  been  the  first  party  which  passed  the  night  upon  the  summit. 
Benjamin  D.  Greene,  Esq.,  collected  the  plants  of  the  southwestern  ridge 
in  1823,  and  the  same  year,  Henry  Little,  a  medical  student,  explored  this 
part  of  the  mountains.  In  1825, William  Oakes,  Esq.,  and  Dr.  Charles  Pick- 
ering, made,  together,  extensive  researches  of  much  interest.  Dr.  J.  W. 
Bobbins  explored  carefully  the  whole  range  in  1829,  descending  into  and 
crossing  the  Great  Gulf,  and  traversing  for  the  first  time,  so  far  as  scien- 
tific interests  were  concerned,  all  the  eastern  summits.  Rev.  T.  Stan- 
King,  whose  artistic  appreciation  and  eloquent  writings  did  so  much  to 
bring  this  region  into  notice,  came  here  in  1837.  In  1840,  a  party,  includ- 
ing Dr.  Charles  T.  Jackson,  reached  Mt.  Washington  on  horseback  by  the 
way  of  the  Notch. 

First  Settlers.  — The  first  settlers  among  the  mountains  came  from  below, 
and  settled  Conway  in  1704,  Jefferson  in  1772,  Franconia  in  1774,  Bartlett 
in  1777,  Jackson  in  1778,  Bethlehem  in  1790.  In  1792  Captain  Rosebrook 
established  himself  and  home  on  the  site  of  Fabyan's,  and  opened  the 
first  house  for  summer  visitors  there  in  1808.  Abel  Crawford  settled  at 
Bemis  in  1793.  Ethan  A.  Crawford  succeeded  to  the  Rosebrook  place  in 
1817.  But  thirty  years  before  any  of  these  thought  of  making  a  home  in  this 
wild  region,  so  runs  the  story,  Thomas  Crager  sought  among  the  solitudes 
of  the  mountain  rocks,  relief  for  a  grief  so  intense  as  almost  to  craze  him. 
His  wife  had  been  executed  as  a  witch  ;  his  little  daughter  Mary,  his  only 
child,  had  been  carried  into  captivity,  and  after  a  long  and  unavailing 
search,  he  went  up  to  the  mountains,  and  lived  for  a  long  time,  where  the 
pure  water  and  air  of  the  region  brought  health  and  strength,  protected 
from  the  evil  intent  of  the  Indians  by  their  belief  in  his  being  the  adopted 
son  of  the  Great  Spirit.  After  long  years,  he  found  his  daughter  among 
the  Indians  of  eastern  Maine,  married,  and  living  as  a  squaw.  Many 
wild  legends  are  told  of  Crager  and  the  Indian  captor  of  his  daughter,  but 
the  fact  of  his  existence  and  residence  here  is  all  we  need  record. 

Nancy's  Brook  and  Nancy's  Bridge  take  their  name  from  a  girl  who 
perished  here  in  1778.  Her  tragic  story  has  so  often  been  told,  that  we 
only  allude  to  it. 

The  First  House  in  the  Notch  was  the  historic  Willey  House.  It  was 
kept  as  a  public  house  for  some  years,  then  abandoned,  and  again  occupi<  d 
in  1825,  by  Samuel  Willey,  Jr.,  who,  with  his  wife,  five  children,  and  two 
hired  men,  perished  in  the  great  slide  of  August  28,  L826.  As  there  would 
be  a  dozen  people  desirous  of  visiting  the  mountains  coming  to  Ethan  A. 
Crawford's  hostelry,  in  1821  he  most  effectively  advertised  it.  by  cutting  a 
path,  which  shortened  the  distance,  and  made  it  easy  to  go  up  the  moun- 
tain. Soon  after  this,  increased  travel  brought  a  demand  for  some  place 
jon  the  summit  where  visitors  could  pass  the  night,  and  Ethan  constructed 

56  History  of  Coos  County. 

a  stone  cabin,  near  the  large  spring  of  water,  and  furnished  it,  first  with 
a  large  supply  of  soft  moss  for  beds  ;  and  afterwards  with  a  small  stove, 
an  iron  chest  to  hold  the  blankets,  and  a  long  roll  of  sheet  lead,  as  a  reg- 
ister of  names  of  visitors. 

The  first  hotel  on  Mt.  Washington  was  the  old  Summit  House,  built  in 
1852,  by  L.  M.  Eosebrook,  N.  R.  Perkins,  and  J.  S.  Hall.  The  Tip  Top 
House  was  built  in  1853,  by  John  H.  Spaulding  and  others.  He  was  part 
owner  of  that  and  the  Summit  House,  and  conducted  them  for  several 
years.  The  present  Summit  House  was  built  in  1872.  The  old  Summit 
House  was  torn  down  in  the  spring  of  1881,  to  give  place  to  a  new  build- 
ing, used  as  lodging  rooms  for  the  employees  of  the  hotel. 

The  first  winter  ascent  of  Mt.  Washington  was  made  by  Lucius  Harts- 
horne,  a  deputy  sheriff  of  Coos  county,  and  B.  F.  Osgood,  of  Gorham,  De- 
cember 7,  1858.  John  H.  Spaulding,  Franklin  White,  and  C.  C.  Brooks, 
of  Lancaster,  made  the  ascent  February  19,  1862,  and  were  the  first  to 
spend  the  night  on  the  mountain  in  winter. 

The  carriage  road  from  the  Glen  House  to  the  summit  of  Mt.  Wash- 
ington was  begun  in  1853,  under  the  management  of  D.  0.  Macomber,  C. 
H.  V.  Cavis  being  surveyor.  The  first  four  miles  were  finished  the  next 
year.  Financial  troubles  stopped  the  work  for  a  time,  but  the  road  was 
finally  opened  August  8,  1861.  It  is  eight  miles  long,  and  has  an  average 
grade  of  twelve  feet  in  100.  The  ascent  is  made  by  stages  in  four  hours, 
and  the  descent  in  an  hour  and  a  half. 

George  W.  Lane  drove  the  first  Concord  coach  that  ever  ascended  Mt. 
Washington  over  this  road,  August  8,  1861. 

The  Glen  House  in  Pinkham  Notch,  at  the  eastern  base  of  Mt.  Wash- 
ington, is  fifteen  miles  north  of  Glen  station,  near  North  Conway,  eight 
miles  south  of  Gorham,  on  the  Grand  Trunk  railway,  and  has  a  full  and 
unobstructed  view  of  the  highest  peaks  of  the  Mt.  Washington  range.  Mt. 
Washington  is  ascended  from  the  Glen  by  the  carriage  road,  eight  miles 
long.  Glen  Ellis  Falls,  and  Crystal  Cascade,  near  the  Glen,  are  two  of  the 
finest  water-falls  in  the  mountain.  Tuckerman's  Ravine  is  most  easily 
reached  from  the  Glen  House. 

Pinkham  Notch  takes  its  name  from  Daniel  Pinkham,  an  early  resident 
of  Jackson.  In  1821  he  commenced  a  road  through  the  wilderness 
between  two  ranges  of  the  White  Mountains  ;  this  road  was  about  twelve 
miles  in  length,  and  connected  Jackson  with  Randolph,  and  in  two  years 
time  it  was  completed.  The  Notch  is  situated  at  the  Glen  Ellis  Falls,  and 
the  mountains  here  are  only  a  quarter  of  a  mile  apart. 

The  Mt.  Washington  railway  was  projected  by  Sylvester  Marsh.  The 
building  of  the  road  was  begun  in  1866,  and  finished  in  186U. 

The  ascent  is  made  by  the  railway  from  the  west  side,  and  the  carriage 
road  from  the  east.     The  railroad  is  three  miles  long,  and  has  an  average 

White  Mountains.  57 

rise  of  one  foot  in  four,  the  steepest  being  thirteen  and  one-half  inches  to  the 
yard.  The  grade  is  overcome  by  means  of  cog-wheels  working  in  a  cog- 
rail  in  the  center  of  the  track,  and  powerful  brakes  on  engines  and  cars 
insure  safety.  No  passenger  has  been  injured  since  the  road  was  opened. 
The  running  time  is  one  and  one-half  hours,  and  only  one  car  is  run  with 
each  engine. 

Mountain  Tragedies.— The  destruction  of  the  Willey  family  by  a  land 
slide  in  the  White  Mountain  Notch,  occurred  August  28,  1826.  Frederick 
Strickland,  an  Englishman,  perished  in  the  Ammonoosuc  Eavine,  in  Oc- 
tober, 1851.  Miss  Lizzie  Bourne,  of  Kennebunk,  Me.,  perished  on  the 
Glen  bridle-path,  near  the  Summit,  on  the  night  of  September  14,  1855. 
Dr.  B.  L.  Ball,  of  Boston,  was  lost  on  Mt.  Washington,  in  October,  1855, 
in  a  siiow  storm,  but  rescued  after  two  days'  and  nights'  exposure,  with- 
out food  or  sleep.  Benjamin  Chandler,  of  Delaware,  perished  near 
Chandler's  Peak,  half  a  mile  from  the  top  of  Mt.  Washington,  August  7, 
1856,  in  a  storm,  and  his  remains  were  not  discovered  for  nearly  a 
year.  Harry  W.  Hunter,  of  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  perished  on  the  Crawford 
bridle-path,  September  3,  187-1,  a  mile  from  the  Summit.  His  remains 
were  found  nearly  six  years  later,  July  14,  1880.  On  the  north  side  of 
Cherry  mountain  occurred  the  noted  landslide  of  July  10,  1885.  This  was 
the  largest  slide  ever  known  in  the  mountains.  Donald  Walker  was  the 
only  one  who  lost  his  life.  July  24,  1886,  the  great  snow  arch  in  Tucker- 
man's  Eavine,  near  Mt.  Washington,  X.  H.,  fell,  and  instantly  killed 
Sewall  Faunce,  the  fifteen-year-old  son  of  Mr.  Faunce,  of  the  law  firm  of 
Faunce  &  Wiggin,  School  street,  Boston. 

The  first  number  of  Among  the  Clouds,  the  first  daily  newspaper  pub- 
lished in  the  W7hite  Mountains,  and  the  only  one  printed  on  any  mountain 
in  the  world,  was  issued  July  18,  1S77,  by  Henry  M.  Burt,  of  Springfield, 
Mass.  The  paper  records  much  that  pertains  to  the  exploration  of  the 
W7hite  Hills,  and  the  development  of  its  unexplored  resources.  Almost 
every  week  something  worth  preserving  about  the  mountains  is  printed 
in  its  columns.  It  is  indispensable  to  the  enjoyment  of  those  who 
reside  for  the  season  among  the  mountains.  When  the  season  is  fairly 
open,  Mr.  Burt  receives,  by  telegraph,  the  full  list  of  the  daily  arrivals  at 
the  principal  hotels  in  the  mountains,  and  publishes  it  in  the  following- 
issue.  Two  editions  are  published  daily,  one  at  1  p.  m.,  and  and  one  at  .'• 
a.  m.,  each  summer,  from  July  to  the  close  of  the  season.  The  afternoon 
edition  contains  the  names  of  the  arrivals  on  the  morning  train  from  Faby- 
an's,  and  on  the  stages  from  the  (lien  House.  The  publication  office  is 
the  old  Tip  Top  House,  nicely  fitted  up,  and  equipped  with  a  steam  engine 
and  Hoe  cylinder  press. 

The  signal  station  at  the  Summit  was  established  in  1870.     Prof.  J.  H. 
Huntington,  of  the  State  Geological  Survey,  was  at  the  head  of  the  party 

58  History  of  Coos  County. 

that  spent  the  first  winter  here.  The  building  now  occupied  by  the  ob- 
servers was  erected  in  187*3. 

For  descriptions  of  Fabyan  House,  Crawford  House,  White  Mountain 
House,  and  Twin  Mountain  House,  see  Carroll. 

The  Mt.  Washington  Summit  House,  with  nearly  one  hundred  sleep- 
ing rooms,  is  a  commodious  and  comfortable  hotel,  under  the  manage- 
ment of  Col.  Oscar  G.  Barron. 



Trees  —  Shrubs  —  Grass 3S  —  Introduced  Plants  —  Alpine  Plants. 

THE  vegetation  of  Coos  county  contrasts  strongly  with  that  of  the 
southern  counties  of  the  state.  The  somber  colors  of  the  Canadian 
evergreens  largely  take  the  places  of  the  light  foliage  of  the  deciduous 
trees,  and  the  Canadian  flora  occupies  almost  wholly  the  entire  county  to 
the  exclusion  of  the  more  southern  or  Alleghanian  division. 

Trees. — "  Our  arbor  vitas  is,"  says  Prof.  Gray,  "the  physiognomic  tree 
of  our  cold  swamps  at  the  north  and  in  Canada.'"  It  is  generally  incor- 
rectly called  "  white  cedar,"  and  enters  as  a  prominent  element  into  the  flora 
of  Coos  county,  growing  most  abundantly  along  the  borders  of  slow 
streams  and  in  swamps,  and  varying  from  thirty  to  fifty  feet  in  height. 
White  spruce  grows  extensively  in  the  region  of  Connecticut  lake,  but  is 
rarely  found  below  Colebrook.  The  balsam  fir  and  black  spruce,  growing 
together  in  about  equal  numbers,  give  to  the  scenery  of  the  White  Moun- 
tains one  of  its  peculiar  features.  "  The  stiff,  spiked  forms  of  the  one  are 
mingled  with  the  blackish-green  foliage  of  the  other  almost  universally 
along  the  mountain  sides,  and  are  the  last  of  the  arborescent  vegetation 
to  yeld  to  the  increased  cold  and  fierce  winds  of  the  higher  summits."  North 
of  the  mountains,  they,  with  arbor-vitas,  are  the  predominant  evergreens. 
The  hemlock,  so  graceful  when  young,  has  its  northern  limit  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Colebrook  and  Umbagog  lake.  The  American  larch  (hack- 
matack or  tamarack)  is  chiefly  found  in  small  swamps.  When  the  county 
was  first  known  to  civilization,  the  Connecticut  valley  was  filled  with  a 
stately  growth  of  the  highly  prized  white  pine,  many  of  them  fit  for  the 
"broad  arrow  "  mark  of  the  British  Crown  as  mast  trees  sacred  to  the 

Plants.  59 

King's  service.  Now  a  few  specimens,  occuring  mostly  at  the  head  waters 
of  the  streams,  are  all  that  remain  of  the  original  profusion.  Second  growths 
of  this  tree  here  are  of  rare  occurrence,  even  when  the  cleared  land  is 
allowed  to  return  to  forest.  The  Canadian  yew,  or  "  ground  hemlock. **  is 
present  in  the  swamps,  while  the  savin  and  juniper  occupy  higher  ground. 
The  red  maple  gives  the  brilliant  scarlet  color  to  our  autumnal  scenery. 
The  rock,  or  sugar  maple,  is  the  largest  of  the  maples  and  is  an  important 
economic  factor,  producing  as  it  does  maple  sirup  and  sugar,  and  much 
valuable  timber.  The  beech  and  the  sugar  maple  are  the  most  common  of 
the  deciduous  trees  of  this  county,  making  up  most  of  the  "hard-wood  "  for- 
ests. The  black,  yellow,  and  canoe  birches  are  common,  the  latter  being- 
conspicuous,  high  on  the  sides  of  the  mountains,  its  white  bark  showing  in 
striking  contrast  with  the  dark  trunks  and  foliage  of  the  firs  and  spruce. 
Dalton,  Berlin,  Gorham  and  Shelburne  are  in  the  red  oak  zone.  The 
American  elm  is  native  to  the  alluvial  soil  of  the  larger  rivers,  and,  owing 
to  its  majestic  appearance,  wherever  it  is  found  it  is  very  prominent.  The 
black  poplar  grows  quite  large,  has  dark  colored  bark  on  the  trunk,  and  is 
much  used  in  making  "wood-pulp."  A  small  variety  of  poplar,  which 
sometimes  springs  up  in  great  abundance  in  cleared  land,  never  attains 
large  growth. 

Shrubs.— The  mountain  ash  clings  to  the  mountain  sides  and  streams, 
and  its  red  berries  hang  brilliant  in  autumn.  Blackberries  and  raspberries 
are  present,  the  red  raspberry  being  one  of  the  most  numerous  plants  of 
the  county.  The  blueberry  genus  is  well  represented  by  the  Canadian  and 
dwarf  blue-berry,  the  cowberry,  and  the  swamp  cranberry.  In  the  swamps 
we  often  find  the  Canadian  holly  and  winter  berry,  while  on  the  poorer  soil 
of  the  hills  the  sumach  matures.  The  alder,  willow,  witch  hazel,  high  bush 
cranberry,  Labrador  tea,  common  and  red-berried  elder,  moose  wood. 
American  yew,  with  currants  and  gooseberries  are  found  in  the  localities 
for  which  nature  has  fitted  them. 

The  shrubs  grow  smaller  and  smaller  as  the  mountains  are  ascended. 
The  mountain  aster  and  golden  rod,  the  white  orchis,  the  white  hellebore, 
the  wood-sorrel,  and  Solomon's  seal  ascend  into  the  black  growth,  while 
the  clintonia,  bunch  berry,  bluets,  creeping  snowberry,  purple  trilliums 
keep  them  company  and  cease  to  grow  at  the  same  altitude. 

Grasses. — "Blue  joint"  (Calarnogrosti</  Canadensis),  is  the  principal 
native  grass,  and  grows  luxuriantly.  "  Herd's  grass "  (P.  Pratensis),  not 
indigenous,  grows  in  the  lumber  roads  throughout  the  county  as  an  intro- 
duced plant,  and  can  be  traced  along  the  carriage  mid  on  Mt.  Washington 
far  above  the  limit  of  trees. 

Introduced  Plants. — The  white  willow  of  Europe,  which  brought  to 
some  place  in  the  Connecticut  valley  as  a  shade  tree,  has  extended  itself 
along  the  river,  and  is  as  much  at  home  in  Stewartstown  and  Pittsburg  as 

60  History  of  Coos  County. 

by  the  borders  of  European  streams.  The  Canadian  plum  is  much  culti- 
vated, and  grows  frequently  where  man  has  never  planted  it.  The  hemp- 
nettle  has  come  in  some  way  from  the  Merrimack  valley  through  Fran- 
conia  Notch  and  made  itself  at  home  from  Whitefield  to  the  clearings 
around  Connecticut  lake.  The  garden  wormwood  finds  in  the  slaty  con- 
stituents of  the  soil  of  Pittsburg  the  needed  elements  for  its  life  and  flour- 
ishes in  the  open  air  without  cultivation. 

Alpine  Plants. — An  Alpine  or  Arctic  vegetation  is  found  on  the  treeless 
region  of  the  upper  heights  of  Mt.  Washington  and  adjacent  peaks,  where 
alone  are  found  the  conditions  favorable  to  their  growth.  They  are  of  great 
hardihood  and  sometimes  bloom  amid  ice  and  snow.  This  region  which 
they  occupy  is  a  windswept  tract  above  the  growth  of  trees  and  about 
eight  miles  long  by  two  miles  wide.  About  fifty  species  are  strictly  Alpine 
and  found  nowhere  else  in  the  state.  About  fifty  other  species  accompany 
them,  and  are  also  found  at  the  base  of  the  mountains  and  other  parts  of 
the  state.  These  are  called  "  sub- Alpines,"  and  occupy  the  ravines  and  lower 
parts  of  the  treeless  region,  but  not  the  upper  summits.  In  ascending  the 
mountains,  the  firs  and  spruces  become  more  and  more  dwarfish,  at  last 
rising  but  a  few  feet,  while  the  branches  spread  out  horizontally  many  feet, 
and  become  thickly  interwoven.  They  present  an  almost  even  upper  sur- 
face, strong  enough  to  walk  upon.  At  last  these  disappear  giving  place 
to  the  dwarf  birch,  Alpine  willows,  Labrador  tea,  and  Lapland  rhododen- 
dron, which  spread  out  over  the  nearest  rocks  after  rising  a  few  inches 
above  the  ground,  thus  gaining  the  warmth  which  enables  them  to  live  in 
spite  of  cold  and  storm.  On  the  top  of  the  summits  these  are  succeeded  by 
the  Greenland  sandwort,  cassiope,  the  diapensia,  azalia,  Alpine  bearberry, 
with  Arctic  rushes,  lichens  and  sedges. 



BY   HON.   J.   "W.   WEEKS. 

Beaver  —  Dams  — Moose — Description,  Food,  Etc.  — Deer,  Caribou,  Etc. — Horns  —  Bear  — 
Wolverine  —  Lynx  —  Otter  —  Fisher  —  Sable  —  Raccoon  —  Grey  Squirrel  — Wild  Geese  and  Ducks 
—  Ruffed  Grouse  or  Partridge  —  Canada  Grouse  or  Spruce  Partridge  —  Wild  Pigeons. 

EAVER.— It  does  not  appear  that  the  Indians  ever  cultivated  the  lands 
or  wintered  on  the  Connecticut  farther  north  than  Haverhill,  conse- 
quently the  wild  animals  were  not  so  constantly  beset  by  them  in 
early  times  as  they  were  farther  south,  or  on  the  St.  Lawrence.     An  old 

Game  of  Coos  County.  61 

writer  says  above  the  mountains  was  a  "paradise  for  hunters."  The 
beaver  inhabited  this  region  in  immense  numbers.  This  animal,  with 
instinct  almost  human,  was  in  shape,  except  the  tail,  like  the  muskrat, 
but  weighing  twenty  or  twenty-five  pounds.  The  tail,  six  or  eight  inches 
long,  covered  with  thick  scales,  was  very  strong,  broad  at  the  extremity, 
and  some  three  inches  wide.  It  not  only  assisted  the  animal  in  swimming 
but  in  sitting  at  his  work.  The  beaver's  tail  and  nose  of  the  moose  were 
considered  the  greatest  of  delicacies,  each  being  cooked  in  the  same  way 
wrapped  in  bark  or  leaves,  and  buried  in  the  embers  of  the  camp-fire  till 
thoroughly  roasted,  when  the  skin  was  pulled  off,  and  the  feast  commenced. 
It  is  said  that  the  Indians  cooked  the  whole  beaver  in  this  manner,  thus 
losing  the  skin.  The  beaver  was  substantially  exterminated  prior  to  the 
settlement  of  Lancaster. 

With  regard  to  the  beaver  marks  in  this  section,  Major  Weeks  said 
there  were  dams  on  Martin's  meadow  "  fifty  rods  long  and  five  feet  high  *' 
in  his  day.  Their  meadows  were  found  in  every  brook  ;  and  their  canals 
were  cut  from  every  pond  surrounded  by  bogs,  to  the  highlands.  In  a 
pond  of  a  few  acres  in  the  north  part  of  Whitefield,  a  canal  was  cut 
through  the  bog  back  to  the  high  ground.  This  was  as  straight  and  true 
as  if  done  by  a  spade  and  line.  It  was  twenty  inches  or  two  feet  wide, 
and  so  deep  that  in  winter  the  beavers  could  pass  to  and  from  the  pond 
under  the  ice.  Their  home  was  on  this  canal  from  which  they  reached  the 
high  ground,  entering  so  deep  down  as  to  be  below  the  frost.  These  canals 
served  a  double  purpose  ;  they  were  the  means  of  reaching  the  deciduous 
trees,  the  bark  of  which  served  them  for  food,  and  as  a  concealment  from 
their  enemies.  These  pond-beavers  had  holes  along  their  canals,  below 
the  frost,  that  extended  long  distances  and  struck  high  land,  where  they 
dug  up  to  where  it  was  dry,  and  made  their  homes.  From  these  burrows 
they  could  reach  the  pond  and  feed  upon  the  roots  of  the  cow  lily,  which 
was  a  favorite  food  of  the  beaver  as  well  as  the  moose.  East  of  Lancaster 
are  two  beaver  meadows,  containing  a  hundred  acres  or  more,  the  upper 
one,  of  thirty  or  forty  acres,  at  the  junction  of  two  considerable  streams, 
has  canals  cut  through  it  in  various  directions,  some  of  them  ;~lill  eighteen 
inches  deep,  and  the  banks  of  earth  thrown  up  along  the  sides  in  some 
places  over  two  feet  high  These  canals,  unlike  those  cut  from  the  natural 
ponds,  were  for  the  purpose  of  passing  from  place  to  place  under  the  ice, 
and  for  storing  their  food,  which  consisted,  in  those  artificial  ponds,  mostly 
of  the  bark  of  deciduous  trees  which  grew  along  the  banks,  and  werecul 
into  pieces  eighteen  or  twenty  inches  long,  and  sunk  in  the  bottom  of  the 
canal.  At  the  extreme  upper  end  of  this  pond,  on  the  main  branch,  is  a 
mound  about  sixteen  feet  over  and  live  feet  high,  with  a  deep  trench 
extending  nearly  around  it,  and  a  canal  running  directly  from  it  across  the 
meadow  to  the  opposite  brook.  This  canal  is  more  than  twenty-five  rods 
long,  and  the  mound  was  evidently  their  house. 

62  History  of  Coos  County. 

I  have  never  but  once  seen  where  the  beaver  were  at  work.  This  was 
in  the  fall  of  1844,  in  the  forest  in  the  northern  part  of  the  state,  on  Perry's 
stream.  There  was  a  new  formed  dam  spanning  the  stream,  which  was 
fifteen  or  twenty  feet  wide  at  the  place.  This  dam  was  three  feet  or  more 
high,  composed  of  brush  at  first,  with  the  tops  down  stream,  then  filled  in 
with  stones,  sticks,  mud,  and  other  material.  It  was  considerably  arched, 
so  that  the  pressure  of  the  current  on  its  center  crowded  the  ends  against 
the  banks  and  strengthened  the  structure.  Near  by  was  a  white  or  river 
maple,  three  to  four  inches  through,  cut  down,  and  several  pieces  cut  from 
it  eighteen  or  twenty  inches  long,  and  others  partly  cut.  How  such  a  mass 
of  sticks,  stones,  gravel,  and  mud,  as  composed  this  dam  were  ever  con- 
veyed there,  is  a  mystery  to  me.  When  a  boy,  I  often  saw  beaver  cuttings 
about  the  ponds,  once  lagoons,  but  they  were  always  old  and  seemed  to  be 
done  by  wandering  animals  ;  a  tree  would  be  cut  down  and  left  Avhere  it 
fell.  The  beaver,  in  felling  a  tree,  cuts  around  it,  cutting  above  and  below, 
and  tearing,  or  splitting  out  the  chips,  leaving  the  stump  in  the  shape  of 
a  cone,  tapering  to  a  point  at  an  angle  of  about  forty-five  degrees. 

The  Moose  was  not  destroyed  before  the  settlement  of  this  northern 
country.  The  hunters  killed  them  only  to  supply  themselves  with  food 
when  they  were  unsuccessful  in  trapping  the  beaver.  The  large  extent  of 
fertile  soil,  with  its  numerous  streams  and  ponds,  made  this  a  favorite 
resort  for  all  game  that  roamed  a  northern  forest,  more  particularly  of  that 
strange  and  uncouth  animal,  the  moose.  He  seems  to  have  come  down 
from  a  former  period  of  time.  No  naturalist  with  whose  writings  I  am 
acquainted,  has  given  an  adequate  description  of  the  habits  and  peculiar 
characteristics  of  this  creature.  Judge  Caton,  who  has  written  a  most 
exhaustive  work  on  the  "  Deer  of  America,"  treats  him  as  a  herbivorous 
animal  like  the  common  deer,  when  his  habits  are  much  different  from  the 
caribou  or  reindeer.  His  long  forelegs  and  short  neck  preclude  his  feeding 
from  the  ground  without  bending  them  or  getting  on  his  knees  ;  the  long 
prehensile  nose  serving  the  purpose  of  the  elephant's  trunk,  dropping  three 
inches  or  more  over  the  mouth,  which  is  wholly  out  of  sight  as  you  stand 
beside  or  in  front  of  him,  with  nostrils  capable  of  being  distended  to  an 
enormous  size,  or  of  being  entirely  closed,  yet  constantly  vibrating,  and 
usually  narrowed  to  the  merest  slit  when  the  creature  is  at  rest.  The  little 
deep,  and  villainous  looking  eye,  with  its  false,  transparent  lid,  at  one  time 
half  covering  the  sight,  and  then  withdrawn,  like  that  seen  in  aquatic 
animals  or  birds,  show  that  the  moose  is  not  a  grazing  animal  like  the  deer, 
and  not  destined  to  subsist  on  the  common  herbage  of  the  forest. 

I  suppose  the  moose  in  the  summer  season  feeds  largely  upon  the  twigs 
and  branches  of  deciduous  trees;  but  their  favorite  food  is  aquatic  plants 
and  roots  Hunters,  who  have  seen  him  eating,  have  told  me  that  he 
would  wade  in  the  mud  and  water  up  to  about  midside,  and  put  his  head 

Game  of  Coos  County.  63 

below  the  surface,  feel  around,  and,  when  he  got  hold  of  the  righl  root, 
would  pull  it  up,  shake  it  in  the  water,  and  munch  it  as  il  floated  around 
him.  His  flexible  nose  was  very  useful  to  foci  and  bring  up  the  favorite 
roots,  and  the  power  to  perfectly  dose  his  nostrils  togel her  with  the  trans- 
parent lid  protecting  his  eyes,  left  those  organs  in  perfect  condition  to  per- 
form their  offices  when  the  head  was  raised  above  the  surface. 

Perhaps  it  may  not  be  amiss  to  say  something  of  the  root  of  the  cow- 
lily,  which  formed  so  important  an  article  of  food  for  the  moose.  Most 
people  have  seen  the  pads  and  large  yellow  blossoms.  The  roots  of  the  lily 
are  nearly  the  size  of  a  man's  arm,  and  lie  horizontally  a  few  inches  below 
1 1  ie  si  i  rface  of  the  mud,  forming  a  net- work  so  strong  that  a  man  may  walk 
upon  them.  From  appearance  they  last  for  ages,  each  season  sending  out 
feederroots,  leaves,  and  flower  stalks,  that  fall  away  at  the  commencement 
of  cold  weather.  These  roots  are  quite  porous,  are  as  easily  cut  as  a  potato  >, 
and  have  a  pungent  but  not  unpleasant  smell.  The  winter  food  of  the 
moose  was  principally  the  bark  of  the  mountain  ash  (which  grows  very 
large  and  in  great  abundance  upon  the  mountains),  although  I  have  been 
told  that  at  times  they  used  the  bark  of  the  white  maple.  The  moose 
strikes  his  teeth  into  the  bark  like  a  set  of  gouges,  cuts  diagonally  across 
the  wood,  and  upward,  and  gathers  the  bark  into  his  mouth,  as  it  falls, 
with  his  long,  pliable,  upper  lip  I  never  saw  where  the  bark  was  taken 
from  a  tree  nearer  than  two  feet  of  the  ground,  but  have  seen  them  peeled 
as  high  as  eight  or  nine  feet. 

T  have  never  hunted  the  moose,  but  business  has  led  me  into  his  imme- 
diate neighborhood,  where  for  days  I  would  not  be  out  of  sight  of  his 
marks  on  his  feeding  grounds.  At  one  time  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  be 
able  to  study  a  tame  one.  This  was  a  fine  animal,  about  two  years  old, 
not  quite  as  large  as  a  colt  of  the  same  age.  It  was  perfectly  gentle  and 
enjoyed  being  petted  as  much  as  a  colt. 

The  moose  were  not  wantonly  destroyed  by  the  respectable  inhabitants 
of  the  country,  as  they  considered  them  as  a  never-ending  supply  of  meat. 
but  by  the  vagabonds  who  always  infest  a  new  settlement.  Some  idea  of 
the  vast  numbers  of  these  animals  may  be  gained  from  the  fact  (as  stated 
by  Edward  Spaulding  and  Major  John  W.  Weeks)  that  Nathan  Caswell 
took  it  into  his  head  to  kill  a  hundred  moose  on  the  crusl  in  one  winter, 
and  actually  did  kill  ninety-nine,  and  *Spanlding  said  he  chased  the  hun- 
dredth one  into  the  Burnside  meadow,  in  Fast  Lancaster,  and  lost  him. 
Caswell  lived  on  the  noses  and  other  nice  bits,  and  only  saved  a  part  of  the 
skins.  He  did  this  upon  the  same  principle  that  wolves  kill  sheep  for  mere 
wickedness.  It  is  said  that  the  inhabitants  were  so  incensed  at  this  that 
they  refused  him  shelter  in  their  houses  and  drove  him  from  the  settle- 
ment. [This  Caswell  was  not  Capt,  Nathan  Caswell,  the  first  settler  and 
prominent  citizen  of  Littleton,  but  probably  was  his  son.  a  man  of  roving 

64  History  of  Coos  County. 

habits.]  Other  persons  probably  killed  as  many  more,  bat  they  increased 
rapidly,  and  I  have  heard  James  B.  Weeks  say,  that  in  1808  or  1810, 
"there  came  a  very  deep  snow,  and,  in  March,  a  sharp  crust,  so  that 
there  were  killed  in  Lancaster  and  surrounding  towns  as  many  as  ninety 
moose,  mostly  wantonly.1'  The  few  that  survived  this  devastation  moved 
to  safer  quarters. 

Among  the  early  settlers  of  Lancaster  who  occasionally  hunted  the 
moose  were  Stanley,  Bucknam,  and  Blake.  The  two  latter  were  remark- 
able for  their  deadly  aim  with  the  long  smooth-bore.  Stanley  was  also 
noted  for  the  accuracy  of  his  shots.  At  one  time  he  killed  four  moose  in 
Cherry  pond  by  making  five  shots  in  quick  succession,  and  bringing  down 
four  of  the  animals.  Stanley  owned  and  lived  on  what  was  later  called 
the  Bellows  place,  and  afterwards  owned  by  Capt.  Beattie.  Bucknam 
resided  near  the  brick  school-house  in  Lancaster,  and  Blake,  near  the 
mouth  of  John's  river. 

I  should  not  do  justice  to  this  subject  if  I  did  not  speak  of  the  manner 
in  which  the  hunters  brought  in  their  meat  when  they  killed  it  at  a  dis- 
tance from  home.  Whether  the  toboggan  is  a  modern  invention  or  not  I 
will  leave  for  others  to  decide.  The  hunter  kills  a  moose,  takes  off  the 
skin,  spreads  it  out,  strips  the  flesh  from  the  bones,  and  wraps  it  in  the 
skin,  which  lies  full  length,  and  of  equal  widths  (perhaps  a  foot  and  a  half 
wide),  binds  it  up  with  thongs  cut  from  the  edge  of  the  skin,  being  sure 
that  the  thongs  as  they  go  round  the  pack  are  beneath  the  hair,  and  turns 
up  the  neck  in  the  shape  of  the  dasher  to  the  toboggan.  To  this  he  fast- 
ens a  withe,  and  lets  the  whole  freeze,  if  it  will.  The  slightest  crust  will 
bear  this  toboggan,  and  no  sled  ever  ran  smoother. 

Deer.  Caribou,  Etc. — When  the  Creator  formed  the  animals  to  inhabit 
the  earth,  lie  made  them  to  serve  certain  purposes  in  the  courses  of  nature, 
one  to  fill  this  place,  another  that,  but,  at  last,  when  he  wanted  a  thing  of 
beauty,  he  made  the  American  deer,  and  he  must  have  been  well  pleased 
with  the  work  of  his  hands. 

Very  few  deer  ever  found  their  way  north  of  the  White  Mountains  till 
the  moose  were  substantially  exterminated.  In  conversation,  many  years 
ago,  with  Edward  Spaulding  and  James  B.  Weeks  upon  this  subject,  Mr. 
Spaulding,  who  came  to  the  country  in  1767.  said,  when  he  was  a  boy,  a 
deer  used  to  come  and  feed  with  his  father's  cattle  in  Northumberland,  and 
aftera  time  his  father  killed  it.  Mr.  Weeks  said  that  in  1810  there  weresome 
deer  about  Cherry  pond,  and  two  or  three  were  killed  on  the  crust  by  Lan- 
caster men.  They  must  have  been  considered  extremely  rare  at  that  time 
or  men  would  not  have  gone  eight  miles  through  an  unbroken  forest  to 
hunt  them. 

About  1818  oi-  1820  a  deer  was  seen  in  the  road  near  Prospect  Farm.  The 
boy  who  saw  it  described  the  animal  and  there  was  much  questioning  as 

Game  of  Coos  County.  65 

to  what  it  was.  From  this  time  their  increase  in  Lancaster  and  vicinity 
was  very  rapid.  They  were  seen  about  the  ponds  and  streams,  in  the  fields, 
and  their  marks  were  in  the  forest.  The  inhabitants  did  not  know  how  to 
hunt  them,  and  the  deer  were  unmolested  for  a  long  time.  A  few  were 
killed  on  the  crust,  but  their  meat  was  worthless  at  that  season,  and  pub- 
lic opinion  was  against  the  killing  of  them  for  mere  sport.  After  a  time 
the  people  learned  to  still-hunt  and  trap  them  in  the  fall,  and  their  meat 
and  skins  was  quite  a  source  of  profit.  The  section  with  which  I  was  best 
acquainted  was  South  Lancaster,  Dalton  and  Whitefield.  It  was  said  that 
Samuel  Barker,  of  Dalton,  killed  forty  with  his  rifle  one  fall,  most  of  them 
he  sent  to  market.  A  farmer  who  lived  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  George 
P.  Rowell  killed  fifteen  one  season,  within  a  mile  from  home.  In  some 
well-to-do  families  venison  was  the  most  common  fresh  meat. 

The  reason  for  the  great  number  of  deer  in  the  locality  spoken  of  was 
probably  the  fact  that  they  were  not  chased  by  hounds,  for  if  one  pursued 
a  deer  into  that  region  he  was  killed.  They  were  chased  in  Vermont  and 
at  Littleton,  It  will  be  noticed  when  the  deer  were  so  numerous,  Lancas- 
ter was  well  occupied  by  farms,  and  the  towns  south  well  dotted  with  set- 
tlements. The  deer,  during  the  summer  and  fall,  lived  largely  about  the 
clearings,  feeding  on  the  tender  herbage  that  sprung  up  after  the  running 
of  the  fires,  or  in  the  fields  of  the  settlers.  Whatever  was  palatable  to  a 
sheep  was  agreeable  to  the  deer.  Growing  grain,  wheat  or  oats  did  not 
come  amiss;  peas,  potatoes,  turnips,  apples,  and  anything  that  a  sheep 
would  eat,  the  deer  craved,  and,  in  some  instances,  they  were  more  than 
half  domesticated.  I  will  give  an  example:  Since  1850,  they  would  in  the 
spring  of  the  year  be  often  seen  on  my  meadow,  a  mile  east  of  the  village, 
as  many  as  four  at  a  time,  but  would  generally  disappear  after  the  herbage 
was  well  started,  but  there  was  a  doe  that  remained  three  years  in  succes- 
sion and  raised  a  pair  of  fawns,  which  she  kept  hid  in  the  small  piece  of 
woods  west  of  the  river,  directly  below  E.  F.  Connor's.  In  August  the 
fawns,  then  fine  little  animals,  would  appear  with  the  mother.  Of  the 
last  pair  she  raised  there,  one  was  perfectly  white,  except  its  nose  and  the 
back  of  its  ears,  which  were  tinged  with  red.  The  next  March,  1854,  some 
hunters  from  Manchester,  hearing  of  these  deer,  came  up  with  their  hunt- 
ing shirts,  their  hounds,  snow-shoes,  long-range  rifles,  and  all  the  parapher- 
nalia of  city  sportsmen  to  hunt  the  deer  we  did  not  know  what  to  do  with. 
They  made  their  headquarters  at  the  American  House,  and  the  next  morn- 
ing, after  fortifying  their  inner  man  (gentleman,  I  mean,)  and  raising  their 
courage  to  a  pitch  necessary  to  so  great  and  hazardous  an  undertaking, 
they  went  up  and  put  their  dogs  after  those  inoffensive  and  helpless  animals. 
They  drove  the  white  one  up  across  the  meadow  and  caught  it  by  the  side  of 
the  road  a  little  west  of  where  John  Jerome  now  lives;  they  took  it  down  to 
the  American  House  in  great  state,  and  thence  to  Manchester.     Whether 


6Q  History  of  Coos  County. 

the  people  of  Manchester  turned  out  en  masse  to  welcome  the  gentlemen 
back  after  so  hazardous  an  enterprise  I  never  learned.  What  became  of 
the  other  two  deer  I  do  not  know,  but  they  never  returned  to  that  neigh- 
borhood. It  will  be  inferred  from  what  I  have  written  that  if  the  deer 
could  be  protected  from  being  chased  by  dogs  in  summer,  and  from  brutal 
men  killing  them  on  the  crust  in  the  winter,  hundreds  of  these  beautiful 
and  useful  animals  might  inhabit  every  township  of  northern  New  Hamp- 

The  deer,  as  mentioned  before,  made  its  appearance  in  Coos  about  1818 
or  1820,  and  its  increase  was  very  rapid.  About  1830,  when  there  were  the 
greatest  number  here,  the  wolves  came  among  us,  and  were  terribly 
destructive  both  to  sheep  and  deer,  and  the  farmers  soon  came  to  the  con- 
clusion that  the  deer  were  the  cause  of  the  wolves1  appearance,  and  they 
gradually  withdrew  their  protection,  and  many  persons  killed  twenty  or 
more  in  the  spring,  wantonly  as  ever  dogs  or  wolves  killed  sheep.  Their 
numbers  of  course  diminished,  but  in  some  localities  they  were  numerous 
till  after  1850.  About  that  time,  in  the  fall,  after  the  snow  was  on  the 
ground,  I  saw  thirteen  paraded  on  the  porch  of  the  old  Cushman  tavern 
in  Dalton,  taken  with  hounds  by  a  party  from  Massachusetts,  with  Tom 
Jerrold,  of  Littleton,  as  guide.  The  deer,  however,  remained  in  consider- 
able numbers  long  after  the  wolves  left. 

I  am  thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  deer  in  all  its  habits  and  pecul- 
iarities of  life.  Of  the  fawn  I  would  say  it  is  the  most  beautiful  little  ani- 
nal  that  can  be  imagined.  It  is  a  little  larger  than  the  common  lamb, 
with  a  pale  red  coat,  like  that  of  the  doe  in  summer,  ornamented  with  two 
rows  of  white  spots  on  each  side,  the  whole  length  of  its  body.  Its  grace- 
ful motion,  its  perfect  limbs  and  its  innocent  and  inquiring  face,  make  it  a 
most  interesting  creature.  I  never  saw  a  fawn  abroad  with  the  doe  while 
wearing  its  first  or  summer  coat;  they  are  hid  by  the  mother  while  young 
and  do  not  follow  her  till  August.  While  the  deer  were  plenty  it  was  not 
an  uncommon  thing  to  find  the  fawns  where  the  mother  had  left  them 
when  they  could  be  easily  captured.  I  have  killed  a  large  number  of  deer. 
but  never  was  so  mean  or  so  unfortunate  as  to  kill  a  doe  while  she  was 
rearing  her  fawns  in  summer,  but  I  saw  one  that  was  killed  in  the  latter 
part  of  June,  the  udder  of  which  indicated  that  she  gave  more  milk  in  pro- 
portion to  her  size  than  a  cow.  The  quantity  a  doe  usually  gives  must  be 
very  great,  as  the  fawns,  wdien  they  begin  to  go  out  with  her,  are  about 
half  her  size.  The  doe  and  her  fawns  remain  together  the  first  winter,  but 
not  after.  Old  bucks  are  seldom  seen  with  the  does  or  smaller  deer.  They 
remain  exceedingly  quiet  while  their  horns  are  growing,  and  often  become 
very  fat.  but  after  their  horns  harden,  they  feed  little  and  range  almost 
continually,  soon  becoming  thin,  and  their  venison  is  not  good. 

Of  the  caribou  I  know  little,  having  never  seen  a  live  one,  and  never  to- 

Game  of  Coos  County.  67 

my  recollection  heard  them  spoken  of  by  the  early  settlers,  but  it  appears 
that,  some  sixty  or  seventy  years  ago,  a  herd  came  down  from  the  north- 
east, and  spread  over  the  northern  Androscoggin  country,  but  did  not  come 
as  far  west  as  the  Connecticut.  I  have  never  seen  any  of  their  natural 
feeding  grounds,  on  any  of  the  Connecticut  waters  southwest  of  Second 
and  Third  lakes.  I  have  seen  some  very  fine  specimens  of  heads  and  horns 
taken  in  the  extreme  northeastern  part  of  New  Hampshire  and  Maine. 

Horns. — The  horns  of  the  moose,  deer,  and  caribou  are  strongly  related 
to  each  other.  I  have  noticed  the  horn  of  the  deer,  in  all  its  stages,  from 
the  time  it  commences  rising  from  the  head  till  it  dies  and  falls  off  in  early 
winter.  I  will  describe  one  taken  from  a  buck  of  very  large  size.  It  was 
about  eight  inches  long  and  an  inch  and  a  half  in  diameter  at  the  base, 
where  it  was  hard,  and  had  taken  its  normal  shape.  About  two  and  a 
half  inches  from  the  head  the  first  prong  was  sent  out,  and  was  perfectly 
shaped  and  hard.  From  this  point  to  the  end  the  horn  varied  in  density. 
until,  at  the  extremity,  it  was  a  mere  pulp,  with  a  very  small  amount  of 
bony  substance.  The  second  or  largest  prong  had  just  begun  to  be  formed. 
Across  the  end  it  was  somewhat  flattened,  more  than  two  and  a  half 
inches  wide,  and  as  thick  as  the  horn  would  be  when  matured.  When 
dried,  the  end  shrunk  and  shriveled  like  some  soft  vegetable,  and,  when  cut 
after  drying,  was  nearly  as  porous  as  a  sponge. 

The  horns  of  all  these  animals  are,  doubtless,  extremely  sensitive,  for 
the  bucks  that  wear  them  are  seldom  seen  while  they  are  growing,  nor 
until  well  hardened.  We  seldom  see  horns  that  are  damaged  during 
growth,  still  I  have  noticed  them  broken  down  and  healed.  I  have  also 
seen  where  a  knot  had  been  broken  off  in  a  horn,  and  afterwards  covered 
by  a  new  growth.  The  skin,  or  velvet,  on  the  horn  of  the  live  animal 
seems  as  tough  as  the  skin  on  the  other  parts.  I  have  seen  large  horns 
with  the  ends  of  all  the  main  prongs  pulpy.  On  the  final  hardening  of  the 
bony  substance  the  skin  dies  and  is  rubbed  off. 

Some  naturalists  try  to  classify  animals  of  the  deer  kind  by  their  horns, 
and  determine  their  ages  by  the  number  of  prongs  on  each;  but  the  excep- 
tions to  this  rule  are  many  and  marked.  Edward  Spaulding.  who  lived  in 
Lancaster  when  the  moose  were  in  their  glory,  told  of  one  with  horns  a 
foot  wide  and  seventeen  prongs  on  each.  In  the  fall  of  1848,  on  the  head 
waters  of  Hall's  stream,  I  saw  the  bones  of  a  moose  of  the  largest  size,  that 
had  died  when  the  horns  were  in  the  velvet.  The  carcass  had  been  torn 
and  the  horns  much  eaten  bv  the  bears.     These  horns  were  about  two  and 


a  half  feet  long,  shaped  likeapalm  almost  from  the  head,  and  ten  or  eleven 
inches  wide  in  the  widest  place.      The   next  February   (1849)   John  H. 

Spaulding  went  into  that  immediate  vicinity  and  killed  a  bull  n se,  one 

of  the  horns  of  which  I  have  examined.  The  shaft  was  t  wenty-one  inches 
long  and  rounded  almost  as  perfectly  as  that  of  the  deer.     It  was  broken 

6S  History  of  Coos  County. 

off  and  rounded.  About  nine  inches  from  the  head  was  a  well-rounded 
and  sharp  prong  eight  inches  long.  At  thirteen  inches  was  another  prong, 
broken  off  when  soft,  leaving  about  four  inches,  and  still  another  nearer 
the  end  three  inches  long  and  very  sharp.  Judge  Caton  concludes  that  the 
American  moose  is  a  separate  animal  from  the  Scandinavian  elk.  because 
his  horns  are  more  pal  mated;  this  moose  had  horns  precisely  like  the  animal 
represented  in  Judge  Caton's  work.  The  time  of  moulting,  or  shedding 
the  horns,  by  the  deer,  moose,  and  caribou,  depends  much  on  circumstances. 
I  have  known  a  buck  to  shed  his  horns  in  November,  and  1  have  heard  of 
one  that  wore  a  large  pair  of  white  horns  in  the  spring.  The  moose  seldom 
carries  his  antlers  so  late  as  the  one  killed  by  Mr.  Spaulding. 

I  have  horns  of  the  deer  of  the  normal  shape:  Shaft  seventeen  inches 
long,  spread  at  points  eleven  inches,  three  prongs  on  each,  aside  from  main 
shaft,  rounded,  and  very  sharp.  I  think  I  have  seen  four  prongs  on  a 
single  horn,  but  no  more.  I  have  another  pair  of  horns,  with  the  head, 
taken  from  one  of  the  largest  bucks  I  ever  saw.  These  are  about  an  inch 
and  a  half  in  diameter  at  the  base,  and  nineteen  inches  in  length.  About 
four  inches  from  the  head  is  a  very  sharp  prong  on  each,  one  about  three, 
the  other  about  two  inches  long.  On  the  left  horn  is  a  small  prong  about 
one  inch  long,  five  inches  from  the  end  of  the  main  shaft,  very  sharp. 
These  horns  are  flattened  to  an  edge  on  the  upper  side,  and  about  two  inches 
wide  in  the  widest  place.  The  shaft  is  otherwise  of  the  usual  shape  and 
handsomely  turned.  I  once  killed  a  buck  not  one-third  the  size  of  the  one 
above  mentioned,  having  well- developed  horns  with  three  or  four  sharp 
prongs  on  each.  I  have  seen  a  deer  above  the  common  size  with  only 
spike  horns,  six  inches  long,  nearly  as  sharp  as  the  tines  of  a  pitchfork. 

The  Bear.  -The  bear  was  one  of  the  original  proprietors  of  the  soil  of 
this  northern  country,  and  still  holds  his  own  against  all  odds.  The  vaga- 
bond hunters  had  much  rather  expend  their  superfluous  courage  on  deer 
and  kindred  animals  than  on  such  ''rough  things"  as  bears.  I  would  say 
of  "bruin"  that  I  have  known  him  from  the  little,  crawling,  blind  cub, 
not  larger  than  a  large  rat,  brought  forth  in  February  or  the  first  of 
March,  to  the  old  "  sheep  -killer "  weighing  four  or  five  hundred  pounds. 
Each  she  bear  produces  two  and  sometimes  three  cubs,  which  in  their 
earliest  stages  are  the  most  insignificant  little  things  imaginable.  They 
fasten  at  once  upon  the  mother,  and  for  about  two  months  draw  their  sus- 
tenance from  her  without  her  partaking  of  any  food;  consequently  she 
comes  oat  of  her  den  the  last  of  April,  or  the  first  of  May,  extremely  thin, 
while  the  cubs  are  as  large  as  woodchucks.  These  cubs  follow  the  mother 
the  first  season  until  it  is  time  to  den  up  in  the  fall,  when  they  are  driven 
off  and  den  together,  and,  if  they  survive,  remain  near  each  other  the  fol- 
lowing season.  If  all  the  cubs  and  young  bears  lived,  bears  would  be  so 
numerous  that  the  country  would  be  overrun  with  them,  but  I  think  many 

GrAME   OF   COOS   (  !OUNTY.  69 

perish  during  their  first  winter,  and  many  more  in  the  spring,  when   they 
first  come  out.     I  have  known  of  several  instances  where  they  have  been 
found  in  a  tarnished  condition  and  almost  helpless.  They  arc,  when  a  year 
old,  not  much  larger  than   a  collie  dog,  but  they  grow  very  rapidly  after 
vegetation  starts.     No  animal  fights  for  her  young  with  more  goodwill 
than  the  bear,  and  woe  to  the  man,  boy,  or  dog,  that  interferes  with  her 
cubs.     I  do  not  know  of  any  wild  animals  of  the  same  species  where  there 
is  such  a  diversity  of  size  and  appearance  as  in  the  black  bear  ;  those  of  the 
largest  size  being  truly  formidable  animals,  and  often  a  terror  to  neighbor- 
hoods.    The  ordinary  bear  lives  mostly  on  roots,  green  herbs  and  berries, 
seldom  killing  sheep  or  doing  other  mischief,  and  if  let  alone  is  as  harmless 
as  fawns.     In  the  early  settlement  of  Lancaster  there  was  one  who  con- 
cluded to  live  on  the  inhabitants,  and  if  he  could  not  find  what  he  liked  in 
the  pastures  or  fields  would  tear  off  boards  from  the  barns  and  walk  in  and 
help  himself  to  sheep  or  calves  as  best  suited  him.     He  continued  his 
depredations  for  a  long  time  and   was  shot  at  often  but  to  no  effect.     At 
last,  Isaac  Darby  trapped  and  killed  him.     He  was  of  monstrous  size.     I 
have  had  a  strong  passion  for  hunting  the  bear,  and  of  some  fifteen,  that 
I  have  killed  in  the  last  twenty  or  thirty  years,  only  one  has  been  of  the 
largest  size  of  those  old  "sheep  killers."  This  animal  (I  think  in  1854)  killed 
not  less  than  fifty  sheep  and  many  young  cattle  during  the  summer  and 
fall.     The  spring  following  he  returned  to  the  scene  of  his  former  depre- 
dations before  the  stock  was  out  to  pasture,  and  I  was  requested  to  try  my 
skill  on  him,  as  all  others  had  failed.     He  made  it  his  home  in  the  swamp 
east  of  where  Capt.  Beattie  now  lives.     On  our  way  up  to  set  some  traps, 
we  met  a  noted  hunter,  and  he  told  us  in  great   excitement  that  he   had 
seen  him,  and  ''he  didn't  care  a  thing  about  me.     He  was  as  big  as  a  cow. 
I  cracked  a  cap  on  him,  but  my  gun  wouldn't  go  "  He  did  not  seem  inclined 
to  go  back  with  us,  and  "crack  another  cap,"  or  to  majjfe  the  distance  one 
foot  less  between  him  and  "bruin."     We  trapped  the  bear  one  Saturday 
night,  about  the   1st  of  May.     The  next  day,  the  churches   were  thinly 
attended,  and,  after  a  chase  of  several  miles,  "  bruin  "  was  killed.     He  was 
as  fat  as  a  well  fatted  hog.     I  had  no  means  of  ascertaining  bis  weight, 
but  a  friend  of  mine  took  these  measurements:     From  his  tail  to  bis  nose, 
six  feet  two  inches;  lying  upon  his  back,  his  fore  legs  by  bis  side,  and  bis 
hind  legs  stretched  out  like  those  of  a  man,  he  measured  eight  feet   from 
the  end  of  his  toes  to  his  nose;  he  was  twenty-two  inches  across  his  breast ; 
his  "arms"  were  twenty-one  inches  round  near  the  body,  and  apparently 
as  hard  as  a  piece  of  beech- wood;  across  the  ball  of  his  fore  foot  was  rive  and 
three  fourths  inches;  his  longest  nail  was  three  inches  outside  the  bend.  His 
skin  made  a  good  sized  sleigh  robe  without  tanning. 

The  bear  is  stealthy,  and  never  approaches  bis  victim  in  a  direct  line,  bul 
in  zigzag  courses,  as  if  he  would  pass  by  his  prey,  till  sufficiently  near,  when 

TO  History  of  Coos  County. 

he  darts  upon  it  with  lightning  speed,  and  at  once  proceeds  to  eat  his  game 
alive.  He  will  eat  decayed  flesh  only  when  reduced  to  great  extremity  by 
hunger.  Bears  are  seldom  seen  in  the  forest,  as  they  lie  close  to  the  ground 
and  allow  persons  to  pass  very  near  them  without  moving.  There  is 
no  doubt  but  that  the  large  male  bears  kill  the  smaller  ones,  and 
each  other,  when  they  can.  I  caught  a  large  one  whose  skin  had  been 
torn  in  two  places  across  the  back  the  width  of  a  man's  hand,  and  length- 
wise, two  or  three  inches;  it  appeared  as  if  the  animal  had  attempted  to 
escape  from  his  antagonist,  which  struck  both  paws  upon  his  back  and 
tore  his  hide  as  he  escaped. 

Wolverine. — Among  the  game  animals  of  Coos  first  to  disappear  was 
the  wolverine.  This  was  the  natural  enemy  of  the  beaver,  and  the  beavers, 
in  order  to  protect  themselves  from  its  depredations,  would,  after  freezing 
weather  commenced,  cover  their  houses  with  a  coat  of  soft  muck  that 
becam3  a  crust  that  the  wolverine  could  not  break  through.  I  have  heard 
hunters  complain  of  wolverines  following  their  lines  of  sable  traps  and 
robbing  them  of  the  bait  and  game  caught  in  them.  It  was  a  rare  animal 
after  the  disappearance  of  the  beaver,  and  could  not  exist  after  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  moose  and  deer. 

Lynx. — The  "bob-cat,"  or  Siberian  lynx,  was  common  while  the  deer 
remained,  but  he,  with  his  shaggy  coat,  and  the  ugliest  face  that  ever 
stared  at  a  human  being,  is  gone,  I  trust,  never  to  return. 

Otter. — Among  the  first  and  most  valuable  of  furred  animals  was  the 
otter,  but  as  it  was  a  wandering,  solitary  animal,  living  oh  fish,  the  num- 
ber was  never  great.  There  are  some  still  remaining,  but,  being  nocturnal 
in  their  habits,  they  are  seldom  seen.  They  might  live  for  years  in  our 
streams  and  ponds  and  their  presence  only  be  detected  by  persons  familiar 
with  their  habits. 

The  Fisher  is  another  of  the  furred  animals  of  former  days.  He  flour- 
ished while  the  deer  remained,  but  disappeared  when  he  could  no  longer 
eke  out  a  cold  winter  upon  the  carcasses  of  the  superannuated  old  buck, 
doe,  or  fawns  killed  by  hunters  or  the  "bob-cat."  This  animal  is  of  the 
weasel  family,  of  much  value,  and  about  two-thirds  the  size  of  the  fox. 

Sable. — Next  to  the  beaver  in  importance  as  a  furred  animal  was  that 
beautiful  little  creature,  the  sable.  It  was  near  the  size  of  a  half-grown 
house-cat,  but  much  longer  in  proportion,  of  the  weasel  kind,  head  and  ear 
like  the  fox.  It  lived  upon  what  would  satisfy  a  small  carnivorous  animal 
of  the  forest.  Nocturnal  in  its  habits,  it  was  seldom  seen,  except  when 
caught  in  a  trap.  The  sable  was  secured  by  the  hunters  setting  lines  of 
traps.  The  trappers  would  start  from  a  given  point  and  go  into  the  woods 
often  several  miles,  and,  at  intervals  of  forty  or  fifty  rods,  make  a  wooden 
trap  which  they  would  bait  with  a  piece  of  flesh  or  fish,  then  make  a  cir- 
cuit, and  finally  return  to  their  starting  point.     They  would  pass  over  this 

Game  of  Coos  County.  71 

line  once  in  three  or  four  days  to  secure  their  game  and  keep  their  traps 
in  order.  For  a  long  period  within  my  remembrance  sable  skins  have 
been  a  very  considerable  source  of  income  to  the  inhabitants  of  Coos. 
They  were  much  used  to  make  muffs  and  capes  for  the  women,  in  my  day. 
The  muff  of  Mrs.  Major  Weeks  was  large  enough  to  let  her  arms  in  to  the 
elbows,  and  contained  more  than  thirty  prime  sable  skins,  and  with  her 
cape  seventy  or  eighty.  My  mother's  muff  contained  thirty  skins  of  choice 
quality.  They  always  bore  a  good  price  in  cash.  A  month  spent  in  the 
fall  by  an  experienced  trapper  would  often  secure  a  hundred  or  more.  The 
sable,  like  the  fisher,  was  dependent  on  the  larger  game,  like  the  moose 
and  deer,  to  carry  them  through  our  northern  winters.  So  what  was  left 
by  the  hunters  ceased  to  thrive,  and  only  a  few  remain. 

The  Raccoon  and  Grey  Squirrel  are  only  visitors  of  Coos.  In  former 
times,  when  beech-nuts  were  plenty,  they  made  their  appearance  in  con- 
siderable numbers. 

Wild  Geese,  Ducks,  Etc. — Fifty  years  ago  wild  geese  were  plenty  about 
the  ponds  and  in  Connecticut  river  near  Lancaster.  They  often  came  in  flocks 
of  ten  or  a  dozen,  in  September,  and  remained  till  freezing  weather  in  the 
late  fall.  They  were  frequently  killed  by  experienced  sportsmeu.  Black 
and  wood  ducks  were  here  in  vast  numbers,  and  some  remained  to  within 
a  few  years.  They  made  their  nests  and  raised  their  young  about  the 
meadows,  and  in  the  fall  were  hunted  by  those  who  liked  canvass  backs 
but  were  willing  to  accept  black  or  wood  in  place  thereof.  Perhaps  the 
hunting  was  not  according  to  the  rules  of  sportsmen,  but  it  filled  the  bag 
with  game.  The  old  Dutch  gun,  or  Queen's  arm,  charged  with  two  fin- 
gers of  powder  and  an  ounce  of  BB  shot  would  sweep  a  space  on  a  pond  or 
river  a  yard  and  a  half  wide,  and  kill  at  a  distance  that  would  strike  a 
modern  sportsman  with  envy.     The  ducks  are  gone  with  the  geese. 

Grouse. — The  ruffed  grouse,  or  partridge,  was  found  in  great  numbers 
in  all  our  woods,  but  lately  they  are  seldom  seen,  even  in  the  dee})  forests 
where  they  are  not  hunted.  The  Canada  grouse,  or  spruce  partridge,  was 
quite  common.  Although  called  a  game  bird,  it  would  require  a  strange 
palate  to  call  its  flesh  delicious.  All  naturalists  in  treating  of  the  ruffed 
grouse  describe  his  drumming,  but  make  no  mention  of  that  of  the  (  anada 
grouse  which  instead  of  sitting  upon  a  log  and  beat  ing  regular  strokes  with 
his  wings,  making  a  sound  like  the  beating  an  inflated  ox  bladder 
upon  a  log,  reaches  the  top  of  a  tree  by  hopping  from  branch  to 
branch,  then  hops  off  and  makes  a  drumming  noise  as  he  descends  to  the 
ground.  I  will  describe  one  I  saw  that  much  interested  me.  I  heard  what 
I  supposed  to  be  the  drumming  of  a  common  partridge,  and  went  to  shoot 
it,  butsawitwas  a  Canada  grouse,  and  sat  down  and  watched  him.  lie  was 
on  the  ground,  his  feathers  standing  so  many  ways  he  hardly  retained  the 
shape  of  a  bird.     No  dandy  ever  made  a  greater  display.     He  began  to 

72  History  of  Coos  County. 

ascend  the  bushes  and  limbs  of  the  small  trees  about,  by  hopping  and  flying 
up  a  foot  or  two  at  a  time,  retaining  his  brustling  and  pompous  mood. 
When  he  was  up  twenty  or  thirty  feet,  he  hopped  off  a  limb  and  came 
down  almost  perpendicularly  making  a  fluttering,  drumming  noise  as  he 
descended.  I  watched  him  go  through  this  performance  several  times. 
Thinking  it  a  pity  to  spoil  so  much  good  feeling  I  left  him  to  his  enjoy- 

Pigeons. — In  my  boyhood  I  have  seen  flocks  of  hundreds  of  thousands, 
if  not  millions  of  wild  pigeons.  My  father  had  a  net  and  I  have  baited  it 
and  caught  them  till  I  was  tired.  They  used  to  breed  on  the  mountains 
in  the  vicinity.  I  once  saw  one  of  their  "roosts."  I  was  projecting  a  line 
through  the  forest  on  the  highlands  between  this  state  and  Canada,  some- 
time in  the  "  forties,"  and  noticed  egg  shells  on  the  ground.  Looking  up 
we  saw  that  in  the  tops  of  the  trees  every  place  where  sticks  could  be  placed 
was  occupied  by  a  pigeon's  nest.  Some  trees  had  as  many  as  twenty  or 
thirty.  We  camped  in  the  midst  of  them,  and  the  next  morning  went  at 
least  half  a  mile  before  we  came  to  the  end.  Pigeons  came  in  reduced 
numbers  till  within  a  few  years,  but  they  are  now  gone  with  the  other 
game  animals  and  birds;  and  Coos,  from  being  the  finest  sporting  ground 
in  the  world,  is  now  about  the  poorest. 



Early  Trappers  and  Hunters— Indian  Threats  — Capture  of  Stark  and  Eastman  —  Powers' 
Expedition  — Extracts  from  Journal  —  Fort  Wentworth  —  First  Settlers  — Townships,  and  Date 
of  Grants  —  Early  Population. 

T"T  ARLY  Trappers  and  Visitors.—  After  the  exploration  of  Field  and 
|ff  others  (1632— 1:2)  it  was  more  than  a  century  before  we  again  hear  of 
'Hf  white  men  within  the  limits  of  Coos  county.  The  English  were  push- 
ing their  settlements  up  the  valleys  of  the  Connecticut  and  the  Merrimack, 
trappers  penetrated  the  wilderness  far  above  the  settlements,  and  they 
often  met  the  Indians  on  these  hunting  excursions  and  evidently  were  on 
friendly  terms  witli  them.  John  and  Israel  Glines  came  here  very  early, 
prior  to  1750,  several  years  before  any  expedition  of  discovery  was  sent  to 
explore  the  wilds  of  Upper  Cohos.  These  men  came  to  get  a  part  of  their 
means  of  support,  working  on  their  land  through  "springtime  and  har- 

Early  History.  ;:>, 

vest,"  and  then  repairing  to  this  wilderness  in  the  autumn  to  gel  the  where- 
withal to  supply  their  families  with  greater  com  forts  than  were  then  obtain- 
able from  the  meager  soil  of  their  rough  farms. 

John  Glines  had  his  camp  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  which  bears  his 
name,  while  Israel  had  his  headquarters  near  the  placid  Connecticut, 
Israel's  river,  and  Beaver  brook,  where  the  traces  of  two  distinct  beaver 
dams  are  still  to  be  seen.  Here  he  carried  on  his  hunting  and  trapping 
operations  successfully. 

Benjamin  Nash,  Willard,  Thomas  Barker,  Edwards  Bucknam,  and 
others,  followed  the  Glineses,  and  the  almost  mythical  Martin,  who  gave  his 
name  to  Martin  Meadows.  The  Glineses  became  involved  in  trouble  with 
the  Indians  by  shooting  one  of  them,  and  left  to  return  no  more.  The 
later  ones  came,  no  doubt,  more  than  once,  on  their  hunting  expeditions, 
to  the  upper  Connecticut.  But  the  French  as  well  as  Indians  were  becom- 
ing jealous  of  the  extension  northward  of  English  settlements.  As  the 
English  contemplated  laying  out  two  towns  in  the  spring  of  1752,  which 
should  embrace  the  lower  Coos  meadows,  the  Indians  remonstrated  and 
threatened.  It  is  probable,  however,  that  their  threats  were  not  known  to 
all  the  settlers,  for  four  young  men  from  Londonderry  were  hunting  on 
Baker's  river,  in  Eumney,  and  two  of  these,  John  Stark  and  Amos  East- 
man, were  surprised  and  captured  by  the  Indians,  April  l;s,  i  752.  They 
were  taken  to  Lower  Coos  where  two  of  the  Indians  had  been  left  to  kill 
game  against  their  return.  The  next  day  they  proceeded  to  the  Upper 
Coos,  from  which  place  they  sent  Eastman  with  three  of  their  number  to 
St.  Francis.  "The  remainder  of  the  Indians  employed  themselves  for 
some  time  in  hunting  upon  a  small  stream  called  John's  river." —  [Stark's 
Memoirs.]  They  reached  St.  Francis  June  9th,  when  Stark  joined  his 
companion,  Eastman.  They  were  soon  after  ransomed  and  returned  to 
their  homes. 

Powers''  Expedition. — The  best  known  of  all  the  expeditions  to  Coos, 
was  that  of  the  company  under  command  of  Capt.  Peter  Powers,  of  Hollis, 
N.  H.,  Lt.  James  Stevens,  and  Ensign  Ephraim  Hale,  of  Townsend,  Mass. 
They  commenced  their  tour  Saturday,  June  15,  1754.  Starting  from 
Concord,  they  followed  the  Merrimack  river  to  Franklin,  the  Pemigewas- 
set  river  to  Plymouth,  Baker's  river  to  Wentworth,  and  then  crossed  over 
to  the  Connecticut,  via  Baker's  pond.  They  were  ten  days  in  reaching 
"  Moose  Meadows,"  which  were  in  Piermont. 

We  extract  from  their  journal: — 

"  Thursday,  Junt  21th. — This  morning  it  was  cloudy  weather,  and  it  began  (o  rain,  the  sun 
about  an  hour  high,  and  we  marched,  notwithstanding,  up  the  river  to  [  Lowe?  |  Amonoosuck  Ri\  er, 
and  our  course  was  about  north,  distance  about  live  miles;  and  we  camped  here,  for  the  River 
Amonoosuck  was  so  high  we  could  not  go  over  il  without  a  canoe;  for  it  was  swift  water,  and 
near  twenty  rods  wide.     This  afternoon   it   cleared    off  fair,  and  we  went    about   our  canoe,  and 

74  History  of  Coos  County. 

partly  built  it.  Some  of  our  men  went  up  the  River  Amonoosuck,  to  see  what  discoveries  they 
could  make;  and  they  discovered  excellent  land,  and  a  considerable  quantity  of  large  white  pines. 

"  Friday,  June  28th. — This  morning  fair  weather,  and  we  went  about  the  canoe,  and  completed 
the  same  by  about  twelve  of  the  clock  this  day,  and  went  over  the  river;  and  we  concluded  to  let 
the  men  go  down  the  river  in  the  canoe,  who  were  not  likely  to  perform  the  remaining  part  of  the 
journey,  by  reason  of  sprains  in  the  ankles,  and  weakness  of  body.  They  were  four  in  number; 
and  we  steered  our  course  for  the  great  interval  about  east,  northeast;  and  we  this  day  marched, 
after  we  left  the  river,  about  ten  miles.  And  the  land  was  exceedingly  good  upland,  and  some 
quantity  of  white  pine,  but  not  thick,  but  some  of  them  fit  for  masts. 

"  Saturday,  June  29th. — This  morning  was  cloudy,  but  we  swung  our  packs,  and  steered  our 
course  about  northeast,  ten  miles,  and  came  to  Connecticut  River.  There  it  came  on  rainy, 
and  we  camped  by  the  side  of  the-river,  and  it  rained  all  this  afternoon,  and  we  kept  our  camp  all 
this  night.  [This  was  in  the  southern  part  of  what  is  now  Dalton.]  The  land  was,  this  day's 
march,  very  good,  and  it  may  be  said  as  good  as  ever  was  seen  by  any  of  us.  The  common  growth 
of  wood  was  beech  and  maple,  and  not  thick  at  all.  It  hath  a  great  quantity  of  small  brooks. 
This  day  and  the  day  past,  there  were  about  three  brooks  tit  for  corn  mills;  and  these  were  the 
largest  of  the  brooks  that  we  saw. 

"Sunday,  June  307/j. — This  morning  exceeding  rainy  weather,  and  it  rained  all  the  night 
past,  and  continued  raining  until  twelve  of  the  clock  this  day;  and  after  that,  it  was  fair  weather, 
and  we  marched  up  Connecticut  River;  and  our  course  we  made  good  this  day  was  about  five 
miles,  east  by  north,  and  there  came  to  a  large  stream,  which  came  from  the  southeast.  This  river 
is  about  three  rods  wide,  and  we  called  it  Stark's  River,  by  reason  of  Ensign  John  Stark's  being 
iound  (captured)  by  the  Indians  at  the  mouth  of  this  river.  [This  is  John's  river.]  It  comes  into 
the  Connecticut  at  the  foot  of  the  upper  interval,  and  thence  we  travelled  up  the  interval  about 
seven  miles,  and  came  to  a  large  river  which  came  from  the  southeast;  and  it  is  about  rive  rods 
wide.  Here  we  concluded  to  go  no  further  with  the  full  scout,  by  reason  of  our  provisions  being 
almost  all  spent;  and  almost  all  our  men  had  worn  out  their  shoes.  This  river  we  caded  Powers' 
River,  it  being  the  camping  place  at  the  end  of  our  journey;  and  there  we  camped  by  the  river. 
[The  river  they  named  Powers'  river  is  Israel's  river.] 

"Tuesday,  July  2d. — This  morning  fair  weather,  and  we  thought  proper  to  mend  our  shoes, 
and  to  return  homeward;  and  accordingly  we  went  about  the  same;  and  whilst  the  men  were  this 
way  engaged,  the  captain,  with  two  of  his  men,  marched  up  the  river  to  see  what  further  discov- 
eries they  could  make,  and  they  travelled  about  rive  miles,  and  there  they  discovered  where  the 
Indians  had  a  large  camping  place,  and  had  been  making  canoes,  and  had  not  been  gone  above 
one  or  two  days  at  most;  and  so  they  returned  to  the  rest  of  the  men  again  about  twelve  of  the 
clock;  and  then  we  returned,  and  marched  down  the  river  to  Stark's  River,  and  there  camped. 
This  afternoon  it  rained  hard,  but  we  were  forced  to  travel  for  want  of  provisions.  This  interval 
is  exceedingly  large,  and  the  farther  up  the  larger.  The  general  course  of  this  river  is  from  north- 
cast  by  east  as  far  as  the  interval  extends.  [The  captain  and  his  two  men  penetrated,  probably, 
as  far  as  Hay  Camp  meadow,  in  the  north  part  of  Lancaster,  and  travelled  nearly  140  miles  beyond 
the  habitations  of  civilized  men.  At  Hay  Camp  meadow,  or  below,  they  first  fell  upon  the  trail 
of  Indians,  where  they  had,  probably,  been  preparing  canoes  to  descend  upon  the  frontier  settle- 

"  Wednesday,  July  :)J.—  This  morning  cloudy  weather,  and  thundered;  and  after  the  sun  an 
hour  high,  it  rained  hard,  and  continued  about  an  hour,  and  then  we  swung  packs,  and  steered 
cur  course  west-southwest,  aiming  for  Amonoosuck  River,  and  this  day  we  marched  about  four- 
teen miles,  and  camped. 

"  Thursday,  July  4(//.-We  marched  on  our  course  west-southwest,  and  this  day  we  marched 
about  twenty  miles,  and  camped- 

"  Friday,  July  5th  —We  marched  about  three  miles  to  our  packs,  at  Amonoosuck,  the  same 
course  we  had  steered  heretofore;  and  we  afterwards  went  over  Connecticut  River,  and  looked  up 
Well's  River,  and  camped  a  little  below  Well's  River  this  night. 

"Saturday,  July Qth.—  Marched  down  the  great  river  to  Great  Coos,  and  then  crossed  the 

Early  History.  75 

river  below  the  great  turn  of  clear  interval,  and  there  left  the  great  river,  and  steered  south  by 
east  about  three  miles,  and  there  camped.  Here  was  the  best  of  upland,  and  some  quantity  of  large 
white  pines." 

The  journal  is  fragmentary  and  meagre,  and  the  comments  made  by 
Rev.  Mr.  Powers  have  not  given  us  any  additional  light,  but  have  rather 
added  obscurity  to  the  original  narrative.  He  says  that  Ihe  object  of  the 
expedition  was  discovery;  but  if  Captain  Powers'  company  was  the  one 
referred  to  by  Governor  Wentworth  in  a  message  of  May  4,  1 7.">4,  and  in 
one  of  December  5,  17r>4,  they  certainly  went  to  see  if  the  French  were 
building  a  fort  in  the  Upper  Coos.  As  this  was  the  only  expedition  fitted 
out  during  the  year  that  went  in  this  direction,  it  is  quite  certain  that  this 
is  the  one  to  which  the  message  referred.  But  it  is  something  to  be  able 
to  say  that  Capt.  Peter  Powers,  with  his  command,  was  the  first  body  of 
English  speaking  people  who  camped  on  the  broad  intervals  of  Coos 
county.  It  would  seem  as  if  they  were  not  of  such  stuff  as  pioneers  were 
made  of,  for  their  conclusion  to  return  seems  to  have  been  reached  about 
the  time  they  saw  signs  that  indicated  a  probable  proximity  of  Indians. 

Fort  Wentworth. — In  1755  so  little  was  known  of  the  geography  of  the 
country,  that  the  "Coos  Meadows,"  on  the  Connecticut,  above  Lancaster, 
were  supposed  to  be  on  the  direct  route  from  "Salisbury  Fort  "  to  Crown 
Point,  and  Colonel  Blanchard  was  to  march  his  regiment  through  the  "Coos 
Meadows  "  to  Crown  Point.  Supposing  that  there  was  to  be  opportunity 
for  a  passage  of  the  troops,  some,  if  not  most  of  the  way,  by  water,  by  the 
Merrimack,  Connecticut,  and  other  rivers,  the  regiment  in  rendezvous 
were  kept  busily  at  work  building  batteaux  for  transportation  of  the 
troops  and  stores,  whilst  Capt.  Robert  Rogers  was  sent  forward  to  "  Coos 
Meadows  "  with  his  company  to  build  a  fort  for  the  occupation  of  the  regi- 
ment, and  for  resort  in  case  of  disaster.  Capt.  Rogers  executed  his  com- 
mission, and  built,  or  partially  built,  a  fort  on  the  Connecticut  about  three 
or  four  miles  above  the  mouth  of  the  Upper  Ammonoosuc  river.  This  was 
called  "  Fort  Wentworth."*  After  Rogers'  return,  and  the  regiment  had 
spent  some  six  weeks  in  building  batteaux  that  could  not  be  used  for  want 
of  water,  Gov.  Wentworth  discovered  his  error,  and  ordered  the  regiment 
to  proceed  across  the  Province  to  "Number  Four."  and  then  to  Crown 
Point  by  way  of  Albany. — Adjutant  GeneraVs  Report,  1866. 

Settlement. — After  fifteen  years  of  war  and  bloodshed,  by  the  conquest 
of  Canada  peace  came  to  the  New  Hampshire  frontier.  The  people  began, 
once  more,  to  be  inspired  with  hope  of  better  days. 

Besides  those  who  are  known  to  have  been  on  the  Upper  ( 'oos  Meadows, 
undoubtedly  many  trappers  of  whom  there  is  no  record  had  visited  them 

^Remains  of  this  fort  were  to  be  seen  but  a  few  years  ago.  It  was  built  at  the  narrowest  place 
of  the  Connecticut  valley  in  that  section,  opposite  a  very  high  bluff  on  the  Vermont  side 

76  History  of  Coos  County. 

and  given  glowing  accounts  to  the  lower  country.  At  least  in  the  years 
succeeding  the  French  war,  the  colonists  had  opportunities  for  exploration 
they  never  had  before.  From  Holland's  map  of  this  state  published  in 
London  in  1784,  it  would  seem  as  if  an  accurate  survey  of  the  Connecticut 
and  Androscoggin  rivers  had  been  made  for  that  work,  or  previously.  The 
country  back  of  the  rivers  is  not  so  well  defined. 

In  the  autumn  of  1763,  Emmons  Stockwell,  a  young  man  only  twenty- 
two  years  old,  of  great  muscular  power  and  physical  endurance,  who  had 
survived  the  sufferings  to  which  he  had  been  exposed  as  one  of  Rogers'  Ran- 
gers, and  David  Page,  Jr.,  aged  eighteen,  made  the  first  actual  settlement  of 
whites  in  Coos  county,  at  Lancaster.  It  required  an  amount  of  nerve  which 
our  modern  youth  may  well  admire,  to  plant  themselves  here  at  the  beginning 
of  a  rigorous  northern  winter,  without  prospect  of  food  save  what  their 
rifles  provided,  and  separated  by  fifty  long  miles  from  the  nearest  house 
of  a  white  man.  They  received  additions  the  next  year,  and,  in  1767, 
Thomas  Burnside  and  Daniel  Spaulding  came  with  their  families  and  set- 
tled in  Northumberland.  Not  only  in  these  two  towns  but  in  many  other 
localities  did  the  people  of  the  old  towns  of  Massachusetts,  Connecticut, 
and  lower  New  Hampshire,  make  an  effort  to  settle,  or  at  least  secure 
grants,  many  of  which  lapsed.  In  quick  succession  Gov.  Wentworth 
made  more  than  eighty  grants  in  Vermont  and  New  Hampshire  along  the 
Connecticut.  The  Androscoggin  and  Saco  valleys  received  the  same  atten- 
tion, for  these  were  the  days  in  which  townships  were  made. 

Townships  Granted. — Shelburne  was  chartered  in  1768,  and  re-char- 
tered in  1771.  In  1770  Cockburne  (Columbia)  was  granted;  in  1771  Maynes- 
borough  (Berlin),  Paulsborough  (Milan);  in  1772  Bretton  Woods  (Carroll), 
Durand  (Randolph),  and  Dartmouth  (Jefferson),  the  last  re-granted  to  M. 
H.  Wentworth  and  others,  it  having  been  granted  to  John  Goffe  in  1765; 
in  1773  Durnmer,  Cambridge,  Success,  a  tract  to  S.  Wales  &  Co.,  one  to 
Nash  and  Sawyer,  and  Baker's  Location;  in  1774  Whitefield,  Millsfield, 
Errol  and  Kilkenny.  Besides  these,  Colebrook,  Stuart  (Stewartstown), 
Woodbury,  re -granted  as  New  Stratford  (Stratford),  Piercy  (Stark), 
Apthorp  (including  Dalton),  Martin's  Patent,  Green's  Location,  and  Shel- 
burne Addition  (Gorham). 

Early  Population. — In  1770  there  were  a  few  people  in  Lancaster,  some 
in  Northumberland.  Capt.  Whipple  came  to  Jefferson  in  1772  through 
the  "  Notch."  This  was  the  condition  of  affairs  at  the  beginning  of  the 
Revolution  in  177.~>.  In  Lancaster  they  had  built  a  mill  that  was  worked 
by  horse-power,  and  Capt.  David  Page  had  built  a  saw-mill  on  Indian 
brook,  but  this  had  been  burnt,  and  the  number  of  inhabitants  was  sixty- 
one;  while  in  Northumberland  there  were  fifty-seven;  in  Stratford  there 
were  forty-one;  Cockburne  (Columbia)  had  fourteen,  and  Colebrook  con- 
tained only  four.     In  the  last  town  Capt.  Eleazer  Rosebrook  was  one  of 

Early  Settlers,  77 

the  pioneers.  The  total  population  in  1775  of  the  territory  afterwards 
Coos  county,  was  '227.  In  fifteen  years  it  had  quadrupled,  being  882  in 
1790.  The  ratio  of  increase  was  not  quite  so  great  for  the  next  decade; 
this  century  beginning  with  2,658  inhabitants  in  the  bounds  of  the  county. 



Character  of  Early  Settlers  of  New  Hampshire  —  Characteristics  of  Pioneers  of  Coos —  Hard- 
ships Endured  —  Religion  and  Education  • — Traditional  Stories  —  Improvement  in ' Condition  — 
Primitive  Houses  Furniture,  Etc.  —  Manners,  Customs,  Labor,  Dress,  Fare,  Etc. — Description 
of  Early  Homes,  Kitchens,  Utensils,  Stoves,  Etc. 

rjHARACTER  of  Early  Settlers  of  New  Hampshire.— -The  people  of 
I  j*\  Coos  county,  as  well  as  the  lower  counties  of  the  state,  have  a 
\j  personal  interest  in  the  characters  and  aspirations  of  the  early  set- 
tlers of  Xew  Hampshire.  It  is  of  interest  to  them  and  their  descendants 
whether  the  early  proprietors  and  settlers  were  actuated  merely  by  a  sordid 
love  of  gain,  or  whether,  back  of  the  business  enterprise  they  manifested, 
there  was  not  a  design  to  plant  on  these  lands  the  Christian  religion,  and 
to  uphold  the  Christian  faith.  Were  we  to  believe  all  that  was  said  by  the 
men  of  the  Massachusetts  Colony,  we  would  pronounce  them  Godless,  law- 
less persons  "whose  chief  end  was  to  catch  fish  "  Rev.  James  DeNor- 
mandie,  in  his  excellent  "  History  of  Portsmouth,"  in  speaking  of  the  long 
and  bitter  controversy  on  this  subject,  says:  "All  of  the  proprietors  inter- 
ested in  the  settlement  were  of  the  Established  Church,  and  it  was  only 
natural  that  all  of  the  settlers  who  came  out  with  them  should  be  zealous 
in  that  faith.  Gorges  and  Mason,  Godf rie  and  Xeal,  Gibbons  and  Chad- 
bourne  and  Williams,  and  all  the  names  appearing  on  the  Colonial  records, 
were,  doubtless,  of  this  faith.  Among  the  earliest  inventories  of  the  (  <>1 
ony's  goods  we  find  mention  of  service  books,  of  a  flagon,  and  of  cloths  for 
the  communion-table,  which  show  that  provisions  for  worship  were  not 
neglected,  and  of  what  form  the  worship  was."  Gorges,  in  defending  his 
company  from  various  charges  before  the  English  Mouse  of  Commons, 
asserts  that  "I  have  spent  £20, 000  of  my  estate  and  thirty  years,  the  whole 
flower  of  my  life,  in  new  discoveries  and  sett  lements  upon  a  remote  Conti- 
nent, in  the  enlargement  of  my  country's  commerce  and  dominions,  and 
in  carrying  civilization   and   Christianity   into  regions  of  savages."      In 

78  History  of  Coos  County. 

Mason's  will  were  instructions  to  convey  1,000  acres  of  his  New  Hamp- 
shire estate  "for  and  towards  the  maintenance  of  an  honest,  godly,  and 
religious  preacher  of  God's  word,  in  some  church  or  chapel,  or  other  public 
place  appointed  for  divine  worship  and  service  within  the  county  of  New 
Hampshire ;"  together  with  provisions  for  the  support  of  a  "free grammar 
school  for  the  education  of  youth."  No  better  proofs  could  be  given  that 
the  aims  of  those  energetic  men  from  whom  many  of  the  citizens  of  Coos 
county  claim  descent  were  fully  as  high,  moral  and  religious,  as  such 
enterprises  have  ever  been. 

Characteristics  of  these  Pioneers. — Two  classes  of  persons,  with  very 
distinctly  marked  characteristics,  penetrated  these  northern  wilds.  The 
leaders  were  men  of  intelligence,  energy,  shrewdness  and  property. 
They  had  two  objects  in  view:  to  furnish  permanent  homes  for  them- 
selves and  their  posterity,  and  to  acquire  wealth  by  the  rise  of  their  lands. 
They  were  men  of  strong  religious  principle,  and  early  made  provision 
for  the  preaching  of  the  gospel.  They  brought  cows,  swine  and  sheep, 
and  were  soon  able  to  supply  their  tables  with  meat;  they  also  had  in 
a  short  time  comfortable  houses  and  furniture.  The  second  class  were 
people  so  poor  as  to  need  help  to  reach  the  settlements.  They  came  on 
foot,  bearing  all  their  worldly  goods  upon  their  shoulders,  and,  without 
the  aid  of  the  more  prosperous,  many  of  these  latter  would  have  per- 

The  first  settlers  of  Coos,  in  common  with  the  pioneers  of  adjoining 
counties,  endured  many  privations,  hardships,  and  discouragements  not 
known  at  the  present  day,  and  it  is  well  that  the  present  and  coming  gen- 
erations should  read  of  these  experiences. 

Living  at  a  distance  of  more  than  a  hundred  miles  from  the  coast,  all 
heavy  articles,  such  as  salt,  iron,  lead,  and,  in  fact,  everything  indispensa- 
ble to  civilized  life  that  could  not  be  procured  from  the  soil,  or  found  in 
the  woods  or  streams,  was  obliged  to  be  transported  upon  the  backs  of 
men  or  horses,  not  even  having  the  convenience  of  roads,  and  their  only 
guides  through  the  forests  were  marked  trees.  They  had  to  ford  the 
streams  that  ran  across  their  route,  which  often  were  swollen  so  as  to  be 
impassable  except  by  swimming.  The  nearest  mills,  either  for  the  manu- 
facture of  lumber  or  of  grinding  their  corn  and  wheat  into  meal  or  flour, 
was  Charlestown,  N.  H.,  a  distance  of  110  miles,  and  the  surrounding 
country  a  wilderness,  and  in  addition  to  all  these  privations,  they  were 
surrounded  by  the  hostile  Indians,  who  might  at  any  time  pounce  upon 
them  with  the  tomahawk  and  scalping-knife;  thus  their  lives  were  passed 
mostly  in  hard  labor  and  danger.  Their  sleep  was  unsound,  as  they  were 
fearing  an  attack  from  their  enemies;  and,  all  in  all,  their  situation  was 
not  an   enviable  one.     However,  these  early  settlers  seem  to  have  been 

Early  Settlers.  ;:> 

endowed  with  strong  and  vigorous  constitutions  and  to  have  cultivated  a 
spirit  of  endurance  so  necessary  to  their  condition  in  life. 

It  is  difficult  for  us  to  conceive  the  hardships  of  the  pioneers  who,  a 
hundred  and  more  years  ago,  invaded  "the  forest    primeval,"  and  deter- 
mined to  wring  a  livelihood  from  lands  upon  which,  at  morning  or  even- 
ing, the    shadow  of  Mt.    Washington   lay.     The    perils   of  isolation,  the 
ravages  of  wild  beasts,  the  wild  wrath  of  the  rapid  mountain  torrents,  the 
obstacles  to  communication  which  the  vast  wilderness  interposed  —  every 
form  of  discomfort  and  danger  was  apparently  indicated  by  these  grand 
mountains  as  impervious  barriers  to  intrusion  and  occupation.     But  the 
adventurous  spirit  of  man  implanted  by  the  Supreme  Being  lor  his  own 
wise  purposes— carries  him  into  the  tangled  foiest,  into  new  climates  and 
to  foreign  shores,  and  the  great  work  of  civilization  goes  on  from  year  to 
year,  from  decade  to  decade,  from  century  to  century.  This  spirit  of — what 
shall    we   call   it?   adventure?  enterprise?  induced   whole  families  dming 
the  last  century,  when  there  was  land  enough  within  the  bounds  of  civil- 
ization unoccupied  and  unclaimed,  to  move  into  an  unbroken  wilderness. 
The  horses,  even,  of  some  of  the  settlers  would  not  remain,  and  struck  due 
south  in  the  direction  from  which  they  had  been   taken,  and  perished  in 
the  forests  before  spring.     Many  pioneers  would  start  for  their  new  homes 
in  the  winter,  as  if  to  get  the  hardest  experience  of  their  new  life  at  first. 
One  couple  went  eighty  miles  on  snow  shoes,  the  husband  carrying  their 
furniture  on  his  back,  and  they  nearly  starved  in  their  new  place  of  abode. 
Page's  colony  found  the  snow  two  feet  dee])  in  April,  1764.     Joseph  Pink- 
ham  and  his  family  removed  to  Jackson  in  1790,  when  the  snow  was  five 
feet  deep  on  a  level.     Their  hand-sled,  on  which  their  provisions,,  clothing 
and  furniture  were  packed,  was  drawn  by   a  pig  in  harness.     Another 
couple  went  a  great  distance  in  the  same  inclement  season,  the  wife  tiding 
on  a  feeble  horse,  with  a  feather  bed  under  her,  and  a  child  in  her  arms, 
while  the  husband  dragged  the  rest  of  their  household  goods  over  the  snow. 
Pluck,  perseverance  and  persistency  were  the  cardinal  virtues  of  the  early 
settlers.      Many  lived  for  years  without  any  neighbors   for    miles.     The 
pioneer  would  go  miles  to  a  mill,  and  carry  a  bushel  of  corn  on  his  shoul- 
der and  take  it  back  in  meal.     Ethan  Crawford's  grandfather  once   wenl 
eighty  miles  through  the  woods  to  a  lower  settlement  for  a  bushel  of  salt, 
the  scarcity  of  which  had  produced  sickness  and  suffering,  and   returned 
with  it  on  his  back.     Not  from  the  lack  of  salt  only  did  these  brave  peo- 
ple suffer;  few  of  them  owned  cows,  and  could  not  even  have  "  milk  por- 
ridge," or  "pudding  and  milk."     Meal  and  water,  and  dried  fish   without 
salt  was  often  their  diet  for  days,   when   game  was  shy,  or  storms  pre- 
vented hunting.     Sometimes,   when  threatened  with  famine,  they  would 
send  deputations  thirty,  fifty,  and  even  sixty  miles  to  purchase  grain.   And 
we  have  read  that  in  times  of  great  scarcity,  the  hardy  men  wore  a  wide 

80  History  of  Coos  County. 

strap  of  skin,  which  as  they  grew  more  emaciated  was  drawn  tighter,  to 
alleviate  if  possible  the  horrible  gna wings  of  hunger,  in  order  that  they 
might  hold  out  till  relief  came.  Besides  occasional  famines,  these  families 
suffered  from  freshets.  Their  rude  bridges  were  torn  up,  barns  and  even 
their  houses  swept  off,  and  often  when  by  their  industry  or  good  fortune 
they  had  accumulated  provision  for  the  future,  the  bears  would  come  down 
upon  them  and  steal  their  pigs,  or  anything  else  they  could  take. 

As  soon  as  possible  after  these  people  had  made  for  themselves  rude 
habitations  in  which  to  abide,  they  would  organize  a  church  and  establish 
a  school,  comprising  the  families  in  a  radius  of  six  to  ten  or  twelve  miles. 
The  ministers  would  work  at  clearing  land  and  hewing  trees  during  the 
week,  writing  their  sermons  by  the  blaze  of  pine  knots,  or  preach  extem- 
pore (which  was  more  often  the  case).  The  school-house  was  merely  a 
rude  structure  of  rough  logs,  lighted  by  an  occasional  pane  of  glass  placed 
singly  in  the  wall,  and  many  had  but  a  hole  for  the  light,  protected  by 
a  piece  of  cloth  or  oiled  paper,  from  the  cold  and  rain.  But  the  same  desire 
for  learning  was  kindled  and  fed  within  these  cabins  as  in  richly  endowed 
and  pretentious  schools  and  institutions.  The  mind — the  will — the  hope — 
and  the  passion  for  learning— is  stimulated  to  stronger  efforts — when  it 
has  but  few  props  and  helps  to  climb  the  hill  of  knowledge,  and  many  a 
man  has  taken  his  place  in  the  hall  of  Congress  in  the  Nation's  capital, 
who  was  taught  his  "A,  B,  C's"  in  just  such  a  school-house. 

In  the  ''locations,"  or  "grants,"  there  were  but  few  settlers,  and  often 
there  would  be  but  one  family.  There  is  a  story  that  a  man  once  made 
his  appearance  in  the  state  legislature,  and  took  a  seat.  He  was  asked  for 
his  credentials  as  the  choice  of  the  people.  "Whom  could  they  put  up 
against  me?"  he  said;  "I  am  the  only  man  in  my  town."  His  claim  to  a 
seat  was  allowed. 

There  must  have  been  a  few  more  inhabitants  in  the  settlement  in 
upper  Coos,  which  was  said  to  be  legally  warned  to  have  training.  After 
the  officers  were  chosen,  there  was  but  one  soldier,  and  he  said,  "  Gentle- 
men, I  hope  you  will  not  be  too  severe  in  drilling  me.  as  I  may  be  needed 
another  time.  I  can  form  a  solid  column,  but  it  will  rack  me  shockingly 
to  display." 

After  the  first  twenty  rive  years  of  settlement  the  settlers  were  for  the 
most  part  independent,  self-reliant,  healthy  farmers,  who  lived  upon  the 
produce  of  their  own  soil  raised  by  the  work  of  their  own  hands;  warmed 
by  fuel  from  their  own  woods,  and  clothed  from  the  flax  from  their  fields 
or  wool  from  their  flock.  They  had  but  little  money,  and  but  little  was 
needed,  for  their  trade  was  carried  on  chiefly  by  barter.  The  mechanics 
were  not  established  in  one  place— but  went  from  settlement  to  settlement 
where  they  were  needed,  receiving  for  their  labor  the  products  of  the  farm 
or  loom.     Prof.  Sanborn  says:     "The  primitive  log-house,  dark,  dirty  and 

Early  Settlers.  81 

•dismal,  rarely  outlived  its  first  occupant.  The  first  framed  houses  were 
usually  small,  low  and  cold.  The  half -house,  about  twenty  feet  square,  sat  i  s- 
xied  the  unambitious.  The  double-house, forty  by  twenty  feet  in  dimensions, 
indicated  progress  and  wealth.  It  was  designed  for  shelter,  not  for  com- 
fort or  elegance.  The  windows  were  small,  without  blinds  or  shutters. 
The  fire-place  was  sufficiently  spacious  to  receive  logs  of  three  or  four  feet 
in  diameter,  with  an  oven  in  the  back  and  a  flue  nearly  large  enough  to 
allow  the  ascent  of  a  balloon.  One  could  sit  in  the  chimney-corner  and 
see  the  stars.  All  the  cooking  was  done  by  this  fire.  Around  it,  also, 
gathered  the  family  at  evening,  often  numbering  six  to  twelve  children. 
The  furniture  was  simple  and  useful,  all  made  of  the  wood  of  the  native 
forest  trees.  Pine,  birch,  cherry,  walnut,  and  the  curled  maple  were  most 
frequently  chosen  by  the  '  cabinet-maker.'  Vessels  of  iron,  copper  and  tin 
were  used  in  cooking.  The  dressers,  extending  from  floor  to  ceiling  in  the 
kitchen,  contained  the  mugs,  basins  and  plates  of  pewter  which  shone 
upon  the  farmer's  board  at  the  time  of  meals.  The  post  of  the  housewife 
was  no  sinecure.  She  had  charge  of  the  dairy  and  kitchen,  besides  spin- 
ning and  weaving,  sewing  and  knitting,  washing  and  mending  for  the 
'men  folks.'  The  best  room,  often  called  'the  square  room,'  contained  a 
bed,  a  bureau  or  desk,  or  a  chest  of  drawers,  a  clock,  and  possibly  a  brass 
fire-set.  Its  walls  were  entirely  destitute  of  ornament.  It  was  an  age  of 
simple  manners  and  industrious  habits.  Contentment,  enjoyment  and 
longevity  were  prominent  characteristics  of  that  age.  Prior  to  1826,  there 
were  nearly  four  hundred  persons  who  died  in  New  Hampshire  between 
the  ages  of  ninety  and  a  hundred  and  five  years.  Fevers  and  epidemics 
sometimes  swept  away  the  people;  but  consumption  and  neuralgia  were 
then  almost  unknown.  Their  simple  diet  and  active  habits  were  conducive 
to  health. 

"  '  The  meeting  house '  was  a  framed  building.  Its  site  was  a  high 
hill;  its  shape  a  rectangle  flanked  with  heavy  porticos,  with  seven  win- 
dows upon  each  side.  Every  family  was  represented  here  on  the  Sabbath. 
The  clergymen  were  settled  by  major  vote  of  the  town,  and  tax-payers 
were  assessed  for  his  salary  according  to  their  ability.  The  people  went 
to  church  on  foot  or  on  horseback,  the  wife  riding  behind  the  husband  on 
a  'pillion.'  Chaises,  wagons  and  sleighs  were  unknown.  Sometimes  whole 
families  were  taken  to  '  meeting  '  on  an  ox-sled. 

"  Traveling  was  difficult  and  laborious.  Neither  men  nor  women  were 
ever  idle.  Books  were  few,  newspapers  were  seldom  seen  at  the  country 
fire-side.  News  from  England  did  not  reach  the  inland  towns  till  five 
or  six  months  after  the  occurrence  of  the  events  reported.  Intelligence 
from  New  York  reached  New  Hampshire  in  a  week.  In  1815  travel  was 
mostly  on  horseback,  the  mail  being  so  carried  in  many  places.  Inns  or 
taverns  were  found  in  every  four  to  eight  miles.  Feed  for  travelers'  teams 


82  History  of  Coos  County. 

was,  half-baiting  of  hay,  four  cents;  whole-baiting,  eight  cents;  two  quarts 
of  oats,  six  cents.  The  bar- room  fire-place  was  furnished  with  a  '  logger- 
head,' hot,  at  all  times,  for  making  '  flip.'  The  flip  was  made  of  beer  made 
from  pumpkin  dried  on  the  crane  in  the  kitchen  fire-place,  and  a  few  dried 
apple  skins  and  a  little  bran.  Half-mug  of  flip,  or  half -gill  'sling,' six 
cents.  On  the  table  was  to  be  found  a  '  shortcake,'  and  the  ever-present 
decanter  or  bottle  of  rum. 

"  Women's  labor  was  fifty  cents  per  week.  They  spun  and  wove  most 
of  the  cloth  that  was  worn.  Flannel  that  was  dressed  at  the  mill,  for 
women's  wear,  was  fifty  cents  a  yard;  men's  wear,  one  dollar.  Farmers 
hired  their  help  for  nine  or  ten  dollars  a  month — some  clothing,  and  the 
rest  cash.  Carpenters'  wages,  one  dollar  a  day;  journeymen  carpenters, 
fifteen  dollars  a  month;  and  apprentices,  to  serve  six  or  seven  years,  had 
ten  dollars  the  first  year,  twenty  the  second,  thirty  the  third,  and  so  on,  and 
to  clothe  themselves.  Breakfast  generally  consisted  of  potatoes  roasted  in  the 
ashes,  a  '  bannock  '  made  of  meal  and  water  and  baked  on  a  maple  chip  set 
before  fire.  Pork  was  plenty.  If  '  hash  '  was  served,  all  ate  from  the  same 
platter,  without  plates  or  table-cloth.  Apprentices  and  farm  boys  had  for 
supper  a  bowl  of  scalded  milk  and  a  brown  crust,  or  bean  porridge,  or  '  pop- 
robbin.'  They  had  no  tumblers,  nor  were  they  asked  if  they  would  have 
tea  or  coffee;  it  was  'Please  pass  the  mug.'  " 

The  dress  of  these  early  settlers  was  very  simple,  and  of  their  own  man- 
ufacture. The  women  were  obliged  to  work  very  industriously  in  order 
to  be  able  to  accomplish  the  many  duties  required  of  them,  and  they  had 
neither  the  means  nor  opportunity  for  fine  clothes,  but  they  were  dressed 
neatly  and  generally  scrupulously  clean.  A  striped  loose  gown  with  blue 
and  white  check  apron,  well- starched  and  ironed,  was  considered  a  dress 
pretentious  enough  to  appear  in  any  company.  Many  of  these  women 
would  frequently  work  eighteen  to  twenty  hours  a  day.  They  would  card 
and  spin  the  wool  from  their  sheep,  weave  and  color  it  (in  some  primitive 
way),  then  cut  and  make  their  plain  garments.  Before  they  raised  sheep, 
the  men  wore  garments  made  of  moose-skin,  and  tow  cloth  was  also  used 
largely  for  both  men  and  women.  No  luxuries,  no  laces,  no  "lingerie," 
in  wmich  the  women  of  to-day  take  so  much  pride.  Linen  and  tow  was 
used  instead  of  cotton,  and  dressed  flax  was  to  some  extent  an  article  of 

Hardwood  was  cut  from  large  tracts  of  land,  and  burned  to  obtain 
ashes,  which  the  early  settlers  leached  and  boiled  into  salts,  and  carried 
where  they  could  find  a  market.  Those  that  had  a  horse  would  make 
what  was  called  a  "car,"  by  pinning  cross-pieces  to  two  light  poles  of 
suitable  length,  putting  the  horse  in  as  into  the  thills  of  a  wagon,  the  back 
part  dragging  on  the  ground,  and  the  load  fastened  on  just  behind  the 
horse.     Those  that  had  oxen,  used  a  wide  spread  crotched  stick  like  a  cart 

Early  Settlers.  83 

tongue,  this  they  called  a  "  go-cart."  Those  who  had  no  team  either  drew 
their  load  by  hand,  or  carried  it  on  their  hacks;  and  the  man  that  could 
not  cany  a  hundred  pounds  on  his  back  was  not  fit  for  a  pioneer.  Money 
was  so  scarce  the  most  that  could  be  obtained  went  for  taxes,  and  for  want 
of  it,  they  wTere  taken  to  jail.  Hence  poverty  was  the  rule,  and  riches  the 
exception.  In  winter  the  snow  was  so  fearfully  deep  that  the  few  families 
with  their  homes  at  some  distance  from  each  other  could  not  keep  the  road 
or  marked  ways  open,  and  consequently  great  suffering  often  ensued. 

There  were  almost  no  roads  for  many  years.  Mills  were  so  distant  that 
grain  was  sometimes  purchased  at  the  mills  and  ground  and  brought  to 
their  homes;  most  of  the  grinding  was  done  with  pestles  in  huge  mortars, 
manufactured  from  short  logs  of  large  hard  wood  trees,  sometimes  two  or 
three  feet  in  diameter.  Excellent  crops  of  wheat  were  raised  on  the  new 
land;  usually  good  corn,  and  a  large  amount  of  potatoes,  which,  baked  in 
the  coal  beds  of  their  great  kitchen  fire-places,  made  many  a  good  meal. 

James  W.  Weeks  thus  describes  the  early  homes  of  Lancaster  :  "  The 
kitchen  was  a  large  room,  perhaps  15  by  24  feet:  one  door  opening 
directly  out  of  doors;  an  immense  fire-place  7  feet  wide  and  3  feet  deep. 
To  this  fire-place  a  hardwood  log  is  brought  about  3|  feet  long,  and  twenty 
inches  in  diameter.  The  brands  of  yesterday's  back  log  are  drawn  for- 
ward with  the  long  handled  fire  shovel,  and  the  back  log  rolled  into  the 
fire-place  against  the  brick-work.  On  this  another  log  is  placed,  as  large 
as  will  lie,  called  a  back  stick.  The  fire  dogs  are  now  set  up.  and  en  these 
is  laid  a  large  stick  called  a  fore  stick,  then  is  filled  in  the  brands  of  yester- 
day's back  log  and  the  old  fire,  together  with  small  wood  You  soon  have  a 
fire  that  will  throw  a  glow  and  a  warmth  to  every  part  of  the  room:  a 
crane  of  sufficient  strength  to  hold  a  five  pail  kettle  filled  with  water,  is 
hung  to  the  left  jamb;  on  this  is  a  trammel  with  hook  to  take  up  or  let 
down,  and  other  hooks  on  which  pots  and  kettles  may  be  hung  when  used 
for  cooking.  A  capacious  brick  oven  is  built  on  one  side  of  the  fire-place, 
which  is  heated  once  a  week,  and  the  family  baking  done.  The  long- 
handled  fire-shovel,  and  a  large  pair  of  kitchen  tongs  complete  the  ti  r<  i 
arrangements  of  the  kitchen. 

"There  were  also  a  dozen  kitchen  chairs  framed  with  seats  of  elm  hark 
or  basket  stuff;  a  long  pine  table  that  could  be  moved,  capable  of  seating- 
ten  or  twelve;  a  table  or  board  turned  down  againt  the  wall,  on  which  to 
work  dough  for  bread. 

"The  family,  with  the  exception  of  the  small  children  (who  had  bread 
and  milk  night  and  morning),  took  their  meals  at  the  large  table  in  the 
kitchen.  At  dinner  the  larger  children  came  to  the  table  with  their  par- 
ents.    The  buttery  and  sink-room  opened  out  of  the  kitchen. 

"Now  about  the  cooking  utensils.  Firsl  was  the  large  dinner  pot,  in 
which  the  suet  or  berry  pudding  was  boiled,  and  the  bean   or  pea  porridge 

84  History  of  Coos  County. 

was  made;  a  broad,  flat-bottomed  kettle,  in  which  to  fry  doughnuts;  a 
smaller  one  in  which  to  boil  potatoes,  etc.,  and  a  large  dish  kettle.  Then 
the  gridiron;  the  heavy-handled  frying-pan  for  frying  meat  and  griddle 
cakes.  The  Dutch  oven  held  its  own  a  long  time,  but  was  superseded  by 
the  tin  baker.  This  oven  was  a  broad,  flat  iron  kettle  with  long  legs, 
and  an  iron  cover  with  a  rim  turned  up  about  one  and  a  half  inches;  there 
was  a  '  loop  '  in  the  middle  of  the  cover,  by  which  to  handle  it  with  the 
tongs.  To  use  this  oven,  a  bed  of  coals  was  drawn  forward  and  the  oven 
set  over  them,  the  biscuits  put  in,  the  cover  put  on,  and  a  few  shovelsfull 
of  coals  put  on  the  cover,  and  the  biscuits,  when  taken  out,  were  sure  to 
be  nicely  browned.  Potatoes  were  roasted  in  the  ashes,  and  the  Christmas 
goose  was  cooked  by  being  suspended  by  a  string  that  would  swing  and 
turn  before  the  fire,  and  was  basted  every  few  minutes,  with  a  long- 
handled  spoon,  from  the  dripping-pan.  The  first  cooking  stove  came  into 
town  about  1825  or  1826.  The  first  stove  of  any  kind  that  I  ever  saw  was 
in  the  old  Court  House.  It  was  a  brick  structure,  about  5  feet  square  and 
2  and  a  half  feet  high,  surmounted  by  an  immense  potash  kettle  upside 
down,  with  a  hole  in  the  bottom,  over  which  the  smoke  pipe  was  set. 

"Adjoining  the  kitchen  was  the  sanctum  of  the  mistress  of  the  house, 
where  noisy  boys  did  not  enter,  except  by  permission.  There  was  the 
cradle  for  baby  and  the  young  children,  and  if  the  mother  had  not  a  little 
girl  of  her  own,  ten  or  twelve  years  old,  to  look  after  the  baby,  she  bor- 
rowed one  of  some  friend  who  had  more  than  she  could  make  useful.  In 
this  room  the  mother  taught  and  cared  for  the  children,  and  made  '  ole 
claithes  amaist  as  good  as  new.'  Here  was  a  fire-place  half  as  large  as  that  in 
the  kitchen;  a  bed  turned  up  against  the  wall  in  a  corner;  some  strong 
wooden  chairs;  a  table  in  the  middle  of  the  room;  a  desk,  and  a  small  table 
or  stand  under  the  looking  glass  at  one  side  of  the  room,  on  which  was  the 
Bible  and  a  few  other  books.  The  clock  had  its  place  here,  and  every  hour 
gave  notice  of  the  flight  of  time.  In  the  more  pretentious  houses  there 
was  another  apartment  similar  to  this,  with  some  valuable  furniture,  with- 
out a  carpet,  but,  later,  one  of  home  manufacture  covered  the  floor.  There 
was  generally  a  small  bed-room,  with  a  spare  bed,  out  of  the  way  of  the 
noise  of  the  kitchen,  with  a  fire-place,  which  was  used  only  on  special 
occasions  and  in  case  of  sickness.  The  children  occupied  the  second  floor. 
All  the  beds,  except  those  of  the  very  poor,  were  of  feathers." 




War  of  the  Revolution  —  Frontier  and  Scouting  Parties  —  Proposed  Expedition  —  Convention 
of  Towns  —  Orders,  Receipts,  Etc. — Early  Roads  —  Petitions  Concerning  Roads  and  New- 
County —  Roads  in  179T  and  1803  —  Tenth  New  Hampshire  Turnpike  —  Jefferson  Turnpike,  Etc. 

Revolutionary  Period. 

THE  Indians  h*ad  a  trail  from  Canada  to  the  Penobscot  river,  in  Maine. 
After  crossing  the  Memphremagog,  they  would  take  the  Clyde  river, 
which  would  lead  them  to  Island  Pond,  Art.,  then  cross  to  the  Nul- 
hegan  river,  and  down  that  to  the  Connecticut,  thence  down  this  river  to 
the  upper  Ammonoosuc,  and  up  this  to  some  point  in  the  present  town  of 
Milan,  where  they  crossed  to   the  Androscoggin,  thence  down  the  last 
named  river.     They  were  a  great  source  of  annoyance  to  the  inhabitants 
through  whose  settlements  they  passed.     During  the  Revolutionary  war, 
the  Indians  received  $11  bounty  for  each  scalp  and  $55  for  each  live  cap- 
tive taken  by  them.     The  Tories  were  leagued  with  the  Indians  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  Revolutionists,  and  as  the  latter  could  get  no  assistance  from 
the  government,  they  were  obliged  to  rely  entirely  upon  their  own  insuffi- 
cient resources  for  self-defense.      The  inhabitants  of  both  sides  of  the 
Connecticut  river  united  for  the  purpose  of  self -protection,  chose  a  "com- 
mittee of  safety,"  and  built  forts  for  the  protection  of  the  women  and 
children.     There  were  three  built — two  in  Northumberland,  one  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Ammonoosuc  river,  one  on  the  Marshall  farm,  and  one  in 
Stratford,  in  the  north  part  of  the  town.     Whenever  the  "alarm"  was 
given  that  the  "Indians"  or  "  Tories  were  coming,"  the  women  and  chil- 
dren would  flee  to  the  forts.     An  incident  showing  somewhal  of  the  trials 
and  hardships  to  which  mothers  were  subject  in  those  days  of  tin  remit  tin- 
fear  and  anxiety,  is  this:    The  young  wife  of  Caleb  Marshall,  on  whose 
farm  one  of  the  forts  was  built,  after  providing  for  the  safety  of  the  most 
valuable  of  her   household  goods  by  having  them   buried  in  the  earth, 
mounted  her  horse,  and,  with  a  child  of  two  years  and  an  infant  of  three 
weeks  old,  went  unattended  through  the  wilderness  and  sparsely  settled 
towns  to  her  parents  in  Hampstead,  a  distance  of  160  miles,  where  she 
arrived  in  safety. 

The  history  of  New  Hampshire's  services  in  the  Revolution  has  never 
been  written.  Other  states  have  claimed  honors  that  were  justly  hers, 
and  no  field  is  more  deserving  the  pen  el'  a  painstaking  and  accurate  his- 
torian, or  would  bring  a  better  reputation;  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  soon 

86  History  of  Coos  County. 

some  able  writer  will  treat  of  this  subject  fully,  and  show  that  the  Granite 
State  was  not  the  least  one  of  the  original  thirteen  in  devotion,  ability  and 

From  the  commencement  of  the  Revolution  the  hardy  pioneers  of  Coos 
stood  as  an  advance  guard  and  picket  company,  not  only  to  protect  their 
own  settlements,  but  to  warn  and  defend  the  lower  settlements  against 
attacks  from  the  north. 

This  document  from  Hammond's  Town  Papers  shows  better  than  any 
eulogy  of  ours  the  patriotic  spirit  actuating  them. 

"Petition  for  Soldiers. — Whereas  we  the  inhabitants  of  Lancaster,  Northumberland,  Guildhall 
&  Stratford  are  fully  sensible  of  the  dangers  of  being  attacked  by  the  Canadians  which  are  the 
worst  of  enemys  &  although  some  of  our  neighbors  have  Quit  the  ground,  yet  we  the  Subscri- 
bers Do  Jointly  &  severly  promis  &  ingage  to  Stand  our  ground  providing  the  Honab'le  Coun- 
sel 1  sees  Fitt  to  grant  our  request  That  is  this,  that  you  will  please  us  your  petitioners  so  far  as  to 
appoint  Mr.  Jere'h  Ames  of  Northumberland  our  friend  &  Neighbour,  Commander  of  our  Fort 
which  with  a  great  deal  of  fatage  we  have  almost  accomplished  &  likewise  for  him  the  s'd  Ames 
to  have  orders  to  inlist  as  many  men  as  the  Honab'le  Cort  in  their  wisdom  will  see  fit,  we  do 
ingage  to  inlist  ourselves  &  obey  his  orders  as  long  as  he  is  stationed  in  upper  Coos  and  Com- 
mander of  the  Fort.  /  Thomas  Blodgett,  James  Curtiss,  Archippus  Blodgett,  Emmons  Stockwell, 
"July  6,  1776.  \  Josiah  Blodgett,  Joseph  Barlow,  Nathan  Caswell,  Sam'l  Nash,  Abijah 
Larned,  Moses  Quimby,  Ward  Bailey,  James  Blake,  David  Larned,  Sam'l  Page,  Abner  Osgood, 
Dies  Sawyer,  Abel  Larned,  John  Frickey,  Elizer  Kosbrook,  Abner  Barlow. 

During  the  war,  Lancaster  reports  457  days'  service  on  "alarms," 
"scouting,  guiding,  andforting." 

Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames  was  on  the  frontiers  here  from  July  5,  1776, 
with  fifty  men  and  officers  for  some  time;  and  from  October  14,  to  Decem- 
ber 1,  1776,  with  twenty-six  Rangers.  Again,  he  had  command  of  ten  men, 
on  a  like  service,  from  December  2,  1776,  to  April,  1777.  A  scouting  party 
of  five  men  was  "stationed  at  or  near  the  Upper  Coos"  (probably  at 
Northumberland),  from  July  15,  to  October  1,  1779,  by  order  of  the  "  Com- 
mittee of  Safety,7'  under  command  of  Lieut.  Josiah  Chapman. 

After  the  capture  of  Col.  Joseph  Whipple,  at  Jefferson,  in  August,  1781, 
the  town  of  Conway  raised  scouting  parties,  consisting  of  Capt.  James 
Osgood  and  three  men,  Lieut.  Ezekiel  Walker  and  nine  men,  and  Elijah 
Dinsmore  and  two  men.  These  were  on  duty  from  ten  to  twenty  eight 
days  from  August  16,  1781,  at  Conway  and  adjacent  towns.  At  the  same 
time  "The  Committee  of  Safety"  took  immediate  measures  for  the 
defence  of  the  inhabitants  of  that  section,  placing  a  force  there,  under  the 
direction  of  Col.  Joseph  Whipple  and  Col.  David  Page,  for  the  protection 
of  the  northern  frontiers,  consisting  of  forty-nine  officers  and  men.  They 
were  in  service  from  August  29,  1781,  to  November  G,  1781,  and  commanded 
by  Capt.  Jacob  Smith  and  Lieuts.  Josiah  Sanborn  and  Peter  Gilman. 
Sergeant  James  Blake's  party  of  eleven  men  "for  the  defense  of  the 
Upper  Coos."  was  in  service  seven  months  and  eighteen  days  from  April 

Eevolutionary  Period  and  Early  Roads.  n7 

13,  1782.  Serg't  Philip  Page  and  five  men  were  drafted  for  duty  at 
"Androscoggin  River/'  in  1782,  and  were  in  service  from  August  19  to 
November  25,  LY82. 

In  July.  1 77*.*,  Joseph  Barlow  and  Hezekiah  Fuller  were  captured  by 
Indians  at  Stratford,  and  two  families  were  plundered  of  everything  valu- 

A  party  of  six  Indians,  August  3,  1781,  took  four  prisoners  at  Bethel, 
Me.,  killed  James  Pettingill,  at  Gilead,  and  shot  Peter  Poor,  in  Shelburne, 
besides  destroying  property. 

No  great  military  operations  were  carried  on  on  a  large  scale  here  dur- 
ing the  Revolution,  and  no  battle  was  fought.  The  nearest  approach  to 
strategic  operations  is  probably  given  in  these  communications  from  Gen. 
Moses  Hazen  to  Col.  Bedell,  which  explain  themselves. 

"  Albany  26th  April,  1777. 
"  I  have  a  favor  to  beg  which  is  that  you  will  let  me  have  a  Particular  account  of  the  Dis- 
tance rout  and  Difficulties  attending  the  march  of  a  Body  of  men  from  your  house  or  the  upper 
settlements  on  Cohaas,  to  St.  Franciis  in  Canada,  which  I  am  sure  you  must  have  a  perfect  knowl- 
edge of.  I  should  also  be  glad  of  a  plan  or  sketch  of  that  Country  in  any  rough  way,  even  if  it 
was  Drawn  by  an  Indian.  I  leave  you  to  gess  the  reason  of  my  being  so  particular  on  this  head, 
assuring  you  only  that  I  am  anxious  to  see  once  more  my  own  country  which  probably  may  be 
the  case  before  the  end  of  this  campaign. 

"As  man}-  letters  miscarry  you  will  be  particular  careful  to  write  by  a  safe  opportunity  as  soon 
after  the  receipt  of  this  as  you  Possibly  can.  Direct  to  Col.  Hazen  in  Camp  at  Head  Quarters.  I 
hope  you  will  not  neglect  the  opportunity  put  into  your  hands  of  serving  yourself  and  Country. 

"Gen  Moses  Hazen 
"  To  Colonel  Bedle  at  Cohaas  in  the  State  of  New  Hampshire." 

From  Gen.  Hazen  to  Col.  Bedle,  December  12,  1778  : — 

"  There  has  not  been  any  expedition  ever  fixed  upon  from  your  Quarter,  some  preparation 
was  ordered,  and  magazenes  provided  in  order  that  we  might  Take  the  advantage  of  our  enemy  in 
case  an  opportunity  should  offer — the  great  difficulty  which  now  appears  to  me,  is  that  we  have 
no  money,  or  at  least  that  which  we  have  will  purchase  nothing." 

Convention  op  Towns  in  Coos. 

" Northumberland  July  10th  1779 
"At  a   meeting  of    the  Inhabitants  of   Lancaster  Northumberland  &   Stratford  to  hear  the 

Report  Joseph  Peverly  Esq'r  and  also  to  agree  upon  Sum  Proper  Place  for  the  Scouting  Perty  to 

Be  Stationed,  Viz — first — 

"Chose  maj'r  Jonas  Wilder  moderator — 
"  2d     Choose  Cap't  Edw'ds  Bucknam  Clark 

"3d  Voted  that  the  Place  for  the  Scouting  Party  to  Be  stationed,  at  M'r  James  Browns  In 

"4  Voted  that  Every  man  In  Each  town  Viz.  Lancaster  Northumberland  and  Stratford  to 
work  one  Day  at  the  fort  In  Stratford  Immediately — 

"  5     Chose  Nathan  Caswell  Captain  over  these  three  towns  for  the  Present 

"  6     Chose  Nathan  Barlow  Lieut 

"7    Chose  Dennis  Standley  Ensine 

"8     Chose  maj'r  Jonas  Wilder  the  man  to  go  Down  after  men  to  Exeter 

"9     Chose  Joseph  Peverly  Eiq'r  Capt  EJw'ds  Bucknam  and  M'r  John  Holdbrook  a  Com- 

88  History  of  Coos  County. 

mittee  to  Give  Directions  to  rnaj'r  Jonas  Wilder  and  draw  a  Purticion  to  the  General  Court  to- 
Send  by  maj'r  Wilder 

"10  Voted  that  m'r  John  Gamsby  m'r  James  Blake  and  Mr  John  Holdbrook  a  Committee  to 
Plan  out  the  fort  at  Stratford  " — Hammond's  Revolutionary  Rolls. 

Capt.  Eames'  Company's  Order  for  Pay. 

"  Northumberland  October  12:  1776 — 
'  Col'e  Nicholas  Gilman  Treasurer  for  the  State  of  New  Hampshire 

"  Please  to  Pay  to  Capt  Jeremiah  Eames  the  whole  of  the  wages  for  the  time  of  Service  in  his 
Company  as  shall  be  found  Due  on  the  Said  Capt  Eames's  Roll 

"  John  Trickey,  Jon'a  Willard,  Abner  Osgood,  Samuel  Page,  John  Page,  Zebulon  Colbey, 
Zechariah  Parker,  Abijah  Wright,  David  Brown,  Ebenezer  his  (x)  mark  Kemprield,  Moses  Page, 
Edmund  Eastman,  David  Cunningham,  Alexander  Craig,  Daniel  Spalding,  Jonathan  Craford, 
David  Earned,  Abel  Larned,  Abijah  Larned,  WTilliam  Patee,  James  Whiting,  Abel  Lovejoy,  John 
Willoughby,  Benj.  Preson,  Benj.  Pegley,  Jon'a  Clark,  Jacob  Draper,  Jonah  Chaptman,  Joseph 
Palmer,  Samuel  Marsh,  Edward  his  (x)  mark  Taylor,  Gardner  Duston,  Nathan  Caswell,  Nathan 
Barlow,  Gideon  Smith,  William  Curtiss.  Thomas  Blogget,  Archippus  Blogget,  Josiah  Blogget,  Johc 
Gibson,  John  Haselton,  Caleb  Marshall,  Dill  Sawyer,  William  Amy,  James  Blake,  Ward  Bailey, 
Thomas  Peverly,  Benj'a  Sawyer,  Abner  Barlow. 

"Captain  Eames''  Scouts. — Captain  Eames's  Scouting  Party,  from  December  2,  1776,  to  April 
15th,  1777,  Head  Quarters  Great  Coos,  received  for  services  £110,  19s.  9d.  The  pay  was  as  fol- 
lows: Captain,  £6  per  mouth;  Sergeant,  48  shillings;  Private,  40  shillings  per  month.  The  com- 
pauy  consisted  of  Capt.,  Jeremiah  Eames,  Serjeant,  Abner  Osgood,  Privates,  Thomas  Peaverly, 
Jonathan  Willard,  John  Trickey,  Haines  French,  William  Amy,  Nathan  Caswell,  John  Gibson,. 
Dill  Sawyer,  Abner  Barlow;  all  serving  the  full  time  excepting  the  latter,  whose  service  was  one 
month . 

"Receipts. — State  of  !New  Hampshire,  Northumberland,  24  July,  1779.  Then  we  the  subscribers 
received  of  Joseph  Peverly  the  sum  of  twelve  pounds,  which  sum  is  in  full  for  one  month's  ad- 
vance pay,  and  the  sum  of  six  pounds  each  as  a  bounty. 

"  (Signed,)  Abraham  Buee,  Dav'd  (x)  Cunningham's  mark. 

"Peter  Keyes,  Jabed  Church,  Jn'o  his  (x)  mark  Martin." 

"  We  the  Subscribers  have  received  the  sum  annexed  to  each  maus  name  of  Joseph  Peverly, 
Esq'r,  for  our  travelling  money  from  each  mans  place  of  abode  to  said  Peverly's  house— Jonah 
Chapman  100  miles  £10.  Abraham  Buell  100  miles  £10.  Dav'd  Cunningham  100  miles  £10.  Peter 
Keyes  100  miles  £10.  Jno  his  (x)  mark  Martin  80  miles  £8.  Northumberland,  24  July,  1779.  Then 
rec'd  of  Joseph  Peverly  the  sum  of  thirty -three  pounds,  6s.  L-  M'y,  which  sum  is  in  full  for  one 
month's  advance  Jonah  Chapman  Lt  Stratford  Sep  1779  Then  rec'd  of  Joseph  Peverly  the 
rations  in  full  allowed  for  six  men  from  July  24.  to  Oct'r  23d  1779  Jonah  Chapman  " 

"  Northumberland  Oct'o  1,  1779.  Received  of  Joseph  Peverly  fifty-eight  dollars  &  four  shil- 
lings which  is  in  full  for   the  allowance  of  Rum  while  scouting — per  Jonah  Chapman 

"  EnlistmenU— James  Hardy  enlisted  in  Capt  Jno.  House's  Co.  of  Col.  Morey's  Regt  in  July 
1777  from  Lancaster  Eleazer  Rossbrook,  Josiah  and  Thomas  Blodgett  Nathan  Barlow  Joshua 
Lamshier  and  Samuel  Page  enlisted  in  Capt.  Whitcomb's  Co  in  July  1777,  from  Lancaster, 
Northumberland  &  Stratford.  Eleazer  Rossbrook  enlisted  in  Maj  Benj  Whitcomb's  Independent 
Company  of  Rangers  Dec  28  1776  from  Lancaster.  Edward  Mardean,  James  Rosebrook, 
Haynes  French,  and  Henry  Tibbetts  at  the  same  time  as  privates  in  the  same  company.  They 
served  until  Dec.  31,  1779.  John  Trickey  of  Northumberland  enlisted  in  Col.  Thos.  Stickney's 
Co  from  Boscawen  Aug.  1,  1779  for  one  year." 


Roads  occupied  much  attention  of  the  early  settlers.  The  Indian  trails,, 
kept  somewhat  worn  in  most  of  the  distance  by  the  hunters  and  trappers,. 

Revolutionary  Period  and  Early  Roads.  89 

were  better  than  a  trackless  wilderness;  yet  it  surprises  us  to  see  it  stated 
in  Power's  journal  their  company  marched  as  many  as  twenty  miles  a 
day,  the  same  distance  allowed  foot  soldiers  as  a  day's  march  in  a  civilized 
country.  It  is  quite  probable  that  Capt.  Rogers  cut  out  a  road  to  convey 
his  supplies  to  construct  Fort  Went  worth,  in  1755.  Three  ways  were  in 
existence  early  to  reach  the  Upper  Coos  from  below.  One,  and  the  princi- 
pal one,  was  the  Connecticut  river,  with  canoes  and  "earns"  in  summer, 
and  on  the  ice  in  winter.  Another  was  on  the  highlands,  west  of  the 
Ammonoosuc,  passing  by  Streeters  pond,  in  Lisbon,  and  the  east  part  of 
Littleton.  The  valley  of  the  Ammonoosuc  was  the  third  route.  The 
early  roads  were  cut  about  eight  feet  wide,  and  "corduroyed."  They  were 
not  much  like  our  later  roads,  but  the  pioneers  seem  to  have  been  able  to 
traverse  them  on  foot,  on  horseback,  or  to  drive  cattle  over  them  without 
serious  detriment  to  their  progress.  But  these  trails  were  unsuited  to  the 
needs  of  an  increasing  population.  In  all  town  and  proprietors'  meetings, 
roads  was  the  most  important  subject  of  discussion.  Little  progress  was 
made  for  years.  Edwards  Bucknam,  Timothy  Nash,  David  Page,  David 
Page,  Jr.,  of  Lancaster,  were  appointed,  March  12,  1 7 ♦ » 7 ,  members  of  a 
committee  to  lookout  and  mark  roads  to  the  "Ameroscoggin,"  Pickwackett, 
and  the  first  settlements  on  the  Connecticut. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  the  governor  and  council  at  Portsmouth,  March 
13,  1772,  a  petition  was  presented  by  the  proprietors  of  Lancaster,  North- 
umberland, and  Shelburne,  setting  forth  the  utility  of  a  road  from  Conway 
to  the  Connecticut  river,  and  praying  His  Excellency  would  be  pleased  to 
order  the  surveyor-general  of  lands  to  mark  out  a  proper  road,  and  issue 
such  other  orders  as  would  "  effectuate  "  the  same. 

Nothing  tended  so  much  to  cause  a  demand  for  a  new  county,  as  the 
badness  of  the  roads  between  Upper  Coos  and  Haverhill. 

About  1775  the  proprietors  of  Apthorp  offered  two  tracts  of  land  of 
100  acres,  to  any  one  who  would  cut  away  the  trees  and  bushes  on  the 
most  direct  route  between  Haverhill  and  Lancaster  line,  a  distance  then 
considered  as  fifty  miles,  and  make  a  road  passable  for  a  one-horse  wagon 
containing  two  persons.  This  offer  was  accepted  by  -Moses  Blake,  who  <lul\ 
executed  his  contract,  and  was  deeded  the  two  nearest  lots  to  tin1  mouth  of 
John's  river. 

These  petitions  from  Hammond's  Town  Papers  tell  their  own  story: 

"  To  the  Honorable  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  for  the  State  of  Newhampshire 
(humbly  Sheweth)  The  Inhabitants  of  A  Place  Called  LTper  Cods  Thai  they  began  Setelmenl  at 
that  Place  more  than  twentithree  Years  ago  and  ever  since  have  Continued  their  Setelment  through 
many  Difficulties  Especially  on  account  of  the  Badness  of  the  Roads  through  Littleton  and  Dal 
ton  which  have  never  been  properly  Cleared  nor  bridged  by  which  means  wagons  or  Sleighs  p 
with  the  greatest  Danger  and  never  more  than  half  a  Load  which  Subjects  the  inhabitants  of  Said 
Coos  to  very  Large  Expence  in  transporting  necessary  foreign  articles  and  others  in  Removing  with 
their  faraileys  and  Efects  from  Conne-tiei  it    Massachusetts  and  the   Easterly  pari  of  New    Eamp 

90  History  of  Coos  County. 

shire  to  the  Same  Difficulties  which  very  much  Impedes  &  hinders  the  Setelment  of  the  Towns  on 
Connecticut  River  etc  Lying  above  S'd  Littleton  &  Dalton  Your  Petitioners  beg  Leave  to  farther 
Sugjest  that  the  Townships  of  Littleton  aud  Dalton  being  owned  by  only  a  few  Gentlemen  and 
the  Towns  not  Vested  with  Power  nor  the  Inhabitants  of  ability  to  Lay  out  Clear  bridge  and  make 
Passable  Said  Road  through  which  Your  Petitioners  must  Pass  on  any  Business  belonging  to  the 
Probate,  or  County  Matters,  Wherefore  your  Petitioners  Pray  Your  Honors  to  take  their  Case  into 
Your  wise  Consideration  and  order  that  the  Road  be  made  Passable  and  keept  in  good  Repair 
through  Said  towns  of  Littilton  &  Dalton  to  the  acceptance  a  Commitee  to  be  appointed  for  that 
Purp  »se  or  by  Some  other  way  as  your  Honors  Shall  See  fit  and  Your  Petitioners  Will  Ever  Pray 
"May  10th  17d8 

Inhabitants  of  Lancaster 

"Jonas  Wilder,  Aamasa  Grout,  Jonas  Baker,  Joseph  Brackelt,  Edw'ds  Bucknam,  Phinehas 
Hodgin,  Francis  Willson,  John  Weeks,  Abijah  Darby,  Walter  Philbrook,  Samuel  Johnson,  Hope- 
still  Jenison,  David  Page,  Emons  Stockwell,  Ephraim  Griggs,  Will'm  Johnson,  Jonathan  Hartwell. 

"  Northumberland  —  Jer'h  Eames  Ju'r,  Tho's  Eames,  Joseph  Peverly,  Abner  osgood,  J.  Whip 
pie,  Daniel  Spauiding,  Abel  Bennett,  thomas  Burnside,  James  Burnside. 

"Stratford.— Hez'i  Fuller,  David  Jnoson,  Hetli  Baldwin,  Elijah  Hinman,  Joshua  Lamken, 
Archippus  Blodget,  Jabez  Baldwin,  Elijah  Blodget,  Oliver  Lamkin,  James  Curtiss,  Josiah  Blod- 
get,  James  Brown,  Nuc  >mb  Blodget,  Benj'n  Strong,  William  Curtiss 

"  Piercy. — John  Cole,  Caleb  Smith. 

"  Relative  to  the  Formation  of  Coos  County,  1790  To  the  Honourable  senate  and  house  of 
Representatives  of  the  State  of  Newhanipshire,  to  be  convened  at  Concord  on  the  first  Wednesday 
in  Jan'y  next, 

"  The  petition  of  the  select  Men  of  the  towns  of  Lancaster  Northumberland  and  Stratford,  for 
and  in  behalf  of  the  respective  towns,  Humbly  Sheweth;  That  our  located  situation  in  the  north- 
ern part  of  the  state  is  such,  that  it  will  be  perticularly  beneficial  for  us,  to  have  Conway  and  ad- 
jacent towns  annexed  to  us,  in  the  formation  of  the  northerly  County  in  s'd  State,  not  only  on  ac- 
count of  the  occupancy  and  improvement  of  our  most  advantageous  road  to  seaport,  but  in  order 
to  promote  emigrants,  and  agriculture  in  this  fertile  &  healthy  territory;  the  promotion  of  which, 
we  humbly  conceive  will  be  of  publick  utility,  and  the  state  to  which  we  owe  our  allegiance,  will 
receive  emolument  in  proportion  to  the  opulency  of  this  part  of  the  state— And  your  petitioners  as 
in  duty  bound  will  ever  pray — Lancaster  Dec'r  29  1790 

"  Edw'ds  Bucknam, 
"Emmons   Stockwell, 
"Francis  Willson, 

Select  Men 
for  Northumberland, 

"  Joshpii  Pkverly,  Lancaster 

"  Jer'm  Eames, 
"Elijah  Hinman, 
"  Jamls  Brown. 


Petition  for  a  new  county,  1791. 

"To  the  Honorable  the  General  Court  of  the  State  of  New  Hampshire— The  petition  of  the  In- 
habitants of  Lancaster  in  the  County  of  Grafton 

"  Humbly  Sheweth 

"  That  your  Petitioners  live  at  the  distance  of  near  sixty  miles  from  the  nearest  shire  Town  in 
this  County 

"  That  a  very  considerable  part  of  the  Inhabitants  of  this  part  of  the  County  live  above  us  and 
are  under  similar  disadvantages  with  us, 

"That  the  Roads  to  Haverhill  our  nearest  shire  Town  are  exceedingly  bad  and  at  some  seasons 
of  the  year  impassable,  Wherefore  we  your  petitioners  pray  that  we  may  be  seperated  from  the 
said  County  of  Grafton  and  made  a  new  County  by  a  line  drawn  from  Connecticut  River  between 
the  Towns  of  Concord  alias  Guuthwait  and  Littleton  and  on  Eastward  taking  in  the  Towns  of  Con- 
wa,  Eaton  &cto  the  Province  line  so  call'd  and  we  as  in  duly  bound  shall  ever  pray  — 

"  Lancaster  Nov'r  22nd  1791. 

Revolutionary  Period  and  Early  Roads.  91 

"Edw'ds  Bucknam,  William  Bruce,  Stephen  Willson,  Jeremiah  Willcox,  Emmons  Stockwell, 

Robert  Gotam,  Francis  Willson,  Joseph  Bruce,  Jonas  Wilder,  junur,  Asaph  Darby,  Jonas  Baker, 
Jonathan  Cram,  Edward  Spaulding,  Will'm  Moore,  Joseph  Brackett,  Epbraim  Wilder,  .John 
Weeks,  Jon'a  Ilartwell,  Nathan  Lovewell,  Joseph  Wilder,  Samuel  Johnson,  Dennis  Stanley,  Isaac 
Darby,  Phinehas  Bruce,  Elisha  Wilder,  John  Rosbrook,  E/.ra  Reves,  Benj'a  Twombly,  Walter 
Philbrook,  Moses  Page,  John  Mackintire,  Abijah  Darby,  Bradfor  Sanderson.  Zadock  Samson, 
Jonathan  Ros,  Daniel  How,  David  Stockwell,  Daniel  Chany,  John  Wilder.  Jonas  Wilder,  Manas- 
seb  Wilder,  Charles  Rosbrook,  David  Page,  James  Twombly,  Coffin  Moore,  Phinehas  Hodgdon, 
William  Johnson," 

President  D wight  came  to  Lancaster  on  horseback  in  1797.  He  says 
the  roads  were  good  from  Haverhill  to  Concord  (Lisbon).  "Here  he  first 
found  'causeys'  or  'corduroy'  roads  (not  in  good  repair)."  He  came  up 
the  Ammonoosuc  until  he  reached  what  is  now  Littleton  village,  when 
they  commenced  ascending  the  mountains  of  that  town  toward  Dalton. 
"The  mire  was  often  so  stiff  and  so  deep  that  our  horses  scarcely  strug- 
gled through  it.  The  roots,  also,  the  stumps,  rocks,  stones,  and  '  causeys  ' 
multiplied  upon  us  in  almost  every  part  of  our  progress."  The  road  con- 
tinued "on  the  same  mountainous  ground,  and  embarrassed  with  the  same 
disagreeable  circumstances  "  until  within  six  miles  of  Lancaster.  Of  the 
Dalton  mountains  he  says  that  "the  height  and  rudeness  of  these  moun- 
tains must  prove  a  serious  obstruction  to  all  traveling  for  pleasure  from 
the  country  below  to  the  country  above."  Going  from  Lancaster  through 
Jefferson,  via  "RosebrookV  and  the  "Notch,"  he  makes  no  complaint 
of  bad  roads,  except  that  the  first  two  miles  of  the  "  Notch  "  is  so  steep  as 
to  make  riding  on  horseback  seriously  inconvenient,  but  says  from  Bart- 
lett  to  Conway  they  passed  "  through  a  good  road.*' 

This  alone  is  sufficient  to  show  that  the  communication  between 
"  Upper  Coos  "  and  the  Saco  valley  and  points  below  was  much  easier  than 
with  Haverhill,  and  shows  why  the  people  were  so  anxious  to  be  united 
with  Conway  in  a  new  county. 

In  his  account  of  his  visit  to  Canada  line  in  1803,  Dr.  Dwight  says 
the  roads  in  Stratford  exhibit  strong  indications  of  a  lax  and  inefficienl 
spirit  in  some  of  the  inhabitants.  Through  Wales  Gore,  between  Strat- 
ford and  Cockburn  (Columbia),  the  road  was  very  imperfectly  made.  In 
Cockburn  "for  so  new  a  settlement  well  wrought,  dry  and  hard."  Through 
Cockburn  and  Colebrook  and  Stewart  the  road  is  very  good.  The  most 
important  legislation  for  Coos  county  in  its  early  existence  was  the  incor- 
poration of  the  Tenth  New  Hampshire  Turnpike  from  the  west  line  of 
Bartlett  through  the  Notch  of  the  White  Hills.  This  was  done  December 
28,  1803.  The  distance  was  twenty  miles,  and  the  expense  of  building  it 
$40,000.  This  furnished  an  avenue  to  the  sea] mils,  and  became  one  of 
the  best  paying  roads  in  all  northern  New  Hampshire.  Until  the 
advent  of  railroads,  this  was  the  great  outlet  of  Coos  county,  and  the 
thoroughfare  over  which  its  merchandise  came  from  Portland,      hi  win- 

92  History  of  Coos  County. 

ter,  often,  lines  of  teams  from  Coos,  over  half  a  mile  in  length,  might 
be  seen  going  down  with  tough  Canadian  horses  harnessed  to  "  pungs  "  or 
sleighs,  loaded  with  pot  or  pearl  ash,  butter,  cheese,  pork,  lard,  and  peltry, 
returning  with  well  assorted  loads  of  merchandise,  or  filling  the  caravan- 
saries of  Crawford,  Rosebrook,  and  others  with  a  wild  hilarity.  Before 
this  time  most  of  the  incorporated  towns  were  well  provided  with  roads; 
but  wagons,  carriages,  and  "one-horse  chaises  "  could  not  roll  along  their 
level  surfaces  with  as  much  enjoyment  to  the  occupant  as  can  be  taken 
to-day,  until  about  1820. 

Tbe  Jefferson  Turnpike,  fourteen  miles  in  length,  from  Lancaster 
through  Jefferson,  Bretton  Woods  to  the  Tenth  Turnpike,  was  incorpo- 
rated December  11,  1804,  and  cost  $18,400,  and  was  of  much  value  to  the 
"North  Country." 

As  early  as  1803  a  road  had  been  laid  out  from  Colebrook  to  Hallowell, 
Me.,  ninety  miles,  via  Dixville  Notch,  Errol,  etc.,  but  for  years  nothing 
came  of  it.  The  following  by  J.  W.  Weeks,  concerning  the  roads  of  Lan- 
caster is  of  value  : — 

"  What  seemed  to  impress  the  first  settlers  most  was  the  matter  of  roads.  Hardly  a  meeting 
of  the  proprietors  took  place  without  some  action  upon  this  matter.  First  to  look  out  and  mark 
roads.  March  12,  1767,  a  committee  was  appointed,  consisting  of  David  Page,  Timothy  Nash, 
Edwards  Bucknam,  and  two  others,  to  look  out  and  mark  the  road  to  '  Picwackett  (Conway),  to 
the  Androscoggin,  and  to  the  nearest  settlement  on  the  Connecticut  River.'  Whether  the  roads 
followed  for  many  years  after  were  marked  by  this  committee  is  unknown.  But  roads  were 
marked  out  and  the  routes  followed,  sometimes  near  where  the  present  highways  run,  but  in  many 
places  very  different.  The  remains  of  rude  bridges,  corduroys  and  their  like,  mark  the  course  of 
some  of  them  to  day.  The  route  down  the  river  from  the  head  of  the  island  or  '  Stockwell's 
Bridge,'  has  evidently  never  been  changed,  but  the  road  to  Picwackett,  through  Dartmouth  (Jeffer- 
son), has  been  changed  more  than  once.  The  first  road  followed  close  upon  the  bank  of  Israel's 
river  to  Jefferson  Mills,  thence  to  '  Whipple's  Meadow,'  ^Jefferson  Meadows);  the  next  followed  the 
high  ground,  considerably  west  of  the  present  road,  to  Jefferson  Mills.  These  roads  can  still  be 
traced.  The  route  to  Ameroscoggin  passed  over  the  hills  east  of  the  river  and  connected  with  the 
present  road  near  Geo.W.  Webster's,  and  passing  through  Jefferson,  ran  some  twenty -five  rods  east 
of  Samuel  Mardin's  and  William  J.  Chamberlain,  passing  near  the  Waumbek  and  high  up  the  hill 
beyond.  The  first  road  to  Northumberland,  after  leaving  North  street,  passed  near  the  top  of  the 
high  bank,  by  the  house  of  E.  D.  Stockwell,  and  striking  the  bank  of  the  river  near  Capt.  A.  M. 
Beattie's,  thence  following  the  river  bank  to  near  the  Northumberland  line. 

"  These  roads  or  highways  were  rude  affairs,  often  very  crooked,  and  passing  over  high  hills 
for  the  sake  of  dry  ground,  very  little  attempt  being  made  for  drainage.  The  small  streams  and 
swampy  places  were  passed  by  '  corduroys,'  that  is  by  laying  two  parallel  timbers  lengthwise  of 
the  road,  six  or  seven  feet  apart,  and  covering  them  with  cross-timbers  or  poles  laid  crosswise,  cut 
eight  feet  long.  These  roads  sufficed  for  the  time,  as  there  was  little  transportation  over  them  ex- 
cept on  horseback,  and  by  sleds  in  winter.  They  were  usually,  however,  wide  enough  and  firm 
enough  for  ox  carts,  and  for  the  lumbering  two-horse  wagons.  The  use  of  the  plow  and  scraper 
was  probably  as  great  an  event  as  was  that  of  the  road  machine,  later. 

"  The  road  down  the  river  seems  to  have  called  forth  the  greatest  solicitude.  In  all  the  peti- 
tions for  a  new  county  from  1790  to  1805,  it  was  set  forth  that  the  roads  were  nearly  impassable, 
as  a  principal  cause  why  this  northern  section  be  set  off.  The  road  to  Conway  was  evidently 
made  passable  quite  early.  Col.  Whipple  was  said  to  have  come  to  Jefferson  in  1764,  and  he, 
without  doubt,  came  through  the  Notch.     Nash  and  Sawyer's  Location  was  granted  in  1773r 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  &c.  93 

for  building  a  road  through  that  tract,  and  in  1786,  in  petitioning  the  Legislature  for  assistance , 
it  was  set  forth  that  the  road  was  out  of  repair  from  recent  freshets,  indicating  then-  was 
a  road  previously.  At  that  time  a  committee  was  appointed  to  sell  State  lands  and  build  and 
repair  roads.  Large  tracts  of  land  were  sold  at  extremely  low  prices,  from  time  to  time,  and  if 
the  road  was  built  it  did  not  stay  built.  After  more  than  ten  years  a  sort  of  settlement  with  the 
committee  was  effected  by  the  Legislature.  The  gentlemen  got  their  discharge  and  most  of  the 
land,  but  the  public  no  road,  or  a  very  poor  one.  The  age  of  turnpikes  had  now  arrived,  and  in 
1803  the  tenth  New  Hampshire  turnpike  was  chartered,  twenty  miles  through  the  Notch,  and 
built  at  great  expense.  The  following  year  the  Jefferson  turnpike  was  chartered,  some  fourteen 
miles,  to  the  Rosebrook  place.  This  road  was  well  laid  out  and  splendidly  built.  Up  Israel's 
river  it  was  straight  as  a  line,  was  well  drained,  and  worked  twenty-two  feet  wide,  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  seem  to  defy  the  effects  of  time.  From  the  time  of  building  these  roads  Coos  peo- 
ple had  as  good  highways  to  Conway  as  could  be  maintained  through  the  Notch,  till  the  time 
of  the  great  freshet,  in  1826. 

"  Prior  to  the  four  wheeled  carriage,  which  was  about  1822,  the  ordinary  road  was  not  much 
better  than  a  bridle-path,  although  passable  for  the  chaise,  ox  cart  and  team  wagon.*' 



Boundary  Surveys— Smuggling,  Etc.,  1812-1815— Boundary  Commissions — "Indian  Stream 
Territory  "—  Indian  Stream  War— Musters  and  Militia. 

THE  report  of  the  commissioners  appointed  by  King  George,  in  Coun- 
cil of  February  22,  1735,  and  confirmed  by  his  order  of  August  ... 
174<),  established  "  that  the  dividing  line  between  the  two  provinces 
(N.  H.  ec  Mass.)  shall  pass  up  through  the  mouth  of  Piscataqua  Harbor, 
and  up  the  middle  of  the  river  Newichwannock,  (part  of  which  is  now- 
called  Salmon  Falls,)  and  through  the  middle  of  the  same,  to  the  farthest 
head  thereof,  and  that  said  dividing  line  shall  part  the  Isles  of  'Sholes' 
and  run  through  the  middle  of  the  Harbor,  between  the  Islands  to  the  Sea. 
on  the  southerly  side,  &c,"  and,  in  1740,  a  survey  was  made  in  accordance 
thereto.  Again,  in  1789,  the  line  was  run  and  marked  by  spotting  trees, 
in  the  then  wilderness,  from  the  head  of  Salmon  Falls  river  to  the  High- 
lands of  Canada.  The  course  of  the  line  thus  run  was.  north  6  degrees 
east,  and  is  the  same  line  familiarly  known  to  the  residents  tin 'icon  as  the 
"Province  Line." 

In  1820,  Maine,  until  then  a  portion  of  Massachusetts,  be  ante  a  state. 
and  the  boundary  line  between  Maine  and  New  Hampshire  had  become  so 
obliterated  and  uncertain  in  its  location,  that  in  L827  the  two  states 
appointed  a  commission  to  "ascertain,  survey  and  mark,  the  line  between 

i»4  History  of  Coos  County. 

the  States  of  New  Hampshire  and  Maine,  and  to  erect  suitable  monuments 
to  designate  it  as  the  true  boundary  line  of  said  States."  Hon.  Ichabod 
Bartlett,  of  Portsmouth,  and  Hon.  John  W.  Weeks,  of  Lancaster,  were 
appointed  commissioners  for  New  Hampshire,  and  Hon. William  King,  and 
Hon.  Hufus  Mclntire,  commissioners  for  Maine.  Work  was  commenced 
October  1,  1827,  at  the  head  of  Salmon  Falls  river,  and  the  line  run  that 
fall  forty-seven  miles,  to  the  Androscoggin  river.  The  next  year  the  line 
was  completed  to  the  Canada  Highlands.  Three  stone  monuments  were 
erected  north  of  the  Androscoggin  river,  and  the  rest  of  the  way  the  line 
was  shown  by  marked  or  spotted  trees.  The  spots  on  the  trees  became 
effaced  and  destroyed  by  fires,  by  wind,  and  natural  growth,  and  the  clear- 
ings of  the  settlers.  For  years  surveyors  could  not  follow  it  save  by  com- 
pass, as  for  miles  there  were  no  marks  in  many  places.  Disputes  arose  in 
consequence,  and  owners  of  wild  and  timber  land  were  in  doubt  as  to  their 
boundaries.  To  rectify  this,  New  Hampshire  and  Maine,  in  1S5S,  created 
another  commission  "to  ascertain,  survey,  and  mark  the  dividing  line 
between  said  States,  from  Fryeburg  to  the  Canada  line."  Henry  O.  Kent, 
of  Lancaster,  was  appointed  commissioner  for  this  state,  and  John  M.Wil- 
son by  Maine.  The  boundary  to  be  established  nearly  all  lay  in  an  unbroken 
wilderness,  and  extended  about  eighty  miles  in  length.  During  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  work  the  weather  was  unfavorable  in  the  extreme.  In  a 
space  of  thirty -eight  days,  including  the  stormy  weather,  in  a  country 
where  supplies  could  not  be  had,  with  a  small  force,  the  line  was  run  by 
the  commissioners  personally,  a  series  of  monuments  erected,  and  a  per- 
manent line  between  the  two  commonwealths  established,  at  an  expense 
which  must  be  considered  economical  when  the  magnitude  and  importance 
of  the  work  is  considered.  The  survey  was  commenced  in  September, 
1858.  James  S.  Brackett  and  John  G.  Lewis,  of  Lancaster,  were  assist- 
ants, and  Adjutant-General  Joseph  C.  Abbott,  of  Manchester,  was  a  vol- 
unteer member  of  the  company, 

The  line  was  marked  by  the  erection  of  stone  monuments  at  all  road 
crossings  and  noticeable  points  where  none  before  existed,  and  by  retouch- 
ing the  old  monuments.  Many  large  and  prominent  trees  were  blazed  and 
marked  on  either  side  "N.  H."  "M.,"  and  the  names  of  various  members 
of  the  party  were  added,  together  with  the  date,  "  1858." 

Aside  from  the  monuments  described  above,  the  whole  course  of  the 
line  was  marked  by  spotting  the  old  marked  trees,  and  all  others  on  the 
route,  and  by  marking  the  spots  with  a  double  cross,  thus  X,  and  the 
under  brush  was  cleared  away  so  as  to  enable  one  to  follow  the  line  by  a 
continual  observance  of  the  spots. 

It  is  believed  that  the  line  above  described  is  now  sufficiently  marked 
and  designated  to  afford  a  distinguishable  and  permanent  dividing  liner 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  ecc.  :•;. 

which  will  subserve  all  the  purposes  of  the  two  states  equally  as  a  more 
expensive  system. 

The  treaty  of  L783  denned  the  northwest  boundary  of  New  Hampshire 
as  "the  most  northwestern  head  of  the  Connecticut  rivet.'"  The  country 
was  wild  and  unsurveyed.  The  British  considered  that  their  title  under 
this  treaty  extended  down  to  the  forty-fifth  parallel  of  latitude,  and  th< 
real  head  of  the  Connecticut,  while  Xew  Hampshire  did  not  concern  itself 
with  the  subject.  In  1789,  however.  Col.  Jeremiah  Eames  was  on  a  com- 
mission appointed  by  the  legislature  to  survey  and  establish  the  boundaries 
between  Maine,  New  Hampshire,  and  Lower  Canada,  and  his  journal  shows 
that  they  made  the  head  of  Hall's  stream,  the  northwest  bound  of  this 
state,  and  established  it  by  suitable  monuments.  Hall's  stream  is  the  north- 
western branch  of  the  Connecticut,  and  this  survey  brought  all  the  land 
between  Hall's  stream  and  Connecticut  river,  including  the  fertile  valley 
of  Indian  stream,  within  this  state.  The  advantages  of  this  region  becom- 
ing known,  in  178!>  two  settlers  made  their  homes  on  Indian  stream. 
Others  followed,  led  hither  by  the  richness  of  the  soil;  others,  to  seek  in 
this  remote  district  an  asylum  from  pressing  creditors  or  punishment  for 

Smuggling,  etc.— In  1*1.!  this  territory  was  the  paradise  of  smugglers, 
who  could  readily  bring  from  the  closely-lying  Canadian  settlements  the 
most  valuable  articles  into  the  '•'  States,"  without  the  slightest  fear  of  hin- 
drance from  the  far-off,  older  New  Hampshire  settlements. 

The  history  of  smuggling  as  carried  on  between  this  country  and  Canada 
from  the  enactment  of  the  embargo  at  the  close  of  18<>7,  and  especially 
from  the  enactment  of  the  more  stringent  non-intercourse  law  of  1810,  to 
the  declaration  of  war  in  1812,  and  even,  to  a  greater  or  less  extent,  to  the 
proclamation  of  peace  in  1815,  is  a  portion  of  our  annals  almost  wholly 
unwritten.  The  upper  towns  of  New  Hampshire  and  Vermont,  from 
the  close  contiguity  to  Montreal  and  Quebec,  the  only  importing  cities 
of  Canada,  afforded  the  most  tempting  facilities  and  the  best  chances 
for  success,  while  the  high  price  of  beef  and  cattle  in  the  Provinces 
was  a  great  allurement  to  the  Coos  farmer  whose  fat  herds  were 
almost  valueless  in  the  home  market.  The  Federalists  or  opponents 
of  the  Administration  wrere  in  a  large  majority  in  this  section,  and  they 
could  see  no  harm  in  selling  cattle  at  a  good  profit  on  Canadian  soil,  while 
not  all  friends  of  the  Government  could  resist  the  inducements  offered. 
A  man,  also,  could  readily  bring  hundreds  of  dollars  of  silks  and  satins 
in  his  pack,  and  an  Indian  sledge  in  winter  would  carry  ten  times 
as  many  of  the  same  valuable  commodities  through  the  woods.  No 
one  would  be  the  wiser  except  the  accomplice,  who  lived  this  side  of  the 
line,  and  knew  howr  to  secrete  and  take  to  market   the  rich  goods.     This 

96  History  of  Coos  County. 

illegal  trade  attained  such  proportions  that  the  United  States  stationed  a 
detachment  of  militia  at  Stewartstown  to  suppress  it  in  1812. 

Canaan  and  West  Stewartstown  were  often  centers  of  wild  excitement, 
and,  along  the  line,  almost  an  incessant  campaign  and  warfare  existed, 
for  years,  between  the  custom-house  officers  and  their  assistants,  with 
their  reserve  force  of  U.  S.  soldiers,  and  the  smugglers  and  their  friends, 
both  parties  being  armed  'k  to  the  teeth."  In  these  skirmishes  many  were 
at  different  times  killed  outright;  many  more  were  missing,  even  on  the 
side  of  the  officials,  for  whom  dark  fates  were  naturally  conjectured;  while 
others,  on  both  sides,  were  crippled  or  otherwise  seriously  wounded.  As 
nearly  seventy-five  years  have  passed  since  these  occurrences,  it  is  impos- 
sible to  accurately  detail  them  or  the  motives  of  the  actors.  We  find  no 
source  of  information  but  tradition,  and  that  is  so  affected  by  ties  of  con- 
sanguinity, personal  feeling  and  partisan  animosity  as  to  render  it  an 
unsafe  guide.  Eeference  must  be  made,  however,  to  some  matters,  which, 
even  to  this  day,  are  kept  fresh  in  the  mind  of  the  public.  In  September, 
1813,  Samuel  Beach,  of  Canaan,  Vt.,  owning  and  operating  a  saw-mill  in 
Canada,  obtained  a  permit  to  take  over  oxen.  The  officers  were  informed 
that  more  cattle  were  taken  over  than  were  brought  back,  and  that  they 
were  sold  to  the  British.  One  day,  Oliver  Ingham,  United  States  custom 
officer,  instructed  Lieutenant  John  Dennett  in  charge  of  the  militia  guard- 
ing the  line  not  to  allow  Beach  to  take  over  any  more  cattle.  Beach  soon 
attempted  to  cross  the  line  with  a  yoke  of  oxen,  and  Dennett  forbade  his 
doing  so.  He  endeavored  to  go  on,  however,  and  finally  was  shot  dead. 
Dennett  was  arrested  by  the  civil  authorities  for  murder  and  confined  in 
jail  at  Guildhall.  He  escaped  the  next  spring,  and  the  friends  of  Beach 
made  search  for  him,  and  in  August  following  surprised  him  while  cutting 
wood  for  his  camp.  He  was  shot  in  the  back  and  disabled,  then  brought 
out  of  the  woods,  placed  in  a  two-horse  wagon  and  driven  rapidly  over  the 
rough  roads  to  Guildhall,  where  he  soon  died.  Many  believe  that  he  was 
most  inhumanly  treated  by  his  captors,  and  maliciously  abused  while  on 
the  road  to  Guildhall. 

The  Federal  Government  now  sent  Capt.  Hodson  with  a  company  of 
regular  soldiers  to  relieve  the  militia.  Capt.  Hodson  soon  stopped  the 
smuggling  and  the  treasonable  acts  and  utterances.  He  arrested  Saunders 
W.  Cooper,  one  of  the  militia,  who  was  a  nephew  of  Beach,  and  sent  him 
to  Windsor,  Vt.,  to  be  tried  for  treason.  He  was  accused  of  being  a  smug- 
gler, and  of  having  joined  the  militia  that  he  might  give  assistance  to  those 
desiring  to  aid  the  enemy.  He  was  not  tried,  however,  on  account  of  his 
youth  and  the  close  of  the  war,  and,  after  his  death,  years  later,  his 
widow  obtained  a  pension  for  his  services  as  a  soldier.  The  smugglers  and 
their  friends  hated  Hodson,  and  once,  while  he  was  at  Lancaster,  they 
endeavored  to  get  hold  of  him  by  arresting  him  for  some  alleged  breach  of 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  &c. 


the  civil  law.     He  was  aware  of  their  object,  however,  and  had  a  suffi 
cient  number  of  soldiers  with  him  to  frustrate  their  des  gns.     He  tva an 
.  able  officer,  and,  later,  a  prominent  citizen  of  Maine 

Indian  Stream  Territory  and  War.-ln  1819  the  British  and  Ameri 
can  commissioners  attempted  to  jointly  establish  the  boundary  line  between 
Canada  and  this  state,  but  they  could  not  agree.  The  American  con  mk 
sioners  held  to  Fames'  survey  and  Hall's  stream  as  the  bound  made  by 
the  treaty,  while  the  British  commissioners  contended  for  lines  aTcoroW 
to  their  construction.  From  the  survey  in  1789,  the  settlers  Ce  had 
known  nothing  else  than  that  they  were  in  New  Hampshire  territory  and 

n  1"    ueeLIeof  7vnaf  4°  ""  'T'  acknowledged  that  of  fcS 
in   consequence  of    this  disagreement,    the  Canadian   local    authorities 

Te'ritorv  "     TheP  ^  -°f  **""  ^^  ^^  °f  "**- 
lemtoiy.       The  Provincial  government  of  Canada  at  one  time  located  a 

township  on  this  territory  and  called  it  "Drayton;"  built  a  road  from 
Hall  s  Stream  to  Indian  Stream,  and  assumed  occupancy.  The  lawW 
element  before  mentioned  was  still  in  large  force,  and'as  iLas  more  con 
venient  for  then  personal  safety  to  be  out  of  the  jurisdiction  of  American 
aw,  many  advocated  the  Canadian  claim.  Up  to  this  time  New  Ham p 
shire  officers  had  served  the  processes  of  New  Hampshire  courts  and  the 
majority  of  the  settlers  were  faithful  to  this  state 

In  1824  Indian  Stream  Territory  was  inhabited  by  about  fifty-eight  set 

about  t7\  r  fammeS'  mad6a  P°pulatio»  °f  285  Persons  Ct 

about  847  acres  under  improvement.   These  settlers  claimed,  under  certa  n 

Indian  deeds  the  principal  of  which  was  that  of  Philip,  an  okTchiefof 
he  St.  Francis  tribe,  dated  1790.   The  general  government  as  eariy  as  that 
toe  prohAited  purchases  of  land  from  the  Indians;  but  it  was  daimed 
that  the  grantors  living  without  the  jurisdiction  of  the  United  States  m™de 
his  case  an  exception  to  the  rule.     By  the  convention  of  1827  the    ues 
ton  of  the  whole  northeastern  boundary  was  referred  to  the  King  of  the 
Netherlands,  whose  award  in   respect  to  this  part  of  the  line  thiew  t    s 
whole  tract  upon  the  Canada  side.  But,  as  « the  head  of  the  Connect  cut  " 
which  he  adopted  did  not  approach  the  highlands,   the  people  of  New 
Hampshire  were  dissatisfied,  and,  as  the  award  was  rejected  by  the  United 
States,  the  whole  question  was  left  open  to  further  difficulty 

In  1820  the  state  owing  to  the  settlers  here  resisting  process  issuing  in 
Coos  county,  of  which  the  tract  was  regarded  as  forming  a  part  1, a 
asserted  a  title  and  a  jurisdiction,  by  a  resolution  directing  the  attorney 
general  to  proceed  against  intruders;  and  again,  in  1824,  by  an  express 
declaratory  act,  in  which  also  it  released  title  to  every  actual  settler  of   wo 
hundred  acres,  reserving,  of  course,  all  other  portions  to  itself 

The  settlement,  in  1830,  numbered  ninety  voters,  and  there  wasalanre 
enough  number  of  disaffected  men  to  lead  them  to  talk  of  resistance  to 

98  History  of  Coos  County. 

the  long  acknowledged  authority.  The  two  great  powers  had  agreed,  that, 
until  the  boundary  question  should  be  settled,  neither  should  extend  their 
jurisdiction  over  the  disputed  lands.  The  Canadian  officers  continued  their 
attempts  at  control,  and  even  compelled  some  of  the  people  to  do  military 
duty  in  1831.  Those  loyal  to  this  state  were  alarmed,  and  applied  to  their 
friends  below  for  help,  which  was  not  readily  forthcoming,  and  an  inde- 
pendent government  was  mooted.  At  this  juncture,  two  Federal  customs 
officers  threw  a  firebrand  into  this  combustible  mass  by  exacting  duties 
from  all  the  Indian  Stream  people  who  brought  produce  into  New  Hamp- 
shire or  Vermont,  thus  declaring  them  beyond  the  United  States.  These 
illegal  and  ill  advised  measures  excited  the  people  intensely,  and  gave  the 
discontented  a  good  chance  to  work  in  the  interests  of  Canada.  A  majority 
of  the  inhabitants  concluded,  however,  to  form  an  independent  govern- 
ment to  be  in  force  until  the  boundary  was  decided.  July  9,  1832,  the 
voters  of  the  disputed  tract  met,  by  notification,  formed  the  government 
of  "  The  United  Inhabitants  of  Indian  Stream  Territory,"  adopted  a  con- 
stitution, which  created  an  assembly  and  a  council.  The  new  government 
determined  to  resist  the  service  of  processes  from  New  Hampshire  courts. 
Hon.  John  H.  White,  sheriff  of  Coos  county,  hearing  of  this,  detailed  the 
state  of  affairs  as  he  heard  them  to  the  secretary  of  state  at  Concord,  and 
asked  instructions.  The  governor  and  council  called  for  the  opinion  of 
the  attorney-general,  and  a  copy  of  this,  asserting  jurisdiction  over,  and 
right  to,  the  territory,  with  a  letter  from  the  governor,  saying  the  laws 
should  be  executed  in  Indian  Stream,  was  sent  to  Sheriff  White,  who  thus 
informed  the  residents  and  officials  of  Indian  Stream.  This  was  in  Decem- 
ber, 1834,  and  had  its  effect  with  the  people  until  Alexander  Rea.  a  justice 
of  Hereford,  L.  C,  who  lived  near  the  disputed  ground,  and  who  had  been 
active  in  fomenting  strife,  advised  resistance;  under  his  influence,  and 
with  the  expected  aid  of  the  province,  the  people  voted  to  resist  the  laws 
of  this  state,  and  abide  by  their  constitution  and  laws.  March  12,  1835, 
Deputy  Sheriff  William  M.  Smith,  from  Colebrook,  attempted  to  arrest 
C.  J.  Haines  and  Eeuben  Sawyer,  and  was  violently  beaten  and  driven 
from  the  Territory  by  several  men.  March  13,  Milton  Harvey  and  an 
assistant  were  assaulted  while  trying  to  attach  some  property,  and  also 
driven  from  the  Territory.  Wild  reports  came  down  to  Lancaster  of  this 
resistence;  it  was  asserted  that  the  Territory  was  organizing  a  military 
force,  had  made  an  alliance  with  Indians  for  war,  and  were  building  a 
block-house  for  an  intrenchment,  under  the  name  of  "jail." 

About  this  time  the  people  of  Indian  Stream  Territory  chose  John 
Haines  to  properly  present  their  position  to  Col.  White.  He  was  instructed 
to  say  that  they  had  unanimously  "resolved  to  abide  by  and  support  our 
own  constitution  and  laws,  agreeably  to  our  oaths,  until  known  to  what 
government  we  properly  belong,  when  our  constitution  is  at  an  end."   Col. 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  &c.  99 

White»gave  no  satisfaction  to  Mr.  Haines,  saying,  merely,  that  he  would 
lay  the  situation  before  the  governor,  and  he  at  once  wrote  a  letter,  giving 
the  rumors  prevalent  concerning  the  action  of  the  people,  as  well  what 
had  been  done,  and  asked  for  a  detachment  of  militia  to  enable  him  and 
his  officers  to  properly  discharge  their  duties.  It  is  evident  from  the 
names  of  the  councillors  of  Indian  Stream,  that  up  to  this  period  many  of 
the  people  had  only  intended  to  keep  a  neutral  position,  and  really  consid- 
ered themselves  under  no  jurisdiction,  save  that  of  their  own  laws,  until 
the  boundary  question  should  be  decided,  and  they  allotted  to  New  Hamp- 
shire or  Canada.  It  was  to  prevent  disorder  and  anarchy,  not  to  cause  it, 
even  if  the  influence  of  Rea  had  developed  its  formation,  that  the  "  Terri- 
tory" was  organized.  Ebenezer  Fletcher,  Richard  I.  Blanchard,  Jeremiah 
Tabor  and  others,  who  were  members  of  the  Council,  were  never  disloyal 
to  the  United  States,  but  they  could  not  hold  in  check  the  lawless  element 
which  favored  union  with  Canada.  April  18,  1835. — The  assembly  of 
Indian  Stream  passed  acts  making  it  perjury  to  violate  the  oath  of  alle- 
giance to  their  constitution,  with  a  penalty  of  confinement  in  the  stocks 
united  to  disqualification  as  a  witness  in  the  territorial  courts;  also,  for- 
bidding any  sheriff,  or  sheriff's  officers,  residing  in  Indian  Stream,  or  the 
United  States,  not  appointed  by  the  government  of  Indian  Stream,  per- 
forming any  official  duties  within  the  Territory  under  the  penalty  of  tine 
and  imprisonment.  This  clear  distinction  against  the  United  States  and 
in  favor  of  Canada  alarmed  the  American  residents,  and  the  same  day  they 
drafted  and  sent  a  petition  to  Gov.  Badger,  asking  protection  from  the 
action  of  these  laws.  Shortly  after,  the  majority  who  passed  the  obnox- 
ious laws,  also  sent  a  memorial  to  Gov.  Badger  acknowledging  that  they 
had  kept  the  Canadian  government  informed  of  their  acts,  and  begged  for 
favorable  consideration.  In  June,  1835,  Gov.  Badger  presented  the  case 
and  papers  to  the  legislature,  at  Concord.  This  body  resolved  to  main- 
tain jurisdiction  over  Indian  Stream  Territory,  and  to  hold  its  possession 
until  the  boundary  dispute  should  be  fully  settled:  and  authorized  the 
governor  to  render  all  necessary  aid  to  the  executive  officers  <>f  Coos 
county  in  executing  the  laws  of  New  Hampshire  in  that  Territory. 

This  legislation  was  at  once  communicated  to  Sheriff  White,  and  by  him 
to  the  people  of  Indian  Stream.  Quiet  was  produced  for  a  lime,  but  the 
Provincial  government  again  interfered,  and  the  discontented  began  t<> 
make  preparations  to  resist  the  execution  of  New  Hampshire  laws,  while 
they  allowed  Canadian  warrants  to  be  served  in  the  Territory.  The  afore- 
mentioned Justice  Rea.  net  content  with  issuing  writs  to  be  served  in 
Indian  Stream,  made  various  speeches  urging  resistance  t<>  American  laws, 
and  promising  help  from  Canada.  In  October,  1^».~>.  William  M.  Smith,  a 
deputy- sheriff  of  Coos  county,  with  Richard  I.  Blanchard  and  John  M. 
Harvey  as  assistants,  attempted  to  serve  a  writ  on  John  H.  Tyler.     Tyler 

100  History  of  Coos  County. 

refusing  to  turn  out  property  for  attachment,  Smith  arrested  him,  and  in 
taking  him  away,  Tyler  was  forcibly  rescued  by  several  of  his  neighbors. 
Alexander  Rea,  on  being  informed  of  this  arrest,  issued  a  warrant  against 
Smith,  Blanchard  and  Harvey,  in  the  name  of  the  King  of  Great  Britain, 
for  attempting  to  serve  processes  not  granted  by  Canadian  courts.  Blan- 
chard, the  only  one  residing  in  Indian  Stream,  was  arrested  on  this  war- 
rant, October  22,  1835,  by  an  armed  posse  of  from  twelve  to  fifteen  men, 
and  taken  by  force  from  his  dwelling,  to  be  tried  in  Canada  for  doing  his 
duty  as  a  deputy  sheriff  of  the  county  of  Coos. 

As  the  news  of  this  outrage  was  immediately  spread,  great  excitement 
prevailed  in  the  upper  towns  of  Coos.  Clark  J.  Haines  started  at  once  on 
horseback  for  Colebrook,  giving  notice  at  Clarksville  and  Stewartstown. 
As  fast  as  notified  the  men  of  the  various  towns  armed  and  hastened  to 
the  relief  of  Blanchard.  Many  took  their  arms  and  accoutrements  as 
militia  men.  Nearly  three  hundred  assembled  in  Canaan;  citizens  aroused 
by  an  outrage  upon  the  rights  of  one  of  their  number,  and  determined  to 
rescue  him.  Several  parties  started  to  intercept  Blanchard  and  his  captors, 
and  we  give  Blanchard's  own  language  of  the  rescue:  "When  I  was 
within  a  mile  of  the  house  of  Alex.  Rea,  to  which  place  I  understood  they 
were  conveying  me,  we  were  met  by  a  party  of  eight  men  from  New 
Hampshire  on  horseback,  all,  or  most  of  them,  armed.  They  demanded 
my  release  from  the  party  having  custody  of  me,  which  was  refused,  but, 
after  some  further  talk,  the  party  demanding  resolutely  my  release,  I  was 
at  length  released,  without  any  force  being  used  on  either  side,  and  I  went 
with  the  party  down  to  the  store  of  Parmelee  &  Joy,  in  Canaan,  Vt." 

The  rescuing  party  consisted  of  E.  H.  Mahurin,  J.  M.  Harvey,  J.  P. 
Wiswell,  J.  M.  Hilliard,  Horatio  Tuttle,  I.  B.  Blodgett,  Samuel  Weeks, 
Jr. ,  and  Miles  Hurlburt.  At  the  store  in  Canaan  mention  was  made  of 
J.  H.  Tyler,  the  former  prisoner  of  Smith,  as  being  one  of  the  party  in 
charge  of  Blanchard.  Ephraim  C.  Aldrich  and  Miles  Hurlburt,  taking 
with  them  an  advertisement  offering  five  dollars  reward  for  the  capture  of 
Tyler,  started  in  search  of  him,  and,  shortly  after  crossing  the  Canada 
line,  they  were  met  by  Rea,  who,  highly  excited,  ordered  them  off  the 
king's  highway  and  his  (/rounds.  Rea  had  over  a  dozen  men  whom  he 
called  upon  to  arrest  Aldrich  and  Hurlburt.  The  latter  drew  a  pistol,  and 
Aldrich  advised  Rea  not  to  approach  Hurlburt  as  he  might  shoot.  Turning 
to  Aldrich,  Rea  ordered  a  man  to  take  his  horse  by  the  bridle,  and  he 
.attempted  to  arrest  Aldrich,  who  drew  a  sword  and  defended  himself. 
Rea  and  his  party  began  to  throw  stones,  two  of  which  hit  Hurlburt  with 
force.  He  discharged  his  pistol,  wounding  Young,  and  as,  by  this  time, 
thirty  or  forty  men  had  come  up  from  Canaan,  Rea,  becoming  alarmed, 
ran  for  the  woods,  Aldrich  pursuing  him.     After  a  short  skirmish,  Rea 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  &c.  mi 

surrendered,  was  placed  in  a  w.-igon  and  taken  to  Canaan,  where,   after 
being  detained  some  hours,  lie  was  released. 

The  legislature,  by  an  act  approved  June  L8,  1836,  authorized  the  gov- 
ernor "  to  appoint  commissioners  to  repair  to  Indian  Stream  and  collect 
and  arrange  such  testimony  as  may  be  obtained  to  rebut  and  explain  the 
charges  and  testimony  obtained  and  preferred  against  the  authorities  and 
inhabitants  of  this  state  by  Lord  Gosford,  Governor  of  the  Province  of 
Lower  Canada."  Gov.  Badger  appointed  as  members  of  this  commission 
Adjutant-General  Joseph  Low,  Ralph  Metcalf  and  John  P.  Hale,  who 
made  a  report,  November  23,  1830. 

As  the  excitement  increased,  and  the  adherents  of  New  Hampshire 
feared  for  their  safety,  Gov.  Badger  instructed  Gen.  Low  "to  take  such 
steps  as  might  be  found  necessary  to  maintain  the  integrity  of  the  state 
and  its  laws,  and,  if  necessary,  to  call  out  so  much  of  the  Twenty-fourth 
Regiment  as  will  enable  the  executive  officers  of  the  county  of  Coos  to 
execute  the  laws,  and  suppress  and  put  down  all  insurrectionary  move- 
ments." Necessity  arising,  Gen.  Low  ordered  Col.  Ira  Young  to  "detach 
and  order  into  service,  and  place  at  the  disposal  of  John  H.  White,  Esq., 
sheriff  of  the  County  of  Coos,  one  captain,  one  lieutenant,  one  ensign,  four 
sergeants,  two  musicians,  and  forty-two  privates,  for  three  months  unless 
sooner  discharged."  This  order  was  handed  to  Col.  Ira  Young,  November 
13,  1835,  about  six  o'clock  in  the  evening,  and,  as  Capt.  Mooney  and  some 
men  were  already  at  Indian  Stream,  an  express  immediately  sent  by  him 
to  Ensign  Drew,  of  the  Stewartstown  company,  with  directions  to  collect 
his  force  at  once  and  report  without  delay.  By  three  o'clock  in  the  morn- 
ing of  the  next  day,  about  twenty  men  had  assembled,  some  having  trav- 
eled nineteen  miles  on  foot  to  join  Capt.  Mooney." 

*  Roll  of  Copt.  Mooney'8  Company,  24th  Regt. ,  N.  H.  M.,  serving  at  Indian  Stream. — 
James  Mooney,  Captain,  Stewartstown;  Haines  French,  Lieutenant,  Columbia;  Amos  W.  Drew, 
Ensign,  Stewartstown;  Joseph  Durgin,  Sergeant,  Northumberland;  William  Covel,  Sergeant. 
Colebrook;  Robert  Tirrell,  Sergeant,  Stewartstown;  Isaac  Miner,  Sergeant,  Whitefield;  George 
Hight,  Sergeant,  Jefferson;  Privates,  Asahel  Aldricli,  Whitefield;  David  Alls,  Colebrook; 
James  H.  Balch,  Lancaster;  Thomas  Batchelder,  Whitefield;  Ephraim  F.  Bartlett,  Whitefield; 
Phill  C.  Bickford,  Northumberland;  Linus  Blakeslee,  Dalton;  Arnold  Bolls,  Dalton;  Henry  Bout- 
well,  Dalton;  William  W.  Brooks,  Colebrook;  Volney  M  Brown,  Stratford;  Jesse  Carr,  Jefferson; 
Jesse  W.Carr,  Columbia:  Nathan  S.  Carr,  Indian  Stream,  Sub., Colebrook:  Hazen  Chamberlain,  Cole- 
brook: William  Curtis,  Stratford;  Nathaniel  G.  Dodge,  Stark:  Ahaz  S.  French,  Columbia;  Orisa- 
mus  Frizzle,  Colebrook;  William  Grimes, Dalton;  Alfred  Greenleaf,  Jefferson;  Samuel G.  Grout,  Dal- 
ton; Horatio  Grover,  Colebrook;  Alexander,  Gullen,  Sub.,  Colebrook  or  Columbia;  Silas  Huntoon, 
"Whitefield;  Duglas  Ingerson,  Lancaster;  Enoch  C.  Jewell,  Whitefield;  Dennis  .bines.  Lancaster; 
Abiel  C.  Kidder,  Stewartstown:  Eli  Kinerson.  Stratford;  Leaviii  Loud,  Dalton;  William  G.  by- 
man,  Columbia;  Clark  McFarland,  Stark;  Joseph  Morrill.  Jr.,  Whitefield;  John  Perkins,  Lancas- 
ter; William  Price,  Whitefield;  Benjamin  Stilling,  Jefferson;  Ira  Stilling,  Jefferson;  Charles  F. 
Stone,  Lancaster;  John  Sweat,  Columbia;  William  Wallace,  Jr.,  Dalton  or  Columbia;  Asa  8. 
White,  Whitefield;  Samuel  Whittemore,  Colebrook. 

102  History  of  Coos  County. 

Very  early,  say  two  or  three  o'clock,  on  the  morning  of  November  14, 
1835,  Captain  Mooney,  with  a  guard,  accompanied  deputy  sheriff  Blan- 
chard  to  arrest  a  number  against  whom  warrants  had  been  issued  for  the  vio- 
lation of  our  laws,  and  who  were  supposed  to  be  at  Applebee's.  After  stop- 
ping a  short  time  at  Perry's  Stream,  Ensign  Drew  crossed  with  twenty 
men  to  surround  the  house  (a  large  two  story  frame  building),  with  orders 
to  keep  quiet  until  daylight.  Two  horses  at  pasture  were  alarmed  by  the 
soldiers,  and  ran  to  the  house  arousing  the  inmates  by  their  excited  snort- 
ing and  neighing.  Emor  Applebee  came  to  the  door,  and  going  back  into 
the  house  returned  with  a  gun,  and  his  son,  Benjamin,  also  armed.  He 
warned  the  officers  and  guard  not  to  approach.  The  sheriff  announced 
his  office  and  mission,  and  ordered  them  "  in  the  name  of  the  state  "  to  lay 
down  their  arms  and  submit;  upon  this  they  levelled  their  guns  and  said 
they  would  shoot  the  first  one  who  came  near  them.  They  were  covered 
at  once  by  twenty  rifles.  Captain  Mooney  said  that  his  instructions  were 
to  take  them  alive  or  dead;  when  the  elder  Applebee  ordered  the  whole 
company  to  leave  his  farm  ' '  in  the  name  of  the  King,''  and  started  his  wife 
as  a  messenger  to  notify  his  associates  of  his  peril.  By  this  time,  however, 
the  soldiers  had  cut  off  communication  with  outside  parties,  and  Mrs. 
Applebee  was  driven  back  to  the  house.  Gen.  Lewis  Loomis,  who  had 
accompanied  the  soldiers,  now  advised  the  Applebees  that  their  escape  was 
impossible,  and  that  it  was  their  wisest  course  to  surrender  and  go  with 
him  to  the  officers,  when,  if  they  could  satisfy  them  of  the  rectitude  of 
their  intentions,  they  should  be  permitted  to  return.  The  Applebees  under 
his  plausible  diplomacy  consented  to  do  this,  gave  up  their  arms  and  ammu- 
nition, and  were  made  prisoners.  They,  with  others  of  the  malcontents 
captured,  were  taken  to  Lancaster,  and  lodged  in  jail.  After  six  months 
and  three  days  imprisonment,  Benjamin  was  released  upon  his  own  recog- 
nizance. Emor  Applebee  was  released  in  the  same  manner  after  an 
imprisonment  of  a  year.  The  other  prisoners  were  discharged  in  time, 
and  none  were  ever  brought  to  trial. 

The  guns  captured  from  the  Applebees  were  heavily  charge  with  powder, 
ball,  and  large  buck-shot  or  pistol-bullets.  One  gun  contained  seventeen 
bullets,  one  rifle  seven  bullets,  and  the  spare  guns  an  ounce  ball  each,  and 
from  seven  to  twelve  pistol-bullets.  This  prompt  arrest  followed  by  others, 
crushed  opposition  by  force,  but  the  British  party  continued  to  make 
threats,  and  the  vicious  and  law-escaping  element  of  the  territory  labored 
with  them.  On  learning  these  facts,  Gov.  Badger  issued  an  order  calling  out 
more  troops,  if  quiet  was  not  restored,  and  the  turbulent  ones  thought  bet- 
ter of  the  situation  and  either  emigrated  to  Canada  or  quietly  submitted 
to  .New  Hampshire  law. 

The  national  government  refunded  the  expenses  incurred  by  the  state 
in  this  campaign,  and,  by  this  action,  the  militia  engaged  became  "veteran 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  &c.  103 

soldiers  of  the  United  States,"  and  were  granted  160  acres  of  government 
land  each.  In  1819,  Congress  satisfied  the  state's  claim  by  paying  $7, <>i mi. 
The  next  year  an  attempt  was  made  to  recover  interest  on  this  sum  from 
the  year  1836,  which,  after  being  more  than  once  refused,  was  allowed  by 
Congress  in  January,  1852,  with  a  proviso  that  the  amount  should  not 
exceed  the  sum  of  $6,000.  But,  in  disposing  of  the  questions  growing 
out  of  the  claims  on  the  part  of  the  settlers  here,  resort  was  had  to  the 
superior  court  of  New  Hampshire.  In  a  decision  given  in  this  court  in 
1810,  by  Chief  Justice  Parker,  the  jurisdiction  asserted  by  the  state  was 
affirmed,  and  was  held  to  refer  back,  in  the  absence  of  any  subsequent  grant 
to  the  period  of  separation  from  Great  Britain,  and  consequently  carried 
with  it  all  title  to  the  lands.  This  decision  settled  the  question;  and  the  juris- 
diction thus  maintained  was  acquiesced  in  by  Great  Britain  and  the  United 
States  in  the  Webster-Ashburton  treaty  made  the  next  year,  which  laid 
down  the  line  as  claimed  by  the  state.  The  stamp  of  right  and  justice  was 
thus  placed  upon  the  prompt  action  of  the  New  Hampshire  officials. 

Masters,  Trainings,  and  Militia* — There  are  very  few  people  now  living 
who  remember  the  old-fashioned  muster  and  May  trainings  in  New  Hamp- 
shire. These  came  down  from  colonial  days  and  were  looked  upon  by  young 
and  old  as  the  "  great  days  "  of  the  year— by  the  old,  to  rehearse  and  keep 
alive  the  patriotic  spirit — by  the  young,  to  view  the  scenes  of  mimic  war 
and  glory.  These  militia  "  trainings  "  and  "  musters  "  were  the  only  pas- 
times for  the  year.  For  days  before  these  occasions,  preparations  were 
made  to  attend  by  the  whole  country  around.  So,  early  in  the  morning 
on  these  days,  in  carriages,  on  horseback,  and  on  foot,  all,  save  the  aged 
and  decrepit,  were  seen  wending  their  way  to  the  training-and-muster- 
fleld.  Little  do  the  boys  of  the  present,  who  have  picnics,  excursions, 
base  ball,  circuses,  and  scores  of  diversions,  realize  the  poverty  of  pastimes 
in  those  early  days;  and  how  they  were  enjoyed — almost  reverenced. 

Every  "free,  able-bodied,  white  male  citizen  of  the  state,  resident 
therein,  of  the  age  of  eighteen  years  and  under  the  age  of  forty-five  years, 
unless  exempted  by  law,"  was  liable  to  do  military  duty  in  the  company 
within  whose  limits  he  resided  or  into  which  he  may  have  enlisted.     Each 


company  was  obliged  "  to  meet  on  the  third  Tuesday  of  May  annually,"  for 
inspection  and  military  drill,  "armed  and  equipped  as  the  law  directs," 
and  on  one  other  day,  by  order  of  the  captain.  The  annual  regimental 
muster  was  in  September,  and  called  by  the  general;  and  this  embraced 
all  the  companies  in  the  regiment. 

The  law  required  that  "each  enrolled  man  should  be  armed  with  a  mus- 
ket with  a  flint  lock,  two  spare  flints,  with  a  steel  or  iron  ram-rod,  a  bay- 
onet, scabbard  and  belt,  a  priming-wire  and  brush,  a  knapsack  and  can- 
teen, and  a  cartridge-box  that  contains  twenty-four  cartridges." 

*By  Hon.  B.  F.  Whi.I.lui. 

104  History  of  Coos  County. 

The  militia  companies,  or,  as  they  were  sometimes  called,  "  flood- 
wood  companies,"  embraced  all  the  enrolled  men  who  did  not  enlist  into 
an  independent  company.  In  every  regiment  there  was  a  company  of 
cavalry,  sometimes  called  "troopers,"  a  company  of  artillery,  one  or  two 
companies  of  light  infantry,  and  a  company  of  riflemen. 

The  officers  were  a  captain,  a  lieutenant,  and  an  ensign,  except  in  the 
cavalry,  where  the  ensign  was  called  a  cornet.  To  each  company  there 
were  four  sergeants,  four  corporals,  one  bass-drummer,  and  usually  two 
tenor-drummers  and  two  fifers,  except  in  the  cavalry,  whose  music  was 
the  bugle. 

The  parade-ground,  or  "  muster-field,"  as  it  was  called,  was  selected  by 
the  field  officers  in  some  central  portion  of  the  "lines"  of  the  regiment, 
and  "  must  be  smooth  and  level  and  contain  not  less  than  twenty  acres  " 
in  order  to  give  room  for  the  evolutions  of  the  companies  in  line  or  column 
of  attack.  Early  on  the  morning  of  muster,  from  all  the  country  round, 
came  pouring  into  town,  companies,  officers,  soldiers  and  citizens,  young 
and  old,  preceded  only  by  those  building  booths  and  tents  on  the  outskirts 
of  the  field  the  night  before.  Joy,  mirth,  patriotism,  and  good  cheer  usher 
in  the  day;  veneration,  the  martial  spirit,  parade,  the  love  of  tinsel  and 
show,  had  not  yet  died  out. 

The  militia,  or  infantry  companies,  were  generally  large  and  considered 
the  solid  branch  of  the  service.  The  officers  were  armed  with  a  sword 
with  belt,  and  w^ore  a  cap  with  plume.  The  riflemen  were  more  preten- 
tious and  dashing.  They  wore,  generally,  a  blue  coat  and  "pants,"  trimmed 
with  red  cord  or  silver  braid,  with  red  cuffs  and  collars,  and  high  gaiters. 
Their  caps  were  generally  black  velvet,  with  plumes.  They  were  very 
attractive,  either  at  rest  or  in  motion.  The  artillery  represented  strength. 
Their  uniform  was  blue,  trimmed  with  red.  They  were  armed  with  a 
sword  and  belt,  and  equipped  with  a  knapsack  and  canteen.  They  wore  a 
cocked  hat  having  a  black  plume  with  red  top.  Their  six-pound  brass  can- 
non wras  polished  to  its  brightest.  The  trappings  of  their  horses  and  ammu- 
nition carriage  were  of  the  gayest  style  known.  The  light  infantry  com- 
panies were  the  most  showy  part  of  the  regiment.  Their  uniform  was  a 
black  coat  with  white  "  pants."  They  wore  high  leather  caps  with  white 
plumes.  Their  motion  was  quick  and  effective,  and  they  wrere  greatly 
given  to  surprises  in  the  evolutions  of  the  day.  They  usually  had  from 
eight  to  ten  pioneers,  armed  with  the  necessary  tools,  who  were  in  front 
when  marching  by  flank,  to  clear  the  way  of  all  obstructions,  span  a  ditch 
or  raise  a  tent.  But  the  cavalry  on  their  prancing  steeds,  with  the  gayest 
of  uniforms  and  housings,  bear-skin  cap,  pistols,  sabre,  boots  and  spurs, 
was  the  delight  of  all.  The  bugle-notes  which  heralded  their  movements 
will  never  die  away  with  those  who  saw  that  day. 

The  most  gorgeous  display  of  all  w^as  when  the  adjutant  had  formed 

Survey  of  Maine  Boundary,  &c.  lor. 

the  regiment  in  line,  the  colonel  with  his  staff  came  on  parade  to  take  com- 
mand, and  receive  the  brigadier-general  with  his  staff  for  review.  These 
officers  were  mounted  on  the  gayest  of  chargers,  and  were  caparisoned  at 
great  expense  in  all  the  paraphernalia  of  war  to  excite  the  admiration  of 
the  thousands  who  came  to  witness  the  annual  display.  These  field  officers 
all  wore  the  Napoleonic  cocked  hat.  The  colonel  and  staff  wore  a  white 
plume  and  silver  trimmings.  The  general  and  his  stall'  wore  black  ostrich 
plumes  and  gold  trimmings. 

After  the  inspection  and  grand  review  by  the  general,  sometimes  the 
regiment  was  divided  for  the  mimic  show  of  war — a  "mock  battle" — 
when  the  cavalry  and  light  infantry  showed  their  skill  in  quick  move- 
ments, the  riflemen  as  scouts,  the  artillery  at  bombardment,  and  the  militia 
at  the  charge,  till  the  waning  sun  and  the  bugle  called  to  quarters.  So 
passed  this  day  of  days  in  "ye  olden  time."  <  >ne  who  was  there  to  see 
gives  you  this  account  while  it  is  fresh  in  memory. 

The  writer  lived  some  two  miles  from  this  enchanted  ground.  He  had 
annually  heard  in  the  distance  the  booming  of  cannon,  the  rolling  drum,  the 
screaming  fife  and  the  rattling  musketry,  and  one  bright  September  morn- 
ing he  was  taken  to  the  muster  and  training.  Sixty  years  have  since 
passed  by,  and  yet  he  has  never  been  so  thoroughly  enraptured  as  when  he 
reached  a  height  overlooking  the  field  where  he  could  see  the  long  line  of 
companies  in  their  rich  attire  stretching  across  the  field;  the  vast  concourse 
of  spectators  outside  the  line  of  guards,  and  hear  the  music  and  the  voice 
of  command  with  a  distinctness  that  was  fascinating  as  it  fell  on  the  ears. 
Farther  on,  just  outside,  he  became  absorbed  in  the  cries  of  peddlers 
hawking  their  wares,  the  baker  selling  his  gingerbread;  and  passed  by 
booths  where  were  sold  lemonade,  candy,  and  "  new  rum  at  four-pence  a 
glass. " 

As  the  day  closed  and  the  ranks  were  broken,  and  the  vast  crowd  were 
reluctantly  turning  their  faces  homeward,  squads  of  men,  before  taking  a 
soldier's  leave,  were  seen  around  the  tents,  or  sitting  on  the  ground  sing- 
ing patriotic  songs,  among  which  was  sure  to  be  "  Yankee  Doodle."  The 
spirit,  style  and  even  the  manners  of  the  Revolution  were  still  a  possession 
among  the  people;  but,  as  time  passed  on.  and  new  pastimes  and  holidays 
were  created,  the  law  requiring  active  militia  service  was  repealed  in  L851. 
Under  the  old  law  there  were  three  regiments  in  Coos  county — the  24th, 
the  41st  and  42nd;  and  these  three,  with  the  13th  and  32nd  in  Grafton 
county,  constituted  the  "  Eighth  Brigade  "  of  New  Hampshire. 

106  History  of  Coos  County. 




BY    COL.    HENRY    O.    KENT. 

Upper  Cohos— Coos— Abenaquis— "  Captain  Joe"  and  "  Captain  John  "—King  Philip— Metal- 
lak — Robbins  and  Hinds — Mountain  Ranges — Lakes— Rivers— Fish  and  Game— Moose — Wolves 
—Deer— Bear— Fox— Salmon— Trout— Summer  Travel— Railroad  Facilities— Protection  of  For- 
ests—Sports— Game  Laws — True   Legislation. 

UPPER  COHOS.—  When  Col.  John  Goffe,  of  Goffstown  (for  whom,  I 
assume,  was  also  named  Goff's  falls,  on  the  Merrimack,)  raised,  in  1763, 
under  authority  of  Benning  Wentworth,  royal  governor  of  the  province 
of  New  Hampshire,  his  regiment,  forming  a  part  of  the  force  intended, 
say  the  old  commissions,  "  for  the  conquest  of  Canada,"  under  command 
of  Gen  Amherst,  his  corps  was  filled  by  hardy  pioneers  and  adventurers, 
ready  to  seek  new  homes  on  the  borders  of  the  receding  wilderness.  At 
the  expiration  of  service  in  Canada,  four  of  his  officers,  with  a  portion  of 
his  command,  sought  their  homes  on  the  Merrimack,  by  the  Indian  trail 
from  Champlain  to  the  Connecticut,  and  across  the  highlands  of  New 
Hampshire  to  their  own  river.  Eeturning  thus,  they  struck  the  Connecti- 
cut at  the  broad  meadows  now  in  Haverhill  and  Newbury,  then  known  in 
Indian  legends  as  the  "Cohos,"  and  returned  to  aid  in  founding  the  towns 
referred  to.  As  settlements  extended  up  the  stream,  and  broad  meadows 
were  found  and  occupied  on  the  present  site  of  Lancaster,  that  region  was 
called  the  "Upper  Cohos;"  and  later,  when  quaint  Philip  Carrigain,  the 
genial  Irish  secretary  of  state,  whose  map  is  even  now  the  most  desirable 
authority  on  New  Hampshire  as  it  was,  visited  the  more  recent  settlements 
under  the  shadow  of  the  lesser  Monadnock  at  Colebrook,  forty  miles  north 
of  Lancaster,  he  bestowed  upon  that  section  the  title  of  "  the  Cohos  above 
the  Upper  Cohos,1'  the  territory  designated  thus,  being  the  old  home  of 
the  Coo-ash-auke  Indians,  and  now  nearly  all  included  in  the  limits  of 
Coos  county. 

Cods. — The  name  "Coos"  is  derived  from  the  Indian  word  "Cohos," 
of  the  dialect  of  the  Abenaquis,  a  confederacy  of  tribes  once  inhabiting 
New  Hampshire,  western  Maine,  and  northerly  to  the  St.  Lawrence  river. 
The  word  is  further  derived  from  "coo-ash,"  signifying  pines.  It  is  known 
that  the  Indian  inhabitants  of  a  section  were  generally  entitled  by  some 

*Adapted  from  an  address  delivered  before  the  N-  H.  Fish  and  Game  Association. 

Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  &c.  L07 

name  descriptive  thereof,  and  the  tribe  occupying  this  region  was  known 
as  the  Coo-ash  aukes,  or  "Dwellers  in  the  pine  tree  country,"  from  coo- 
ash,  pines,  and  auke,  place.  This  title  applied  especially  to  the  locality 
and  inhabitants  north  of  the  mountains  and  along  the  Connecticut  valley 
above  Moosilauke. 

The  outlet  of  Massabesic  lake  is  still  known  by  its  Indian  name,  "Cohos 
brook,"  and  the  country  around  was  once  a  dense  forest  of  pines — coo-ash. 
It  seems  probable  that  this  name — coo-ash — was  carried  north  by  Indian 
exiles  from  the  lower  Merrimack,  when  driven  from  their  old  abodes  by 
the  advance  of  the  whites,  to  seek,  as  says  the  chronicler,  a  new  home 
"around  the  head  waters  of  the  Connecticut;"  and  we  learn,  in  corrobo- 
ration of  Indian  occupancy  of  this  section  at  this  period,  that  after  the 
massacre  at  Cocheco  (Dover)  in  1680,  instigated  by  Kan-ca-ma-gus,  he  and 
his  followers  fled  north,  "and  joined  the  bands  at  the  sources  of  the  Saco, 
Ameroscoggin,  and  Connecticut" — the  coo-ash  region.  The  streams  in  this 
section  abounding  in  trout — their  native  food — all  the  way  from  the  Lower 
to  the  Upper  Cohos,  the  territory  became  known  as  their  Namaos-coo-auke, 
or  pine-tree  fishing-place,  a  nomenclature  transformed  and  perpetuated  in 
the  modern  name  "Ammonoosuc,"  still  held  by  three  streams  within  this 
ancient  domain. 

The  wild  and  picturesque  river,  rushing  down  from  the  slopes  of  Waum- 
bek  Methna  through  the  rich  meadows  of  Lancaster  to  join  the  Connecti- 
cut, is  said  to  have  borne  the  Indian  name  Sin-gra-wac;  but  as  this  word 
is  unknown  in  derivation,  it  is  probable  that  the  name  Siwoog-an-auke, 
itself  a  corruption  of  Saiva-coo-itauke,  signifying  "burnt  pine  place,"  is 
nearer,  if  not  the  exact  name,  thus  defined  and  corrected.  It  is  easy  to 
believe  that  away  back  in  the  dusk  of  tradition,  the  country  had  been 
despoiled  by  fire  of  its  growth  of  pines,  the  legend  only  remaining  to  sup- 
ply the  name. 

Abenaquis. — The  Canadian  home  or  head  village  of  the  Coo-ash-aukes 
was  at  Abenaquis,  or  St.  Francis,  as  their  settlement  is  still  called,  on  the 
St.  Lawrence.  After  the  defeat  of  the  Pequawkets  by  Lovewell,  in  1725, 
the  broken  remnant  of  that  tribe  retired  to  St.  Francis;  and  the  bands 
invading  or  occupying  our  present  territory  were  more  frequently  known 
as  the  "  St.  Francis  Indians"  than  by  their  original  designations  as  Aben- 
aqu  is  pv  Coo -a  sit  -an  kes. 

Descendants  of  these  broken  tribes  still  live  in  the  village  of  St.  Francis. 
Among  those  who  returned  to  their  old  hunting  grounds  in  New  Hamp- 
shire were  two  families  of  distinction,  of  which  the  chiefs  were  known  as 
"  Captain  Joe "  and  "Captain  John."  They  were  active  in  pre  Revolu- 
tionary days,  and  both  took  part  with  the  colonists  in  that  struggle.  "  Old 
Joe"  died  at  Newbury,  in  the  Lower  Cohos,  in  lsiu,  and  is  buried  in  the 
original  cemetery  of  the  town  at  the  Ox  Bow.     Captain  John  led  a  small 

108  History  of  Coos  County. 

party  of  Indians,  enlisted  from  Cohos  and  vicinity,  and  received  a  captain's 
commission.  He  died  a  violent  death  after  peace  had  been  restored,  and 
was  also  buried  at  the  Lower  Cohos.  He  was  known  among  the  Indians 
as  Soosiqi  or  Sussup,  and  left  one  son  called  Pial  Sussup,  "  Pial  "  being  the 
Indian  for  Philip.  There  is  some  reason  for  the  helief  that  this  "Pial," 
son  and  heir  of  Captain  John,  an  original  Coo-ash-auke  chief,  who  went 
from  the  Upper  Cohos  to  St.  Francis  or  Abenaquis,  and  who  returned  to 
aid  the  patriots,  with  a  small  band  of  Cohos  Indians,  was  the  "Philip, 
Indian  chief,  resident  in  Upper  Cohos  and  chief  thereof,"  who  gave  to 
Thomas  Eames,  of  Northumberland,  the  now  famous  deed  of  June  S,  1796, 
conveying  to  him  and  his  associates  the  present  county  of  Coos,  together 
with  a  portion  of  the  county  of  Oxford  in  Maine,  then  a  part  of  Mas- 
sachusetts, being  the  instrument  known  as  the  "King  Philip  deed." 

While  it  is  a  source  of  regret  that  the  descriptive  and  euphonious 
nomenclature  of  the  aborigines  has  largely  disappeared  from  the  hills  and 
streams  of  their  hunting-grounds,  it  is  a  source  of  pleasure  that  it  is  occa- 
sionally retained.  Whittier,  in  his  "  Bridal  of  Penacook,"  has  embalmed 
in  imperishable  verse  several  of  the  ancient  designations,  two  of  which 
pertain  to  the  county  of  the  Coo-ash-aukes.     He  says, — 

"  They  came  from  Sunapee's  shores  of  rock — 
From  the  snowy  source  of  Si-woo-ga-nock, 
From  rough  Coos,  whose  wild  woods  shake 
Their  pine  cones  in  Umbagog  lake." 

That  the  white  settlers  of  modern  Coos  were  of  English  origin  is  evi- 
dent from  the  nomenclature  of  the  towns,  which,  indeed,  granted  by  an 
English  governor-general,  would  naturally  be  of  English  derivation. 
Hence  the  name  of  the  ducal  and  royal  house  of  Lancaster  applied  to  the 
earlier  and  principal  settlement,  Northumberland,  Percy,  Dartmouth,  and 
Cockburne,  while  the  name  of  the  family  manor  of  the  Wentworths  at 
Bretton,  in  the  county  of  York  (the  ancient  seat  being  "  Bretton  Hall  "), 
is  duplicated  in  "  Bretton  Woods,"  now  Carroll,  where  there  is  reason  to 
believe  it  was  the  original  intent  to  erect  an  American  barony. 

Metallak. — Before  bidding  farewell  to  the  aboriginal  inhabitants  of 
Coos,  the  earliest  hunters  when  fish  and  game  did  so  abound,  shall  I  weary 
your  patience  if  I  give  to  you  the  story  of  Metallak  as  it  was  told  to  me  in 
boyhood  in  the  woods— Metallak,  the  last  of  the  Abenaquis  in  Cohos,  the 
final  hunter  of  the  Coo-ash-aukes  over  the  territory  of  his  fathers  ? 

Sportsmen  who  voyage  up  the  Magalloway,  to  or  through  Parmachene, 
or  over  those  delightful  bodies  of  water  prosaically  known  as  the  "Range- 
ley  lakes,"  hear  frequent  mention  of  the  word  "Metallak."  It  is  preserved 
in  the  name  of  the  point  once  running  out  into  Molly-chunk- a-munk,  now 
submerged  by  the  accumulated  waters  of  the  "Improvement  Company 


Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  &c.  109 

in  a  brook  running  into  the  Magalloway,  and  in  an  island  in  the  lower 

It  is  true  that  Capt.  Farrar,  with  rare  denseness  of  appreciation,  has 
bestowed  the  name  "Metallic,"  in  his  guide-books,  alike  upon  chief  and 
localities,  as  though  the  one  were  really  a  specimen  of  native  copper,  and 
the  other  the  location  of  mineral  deposits.  Yet  there  are  those  who  knew 
these  woods  and  waters  before  the  invasion  of  the  vandals,  or  the  days  of 
guide-books,  and  to  them  the  old  nomenclature  is  dear,  to  be  perpetuated 
when  the  days  of  the  iconoclasts  are  ended.  And  so.  despite  guide-books 
and  modern  "discoverers,"  we  retain  the  memory  and  the  name  of  Metal- 
lak,  and  tell  his  story  here. 

Metallak  was  the  son  of  a  chief,  and  from  his  earliest  youth  was  taught 
the  use  of  weapons  and  the  craft  of  the  woods.  He  grew  up  tall,  lithe, 
and  active,  the  pride  of  his  tribe,  and,  after  its  custom,  took  to  his 
wigwam  the  fairest  fawn  among  its  maidens.  He  built  his  lodge  in  the 
old  home  of  his  tribe,  the  Coo-ash-aukes,  on  the  waters  of  the  Ameroscoggin, 
and  for  her  ransacked  the  woods  for  the  softest  furs  and  the  choicest  game. 
The  children,  a  son  and  daughter,  came  to  them,  and  gave  to  the  parents' 
hearts  the  joy  that  is  born  of  offspring.  Years  sped:  the  old  chief  by  the 
St.  Lawrence  died,  and  Metallak  was  the  head  of  his  tribe.  The  frown  of 
the  Great  Spirit  was  dark  upon  his  people.  One  by  one  its  warriors  in  the 
woods  sickened  and  passed  away.  Metallak,  in  his  lodge  on  the  point  in 
the  lake,  watched  and  mourned  the  down-fall  of  his  race,  and  swift  run- 
ners told  him  how  the  stately  tree  of  his  tribe  was  stripped  of  its  branches; 
but  his  mate  and  his  children  were  left  to  him,  and  he  vowed  to  the  Great 
Spirit  to  remain  on  the  hunting-grounds  of  his  tribe  until  he  should  be 
called  to  the  happy  hunting-grounds  of  his  fathers.  Gradually,  as  fall  the 
leaves  of  the  forest  when  the  winds  of  autumn  are  abroad,  fell  the  once 
mighty  Abenaquis,  until  Metallak  and  his  family  were  alone  The  son. 
not  sharing  the  stern  feeling  of  the  sire,  as  he  grew  older  sighed  for  the 
society  of  the  pale  faces,  and  left  the  lodge  in  the  forest  to  find  a  home 
with  the  new  companions  of  his  choice.  The  daughter  had  visited  at  St. 
Francis,  and  had  joined  her  fate  with  a  young  warrior  of  the  tribe  before 
the  great  sickness  that  decimated  them.  And  he,  with  the  English  goods 
easy  of  attainment,  had  robed  his  dusky  bride  in  garments  that  a  white 
woman  might  envy.  She  is  represented  as  strikingly  beautiful,  and  when 
she  visited  her  father  in  the  wilderness  he  was  almost  awed  by  her  charms 
and  her  queenly  attire. 

About  this  time,  while  closing  a  moccasin,  Metallak  had  the  misfortune 
to  lose  an  eye.  Time  sped.  The  bride  of  his  youth  sickened  and  died— a 
sad  hlow  for  the  desolate  chief.  She  who  entered  his  lodge  when  youth 
was  high  and  his  tribe  had  a  place  in  the  land,  who  had  with  him  endured 
long  year--  of  adversity,  was  called,  ami  he  was  alone. 

110  History  of  Coos  County. 

Mournfully  he  laid  the  body  in  his  canoe,  together  with  the  trinkets 
which  in  life  had  been  dear  to  her,  and,  gliding  out  from  the  sheltered 
shore,  tooks  his  way  across  the  narrow  strait  and  down  its  course  to  the 
broad  reach  of  Molly-chunk-a-munk,  past  the  whispering  pines  and  sunny 
beaches,  guided  by  the  roar  of  the  Ameroscoggin,  where  he  shoots  his 
crested  waters  toward  the  more  quiet  expanse  of  Umbagog.  Entering 
the  rapids  he  sat  ei^ect  in  the  stern  of  his  canoe — his  beloved  and  lost  com- 
panion in  repose  before  him — and  with  skillful  hand  guided  the  frail  bark 
with  its  precious  burden  through  the  seething  waters,  past  dangerous  rock 
and  whirling  eddy,  until  it  shot  out  upon  the  sunlit  expanse  of  the  lower 
lake;  still  down,  past  where  the  river  debouches  on  its  way  to  the  sea,  to 
where,  in  the  broad  expanse,  rises  the  green  island  that  now  bears  his 
name.  Here  he  dug  her  grave,  and  buried  her  after  the  fashion  of  his 
people,  and  without  a  tear  seated  himself  upon  the  mound.  Night  came, 
but  he  moved  not:  the  wolf  howled  from  the  mainland,  the  song  of  the 
night  wind  was  on  the  air,  but  he  heeded  not:  morning  came  and  passed, 
night  again  and  morning,  and  still  he  sat  upon  the  grave.  It  was  not 
until  the  morning  of  the  third  day  that  he  left  the  sacred  spot.  He  built 
him  a  hut  near  it,  leaving  it  only  to  procure  necessary  sustenance.  Years 
went  by,  during  which  he  was  occasionally  seen  by  the  hunters  and  trap- 
pers who  visited  the  region;  but  his  eye  had  lost  its  fire,  and  his  step  was 
less  firm  than  of  old.  In  the  year  1846  two  hunters  came  across  him  in 
the  woods.  It  was  in  November,  and  a  very  rainy  time.  He  had  fallen 
down,  and  upon  a  stub,  thus  extinguishing  his  remaining  eye.  He  was 
without  fire  or  food,  and  upon  the  point  of  starvation.  They  built  a  fire, 
collected  wood,  gave  him  provisions,  and  left  him  for  assistance.  With 
this  they  returned,  and  carried  him  to  Stewartstown,  where  he  lingered  a 
few  years,  a  public  charge  on  the  county  of  Coos.  He  now  rests  apart 
from  the  wife  he  loved  so  well,  but  his  name  and  memory  linger  in  the 
haunts  of  his  manhood,  and  reference  to  the  modern  hunting-grounds  of 
Coos  would  be  incomplete  without  the  story  of  Metallak, — the  last  of  his 
race  within  our  present  boundaries,  the  last  hunter  of  the  ancient  Coo-ash- 
auk  es." 

To  the  story  of  Metallak  let  me  append  the  story  and  the, tragedy  of  two 
white  hunters  on  the  same  grounds — the  story  of  Robbins  the  murderer, 
and  his  victim  Hinds. 

Where  the  Diamond  glances  down  from  the  forests  of  College  Grant, 
entering  the  Magalloway  under  the  shadow  of  Mount  Dustin,  is  a  farm, 
originally  cleared  by  a  hunter  named  Robbins.  He  was  a  stern,  vindictive 
man,  and  wild  stories  were  early  abroad  concerning  his  deeds.  In  the  fall 
of  1826,   in   company  with  several  companions, — Hinds,  Cloutman,   and 

See  Colebrook. 

Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  &c.  Ill 

Hayes, — all  hunters  by  profession,  he  went  upon  the  Androscoggin  waters 
to  trap  sable.  The  party  continued  their  hunt  successfully  until  the  first 
snows  fell,  when,  leaving  Robbins  in  care  of  the  property,  his  comrades 
started  on  a  last  visit  to  the  traps,  extending  over  a  line  of  twenty  miles. 
On  their  return  the  camp  was  found  burned,  and  Robbins  and  the  furs 
gone.  They  were  without  provisions,  and  sixty  miles  from  inhabitants, 
but  with  great  privations  and  suffering  they  were  able  to  work  their  way 
into  the  settlements.  On  their  return  they  instituted  a  suit  in  the  courts 
of  Coos  county  against  Robbins,  which  was  carried  to  a  successful  conclu- 
sion, and  execution  was  issued.  Spring  again  came  around,  when  Robbins 
proposed  to  Hinds  to  hunt  once  more,  promising  to  turn  his  share  of  the 
proceeds  towards  the  extinguishment  of  the  adjudged  debt.  Hinds  con- 
sented, and  taking  with  him  his  son  of  fifteen  years,  proceeded  to  the 
hunting-grounds  around  Parmachenee  lake.  Again  they  were  successful, 
when  one  day,  as  Hinds  was  returning  to  camp,  he  was  met  by  Robbins 
and  shot.  The  boy  was  killed  by  a  blow  from  a  hatchet,  and  Robbins  was 
left  with  the  bloody  spoil.  The  bodies  were  found,  and  a  search  instituted. 
Robbins  was  arrested  in  the  woods  by  Lewis  Loomis  and  Hezekiah  Parsons, 
of  Colebrook,  after  a  desperate  resistance,  and  lodged  in  Lancaster  jail. 
Having  some  confederate,  he  obtained  tools  and  commenced  preparations 
for  his  escape.  Working  diligently  at  the  window  of  his  room  in  the  old 
Elm  Tree  jail,  he  succeeded  in  loosening  the  gratings,  each  day  concealing 
his  work  by  hanging  over  it  his  blanket,  under  the  pretext  that  the  room 
was  cold  and  the  window  admitted  air.  When  all  was  in  readiness  he 
made  his  exit,  and  the  night  before  his  trial  was  to  have  commenced  he 
was  missing,  nor  was  any  search  successful.  Public  opinion  was  strongly 
against  the  jailor  as  being  in  league  with  the  prisoner,  and  was  near  mani- 
festing itself  in  a  rude  manner.  Strange  rumors  were  afloat  for  years 
concerning  his  whereabouts  and  career,  but  nothing  definite  was  known 
by  the  public  of  his  subsequent  life  or  final  decease.* 

With  these  narratives  of  the  older  and  ruder  days  of  Cohos,  we  take 
leave  of  the  past  and  enter  upon  the  Coos  of  to-day,  with  its  relation  to 
the  state. 

Let  others  tell  of  golden  hues,  that  paint  Italia's  sky, 

Of  ivied  tower,  of  ruined  hall,  of  Tiber  rolling  by, — 

Or  proudly  point  to  sculptured  bust,  and  storied  column  rare, 

In  days  of  yore  that  stood  within  the  Eternal  City  fair: 

Let  ancient  courts  again  be  viewed  where  pride  and  power  held  sway, 

Where  revelled  high  each  prince  and  peer  on  monarch's  festal  day: — 

Their  stately  walls  shall  erst  decay,  their  names  live  but  in  song, 

As  history's  lore  and  classic  tale  their  memory  prolong; — 

Let  others  sing  of  storied  lands  with  songs  of  loving  praise, 

But  there's  a  fairer  spot  to  me — home  of  my  childhood's  days — 

*See  Colebrook. 

112  History  of  Coos  County. 

My  own  Coos!— thy  hoary  peaks  sublimely  towering  high, 
Are  grander  than  the  works  of  man  'neath  brightest  foreign  sky; 
Serene,  sublime,  unchanging,  since  the  course  of  time  began. 
Solemn  and  lone  amid  the  clouds  their  stately  crests  that  span. 
These  are  no  human  handiwork,  to  waste  and  pass  away — 
Almighty  God,  the  architect,  their  grandeur  his  display. 
When  ages  yet  to  come  are  lost  in  the  vale  of  time  gone  by, 
When  ivied  tower  and  sculpture  rare  in  dust  unnoticed  lie, 
Thy  granite  peaks,  my  own  Coos,  still  heavenward  shall  tower, 
Grim  sentinels,  untiring,  set  from  old  earth's  natal  hour. 

Mountains.—  Coos  county  embraces  several  mountain  chains,  notably 
the  Presidential  range,  the  Waumbek  Methna,  or  "Mountains  with  the 
snowy  foreheads  "  of  the  aborigines,  the  White  Mountains  of  the  tourist, 
with  all  the  attractions  of  savage  grandeur  and  picturesque  beauty  in 
nature,  supplemented  by  the  modern  comforts  and  elegancies  of  palatial 
hotels  and  palace  cars;  the  Dixville  range,  stretching  in  desolate  grandeur 
across  the  northern  section  and  between  the  waters  of  the  Connecticut  and 
Androscoggin,  riven  by  the  gorge  at  Dixville,  whose  spiky  sentinels  rise 
800  feet  above  the  windy  pass  that  admits  to  the  shining  levels  of  Errol 
and  the  placid  expanse  of  Umbagog;  the  Pilot  range,  unapproachable  for 
beauty,  reaching  from  Cape  Horn,  near  Groveton,  to  Starr  King  in  Jeffer- 
son; the  Pliny  range,  stretching  southerly  across  old  Kilkenny  and  reach- 
ing out  toward  Agiochook,  with  detached  peaks,  as  Mount  Carmel  in  the 
northern  wilderness;  Pondicherry,  rising  from  the  meadows  of  Jefferson; 
and  the  white  cones  of  the  Percy  peaks  on  the  upper  Ammonoosuc,  which, 
from  the  peculiar  topographical  contour  of  the  region,  are  visible  from  so 
many  points. 

Lakes. — The  lake  system  is  on  a  scale  of  equal  grandeur,  although  pre- 
senting features  of  less  rugged  and  desolate  aspect,  and  as  pleasantly  lovely 
as  that  of  Winnipesauke's  self,  "The  smile  of  the  Great  Spirit.'1  Far  up 
in  the  everlasting  woods,  in  solitude  and  sylvan  loveliness,  nestle  the  two 
upper  lakes  of  the  Connecticut,  joined  to  the  lower  or  larger  lake  at  Pitts- 
burg, on  the  outskirts  of  civilization  in  this  direction,  the  head  waters  of 
the  "  Eiver  of  New  England."  On  the  eastern  border,  Umbagog,  half  in 
Maine,  gives  New  Hampshire  the  other  moiety  of  her  area,  and  sends  down 
the  rushing  Androscoggin,  vocal  with  the  sighing  of  the  forests  and  the 
winds  of  the  far  off  border,  to  turn  the  wheels  of  the  great  mills  at  Berlin, 
and  fertilize  the  intervals  of  Dummer,  Milan,  Berlin,  Gorham,  and  Shel- 
burne.  Of  ponds,  that  may  with  reason  be  called  lakes,  there  are  many,  as 
the  Diamond  ponds  in  Stewartstown,  Back  lake  in  Pittsburg,  Millsfield  pond 
in  Millsfield,  Trio  ponds  in  Odell,  Dummer  ponds  in  Dummer,  North  and 
South  ponds  in  Stark,  Success  pond  in  Success,  Pond  of  Safety  in  Ean- 
dolph,  Pondicherry  in  Jefferson,  Martin  Meadow  pond  in  Lancaster,  Pound 
pond,  Burns  pond,  and  Blood's  pond  in  Whitefield.  and  others  of  less  area 
in  almost  every  township. 

Eesources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  &c.  113 

Hi  vers. — The  Connecticut  river  receives,  as  tributaries  from  New  Hamp- 
shire, the  Mohawk  atColebrook,  the  Ammonoosuc  at  Northumberland,  the 
Sawacoonauk  or  Israel's  at  Lancaster,  and  the  John's  river  at  Dalton, 
while  the  Androscoggin  has  tribute  from  the  Diamond  at  College  Grant, 
the  Magallowav  at  Went  worth's  Location,  Clear  stream  at  Errol,  and  Mouse 
and  Peabody  rivers  at  Gorham.  All  these  tributary  streams  take  their  rise 
in  the  primeval  forests,  and  many  of  them  flow  their  entire  distance  away 
from  sight  of  man  save  he  be  the  prospecting  lumberman  or  eager  spoils- 
man. The  lakes  are  all  in  the  wilderness,  while  most  of  the  bodies  of 
water  classed  as  ponds  are  within  the  forest,  or  remote  from  towns  or  cul- 
tivated lands. 

Fish  and  Game. — These  waters  all  abound  in  fish,  as  do  the  forests 
around  in  game.  While  it  is  entirely  true  that  the  larger  game, — the 
moose,  the  bear,  the  wolf, — is  now  more  rarely  found,  the  two  former  still 
have  their  abiding  places  in  the  deep  recesses  of  the  remoter  hills  and 
denser  forests,  while  smaller  game  still  exists  in  abundance.  The  ponds 
and  streams  in  the  older  towns  are  not  as  good  fishing-grounds  as  formerly, 
and  the  pickerel  and  chub  have  therein,  in  some  cases,  taken  the  place  of 
the  once  universal  trout;  but  the  waters  of  the  deeper  woods,  from  spark- 
ling brooks  to  swelling  lakes,  are  still  prolific  in  this  admired  and  admir- 
able fish,  the  trout. 

I  well  remember,  as  a  boy,  that  a  fine  string  of  trout  could  always  be 
easily  taken  from  the  bridge  on  Main  street  across  Israel's  river  in  Lancas- 
ter, and  that  a  local  character,  one  Tinker  Wade,  was  accustomed  fre- 
quently to  secure  a  peck  or  more  of  these  luscious  fish  by  the  clumsy  pro- 
cess of  mixing  powdered  cocculus  indicus  with  bran,  making  pellets,  which 
thrown  at  random  upor;  the  water  from  this  bridge,  would  be  speedily  de- 
voured by  the  jumping  trout,  to  intoxicate  them,  when  they  would  leap 
out  of  the  water,  or  float  upon  its  surface,  an  easy  spoil  to  the  hand  or 
stick  of  the  Tinker. 

The  entire  Cohos  country,  at  the  time  of  its  settlement  by  the  whites, 
abounded  in  fish  and  game,  and,  indeed,  was  among  the  most  prolific  of 
the  hunting-grounds  of  the  aborigines.  For  many  years  after  settlers  had 
opened  up  the  forest  all  over  this  extent  of  territory,  and.  indeed,  after 
considerable  towns  had  sprung  up  therein,  the  game  of  the  woods  and  the 
fish  of  the  streams  existed  in  profusion,  but  the  advance  of  clearings,  the 
lumber  operations,  and  the  century  of  hunting  and  fishing  that  has  fol- 
lowed,have  materially  diminished  the  supply  and  exterminated  some  sp<  ■■  ;i<  s 
Of  the  larger  game  it  is  rare  to  find  a  moose  or  caribou,  a  wolf  or  a  beaver. 
Salmon  have  entirely  disappeared,  and  trout,  in  many  once  prolific  locali- 
ties, seem  to  be  vanishing  as  did  the  salmon  and  shad.  It  is  only  in  the 
secluded  ponds,  and  in  the  small  streams  above  the  mills  in  the  forests, 
that  trout  are  now  taken. 


114  History  of  Coos  County. 

When  the  settlers  from  the  lower  Cohos  penetrated  the  wilderness 
covering  the  present  county  of  Coos,  they  found  in  abundance  the  moose, 
caribou,  deer,  the  wolf,  the  bear,  the  lynx,  the  otter,  the  beaver,  the  red  and 
cross  fox,  the  marten  or  sable,  the  mink,  the  musk-rat,  the  hedgehog,  the 
woodchuck;  of  birds,  the  partridge  or  ruffled  grouse,  and  pigeon;  and  of  fish 
the  salmon,  and  perhaps  the  shad  and  trout.  So  common  were  the  mooser 
that  it  was  not  unusual  for  scores  to  be  slain  by  a  single  hunter  in  a  season. 
The  greatest  destruction  of  this  animal  occurred  annually  in  March,  when 
the  snow  was  deep  and  had  stiffened  after  a  thaw.  They  were  then  de- 
stroyed by  professional  hunters,  who  took  only  the  skin,  tallow,  and  noser 
which  last  named  part,  together  with  a  beaver's  tail,  were  favorite  tidbits 
to  the  epicures  of  the  forest. 

Later,  moose  were  plenty  around  the  head  waters  of  the  Connecticut, 
but  being  hunted  with  dogs  and  on  the  crust,  they  were  soon  practically 
exterminated.  It  is  told  that  one  of  the  Hilliards  destroyed  eighty  in  one 
season,  after  which  wholesale  massacre  they  practically  disappeared.  South 
of  Lancaster  village,  and  in  the  town  limits,  rise  three  conical  peaks, — 
Mounts  Orne,  Pleasant  and  Prospect,  known  as  the  ' '  Martin  Meadow 
hills,"  and  south  of  Mounts  Pleasant  and  Orne  is  a  sheet  of  water  of  about 
four  hundred  acres,  known  as  "Martin  Meadow  pond;"  this  was  a  favorite 
resort  for  moose  and  deer,  and  an  unfailing  rendezvous  for  the  settler  when 
the  family  was  "out  of  meat."  This  pond  was  in  the  low  pine  territory 
extending  through  parts  of  Dalton,  Carroll,  Whitefield  and  Jefferson,  in 
which  last  named  town  is  "  Pondicherry,',  or  Cherry  pond,  at  the  north- 
ern base  of  Cherry  mountain,  the  entire  region,  in  the  early  clays,  being  a 
favorite  resort  of  the  moose.  To  illustrate  their  abundance,  I  quote  from 
an  old  manuscript  in  my  possession,  written  by  the  late  Hon.  John  W. 
Weeks  :  — 

"An  early  settler,  by  the  name  of  Dennis  Stanley,  a  lieutenant  in  the  continental  army,  and  a 
man  of  strong  mind  and  perfect  veracity,  informed  the  writer  that  being  '  out  of  meat,'  and  want- 
ing a  moose  skin  to  buy  a  certain  luxury  then  much  used,  and  too  often  at  the  present  day  (New 
England  rum),  went  alone  to  Cherry  pond  for  a  supply,  carrying  his  old  gun,  that  had  been  so 
much  used  that  by  turning  powder  into  the  barrel  it  would  prime  itself.  He  had  scarcely  struck 
fire  in  his  camp  when  he  heard  several  moose  wading  from  the  shallow  side  of  the  pond  toward 
deep  water.  He  then  uncorked  his  powder-horn,  put  several  bullets  in  his  mouth,  and  waited  until 
the  moose  in  front  was  nearly  immersed  in  water.  He  then  waded  in  where  the  water  was  about 
one  foot  in  depth,  and  took  his  position,  not  in  the  rear  of  the  moose,  less  they  should  swim  over 
the  pond,  but  at  a  right  angle  with  their  track  and  at  easy  musket  shot  from  it.  On  his  apearance 
the  moose— four  in  number — as  he  had  anticipated,  chose  rather  to  wade  back  than  to  swim  over, 
and  commenced  their  retreat  in  the  same  order  in  which  they  had  entered  the  pond;  that  was,  one 
behind  the  other,  at  some  distance  apart.  In  a  moment  the  moose  that  had  been  in  the  rear  was 
now  in  front  in  the  retreat,  and  coming  within  reach,  he  was  shot  at;  the  powder-horn  was  then 
applied  to  the  muzzle  of  the  gun,  a  bullet  followed  from  his  mouth  with  the  celerity  which  hun- 
ters only  know,  the  second  moose  was  fired  at,  the  third  and  fourth  in  rapid  succession,  when 
Lieutenant  Stanley  found  time  to  give  a  fifth  discharge  at  the  moose  in  the  rear.  Three  fell  at  the 
water's  edge,  the  other  staggered  to  the  top  of  the  bank,  where  he  fell  dead." 

Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  &c.  115 

The  moose  seems  almost  to  have  been  an  antediluvian  animal,  and  out 
of  place  in  the  highlands  of  New  England.  The  long  forelegs  precluded 
grazing  from  level  ground,  or  from  drinking  from  the  level  of  its  feet.  It 
could  only  browse  on  twigs  and  trees,  sometimes  inserting  its  teeth 
through  the  bark,  stripping  it  off  and  masticating  as  it  raised  its  head.  I 
remember,  while  on  the  state  boundary  in  L858,  after  seeing  moose  signs, 
coming  upon  a  mountain-ash  that  had  been  stripped  in  the  manner  indi- 
cated to  a  height  of  thirteen  feet  from  the  ground.  Another  peculiarity  of 
the  moose  was  the  uncouth  long  upper  lip,  prehensile  almost  like  a  trunk, 
the  broad  nostrils  that  could  be  tightly  closed,  the  false  lid  to  the  eye,  all 
indicating  the  adaptability  of  the  animal  to  feed  under  water;  and.  indeed, 
it  is  their  custom,  as  is  well  known,  to  congregate  in  the  soft,  muddy 
margins  of  the  ponds,  feeding  largely  on  lily  pads  and  the  roots  of  the 
pond  lily,  which  they  tear  up  from  beneath  the  water. 

Major  Weeks's  manuscript  gives  this  description  of  the  horns  of  this 
forest  monarch :  "  Nothing  can  exceed  the  symmetry  and  beauty  of  the 
limbs  and  horns  of  the  moose.  The  round  part  of  the  horns,  or  that  next 
the  head,  is  about  fourteen  inches  in  length,  when  it  becomes  palmated, 
and  is  in  some  instances  twelve  inches  broad,  surmounted  in  one  instance, 
told  me  by  Edward  Spaulding,  now  living  (1839),  by  'seventeen  spikes  on 
each  horn.  A  horn  now  before  me  is  one  and  one-half  inches  in  diameter 
at  the  base,  and  eight  inches  in  length,  terminating  in  a  point.  The  largest 
class  of  horns  spread  five  feet,  and  weigh  about  two  hundred  pounds. 

The  last  moose  familiar  to  Lancaster  people  was  one  owned  and  kept  by 
Louis  Annance,  a  St.  Francis  Indian,  who  forty-five  years  ago  had  a  lodge 
a  mile  east  of  the  village,  near  the  Sawacoonauk,  or  Israel's  river.  Annance 
was  a  tame  Indian,  and  a  member  of  the  ancient  Mason's  lodge  at  Lancas- 
ter. He,  however,  lived  in  the  style  of  his  fathers:  his  pappooses  were 
strapped  to  boards  and  hung  up  in  the  lodge  or  carried  on  the  back  when 
traveling,  and  the  moose  was  kept  for  exhibition.  * 

Beaver. — There  are  many  beaver  meadows  all  along  the  Connecticut  val- 
ley and  on  the  tributary  streams.  In  1858,  while  upon  the  eastern  boundary 

*The  mention  of  the  moose  brings  to  mind  the  famous  anecdote  of  Thomas  Jefferson  and  the 
great  French  naturalist,  Buffon.  Mr.  Jefferson,  in  his  "Notes  on  Virginia,"  pointed  out  some 
errors  in  the  published  works  of  M.  Buffon,  and,  when  afterwards  the  gentlemen  met  in  Paris, 
Buffon  presented  Mr.  Jefferson  a  copy  of  his  Natural  History  with  this  remark:  "  When  Mr.  Jef- 
ferson will  do  me  the  pleasure  to  read  this,  he  will  acknowledge  that  I  am  not  in  error."  Mr. 
Jefferson,  still  unconvinced,  determined  to  demonstrate  to  Buffon  that  the  Virginia  deer  was  not 
the  red  deer  of  Europe,  nor  the  American  moose  the  Lapland  reindeer.  He  engaged  Gen.  Sullivan 
to  obtain  for  him  a  New  Hampshire  moose  that  he  might  have  the  stuffed  skin  and  skeleton  sent  to 
Paris,  with  the  horns  of  a  Virginia  deer  which  he  had  procured.  Gen.  Sullivan  raised  a  company 
of  twenty  men  and  captured  ainoose  near  the  White  Mountains.  The  cost  of  the  bunt,  tin-  taxi- 
dermist's bill,  and  the  prepaid  freight  to  Paris  was  $200,  which  the  triumphant  Jefferson  cheer 
fully  paid. 

116  History  of  Coos  County. 

of  our  state,  in  the  apex  of  the  triangle  made  by  the  boundary  range  and 
the  mountains  on  the  New  Hampshire  line,  in  a  little  glen  only  sixty  rods 
from  the  iron  post  in  the  northern  wilderness  that  marks  at  once  the  terri- 
tory of  Canada,  of  New  Hampshire,  and  of  Maine,  I  came  upon  a  secluded 
pond  inhabited  by  a  family  of  beaver.  Marks  of  recent  work  were  plenty: 
a  few  trees,  six  inches  or  more  in  diameter,  cut  down  by  their  teeth,  and 
chips  therefrom,  fresh  and  green,  smooth-cut  as  by  a  carpenter's  gouge, 
w^ere  scattered  about.  This  was  doubtless  the  last  family  of  beaver  in 
Coos,  and  I  learned  a  few  years  later  that  they  had  all  been  trapped  and 
destroyed.  Lancaster  was  formerly  a  favorite  haunt  of  the  beaver,  where 
they  were  trapped  in  great  quantities.  From  the  manuscript  of  Major 
Weeks  I  copy  a  description  of  the  location  of  these  animals,  together  with 
some  hints  as  to  their  habits 

"  About  two  miles  southwest  of  the  town  centre  is  a  large  tract  of 
alluvial  land  called  '  Martin  meadow '  (the  meadows  in  the  present  school 
district  No.  2),  from  an  early  hunter  whose  name  was  Martin.  He 
caught  an  immense  number  of  beaver  from  Beaver  brook,  which  mean- 
ders through  the  meadow.  Beaver  dams  on  this  brook  can  yet  be  traced, 
in  one  instance  for  about  fifty  rods  in  length  and  near  five  feet  in  height. 
There  are  others  of  less  extent,  yet  all  exhibiting  extraordinary  skill  and 
ingenuity,  superior  to  some  bipeds  who  attempt  the  erection  of  dams.  The 
banks  of  this  brook  are  perforated  in  hundreds  of  places,  which  show  the 
former  residences  of  bank  beaver,  a  kind  smaller  than  those  wonderful 
architects  who  build  dams  and  erect  houses  several  feet  in  diameter,  with 
a  layer  of  poles  through  the  middle  which  divides  them  into  two  stories,  in 
one  of  which  their  food  for  winter,  consisting  of  bark  and  small  poles,  cut 
about  two  feet  in  length,  is  deposited,  while  the  other,  covered  with  leaves, 
is  their  resting-place  during  the  inclement  season.  The  entrance  to  both 
kinds  of  habitation  is  always  below  low-water  mark,  from  which  point 
they  ascend  through  a  subterranean  passage,  often  several  rods  long,  to 
their  dark  yet  comfortable  abode. 

The  Beaver  brook  here  referred  to,  from  the  clearing  up  of  the  land 
around  its  sources,  has  much  shrunk  in  volume,  and  now  flows  sluggishly 
through  the  low  meadows  known  to  their  owners  as  the  bog.  It  enters 
the  Connecticut  near  the  "  brick  school-house5,''  near  which  was  the  resi- 
dence of  Edwards  Bucknam,  a  follower  of  "Governor  Page,"  the  first  set- 
tler of  the  town. 

Wolves  were  frequent  in  the  Cohos  country  at  the  time  of  its  settle- 
ment, and  did  not  entirely  disappear  until  within  the  last  thirty  years.  Old 
residents  of  Laucaster  have  informed  me  that  they  frequently  heard,  thirty- 
five  years  ago,  the  howl  of  the  wolf  from  the  woods  east  of  the  village, 
not  more  than  half  a  mile  distant.  The  last  wolf  captured  in  that  town 
was  about  1840,  and  by  Mr.  Edward  Spaulding,  then  an  old  man  and  one 

Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions.  &c.  117 

of  the  first  white  persons  in  town.  He  had  set  a  trap  on  the  northern  slope 
of  Mount  Pleasant,  near  his  farm-house,  and  south  of  the  village,  and 
repairing  to  it  found  therein  a  large  gray  wolf.  The  animal,  by  its  s\  nig- 
gles, was  in  danger  of  freeing  himself,  when  Mr.  Spaulding  attacked  him 
with  a  stake  which  he  carried,  and  succeeded  in  disabling  and  finally  kill- 
ing him.  I  well  remember,  as  a  child,  the  sight  of  the  skin  as  shown  in 
the  village,  and  the  wondering  interest  with  which  I  listened  to  the  story 
of  the  battle  between  the  old  man  with  his  club  and  the  gaunt  monster  of 
the  forests. 

As  exhibiting  the  numbers  and  ferocity  of  these  dread  animals  during 
the  earlier  settlement  of  the  Cohos  country,  I  give  the  following  incidenl 
told  me  by  my  mother,  who  had  it  from  her  great-grandfather.  .John 
Mann,  the  first  settler  of  Orford,  in  the  Lower  Cohos,  who  came  to  that 
town  in  1765,  commencing  his  first  house  and  clearing  on  the  Connecticut 
interval,  a  little  west  of  where  the  present  homestead  stands,  on  the  broad 
main  street  running  through  that  pleasant  village: — 

Mr.  Mann  was  engaged  in  clearing,  and  had  in  his  employ  a  stalwart 
negro,  who  is  remembered  by  tradition  as  especially  powerful  and  fearless. 
Wolves  abounded,  and  were  exceedingly  fierce:  indeed,  it  was  the  custom 
to  leave  the  woods  where  choppers  were  engaged,  each  day  before  sun- 
down On  the  occasion  referred  to,  the  sun  going  down  behind  the  hills  on 
the  west  side  of  the  Connecticut,  and  the  shadows  beginning  to  darken  the 
recesses  of  the  forest,  grandfather  shouldered  his  axe, telling  the  negro  to  fol- 
low him  in  his  return  to  the  house  and  security.  The  man  was  engaged  on  a 
giant  tree,  and  hesitated,  saying  that  he  meant  to  lay  that  low  before  leaving 
Telling  him  that  it  was  unsafe  to  remain,  and  bidding  him  follow.  Mr. 
Mann  started  for  home,  expecting  the  black  to  obey  him.  Arrived  there,  he 
discovered  that  he  was  alone,  but  momentarily  expected  the  arrival  of  the 
other.  Night  came,  but  not  the  negro,  and  a  great  noise  of  wolves  was 
heard  in  the  woods  he  had  left.  It  would  have  been  death  to  return  in  the 
darkness  alone,  and  through  the  hours  of  that  long  night,  amid  the  howls 
from  the  forest,  he  waited,  powerless  to  help  or  save.  With  the  morning 
light  he  hastened  to  the  spot  where  he  left  the  man  the  day  before,  to  find 
seven  wolves  lying  dead,  a  bloody  axe,  and  the  ghastly  relics  of  thedaring 
fellow  who  had  remained  at  his  work  too  long.  He  had  been  attacked  by 
a  ravenous  pack,  selling  his  life  after  a  terrific  struggle.  I  have  never  seen 
this  incident  in  print,  but  I  heard  it  in  my  childhood,  and  recently,  it  was 
again  told  me,  as  it  came  from  the  aged  pioneer  who  told  it  to  his  great- 
grandchild in  her  girlhood. 

Deer  abounded,  but  are  now  rare.  They  were  finally  driven  away  by 
chasing  them  with  dogs;  nor  will  they  be  plenty  in  the  deep  woods  that 
yet  remain,  if  this  practice  is  continued.  Dogs  follow  them  on  the  crust. 
as  the  wolves  used  to  pursue  and  exterminate  them;  and  the  more  limited 

IIS  History  op  Coos  County. 

forest  area,  and  the  increased  number  of  hunters  in  later  years,  have 
accomplished  what  the  wolves  failed  to  do — driven  the  deer  absolutely  from 
broad  areas  of  our  county.  It  is  believed  that  where  deer  still  remain, 
hunting  with  firearms  alone  will  not  depopulate  or  drive  them  away,  but 
they  fly  from  the  lands  when  dogs  are  put  upon  their  trail. 

Deer  formerly  existed  in  vast  numbers  in  the  pine  forests  of  Jefferson, 
Carroll,  Whitefield,  Dalton,  and  the  southern  part  of  Lancaster.  This  abun- 
dance was  largely  due  to  an  agreement  among  the  people  of  those  towns 
to  keep  dogs  off  the  deer,  and  many  dogs  were  killed  that  they  might  not 
chase  them.  Another  reason  for  the  plentiful  supply,  aside  from  their  natural 
fecundity  and  increase  when  in  a  manner  protected,  was  because  they  fled 
from  hunters  and  hounds  used  for  their  capture  around  Littleton  and  in  the 
adjacent  forests  of  Vermont.  One  hunter  in  Lancaster  took  forty  deer  in 
one  season;  and  Mr.  James  B.  Weeks,  one  year,  without  effort  or  chase, 
shot  fifteen  from  his  farm  on  the  southern  slope  of  Mount  Prospect. 

The  black  bear  was  very  common,  and  indeed  is  now  frequently  taken 
in  Coos.  A  summer  rarely  passes  wherein  one  or  more  are  not  captured 
on  the  slopes  of  the  Pilot  range  and  Starr  King,  not  more  than  four  or  five 
miles  from  Lancaster  village.  The  animal  lives  on  roots  and  weeds, with 
occasional  variations  of  diet,  comprising  berries,  green  corn,  or  a  fat  sheep 
from  the  outlying  flock.  He  enjoys  the  wild  turnip  and  other  indigenous 
roots,  digging  them  with  one  claw  as  neatly  as  a  man  would  run  his  fore- 
finger around  them  in  mellow  ground;— briefly,  the  food  of  the  bear  is 
whatever  a  hog  eats,  with  mutton  extra.  They  seldom  attack  men, 
unless  in  defence  of  their  young. 

Partridges,  or  ruffled  grouse,  were  once,  and  until  quite  recently,  very 
plenty;  just  now,  however,  they  are  rare.  This  scarcity  is  attributable  to 
the  large  increase  of  the  red  fox,  who  preys  upon  him  with  devastating- 
effect.  Reynard  is  not  now  poisoned  as  formerly,  and  hence  has  largely 
multiplied.  His  pelts  abound  in  the  country  stores,  and  his  tracks,  after 
a  light  snow,  trace  a  labyrinth  over  every  field  and  hillside.  Partridges 
have  disappeared  before  him. 

The  Wild  Pigeon,  once  also  very  plenty,  is  now  comparatively  rare. 
Thirty  years  ago  every  buckwheat  field,  in  the  fall,  swarmed  with  pigeons. 
They  had  regular  roosts,  from  which  they  swarmed  down  on  the  fields. 
An  old  device  was,  to  have  a  "pigeon-bed"  for  a  decoy,  with  a  net  so 
arranged  as  to  be  thrown  over  the  bed  at  will,  when  the  birds  had  alighted. 
I  have  the  experience  of  a  present  citizen  of  Lancaster,  who  informs  me 
that  when  a  boy  he  caught  forty  dozen  pigeons  one  autumn,  from  a  bed 
on  his  father's  farm  on  Mount  Prospect. 

Salmon  ceased  in  Cohos  about  1808.  Up  to  that  time  they  came  up  the 
Connecticut  at  least  as  far  as  Stewartstown,  forty -five  miles  north  of  Lan- 
caster, there  being  a  notable  place  there  known  as  the  "'Salmon  hole." 

Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  &c.  L19 

They  abounded  in  Lancaster,  and  ascended  the  Ammonoosuc  as  far  as 
the  Fabyan  place  in  the  White  Mountains.  Mr.  Edward  Spaulding,  of 
Lancaster,  used  to  say  that  the  early  settlers  relied  as  much  on  catching 
and  salting  down  an  annual  barrel  of  salmon,  as  later  farmers  did  upon 
salting  down  the  yearly  supply  of  pork.  In  the  great  eddy  at  the  head  of 
the  Fifteen-Mile  falls,  in  Dalton,  near  the  mouth  of  John's  river,  the  loca- 
tion of  Captain  John  Stark's  capture  by  the  Indians,  was  a  famous  salmon 
hole,  where  the  noble  fish  apparently  rested,  in  the  somewhat  cooler  water 
discharged  by  the  smaller  stream,  after  the  ascent  of  the  falls.  Here  people 
resorted  from  all  the  region  round  about,  as  they  did  to  Namoskeag,  and 
for  a  similar  purpose.  At  the  mouth  of  Isreal's  river  in  Lancaster  was  a 
similar  salmon  hole. 

The  first  dam  across  the  Connecticut  in  Massachusetts  was  built  about 
the  end  of  the  last  century;  but  these  early  dams,  lower  and  equipped  with 
"aprons,"  did  not  offer  the  obstacles  to  the  ascent  of  the  stream  by  these 
vigorous  fish  which  was  presented  by  their  successors;  and  so  the  salmon, 
in  lessened  numbers,  continued  to  return  from  the  sea,  until  higher  dams 
impeded  their  progress. 

.    Recent  efforts  to  re-stock  the  Connecticut  and  some  of  its  tributaries 
with  this  fish  have  been  only  moderately  successful,  and  can  never  be  of 
practical  avail  until  generous  fish-ways  are  constructed  at  all  the  obstruct 
ing  dams. 

There  is  little  absolute  certainty  that  shad  were  once  common  to  our 
waters,  although  at  Littleton,  in  Grafton  county,  there  is  a  record,  in  1792, 
of  the  election  of  "Inspectors  of  salmon  and  shad,"  leaving  the  presump- 
tion that  shad  were  then  known  there.  If  so,  they  doubtless  came  higher 
up  the  streams. 

Trout,  the  natural  and  delicious  fish  of  New  England,  once  peopled  in 
crowded  abundance  every  stream  of  our  hills  and  every  pond  of  our  valleys 
They  have  in  some  places  disappeared  before  the  voracious  pickerel;  but 
the  sawdust  of  the  lumberman  is  more  fatal  to  them  than  the  hunger  of 
this  destroyer,  or  the  arts  of  the  angler.  The  day  has  passed  when  the 
local  bard  could  truthfully  record,  that 

"In  the  silent  hollows 

The  red  trout  groweth  prime 
For  the  miller  and  the  miller's  son 
To  angle  when  they  've  time;'' 

for  then,  lulled,  almost,  by  the  drowsy  monotone  of  the  grist-mills,  the 
trout  slumbered  in  each  alder-shaded  pool  of  all  our  streams. 

Wherever  there  is  a  saw-mill  the  dust  clogs  the  stream,  and  the  trout 
disappear  from  below  it.  For  trout  to  propagate  and  multiply,  clear  water 
is  essential,  with  a  reasonably  large  reach  of  still,  dee})  water  for  a  winter 
retreat.     Obstacles  removed, they  suddenly  reappear,  and  rapidly  multiply. 

120  History  of  Coos  County. 

A  few  years  ago  an  old  dam  on  the  Otter  brook  in  Lancaster  was  down, 
and  free  egress  given  to  the  waters  of  the  stream;  sawdust  also  ceased.  A 
gentleman,  Hon.  James  W.  Weeks,  going  his  rounds  on  the  meadow 
below,  saw,  in  a  shallow  pool  in  the  grass,  several  trout.  Procuring  a 
handful  of  shingles,  by  sticking  them  down  he  cut  off  their  retreat,  and, 
by  gradually  advancing  them,  worked  the  fish  upon  the  dry  land,  when  he 
took  eighteen  fine  trout,  half  filling  a  Shaker  pail,  and  weighing  about  one 
pound  apiece.  These  fish  had  come  down  through  the  broken  dam  on  the 
first  opportunity,  and,  in  the  absence  of  obstructions  and  the  fatal  sawdust, 
had  multiplied  and  thriven.  If  the  day  ever  comes  when  our  streams  are 
pure,  they  will  again  be  filled  with  this  delicious  fish. 

The  great  area  open  to  sportsmen  is  of  course  one  of  the  attractions  for 
the  ever  increasing  tide  of  summer  travel,  so-called,  to  the  highlands  of 
Coos,  and,  in  addition  to  the  strictly  pleasure  or  health-giving  resorts,  it 
is  a  factor  in  the  argument  that  brings  to  us  the  annual  hegira  from  the 
cities,  enriching  our  immediate  markets,  and  adding  very  largly  to  the 
revenues  of  the  state.  The  great  caravansaries  at  the  Crawford  Notch,  at 
Fabyan's,  at  Twin  Mountain,  at  the  Glen,  are  well  know,  and  receive  the 
annual  pilgrimage  of  thousands;  the  charming  location  of  Lancaster  in  the 
Connecticut  valley,  the  sunny  slopes  of  Jefferson  hill,  and  the  "  long  white 
street''  that  always  recalls  to  me  the  Alba  Longa  of  Macaulay's muse, — 

"  The  home  of  King  Amulius,  of  the  great  sylvan  line, 
Who  reigned  in  Alba  Longa,  on  the  throne  of  Aventine, — " 

as  it  glistens  in  the  sun  along  the  northern  slope  of  the  Bethlehem  hills, 
attract  other  thousands,  while  every  sunny  meadow  or  breezy  hillside 
has  its  cottage  for  the  reception  of  invalids,  of  pleasure- seekers,  of  tourists, 
and  of  sportsmen. 

A  good-natured  rivalry  exists  between  some  of  these  towns,  relative  to 
their  desirability  of  location,  as  offering  greater  inducements  to  the  guest, 
height  above  the  fogs  being  a  desideratum.  Such  was  for  years  the  kindly 
contest  between  Jefferson  and  Bethlehem,  respectively  championed  by  that 
most  generous  and  public-spirited  citizen  among  the  men  of  the  moun- 
tains, Hon.  Nathan  R.  Perkins,  and  our  ever  genial  friend,  Hon.  John  G. 
Sinclair,  who,  like  a  new  Ponce  de  Leon,  has  invaded  Florida  in  his  search 
for  the  new  fountain  of  perpetual  youth,  that  bursts  from  plethoric  pockets, 
incidental  to  owners  of  orange  groves  and  Floridian  lands.  The  big  sur- 
veyor's level,  always  ready  for  duty  in  Nathan's  front  porch,  persistently 
shot  over  Bethlehem  street,  just  saluting  the  crest  of  Mount  Agassiz  in 
its  rear,  while  John  was  always  ready  to  demonstrate,  both  by  plane 
trigonometry  and  alleged  plainer  common-sense,  that  Bethlehem  sat  high 
above  her  rival  in  the  sanhedrim  of  the  hills. 


Resources,  Attractions,  Traditions,  occ.  IiM 

There  comes  to  me  remembrance  of  a  day,  when  a  crowded  train  of 
Democratic  delegates  from  the  Gibraltar  of  the  party  in  New  Hampshire 
was  speeding  on  to  a  congressional  convention  at  Woodsville.  Sinclair,  as 
was  usual  on  such  occasions,  was  the  life  of  the  party,  and  joke  and  repar- 
tee flew  briskly  around.  Bent  on  the  pre-eminence  of  Bethlehem,  he  assailed 
Perkins  and  asserted  its  greater  elevation.  Facts  and  figures  were  hurled 
promiscuously  between  them,  each  asserting  the  superior  altitude  of  his 
town.  Neither  receded,  and  the  crowd,  enjoying  the  fun,  gathered  closer, 
when  "John,"  who  had  been  for  a  few  minutes  perusing  a  railroad  cir- 
cular inviting  mountain  travel,  which  chance  threw  in  his  way,  exclaimed 
in  jubilant  exultation,  "This  settles  it;  hear  this!"  as  he  proceeded  to  read 
therefrom:  "On  the  route  toward  the  Androscoggin,  and  eight  miles  below 
Bethlehem,  lies  the  pleasant  village  of  Jefferson."  "Fight  miles!  Nate, 
do  you  hear  that?  Will  you  give  it  up  now?"  The  crowd  roared,  and  the 
altercation  ended,  but  we  much  doubt  if  to  this  day  Councillor  Perkins 
admits  Jefferson  to  be  eight  miles,  or  eight  feet,  below  its  mountain  rival. 

The  demands  of  summer  travel  bring  increased  railroad  facilities.  No- 
where are  finer  trains  run,  than,  during  the  season,  into  the  lake  and 
mountain  region  of  New  Hampshire.  The  home  market  is  exhausted  of 
supplies  to  sustain  this  grand  incursion,  and  it  is  altogether  within  the 
bounds  of  reason  to  estimate  that  a  sum  varying  from  five  to  eight  mil- 
lion dollars  per  annum  is  expended  within  our  state  limits  upon  the  lines 
of  conveyance,  the  hotels  and  boarding  houses,  and  the  necessaries  essen- 
tial to  the  comfort  and  enjoyment  of  these  welcome  visitors.  So  large  an 
expenditure  of  course  involves  large  permanent  investments,  requiring  the 
support  and  protection  of  legislative  enactment.  So  large  a  revenue 
should  be  fostered  by  every  proper  means,  as  ensuring  to  the  state  and  its 
people  increased  prosperity,  with  attendant  benefits. 

As  the  abundance  of  game  and  fish  in  our  woods  and  waters  is  an 
important  factor,  inducing  the  tide  of  travel  toward  us.  with  its  consequent 
augmentation  of  our  revenues,  it  follows  that  it  is  a  matter  of  imperative 
public  policy,  as  well  as  of  personal  inclination,  to  protect  our  forests  from 
destruction,  and  the  fish  and  game  therein  from  wanton  waste;  and  in 
this  aspect  we  may  here  properly  refer  to  the  denudation  of  our  woods 
now  progressing.  Incident  to  the  consideration  of  the  annual  cut  from 
lumbering  operations,  and  the  almost  countless  cords  of  wood  used  for 
local  and  locomotive  fuel,  to  supply  the  charcoal  kilns  of  New  Zealand, 
and  also  to  the  protection  of  the  area  wherein  game  may  thrive  and  fish 
multiply,  arises  the  vital  question  of  the  preservation  of  ourtimber  supply 
from  spoliation,  with  the  attendant  disasters  of  barren  lands,  irregular 
water  supply,  failure  of  springs,  and  disastrous  freshets. 

That  the  wise  consideration  of  this  question  is  beset  with  difficulties 
that  accumulate  as  investigation  progresses  is  perhaps  evident.  The  rights 

122  History  of  Coos  County. 

of  the  individual  to  the  products  of  the  soil,  natural  and  cultivated,  that  is 
absolutely  his,  can  be  suspended  only  by  an  overreaching  public  necessity, 
that  perhaps  is  not  now  present.  It  would  seem  that  some  system,  appeal- 
ing at  once  to  the  good  judgment  and  self-interest  of  land  and  timber 
owners,  may  be  evolved  by  discussion,  whereby  less  waste  may  transpire 
in  cutting,  while  propagation  by  tree-planting,  that  may  not  again  make 
verdant  the  exact  areas  desolated,  may  induce  new  plantations,  that  in 
their  turn  will  restore  to  us  the  climatic,  healthful,  and  financial  advan- 
tages of  which  we  are  being  so  rapidly  deprived,  and  add  to  the  game- 
producing  area  of  the  state. 

The  relation  to,  and  the  effect  of,  sylvan  sports  upon  a  people  are  well 
known,  both  as  developing  character  and  affording  recreation,  with  the 
consequent  increased  capacity  for  mental  and  physical  labor. 

To  range  the  woods,  to  climb  the  mountain,  to  ply  the  oar — all  these,  a 
love  for  which  is  transmitted  from  our  Saxon,  Norman,  or  Celtic  progeni- 
tors, is  to  reinvigorate  brain  and  body,  relaxed  from  prolonged  application. 
To  ply  the  chase  or  throw  the  fly  is  to  call  out  new  and  exhilarating  desires, 
to  kindle  new  interests,  and  open  new  channels  of  thought  or  investiga- 
tion, while  communion  with  nature  is  always  ennobling,  always  elevating, 
and  always  welcome.  Devoted,  as  too  many  of  our  people  are,  to  seden- 
tary pursuits,  the  active  exercise  of  out-door  life  is  essential  alike  to  lon- 
gevity and  to  the  healthful  action  of  mind  and  body.  It  follows,  then,  that 
the  greater  the  reasonable  interest  that  can  be  awakened  in  healthful  out- 
door sports  and  exercise,  the  higher  we  rise  above  the  worries  and  the 
fatigues  of  life,  and  the  greater  our  capacities  at  once  for  enjoyment  and 

The  food  supply  of  a  people  is  an  economic  and  political  problem,  affect- 
ing not  only  their  increased  prosperity  as  a  resultant  of  cheap  food,  but 
their  character,  through  the  nature  of  the  food  assimilated  and  the  exertion 
requisite  for  its  procurement.  Hence  the  necessity  of  legislation,  and  also 
the  wisdom  thereof,  to  properly  protect  fish  and  game,  both  that  cheap  and 
healthful  food  may  be  within  the  reach  of  the  poor,  whose  enjoyment  of 
the  bounty  of  nature  is  as  keen  as  that  of  the  more  prosperous,  and  that 
they  may  also  have  the  recreation  attendant  upon  its  procurement,  as  well 
as  to  offer  additional  inducement  for  pleasure-seekers,  tourists,  and  sports- 
men to  visit  the  state. 

As,  in  a  republic  whose  laws  are  properly  conceived  and  administered, 
all  legislation  is  based  upon  the  consent  of  the  people,  and  enacted  for  their 
benefit,  it  again  follows  that  the  game  laws  should  not  restrict  but  rather 
properly  extend  their  privileges.  There  are  certain  inalienable  and  natural 
rights,  the  exercise  of  which,  although  apparently  trivial,  involves  the 
gravest  political  questions  as  to  the  status  of  the  citizen ;  and  among  these 
the  game  laws  may  be  given  a  place  of  prominence. 

The  Timber  Interests  of  Northern  Cons.  123 

Decended  from  Saxon,  Norman,  or  Celtic  ancestors,  whose  vocation  lay 
largely  in  the  chase,  and  whose  sustenance  was  once  wholly  derivable  from 
wood  and  stream,  occupying  a  territory  two  centuries  ago  a  primeval 
wilderness,  the  hunting-grounds  of  aborigines,  coming  to  us  as  a  people 
by  conquest  and  adverse  occupation  rather  than  by  feudal  tenure  or  pur- 
chase, we  claim  the  forests  and  the  waters  of  our  state  to  be  free  to  her 
people,  who  are  all  tenants  in  common,  to  enjoy  the  invigorating  breezes 
of  her  hills,  to  capture  the  game  of  her  forests  and  the  fish  of  her  waters. 

As  society  advances  from  the  ruder  state,  the  people,  in  consideration 
of  the  greater  advantages  received  from  organized  government  and  the 
rule  of  rational  law,  surrender  certain  inherent  and  natural  personal  rights 
for  the  greater  benefits  thus  received,  but  they  adhere  perhaps  with 
increased  tenacity  to  those  rights  not  surrendered  and  still  remaining. 

Hence  legislation  relative  to  the  fish  and  game  within  our  limits  should 
be  for  their  protection  and  increase,  that  the  people,  instead  of  curtailment 
in  the  exercise  of  the  natural  right  to  their  capture,  may  receive  more 
abundant  return;  that  food  maybe  more  cheap  and  more  plenty;  that  the 
exhilarating  pleasures  of  hunting  and  fishing  may  be  more  generally  and 
more  keenly  enjoyed;  and  that  our  list  of  attractions  for  invalids,  tourists, 
and  sportsmen  may  be  augmented. 

The  true  province  of  legislation  on  this  subject  I  take  to  be  to  increase 
and  multiply  the  products  of  our  woods  and  waters,  protecting  during  the 
months  essential  to  that  increase,  to  the  end  that  all  the  people  may  share 
properly  in  these  added  benefits. 




Spruce  Belt— Hard  Wood  Timber— The  Sugar  Maple— Other  Woods— Resources  and  Manu- 
facture— Opportunities  for  Investment. 

UP  TO  and  during  the  first  quarter  of  the  present  century,  all  build- 
ings were  supposed  to  require  large  timbers  for  frames,  and  eight 
and  ten  inch  hewed  and  sawn  timber  was  the  least  that  it  was 
deemed  safe  to  use  for  posts  and  beams.  The  new  departure,  by  using 
balloon  frames,  resulted  in  the  discovery  that  spruce  was  preferable  to  pine 

124  History  of  Coos  County. 

for  covering-boards,  and  the  scarcity  of  pine  soon  brought  sj)ruce  lumber 
into  use  for  finishing.  The  prospective  demand  for  spruce  lumber  was 
foreseen  by  Josiah  Little,  of  Portland,  then  president  of  the  Atlantic  & 
St.  Lawrence  R.  R.  Co.,  and  about  184-1  he  purchased  the  water-power  at 
Berlin  Falls,  and  turned  the  direction  of  the  railroad  up  the  Androscoggin 
river.  Soon  after,  large  lumber  mills  were  built  at  Berlin,  and  the  busi- 
ness of  cutting  and  manufacturing  spruce  was  inaugurated  for  the  first 
time  in  Northern  Coos.  The  entire  ' '  black  growth  "  of  that  part  of  the 
county  north  of  the  railroad,  was  substantially  spruce.  The  little  pine 
originally  growing  in  the  valley  of  the  Androscoggin,  mostly  in  Errol,  had 
been  previously  cut  and  floated  down  the  river  by  Maine  lumbermen.  The 
head  waters  of  that  river  being  in  Maine,  the  comparatively  little  pine 
manufactured  at  Berlin  came  from  that  state. 

The  shrewdest  and  best  informed  lumbermen  had  a  very  erroneous  idea 
of  the  amount  of  spruce  standing  in  Northern  Coos.  Lots  that  they  esti- 
mated would  cut  from  75,000  to  100,000,  actually  cut  from  300,000  to  400,- 
000.  Spruce  trees,  though  less  in  size,  stand  much  nearer  together,  and 
the  man  that  could  give  a  close  estimate  of  standing  pine  to  the  acre, 
utterly  failed  in  his  estimate  of  spruce,  and  it  was  only  after  experience 
gained  by  actual  cutting  and  scaling,  that  anything  like  a  correct  estimate 
of  standing  spruce  could  be  made  by  the  most  experienced  lumbermen. 

The  state  line  passes  through  the  entire  length  of  Umbagog  lake,  and 
crosses  the  Magalloway  river  some  ten  miles  north  of  it,  running  through 
this  immense  tract  of  spruce  timber,  leaving  the  larger  portion  of  it  in  the 
state  of  Maine.  A  trip  to  the  summit  of  Es-cho-hos  mountain  (the  name 
is  of  disputed  orthography,  but  I  give  that  corresponding  to  the  universal 
local  pronunciation,)  will  give  a  better  view  of  it  than  any  other.  Escho- 
hos  mountain  rises  from  the  Magalloway  river  about  a  mile  east  of  the 
state  line,  and  from  its  summit  is  seen  a  vast  tract  of  country  extending 
eastwarclly  and  northwardly  as  far  as  the  eye  can  reach,  covered  with  a 
dense  spruce  growth,  on  mountain  and  valley  alike,  in  its  natural  state. 
This  spruce  timber  belt  at  one  time  covered  Northern  Coos,  a  portion  of 
the  province  of  Quebec,  and  the  northwestern  part  of  the  state  of  Maine. 

There  are  railroads  on  all  sides  of  it,  but  none  penetrate  it  as  yet,  and 
only  those  portions  of  the  timber  standing  within  ten  or  twelve  miles  of 
the  Connecticut  and  Magalloway  rivers,  including  their  tributaries,  are 
available  for  market  at  present;  ten  miles  being  considered  about  as  long 
a  haul  as  will  ensure  a  profit  at  present  prices.  This  distance,  however, 
covers  nearly  all  of  Northern  Coos,  and  at  the  rate  of  its  present  destruc- 
tion, the  time  is  coming  in  the  near  future  when  spruce  in  the  county  will 
be  as  scarce  as  pine  is  now.  From  Milan,  Success,  Dummer,  Cambridge, 
Millsfield,  Dixville,  Errol  and  Wentworth's  Location  it  floats,  or  has 
floated,  down  the  Androscoggin;  from  Columbia,  Colebrook,  Stewartstowm 

The  Timber  Interests  of  Northern  Coos.  125 

Clarksville,  Pittsburg  and  the  unsettled  grants  down  the  Connecticut :  and 
steam  mills  and  the  Grand  Trunk  railway  are  fast  executing  the  same 
destruction  for  East  Stratford  and  Stark.  On  the  east,  Milan  is  largely 
settled,  Dumraer  and  Errol  partially  so,  while  the  other  towns  are  sub- 
stantially a  wilderness,  and  of  little  value  after  the  spruce  timber  is  gone, 
until  the  manufacture  of  hard  wood  is  inaugurated;  there  being  little  pros- 
pect that  the  hardy  back-woodsman  will  make  his  home  there  until  some 
such  inducement  is  held  out  to  him.  Some  of  these  townships  are  good 
settling  lands,  but  they  lie  too  far  back  at  present  to  encourage  settlement . 

When  the  spruce  timber  in  Coos  county  is  all  destroyed,  a  railroad  will 
ex  necessitate  and  run  up  the  Androscoggin  valley  into  the  Maine  forest 
spoken  of,  and  this  will  probably  cause  some  of  them  to  be  partially 

On  the  west,  Columbia  is  about  half  settled,  a  range  of  precipitous, 
ledgy  hills  passing  through  the  centre  of  the  township,  which  will  never 
make  farms  or  be  of  any  practical  value  except  for  the  wood  and  timber 
growing  upon  them.  The  spruce  has  been  mostly  taken  off,  and  the  pres- 
ent winter  that  portion  of  Odell  that  was  recently  annexed  to  the  town  is 
being  cut;  one  man  having  taken  a  contract  to  put  5,000.000  feet  upon  the 
river,  at  a  haul  of  about  ten  miles.  Others  are  putting  in  smaller  quanti- 
ties, aggregating  as  much  more.  Colebrook  (the  only  town  in  the  county 
that  can  be  called  wholly  settled,  and  probably  the  only  town  in  the  state, 
of  which  every  lot,  with  proper  cultivation,  will  make  a  good  farm,)  has 
not  sufficient  spruce  or  pine  timber  to  supply  the  prospective  needs  of  its 
own  inhabitants.  Stewartstown  and  Clarksville  have  two  or  three  tiers 
of  lots  on  the  east  end  that  are  not  as  yet  settled,  but  have  been  operated 
to  some  extent  by  lumbermen.  Pittsburg,  whose  territory  embraces  all 
the  remainder  of  the  state  north  of  Clarksville,  is  settled  in  the  southwest 
corner,  the  remainder  of  its  vast  territory  being  timber  land,  owned  mostly 
by  the  "  Connecticut  River  Lumber  Company,"  a  New  York  corporation 
whose  policy  is  to  "gobble  up"  every  little  tract  of  spruce  timber  that 
they  can  lay  their  hands  on,  and  that  policy  has  succeeded  far  too  well  for 
the  present  or  prospective  interests  of  the  inhabitants.  The  high  tariff 
on  foreign  lumber,  which  is  virtually  prohibitory,  at  least,  so faras Cana- 
dian lumber  comes  in  competition  with  the  lumber  of  Northern  Coos,  tends 
to  accelerate  the  already  swift  destruction  of  the  spruce  lumber  of  this 

The  waterway  that  transports  this  vast  amount  of  natural  wealth  em- 
braces the  three  Connecticut  lakes,  Perry's  stream,  Indian  stream,  and 
Hall's  stream,  which  empty  into  the  Connecticut  on  the  west,  and  Dead 
Water,  which  empties  into  the  Connecticut  on  the  east  side.  Hall's  stream 
takes  its  rise  in  Canada,  and  for  a  portion  of  itscourse  forms  the  boundary 
hue  between  Canada  and  the  United  States,  and  though  its  mouth,  where 

126  History  of  Coos  County. 

it  empties  into  the  Connecticut,  is  in  Vermont,  much  of  its  course  is  well 
adapted  to  receive  the  lumber  growing  on  the  western  border  of  Pittsburg. 
Indian  stream  takes  its  rise  near  the  boundary  line,  and  empties  into  the 
Connecticut  a  few  miles  east  of  Hall's  stream.  Perry's  stream  takes  its 
rise  between  the  headwaters  of  Indian  stream  and  Third  lake,  and,  flowing 
more  eastwardly,  empties  into  the  Connecticut  a  few  miles  below  the  out- 
let of  Connecticut  lake.  Third  lake  lies  but  a  few  miles  from  the  boundary 
line,  and  a  glance  at  the  map  will  show  that  these  four  waterways  are  so 
situated  as  to  easily  receive  all  the  spruce  lumber  in  Coos  county  west  of 
the  Connecticut  lakes  and  Connecticut  river.  These  streams  are  all  com- 
paratively small,  but  by  means  of  dams,  sufficient  water  is  retained  from 
the  melting  snows,  and  let  out  as  needed,  to  so  prolong  the  spring  freshets 
as  to  float  out  the  lumber  into  the  Connecticut  the  second  season  after  it  is 
landed  on  the  streams.  This,  however,  is  subject  to  contingencies  Deep 
snows  and  continued  rains  may  keep  the  water  up  so  as  to  prolong  the 
driving  season,  and  a  light  fall  of  snow,  or  a  short  warm  rain,  followed  by 
hot,  fair  weather,  may  materially  shorten  the  driving  season,  and  soon 
leave  the  timber  high  and  dry  upon  the  rocks  above  the  water.  Whenever 
this  takes  place,  the  operation  of  driving  ceases,  and  the  timber  remains 
until  the  next  spring  freshet.  The  depreciation  of  the  timber,  thus  left 
over  the  summer,  is  estimated  at  from  five  to  ten  per  cent.  The  Dead 
Water,  which  takes  the  lumber  from  the  east  part  of  the  towns  of  Stew- 
artstown  and  Clarksville,  is  a  small  stream,  and  the  results  of  driving  it, 
uncertain.  The  territory  lying  east  of  the  Connecticut  lakes,  with  the 
exception  of  a  strip  bordering  on  the  state  line,  which  will  go  down  the 
Magalloway  waters,  will  be  hauled  to  the  lakes.  Thus  it  is  that  this  vast 
growth  of  spruce  timber,  intended  by  nature  to  enrich  Northern  Coos, 
when  railroad  facilities  for  transportation  should  be  furnished  to  convey 
it  to  market  in  a  manufactered  state,  is  cut  and  transported,  by  a  foreign 
corporation,  down  the  Connecticut  to  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut, 
where  its  manufacture  serves  to  build  up  cities  and  villages,  while  the 
county  of  its  growth  receives  no  benefit,  but  does  receive  a  serious  injury 
to  its  river  farms  by  the  prolonged  high  water,  every  spring,  caused  by  the 
flow  of  water  from  the  reservoirs  which  the  corporation  has  built  on  nearly 
every  stream  that  flows  into  the  Connecticut.  For  this  injury  the  farmers 
along  the  river  are  virtually  without  remedy.  The  corporation  is  legally 
liable  to  make  compensation,  but  the  farmer,  to  obtain  it,  has  generally  to 
resort  to  an  expensive  litigation,  the  costs  of  which  sometimes  exceed  the 
amount  which  he  eventually  recovers.  In  contrast  to  this,  the  Berlin  Mills 
Company,  by  the  manufacturing  of  its  lumber  at  Berlin,  has  been  the  means 
of  building  up  a  large  and  flourishing  village,  which  is  a  permanent  benefit 
to  the  county.  This  company  manufactures  at  Berlin,  and  has  done  so 
since  its  first  establishment,  on  an  average  some  twenty  or  twenty-five 

The  Timber  Interests  of  Northern  Coos.  127 

million  feet  of  lumber  each  year,  and  there  are  two  other  companies  al 
the  same  place  which  use  a  large  amount  of  spruce  lumber,  annually,  in 
making  paper  stock,  the  employees  of  all  these  com panies  being  largely 
residents  of  Berlin.  These  manufactures  all  find  a  market  by  way  of  tin 
Grand  Trunk  Railway.  The  manufactures  of  the  lumber  mills  in  Strat- 
ford and  Stark  find  their  way  to  market  by  the  same  road. 

The  Connecticut  River  Lumber  Company  cut  and  drive  down  the  Con- 
necticut river,  on  an  average,  about  seventy  five  million  feet  of  lumber  a 
year.  Their  employees  are  mostly  transient  men  from  Maine  and  Canada, 
who  work  in  the  woods  in  the  winter  and  on  the  drive  in  the  spring,  but 
few,  if  any,  ever  become  permanent  residents  of  the  county. 

We  have  thus  far  confined  ourselves  to  spruce  lumber,  and  possibly 
may  have,  unintentionally,  conveyed  to  the  casual  reader  an  impression 
that  spruce  is  substantially  the  only  growth  of  this  section.  Such  is  not 
the  fact.  There  are  small  sections  that  have  no  other  growth,  and  larger 
sections  having  a  mixed  growth,  while  still  larger  sections  have  no  spruce 
at  all. 

In  every  town  there  is  more  or  less  cedar,  which  is  very  valuable,  but, 
as  it  can  be  floated  down  the  rivers  the  same  as  spruce,  and  is  included  in 
the  estimates  of  the  companies  above  named,  it  requires  little  further 
mention.  It  has,  however,  a  home  value  for  fencing,  that  no  other  lum- 
ber possesses.  In  Northern  Coos,  which  is  substantially  free  from  granite, 
stone  fences  are  almost  a  curiosity,  and  cedar  for  posts  and  rails  (where 
rails  are  used),  is  in  universal,  and  nearly  exclusive  use.  When  the  Atlantic 
&  St.  Lawrence,  and  the  St.  Lawrence  &  Atlantic  railroads  were  first 
built,  cedar  was  exclusively  used  for  ties,  but  experience  soon  proved  that 
the  grain  of  the  wood  was  not  dense  enough  to  hold  the  spikes,  and  they 
were  taken  up,  and  spruce,  hemlock,  and  oak  substituted.  But  for  fenc- 
ing and  shingles,  cedar  is  the  most  valuable  of  any  timber  used. 

The  hard  wood  timber,  consisting  mostly  of  maple,  birch  and  beech, 
growing  upon  this  section,  exceeds  in  quantity  all  the  soft  or  black  growth, 
and  there  are  few,  if  any  lots  in  any  town  that  does  not  bear  more  or  less 
of  it.  This  timber,  being  more  dense  than  water,  soon  sinks,  and  cannot 
be  floated  down  the  rivers,  and,  if  ever  manufactured,  it  must  be  done 
within  hauling  distance  of  where  it  grows.  This  can  be  done,  and  will  be, 
whenever  an  outlet  is  found  for  it.  It  is  of  greater  value  for  many  pur- 
poses than  spruce,  but  the  home  market,  as  yet,  is  not  great,  and  it  cannot 
be  brought  into  any  other,  until  there  are  railroads  to  convey  it,  and  even 
then  little  will  be  moved  except  in  a  manufactured  state.  Much  of  the 
maple  is  valuable  for  sugar  purposes  as  it  stands.  As  a  rule,  the  pioneer, 
when  clearing  up  his  farm,  sought  out,  and  left  standing,  a  "sugar 
orchard,"  and  there  are  few  farms  that  have  not  retained  them.  Probably 
no  section  of  New  England,  with  the  same  number  of  inhabitants,  makes 

128  History  of  Coos  County. 

more  maple  sugar  than  this.  Many  of  these  orchards  produce  from  five 
hundred  to  twenty-five  hundred  pounds  of  sugar  annually,  according  to 
the  number  of  trees  tapped,  and  the  character  of  the  season.  This  sugar, 
over  and  above  the  home  consumption,  finds  a  ready  and  favorable  mar- 
ket everywhere.  These  "  sugar  orchards  "  are  permanent,  self -renewing, 
and,  if  properly  attended  to,  inexhaustible.  When  a  tree  becomes  old, 
and  shows  signs  of  decay,  it  is  cut  out,  and  others  spring  up  to  take  its 
place.  The  trees  vary  in  size  from  the  young  sapling  to  trees  twenty-four 
and  thirty  inches  in  diameter.  The  young  trees  are  of  rapid  growth,  and 
in  a  decade  will  grow  from  a  young  sapling  to  a  tree  suitable  for  the  tap- 
ping iron  and  the  tin  bucket.  Another  peculiarity  of  these  sugar  maples 
is,  that  constant  tapping  by  the  present  method,  neither  exhausts  nor 
injures  the  tree.  The  holes  soon  grow  over,  the  tree  continues  as  thrifty  as 
ever,  and  the  tapping  being  done  near  the  ground,  it  produces  no  injury 
to  the  tree  when  used  for  timber,  for  it  remains  as  clear  and  free  from  de- 
fects as  if  no  sap  had  ever  been  drawn  from  it.  The  beech,  birch,  and  ash 
have  not  the  same  faculty  of  producing  a  revenue  to  their  owner  while 
standing  and  growing,  and  with  the  exception  of  natural  growth,  pro- 
duce none.  Like  the  maple,  they  are  now  largely  used  for  fuel,  but  are  far 
more  valuable  for  lumber,  and  the  time  is  coming  in  the  near  future  when 
this  value  will  be  utilized.  Hardwood  lumber  enters  into  the  construction 
of  nearly  every  article  that  can  be  named,  from  the  backwoodsman's 
cabin  with  its  rude  furniture,  to  the  palatial  residence  of  the  city  million- 
aire, with  its  wainscoting  and  cabinet  work  of  oriental  magnificence.  The 
ax  of  the  common  laborer,  the  various  tools  of  the  mechanics,  and  the 
machinery  of  the  largest  manufactories,  are  alike  dependent  upon  this 
article  for  construction.  It  is  found  in  the  common  farm  wagon;  the 
palace  cars  upon  our  railroads,  and  the  magnificent  steamers  that  plough 
the  rough  ocean.  In  brief,  it  will  be  difficult  to  mention  many  articles  in 
common  use  in  city  or  country,  that  are  not  wholly  or  partially  com- 
posed of  this  valuable  article. 

Why  then  are  the  vast  quantities  of  this  valuable  timber  still  standing 
untouched  upon  the  hillsides  and  valleys  of  this  enterprising  people?  The 
answer  is  obvious.  It  cannot  be  floated  down  the  rivers,  and  the  expense 
of  conveyance  to' market  by  teams  will  more  than  eat  up  its  market  value. 
A  limited  quantity  of  this  lumber  may  be  in  future  transported  in  the 
log,  but  the  great  bulk  of  it  must  be  manufactured  near  its  place  of  growth. 
[This  conveyance  can  only  be  done  by  steam,  and  the  means  of  obtaining 
railroad  facilities,  has  been,  and  still  is,  the  most  important  question  of 
any  that  ever  agitated  this  community.  By  means  of  promises,  which  they 
could  not  or  would  not  fulfill,  the  Boston,  Concord  &  Montreal  railroad, 
obtained,  and  for  many  years  held  a  virtually  exclusive  charter  through  to 
Canada,  and,  like  the  dog  in  the  fable,  would  neither  eat  the  hay,  nor  let 

The  Timber  Interests  of  Northern  Coos.  129 

the  ox;  or,  in  plain  English,  would  neither  build  the  road,  nor  let  any  one 
else.  But  the  long  suffering  patience  of  the  people  gave  away  at  last,  and 
they  rose  in  their  might  and  demanded  a  different  state  of  things.  When- 
ever the  people  of  Northern  Coos  unitedly  and  earnestly  set  out  to  accom- 
plish any  purpose,  they  usually  succeed,  and  they  did  so  in  this  case.  In 
18S3  they  secured  to  themselves  a  charter  which  they  now  hold  and  cou- 
trol.  This  charter  took  effect  January  1,  1884.  About  this  time  the  rail- 
road interests  of  the  state  became  involved  in  litigation,  which  was  not 
settled  until  March,  1S87.  Since  then  a  movement  has  been  set  on  foot, 
which  has  resulted  in  the  building,  this  season  (1887),  a  road  from  Strat- 
ford to  Colebrook.*  This  movement  will  soon  produce  developments  in 
this  section  that  will  surprise  every  one  who  has  not  carefully  studied 
the  subject.] 

It  is  sometimes  said  that  Northern  Coos  is  destitute  of  water-power,  but 
this  idea  originates  in  a  superficial  view  and  an  utter  ignorance  of  the  fad  s. 
On  the  Connecticut  river  between  the  outlet  of  Connecticut  lake  and  West 
Stewartstown  bridge  are  at  least  four  sites  where  sufficient  power  can  be 
obtained  for  the  manufacture  of  hard  wood  to  any  extent  desired.  South 
of  there  you  cannot  now  travel  ten  miles  in  any  direction  without  passing 
one  or  more  mills  of  more  or  less  capacity.  These  small  water-powers, 
occupied  and  unoccupied,  dot  the  country  like  dandelions  in  June.  Some 
of  them  may  not  hold  out  the  year  round  (as  some  of  the  largest  factories 
in  the  state  fall  short  of  water  in  the  dry  season  of  summer),  but  suppose 
the  lesser  of  them  run  but  six  months  out  of  twelve,  while  the  remain- 
der of  the  season  is  devoted  to  getting  the  lumber  in  winter,  and  other 
pursuits  in  summer,  and  then  the  result  will  not  be  inconsiderable  in  the 
product  of  any  of  the  small  articles  of  manufacture  from  hard  wood. 

But  it  is  too  late  in  the  age  to  assert  that  this  or  any  other  section  of 
country  is  dependent  upon  water  as  a  motive  power.  Steam  has  become  its 
competitor,  even  on  its  own  ground,  and  it  is  a  disputed  question  as  to 
which  is  the  cheaper  and  more  economical;  but,  for  manufacture  of  wood, 
where  the  refuse  goes  so  far  towards  supplying  fuel  to  feed  the  engine,  it 
is  claimed  that  steam  is  the  more  economical,  even  where  water  can  be 
obtained.  The  extensive  cotton  factories  of  Dover  are  run  wholly  by  steam, 
as  are  the  large  lumber  mills  at  Whitefield,  and  not  only  this,  but  they  run 
their  own  railroad  miles  and  miles  into  the  woods  for  the  purpose  of  trans- 
porting the  logs  to  their  mills.  Their  mills  are  built  where  they  are,  that 
is  on  the  railroad,  for  the  convenience  of  sending  away  their  manufactured 
lumber,  and  whenever  that  railroad  extends  to  the  Connecticut  lakes,  little 
spruce  or  cedar  will  float  down  the  river.     When  that  is  done,  the  hard 

-—----—-—■--  —  — 

*  See  railroads  in  another  chapter. 


130  History  of  Coos  County. 

wood  timber  will  be  worth  more  than  the  soft.     It  not  only  exceeds  it  in 
value  per  thousand,  but  in  this  section  it  far  exceeds  it  in  quantity. 

Comparatively  few  people  have  any  definite  idea  of  the  growth  of  the 
northern  part,  where  the  hard  wood  growth  stands  in  its  native  state 
undisturbed  by  the  woodman's  ax.  In  the  settled  towns  much  of  this 
growth  has  been  cut  off  in  clearing  land  and  for  fuel,  but  east  of  the  lakes, 
in  the  unsettled  townships,  are  large  tracts  of  "birds  eye  "  maple  and  birch, 
the  trees  of  which  are  of  the  largest  size,  standing  straight,  smooth,  and 
free  from  knots  and  limbs  for  a  half  hundred  feet  at  least.  In  easy  reach 
of  this  valuable  timber,  steam  mills  can  be  erected  not  only  for  the  pur- 
pose of  reducing  it  to  coarse  sawn  lumber,  but  for  making  the  innumerable 
articles  that  are  made  from  it.  This  will  be  done  as  soon  as  railroad  facili- 
ties are  furnished.     The  possibilities  in  this  line  are  incalculable. 

When  the  spruce  was  first  operated,  the  idea  attained  to  some  extent 
that  it  was  inexhaustible;  that  by  cutting  out  the  large  trees  and  leaving 
the  small  ones,  the  natural  growth  of  the  small  trees  would  supply  the 
vacuum.  Experience  has  proved  this  idea  to  be  erroneous.  The  large 
spruce  trees  have  over  a  century's  growth  upon  them,  and  when  these  are 
removed,  the  small  trees  grow  short,  knotty  and  knurly,  and  are  of  very 
little  value  for  timber.  Especially  is  this  the  case  where  it  is  cut,  as  is  now 
the  practice,  down  to  four  and  five  inches. 

Though  birch  and  maple,  in  their  natural  state  undoubtedly  attain  a 
very  great  age,  they  are  of  very  rapid  growth  while  young,  and  obtain 
their  size  substantially  in  a  short  period.  The  writer  has  seen  a  strip  of 
three  or  four  acres,  on  the  outskirts  of  an  old  pasture,  thickly  covered  with 
birch  trees  from  eighteen  to  twenty-four  inches  in  diameter,  standing 
straight,  smooth,  and  without  limbs,  for  forty  or  fifty  feet  and  holding  their 
bigness  remarkably  for  that  distance.  Being  upon  the  ground  with  the 
owner,  then  a  man  between  sixty  and  sixty -five,  he  was  told  by  him  that 
he  once  cleared  the  land  on  which  these  trees  then  stood,  and  reaped  on  it 
as  stout  a  crop  of  rye  as  he  ever  saw  growing.  These  trees  must  have 
attained  this  remarkable  growth  from  the  seed  in  less  than  forty  years. 
The  rapid  growth  of  maple  is  also  clearly  demonstrated  in  their  use  for 
ornamental  and  shade  trees,  where  the  middle-aged  man  may  set  out  trees 
that  he  can  carry  in  one  hand,  and  live  to  enjoy  the  coolness  of  their  shade 
and  eat  maple  sugar  made  by  himself  from  their  sap. 

The  man  who  looks  only  at  present  gains  and  immediate  returns  may 
see  little  encouraging  in  all  this;  but  he  who  looks  to  the  future  benefit  and 
prosperity  of  the  country,  conscious  of  the  fact  that  untold  generations  are 
yet  to  follow  us,  and  alive  to  the  fact  that  all  this  material  must  necessarily 
be  manufactured  on  the  spot,  and  that  this  enterprize  will  result  in  the 
rapid  settlement  of  the  country,  especially  those  portions  denuded  of  their 
spruce  growth,  will  see  a  hardy,  enterprizing  and  prosperous  people  cover- 

Coos  County  Press  —  Agricultural  Societies- -  Railroads.     13 i 

ing  this  now  dense  wilderness,  who  will  continue  to  sustain  the  reputation 
which  New  Hampshire  has  already  acquired,  of  raising  men  capable  of 
competing  successfully  with  the  men  of  any  section  of  any  land,  and  that 
this  vision  is  not  a  mere  chimera,  but  will  be,  in  the  near  future,  an  accom- 
plished fact. 



White  Mountain  ^E^is— Coos  County  Democrat — Coos  Republican— Prohibition  Herald — 
Independent  (now  Lancaster)  Gazette— Coos  Herald,  Etc.— Northern  Sentinel — Colebrook  Weekly 
News — News  and  Sentinel — Whiterield  Blade — Coos  Advertiser — The  Mountaineer,  Etc. — Coos 
Agricultural  Society — Coos  and  Essex  County  Agricultural  Society — Railroads:  Atlantic  and  St. 
Lawrence — White  Mountains— Portland  and  Ogdensburg — Upper  Coos. 


THE  White  Mountain  JEgis  was  the  first  newspaper  of  the  county. 
It  was  issued  in  the  spring  of  1838,  by  an  association  composed 
of  Royal  Joyslin,  Richard  P.  Kent,  Gen.  John  Wilson,  and  Apollos 
Perkins,  as  an  organ  of  the  Whig  party.  Apollos  Perkins  was  editor. 
After  an  existence  of  one  year  it  was  removed  to  Haverhill  and  became 
the  Whig  an<t  JEgis.  The  paper  was  published  in  the  old  Masonic  Hall 
in  C.  E.  Allen's  building  on  Main  street. 

The  Coos  County  Democrat  was  the  next  paper  established;  its  first 
issue  being  dated  in  the  summer  of  1838.  The  Democrat,  like  the  JEgis, 
was  started  by  an  association  of  the  prominent  men  of  its  party,  chief 
among  whom  were  Hon.  John  W.  Weeks,  Jared  W.  Williams,  John  S. 
Wells,  Hon.  John  H.  White,  and  others  of  subsequent  state  reputations, 
but  it  afterward  passed  under  the  control  of  Mr.  Rix,  until  his  death  in 
1856,  when  its  shares  were  disposed  of  by  the  original  holders  or  their  rep- 
resentatives. The  imprint  bore  the  names  of  James  M.  Rix  and  James  R. 
Whittemore  as  publishers,  Mr.  Rix  for  the  first  year  working  at  the  casi 
in  addition  to  preparing  the  editorial  labors  of  the  journal.  After  this  year 
Mr.  Rix  gave  up  the  case,  retaining  editorial  management  until  his  death. 

The  Democrat  was  first  issued  from  the  second  story  of  a  building  on 
Main  street,  then  owned  by  John  S.  Wells,  now  the  ell  of  the  store  of 
Richard  P.  Kent  &  Son.  In  1851  it  was  removed  to  the  store  building  of 
JamesA. Smith.   After  Mr.  Rix's  death  at  the  City  Hotel,  Huston,  March  25, 

132  History  of  Coos  County. 

1856,  the  office  was  moved  to  the  "  Postoffice  building,"  now  the  Shannon 
building,  on  the  south  side  of  Israel's  river.  Jared  I.  Williams,  Esq.,  being 
editor,  and  Joseph  W.  Merriam,  Esq.,  a  native  of  Stratford,  subsequently 
one  of  the  editors  of  the  Patriot,  being  assistant  editor. 

In  1859  the  Democrat  was  moved  to  North  Stratford  under  the  control, 
as  editor,  of  Charles  D.  Johnson,  Esq.,  then  but  recently  admitted  to  the 
bar  of  Coiis  county.  Mr.  Johnson  died  October  29,  1860,  and  after  his 
death,  the  paper,  as  a  party  organ,  practically  ceased  to  have  existence. 
The  material  was  purchased  by  sundry  parties,  members  of  the  opposing 
organization,  and  for  a  time  the  Democrat  was  a  nondescript.  Frequent 
exhibitions  of  the  internal  dissensions  among  its  owners,  such  as  placing  a 
cut  of  a  bull  bottom-side  up,  entitled  "  A  man  overboard  "  at  the  head  of 
its  columns  by  its  nominal  editor,  followed  the  next  week  by  denunciations 
of  said  manager  from  the  owners,  characterized  its  last  days.  Ultimately, 
about  1862,  the  material  was  sold  to  A.  J.  Walker,  of  Lunenburg,  Vt. 

The  roster  of  employers  and  employed  of  the  Democrat  is  long  and  hon- 
orable. Hon.  James  M.  Rix,  subsequently  president  of  the  state  Senate, 
was  a  nervous,  vigorous  writer,  and  acute  politician  well  known  to  the 
public  of  the  state.  His  death  occurred  from  consumption,  aggravated 
beyond  doubt  by  the  cares  of  editorial  and  political  life. 

Among  the  Democrat  employees  was  Edward  E.  Cross,  of  Lancaster, 
who  "  served  his  time  justly  and  legally  "  as  an  apprentice,  and  then  assumed 
management  of  the  office  as  foreman.  From  Lancaster,  Cross  went  to  Cin- 
cinnati, entering  the  Dollar  Weekly  Times  office.  Soon  he  appeared  as 
traveling  correspondent  of  that  paper,  and  for  several  years  his  letters  writ- 
ten from  all  parts  of  the  land,  under  the  nom  de  plume  of  "  Edward  Ever- 
ett," were  among  the  most  agreeable  matter  in  its  columns.  Charles 
Francis  Brown,  better  known  as  "  Artemas  Ward, "  began  his  career  of 
letters  as  an  apprentice  in  this  office.  From  here  he  went  to  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  where,  on  the  Plaindealer,  he  acquired  his  world-wide  reputation  as 
a  humorist.  He  died  in  Southampton,  England,  March  7,  1867.  Col.  Rich- 
ard E.  Cross,  another  valiant  soldier  of  the  Civil  war,  was  an  appren- 
tice. Albert  B.  Davis,  so  long  manager  of  McVicker's  theater,  Chicago,  was 
also  an  apprentice.  It  is  but  justice  to  say  that  under  the  management  of 
Mr.  Rix,  the  Democrat  was  one  of  the  ablest  and  best  country  newspapers  in 
New  England.  He  had  a  brilliant  mind,  strong  reasoning  powers,  and  a 
great  taste  for  the  preservation  of  local  history. 

In  October,  1881,  the  Democrat  was  revived  by  F.  A.  Kehew,  who  began 
its  publication  in  Eagle  block,  Lancaster,  and  sold  it  in  May,  1887,  to  Willard 
C.  Colby,  the  present  proprietor,  who  took  possession  June  1st. 

The  Cods  Republican. — This  paper,  next  in  date  of  issue,  was  estab- 
lished in  December,  1851.  It  was  first  published  in  the  Town  Hall  build- 
ing, Daniel  A.  Bowe,  of  Middlebury,  Vt.,   for  several  years  principal  of 

Coos  County  Press    -Agricultural  Societies-    Railroads.     133 

Lancaster  academy,  being  editor,  and  David  B.  Allison,  an  old  Concord 
printer,  manager,  the  two  uniting  in  the  firm  of  Bo  we  ec  Allison.  The 
Republican  was  started  as  the  organ  of  the  party  of  that  name.  The 
health  of  Mr.  Bowe  was  not  firm,  and  in  the  autumn  of  L857  he  was  com- 
pelled to  abandon  business.  He  died  the  April  following.  Col.  Allison 
continued  the  publication  until  December.  L858,  when  the  establishment 
was  purchased  by  Henry  O.  Kent,  who  removed  it  to  rooms  in  the  Kent 
building  on  Main  street.     Col.  Kent  says  : — 

"  For  twelve  years,  from  December,  1S58,  to  October,  1870,  the  paper 
was  owned  by  me,  and  was  under  my  direct  control,  save  dining  the  period 
of  my  absence  with  my  regiment,  when  it  was  leased  to  Daniel  C.  Pink- 
ham,  Esq.,  then  clerk  of  the  courts  for  the  county. 

"  During  this  time  it  was  my  endeavor  to  establish  the  concern  as  a 
business  enterprise  and  to  labor  for  what  I  conceived  the  interests  of  jour- 
nalism; I  never  regarded  money  expended  for  an  energetic,  local  paper,  or 
for  judicious  advertising  or  job  work,  as  a  gratuity  for  which  the  proprie- 
tor was  to  be  under  deep  obligation,  nor  did  the  receipt  of  stale  public  doc- 
uments or  garden  seeds,  constitute  utterly  conclusive  evidence  of  the  emi- 
nent fitness  of  the  donor  for  further  public  advancement, — integrity  and 
capacity  being,  in  my  belief,  equally  essential  requisites." 

Among  the  apprentices  under  the  administration  of  H.  O.  Kent,  were 
Henry  B.  Berry,  afterward  in  the  army;  George  H.  Emerson,  Henry  W. 
Denison,  Richard  H.  Emerson,  now  of  Gorham;  George  H.  Colby,  and 
Harry  C  Hartshorn,  of  Lunenburg,  Vt.,  who,  with  George  H.  Emerson, 
conducted  a  job  printing  office  in  Lancaster  for  some  time. 

Col.  Kent  sold  the  Republican  to  Chester  B.  Jordan  &  Co.,  in  October, 
1870,  and  the  office  was  moved  to  the  Postoffice  building.  Subsequently 
the  "'  Cods  Republican  Association"  was  formed,  and  assumed  control  of 
the  paper,  which  it  conducted  until  it  was  sold  in  August,  1*71,  to  F.  E. 
Shaw,  who  soon  let  it  go  back  into  the  possession  of  the  association. 

Chester  B.  Jordan,  Esq.,  first  assumed,  but  temporarily,  the  editorial 
chair.  On  his  retiring,  Wesley  W.  Pasko,  of  New  York,  a  writer  for  the 
Press  of  that  city,  entered  upon  the  duties,  to  him  followed  successively 
Josiah  H.  Benton,  Jr.,  Benjamin  F.  Whidden,  Jonathan  Smith,  F.  W. 
Williams,  W.  C.  Mahurin,  F.  E.  Shaw,  W.  C.  Mahurin  again  for  a  time 
after  Mr.  Shaw  relinquished  his  possession.  From  July.  Is77.  when  Mr. 
Mahurin  vacated  the  editorial  chair,  a  Miss  Kingslev  was  editor  for  the 
association  until  April,  1878,  when  the  office  was  destroyed  by  fire. 

During  the  next  month  (May)  James  S.  Peavey  removed  his  office  from 
Littleton  to  Lancaster,  and  continued  the  publication  of  the  Republican 
from  the  store  opposite  the  old  American  House  on  Elm  street,  until  Octo- 
ber, when  he  moved  his  office  to  the  new  Eagle  Hall  block.  In  December, 
18S0,  Mr.  Peavey  sold  the  Republican  to  A.  F.   Rowell  and  C.   D.  Batchel- 

134  History  of  Coos  County. 

der,  who  admitted  C.  L.  Griffing  as  a  partner,  in  September,  1881,  forming 
the  firm  of  Rowell,  Batchelder  &  Griffing,  which  continued  until  June, 
1882,  when  Rowell  and  Batchelder  retired.  In  September,  1883,  C.  D. 
Phelps  &  Co.  (J.  H.  Baird)  became  the  owners.  Soon  after  Mr.  Baird  pur- 
chased the  entire  office,  and,  in  1881,  the  publication  of  the  paper,  which 
had  been  the  Lancaster  Republican  since  1881,  was  discontinued.  The 
press,  type,  etc.,  were  sold  at  auction  to  F.  A.  Kehew,  and  used  by  him  in 
the  Democrat  office. 

The  Prohibition  Herald,  the  state  organ  of  the  temperance  party,  was 
published  at  the  job  printing  office  of  Emerson,  Hartshorn  &  Co.,  from 
January  1,  1871,  for  one  year,  when  it  was  removed  to  Concord.  The  edi- 
tors were  Rev.  L.  D.  Barrows  and  Dr.  John  Blackmer. 

The  Independent  Gazette,  independent  in  politics,  was  published  at 
Lancaster,  the  first  number  being  issued  in  January,  1872,  George  H. 
Emerson  and  Harry  C.  Hartshorn,  publishers;  James  S.  Brackett,  editor. 
The  editorial  chair  was  soon  occupied  by  Mr.  Emerson,  who  conducted  it 
till  August,  1877,  when  I.  W.  Quimby  and  W.  F.  Burns  became  proprie- 
tors. Mr.  Burns  sold  his  interest  to  Joseph  Roby,  Jr.,  after  a  few  months, 
and  Mr.  Quimby  soon  became  sole  owner.  He  continued  to  publish  the 
paper  (changing  the  name  to  Lancaster  Gazette,  January  1,  1870,)  until 
November  10,  1883,  when  he  sold  it  to  the  Lancaster  Printing  Co.,  George 
P.  Rowell,  the  well  known  advertising  agent  of  New  York  city,  being  the 
real  owner,  and  it  was  carried  on  under  his  ownership  until  September  25, 
1885,  when  Mr.  Quimby  again  became  proprietor  and  has  since  been  pub- 
lisher. It  is  a  bright,  neat,  newsy  local  paper,  and  is  well  worth  double  its 
price  (one  dollar  a  year,  cash  in  advance).     Publication  day,  Tuesday. 

The  Cods  Herald  was  a  little  sheet  edited,  printed  and  published  at 
Lancaster,  in  the  winter  of  1S56,  by  Charles  N.  Kent,  then  aged  thirteen. 
Mr.  Kent,  who  was  an  amateur  printer  only,  is  now  a  member  of  the 
advertising  firm  of  George  P.  Rowell  &  Co.,  New  York. 

The  Journal  of  Familiar  Science  was  a  quarto  issued  during  1870,  at 
Lancaster,  by  S.  Randall  &  Co.,  druggists. 

The  Northern  News,  a  sheet  8x12,  was  edited  and  published  by  Fletcher 
Ladd,  when  a  lad  of  eight  years. 


The  Norther u  Sentinel,  democratic,  was  established  at  Colebrook, 
November,  1870,  by  James  S.  Peavey,  who  published  it  until  the  month 
of  April,  1872,  when  he  was  succeeded  as  proprietor  and  editor  by  Albert 
Barker,  Esq.,  who  showed  great  ability.  E.  S.  Cummings  purchased  it  in 
June,   1884. 

The  Colebrook  Weekly  News  was  founded  in  1875  by  Charles  A.  Bridge, 
who,  after  a  year  or  two,  sold  it  to  his  brother,  John  D.  Bridge. 

Coos  County  Press  —  Agricultural  Societies -- Railroads.     135 

The  above  papers  were  consolidated  in  December,  1884,  forming  The 
News  and  Sentinel,  the  Colebrook  Publishing  Company  becoming  the  pub- 
lishers. E.  S.  Cummings  has  been  manager  and  editor  from  that  date. 
Independent  weekly,  $1.00  per  year  in  advance. 


In  1876  N.  A.  Burnham  published  a  small  sheet,  the  Whitefield  Blade, 
for  a  few  months.  In  1S80  W.  C.  McCausland,  an  amateur  printer, 
established  the  Cods  Advertiser;  it  was  published  about  a  year.  The  Coos 
County  News  has  just  been  started. 


The  Mountaineer,  weekly,  $1.00  a  year.— V.  V.  Twitchell  began  the 
publication  of  this  spicy  and  interesting  journal  in  April,  1877.  It  very 
soon  attained  a  high  reputation  for  humor,  and  a  circulation  which 
extended  to  every  state  in  the  Union,  and  to  England.  Much  of  the  lit- 
erary matter,  which  forms  quite  a  specialty,  is  written  expressly  for 
the  Mountaineer.  With  all  these  outside  matters,  it  has  kept  up  a  rep- 
utation as  a  good  local  newspaper.  Mr.  Twitchell  has  built  up  a  fine  busi- 
ness, passed  through  one  disastrous  fire,  and  although  never  in  robust 
health,  is  good,  we  hope,  for  many  years'  editorial  service. 

The  Messenger,  an  amateur  paper,  was  published  a  short  time  in  1881, 
by  Fred  Ingalls,  who,  in  1887,  became  associated  with  V.  V.  Twitchell  in 
the  publication  of  the  Mountaineer. 

For  Among  the  Clouds,  see  General  History — White  Mountain  chapter. 

The  Cods  Agricultural  Society  was  organized  in  1821,  and  existed  four 
years.  For  its  brief  life  it  accomplished  much  good.  In  an  address  deliv- 
ered before  this  body,  October  17,  1821,  Adino  N.  Brackett  shows  the  very 
high  aims  of  the  founders  of  that  society.  He  says  it  was  formed  to 
"encourage  agriculture  and  domestic  manufacture."  To  the  farmers  he 
says:  "To  draw  forth  your  activity  and  your  exertions,  for  your  own 
benefit,  is  the  object  of  this  institution.  Not  a  cent  which  you  contribute 
is  to  be  sent  out  of  the  county;  but  the  whole  returns  to  you  in  premiums, 
the  honorable  reward  of  your  industry.  In  addition  to  which,  if  you 
raise  and  expend  one  hundred  dollars  for  premiums,  the  state  has  in  its 
treasury  funds  to  an  equal  amount,  to  be  laid  out  in  the  same  manner. 
Thus  is  every  inducement  held  out  to  raise  and  expend  the  sum  above 
mentioned.  The  man  who  pays  two  dollars,  immediately  adds  other  two 
to  the  wealth  of  the  county;  and  this  beyond  the  indefinite  amount  which 
will  be  accumulated  by  the  increased  activity  which  will  exist  in  the 
departments  of  agriculture  and  domestic  manufactures."  Concerning  the 
latter,  Mr.  Brackett  asks:  "What  is  the  exact  state  of  domestic  manufac- 

136  History  of  Coos  County. 

tures  among  us  ?  Are  we  principally  clothed  with  articles  of  this  kind  ? 
It  is  believed,  that  of  the  male  population,  at  least  three-fourths  are 
clothed  in  articles  manufactured  within  the  county  or  within  the  United 
States.  But  the  observation,  if  extended  to  the  female  part  of  society, 
would  not  hold  true  to  the  same  extent." 

The  Cods  and  Essex  Counties  Agricultural  Society  was  organized  in  1870, 
and  embraced  all  the  towns  and  places  in  Coos  county,  and  the  tier  of  towns 
in  Essex  county,  Vermont,  lying  upon  the  Connecticut  river,  north  of  the 
town  of  Concord.  The  object  of  the  society  is  stated  to  be  the  "improve- 
ment of  agricultural  productions,  useful  domestic  animals,  domestic  man- 
ufactures, and  the  mechanic  arts."  The  first  officers  were  as  follows: 
President,  William  D.  Weeks,  Lancaster;  vice-presidents,  John  W.  Harts- 
horn, Lunenburg;  Hazen  Bedel,  Colebrook;  secretaries,  Charles  E.  Benton, 
Guildhall;  George  H.  Emerson,  Lancaster;  treasurer,  Henry  O.  Kent, 
Lancaster.  In  addition  to  these,  there  was  a  large  executive  committee 
from  the  various  towns.  List  of  presidents:  William  D.  Weeks,  Lancas- 
ter, 1870-1;  John  W.  Hartshorn,  Lunenburg,  1872-3-1-5;  Edward  Spauld- 
ing,  Lancaster,  1876-8-9;  Josiah  H.  Benton,  Maidstone,  1877-8;  J.  G. 
Crawford,  Lancaster,  1879-80;  George  E.  Carbee,  Lancaster,  1881-2; 
George  P.  Rowell,  Lancaster,  1881;  J.  W.  Dodge,  Lunenburg,  1885-6. 
The  society  has  had  successful  and  unsuccessful  fairs,  but  has  kept  up  an 
organization,  and  at  the  present  time  is  in  a  prosperous  condition.  The 
officers  for  1886  were:  President,  J.  W.  Dodge,  Lunenburg;  vice-presi- 
dents, William  C.  Spaulding,  Lancaster;  L.  T.  Hazen,  Whitefield;  Sidney 
B.  Whittemore,  Colebrook;  secretary  and  treasurer,  I.  W.  Quimby,  Lan- 
caster; executive  committee,  George  M.  Stevens,  Jason  H.  Woodward, 
George  P.  Eaton,  Joseph  Winch,  H.  J.  Guernsey,  the  president,  secretary 
and  treasurer  being  ex- officio  members. 

Patrons  of  Husbandry.— This  order  has  a  following  of  earnest  and 
wide-awake  agriculturists,  with  granges  in  Lancaster,  Whitefield,  and 
other  towns,  but  has  not  a  great  numerical  strength  in  the  county. 

Railroads. — Few  railroads  have  been  constructed  in  Coos  county,  and 
there  is  not  much  to  be  said  of  them,  but  if  we  should  write  of  all  the 
futile  efforts  made  to  obtain  railroads,  the  hopes  that  have  been  raised  and 
blasted  concerning  the  railways  that  were  to  be  made,  but  were  never 
completed,  there  could  much  be  written  which  we  must  omit. 

Atlantic  &  St.  Lawrence  R.  R.—ln  1817,  while  Hon.  Jared  W.  Williams 
was  governor  of  New  Hampshire,  the  Atlantic  &  St.  Lawrence  railroad 
was  incorporated.  Its  length  from  Portland  to  Island  Pond  was  119  miles, 
fifty-four  of  which  lay  in  this  state.  This  was  leased  by  the  Grand  Trunk 
railway  in  1853,  at  a  rental  of  six  per  cent,  upon  the  cost  of  construction, 
or  $6,003,900.  In  order  to  get  possession  of  an  existing  charter  covering 
the  ground  it  pledged  itself  to  construct  a  branch  to  Lancaster.     It  broke 

Coos  County  Press  —  Agricultural  Societies    -Railroads.     137 

its  pledge,  and  appeal  was  taken  to  the  legislature,  but  a  compromise  was 
effected  by  payment  of  sis. ik id  to  the  citizens  of  Lancaster,  who,  after 
reimbursing  a  few  people  for  money  spent  in  trying  to  secure  the  road, 
used  the  balance,  about  $15,000,  in  building  the  Lancaster  House.  This 
road  was  completed  to  Gorham  in  L850,  the  trains  beginning  to  run  regu- 
larly to  and  from  Portland  on  the  "  Fourth  of  July,"  1851.  Trains  ran  to 
Northumberland  and  North  Stratford  from  Gorham,  in  1852:  to  Island 
Pond,  Vt.,  in  1853;  connecting  with  the  St.  Lawrence  &  Atlantic  at  the 
Canadian  boundary  in  July,  1853.  This  road  has  done  much  to  develop  the 
resources  of  the  country  along  its  line,  and  has  created  several  prosperous 
villages,  —Gorham,  Berlin  Falls,  Groveton,  and  North  Stratford. 

The  White  Mom/ fain  R.  R.  was  chartered  December  15,  1848.  Among 
the  incorporators  were  Royal  Joy  si  in,  R.  P.  Kent,  James  W.  Weeks,  W. 
D.  Spaulding,  William  Burns,  Presbury  West,  Jr.,  N.  D.  Day,  L.  John- 
son, T.  Montgomery,  John  M.  Gove,  Morris  Clark.  This  was  an  extension 
of  the  Boston,  Concord  &  Montreal  R.  R,,  from  Woodsville  to  Lancaster, 
and  was  opened  to  Littleton  in  August,  1853;  to  Lancaster  in  November, 
1870;  to  Groveton  (51.95  miles  from  Woodsville)  in  August,  1872;  to  Fa- 
byan's  in  July,  1874;  to  the  base  of  the  White  Mountains,  July  6,  1876. 
This  railroad  was  consolidated  with  the  Boston,  Concord  &  Montreal  R.  R. 
in  1873,  its  owners  receiving  $300,000  in  six  per  cent,  consolidated  bonds  for 
their  interests.  From  June,  1884,  to  June,  1887,  it  was  under  the  manage- 
ment of  the  Boston  &  Lowell  R.  R.,  which  leased  the  B.,  C.  &  M.  road  for 
ninety-nine  years.  The  Boston  &  Lowell,  in  1887,  leased  it  to  the  Boston 
&  Maine  R.  R. 

Portland  &  Ogdensburg  R.  R. — A  charter  was  granted  in  1869  to  build 
a  railroad  from  the  west  line  of  Maine  through  Conway,  Bartlett,  White 
Mountain  Notch,  Carroll,  Bethlehem  and  Littleton,  with  the  proviso  that 
if  it  were  found  impracticable  to  build  a  railroad  from  Littleton  to  St. 
Johnsbury,  they  might  locate  and  build  the  road  from  Carroll  to  White- 
field,  Dalton,  and  the  east  line  of  Vermont.  The  road  was  completed  to 
Fabyan's  from  Portland  August  7,  L875,  making  a  connection  with  the 
Boston,  Concord  &  Montreal  and  White  Mountains  roads  there.  De- 
ciding that  the  road  could  not  be  built  by  the  Littleton  route,  the  Port- 
land &  Ogdensburg  company  constructed  two  and  one-half  miles  between 
Scotts  and  Lunenburg,  Vt. ,  making  a  western  connection  there  with  the 
St.  Johnsbury  &  Lake  Champlain  R.  R.  by  using  the  track  of  the  Boston, 
Concord  &  Montreal,  and  White  Mountains  roads  from  Fab  van's  to  Scotts, 
for  which  an  arrangement  was  made  and  still  continues.  In  ls77  the  legis- 
lature confirmed  the  Portland  &  Ogdensburg  road  in  the  right  to  the  two 
and  one-half  miles  of  road  between  Scotts  and  Lunenburg. 

Upper  Cods  Railroad. — During  all  the  years  from  the  settlement  of  the 
town  to  the  year  1887  there  was  no  railroad  to  Cole-brook,  the  nearest 

138  History  of  Coos  County. 

point  on  the  railroad  being  North  Stratford,  thirteen  miles  away.  In  the 
legislature  of  1883  a  charter  for  a  railroad  was  obtained  from  Stratford  to 
Pittsburg,  and  in  April  and  May,  1887,  a  subscription  for  a  narrow  gauge 
railroad  was  raised,  stock  to  the  amount  of  forty-five  thousand  dollars 
being  taken.  The  corporation  was  organized  with  J.  H.  Dudley,  presi- 
dent; Albert  Barker,  clerk;  and  Sherburn  R.  Merrill,  treasurer;  and 
about  $11,000  paid  into  the  stock  subscription,  when  Frank  Jones,  Charles 
A.  Sinclair  and  George  Van  Dyke  offered  to  build  a  standard  gauge  road 
through  Colebrook  and  Stewartstown,  if  the  people  would  raise  a  gratuity 
of  $25,000.  This  was  quickly  done.  The  old  directors  resigned,  and  a 
new  board,  consisting  of  Frank  Jones,  of  Portsmouth,  J.  B.  Cooke,  of  Salem, 
Mass.,  G.  W.  Armstrong,  of  Boston,  I.  W.  Drew,  of  Lancaster,  Enoch 
Sweat,  of  Woonsocket,  R.  I.,  Charles  A.  Sinclair,  of  Portsmouth,  and  George 
Van  Dyke  were  chosen.  Van  Dyke  was  chosen  president,  Cooke  treasurer, 
and  Sweat,  general  manager.  It  was  voted  that  the  capital  stock  do  not 
exceed  $350,000. 

Work  at  once  commenced  and  the  road  was  formally  opened  from 
North  Stratford  to  Colebrook  November  29,  1S87,  giving  the  people  greatly 
increased  facilities  for  business  It  will  be  extended  ten  miles  farther  to 
the  Canada  line,  early  next  summer,  by  which  time  the  Canadian  Pacific 
will  be  ready  to  touch  iron  with  it,  thus  opening  a  new  and  shorter 
route  to  Quebec  It  also  renders  practicable  the  utilization  of  numberless 
water  privileges  on  the  Connecticut  and  other  rivers,  heretofore  unavail- 
able for  manufacturing  purposes,  owing  to  the  difficulties  attendant  upon 
shipping  manufactured  products.  Facilities  for  manufacturing  lumber 
unequalled  in  New  England  can  also  be  found  and  utilized,  which  will 
obviate  largely  the  labor  and  expense  of  "  driving"  millions  of  logs  down 
the  rivers  to  a  market. 

If  ever  a  railroad  proved  a  blessing  to  a  section  of  country,  this  Upper 
Coos  railroad  seems  destined  to  become  pre-eminently  such.  Sharp-eyed 
capital  will  surely  be  attracted  to  Northern  New  Hampshire,  and  one  need 
stretch  his  imagination  but  little  to  people  the  northern  valleys  with  thriv- 
ing manufacturing  villages,  monuments  of  New  England  thrift  and  enter- 

Masonry  in  Coos.  139 



North  Star  Lodge,  Lancaster  —  Templar  Masonry  in  Northern  New  Hampshire  —  North  Star 
Chapter,  Lancaster  —  Evening  Star  Lodge,  Colebrook  —  Gorham  Lodge,  Gorham —  White  Mount- 
ain Lodge.  Whitefield  — Officers  of  Grand  Lodge,  Grand  Chapter  and  Grand  Commandery  from 
Coos  county. 

/\T  ORTH  Star  Lodge,  No.  8. — Lancaster  is  the  mother  of  Masonry  in 
I  N  Northern  New  Hampshire  and  Vermont,  these  lodges  owing  filial 
V.  allegiance  to  her:  Evening  Star,  Colebrook;  Kane,  Lisbon;  Burns, 
Littleton;  Gorham,  Gorham;  White  Mountain,  Whitefield;  Passumpsic, 
St.  Johnsbury;  Island  Pond,  Island  Pond.  It  was  instituted  at  Northum- 
berland under  this  ancient  charter  in  1797. 

"  To  all  the  Fraternity  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  to  whom,  these  presents  shall  come. 

"  The  Grand  Lodge  of  the  Most  Ancient  and  Honorable  Society  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  for  the 

State  of  New  Hampshire,  sends  GREETING. 

"  [  L.  &]  Wnereas,  a  petition  has  heen  presented  us  by  Brothers  George  Kimball,  John  J. 
Nath'l  Adams,  French,  John  Weeks,  William  Cargill,  Mills  De  Forest,  Nathaniel  Wales,  Thos. 
Gr.  Master.  Burnside,  Holloway  Taylor,  Edmund  Heard,  Josiah  Sawyer,  Jabez  Parsons,  James 
Chamberlain,  Samuel  Phelps,  Azariah  Webb  and  Warren  Cook,  all  Ancient,  Free  and  Accepted 
Masons,  praying  that  they  with  such  others  as  shall  hereafter  join  them,  may  be  erected  and  con- 
stituted a  regular  Lxlge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Misons,  which  petition  appearing  to  us  as  tending 
to  the  advancement  of  Masonry  and  good  of  the  Craft. 

"  Know  ye,  therefore,  that  we,  the  Grand  Lodge  aforesaid,  reposing  special  trust  and  confi- 
dence in  the  prudence  and  fidelity  of  our  beloved  brethren,  above  named,  have  constituted  and  ap- 
pointed, and  by  these  presents  do  constitute  and  appoint  them,  the  said  George  Kimball,  John  Weeks, 
Mills  De  Forest, Thomas  Burnside,  Edmund  Heard,  Jabez  Parsons,  Samuel  Phelps,  John  J.  French, 
William  Cargill,  Nathaniel  Wales,  Holloway  Taylor,  Josiah  Sawyer,  James  Chamberlain,  Azariah 
Webb  and  Warren  Cook,  a  regular  Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  under  the  title  and  desig- 
nation of  the  North  Star  Lodge,  No.  8;  and  we  do  hereby  appoint  our  said  brother  George  Kimball, 
Master;  our  said  brother  John  J.  French,  Senior,  and  our  said  brother  John  Weeks,  Junior  Wardens 
of  said  Lodge,  hereby  giving  and  granting  unto  them  and  their  successors  full  power  and  author- 
ity to  covene  as  Masons,  within  the  town  of  Northumberland,  aud  County  of  Grafton  and  State 
aforesaid,  to  receive  and  enter  Apprentices,  pass  Fellow  Crafts,  and  raise  Master  Masons, 
upon  the  payment  of  such  moderate  compensations  for  the  same  as  may  be  determined,  by  the  said 
Lodge,  also,  hereby  authorizing  them  in  future  to  make  choice  of  a  Master.  Wardens  and  other 
office  bearers  annually  or  otherwise  as  they  shall  see  cause,  to  receive  and  collect  funds  for  the 
relief  of  poor  and  distressed  brethren,  their  widows  or  children,  and  in  general  to  transact  all  mat- 
ters relating  to  Masonry,  which  may  to  them  appear  to  be  for  the  good  of  the  Craft,  according  to 
the  ancient  usage  and  custom  of  Masons. 

"  And  we  do  hereby  require  the  said  constituted  brethren  to  attend  the  Grand  Lodge  at  their 
Quarterly  Communications  and  other  meetings,  by  their  Master  and  Wardens,  or  by  proxies  regu- 
larly appointed,  also  to  keep  a  fair  and  regular  record  of  all  their  proceedings,  and  to  lay  the  same 
before  the  Grand  Lodge  when  required. 

"  And  we  do  enjoin  upon  the  brethren  of  said  Lodge,  that  they  be  punctual  in  their  quarterly 
payments  of  such  sums  as  may  be  assessed  for  the  support  of  the  Grand   Lodge,  thai  they  behave 

140  History  of  Coos  County. 

themselves  respectfully  and  obediently  to  their  superiors  in  office,  and  in  all  other  things  conduct 
themselves  as  good   Masons. 

"And  we  do  herebjr  declare  the  precedure  of  the  said  Lodge  in  the  Grand  Lodge  and  else- 
where, to  commence  from  the  eighteenth  day  of  December,  A.  L.,  5797. 

"  In  testimony  whereof,  we,  the  Grand  Master  and  the  Grand  Wardens,  by  virtue  of  the  power 

and  authority  to  us  committed,  have  hereunto  set  our  hands,  and  caused  the  seal  of  the  Grand 

Lodge  to  be  affixed,  at  Portsmouth,  this  eighteenth  day  of  December,  Anno  Domini,  1797,  and  of 

Masonry,  5797. 

"Joseph  Cillet,  Dept  G.  M. 

"Moses  Woodward,  Sen'r        )  p    ^- 
"Samuel  Sherburne,  Jun'r     J     ' 

I!  J°SEP"  H™  S?n'r    l  G.  Deacons. 
"  John  Adams,  Jun  r        ) 

"  Rec'd  the  fees  for  this  Charter, 

"Samuel  Adams,  Gr'd  Treasurer. 

"  Edw'd.  St.  Loe  Livermore, 

Grand  Secretary. 

"  Recorded  from  the  original, 

' '  Edw'd.  St.  Loe  Livermore, 

Grand  Secretary." 

The  first  meeting  of  which  we  have  record  was  held  in  the  hall  over  the 
Cargill  store,  September  IS,  1793.  There  were  present  James  Chamber- 
lain, W.  M. ;  John  J.  French,  S.  W. ;  Nathaniel  Wales,  Sect. ;  Benoni 
Cutler,  Charles  Cutler  and  Edwards  Bucknam.  The  first  complete  list  of 
officers  preserved  is  of  those  elected  January  21,  1800:  Samuel  Phelps,  W. 
M.;  Daniel  Dana,  S.  W. ;  Stephen  Wilson,  J.  W. ;  Arte  mas  Wilder,  Treas. ; 
R.  C.  Everett,  Sect. ;  Warren  Cook,  S.  D. ;  Joseph  Dyer,  J.  D.  Special  com- 
munications were  then  frequent,  and  much  work  was  done.  Between 
January  21,  1800,  the  date  of  the  last  meeting  in  Northumberland,  and 
February  11,  1800,  the  lodge  was  moved  to  Lancaster  and  held  its  meet- 
ings in  a  Masonic  hall  owned  by  the  lodge  which  stood  nearly  on  the  site 
of  the  present  residence  of  Hon.  Jacob  Benton.  [This  building  was  later 
moved  down  town,  contained  the  postoffice  under  the  administration  of 
Charles  E.  Allen,  and  is  now  used  for  business  purposes.  Masonic 
emblems  are  now  to  be  seen  on  the  attic  ceiling.] 

St.  John's  Day  was  celebrated  for  the  first  time  in  1801,  with  fitting, 
although  private  ceremonies.  In  1815  occurred  the  first  public  observance 
of  the  day,  the  brethren  marching  to  the  meeting-house,  listening  to  an 
address  by  Rev.  Dyer  Burge,  then  repairing  for  refreshments  to  "Bro." 
Benjamin  Hunking's  hall. 

Stephen  Wilson  was  elected  Worshipful  Master,  January  10,  1802.  He 
held  the  office  over  eight  years.  In  1807,  August  1,  it  was  voted  to 
"return  the  charter;"  but  the  lodge  was  subsequently  revived,  by  vote  of 
the  Grand  Lodge. 

In  1814,  Jeremy  L.  Cross  had  become  a  resident  of  the  place,  and  was 
employed  at  his  trade— a  hatter.  He  had  taken  the  degrees  of  the  York 
Eite  in  St.  John's  Lodge,  at  Portsmouth;  E.\  A.'.  September  2,  1807,  F.\ 

Masonry  in  Coos.  141 

C.\  April  6,  1808,  M.  '.  M.\  July  6,  1808,  and  in  1813  was  Junior  Deacon 
of  that  lodge.  It  may  be  presumed  that  he  was  instrumental  in  the  reor- 
ganization, which  occurred  in  1814.  He  became  Senior  Deacon  in  that 
year,  but  took  a  demit  October  25,  1S14.  It  was  just  previous  to  this  time 
(in  1810)  that  he  had  entered  upon  the  broader  field  of  Masonic  labor  as  a 
lecturer,  organizer  and  writer,  which  largely  occupied  the  remainder  of 
his  life.  The  extent  of  his  influence  on  the  work  of  the  York  Eite  may 
be  partially  indicated  by  the  fact  that  his  Hieroglyphic  Monitor  passed 
through  at  least  sixteen  editions,  between  the  years  1819  and  1860,  the 
date  of  his  death. 

The  custom  of  wearing  white  aprons  in  the  lodge  was  adopted  April  1, 
1817,  when  it  was  voted  that  a  number  be  procured  for  the  use  of  the 

The  communication  of  February  11,  1S2G,  is  the  last  recorded  in  the 
"  First  Book  of  Records,"  the  report  being  signed  by  Asahel  Going,  Sec- 

The  Masters  to  1826  were  George  Kimball;  James  Chamberlain,  two 
years;  James  Phelps,  two  years;  Stephen  Wilson,  eight  years:  Abel  Moore, 
two  years;  William  Lovejoy,  five  years;  Richard  Eastman,  one  year; 
James  Batchelder,  one  year. 

This  lodge  continued  its  work  through  the  most  venomous  period  of  the 
anti-Masonic  crusade,  but  surrendered  its  charter  in  June,  1844.  The  ogan- 
ization  did  not  long  remain  dormant.  While  there  were  yet  a  large  num- 
ber of  survivors  of  the  troublous  times  for  freemasonry,  the  charter  was 
returned  to  the  revived  lodge.  This  occurred  in  1853.  The  lodge  "  organ- 
ized with  the  former  officers."  Eliphalet  Lyman,  W.  M. ;  Ephraim  Cross, 
S.  W. ;  Charles  Baker,  J.  W. ;  Jacob  E.  Stickney,  Sect. ;  Benjamin  Hunking, 
Treas. ;  George  Ingerson,  S.  D.;  Allen  Smith,  J.  D.;  John  Savage,  Tyler.  In 
1854  Ephraim  Cross  was  elected  Master,  J.  W.  Barney,  Sect.  The  lodge  was 
moved  to  rooms  over  R.  P.Kent  &  Son's  store,  September  6,  1854,  in  July, 
1855,  to  the  hall  over  Burnside's  store,  and  in  April,  1856,  to  its  present  loca- 
tion in  the  Town  Hall  building,  which,  in  1881,  in  connection  with  the  other 
Masonic  bodies  of  the  place,  the  lodge  purchased  for  a  permanent  home. 
In  June,  1855,  the  treasurer  was  authorized  to  "procure  for  the  lodge 
twenty-nine  working  aprons,  with  appropriate  insignia  upon  them  for  the 
officers,  also  a  square  and  compass  of  solid  silver."  The  seal  of  the  char- 
ter having  been  lost,  the  Grand  Lodge  was  asked,  in  May,  1856,  to  affix  a 
new  one,  which  was  done. 

A  donation  of  twenty-five  dollars  was  voted  to  Bro.  Annance,  January 
27,  1867,  as  he  was  in  indigent  circumstances.  Annance  was  an  Indian, 
the  only  one  admitted  to  this  lodge,  and  was  much  respected  by  the  crafts- 
men for  his  Masonic  virtues. 

The  first  public  installation  (according  to  the  records)  took  place  in  the 

142  History  of  Coos  County. 

town  hall.  May  5,  1868.  The  set  of  silver  jewels,  now  in  use,  were  pro- 
cured the  next  December.  In  June,  1880,  Silas  Hurlburt,  the  oldest  and 
a  venerated  member,  disappeared  mysteriously  while  walking  near  Lan- 
caster, and,  although  a  reward  was  offered  for  tidings  of  him,  and  friends 
searched  far  and  near,  "  no  trace  or  semblance  of  him  has  since  been  seen 
among  men  or  Masons. "  The  Masters,from  1852, have  been  Eliphalet  Lyman, 
two  terms;  Ephraim  Cross,  two  terms;  Charles  Baker,  one  term;  Jared  I. 
Williams,  two  terms;  James  D.  Folsom,  two  terms;  Henry  0.  Kent,  six 
years;  William  Burns,  one  term;  B.  F.  Hunking,  live  terms;  George  S. 
Stockwell,  one  term;  Edward  Savage,  five  terms;  Frank  D.  Peabody,  one 
term;  Thomas  S.  Ellis,  two  terms;  Henry  J.  Cummings,  one  term;  Charles 
E.  Mclntire,  three  terms;  Moses  A.   Hastings,  one  term;  John  H.  Smith. 

The  last  return  to  the  Grand  Lodge  shows  that  268  members  have  been 
made  since  1855,  and  a  membership  of  132  in  good  standing  at  the  date  of 
the  report. 

On  the  rolls  of  this  ancient  lodge  are  the  names  of  the  ablest,  wisest 
and  best  citizens,  whose  influence  has  been  for  good  in  both  the  commu- 
nity and  in  Masonic  circles.  A  spirit  of  harmony  and  of  zeal  has  per- 
vaded its  counsels,  and  it  is  a  power  in  the  land. 

Templar  Masonry  in  Northern  New  Hampshire. — At  the  commence- 
ment of  the  year  1857,  there  were  but  two  Commanderies  of  Templar 
Masons  in  the  state  of  New  Hampshire,  viz. :  St.  John's,  at  Portsmouth, 
and  Trinity,  at  Manchester.  All  others  of  the  old  organization  had  become 
extinct,  and  the  Grand  Commandery  had  returned  its  charter  to  the  Grand 
Encampment  of  the  United  States.  A  few  Master  Masons  of  North  Star 
Lodge  being  desirous  of  receiving  and  perpetuating  the  benefits  of  Chris- 
tian Masonry,  obtained  the  honors  of  Knighthood  at  Portland,  Me.,  and 
Manchester,  N.  H.,  and  uniting  with  themselves  Curtis  Cleaveland,  an  old 
Sir  Knight  from  Burlington,  Vt.,  who  at  that  time  was  residing  at  North- 
umberland, sent  a  petition  to  Hon.  William  B.  Hubbard,  then  Grand 
Master  of  Knights  Templar  in  the  United  States,  asking  for  a  dispensation 
to  organize  a  Commandery  at  Lancaster,  N.  H.  On  May  8,  1857,  a  dis- 
pensation was  issued,  and  on  May  11th,  the  Sir  Knights  met  and  organ- 
ized a  Commandery  with  the  following  officers:  Jared  I.  Williams,  Em. 
Commander;  LaFayette  Moore,  Generalissimo;  George  C.  Williams,  Capt. 
General.  Immediately  after  organization  they  conferred  the  orders  of 
Knighthood  upon  James  A.  Smith  and  James  D.  Folsom. 

At  this  time  there  was  no  Chapter  of  Koyal  Arch  Masons  in  this  juris- 
diction nearer  than  Concord,  N.  H.,  and  by  consent  obtained  of  Blazing 
Star  Chapter,  an  arrangement  was  made  whereby  Haswell  Chapter  of  St. 
Johnsbury,  Vt.,  could  confer  the  Royal  Arch  degrees  upon  candidates 
from  Northern  New  Hampshire.  In  this  manner  the  Commandery  con- 
tinued work  under  its  dispensation  until  November  24,  1859,  when  it  was 

Masonry  in  Coos.  143 

organized  under  a  charter  from  the  United  States  Encampment  as  North 
Star  Commandery,  No.  3,  of  New  Hampshire.  During  this  time  it  had 
increased  in  membership  from  eight  to  fifteen.  Under  the  charter  the  fol- 
lowing officers  were  elected  and  installed:  Jared  I.Williams,  Em.  Com- 
mander; LaFayette  Moore,  Generalissimo;  George  C  Williams.  Capt. 
General;  Henry  0.  Kent,  Prelate;  John  W.  Barney,  Senior  Warden; 
David  A.  Burnside,  Treasurer;  Henry  0.  Kent,  Recorder;  James  A.  Smith, 
Standard  Bearer;  Curtis  Cleaveland,  Sword  Bearer;  Benjamin  F.  Hunk- 
ing,  Warder,  Alex.  Thompson  and   Danforth  Willey,  Captains  of  Guard. 

In  I860  North  Star  assisted  in  the  organization  of  the  Grand  Com- 
mandery of  New  Hampshire.  The  same  officers  were  re-elected  in  1860- 
61-62-63.  In  December,  1863,  the  Commandery  was  free  from  debt  for 
the  first  time  since  its  organization.  In  January,  1861,  a  change  was  made 
in  the  officers  by  electing  George  F.  French,  Prelate;  LaFayette  Moore, 
Recorder;  Nathan  R.  Perkins,  Standard  Bearer;  Jared  W.Williams,  Sword 
Bearer;  John  S.  Ockington,  Ezra  B.  Bennet,  and  Charles  L.  Plaisted, 
Captains  of  Guard. 

March,  1861,  L.  F.  Moore  having  resigned  as  recorder,  D.  C.  Pinkham 
was  elected  his  successor.  The  Commandery  added  to  its  numbers  two  in 
1860,  eight  in  1863,  eighteen  in  1861,  and  three  in  1865,  making  thirty  one 
Sir  Knights  enrolled  in  its  ranks  with  a  loss  of  one,  by  the  death  of  Gov- 
ernor Williams,  thus  having  a  membership  of  forty-five  Sir  Knights  on  the 
23d  of  January,  1865,  when  the  following  officers  were  elected  and  installed : 
Henry  0.  Kent,  Em. Commander;  LaFayette  Moore,  Generalissimo;  George 
N.  Dale,  Captain  General;  Benjamin  F.  Hunking,  S.  Warden;  T.  T.  Cush- 
man,  J.  Warden;  George  F.  French,  Prelate;  David  A.  Burnside,  Treas- 
urer; Daniel  C.  Pinkham,  Recorder;  Nathan  R.  Perkins,  Standard  Bearer; 
James  D.  Folsom,  Sword  Bearer;  Ezra  B.  Bennett,  Warder;  John  S.  Ock- 
ington, Captain  of  Guard.  In  this  year  there  were  eleven  members  added 
to  its  rolls,  and  one  lost,  by  the  death  of  George  C.  Williams.  On  January 
23,  1866,  the  old  officers  were  re-elected  with  a  change  of  John  W.  Barney, 
Captain  General;  George  S.  Stockwell.  Prelate;  James  A.  Smith,  Treas- 
urer. During  this  year  thirteen  new  members  were  added  to  the  roster, 
and  one  lost  by  the  demit  of  Rev.  E.  R.  Wilkins. 

In  1867  the  following  changes  were  made  in  the  offices:  Benjamin  F. 
Hunking,  Captain  General;  Alexander  Thompson.  Treasurer;  Edward  R. 
Kent,  Warder.  During  this  year  twelve  Sir  Knights  wore  added  to  the  roll, 
and  one  lost,  by  the  death  of  David  A.  Burnside.  In  1868  the  same  officers 
were  re-elected.  This  year  three  were  added  to  the  roll,  and  twelve  lost,  de- 
mitted  to  form  St  Gerard  Commandery  at  Littleton,  N.  H.  In  July,  1868, 
the  Royal  Arch  Chapter  was  established  at  Lancaster.  On  January  1 :'..  L869, 
Benjamin  F.  Hunking  was  elected  Commander,  and  continued  in  office  until 
January,  1873.     John  S.  Ockington  was  elected  Recorder  at  this  meeting. 

144  History  of  Coos  County. 

and  continued  in  this  office  until  his  death,  May  6,  1884.  Three  Sir  Knights 
were  added  to  the  roll  in  1868,  four  in  1869,  one  in  1870,  and  one  in  1871, 
with  a  loss  of  one  by  the  death  of  James  W.  Abbott,  and  in  1872  two 
names  were  added  to  the  roster. 

January  23,  1873,  Henry  0.  Kent  was  again  elected  Commander,  and 
continued  in  office  until  1875.  In  1872  two  were  added  to  the  roll,  and 
three  lost  by  demit.  In  1874  seven  new  members  were  added  to  the  Com- 

On  January  23,  1S75,  Edward  R.  Kent  was  elected  Commander,  and 
continued  in  office  until  January,  1885,  a  continuous  term  of  ten  years, 
during  which  period  orders  of  Knighthood  were  conferred  on  sixty-four 
Masons,  with  a  loss  from  the  Commandery  roll  by  death,  in  1880,  of  Dr. 
Frank  Bugbee;  in  1882,  of  Alexander  Thompson;  in  1883,  of  Charles  L. 
Griswold;  in  1884,  of  John  S.  Ockington,  and  Past  Commander  Benjamin 
F.  Hunking.  In  1881  Dr.  B.  T.  Olcott  was  lost  by  demit.  In  1885  Thomas 
S.  Ellis  was  elected  Commander,  and  re-elected  in  1S86.  The  honors  of 
Knighthood  were  conferred  on  two  in  1885,  and  seven  in  1886,  with  a  loss 
in  1885,  by  the  death  of  Jared  H.  Plaisted. 

In  January,  1887,  the  followiDg  officers  were  chosen:  Moses  A.  Hast- 
ings, Em.  Commander;  Charles  A.  Cleaveland,  Generalissimo;  Thomas  S. 
Underwood,  Captain  General;  Nelson  Sparks,  Prelate;  Fielding  Smith, 
S.  Warden;  Erastus  V.  Cobleigh,  J.  Warden;  James  B.  Morrison,  Treas- 
urer; Charles  E.  Mclntire,  Recorder;  Peter  N.  Shores,  Standard  Bearer; 
Ira  E.Woodward,  Sword  Bearer;  Frank  Spooner,  Warder;  Amos  F.  Rowell, 
Willie  E.  Bullard,  Ivan  W.  Quimby,  Guards. 

In  1886  the  Commandery  returned  a  hundred  and  ten  acting  members 
in  its  report  to  the  Grand  Commandery.  Included  in  this  number  are 
many  of  the  most  influential  citizens  of  Coos,  prominent  alike  in  the  pro- 
fessional and  business  interests  of  the  county. 

North  Star  Chapter,  No.  16,  R.  A.  M.,  Lancaster. — The  history  of 
North  Star  Chapter,  No.  16,  Royal  Arch  Masons,  is  not  a  very  long  or 
eventful  one.  It  was  instituted  in  Lancaster  in  1868,  the  dispensation, 
signed  by  Nathaniel  W.  Cumner,  G.  H.  P.,  bearing  date  of  July  8th  of 
that  year.  Dr.  George  0.  Rogers  was  the  prime  mover,  and  it  was  mainly 
through  his  efforts  that  the  chapter  was  at  last  successfully  and  soundly 

The  charter  is  signed  by  Daniel  R.  Marshall,  G.  H.  P.,  and  bears  date  of 
June  8,  1869,  the  following  being  the  names  of  the  charter  members: 
George  0.  Rogers,  Samuel  H.  LeGro,  Ezra  B.  Bennett,  E.  V.  Cobleigh, 
J.  S.  Ockington,  Henry  0.  Kent,  Edward  Savage,  Philo  S.  Cherry,  Rich- 
ard Hovey,  Edward  R.  Kent,  Daniel  C.  Pinkham. 

The  first  convocation  was  held  under  the  dispensation  July  8,  1868,  in 
the  office  of  Dr.  Rogers,  corner  of  Main  and  Middle  streets,  now  occupied 

Masonry  in  Coos.  145 

by  Dr.  Wellington,  at  which  were  present  companions  Geo.  0.  Rogers, 
H.  P.;  Samuel  H.  LeGro,  K.;  Edward  Savage,  S.  Grand  Council  named 
in  dispensation  J.  S.  Ockington,  H.  O.  Kent,  Daniel  Thompson,  E.  Y. 
Cobleigh,  Ezra  B.  Bennett,  E.  R.  Kent.  W.  H.  N.  Prince,  Alex  Thomp- 
son, Philo  S.  Cherry. 

The  first  annual  convocation  was  held  at  Masonic  Hall,  May  19,  1869, 
at  which  the  following  officers  were  elected:  Edward  Savage,  E.  H.  P.; 
Samuel  H.  LeGro,  E.  K.;  W.  H.  N.  Prince,  E.  S.;  Edward  R.  Kent,  C.  H.; 
Chester  B.  Jordan,  P.  S. ;  Daniel  Thompson,  R.  A.  C. ;  Philo  S.  Cherry, 
M.  3d  A7.;  William  L.  Rowell,  M.  2d  V.;  Abner  Thompson,  M.  1st  Y. ; 
John  S.  Ockington,  Treas. ;  Alexander  Thompson,  Sect.;  Richard  Hovey, 
Tyler;  and  who  were  subsequently  installed  by  the  M.  E.  G.  H.  P.,  D.  R. 
Marshall,  at  the  special  convocation  held  September  22.  At  this  time  the 
chapter  was  duly  dedicated. 

The  organization  has  been  for  the  most  part  self-sustaining,  a  system 
of  dues,  fifty  cents  per  capita  per  annum,  having  been  in  vogue  but  a  short 
time,  and  is  now  on  a  solid  financial  basis,  owning  one-third  part  of  the 
Town  Hall  building,  and  having  a  handsome  sum  in  the  treasury. 

The  companions  who  have  served  as  High  Priest,  since  the  chapter  was 
organized,  are  as  follows:  Edward  Savage,  1870-1-2-3-4;  Charles  A. 
Cleaveland,  1875-6-7-8-9-83;  Nelson  Sparks,  1880-1-2;  John  H.  Smith, 
1884-5-6-7;  Ivan  W.  Quimby,  1887,  present  incumbent. 

From  the  secretary's  books  we  learn  that  158  companions  have  been 
exalted,  and  that  there  are  now  119  in  good  standing,  on  whom  grand 
chapter  dues  are  paid. 

Evening  Star  Lodge,  No.  37,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  Colebrook*— The  early 
history  of  this  lodge  is  somewhat  obscure,  all  the  actors  therein  having 
passed  away,  and  most  of  the  incidents  passed  into  oblivion.  All  that 
remains,  which  is  authentic  and  reliable,  is  the  few  facts  which  are  to  be 
gathered  from  records  and  official  documents.  A  thorough  research  of 
what  remain  of  these  necessarily  requires  much  time  and  patience,  and 
with  all  that,  the  results  are  meagre,  and  a  source  of  regret  that  more  full 
and  perfect  records  were  not  kept.  Sufficient,  however,  has  been  obtained 
to  show  that  its  early  days  were  attended  by  a  sharp  struggle  for  exist- 
ence. To  fully  realize  this,  it  is  necessary  to  take  into  consideration  that 
sixty-five  years  ago,  when  the  lodge  was  established,  what  is  now  North- 
ern Coos,  embracing  a  territory  of  nearly  2,000  square  miles,  was  then 
little  better  than  a  dense  wilderness,  dotted  here  and  there  with  clearings 
of  its  first  settlers,  which  were  many  miles  apart,  and  that  from  these 
were  taken  the  material  with  which  to  erect  the  edifice.  Could  those  old 
veterans  return  once  more  among  us,  many  a  tale  could  they  unfold  of 

*By  R.  W.  Albert  Barker. 

146  History  of  Coos  County. 

how  they  traveled  ten  or  fifteen  miles  on  foot  to  attend  the  meetings  of 
the  lodge,  and  returned  the  same  way  "in  the  wee  short  hours  ayont  the 
twal "  of  the  early  morn.  But  they  have  passed  away,  and  having  no 
purpose  to  deal  in  tradition  or  speculation,  this  article  will  deal  with  dry 
fact  gleaned  from  authentic  records. 

An  extract  from  the  proceedings  of  the  M.  W.  Grand  Lodge  of  New 
Hampshire,  which  convened  at  Concord,  June  13,  1821,  reads  as  follows: — 

"Petition  for  a  new  Lodge  at  Colebrook  referred  to  the  committee  on 
new  Lodges." 

Whether  this  petition  was  made  to  the  Grand  Master,  M.  W.  Joshua 
Darling,  in  the  first  instance,  or  directly  to  the  Grand  Lodge,  or  who  the 
petioners  were,  does  not  appear;  but  at  the  same  communication  the  com- 
mittee reported:  "  That  a  dispensation  be  granted  for  a  new  Lodge  at 
Colebrook,  to  be  called  Evening  Star  Lodge;"1  which  was  accepted  by  vote 
of  the  Grand  Lodge.  The  dispensation  was  granted,  but  neither  that  nor 
the  petition  appears  in  the  record,  though  they  are  probably  in  the  files  of 
the  Grand  Lodge. 

The  first  record  now  in  the  archives  of  the  lodge  gives  the  proceedings 
of  the  lodge  as  follows:  — 

"Records  of  Evening  Star  Lodge,  (the  first.)  At  a  regular  communication  of  the  Evening 
Star  Lodge  holden  in  Colebrook  on  Wednesday,  the  5th  day  of  September  A.  L. ,  5821,— Brethren 
present: — 

"Francis  Flanders,  W.  Master  pro  tern, 

"  Jeremiah  Eames,  S.  Warden  pro  tern, 

"  William  M.  Smith,  J.  Warden  pro  tem. 

' '  Lodge  opened  by  the  above  brethren.  No  business  before  the  Lodge.  Proceeded  to  lecture  on 
the  first  degree.     Lecture  given  by  Worshipful  Master  and  brethren.     Lodge  closed  in  due  form. 

"David  L.  Isiiam,  Secretary." 

From  the  above  it  would  seem  that  the  secretary  was  the  only  legiti- 
mate officer  present.  But  from  the  record  of  the  next  meeting  (Oct.  10th) 
it  appears  that  Lewis  Loomis  was  the  first  Master,  Francis  Flanders,  Sen- 
ior, and  Jeremiah  Eames  Junior  Deacons.  At  this  meeting  the  petition  of 
Dr.  Lyman  Lombard  was  presented  and  referred,  though  he  was  not  raised 
until  February  19,  1823.  Working  under  dispensation,  they  had  no 
by-laws,  and  it  would  seem  no  regular  day  of  meetings.  The  date  of  the 
communications  was  as  follows:  September  5,  1821,  October  10,  1821, 
January  30,  1822,  March  6,  1822,  April  3,  1822,  May  1,  1822,  and  May  30, 
1822.  May  30,  1822,  the  lodge  voted  to  "request  a  letter  of  dispensation 
for  six  months,  unless  sooner  installed,"  and  chose  their  Master  "proxy" 
in  the  Grand  Lodge.  This  request  for  a  dispensation  was  presented  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  at  the  annual  communication,  in  June,  and  referred  to  the 
committee  on  new  lodges.  The  committee  made  a  report  thereon  which 
was  accepted. 

The  report  does  not  appear,  but  the  result  was  that  on  the  very  next 

Mason  in'   in  ( 'of>s.  147 

day,  June  13,  1822,  a  charter  was  granted  to  the  petitioners,  Lewis  Loomis, 
Francis  Flanders,  Jeremiah  Eames,  Jr.,  and  others,  constituting  them  "A 
regular  Lodge  of  Free  and  Accepted  Masons  under  the  title  and  designa- 
tion of  Evening  Star  Lodge,  No.  37."  The  next  meeting  of  the  lodge  was 
holden  July  3,  when  it  voted  to  pay  Lewis  Loomis,  W.  M .,  eight  dollars, 
advanced  by  him  to  the  Grand  Lodge.  July  31,  the  only  business  done 
was  to  pass  a  vote  that  the  lodge  be  removed  to  the  house  of  John  Smith. 
August  28,  David  L.  Isham  and  Lyman  Lombard  were  chosen  a  commit- 
tee to  petition  the  Grand  Lodge  to  "install  the  Lodge.1' 

The  Grand  Lodge  convened  at  Colebrook  on  the  fifteenth  of  <  >ctober, 
1822,  when  an  oration  was  delivered  by  Bro.  John  L.  Sheafe,  the  lodge 
duly  consecrated  and  the  officers  installed  as  follows:  Lewis  Loomis, 
W.  M.;  Jonathan  E.  Ward,  S.  W.;  Jeremiah  Eames,  Jr.,  J.  W. ;  Ebenezer 
Blossom,  S.  D. ;  Ezra  B.  Rider.  J.  D.;  David  L.  Isham,  Sect.;  MarcenaBlod- 
gett,  Treas. ;  William  M.  Smith,  Tyler.  There  were  twelve  Masons  present 
besides  the  grand  officers.  Meetings  were  held  regularly  until  January 
22,  1823,  when  new  officers  were  chosen  as  follows:  Jonathan  E.  Ward, 
W.  M.;  David  L.  Isham,  S.  W.;  William  M.  Smith,  J.  I).;  Marcena  Blod- 
gett,  Treas  ;  John  L.  Sheafe,  Sect.,  who  were  installed  March  lit.  As  to 
the  other  officers  the  record  is  silent.  Considerable  work  was  done  during 
the  year  1823,  especially  on  the  first  degree,  in  which  all  the  business  of 
the  lodge  would  seem  to  have  been  done.  At  the  annual  meeting  in  Janu- 
ary, 1824,  the  old  officers  were  re-elected,  but  were  not  installed  until 
April  16. 

June  10,  1824,  David  L.  Isham  was  granted  a  demit,  he  having  moved 
to  Connecticut.  The  records  show  that  he  was  present  at  every  communi- 
cation of  the  lodge  from  the  first  in  1821,  to  April,  1824,  when  he  moved 

In  1872  a  letter  was  received  from  the  Grand  Secretary  of  Connecticut, 
stating  that  he  still  resided  there,  upwards  of  ninety  years  of  age.  physi- 
cally feeble,  but  in  the  full  possession  of  his  mental  faculties,  expressing 
his  affection  for  the  lodge  he  helped  to  create,  was  one  of  its  charter  mem- 
bers and  its  first  secretary,  a  half  century  previous.  There  was  not  at 
that  time  a  member  of  the  lodge  that  ever  knew  him,  or  had  any  idea  that 
such  a  man  was  ever  a  member  of  the  lodge,  but  upon  searching  the 
early  records  of  the  lodge,  they  found  that  his  statement  was  true,  and  as 
an  appreciation  of  his  fidelity  to  Masonry  and  faithfulness  to  the  lodge  in 
its  infancy,  the  lodge  voted  to  send  him  twenty  dollars.  The  acknowl- 
edgement of  its  receipt  was  profuse  in  his  professions  of  gratitude  and 
thankfulness  for  the  recognition.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  the  lodge  never 
parted  with  a  similar  sum  with  greater  pleasure  to  its  members,  or  that 
was  better  appreciated  by  the  recipient.  He  has  not  been  heard  from 
since,  but  it  is  more  than  probable  that  he  now  resides  in  those  "  mansions 

148  History  of  Coos  County. 

above,  where  the  Supreme  Architect  of  the  Universe  presides."  His 
removal  was  a  loss  to  the  lodge  of  one  of  its  most  zealous  members. 

At  the  annual  meeting  in  1825,  Ward  was  re-elected  Master,  and  his 
death,  which  occurred  June  5,  1825,  was  another  severe  blow  to  the  lodge. 
A  special  communication  was  held  June  7,  to  attend  his  funeral,  after 
which  votes  were  passed  to  abandon  the  celebration  of  St.  John's  Day,  to 
pay  the  expenses  of  the  funeral,  and  that  the  thanks  of  the  lodge  be  ten- 
dered to  Rev.  C.  G.  Thatcher  for  his  able  discourse  delivered  at  the  funeral. 

The  lodge  continued  to  work,  with  a  small  attendance,  up  to  and  in- 
cluding November,  1S25,  the  last  entry  in  the  record  book  being  as  fol- 

"  In  December  there  was  not  members  to  open  the  Lodge  on  the  regular  communication  day. 

"  Lyman  Lombard,  Secretary." 

If  any  records  were  kept  in  the  lodge  after  this  they  were  lost,  but  it 
appears  from  the  records  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  that  the  lodge  continued  to 
meet  for  work,  and  made  returns  to  the  Grand  Lodge  until  1828,  and  in 
that  year  was  represented  therein  by  P.  M.  Lewis  Loomis. 

The  next  decade  was  one  of  great  depression  throughout  the  state  and 
few  lodges  did  any  work.  A  glance  at  the  records  of  the  Grand  Lodge  at 
this  period  will  not  be  uninteresting  in  this  connection.  In  1838  the  Grand 
Lodge  passed  a  resolution  requesting  the  Grand  Secretary  to  make  a  state- 
ment, showing  when  each  lodge  made  returns,  and  report  at  the  next 
annual  meeting.  In  1839  the  Grand  Secretary  made  a  report  in  accord- 
ance with  the  resolution,  which  showed  that  twenty-seven  of  the  fifty  sub- 
ordinate lodges,  then  on  the  rolls  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  had  done  no  work 
for  the  past  eleven  years,  that  is,  since  1828.  Evening  Star  was  among  the 
twenty-seven.  Quite  a  number  of  these  lodges  had  made  no  return  for 
the  same  length  of  time.  This  report  was  referred  to  a  select  committee, 
who,  in  1810,  reported  a  list  of  twenty-six  lodges,  including  Evening  Star, 
that  had  neglected  to  make  returns  to  the  Grand  Lodge  within  the  time 
required  by  the  Grand  Regulations;  whereupon  it  was,  on  motion  of  Bro. 

"Resolved,  That  the  several  Lodges  named  in  the  foregoing  list,  for  the  causes  assigned  in  said 
report,  be,  and  they  hereby  are,  stricken  from  the  books  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  and  that  the  District 
Deputy  Grand  Masters  be  authorized  and  directed  to  procure  and  forward  to  the  Grand  Secretary 
the  several  charters  that  have  been  so  declared  forfeited  and  ordered  to  be  stricken  from  the  Lodge 

Evening  Star  was  in  District  No.  (3,  of  which,  for  many  years,  Jared 
W.  Williams  had  been  District  Deputy,  but  who  made  no  report,  and 
probably  visited  no  lodges,  or  did  any  of  the  duties  of  the  office.  This 
year  Eliphalet  Lyman  was  appointed  Deputy  for  the  Sixth  District.  He 
made  his  report  to  the   Grand  Lodge   in   1811,   and  the  following  extract 

Masonry  in  Coos.  140 

therefrom  is  an  important  link  in  the  history  of  Evening  Star  Lodge. 
He  says: — 

'•  In  January  last  I  visited  Colebrook,  in  the  county  of  Coos,  where,  in  June.  5822,  Evening 
Star  Lodge,  No.  :J7,  was  duly  installed;  could  find  none  of  the  members.  [  proceeded  on  to 
Stewartstown,  where  I  found  the  last  secretary,  who  presented  me  with  the  records  of  the  L<  dge. 

On  examination,  I  found  they  had  not  assembled  for  business  since  1828.     I  procured  their  charter 
and  herewith  transmit  the- same  to  the  Grand  Secretary." 

Thus,  twenty  years  after  the  lodge  was  established,  its  charter  was  sur- 
rendered to  the  Grand  Lodge,  where  it  remained  dormant  for  eighteen 
years.  In  this  condition  Evening  Star  stood  not  alone.  Half  the  lodges 
in  the  state  were  at  that  time  in  the  same  condition,  and  quite  a  number 
remain  so  yet.  At  the  annual  communication  of  the  Grand  Lodge  in  1S44, 
the  following  resolution  was  passed: — 

"  Resolved,  That  upon  petition  to  the  Grand  Master  of  seven  or  more  Master  Masons,  in  regular 
standing,  requesting  the  restoration  of  any  charter,  which  has  become  void  by  surrender,  or  an 
omission  to  be  represented,  or  in  making  their  annual  returns  since  June,  1830,  the  Grand  Master 
is  hereby  authorized  and  requested,  if  he  shall  deem  it  expedient,  to  reinstate  any  such  subordi- 
nate Lodge  under  this  jurisdiction  by  directing  the  Grand  Secretary  to  restore  them  their  charter." 

In  February,  1859,  five  members  of  the  lodge,  William  M.  Smith,  Setli 
Tirrell,  Jeremiah  Eames,  Lyman  Lombard  and  David  B.  Heath,  and  two 
members  of  North  Star  Lodge,  Hazen  Bedel  and  James  A.  Pitkin,  peti- 
tioned the  Grand  Master,  under  the  provisions  of  the  above  resolution  of 
the  Grand  Lodge,  for  a  restoration  of  the  charter,  and  were  informed  there 
was  yet  due  from  the  lodge  thirty-five  dollars  for  the  charter,  which  must 
be  paid  before  it  could  be  restored.  The  sum  was  paid,  and  on  the  twenty- 
fourth  day  of  March,  1859,  M.  W.  Grand  Master  Moses  Paul  authorized 
and  ordered  said  brethren  to  reorganize  Evening  Star  Lodge,  No.  37,  under 
its  old  charter,  and  restored  it  to  its  former  rank  and  standing  under  the 
Grand  Lodge.  On  the  thirty -first  day  of  March,  L859,  the  petitioners  met 
at  Fling's  Hall  in  Stewartstown,  all  being  present,  and  chose  by  ballot 
Lyman  Lombard,  VV.  M.;  James  A.  Pitkin,  S.  W.;  Hazen  Bedel,  J.  W.; 
and  William  M.  Smith,  Secretary  and  Treasurer;  fixed  the  fees  for  the  sev- 
eral degrees  at  seven,  three  and  five  dollars;  fixed  the  time  of  the  regular 
communication  at  one  o'clock  p.  m.,  of  the  Thursday  of  the  week  in  which 
the  moon  fulls,  in  each  month;  received  the  petitions  of  ( >scar  Worthley 
and  HydeC.  Trask  to  be  made  Masons,  and  voted  that  Alba  Holmes  and 
John  Harrimanbe  proposed  to  become  members  of  the  lodge.  On  the  sixth 
day  of  April,  1859,  the  Grand  Master,  by  dispensation,  authorized  the  lodge 
to  meet  at  Fling's  Hall  in  Stewartstown  for  the  present,  and  until  a  hall 
could  be  provided  at  Colebrook,  "  provided  and  conditioned  that  immedi- 
ate active  measures  be  immediately  taken  and  prosecuted  by  said  lodge  to 
provide  a  hall  for  their  accommodation  and  work,  with  as  little  delay  as 
possible  at  Colebrook  aforesaid." 

150  History  of  Coos  County. 

In  accordance  with  said  dispensation  the  regular  communication  was 
holden  at  Fling's  Hall.  April  21.  Alba  Holmes  was  admitted  a  member, 
and  Lyman  Lombard  not  being  present,  Alba  Holmes  (probably  by  dispen- 
sation of  the  D.  D.  G.  M.)  was  chosen  Master  in  his  stead,  and  officers  were 
installed  by  R.W.  Jared  I.  Williams,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  assisted  by  P.  M.  Ben- 
jamin F.  Hunking.  Worthley  and  Trask  were  entered,  and  by  dispensa- 
tion, passed,  and  Worthley  was  raised.  Thus  the  order  of  the  Grand  Mas- 
ter was  complied  with,  and  the  lodge  was  fally  restored  to  its  former  rank 
and  standing,  which  it  has  retained  ever  since.  One  more  communication 
was  held  in  Fling's  Hall  when  the  lodge  returned  home  to  Colebrook. 

The  purpose  of  this  sketch  was  to  trace  the  history  of  the  lodge  only 
to  this  point,  and  here  it  should  end.  An  interesting  chapter  of  its  subse- 
quent history  might  and  ought  to  be  written  for  the  benefit  of  those  that 
shall  come  after  us,  and  it  is  hoped  that  some  one  will  set  about  the  task 
while  the  few  remaining  actors  of  that  day  remain  among  us. 

It  would  be  doing  violence  to  the  feelings  of  the  present  members  of 
the  lodge,  to  conclude  without  paying  a  tribute  to  the  memory  of  those 
early  members.  From  the  first  establishment  of  the  lodge,  though  a  time 
of  great  and  general  depression  in  Masonry,  though  few  in  numbers,  they 
continued  its  work  for  many  years,  in  a  very  sparsely  settled  region  of 
country,  where  its  members,  or  at  least  some  of  them,  had  to  travel  on 
foot  from  seven  to  ten  miles  to  attend  its  meetings.  After  the  restoration 
in  1859,  a  few  of  the  ancient  brethren  were  for  a  few  years  occasionally 
seen  in  the  lodge,  but  they  have  all  passed  away.  Even  of  the  petitioners 
for  restoration,  Bro.  Hazen  Bedel  is  the  only  survivor.  Let  us  that  remain 
revere  their  good  qualities  and  emulate  their  virtues.  Their  devotion  to 
Craft  Masonry  was  ardent  and  enduring.  One  or  two  incidents  in  the  life 
of  Bro.  William  M.  Smith  may  be  cited  as  an  illustration  of  this.  In 
1828,  when  the  lodge  ceased  work,  he  secured  the  constitution  which  he 
safely  kept  until  1811,  when  it  was  surrendered  to  the  Grand  Lodge.  He 
was  foremost  in  securing  the  restoration  in  1859,  and  when  it  was  accom- 
plished he  returned  to  the  lodge  its  early  records,  its  jewels  and  all  its 
paraphernalia  which  he  had  kept  and  securely  guarded  for  twenty-one 
years.  No  one  could  be  more  willing  to  give  or  receive  instruction  than 
he.  Being  called  by  other  business  to  West  Stewartstown  on  two  days  of 
each  week,  for  three  or  four  months  in  the  summer  of  1859,  but  not 
detained  by  it,  his  genial  companionship  was  sought.  Having  just  entered 
the  portals  of  the  lodge,  and  desirous  of  becoming  familiar  with  the  work, 
by  his  advice  a  cipher  was  obtained,  portions  of  which  neither  of  us  could 
interpret  alone.  Seeking  a  retired  place,  sometimes  in  the  old  saw-mill, 
sometimes  ''on  the  brow  of  the  hill,"  east  of  the  village,  or  other  suit- 
able place  where  the  approach  of  cowans  or  eavesdroppers  could  be 
observed,  those  entire  days  were  spent  in  its  study,  and  then  and  there  was 

Masonry  in  Coos.  151 

laid  the  foundation  of  whatever  knowledge  of  esoteric  Masonry  we  may 
ever  have  attained.    All  honorto  his  revered  memory. 

The  next  regular  communication  was  also  held  at  Fling's  Hall,  May  11*, 
1  s.v.i,  when  Worthley  and  Bailey  were  admitted  members,  Cunmiings  initi- 
ated, and  Trask  raised.  The  by-laws  were  "postponed  until  next  Tues- 
day, at  Colebrook,  for  examination  and  correction,  and  to  be  adopted  at 
our  next  regular  communication."  The  record  continues:  "  It  being  the 
annual  communication  proceeded  to  choose  a  Master  by  ballot — Chose 
Alba  Holmes,  W.  M.  Chose  Wm.  M.  Smith,  Secretary.  Chose  Wm.  M. 
Smith,  Treasurer." 

The  Master  appointed  James  A.  Pitkin,  S.  W. ;  Hazen  Bedel,  J.  W. ; 
Oscar  Worthley;  S.  D.;  and  Jeremiah  Eames,  Tyler.  The  S.  W.  ap- 
pointed Samuel  I.  Bailey,  J.  D.,  and  the  J.  W.  appointed  Seth  Tirrell  and 
David  B.  Heath,  Stewards.     William  M.  Smith  was  chosen  Rep. 

There  is  no  record  of  their  installation,  and  probably  none  ever  took 
place.  As  the  by-laws  had  not  been  adopted,  and  the  record  being  silent 
on  the  question,  the  problem  as  to  how  this  came  to  be  the  annual  communi- 
cation, is  not  easily  solved.  The  record  says  it  was,  and  that  is  all  we 
know  about  it.  There  was  a  full  attendance,  and  much  business  was 
done.  The  petitions  of  Erastus  W.  Ingham,  E.  Darwin  Lombard,  Will- 
iam S.  Rolfe,  Morton  B.  Rolfe,  and  Albert  Barker,  were  read  and  referred, 
and  the  lodge  voted:  "That  the  next  regular  communication  be  held  at 

Special  communications  were  held  at  Colebrook  on  the  24th  and  31st 
of  May,  but  at  what  place  the  record  does  not  say.  And  the  same  may 
be  said  of  all  the  meetings  until  May,  1861.  It  seems  that  the  lodge  re- 
turned home  in  accordance  with  the  vote,  and  returned  to  stay,  and  has 
stayed  ever  since.  Though  the  record  is  silent,  there  are  members  now 
living  who  have  a  lively  recollection  of  the  circumstances.  The  fact  is, 
there  was  no  suitable  hall  in  the  village.  Half  or  three-quarters  of  a  mile 
north  of  the  village  stood,  and  now  stands,  a  two-story  building,  which 
was  then  unoccupied,  containing  a  hall.  The  building  was  old,  out  of 
repair,  and  the  snow  had  blown  in,  in  large  quantities  in  certain  parts  of 
it,  as  the  writer  can  testify,  for  he  distinctly  remembers  the  sensation 
caused  by  stepping  one  foot  into  it,  on  the  way  from  the  anteroom  to  the 
hall,  he  being  then  in  darkness  and  not  seeing  it.  This  hall  was  secured 
for  one  or  two  meetings,  but  the  property  changed  hands;  the  pun  baser 
moved  in,  peremptorily  told  the  Masons  to  "git."  and  they  "got,"  being 
literally  turned  out  of  doors.  Fortunately  there  was  an  unoccupied  build- 
ing, now  occupied  by  H.  F.  Jacobs,  and  the  Masons  secured  it  for  a  time. 
It  was  not  what  they  desired,  but  was  all  they  could  obtain,  and  they  made 
the  best  of  it.  And  so,  driven  from  place  to  place,  they  held  all  their  reg- 
ular meetings  during  that  year,  and  did  a  large  amount  of  work. 

152  History  of  Coos  County. 

The  first  regular  meeting  held  in  Colebrook  after  the  restoration,  was 
in  the  above  named  hall,  June  16,  1850,  at  which  Erastus  W.  Ingham,  E. 
Darwin  Lombard,  Albert  Barker,  William  S.  Rolfe,  and  Morton  B.  Eolfe 
were  initiated.  At  the  regular  meeting  in  July,  Albert  Barker,  E.  Darwin 
Lombard  and  Morton  B .  Rolfe  were  passed.  At  the  regular  meeting  in 
August,  Albert  Barker  and  Morton  B.  Rolfe  were  raised,  and  William  S. 
Rolfe  was  "passed."  September  15th  Albert  Barker  and  Morton  B.  Rolfe 
were  admitted  members;  the  others  were  passed,  raised,  and  admitted  to 
membership  as  they  were  able  to  attend.  During  the  Masonic  year  of 
1850,  the  records  show  a  large  amount  of  work  done  by  the  lodge,  and 
several  irregularities,  of  which  no  notice  was  ever  taken,  but  which,  if 
done  now,  would  subject  the  lodge  to  censure  by  the  Grand  Lodge. 

At  the  annual  meeting,  May  8,  18(30,  the  lodge  contained  seventeen 
members,  with  several  more  that  had  taken  one  or  two  degrees.  Two 
were  admitted  to  membership  and  one  passed.  Alba  Holmes  was  chosen 
W.  M.,  and  the  officers  were  regularly  installed.  The  present  Masonic  Hall 
was  then  commenced,  but  it  does  not  appear  where  the  lodge  met  or  that 
any  action  was  taken  in  regard  to  future  meetings.  The  fact  was,  that  no 
suitable,  safe  place  could  be  found,  and  no  meeting  of  the  lodge  was  held 
during  that  Masonic  year.  Several  of  the  brethren  frequently  got  together 
informally  for  the  purpose  of  studying  the  work  and  lectures,  and  in  this 
way  the  interest  of  the  members  was  not  permitted  to  decline.  The  next 
entry  in  the  records  is  the  annual  meeting  held  in  Masonic  Hall,  May  25, 
1801.  The  work  was  taken  up  where  it  was  left  a  year  before,  and  pro- 
ceeded with.  Alba  Holmes  was  elected  W.  M.,  Hazen  Bedel,  S.  W.,  Albert 
Barker,  J.  W.,  Frank  M.  Rolfe,  Sect.,  and  William  M.  Smith,  Treas.,  and 
they  were  installed  by  D.  D.  CI.  M.  Paddleford.  William  M.  Smith,  James 
A.  Pitkin  and  Albert  Barker  were  chosen  a  committee  to  procure  a  lease 
of  the  hall.  The  committee  promptly  attended  to  the  duty;  procured  a 
lease  for  twenty-five  years  at  $20  per  year,  which  was  accepted,  recorded, 
and  placed  on  file.  The  hall  was  a  good  one,  but  destitute  of  paint  or  fur- 
niture of  any  kind.  The  lodge  was  without  funds,  and  had  no  source  of 
revenue  except  the  fees  for  degrees  and  membership.  The  idea  of  running 
in  debt  was  not  entertained  for  a  moment.  The  situation  was  not  an 
inviting  one,  but  the  brethren  accepted  it  with  courage  and  determination. 
Common  chairs  were  procured  for  seats,  and  common  light  stands  for 
pedestals,  and  desks  for  the  secretary  and  treasurer,  and  the  work  con- 
tinued. As  soon  as  any  money  accrued,  it  was  expended  in  furnishing  the 
hall,  and  when  anything  beyond  this  was  absolutely  needed,  which  was 
often  the  case,  a  few  of  the  brethren  put  their  hands  in  their  pockets 
and  paid  for  it.  The  lodge  worked  along  in  this  way  for  five  or  six 
years,  when  two  of  the  members,  with  more  persistent  obstinacy  than 
Masonic  knowledge,  carried  through  the  project  of  placing  in  the  west  and 

Masonry  in  Coos.  L53 

south,  instead  of  pedestals,  long  desks.  These  are  well  enough  as  desks, 
but  entirely  out  of  place  in  a  Masonic  hall.  They  still  remain  there.  The 
next  year  the  hall  and  anterooms  were  painted,  and  a  little  later  the  floors 
were  elegantly  and  handsomely  carpeted.  In  this  way  the  lodge  got  on 
until  a  few  of  the  members  began  to  agitate  the  question  of  regular  dues 
from  each  member.  This  was  coldly  received  at  first,  but  finally,  in  1871, 
was  carried  by  a  vote  of  the  lodge,  and  the  by  daws  so  changed  as  to  estab- 
lish annual  dues  of  $:}  for  each  member.  Since  then  the  hall  has  been 
handsomely  and  elegantly  fitted  up  ( with  the  exception  of  those  desks),  and 
handsomely  furnished,  comparing  favorably  with  other  lodge  rooms  in  the 
state,  and  a  small  fund  was  accumulated.  The  lease  for  the  hall  expired 
in  1886,  but  a  new  lease  for  twenty-five  years  more  was  secured,  though 
at  a  much  larger  rent. 

The  following  vote  passed  January  8,  1863,  explains  itself,  and  perhaps 
may  be  news  to  some  of  the  members  : — 

"That  the  thanks  of  the  Lodge  be  tendered  to  Thomas  Mayo  for  the  letter  'G  '  which  he 
presented  to  the  lodge." 

The  following  resolutions,  on  the  death  of  James  A.  Pitkin,  were  unan- 
imously adopted  at  the  regular  communication,  held  August  27.  1863:— 

"Resolced,  That  in  the  death  of  Bro.  James  A.  Pilkin,  this  Lodge  has  lost  a  worthy  member, 
who  has  been  called  from  his  labor  here  to  that  spiritual  refreshment  above,  where  the  Ashlers 
are  all  smooth,  and  the  Grand  Artificer  of  the  Universe  presides. 

"Resolved,  That  we  are  admonished  by  this  event  to  diligently  erect  our  temporal  building 
so  as  better  to  fit  our  minds  as  living  stones  for  that  spiritual  building;  that  house  not  made  with 
hands,  eternal,  and  in  the  Heavens. 

"Resolved,  That  we  tender  to  his  bereaved  widow  and  fatherless  children  the  lenderest  sym- 
pathy of  every  member  of  this  Lodge. 

"Resolved,  That  the  Secretary  furnish  to  his  widow  a  copy  of  these  resolutions." 

To  these  resolutions  the  following  reply  was  received  and  entered  of 
record  by  a  vote  of  the  lodge :  — 

"Colebrook,  Nov.  8th,  1863. 
"  Evening  Star  Lodge: — 

"  Thanking  the  Brotherhood  for  your  kindness  in  furnishing  me  with  a  copy  of  resolutions 
passed  in  your  Lodge,  you  will  please  accept  a  small  Photograph  of  Mr.  Pitkin.     Resp.  Yours, 

"E.  M.  II.  Pitkin." 

This  photograph  may  be  "  laid  up  with  the  records  in  the  archives  of 
the  lodge,"  and  it  may  have  been  lost.  Our  researches  have  not  resulted 
in  finding  it. 

The  territory  over  which  the  lodge  holds  jurisdiction  is  large,  but  the 
larger  part  of  it  is  sparsely  settled.  Many  of  the  members  live  from  five 
to  twenty  five  miles  from  the  lodge  room,  and  do  uot  regularly  attend  its 
meetings.  Quite  a  number  have  gone  to  other  states,  scattered  from  Flor- 
ida to  California  and  Canada,  and  many  of  these  still  hold  their  member- 

151  History  of  Coos  County. 

ship,  but  are  unable  to  meet  with  it.  Others  demit,  which,  with  the 
deaths,  keeps  the  working  force  of  the  lodge  small.  Under  these  circum- 
stances the  spirit  and  stamina  of  the  members  is  better  shown  by  the 
attendance  on  special  occasions  than  at  stated  communications.  At  the 
Masonic  funeral  of  Bro.  David  B.  Heath,  at  Colebrook,  December  20,  1S69, 
thirty-seven  were  present;  of  Seth  Tin-ell,  at  West  Stewartstown,  Septem- 
ber (>,  1S72,  forty-one;  of  Charles  H  Huntoon.  at  Colebrook,  September  1, 
1870,  thirty-six;  and  of  William  Hart,  at  Hereford,  Canada,  February  9, 
18 1*9,  thirty-eight.  These  were  all  the  deaths  that  occurred  in  the  mem- 
bership during  that  decade,  and  the  attendance  embraced  nearly  all  the 
members  who  had  not  left  for  other  states.  Up  to  this  date  (July,  1887,) 
there  have  been  admitted  112.  Of  these  there  have  died  seventeen;  demit- 
ted,  twenty-six;  suspended  for  non-payment  of  dues,  six;  demits  sur- 
rendered and  cancelled,  two;  number  in  good  and  regular  standing,  sixty- 
five.  Eleven  of  these  have  joined  within  the  past  twelve  months,  with 
several  more  who  have  taken  one  or  more  degrees,  and  will  be  admitted 
in  due  tims.  Few  if  any  lodges  have  existed  for  the  same  length  of  time 
with  more  harmony  among  the  members  and  with  sister  lodges  than 
Evening  Star.  No  of  discipline  has  arisen  in  the  lodge  since  its  insti- 
tution in  1821,  and  no  regular  or  stated  communication  has  failed  to  be 
holden  since  the  restoration,  except  as  above  stated. 

The  following  members  have  been  duly  elected,  installed,  and  "  passed 
the  chair:1'  Alba  Holmes,  William  M.  Smith,  William  S.  Rolfe,  Albert 
Barker.  Joseph  E.  Lombard,  Edward  N.  Cummings,  Hazen  Bedel,  George 
S.  Leavitt,  William  H.  Shnrtleff,  Henry  M.  Leavitt,  Sidney  B.  Whittemore, 
Marcena  B.  Gilkey,  J.  Sullivan  Chase,  Aaron  B.  Haines,  and  Orville  C.  Bum- 
ford,  the  present  Master,  who  lives  twenty-five  miles  away,  but  has  been 
a  constant  attendant.  The  lodge  has  two  Past  District  Deputies,  Hazen 
Bedel  and  Albert  Barker,  who  are  permanent  members  of  the  Grand  Lodge 
and  usually  attend  its  sessions.  Most  of  those  who  have  joined  for  a  few 
years  past  are  enterprising  young  men,  and  the  lodge  bids  fair  to  live  long 
and  prosper. 

Gorham  Lodge,  No.  73,  A.  F.  &  A.  Jf.,  Gorham,  N.  H* — This  lodge 
was  first  recognized  by  a  dispensation  granted  by  Grand  Master  Aaron  P. 
Hughes,  February  7,  L862.  The  first  meeting  duly  holden  was  on  March 
11,  1802,  Bro.  Urban  Shorey,  W.  M.  iVtthis  meeting  eight  applications  for 
initiation  were  received,  and  the  Tuesday  on  or  before  the  full  of  the  moon 
of  each  month  was  selected  as  the  time  for  each  stated  communication. 
At  a  special  communication  on  the  19th  of  March  Mr.  Moses  W.  Rand 
was  initiated— this  being  the  first  degree  conferred;  subsequently  on  March 
24th,  Messrs.  Stephen  R.  Raynes,  Daniel  P.  Evans  and  Stephen  Gordon, 

*By  Alfred  R.  Evans. 

M  vsoxry   in  ( '<)(")s.  155 

Jr..  were  duly  initiated  as  E.  A.  Masons.  Meetings  were  held  frequently, 
and  a  goodly  amount  of  work  was  done  until  June  following  when  a  char- 
ter was  ordered  by  the  Grand  Lodge  of  the  state  at  its  animal  communi- 
cation, and  duly  issued.  The  charter  bears  the  date  of  June  1 1.  1862,  and 
is  signed  by  Charles  H.  Bell,  as  Grand  Master.  The  charter  members  as 
named  were:  Urban  Shorey,  S-A  Mathes,  Charles  I \  Smith.  11  F.  Ward- 
well,  Thomas  E.  Fisk,  William  Fuller,  W.  A.  Field.  L.  Walcct  1.  ('.  W. 
Bean.  The  first  meeting  held  under  authority  of  the  charter  was  on  June 
20,  1862,  when  the  following  officers  were  elected:  Urban  Shorey.  W.  M. ; 
S.  A.  Mathes,  S.  W. ;  C.  C.  Smith,  J.  W. ;  T.  E.  Fisk,  Treasurer;  H.  F. 
Wardwell,  Secretary;  D.  P.  Evans,  S.  D. ;  W.  A.  Field,  J  D. 

Bro  Shorey  was  re-elected  as  Master  at  the  annual  communication  held 
May  2(5,  1863,  and  on  June  24th  following  the  officers  elected  were  pub- 
licly installed.  The  exercises  of  installation  passed  very  satisfactorily, 
and  no  doubt  were  in  many  ways  beneficial  to  the  order.  Bro.  Shorey 
served  as  Master  till  May  9,  1865,  when  Bro.  Thomas  E.  Fisk  was  elected 
W.  M.  and  duly  installed  June  6th,  when  a  public  supper  was  served  at- 
tended by  M.  M.'s  and  their  ladies.  On  May  29,  1866,  Bro.  Fisk  was  re- 
elected W.  M.,  also  again  elected  on  May  14,  1867.  During  this  year 
the  question  of  establishing  a  Masonic  Lodge  at  Milan  was  considerably 
discussed,  also  the  propriety  of  holding  a  part  of  the  meetings  of  this  lodge 
at  that  place  was  considered,  neither  of  said  propositions  were  favorably 
acted  upon.  Bro.  Fisk  continued  to  act  as  W.  M.  until  May  2.5.  1869, 
when  George  W.  Waterhouse  was  elected  Master.  A  public  installation  of 
officers  was  held  at  the  Methodist  church  on  June  22d  following,  and  an  ad- 
dress delivered  by  Dr.  X.  T.  True,  of  Bethel,  Me.  On  May  12,  1870,  Bro. 
Urban  Shorey  was  again  elected  W.  M.,  and  so  served  until  May  2,  Lb7l, 
when  Bro.  A.  S.  Twitchell  was  selected  W.  M.  On  April  23,  1872,  Bro. 
Emlyn  W.  Evans,  was  elected  Master,  and  on  April  8,  1878,  Bro.  A.  S. 
Twitchell  w-as  re-elected  W.  M.  On  April  28,  1874,  Bro.  Urban  Shorey 
was  again  elected  W.  M.  and  served  until  April  20,  1875.  when  Bro.  Emlyn 
W.  Evans  was  elected  W.  M.  On  the  evening  of  March  4,  187.5.  the  lodge 
gave  an  entertainment  and  supper  at  Gorham  House  hall.  The  music 
was  furnished  by  Chandler's  band  from  Portland,  and  remarks  were  made 
by  many  members  of  the  order.  The  literary  exercises  were  in  charge  of 
Alfred  R.  Evans,  who  had  but  recently  received  his  degrees,  and  the  entire 
programme  was  most  successfully  carried  out.  The  large  hall  was  filled 
with  Master  Masons  and  their  ladies,  and  the  occasion  is  often  referred 
to  as  one  of  rare  enjoyment.  On  April  4,  1876,  Bro.  Emlyn  W.  Evans 
was  again  elected  W.  M.,  and  so  served  until  April  -1.  1877,  when  Bro. 
Thomas  E.  Fisk  was  called  again  to  the  East,  April  16,  187S,  Bro.  Asa  A. 
Palmer  was  elected  W.  M.  At  the  next  annual  communication,  on  April 
1,  1879,  Bro.  Albert  Ryder  was  elected  W.  M.     On  January  L0,  L880,  the 

156  History  of  Coos  County. 

present  Masonic  Hall  was  properly  dedicated.  Rev.  Bro.  C.  C.  Mason 
gave  an  address  on  Freemasonry,  refreshments  were  served,  the  hall  was 
opened  for  public  inspection,  and,  says  the  records,  "all  passed  pleasantly 
and  harmoniously."  On  May  18,  1880,  by  virtue  of  a  dispensation  from 
the  Grand  Master,  an  election  of  officers  for  the  ensuing  year  was  duly 
held,  and  Bro.  Emlyn  W.  Evans  was  again  called  to  the  East,  and  on 
March  15,  1881,  Bro.  Thomas  Gifford  was  elected  Master.  On  the  evening 
of  March  2 1st  following,- the  officers  elect  were  publicly  installed  by  Bro. 
Thomas  S.  Ellis,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  a  supper  was  served,  music  furnished,  toasts 
responded  to  and  a  goodly  time  enjoyed.  March  23,  1882,  Bro.  Asa  A. 
Palmer  was  again  elected  Master,  serving  until  March  20,  1883,  when  Bro. 
Walter  C.  Libby  was  selected  W.  M.,  and  again  elected  for  a  second  term 
on  March  11,  1884.  Bro.  Nathan  Stewart  was  selected  W.  M.  on  March 
24,  1885,  and  is  now  still  filling  the  position.  The  present  officers  of  the 
lodge  are:  Nathan  Stewart,  W.  M. ;  Rufus  F.  Ingalls,  S.  W.;  Fred  W. 
Noyes,  J.  W.;  Alfred  R.  Evans,  Secretary;  Charles  G.  Hamlin,  Treasurer; 
Alva  B.  Libby,  S.  D  ;  Fred  R.  Oleson,  J.  D. ;  Charles  C.  Libby,  S.  S. ;  J. 
C  Fothergill,  J.  S. ;  Albert  Ryder,  Tyler;  Walter  Buck,  Chaplain. 

Since  1870  the  membership  of  this  lodge  as  reported  to  the  Grand  Lodge 
has  been  as  follows: — 

No.  of  members  April  15,  1880,  123 

"     15,  1881,        -  -  -        127 

"     15,  1S82,  120 

"     15,  1S83,        -  -        123 

"     15,  1881,  -  129 

"     15,  1885,       -  134 

a  a 

15,  1886,  -  -  139 

During  the  early  history  of  the  lodge  the  propriety  of  allowing  other 
societies  to  use  the  Masonic  Hall  was  considered,  and  referred  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  for  determination.  That  grand  body  reported  its  disapproval 
of  the  occupation  of  halls  by  subordinate  lodges  in  common  with  other 

The  first  lodge  room  was  over  what  is  now  Gates  &  Brown's  store. 
After  several  changes  and  removals  the  order  fitted  up  its  present  hall  on 
Exchange  street.  It  is  said  to  be  one  of  the  handsomest  and  best  Masonic 
halls  in  the  state  outside  of  the  cities,  and  is  well  and  beautifully  furnished, 
the  carpet,  furniture,  etc.,  costing  over  six  hundred  dollars.  The  order  is 
in  a  good,  healthy,  flourishing  condition,  and  numbers  among  its  members 
many  of  the  most  reliable  and  active  men  of  the  section.  Of  the  nine 
charter  members  of  the  lodge,  five  are  still  members.  Many  have  received 
their  degrees  here,  who,  being  demitted,  are  now  active  members  of  lodges 
in  other  jurisdictions,  while  some,  although  absent,  still  retain  their  mem- 
bership in  the  mother  lodge. 

Masonry   in  Coos.  15' 

Of  its  deeds  of  charity  and  benevolence  it  is  not  fitting  for  me  to  speak, 

suffice  it  to  say  that  Gorhara  Lodge  has  not  been  wanting  in  g 1  deeds, 

and  that  here  along  the  sides  of  the  high  mountains  as  well  as  in  the  low- 
valleys  the  memory  and  influence  of  its  acts  will  long  be  felt  and  remem- 

White  Mountain  Lodge,  No.  si;,  A.  F.  &  A.  M.,  Whitefield*—  This 
lodge  was  chartered  with  the  unanimous  consent  of  North  Star  Lodge, 
No.  8,  June  In,  L868.  The  charter  was  granted  to  the  following  named 
brothers:  Ira  S  M.  Gove,  George  H.  Pinkham,  Lauren  J.  Miner,  Ira  A. 
Muzzy,  Charles  W.  Cole,  Caleb  Walker,  A.  W.  Miner,  \V.  B.  Eutchins, 
L.  V.  Seavey,  Moses  H.  Gordon,  William  F.  Dodge,  A.  K.  Lane,  G.  P. 
Warner.  William  K.  Qnimby.  C.  K.  Gile,  Richard  Lane,  Jr.,  T.  M.  Taylor, 
Charles  Libbey,  and  five  others,  all  except  the  two  Lane  brothers  were 
members  at  that  time  of  North  Star  Lodge.  The  first  officers  elected  were: 
Ira  S.  M.  Gove,  W.  M.;  George  H  Pinkham,  S.  W.;  Lauren  J.  Miner,  J. 
W. ,  Moses  H.  Gordon,  Treasurer;  Joel  M.  Sartwell,  Secretary;  Hazen  W. 
Fisk,  S.  D. ;  Manson  Bowles,  J.  D. ;  Austin  W.  Miner,  Tyler;  Asa  K.  Lane, 
S.  S.;  T.  M.  Taylor,  J.  S. ;  G.  P.  Warner,  Chaplain. 

The  first  year  the  lodge  had  hard  work  to  provide  themselves  a  lodge 
room  and  pay  for  fitting  up,  and  with  the  best  management  got  a  small 
debt  on  them.  The  records  show  the  officers  present  at  every  meeting  till 
our  first  annual  meeting,  wiiich  occurred  May  20,  1 869,  when  the  same 
officers  were  again  elected.  At  our  annual  communication  in  May,  1870, 
the  following  officers  were  elected:  George  H.  Pinkham,  W.  M.;  L.J. 
Miner,  S.  W. ;  H.  W.  Fisk,  J.  W.;  Manson  Bowles,  S.  D. ;  L.  V.  Seavey, 
J.  D.;  Ira  S.  M.  Gove,  Secretary. 

Bro.  Ira  S.  M.  Gove  served  as  Master  of  the  lodge  from  its  organization 
until  May,  1870,  and  Brother  Pinkham  from  then  until  May,  1873,  when 
Bro.  Gove  was  again  elected  Master  with  Bros.  W.  F.  Dodge  and  A.  W. 
Miner  as  W's.  Bro.  Gove  served  as  Master  one  year,  when  Bro.  Lauren 
J.  Miner  was  elected  with  A.  W.  Miner  and  F.  C  Fearon  as  Wardens. 

The  next  year,  1875,  Bro.  H.  W.  Fisk  was  elected  Master,  F.  C.  Fearon, 
S.  W.,  and  S.  S.  Thomas,  J.  W.  Bro.  Fisk  served  one  year,  and  Bro. 
Pinkham  was  elected  again,  with  F.  C.  Fearon,  S.  W.,  Thomas  M.  Fletcher, 
J.  W.,  and  L.  D.  Whitcher,  Secretary.  In  1877  Bro.  Thomas  M.  Fletcher 
was  elected  Master,  S.  S.  Thomas,  S.  \V..  Horace  D.  Hicks,  J.  W..  L.  I). 
Whitcher,  Secretary,  and  J.  Q.  A.  Libbey,  Treasurer.  Bro.  Moses  H.  Gor- 
don had  faithfully  looked  after  the  finances  of  the  lodge  from  its  infancy 
to  this  time.  Brother  Fletcher  served  as  Master  two  years.  In  1879  Bro. 
F.  C.  Fearon  was  elected  Master,  T.  C  Gray,  S.W..  and  Ira  l\  Sturtevant, 
J.  W.     In  1880  George  E.  Hutchins  was  Master,  John  T.  Twombly,  S.W.. 

*Bv  Lauren  J.  Miner. 

15S  History  of  Coos  County. 

and  Richard  Rickerby,  J.  W.  In  1881  John  T.  Twombly,  Master,  John  S. 
Coffin,  S.  YY\,  CI.  G.  McGregor,  J.  W.  In  1882  Bro.  T.  C  Gray  was  elected 
Master,  Horace  D.  Hicks,  S.  W.,  Asa  D.  Hill,  J.  W .,  and  James  C.  Trickey, 
Secretary.  These  officers  served  two  years,  and  Bro.  Gray  was  elected  for 
the  third  year,  but  declined  to  serve  on  account  of  a  press  of  other  busi- 
ness, and  Bro.  H.  D.  Hicks  was  elected  in  his  stead,  and  also  declined,  and 
Bro.  Ira  S.  Sturtevant  was  elected,  and  served  as  Master  one  year,  until 
1885,  with  J.  C  Trickey,  S.  W.,  J.  F.  Walsh,  J.  W.,  A.  W.  Miner,  Treas- 
urer. L.  D.  Whitcher  was  again  elected  Secretary,  but  declined  to  serve, 
and  L.  J.  Miner  was  elected  in  his  stead.  In  1885  James  C  Trickey  was 
elected  Master,  George  H.  Morrison,  S.  W.,  H.  E.  Mclver,  J.  W.,  A.  W. 
Miner,  Treasurer,  but  declined,  and  Orin  Chase  was  elected  in  his  stead. 
In  188G  the  same  officers  were  again  chosen,  and  are  at  the  present  time 
fulfilling  the  duties  of  their  respective  offices. 

Bro.  George  VV7.  Libbey  was  the  first  man  that  was  made  a  Mason  in 
this  lodge,  and  D.  J.  Pillsbury  the  second  one.  Bro.  Charles  P.  Carleton 
had  taken  his  E.  A.  degree  in  North  Star  previous  to  the  chartering  of 
White  Mountain  Lodge,  but  North  Star  Lodge  very  courteously  gave  con- 
sent to  White  Mountain  Lodge  to  confer  the  other  two,  which  they  have 
done  from  time  to  time  ever  since,  Bro.  Carleton  being  a  candidate  for  any 
of  the  degrees  in  an  emergency. 

During  our  existence  we  have  made  110  Masons,  as  the  records  show. 
Death  has  robbed  us  of  ten  brothers,  namely:  Aurin  M.  Chase,  Caleb 
Walker,  John  M.  Gove,  Lyman  V.  Seavey,  Charles  W.  Cole,  Hibbard 
Houghton,  Benjamin  Calden,  G.  P.  Warner,  Manson  Bowles,  G.  H.  Pink- 
ham,  Charles  Stahl.  We  have  demitted  six.  Our  first  dues  to  the  Grand 
Lodge  were  $13.50,  showing  a  membership  of  fifty-four;  our  dues  in  1886 
were  $29.25,  showing  a  membership  of  117.  Bro.  E.  W.  Parker  has  been 
Tyler  since  1872,  a  term  of  fourteen  years  of  faithful  service. 

The  officers  have  been  very  punctual  in  attendance,  and  courteous  in 
manner  towards  the  lodge  ever  since  its  organization,  and  many  of  the 
brothers  have  attended  regularly,  especially  Bro.  A.  W.  Miner,  who  has 
missed  only  two  meetings,  and  is  what  might  be  called  a  spare  hand,  as  he 
works  in  every  place  in  the  lodge  when  an  officer  happens  to  be  absent. 
Bro.  M.  H.  Gordon  served  as  Treasurer  nine  years,  Bro.  J.  Q.  A.  Libbey, 
seven,  and  Bro.  A.  W.  Miner,  one.  All  declined  to  serve  longer.  The 
lodge  is  in  a  prosperous  condition  now,  and  has  money  in  the  treasury.  It 
has  had  a  good  amount  of  work  every  year,  and  has  considerable  on  hand 
at  the  present  time.  Our  relations  with  Burns  Lodge  and  North  Star  are 
the  most  amiable,  and  the  latter  we  cherish  as  our  foster  mother,  and  we 
esteem  ourselves  highly  favored  when  we  receive  a  visit  from  any  of  the 
brothers  of  either  lodge 

In  conclusion  we  would  quote  from  Bro.  Batchelder,  D.  D.  G.  M.,  Dis. 

M  VSONRY    IX   ( loos.  159 

No  5.  report,  1886:  "  Bro.  James  0.  Trickey  isa  very  efficient  Master, and 
is  assisted  by  intelligent  and  amhitious  officers  in  the  chairs. 
The  officers  are  rapidly  bringing  their  work  into  conformity  with  the 
restored  work.  They  realize  the  amount  of  labor  involved  in  this  under- 
taking, audits  importance.  The  lodge  has  a  fair  surplus  fund,  and  its 
records  are  well  kept.  The  lodge  is  undoubtedly  in  a  better  condition  to- 
day than  it  has  been  in  for  several  years.  What  is  better  still  the  brethren 
are  determined  that  the  progress  shall  continue  until  the  lodge  has  a 
standing  such  as  may  well  be  attained  by  faithful  attention  to  the  condi- 
tions of  success." 

Officers  of  the  Grand  Lodge,  Grand  Chapter  and  Grand  Commandery 
of  New  Hampshire,  furnished  by  Cods  county. — Through  the  kindness  of 
George  P.  Cleaves,  Grand  Secretary  of  the  above  Masonic  bodies,  we  are 
enabled  to  give  the  following  list.  Bro.  Cleaves  says  that  he  may  have 
possibly  omitted  some  of  the  earlier  officers  in  the  Grand  Lodge,  as  no 
residence  was  entered  in  the  records,  and  without  that  he  had  no  guide. 

Grand  Lodge. — Stephen  Wilson,  Lancaster,  Dis.  Dep.  Gr.  Master  1823, 
'24,  '25,  '26,  '43,  "44.  John  Wilson,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Sword  Bearer  1S24.'2:>.  '26. 
William  Lovejoy,  Lancaster,  Dis.  Dep.  Gr.  Master  1827,  '30.  Jared  W. 
Williams,  Lancaster,  Dist.  Dep.  Gr.  Master  1831,  "32,  '33,  '34,  '35.  '36,  '37.  '38, 
'39.  Eliphalet  Lyman,  Lancaster,  Dist.  Dep.  Gr.  Master  1840,  '41.  John 
Willson,  Lancaster,  Dist.  Dep.  Gr.  Master  1842  (possibly  same  as  John  Wil- 
son). Jared  I.Williams,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Lecturer  1854.  '55,  '56,  "57;  Dis.  Dep. 
Gr.  Master  1858,'59;  Jun.  Gr.  Deacon  1860;  Sen.  Gr.  Deacon  1861.  Henry  0. 
Kent,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Sworcl  Bearer  I860,  '61.  '62;  Gr.  Junior  Warden  1863; 
Gr.  Senior  Warden  1864;  Gr.  Captain  General  1865,  'HO;  Gr.  Generalissimo 
1867;  Grand  Commander  1868, '69.  Edward  Savage,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Captain 
of  the  Guard  1867,  '68.  Thomas  S.  Ellis,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Sword  Bearer  1875, 
'76;  Grand  Junior  Warden  1877;  Grand  Senior  Warden  1878;  Gr.  Captain 
General  1879.  Edward  R.  Kent,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Capt.  of  the  Guar< I  1877; 
Gr.  Warder  1878;  Gr.  Sword  Bearer  1879;  Gr.  Standard  Bearer  1880;  Gr. 
Junior  Warden  1881;  Gr.  Senior  Warden  1883,  '84;  Gr.  Capt.  General  L885; 
Grand  Generalissimo  1886.  Henry  O.  Kent,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Lecturer.  1860, 
'61;  D  D.  G.  M.  1862, '63, '66, '69.  George  C.Williams,  Lancaster,Gr.  Marshal. 
1860,  '61;  Jun.  Gr.  Deacon  1862;  Gr.  Sword  Bearer  L864,  '65.  Urban  Shorey, 
Gorham,  Gr.  Steward  1863;  D.  D.G.M.1864,'65,'68.  Benj.  F.  Honking.  Lan- 
caster, Gr.  Lecturer  1864.  '65,  '66,  '67.  Hazen  Bedel,  Colebrook,  D.  D.  G.  M. 
1867.  Albert  Barker,  Colebrook,  Gr.  Lecturer,  1868,  '69;  D.  D.  G.  M.  L870, 
'71.  Edward  Savage,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Lecturer.  L870,  '71.  '72/7-:  D.  D.  G.  M. 
1875,  '76.  Thomas  S.  Ellis,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Lecturer  1877,  '78;  D.  D.  G.  M. 
1879,  '80.  Mitchell  H.  Bowker,  now  Whitefield,  I  while  at  Lisbon)  Gr.  Lect- 
urer 1881,'82;  D.  D.G.  M.  1883,'84.  Thomas  C.Grey.  Whitefield,  Gr.  Steward, 
1882,  '83,  '84.    Charles  E.  Mclnti re,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Lecturer,  1885.     Alfred 

160  History  of  Coos  County. 

K.  Evans,  Gorham,  Gr.  Steward,  1885,  'st>,  '87.  Moses  A.  Hastings,  Lan- 
caster, Gr.  Lecturer,  1880,  '87. 

Grand  Chapter. — Edward  Savage,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Steward  1870;  Gr. 
Master  of  First  Veil  1871;  Gr.  Master  of  Second  Veil  1872.  Thomas  S.  Ellis, 
Lancaster,  Gr.  Steward  187'.>. 

Grand  Com  man dery. — Jared  I.  Williams,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Captain  Gen- 
eral 1860,  '61.  George  C.Williams,  Lancaster,  Gr.  Junior  Warden,  1862. 



For  what  he  was  and  all  he  dared, 
Remember  him  to  da_> !" 

By  Henry  O.  Kent. 

URGED  to  prepare  a  chapter,  which  shall  commemorate  the  men  of 
Coos  living   and  dead,  who  took  part  in  the  great  work  of  preserving- 
Federal  unity  and  National  honor  during  the    War  of  the  Rebell- 
ion, I  consented  with  reluctance  and  approach  this  labor  at  once  congenial 
and  exacting,  with  hesitation. 

So  lofty  was  the  devotion  of  those  who  died,  so  honorable  the  services 
of  those  who  survived,  that  only  the  most  complete  and  exhaustive 
record  can  do  their  deeds  and  their  memory  justice,  while  so  inadequate 
are  the  sources  of  information,  that  many  errors  of  omission  must  neces- 
sarily occur,  which  may  pain  survivors  or  do  seeming  injustice  to  those 
who  are  gone. 

In  the  pages  that  follow,  I  have  compiled  a  brief  record  of  the  service 
of  each  organization,  with  a  list  of  its  membership,  drawing  upon  the 
following  authorities,  all  that  could  be  made  available  for  my  purpose, 
supplementing  this  information  from  my  personal  knowledge. 

I  have  carefully  copied  the  names  of  all  soldiers  of  Coos  whose  resi- 
dence is  there  stated,  from  the  Adjutant- General's  report  of  1865,  revis- 
ing this  from  the  reports  of  the  same  office  issued  later. 

Had  the  work  authorized  by  the  legislature  of  1885  been  completed, 
the  Soldiers'  Record,  now  in  process  of  compilation  by  the  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral, more  information  might  have  been  obtained.  Comparison  has  also 
been  made  with  the  roster  of  soldiers  now  resident  in  the  county,  who 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos,  l • ; i 

served  in  organizations   outside   the  state,   as  appears   by    the  member- 
ship of  the  several  Grand  Army  posts.     Time  has  also  been  spent  in  the 
Adjutant-General's  office  at  Concord,  to  perfect  this  record. 

It  is  practically  impossible,  in  a  work  of  this  character,  to  follow  the 
promotions  or  transfers  from  one  command  to  another,  and  the  casualties, 
and  therefore,  only  the  name,  regiment  and  company,  when  attainable,  and 
residence  is  given  with  such  occasional  reference  to  rank  or  transfer  as 
was  patent,  or  is  recollected  by  the  compiler. 

The  sketches  are  compiled  from  the  current  publications  of  the  war 
period,  the  reports  of  the  Adjutant-General,  Waite's  "  New  Hampshire 
in  the  Rebellion,"  and  information  within  my  personal  knowledge  or 

With  this  prolix  introduction,  without  which  I  should  be  unwilling  to 
assume  the  responsibilities  of  this  chapter,  I  attempt  a  brief  sketch  of 
each  command,  a  list  of  such  soldiers  as  the  county  furnished,  as  exhib- 
ited by  the  authorities  referred  to.  and  a  list  of  veterans  now  resident 
among  us,  who  served  in  outside  organizations  as  shown  by  the  rosters  of 
the  Grand  Army  posts  within  our  limits. 

In  every  war  our  people  have  done  their  full  share.  The  pioneers  of 
Coos  were  the  men  of  the  "Old  French  War,"  of  Rogers'  Rangers,  and 
of  the  Army  of  Independence.  Later  they  responded  in  field  and  garri- 
son during  the  war  with  Great  Britain  in  1812,  they  organized  companies 
for  duty  on  the  frontier,  were  called  out  in  the  "Applebee  War,"  to  sup- 
press the  troubles  at  Indian  Stream,  and  sent  valiant  men  in  the  Ninth  to 
follow  Pierce  and  Ransom  in  the  war  with  Mexico. 

There  is  no  priority  in  honor,  no  monopoly  in  patriotism.  The  deeds 
and  memory  of  these  men  should  be,  and  are,  recorded  elsewhere. 

At  the  breaking  out  of  the  war  in  April,  1861,  there  was  in  the  state 
no  organized  force  to  send  to  the  front,  or  to  serve  as  the  nucleus  for  vol- 
unteer regiments.  The  earlier  military  organization  of  the  state — divided 
into  forty-two  regiments,  and  comprising  all  able  bodied  male  citizens, 
between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  forty-five, — ceased  to  be  operative,  about 
ten  years  before,  while  in  its  place  existed  a  paper  system,  made  up  of 
three  Major-Generals  and  six  Brigadier-Generals,  with  their  respective 
staffs,  and  an  enrolled  but  unorganized  force. 

There  were  the  two  military  and  social  commands,  known  as  the  Gov- 
ernor's Horse  Guards  and  the  Amoskeag  Veterans,  the  Lyndeborough 
Artillery  and  a  few — perhaps  half  a  dozen — other  volunteer  companies. 
This  force  was  invited,  rather  than  ordered,  into  camp  at  Nashua,  in  the 
autumn  of  1860,  where,  with  several  purely  voluntary  organizations,  it 
held  a  three  days'  "muster."  This  was  the  last  appearance  of  the  old 
state  militia,  and  when  the  time  of  exigency  came  we  were  wholly  unpre- 
pared for  immediate  action. 

102  History  of  Coos  County. 

Ichabod  Goodwin,  of  Portsmouth,  was  Governor,  elected  in  March,  1860, 
his  term  expiring  in  June,  1861,  and  Joseph  C.  Abbott  was  Adjutant  and 
Quartermaster-General,  having  been  appointed  in  1855.  Governor  Good- 
win was  a  retired  merchant  of  high  character  and  fine  executive  ability. 
Without  a  soldier  at  his  command,  or  a  dollar  with  which  to  equip  him, 
he  was  fully  equal  to  the  emergency.  Troops  were  raised,  and  on  the 
strength  of  Mr.  Goodwin's  personal  repute  and  responsibility,  the  banks 
at  once  proffered  sufficient  money  to  arm  and  forward  the  men.  The  leg- 
islature, at  its  session  the  following  June,  endorsed  and  ratified  his  action, 
but  the  fact  remains  that  to  his  patriotism,  firmness,  responsibility  and 
executive  energy,  New  Hampshire  is  indebted,  both  for  her  prompt  and 
credible  response  to  the  call  of  the  President  and  the  inauguration  of 
the  system  which  raised,  equipped  and  forwarded  the  succeeding  com- 
mands, all  of  which  earned  the  gratitude  of  the  state  and  reflected  honor 
upon  it. 

Nathaniel  S.  Berry,  elected  in  1861,  was  inaugurated  Governor  in  June 
of  that  year.  He  was  succeeded  in  June,  1863,  by  Joseph  A.  Gilmore, 
who  held  office  until  June,  1865,  when  Frederick  Smyth  succeeded  to  the 
executive  chair.  During  these  critical  years  these  chief  magistrates  exer- 
cised the  great  powers  entrusted  to  them  generally  with  wise  discretion, 
and  they  were  held  in  esteem  by  the  soldiers  of  the  state. 

Adjutant-General  Abbott  found  himself  without  arms  or  equipments, 
.confronted  by  an  almost  appalling  emergency.  He  was  zealous  and  en- 
titled to  commendation  for  his  labors  in  fitting  out  the  earlier  regiments, 
which  went  to  the  front  exceptionally  well  provided.  General  Abbott 
resigned  in  the  summer  of  1861,  and,  by  authority  from  the  War  Depart- 
ment, raised  the  Seventh  Infantry,  going  out  as  its  Lieutenant-Colonel. 
He  became  Colonel  on  the  death  of  Col.  Putnam,  who  was  killed  at  Fort 
Wagner,  was  promoted  to  Brigadier  General,  was  commandant  of  the 
city  and  district  of  Wilmington,  North  Carolina,  and  after  the  war  a  sena- 
tor from  that  state,  at  Washington.  He  subsequently  engaged  in  business 
in  North  Carolina,  where  he  died. 

He  was  succeeded  by  ex-Governor  Anthony  Colby,  as  Adjutant-Gen- 
eral of  the  state,  who  in  turn  was  followed  by  his  son.  Daniel  E.  Colby, 
who  held  the  office  until  the  accession  of  Governor  Gilmore  in  1864,  when 
Natt  HeLad,  afterwards  Governor,  was  made  Adjutant- General,  hold- 
ing the  place  until  his  accession  to  the  chief  magistracy,  when  the  present 
Adjutant-General,  A.  D.  Ayling,  was  appointed. 

The  Colbys,  father  and  son,  were  reliable,  earnest  men,  who  brought  to 
their  duties  devotion  and  painstaking  care.  General  Head  became  at  once 
favorably  and  widely  known,  and  his  excellent  administration  of  the  office 
I i;id  much  to  do  with  his  advancement  to  the  executive  chair. 

It  is  an  act  of  justice  to  say,  that  the  present  Adjutant- General,  him- 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos.  L63 

self  a  veteran  of  the  war,  by  his  zeal  in  perfecting  the  invaluable  records 
of  the  soldiers  of  the  state,  and  his  ability  in  their  preparation,  as  well  as 
by  his  general  efficiency,  merits  recognition  from  New  Hampshire  soldiers 
among  the  executive  officers  who  organized,  equipped,  and  forwarded  our 

The  "boys"  who,  during  the  process  of  organization  and  muster,  were 
familiar  with  the  State  House  and  its  officials,  will  not  have  forgottrn 
Hon.  Thomas  L.  Tullock,  Hon.  Allen  Tenney,  and  Hon.  Benjamin  Gerrish, 
consecutively  Secretaries  of  State.  Mr.  Tullock  died  in  Washington  after 
having  long  held  important  offices  there;  Mr.  Gerrish  died  in  Boston  in 
1885,  after  having  been  Consul  at  Nantes  and  Bordeaux,  France;  while 
Mr.  Tenney  is  a  successful  lawyer  at  Norwich,  Conn.  Neither  will  they 
cease  to  remember  their  enthusiastic  friend  Hon.  Peter  Sanborn,  the  State 
Treasurer,  nor  his  flights  of  rhetoric. — like  that  in  his  address  to  an  out- 
going regiment,  in  the  State  House  yard,  when,  pointing  to  the  eagle 
perched  on  the  colors,  and  the  proud  bird  on  the  cupola,  he  exclaimed: 
"Boys!  here  are  two  eagles;  bring  'em  both  back  with  you!"  and  his 
address  in  the  old  Representatives  Hall,  to  another  regiment  on  the  ' '  army 
worm."  Col.  Sanborn,  having  long  ago  retired  from  public  life,  survives 
on  the  paternal  farm  at  Hampton,  enjoying  a  vigorous  and  honored  old  age. 

Elder  John  Hook,  who  sold  "pies  an'  things"  near  the  camp-ground, 
still  survives,  dispensing  gospel  truths  and  "Hook's  Healing  Balm" 
throughout  the  land,  a  devout,  honest  and  excellent  man. 

Upon  the  reception  of  the  proclamation  of  the  President  calling  for  75,- 
000  men  for  three  months,  it  was  determined  to  open  recruiting  offices,  and 
call  for  volunteers,  and  a  proclamation  was  issued  to  that  effect  on  the  l(5th 
of  April.  Recruiting  offices  were  opened  at  the  principal  towns — that  for 
this  county  at  Lancaster,  April  1 6,  in  charge  of  the  writer  of  this  chapter,  as 
aid  to  the  Adjutant-General.  Two  days  later  he  was  ordered  to  turn  this 
office  over  to  a  subordinate,  and  report  at  headquarters,  Ira  S.  M.  Gove 
being  left  in  charge.  Arrived  at  Concord,  he  was  commissioned  by  Gov- 
ernor Goodwin,  Assistant  Adjutant-General  of  the  state,  and  ordered  to 
repair  to  Portsmouth,  to  prepare  there  for  the  reception  of  recruits  to  be 
organized  into  a  second  regiment.  He  held  this  position  until  the  Second 
Regiment  had  left  the  state,  and  the  troops  at  Fort  Constitution  had  been 
nearly  all  discharged. 

Having  thus  referred  to  the  civic  and  military  organizations,  I  now 
propose  to  give  a  brief  resume  of  the  operations  of  each  command,  and  fco 
publish  as  full  a  list  of  soldiers  from  Coos  as  can  be  procured  from  the 
sources  before  referred  to: — 

The  First  Infantry  was  raised  for  three  months' service,  and  contained 
no  men  from  this  county.  It  was  organized  at  Concord,  received  an 
ovation  in  New  York  on  its  way  to  Washington,  and  was  stationed  on  the 

ltJi  History  of  Coos  County. 

Upper  Potomac  during  its  period  of  enlistment.  It  was  composed  of  the 
finest  material,  and  was  admirably  officered  and  drilled.  It  was  supplied, 
as  was  the  Second  and  Third,  with  "claw-hammer"  coats  of  heavy  gray 
cloth,  which  were  soon  thrown  aside  for  the  easy  blouse.  Its  field  officers 
were  Colonel,  Mason  W.  Tappau,  who  afterwards  declined  the  colonelcy 
of  one  of  the  later  regiments;  Lieut. -Col.,  Aaron  F.  Stevens,  subse- 
quently Colonel  of  the  Thirteenth,  Brigadier-General  and  Member  of  Con- 
gress; and  Major,  Thomas  J.  Whipple,  a  veteran  of  the  Mexican  war,  sub- 
sequently Colonel  of  the  Fourth,  and  now,  honored  by  the  community 
wherein  he  resides,  an  eminent  lawyer  at  Laconia.  Col.  Tappan,  then 
Attorney-General  of  the  state,  died  about  the  beginning  of  the  present 
year,  at  his  home  in  Bradford. 

The  Second  Infantry. — The  response  to  the  call  for  three  months'  men 
far  exceeding  the  limit  of  troops  called  for  from  the  state,  the  Governor 
determined  to  order  the  surplus  above  the  maximum  of  the  1st  Regiment 
into  camp  at  Portsmouth,  pending  a  decision  as  to  their  disposal.  Accord- 
ingly the  Rope- walk,  near  the  South  mill  pond,  was  utilized  as  a  barrack, 
and  the  men  came  into  camp.  In  May  it  was  found  that  no  more  men  for 
three  months  would  be  received,  and  the  question  of  enlisting  for  three 
years  was  presented  The  great  portion  of  the  recruits  accepted  the  new 
terms,  those  declining  to  extend  their  term  of  service  being  sent  as  a  gar- 
rison to  Fort  Constitution,  at  the  mouth  of  Portsmouth  Harbor,  from 
which  they  were  discharged  the  ensuing  summer. 

Thomas  P.  Pierce,  of  Nashua,  a  veteran  of  the  Mexican  war,  had  been 
commissioned  Colonel.  Declining  to  serve  for  three  years,  he  resigned, 
and  Gilman  Marston,  of  Exeter,  was  appointed  Colonel;  Frank  S.  Fiske,  of 
Keene,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Josiah  Stevens,  Jr.,  of  Concord,  Major.  Gen- 
eral Marston  served  through  the  war  with  distinction,  was  promoted  as 
Brigadier-General,  and  is  now,  in  his  hale  old  age,  an  active  and  eminent 
lawyer  at  Exeter.  Lieutenant-Colonel  Fisk  resigned  after  a  year's  service, 
and  is  now  clerk  of  the  U.  S.  district  court,  in  Boston.  Major  Stevens 
subsequently  resigned,  and  died  at  Manchester,  about  the  time  of  the  first 
veterans'  reunion,  which  was  held  in  that  city  in  1875. 

On  its  way  to  the  front,  the  regiment,  in  passing  through  Boston,  re- 
ceived a  magnificent  welcome  at  the  hands  of  the  sons  of  New  Hampshire 
resident  in  that  city.  It  was  reviewed  by  Governor  Andrew  from  the 
State  House,  dined  at  Music  Hall,  and  was  paraded  upon  the  common. 

To  give  the  record  of  this  famous  regiment  would  be  to  write  the  his- 
tory of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  in  which  it  served  through  the  war,  re- 
enlisting  at  the  expiration  of  its  three  years  of  duty.  It  was  a  nursery, 
from  which  came  many  accomplished  officers  for  other  regiments,  it 
received  and  assimilated  the  17th  Regiment  in  1863,  and  a  great  number  of 
recruits,  and  during  its  entire  service  was  conspicuous  for  bravery,  soldierly 

The  Soldi krs  of  ( '<><">s. 


behavior,  and  untiring  devotion  to  the  canst'.  Its  record  was  always  right, 
and  its  well-earned  fame  is  beyond  praise.  It  was  mustered  oul  al  City 
Point,  Va.,  November  is,  and  paid  off  at  Concord,  November  26,  1865. 


)t.  Co.  C, 

Ira  (i.  Douglass, 

Lancasti  r 


Oliver  P.  Day,  H, 

3o.  F, 

Morrill  c.  Day,  Co.  unknown, 



Claude  De  Vire,  Co.  unknown, 



John  King,  B, 



Edson  J.  Dunham,  F, 



Joseph  Greeley,  F, 



Thomas  Hudson,  F, 

( llarksville 

Clark  sville 

Henry  Johnson,  F, 



Daniel  Johnson,  B, 

Stiwartstiiw  11 


Robert  Knight,  B, 



John  King,  F, 



Simon  Layne,  F, 



James  Lynch,  F, 



James  Martin. 



Charles  E.  Mclntire,  G, 



Henry  Martin,  Co.  unknown. 

Martin's  Grant 


Edgar  Morse,  Co.  unknown. 



Samuel  0.  Nutter,  F, 



John  Puryea,  K, 



Ira  Noyes.  K, 



Alfred  Poquet,  unknown, 



Henry  Gleason.  B, 



George  Robinson,  I, 



Benjamin  Sawyer,  F, 


John  Puryea,  K. 



Joseph  Scott,  F, 



Thomas  Williams,  I, 



Stephen  Smith,  F, 



Henry  Smith,  F, 



Joseph  Thompson,  D, 



Augustus  M.  Williams,  unknown, 



Levi  Hicks,  B, 



George  A.  Rowell,  A, 



Charles  W.  Randall,  B, 



Samuel  D.  Wright,  F, 

■  i 


Alfred  Poquet,  H, 



George  Workman, 



Thomas  Williams. 



Joseph  Thompson,  B, 



John  L.  York, 



Marcout  Bernabon,  (', 



Fay  Carleton,  15, 

<  'oh  brook 


David  S.  Chandler,  B, 



Edwin  R.  Cilley,  B, 



Simon  S.  P.  Smith,  B, 


Hart's  Location 

Ira  Sweatt,  B, 


Hugh  R.  Richardson,  Lt.  Co.  F,  Capt. 

Harrison  D.  F.  Young,  Co.  H,  Capt.  Co.  F, 

Welcome  A.  Crafts,  Lt.-Col.  5th, 

Charles  W.  Fletcher,  Sergeant, 

Lovell  W.  Brackett,  F, 

Richard  0.  Young,  F, 

Lorenzo  D.  Adley, 

Arthur  R.  Aldrich,  B, 

John  Barney,  F. 

Charles  Buck,  F. 

George  Burt,  F. 

Joseph  Benway,  F, 

Samuel  H.  Clough,  F, 

Harmon  Frost, 

Edgar  Gaines,  F, 

John  Gilman,  D, 

Henry  S.  Hilliard,  F,  Capt.  5th, 

William  H.  Tibbetts,  B, 

George  Workman,  F, 

James  Hagan,  F, 

Bernard  Johnson,  F, 

Thomas  Kenney,  F, 

George  W.  Morgan,  F, 

Cyrus  W.  Merrill,  F, 

William  H.  Gault,  B, 

Amasa  F.  Huggins,  B, 

Simon  Merrill,  F, 

Patrick  McCaffrey,  F, 

Eleazer  D.  Noyes,  H, 

Charles  F.  Nutter,  F, 

Frank  F.  Noyes,  G, 

John  Ordway,  F, 

George  Robinson,  F, 

William  H.  F.  Staples,  F, 

Thomas  J.  Severance,  F, 

Lewis  Tashro,  B, 

Clark  Stevens,  F,  and  Lt.  H'y  Art. 

Lucian  B.  Grout,  K, 

Levi  Witham,  F, 

Ira  M.  Wallace,  F, 

Gilman  Aldrich,  F. 

Levi  P.  Barrows,  F, 

Jerome  H.  Brown,  F, 

Ebenezer  Carpenter,  F, 

Thomas  Crawford, 

Jere  Cronin, 

The  Third  Infantry. — This  command  was  organized  at  Concord  in  the 
summer  of  1861,  and  from  excellent  material  Enoch  Q.  Fellows,  now 
living  at  Sandwich,  a  graduate  of  West  Point,  and  the  Adjutant  of  the 


History  of  Coos  County. 

1st  Regiment,  was  its  Colonel;  John  H.  Jackson,  of  Portsmouth,  a  vet- 
eran of  the  Mexican  war,  now  an  inspector  in  the  Boston  custom  house, 
Lieut. -Colonel;  and  John  Bedel,  of  Bath,  also  a  Mexican  veteran,  afterward 
brevetted  Brigadier,  who  died  in  1875,  Major.  There  was  no  commis- 
sioned officer  from  this  county,  the  men  being  recruited  and  going  in 
without  company  organization. 

The  Third  was  first  assigned  to  duty  on  the  seaboard  in  the  South, 
serving  with  distinction  at  Hilton  Head,  Charleston,  Fernandina,  Fla., 
and  other  strategic  points.  It  joined  the  Army  of  the  James  and  took 
part  in  the  closing  scenes  before  Richmond.  Like  the  Second,  it  furnished 
many  officers  for  later  regiments,  and  received  a  large  number  of  recruits. 
Its  record  was  highly  honorable;  it  was' engaged  in  desperate  battles;  did 
garrison  and  fortification  duty;  and  in  all  respects  won  fairly  the  high 
reputation  that  has  always  been  accorded  to  it.  It  was  mustered  out  July 
20,  1865. 


Orville  E.  Moulton,  Sergeant. 


Orlando  Brown,  I, 


Thomas  Cassady,  Corporal, 


Charles  M.  Blood,  I, 


Edwin  E.  Jones,  H,  9tb,  Corporal, 


Louis  Beldeau, 


Nelson  B.  Lindsey,  Corporal,  17th  H'y 

Art.      " 

Amos  C.  Colby,  I, 


John  W.  Morse,    Musician, 


William  Eastman,  I, 


James  Blanehard, 


Andrew  J.  Fowler,  I, 


Frederick  T.  Bennett, 


Freeman  F.  Glines,  I, 


Granville  Blake, 


Montraville  P.  Horton,  I, 


Joseph  Chesley, 


Kobert  B.  Holmes.  I, 


John  H.  Cameron, 


Edward  Hall. 


Orland  Day, 


Jonas  Ingerson,  I, 


James  W.  Farrington, 


Marshall  H.  King,  I, 


Oscar  Gaines, 


John  Kisling, 


Charles  H.  Kane, 


Horatio  P.  Lougee,  I, 


George  W.  Mclntyre, 


Horace  M.  Lindsey,  I, 


DeWitt  C.  Paine, 


William  W.  Lang,  I, 


White  Pilbro, 


James  McCrillis, 


William  Wilkins, 


James  Moulton,  I, 


Calvin  0.  Wilkins, 


John  W.  Moidton,  I, 


Frederick  A.  Wentworth, 


John  M.  Morse,  I,     Sig.  Service, 


Isaac  I.  York, 


Daniel  W.  Titus,  I, 


Ira  D.  Hyde, 


Almon  B.  White,  I, 


Azariah  L.  Clark. 


Charles  McKee,  K, 


Ezra  D.  Clark, 


William  S.  Morse,  K, 


Josiah  S.  Blood,  I, 


The  Fourth  Infantry, — This  command  was  officered  by  Col.  Thomas  J. 
Whipple,  Lieut. -Col.  Louis  Bell,  killed  at  Fort  Fisher,  January  15,  1865, 
and  Jeremiah  D.  Drew,  of  Salem,  Major.  It  was  a  valuable  and  efficient 
three  years  regiment,  originally  part  of  the  force  on  the  South  Atlan- 
tic coast.  It  had  no  organized  body  of  men  from  this  county.  Its 
service  was  at  Hilton  Head,  Fernandina,  Charleston,  and  in  the  Army  of 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


the  James,  before  Petersburg  and  Richmond.   It  was  mustered  out  August 

27,  1865. 


Franklin  Crawford.  D, 


Robert  Calahan,  D, 


Daniel  Day.  Jr.,  F, 


William  Chester,  K, 

Stewartst.iw  u 

Orange  Fisk,  H, 


John  Craver,  K, 


John  Smith,  F, 


Francis  Duquette,  H, 


Louis  Black,  D, 


Henry  Dubois,  K, 


Charles  Williams,  K, 


Michael  Gero,  D, 


Thomas  Flynn,  K. 


Louis  Grapo,  G, 


Henry  F.  Wardwell,  Asst.  Surgeon, 


George  L.  Harrington,  K, 


James  M.  Kidder,  K, 


Eugene  Lacroix,  K, 


Thomas  H.  Mayo,  I, 


George  La  Plant,  K, 


Peter  Anderson,    K, 


George  Peno,  K, 


Samuel  Barney,  G, 


James  Taylor,  C, 


Joseph  Brown,  G, 


Horace  Taylor,  K, 


The  Fifth  Infantry. — This  command  contained  several  Field,  Staff  and 
Line  officers,  an  entire  Co.  (B)  and  many  recruits  from  this  county.  It 
had  a  notable  record  for  daring  bravery,  and  was  one  of  the  conspicuous 
regiments  of  the  Volunteer  Service.  This  was  largely  due  to  the  person- 
nel of  its  first  commander,  Col  Edward  Ephraim  Cross,  of  Lancaster,  who 
had  shared  largely  in  the  adventurous  life  of  the  southwestern  frontier. 
Leaving  home  at  an  early  age,  he  had  been  a  newspaper  reporter  at  Cin- 
cinnati and  Washington,  and  wagoned  the  first  printing  press  across  the 
plains  to  Tucson,  in  Arizona,  where  he  established  a  paper.  Engaged  in 
warfare  with  the  Apache  and  other  tribes,  he  subsequently  took  service 
with  the  Republic  of  Mexico,  until  he  came  north  to  offer  his  services  to 
his  native  state  in  the  summer  of  1861.  His  campaigning  life,  and  famil- 
iarity with  the  ways  of  regular  soldiery,  gave  him  a  position  and  influ- 
ence that  added  eclat  to  his  recruiting  and  procured  for  his  regiment  from 
the  outset,  a  reputation  for  dash  and  effective  work. 

The  regiment  went  into  camp  at  "Camp  Jackson,"  at  Concord,  on 
the  bluffs  opposite  the  lower  or  Federal  bridge,  with  Edward  E.  Cross  as 
Colonel,  Samuel  G.  Langley,  late  Adjutant  of  the  Second,  Lieut. -Colonel, 
and  William  W.  Cook,  of  Boston,  Major.  Colonel  Cross,  after  a  most  gal- 
lant and  brilliant  career,  fell  mortally  wounded  an  Gettysburg,  while  com- 
manding the  1st  Brigade  of  the  1st  Division  of  the  Second  Army  corps, 
and  was  buried  with  impressive  Masonic  ceremonies  from  the  homestead 
at  Lancaster.  A  monument,  erected  by  friends,  commemorates  his  serv- 
ices, and  marks  the  spot  of  his  repose,  while  the  local  post  of  the  Grand 
Army  and  the  Relief  Corps  bear  his  name.  Lieut. -Col.  Langley  resigned 
after  about  a  year  of  service,  and  died  in  Washington  in  186S.  Major 
Cook  died  since  the  close  of  the  war. 

As  with  the  Second,  so  with  the  Fifth,  the  limits  of  a  chapter  would 
utterly  fail  to  give  its  history.     It  furnished  gallant  officers  for  later  regi- 


History  of  Coos  County. 

merits,  received  many  recruits  and  was  always  conspicuous  for  its  bravery 
and  heroic  work.  It  was  in  the  Peninsula,  Maryland,  Pennsylvania  and 
Virginia  campaigns,  and  its  Colonel  made  the  proud  boast  to  the  writer, 
that  at  the  disastrous  charge  at  Fredericksburg,  ' '  his  dead  lay  nearer  the 
enemy's  rifle  pits,  than  those  of  any  other  regiment  in  the  Army  of  the 
Potomac."  While  a  veteran  of  the  Fifth  remains,  its  deeds  of  daring, 
its  amateur  engineering,  its  marches  and  its  conflicts  will  be  as  fresh  in 
their  memories  as  the  rollicking  strains  of  "  One  Eyed  Eiley!"  and  their 
services  will  have  the  appreciation  that  follows  honest  endeavor.  The 
regiment  was  mustered  out  July  8,  1805.  The  Surgeon  of  the  Fifth  was 
John  W.  Bucknam,  of  Lancaster,  a  devoted  and  excellent  officer.  Dr. 
Bucknam  engaged  in  practice  at  Great  Falls,  with  great  success,  and  died 
there  widely  esteemed. 


Edward  E.  Cross,  Colonel, 
Richard  E.  Cross,  Lieut.-Col., 
Welcome  A.  Crafts,  2d,  Lieut. -Col. 
John  W.  Bucknam,  Surgeon, 
Charles  M.  Trask,  Asst.  Surgeon, 
O'Niell  B.  Twitchell,  Captain, 
Edmund  Brown,  Captain, 
Her.ry  S.  Hilliard,  Captain, 
Elijah  F.  Marden,  Lieut., 
Nathaniel  F.  Low,  Lieut., 
Moses  W.  Band,  Lieut., 
Freeman  Lindsey,  Wagoner, 
John  G.  Sutton,  B, 
Charles  E.  Graham,  B,  Musician, 
Joseph  B.  Hanson,  B,  Wagoner, 
Sewell  R.  Aldrich,  B, 
Isaiah  W.  Burbank,  B, 
David  A.  Brinington,  B, 
William  A.  Oorson,  B, 
James  Cummings,  B, 
Alexander  Cummings,  B, 
William  G.  Ellis, 
Levi  J.  Corson,  B. 
Michael  Cassady,  B, 
James  Cassady,  B, 
Joseph  M.  Davis,  B, 
Michael  Eagan,  B, 
Erastus  W.  Forbes,  B, 
John  Fair,  B, 
Daniel  Gillander,  B, 
Reuben  Gassett,  B, 
Asa  D.  Goodwin,  B, 
Jacob  A.  Harriman,  B, 
Leonard  W.  Howard,  B, 
Charles  A.  Hutchinson,  B, 
Franklin  M.  Higgins,  B, 
Francis  Heywood,  B, 
Henry  W.  Libbey,  B, 





Du  miner 


























Charles  H.  Linton,  B, 


Louis  Lapointe,  B, 


Patrick  Maley,  B, 


Aurin  Morse,  B, 


Frederick  Millar,  B, 


Henry  McGann,  B, 


N.  W.  Ordway,B, 


Bailey  A.  Parker,  B, 


Eldad  A.  Rhodes,  B,  Sei'geant, 


Francis  A.  Russel,  B, 


George  H.  Roberts,  B, 


Hosea  Stone,  B, 


J.  S.  C.  Twitchell,  B, 


Thomas  S.  Thayer,  B, 


William  R.  Yates,  B, 


Lawson  A.  Yorke,  B, 


Luther  Walcott,  E, 


Sylvanus  Chessman,  F, 


Richard  Fletcher,  B, 


George  H.  Nickerson,  F, 


Milton  A.  Adams,  A, 

■  ■ 

William  Cummings,  B, 


Enoch  N.  Clement,  A, 


James  Colby,  B, 


Reuben  F.  Carter,  K, 


George  Delair, 


King  J.  Cross,  H, 


Joseph  Derusha,  A, 


John  Edwards,  G, 


Joseph  Hart.  D,  Musician, 


Hiram  Hilliard,  B, 


William  F.  Horn,  A, 


Charles  Kraft,  C, 


John  Malia,  G, 


Joseph  P.  Matthews,  H,  H'y  Art., 


Martin  McCormic,  F, 


Daniel  Mahoney,  F, 


George  W.  Marden,  A, 


The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


Charles  D.  Parrington,  B, 

George  Ridley,  E, 
George  A.  Richards,  F, 
John  A.  Manchester.  A, 
Edward  Sweeney, 
Charles  Sawyer,  E, 
Alvin  Saunders,  F, 
John  Sullivan,  G, 
Solomon  Wilson,  B, 




Lancasti  r 





Joseph  Washburn,  I, 
Terence  Garrett, 
William  II.  Veazie, 
Portus  U.  Brown,  B, 
Samuel  A.  Andrews,  B, 
Scribner  Cates,  H, 
1 1,  orge  E.  ( lates,  H, 
Jonathan  Dow,  B, 
Leonard  W.  Howard,  B, 


I  'a  1  ton 


Lanca  ti  i 

The  Sixth  Infantry. — This  regiment  was  organized  at  Keene,  in  No- 
vember, 1801.  Gen.  Nelson  Converse,  of  Marlborough,  of  the  old  militia, 
was  its  Colonel;  Simeon  G.  Griffin,  of  Nelson,  late  Captain  of  Co.  B,  2d 
Regiment,  Lieut. -Col.;  and  Charles  Scott,  of  Peterboiough,  Major.  It 
served  in  several  departments,  being  first  ordered  to  the  Southern  Atlantic 
coast,  at  Hatteras  Inlet,  N.  C,  and  Roanoke  Island— it  then  became  a  part 
of  Burnside's  corps,  serving  in  Virginia,  Maryland,  Tennessee,  and  on  the 
Mississippi.  It  took  part  in  the  momentus  battles  of  Antietam,  Second  Bull 
Run,  Fredericksburg,  the  siege  of  Vicksburg,  and  the  closing  scenes  of  the 
war  with  the  Army  of  the  Potomac,  in  180tLand  '65,  and  was  mustered  out 
July  22,  1 805.  This  was  an  excellent  regiment,  in  discipline  and  effective- 
ness. Col.  Converse,  its  original  commander,  did  not  serve  but  a  few 
months,  when  Lieut. -Col.  Griffin  assumed  command.  He  distinguished 
himself  as  an  officer,  and  received  the  highest  promotion  accorded  to  a 
New  Hampshire  soldier,  being  Brigadier  and  Brevet  Major-General.  His 
home  is  now  in  Keene,  although  he  has  large  interests  in  ranche  property 
in  Texas,  to  which  he  devotes  considerable  of  his  time. 

John  Anderson,  G, 
Thomas  Arnold, 
William  H.  Autum, 
John  C.  Brooks,  H, 
Otto  Bockel,  B, 
John  Battis,  A, 
William  Boyle,  H, 
Thomas  Bemis, 
John  Brown,  G, 
Henry  Black,  A, 
William  Baker,  Jr.,  A, 
Charles  Brown, 
Thomas  Bowman,  B, 
Martin  Bird,  G, 
David  F.  Coates, 
William  Clark,  C, 
Frank  Croft,  D, 
James  Chaculaga, 
William  H.  Cram,  K, 
William  Devoe,  K, 
James  Delaney, 
Morris  Daley,  H, 



Charles  Davis,  C, 


Peter  Deerin,  H, 


John  Davis, 


Peter  Dolan, 


Walter  H.  Evans,  E, 


Henry  Freeman,  E, 


John  Flood,  E, 


George  Fawkes, 


Charles  Gelherg,  K. 


Frank  Guillette, 


William  Greene,  H, 


Edward  Gillingham,  H, 


George.  V.  Gam  shy,  B, 


( lalvin  Hicks,  K, 


William  Gibson,  F. 


Francis  Gallagher,  D, 

St-  wartstown 

John  Henry,  A, 


Theodore  Bagerman,  K. 


Peter  Hanson, 


John  Hogan, 

( lolnmbia 

Ephraim  E.  Holmes,  H, 


William  Johnson,  D, 




Stewart  stown 









darks'*  ille 







History  of  Coos  County 

John  James,  C, 


George  Owens, 


Lewis  King,  K, 


Eli  P.  Pierce,  B, 


George  King.  E, 


Charles  Paul,  I, 


Zor  Karlson,  G, 


Charles  Parker,  F, 


Henry  Kulp,  A, 


Leon  Roberts.  P. 


WiUiam  Kelley,  C, 


Charles  E.  Rogers,  H, 


Charles  Linn,  F, 


Frank  Sullivan,  A, 


William  Lower,  C, 


Linus  Summers,  B, 


Earnest  A.  Leavitt,  I, 


Henry  Stone, 


Patrick  Lakey,  E, 


Ralph  Sullivel,  C, 


Henry  H.  Lucus,  H, 


Francis  St.  Peter,  H, 


Joseph  Lord, 


Charles  H.  Smith,  H, 


John  Lanigan, 


Thomas  C.  Sullivas,  H, 


John  Morrison, 


John  Snow,  C, 


Victor  Levie, 


Charles  Sweet,  Jr.,  I 


Francis  Mack,  K, 


George  Tabor,  D, 


Thomas  Moran,  E, 


James  Thomas,  D, 


John  Markston,  D, 


Richard  Troy,  A, 


James  Madigan,  A, 


Freeman  Tyrill,  B, 


John  McDonnell,  E, 


James  Ward,  H, 


Michael  Nelligan, 


Aaron  Wright,  I, 


Andrew  Nelson, 


Franklin  Walker,  A, 


William  O'Niell.  G, 


Thomas  Williamson,  C, 


John  Oliver.  I, 


Nathaniel  P.  Ordway,  E, 


William  Obeg,  C, 


The  Seventh  Infantry. — This  command,  raised  under  exceptional  cir- 
cumstances, by  authority  of  the  Secretary  of  War,  went  into  camp  at 
Manchester  in  October,  1861,  with  Lieut.  Haldiman  S.  Putnam,  of  the 
Regulars, — a  native  of  Cornish,  in  Sullivan  county, — as  Colonel,  Joseph  C. 
Abbott,  late  Adjutant  General,  as  Lieut.  Col.,  and  Daniel  Smith,  of  Dover, 
as  Major. 

This  command,  which  was  exceptionally  well  prepared  by  drill  and 
discipline  for  its  later  experience,  left  the  state  on  the  14th.  of  January, 
1862,  and  was  sent  by  transport  to  the  Dry  Tortugas,  Fla ,  where  it  gar- 
risoned Fort  Jefferson  and  other  important  works.  In  June  it  was  sent  to 
Beaufort,  S.  C,  and  then  to  St.  Augustine,  Fla,  It  participated  in  the  his- 
toric attack  on  Fort  Wagner,  Charleston  harbor,  July  18,  1803,  where  its 
Colonel  was  killed  after  having  effected  an  entrance  to  the  fort,  although 
our  forces  were  afterward  repulsed.  It  served  with  the  Tenth  Corps  dur- 
ing the  closing  scenes  of  the  war  near  Petersburg  and  Richmond.  It  en- 
gaged in  storming  and  capturing  Fort  Fisher,  near  Wilmington,  N.  C, 
and  through  all  its  arduous  service,  acquitted  itself  with  great  persistence, 
devotion  and  bravery.  It  was  mustered  out  July  ±2,  1865,  and  reached 
Concord  early  in  August  of  that  year. 


Charles  P.  Denison,  A,  Captain, 
Ezra  Carter,  A, 
Frederick  Ingerson,  A, 
James  S.  Lucus,  A, 




Alden  Lewis,  A, 
Philip  McCaffrey,  A, 
John  L.  Meserve,  A, 
Cyrus  Savage,  A, 



The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


Charles  C.  Beaton,  G, 
Edward  Carr,  C, 
Charles  A.  Cross,  E, 
Levi  Dunham,  I, 
Frank  Fell,  H, 






.Julm  (Ira nt,  A, 
Daniel  T.  Johnson,  <  '•. 
James  A.  King,  B, 
Joseph  Lary,  H, 
Thomas  Wilson.  A, 

I .  irham 


The  rolls  of  Co.  A,  A.  G.  O..  show  residence  "unknown"  of  nearly  all 
its  members,  making  accuracy  of  compilation  uncertain. 

The  Eighth  Infantry. — This  three  years  regiment  was  organized  at 
Manchester,  served  valiantly  on  the  Atlantic  and  Gulf  coasts,  at  Baton 
Eouge,  Port  Hudson,  and  Sabine  Pass,  Texas;  re-enlisted  and  underwent 
all  the  hardships  of  battle,  siege  and  sickness  in  an  unhealthy  climate, 
being  finally  mustered  out  at  Concord  in  January,  1865,  and  its  veteran 
battalion  in  October  of  the  same  year.  It  contained  no  organization  from 
Coos  Its  officers  were:  Hawkes  Fearing,  of  Manchester,  Colonel;  Oliver 
W.  Lull,  of  Milford,  who  had  been  an  Aid  to  Gen.  George  Stark,  of  the 
state  service,  at  Portsmouth,  and  who  was  killed  at  Port  Hudson,  Lieut.  - 
Col. ;  and  Merril  B.  Smith,  of  Concord,  Major.  For  a  time  this  regiment 
was  mounted,  and  known  as  the  c2d  N.  H.  Cavalry. 

Bichard  Adams, 
Matthew  Agar,  D, 
John  Adams,  F, 
Doric  Boreasau,  I, 
Willington  Brown,  G, 
Joseph  Bondrie,  C, 
Michael  Brady,  C, 
William  Brown,  F, 
James  F.  Brown,  F, 
Stephen  Cook,  C, 
Newell  P.  Chase,  G, 
John  Cornet,  C, 
Peter  Coffin,  D, 
Thomas  Clark,  D, 
William  Cloutman,  F, 
Thomas  Connor,  B, 
William  Dammings,  D, 
Moellor  A.  Dorl,  D, 
Patrick  Duffy,  D, 
George  Durkee,  F, 
Grege  C.  French,  C, 
Lewis  Gutcher,  C, 
Joseph  Gremer,  D, 
Louis  Houll, 
William  B.  Hetson,  E, 
Henry  George,  F, 
James  O'Hern,  F, 
John  A.  Holyoke,  B, 
William  Jarvis,  D, 
Bartholomew  Jordan,  D, 
John  Jordan,  E, 



Allen  Johnson,  F, 



Edward  Kelley,  I, 



Cyril  LaFaince,  I, 



Charles  W.  Larkin,  I, 



Fargenam  Levene,  I, 



James  S.  Lane,  H, 



George  Lansinger,  D, 



Peter  Larsen,  D, 



Jonathan  Metcalf,  G, 



William  F.  McCormic,  D, 



Charles  A.  Myers,  D, 



William  Merrill,  G, 



Charles  0.  Merry,  G, 



Ezra  S.  Nourse,  D, 



Michael  O'Flanigan,  G, 



Adam  Osborne,  C, 



Jameson  Perry,  G, 



Albert  Eowell,  G, 



Jacob  Benold,  G, 



Joseph  Shirlow,  I, 



Henry  Sailor,  C, 



Isaac  Smith,  D, 



Patterson  Smith, 



Oliver  Sales.  G, 



William  11.  Veazie,  G, 



Joseph  G.  Walcott,  G, 



Ira  L.  Westcott,  C, 



William  Watson.  D. 

(  lorliaiu 


Thomas  Williams,  D, 



Charles  Wilson, 



Charles  B.  Wilcox, 



History  of  Coos  County. 

The  Ninth  Infantry. — This  regiment  was  recruited  more  slowly  than 
its  predecessors,  and  was  perhaps  the  first  that  experienced  to  any  consid- 
erable extent  the  effect  of  the  "  bounty  "  system.  It  went  into  camp  in 
Concord  in  June,  1862,  and  left  for  the  front  August  25,  under  Col.  E.  Q. 
Fellows,  formerly  of  the  Third.  It  was  a  gallant  regiment  and  performed 
heroic  service.  From  first  to  last,  it  had  many  good  men  from  the  county, 
and  lost  heavily  in  many  engagements,  notably,  Antietam,  Fredericksburg, 
the  battles  of  the  Wilderness  in  1864,  and  the  closing  conflicts  of  the  war. 
Its  service  was  under  Burnside,  in  Maryland,  Virginia,  Kentucky,  Mis- 
sissippi and  Tennessee,  and  it  was  mustered  out  in  June,  18(55. 

John  W.  Titus,  of  Keene,  was  Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  George  H. 
Chandler,  of  Concord,  Major.  Colonel  Fellows,  as  before  stated,  survives, 
as  does  Col.  Titus.  Major  Chandler  became  a  successful  lawyer  at  Balti- 
more and  died  within  a  few  years. 

The  original  detachment  from  this  county,  in  the  Ninth,  was  raised  by 
Lieut.  John  G.  Lewis  and  incorporated  in  Co.  H.  Lieut.  Lewis  was  a  man 
of  sterling  qualities,  tenderness  of  heart  and  personal  bravery.  He  was 
killed  while  leading  his  company  in  storming  the  Heights  at  Fredericks- 
burg in  December,  1862.  His  body  was  borne  off  the  field  at  night  by 
Masonic  comrades  and  given  interment  under  the  solemn  rites  of  that 
order,  at  Lancaster,  where  a  suitable  monument  records  his  virtues  and 
perpetuates  his  memory. 

With  Lieut.  Lewis  was  Lieut.  John  Edwin  Mason,  who  had  made  many 
friends  in  Coos,  while  preparing  the  county  map  in  1860.  He  was  engaged 
with  him  in  the  enlistments  and  was  commissioned  in  the  same  regiment. 
His  connection  with  the  soldiers  of  Coos  warrants  the  insertion  of  his  name 
in  this  connection.  He  was  of  Manchester,  served  with  credit  through  the 
war,  and  is  iioav  a  surgeon  in  the  Bureau  of  Pensions,  Washington. 

The  enlistments  from  Coos  and  the  subsequent  choice  of  Coos  recruits 
for  the  Ninth,  was  due  largely  to  the  character  and  zeal  of  Lieut.  Lewis, 
whose  memory  is  held  in  high  esteem.  The  service  of  this  regiment  was 
varied  and  trying.  Serving  in  many  states  and  on  all  kinds  of  military 
duty,  being  transported  over  great  distances  and  engaging  in  the  most 
arduous  campaigns,  it  won  and  preserved  a  most  honorable  reputation  for 
discipline,  endurance  and  bravery. 

John  G.  Lewis,  H,  Lieut., 
John  Howe,  H,  Sergt., 
Frederick  Morse,  H,  Corp., 
William  H.  Allen,  H, 
Cleveland  C  Beard,  H, 
Leonard  M.  Beard,  H, 
Azel  Dinsmore,  H, 
Sanford  Dinsmore,  H, 



William  H.  Farnham.  H, 



Henry  Houghton,  H, 



Albert  Lindsey,  H, 



Henry  H.  Moulton,  H, 



Freeman  H.  Perkins,  H, 



Henry  H.  Sanderson,  H, 



Lucien  F.  Thomas,  H, 



Leander  A.  Wilkins,  H, 


The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


Asahel  Aldrich,  H, 


Henry  H.  Lucas,  H, 


Abraham  H.  Bedell,  H, 


Charles  Lagard,  K, 

•i'  fferson 

Austin  Bedell,  H, 


Victor  Levie.  E, 


John  C.  Brooks,  H, 


Dennis  Murphy,  K, 


William  Boyle,  H, 


James  Murray,  A, 


John  Bondle,  II,  Mexican  war. 


Sylvester  A.  Newell,  E, 


Albert  8.  Brown,  K, 


Samuel  F.  Ordway,  E, 


Thomas  Bowman,  B, 


John  L.  Ordway,  E, 


John  W.  Brown,  I. 


Nathaniel  I'.  Ordway,  E, 


John  Bradley,  I, 


.lames  M.  IYttengill,  E, 


Simon  Conway,  H, 


Alfred  C.  Pratt,  H,  6th,  17th, 

and  2d,            .1.  fferson 

George  Cummings,  H,  2d,  17th 

and  6th,              u 

Paul  Perkins,  H, 


William  H.  Cram,  K, 


Willard  H.  Perry.  G, 


Martin  Connelly,  E, 


Charles  C.  Rogers,  H, 


James  Calden,  I, 


Harrison  E.  Round,  H, 


Horace  J.  Chandler,  A. 


Frederick  Rhodi,  G, 


Peter  Deering,  H, 


Alonzo  Stillings,  H, 

.li  ffersi m 

Ira  G.  Douglass,  F, 


Thomas  C.  Sullivan,  H, 


Philip  Deary,  G, 


Charles  Sweatt,  Jr.,  I, 


Charles  0.  Ellingwood,  E, 


John  Shover,  F, 


Walter  H.  Evans,  E, 


George  Tenry,  F, 


Loren  E.  Stalbird,  H, 


George  L.  Vincent,  E, 


Michael  Gibson,  E. 


John  Vrooman,  E, 


Ephraim  E.  Holmes,  H, 


Charles  H.  Warren,  K. 


Ereeman  H.  Holmes,  H, 


James  Ward,  G, 


Charles  H.  Hamlin,  E, 


James  Wilson,  G, 


Joseph  K.  Hod»e,  H, 


Joseph  Williams,  B, 


James  W.  Hayes,  H, 


Henry  Walker,  B, 


Calvin  Hicks.  K, 


John  Williams,  Jr.,  B, 


Silas  Howe,  K, 


Pecker  C.  Wood,  H, 


Edwin  R.  Jones,  H,  3d, 


Thomas  Thorn,  G, 


Charles  H.  Keyzar,  K, 


William  H.  Wilkins,  H, 


John  G.  Lewis,  2d.  H, 


The  Tenth  Infantry. — This  command,  popularly  known  as  the  Irish 
regiment,  was  organized  at  Manchester,  and  principally  from  that  city 
and  southern  portions  of  the  state.  It  went  into  camp  in  August,  1862, 
and  was  mustered  the  September  following,  Michael  T.  Donohoe  being  Colo- 
nel, John  Coughlin,  Lieut. -Col.,  and  Jesse  T.  Angell,  Major.  It  was  a 
part  of  the  Ninth  Corps,  and  served  in  Virginia  and  the  Carolinas,  being 
engaged  in  the  operations  of  180-1-65,  in  the  reduction  of  Petersburg  and 
Richmond,  and  was  mustered  out  June  21,  1st',;).  Col.  Donohoe  was  an 
accomplished  and  meritorious  officer,  and  was  advanced  to  the  rank  of 
Brigadier.  He  has,  since  the  war,  been  engaged  in  railway  pursuits,  and 
is  at  present  an  inspector  of  the  Postoffice  department.  Lieut-Col.  Cough- 
lin, after  having  served  with  distinction,  entered  business  in  Washington 
after  the  close  of  the  war,  where  he  has  attained  affluence. 

There  was  no  company  or  detachment  in  the  Tenth  from  the  county, 
which,  however,  was  represented  by  Surgeon  Horatio  N.  Small,  of  Lancas- 
ter, who  entered  the  Thirteenth  after  the  consolidation  of  hisoriginal  regi- 
ment, the  Seventeenth,  with  the  Second,  and  was  promoted  to  be  full  Surgeon 
of  the  Tenth.     At  the  close  of  the  war  Dr.  Small  settled  al  Portland,  M 


History  of  Coos  County. 

where  he  became  eminent  as  a  practitioner.  He  died  about  the  commence- 
ment of  the  present  year. 

The  Eleventh  Infantry. — This  command  was  recruited  in  August,  1S62, 
and  went  into  camp  at  Concord,  leaving  the  state  September  11.  It  was  a 
part  of  the  Ninth  Army  Corps,  served  in  Virginia,  Kentucky,  Tennessee, 
and  was  engaged  at  Fredericksburg,  Vicksburg,  the  Wilderness,  Spottsyl- 
vania,  Petersburg  and  the  closing  scenes  of  the  war.  It  was  a  regiment 
made  up  of  admirable  material,  occupied  a  large  share  of  public  attention, 
and  did  excellent  service.  Its  original  officers  were  Walter  Harriman,  of 
Warner,  Colonel;  Moses  N.  Collins,  of  Exeter,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  and 
Evarts  W.  Farr,  of  Littleton,  Major.  Colonel  Harriman,  after  the  war, 
became  for  several  years  Secretary  of  State,  was  Governor  and  naval 
officer  of  the  port  of  Boston.  He  died  June  1,  1884.  Lieut. -Col.  Collins 
was  killed  at  the  Wilderness,  May  6,  1864,  and  Major  Farr  served  through 
the  war,  was  elected  to  Congress  in  1878,  and  re-elected  in  November, 
1880.     He  died  the  December  following,  at  his  home  in  Littleton. 


John  Burgin,  G, 


Michael  O'Niel,  B, 


Robert  Burns. 


Francis  O'Niel, 


Charles  W.  Blakely, 


William  Phillips, 


Clarence  W.  Bixby, 


John  Price. 


James  Cunningham, 


Julius  K.  Ringer, 


August  Cochar. 


John  Richards 


William  Carroll, 


John  Smith, 


Alonzo  D.  Creamer,  G, 


Samuel  Sibley, 


Frederick  K.  Ernworth, 


Edward  Savanack, 


James  Gold, 


Frank  Salerno, 


Michael  Foley,  K, 


Pierre  Tonguire, 


Francis  Gallagher,  D, 


Louis  Vauder, 


Thomas  Hill, 


John  Wesley, 


Edward  Harrington, 


John  Wolf, 

Jerl'erso  n 

William  Jones, 


Charles  West, 

u  name 

Louis  Levi  it. 


John  C.  Wilson, 


Joseph  Miller, 


Eugene  Welsh. 


William  Millerick,  C, 


August  Welsh, 


John  McDonnell,  E. 


The  Twelfth  Infantry. — This  command  was  raised  within  less  than  one 
week,  in  August,  1862,  in  the  region  around  Lake  Winnipiseogee.  It  was 
understood  that  the  men  were  to  select  their  own  officers,  and  detachments 
and  companies  were  made  up  from  localities,  so  that  the  aggregate  was 
more  like  the  muster  of  a  Highland  clan,  than  like  a  common  regiment. 
It  was  the  fervent  desire  of  all,  that  the  veteran,  Thomas  J.  Whipple,  a 
soldier  of  two  wars,  and  late  of  the  First  and  Fourth,  should  be  placed  in 
command;  but  the  Executive  failed  to  ratify  this  wish,  and  Joseph  H.  Pot- 
ter, a  New  Hampshire  man,  and  an  accomplished  officer  of  the  regular 
army,  was  placed  in  command,  with  John  F.  Marsh,  of  Nashua,  as  Lieu- 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos.  175 

tenant-Colonel,  and  George  D.  Savage,  of  Alton,  as  Major.  The  regiment 
served  with  distinction  in  Virginia  during  its  entire  enlistment.  Col.  Tot- 
ter survived  the  war,  and  has  recently  gone  upon  the  retired  list  of  the 
army  as  a  Brigadier.  Major  Savage,  a  great  favorite  with  all  the  "hoys," 
was  long  a  popular  character  at  all  soldier  gatherings,  and  died  greatly 
lamented,  within  a  few  years,  at  his  home  at  Alton  Bay.  The  veterans  of 
New  Hampshire  have  two  notable  reminders  of  the  gallant  Twelfth, — Col. 
Nat  Shackford,  the  indefatigable  secretary  of  the  Veterans'  Association. 
and  the  "  Memorial  Stone  "  at  the  Wiers,  the  gift  of  comrade  Woodbury 
Sanborn,  now  of  Lowell. 

The  Thirteenth  Infantry. — This  regiment  went  into  camp  at  Concord,  in 
September,  1862,  with  Aaron  F.  Stevens,  of  Nashua,  late  Lieutenant- 
Colonel  of  the  First  Regiment,  Colonel;  George  Bowers,  also  of  Nashua, 
a  veteran  of  the  Mexican  war,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  and  Clement  Storer,of 
Portsmouth,  Major.  It  left  the  state  early  in  October,  and  its  service 
throughout  was  in  Virginia  It  was  mustered  out  June  20,  1865,  and  ar- 
rived home  about  the  first  of  July.  It  was  engaged  at  Fredericksburg, 
Suffolk,  Drury's  Bluff,  Petersburg,  and  in  other  notable  conflicts,  and  on 
all  occasions  won  and  maintained  high  credit.  Col.  Stevens  was  brevetted 
Brigadier,  and  was  subsequently  a  member  of  Congress.  Distinguished 
as  a  public  man  and  lawyer,  he  resides  at  Nashua,  enjoying  deserved 
honors.  Lieut. -Col.  Bowers  was  afterward  distinguished  for  his  adminis- 
tration as  Grand  Commander  of  the  Department  of  New  Hampshire,  of 
the  G.  A.  R.     He  died  at  Nashua  within  a  few  years. 

In  this  regiment  was  one  company,  H,  and  many  recruits  from  this 
county,  chiefly  the  northern  towns.  This  command  was*  raised  by  Nor- 
mand  Smith,  Captain,  of  Sfcewartstown;  Albe  Holmes  and  Robert  R. 
Thompson,  of  Stratford,  Lieutenants.  It  was  composed  entirely  of  volun- 
teers, and  from  the  best  material  the  county  afforded — men  who  realized 
the  work  before  them,  and  on  all  occasions  performed  their  duties  with 
intelligence,  patience  and  bravery.  Captain  Smith,  in  time,  rose  to  the 
command  of  the  regiment.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he  moved  to  the 
vicinity  of  Richmond,  Va.,  a  location  familiarized  to  him  by  the  dangers 
and  trials  of  his  military  career.  He  has  been  a  member  of  the  Virginia 
Senate,  and  held  other  stations  of  responsibility.  Lieut.  Holmes,  after  a 
successful  business  career  in  northern  Coos,  engaged  in  trade  in  Boston, 
and  resides  near  that  city.     Lieut.  Thompson  died  in  the  army. 

No  better  body  of  men  went  from  the  state,  than  those  men  who  en- 
listed from  Coos,  in  this  regiment.  Since  their  return  they  have  prospered, 
generally,  in  business,  and  merit  the  respect  that  is  accorded  them. 


History  of  Coos  County. 


Normand  Smith,  Lt.-Col.,  Stewartstown 

Robert  R.  Thompson,  H,  D,  Captain,  Stratford 

Albe  Holmes,  H,  Lieut.,  " 

Hubbard  W.  Hill,  I,  Lieut., 

Levi  M.  Wines,  JB,  Gorham 

Jonathan  M.  Rix,  D,  Dalton 

Otis  B.  Harriman,  D,  Lancaster 

Fred'kK.  Fletcher,  H,  (Capt.  U.  S.  C.  T.)  Colebrook 
Paul  C.  Davis,  H,  Columbia 

Wm.  A.  Graham,  H,  (Capt  U.  S.  C.  T.)  Stewartstowii 

Ira  Quimby,  H, 

Van  R.  Davis,  H. 

Cyrus  R.  Blodgett,  H, 

John  A.  T.  Perham,  H, 

Ferrin  A.  Cross,  H, 

William  Heath,  H, 

Oliver  H.  Stark,  H, 

Sidney  A.  Elmer,  H, 

Augustus  Osgood,  H, 

Daniel  G.  Kipley,  H, 

Frank  Snow.  H, 

Robinson  S.  Gamsby,  H, 

Franklin  Annis,  H, 

Elbridge  G.  Arlin,  H, 

Erastus  S.  Atherton,  H, 

Elias  Anderson,  H, 

Arnold  Aldrich,  H, 

Sherman  F.  Bennett,  H, 

Charles  W.  Brown,  H, 

Albert  C.  Blodgett,  H, 

Truman  D.  Barnett,  H, 

Sherman  H.  Barnett,  H, 

Leander  Babb,  H, 

George  Brown,  H, 

Jesse  M.  Colby,  H, 

James  C.  Carleton,  H, 

James  Carr,  H, 

Benjamin  R.  Corbett,  H, 

William  Chappel,  H. 

Caleb  T.  Cleveland,  H, 

Alma  M.  Cross,  H, 

Chester  W.  Cilley,  H, 

Addison  ('base,  H, 

David  Clement,  H, 

Patrick  Doorley,  H, 

C;i hb  S.  Dalton,  H, 

Joseph  B.  Eastman,  H, 

Carlos  R.  Fletcher,  H, 

Charles  Forbes,  H. 

Carleton  ('.  Fuller,  H, 

Charles  C.  Faver,  H, 

Henry  B.  Gilkey,  H, 

Abie!  B.  (ilines,  H, 

Charles  E.  Graham,  H,  (Lt.  U.  S.  C.  T.) 

Henry  Hibbard,  H, 

Charles  J.  Hilliard,  H, 

Orrin  HiUiard,  II. 

































Albert  Harris,  H, 
David  Holbrook,  H, 
Oliver  B.  Huggins,  H, 
Elwyn  Holbrook,  H, 
Charles  Heath,  H, 
Francis  G.  Haines,  H, 
Nathan  Heath,  H, 
Almanzo  Heath,  H, 
Augustus  A.  Heath,  H, 
John  W.  Heath,  H. 
Nelson  Haines,  H. 
John  A.  Hodge.  H, 
Andrew  Hanan,  H, 
William  R.  Jordan,  H, 
Abel  K.  Jordan,  Jr.,  H, 
George  C.  Kimball,  H, 
James  Knight,  H, 
John  R.  Little,  H, 
Joseph  D.  Little,  H, 
Philip  Ladon,  H, 
William  B.  Luey,  H, 
James  Legro,  2d,  H, 
Ephraim  H.  Mahurin,  H, 
Milo  Mahurin.  H, 
William  Men-ill,  H, 
Jeremiah  Merrow,  H. 
Edwin  Patterson,  H, 
Daniel  W.  Patrick,  H, 
William  MeKinnon,  H, 
Andrew  Matson,  H, 
George  R.  Pomeroy,  H, 
William  Ro  we,  H, 
Daniel  Renton,  H, 
Seidell  J.  Stacy,  H, 
James  Spreadbury,  H, 
David  Spreadbury,  H, 
Charles  C.  Stoddard,  H, 
Fred  Shorey,  H, 
Thomas  Smith,  H, 
Henry  S.  Sleeper,  H, 
Gardner  W.  Smith,  H, 
Alvah  Warren,  H, 
Jeduthan  F  Warren,  H, 
Henry  M.  Woodbury,  H, 
John  C.  Walker.  H, 
James  W.  Weeks,  H, 
Hiram  C.  Young,  H, 
George  P..  Abbott,  H, 
Arthur  R.  Aldrich,  H, 
Albion  ('.  Aldrich.  H, 
<  leorge  H.  Bannister,  H, 
James  H.  Bacon,  H. 
Edwin  R.  Cilley,  I, 
Timothy  Covell,  I, 
David  S.  Chandler,  I, 
Charles  ( i.  Crawford,  H, 
Carleton  Fay,  I, 









( li  ilebrook 
























The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 

i  i 

William  H.  Clark,  H, 


Bi  ajamin  Knight,  H, 

sii  vrartstown 

Daniel  Fletcher,  H, 


Lemuel  Lafoe,  11. 


Henry  Gleason,  I, 


Daniel  McAlister,  H, 


Charles  D.  Gamsby,  I. 


Dana  1!.  Moody,  11, 


William  H.  Gault,  H, 


Jul m  Paul,  H, 


Gustavus  E.  Harvey.  I, 


Charles  Perry,  H, 


Levi  Hicks,  I. 


Charles  W.  Randall,  I, 

( Ulibrook 

John  Hogue,  I. 


(  teorge  A.  Powell,  H, 


(iuy  W.  Johnson,  I, 


David  0.  Rowell,  H, 


John  J.  Johnson,  I, 


Simon  S.  P.  Smith,  I, 

i  loli  brook 

James  M.  Jordon,  H, 


Ira  Sweat  t,  I, 


Daniel  Johnson, 


John  Titus,  I, 


Henry  A.  Keach,  H, 


William  H.Tibbetts,  I, 


Robert  Knight.  H. 


Lewis  Tashro, 


Fourteenth  Infantry. — This  was  the  last  three  years  regiment.  It  was 
composed  of  excellent  men,  who  discharged  their  duties  with  exemplary 
fidelity  and  honor.  It  was  mustered  at  Concord,  September  24,  1^< '>:_'.  and 
left  the  state  the  latter  part  of  the  ensuing  October.  It  first  reported  at 
AVashington  and  spent  the  winter  in  picketing  forty  miles  of  thePotomar. 
did  provost  and  guard  duty  in  Washington  in  1863,  and  the  next  spring 
was  ordered  to  New  Orleans,  but  came  north  the  same  summer,  when  it 
went  into  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  engaging  in  the  historic  campaign  of 
that  year.  The  succeeding  January  it  w^as  sent  to  Savannah,  Georgia, 
coming  north  again  in  July,  being  mustered  out  at  Concord  on  the  26th  of 
that  month. 

It  was  originally  commanded  by  Robert  Wilson,  of  Keene,  Colonel; 
Tileston  A.  Barker,  of  Westmoreland,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  and  Samuel  A. 
Duncan,  of  Plainfield,  Major.  Col.  Wilson  resigned  on  the  18th  of  Sep- 
tember, 1864,  when  Major  Alexander  Gardiner  was  promoted  to  Colonel; 
he  was  mortally  wounded  at  Opequan  the  following  day. 

In  this  regiment,  Co.  E  and  many  recruits  came  from  this  count y. 
chiefly  from  the  Androscoggin  and  Ammonoosuc  valleys  and  from  about 
Lancaster.  This  command,  like  the  Thirteenth,  was  composed  of  excel- 
lent material.  It  was  originally  enlisted  by  Edmund  Brown,  who  was  for 
s,  time  a  Captain  in  the  Fifth,  but  was  turned  over  by  him  to  Freedom  M. 
Rhodes,  of  Lancaster,  who  was  commissioned  Captain.  Franklin  \V heeler, 
of  Berlin,  John  E.  Willis,  of  Gorham,  for  whom  is  named  the  local  post 
of  the  G.  A.  R.,  and  Charles  Cobleigh,  of  Northumberland,  were  at  differ- 
ent times  Lieutenants.  The  service  of  this  regiment,  and  of  our  own  people 
in  its  ranks,  was  every  way  creditable  to  its  members.  Capt.  Brown  died 
at  Lancaster  in  L882.  Capt.  Rhodes,  after  many  disappointments  in  his 
plans  and  aspirations,  died  at  Hartford,  Vt..  within  a  few  years,  and  was 
buried  at  Lancaster.  Lieuts.  Wheeler  and  Cobleigh  still  remain  to  enjoy 
the  honors  they  won. 



History  of  Coos  County. 


Freedom  M.  Rhodes,  2d,  Capt., 

Franklin  Wheeler,  E,  Lieut., 

John  E.  Willis,  E,  Lieut., 

Hiram  J.  Rand,  E, 

John  A.  Harriman,  E, 

Lewis  P.  Summers,  E, 

Walter  Buck,  E, 

Thomas  J.  Lary,  E, 

Isaac  R.  Smith,  E, 

David  S.  Harvey,  E, 

Leland  B.  Philbrook,  E, 

William  A.  Willis,  E, 

George  W.  Purington,  E, 

Ormando  Larv,  E. 

Theodore  Morin,  E, 

George  R.  Holmes,  E, 

Abel  H.  Wesson,  E, 

George  Applebee,  E, 

George  S.  Bartlett,  E, 

Joseph  Brooks.  E, 

Harvey  R.  Brown,  E, 

Frank  Boutwell,  E. 

Emery  M.  D.  Ball,  E, 

Horace  Cushman,  2d,  E, 

Moses  S.  Curtis,  E, 

Aaron  Cotton,  E, 

William  H.  Clark, 

Bryant  E.  Crawford,  E, 

Moses  Colby,  E, 

John  G.  Day,  E, 

Alden  A.  Dow,  E. 

Oscar  P.  Ellingwood,  E, 

Edwin  F.  Evans,  E, 

Nathaniel  Emery,  E, 

Marquis  D.  L.  Elliot,  E, 

Darius  G.  Eastman,  E, 

William  Evans,  E, 

Erastus  W.  Forbes,  E, 

Stephen  P.  Folsom,  E, 

George  W.  Ford,  E, 

Henry  Goodnow,  E, 

John  W.  Greenlaw,  E, 

Jared  Gray,  E. 

Rufus  D.  Gaskill,  E, 

Joseph  M.  Gray,  E, 

Daniel  Griffin.  E, 

Alman  P.  Gaskill,  E, 

Ida  A.  Hodge,  E, 

William  W.  Holbrook,  E, 

Roswell  Holbrook,  E, 

James  O.  Hubbard,  E, 

Hiram  G.  Hicks,  E, 

Thomas  A.  Hawkins,  E, 

Charles  Henson,  E, 

Moses  Henson,  E, 

George  W.  Ingerson,  E, 

William  W.  Johnson,  E, 


Harry  W.  Jordan,  E, 



Thomas  J.  Jordan,  E, 



Edward  Jarvis,  E, 



William  Jarvis,  E, 



Calvin  J.  Knight,  E, 



Andrew  J.  Lary,  E, 



Eldolph  Lary,  E. 



John  B.  Love  joy,  E, 



William  M.  Limn,  E, 



Henry  A.  Lane,  E. 



George  H.  Lindsay,  E, 



Benjamin  F.  Moulton,  E, 



George  W.  Morse,  E, 



John  Morse,  E, 



Erastus  Massure,  E, 



Jonas  Massure,  E, 



Freeman  Marshall,  E, 



Loren  McFarland,  E, 



Daniel  McAllister,  E, 



Charles  E.  Nutter,  E. 



Daniel  Ordway,  E, 



John  D.  Orcutt. 



Henry  Paige,  E, 



Daniel  Potter.  E, 



John  Purington,  E, 



George  C.  Quint,  E, 



James  M.  Rowe,  E, 



Lemuel  M.  Richardson,  E, 



Daniel  S.  Robbins,  E, 



Spaulding  S.  Rich.  E, 



Munroe  J.  Stone,  E, 



William  H.  H.  Stalbird,  E, 



Reuel  P.  Stillings,  E, 



Sumner  Sessions,  E. 



William  Sherwood,  E, 



Claudius  A.  Twitchell,  E, 



John  Veazie,  E. 



Asahel  K.  Wallace,  E. 



Alger  B.  Wheeler,  E, 



Edward  B.  Wilder,  E, 



George  F.  Webb,  E, 



Horace  York,  E, 



David  Young,  E, 



Antipas  Young,  E, 



Ethan  A.  Andrews.  F, 



James  H.  Blodgett.  F, 



^Yilliam  J.  Cummings,  F, 



John  Cummings,  F, 



Patrick  Carmen,  F, 



Thomas  Casey,  F, 



William  R,  Elliot,  F. 



Sumner  F.  Frost.  F, 



Frederick  0.  Hayes,  F, 



Ira  D.  Hyde,  F, 



Perrin  Lambert,  F, 



W(  sley  J.  Lucas,  F, 



Andrew  Pheney,  F, 


The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


George  A.  Wentwc*tb 



Anton  Kliner, 

1:   i     n 

James  H.  Webber,  F, 


Edward  Letcher,  F, 


Sidney  I.  Wells,  F, 


John  D.  Pike,  E, 


Eben  W.  Parker,  I, 


Charles  M.  Twitched,  E, 


John  McMahan,  I, 


Jesse  Underwood,  E, 


William  Blair,  E, 


Thomas  Wentworth,  E, 


Caleb  F.  Bean,  E, 


John  Alexander. 


Abraham  Bell, 


Frank  Sabine,  E, 


Alanson  Cross,  E, 


Alexander  Vancore, 


Charles  Cobleigh,  E,  Lieut.. 


Charles  A.  Whipp,  E, 


Peter  Dyer,  C, 


Henry  A.  Reach, 


John  C.  Evans,  E, 


Albion  C.  Aldrich, 


Alpheus  W.  Hawkins, 



Hezekiah  Stoddard, 

Stt  wartstown 

The  Fifteenth  Infantry. — This  was  the  first  of  the  nine  months  regi- 
ments, went  into  camp  at  Concord  in  October,  186:2,  leaving  the  state 
November  12,  serving  with  Gen.  Banks's  command  on  the  lower  Mississippi, 
taking  part  in  the  siege  of  Port  Hudson  and  other  operations  in  that  region, 
and  was  mustered  out  at  Concord  August  13,  1863.  It  had  no  men  from 
this  county.  John  W.  Kingman,  of  Durham,  was  its  Colonel,  George  W. 
Frost,  of  XeAvmarket,  Lieutenant- Colonel,  and  Henry  W.  Blair,  who  had 
raised  a  company  at  Plymouth,  Major. 

Col.  Kingman,  after  peace  was  restored,  was  appointed  Governor  of 
Wyoming  Territory,  where  he  now  resides.  Major  Blair,  promoted  to 
Lieutenant-Colonel,  entered  political  life,  was  a  member  of  the  House  and 
Senate,  was  twice  elected  to  Congress,  and  is  now  serving  on  his  second 
term  in  the  Senate  of  the  United  States. 

The  Fifteenth  was  a  good  regiment,  and  during  its  brief  service  per- 
formed important  and  valuable  duties. 

Sixteenth  Infantry. — This  was  the  second  of  the  nine  months  regi- 
ments. It  contained  no  men  from  Coos.  It  went  into  camp  at  Concord 
in  October,  1862,  was  mustered  with  the  minimum  number  allowable  for  a 
regiment, — after  great  effort  to  secure  such  number, — about  the  middle  of 
the  succeeding  month,  joining  Banks's  expedition  on  the  lower  Mississippi. 
It  suffered  terribly  from  sickness,  although  it  lost  no  men  in  battle,  and 
was  depleted  far  beyond  the  average  mortality  of  conflict.  It  was  at  New 
Orleans,  Baton  Eouge,  and  Port  Hudson,  came  north  the  following  sum- 
mer, and  was  mustered  out  the  20th  of  August,  L863. 

In  the  organization  of  this  command,  Rev.  James  Pike,  late  presidium- 
elder  of  the  Methodist  church,  was  Colonel,  Henry  W.  Fuller,  of  Con- 
cord, Lieutenant-Colonel,  and  Samuel  Davis,  Jr.,  of  Warner,  Major.  Col- 
onel Pike  was  afterward  elected  to  Congress,  and  made  an  unsuccessful 
run  for  Governor.  This  regiment  did  its  duty  well,  and  accomplished  all 
that  was  assigned  to  it. 

The  Seventeenth  Infantry. — The  history  of  this  regimenl  i^  so  excep- 
tional as  to  call  for  a  brief  review  of  the  facts  attending  its  formation  and 

180  History  of  Coos  County. 

In  August,  1802,  the  President  issued  his  call  for  300,000  men  for  nine 
months.  Governor  Berry,  on  reception  of  this  call,  convened  his  council, 
and  determined  to  call  for  three  regiments  of  volunteers,  first  appointing 
their  field  officers  and  assigning  the  Fifteenth  to  the  First  Congressional 
district;  the  Sixteenth  to  the  Second  district;  and  the  Seventeenth  to  the 
Third  district,  then  embracing  the  counties  of  Cheshire,  Sullivan,  Graf- 
ton and  Coos,  so  that  the  officers  being  thus  selected,  volunteers  would 
understand  with  whom  they  were  to  serve.  The  field  officers  of  the  Seven- 
teenth were  Colonel,  Henry  O.  Kent,  of  Lancaster;  Lieut. -Col.,  Charles 
H.  Long,  of  Claremont;  and  Major,  George  H.  Bellows,  of  Walpole. 

The  records  of  the  Adjutant-General's  office  show  that  701  men  at  once 
volunteered,  in  the  territory  assigned  for  this  regiment.  Almost  an  entire 
company  was  raised  at  Lancaster  and  in  Coos,  although  it  was  in  excess  of 
all  quotas,  and  equal  zeal  was  manifested  elsewhere. 

The  Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth  regiments  were  at  this  time  in  process  of 
formation,  and  in  camp  at  Concord.  The  War  Department,  requesting 
urgency  in  forwarding  troops,  the  state  authorities,  contrary  to  the  under- 
standing, when  the  field  officers  were  appointed,  ordered  the  companies 
first  raised,  irrespective  of  location,  first  into  camp,  thus  assigning  several 
hundred  men  raised  for  this  regiment,  to  the  Fifteenth  and  Sixteenth,  its 
numerical  predecessors. 

Thus  denied  the  men  enlisted  for  it,  the  Seventeenth  went  into  camp  at 
Concord,  in  November,  1S62,  just  as  the  Sixteenth  left  the  state.  A  regi- 
mental organization  was  perfected,  and  drill  and  discipline  commenced  and 
continued.  All  through  that  dreary  winter  its  officers  were  assured  the 
command  should  be  filled,  but  volunteering  had  ceased,  the  Governor  in 
person  ordered  the  acceptance  of  substitutes  discontinued,  and  no  re- 
sources remained,  save  the  unfilled  quotas  of  dilatory  and  unwilling  towns. 
An  attempt  was  made  to  secure  the  enforcement  of  a  state  draft,  author- 
ized by  law,  and  under  the  control  of  a  board  of  draft  commissioners.  A 
draft  was  ordered  for  December  21,  1862,  but  it  was  postponed  to  January 
8,  18(38,  and  finally  abandoned.  With  the  surrender  of  the  draft,  all  hope 
of  aid  from  the  state  was  given  up,  and  February  9th  the  regiment  was 
furloughed  to  April  1,  when,  it  was  said,  decisive  measures  would  be 
taken  to  put  the  command  upon  active  service. 

This  interval,  and  the  early  part  of  April,  was  spent  in  earnest  efforts 
by  the  field  and  line  officers,  through  memorials  to  members  of  Congress, 
to  induce  the  War  Department  to  convert  the  regiment  into  batteries  of 
artillery,  to  send  it  out  as  a  battalion,  or  to  place  it  on  detached  service, 
that  officers  and  men  might,  together,  serve  out  their  enlistment  at  the 
front.  These  requests  were  not  approved,  so  that,  when  the  regiment  re- 
assembled in  April,  nothing  remained  but  to  follow  a  special  order  of  the 
War  Department  which  mustered  out  its  commissioned  and  non-commis- 

The  Soldiers  of  Co<">s.  im 

sioned  officers,  and  transferred  the  enlisted  men  to  the  Second  Infantry 
then  at  home  on  furlough,  which  was  done  April  1(5,  L863. 

The  men  of  the  Seventeenth,  thus  taken  from  their  own  officers  and 
command,  found  congenial  association  with  the  soldiers  of  that  admira- 
ble regiment,  the  Second,  exhibiting  a  high  order  of  discipline  and  bravery 
at  Gettysburg,  losing  as  heavy  a  percentage  in  dead  and  wounded  as  any 
command  in  that  historic  engagement. 

At  the  close  of  their  term  of  enlistment  they  were  mustered  out,  but 
so  conspicuous  had  been  their  work  that  the  commanding  officer  of  the 
Second,  Colonel  Edward  L.  Bailey,  now  of  the  Regular  Army,  issued  a 
special  commendatory  order,  which  we  reproduce:— 

"Head  Quarters  2d  New  IIamp.  Vols. 

•  "  PojNT  Lookout,  Maryland,  i 

September  22,  1868.      \" 
"  General  Order  No  14. 

"Soldiers  of  the  17th  :— 
"Aroused  by  the  necessities  of  your  country,  you  assembled  under  a  gallant  and  accomplished 
leader,  with  justly  high  hopes,  to  lead  with  him,  a  brilliant  career.  After  months  of  uncertainty, 
you  were  consolidated  with  the  Second.  You  had  no  choice  in  your  disposition.  You  have  com- 
ported yourselves  as  men  should,  and  have  secured  the  respect  of  comrades  and  officers.  During 
the  terrible  contest  (Gettysburg)  you  stood  shoulder  to  shoulder  with  the  familiars  of  fifteen  bat- 
tles, fighting  as  valiantly.     *     * 

'Ed.  L.  Bailey, 

"Col.  2d  X.  H.  Vols." 

Lieut. -Col.  Long,  as  recited  elsewhere,  became  subsequently  Captain 
of  Battery  A,  and  Colonel  of  the  first  and  only  regiment  of  Heavy 
Artillery.     At  the  close  of  the  war  he  returned  to  his  home  at  Claremont. 

Major  Bellows  afterwards  served  with  the  same  rank,  in  command  of 
a  battalion  of  infantry  raised  for  service  in  that  section  of  Virginia,  near 
Washington,  under  control  of  the  Union  forces,  wherein  the  state  gov- 
ernment, under  Governor  Pierpont,  exercised  authority. 

With  the  untoward  circumstances  attending  this  regiment,  arising  out 
of  the  presumed  exigencies  of  the  service,  it  is  a  gratifying  recollection 
and  reflection,  that  the  officers  and  men  of  the  Seventeenth  Infantry  did 
their  whole  duty  wherever  placed,  obeying  orders  wholly  unfortunate 
and  destructive  of  their  pride  and  hopes,  with  soldierly  alacrity;  that  the 
men,  in  the  most  desperate  conflict  of  the  war,  elicited  special  mention 
for  their  bravery,  and  that  this  command  enjoys  fraternal  recognition  and 
equal  regard  from  the  members  of  every  war  organization  from  the  state. 


Henry  O.  Kent,  Colonel,  Lancaster 

Edward  N.  Cummings,  Quartermaster,        Colebrook 
James  D.  Folsom,  Surgeon,  Lancaster 

Horatio  N.  Small,  Asst.  Surgeon,  13th  and  10th,   " 
Jared  I.  Williams,  A,  Captain,  '' 

James  S.  Bracket t.  A.  Lieut.,  Lancaster 

.Jc-cpli  CIki-  .  A.  Lieut.. 

Charles  N.  Kent,  c.  Lieut.,  " 

Ira  s.  M.  Gove,  Lieut.,  Commissary, 

Daniel  C.  Bean,  A.  Berlin 


History  of  Coos  County. 

John  P.  Denison,  A, 

Jesse  Tuttle,  C, 

Charles  E.  King,  A, 

Ezra  B.  Bennett,  A, 

William  B.  Ingalls,  A, 

Charles  A.  Larkin,  A, 

Charles  H.  Brown,  A. 

George  W.  Blood,  A, 

George  H.  Emerson,  A, 

Oliver  P.  Smith,  A, 

Ellery  Wheeler,  A, 

Hezekiah  E.  Hadlock,  A,  H'y  Art., 

William  J.  Chamberlain,  A, 

Thomas  P.  Moody,  A, 

Harvey  H.  Lucas,  A, 

Walter  S.  Bailey,  A,  H'y  Art., 

William  Armee, 

Austin  Bedel,  A, 

Robert  Blakely,  A, 

Simpson  E.  Chase,  A, 

Shepherd  B.  Cram,  A, 

Lewis  W.  Cutler,  A, 

George  Cumings,  Jr.,  2d,  A,  9th, 

Thomas  Cunningham,  A, 

Albra  D.  Cram,  A, 

John  G.  Derby,  C,  Orel.  Sergt.. 

Jonathan  E.  Dustin,  A, 

Joseph  H.  Dustin, 

Rut'us  C.  Hodgdon,  A, 

Royal  Hicks,  A, 

Delevan  G.  Hubbard,  A, 

The  Eighteenth  Infantry. — This  was  the  last  regimental  organization 
mustered,  and  was  made  up  of  men  who  enlisted  indifferently  for  differ- 
ent terms  of  service.  Recruiting  commenced  in  July,  1864,  but  with  the 
organization  of  six  companies  the  quota  of  the  state  was  filled.  During 
the  next  spring  three  more  companies  were  sent  out,  but  K  company  was 
stationed  at  Galloupe's  Island,  Boston  Harbor,  and  was  never  ordered  to 
the  front.  There  was  no  company  in  this  regiment  from  Coos.  The  Reg- 
imental organization  was  Thomas  L.  Livermore,  of  Milford,  who  had 
served  with  distinction  in  the  Fifth,  Colonel;  Joseph  M.  Clough,  of  New 
London,  who  had  an  excellent  record  as  a  Captain  in  the  Fourth,  and  who 
has  since  commanded  the  militia  of  the  state  as  Brigadier-General,  Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel; and  William  I.  Brown,  of  Penacook,  former  Adjutant  of 
the  Ninth,  Major.  This  command  was  engaged  in  front  of  Petersburg, 
and  had  an  honorable  record.  It  was  mustered  out  at  Concord  by  detach- 
ments in  June,  July  and  August,  1805.  Charles  H.  Bell,  since  Governor, 
was  originally  commissioned  Colonel,  and  J.  W.  Carr,  of  Manchester, 
formerly  of  the  Second,  Lieutenant-Colonel,  but  each  resigned  before 


Leland  Hidjbard,  A, 



Willard  A.  Jackson,  A, 



Alfred  Jackson,  A, 



John  C.  Jenness,    A, 

■  I 


Lewis  M.  Jackman,  A, 



Joseph  Kiley,  A, 



Asa  J.  King,  A, 



Robert  King,  A, 


Nelson  B.  Lindsey,  A, 



John  C.  Moore,  A, 



Henry  McCarthy,  A, 


I  ancaster 

Charles  W.  Moulton,  A, 



John  M.  Newell,  A, 



Sidney  H.  Peaslee,  A, 



Sumner  Perkins,  A," 



Alfred  C.  Pratt,  A, 



William  C.  Putnam,  A, 



Frank  Rafferty,  Jr.,  A, 



Albro  L.  Robinson,  A, 



James  Reed,  A. 



Ebenezer  Rines,  A, 



James  Ross,  A, 



William  L.  Rowell,  A,  Sergeant, 



Jason  Sherwood,  A, 



John  W.  Smith,  A, 



Cyril  C.  Smith,  A, 

f  f 


Edmund  B.  Sanborn,  A, 



William  Warren,  A, 



George  H.  Weare,  A, 

f  f 


Albert  F.  Whipple,  A,  Band  Leader, 



John  C.  Staples,  A, 


The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 



Samuel  I.  Bailey, 


Galen  C.  Smith.  K, 


Michael  Earley,  H, 


Richard  Tinkham,  K. 


Patrick  ( lassady,  K, 

i  . 

William  Keazan, 


John  Williams,  I, 


Alma  Cates,  F, 

( lorham 

Frank  W.  Dimond,  K 



Jacob  F.  Frost,  F, 


George  N.  Jones.  K. 


Stephen  Morse,  C, 


William  H.  Crawford, 



James  II.  Thomas,  C, 


William  A.  Hawkins, 



John  Nolan. 


Samuel  A.  Hodgman, 



The  Light  Artillery. — This  organization,  which  was  a  very  complete 
and  perfect  one,  was  raised  at  Manchester  in  the  summer  of  1.861.  It  was 
the  only  Light  Battery  recruited  in  the  state.  Its  organization  was  George 
A.  Gerrish,  of  Portsmouth,  Captain;  Fred  M.  Edgill,  of  Orford,  and  Edwin 
H.  Hobhs,  of  Manchester,  1st  Lieutenants;  and  John  Wadleigh  and  Henry 
F.  Condict,  of  Manchester,  2d  Lieutenants.  It  served  with  the  Army  of 
the  Potomac  through  the  war,  distinguishing  itself  in  all  its  principal  bat- 
tles. In  1864  it  was  designated  as  Co.  M,  of  the  1st  Heavy  Artillery,  to 
allow  that  command  to  muster  as  a  regimental  organization.  While  the 
artillery  service  of  the  Army  of  the  Potomac  was  exceptionally  good,  this 
battery  maintained  a  rank  for  excellence  and  bravery  with  the  best.  It 
was  mustered  out  in  June,  1865. 

The  Heavy  Artillery. — Immediately  upon  the  consolidation  of  the 
Seventeenth  with  the  Second,  Lieut. -Col.  Long,  of  the  former  regiment, 
obtained  authority  to  raise  a  company  of  Heavy  Artillery,  to  garrison  Fort 
Constitution,  in  Portsmouth  harbor.  This  company  was  soon  raised, 
Lieut. -Col.  Long  being  its  Captain,  he  taking  with  him  several  non-com- 
missioned officers  of  the  Seventeenth.  Later,  Capt.  Ira  McL.  Barton,  of 
Newport,  of  the  Fifth,  obtained  authority  to  raise  a  second  company  for 
garrison  duty  at  Fort  McClary,  across  the  Piscataqua  from  Fort  Constitu- 
tion. These  two  companies,  A  and  B.  were  mustered  during  the  summer 
of  1863.  In  the  early  autumn  of  1864,  authority  was  granted  to  augment 
this  nucleus  to  a  full  regiment  of  twelve  companies  of  1,800  men.  The 
attractions  for  this  enlistment  were  great,  and  recruiting  went  on  briskly. 
Cos.  A  and  B  had,  at  this  period,  been  for  some  time  in  the  defenses  of  Wash- 
ington, the  line  of  earthworks  north  and  west  of  the  city,  and  the  new 
companies  were  forwarded  to  the  same  assignment  as  fast  as  mustered. 
Kecruiting  lagged,  with  the  organization  of  the  Eleventh  Co.,  and  in  order 
to  give  the  command  a  muster  of  regimental  officers,  the  Light  Battery, 
which  had  been  in  active  service  since  1861,  was  designated  as  Co.  M,  and 
transferred  to  the  Heavies.  Col.  Long  being  mustered,  and  the  regimental 
organization  thus  completed,  the  battery  was  ordered  on  detached  service 
under  Gen.  Hancock's  command,  so  that  its  only  connection  with  the  regi- 
ment was  to  enable  it  to  muster  as  a  complete  organization.     Battery  A 


History  of  Coos  County. 

was  ordered  back  to  Fort  Constitution,  Portsmouth,  in  January,  1865,  and 
Battery  B,  in  February  following. 

Col.  Long  was  assigned  to  duty  in  command  of  a  brigade  in  Harden's 
Division,  and  Lieut.  -Col.  Barton  commanded  the  regiment.  It  was  a  splen- 
did body  of  men,  capable  of  performing  most  efficient  service.  It  remained 
in  the  defenses  about  the  Capitol,  save  Batteries  A,  B,  and  M,  until  the  sum- 
mer of  1*65,  when  it  was  ordered  to  New  Hampshire,  and  mustered  out 
June  19,  1865.  In  this  regiment  was  Co.  I,  and  part  of  Cos.  L  and  A, 
from  this  county.     They  were  all  volunteers,  and  exceptionally  fine  men. 

The  field  officers  were  Charles  H.  Long,  of  Claremont,  Colonel;  Ira 
McL.  Barton,  of  Newport,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  George  A.  Wainwright,  of 
Hanover,  Dexter  CI.  Reed,  of  Newport,  and  Frederick  M.  Edgill,  of  Orford 
(of  the  Lt.  Battery),  Majors.  Col.  Long  resides  in  Claremont.  Lieut. -Col. 
Barton  went  to  Arkansas,  reached  the  grade  of  General  of  Militia,  was 
active  in  local  military  troubles  there,  and  died  not  many  years  after  the 
close  of  the  war.  Major  Waimvright,  who  was  Adjutant  of  the  Seven- 
teenth, resides  at  Hanover. 


C  W.  Walker,  Chaplain. 


Company  I. 

Walter  S.  Bailey,  A,  Lieut. 



John  C.  Jenness,  I,  Lieut., 



William  G.  Ellis,  5th, 


William  H.  Shurtleff,  I,  Lieut., 


Joseph  H.  Wilder. 


Clark  Stevens,  I,  Lieut., 


Zeb  Twitchell,  S.  S., 


W.  C.  Mahurin,  L,  Lieut., 


Charles  E.  Rolfe, 


Charles  S.  Parker,  A, 


William  M.  Gushing, 


George  G.  Ames,  H. 


William  J.  Chamberlain,  17th, 


George  B.  Biake,  H, 


Charles  Sherwood, 


Daniel  C.  Bean,  H,  17th  and  2d, 


George  Bobinson, 


Chester  L.  Bean,  H, 


Eben  Little, 


Samuel  Bean,  H, 


Robert  Blakely,  17th,  2d, 


William  H.  Cookson,  H, 


Brooks  E.  Rodgers, 


Alfred  P.  Chandler,  H, 


Alva  W.  Arlin, 


Durgin  Evans,  H, 


Alfred  N.  Alls, 


Frank  L.  Forbush,  H, 


John  Q.  Babb, 


Prescott  Goud,  H, 


Melzar  E.  Beard, 


Albert  Green,  H, 


William  Bishop, 


Charles  Green,  H, 


James  D.  Blodgett, 


Charles  E.  Gray,  H, 


George  S.  Blake. 


John  Hawkins,  H, 


Charles  A.  Buffington, 


Stephen  Hawkins,  H, 


Benjamin  C.  Blood, 


Dana  T.  Hamlin,  H, 


Joseph  O.  Barnett, 


Charles  G.  Hamlin,  H, 


Jared  P.  Blood, 


Clark  Kimball,  H, 


Franklin  A.  Chamberlain, 


John  J.  Martin,  H, 


Isaac  F.  Cotton, 


Horace  P.  Moody,  H, 


Roswell  C.  Chesman, 


Joseph  Reeves,  H, 


Joseph  B.  Cloutman, 


Henry  Sanger,  H, 


Albert  Carter. 


Ebenezer  H.  Scribner, 


George  L.  Colby, 


Joseph  S.  Arnold,  A, 


Edward  P.  Cushman, 


Samuel  A.  Burns,  A, 


Charles  M.  Cushman, 


The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


Lorenzo  Cole, 
Harrison  H.  Cummings, 
Daniel  Chase, 
Parker  Chase, 
Silas  W.  Curtis. 
Henry  A.  Craw  find. 
Samuel  H.  Dalrymple, 
Lyman  D.\  lie, 
Osborne  Davis, 
Richard  H.  Emei-son, 
John  H.  Emerton, 
John  M.  Farnham. 
George  W.  Forbush, 
Simeon  Fisk, 
Benjamin  Fisk, 
George  Fuller, 
Jesse  Forristall, 
Edwin  Farnham, 
Orlando  L.  Fling, 
Richard  M.  J.  Grant, 
George  H.  Glidden, 
Benjamin  W.  Groper, 
Hiram  B.  Gould, 
Henry  H.  Gould, 
Benjamin  Gathercole, 
Phineas  R.  Hodgden, 
Warren  D.  Hinds, 
James  Howker, 
Alfred  B.  Hall, 
Charles  A.  Hutchinson, 
Warren  Hilliard, 
Hiram  Haynes, 
Charles  S.  Holmes, 
Austin  A.  Jordan, 
Humphrey  G.  Jordan, 
John  H.  Jordan. 
Jonathan  Kettle, 
Edward  W.  Kimball, 
Horatio  O.  Lewis, 
Jonathan  M.  Lang, 
Joshua  Lunn, 
Charles  E.  Lowe, 
Henry  S.  Lindsey, 
Edgar  Lang, 
Alvin  A.  Lovering, 
Joseph  P.  Matthews,  5th, 
John  Monahan, 
John  G.  Monahan, 
Samuel  S.  McDonald, 
Aratus  H.  Merrill, 
John  McClellan, 
Cummings  J.  Marshall, 
James  Murtangh, 
Chester  R.  Noyes, 
Eben  E.  Noyes, 
Martin  B  Noyes, 
John  Ordway, 
William  W.  Pike, 
Otis  Pike. 


Struartstou  :i 







Jefferso  i 




Stai   , 


( lolebrook 


Lancast*  r 
Pittsbui  g 


















Colebroi  K 


Stewartstovs  □ 

Jetft  rs<  ■•■ 


l>ana  Powei  3, 
ThaddeUS  l'ou 
Majoi  E.  Parker, 
John  W.  Pratt, 
Philo  VanDyke, 
John  ('.  Poor, 
Sumner  Rnggles,  Jr., 
lb  my  II.  Rich, 
Isaac  R.  Rich, 
Joshua  Roberts,  Jr., 
Stephen  Richardson, 
William  W.  Russ, 
Ransom  O.  Smith. 
Cha:  lis  Smith, 
Ezekiel  Sheldon, 
Zachariah  Saley, 
Barney  Sweeney. 
Nicholas  O.  Tuttle, 
Josiah  W.  Tebbetts, 
Ellery  Wheeler, 
Jamon  N.  Willi  y. 
William  Woodward, 
Albert  Whitney, 
Henry  A.  White. 
Nathaniel  H.  Wheeler, 
John  T.  W.  Whitney, 
James  Williamson, 

Hosea  Clough, 
Jacob  D.  Brown, 
Robert  Curtis.  t 

Martin  D.  Bean, 
Albert  F.  Berry, 
Wellington  Cummings, 
Henry  Cunningham, 
William  Dearth, 
Addison  Dolly, 
Henry  Denny, 
John  P.  Dunham, 
Albion  G.  Evans, 
Benjamin  C.  Flanders. 
Royal  Hicks,  17th, 
Woodbury  G.  Hicks, 
Andrew  J.  Howard, 
Richard  Lane,  Jr., 
Albert  W.  Lane, 
Albert  Potter, 
Osiah  Rosa, 
Henry  Tewkesbury, 
Ira  S.  Wall  lion, 
Lewis  D.  White, 
Timothy  N.  Wight, 
Ephraim  Wight, 

Light  Battery, 
Uriah  Elliott, 
Orville  R.  Moulton, 
Louis  Nouri, 
Joshua  F.  ri"  lps, 
Edwin  Sli  eper, 


Ji  ff<  i  son 
Stewartstowi  u 








Jeti'i  I  -i  'M 
























or  Co.  M. 


Lancasti  r 

Wentworth's  Location 




History  of  Coos  County. 

The  Sharpshooters. — There  were,  in  the  service,  two  regiments  of  picked 
marksmen  equipped  with  superior  weapons,  for  special  or  detached  duty, 
as  their  designation  indicated.  From  the  nature  of  the  organization  it 
was  impossible  that  the  companies  should  serve  in  regimental  order,  and 
they  were  scattered  as  the  exigencies  of  the  service  required. 

Co.  G  of  the  Second  Eegiment,  ninety-eight  officers  and  men,  had  a 
number  of  its  best  men  from  this  county,  and  was  mustered  at  Concord, 
December  10,  1861.  It  performed  the  duties  entrusted  to  it  with  devotion 
and  unflagging  zeal.  Not  exempt  from  casualties,  its  record  of  dead  and 
wounded  was  equal  to  that  of  the  most  daring.  In  every  respect  these 
men  were  most  credible  soldiers  and  admirable  representatives  of  the 
staunchest  element  of  the  county.  The  state  was  not  represented  in  the 
Field  of  the  original  organization,  but  later,  the  Field  officers  from  New 
Hampshire  in  this  command  were:  Major  E.  T.  Eowell,  of  Co.  F,  and 
Major  Amos  B.  Jones  of  Co.  E.  George  A.  Marden,  since  Speaker  of  the 
Massachusetts  House,  and  on  the  regimental  staff,  was  a  Sergeant  in  Co. 
G.  Major  Rowell  and  Major  Marden  both  reside  in  Lowell.  The  Sharp- 
shooters served  in  the  Virginia  campaigns,  and  were  at  Antietam,  Freder- 
icksburg, Gettysburg,  Second  Bull  Run,  South  Mountain,  and  in  the  Valley. 
The  original  men  were  mustered  out  in  December,  1861,  and  those  of  the 
three  companies  remaining  were  consolidated  and  made  Co.  K,  of  the  Fifth 

Co.  G,  2d  U.   S.   S.  S. 

Zeb  Twitchell, 
Edward  H.  Folsom, 
Samuel  F.  Brown, 
Eeuben  F.  Carter, 
Thomas  S.  Ellis, 
Augustus  Fletcher,  ■ 
Harvey  D.  Gamsby, 
Eeuben  Gray, 
Joseph  K.  Hodge, 
James  G.  Reach, 

The  First  Cavalry. — There  was  but  one  Cavalry  regiment  proper  from 
the  state  and  that  was  organized  for  three  years,  somewhat  late  in  the 
war.  As  stated,  the  Eighth  Infantry,  then  in  Louisiana,  was  for  a  time 
mounted,  and  known  as  the  Second  N.  H.  Cavalry,  but  its  service  was 
more  particularly  as  Infantry. 

Early  in  the  war  a  battalion  of  four  companies  of  New  Hampshire  men 
was  raised  and  incorporated  with  the  First  Rhode  Island  Cavalry.  It  was 
found  that  the  union  of  companies  from  different  states  in  one  regiment 
was  not  altogether  desirable,  and  this  battalion  was  made  the  nucleus  of 
the  First  Cavalry.  This  regiment  and  battalion  served  in  Virginia  and 
Maryland  and  was  first  united  in  March,  1865.  It  left  the  state  December 
22,  1861,  was  made  a  regiment  January  7,  1864,  and  mustered  out  July  21, 


James  S.  Kent, 



William  Merrow, 



Ezra  W.  Martin. 

i ; 


John  Pilbro. 



George  W.  McCrillis, 



Horace  F.  Morse, 



John  Brown,  F, 



King  J.  Cross,  G, 



John  A.  Manchester,  F, 



The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 


1865.  It  was  composed  of  good  material  and  did  excellenl  service.  The 
heaviest  wholesale  desertion  of  the  war  was  of  several  hundred  "bounty 
jumping"  recruits,  who  had  been  mustered  to  fill  the  regiment,  and  who 
broke  away  at  Giesborough  Point,  below  Washington,  in  the  autumn  of 
1863,  to  the  relief  of  the  good  soldiers  left,  who  were  in  no  way  responsible 
for  the  presence  or  absence  of  these  "  scallawags."  There  were  bul  few 
Coos  men  in  the  Cavalry.  Its  original  officers  were:  David  B.  Nelson, 
Major  of  Battalion.  Regimental,  John  L.  Thompson,  Colonel;  Ben  T. 
Hutchins,  Lieutenant-Colonel;  Arnold  Wyman,  J.  F.  Andrews  and  John 
A.  Cummings,  Majors. 


Kimball  A.  Morse,  L, 
Alvan  S.  Wilson,  L. 
Joseph  Marshall,  L, 
James  W.  Home,  E, 
Orville  H.  Sessions,  I, 
John  K.  Burton, 
Charles  Draper,  B, 
Benjamin  W.  Fenner, 
AVilliam  F.  Graham, 
Albur  Harris,  B, 
Hendrick  Hianatie,  D, 
Timothy  Kelky, 
Michael  Leary,  F, 
David  B.Ladd,  F, 














John  H.  Mathes,  E, 
John  H.  Piper,  H, 
Eri  W.  Pinkham,  E, 
Lester  Spaulding,  G, 
Norman  H.  Slade,  G, 
Arum  B.  Smith,  F, 
Ambrose  P.  Scannell,  I, 
George  W.  Stevens,  Jr., 
William  Senior, 
John  Williams,  G, 
Clark  Waters,  H, 
Charles  C.  Wallace, 
James  L.  Wood, 
George  W.  Wheeler, 















While  the  scope  of  this  chapter  does  not  include  residents  of  Coos  during 
the  war,  or  present  residents  who  served  outside  the  state,  the  returns  in 
the  A.  G.  0.  give  the  following  names  in  outside  commands:— 

Francis  L.  Towne,  Surgeon  U.  S.  Army,  Lancaster,  served  through  the 
war  and  was  brevetted  Lieut. -Colonel  U.  S.  A.  for  meritoi'ious  services. 
He  is  now  at  Fort  Clarke,  Texas. 

Enoch  Whipple,  E, 
Alanson  Hyde,  I, 
George  W.  Rowell,  E, 
Francis  N.  Whitney,  E, 
John  Shallow,  E, 
Walter  P.  Vance,  E, 
Daniel  Q.  Cole,  U.  S.  N., 


Columbia       Benjamin  F.  Hicks,  I, 
Daniel  F.  Elliott, 
William  H.  Gault. 
Hiram  T.  Owen, 
Samuel  Keeble, 
George  Hinman, 


st.  wartstown 


Thomas  B.  Mendly, 
Lyman  Jordan, 
John  Jordan, 
Aaron  Simpson. 
Elisha  P.  Hicks, 
Seth  W.  Tirrell 

<  'olmuliia 


Sereno  P.  Farwell, 
Sewall  A  Stillings,  7th. 
Albert  S.  Twitchell,  7th, 
William  W.  Chase, 
James  L.  Loomis, 
Harry  Chamberlain, 





History  of  Coos  County. 

Thomas  MeNaliy, 
Ezra  Fletcher, 
Nathaniel  Flanders, 
Albert  Heath, 
George  T.  Bishop, 


Horace  Harris, 

Lorenzo  D.  Blodgett, 

Seth  Tirrell, 

Hiram  M.  Paul, 

Loren  E.  Bundy,  First  Main  Cavalry. 


The  only  further  record  attainable  of  those  residents  of  Coos  at  the  time 
of  the  war,  or  of  those  present  residents  who  during  the  war  served  in 
organizations  outside  the  state,  is  found  in  the  individual  names  reported 
in  the  several  Grand  Army  rosters. 

It  was  my  intention  to  publish  a  complete  list  of  resident  veterans, 
whether  G.  A.  R.  men  or  not,  who  thus  served,  but  upon  strict  trial  I  can 
find  no  data  from  which  to  compile  it. 

Statistics. — From  carefully  compiled  tables,  in  reports  of  the  Adjutant- 
General,  it  appears  that  during  the  war  the  entire  number  of  commissions 
issued  was  2,362,  while  the  entire  number  of  officers  who  received  them 
was  1,601.  The  total  number  of  enlisted  men  was  31,426.  The  number 
"  killed  or  died  of  wounds "  was  1,538.  "Died of  disease  2,541."  Mustered 
out  at  expiration  of  service  11,264. 

An  analysis  of  all  statistics  made  in  that  office  leads  it  to  the  conclu- 
sion that,  leaving  out  men  transferred  and  twice  enumerated,  New  Hamp- 
shire sent  30,000  different  men  into  the  field.  Careful  estimates  lead  to 
the  belief  that  of  this  number  Coos  county  furnished  1,200  men.  The 
entire  muster  of  30,000  is  thus  accounted  for,  by  the  same  authority: — 

Killed  or  died  of  wounds 5  per 

Died  of  disease ...    8 

Honorably  discharged  for  disability .15 

Deserted 16 

Transferred  to  Invalid  Corps,  Army  and  Navy 3 

Promoted  to  commissioned  officers 2 

Not  officially  accounted  for 2 

Absent  when  regiment  was  mustered  out 3 

Re-enlisted 5 

Mustered  out  at  the  expiration  of  term 37 

Otherwise  unaccounted  for 4 



i i 

Total 100. 

The  percentage  of   ''desertions"  from  Coos  is  much  less  than  these 
figures,  while  the  casualties  and  muster  out  are  correspondingly  greater. 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 




(Furnished  by  Capt.  J.  I.  Williams,  Q.  M.) 

1.  William  G.  Ellis,  5th  N.  H. 

2.  fSoloD  D.  Simmons,  8th  Vt. 

3.  {John  G.  Crawford,  2d  Michigan  Cavalry. 

4.  E.  W.  Wyman,  13th  Maine. 

5.  H.  De  F.  Young,  2d  N.  H. 

6.  IB.  T.  Oleott,  8th  Vt. 

7.  Parker  J.  Noyes,  8th  Vt. 

8.  Henry  S.  Hilliard,  2d  and  5th  N.  H. 

9.  Thomas  S.  Ellis,  2d  U.  S.  S.  S. 

10.  Levi  H.  Parker,  8th  Vt. 

11.  Ira  E.  Woodward.  6th  N.  H. 

12.  Henry  O.  Kent,  17th  N.  H. 

13.  Alden  A.  Dow,  14th  N.  H. 

14.  Thomas  Sweetser,  5th  and  50th  Mass. 

15.  {George  E.  Chandler.  Sgl.  Corps. 

10.  {F.  H.  Perkins,  9th  N.  H.  and  2d  Mass.  Cavalry. 

17.  Charles  E.  Melntire,  2d  N.  H. 

18.  Richard  Fletcher,  5th  N.  H. 

19.  Jared  I.  Williams.  17th  N.  H. 

20.  Henry  Richardson,  35th  Mass. 

21.  Zeh.  Twitchell,  2d  U.  S.  S.  S.,  H.  Art. 

22.  Eldad  A.  Rhodes,  5th  N.  H. 

23.  George  H.  Emerson,  17th  N.  H. 

24.  John  M.  Morse,  3d  N.  H. 

25.  John  G.  Sutton,  5th  N.  H. 

26.  R.  M.  J.  Grant.  1st  N.  H.  H.  A. 

27.  George  W.  Morgan,  2d  N.  H. 

28.  Dan  Lee  Jones,  4th  Vt.  and  U.  S.  A. 

29.  Ezra  Mitchell.  Jr.,  9th  Me.  and  U.  S.  A. 

30.  Henry  J.  Cummings,  3d  N.  H. 

31.  George  Burt,  2d  N.  H. 

32.  {Arthur  H.  Carpenter,  4th  U.  S. 

33.  James  Cummings,  5th  N.  H. 

34.  John  B.  Cram,  26th  Mass. 

35.  John  W.  Palmer,  13th  N.  H. 

36.  f  William  H.  Weston,  5th  N.  H. 

37.  iRichard  H.  Emerson,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A. 

38.  L.  L.  Stillinss,  50th  Penn. 

39.  William  C.  Putnam,  17th   and  2d  N.  H. 

40.  *fEvarts  W.  Farr,  2d  and  11th  N.  H. 

41.  John  Farnham.  1st  N.  H.  H.  A. 

42.  Reuben  F.  Carter,  2d  U.  8.  S.  S.  and  5th  N.  H. 

43.  H.  E.  Hadlock,  17th  N.  H.  and  N.  H.  H.  A. 

44.  Leonard  M.  Beard,  9th  N.  H. 

45.  George  Cummings,  Jr..  17th,  2d  and  9th  N.  H. 

46.  James  Ross,  17th  and  2d  N.  H. 

47.  *Ira  D.  Hyde,  14th  N.  H. 

48.  Peter  Hughes,  5th  N.  H. 

49.  Edward  Grannis,  15th  Vt. 

50.  fGeorge  A.  Ford,  3d  Vt. 

51.  fPerrin  Lombard,  5th  N.  H.  and  21st  V.  R.  C. 

52.  {Sumner  Perkins.  17th  and  2d  N.  H.  and  2dV.  C. 

53.  Charles  Sherwood,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

54.  {Richard  E.  Cross,  5th  X.  H. 

55.  *James  Moulton,  3d  N.  H. 

56.  Reuben  Gray,  U.  S.  S.  S. 

57.  *Francis  Chamberlain,  22d  Wis. 

58.  Oscar  Worthly,  2d  N.  H. 

59.  Jared  Gray,  14th  N.  H. 

60.  f  Alberts.  Twitchell,  7th  Me.  B. 

61.  Freeman  Lindsey,  5th  N.  H. 

62.  {Horace  Dow,  8th  N.  H. 

63.  Walter  S.  Bailey,  17th  N.  H.  and  N.  H.  H.  A. 

64.  William  L.  RoweU,  17th  N.  H. 

65.  Freeman  H.  Holmes,  9th  N.  H. 

66.  Charles  A.  Whipp,  14th  N.  H. 

67.  John  D.  Orcutt,  14th  N.   H. 

68.  Albion  G.  Evans,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

69.  Alfred  C.  Pratt,  17th,  2d  and  9th  N.  H. 

70.  David  Spreadbury,  13th  N.  H. 

71.  Ruel  P.  StillingB,  14th  N.  H. 

72.  Samuel  L.  Wellington,  5th  Mass. 

73.  Charles  C.  Beaton,  5th  N.  H. 

74.  Don  C.  Clough,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

75.  Charles  Forbes,  13th  N.  H. 

76.  Thomas  S.  Thayer,  5th  N.  H. 

77.  James  N.  King,  Nat.  Guards. 

78.  John  O.  Tuell,  6th  Me. 

79.  Joseph  P.  Mathews,  5th  N.  H.  and  N.  H.  H.  A 

80.  fEnoch  L.  Clement,  5th  N.  H. 

81.  William  W.  Hendricks,  3d  Vt. 

82.  James  S.  Brackett,  17th  N.  H. 

83.  Thomas  Sullivan,  6th  N.  H. 
SI.  Charles  D.  Kenney,  17th  Vt. 

85.  David  Legro,  15th  N.  H. 

86.  Phincas  R.  Hodgdon,  N.  H.  H.  A. 
87  *fHenry  W.  Loveland,  27th  Mass. 

88.  W.  J.  Chamberlain,  17th  N.  II.  and  N.  H.  H.  A. 

89.  Stephen  Simmons,  17th  Vt. 

90.  Frank  M.  Lucas,  8th  Vt. 

91.  Charles  Canrield,  15th  Vt. 

92.  John  Leonard.  2d  and  11th  Me. 

93.  Cyrus  Messer,  Nth  M;i".  and  Mass.  H.  A. 

94.  William  E.  Tibbetts,  13th  N.  H. 

95.  Hugh  Corrigan,  5th  N.  11. 

96.  Joseph  Stevens,  29th  Me. 

97.  Abm  r  Bailey,  3d  Vt. 

98.  William  W.  Pike,  X.  II.  II.  A. 

99.  James  W.  McKeen,  12th  Me. 

100.  (■     rg    I'..  Griffith,  N.  II.  II.  A. 

101.  Nahum  E.  Barvey,  3d  Vt. 
L02.  Samuel  S.  Whitney,  31st  M  . 

103.  Napoleon  B.  Perkins,  5th  Me.  I..  A. 
101.  Moses  Hens  d,  l  tth  V  II. 

*Dead.    +Demitted.    {Dropped. 


History  of  Coos  County. 

105.  *Simon  Connary,  9th  N.  H. 

106.  Alexander  M.  Beattie,  3d  Vt. 

107.  Frank  Bickford,  24th  Me. 

108.  Joseph  B.  Cloudman,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

109.  Sylvanus  Marshall,  1st  Nevada. 

110.  George  R. '  Bush,  6th  Vt. 

111.  George  R.  Holmes,  14th  N.  H. 

112.  James  D.  Blodgett,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

113.  George  T.  Wentworth,  1st  N.  H.  Cavalry. 

114.  George  Hinman,  3d  Vt. 

115.  Charles  F.  Presby,  8th  Vt. 

116.  Alva  B.  Sleeper,  11th  Vt. 

117.  Aaron  R.  Wheeler,  3d  Vt. 

118.  George  S.  Blake,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

119.  Sylvanus  R.  Chesman,  5th  N.  H. 

120.  William  Woodward,  1st  Vt.  Cavalry. 

121.  Peter  Deering,  6th  N.  H. 

122.  Horace  P.  Moody,  N.  H.  H.  A. 

123.  William  Dow,  10th  Vt. 

124.  Ruel  Sawin,  9th  N.  H. 

125.  Joseph  Fontain,  1st  Vt.  Cavalry. 

126.  John  G.  Derby,  17th  N.  H. 

127.  Henry  Houghton,  9th  N.  H. 

128.  D.  T.  Timberlake,  23d  Me. 

129.  Nat.  M.  Davenport,  3d  Mass. 

130.  William  H.  Veazie.  5th  N.  H. 

*  Dead. 


(Furnished  by  E.  B.  Cowing,  Adjutant.) 










Charles  F.  Noyes,  2d  Bat.  U.  S.  V.  C. 

Eben  W.  Parker,  I,  14th  N.  H. 

Elijah  F.  Marden,  I,  5th  N.  H. 

Alex.  M.  Wentworth,  C,  4th  N.  H.,    I.  20th  Mass. 

Daniel  W.  Titus,  I,  3d  N.  H. 

Oliver  B.  Strout. 

Jonathan  Dow,  B,  5th  N.  H. 

Henry  O.  Cram. 

Chaiies  E.  King,  A,  17th  N.  H. 

Joseph  W.  Marshall,  L,  1st  Cav. 

Charles  S.  Parker. 

Riva  F.  Parker,  G,  11th  N.  H. 

Joseph  L.  Patten.  F,  50th  Mass, 

George  M.  Elliott,  H,  1st  Cav. 

Ambrose  L.  Vannah,  E,  41st  Mass. 

Lewis  D.  White,  L,  H'y  Art. 

Sidney  H.  Elmer,  H,  13th  N.  H. 

George  Robinson,  F,  2d  N.  H. 

Ezra  D.  Clark,  I,  3d  N.  H. 

Azariah  L.  Clark,  I,  3d  N.  H. 

Asa  D.  Hill,  3d  Bat.  Vt.  Art. 

Joseph  Thompson. 

Lorenzo  D.  Whitcher,  C,  15th  N.  H. 

James  H.  Henselpacker,  C,  6th  and  7th  Me. 

Moses  Colby,  E,  14th  N.  H. 

Harlow  Connor,  D,  1st  Cav. 

Charles  M.  Blood,  I,  3d  N.  H. 

George  H.  Gilidden,  H,  H'y  Art. 

Mi  'ses  C.  Glines,  E,  2d  Vt. 

Joseph  T.  Bemis.  I,  1st  Vt.  Cav. 

Jonathan  M.  Lang,  I,  H'y  Art. 

Joseph  A.  Wilkins,  C,  40th  Mass. 

Albert  W.  Lane,  L,  H'y  Art. 

34.  Alfred  B.  Derby,  D,  8th  Vt. 

35.  Ira  S.  M.  Gove,  A,  17th  N.  H. 

36.  Madison  C.  Rowe,  C,  7th  Me. 

37.  George  W.  Place,  I,  H'y  Art. 

38.  Richard  Lane,  Jr.,  L.  H'y  Art. 

39.  Lewis  L.  Morse,  H,  14th  Me. 

40.  Royal  Hicks,  A,  17th  N.  H.  H'y  Art. 

41.  W.  H.  Simonds,  D,  13th  N.  H. 

42.  Ephraim  S.  Miles,  I,  Vt.  Cav. 

43.  Horace  M.  Lindsey, 

44.  Samuel  Resden.  A,  26th  Mass. 

45.  Chauncey  M.  Snow,  K.  8th  Vt. 

46.  Ezra  B.  Cowing,  A,  11th  Vt. 

47.  Charles  F.  Marden,  C,  2d  N.  H. 

48.  John  O'Niel. 

49.  Henry  W.  Libbey,  B,  5th  N.  H. 

50.  William  J.  Baker,  A,  6th  N.  H. 

51.  James  O.  Hubbard,  E,  14th  N.  H. 

52.  Spaulding  S.  Rich,  E,  14th  N.  H. 

53.  Ben  C.  Garland,  B,  16th  N.  H. 

54.  James  Hagan,  E,  7th  R.  I. 

55.  James  H.  Aldrich,  3d,  9th  Vt. 

56.  Charles  W.  Cushman,  I,  H'y  Art. 

57.  William  Barnett,  D,  35th  Mass. 

58.  Albert  I.  Lindsey. 

59.  George  W.  Gage,  E.  3d  Vt. 

60.  James  P.  Thorn,  I,  55th  Mass. 

61.  S.  H.  Barnett,  H,  13th  N.  H. 

62.  Henry  McMillen,  I,  3d  Vt. 

63.  Martin  D.  Bian,  L,  H'y  Art. 

64.  Lewis  H.  Estes,  H,  2.1  Vt. 

65.  Robert  McCann.  E,  11th  Penn.  Reserves. 


(Furnished  by  Post  Commander  A.  S.  Twitchell,  President  Veterans'  Union.) 


1.  Albert  S.  Twitchell.  7th  Me.  Light  Bat.,  Gorham 

2.  Elmer  L.  Stevens,  10th  Me.  Vols.,  " 

3.  Frank  C.Stevens,  11th  Me.  Vols.,  " 

4.  C.  W.  Nolen,  3d  Del.  Vols.,  Island  Pond,  Vt. 

5.  Charles  G.  Hamlin,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A.,  Gorham 

6.  O.  P.  Howland,  2d  Mass.  H.  A.,  " 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 




Bethel,  Me. 

7.  E.  W.  Forbes.  14th  N.  H.  Vols..  Berlin 

8.  J.  P.  Dunham,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A.,  Norway,  Me. 

9.  S.  E.  Bartlett,  8th  Me.  Vols.,  Gorham 

10.  P.  M.  Morgan,  20th  Me.  Vols.,  " 

11.  W.  Noyes,  15th  Vt.  Vols.,  " 

12.  I.  W.  Burbank,  5th  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 

13.  S.  S.  Chipman,  Frigate  Colorado,  '' 

14.  Joseph  Goodno,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A.,  " 

15.  George  W.  Burbank.  8th  Me.  Vols.,  " 

16.  W.  W.  Goodridge,  25th  Me.  Vols., 

17.  Perrin  Lombard.  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

18.  A.  C.  Gurney,  7th  Me.  Lt.  Battery. 

19.  H.  F.  WardweU,  4th  N.  H.  Vols., 

20.  T.  N.  Wight.  1st  N.  H.  H.  A., 

21.  R.  H.  Emerson,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A., 

22.  J.  C.  Evans,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

23.  A.  S.  Bisbee,  13th  Me.  Vols., 

24.  A.  R.  Sylvester,  25th  Me.  Vols., 

25.  Daniel  Griffin,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

26.  Levi  L.  Brown,  Monitor  Monadnock, 

27.  J.  H.  Thomas, 

28.  Jas.  W.  Farrington,  3d  N.  H.  Vols.,  (dead,) 

29.  Calvin  Morse,  5th  N.  H.  Vols., 

30.  O.  B.  Frank,  1st  Me.  Cavalry, 

31.  S.  A.  Collins,  20th  Me.  Vols.. 

32.  J.  J.  Hawkins.  1st  N.  H.  H.  A., 

33.  W.  H.  Evans,  9th  N.  H.  Vols.. 

34.  I.  8.  Wells,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

35.  N.  E.  Burnett,  9th  Me.  Vols., 

36.  A.  J.  Lary,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

37.  T.  J.  Lary,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 
33.  Franklin  Buck,  16th  Me.  Vols., 
39.  H.  P.  York,  14th N.  H.  Vols., 

41.  J.  McCormick,  5th  N.  H.  Vols.. 

42.  H.  V.  Mason.  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

43.  A.  J.  Magill,  10th  Me.  Vole., 

44.  C.  W.  Muzzey,  Frigate  Minnesota, 

45.  D.  G.  Eastman.  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

46.  W.  A.  Willis,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

47.  J.  W.  Perkins,  2d  N.  H.  Vols., 

48.  I.  W.  Spiller,  5th  Me.  Battery, 

49.  C.  E.  Lowe,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A., 

50.  Jesse  Tuttle,  17th  N.  H.  Vols., 

51.  J.  W.  Buzzell,  15th  Vt.  Vols., 

52.  Adolph  Laury,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 

53.  Levi  Shedd,  5th  Me.  Vols., 

54.  Clark  Wayland,  5th  Me.  Vols.. 






























Gilead,  Me. 





Elery  Whei  Ler,  17th  N.  11.,  1st  N.  II.  II.  A.. 


D.  C.  Bean.  17th  N.  II.  Vols., 
L.  R.  York,  12th  Me.  Vols., 
H.  J.  Chandler,  9th  N   II.  Vols., 

A.  J.  Howard,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A., 
C.  P.  Morgan,  20th  Me.  Vols., 
C.  W.  Horn,  5th  Me.  Vols., 
S.  L.  Norton,  19th  Me.  Vols., 
R.  P.  Noyes,  15th  Vt.  Vols., 
J.  B.  Lovejoy,  14th  N.  11.  Vols., 
W.  J.Blake.  23d  Me.  Vols.. 
Henry  Goodno,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 
Freeman  Tirrell,  6th  N.  H.  Vols.. 
J.  M.  Newell,  2d  N.  H.  Vols.. 
Edgar  Harriman,  14th  N.  H.  Vols., 
A.  H.  Eastman,  12th  N.  H.  Vols., 
J.  L.  York,  2d  N.  H.  Vols., 
Joseph  Pero,  W.  Gulf  Squadron, 
C.  L.  Bean,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A., 
AY.  F.  Han.  5th  N.  H.  Vols., 

F.  M.  Lang,  5th  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 
James  Wilson,  14th  N.  H.  Vols.,                  Gorham 

G.  W.  Morrill,  14th  Me.  Vols.,  Berlin 
G.  L.  Vincent,  9th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Chelsea,  Mass. 
Bernard  McCormick,  U.  S.  Marine  Corps,  Gorham 
S.  P.  Farewell,  5th  Me.  Battery.  Stark 
F.  A.  Edwards,  18th  Me.  Vols..  Lincoln,  Me. 
Philemon  Harriman,  14th  N.  H.Vols.,  Gilead,  Me. 
James  Gorman,  16th  Me.  Vols.,  Randolph 
P.  L.  Goud.  1st  N.  H.  H.  A.,  Dummer 
George  S.  Goud,  14th  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 
William  H.  Smith,  14th  N.  Y.  Vols.,       Randolph 

E.  R.  Bennett,  12th  Me.  Vols.,  Gilead.  Me. 
Erastus  Thurlow,  29th  Me.  Vols..  Berlin 
P.  B.  Heath.  12th  Me.  Vols..  Gilead,  Me. 
David  Sanborn,  25th  Me.  Vols.,  Gorham 
Franklin  Wheeler,  14th  N.  H.  Vols..  Berlin 
Edward  Mason.  18th  Mass.  Vols.,  Gilead,  Me. 
J.  N.  Will.  y.  1st  N.  H.  H.  A.,  " 

S.  D.  Green,  24th  Mich.  Vols.,  Berlin 

H.  W.  Rogers,  22d  Me.  Vols.,  Shelbume 

Wm.  Evans.  14th  X.  H.  Vols.,  Cape  Elizabeth,  Me. 
I.  P.  Wills,  28th  Me.  Vols.,  Shelbume 

J.  H.  Trask,  30th  Me.  Vols.,  Gorham 

H.  L.  Thurston,  8th  N.  H.Vols.,  Randolph 



(Furnished  by  Samuel  I.  Bailey.  Adjutant.  I 

Colebn  iok 
( iolebrook 

Robert  Blakely,  2nd  N.  H.  Vols.,  Columbia 

John  R.  Little.  13th  N.  H.  Vols., W.  Stew  artstown 

1.  Elisha  P.  Hicks,  5th  Me.  Battery. 

2.  Eben  E.  Noyes,  N.  H.  H.  Artillery, 
James  L.  Loomis.  5th  Me.  Batti  ry, 
Charles  L.  Morrison.  10th  N.  H.  H.  A 

Hiram  C.  Young,  13th  N.  H.  Vols. 

8.  Elbridge  G.  Arlin,  13th  N.  II.  Vols.,  Colebrook 

9.  Thomas  Smith.   Kith  N.  II.  Vols.,  " 
in.  Levi  Bicks,   L3th  N.  II.  Vols., 

11.  James  W.  Newton,  4th  Vt.,  unknown 

12.  C.  AY.  Delliver,  1st  Conn., 

l.i.  c.  s.  Dalton,  13th  N.  II.  Vols.,  W.  Stewartstown 

14.  II.  II.  Lucas,  9th  N.  II..  unknown 


History  of  Coos  County. 






*John  Shallow,  3dVt,,  Colebrook 

Harry  Gleason,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 

Thomas  Mayo,  4th  N  H.  Vols.,  W.  Stewartstown 
Seth  W.  Tirrell,  5th  Me.  Battery,  Colebrook 

Joseph  D.  Little,  unknown,  " 

William  R.  Jordan,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Columbia 
Charles  E.  Eolfe,  Heavy  Art.,  unknown 

Augustus  Osgood,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Colebrook 
fGeoi-ge  B.  Little,  3d  Vt.,  Conn.  Lake 

William  H.  Cleveland,  5th  Me.  Battery,  Columbia 
f  Daniel  G.  Ripley,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  West 

f  Gilbert  Harriman.  3d  Mass.  H.  A.,  Canaan,  Vt. 
JElias  Anderson,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  unknown 
G.  S.  Remick,  U.  S.  Engineers,  Colebrook 

George  H.  Lang,  1st  N.  H.  Cavalry.  " 

D.  S.  Stevens,  U.  S.  Engineers,  ;< 

Truman  D.  Barnett,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,         " 
f  Hiram  M.  Harvey,  1st  Vt.  Vols..      Canaan,  Vt. 
+ William  H.  Graham,  13th  N.  H.  Vols., 

St.  Johnsbury,  Vt. 
Austin  M.  Jordan,  1st  Reg.  H.  Art.,  Colebrook 
Joseph  Morrow,  4th  Vt.  Vols.,  unknown 

William  W.  Barnett,  15th  Vt.  Vols.,  West 

Alma  M.  Cross,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Pittsburg 

fCharles  S.  Holmes,  1st  N.  H.  Art.  Jefferson 
+David  P.  Roby.  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Colebrook 
JJohn  E.  W.  Glidon,  5th  Maine,  unknown 

f  Albert  Harris,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Canaan,  Vt. 
fF.  R.  Luce,  2d  Vt.  Vols.,  unknown 

Martin  B.  Noyes,  1st  N.  H.  Art.,  Colebrook 

William  H.  Shurtleff,  1st  N.  H.  Art.,  Florida 
Leonard  A.  Felton,  6th  Mass.,  unknown 

Alfred  N.  Alls,  1st  N.  H.  H.  A.,  Colebrook 

f  Gardner  W.  Smith,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  unknown 
gMaleom  McAnnon,  7th  Reg.  N.  H.  V.,       " 
George  B.  Abbott,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 

A.  B.  Gaskell,  2d  Wisconsin,  Colebrook 

Henry  Scott,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  unknown 

Fay  Carleton,  2d  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 

fCharles  Perry,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Pittsburg 

fSamuel  Keeble,  3d  Vt.  Vols.,  Canaan.  Vt. 

fArnold  Aldrich,  unknown,  Pittsburg 

Henrv  Tewksburv.  IstN.  H.  H.  A.,  Stewartstown 

Whitcomb  Tirrell,  1st  Me.  Battery. 
flsaac  M.  Wood,  5th  Vt.  Vols., 
+John  Paul,  13th  N.  H.  Vols., 
Nelson  Haynes,  unknown, 
fClark  Stevens,  2d  N.  H.  Vols 
Hiram  B.  Gould,  1st  H.  Art., 
+ William  W.  Russ.  1st  H.  Art. 


North  Stratford 

fFrank  C.  Roby,  1st  Vt.  Cavalry,  North  Stratford 




































James  Spi'eadbury  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  unknown 
fH.  T.  Heath,  12th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Stewartstown 
fPhilo  VanDyke,  1st  H.  Art.,  " 

f Wallace  F.  Severy,  3d  Vt.  Vols.,  North  Stratford 

North  Stratford 
Bloomfield,  Vt. 
Vols.,  Pittsburg 
,    N.  Stratford 
.  Stratford 

Ira  Noyes,  12th  N.  H.  Vols., 

James  Legro,  13th  N.  H.  Vols., 

iTliomas  Bennett,  unknown, 

Alonzo  A.  Martin,  3d  Vt.  Vols. 

tWilliam  McKinnon,  13th  N.  H. 

f  J.  F.  Burton,  unknown, 

fC.  A.  Hutchinson,  N.  H.  Art., 

fCharles  R.  Schoff,  16th  Me.  Vols. 

fSimeon  Merrill,  2d  N.  H.  Vols., 

Michael  Tobin,  loth  Me.  Vols., 

Dexter  S.  French,  3d  Vt.  Vols., 

Charles  Heath.  13th  N.  H.  Vols., 

f  Michael  Lynch,  3d  Vt.  Vols.,     North  Stratford 

fFrank  A.  Roby,  9th  Vt.  Vols.,  Columbia 

fMyron  C.  Fuller,  1st  Vt.  Cav.,     Bloomfield,  Vt. 

J  A.  S.  Huggins,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Pittsburg 

JMoses  C.  Heath,  5th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Stewartstown 

James  M.  Jordan,  unknown,  Colebrook 

■(■George  W.  Rowell,  2d  Vt.,  Columbia 

JC.  E.  Smith,  State  Service,       Hartford,  Conn. 

James  B.  Colby,  12th  N.  H.  Vols.,         Columbia 

Samuel  I.  Bailey,  18th  N.  H.  Vols., 

fC.  R.  Blodgett,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Littleton 

W.  T.  Keyes,  10th  Me.  Vols.,  Colebrook 

John  Jackson,  1st  Vt.  Cavalry,     Bloomfield.  Vt. 

Joseph  Watson,  3d  Reg.  Vt.  Vols.,   N.  Stratford 

Jas.  W.  Clark,  4th  Mass.,  Lincoln  Plantation,  Me. 

Henry  A.  Reach,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,        Columbia 

William  B.  Lacy,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  died  July  4,  '85 

XT).  S.  Chandler,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,        Colebrook 

f  John  Gray,  8th  Vt.  Vols.,  Columbia 

JE.  L.  Hunt,  L.  Art.,  &  3d  Me.  Vols.,    unknown 

JGeorge  T.  Bishop,  5th  Me.  Bat.,   Stewartstown 

William  H.  Gault,  2d  Vt,  Vols.  &  2d  N.  H. 

Inf.,  Stewartstown 
John  S.  Capen,  1st  Mass.  Cavalry,       Colebrook 
Charles  D.  Gamsby,  13th  N.  H.  Vols., 
John  H.  Jordan,  1st  H.  Art.,       Lenhngton.  Vt. 
Edelbert  Roundy,  9th  Me.  Inf.,  Colebrook 

JN.  Munn,  9th  H.  Art.,  Groveton 

C.  C.  Hicks.  9th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Colebrook 

Edwin  Small.  17th  Me.  Vols., 
Ahin  W.  Arlin,  1st  H.  Art..  " 

Owen  F.  Lombard,  5th  Vols.,  (i 

Harvey  C.  Brown.  5th  N.  H.  Vols., 
Hugh  Hoyt,  17th  U.  S.  I.,  Magalloway,  Me. 

Henry  Ballantine,  11th  Conn.  Vols.,    Colebrook 
George  P.  Brown.  6th  N.  H.  Vols.,  " 

Josiah  Annis,  15th  Vt.,  li 

*Expelled.  fTransferred.  iDropped.  ^Discharged. 

The  Soldiers  of  Coos. 



(Furnished  by  Sumner  Rowell,  Q.  M.) 










John  H.  Brooks,  3d  Vt.. 
Thomas  If.  Mayo,  4th  N.  H.. 

C.  S.  Dalton,  13th  N.  H., 
('.  \V.  Delliber,  1st  Conn.  Cav., 
J.  It.  Little,  13th  N.  H., 
W.  McKiimon,  13th  N.  H., 

D.  G.  Ripley,  13th  N.  H., 
G.  W.  Smith,  13th  N.  H.. 
A.  Hutchinson,  23d  Mass., 
A.  Harris*,  13th  N.  H, 
S.  Rowell.  1st  N.  H, 
*0.  L.  Fling,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art, 
John  Paul,  13th  N.  H. 
*C.  S.  Holmes,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art., 
G.  Harriman,  3d  Mass.  H.  Art., 
*A.  R.  Aldrich,  2d  N.  H, 
Joseph  Davis,  15th  N.  H, 
W.  W.  Scott,  13th  N.  H, 
W.  B.  Huston,  1st  N.  H. 
H.  M.  Harvey.   1st  Vt.. 
S.  Dunsmore,  9th  N.  H., 
*J.  C.  Post,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art., 
S.  Keeb.e,3dVt., 

Burlington,  Vt, 





»  i 










































A.  M.  Taylor,  12th  Me., 

H.  T.  Owen,  15th  Vt., 

D.  Chase,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art., 

*E.  M.  Danforth,  1st  Vt.. 

S.  Merrill,  2d  N.  H, 

*H.  Sawyer,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art., 

W.  Derarth,  2d  N.  H, 

N.  O.  Tuttle.  IstN.  H.  H.  Art., 

S.  Richards,   3d  Me., 

F.  E.  Robey,  3d  Vt., 

J.  M.  Reach,  3d  Berdan's  S.  8., 

I.  J.  Hartshorn,  9th  Vt,, 

S.  T.  Brunell,  1st  Vt.. 

J.  C.  Parish,  5th  N.  H, 

A.  Chase, 

J.  Perry,  8th  Vt., 

M.  McKiimon,  1st  N.  H. 

J.  E.  Hibbard,  2d  N.  H., 

N.  Beecher,  ±5th  Me., 

Thomas  Thebault,  3d  Vt.  Bat., 

A.  Hanmah,  13th  N.  H., 

C.  Perry,  13th  N.  H, 

John  Kingsley, 





( 'larksville 



St.  wartstown 


( 'iiuaau 




( 'anada 

(Furnished  by  F.  A.  Ruby.) 

1.  Clark  Stevens,  2d  H.  Art.,  Stratford 

2.  Henry  B.  Gilkey,13th  N.  H. Vols.,  Northumberland 

Bloomtield,  Vt, 
Bloomtield.  Vt. 
Maidstone,  Vt. 
Bloomtield.  Vt. 

3.  M.  C.  Fuller.  1st  Vt.  Cav., 

4.  \V.  H.  Lovejoy,  2dU.  S.  Cav., 

5.  J.  M.  Wood,  5th  Vt.  Vols., 

6.  Edward  Beach,  9th  Vt.  Vols.. 

7.  P.  A.  Roby,  9th  Vt.  Vols., 

8.  F.  C.  Roby,  1st  Vt.  Cav., 

9.  N.  M.  Johnson,  10th  Vt.  Vols.,  " 

10.  John  Burton.  9th  and  1st  Me.  Vet,  Inf.,  Stratford 

11.  Ephrain  H.  Mahurin,  13th  N.  H.  Vols.,  Columbia 

12.  W.  E.  Cram,  8th  Vt.  Vols.,  Maidstone,  Vt. 

13.  Charles  P.  Schoff,  16th  Me.  Vols,,  Stratford 

14.  Elwyn  Holbrook,  13th  N.  H.Vols.,  Bloomfiekl.  Vt. 

15.  John  Jackson,  IstVt.  Cav.,  (died  March.  1886.) 

16.  Michael  Lynch,  3d  Vt.  Vols.,  Stratford 

17.  Silas  Curtis.  1st  X.  H.  H.  Art..  Columbia 

18.  George  Rowell,  2d  Vt,  Vols..  " 



Bloomfield,  Vt. 

19.  Erastus  Atherton,   13th  Vt.  Vols.,  Stratford 

20.  Wallace  F.  Severy,  3d  Vt,  Vols., 

21.  W.  W.  Russ,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art., 

22.  Abel  Jordan,  13th  X.  H.  Vols., 

23.  Paul  Kelley,  1st  N.  H.  H.  Art,, 

24.  Samuel  F.  Brown,  V.  S.  S.  S., 

25.  Sabin  Welcome,  5th  Me.  Vols., 

26.  Josiah  W.  Tebbetts,  1st  X.  H.  H.  Art,,    Stratford 

27.  M.  V.  Reed,  9th  Me.  Vols..  " 

28.  Calvin  Fuller,  3d  Vt.  Vols.,  " 

29.  Elisha  P.  Hicks,  5th  Me.  Battery.  Colebrool, 

30.  Fred  L.  Kenney,  unattached  Inf.,  Stratford 

31.  Geo.  Montgomery,  9th  Vt.  Inf.,  Northumberland 

32.  Wellington  Brown,  1st  V  II.  Cav.,  Stratford 

33.  Edson  Harriman,  3d  Vt.  Inf..  " 

34.  Simeon  Grover,  Me.  Inf.,  Columbia 

35.  Guy  Johnson,  l.ith  \.  H.  V  Stratford 


i  In  active  membership.  I 

( Iross  Post,    Lancaster ' '" 

Willis  Post.  ( iorham 99 

Fletcher  Post.  Colebrook 72 

White  Post.  Whitefield 64 

Merrill  Post.  Stewartstown 41 

Thompson    Post,  Stratford 35 

Total 121 



194  History  of  Coos  County. 


In  the  preceding  pages  I  have  endeavored  to  present,  as  concisely  as 
possible,  and  as  accurately  as  the  sources  of  information  at  command 
would  allow,  a  record  of  the  several  organizations  raised  in  the  state,  a 
list  of  the  men  who  periled  life  and  all  its  attractions  to  serve  and  save 
the  country  in  its  time  of  danger,  and  a  summary  of  the  forces  raised, 
with  an  analysis  of  the  loss  by  casualty  and  other  causes,  whereby  these 
men  are  accounted  for.  Imperfect  as  this  record  is,  and  issued  doubtingly, 
remembering  the  sensitive  criticism  that  may  properly  follow  each  error 
of  omission  or  commission  in  recording  a  soldier's  service  or  valor,  and 
remembering  also  the  risk  it  runs  in  passing  through  the  press,  from  type- 
setters and  proof-readers  unfamiliar  with  the  writer's  chirography,  or  the 
family  names  of  the  region,  the  best  has  been  done  that  circumstances 
permitted,  and  this  chapter  is  dedicated  in  Fraternity,  Charity  and  Loyalty 
to  the  good  men  living,  and  the  memory  of  the  good  men  dead,  who  illus- 
trated their  valor  and  their  worth  in  responding  to  the  call  to  arms. 

No  matter  where  or  how  their  service  was  spent,  how  brief  or  how  long 
their  term  of  enlistment,  the  test  of  it  all  was  the  willingness  to  volunteer 
and  the  actual  performance  of  that  act.  To  obey  orders  was  all  that 
remained  to  them,  the  responsibility  of  events  was  elsewhere.  Theirs  was 
the  soldierly  duty  of  devotion  and  obedience,  and  so  all  are  alike  entitled 
to  the  respect  and  gratitude  that  should  follow  noble  and  hazardous  en- 
deavor honestly  undertaken  and  service  well  performed. 

It  was  the  marvel  of  the  time  that  the  armies  of  the  Union  should  be 
absorbed  at  the  close  of  the  war,  into  the  body  of  the  people  without  dis- 
turbance, and  the  transformation  from  the  soldier  to  the  citizen  became 
so  complete  as  to  leave  no  trace.  This  is  the  crowning  glory  of  the  re- 
public. The  citizen  is  a  soldier  in  time  of  war,  and  the  soldier  is  a  citizen 
in  time  of  peace. 

Under  the  guise  of  the  farmer,  the  mechanic,  the  merchant,  the  pro- 
fessional man,  the  laborer,  the  soldiers  of  Coos  who  in  perilous  times 
followed  the  drum-beat  in  scenes  of  high  endeavor,  have  steadily  since 
the  war  been  pursuing  the  paths  of  honest  toil.  They  have  been  the  best 
of  citizens,  because  in  their  own  persons  they  tried  and  solved  the  great 
problem  of  the  worth  of  the  government  they  defended,  saved  and  now 
enjoy,  and  it  is  proper  that  the  diminishing  column  that  remains  should 
receive  the  respect  of  each  community  wherein  its  members  are  exem- 
plary, modest,  industrious  and  worthy  citizens. 

Green  be  your  graves,  oh  comrades,  who  have  gone  before!  Fresh  and 
sweet  be  the  memories  that  float  from  the  past;  and  hallowed  be  the  love 
that  bears,  and  shall  bear  you  ever  in  tender  remembrance!  Dire  was  the 
conflict,  but  your  reveries  are  unbroken,   and  ye  rest  well;  the  eternal 

Public  Buildings.  L95 

mountains  guard  your  slumbers  and  the  singing  waters  chant  your  even'- 
song!  Long  and  weary  was  the  way,  but  ye  laid  down  beside  the  path 
of  duty,  and  generations  yet  unborn,  following  the  beautiful  custom  of 
Memorial  Day,  shall,  as  the  gloom  of  winter  melts  into  the  smile  of  spring, 
spread  your  graves  with  vernal  tributes  and  perpetuate  the  grand  idea, 
that  the  loftiest  conception  of  patriotism,  the  truest  test  of  manhood,  is 
that  which  impels  the  citizen  in  the  hour  of  its  peril,  to  otter  his  life  for 
the  state. 

Let  us  keep  the  nation  worthy  the  sacrifices  that  preserved  its  life,  so 
that  they  may  not  have  been  made  in  vain,  and  that  the  country,  thus 
rescued,  may  escape  the  dangers  of  faction,  and  remain  through  the  dis- 
tant future,  the  refuge  of  the  oppressed,  the  home  of  an  enlightened  and 
happy  people. 



LANCASTER— Court  Houses,  Jails,  etc. — In  the  interval  between  the 
organization  of  the  county  and  the  building  of  the  original  court  house, 
the  courts  were  held  in  the  hall  of  Col.  John  Willson's  store,  which 
stood  at  the  north  end  of  Main  street,  and  was  also  occupied  by  North  Star 
Lodge  of  Masons.  At  this  time  a  room  was  prepared  to  serve  for  a  jail,  and 
Judge  William  Lovejoy  was  the  first  jailer.  The  first  court  house  was  built 
in  1 806,  on  the  southwest  corner  of  Main  and  Bridge  streets.  It  was  a  square 
wooden  building  of  one  room,  with  a  flat  roof.  The  juries  used  Willson's 
hall.  The  house  was  heated  by  an  inverted  potash  kettle,  with  a  hole  in 
the  bottom,  upon  an  arch  of  brick,  with  a  flaring  stove-pipe  to  carry  away 
the  smoke.  The  "  Old  Meeting  House  "  being  excessively  cold,  the  funerals 
in  winter  were  generally  held  in  the  court  house.  After  a  while  a  bell 
was  procured  to  announce  the  opening  of  court.  This  was  suspended  from  a 
gallows  of  two  poles,  and  has  quite  a  history.  It  was  originally  broughi 
to  the  county  by  "  Guinea  "  Smith,  and  placed  on  a  tripod  of  poles,  near  his 
factory  at  Colebrook.  After  the  factory  was  burned,  Francis  Wilson 
bought  the  bell  and  brought  it  to  Lancaster.  When  no  longer  n  quired  at 
the  courthouse,  it  was  used  at  the  old  academy,  and  afterward  at  the 
machine  shop  of  Thompson,    Williams  &,  Co. 

The  old  jail  was  built  in  ism;,  near  where  the  present   one  stands,  and 
the  site  for  both  jail  and  court-house  was  given  by  Artemas  Wilder.     This 

196  History  of  Coos  County. 

jail  was  built  of  hewn  elm  logs,  firmly  bolted.  It  had  an  upper  and  lower 
room,  with  massive  wooden  doors.  For  years  Coos  and  the  "  border  "  was 
a  favorite  resort  of  desperadoes  and  counterfeiters,  with  some  of  whom, 
after  imprisonment,  the  keepers  had  serious  struggles,  and  the  large  rings 
in  the  floor,  and  the  heavy  iron  chains,  used  to  connect  them  with  the 
fetters  of  the  prisoners,  were  in  frequent  use.  This  jail  was  burned  January 
9,  1858,  and  the  present  stone  one  erected  soon  after. 

The  old  court-house  became  antiquated  and  too  small,  yet  there  was 
hesitation  regarding  the  building  a  new  one  until  Judge  Livermore.  in  1831, 
peremptorily  ordered  the  erection  of  a  new  one,  and  specified  the  plan. 
In  1808,  when  this  court-house  was  demolished,  one  of  the  workmen  found 
in  the  arch  of  the  eastern  gable,  securely  fastened  to  the  building,  a  pack- 
age which  contained  a  copy  each  of  "  The  New  Hampshire  Patriot  "  and 
the  Haverhill  ';  Democratic  Republican,'''  and  the  following  statement 
written  by  Richard  Eastman: — 

"This  building  was  erected  for  holding  the  Courts  in  the  County  of  Coos,  State  of  New 
Hampshire.  Commenced  June  7,  1831,  and  will  probably  be  completed  by  October  1,  of  the  same 
year,  expense  about  $1,800.  The  stone  and  brick  work  was  undertaken  by  Gen.  John  Willson  and 
Lieut.  Joseph  Cady.  The  stone  work  cut  and  hammered  byElisba  Cushmanand  William  Holmes. 
Master  workman  of  the  brick  work,  Capt.  Peter  Merrill.  Assistant  workmen,  William  Page, 
Zadock  Cady,  Joseph  C.  Cady,  Calvin  Willard,  Jonathan  W.  Willard.  Tenders,  Josiah  G-  Hobart, 
Samuel  Banfield,  William  W.  Moore,  William  Horn,  Franklin  Savage.  The  carpenters'  work 
done  under  the  superintendence  of  William  Moody.  The  joiners'  work  done  by  Richard  Eastman, 
Elijah  D.  Twombly,  Artemas  Lovejoy.  The  committee  who  superintended  the  whole  building  of 
said  house  were  John  W.  Weeks,  Thomas  Carlisle  and  Richard  Eastman." 

In  1853-54  a  county  building  was  erected  for  the  county  offices  on  the 
bank  of  Israel's  river  near  the  grist-mill.  This  was  shored  and  braced  up 
for  many  years  to  keep  it  from  failing  into  the  river.  Both  this  and  the 
court-house  required  costly  and  extensive  repairs;  even  with  these  they 
would  not  be  what  the  progress  of  the  county  demanded,  and,  in  1868, 
it  was  voted  "to  demolish  the  county  building,  and  enlarge  and  re- 
pair the  court-house  to  accommodate  the  courts  and  the  county  offices." 
The  foundation  walls,  however,  were  found  to  be  unsafe,  and,  at  last,  an 
entirely  new  building  was  decided  upon.  This  was  brick,  two  stories  high, 
40x70  feet  in  size,  surmounted  by  a  cupola  and  bell,  and  completed  in  May, 
L869.  The  offices  of  the  probate  judge  and  register  of  deeds  and  two  jury 
rooms  were  on  the  ground  floor.  The  second  story  contained  a  high  and 
well-ventilated  court-room  of  ample  proportions,  and  the  offices  of 
the  county  treasurer  and  commissioners.  Its  original  cost  was  about 
$17,000,  but  alterations  and  improvements  brought  the  whole  expense 
of  construction  up  to  nearly  $30,000.  The  building  was  an  ornament 
to  Lancaster,  and  a  source  of  pride  to  the  people  of  the  entire  county. 
The  county  commissioners,  Gen.  A.  J.  Congdon,  Seneca  S.  Merrill  and 

Public  Buildings. 

John  C.  Leighton,  who  had  charge  of  its  erection,  well  discharged  their 

In  1885  the  county  delegation  voted  to  rebuild  the  vaults,  which  were 
not  considered  safe  depositories  of  the  records.  These  were  completed  al 
a  cost  of  |3,000  in  1886.  To  hasten  their  drying  stoves  had  been  placed  in 
them,  and  fires  were  maintained  for  some  days.  On  the  night  of  Novem 
ber  -f,  1886.  workmen  were  engaged  until  midnight  in  placing  steam-heal- 
ing apparatus  into  the  building.  After  their  departure  M.  A.  Hastings, 
clerk  of  the  court,  J.  W.  Flanders,  register  of  probate,  and  C.  A.  Cleave- 
land,  register  of  deeds,  made  an  examination  of  the  building  and  every- 
thing appeared  safe;  but  between  two  and  three  in  the  morning  the  court- 
house was  discovered  in  flames.  The  loss  was  complete;  building,  records, 
and  everything  connected  therewith  were  destroyed,  only  a  few  half- 
charred  leaves  remaining  of  the  immense  number  of  records  which  told  the 
history  of  the  county  for  eighty-two  years.  Hon.  W.  S.  Ladd  had  his 
law  office  in  the  court-house,  and  all  his  law  papers  and  documents,  to- 
gether with  a  library  valued  at  about  $9,000,  were  consumed. 

A  county  convention  met  at  the  town  hall  of  Lancaster  December  9, 
1886,  and  organized  to  consider  the  question  of  rebuilding  the  court-house. 
An  effort  was  made  to  delay  action  so  that  the  people  might  vote  on  the 
matter  of  removal  of  the  county  seat  from  Lancaster.  The  thriving  town 
of  Berlin  offered  to  build  a  court-house  equally  as  good  as  the  one  destroyed, 
by  contributions  of  its  citizens,  if  the  county  seat  was  removed  thither. 
Groveton  presented  its  claims  and  a  liberal  subscription  paper,  but  the 
convention  adopted  this  resolution  by  a  vote  of  thirteen  to  six: 

"Besolved,  That  the  sum  of  fifteen  thousand  dollars  is  hereby  appropriated  to  rel  »uild  the  court- 
house and  county  offices,  on  the  present  court-house  site,  in  Lancaster  village,  and  that  any  part  of 
said  sum  not  expended  on  the  completion  of  said  building  be  covered  back  into  the  county  treasury. " 

The  convention  also  instructed  the  county  commissioners  to  immedi- 
ately proceed  to  rebuild  the  court-house  building.  Various  plans  were 
submitted;  finally  one  presented  bya  Boston  architect  was  accepted;  Mead, 
Mason  &  Co.,  of  Concord,  awarded  the  contract  for  erecting  the  court- 
house, and  it  is  now  in  process  of  construction.  It  will  cost  over  $17,000, 
and  will  be  the  best  public  edifice  in  this  section  of  the  state.  It  is  50x70 
feet,  with  a  six  foot  projection  on  each  side,  making  the  front  end  sixty- 
six  feet,  three  stories  high,  and  a  cupola  and  spire,  running  up  nearly  LOO 
feet  from  the  foundation.  Underneath  the  whole  is  a  basement,  wherein 
is  to  be  located  the  steam  boiler,  waterclosets,  coal  bins,  etc.  The  entire  build- 
ing is  to  be  of  brick  and  granite,  and  the  design  is  a  very  handsome  one.  <  »n 
the  first  floor  is  the  registry  of  deeds,  registry  of  probate,  clerk's  office,  com- 
missioners' room,  grand  jury  room,  and  vaults.  Located  about  the  same  as 
in  the  old  house.  In  the  front  and  center  is  the  vestibule.  L6x26  feet,  with 
two  flights  of  stairs,  and  a  janitor's  closet.     On  the  second  floor  is  tin-  court 

198  History  of  Coos  County. 

room,  50x50,  two  stories  high,  lighted  by  north,  south  and  west  windows. 
In  the  front  end,  over  the  registers'  offices,  are  the  judge's  room,  lawyers* 
and  consultation  rooms,  and  janitor's  room.  Over  these,  in  the  third  story, 
are  two  jury  rooms,  sheriff's  room,  etc.  Lavatories  and  water  closets  are 
on  every  floor,  and  conveniently  arranged.  The  building  is  to  be  heated 
by  a  fifteen-horse  power,  100  pounds  hydraulic  pressure,  sectional  steam 

County  Alms  House. — The  question  of  purchasing  a  county  farm  was 
presented  to  the  county  convention  in  1862,  but  that  body  was  not  willing 
to  assume  any  responsibility  without  instruction,  and  referred  the  matter 
to  the  people,  who  defeated  it  at  the  town  meetings  in  March,  1863.  A  re- 
port prepared  in  1861  showed  at  that  date  seventy-nine  persons  receiving 
aid  from  the  county,  and  that  out  of  an  entire  tax  of  $6,511.7-2,  the  sup- 
port of  county  paupers  called  for  $5,305.00.  The  subject  of  a  farm  was 
still  agitated,  and  a  county  convention  called  to  meet  in  Lancaster,  Janu- 
ary 19.  1865,  to  consider  and  act  upon  the  matter.  The  question  was  re- 
ferred again  to  the  voters,  and  the  final  result  was  the  purchase  of  the 
beautiful  farm  of  Isaiah  H.  Pickard,  located  on  the  Connecticut  river,  about 
one-third  of  a  mile  fromWest  Stewartstown,  in  the  town  of  Stewartstowm 
The  farm  contained  six  hundred  acres,  with  upland,  grazing  and  woodland, 
a  meadow  of  eighty  acres,  a  sugar  orchard  of  1,300  trees,  and  a  heavy 
growth  of  fine  spruce,  hemlock,  and  other  lumber  trees.  There  was  on 
the  farm  a  good  two-story  house,  36x26  feet  in  size,  which  was  made  the 
basis  to  the  alms  house  constructed  in  1867.  To  this  farm  house  an  ad- 
dition was  made  of  a  three  story  building,  eighty  feet  long  and  thirty  eight 
feet  wide.  In  this  150  paupers  could  be  accommodated.  The  price  paid 
for  the  farm  was  17,000;  the  building  and  other  improvements  cost  $11,000 

The  commissioners  were  fortunate  in  obtaining  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.  G. 
Hannaford  as  superintendent  and  matron.  For  twenty  years  they  have 
done  most  faithful  service.  The  alms  house  was  opened  in  October,  1S67, 
with  nearly  sixty-five  inmates.  Fire  escapes  have  been  placed  in  suitable 
locations  1o  admit  of  prompt  escape  in  case  of  need,  while  danger  from 
fire  is  at  the  minimum,  as  the  heating  is  done  by  steam.  The  farm  and 
alms  house  are  model  ones,  comprising  every  thing  needed  for  the  comfort 
of  the  unfortunate  guests,  of  which  there  have  been  at  one  time  as  many 
as  121,  and  the  average  during  the  last  ten  years  about  100.  About  one 
thousand  dollars  is  now  being  expended  for  the  improvement  of  the  reser- 
voir and  sewerage. 

*For  Colebrook  court-house,  see  Bench  and  Bar. 

National  and  State  Officers.  199 


Early  Representatives  —  Classed  Representatives  —  Senators  —  County  Officers. 

REPRESENTATIVES  in  Congress—  John  W.  Weeks,  1829-1833; 
j-C  Jared  W.Williams,  1837-1841;  Jacob  Benton,  1867-1871;  Ossian  Ray, 
X  \  1883-1884. 

United  States  Commissioner  and  Consul- General  to  Hayti  -Benjamin 
F.  Whidden,  1802-1865. 

Governor. — Jared  W.  Williams,  1847-1848. 

Members  of  Governors  Council. — John  H.  White,  Lancaster,  June, 
183!),  to  June,  1842;  Aurin  M.  Chase,  Whitefield,  June,  1858,  to  June, 
1851);  Ethan  Colby,  Colebrook,  June,  1862,  to  June,  1863;  Hazen  Bedel, 
Colebrook,  1867  to  1869;  Nathan  R.  Perkins,  Jefferson,  1873  to  1875; 
David  M.  Aldrich,  Whitefield,  1884. 

Members  of  Constitutional  Conventions. — In  1775,  Abijah  Lamed,  Cock- 
burne;  1778,  none;  1781,  David  Page,  Lancaster;  1788,  Capt.  John  Weeks, 
Lancaster,  Northumberland,  Stratford.  Dartmouth,  Cockburne.  Coleburne, 
and  Piercy;  1791,  William  Cargill,  Lancaster;  1850,  G.  W.  M.  Pitman, 
Bartlett;  Benjamin  Thompson,  Berlin  and  Milan;  Robert  Tuttle,  Carroll, 
■&c. ;  Hazen  Bedel,  Colebrook;  Abram  Boynton,  Columbia;  Gideon  Tirrill, 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg;  Benjamin  D.  Brewster,  Dalton;  Moses  Thurs- 
tin,  Errol,  &c. ;  Joseph  Perkins,  Jackson;  B.  H.  Plaisted,  Jefferson;  John 
H.  White,  Lancaster;  William  M.  Smith,  Stewartstown ;  J.  B.  Brown. 
Northumberland;  John  D.  Burbank,  Shelburne,  Gorham,  &c.  :  Moses  Jack- 
son, Stark  and  Dummer;  Ralph  Fiske,  Whitefield.  1876,  Horace  C  Saw- 
yer, Berlin;  Josiah  Young,  Clarksville;  Hazen  Bedel,  Frank  Aldrich, 
Colebrook;  S.  M.  Harvey,  Columbia;  Bert  A.  Taylor,  Dalton;  I.  C.  Wight, 
Dummer;  John  Akers,  Errol;  B.  F.  Howard,  Gorham:  X.  R  Perkins,  Jef- 
ferson; Jacob  Benton,  William  Burns,  Lancaster:  Adams  Twitchel,  .Milan; 
Robert  Atkinson.  Northumberland ;  David  Blanchard,  Pittsburg:  George 
Wood,  Randolph;  Hiram  T.  Cummings,  Shelburne;  Joseph  A.  Pike,  Stark; 
Edwin  W.Drew,  Stewartstown;  George  R.  Eaton,  Stratford;  A.  L.  Brown. 
Moses  H.  Gordon,  Whitefield. 

Bank  Commissioners.— James  ^\.  Rix,  1843  1846;  1848  1854;  Henry  (). 
Kent,   1866-1869. 


History  of  Coos  County. 


Date.        Towns  Classed.       Name  of  Representative. 

f  Apthorp, 
I  Lancaster. 
|  Northumberland, 
|  Stratford, 
1775,    -j  Cockburne, 

I  Conway, 


and  towns  above. 
Same  Class. 

Capt.  Abijah  Larned. 





f  Apthorp, 

|  Lancaster, 
J  Northumberland, 

I  Stratford, 

|  Cockburne, 

L  Colburn. 
Same  Class. 

(  Apthorp, 

|  Bath, 

|  Lyman. 

]  Gnnthwait, 

J  Lancaster, 

]  Northumberland. 

|  Stratford, 

j  Dartmouth. 

j  Colburn, 

[  Cockburne. 

Col.  Joseim  Whipple. 
Col.  Joseph  Whipple. 

Col.  Joseph  Whipple. 

Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames. 
Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames. 
Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames. 
Col.  Joseph  Whipple. 
Col.  Joseph  Whipple. 

Maj.  John  Young. 









Towns  Classed. 

f  Littleton, 
j  Lyman, 
j  Landaff, 
|  Concord, 
|  Bath, 
I  Dalton. 
Same  Class. 

[  Littleton, 
I  Lancaster, 
j  Dartmouth, 
Same  Class. 

Name  of  Representative, 

Maj.  John  Young. 

Maj.  John  Young. 
Not  Represesented. 
Maj.  Samuel  Young. 
Maj.  John  Young. 
Maj.  Samuel  Young, 
Maj.  John  Young. 
Peter  Carleton. 

Jonas  Wilder,  Jr. 

James  Williams. 
Jonathan  Cram. 
Col.  Richard  C.  Everett- 
Col.  Richard  C.  Everett. 
James  Raiddn. 
Col.  Richard  C.  Everett. 

—Col.  Richard  C.  Everett. 

— Col.  Richard  C.  Everett,  Maj.  Nathan  Barlow, 
Jeremiah  Eames,  Jr. 

— Col.  Richard  C.  Everett,  Col.  Nathan  Barlow, 
Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames. 

— Mr.  William  Lovjoy,  Col.  Nathan  Barlow,  Jo- 
seph Looinis,  Esq. 

— William  Lovejoy,  Nathan  Barlow,  Esq.,  Joseph 
Loomis,  Esq. 

These  early  representatives  were  men  of  strong  character,  and  it  may 
be  interesting  to  know  their  birthplace,  residence,  occupation,  and  politics, 
which  we  are  enabled  to  give  by  the  courtesy  of  Hon.  A.  S.  Batchellor,  who 
has  furnished  the  above  list  and  these  particulars.  Capt.  Abijah  Larned, 
of  Cockburne,  born  in  Killingly,  Conn.,  was  a  carpenter.  Col.  Joseph 
Whipple,  of  Dartmouth,  born  in  Kittery,  Me.,  merchant;  Democrat. 
Capt.  Jeremiah  Eames,  of  Northumberland,  a  native  of  Salem,  Mass., 
farmer;  Democrat.  Major  John  Young,  of  Gunthwait,  born  in  Haverhill, 
Mass..  farmer;  Democrat.  Major  Samuel  Young,  of  Concord,  birthplace 
Haverhill,  Mass.,  farmer;  Democrat.  Jonas  Wilder,  Jr.,  of  Lancaster, 
born  in  Templeton,  Mass.,  merchant;  Federalist.  Peter  Carleton,  of  Lan- 
daff, born  in  Haverhill,  farmer;  Democrat.  James  Williams,  of  Littleton,, 
a  native  of  Salem,  Mass.,  farmer;  Federalist.  Jonathan  Cram,  of  Lan- 
caster, birthplace  Poplin,  N.  H.,  farmer;  Federalist.  Richard  C.  Everett, 
of  Lancaster,  born  in  Attleboro,  Mass. ,  lawyer;  Federalist.  James  Rankin, 
of  Littleton,  born  in  Paisley,  Scotland,  farmer;  Federalist. 

National  and  State  Officers. 



(Compiled  from  N.  II.  Registers.) 

■  William  Love  joy. 


A.  1805.— Adams.  Chatham;  Lo-1 

cations    and    Gores: —  j 

I .  c  hadbou  m  e  's,  | 
Gaffer's,  M.  II.  Went-  | 
worth's,  Roger's  and  | 
Treadwell's,  .Martin's,  j 
Theo.  Dame's,  Sher-  j 
burne's,   et.   al.,   .Tno. 

Hind's.  Stephen   Hoi-  | 

land's.    Arch    stalk's.  ►  Silas  Meserve 

Samuel  Hale's.  Francis 
<  ireen's.  Binge  and  Pier 
ce's,Vere  Royce's.Wm. 
Robert  Furnass's,  Sam- 
uel Gilman's.  McMil- 
lan's,  David  Oilman's, 
Gridley's,  Cray's.  Nash 
and  Sawyer's. 

B.  1805.— Bret  ton  Woods.  Jeffer 

son.  Lancaster. 

C.  1805. — Coekburne,      Colebrook, 

Errol,     Sb  e  11m  rn  e,  ^  James 
Stewartstown.  ) 

D.  1805. — Northumberland, Tiercv,  |  T  ,,  „,.,,   . 

Stratford.  "[  J.  M.  Tillotson 

A.     1806.— Same  as  A,  1805,  and  Bartlett. 

Silas  Meserve 
"        "  B,  1805,  William  Lovejoy. 
"        '•  C,       "    James  Hugh. 
"        "  D,       "    Abner  Ulark. 
A.     1807.— Same   as   A,    1808.    save  / 
Theo.  Dame's  Location,  \ 
Same  as  B,  1805,  William  Lovejoy. 
"       "  C,     "      Hez.  Parsons. 
"       "  D,     '•       E.  H.  Mahurin. 
1808.— Same   as  A,  1807,  Silas  Meserve. 

"      "  B,  1805.  William  Loveioy. 
"       "  C.     •<      Jere.  Eames. " 
"      "  D.     "      E.  H.  Mahurin. 
1809.— Class  A.  1807,  Silas  Meserve. 

"    B.  1805.  William  Lovejoy. 
C.  "     C,  1805.    and   Dix-j 

ville     and     Shelburne  - 
Addition.  \ 

Class  D.  1805.  J   M.  Tillotson. 
1810.— Class  A.  1807.  Silas  Meserve. 

••     B,   1S05,  William  Lovejoy. 
"     D,   1805,  .Tames  Lucas.' 
i  lockburne,     Colebrook,  I 

Silas  Meserve. 


Jere.  Eames,Jr 

Jere.  Eames. 



A.     1812. 


A.     1313.- 

Dixville  and  Errol,        f 
Shelburne  and    Addition,  t 
Stewartstown.  [ 

-Class  A.  1807,  Silas  Meserve. 

••     B,  1805,  and  Millsfield,Wm.  Love  joy. 
"    C,  1809,  save  Dixville,  Ch. 

'•     T).  1805,  -lames  Lucas. 

-Class  A.   1806.   save  tin 

several       Locations  I  _     . ,  ,.    , 

and    Gores    therein  \  David  Badger. 

mentiom  d.  J 

Class  B,  L805,  Samuel  Plaisted. 

"    E,  1810,  save  Dixville,  Jere.  Ea 
Nor  thu  in  be  r  1  a  □  d.  1 

Piercy,    and    Pauls- >•  Joshua  Marshall. 

bury.   Stratford.  \ 

-Class  A.  1812,  save  Chatham,  David 


Thomas  Fames. 

Northumberland  and     ) 
Stratford.  \ 

II.  Dalton  and  Whitefield,  Edward  Reid. 

B.  Class  B,  1805,  save  Bretton  \V Is, 

A.  \.  Brackett. 
1814.— Class  A,  1813.  J.  Pendexter. 

Colebrook  and  Dalton.  Edmund  Kezer. 
Northumberland,  White-  i  T  „      ,    „ 
field,  Stratford.  I  J'  Marshall. 

I.     1815. — Northumberland,   Piercj 

Stratford.         Stewarts-  \-  James  Lucas. 
Class  A,  1813,  J.  Pendexter. 
'•    B.      ••     A.  N.  Brackett. 
••    H,     ••    John  Wilder. 
J.  Columbia  and  Colebrook,  Jan  d  Com  . 

1816.— Class  I.  1815,  N.  Baldwin. 

•'    B,  1813,  A.  N.  Brackett. 
il    H,     "    P.  Cushman. 
"    J,  1815,  Jared  Cone. 
"    A.  1812,  Asa  Eastman. 
1817.—     "     I.  1815.  John  M.  Tillotson. 
"    B,  1813,  A.  N.  Brackett. 
"    J.  1815,  Hezekiah  Parsons. 
"     A,  1812,  J.  Pendexter.  Jr. 
1818.—     "    A,  1813,  Jonathan  Meserve. 
"     J,  1815.  Hezekiah  Parsons. 
I.  "    I,  1815,  save  Sti-wartstown,  J.  M. 

1819.—     "    A.  1813,  Jonathan  Mi  serve. 

"    I,  1818.  N.  Bildwin 
1820.—     "    A,  1813.  J.  Pendexter,  Jr. 
"    H,     '•     David  Bums. 
"    J,  1815.  Samuel  Pratt. 
"     I,  1818.  X.  Baldwin. 
1821.—     "     G.  1812,  Joshua  Marshall. 

"      A.   1813,  Stephen  Meserve. 

"     H.     "     Samuel  Burnhani. 
J.  "     J,  1815,  and  Stewartstown. 

Jeremiah  Eames. 
1822.—     "     G.  1812.  J.  M.  Tillotson. 
■•     A.  1813,  Stephen  Meserve. 
'•    J,  1821,  Lewis  Loomis. 
1823.—     '■     G,  1812.  Seth  Ames. 

•■    A.  1813,  Stephen  Meserve. 
••    J.  1821,  Lewis  Loomis. 
1824.—  Class  A.  L813,  Stephen  M  serve. 

"    J.    1821,  Ephraim  II.  Mahurin. 
G.  ■■    G.  1812,  and  Randolph,  Joshua 

1825.—     ••     A.,  1813,  Stephen  Meserve. 
••     II.  L813,  Eben.  Bix. 
K-  BrettonWood8,Kilken-)  fi^k     Burbank 

n\ .  and  Jenerson,     | 
J.  Class  J,  1815,       1 

and   Dixville    -  Ephraim  H.  Muhurin. 
and  Errol,       ) 
D.  Class  D,  1805,   and   Milan  I 

and  Randolph,  \ 

1826.     Class  A.  1813,  I.  Pendexter,  Jr. 
••     II.  1813,  Jno.  M.  Gove. 
•■    J.    L825.  Hezekiah  Parsi 
••    K,  1825,  William  Chamberlain. 
••     D,  1825,  J.  Marshall. 
1827.—    "     A.  1813,  Stephen  Mi  serve. 
•■     II.  L813,  Eben.  Kix. 
•■    J.   1825,  Hezekiah  Parson-. 
•■     K.  1825,  B.  Burbank. 
■•     D.  1825,  Tie. ma.-  Peverly. 

J.   Marshall. 


History  of  Coos  County. 

B.  Burbank. 

1828.— Class  A,  1813,  Stephen  Meserve. 
"    H,  1813,  J.  M.  Gove. 
"    J,  1815,  Abraham  Boynton. 
L.  Dixville,     Errol,    ) 

Millsfield,     and  -  Jeremiah  Loverin}. 
Stewartstown.     \ 
M.  Maynesborough,  Success. 

and  Shelburne. 

K.  Class   K,     1825,"| 

and  Randolph,  j 

and  Nash  and  '-  William  Chamberlain. 
Sawyer's     Lo-  j 
D.     1828,-Class  D,   1825.    except  i  ^  pever] 

Randolph,  ( 

1829.— Class  J,  1815,  Roswell  Hobart. 
••     D.  1828.  Samuel  Porter. 
"    H,  1813,  Asa  Taylor. 
••    K.  1828,  George  P.  Plaisted. 
■•    L.  1828,  J<  remiah  Lovering. 

M-  "     ^-ls-s-    (save  'b    Burbank 

Maynesboro')  and  Berlin,  j  u  «urDanK- 

1830.— Class  D.  1828,  Caleb  Smith. 

"     H,  1813,  Simeon  Warner. 

••     J.   1815,  William  Holkins. 

••     K,  1828,  W.  Chamberlain. 

••     L.  1828,  Benjamin  Drew. 

••     M,  1829.  Robert  Ingalls. 

D.     1S3L—     '•     D,  1828,  save  Stratford,  Ransom 


••     J.   1815.  William  Holkins. 

••     K.  1828J  Clovis  Lowe. 

••     L.  1828,  Benjamin  Drew. 

"    M,  1829,  B.  Burbank. 

N.  Jackson  and  Bartlett.  George  P.Meserve. 

1832.— Class  N,  1831,  George  P   Meserve. 

"    M,  1829,  Robert  Ingalls. 

O.  Carroll.  Jefferson  Kilken-  I  01     .    L 

nv.  and  Randolph,  ) 

Class  J,  1815.  A.  Boynton. 

"    L.  1828,  B.  Brainard. 

"    D,  1831,  Francis  Lang. 

1833.— Class  J.  1815,  Jonas  Mills. 

L.  "    L,  1828  and  (  larksville,  B.  Brainard. 

Dalton  and  Stark,  Thomas  Smith. 

Jefferson  and  Kilkenny,  Clovis  Lowe. 

Northumberland  and  Stratford,  T.  L. 


Milan  and  Stark,  R.  Twitched. 

1834. — Colebrook  and  Columbia,  Abr.  Boynton. 

L.  Class  L,  1833,  and  Berlin,  Benjamin 


Dalton  and  Carroll,  Asa  Taylor, 

Jefferson   and  Kilkenny,  David  Pinkham. 

Northumberland  and  Stratford,  T.  L. 


Milan  and  Stark,  Aaron  Potter 

1835.— Class  L,  1834,  B.  Thompson. 

Colebrook  and  Columbia,  Heze.  Parsons. 

Dalton  and  Carroll,  Benjamin  Brooks,  Jr. 

Jefferson  and  Kilkenny,  D.  Pinkham. 

Northumberland  and  Stratford.  S.  T. 


Milan  and  Stark.  R.  Twitched. 

1836. — Colebrook  and  Columbia,  R.  Hobart. 

Dalton  and  Carroll,  Asa  Taylor. 

Jefferson  and  Kilkenny.  Robert  Tuttle. 

Northumberland  and  Stratford.  S.  F. 


Milan  and  Stark.  Aaron  Potter. 

1837.— Class  L,  1834.  William  Chase. 

Dalton  and  Carroll,  William  Denison. 

Jefferson  and  Kilkenny,  David  Legro. 

•Northumberland  and  Stratford,  H.Lucas, 
Milan  and  Stark,  Th.  Wheeler. 
1838. — Dalton  and  Carroll,  James  B.  Sumner. 
Jefferson  and  Randolph,  David  Legro. 
Milan,  Stark  and Dummer, Aaron  J.  Smith, 
Northumberland  and  Stratford,   Hiram 

Shelburne  and  Gorham,  Oliver  B.  Howe. 
Class  L,  1834.  Jeremiah  Young. 
1839.— Dalton  ami  Carroll.  J.  B.  Sumner. 

Jefferson  and  Randolph,  Robert  Tuttle. 
Milan  Stark,  and  Dummer,  Peter  Wheeler. 
Northumberland  and  Stratford,  AbijahS. 

Shelburne  and  Gorham,  Robert  Ingalls. 
Class  L.  L834,  Jeremiah  Young. 
1840.— Berlin.  Ac.,*  Daniel  Green. 
Carroll.  &c.,  Thomas  Smith. 
Clarksville,  &<•.,  Josiah  A.  Young. 
Dalton.  &c,  Aaron  Ballon. 
Jefferson  and  Randolph,  Robert  Tuttle. 
Milan  and  Stark,  Aaron  J.  Smith. 
Northumberland  and  Stratford,  A.  S. 

1841.— Carroll,  Ac,  Eben.  Glines. 
Jackson.  Arc.  J.  P.  Emery. 
Jefferson,  &c,  Justus  Lowe. 
Milan.  &c,  Peter  Wheeler. 
Shelburne,  &c,  Daniel  Green. 
Stratford.  Ac.  Nahum  D.  Day. 
1842.— Milan,  &c,  Harwood  Pike. 
Stratford.  &c,  N.  D.  Day. 
1843. — No  classified  towns. 
1844.—  " 

1845. — Berlin.  Gorham,  Shelburne,  D.  Wheeler. 
P.  Carroll,    Nash    and    Sawyer's  i 

Location,  Hart's  Location  >  R. Tuttle. 
and  Craword's  Purchase,      \ 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant,  J.  F. 

1 1' rrish. 
Jefferson  and  Randolph,  Jas.  G.  Summers. 
Northumberland  and  Stratford,  J.  B. 

Milan,  Stark  and  Dummer.  Joshua  Parker. 
Q.  Pittsburg,    Clarksville,  ) 

Dixville,  Millstield.     V  N.  Perkins. 
Errol,  ) 

1846. — Berlin,  Gorham  and  Shelburne, 

D.  Wheeler. 
Class  P.  1845,  Abel  Crawford. 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant,  J.  F. 

<  rerrish. 
Jefferson  and  Randolph,  Edward  Parsons. 
North'laml  and  Stratford,  J.  B.  Brown. 
Milan.  Stark  and  Dummer,   A.  J.  Smith. 
Class  Q,  1845,  William  Dunn. 
1847. — Berlin,  Gorham,  Shelburne,  Thomas  J. 

Class  P.  1845,  Abel  Crawford. 

••      Q,     "      R,  J.  Blanchard. 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant,  N.  P. 

Jefferson  and  Randolph,  Edward  Parsons, 
Milan,  Stark,  Dummer,  Amos  Green. 
North'land  and  Stratford,  R.  Gamsby. 
1848. — Berlin.  Gorham,  Shelburne,  Thomas  J. 

Class  P.  1845,  Samuel  Worthley. 
'•    Q,     •"      R.  J.  Blanchard'. 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant,  N.  P. 

Jefferson  and  Randolph,  B.  H.  Plaisted. 
Milan.  Stark.  Dummer,  Harwood  Pike. 
North'land  and  Stratford,  R.  Gamsby. 

*"&c."  is  rather  indefinite,  but  I  copy  as  given  in  "Register. 

National  and  State  Officers. 






1849.— Class  l\  1845,  Samuel  Worthley. 

(,).     ••  nave  Clarksi  tile,  Sam']  A 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant,  N.  P. 

Milan,  stark.  Dummer,  P.  Win  eler. 
North'land  and  Stratford,  < !.  Bellows. 
1850.  — Berlin  and  Milan,  Joshua  Parker. 
Gorham,  Shelburne  and  Randolph, 

J.  I).  Burbank. 
•  P,  L845,  Samuel  Holmes. 
••    Q,  1849,  Samrn  1  Akers. 
Jackson,  Pinkham's  Grant,  <i.  H. 

stark  ami  Dummer,  Moses  Jackson. 
North'land  and  Stratford,  J.  B.  Brown. 
—Berlin,  Gorham,  Shelburne.  S.  Chipman. 
!'.  L845.  S.  Holmes. 
Dixville,  Errol,  Millsfield,  M.  Thurston. 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg.  John  T.  Amy. 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant. 

G.  H.  Pinkham. 
Jefferson   ami    Randolph,  B.  H.  Plaisted. 
Stark  and  Dummer,  .1.  R.  Briggs. 
Stratford  and  Northumberland, 

R.  s.  Marshall. 
--Randolph.  Gorham  and  Shelburne. 

James  0.  Scates. 
Class  T.  1845,  Joseph  L.  Gibbs. 
Dixville,  Errol;  Millsfield,  Elliot  Harper. 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  John  T.  Amy. 
Jackson  and  Pinkham's  Grant, 

Samuel  Hazelton. 
Milan  and  Berlin,  II.  T.  Ellin-wood. 
Stark  ami  Dummer,  Moses  Jackson. 
Stratford  and  North'land,  R.  s.  Marshall. 
— Randolph,  Gorham  and  Shelburne, 

T.  J.  Hubbard. 
Class  P.  1845,  Joseph  L.  Gibbs. 
Dixville.  Errol.  Millsfield,  etc.,  E.  Harper. 
Clarksville  and   Pittsburg.  A.  F.  Abbott. 
Milan  and  Berlin,  R.  H.  Wheeler. 
Stark  and  Dummer,  E.  Horn. 
-Carrolland  Hart's  Location,Wm.  J.  Hobbs. 
Dummer  and  Stark.  Levi  Rowell. 
Errol,  Cambridge  and  Millsfield, 

George  1!.  Randall. 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Samuel 

( lomstock. 
-Carrolland  Hart's  Location.  W.  J.  Hobbs. 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Samuel 

Randolph.  Shelburne  and  Gorham, 

John  I).  Burbank. 
Dummer  and  Stark.  John  R.  Briggs. 
Errol,  Cambridge, 
Dixville,  Millsfield 
and     Wentworth's 
1856.— Berlin  ami  Randolph,  Merrill  C.  Forist. 

Carrolland  Hart's  Location,  John  Hunt. 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  S.  Comstock. 
Dummer  and  Stark,  Levi  Howell. 
Errol.    Cambridge.   Dix-i 
ville.  Millsfield,  Went-  -    Z.  F.  Dnrkee. 
worth's  I,i ication.  ) 

Shelburne  ami  Gorham,  V.  I,.  Stiles. 
1857.— Berlin  and  Randolph,  Daniel  Green. 
( larroll  and  Hart's  Local  ion,  I  lhai 

S.  Leavitt. 
Clarksville  ami  Pittsburg,  Mood;  B. 

Dummer  and  Stark,  Elijah  Griffin. 
Errol,  < '  imbridge,  Dix- 1 

ville,    Millsfield    and  -  Wm.  W.  Bragg. 
Wentworth's  Loca.     ) 

1 858. 



Ziba  F.  Dnrkee. 

I  sen. 











Gorham  and  Shelburne,  John  T.  I 
i    and  Randolph,  Geo.  P.  1 1 
Carroll  and  Hart's  Local  ion,  I  >a\  id 

Clarksville  and  Pitl  h   B. 

Qu  ii 
Dummer  and  Stark,  Solomon  < 
Dixville,    Went-  -  David  H.  Thursi 
worth's  I.' ica.       ) 
Berlin  and    Randolph,  < reo.  I'.  I [odgman. 
Carrolland  Hart's  Location.  David  Emery 
and  Pittsburg,  David  Johnson. 
Stark  and  .,  <  ii  itlin. 

Berlin  and  Randolph,  Fletchi  r  .1    Bean, 
irroll  and   Hart's   Location,  Charles  S. 

I  ..  a\  itt. 

Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  David  Johnson. 

Errol,  Cambridge,  &c.  Mosi  -  I'.  Coolidge. 

stark  and  Dummer,  Solomon  ( lole. 

Bi  rlin  and  Randolph,  I  I.  Bean. 

Carroll  and  Hart's  Location,  P.  Rosebrook. 

Clarksville  and  Pittsburg.  G.  Washburne. 

Errol,  Cambridge,  &c,  M.  F.  Coolidge. 

Shelburne  and  Green's  Location.  J.  M. 


Stark  and  Dummi  r,  Gilman  Tn  Ltchell. 
—Berlin  and  Randolph,  John  E.  Leighton.* 

Carrolland  Halt's  Location,   l'hineas 


Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Jno.  Keysar. 

Errol.  Cambi  tdge,  &c,  Samuel  Al 

Stark  andDummer,  Sylvester  ' 
— Berlin  and  Randolph,  Jno.  < '.  Leighton. 

Carroll  and  Hart's  Location.  ( it  o.W.Tufts. 

Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Jno.  Keysar. 

Stark  and  Dummer,  G.  Twitchell. 
—Berlin  andBandolph,  Cyrus  Wheeler. 

Carrolland  Hart'-;  Location,  <  r<  o.W.Tufts. 

Errol,  Cambridge,  &c,  David  W.Wright. 
— Berlin  and  Randolph,  William  A.  Wilson. 

Carroll  and  Hart's  Location.  L.  ( '.  A  Id  rich. 

Errol,  Cambridge,  A-c..  David  W.  Wright. 

Staik  and  Dummer,  John  M.  Bickford. 
—Berlin  and  Randolph,  Robert  I.  Leighton. 

Carroll  and  Hart's  Location,  Samuel 


Errol,  Cambridge,  &c,  AJbi  n  J.  Peaslee. 

stark  and  Dummer,  Luke  i 
—Berlin  and  Randolph,  Roberl  [.Leighton. 

Carroll  and  Hart's  Location.  Samuel 


Errol  &  Cambridge,  &c,  AM  Kit  J.  Peaslee. 
k  and  Dummer,  John  M.  Bickford. 

Berlin  and  Randolph,  1  >ani  I  ( rreen. 

Carrol]  and  Hart's  Location,  I  Ikarles  S. 

\  itt. 
Errol.  Cambridge,   Ac,    C.   L.Heywood. 

Stark'  and    I  >n n i tin  r.  Luke  ( lole. 

Berlin  and  Rtndolph,  Daniel  Grei  d. 

Carrolland  Hart's  Location,  (  itt. 

Errol,  <  lambridge,  &  ■  ■..  <  .  L.  Heyw 

St. M  k  and  iMmi '.  ( '.  E.  Bickford. 

Berlin  and  Randolph,  J.  E.  Leighton. 

Carroll  and  Hart's  Location,  M.  P. 


Errol,  Cambridge,  D.  H.  Thurston. 

Stark  and  Dummer,  J.  A.  Pike. 

It.  rlin  and  Randolph,  J.  E.  Leighton. 

(  larroll  and  Hart's  Location.  M.   P. 

Stark  and  Dummer,  C.  E.  Bickford. 
^N'o  ( llassifii  d  downs. 

*Seat  vacated. 


History  of  Coos  County. 

1875.— No  Classified  Towns. 
1876.—  '• 

1877.—  "  ••  " 

1878.—  "  ■■  " 

1879-80.—  " 

1881-82.— Berlin  and  Randolph.  Laban  M.  Watson. 
Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Moody  B. 

1883-81.— Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Herbert  M. 

Dummer,  Errol,  Mills- 
held,     Wentworth's 

Shelburne  and  Randolph,  Emblyn  \V. 

1885-86.— Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Jas.  W.  Baldwin. 
Dummer,  Errol,  Dix-  | 

ville.Millslield.Cam-  L   „   n,,        , 
bridge,    and   Went-  f  K  D-  ^^ston. 
worth's  Location.      ) 
Shelburne  and  Randolph.  Chas.  E.  Lowe. 
1887-88.— Clarksville  and  Pittsburg,  Berkley  Keysar. 
Randolph  and  Shelburne,  Trustam  H. 


Senators.  —New  Hampshire  was  divided  into  twelve  senatorial  dis- 
tricts. December  14,  1792.  No.  12  contained  the  county  of  Grafton, 
excepting  Burton.  The  Coos  senators  from  this  district  were  John  W. 
Weeks,  Lancaster,  from  June,  1820,  to  June,  1829;  Jarecl  W.  Williams, 
Lancaster,  from  June,  1832.  to  June,  1835.  July  3,  1841,  No.  12  was  changed 
to  embrace  the  county  of  Coos  and  all  towns  in  Grafton  and  Carroll  not 
included  in  any  other  district.  The  members  from  Coos  were  Simeon 
Warner,  Whitefield,  from  June,  1S43,  to  June,  1844;  Ephraim  Cross,  Lan- 
caster, from  June,  1844,  to  June,  1846;  James  M.  Eix,  Lancaster,  June, 
1852,  to  June,  1854.  The  senatorial  districts  were  re-arranged  July  13,  1855, 
but  No.  12  remained  the  same.  William  Burns,  Lancaster,  was  senator 
from  June,  1856,  to  June,  1858;  Amos  W.  Drew,  Stewartstown,  June,  1862, 
to  June,  1864;  John  W.  Barney,  Lancaster,  1868  to  1870;  Wayne  Cobleigh, 
Northumberland,  1875  to  1877.  In  1877  the  state  was  divided  into  twenty- 
four  senatorial  districts;  Coos  county  constituting  district  No.  1.  The 
B?natorsfrom  this  district  have  been  Sherburn  R.  Merrill,  Colebrook,  1879 
to  1883;  Irving  W.  Drew,  Lancaster,  1883  to  1885;  Henry  0.  Kent,  Lan- 
caster, 1885  to  1887;  Samuel  E.  Paine,  Berlin,  18S7  to  1889. 


[This  list,  compiled  from  the  New  Hampshire  Registers,  is  as  accurate  a 
one  as  is  attainable  since  the  burning  of  the  county  records.] 

Justices  of  Court  of  Common  Pleas. — Joshua  Marshall.  Stratford,  ap- 
point <m1  January  8,  1833,  in  office  until  1S50;  John  Pendexter,  Jr.,  Bartlett, 
from  1833  to  1812;  Richard  Eastman,  Lancaster,  from  1S41  to  1848;  Robert 
[ngalls,  Shelburne,  from  184S  to  1855;  Nahum  D.  Day,  Stratford,  from  1850 
to  1855. 

Clerks  of  Court  of  Common  Pleas. — William  Farrar,  Lancaster,  from 
L837  to  LS39;  James  M.  Rix,  Lancaster,  from  1839  to  L857;  Daniel  C.  Pink- 
ham.  Lancaster,  from  1857  to  1869. 

County  Justices — Court  of  Common  Pleas. — Richard  C.  Everett,  C  J., 
Lancaster,  L805;  Obed  Hall,  Bartlett.  1805;  Joseph  Loomis,  Colebrook, 
L805;  Silas  Meserve,  Bartlett,  1811. 

Circuit  Court. — Silas  Meserve.  Bartlett,  1816;  William  Lovejoy,  Lan- 
caster, L816;  John  Pendergast,  Bartlett,  1820. 

National  and  State  Officers.  205 

Court  of  Sessions.—  John  Pendexter,  C.  J.,  L820;  Samue]  Plaisted, 
Jefferson,  Ass.,  1«20;  X.  Baldwin,  Stratford,  Jus.,  L821. 

County  Justices.  — Joshua  Morrill,  Stratford,  L838. 

Clerks  of  Superior  Court.-  -Jonas Baker,  Lancaster;  AdinoN.  Brackett, 
Lancaster,  from  1837 to  1847;  James  M.  Rix.*  Lancaster.  1847  to  ls.~>''». 

Clerks  of  tl/r  Supreme  Judicial  Court. — James  .M.  Rix,  Lancaster,  from 
1856  to  1857;  Daniel  C.  Pinkham,  Lancaster,  from  1857  to  1869;  Chester  B. 
Jordan,  Lancaster,  from  1869  to  1875;  Moses  A.  Hastings,  Lancaster,  from 

Judges  of  Probate. — Francis  Wilson,  Northumberland,  January,  1805; 
Ebenezer  L.  Hall,  Bartlett,  January,  1811;  Benjamin  Hunking,  Lancaster, 
appointed  in  July.  1829,  in  office  until  1852;  Jared  W.  Williams,  Lancas- 
ter, from  1852  to  1854;  James  W.  Weeks,  Lancaster,  from  1854  to  L855; 
Turner  Stephenson,  Lancaster,  from  1855  to  1869;  Benjamin  F.  Whidden, 
Lancaster,  from  1869  to  1875;  Hazen  Bedel,  Colebrook,  from  1875  to  1877; 
William  D.  Weeks,  Lancaster,  from  1877  to  L885;  Everett  Fletcher,  from 

Registers  of  Probate. — John  M.  Tillotson,  Northumberland,  January, 
1805;  Thomas  Peverly,  Jr.,  Northumberland,  November,  1822;  William 
Lovejoy,  Lancaster,  1829;  Jared  W.  Williams,  Lancaster,  from  1829  to  1  838; 
George  A.  Cossitt,Whitefield,  from  1838  to  1852;  John  W.  Barney,  from  L852 
to  1855;  Albro  L.  Robinson,  Lancaster,  from  1855  to  I860;  John  M.  Whipple, 
Lancaster,  from  1860  to  1875;  George  H.  Emerson,  Lancaster,  from  1875 
to  1^77;  Charles  B.  Allen,  Lancaster,  from  1877  to  1880;  George  H.  Emer- 
son, Lancaster,  from  1880  to  1886;  Joseph  W.  Flanders,  Lancaster,  from 

County  Solicitors. — Abraham  Hinds,  Lancaster.  June.  1807;  William 
Farrar,  Lancaster,  February  12,  18(>7;  Obed  Hall.  2d,  Bartlett;  William 
Farrar,  Lancaster,  1821;  Jared  W.  Williams,  Lancaster,  from  1821  to  1838; 
John  S.  Wells,  Lancaster,  from  1838  to  1847;  Saunders  W.  Cooper.  Lan- 
caster, from  1847  to  1849;  William  Burns,  Lancaster,  from  1849  to  1853; 
George  C.  Williams,  Lancaster,  from  1853  to  1856;  Benjamin  P.  Whidden, 
Lancaster,  from  1856  to  1863;  Ossian  Ray,  Lancaster,  from  1863  1<»  lv7-; 
Edgar  Aldrich,  Colebrook,  from  1873  to  1875;  Henry  Hey  wood.  Lancaster, 
from  1875  to  1877;  Edgar  Aldrich,  Colebrook,  from  1>77  to  ls7:»:  William 
S.  Ladd,  Lancaster,  from  1879  to  1880;  J.  H.  Dudley.  Colebrook.  from 

Treasurers. — Joseph  Peverly,  Northumberland.  l^*'>:  John  W.  Weeks, 
Lancaster;  Richard  Eastman,  Lancaster.  1820;  Robert  Lngalls,  Shelburne, 
1831;  Lyman  Lombard,  Lancaster,  ]^-'»:>:  John  M.  Gove,  Whitefield,  from 
1S36  to  1839;  George  P.  Meserve,  Jackson,  from  L839  to  1840;  John  P.  Pit- 

*John  Willsoti  is  also  given  as  "  Clerk  of  Court"  with  date  of  service  prior  to  James  M.   Rix. 

206  History  of  Coos  County. 

man,  Bartlett,  from  1840  to  1842;  William  Ewen,  Dalton,  from  1842  to 
1843;  John  P.  Pitman,  Bartlett,  from  1843  to  1844;  William  Ewen,  Dalton, 
from  1844  to  1846;  Abraham  Boynton,  Columbia,  from  1846  to  1S47; 
Oliver  B.  Howe,  Shelburne,  from  1847  to  1849;  Hezekiah  Parsons,  Cole- 
brook,  from  L 849  to  1851;  Edward  Parsons,  Jefferson,  from  1851  to  1853; 
Amos  W.  Drew,  Stewartstown,  from  1853  to  1855;  James  B.  Brown, 
Northumberland,  from  1855  to  1857;  Harwood  Pike,  Stark,  from  1857  to 
1859;  Morris  Clark,  Whitefleld,  from  1859  to  1861;  Nahum  D.  Day,  Strat- 
ford, from  1861  to  1863;  Orren  Tubbs,  Gorham,  from  1863  to  1865;  George 
A.  Cossitt,  Lancaster,  from  1865  to  1867;  Wayne  Cobleigh,  Northumber- 
land, from  1867  to  1869;  Edwin  W.  Drew,  Stewartstown,  from  1S69  to 
1871;  Jabez  P.  Evans,  Gorham,  from  1871  to  1873;  A  J.  Smith,  Stark, 
from  1S73  to  1875;  Sidney  B.  Whittemore,  Colebrook,  from  1875  to  1877 ; 
J.  M.  Lang,  Dalton,  from  1877  to  1879;  James  M.  Powell,  Lancaster,  from 
1879  to  1883;  John  C.  Pattee,  Stratford,  from  1883  to  1886;  George  R. 
Eaton,  Lancaster,  from  1886. 

Registers  of  Deeds. — John  M.  Tillotson,  Northumberland,  1805;  Abra- 
ham Hinds,  Lancaster;  Asa  W.  Burnap,  Lancaster;  William  Farrar,  Lan- 
caster: John  M.  Dennison,  Lancaster,  1817;  Reuben  Stephenson,  Lancas- 
ter, from  1830  to  1839;  John  W.  Lovejoy,  Lancaster,  from  1839  to  1849; 
John  S.  Roby,  Lancaster,  from  1849  to  1855;  Ira  S.  M.  Gove,  Lancaster, 
from  1855  to  1861;  Hezekiah  B.  Parsons,  Lancaster,  from  1861  to  1S66; 
Benjamin  P.  Hunking,  Lancaster,  from  1866  to  1871;  Charles  W.  Smith, 
Lancaster,  from  1871  to  1876;  Joseph  W.  Flanders,  Lancaster,  from  1  ^ 7 < > 
to  1882;  Charles  A.  Cleveland,  Lancaster,  from  lssi>  to  :8S7;  James  M. 
Rowell,  Lancaster,  1887. 

Sheriffs. — Levi  Willard,  Lancaster,  January,  1805;  Obed  Hall,  Bartlett, 
December,  1812;  Lemuel  Adams,  December,  1816;  John  W.  Weeks,  June, 
1820;  Ephraim  H.  Mahurin,  June,  1825;  John  H.  White,  Lancaster,  from 
1830  to  183'.);  George  P.  Meserve,  Jackson,  from  1839  to  ls44;  Charles 
Bellows,  Northumberland,  from  1844  to  1849;  Reuben  Stephenson,  Lan- 
caster,  from  1849  to  1855;  Hezekiah  Parsons,  Jr.,  Colebrook,  from  1855 
to  ls;)7;  Enoch  L.  Colby,  Lancaster,  from  1857  to  is, 7;  Benjamin  H. 
Corning,  Northumberland,  from  1867  to  1872;  Samuel  H.  LeGro,  Lancas- 
ter, from  1872  to  1873";  E.  G.  Rogers,  Colebrook,  from  1873  to  1875;  Sam- 
uel H.  LeGro,  Lancaster,  from  1875  to  1877;  E.  George  Rogers,  Colebrook, 
from  IS77  to  1879;  William  T.  Pike,  Stark,  from  1879  to  1883;  Samuel  I. 
Bailey,  Columbia,  from  1883  to  lss7;  George  M.  Stevens,  Lancaster,  from 

County  Commissioners. — Robert  Ingalls,  Shelburne,  from  1856  to  1858; 
Samuel  Worthley,  Carroll,  from  1856  to  1860;  Elliot  Harper,  Errol,  from 
L856  to  L859;  Daniel  Green,  Berlin,  from  1857  to  1861;  Hazeu  Bedel.  Cole- 
brook, from  1859  to  1862;  Moses  H.  Rix,  Dalton,  from  1860  to  1863;  Hazen 

Bench  and  Bar.  20' 

Evans,  G-orham,  from  L861  to  L864;  Edwin  W.  Drew.  Stewartstown.  from 
1862  to  1865;  Benjamin  H.  Plaisted,  Jefferson,  from  L863  to  L866;  Gilman 
Twitchell,  Dummer,  from  L864to   L866;  Samuel  T.  Bailey,  Columbia,  from 

L865  to  1868;  Simon  Cole,  Milan,  from  L866  to  L867;  David  M.  Aldrich, 
Whitefield,  from  L866  to  L869;  Andrew  J.  Congdon,  Lancaster,  from  L867 
to  1S7<>;  Seneca  S.  Merrill,  Colebrook,  from  L868  to  1*71;  John  C.  Leigh- 
ton,   Randolph,   from    L869   to   1872;  Sprague  Carleton.    Whitefield.  from 

L870  to  1873;  Isaiah  H.  Pickard,  Stewartstown,  from  L871  to  1*7:'.;  Samuel 
Brown,  Stratford,  from  1S72  to  1875;  Amos  W.  Drew,  Stewartstown,  from 
from  1873  to  1877;  James  W.  Weeks,  Lancaster,  from  L873  to  L876;  .lames 
H.  Curtis,  Northumberland,  from  1875  to  1878;  A.  N.  Twitchell,  Gorham, 
from  L876  to  1879;  L.  G.  Piper,  Colebrook,  from  1877  to  L879;  N.  R.  Per- 
kins, Jefferson,  from  1878  to  1882;  J.  P.  Evans,  Gorham,  from  1879  to 
1882;  George  R.  Eaton,  Stratford,  from  1S79  to  L883;  Bert  A.  Taylor,  Dal- 
tou,  from  1882  to  1886;  Jonathan  Gilmore,  Columbia,  from  L882  to  L886; 
Eugene  W.  Scribner,  Berlin,  from  1883  to  1887;  W.  E.  Drew.  Colebrook, 
from  L886;  Harley  E.  Jenness,  Carroll,  from  L886;  Levi  Shedd,  Gorham, 
from    1887. 


History  of  the  Courts — Bench  and  Bar— Northern  Judicial  District 

nKISTORY  of  the  Co  urts.— Previous  to  1770  the  whole  of  New  Eamp- 
j  J  shire,  for  all  financial  and  judicial  purposes,  was  a  single  court.  All 
J  business  of  a  public  nature  was  transacted  at  Portsmouth,  Exeter 
and  Dover;  and  the  bulk  of  it  at  Portsmouth,  which  had  a  population  of 
over  4,000,  was  the  residence  of  the  royal  executive  officers,  and  was,  prac- 
tically, the  provincial  capital.  As  the  province  increased  in  population, 
other  and  smaller  political  divisions,  with  suitable  courts,  were  demanded 
by  the  people.  John  Wentworth,  the  second  of  that  name,  wasappointed 
governor  in  1767,  and  one  of  his  first  measures  considered  the  formation 
of  various  counties  in  the  province,  and  the  creation  of  a  judicial  system 
of  adequate  proportions.  The  matter  was  debated  in  several  sessions  of 
the  Assembly,  favored  by  the  governor  as  calculated  to  develop  the  prov- 
ince, (an  object  to  which  he  devoted  all  his  energies,  i  and  opposed  by  the 
residents  of  the  three  principal  towns   and  contiguous  country,  with   the 

208  History  of  Coos  County. 

plea  that  it  would  increase  the  provincial  expenses  without  corresponding 
advantages.  The  affair  was  finally  settled  by  a  division  of  the  province 
into  five  counties,  with  an  ample  judiciary  system.  The  act  constituting 
these  took  effect  in  the  spring  of  1771,  and  was  entitled  "An  Act  for 
dividing  the  Province  into  Counties,  and  for  the  more  easy  administration 
of  Justice."  This  act  created  three  courts  of  justice — the  Superior  Court 
of  Judicature,  the  Inferior  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  the  Court  of  Gen- 
eral Sessions. 

The  Superior  Court  of  Judicature  had  cognizance  of  all  questions  of  law 
and  divorce,  and,  finally,  was  clothed  with  equity  powers,  and  was  intended 
as  the  supreme  tribunal  of  the  province.  It  existed  until  1813,  when  the 
Federalists,  then  in  power  in  the  state,  to  get  rid  of  politically  obnoxious 
judges,  abolished  it,  and  erected  the  Superior  Judicial  Court,  which  was 
overturned  in  is  10  by  the  Democratic  Republicans,  and  the  Superior  Court 
of  Judicature  re-erected.  No  attempt  was  made  to  interfere  with  this 
court  of  last  resort  until  1855,  when,  under  the  brief  term  of  power  of  the 
"  Know-Nothing  "  party,  it  was  again  abolished  and  the  Supreme  Judicial 
Court  re-created.  This  was  superseded  in  1*74  by  the  Superior  Court  of  Ju- 
dicature, which  continued  in  being  until  1876,  when  it  was  succeeded  by  the 
present  Supreme  Court.  It  would  appear  that  the  legislature  could,  con- 
stitutionally, get  rid  of  obnoxious  judges  by  changing  the  name  and  some 
of  the  minor  functions  of  a  court;  and  the  great  height  to  which  partisan- 
ship has  been  carried  has  almost  caused  this  court  to  be  a  mere  shuttle- 
cock in  the  hands  of  the  legislature. 

The  Inferior  Court  of  Common  Pleas  was  the  court  for  the  disposi- 
tion and  settlement  of  all  ordinary  controversies.  It  continued  in  existence 
under  the  name  first  given  it,  and  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas,  from  1771 
until  1850,  except  for  five  years,  from  1820  to  1825,  when  it  was  discon- 
tinued. In  1859  it  was  abolished,  and  its  business  transferred  to  the 
Supreme  Judicial  Court.  It  was  again  revived  in  1874.  and,  after  two 
years'  existence,  its  business  was  handed  over  to  the  Supreme  Court. 

The  Court  of  General  Sessions  of  the  Peace  had  for  its  judges  all  the 
justices  in  commission  of  the  county.  It  had  a  limited  jurisdiction  in  crim- 
inal complaints,  and  was  accompanied  by  a  grand  and  petit  jury.  It  had 
the  entire  control  of  the  financial  affairs  of  the  county.  The  number  of 
justices  composing  the  court  depended  on  the  number  in  commission, 
sometimes  more,  sometimes  less,  and  the  law  did  not  require  the  justice 
to  reside  in  the  county  for  which  he  was  commissioned,  and  it  was  a  mat- 
ter of  choice  with  the  justices  as  to  how  many  should  sit  at  any  particular 
term  It  was  a  cumbersome  and  unwieldy  institution,  and,  in  1701,  its 
functions  were  given  to  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas;  some  of  the  judges 
of  the  last  court,  called  side  judges,  attending  to  financial  affairs  and 
special   committees  formed   to  lay  out  highways.     In   1855   a  board  of 

Bench  and   Bar.  209 

county  commissioners  was  created  to  act  with  the  court  in  conducting  the 
finaucial  matters  of  the  county  and  in  laying  out  highways.  By  the  organ- 
ization of  this  board  the  services  of  side  judges  were  dispensed  with. 

The  sessions  docket,  now  a  branch  of  the  business  of  the  general  term 
of  the  Supreme  Court,  but  formerly  of  the  Common  Pleas,  is  all  that  now 
remains  of  the  Court  of  General  Sessions  of  the  Peace,  and  treats  only  of 
entries  for  the  laying  out  of  highways. 

Probate  Court.— This  has  jurisdiction  of  the  probate  of  wills,  of  grant- 
ing administrations,  and  of  all  matters  and  things  of  probate  jurisdic 
t  ion,  relating  to  the  sale,  settlement,  and  final  distribution  of  the  estates 
of  deceased  persons.  It  has  original  jurisdiction  in  relation  to  the  adop- 
tion of  children,  assignments  of  dower  and  homesteads  in  estate  of 
deceased  persons;  in  the  appointment  and  removal  of  guardians  of  minors, 
insane  persons,  spendth lifts,  together  with  other  powers  unnecessary  to 
mention.     It  has  been  also  a  court  of  insolvency  for  sonic  years. 

From  the  organization  of  the  county  the  office  of  judge  of  probate  has 
been  held  by  men  of  ability,  not  always  lawyers,  hut  their  rulings  and 
decisions  have  been  of  such  a  character  that  very  few  appeals  have  been 

Bench  and  Bar*—  In  its  personnel  and  practice,  the  bar  of  Coos  county 
has  always  stood  in  the  front  rank.  Among  its  members  have  been  some 
of  the  strongest  legal  minds  in  the  state.  Beginning  with  the  organization 
of  the  county  and  continuing  to  the  present  time,  there  have  been  leaders 
at  its  courts  whose  character  and  attainments  have  placed  them  among 
the  first  in  the  profession,  and  whose  influence  has  been  so  pervading  and 
salutary  that  the  whole  bar  has  caught  something  of  their  spirit.  The 
county  is  represented  in  this  profession  to-day  by  men  of  font1,  ability  and 
integrity,  who  worthily  stand  as  equals  of  the  lawyers  of  any  county  of 
the  state,  and  whose  practice  extends  not  only  to  all  sections  of  New 
Hampshire,  but  a  much  wider  area. 

k'The  Grafton  and  Coos  Counties  Bar  Association  was  put  inactive 
operation  in  November,  1882,  and  has  since  enjoyed  a  useful  and  vigorous 
existence.  They  have  already  effected  valuable  improvements  within  the 
sphere  of  their  professional  labors,  and  will  not  weary  in  well  doing." 

Eichard  Clair  Everett,  the  first  resident  lawyer  of  Lancaster,  was  a 
native  of  Attleboro,  Mass  ,  born  March  28,  1764.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he 
enlisted  in  the  Revolutionary  army,  where  General  Washington,  who  was 
favorably  impressed  with  his  appearance,  retained  him  as  a  body  servant. 
After  a  service  of  two  years  he  was  discharged,  emigrated  to  Lancaster 
and  engaged  in  the  hard  duties  of  the  pioneer.     The  inherited  traits  of  the 

*Compiled  under  the  supervision  of  Hon.  William   Heywood,  presideal  of  Grafton  and  Co6a 
Bar  Association. 

210  History  of  Coos  County. 

Everett  family  were  dominant  in  the  young  man,  and  his  aspiration  and 
desire  for  an  education  could  no  longer  be  held  in  bounds,  and  he  went  to 
Hanover  to  prepare  for  college,  although  with  but  small  means.  Fortune 
favors  the  brave,  and  he  soon  came  into  the  possession  of  quite  a  sum  of 
money  from  the  sale  of  several  lots  of  land  in  Providence,  which  had  be- 
longed to  his  father.  He  finished  his  preparatory  studies;  was  graduated 
from  Dartmouth  college  in  1790;  studied  law;  in  1793  returned  to  Lancas- 
ter, and  married,  December  17,  of  that  year,  Persis,  daughter  of  Major 
Jonas  Wilder.  He  built  the  house  now  standing  (1887)  at  the  corner  of 
Main  and  High  streets,  where  he  resided  until  his  death,  March  22, 
1815,  at  the  age  of  fifty  one.  His  children,  all  daughters,  were  Drusilla 
S.,  married  Dr.  Benjamin  Hunking;  Persis  F.,  married  Major  John  W. 
Weeks;  Almira  J.,  married  Thomas  Peverly,  Esq.;  Abigail  C,  married 
Ephraim  Cross;  Elizabeth  A.,  and  two  who  died  in  infancy.  Mr.  Everett 
was  a  handsome  man,  tall,  of  commanding  presence,  and  an  able  speaker: 
as  a  lawyer  he  displayed  much  ability,  was  shrewd,  practical,  successful, 
and,  in  1805,  became  judge  of  the  Court  of  the  Common  Pleas,  and  held 
the  office  at  the  time  of  his  death.  His  descendants  are  among  the  most 
intelligent  people  of  the  county.  He  represented  Lancaster  in  the  legis- 
lature several  years,  and  it  was  through  his  efforts  that  many  important 
bills  were  passed.     He  held  the  military  commission  of  colonel. 

Thomas  Peverly,  Jr.,  was  the  second  register  of  probate,  which  posi- 
tion he  filled  until  1829,  when  his  death  occurred.  Mr.  Peverly  was  edu- 
cated at  Dartmouth,  studied  law,  and  was  in  practice  at  Northumberland. 
He  was  elected  to  the  state  legislature,  and  took  an  active  part  in  the  busi- 
ness proceedings  of  the  House.  He  was  comparatively  a  young  man  at 
the  time  of  his  death.  He  married  Almira,  the  third  daughter  of  Hon. 
Richard  C.  Everett.  They  had  two  children,  a  son,  Richard  Everett  Pev- 
erly, who  was  an  engineer  of  construction,  and  a  daughter,  Helen,  who 
married  x\ntipas  Marshall,  an  engineer  of  New  York  city. 

Abraham  Hinds  was  here  early.  He  practiced  in  the  Court  of  Common 
Pleas,  and  the  Superior  Court,  and  was  register  of  deeds  for  some  time.  He 
was  appointed  postmaster  of  Lancaster  in  1807. 

Hon.  B.  F.  Whidden  gives  us  the  following: — 

"  The  history  of  the  Coos  Bar  of  early  days  would  be  incomplete  with- 
out the  mention  of  some,  long  since  departed,  whose  names  are  almost 
unknown  to  the  present  generation. 

"  Samuel  A.  Pearson  had  an  extensive  practice.  He  was  a_gejittem^n 
of  fine  address,  and  one  of  the  first  a  stranger  would  be  likely  to  notice 
on  coining  into  town.  He  was  postmaster  of  Lancaster  for  many  years, 
and  as  such  was  deservedly  popular.  He  was  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth 
college  in  the  year  1803.     He  died  September  2,  1840,  aged  fifty-six. 

Bench  and  Bar.  21 

"William  Farrar  was  clerk  of  the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for  many 

years,  and  a  lawyer  doing  an  extensive  business.  His  justice  dockel  was 
larger  than  any  other  in  the  county,  except  thai  of  Jonas  Baker  His 
most  distinguishing  gift  was  music.  His  was  the  soul  of  music.  Hesup- 
ported  the  choir  in  the  Orthodox  church  for  many  years  with  his  bass-viol, 
and  his  bow  has  raised  many  a  nagging  soul  on  the  wings  of  devotion. 
He  was  a  man  of  great  probity,  and  universally  respected.  He  was  a 
graduate  of  Dartmouth  college  in  the  year  1801,  and  a  classmate  of 
Daniel  Webster.     He  died  March  3,  1850,  aged  sixty-nine. 

"  Charles  J.  Stuart  was  a  lawyer  of  fine  ability,  highly  educated,  but, 
on  account  of  his  intemperate  habits,  never  succeeded  in  business.  He  was 
a  gentleman  of  fine  address,  a  genial  companion,  a  fine  singer,  and  his 
presence  was  indispensable  on  the  convivial  occasions  of  those  early  days. 
He  was  a  graduate  of  Dartmouth  in  1809,  and  a  class-mate  of  Levi  Wood- 
bury. On  his  tombstone  in  the  '  Old  Cemetery'  in  Lancaster,  is  inscribed 
'Charles  J.  Stuart,  Counselor  at  Law,  died  May  IT.  1837,  aged  46/ 

"Levi  Barnard  was  a  lawyer  doing  business  at  Lancaster  many  years. 
He  wTas  a  very  precise  man,  whose  manners,  habits,  and  dress,  were  all  of 
the  olden  time.     He  died  October  12,  1882,  aged  60. 

"John  L.  Sheafe  practiced  law  early  at  Lancaster,  when  he  was  a  young 
man.  He  was  highly  educated,  and  a  successful  practitioner,  and  took 
high  rank  at  the  bar.  He  removed  to  New  Orleans,  and  became  a  judge 
in  their  courts  Late  in  life  he  returned  to  Portsmouth,  his  early  home, 
where  he  died  in  oid  age. 

"  When  I  was  a  school-boy,  my  way  to  school  led  me  past  the  court- 
house, where  twice  a  year  the  court  was  in  session  in  all  the  dignity  of  the 
times.  Bovish  curiositv  induced  me  to  enter  the  Temple  of  Justice  and 
watch  the  trial  and  disposal  of  cases.  My  earliest  memories  are  of  the 
days  of  Richardson  and  Livermore,  who  ruled  upon  the  bench  in  distin- 
guished severity. 

"In  early  days  the  lawyers  of  the  Coos  Bar  did  not  argue  their  own 
cases,  but  merely  put  in  the  evidence,  and  employed  the  professional 
speakers,  Bell,  Bartlett,  Cushman,  and  Wilson,  who  rode  the  circuit,  to 
argue -the  causes.  Trials  were  generally  short,  and  the  court  house  was 
the  arena  of  intellectual  encounter;  argument  and  eloquence  often  had 
more  to  do  in  winning  a  verdict  than  evidence  or  preparation.  The  court- 
house  was  always  full  during  the  session,  and  here  many  a  young  man 
has  had  stirred  within  him  the  first  fires  of  ambition. 

"Bartlett  was  a  facile,  easy,  witty  speaker,  and  always  ready  at 
repartee.     He  was  a  very  successful  advocate  before  tin-  jury. 

"  Bell  was  not  a  graceful  orator,  but  gave  tin-  sledge-hammer  knocks 
that  often  won  for  him  the  victory. 

"Cushman  was  a  courtly,  graceful  gentleman,  of  polished  manners  and 

212  History  of  Coos  County. 

fine  oratory.  He  was  clear,  methodical,  and  masterful  in  the  management 
of  a  case.     His  magnetic  temperament  often  overcame  all  opposition. 

"  Wilson  was  a  man  of  the  people.  He  was  always  admired,  and  drew 
a  crowd.  He  had  a  fine  voice,  was  forceful,  and,  rising  with  the  occasion, 
was  apt  to  cany  his  case  by  storm. 

"Such  was  the  Coos  Bar  as  it  comes  down  to  us  in  memory  from 
former  years,  made  up  of  our  fellow  citizens  of  Coos  and  the  elite  of  the 
state  These  semi-annual  courts  not  only  settled  our  disputes,  but  educated 
and  gave  strength  to  the  people." 

Hon.  Jared  Warner  Williams  was  born  in  West  Woodstock,  Conn., 
in  1796.  He  was  graduated  at  Brown  university  in  1818;  read  law  at  the 
Litchfield  (Conn.)  Law  school,  and  came  to  Lancaster  in  1822,  where  he 
commenced  the  practice  of  his  profession,  and  was  a  resident  until  his 
death  in  September,  1864.  In  182-1  he  married  Sarah  Hawes  Bacon,  of 
Woodstock,  Conn.  She  died  in  1857,  leaving  two  sons,  George  Canning 
and  Jared  Irving. 

Mr.  Williams  was  elected  representative  of  Lancaster  in  1830-31;  was 
register  of  probate  from  1832  to  1837;  in  1833  he  was  chosen  to  the  state 
Senate;  in  1834  and  '35  he  was  president  of  that  body;  in  1837  he  entered 
Congress  from  the  ' '  Sixth  district  "  and  served  four  years.  He  was  governor 
of  the  state  in  184-7-18;  in  1852  was  made  judge  of  probate;  in  1853  he  filled 
the  vacancy  in  the  U.  S.  Senate  occasioned  by  the  death  of  Hon.  C.  G. 
Atherton;  in  1864  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  Chicago  convention.  In  addi- 
tion to  these  political  distinctions,  Gov.  Williams  received  the  degree  of  A. 
M.  from  Dartmouth  college  in  1825;  and  that  of  LL.  D.  from  Brown  uni- 
versity in  1852.  He  died  September  29,  1864,  aged  sixty  eight.  He  was  a 
gentleman  of  the  highest  type  of  character,  winning  social  qualities,  and 
rare  abilities.  His  various  honors  sat  easy  upon  him,  and  vanity  did  not 
manifest  itself. 

Turner  Stephenson  was  born  in  Lyme,  N.  H.,  and  came  with  his  father 
to  Lancaster  in  early  boyhood.  He  was  educated  at  Dartmouth  college, 
studied  law,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Coos  Bar  in  good  standing.  He  was 
a  safe  man  in  his  business,  and  much  trusted.  He  acquired  a  considerable 
property.  He  was  judge  of  probate  from  1855  to  1868.  Judge  Stephenson 
was  twice  married,  first,  to  Miss  Eluthera  Porter,  of  Charlestown;  second, 
to  Miss  Phebe  Oakes,  a  most  excellent  lady,  who  survives  him.  He  died 
January  26,  L872,  leaving  no  children.  Nathaniel  Wilson  writes  thus  of 
him:     "  He  was  one  of  the  purest  and  best  men  I  ever  knew." 

John  Sullivan  Wells,*  born  in  Durham,  N.  H.,  in  1804,  died  in  1860. 

I  knew  him  well  in  the  early  part  of  his  professional  life.  He  studied  law 
at  Danville,  Vt.,  with  Hon.  William  Mattocks.     He  was  admitted  to  the 

*By  William  Hey  wood,  Esq. 

Bench  and  Bar,  213 

bar,  and  located  at  Guildhall,  Vt,,  in  L828,  remained  there  in  practice  till 
Is:;;,,  when  he  went  to  Bangor,  Me.,  tor  a  year,  then  came  to  Lancaster, 
where  lie  was  a  successful  practitioner  for  ten  years.  While  in  Lancaster 
he  built  the  house  now  owned  by  Mrs.  John  H.  Hopkinson.  Tin' walls  are 
of  granite,  being  the  only  building  in  the  county  constructed  of  thai  ma- 
terial.    From  Lancaster  Mr.  Wells  removed  to   Exeter,  N.  H. 

While  at  Guildhall  and  Lancaster  be  gained  the  deserved  reputal  ion  of 
an  able  lawyer  and  advocate.  He  was  very  industrious  in  the  preparation 
and  trial  of  his  causes.  He  was  on  one  side  or  the  other  of  all  important 
cases  in  Coos  and  Essex  counties  while  he  remained  here,  and  his  clients 
always  gave  him  their  full  confidence.  He  was  elected  representative  from 
Lancaster,  was  speaker  of  the  House,  and  for  several  years  solicitor  for  the 
county.  He  had  much  ambition  for  political  life,  but,  as  far  as  success 
there  was  concerned,  I  think  that  he  would  have  done  better  to  have  re- 
mained in  Coos  county.  He  gained  prominence  after  he  went  to  Exeter. 
but  I  know  from  his  own  words,  said  to  me  when  I  saw  him  last  not  long 
before  his  death,  that  his  experience  in  pursuit  of  office  was  a  bitter  disap- 
pointment. Perhaps  it  may  be  well  for  young  lawyers  to  remember  this 
incident  in  the  life  of  Mr.  Wells.  He  was  a  man  of  brilliant  parts,  and 
any  one  who  knew  him  would  have  supposed  that  he  could  have  filled  any 
position  that  the  state  or  its  citizens  could  give  him,  but  inferior  men 
passed  him  in  the  race.  If  he  had  devoted  himself  solely  to  his  profession 
he  would  have  gained  greater  eminence,  and  he  truly  deserved  the  honor 
of  taking  rank  as  one  of  the  distinguished  lawyers  in  New  Hampshire. 

During  his  residence  in  Exeter  he  was  appointed  attorney-general  Jan- 
uary 17,  1848;  resigned  it  the  following  August;  was  chosen  senator  1851 
and  1852,  and  both  years  chosen  president  of  the  Senate:  was  nominee 
for  governor  in  1*5(5  and  1857;  appointed  LT.  S.  senator  January  L5,  L855, 
for  the  unexpired  term  of  Hon.  Moses  Norris.  Mr.  Wells  was  considered 
an  eloquent  orator.  He  was  a  self-made  man,  getting  the  means  to  pay 
his  expenses  of  education  by  industry  in  cabinet-making  which  he  learned 
in  early  life. 

Edmund  Burke,  born  in  Westminster.  Vt,,  in  1809,  afterward  so  prom- 
inent in  state  and  national  politics,  and  as  U.  S.  commissioner  of  patents, 
came  to  Colebrook  in  1830  to  commence  the  practice  of  law.  Not  finding 
matters  as  he  expected,  he  located  at  Whitefield  for  a  few  years,  when  he 
removed  toClaremont,  in  1833,  to  become  an  editor,  and  afterwards  to  New- 
port. He  gained  a  high  reputation  as  a  writer,  and  asa  lawyer  in  later  life 
had  few  equals  in  New  England.  He  was  one  of  the  coterie  which  con- 
trolled the  politics  of  the  Democracy  of  the  state,  numbering  as  Ins  friends 
and  co  workers  Franklin  Pierce,  Charles  G.  Aiherton,  etc.  Hisopinionof 
Coos  people  is  consequently  worth  transcribing.  Coming  here  with  the 
impression  that  there  was   less  cultivation   and   intellectual  force  in  this 

214  History  of  Coos  County. 

county  than  in  the  lower  counties  of  the  state,  he  soon  changed  his  opinion, 
and  would  often  say  that  he  never  spent  time  more  profitably  than  during 
his  residence  here.  To  use  his  language,  "I  never  met  a  community  of 
men  generally  more  intelligent,  more  imbued  with  strong  common  sense, 
or  more  patriotic  in  sentiment.  Among  them  I  laid  in  a  large  store  of  prac- 
tical knowledge. "     He  died  January  -jr.,  1852. 

Hon.  William  Heywood,*  the  venerated  president  of  the  Grafton  and 
Coos  Bar  Association  from  its  organization,  was  born  at  Lunenhurgh,  Vt., 
October  6,  1804,  and  his  early  life  was  spent  amid  influences  calculated  to 
cultivate  in  his  young  mind  the  sternest  virtues  and  the  utmost  simplicity 
of  manners,  and  out  of  which  came  a  plain,  strong  mind,  filled  with  the 
broadest  common  sense.  In  those  days  the  Concord  (Vt.)  academy  was 
the  leading  and  most  available  institution  of  learning  in  the  vicinity,  and 
in  it  Mr.  Heywood  acquired  such  academical  education  as  an  usual  course 
afforded.  But  he  utilized  all  there  was  of  it,  and  assimilated  it  to  his  own 
practical  ideas  as  he  went  along,  so  that  he  came  from  the  school  with 
more  than  the  strength  that  is  usually  born  of  education.  He  went  to 
the  study  of  law  not  moved  by  accidental  circumstances,  but  seemingly 
as  a  matter  of  course,  reading  at  first  with  Judge  Charles  Davis,  at  Water- 
ford  and  Danville,  and  later  with  Judge  William  A.  Fletcher,  in  Detroit, 
Michigan.  Returning  to  Vermont  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  Guildhall, 
at  the  September  term  of  1831,  where  he  commenced  a  business  which 
neither  in  amount  nor  length  of  duration  lias  ever  been  equalled  in  the 
county.  So  entirely  did  he  become  absorbed  in  the  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion that  he  became  the  most  exclusive  lawyer  I  ever  met.  I  do  not  mean 
to  say  that  he  was  oblivious  to  the  current  events  of  the  day,  for  he  was 
thoroughly  posted  on  matters  in  general,  especially  in  politics,  in  which  he 
always  was  and  is  an  intense  Democrat.  But  his  mind  was  so  occupied  in 
professional  labors  that  he  even  lost  sight  of  a  just  compensation  for  them, 
and  came  through  his  immense  labors  gleaning  for  himself  just  what  his 
necessities  compelled  him  to.  He  moved  from  Guildhall  in  ]s5J,  and  from 
thence  to  Lancaster,  N.  H.,  in  March,  1856,  whither  business  followed  and 
crowded  upon  him.  In  cases  he  was  felt  rather  than  known.  The  bluster 
and  arrogance  of  identifying  himself  with  the  success  of  a  case  was  un- 
known to  him,  anci  if  it  had  not  been,  his  modesty  would  have  despised 
any  enjoyment  in  them.  I  might  illustrate  some  of  Mr.  Heywood's  work 
by  enumerating  a  long  line  of  cases,  including  the  murder  case  of  State 
vs.  Allen,  but  it  would  add  nothing  to  the  importance  of  a  work  so  exten- 
di ve.  He  is  undemonstrative  in  manner,  but  his  language  is  of  that  grave 
and  peculiarly  suggestive  style  that  it  attracts  attention  and  is  quite  im- 
pressive.    It  has  the  force  of  brevity  and  directness,   and  his  ideas  are 

By  Hon.  George  N.  Dale. 




Bench  and  Bar.  2h 

winged  with  words  so  well  selected  that  he  seldom  inappropriately  bur- 
dens an  idea  with  a  word,  or  a  word  with  an  idea  it  is  n>>!  adapted  to  con- 
vey. He  is  ( | uite  hasty  in  temper,  but  no  temper  was  ever  exhibited  in 
human  nature  with  so  little  malice  in  it.  Whenever  it  conies  to  him  it 
conies  like  a  flash  of  lightning.  But  any  spirit  of  anger  is  dismissed 
quickly  as  it  appears,  and  so  quickly  does  the  effect  of  its  presence  pass 
away  as  to  be  a  sharp  rebuke  to  its  coming,  and  make  such  passion  look 
absurd  and  ridiculous.  His  is  the  skill  born  of  native  strength.  His  logic 
is  horn  of  his  mental  impulses,  and  has  mere  the  strength  of  nature  than 
the  force  of  art. 

In  his  marital  relations  he  was  peculiarly  fortunate,  having  married 
Miss  Susan  Hibbard,  a  daughter  of  the  late  Hon.  David  Hibbard,  of  Con- 
cord. Vermont,  a  lady  remarkably  modest,  yet  possessing  great  strength 
of  character  and  kindness  of  heart.  By  her  he  had  three  sons  (the  second 
son,  Edward,  died  at  the  age  of  seven  months,)  and  a  daughter,  Isabel. 
The  oldest  sonis  now  associated  with  him  in  business.  The  younger  went 
into  the  Late  war  and  did  not  survive  it.  The  daughter  is  still  living.  Mr. 
Heywood  was  a  member  of  the  second  and  third  sessions  of  the  Vermont 
state  Senate  in  1887  and  L838,  and  was  state's  attorney  for  Essex  county 
for  tit  teen  years.  He  was  a  member  of  the  convention  of  1850,  which 
made  many  and  radical  changes  in  the  constitution  of  Vermont.  His 
name  appears  first  as  an  attorney  connected  with  the  Vermont  courts  in 
1836,  in  the  eighth  volume  of  Vermont  Reports,  and  is  seen  annually  in 
these  volumes  for  fifty-one  consecutive  years,  and  is  firsl  found  in  the 
thirteenth  volume  in  New  Hampshire  Reports,  and  continues  to  appear 
down  to  the  sixty-third,  the  latest  one  published. 

In  physical  appearance  Mr.  Heywood  is  of  medium  height  and  size, 
prominent  features — a  very  imposing  countenance — grave  in  appearance, 
even  to  solemnity  or  sadness,  but  through  which  flashes  of  humor  occa- 
sionally burst  as  unexpectedly  as  lightning  from  a  cloudless  sky.  His  is 
the  exterior  of  a  man  molded  in  an  iron  age,  beneath  which  heats  a  heart 
as  tender  as  a  woman's.  He  was  not  only  among  the  founders  of  the  Ver- 
mont state  government,  but  he  was  of  them.  He  is  a  devoted  and  con- 
sistent member  of  the  Protestant  Episcopal  church,  and  in  his  private 
character  his  morals  are  above  suspicion.  He  still  lives,  at  the  age  of  more 
than  eighty-three  years,  a  fit  type  of  the  simple  grandeur  of  those  olden 
times,  with  mental  faculties  clear,  vigorous  and  strong.  May  he  long 
remain  a  fit  emblem  and  reminder  of  those  days  and  associations  we  so 
much  revere. 

Hiram  Adams  Fletcher,  second  child  of  Ebenezer  and  Peddy  (Smith) 
Fletcher,  was  born  at  Springfield,  Vt,,  December  14,  L806.  When  Hiram 
wasbutasmall  boy,  his  father  moved  his  family  from  Charlestown  to 
Pittsburg,  then  "Indian  Stream  Territory."'     Mr.  Fletcher  was  one  of  the 

216  History  of  Coos  County. 

first  settlers  there,  took  with  him  considerable  means,  built  mills,  made  a 
comfortable  home,  and  cleared  up  a  large  farm.  Hiram  labored  on  the 
farm  and  in  the  mills  until  the  age  of  seventeen,  when  he  entered  Kimball 
Union  academy  (Meriden),  where  he  was  a  scholar  for  several  terms,  and 
laid  the  foundation  for  that  love  of  learning  and  studious  habits  which  he 
exhibited  in  after  life.  About  nineteen,  he  began  the  study  of  law  with 
Gen  Seth  Cushman,  at  Guildhall,  Vt.  He  afterwards  read  successively 
with  John  L.  Sheafe,  Gov.  J.  W.  Williams,  of  Lancaster,  and  Gov.  Hub- 
bard, of  Charlestown,  where  Chief  Justice  Gilchrist  was  a  fellow  student 
with  him.  They  were  admitted  to  the  bar  together,  at  Newport,  in  183G. 
He  first  opened  an  office,  and  practiced  a  year,  in  Springfield,  Vt.  In  1833 
he  went  to  Colebrook.  where  he  was  in  practice  sixteen  years.  For  the 
place  and  business  he  w^as  very  successful.  He  had  one  side  of  all  the  liti- 
gation in  that  part  of  the  county,  and  the  business  of  making  collections 
was  a  help  to  the  rather  meagre  income  of  a  lawyer  in  those  days.  He 
practiced  in  Essex  county,  Vt.,  as  well  as  in  Coos  county;  at  that  time  this 
was  accompanied  with  many  hardships.  The  roads  were  not  good;  in 
summer  they  were  rough,  and  in  winter  deep  with  snow,  but  no  obstruc- 
tion was  sufficient  to  prevent  Mr.  Fletcher  from  doing  whatever  he  under- 
took. He  was  a  man  of  slight  pl^sique,  but  every  muscle  was  like  steel, 
and  he  had,  till  late  in  life,  great  activity  and  great  powers  of  endurance. 
He  seemed  to  have  had  the  make-up  for  a  long  life,  but  he  was  not  care- 
ful of  his  health.  In  early  and  middle  life  he  appeared  insensible  to. hard- 
ship, and  to  know  nothing  of  fatigue.  In  1849  he  moved  to  Lancaster, 
and  was  an  acknowledged  leader  at  the  bar  for  long  years.  He  died  of 
consumption,  January  30,  1879,  aged  seventy-two  years,  and  although  a 
great  sufferer  for  the  last  three  years,  he  retained  his  mental  powers  un- 
impaired to  the  end. 

In  1834.  May  2.">th,  Mr.  Fletcher  married  Persis  E.,  daughter  of  Dr. 
Benjamin  Hunking,  of  Lancaster.  Mrs.  Fletcher  was  a  lady,  intelligent 
and  amiable,  a  devoted  mother  and  Christian.  Of  their  six  children,  one 
died  in  infancy;  Emily  E.  died  in  1857,  aged  nineteen;  Almira  (Mrs.  W.  S. 
Ladcl).  Richard  and  Everett  reside  in  Lancaster;  Nellie  (Mrs  W.  A.  Hol- 
man),  is  a  resident  of  Pittsburgh,  Pa.     Mrs.  Fletcher  died  July  9,  1878. 

Mr.  Fletcher  was  a  close  legal  student,  well  read  in  cases,  for  which  his 
memory  wras  wonderfully  retentive,  and  he  knew  all  about  law  books  and 
authors.  He  gradually  collected  many  books.  His  law  library  was  large 
lor  a  country  practitioner.  He  possessed  a rtistic  tastes,  had  much  admira- 
tion for  a  rare  and  a  well-made  book,  and  for  any  beautiful  thing.  He 
was  a  man  of  kindly  feeling.  He  had  a  great  fund  of  humor,  and  no  one 
was  likely  to  get  the  better  of  him  in  an  encounter  of  wit. 

In  the  course  of  his  practice  Mr.  Fletcher  was  associated  several  years 
with  William  Heywood,  some  years  with  William  Burns,  and  four  years 

Bench  and  Bar.  217 

with  his  son,  Everett.  He  was  honorable  and  fair  as  a  practitioner, 
always  governed  by  a  sense  of  justice,  and  si  rid  ly  honest.  He  dealt  lib- 
erally with  his  clients,  and  it'  the  case  resulted  unfavorably,  he  would  con- 
sider the  client  very  favorably  in  the  settlement.  He  was  never  afraid  to 
take  hold  of  cases  of  importance  alone,  even  though  opposed  by  an  array 
of  able  lawyers,  and  old  members  of  the  bar  tell  of  the  skill,  tart,  and 
ability  with  which  he  would  bring  them  to  successful  conclusion.  "  ll«' 
was  a  man  of  great  resources,  and  an  untiring  worker.  The  order  and 
regularity  with  which  he  kept  his  papers  was  remarkable.  So  well  ar- 
ranged was  his  business  that  he  could  go  to  his  files  and  get  his  papers  as 
well  years  after  cases  were  ended,  as  while  they  were  pending." 

George  A.  Cossitt  was  register  of  probate  from.  L837  to  1852.  Mr. 
Cossitt  was  born  in  Claremont  and  commenced  the  practice  of  the  law  about 
1835,  in  Whitefield,  and  soon  after  moved  to  Lancaster.  He  was  an  ex- 
cellent judge  of  probate  law,  and  consequently  has  been  much  engaged  in 
probate  business.  He  was  for  many  years  cashier  of  the  old  Lancaster 

Hon.  Jacob  Benton,*  son  of  Samuel  Slade  and  Esther  i  Prouty)  Benton, 
was  born  at  Waterford,Vt.,  August  19,  1814.     He  attended  the  academies 
at  Lyndon,  Peacham,  and  Newbury,  and  completed  bis  education  by  grad- 
uating from  the  seminary  at  Manchester,  Vt.     In  the  spring  of  1840  he 
commenced  to  study  law  in  the  office  of  Heaton  &  Reed,  at  Montpelier, 
and  in  the  autumn  of  that  year  became  the  principal  of  the  academy  at 
Concord  Corner,  Vt.     Mr.   Benton  was   connected  with  this    school   for 
four  years.     While  in  Concord  he  studied  law  in  the  office  of  Judge  Henry 
A.  Bellows.     In  1843  he  came  to  Lancaster,  where  he  has  since   resided, 
and  entered  the  office  of  Gen.  Ira  Young,  where  he  completed  his  prelimi- 
nary studies,  and  with  whom  he  formed  a  partnership  after  his  admission 
to  the  bar  in  July  of  that  year.     This  partnership  was  dissolved  by  the 
death  of  Gen.  Young  in  1815.     During  the  period  from  1855  until  1887,  he 
had  three  law  partners:  Ossian  Ray,  ten  years  (1855   L865);  J.  H.  Benton. 
Jr.,  four  years  (1867-1871);  H.  I.  Goss,  two  years  (1885-1887).    In  1860  he 
married  Louisa  Dwight,  a  daughter  of  Gen.  Neal  Dow,  of  Portland.  Me. 
Mr.  Benton  belongs  to  a  family  of  men  strong  mentally  and  physically. 
He  is  more  than  six  feet  tall,  and  well  built.     Though  reared  on  a  farm, 
most  of  his  brothers  as  well  as  himself  became  connected  with  the  learned 
professions.     The  family  came  to  Vermont  from   Connecticut   and    \\ 
prominent  there.     His  grandfather  owned  a  part  of  the  site  of  the  city  of 

He  was  first  a  Whig  in  politics:  but,  upon  the  breaking  up  of  that 
party,  he  became  a  Republican,  to  which   party  he  has  always  since  ad 

*By  H.  I.  Goss. 

218  History  of  Coos  County. 

heredj  and  the  principles  of  which  he  has,  when  occasion  offered,  advo- 
cated and  supported  with  much  force  and  effect. 

In  1854  he  was  elected  to  represent  Lancaster  in  the  legislature,  where- 
he  took  an  active  part  in  bringing  about  the  defeat  of  the  election  of  Dem- 
ocratic senators  to  the  United  States  Congress.  Being  re-elected  in  1855, 
he  saw  his  efforts  of  the  former  year  crowned  with  success  in  the  election 
of  John  P.  Hale  and  James  Bell.  He  was  again  elected  in  1856.  Later  he 
was  made  a  brigadier-general  of  the  militia.  In  1867  he  was  elected  from 
the  Third  New  Hampshire  district  a  representative  to  the  Fortieth  Con- 
gress, and  was  re-elected  in  1869. 

In  the  halls  of  legislation  and  at  the  bar  Mr.  Benton  has  been  noted 
for  his  strong  and  fearless  advocacy  of  the  cause  he  espoused.  His  lan- 
guage, abounding  in  startling  and  original  metaphor,  is  pointed  and  force- 
ful. While  in  Congress  he  made  several  speeches  which  attracted  atten- 
tion; and  one,  (made  February  25,  1868,  before  the  House  of  Representa- 
tives acting  as  a  committee  of  the  whole,  and  having  under  consideration 
President  Johnson's  annual  message,  in  which  he  severely  criticised  the 
policy  of  the  administration,)  was  extensively  circulated  throughout  the 
country  as  a  campaign  document. 

As  a  lawyer  he  early  had  a  large  and  lucrative  practice.  He  was  en- 
dowed by  nature  with  much  inherent  shrewdness  and  practical  common 
sense.  He  never  relies  upon  trivialities  or  technicalities;  but  his  mind 
seizes  at  once  upon  the  principal  points  in  the  case,  and  these  he  urges 
with  much  force  and  persistence.  He  sees  with  equal  quickness  the  weak- 
nesses of  his  opponent's  cause,  and  these  he  holds  up  to  view,  often  Avith 
much  good  humored  wit,  always  with  tact,  and  strong  argument. 

Hon.  William  Burns,  born  at  Hebron,  N.  H.,  April  25,  1821,  was  son 
of  Robert  Burns,  a  distinguished  physician  and  prominent  public  man. 
Mr.  Burns  was  educated  at  academies  in  Plymouth  and  New  Hampton, 
and  was  a  graduate  in  the  class  of  1841,  from  Dartmouth  college.  He  be- 
gan to  read  law  with  Hon.  Leonard  Wilcox,  of  Orforcl;  attended  Harvard 
Law  school,  where  he  was  graduated  in  1813,  and  the  next  year  (1814) 
married  Clementine  E.  Hayes,  of  Orford,  a  lady  whose  sunny  tempera- 
ment especially  fitted  her  to  make  a  happy  home  for  a  public  man.  He 
was  admitted  to  the  Grafton  county  bar  in  1844,  and  commenced  practice 
at  Littleton,  where  he  remained  two  years,  then  removed  to  Lancaster, 
having  purchased  the  legal  business  of  Hon.  John  S.  Wells. 

At  once  Mr.  Burns  obtained  a  high  reputation  for  legal  soundness, 
clear  judgment,  and  sterling  integrity.  It  was,  however,  as  an  advocate 
that  his  great  natural  ability  was  most  conspicuously  shown.  Always 
would  his  impassioned  appeals  impress  a  jury,  and  make  him  master  of 
the  situation.  For  eighteen  years  he  was  in  partnership  with  Hiram  A. 
Fletcher.     As  attorneys  for  the  Grand  Trunk  Railway,  and  in  connection 



Bench  and  Bar.  219 

with  their  other  business  they  built  up  a  very  large  practice.  In  L869  Mr. 
Burns  entered  into  partnership  with  Henry  Heywood,  and  remained  with 
him  until  L876,  when  it  was  dissolved  on  account  of  Mr.  Burns's  ill  health. 

It  can  be  truly  said  of  Mr.  Burns,  that  he  was  one  of  thai  old  school  of 
counselors  for  which  New  Hampshire  has  been  famous,  whose  profi 
sional  lives  have  both  honored  and  elevated  the  business  of  the  law.  He 
was  unflinching  in  his  devotion  to  the  interests  of  the  Democratic  party, 
and  was  long  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  eloquent  and  convincing  stump 
orators  in  New  Hampshire.  He  certainly  richly  deserved  political  position, 
and  would  have  had  it  had  his  politics  been  in  accord  with  the  Republican 
party  then  dominant  in  the  state.  The  Democrats  always  recognized  the 
sterling  worth  of  a  man  so  earnest,  faithful,  and  unswerving  in  his  adhe- 
rence to  Democracy,  and  regarded  him  as  one  of  the  most  fearless  and 
untiring  of  party  standard-bearers.  At  state  conventions  and  gatherings 
of  state  committees  no  man  was  listened  to  with  keener  interest  in  the 
discussion  of  the  issues  of  the  day  or  measures  of  parly  policy.  He  was 
twice  elected  to  the  state  Senate,  in  L856  and  1857.  In  1859  he  received 
the  Democratic  nomination  for  member  of  Congress  in  the  Third  district, 
and  made  a  remarkably  brilliant  canvass,  repeating  the  same  in  L861  and 
L863,  and,  at  the  election  in  1863,  came  within  two  hundred  votes  of 
defeating  Hon.  James  W.  Patterson,  the  Republican  candidate.  .Mr.  Burns 
was  a  delegate  to  the  national  Democratic  convention  in  I860,  and  a  prom- 
inent member  of  the  state  Constitutional  convention  of  1876.  In  religious 
belief  Mr.  Burns  was  a  Unitarian.  He  was  a  member  of  North  Star 
Lodge,  F.  A.  M.,  of  Lancaster. 

Mr.  Burns  died  after  a  long  and  trying  illness  at  Plymouth,  April  2, 
1885,  and  is  buried  in  the  old  Livermore  church-yard  at  Holderness,  among 
his  kindred  and  boyhood  friends.  Hon.  George  N.  Dale  gives  this  fine 
analysis  of  his  character: — 

''I  see  coming  through  nearly  thirty  years  another  in  this  picture. 
Through  all  that  time  shines  the  luster  of  a  gifted  and  noble  manhood. 
The  space  he  filled  presents  nothing  but  pleasant  recollections  of  William 
Burns.  As  I  see  him  he  was  kind,  courteous,  and  exceedingly  pleasant, 
but  he  was  not  tame  by  any  means.  His  sarcasm  and  invective  were  as 
keen  as  any  blade  that  ever  glistened  in  our  little  circle.  As  a  public 
speaker,  especially  in  discussing  political  subjects,  in  his  palmiest  days,  I 
thought  him  without  a  superior  in  this  section  of  the  country.  As  a  law- 
yer he  excelled.  He  was  apt  in  the  technology  of  law.  not  remarkably 
proficient  alone  in  specialties,  and  wanting  in  other  respects,  bill  he  had  a 
general  variety  and  well  selected  stock  of  information,  to  which  was  added 
abroad,  practical  common  sense,  which  made  him  an  efficient  and  useful 
man.  He  excelled,  of  course,  as  an  advocate.  His  style  was  elegant, 
simple  and  sublime  (for  sublimity  is  almost  always  simple  in  literatun 

220  History  of  Coos  County. 

almost  as  Dickens,  and  resembled  the  purity  of  an  Addison.  He  often 
indulged  in  ironical  language,  but  it  was  such  pure  irony,  and  was  so  com- 
pletely manufactured  out  of  materials  of  his  case  as  to  seldom  subject 
him  to  just  criticism,  or  leave  any  lasting  sting  behind.  As  a  practitioner 
he  was  a  model.  He  was  a  gallant  man.  He  had  not  the  keen  scintillat- 
ing wit  of  a  Fletcher,  nor  the  strong,  comprehensive,  though  unadorned 
style  of  a  Hey  wood,  nor  even  yet  the  dashing,  overwhelming  and  torrent- 
like style  of  a  Bartlett,  but  he  had  such  a  blending  and  pleasantly-arranged 
parts  of  them  all  as  to  constitute  a  most  consistent  man.  Many  years 
since  (as  we  count  them  in  the  life  of  a  man),  Mr.  Burns  was  severely 
injured  by  a  collision  of  railway  trains,  yet  he  was  still  very  graceful,  and 
so  managed  his  lameness  that  I  used  to  think  it  added  to,  rather  than  took 
from,  the  effect  of  his  most  brilliant  efforts.  The  influence  of  his  charity 
and  kind  consideration  for  others  I  shall  feel  as  long  as  I  live.  His  life 
was  and  is  constantly  saying  to  us: — 

"  '  Let  us  no  more  contend  or  blame 
Each  other,  blamed  enough  elsewhere, 

but  strive 
In  offices  of  love  how  we  may  lighten 
Each  other's  burdens  in  our  share  of  woe.' 

"  '  The  battle  of  our  life  is  brief, 
The  alarm,  the  struggle,  the  relief  ; 
Then  sleep  we  side  by  side.'  " 

Benjamin  Franklin  Whidden  is  a  native  of  Greenland,  N.  H.  When 
a  lad  he  removed  to  Lancaster  with  his  father.  His  early  years  in  Green- 
land and  Lancaster  were  passed  on  a  farm.  At  the  age  of  fourteen  he 
commenced  to  learn  the  trade  of  cabinet-making,  and  served  four  years, 
attending  school  winters.  His  preparatory  education  was  acquired  at 
Lancaster  and  Kimball  Union  academies.  He  entered  Dartmouth  college 
in  1836,  and  was  graduated  in  1840.  (He  worked  at  his  trade,  and  taught, 
to  defray  the  greater  portion  of  his  expenses.)  He  then  went  to  Hanover 
county,  Virginia,  as  a  teacher  in  languages  and  mathematics,  and  remained 
until  1845;  passing  his  vacations  in  Washington,  where  he  had  the  use  of 
libraries,  and  the  opportunity  to  hear  the  foremost  men  of  that  day- 
Webster,  (lav.  Calhoun,  Benton,  Adams,  Marshall,  Wright,  Choate,  Mc- 
Duffie,  Preston  and  Crittenden.  This  he  highly  prized  as  a  most  valuable 
part  of  his  education,  and  that  epoch  is  full  of  choice  memories.  He  re- 
turned to  Lancaster  in  1845,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1846  He 
was  appointed  school  commissioner  for  Coos  county  in  1850  and  1851;  he 
represented  Lancaster  in  the  state  legislature  in  1849,  1850,  and  1867.  His 
election  in  1849  was  under  circumstances  which  show  the  confidence 
reposed  in  him.  The  two  parties  in  town  were  so  nearly  equal  in  strength 
that  neither  could  elect — Mr.  Whidden  being  the  nominee  of  the  Free-soil 

Bench  and  Bar.  221 

party,  then  largely  in  the  minority.  He  was  elected  not  on  party  issues, 
but  upon  his  honesty,  integrity,  and  ability  as  a  man.  lie  advocated 
and  secured  the  passage  of  the  Homestead  Law.  He  was  county  solicitor 
from  L856  to  L862;  he  was  appointed  by  Presidenl  Lincoln,  United  States 
commissioner  and  consul-general  to  Hayti,  on  the  recognition  of  that  gov- 
ernment by  the  United  States  in  1862,  with  plenipotentiary  power  to  con- 
clude a  treaty  of  amity,  commerce,  and  navigation,  and  for  the  extradition 
of  fugitive  criminals.  The  treaty  was  made  in  L864,  and  immediately  con- 
firmed by  the  governments.  Mr.  Whidden  did  efficient  service  for  the 
Union  in  this  capacity,  discharged  its  duties  with  gentlemanly  courtesy, 
and  was  highly  complimented  by  Secretary  Seward.  He  resigned  his  post 
in  L865,  on  account  of  ill  health,  and  returned  to  Lancaster.  Ho  was  judge 
of  probate  in  1868  and  held  the  office  until  1*74;  presidential  elector  in  1^7i;, 
and  delegate  in  1876  to  the  Republican  national  convention  at  Cincinnati. 
He  travelled  in  Europe  in  the  summer  and  fall  of  1*74.  After  liis  return 
he  resumed  the  practice  of  law  at  Lancaster. 

In  1851  Mr.  Whidden  married  Eliza  Turner  Spaulding,  of  Lancaster. 
She  was  a  most  estimable  lady,  and  beloved  by  all  who  knew  her.  She 
died  in  1868.  (Their  son  John  W.  is  a  physician  in  Portland,  Me.)  In  1874, 
he  married  Kate  J.  Brooks,  of  Cincinnati,  Ohio.  She  was  a  lady  of  rare 
mental  and  personal  attractions,  and  much  respected  by  those  who  had 
the  honor  of  her  acquaintance.     She  died  in  1879. 

Mr.  Whidden  is  especially  noted  for  his  exactness,  honesty,  and  integ- 
rity, and  his  devotedness  to  all  interests  intrusted  to  his  care.  He  ha-  an 
admiration  for  the  classics  of,  not  only  the  modern,  but  the  ancient  lan- 
guages, which  are  as  familiar  to  him  now  as  on  his  graduation  day.  Fine 
literary  tastes  and  scholastic  culture,  a  broad  liberality  combined  with  a 
keen  sense  of  justice,  a  practical  intelligence  broadened  by  extensive  travel, 
and  a  genial,  kindly  spirit,  all  unite  in  this  true  gentleman  and  scholar. 

George  Canning  Williams,  eldest  son  of  Hon.  Jared  W.  Williams, 
born  at  Lancaster,  August  7,  1827,  died,  unmarried,  at  Lancaster,  Decem- 
ber 10,  L865.  He  fitted  for  college  at  Lancaster  academy,  was  graduated 
from  Dartmouth  (a  member  of  the  Phi  Beta  Kappa  society)  in  the  class  of 
ls-14,  studied  law  with  his  father,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  in  L848. 
He  was  a  lawyer  of  fine  ability  for  his  age.  and  no  one  had  more  brilliant 
prospects,  but  his  last  years  were  saddened  by  the  vice  of  intemperance. 
He  was  county  solicitor  for  several  years,  was  clerk  of  the  New  Hampshire 
Senate,  representative  from  Lancaster  in  L 85 9  and  I860,  and  commissioner 
of  state  lands  in  L858.  He  was  a  trustee  of  Lancaster  academy,  grand 
master  of  the  I.  0.  O.  F.  of  New  Hampshire,  and  representative  to  the 
Grand  Lodge  of  that  body,  and  a  prominent  and  active  Freemason. 

Jared  Irving  Williams,  youngest  son  of  Bon.  Jared  W.  Williams,  was 
born  at  Lancaster  August  L9,  1832.     He  fitted  for  college  al  Lancasterand 

222  History  of  Coos  County. 

Killingly  (Conn.)  academies,  graduated  from  Brown  university  in  the 
class  of  1854,  studied  law  with  his  father,  and  Carpenter  &  Thurston,  of 
Providence,  R.  I.,  was  admitted  to  practice  at  Lancaster  in  1856,  and  at 
once  became  associated  with  his  father  and  brother.  He  was  editor  of  the 
Cods  County  Democrat  from  the  death  of  J.  M.  Rix  in  1854  until  the  elec- 
tion of  Lincoln  in  1860;  was  town  representative  in  1879  and  1.880;  has  been 
superintending  school  committee  and  president  of  the  board  of  education 
of  Lancaster  since  1876;  is  a  trustee  of  Lancaster  academy.  He  married, 
in  1857,  Mary  Hamilton  Morse.  Mr.  Williams  did  service  in  the  Rebellion, 
and  attained  the  rank  of  captain;  is  a  prominent  and  valued  member  of 
the  Gr.  A.  R.  and  various  Masonic  bodies;  possesses  decided  mathematical 
and  mechanical  tastes,  and  is  a  civil  engineer  of  no  mean  ability.  He  is  a 
Roman  Catholic  in  religion,  and  a  delightful  social  companion. 

Ossian  Ray-  was  born  December  13,  1835,  in  Hinesburg,  Vt.  He  is 
the  oldest  son  of  George  and  Hannah  (Greene)  Ray,  who  were  married  in 
Waterbury,  Vt.,  October  2,  1834.  They  lived  in  Hinesburg  until  about 
March,  1 836,  removing  then  toWaterbury,  and  remaining  there  until  the  fall 
of  that  year,  when  they  wTent  to  reside  on  a  farm  which  they  had  purchased 
in  Irasburg.  The  mother  died  at  Irasburg  in  1817 ;  the  father  remained  on  the 
same  farm  until  about  1855,  when  he  removed  to  Hinesburg,  where  he  is  still 
living  at  the  age  of  eighty  three  years.  George  Ray  was  the  son  of  William 
and  Abigail  (Wyman)  Ray,  and  was  born  in  Hinesburg,  the  eighth  of  ten 
children.  William  Ray  came  from  Hartford,  Washington  Co.,  N.  Y.,  to 
Hinesburg,  about  1800,  and  married  to  Abigail  Wyman,  his  second  wife, 
after  coming  to  Vermont.  Hannah  (Greene)  Ray,  born  September  1,  1809, 
died  July  2.  1847.  was  the  fourth  child  of  Capt.  James  Greene,  who  was 
born  in  Claremont,  N.  H.,  and  afterwards  moved  to  Waterbury,  Vt., 
serving  in  the  War  of  1812,  being  appointed  captain  in  the  11th  IT.  S. 
Infantry,  July  25,  is  14.  He  was  severely  wounded  in  a  skirmish  with  the 
British  troops  at  a  place  called  "  Stone  Mills,"  (or  "Cole  Mills")  near  Platts- 
burg,  N.  Y.,  suffering  amputation  of  a  leg,  and  dying  from  the  effects  of 
his  wound  February  17,  1817.  He  was  married  in  Waterbury  about  1802, 
to  Mercy,  daughter  of  Moses  Nelson,  of  Croydon,  N.  H.  The  subject  of 
this  sketch  has  one  brother,  Orman  P.,  of  Burlington,  Vt.,  and  three 
sisters,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  M.  Bridges  and  Mrs.  Amelia  C.  Corrigan,  of  Ogden, 
Utah,  and  Mrs.  Hannah  E.  Baker,  of  Waterbury,  Vt. 

Ossian  Ray's  boyhood  and  youth  were  passed  in  Irasburg,  where  he 
built  up  a  vigorous  constitution  by  healthy  out-door  work  during  the  brief 
summers,  and  disciplined  his  mind  during  the  long  New  England  winters 
at  the  little  district  school-house,  intent  upon  solving  the  riddle  of  life,  and 
acquiring  the  knowledge  and  experience  of  others  by  studying  the  printed 

By  John  N.  McClintock,  A.  M. 

Bench  and  Bar.  223 

page.  His  formative  education  and  character  at  the  district  school  were 
under  the  direction  of  several  able  and  enthusiastic  teachers,  among  whom 
may  be  named  the  late  Henry  H.  Frost,  Esq.,  of  Coventry,  the  late  Tim- 
othy Mansfield,  of  Barton,  the  late  Miss  Olive  H.  Webster,  of  Irasburg, 
and  Miss  Harriet  Webster,  now  of  Boston.  Young  Ray  also  attended 
several  terms  at  the  Irasburg  academy,  two  of  which  were  taught  by  Rev. 
Charles  W.  Cushing,  D.  I).,  now  of  Rochester,  N.  Y..  and  widely  known 
as  one  of  the  foremost  educators  in  the  country.  While  at  the  academy 
his  evenings  and  odd  hours  were  devoted  to  the  study  of  history,  rhetoric, 
and  public  speaking.  The  country  around  was  interested  in  these-schools, 
and  the  progress  of  the  scholars,  and  flocked  to  the  public  exercises  from 
the  neighboring  towns.  Triumphs  won  in  that  forum  were  never  for- 
gotten; applause  from  rustic  friends  stimulated  to  renewed  efforts.  The 
closing  exercises  were  often  held  in  the  courtdiouse,  and  the  day  was  great 
in  the  lives  of  many  students.  Ossian  Ray  finished  his  academical  studies 
at  Derby,  Vt.,  where  among  his  fellow  students  were  the  late  Hon.  Benja- 
min H.  Steele,  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Vermont;  Rev.  George  I. 
Bard,  of  Orford,  N.  H.;  David  M.  Camp,  editor  of  the  Newport  (Vt.) 
Express,  and  Rev.  Dr.  W.  W.  Niles,  now  Bishop  of  the  Diocese  of  New 
Hampshire.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  gave  promise  of  more  than  ordinary  * 
ability,  and  attracted  the  attention  of  Jesse  Cooper,  Esq.,  a  lawyer  of  Iras- 
burg. The  youth  was  fitted  for  college  in  all  save  Creek  and  mathematics 
at  that  age,  and  strongly  desired  to  complete  his  education  by  a  college 
course,  but  lack  of  means  forbade.  Irasburg  was  the  county  seat,  where 
the  courts  were  holden,  and  where  lawyers  were  held  in  high  esteem.  At 
the  Orleans  county  bar  were  then  practicing  Jesse  Cooper  and  John  H. 
Prentiss,  of  Irasburg;  William  M.  Dickerm  m,  of  Coventry;  John  L.  Ed- 
wards, of  Derby;  John  H.  Kimball  and  Samuel  A.  Willard,  of  Barton: 
Samuel  Sumner  and  Norman  Boardman,  of  Troy;  Benjamin  H.  Smalley 
and  Chief  Justice  Homer  E.  Royce,  of  Franklin  county;  Judge  Luke  P. 
Poland,  of  Lamoille  county;  Judge  Timothy  P.  Redfield  and  Stoddard  B. 
Oolby,  of  Montpelier;  Thomas  Bartlett  and  George  C.  Gaboon,  of  Caledonia 
county,  and  others,  whose  scholarly  minds  and  rhetorical  abilities,  as  dis- 
played in  many  a  hard-fought  legal  battle,  deeply  impressed  the  youth, 
and  stimulated  his  ambition  to  become  a  leader  of  men  in  the  forensic 

By  the  advice  of  Mr.  Cooper,  and  with  the  assent  of  his  father,  young 
Ray  relinquished  his  college  aspirations,  entered  immediately  upon  the 
study  of  his  chosen  profession  in  the  office  of  Mr.  Cooper,  and  became  a 
member  of  his  family.  His  patron  was  of  great  assistance  to  young  Ray, 
guiding  his  legal  studies,  allowing  him  to  try  justice  causes,  encouraging 
him  to  manage  cases  in  which  he  was  sometimes  the  opposing  counsel,  and 
largely  leaving  to  him  the  preparation  of  bis  briefs.     Two  of  these  early 

224  History  of  Coos  County. 

efforts  may  be  found  in  the  cases  of  Webster  vs.  Dennison,  Vermont  Re- 
ports, Vol.  25,  pp.  495,  496,  and  Cooper  vs.  Parker,  p.  504.  From  early 
friends  who  then  formed  life-long  attachments,  one  learns  that  Ossiau  Ray 
was  a  good  scholar,  with  a  natural  aptitude  for  public  speaking,  popular 
with  his  schoolmates,  and  evincing  a  strong  character. 

In  March,  1*54,  he  came  to  Lancaster,  N.  H.,  at  the  request  of  the  late 
Saunders  W.  Cooper,  Esq.,  a  brother  of  Mr.  Cooper,  of  Irasburg,  to  assist 
in  closing  up  his  law  business,  his  health  having  failed.  Until  the  follow- 
ing December  he  remained  in  Lancaster,  attending  to  Mr.  Cooper's  affairs, 
forming  acquaintances,  and  becoming  attached  to  the  people.  That  winter 
he  taught  school  in  Canaan,  Vt. ,  bought  law  books,  pursued  his  studies 
evenings,  and  on  Saturdays,  when  school  did  not  keep,  and  during  the 
holidays,  engaged  in  the  trial  of  justice  cases,  to  the  improvement  of  his 
legal  experience  and  the  condition  of  his  finances.  Thus,  by  teaching  and 
practicing,  he  maintained  himself  and  pursued  his  studies  until  September 
1,  L856,  when  he  returned  to  Lancaster.  January  1,  1857,  at  the  age  of 
twenty-one  years,  he  formed  a  law  partnership  with  Hon.  Jacob  Benton, 
of  Lancaster,  and  during  the  same  month  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at 
Guildhall,  Essex  Co.,  Vt.,  at  a  term  of  the  court  over  which  the  late  Chief 
Justice  Luke  P.  Poland  presided,  and  soon  after  he  was  admitted  to  the 
Coos  county  bar,  at  Lancaster.  He  has  since  been  admitted  to  practice  in 
the  United  States  Courts,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  the  United  States  January  25,  1872. 

Mr.  Ray's  success  at  the  bar  was  assured  from  the  first.  He  brought 
to  the  profession  an  active  mind,  carefully  cultured,  great  natural  abilities 
balanced  by  good  judgment,  indomitable  perseverance  and  love  for  his 
profession,  and  a  strong  and  unflinching  character  inherited  from  his 
ancestors.  As  a  lawyer  he  has  built  his  fame  on  an  enduring  foundation. 
His  preparation  of  cases  has  employed  his  best  efforts,  his  management  of 
them  has  absorbed  him.  From  the  minutest  detail  to  the  great  law  points 
involved  he  has  been  ready;  and,  ever  on  the  aggressive,  his  opponents 
have  never  found  him  sleeping.  In  L867  Mr.  Benton  was  elected  to  Con- 
gress, and  withdrew  from  the  firm.  In  September  Mr.  Ray  formed  a 
partnership  with  Hon.  William  S.  Ladd,  of  Colebrook,  which  continued 
until  Mr.  Ladd  was  appointed  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  in  October,  1870. 
January  1,  1872,  Mr.  Ray  took  into  partnership  Hon.  Irving  W.  Drew, 
who  had  pursued  his  legal  studies  in  Mr.  Ray's  office.  From  1*73  to  1876 
Hon.  William  Hey  wood  was  a  member  of  the  firm,  when  he  was  succeeded 
by  Hon.  Chester  B.  Jordan,  a  student  in  the  office  of  the  firm.  January  1, 
L882,  Philip  Carpenter,  of  Bath,  was  admitted,  and  the  law  firm  of  Ray, 
Drew,  Jordan  &  ( larpenter  was  established,  from  which  Mr.  Ray  withdrew 
January  1,  L883,  and.  with  the  exception  of  one  year  from  July  1,  1885, 

Bench  and  Bar.  225 

when  Mr.  George  W.  Patterson,  of  Hanover,  was  associated  with  him,  he 
has  since  had  no  partner  in  the  practice  of  his  profession. 

Since  1860  Mr.  Eay  has  been  retained  in  nearly  every  important  law- 
suit in  Coos  and  Essex  counties,  his  practice  extending  into  other  counties 
and  to  the  Federal  courts  of  New  Hampshire  and  Vermont,  and  to  cases 
before  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States.  From  L869  to  the  death 
of  the  late  John  E.  Lyon,  president  of  the  Boston,  Concord  &  Montreal 
and  White  Mountains  Railroad,  he  was  counsel  for  him  and  for  that  cor- 
poration. Before  1872  he  was  employed  in  suits  in  New  Hampshire  and 
Vermont  against  the  Grand  Trunk  Railway  of  Canada.  Since  that  date 
he  has  always  been  retained  by  that  company.  His  work  before  the  full 
bench  of  the  New  Hampshire  Supreme  Court  may  by  traced  in  nearly 
every  volume  of  the  reports,  from  the  36th,  containing  cases  heard  in  July, 
L857,  to  the  64th,  now  in  press.  Mr.  Ray  was  a  representative  from  Lan- 
caster in  the  state  legislature  in  L868  and  1869,  the  former  year  serving  as 
chairman  of  the  committee  on  elections,  and  in  the  latter  as  chairman  of 
the  committee  on  judiciary;  was  solicitor  of  Coos  county  from  L862  to  L872; 
was  delegate-at-large  to  the  Republican  national  convention  at  Philadel- 
phia in  June,  1872;  was  United  States  attorney  for  the  district  of  New 
Hampshire,  by  appointment  of  President  Hayes,  from  February  22,  L879, 
to  December  23,  1880,  when  he  resigned,  upon  his  nomination  as  a  candi- 
date for  Congress.  At  the  death  of  Hon.  Evarts  W.  Fan',  November  30, 
1880,  Mr.  Ray  was  elected  to  till  the  vacancy  for  the  unexpired  term,  and 
to  succeed  himself  from  March  4,  1881,  to  March  4,  L883,  as  a  Republican 
representative  from  the  Third  congressional  district  of  New  Hampshire,  by 
over  5,000  majority.  He  was  re-elected  in  L882as  representative  from  the 
Second  congressional  district,  the  state  having  been  re-districted  during 
his  term  of  office.  In  the  House  of  Representatives  Mr.  Ray  served  on 
the  committees  of  invalid  pensions  and  claims,  the  duties  of  which  arc 
always  onerous  and  exacting.  His  services  on  the  former  committee  will 
long  be  remembered  by  many  a  veteran,  and  soldier's  widow  or  children, 
for  no  appeal  in  their  behalf  ever  went  unheard,  no  just  cause  unespoused. 
During  his  brief  service  in  the  46th  Congress  he  was  largely  instrumental 
in  securing  the  passage  of  an  act  removing  the  terms  of  the  United  States 
Courts,  formerly  held  at  Exeter,  to  Concord,  thereby  convening  the  north- 
ern and  western  portions  of  the  state.  In  the  ttth  Congress  he  aided  in 
securing  an  appropriation  of  $200,000  for  a  United  States  court-house  and 
postoffice  building  at  Concord,  an  elegant  structure  now  practically  com- 
pleted. In  the  48th  Congress,  it  is  safe  to  say  that  had  it  uol  hern  for  his 
persistent  work  and  personal  influence  among  his  fellow  members,  an 
appropriation  of  $200,000  for  a  similar  building  at  Manchester  would  have 
failed.  He  was  a  strong  advocate  of  the  abolition  of  the  duty  on  sugar, 
although  in  favor  of  a  protective  tariff  when  necessary  for  the  benefil  of 

226  History  of  Coos  County. 

American  manufacturers  and  producers.  He  also  earnestly  favored  legis- 
lation authorizing  the  government  to  establish  and  operate  telegraph  lines 
in  connection  with  the  postal  service  of  the  country. 

Mr.  Ray  has  been  eminently  the  architect  of  his  own  fortunes.  He 
possesses  wonderful  energy,  industry,  perseverance,  enthusiasm  and  zeal. 
His  great  vital  force  renders  him  unconscious  of  obstacles  and  difficulties; 
he  has  confidence  in  himself  and  in  his  case,  and  is  a  formidable  opponent. 
His  language  is  clear,  incisive,  forcible,  effective— and  often  eloquent.  He 
is  especially  powerful  on  law  points  before  the  full  bench  of  the  Supreme 
Court;  he  is  always  quick  to  think  and  quick  to  act.  Mr.  Ray  is  not  infal- 
lible; his  impulse  sometimes  leads  him  astray;  but  his  reason  quickly  sets 
him  right.  Once  having  seriously  decided  upon  a  course  of  action  he  is 
hard  to  swerve  from  his  purpose.  Mr.  Ray  has  always  been  an  assiduous 
reader,  student,  and  lover  of  books.  His  private  library  is  very  rich  and 
extensive,  books  being  gathered  in  nearly  every  room  in  his  house.  Return- 
ing from  a  journey  he  has  generally  a  new  lot  to  add  to  his  collection. 
These  books  on  history,  logic,  philosophy,  statistics,  science,  poetry,  travel, 
biography,  and  art— on  every  subject  of  interest  and  value  to  the  human 
family— he  eagerly  devours.  His  law  library  is  one  of  the  most  extensive 
in  the  state.  He  is  a  man  of  wonderful  memory.  Facts  and  incidents 
once  in  his  mind  are  always  accessible  and  available,  and  he  will  readily 
take  from  his  shelves  a  volume  and  refer  to  the  page  bearing  upon  or  illus- 
trating any  fact  or  theory  he  has  ever  read.  In  this  respect  he  constantly 
displays  to  his  friends  capability  and  resource  unexpected  and  extraordi- 
nary. In  the  most  trying  situations  he  has  control  of  his  temper;  he  is 
entirely  without  envy  or  jealousy,  and  rejoices  heartily  in  the  success  of 
his  friends  and  acquaintances;  he  is  considerate  towards  young  attorneys. 
All  his  friends,  and  they  are  many,  are  tenacious  in  their  attachment  to 

In  private  life  Mr.  Ray  is  affable,  genial,  sincere  and  warm-hearted. 
Since  his  residence  in  Lancaster  he  has  done  much  to  improve  the  appear- 
ance of  the  village,  entering  heartily  into  every  project  for  the  betterment 
of  the  place.  He  is  public  spirited,  charitable,  liberal,  and  always  to  be 
depended  upon  for  his  share  in  the  public  burdens.  He  attends  the  Con- 
gregational church,  but  gives  with  a  generous  hand  to  the  support  of  all 
denominations  in  the  town.  His  means  and  labor  are  freely  given  to  ren- 
der neat  and  attractive  the  appearance  of  his  buildings,  land,  and  the  ad- 
joining highways.  Physically  he  is  robust  and  possessed  of  an  iron  con- 
stitution.    His  face  is  lighted  up  with  intelligence,  will  and  good  nature. 

Mr.  Ray  has  been  very  fortunate  in  his  marital  relations.  His  first 
wile,  whom  he  married  March  2,  L856,  was  Alice  A.  Fling,  daughter  of 
Henry  Fling,  at  that  time  a  citizen  of  West  Stewartstown  and  afterwards 
of  Portland,  Maine.     She  was  a  woman  of  lovely  character,  wonderfully 


228  History  of  Coos  County. 

unexpectedly  appointed  judge  of  the  Supreme  Judicial  Court.  As  he  was 
the  first  Democrat  appointed  to  this  position  by  a  Republican  governor, 
the  honor  conferred  was  all  the  more  significant  and  complimentary. 
Judge  Ladd  remained  on  the  bench  of  this  court  until  1874,  when  it  was 
legislated  out  of  existence,  and  he  was  at  once  appointed  to  the  second 
place  on  the  Superior  Court  of  Judicature,  which  he  held  until  1876,  when 
the  Republicans  came  into  power  and  abolished  the  court.  In  1877  he 
formed  a  law  partnership  with  Everett  Fletcher,  which  still  exists.  In 
this  later  practice  in  state  and  national  courts,  many  cases  of  great  impor- 
tance have  been  successfully  entrusted  to  him,  and  he  has  been  referee  in 
numerous  causes  of  magnitude.  He  is  regarded  as  authority  in  all  matters 
of  railroad  law,  excels  as  a  business  counselor,  and  is  an  extremely  busy 
man.  He  possesses  that  rare  combination  of  nature  s  almost  essentially 
opposite, — strong  logical  reason  and  quick  sensibilities,  and  he  seizes  ac- 
curately upon  the  salient  points  of  an  involved  controversy,  and  by  an  in- 
ward debate  clears  away  the  immaterial  and  confusing,  and  brings  to  the 
service  of  his  client  careful  preparation,  learned  research,  accurate  applica- 
tion of  law.  and  good  ''fighting1'  qualities.  Dartmouth  college  recognized 
this  and  made  him  Doctor  of  Laws  in  L887.  He  was  appointed  reporter  of 
the  decisions  of  the  Supreme  Court  in  1883,  and  every  case  decided  since 
his  appointment  has  been  in  print  within  120  days,  while  the  accumula- 
tions of  the  five  years  previous  are  nearly  all  published. 

Placed  upon  the  bench  when  but  forty  years  old,  Judge  Ladd  immedi- 
ately gave  evidence  of  his  fitness  for  the  position.  His  first  opinion  de- 
fined the  status  of  insanity  in  New  Hampshire  law,  and  attracted  atten- 
tion from  American  and  English  jurists,  and  writers  upon  the  Medical 
Jurisprudence  of  iusanity.  He  was  the  embodiment  of  a  high  profes- 
sional morality,  and  preserved  his  ermine  unsullied.  Every  case  presented 
to  his  court  was  carefully  weighed  with  judgment  singularly  dispassionate, 
and  decided  on  its  merits  in  law,  and  few  exceptions  to  his  rulings  were 
sustained.  It  is  through  his  opinions  and  as  a  jurist  that  Judge  Ladd  is 
best  known  outside  the  state.  In  their  breadth,  scope  of  argument,  clear- 
ness of  statement  and  elegance  of  diction  they  rank  among  the  ablest. 
Judge  Barrett,  of  Vermont,  once  said  that  it  was  a  pity  Judge  Ladd  had 
not  been  re-appointed,  as  the  lawyers  of  the  country  had  come  to  look  for 
his  decisions  as  they  did  for  those  of  Chief  Justice  Shepley.  "  They  were 
luminous  with  good  sense.'' 

Judge  Ladd  married,  July  5,  I860,  Almira  B.,  daughter  of  Hiram  A. 
and  I  'ersis  I  Hunking)  Fletcher,  and  great-granddaughter  of  Judge  Everett. 
Their  surviving  children  are  Fletcher  (D.  C.  1884),  now  a  student  of  law 
in  Germany,  William  P.,  and  Mary  E.  Judge  Ladd's  early  youth  was 
passed  in  a  home  atmosphere  which  stimulated  his  desire  for  learning, 
and  he  has  ever  been  a  diligent  student.     He  is  intellectual,  cultured,  and 

Bench    \m>  Bar.  229 

well  read,  loves  a  good  and  a  rare  book,  has  a  valuable  private  library, 
and  is  a  discriminating  critic  in  literature,  music,  and  art.  He  is  liberal 
to  all  worthy  objects,  an  Episcopalian  in  religion,  a  courteous  gentleman 
and  enjoyable  companion,  while  in  the  circle  of  his  charming  home  he  is 
the  soul  of  kindness. 

Henry  Heywood  has  been  in  the  practice  of  law  in  Coos  county  for 
seventeen  years.  He  was  born  in  Guildhall,  Vt. ,  December  6,  L835.  He 
attended  district  schools,  and  several  terms  at  Lancaster  academy.  In 
L852,  he  entered  the  Scientific  Department  of  Dartmouth  college  and 
graduated  in  1 855.  He  immediately  went  to  Wisconsin,  and  was  employed 
as  a  civil  engineer  till  1857.  He  then  came  to  Lancaster  whither  his  father, 
William  Heywood,  had  removed,  began  the  study  of  law  in  his  office,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  the  spring  of  1860.  He  then  practiced  about 
a  year  in  Tarn  worth,  N.  II.,  then  removed  to  Guildhall,  Vt.,  and  remained 
until  1869,  and  was  state's  attorney  for  Essex  county  two  years  from 
December  1,  1862.  In  June,  1866,  Mr.  Heywood  married  Catherine  R. 
Hubbard,  of  Springfield,  Vt.  They  have  one  son,  William  H.,  born  Feb- 
ruary 25,  1868,  now  a  student  of  law.  In  1869  Mr.  Heywood  located  in 
Lancaster,  and  was  associated  with  William  Burns  until  1876,  when  Mr. 
Burns  retired,  and  Mr.  Heywood  went  into  partnership  with  his  father, 
which  connection  still  continues.  He  was  appointed  solicitor  of  Coos 
county  in  July,  187-1,  and  was  removed  "by  address"  from  the  office  in 
July,  1876,  with  three  other  county  officers  (for  political  reasons,  in  fact, 
though  it  is  not  so  expressed  in  the  resolution.)  Mr.  Heywood  has  kept 
up  his  practice  in  Essex  county,  Vt. ,  as  well  as  here,  and  practiced  some 
in  the  United  States  courts,  and  has  twice  been  to  Washington,  and  argued 
cases  before  the  U.  S.  Supreme  Court.  He  is  a  well-read  and  competent 
lawyer,  one  of  the  best  informed  in  the  county,  and  is  particularly  versed 
in  laws  concerning  real  estate,  to  which  he  has  paid  much  attention 

Gen.  Albert  S.  Twitchell,  son  of  Joseph  A.  and  Orinda  L.  Twitchell, 
was  born  in  Bethel,  Me.,  September  16,  1840.  He  was  prepared  tor  col- 
lege at  Gould's  academy,  at  Bethel,  before  he  was  sixteen,  under  the 
instruction  of  that  celebrated  educator,  Dr.  N.  T.  True.  He  then  engaged 
in  teaching,  and  for  four  years  was  an  extremely  popular  and  successful 
instructor.  Choosing  the  law  as  his  life  business,  he  became  a  student  in 
the  office  of  S.  F.Gibson,  at  Bethel.  In  the  spring  of  1863  he  was  appointed 
enrolling  officer  of  those  subject  to  draft  in  the  district  containing  Bethel; 
and,  after  concluding  the  duties  of  thai  office,  enlisted,  in  December,  L863, 
in  the  Seventh  Maine  Light  Battery.  When  the  battery  was  organized  he 
was  made  quartermaster's  sergeant,  and  held  this  position  until  detailed. 
in  February,  1865,  by  Gen.  Grant  for  duty  al  Wesl  Point,  Va.,  where  he 
remained  until  mustered  out  of  service  at  the  close  of  the  war. 

He  returned  to  Maine  and  his  law  studies,  was  admitted  to  practice  in 


230  History  of  Coos  County. 

the  courts  of  Maine  in  December,  1865,  and  the  next  year,  in  November, 
was  admitted  to  practice  at  the  New  Hampshire  bar,  removed  to  Gorham, 
opened  an  office,  and  has  since  been  actively  engaged  in  practice.  He  is 
an  energetic,  busy,  honorable  lawyer,  his  standard  of  professional  morality 
is  high,  and  he  has  a  large  clientage.  He  has  been  much  in  official  posi- 
tions. In  1872,  when  but  thirty-two,  he  was  elected  by  the  Republicans 
railroad  commissioner  of  New  Hampshire,  and  held  the  office  three  years. 
In  1875  and  1876  he  was  a  colonel  on  the  staff  of  Gov.  P.  C.  Cheney.  In 
September,  1877,  he  was  appointed  postmaster  of  Gorham,  and  held  the 
office  nearly  nine  years,  resigning  it  in  July,  1886.  He  has  taken  great 
interest  in  the  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  has  served  two  years  as  judge- 
advocate  of  the  New  Hampshire  department  of  this  organization,  two 
years  upon  the  council  of  administration,  and  was  a  delegate  to  the 
National  Encampment  at  Denver,  Colorado,  in  L885.  He  was  elected 
president  of  the  New  Hampshire  Veterans'  Association  at  their  annual  re- 
union in  August,  1886,  and  unanimously  re-elected  in  August,  1887.  In 
June,  1887,  he  was  elected  commissary-general  of  the  state  by  the  New 
Hampshire  legislature,  and,  as  such,  holds  the  rank  of  general  on  Gov. 
Sawyer's  staff.  Gen.  Twitchell  has  always  taken  a  high  position  in  favor 
of  everything  tending  to  the  elevation  and  betterment  of  mankind,  and  has 
been  a  zealous  temperance  worker.  He  was  a  delegate  from  the  N.  H. 
Grand  Lodge  of  I.  0.  G.  T.  to  the  Right  Worthy  Grand  Lodge  of  the  world 
which  met  at  Saratoga  in  May,  1887. 

He  has  enthusiastically  aided  in  the  development  of  the  material 
interests  of  Gorham.  He  erected  the  fine  block  that  bears  his  name, 
in  many  ways  has  labored  to  build  up  the  financial  and  moral  prosperity 
of  the  town,  and.  perhaps,  more  than  any  other  citizen  of  the  place  is 
interested  in  the  educational,  brotherhood,  and  literary  interests  of  the 
community.  He  is  generous  to  a  fault,  and  responds  liberally  to  all  appeals 
for  help.  He  married,  April  7,  1869,  Emma  A.,  daughter  of  Parker  How- 
land.     Their  only  child,  Harold  P.,  died  young. 

Moses  A.  Hastings  was  born  at  Bethel,  Me.,  December  31,  1848,  and 
received  his  education  at  the  celebrated  Gould's  academy,  in  Bethel,  where 
he  was  fitted  for  college.  He  read  law  in  the  office  of  Hon.  David  Ham- 
mons,  at  Bethel,  from  the  fall  of  L864  to  August,  1867.  He  then  attended 
the  Albany  (N.  Y.)  Law  school,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Oxford 
county  (Me.)  in  the  spring  of  1868.  He  removed  to  Gorham,  N.  H.,  in 
October,  and  was  admitted  to  the  Coos  county  bar  at  the  November  term, 
and  at  once  commenced  practice  at  Gorham,  as  a  partner  of  A.  S.  Twitchell. 
This  partnership  lasted  four  years,  from  which  time  Mr.  Hastings  con- 
tinued alone  in  practice  until  1874,  when  he  was  appointed  clerk  of  courts 
for  Coos  county,  and  removed  to  Lancaster.     He  was  re  appointed  in  1876, 

Bench  and  Bar.  231 

and  still  holds  office,  discharging  the  duties  with  urbanity  and  ability,  and 
winning  many  friends. 

Judge  Everett  Fletcher,  son  of  Hiram  A.  and  Persis  (Hunking) 
Fletcher,  was  born  at  Colebrook,  December  23,  L848.  He  received  edu- 
cation at  Lancaster  schools  and  Ann  Arbor  (Mich.)  university;  studied 
law  with  Fletcher  &  Hey  wood,  with  whom  he  had  most  excellent  advan- 
tages for  becoming  thoroughly  grounded  in  knowledge  of  law  and  methods 
of  practice,  which  were  not  neglected.  He  was  admitted  to  the  bar  No- 
vember L8,  1870,  and  ever  since  has  been  in  extremely  busy  practice. 
He  established  himself  as  a  lawyer  in  Lancaster,  and  June  1 1,  1873,  entered 
into  partnership  with  his  father,  as  Fletcher  &  Fletcher.  This  connection 
lasted  four  years,  when  the  firm  of  Ladd  &  Fletcher  was  formed,  which 
still  continues.  He  was  appointed  judge  advocate-general,  with  rank  of 
brigadier-general  by  Gov.  S.  W.  Hale,  in  June,  1883,  and  held  that  office 
two  years.  He  was  appointed  judge  of  probate  of  Coos  county,  by  Gov, 
Moody  Currier,  and  took  the  office  April  1,  1885.  He  is  a  strong  Republi- 
can, and  a  member  of  Coos  lodge,  Knights  of  Pythias. 

Judge  Fletcher  draws  legal  papers  strongly;  is  an  honest  and  careful 
counselor  in  business  matters,  entering  with  all  his  heart,  as  well  as  mind, 
into  the  interests  of  his  clients;  and  is  especially  adapted  to  win  success  as 
a  lawyer.  He  is  particularly  calculated  for  the  important  functions  of  a 
judge  of  probate.  He  is  studious,  systematic,  an  original  thinker,  and 
inherits  much  of  the  quickness  of  apprehension,  literary  tastes,  and  ready 
wit  of  his  father.  Few  men  of  his  years  in  the  state  stand  higher  in 
ability  or  industry,  or  are   more   agreeable  or  pleasant  social  companions. 

Hon.  Irving  Webster  Drew. — Among  the  progressive  men  engaged  in 
business,  or  the  professions  in  Coos  county,  few  are  better  or  more  favor- 
ably known  than  Irving  W.  Drew.  He  inherited  an  iron  constitution  and 
strong  intellectual  powers  from  his  ancestry,  who  were  of  the  New  Eng- 
land stock.  The  eldest  surviving  son  of  Amos  W.  Drew,  he  was  born  at 
Colebrook,  January  8,  1845.  His  early  experience  at  rugged  farm  labor 
was  little  varied  but  by  attendance  at  the  district  school  and  a  neighbor- 
ing academy.  He  was  fitted  for  college  at  Meriden,  N.  H.,  and  graduated  at 
Dartmouth  in  1870.  The  same  year  he  entered  the  law  oft  ice  of  Ray  & 
Ladcl,  at  Lancaster,  N.  H.  He  never  really  knew  the  lifeof  the  traditional 
law  student.  His  preceptors,  driven  with  business,  threw  him  into  the 
skirmish  line  at  the  outset.  With  a  well  disciplined  mind,  sound  judg- 
ment, and  a  thorough  understanding  of  the  opinions  and  character  of  the 
people  among  whom  he  moved,  he  learned  the  law  more  in  its  relation  to 
actual  facts  than  as  an  abstract  science.  In  November,  L871,  he  was  reg- 
ularly admitted  to  the  bar,  only  a  year  and  a  half  after  bis  graduation. 
Early  in  the  following  January  he  succeeded  Judge  Ladd.  who  bad  been 
appointed  to  the  bench,  as  a  member  of  the  firm.     In  the  spring  of   L873 


History  of  Coos  County. 

Hon  William  Hevwood  became  a  member  of  the  partnership,  which  was, 
for  the  next  three"  years,  Ray,  Drew  &  Hey  wood.     Mr.  Jordan  who  then 
succeeded  Mr.  Hevwood,  the  retiring  member,  has  ever  since  been  a  part- 
ner with  Mr.  Drew.     Gen.  Philip  Carpenter,  now  of  New  York  was  in  the 
firm  from  the  winter  of  1882  till   the  summer  of  1885.     Mr.  Ray,  having 
some   toe  previously  been  elected  to  Congress,  retired  from  the  partner- 
sub,  at  the  first  of  the  year  1884.     However  the  firm  has  been  constituted, 
Mr  Drew  has  all  the  time  been  a  conspicuously  useful  member.    Neither 
has  he  avoided  the  social  and  political  duties,  which  the  reliable  member 
of  the  legal  profession  are  constantly  called  to  assume.    A  Democrat  of 
dee  ded  convictions,  with  broad  and  liberal  views  on  all  questions  ot  public 
pofi  y   he  has  a  well-earned  reputation,  both  as  an  efficient  organizer  and 
Evincing  exponent  of  party  principles  on  the  ^™lg8f™^e 
gate  to  the  Cincinnati  Democratic  National  convention  of  1880,  and  a  state 
fenator  in  1888.     He  made  a  record  there  as  a  judicious  legislator  a  skill- 
ful  parliamentarian,  a  superior  debater,  a  dignified  and  incorruptible  sena- 
tor     He  is  interested  in  educational  work,  and  does  his  part  to  sustain   he 
Lading  social  organizations;  to  build  up  the  church;  to  give  the  publ  ctle 
benefit   of  libraries,  improved  public  buildings  and  first  class  hotels;  to 
extend  railroad  lines  in  directions  which  shall  develop  the  resources  of  the 

C°UHeyis  known  as  Major  Drew.  This  came  of  his  service  in  the  Thud 
Eegt  N.  H.  National  Guards,  for  some  three  or  four  yea rs.  Tradition 
has  it  that  Major  Drew's  father  was  an  accomplished  mil.tia  officer  The 
maxim  "Like1  father,  like  son"  is  further  exemplified by  both paving 
been  members  of  the  Senate  and  both  pleasing  vocalists  The  Majoi  is 
everywhere  admired  for  his  social  qualities,  and  in  song  he  is  facde  pr^n- 
cepJ  But  the  attachment  of  his  friends  is  not  to  be  a  tnbuted  to  those 
ac  omplishments  of  song,  speech  and  manner,  which  nug  d_  «k him 
eoually  to  life-long  or  casual  associates.  It  comes  from  his  sincerity,  his 
helpf less  and  sympathy  in  their  adversity,  and  his  unfeigned  sat.sfa 
tion  in  the  knowledge  of  their  prosperity. 

Mr  Drew's  horn!  since  he  first  entered  upon  the  study  and  practice  of 
the  law  with  Mr.  Ray,  has  been  at  Lancaster.     Miss  Carrie  H.  Merrill, 
daughter  of  S.  R.  Merrill,   of  Colebrook,  became  his  wife   November  i 
1869      Of  their  children  three  survive-two  sons  and  a  daughter.     Except 
his  famfiv  and  his  home,  nothing  is  so  near  his  heart,  nothing  so  com- 
n  a.         is  powers  as  does  his  profession.     All  the  diversions  of  business 
™nd  society'  and  the  zeal  of  political  contention  are ^temporary ji  h  h. 
He  makes  his  client's  cause  bis  own.     He  prepares  for  trial  with ^care  with 
fidelity,  and  with  determination  to  have  the  verdict.     He  takes  .espons 
hffitr  and  if  necessary,  makes  bold  hazards  for  success.     He  is  skillful  in 
th e  eia  ion  of  witaesses,  and  stands  among  the  leading  advocates  of 


Bench  and  Bar.  233 

the  courts  in  which  he  appears.  To  enumerate  the  causes  of  the  p 
decade  in  which  he  has  had  prominent  part  would  be  the  naming  of  the 
important  matters  of  litigation  in  Northern  New  Hampshire  and  Eastern 
Vermont.  A  tireless  worker  with  a  large  clientage  and  profitable  business, 
he  is  a  good  financier  and  has  earned  a  sound  foundation  for  his  reputa- 
tion, both  as  an  able  lawyer  and  a  successful  man  of  affairs. 

He  is  in  the  fullness  of  his  powers.  His  character  is  established.  It  is 
the  manifestation  of  his  own  sturdy  manhood;  and  his  friends  may  look 
with  confidence  to  what  the  future  may  hold  in  store  for  him. 

Alfred  R.  Evans  is  a  son  of  Otis  Evans,  of  Shelburne,  and  .Martha 
Pinkham,  daughter  of  Daniel  Pinkham,  who  is  well  remembered  as  the 
man  who  built  the  first  carriage  road  from  Jackson  to  Randolph,  through 
the  Pinkham  Notch,  and  lived  where  the  Glen  House  now  stands.  Mr. 
Evans  was  born  in  Shelburne,  March  21,  1849.  He  fitted  for  college  at 
Lancaster  academy,  graduated  at  Dartmouth  college  in  1872,  read  law  at 
Gorham.  and  was  a  member  of  the  state  legislature  from  Shelburne  in 
1S71-75,  in  the  latter  year  being  chairman  of  the  committee  on  insurance, 
a  subject  to  which  he  has  paid  considerable  attention.  He  was  admitted 
to  Coos  county  bar  in  April,  1875,  and  since  that  time  has  been  in  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession  in  Gorham.  He  was  also  returned  to  the  legislature 
in  1878.  He  is  justice  of  the  peace  and  quorum  throughout  the  state,  and 
notary  public  in  New  Hampshire.  He  was  married,  June  1,  1881,  to  Mrs. 
Dora  J.  Briggs,  daughter  of  Charles  W.  Bean,  of  Gorham.  Mr.  Evans  is 
a  straightforward  man,  attends  faithfully  to  the  duties  of  his  profession, 
is  an  able,  energetic  lawyer  of  strict  integrity,  and  a  close  and  painstaking 
student.  He  has  many  elements  of  popularity,  and  possesses  a  most  genial 
disposition  and  a  large  circle  of  friends. 

Hon.  Chester  Bradley  Jordan,  born  in  Oolebrook,  N.  H.,  October 
15,  1839,  was  youngest  son  of  Johnson  and  Minerva  (Buel)  Jordan. 

The  name  Jordan  is  of  French  origin,  the  original  orthography  being 
Jourdaine.  One  branch  of  the  family  crossed  the  English  Channel  with 
William  the  Conqueror,  and  became  domiciled  in  England.  Others  of  the 
name  emigrated  to  New  England  direct  from  France  at  an  early  period. 
We  do  not  know,  nor  does  it  matter,  from  which  particular  line  of  foreign 
descent  Mr.  Jordan  takes  his  origin;  sufficient  for  us  it  is  that  for  several 
generations  his  ancestors  on  both  sides  have  been  Americans,  true  and 
loyal  to  the  country  and  its  institutions.  His  grandfather,  Benjamin  Jor- 
dan, was  born  in  the  old  town  of  Rehoboth,  Mass.,  served  four  years  in 
the  Continental  army  during  the  Revolution,  and  was  one  of  the  daring 
little  band  that  effected  the  historic -capture  of  Gen.  Prescott.  His  mater- 
nal grandfather,  Capt.  Benjamin  Buel,  came  to  Colebrook  from  Connecti- 
cut (where  he  was  born,  August  20,  17(57,)  in  1803.  He  was  a  scholarly 
man  of  excellent  character  and  refined  tastes,  an  elegant  penman,   and, 


234:  History  of  Coos  County. 

for  many  winters,  a  highly  prized  teacher  in  Colebrook.  He  died  March 
24,  1829.  His  wife,  Violetta  Sessions,  was  also  born  in  Connecticut.  She 
was  a  woman  of  aristocratic  culture  and  bearing,  and  had  quite  a  compe- 
tency in  her  own  right.  She  died  in  her  native  state,  in  1855,  aged  seventy- 
seven.  Johnson  Jordan,  born  in  Plainfield,  N.  H.,  April  8,  1708,  came  to 
Colebrook  in  1818,  and,  in  1822,  married  Minerva  Buel,  (born  July  19, 
1801,  at  Hebron,  Conn.,  died  in  Colebrook,  March  18,  1853.)  They  had 
ten  children,  of  whom  six  attained  maturity.  From  the  birth  of  Chester 
B.  until  her  death,  fourteen  years,  Mrs.  Jordan  was  an  invalid.  She  was, 
however,  more  than  an  ordinary  woman,  and  her  teachings,  influence,  and 
character  had  a  strong  and  beneficial  effect  upon  her  children.  The  testi- 
mony of  her  intimates  is  that  she  was  a  noble  Christian  woman  of  sterling 
worth,  unflinching  in  duty,  sensitive,  modest  and  lovable,  tender  and  con- 
siderate, and  keenly  alive  to  the  wants  of  others.  Loyal  to  her  convic- 
tions of  right  and  duty,  she  never  hesitated,  even  if  others  faltered,  and, 
for  many  years,  was  a  valued  member  of  the  Congregational  church. 
Johnson  Jordan  was  a  strong  man  physically,  of  fair  judgment  and  sense, 
but  passed  many  years  of  his  active  life  in  the  hard  and  unprofitable  labors 
of  a  pioneer  and  clearer  of  lands.     He  died  August   16,  1873. 

The  early  years  of  Chester  B.  Jordan  were  passed  in  hard  labor  with 
long  days  of  toil,  scant  advantages  of  education,  and  but  little  to  encour- 
age him.  Nothing  but  bare  essentials,  not  the  slightest  approach  to  luxury, 
found  a  place  in  the  frugal  household.  Strict  economy  was  compulsory  in 
the  home  life,  and  the  scarcity  of  money  caused  home-made  clothing  to  be 
the  wearing  apparel  for  many  years.  The  cheerless  tasks  were  faithfully 
done,  and  the  privations  uncomplainingly  endured,  but  the  lad  hungered 
for  knowledge.  There  were  no  books  at  home  except  the  Bible  and  well- 
thumbed  school  books,  and  the  small  Sunday-school  library  was  eagerly 
devoured.  There  is  one  compensation  possessed  by  a  life  environed  by 
such  adverse  circumstances,  in  that  there  is  early  developed  a  keenness  of 
thought  and  capacity  of  self- reliance  beyond  its  years,  and  so  we  find  that 
Chester  at  an  early  age  gathered  and  sold  berries  to  pay  for  a  subscription 
to  the  Independent  Democrat,  and,  later  on,  to  the  New  York  Tribune,  and 
began  to  be  conversant  with  the  affairs  of  the  world  and  the  politics  of 
the  country  at  an  age  when  many  lads  were  only  thinking  of  their  toys. 
He  was  interested  at  nine  years  of  age  in  the  campaign  which  placed  Gen. 
Taylor  in  the  presidential  chair,  and  much  more  in  that  of  1852,  when  he 
purchased  a  campaign  life  of  General  Scott  and  committed  it  nearly  to 
memory,  and  thought  himself  equipped  to  demonstrate  to  the  Democratic- 
boys  of  his  circle  the  wisdom  of  electing  Gen.  Scott  instead  of  Gen.  Pierce. 
He  remained  with  his  father  until  1860,  when  his  increased  desire  for  edu- 
cation caused  him  to  enter  Colebrook  academy  for  the  first  half  of  the  term. 
From  this  time  he  attended  Colebrook  and  Meriden  academies,  until  he  was 


Bench  and  Bar.  235 

graduated  at  the  latter  institution  in  L866.  He  became  a  popular  teacher 
of  public  and  select  schools,  was  principal  of  Colebrook  academy  several 
terms,  and  taught  in  all  eighteen  terms.  He  was  town  superintendent  of 
Colebrook  in  L865-60  »'»7,  and  selectman  for  is»>7. 

He  heartily  espoused  the  Republican  cause  and  was  chosen  to  preside  at 
all  the  meetings  of  that  party  held  in  Colebrook  in  t  lie  spirited  campaign 
which  resulted  in  the  re-election  of  Lincoln.  He  made  many  friends,  did 
thoroughly  and  without  bluster  all  duties  coming  to  his  hand,  and  in  L868, 
was  appointed  clerk  of  the  court,  and  removed  to  Lancaster,  which  has 
since  been  his  residence.  He  discharged  the  duties  of  this  office  with 
efficiency,  and  his  retention  was  asked  by  nearly  every  attorney  in  the 
county,  but  he  was  too  strongly  Republican  to  be  retained  under  a  Demo- 
cratic administration,  and  was  removed  October  23.  1874.  He  hail  decided 
literary  tastes  and  ability,  could  clearly  and  forcibly  express  his  opinions 
in  writing,  and.  in  L870,  had  purchased  the  Cods  Republican  and  become 
its  editor.  Under  his  administration  it  was  a  candid  but  determined  sup- 
porter of  Grant,  and  ranked  high  among  the  newspapers  of  the  state.  For 
many  years  Mr.  Jordan  contributed  articles  to  the  Boston  Journal,  Con- 
cord Monitor,  the  Statesman  and  campaign  papers,  and  also  to  the  Lan- 
caster Gazette  in  the  presidential  campaign  of  1884.  His  political  articles 
are  marked  for  their  clear  comprehensiveness  of  affairs,  their  straight- 
forward, matter-of-fact  way  of  presentation,  their  candor,  and  their  logi- 
cal and  conclusive  reasoning.  In  a  quiet  and  unpretentious  manner 
they  reach  the  understandings  of  all  in  a  manner  which  tells.  By  voice 
and  by  his  gifted  pen  he  has  ever  advocated  liberal  appropriations  for  all 
educational,  charitable  and  patriotic  objects. 

Air.  Jordan  began  the  study  of  law  while  clerk,  continued  it  in  the  office 
of  Judge  Ladd,  and,  afterward,  in  that  of  Ray,  Drew  &  Hey  wood,  and  was 
admitted  to  practice  in  the  state  courts  in  November,  1875.  He  remained 
with  Ray,  Drew  &  Hey  wood  until  May  26,  ls7i'»,  when  Mr.  Heywood  retired, 
and  the  firm  became  Ray,  Drew  &  Jordan.  This  firm  was  succeeded  Jan- 
uary 16,  L882,  by  Drew,  Jordan  &  Carpenter,  and.  later,  by  Drew  &  .Jor- 
dan. (In  May,  1881,  Mr.  Jordan  was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  Circuit 
Court  of  the  United  States.)  As  a  lawyer  Mr.  Jordan  has  chiefly  given 
attention  to  the  drafting  of  legal  papers  (in  which  he  excels)  and  other 
office  business.  Connected  as  he  has  been  with  two  such  noted  advocates 
as  Ray  and  Drew,  and  being  somewhat  modest  as  to  his  abilities,  he  has 
not  ventured  often  into  this  field,  but  when  he  has  done  so  he  has  acquitted 
himself  ably,  and,  in  the  opinion  of  some  of  his  legal  brethren,  if  he  were 
compelled  to  present  all  of  his  cases  to  the  courts  and  juries,  he  would  soon 
equal,  if  not  surpass,  any  advocate  in  this  section. 

From  his  sixteenth  year  Mr.  Jordan  has  been  a  hard  worker  in  politics. 
In  Colebrook  he  was  among  the  chief  workers  in  carrying  that  close  town. 

236  History  of  Coos  County. 

He  was  a  good  organizer,  a  close  canvasser,  and  men  would  follow  his  lead. 
For  several  years  he  was  pitted  against  Hon.  Hazen  Bedel  (the  strongest 
man  of  the  Democracy,  and  one  of  the  best  men  in  the  county,)  for  the 
moderator  vote,  which  was  considered  the  test  of  the  day,  and  was  never 
defeated,  although  the  plurality  was  sometimes  but  one.  In  Lancaster  he 
was  put  up  in  the  same  manner  against  the  popular  Col.  Henry  0.  Kent, 
and  is  the  only  candidate  nominated  by  the  Republicans  who  has  ever 
beaten  the  Colonel  for  moderator.  In  1880  in  a  hot,  close  fight,  Mr.  Jor- 
dan had  one  majority  for  first  representative  in  a  vote  of  nearly  seven 
hundred,  making  a  gain  of  over  one  hundred  votes  for  his  party.  He  was 
chosen  speaker  of  the  House  by  a  very  complimentary  vote,  and  although 
new  to  the  duties  of  this  difficult  office,  he  proved  himself  a  most  admira- 
ble presiding  officer,  prompt,  impartial,  easy  and  rapid  in  transacting  the 
work  of  the  position,  and  his  efficiency  and  courtesy  won  him  many  and 
valuable  friends.  The  Manchester  Union,  the  leading  Democratic  paper 
of  the  state,  thus  voiced  the  general  sentiment  at  the  close  of  the  session: 
"For  Speaker  Jordan  there  is  but  one  encomium,  and  that  fell  from  the 
lips  of  all,  'Well  done,  good  and  faithful  servant."  Mr.  Jordan  was 
chairman  of  the  Republican  state  convention  held  in  Concord  in  Septem- 
ber, 1882.  There  was  a  bitter  contest  concerning  the  nomination  for  gov- 
ernor raging  between  the  friends  of  Moody  Currier  and  S.  W.  Hale.  Fac- 
tional feeling  ran  high,  but,  under  the  tact  and  guidance  of  the  presiding 
officer,  harmony  was  secured,  and  the  work  of  the  convention  successfully 
accomplished.  Mr.  Jordan  has  much  influence  in  public  matters,  and 
prominent  men  have  owed  their  elevation  to  important  positions  to  his 
counsel  and  assistance.  In  1880  he  was  unanimously  nominated  for  state 
senator  in  the  Coos  district,  and  made  a  strong  fight  in  spite  of  the  over- 
whelming odds  against  him,  running  three  hundred  ahead  of  his  ticket. 
In  1876  he  was  appointed  one  of  a  committee  of  three  to  investigate  the 
affairs  of  the  State  Normal  school,  and  wrote  the  report  to  the  legislature, 
which  was  ordered  printed  in  pamphlet  form.  In  1881  Dartmouth  college 
gave  him  the  degree  of  A.  B. ;  in  1882  he  was  chosen  honorary  member  of 
the  Third  Regiment,  N.  H.  National  Guards;  in  1883  elected  member  of 
Webster  Historical  Society  of  Boston;  in  1884  chosen  honorary  member  of 
the  Seventh  N.  H.  Veteran's  Association.  He  has  long  been  a  member  of 
Evening  Star  lodge  of  Masons  at  Colebrook,  and  of  the  Chapter  at  Lan- 
caster, and  was  a  director  in  the  Lancaster  National  bank  during  the  first 
two  years  of  its  existence. 

Mr.  Jordan  married,  July  19,  1879,  Ida  R.  Nutter,  daughter  of  Oliver 
and  Roxannah  C.  (Wentworth)  Nutter.  She  is  descended  from  old  New 
Hampshire  families  of  repute,  and  is  a  lady  whom  it  is  always  a  pleasure 
to  meet.  They  have  had  two  children,  Roxannah  Minerva,  born  January 
19,  1882,  and  Hugo,  born  May  26,  1881,  died  May  2,  1886. 

Bench  and  Bar.  237 

Mr.  Jordan's  abilities  have  received  recognition  in  business  and  social, 
as  well  as  in  public  and  professional  life.  He  is  a  wise  and  safe  counselor 
in  business  matters,  lias  conceded  executive  ability,  and  is  the  guardian  of 
many  private  trusts.  He  has  a  keen  appreciation  of  humor,  tells  a  good 
story  well,  can  give  a  quick  and  telling  repartee  with  point  and  wit  devoid 
of  any  sting,  and  is  popular  because  he  deserves  to  be.  His  judgments  of 
men  and  measures  are  singularly  clear  and  impartial.  1 1  is  c<  inclusions  are 
formed  from  a  broad  comprehension  of  all  the  facts.  His  sense  of  justice 
is  strong,  and  his  intellectual  qualities  are  admirably  balanced.  With  all 
this,  he  has  the  warmest  of  hearts,  the  quickest  of  sympathies,  great  kind- 
ness of  manner  and  utmost  geniality  of  spirit. 

Frank  D.  Hutchins,  born  in  Putney,  Vt.,  in  1850,  was  a  graduate  of 
Kimball  Union  academy  and  Dartmouth  college.  He  taught  school  in 
Massachusetts  and  New  Hampshire,  and  proved  himself  a  thorough,  im- 
partial, scholarly,  and  highly  competent  instructor.  In  1874  he  began  the 
study  of  law  with  N.  B.  Felton,  of  Haverhill,  but  completed  his  studies 
for  admission  to  the  bar  with  Ray,  Drew  &  Heywood,  of  Lancaster,  and 
practiced  law  there  from  1876  to  1881.  He  then  became  cashier  of  the 
Lancaster  National  bank,  which  position  he  now  holds. 

Willard  N.  Armington,  born  in  Waterford,  Yt.,  November  10,  1^:»»», 
graduated  from  University  of  Vermont  in  187-1;  studied  law  with  Belden  & 
Ide,  St.  Johnsbury;  admitted  to  the  bar  of  Vermont  at  St.  Johnsbury  in 
1876;  located  at  Whiteheld,  September  15,  1S76,  where  he  has  since  been  in 

Philip  Carpenter,  son  of  Judge  A.  P.  Carpenter,  born  in  Bath,  N.  H., 
March  9,  1856,  w^as  educated  at  St.  Johnsbury  (Vt.)  academy  and  Dart- 
mouth college.  He  graduated  in  1877,  read  law  with  his  father,  and  was 
admitted  to  practice  at  Concord  in  September,  1880.  Forming  an  immedi- 
ate partnership  with  his  father,  he  began  practice  at  Bath.  This  firm  did 
business  one  year  when  the  father  was  appointed  judge.  Philip  continued 
at  Bath  until  the  next  January  (1882)  when  he  entered  the  firm  of  Ray, 
Drew  &  Jordan  at  Lancaster.  He  was  in  practice  here  until  June.  L885, 
when  he  removed  to  New  York  city,  where  he  has  acquired  an  extensive 
and  profitable  business. 

Robert  Nelson  Chamberlin,  son  of  Antoine  and  Electa  B.  (Sears) 
Chamberlin,  was  born  in  Bangor,  N.  Y.,  July  '21,  1856.  His  grandfather, 
Francois  Chamberlin,  was  born  in  or  near  Paris,  France,  when  young  emi- 
grated to  Canada,  and  was  a  marine  in  the  British  service  during  the  War 
of  1812.  He  attained  the  great  age  of  ninety-nine  years,  dying  al  the  home 
of. his  son  in  West  Stewartstown.  Antoine  Chamberlin  was  a  native  of 
Nicollet,  P.  Q.  When  fourteen  he  went  to  Sherbrooke,  worked  eight 
years  at  shoemaking,  married  his  wife  at  Hinesburg,  Vt.,  her  native  place, 
and  made  his  home  in  Franklin  county,  N.  Y.,  residing  in   Malone  and 

238  History  of  Coos  County. 

Bangor  until  1859,  when  he  came  to  West  Stewartstown  where  he  now 

Robert  was  but  three  years  old  when  his  father  came  to  Stewartstown, 
and,  as  he  was  one  of  a  large  family  of  children,  and  robust,  he  early 
became  familiar  with  labor,  and  for  years  had  the  most  meager  educa- 
tional advantages;  from  eight  years  of  age  until  he  was  sixteen  obtaining 
as  a  respite  from  continuous  toil  only  a  few  weeks  attendance  at  the  small 
village  school.  At  the  latter  age  he  had  the  physicial  power  of  a  well-matured 
man,  and  commanded  more  than  the  usual  wages  as  a  farm  hand;  but  the 
thoughtful  youth  was  not  content  to  excel  in  this  sphere.  A  laudable 
ambition  prompted  him  to  attain  a  higher  position  and  a  broader  field  of 
usefulness,  and,  as  a  stepping  stone  to  this,  he  applied  himself  to  the 
acquisition  of  learning.  It  required  more  than  an  ordinary  will  to  force 
himself  out  from  and  above  his  associations  and  surroundings,  and  to  fix 
his  attention  on  an  intellectual  career,  but  his  active  and  vigorous  mind 
carried  him  on;  he  worked  summers  and  devoted  his  winters  to  learning, 
attending  the  academies  at  Colebrook  and  Derby  (Vt.),  acquiring  a  good 
foundation  for  the  study  of  law,  in  which  he  saw  much  to  attract  him, 
and  for  which  he  seemed  well  adapted. 

In  the  winter  of  1877-78  he  commenced  his  legal  education  in  the  office 
of  G.  W.  Hartshorn,  at  Canaan,  Vt.,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  Guildhall 
in  March,  1881,  and  formed  a  partnership  with  Mr.  Hartshorn.  Attracted 
by  the  life  and  activity  of  the  growing  town  of  Berlin,  Mr.  Chamberlin,  in 
July  of  the  same  year,  established  a  law  office  there,  thus  becoming  the 
first  lawyer  in  the  place.  Finding  that  the  rules  of  the  New  Hampshire 
bar  barred  him  from  practice  in  its  courts,  he  applied  for  admission,  passed 
the  rigid  examination  creditably,  and  was  admitted  at  Concord,  March  15, 

He  married,  November  -2,  1882,  Maria  H.,  daughter  of  Ira  and  Ann  J. 
(Howard)  Mason,  a  native  of  Berlin,  a  lady  of  strong  New  England  prac- 
ticality and  sterling  worth,  in  whom  he  has  a  helpmate,  counselor,  com- 
panion and  friend.     They  have  one  child,  Lafayette  Ray. 

Mr.  Chamberlin  has  made  rapid  progress  for  a  young  lawyer,  has 
acquired  a  good  clientage,  and  is  popular  with  the  older  members  of  the 
legal  profession,  and  is  entitled  to  much  credit  for  what  he  has  accom- 
plished. He  has  a  clear  conception  of  the  strong  and  the  weak  points  of  a 
case,  is  earnest  and  industrious  in  the  preparation  and  trial  of  causes 
entrusted  to  him,  but  prefers  to  keep  his  clients  out  of  law-suits  rather 
than  involve  them  in  protracted  litigation.  He  always  advises  a  fair  and 
honorable  adjustment  of  difference  between  parties,  rather  than  the  certain 
expense  and  the  uncertain  results  at  the  hands  of  courts  and  juries.  The 
same  quiet,  thoughtful  determination  which  led  him  to  obtain,  unaided,  a 
legal  education,  makes  the  first  impulse  of  his  mind  in  investigating  any 

Bench  and  Bak.  239 

question  to  search  for  principles  rather  than  expedients:  this  inclination 
will  tend  to  make  him  particularly  strong  as  a  counselor,  and  in  the 
domain  of  equity  practice.  His  briefs,  pleas,  and  other  documents  are 
drafted  to  cover  every  point,  and  one  of  the  older  members  of  the  bar 
says:  "They  may  appear  awkward  and  clumsy,  and  easy  to  be  torn  to 
pieces,  but  on  examination  we  find  every  point  covered,  and  every  nail 
clinched."  Of  fine  physique,  commanding  presence,  and  clear  voire,  he 
has  the  qualities  of  a  good  advocate,  and  is  rapidly  winning  his  way  in 
that  difficult  field.  His  presentation  of  the  claims  of  Berlin  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  the  county  seat,  at  the  late  county  convention,  won  much 
praise  from  leading  men,  and  particularly  his  brother  lawyers. 

As  a  citizen  he  heartily  supports  all  local  improvements  and  public 
enterprises  calculated  to  advance  the  interests  of  the  town  and  the  welfare 
of  the  community;  he  lias  served  as  superintendent  of  schools,  on  the 
board  of  education,  and  is  one  of  the  selectmen  of  L88Y.  He  is  a  member 
of  the  Congregational  church,  a  Republican  in  politics,  and  a  member  of 
the  Masonic  order.  Yet  a  young  man.  having  scarcely  attained  the  fullness 
of  his  physical  and  mental  powers,  Mr.  Chamberlin  may  look  forward  to 
a  long  life  of  usefulness  in  his  chosen  profession. 

Herbert  Irvin  Goss,  son  of  Abel  B.  and  Lucy  G.  (Ross)  Goss,  and 
nephew  of  Judge  Jonathan  Ross,  of  St.  Johnsbury,  was  born  in  Water- 
ford,  Vt.,  December  4,  1857.  Attended  common  schools,  and  was  gradu- 
ated from  St.  Johnsbury  academy  in  June,  1880.  He  taught  school  the 
following  autumn,  and  in  1881  commenced  the  study  of  law,  a  profession 
for  which  he  always  had  a  preference,  in  the  office  of  Elisha  May,  at  St. 
Johnsbury.  Mr.  May  soon  after  formed  a  partnership  with  Henry  C.  Bates, 
and  Mr.  Goss  remained  in  their  office  until  June,  L8S3,  when  he  was 
admitted,  upon  examination,  to  the  bar  of  Caledonia  county.     In  October, 

1883,  he  formed  a  business  connection  with  F.  B.  Wright  for  the  practice 
of  law  in  Minneapolis,  Minn.     Tbis  partnership  was  dissolved  in  April, 

1884.  Mr.  Goss  remained  in  Minnesota  until  October,  L884.  Returning 
east,  January  21,  1885,  he  opened  a  law  office  in  Guildhall,  Vt..  and.  April 
1,  1885,  he  went  to  Lancaster,  N.  H.,  and  entered  into  a  two  years'  part- 
nership with  Hon.  Jacob  Benton.  July  30,  1885,  he  was  admitted  to  the 
New  Hampshire  courts.     He  is  a  good  student  and  well  versed  in  law. 

Carl  Abbott,  son  of  Prof.  George  N.  and  .Mary  I  Ladd)  Abbott,  was  born 
in  Newbury, Vt.,  April  1!»,  1859.  The  Abbott  family  isanold  and  prominent 
one  in  New  England,  showing  strong  and  marked  traits  of  character  in 
every  generation.  The  line  of  Carl's  descent  from  George  Abbott,  the 
emigrant,  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Andover,  Mass..  in  L643,  is  George1, 
William2,  James4.  Bancroft5,  James6,  George  X.\  Carl8.  Carl  attend: 
ed  school  for  some  years  in  Burlington,  Vt.,  and  the  preparatory  school 
at   Mercersburg,    Penn.,    and   was,    for   two   years,   at   Mercersburg  col- 

210  History  of  Coos  County. 

lege.  He  returned  to  Newbury  in  1877,  and,  in  1880,  entered  the  law  office 
of  Ladd  &  Fletcher,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  New  Hampshire  in 
the  spring  of  1884.  He  was  employed  in  the  office  of  his  instructors  until 
the  fall  of  1885,  when  he  went  to  Gorham  and  took  charge  of  the  business 
of  Alfred  R.  Evans  until  the  spring  of  1886.  He  then  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  A.  S.  Twitchell,  as  Twitchell  &  Abbott,  which  still  continues. 

Mr.  Abbott  is  a  close  and  diligent  student,  well  versed  in  his  profession,, 
and,  with  good  powers  of  logic,  and  a  strongly  marked  individuality,  has 
elements  of  more  than  an  ordinary  success.  He  possesses  many  of  the 
intellectual  traits  of  the  Bancroft  family,  of  which  he  is  also  a  descendant. 

Daniel  James  Daley  was  born  in  Lancaster,  January  27,  1859,  acquired 
a  good  physique  and  health  Avhile  passing  his  youth  on  the  farm,  was 
fitted  for  college  at  Lancaster  academy,  but,  finding  his  taste  and  mental 
qualities  in  harmony  with  the  practice  of  law,  he  entered  the  office  of  W. 
&  H.  Hey  wood,  April  9,  1881,  and  for  u  early  four  years  received  the  ex- 
ceptionally good  advantages  afforded  him  under  the  venerable  senior  of 
the  firm.  He  was  an  apt  student,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  Con- 
cord, March  13,  1885.  After  a  few  months'  stay  in  Lancaster,  he  removed, 
November  9,  1885,  to  Berlin,  where  he  has  formed  many  friends,  and  is 
building  up  a  good  practice.  He  is  devoted  to  his  profession,  is  active, 
energetic,  and  "pushing";  takes  the  cause  of  his  client  as  his  own,  and 
with  his  thoroughness  and  ability  deserves  success. 


(By  James  T.   Parsons,  Esq.) 

The  Northern  Judicial  District  was  formed  by  act  that  took  effect 
September  1,  1867.  Cambridge,  Millsfield,  Odell,  and  Columbia,  with  the 
towns  north  of  them,  constitute  the  Northern  District;  while  the  towns 
south  of  those  named  constitute  the  Southern  District.  Before  the  legis- 
lature granted  the  petitions  of  the  people  of  the  upper  towns  for  a  sepa- 
rate court,  the  petitioners  had  to  get  the  consent  of  representatives,  and, 
to  do  so,  promised  to  furnish  a  lot  and  court  house  complete  for  occupancy, 
which  was  done  by  voluntary  subscription.  After  the  time  elapsed  during 
which  the  representatives  had  agreed  to  furnish  a  house  free,  the  county 
purchased  the  building  for  about  three-fourths  of  the  original  cost,  and 
the  contributors  lost  a  considerable  portion  of  the  principal,  as  well  as  the 
interest,  and  their  trouble  and  labor,  which,  with  some  of  them,  was  the 
most  important  item. 

The  first  term  was  held  the  first  Tuesday  of  February,  1868.  At  this 
term  all  northern  actions  pending  or  returnable  at  Lancaster,  and  all 
indictments  for  the  county  were  transferred  to  this  district.  On  the  printed 

Bench  and  Bar.  243 

docket  there  were  forty-six  state  and  ninety-four  civil  cases.  At  the  term 
seventy-three  new  entries  were  made  to  the  civil,  two  to  the  sessions,  and 
two  or  three  to  the  criminal  dockets,  but  no  indictments  were  found. 
There  were  three  cases  tried  by  jury  before  the  solicitor  was  ready  fco  pro- 
ceed  to  the  criminal  business.  The  trial  of  Joseph  Chase,  indicted  for  rape 
of  his  daughter,  was  then  commenced.  He  had  a  few  years  before  fin- 
ished a  ten  years'  sentence  for  arson,  was  a  desperate  and  dangerous  man, 
had  escaped  from  the  county  jail  after  his  arrest  for  this  offense,  and  been 
kidnapped  in  Canada,  where  he  remained  near  the  boundary,  making  fre- 
quent night  excursions  into  Colebrook  and  Stewart stown.  The  public 
were  much  relieved  by  his  capture,  and  anxious  for  his  conviction.  Ossian 
Eay,  afterwards  member  of  Congress,  was  the  solicitor,  and  W.  S.  Ladd 
and  G.  A.  Bingham,  both  afterwards  Justices  of  the  Supreme  Court,  were 
for  the  defense.  The  court-house  was  crowded  during  t  lie  trial,  and  so 
packed  at  the  close  that  every  window  and  corner  was  crowded  with 
people,  who  stood  for  hours  listening  to  the  arguments,  and,  sitting  on 
the  steps  and  floor,  they  crowded  close  to  the  chair  of  the  presiding  jus- 
tice. A  very  small  boy,  too  young  to  be  in  any  assembly  alone,  especially 
in  that  place,  was  on  his  knees  beside  the  judge,  and,  during  an  intermis- 
sion, got  up  and  asked  him  several  very  pointed  questions  as  to  what  lie 
believed  as  to  the  disputed  facts,  and  wound  up  by  pointing  to  his  docket 
and  asking,  "  What  will  you  take  for  your  little  primer,  Judge?  " 

There  was  intense,  but  in  the  main  suppressed,  excitement  during  the 
arguments.  Mr.  Bingham,  after  a  review  of  one  part  of  the  uncontro- 
verted  facts,  asked  in  his  most  impressive  manner,  "Does  not  the  dumb 
beast  tight  for  her  young,  the  stricken  fawn  cry  out,  the  frightened  rabbit 
flee? "  "  No!  "  responded  the  deep  voice  of  a  minister  who  stood  with  <  »t  hers 
in  one  of  the  windows  looking  down  over  the  heads  of  the  standing  crowd. 
The  exclamation  was  so  evidently  involuntary  that  he  escaped  punishment, 
but  the  quiet  remarks  of  the  judge  has  thus  far  prevented  a  repetition  of 
the  offense  in  this  court.  Judge  Doe,  in  commenting  upon  the  1  rial  of  the 
case  in  his  charge,  with  evident  emotion  said,  "It  shows  that  the  ancient 
glory  of  the  New  Hampshire  Bar  has  not  departed  from  it."  Chase  was 
sentenced  for  thirty  years.  He  was  fifty-five,  and  died  in  prison.  Four 
more  cases  were  tried  by  jury  at  this  term — making  a  total  of  eighl :  and 
over  twenty  the  next  three  terms.  The  "referee  law"  of  ls74.  and  the 
subsequent  amendments  of  the  statutes  and  constitution,  have  to  a  greal 
degree  done  away  with  the  desire  as  well  as  the  necessity  of  trying  cases 
by  jury. 

At  the  August  term,   1869,   the  case  of    Freeman  Tirrell   vs.    Abram 
Bedel  was  tried.     The  defendant  had  procured  the  plaintiff  to  execute  a 
release  of  debt  foran  inadequate  consideration.    The  question  was  whether  - 
he  possessed  sufficient  natural  capacity  to  be  bound  by  the  instrument. 

24^  History  of  Coos  County. 

Among  the  witnesses  were  some  boys  who  testified  that  they  were  accus- 
tomed to  get  him  provoked,  when  one  of  them  would  advise  him  to  chew 
various  disgusting  substances  to  spit  in  the  faces  of  his  tormentors.  The 
grave  manner  in  which  William  Hey  wood,  then,  as  now,  the  nestor  of  the 
Coos  bar,  introduced  and  commented  upon  the  evidence  of  "his  pursuit 
of  his  companions  around  the  barns  and  over  the  high  beams  "  was  so 
effective  that  the  listeners  were  convulsed,  and  the  presiding  justice,  again 
Judge  Doe,  laughed  until  the  tears  ran  down  his  face.  Judge  Smith  held 
his  last  term  here,  in  August,  1870.  It  became  necessary  to  wait  for 
further  testimony  in  some  case.  After  a  long  and  sleepy  delay  the  judge 
suddenly  looked  up  and  said,  "This  reminds  me  of  a  story,"  and  went  on 
to  tell  it  to  the  members  of  the  bar  and  officers  of  the  court,  who  composed 
nearly  the  whole  audience,  and  then  said  to  the  undisputed  leader  of  the 
bar  on  such  an  occasion,  "Come,  Shurtleff,  now  you  tell  one."  Chairs 
were  drawn  close  to  the  bench,  and  story  followed  story  for  an  hour  or 
more.  It  was  uncertain  who  would  prove  the  better  raconteur,  when  the 
parties  appeared,  and  the  old  judge,  on  the  eve  of  his  seventieth  birthday, 
gravely  resumed  his  duties. 

Jeremiah  Smith,  Foster,  Sargent,  and  Hibbard,  who  held  the  courts  to 
1874,  were  also  self-poised,  gentlemanly  judges,  controlling  the  litigants, 
counsel  and  spectators  without  effort  or  friction  from  the  first.  As  though 
the  gentle  ways  of  Chief  Justice  Bellows  permeated  the  court,  the  judges 
"were  models  in  their  deportment  in  court  and  at  chambers,  and  the  influ- 
ence upon  the  bar  was  very  marked. 

A  year  or  two  later,  during  a  term  held  by  Judge  Rand,  several  promi- 
nent attorneys,  who  perhaps  felt  competent  to  discuss  a  matter  of  practice 
with  the  presiding  justice,  and  who  had  not  heard  Judge  Ladd  dispose  of 
post-mortem  discussion  with  "It  seems  to  me  that  you  will  find  it  super- 
fluous to  discuss  the  matter  after  the  court  has  passed  upon  it,"  did  not  heed 
the  "  Stop  this,  gentlemen!"  and  the  judge,  with  his  heavy  bass  voice, 
roared  out  "  Sit  down,  all  of  you."  They  all  went  down,  but  an  associate 
arose,  and,  apparently,  wTas  waiting  to  explain,  remonstrate,  or  apologize, 
when  they  began  to  rise  again.  The  court  called  upon  the  sheriff,  who 
came  around  beside  the  attorneys  and  drew  in  his  breath  in  a  helpless  kind 
of  way,  as  they  stood  there  flushed  and  silent,  when,  li  sit  down!"  sit 
down ! !"  SIT  DOW N ! ! !"  thundered  the  judge,  turning  from  one  to  another, 
who  fell  in  turn  until  only  Eay  was  left.  He  said  "  May  it  pi—"  "  SIT 
DOWN !!!"  Ray  fell  like  a  stone  and  rebounded  like  a  ball.  "  Please  your 
honor,"  and  went  on  with  the  discussion,  in  which  the  others  soon  joined. 

Allen  filled  Rand's  place  the  next  winter.  Isaac  W.  Smith  succeeded 
Jeremiah  Smith.  Judge  Carpenter,  Judge  Blodgett,  and  Judge  Bingham 
came  here  to  hold  later  terms,  in  place  of  justices  who  have  resigned  or 
deceased.    Their  characteristics  can  not  be  yet  considered  matters  of  history, 

Bench  axd  Bar.  243 

though  they  are  all  entrenched  in  the  good  will  and  respect  of  this  district, 
and  receive  most  hearty  welcome.  It  is  certain  that  none  of  them  will  ever 
be  "old  -  — "  in  the  common  conversation  of  the  people.  New  Hamp- 
shire does  not  have  judges,  nor  often  attorneys,  thus  unconsciously  branded 
with  the  appellation  of  ripening  incapacity. 

B.  H.  Corning,  of  Lancaster,  now  sheriff  of  Grafton  county,  was  sheriff 
at  the  time  of  the  organization  of  this  district.  Lucius  Hartshorn,  of  Strat- 
ford, Samuel  M.  Harvey,  of  Columbia,  and  Joseph  W.  ( looper,  of  ( lolebrook, 
were  the  deputies  ordinarily  in  attendance  at  court,  and  served  the  papers 
for  our  attorneys.  Mr.  Harvey,  especially,  did  a  git  tat  amount  of  work 
for  many  years  all  over  Northern  Coos.  He  had  an  unusual  reputation  as 
an  accurate,  efficient,  and  accommodating  officer.  Later,  E.  George  Rogers 
and  Samuel  I.  Bailey,  both  of  Columbia,  have  been  sheriffs:  the  latter  by 
election.  Albert  S.  Eustis,  Henry  N.  Leavitt,  Ira  Quimby,  John  S.  Capen, 
Walter  Drew,  Wesley  Wentworth,  William  T.  Keyes  and  George  Hilliard, 
all  of  Colebrook,  have  been  our  deputies  Quimby,  Leavitt.  Capen  and 
Drew  have  served  for  long  and  busy  terms,  been  the  best  known  as  officers, 
have  acquired  a  high  reputation  for  courage  and  activity,  and  gained  the 
good  will  of  those  with  whom  they  had  official  business. 

The  best  known  and  remembered  of  the  early  sheriffs  were  Ephraim  II. 
Mahurin,  of  South  Columbia,  who  was  a  deputy  for  about  thirty  years, 
being  appointed  as  early  as  1  *  1 2 ;  Hezekiah  Parsons,  of  Colebrook,  who  was 
appointed  in  or  before  1815,  held  the  office  continuously  until  1833,  when  he 
was  succeeded  by  Milton  Harvey,  for  a  short  time;  Horace  Loomis,  first 
an  officer  about  1830,  later  did  about  all  the  business  for  a  few  years,  until  he 
left  the  country;  Timothy  Tirrell,  of  Stewartstown,  did  a  large  business 
for  about  ten  years;  Enoch  L.  Colby  acted  as  deputy  here  for  a  short  time, 
then  went  to  Lancaster,  where  he  was  first  deputy,  and  afterwards  sheriff 
during  his  active  life;  Hezekiah  Parsons,  Jr.,  wasa  deputy  for  a  few  years, 
then  sheriff  until  his  Republican  deputy,  Colby,  succeeded  him  in  1856, 
when  he  declined  a  deputy's  appointment.  (Appointments  have  since  been 
political.)  Archelaus  Cummings  then  held  the  position  for  several  years. 
Others  held  an  appointment  for  a  short  time,not  long  enough  to  gain  thai 
extended  experience,  and  lasting  reputation  for  efficiency,  that  makes  the 
early  officers  an  important  part  of  our  legal  history. 

Since  Ray,  Henry  Heywood,  Edgar  Aldrich,  and.  from  1879,  J.  II.  Dudley 
(the  first  by  election),  have  been  solicitors.  The  present  clerk,  M.  A.  Hast- 
ings, succeeded  C.  B.  Jordan  in  L874.  An  incident  in  our  court-house. 
when  the  court  was  attending  to  naturalizations,  will  not  be  soon  forgot- 
ten. One  of  the  row,  when  Jordan  arose  and  commenced  to  administer 
the  oath,  with  a  not  wholly  inexcusable  distrust,  snatched  down  his  hand, 
paused,  shook  his  finger  at  the  clerk,  and  said.  "  Now  swear  me  in  a 
Dimmercrat,    Chester."     His   seriousness   and  Jordan's    reluctance    were 

24±  History  of  Coos  County.   . 

amusing.  Hastings  would  be  more  accommodating  under  similar  circum- 
stances— about  the  only  difference  observable  between  two  unusually  satis- 
factory clerks. 

The  lawyers  who  always  came  here  to  attend  court  in  our  early  terms, 
were: — 

William  Heywood,  often  affectionately  called  "Uncle  Hey  wood, " 
with  a  large  benign  face,  kind,  prepared,  venerable,  excessively  fair,  full 
of  real  and  equity  jurisprudence. 

Hiram  A.  Fletcher,  with  small  features,  slight,  alert  black  eyes, 
wearing  a  wig,  and  carrying  a  green  bag  full  of  exactly-drawn,  methodi- 
cally-arranged papers,  overflowing  with  cases,  precedents,  and  preparation; 
technical,  with  a  mania  for  old  law  books,  muskets,  antlers  and  curiosities. 
He  seemed  a  survival  of  a  past  generation  of  old  English  common-law 

Ossiax  Ray,  full  of  activity,  argument,  resources  and  combativeness, 
never  unoccupied  with  actual  litigation,  thoroughly  experienced  in  practice, 
and,  in  some  wray,  always  finding  leisure  to  become  thoroughly  familiar 
with  the  cases  applicable  to  the  case  at  bar. 

William  S.  Ladd,  scholarly,  thorough,  accurate,  quick  with  pen  and 
books,  more  moderate  in  court.  With  a  thorough  contempt  for  (never  re- 
torting to  in  kind,  and  some  times  disconcerted  by,)  rude  and  offensive 
practice;  he  was  a  business  and  corporation  counselor  rather  than  a  ready 

George  A.  Bingham,  tall,  untiring,  working  all  night  and  keeping 
awake  all  day,  an  "all-round"  lawyer,  learned,  eloquent,  and  at  his  best 
in  the  preparation  of  cases  and  examination  of  witnesses.  He  was  seldom 
surprised,  and  never  at  a  loss  what  to  do. 

George  W.  Hartshorn,  bottled  up  in  the  little  town  of  Canaan,  short, 
bald,  round,  and  talkative,  was  a  surprisingly  ready  speaker;  and,  after  a 
long  trial,  would  often  make  an  exhaustive,  and,  in  parts,  very  eloquent 
argument.  A  serious  and  painful  illness,  and  the  medicines  used,  some 
ten  years  ago,  destroyed  his  capacity  at  the  bar. 

Henry  Heywood,  very  deliberate,  with  a  deep,  heavy,  unvarying  voice, 
reflects  as  he  speaks,  and  is  accurate.  His  forte  is  the  accumulation  and 
introduction  of  evidence  where  accuracy  as  to  the  law,  and  the  proper  ar- 
rangement and  non-omission  of  numerous  facts  and  details,  are  essential 

Irving  W.  Drew  commenced  practice  about  1871.  His  ambition  to  suc- 
ceed as  a  speaker  was  soon  gratified.  He  has  made  as  many  arguments  to  the 
jury  as  any  attorney  who  attends  our  courts,  with  as  great  influence  upon 
the  verdict  as  any  one  whom  this  generation  recollects,  except  William 
Burns,  and,  unlike  Mr.  Burns,  he  is  active  in  the  management  of  the  case 
in  other  respects,  and  so,  perhaps,  succeeds  as  well. 

Bench  and  Bar.  j it- 

Everett  Fletcher  is  also  a  young  man,  who  came  to  our  court  about 
the  same  time.  He  bears  a  marked  resemblance  to  his  father,  the  late 
Hiram  A.  Fletcher,  in  every  respect,  except  that  lie  is  taller.  He  lacks 
somewhat  of  the  confidence  and  readiness  of  his  lather,  and  has  nol  taken 
an  active  part  in  the  trials  here.  Industrious  and  witty,  he  is  among  the 
best  read  and  most  genial  of  the  lawyers  of  his  age. 

Chester  B.  Jordan  was  admitted  later,  and  is  engaged  in  all  important 
cases  of  this  district.  He  does  not  "  figure"  in  the  trials,  but  in  the  out- 
side preparation;  attentive  to  details,  he  is  often  felt  and  feared,  but  sel- 
dom seen  in  the  case,  and  is  quite  convinced  that  nothing  succeeds  like 

Many  others  have  attended  our  courts  too  infrequently  to  need  mention. 
The  lawyers  who  have  resided  in  this  district  since  its  formation,  and  the 
early  resident  attorneys  of  this  part  of  the  county,  may  not  be  accurately 
enumerated  from  lack  of  a  prior  history,  and  the  loss  of  court  records, 
which  have  been  burned  twice,  once  in  1886,  and  once  about  forty  years 

William  Farrar  was  the  first  settled  lawyer.  He  came  here  in  or 
before  1S<  »6,  boarded  with  "Judge  "  Joseph  Loomis,  where  James  L.  Loomis 
now  lives,  had  his  office  in  the  small  house  south  of  there  (where  David 
Heath  lived)  before  it  was  occupied  as  a  store  by  Elisha  Bundy.  He  was 
not  a  robust  man,  well  educated,  of  excellent  habits,  diffident,  with  a  slight 
voice,  and  had  a  moderate  practice.  He  moved  to  Lancaster  in  1811,  and 
continued  in  practice  there  until  his  death.  In  1812  he  married  Margaret, 
daughter  of  Gams  Kibbee,  who  lived  on  the  W.  R.  Silver  farm,  in  Bloom- 
field,  then  Minehead,  Vt.  They  were  married  by  Judge  DeForest,  and 
shortly  after  were  much  mortified  to  learn  that  he  was  not,  at  the  time, 
qualified  to  perform  the  ceremony.  The  Judge  qualified,  went  to  Lancas- 
ter, took  them  into  Vermont,  and  re-married  them.  Mr.  Farrar  was  a 
fine  tenor  singer,  was  accustomed  to  read  the  sermons  at  "deacons'  meet- 
ings" held  at  various  places,  and  led  the  choir,  after  a  minister  was  settled 
here,  at  the  school-house  where  F.  B.  Crawford's  barn  is  now.  Mr.  Far- 
rar's  wife  soon  died  without  issue,  and  he  re-married 

For  many  years  there  was  no  attorney  here  after  Mr.  Farrar  left,  and 
Judge  Loomis,  who  had  been  appointed  in  January.  L805,  a  justice  of 
the  Court  of  Common  Pleas  for  Coos  county,  did  much  of  the  work  attor- 
neys usually  do. 

Gen.  Ira  Young  came  next.  He  was  horn  at  Lisbon,  N.  II.,  in  L794, 
and  was  son  of  Colonel  Samuel  Young,  a  Revolutionary  officer.  He  studied 
law  with  James  1.  Swan,  of  Bath,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  L817,  and 
came  to  Colebrook  soon  after.  He  had  his  office  in  theCargill  store,  where 
Mrs.  Julia  A.  Gamsby's  block  stands.  He  was  tall,  large,  with  light 
auburn  hair,  a  very   fine   looking   man,  gentlemanly,  and  an   excellent 

246  History  of  Coos  County. 

speaker.  He  was  also  a  fine  singer,  and  one  of  the  choir  at  the  church,  usually 
singing  tenor.  In  1820  Mr.  Swan  died,  bequeathing  Gen.  Young  his  ex- 
tensive library,  and  he  removed  to  Bath  and  succeeded  to  Mr.  Swan's 
business.  A  few  years  later  his  office  with  the  contents  was  burned,  and 
he  returned  to  Colebrook  in  1824,  or  early  in  1825,  and  resumed  practice 
at  the  same  place.  (John  L.  Sheafe  came  here  about  the  time  he  left,  and 
removed  to  Lancaster  about  the  time  be  returned.)  Gen.  Young  remained 
here  until  1839,  when  he,  too,  went  to  Lancaster.  In  the  winter  of  1836-37 
he  married  Mrs.  Sarah  D.  F.  Smith,  widow  of  John  A.  Smith,  of  Cuba, 
and  daughter  of  Mills  DeForest,  of  Lemington,  Vt.,  and  lived  in  the  house 
then  lately  vacated  by  Dr.  White,  and  after  Mr.  Young's  removal  occu- 
pied by  Dr.  Augustus  Hams.  Mary,  his  eldest  child,  was  born  in  Cole- 
brook.  His  other  children,  Harry  D.  F.,  captain  of  Co.  F,  2d  N.  H. 
Infantry,  and  Richard  0.,  corporal  in  the  same  company  (killed  at  Fair 
Oaks  in  1862),  were  born  at  Lancaster.  He  took  an  active  part  in  military 
^affairs,  was  appointed  captain  of  the  company  of  cavalry  in  the  Twenty- 
fourth  regiment  in  1829,  major  of  the  regiment  in  is;',!',  colonel  in  1833, 
brigadier-general  of  the  Sixth  brigade  in  1836,  and  major-general  of  the 
Second 'division  in  1837.  Gen.  Young  was  an  old-time  gentleman,  of  great 
suavity,  very  popular  as  an  attorney  and  a  citizen,  and  was  one  of  the 
foremost  lawyers  of  Northern  New  Hampshire.  His  health  failed  in  1844. 
He  gave  up  practice,  went  to  Cuba,  and  died  there  November  15,  1845. 
The  brethren  of  the  bar  erected  a  tombstone  in  his  memory,  both  for  his 
courtesy  ''and  ability  as  a  lawyer,  and  his  high  character  for  honor  and  in- 
tegrity as  a  man.'" 

Charles  J.  Stuart  was  one  of  the  first  lawyers  to  settle  in  Colebrook 
after  Mr.  Farrar  left.  He  boarded  at  Edmund  Chamberlain's  and  had  his 
office  in  the  Cargill  store.  He  was  married,  but  had  no  children.  In  less 
than  a  year  he  returned  to  Lancaster. 

John  Lane  Sheafe,  son  of  Jacob  Sheafe,  of  Portsmouth,  was  born 
November  28,  1791,  and  admitted  to  the  bar  April  7,  1820.  He  came  to 
Colebrook  before  Gen.  Young  left.  He  also  removed  to  Lancaster,  where  he 
remained  from  about  1825  until  about  1832  (perhaps  returning  to  Colebrook 
for  a  portion  of  these  years).  Then  he  removed  to  Portsmouth,  and  later  to 
New  Orleans,  where  he  was  prominent  at  the  bar,  as  a  Whig  politician, 
and  during  the  war  as  a  Union  man.  He  died  there  February  5,  1864. 
Mr.  Sheafe  was  very  small  and  effeminate  in  appearance  when  here,  though 
stout  in  1852,  when  last  in  Colebrook.  He  was  very  near-sighted,  used  a 
silver-bowed  eye-glass,  was  quite  diffident,  and,  at  first,  a  butt  for  jokes. 
His  education  and  unusually  fine  ability  soon  corrected  this.  When  he 
first  came  here  he  took  charge  of  Sabbath  meetings,  read  the  Episcopal 
service,  and  the  people  quite  generally  provided  themselves  with  Epis- 
copal prayer-books,  etc.     His  services  were  held  in  the  school-house  near 

Bench  and  Bar.  247 

Pleasant  street  bridge,  and  in  the  Cargill  hall,  in  the  building  where  he 
had  his  office.  He  also  organized  and  took  charge  of  the  first  Sabbath- 
school  here — a  greater  novelty  in  1820  than  in  later  years.  He  never 
married,  but  boarded  at  Edmund  Chamberlain's,  and  was  active  in  the 
Masonic  lodge  which  then  met  in  Chamberlain's  hall. 

Sanders  Welch  Cooper  came  to  Colebrook  about  L822,  boarded  at 
various  places  in  the  vicinity  and  attended  to  collections,  but  opened  no 
office.  He  later  practiced  many  years  in  Lancaster,  was  a  man  of  ability, 
could  argue  a  case  well,  and  was  for  a  time  county  solicitor,  lie  was  a 
brother  of  J.  W,  Cooper,  of  Colebrook,  and  Jesse  Cooper,  late  of  [rasburg, 
Vt.,  and  was  born  March  4,   L791. 

Hiram  Adams  Fletcher,  son  of  Ebenezer  and  Peddy  (Smith)  Fletcher, 
was  born  December  11,  1806,  studied  law  with  (Jen.  Seth  Cushman,  of 
Guildhall,  Vt.,  and  later  in  New  York;  was  admitted  in  1830,  and  began 
practice  in  Springfield,  Vt..  and  settled  in  Colebrook  in  L833.  He  married 
Persis  Honking,  of  Lancaster,  and  lived  where  Walter  Drew  now  lives, 
built  an  office  which  was  afterwards  moved  and  became  the  old  Fan 
Stevens  house.  His  father  built  the  Mohawk  House  for  a  dwelling,  and, 
at  his  death,  it  became  the  property  and  home  of  Hiram,  who  had  his 
office  in  the  present  hotel  office  until  his  removal  to  Lancaster  in  1st'.'. 
The  five  oldest  of  his  six  children  were  born  in  Colebrook,  Nelly  (Mrs. 
William  A.  Holman),  of  Pittsburg,  Pa.,  being  born  in  Lancaster.  The 
other  surviving  children,  Mrs.  W.  S.  Ladd,  Richard,  and  Everett,  are  resi- 
dents of  Lancaster.  Mr.  Fletcher  had  a  very  large  and  profitable  business 
while  in  Colebrook,  and  accumulated  what  was  considered  a  considerable 

Lyman  Thomas  Flint  was  born  in  Williamstown,  Vt.,  September  29, 
1817,  educated  in  the  academies  at  Randolph  and  Williamstown,  Vt.,  and 
graduated  from  Dartmouth  college  in  1S4-2.  He  married  Hannah  W.  Wil- 
lard,  of  Lyndon,  Vt.,  March  3,  1844.  He  taught  for  several  years,  the 
last  at  Plymouth  academy,  where  he  studied  law  with  William  C.  Thomp- 
son. He  then  came  to  Colebrook,  completed  his  studies  with  Hiram  A. 
Fletcher,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  May,  ls+7.  He  remained  in 
Colebrook  until  1854,  when  he  removed  to  Concord,  where  he  died.  April 
14,  1876.  He  had  a  considerable  practice  and  reputation  when  he  left  Cole- 
brook, gained  to  a  great  extent  by  the  peculiar  thoroughness  with  which 
he  prepared  his  cases  and  his  energy  in  seeming  all  attainable  evidence. 
He  was  city  solicitor,  county  solicitor,  and  representative  during  his  resi- 
dence at  Concord. 

Charles  W.  Burt,  oldest  son  of  Willard  and  Martha  (Wood)  Burt, 
was  born  in  Westmoreland.  X.  H.,  November"'.,  1820.  He  attended,  sup- 
plementary to  his  course  at  district  schools.  Mount  Caesar  and  Lebanon 
academies,  and  two  years  at  Norwich  (Vt.)  university.     He  was  a  thor- 

248  History  of  Coos  County. 

ough  student,  stood  high  in  his  classes,  and  was  a  popular  teacher  of  dis- 
trict schools  for  some  years.  He  studied  law  with  Hon.  Levi  Chamber- 
lain, was  admitted  to  the  bar  at  Keene,  and  practiced  his  profession  at 
Colebrook  from  1848  to  L854.  He  married,  January,  1854,  Julia,  daugh- 
ter of  Horace  Loomis,  of  Colebrook,  soon  removed  to  Detroit,  Mich.,  and 
engaged  in  practice.  In  1855  he  formed  a  partnership  with  A.  B.  Maynard, 
Esq.,  of  that  city,  which  continued  until  the  untimely  death  of  Mr.  Burt, 
April  11,  L859.  Mr.  Maynard  says  of  him:  "During  our  entire  partner- 
ship our  relations  were  of  the  pleasantest  character.  He  was  a  gentleman 
of  decided  ability,  and  no  young  lawyer  in  the  city  had  a  better  reputa- 
tion, both  for  legal  learning  and  ability  and  for  the  purity  and  uprightness 
of  his  character.  In  his  habits  he  was  simple  and  unassuming,  and  remark- 
able for  his  industry.  Had  his  life  been  spared,  he  would,  in  my  judgment, 
have  stood  at  the  very  head  of  the  bar  of  Michigan  as  a  learned,  able  and 
conscientious  lawyer,"  Mr.  Burt  was  a  large,  tine  looking  .young  man, 
gentlemanly,  well  educated,  an  excellent  and  impressive  speaker.  Mrs. 
Burt  died  in  Detroit. 

Daniel  Allen  Rogers,  son  of  Rev.  Daniel  and  Phoebe  (Tibbetts)  Rog- 
ers, was  born  in  Columbia,  September  11,  1828,  and  educated  in  the  local 
schools,  taught  several  winters  in  the  adjoining  towns,  and  studied  law 
with  Lyman  T.  Flint.  He  wTas  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1853,  bought  of 
Archelaus  Cummings  the  house  where  Michael  Monahan  now  lives  and 
built  the  office  south  of  it,  which  he  used  at  first  for  his  postoffice,  then 
for  his  law  office.  (Mr.  Ramsay  and  Mr.  Shurtleff  afterwards  had  it  as  an 
office,  and  it  is  now  used  by  Mr.  Barker.)  He  married  Sarah  A.,  daughter 
of  Samuel  B.  and  Amanda  (Bicknel)  Cooper,  of  Beloit,  Wis.,  November 
22,  1855.  He  removed  to  St.  Johnsbury,  Vt.,  in  1858,  and  to  Wells  River, 
in  1860,  where  he  died,  July  11,  1881.  Mr.  Rogers  was  of  medium  height, 
dark  complexion,  inclined  to  corpulency,  social,  and  popular.  He  had  a 
moderate  business  in  Colebrook,  and  displayed  average  capacity  and  energy 
in  the  various  branches  of  the  profession.  He  gained  an  unquestioned 
reputation  as  a  reliable  business  attorney,  but  retained  his  deliberate  way 
of  doing  business  to  the  last,  and  enjoyed  a  fair  income  which  he  used 
in  the  support  and  education  of  his  family. 

Albert  Barker  was  born  at  Waterford,  Me.,  December  20,  1820.  He 
was  educated  in  the  local  schools,  and  at  Bridgton  academy,  where  he  led 
his  class.  He  fitted  for  college,  but  was  unable  to  enter  upon  the  course 
by  reason  of  ill  health  and  lack  of  funds.  He  taught  school  several  win- 
ters, and,  in  1841,  entered  the  office  of  Hon.  Elbridge  Gerry,  at  Water- 
ford,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  October,  1814.  He  practiced  for  a 
time  at  Rumford,  Me.,  and  afterwTards  at  Waterford,  in  partnership  with 
Mr.  Gerry,  then  in  Congress.  In  1852  he  removed  to  Milan,  and  com- 
menced practice  in  New  Hampshire.     The  same  year  he  married  Nancy 

Bench  and  Bar.  249 

A.,  daughter  of  Hon.  Stephen  Irish,  of  Stowe,  Me.  She  died  in  L8G2. 
They  had  four  children,  of  whom  the  eldest,  Lilla,  lived  until  L884.  She 
was  an  invalid,  and  devoted  herself  to  reading,  writing,  and  considerably 
to  editorial  work  upon  the  Sentinel,  while  her  father  owned  it,  and  was 
quite  his  equal  in  natural  ability  and  judgment.  In  I  854  he  moved  to  Cole- 
brook,  where  he  succeeded  Mr.  Flint,  and  has  since  remained.  He  atom  -• 
.attained  a  very  considerable  practice,  and  met  with  excellent  success  in  his 
•cases.  In  1870  he  married  Mrs.  Lucinda  E.,  daughter  of  Rev.  Beniah 
Bean,  and  widow  of  Wilbur  F.  Dinsmore.  He  purchased  the  Northern 
Sentinel,  in  1872,  and  continued  to  edit  and  publish  it  until  1884.  During 
these  years,  he,  to  a  considerable  extent,  neglected  the  practice  of  law.  In 
1885  Mr.  Barker  re-opened  the  office  which  Mr.  Shurtletf  had  recently  va- 
cated, and  has  since  been  attending  exclusively  to  the  practice  of  his  pro- 
fession. He  became  an  Odd  Fellow  before  he  came  to  New  Hampshire; 
has  been  a  prominent  Mason  for  many  years,  and  a  pronounced  Democrat 
all  his  life.  Mr.  Barker,  as  a  lawyer,  has  shown  a  very  determined  spirit; 
and  being  about  equally  good  in  the  preparation,  presentation,  and  argu- 
ment of  cases  in  the  lower,  and  discussion  of  the  law  in  the  higher  courts, 
has  never  been  known  to  let  a  case  fail  by  his  default  in  any  of  its  stages, 
and  has  finally  come  out  ahead  in  more  than  the  ordinary  percentage.  As 
is  his  characteristic  in  all  his  enterprises,  he  has  preferred  rather  to  compel 
than  entreat  results. 

Ira.  Allen  Ramsay,  a  son  of  Robert  Ramsay,  was  born  August  14, 
1827,  in  Wheelock.  Vt.  He  had  only  the  school  privileges  that  his  neigh- 
borhood afforded,  worked  at  various  occupations  until  he  was  some  twenty- 
three  years  of  age,  then  commenced  the  study  of  law  in  the  office  of  Jesse 
Cooper,  at  Irasburg,  Vt. ;  was  later  in  an  office  in  Boston  for  a  time:  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  1853,  and  commenced  the  practice  of  law  at  Guild- 
hall, Vt.  In  1855  he  moved  to  Colebrook,  where  he  continued  in  active 
business  until  1867,  when  he  moved  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  and  opened  an 
office.  The  next  year  his  health  failed,  he  gave  up  business,  and  was  an 
invalid  until  his  death,  November  7,  1871. 

Mr.  Ramsay  was  a  man  of  great  energy  and  confidence,  whose  busi- 
ness was  largely  confined  to  the  adjoining  towns,  and  to  matters  in  the 
County  Court,  before  municipal  officers,  justice  juries,  and  similar  hear- 
ings in  Coos  and  Essex  counties.  He  impressed  his  views  of  the  law  and 
facts  with  force  and  readiness  upon  the  tribunals,  and  won  all  the  de- 
cisions he  ought  to,  and  some  besides.  The  last  years  he  collected  a  large 
number  of  soldiers'  claims  from  states  and  the  United  States.  He  was 
engaged  in  various  enterprises  outside  his  profession,  and  carried  away, 
probably,  the  largest  fortune  that  an  attorney  has  taken  from  Colebrook; 
but  it  was  lost  in  the  West,  where  he  became  poor,  and  after  his  death  his 
investments  were  swept  away  by  his  debts. 


250  History  of  Coos  County. 

William  S.  Ladd  located  inColebrook,  in  1857,  and  commenced  practice 
under  the  name  of  Fletcher  &  Ladd,  opening  an  office  over  the  old  Cutler 
(Merrill)  store,  and  boarded  with  Mr.  Cummings,  across  the  street,  until 
his  marriage,  and  then  rented  a  house  of  Hezekiah  Parsons,  where  James 
I.  Parsons  now  lives,  and  an  office  over  the  store  on  the  corner  wiiere  Drew 
&  Churchill  are  now  located.  He  removed  to  Lancaster  in  ISO".  At  first 
he  did  considerable  field  work  as  a  surveyor;  while  he  sang,  played  the 
violin,  and  handled  trout  flies,  of  an  afternoon,  as  "  to  the  manner  born"; 
but  his  increasing  business  in  a  few  years,  drove  him  into  the  jading  tread- 
mill of  the  busy  lawyer,  and  he  became,  as  he  has  remained,  one  of  the 
busiest  of  the  leading  attorneys  at  the  bar. 

Orman  P.  Ray,  who  had  been  for  a  short  time  a  partner  of  his  brother, 
Ossian  Ray,  at  Lancaster,  came  to  Colebrook  in  1867,  and  remained  until 
1872,  when  he  removed  to  Winooski,  Vt.  He  built  up  a  prosperous  prac- 
tice at  once,  but,  at  the  last,  it  was  much  reduced.  He  was  a  very  diligent 
student  of  the  books,  and  attentive  to  his  business.  He  lived  in  the  house 
E.  George  Rogers  afterwards  occupied,  and  had  his  office  over  the  Bracket 
store,  where  the  Dudley  block  now  stands. 

William  Henry  Shurtleff,  son  of  Otis  and  Eliza  Shutleff.  was  born 
at  Compton,  P.  Q.,  July  11,  1810.  His  father  being  a  native  of  Vermont, 
he  was  a  foreign-born  citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  left  Canada  in  his 
early  youth.  He  taught  school  in  New  Jersey  for  four  years,  then  came 
to  Lancaster,  and,  in  1862,  commenced  the  study  of  law  in  the  office  of 
Benton  &  Ray.  In  1864  he  enlisted,  and  was  commissioned  lieutenant  of 
Company  I  of  the  First  New  Hampshire  Heavy  Artillery.  After  the  Avar 
closed  he  resumed  his  studies,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  November, 
1866.  June  1,  1867,  he  opened  an  office  in  Colebrook,  in  the  store  of  George 
W.  Bracket.  In  1S69,  after  his  marriage,  he  purchased  and  occupied  the 
house  and  office  before  occupied  by  Mr.  Rogers  and  Mr.  Ramsey.  He  was 
appointed  deputy  inspector  of  customs  at  Colebrook,  in  1871,  and  held  the 
office  for  several  years.  He  was  elected  representative  in  1878,  and  one 
of  the  trustees  of  Colebrook  academy  in  1880.  In  November,  1884,  he  re- 
moved to  Orange  county,  Florida,  where  he  is  still  located,  devoting  his 
time  principally  to  real  estate  business. 

Mr.  Shurtleff  is  a  large,  broad,  genial,  hopeful  man,  as  full  of  story, 
song,  and  merriment,  as  a  Florida  orange  is  of  juice;  an  universal  favorite 
with  bench  and  bar,  and  all  the  world  besides.  As  a  lawyer,  Mr.  Shurtleff, 
in  court,  usually  confined  himself  to  openings  and  the  introduction  of  evi- 
dence, for  which  he  had  a  happy  tact.  He  was  diffident  in  argument.  He 
was  quick  and  correct  in  the  ordinary  routine  of  office  business,  of  which 
he  had  a  large  amount,  and  was  a  business  lawyer.  His  strong,  prac- 
tical common  sense  and  lack  of  excitability,  made  him  an  excellent  busi- 



252  History  of  Coos  County. 

ness  enterprises  in  Northern  Coos  by  furnishing  funds,  wholly  or  m  part, 
and  has  been  an  important  assistant  to  many  young  men  in  various  hues 

0  harness  in  both  counsel  and  financial  aid.  Of  Democratic  antecedents 
and  training  he  cast  in  his  lot  with  the  Republican  party  some  fifteen  years 
X'e  -d  now  may  be  classed  with  the  progressive  element  of  the  day. 
Mr.  Parsons  is  a  member  of  Port  Huron  Lodge,  No.  58  P.  and  AM., 
Port  Huron   Mich.,  which  he  joined  in  1873;  Ammonoosuc  Lodge  10.  O. 

1  No  ™Groveton;  and  has  been  a  Knight  of  Pythias  since  1874,  when  he 
ioined  Charter  Lodge,  No.  18,  Port  Huron,  Mich. 

]  Mr  Parsons  married,  September  6,  1876,  Ada  A.,  da  ugh  tar  o  f  Samuel 
K  and  Sophia  (Cushman)  Remick,  a  native  of  Hardwick,  Vt.  She  died 
December  28  1881.  They  had  one  child,  Cushman  Hezekiah,  born  June 
iTl  a'lad  of  brilliant  promise.  January  6,  1883,  Mr.  Parsons  married 
AddiesVlldlt  child  of  John  C.  Marshall,  of  Colebrook,  who  died  Febru- 

aryinheri8ting  mental  vigor  from  a  long  line  of  strong  ancestors,  there  is  in 
the    •make  up"  of  Mr.  Parsons  much  of  originality,  ability,  and  force 
He  ha    a  keen  insight  into  the  motives  of  men,  and  a  discriminating  and 
Smost  intuitive  judgment,  and  many  look  to  him  as  a  valuable  counselor 
^exigencies  of  life  and  business.     He  possesses  necessary  to 
LIlll   action.      He  is  shrewd,  adroit,  technical,  familiar  with  human 
nftoe    Prepares  his  cases  with  care,  presents  his  arguments  ably  and 
oti  bXantly,  is  a  good  fighter,  and  slow  to  -know  edge  de  eat.    He 
a  successful  lawyer  and  has  a  busy  and  lucrative  practice.    He  is  inteUec 
Inland  well  read;  and  had  he  chosen  the  lecture-field  or  literature  as  his 
"oession  would  have  won  success.      With  a  manner  sometimes  preoccu- 
ed  coo    conical,  and  brusque,  he  is,  nevertheless,  sensitive,  refined,  and 
^mpathetic"  a  strong  friend,  a  good  citizen  and,  when  at  leisure,  a  de- 
IMitful  companion  to  those  who  know  him  well. 

Jason  H  DUDLEY.-Genealogical  history  is  necessary  in  England  to 
show  the  titles  to  honor  and  estate;  in  this  country,  where  wealth  and  d.  - 
show  the Hue  exertions  and  merits,  it  is  satisfac- 

mrtrae  on  rcyt,Tto  brave  and  honorable  men.   The  Dudley  family 
Jnnant,  ent  one    i    New  Hampshire,  Massachusetts,  and  other  states 
1  CCland  it  ranks  high  among  the  nobility.     The  Dudleys  descend 
and  in  Englan    it  rai ks     g  sumame  Dudley  was  taken 

'T,  TbeTa^e  oYmmlevn  Staffordshire,  (built  by  Dudo,  an  English 
sCn  about  the  year  100,  and  assumed,  according  to  ancient  custom  m 
Sid   oy  the  younger  children  of  the  Barons  of  that  place      The  first 

S^^^XX^*  *•  Massachusetts  Colony, 

I  I 

Bench  and  Bar.  253 

and  died  July  31,  1653,  at  Roxbury,  Mass.      His  son  Joseph  was  a  popu- 
lar governor  of  New  Hampshire. 

Jason  Henry  Dudley,  son  of  Jonathan  and  Minerva  (Armstrong) 
Dudley,  was  born  at  Hanover,  N.  H.,  November  24,  L84-2.  He  is  a  lineal 
descendant  in  the  eighth  generation  from  Gov.  Dudley,  the  line  being 
Gov.  Thomas  \  Samuel'.  Stephen8,  Stephen4,  Samuel  P.6,  Jacob",  Jona- 
than7, Jason  H.8.  He  is  also  connected  with  the  Allen  family,  so 
noted  in  Vermont  annals;  a  maternal  grandmother  bearing  that  name  was 
a  cousin  of  Ethan  and  Ira  Allen.  Jonathan  Dudley  was  a  native  of  Au- 
dover,  N.  H.;  he  died  February  5,  1872,  aged  seventy-two  years.  Mrs. 
Dudley  has  resided  in  Colebrook  since  1873. 

Jason  H.  Dudley's  early  education  was  acquired  at  Hanover  common 
schools;  this  was  supplemented  by  private  tutors.      In  the  fall  of  1858  he 
entered  Chandler  Scientific  school,  and,  in  1859,  became  a  member  of  the 
freshman  class  at  Dartmouth  college  and  was  graduated  in  the  class  of 
L862.     During  his  collegiate  course,  he  taught  a  select  school  at  Cornish 
Flats  in  the  fall  of  1861.     After  graduation,  he  came  to  Colebrook  as  prin- 
cipal of  Colebrook  academy,  which  he  did  not  find  in  a  very  prosperous 
condition.     For  three  years  he  threw  into  the  development  of  this  school 
all  the  forces  of  his  energetic  nature,  and  brought  up  the  attendance  from 
forty  to  nearly  one  hundred  pupils,  by  his  fidelity,  enthusiasm,  and  thorough 
fitness  for  his  work.     During  this  time  he  became  a  student  of  law  under 
Hon.  William  S.  Ladd.      In  the  fall  of  1865  he  went  to  Danville,  Vt.,  and 
had  charge  of  Phillips  academy  for  a  year,  continuing  his  legal  studies 
with  Hon.  Bliss  N.  Davis.      In  the  fall  of  1866  he  conducted  the  academy 
at  West  Randolph,  Vt.,  pursuing  the  study  of  law  with  Hon.  Edmund 
Weston  while  there.     In  December,  1867,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  at 
Chelsea,  Vt.     He  then  came  to  Colebrook,  and  entered  into  partnership 
with  James  I.   Parsons  in  the  practice  of  law  under  the  firm  name  of 
"Dudley  &  Parsons,"  taking  the  business  of  Judge  Ladd,  who  had  re- 
moved to  Lancaster.     This  partnership  continued  two  years,  when  Mr. 
Parsons  disposed  of  his  interest  to  Mr.  Dudle}r.     Since  then  he  has  prac- 
ticed alone,  successfully,  with  the  exception  of  four  years,  from   April, 
1878,   to  May,   1882,  when   D.  C.  Remich   was   associated   with    him   as 
"  Dudley  &  Remich."     Mr.  Dudley  was  superintendent  of  schools  in  Cole- 
brook for  several  years;  has  been  a  member  of  the  board   of  trustees  of 
Colebrook  academy  since  1872,  and   its  chairman  for  many  years:  has 
served  as  town  clerk  three  years;  he  was  elected  county  solicitor  in  1878, 
re-elected  in  1880-82-84r-86,  holding  this  important  office  longer  than  any 
man  in  the  state  under  the  elective  system.     He  is  a  member  of  the  Graf- 
ton and  Coos  Bar  Association,  and  of  the  Dartmouth  Alumni  Association, 
and  belongs  to  Excelsior  Lodge,  No.  73,  I.  0.  of  0.  F.,  Colebrook.     Believ- 
ing fully  in  the  principles  of  the  Democratic  party,  he  has  been  and  is 

254  History  of  Coos  County. 

energetic,  fearless,  and  zealous  in  maintaining  its  integrity  and  influence, 
stands  in  the  front  rank  of  its  active  workers  in  the  "Northern  District," 
and  is  a  prominent  factor  in  the  politics  of  "  Upper  Coos." 

He  married,  September  22,  1869,  Lucy  A.,  daughter  of  Dr.  Austin  and 
Aurelia  (Bissell)  Bradford,  of  Vergennes,  Vt.  [Mrs.  Dudley  also  descends 
from  a  colonial  governor,  William  Bradford,  the  able  governor  of  Plymouth 
Colony  for  more  than  thirty  years.  He  joined  the  church  of  the  Pilgrims 
at  Scrooby  (England)  when  seventeen  years  of  age.  While  in  Holland  he 
not  only  became  master  of  the  language  of  the  country,  but  added  a 
knowledge  of  French,  Latin,  Greek,  and  even  Hebrew,  which  he  studied, 
as  he  said,  "  that  he  might  see  with  his  own  eyes  the  ancient  oracles  of  God 
in  all  their  native  beauty.''  This  youth  displayed  qualities  of  mind  and 
heart,  which,  when  fully  matured,  were,  for  many  years  in  later  life,  the 
staff  and  support  of  the  Plymouth  Colony.  The  line  of  descent  is  Gov. 
William  Bradford1,  William,  Jr.2,  John3,  William4,  John6,  (of  Kingston, 
Mass.,)  John,  Jr.6,  Dr.  Austin7,  (of  Vergennes,  Vt.,)  Lucy  A.e]  They  have 
had  two  children,  Allen  B.,  born  June  18,  1871,  and  William  H.,  born 
April  13,  1873,  died  July  2,  1876. 

Mr.  Dudley's  success  as  a  lawyer  is  due  not  only  to  his  natural  and 
acquired  ability,  but  to  his  vigorous  and  efficient  action  in  the  understand- 
ing of  his  causes.  He  is  a  peace- maker,  instead  of  a  promoter  of  strife, 
and  believes  that  a  suit  is  best  won  when  justice  is  attained  and  every 
person  has  his  rights  firmly  secured  to  him.  He  is  generous  to  take  his 
full  share  of  all  necessary  burdens,  and  public  spirited  in  that  he  does 
everything  in  his  power  to  advance  all  public  improvements.  His  official 
life  has  tended  to  strengthen  his  naturally  fine  intellectual  powers,  and  his 
standing  is  assured  among  the  members  of  the  Coos  county  bar.  In  every 
work  committed  to  his  hands  in  public  or  private  life,  Mr.  Dudley  has 
labored  with  diligence,  perseverance  and  efficiency,  and  wholesome  practical 
results  testify  to  the  value  of  his  services. 

Edgar  Aldrich  was  the  son  of  Ephraim  C.  and  Adaline  B.  (Haynes) 
Aldrich,  of  Pittsburg,  N.  H.,  where  he  w^as  born  February  5,  1818.  He 
was  educated  in  the  schools  of  his  native  town  and  at  Colebrook  academy. 
At  about  fourteen  years  of  age  he  started  from  home  to  make  a  place  for 
himself  in  the  world.  He  commenced  as  a  farmer,  but  soon  went  into 
other  occupations,  particularly  positions  in  some  of  the  summer  resorts  of 
the  White  Mountains  and  the  stores  of  Colebrook;  meanwhile  he  attended 
school  at  Colebrook  academy,  as  he  had  cash  and  opportunity.  Finally,  in 
1866,  he  commenced  the  study  of  law  with  Ira  A.  Ramsay,  at  Colebrook. 
When  Mr.  Ramsay  left,  in  January,  1867,  Mr.  Aldrich  took  his  business 
and  kept  it  (alone  as  far  as  was  possible).  He  was  graduated  from  the 
law  school  at  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  in  March,  1868,  and  was  admitted  to  the 
bar  at  the  next  term.     He  onened  an  office  at  once  in  Colebrook.     In  1870 

Bench  and  Bar.  255 

he  formed  a  partnership  with  W.  H.  Shurtleff,  as  Aldrich  &  Shurtleff. 
This  continued  for  five  years.  On  the  return  of  J.  I.  Parsons  to  Colebrook 
immediately  after  the  expiration  of  this  partnership,  he  formed  a  partner- 
ship with  him  as  Aldrich  &  Parsons.  After  the  dissolution  of  this  part- 
nership in  1879,  he  was  alone  until  he  entered  the  firm  of  Bingham  ec  Al- 
drich at  Littleton  in  January,  1S81,  where  he  is  still  in  practice.  He  mar- 
ried Louise  M.,  daughter  of  the  late  Samuel  K.  and  Sophia  (Cushman) 
Remick,  October  5,  1872.  He  has  two  children — -Florence  M.,  born  July 
1,  1874,  and  Fred,  born  June  9,  1878,  in  Colebrook.  He  was  solicitor  of 
Coos  county  from  1872  to  1875,  and  again,  when  the  Republicans  carried 
the  state,  from  1870  to  1879.  Since  he  went  to  Littleton  he  was  elected  a 
member  and  then  the  speaker  of  the  New  Hampshire  House  of  Representa- 
tives that  met  in  June,  1885.  "  Mr.  Aldrich  did  not  in  his  school  days  con- 
template a  professional  career,  and  his  training,  in  school  and  out,  was  in- 
tended rather  to  fit  him  for  a  mercantile  business:  but  he  soon  supplied  the 
omissions,  while  his  infallible  good  judgment,  force,  and  determination 
brought  him  early  success  at  the  bar."  He  soon  came  into  the  front  rank 
of  the  young  lawyers,  speakers  and  writers  of  the  state,  as  well  on  general 
occasions,  as  at  the  bar.  He  is  now  recognized  asamong  the  best  advocates 
and  trial  lawyers  of  the  New  Hampshire  bar,  and  seems  to  be  still  improv- 
ing.    He  succeeds  by  force  and  persistence  rather  than  by  persuasion. 

Thomas  Franklin  Johnson  was  born  July  3,  1848,  at  Pittsburg,  N.  H. 
His  parents  were  unfortunately  located  for  the  education  of  children  of 
mental  temperament  and  considerable  ambition,  but  were  able  to  partly 
make  good  at  home  the  lack  of  school  privileges. 

Mr.  Johnson  in  early  youth  developed  a  very  exceptional  ability  and 
ambition  as  a  student;  was  soon  fitted  for  a  teacher  in  district  schools,  and 
earned  means  to  attend  Colebrook  academy,  where  he  fitted  for  college, 
and  acquired  reputation  as  a  man  of  unusual  promise.  A  protracted  ill- 
ness at  this  time,  which  threatened  permanently  to  impair  his  health,  pre- 
vented his  commencing  a  college  course.  He  was  elected  representative 
from  Pittsburg  in  March,  1871,  but  in  June  was  prostrated  with  one  of  the 
long  and  dangerous  illnesses  with  which  he  was  afflicted  in  early  man- 
hood; and,  as  his  vote  would  change  the  complexion  of  the  legislature,  he 
was  for  some  daj^s  the  center  of  interest  of  politicians  and  the  reporters. 
After  considerable  excitement  on  account  of  the  dilatory  motions  of  the 
Republicans,  it  was  learned  that  he  had  been  for  days  unconscious,  and 
unable  to  vote,  even  if  brought  to  Concord,  and  his  party  allowed  the 
organization  of  the  House  to  be  secured  by  the  Democrats,  and  James  A. 
Weston  was  elected  Governor,  and  the  state  went  into  Democratic  control. 

The  next  spring,  In 72,  Mr.  Johnson  went  to  Iowa,  and  was  for  several 
years  engaged  in  teaching  and  reading  law.  He  read  law  in  the  office  of 
Hon.  L.  L.  Ainsworth.  of  West  Union,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  that 

256  History  of  Coos  County. 

state  in  1875,  and  for  a  time  practiced  at  Postville.  He  married  Miss  Abbie 
Loverin,  oldest  child  of  Alfred  Loverin,  of  Colebrook,  in  March,  1877,  and 
was  pursuaded  to  establish  himself  there.  He  immediately  built  up  a 
very  promising  practice,  and  identified  himself  with  the  interests  of  the 
locality.  March,  1880,  he  entered  into  a  partnership  for  three  years  with 
James  I.  Parsons,  as  Parsons  &  Johnson.  After  the  termination  of  this 
partnership  he  resumed  business  alone,  and  has  been  in  active  and  success- 
ful practice  since,  attending  also  to  insurance  and  western  mortgage  loan 

Mr.  Johnson  is  a  man  of  scholarly  tastes,  a  student  rather  than  an  ora- 
tor; a  man  of  pen  and  books  by  preference,  instead  of  a  man  of  affairs. 
Few  lawyers  are  as  diligent  students  of  legal  works,  and  few  professional 
men  as  extensive  readers  of  historical  and  general  literature. 

Daniel  Clark  Remich,  son  of  Samuel  K.  Remick,  was  born  at  Hard- 
wick.  Vt.,  September  15,  1852.  He  attended  common  and  high  schools 
and  Colebrook  academy.  He  studied  law  at  Colebrook,  commencing  in 
1875,  in  the  office  of  Aldrich  &  Parsons,  and  then  going  into  that  of  J.  H. 
Dudley.  He  graduated  at  the  law  school  at  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  in  March, 
and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  of  this  county  in  April,  1878,  and  formed  a 
partnership  with  Mr.  Dudley,  as  Dudley  <&  Remich,  in  Colebrook,  and  re- 
mained there  until  he  moved  to  Littleton,  in  May,  1882. 

In  February,  1879,  he  married  Belle,  daughter  of  Alfred  Loverin,  of 
Colebrook,  who  died  in  1885.  In  May.  1886,  he  married  Mrs.  Lizzie  M. 
Jackson,  daughter  of  Benjamin  W.  Kilburn,  of  Littleton. 

Mr.  Remich,  while  in  his  "teens,''  went  to  Lawrence,  Mass.,  where  he 
remained  four  or  five  years  at  work  before  he  commenced  his  professional 
studies.  He  has  paid  little  attention  to  general  reading,  has  been  a  dili- 
gent student  of  the  law,  and  has  become  a  well  read,  exact  (rather  tech- 
nical) case  lawyer,  who  enjoys  and  is  brilliant  in  the  examination  of  the 
law  of  a  case,  and  its  presentation  to  the  court. 

Mr.  Remich  has  always,  unless  recently,  devoted  his  time,  thought  and 
unusual  mental  powers  to  his  law  books  and  law  business,  exclusively, 
and  his  profession  (said  to  be  a  "  jealous  mistress  ")  has  had  no  occasion  for 

James  Waldron  Remick,  also  a  son  of  Samuel  K.  Remick,  was  born  at 
Hard  wick,  Vt.,  October  30,  1860.  He  was  educated  in  the  schools  and 
academy  of  Colebrook,  and  early  showed  considerable  ability  and  taste  as 
a  writer  and  public  speaker.  He  commenced  the  study  of  law  with  Mr. 
Parsons,  in  Colebrook,  in  1879,  was  in  the  office  of  B.  F.  Chapman,  Clock - 
ville,  N.  Y. ,  for  a  time,  and,  later,  with  Bingham  &  Aldrich,  at  Littleton. 
He  graduated  from  the  law  school  at  Ann  Arbor,  Mich.,  in  March,  1882, 
soon  after  was  admitted  to  the  New  Hampshire  bar,  and  opened  an  office 
in  Mrs.  Gamsby's  block,  in  Colebrook.     In  November,  1885,  he  removed  to 

Bench  and  Bak.  257 

Littleton,  and  soon  formed  a  partnership  and  opened  an  office  there.  He 
is  a  successful  office  lawyer,  modest  and  well  prepared  in  court,  and  is 
rapidly  winning  a  reputation  by  the  thoroughness  and  ability  with  which 
he  presents  his  cases  to  the  full  bench.  He  is  a  fine  speaker,  but  has 
proven  it  by  occasional  lectures  and  orations,  and  considerable  speaking  in 
political  campaigns,  rather  than  at  the  bar  in  the  trial  of  litigated  cases. 

Geokge  W.  Hartshorn,  son  of  Colburn  and  Elizabeth  (Fay)  Harts- 
horn, was  born  in  Lunenburgh,  Vt.,  September  5,  L827,  (being  the  tenth 
of  their  twelve  sons),  educated  at  the  Guildhall  and  Lancaster  academies, 
studied  law  with  Amos  Bateman,  of  Camden,  N.  J.,  where  he  was  con- 
nected with  a  newspaper,  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  September,  L849,  and 
removed  to  Irasburg,  Vt.,  in  1850,  where  he  was  county  clerk,  and  edited 
the  Orleans  Count n  Gazette.  He  removed  to  Canaan,  Vt.,  in  1857,  from 
which  town  Ossian  Ray  had  shortly  before  removed  to  Lancaster,  and  has 
since  been  well-known  in  Northern  New  Hampshire  and  Vermont  as  an 
attorney,  and  was,  until  1873,  collector  of  customs  for  the  upper  section 
of  both  states.  He  had  a  considerable  practice  in  New  Hampshire  until 
about  1880,  when  he  became  substantially  incapacitated  for  work.  Before 
that  time  he  held  some  of  the  most  prominent  of  the  public  offices  of  his 
section  continuously. 

Henry  Willard  Lund,  son  of  Hezekiah  and  Mary  (Shores)  Lund,  was 
born  at  Granby.  Vt.,  October  11,  1854,  educated  at  the  St.  Johnsbury,  Vt., 
academy,  studied  law  with  Henry  C.  Bates,  of  St.  Johnsbury,  was  admit- 
ted to  the  bar  in  March,  1881,  and  settled  at  Canaan,  Vt.  He  has  since 
practiced  in  Canaan  and  Stewartstown,  doing  most  of  the  local  business  of 
that  section,  and  is  one  of  the  regular  practitioners  of  this  district,  though 
a  non-resident. 

Coos  County, 


Histoey  of  Towns. 





Origin  of  Name — Charter — Names  of  Grantees — Situation — Sceneiy,  Etc. — Climate;  Reason 

of  Its  Pleasantness — Change  of  Boundaries  and  Location. 

ORIGIN  of  Name* — Before  gathering  the  deeds,  recounting  the  ex- 
ploits, reciting  the  sufferings  and  hardships  of  the  early  and  later 
settlers  which  go  to  make  up  the  history  of  this  town,  let  us  look  at 
its  name,  and  see  from  whence  it  is  derived,  what  it  means,  how  it  hap- 
pened, and  the  various  changes  it  has  undergone. 

In  tracing  it  to  its  derivation,  we  find  it  of  Roman  origin,  and  as  old  as 
Julius  Caesar  and  Julius  Agricola.  The  Romans  were  an  ambitious, 
aggressive,  cruel,  and  conquering  people.  Their  great  object  was  aggran- 
dizement, wealth,  and  empire.  They  carried  war  into  the  East,  they  car- 
ried war  into  Africa,  and  at  length  Julius  Caesar  with  an  immense  army 
under  his  command  marched  west,  bringing  nations  and  people  under  trib- 
ute to  Rome.  At  length  he  was  the  conqueror  of  Gaul.  He  had  an  im- 
mense army.  They  must  have  something  to  do.  England  lay  just  across 
the  channel,  and  from  Calais  to  Dover,  the  narrowest  part  of  the  channel 
(twenty-nine  miles),  the  chalk-hills  could  be  seen  in  clear  weather.  Hence 
this  country  was  called  Albion — meaning  white.  Western  England  was 
distinguished  for  metal  called  tin.  The  merchants  of  the  Mediterranean, 
from  a  period  not  exactly  known,  had  trafficked  with  the  Britons  for  this 
article.  Caesar  had  learned  the  value  of  trade  with  the  Britons  from  the 
mariners,  and  resolved  to  cross  the  channel  with  his  army  and  reduce  this 
country  to  Roman  sway.  This  was  fifty-five  years  before  Christ.  From 
Julius  Caesar  to  Julius  Agricola  the  contest  went  on.  At  length  Roman  dis- 
cipline prevailed.  Soon  the  Roman  Legions  left  Gaul,  sailed  around  ' '  Land's 
End,"  up  St.  George's  Channel  on  the  west  side  of  Briton,  and  up  the 

*  By  Hon.  B.  F.  Whidden. 


Histoky  op  Coos  County. 

River  Luna  in  Northwestern  England.     On  the  souther  y  side  of  this  river 
TheY  landed  and  pitched  their  tents  or  camps.     At  this  landing,  being  one 
of  the  most  important  in  this  part  of  Britannia,  a  town  was  founded,  and 
caC  after  the"  river  and  the  camps  pitched  upon  its :  southe rn  bant- 
Tune  Castra      Lime,  the  name  of  a  river,  and  Castra,  the  Latin  foi  camp 
oXt      In  process  of  time  this  name  has  changed  with  the  conquering 
tongues  of  the  country.     When  the  Normans  came  over  into  England, 
thev  changed  this  name,  adapting  it  to  the  genius  of  their  tongue  from 
LulecZfra  to  Lon  Castre.     When  the  Saxons  came  with  their  all  con- 
oTring  tongue,  they  made  still  other  changes  in  the  spelling,  and  con- 
Wte  l°i   into  one  word.     They  changed  the  Lon  into  Lan,  and  the  final 
So  el    thus  the  name  became  Lancaster,  and  is  of  Roman  origin  hav- 
tag  undergone  the  several  changes  in  the  languages  through  which  it  ha 
come     It  was  imported  by  the  early  settlers  to  Massachusetts,  and  given 
to  this  township  by  the  grantees. 
Charter  of  Lancaster.— 


"  GEORGE,  the  Third: 

"  By  the  Grace  of  God,  of  Great  Britain,  France  and  Ireland,  King 
Defender  of  the  Faith.  &c. 

in  New  England,  and  of  our  conned  of  the  said  J^"^5  £  ug    Qm.  heirs  &  successorS 

tions  herein  ^^£j*Z%£*    UD  ^    Rants'  of  onr  said  province  of 
do  give  and  grant  in  equal  shaies,  unto  our  i        g         j  ^^  nameg 


Bquare  &  n m»re' ^J^ '  1vws  one  thous.nd  &  forty  acres  free,  according  to  a  plan  and 
,,y  rocks  pond..  monntanS.v.ive  returned  ^   ,he  Secl.etary's   oftce. 

SUr,7  '  'rtn  ed  hnVed*  bounded  as  follows,  viz,  beginning  ata  stake  and  stones,  standing 
and  hereunto  «J*™^"  of  ConMcticl,t  river,  Which  is  the  South  Westerly  corner  bounds 
on  the  Bank  of  the  Hasteny  ,,,.„„,  east  seven  miles  by  Stonington  to  the  south- 

„f  Stoningtou,  thence  running  south  hfty  five  degre* east,  seve  j  ^  ^  ^ 

easterly  corner  Ike™  ^^  ™,  ^--^^^/^Clo  ConnecticnrRiver,  thenceup  the  river 

rSnd^ht  m  ^ues  urs.  above  nfentioned  <*££»%£  X^ 

".I  *  hereby  is  incorporated  into  «  To™h,p  by  t  ,  nan> :        LAN    ASTER And^^  ^ 


&  entitled  to  all  &  ever th pnvrteg  ^  ^  ^  fifty  famin  dent 

exercise  A  enjoy.    And  further  that  tne  sa.  •  wWl  shall  be  held  on  the 

Town  of  Lancaster.  263 

respective following  the  said ,  And  that  as  soon  as  the  said  town  shall  consist  of 

fifty  families,  a  market  may  be  opened  &  kept  one  or  more  days  in  each  Week,  as  may  he  thought 
most  advantageous  to  the  Inhabitants.  Also  that  the  first  meeting  for  the  choice  of  Town  officers, 
agreeable  to  the  laws  of  our  said  province  shall  be  held  on  the  tirst  tuesdav  in  August  next,  which 
said  meeting  shall  be  notified  by  David  Page  who  is  hereby  also  appointed  the  Moderator  of  the 
said  first  meeting,  which  he  is  to  notify  A'  govern  agreeable  to  the  laws  A:  customsof  our  said  Prov- 
ince And  tint  the  annual  meeting  forever  hereafter  for  the  choice  of  such  officers  for  the  said 
town,  shall  be  on  the  SECOND  TUESDAY  of  March  annually.  To  Have  A  to  Hold  the  said  tract 
of  land  as  above  expressed,  together  with  all  privileges  A  appurtenances,  to  them  A  their  respect- 
ive heirs  A   assigns  forever,   upon   the  following  conditions,   VIZ. 

"  1.  That  every  Grantee,  his  heirs  or  assigns,  shall  plant  &  cultivate  live  acres  of  land,  within 
the  term  of  five  years  for  every  fifty  acres  contained  in  his  or  their  share  or  proportion  of  land  in  said 
Township,  &  continue  to  improve  &  Settle  the  same  by  additional  cultivations,  on  penally  of  the 
forfeiture  of  bis  Grant  or  share  in  the  said  Township,  &  of  its  reverting  to  us  our  heirs  &  succes- 
sors, to  be  by  us,  or  them  regranted  to  such  of  our  subjects  as  shall  effectually  settle  &  cultivate  the 

"2.  That  all  white  and  other  pine  trees  within  the  said  Township,  fit  for  masting  our  Royal 
navy,  be  carefully  preserved  for  that  use,  &  none  to  be  cut  or  felled  without  our  special  licence  for 
so  doing  first  had  and  obtained,  upon  the  penalty  of  the  forfeiture  of  the  right  of  such  Grantee, 
his  heirs  A'  assigns,  to  us,  our  heirs  and  successors,  as  well  as  being  subject  to  the  penalty  of  any 
act  or  acts  of  parliament  that  now  are,  or  hereafter  shall  be  enacted. 

"3.  That  before  any  division  of  the  land  be  made  to  &  among  the  Grantees,  a  tract  of  land  as 
near  the  centre  of  the  said  Township  as  the  land  will  admit  of,  shall  be  reserved  &  marked  out  for 
Town  lots,  one  of  which  shall  be  allotted  to  each  Grantee  of  the  Contents  of  one  acre. 

"  4.  Yielding  A  paying  therefor  to  us,  our  heirs  &  successors  for  the  space  of  ten  years,  to  be 
computed  from  the  date  hereof,  the  rent  of  one  ear  of  Indian  Corn  only  on  the  25th  day  of  Decem- 
ber annually,  if  lawfully  demanded,  the  first  payment  to  be  made  on  the  25th  day  of  Decemher, 

"  5.  Every  Proprietor,  settler  or  inhabitant,  shall  yield  &  pay  unto  us,  our  heir3  &  successors 
yearly,  &  every  year  forever,  from  &  after  the  expiration  of  ten  jrears  from  the  above  said  25th 
day  of  December  namely,  on  the  25th  day  of  December  which  will  be  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  17?:!, 
one  shiding  proclamation  money  for  every  hundred  acres  he  so  owns,  settles,  or  possesses,  and  so 
in  proportion  for  a  greater  or  lesser  tract  of  the  said  land;  which  money  shall  be  paid  by  the  re 
spective  persons  above  said,  their  heirs  or  assigns,  in  Our  Concil  Chamber  in  Portsmouth  to  such 
officer  or  officers  as  shall  be  appointed  to  receive  the  same,  &  this  to  be  in  lieu  of  all  other  rents  & 
services  whatsoever. 

"  In  Testimony  Whereof,  we  have  caused  the  seal  of  our  said  Province  to  be  hereunto  affixed, 

"  Benning  Wentworth  Esq,  our  Governor  &  Commander   in   Chief  of  our  said  Province,  the 

fifth  day   of  July  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  Christ,  one  thousand  seven   hundred  and  sixty  three, 

and  in  the  third  year  of  our  reign. 


"  By  His  Excellency's  Command, 
with   advice  of  Council. 

"  T.  Atkinson,  Sec'y. 

"Province  of  Xewhampshire,  July  Oth,  1763.    Recorded  according  to  the  original  under  the 

province  seal. 

"Pr.  T.  Atkinson.  Junk,  Sec'y." 

"  Keunes  of  the  Grantees. — David  Page,  David  Page,  Jun'r,  Abraham  Byam,  Ruben  Stone, 
John  Grout,  John  Grout,  Jun'r,  Jonathan  Grout,  Solomon  Willson,  Joseph  Stowed,  Joseph  Page, 
William  Page.  Nath'l  Page,  John  Warden,  Silas  Bennit,  Thomas  Shaltock,  Ephraim  Bhattock, 
Silas  Shattock,  Benj'aMann,  Daniel  Miles,  Thomas  Rogers,  John  Duncan.  Nath'l  Smith,  Charles 
How,    Israel  Hale,    Israel  Hale,  Jun'r,    Daniel  Hale,    William  Dagget,    Isaac  Ball,   Solomon  Fay. 

2G4  History  of  Coos  County. 

Jotham  Death,  John  Sanders,  Elisha  Crossby,  Luke  Lincoln,  David  Lawson,  Silas  Rice,  Thomas 
Carter,  Ephraim  Sterns,  James  Read,  Timothy  Whitney,  Thomas  Rice,  Daniel  Searles,  Isaac  Wood, 
Nath'l  Richai'dson,  Ebenezer  Blunt,  John  Harriman,  Ephraim  Noyce,  Benj'n  Sawyer,  John  Saw- 
yer, John  Wait,  Samuel  Marble,  Joseph  Marble,  Jonathan  Houghton  John  Rogers,  Abner  Holden, 
Stanton  Prentice,  Benj'n  Willson,  Stephen  Ernes,  John  Phelps,  William  Read,  Benj'n  Baxter,  Mat- 
thew Thornton,  Esq'r,  And'w  Wiggin,  Esq'r,  Meshech  Weare,  Esq'r,  Maj'r  JohnTolford,  Hon'l 
Jos'h  Newmarsh,  Esq'r,  Nath'l  Barrel,  Esq'r,  Dan'l  Warner,  Esq'r,  James  Nevins,  Esq'r,  Rev'd 
Mr.  Joshua  Wingate  Weeks,  and  Benj'n  Stevens. 

"  His  Excellency,  Benning  Wentworth,  Esq'r,  a  tract  of  land  to  contain  five  hundred  acres,  as 
marked  B.  W.  in  the  plan  which  is  to  be  accounted  two  of  the  within  shares  one  whole  share  for 
the  incorporated  Society,  for  the  propagation  of  the  Gospel  in  foreign  Parts,  one  share  for  a  Glebe 
for  the  Church  of  England  as  by  law  established;  one  share  for  the  first  settled  minister  of  the 
Gospel,  and  one  share  for  the  benefit  of  a  School  in  said  Town." 

Situation,  Scenery,  Etc. — Aclino  N.  Brackett  gives  this  description  of 
Lancaster  in  1821:  "  On  the  northeast  of  Lancaster  lie  Northumberland 
and  Kilkenny;  on  the  south  Jefferson  and  Whitefield,  and  on  the  south- 
west Dalton;  the  northwest  line  is  nine  miles  in  length,  the  south  ten,  and 
the  southwest  about  two  and  a  half  miles. 

"Lancaster  is  situated  on  the  southeastern  bank  of  Connecticut  river, 
which  forms  and  washes  its  northwestern  boundary,  with  its  various 
meanders,  a  distance  of  more  than  ten  miles.  In  this  whole  distance 
there  is  not  a  single  rapid.  The  water  is  deep,  and  below  the  mouth  of 
Israel's  river,  which  falls  into  the  Connecticut  very  near  the  center  of  the 
town,  its  general  width  is  twenty-two  rods.  The  meadows  lie  along  the 
margin  of  the  river  to  near  three-fourths  of  a  mile  in  depth,  almost  the 
whole  distance  above  mentioned.  To  these  succeed  a  border  of  pine  or 
spruce  land  for  another  half  mile,  which  is  generally  level,  and  productive 
when  cleared  and  properly  cultivated.  The  next  region  was  covered  with 
a  thick  growth  of  sugar-maple,  beech,  basswood,  ash,  and  other  deciduous 
forest  trees.  In  many  places,  however,  the  spruce  and  fir  abound,  more 
particularly  in  the  lowlands,  with  here  and  there  a  cedar  swamp.  The 
larch  and  mountain  ash  are  not  unknown  to  the  inhabitants  of  Lancaster, 
as  the  first  occupies  considerable  tract  between  the  meadows  and  highlands, 
and  the  other  is  found  scattered  among  the  other  timber  and  underbrush. 

*  *  *  #  -:•:-  *  *  -::- 

"  One  mile  from  the  Court  House  there  is  a  bridge  over  Connecticut 
river,  and  about  the  same  distance  another  over  Israel's  river.  The  first 
leads  into  Guildhall,  Vt.  The  other  connects  the  eastern  and  western 
divisions  of  the  town  together.  From  the  southerly  end  of  the  bridge  last 
mentioned,  the  road  to  Portland  and  Dartmouth  strikes  off  in  a  southeast- 
ern direction.  The  distance  to  the  place  first  mentioned  is  a  hundred  and 
ten  miles.  To  Portsmouth  it  is  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  miles.  The 
trade  of  the  town  is  carried  on  principally  with  Portland." 

Advancing  steps  of  civilization  have  changed  the  face  of  the  country 
described,  but  the  prominent  features  are  the  same  now  as  then.     The 

Town  of  Lancaster.  2C5 

meadows  and  intervals  are  considered  the  most  extensive,  and  finest  there 
are  in  the  whole  valley  of  the  Connecticut,  extending  back  nearly  a  mile 
to  the  uplands.  The  soil  of  these  intervals  is  alluvial  and  produces  excel- 
lent crops  of  corn,  oats,  and  grass;  while  the  uplands,  when  properly  cul- 
tivated, raise  fine  wheat  and  other  crops. 

There  is  no  town  in  New  Hampshire  more  pleasantly  situated  for  fine 
mountain  scenery.  The  town  itself  is  not  mountainous,  but  towering 
mountains  can  be  seen  on  every  side.  At  the  south  and  southeast,  the 
Franconia  hills  and  the  whole  range  of  the  White  Mountains  are  in  full 
view,  and,  in  the  north  and  east,  the  Stratford  or  "Percy"  peaks,  with 
many  of  the  Green  Mountains,  in  Vermont,  are  distinctly  visible  to  the 
west.  Before  you  is  the  meandering  Connecticut,  with  its  broad  cultivated 
intervals  dotted  with  beautiful  farm-houses;  at  the  right  are  seen  the  dark 
masses  of  the  "Pilot  Range.*'  and  on  the  Vermont  side  of  the  river  the 
Lunenburg  Heights;  the  whole  presenting  a  picture  of  nature  and  art  com- 
bined, beautiful  enough  to  satisfy  any  lover  of  picturesque,  wild,  and 
romantic  scenery.  There  are  several  ponds.  Martin  Meadow  pond,  in 
the  southern  part,  area  nearly  150  acres,  was  named  for  a  hunter  who 
formerly  frequented  this  locality.  This  communicates  with  Little  pond, 
area  forty  acres.  Baker  pond,  one  mile  north  of  the  village,  is  a  pleasant 
sheet  of  water. 

Lancaster  village  is  located  on  Israel's  river  and  about  one  mile  from 
the  Connecticut.  The  fine  country  which  surrounds  it,  the  excellent  roads, 
and  pleasant  drives,  together  with  the  magnificent  mountain  scenery  on 
•every  side,  render  it  attractive  as  a  summer  resort.  From  the  cupola  of 
the  Lancaster  House  a  very  extended  view  of  river,  country,  and  moun- 
tain scenery  can  be  obtained.  The  streets  are  wide  and  beautifully  shaded, 
while  the  business  blocks  and  private  residences  betoken  the  care,  neatness, 
and  taste  of  the  citizens.  The  river,  in  its  jDassage  through  the  village,  is 
spanned  by  two  substantial  bridges,  and  furnishes  fine  water-power.  The 
village  is  the  center  of  a  rich  agricultural  section,  and  does  a  large  mercan- 
tile business. 

Climate,  J-i> zason  of  its  Pleasantness. — The  climate  of  Lancaster,  and 
the  neighboring  country  is  delightful.  The  peculiar  state  of  the  weather 
here,  so  different  from  that  in  other  parts  of  New  England,  Dr.  Dwight 
attributes  to  the  proximity  of  the  White  Mountains.  In  his  words.  "  These 
"are  so  high,  that  they  stop  the  progress  of  the  easterly  winds,  or  more 
probably  elevate  their  course  into  a  region  of  the  atmosphere  far  above 
the  surface,  and  prevent  them  striking  the  earth,  until  they  arrive  at  the 
Green  Mountains  on  the  west.  The  westerly  winds  in  the  mean  time  im- 
pinging against  the  White  Mountains,  twenty-five  miles  beyond  Lancas- 
ter, but  in  regions  of  the  atmosphere  considerably  elevated,  are  checked 
in  their  career,  just  as  a  wind  is  stopped,  when  blowing  directly  against  a 


266  History  of  Coos  County. 

building.  A  person  approaching  near  the  building,  perceives  a  calm,  not- 
withstanding he  is  in  the  course  of  the  blast.  In  the  same  manner,  these 
mountains,  extending  thirty  miles  from  north  to  south,  and  rising  more 
than  a  mile  above  the  common  surface,  must,  it  would  seem,  so  effectu- 
ally check  the  current  of  the  northwest  wind,  as  to  render  its  progress 
moderate,  and  agreeable,  for  many  miles,  towards  that  quarter  of  the 
heavens.  Whether  the  cause  here  assigned  be  the  real  one  or  not,  the 
fact  is  certain,  and  gives  this  region  in  the  pleasantness  of  its  weather  a 
superiority  over  many  others.  The  scenery  of  this  region  is  remarkably 
interesting,  and  I  hesitate  not  to  pronounce  it  the  most  interesting  which 
I  have  ever  seen." 

Change  of  Boundaries  and  Location. — On  exploring  the  bounds  of 
Lancaster,  David  Page,  Esq.,  found  that  it  covered  but  a  small  portion  of 
the  coveted  Coos  meadows,  and  the  improvements  already  made  were 
really  in  Stonington.  The  nine  miles  extent  of  meadow  land,  the  good 
sites  of  Israel's  river  for  future  mills,  so  superior  to  those  of  John's  river, 
were  also  in  that  territory  of  Stonington,  the  proprietors  of  which  had 
done  nothing  to  develop  these  sources  of  wealth  during  the  existence  of 
the  term  of  their  grant,  which  expired  in  1766.  Then  was  done  a  bold 
thing.  Under  the  influence  of  some  powerful  mind,  and  it  would  seem 
necessary  to  go  no  farther  than  to  Mr.  Page  to  find  this,  the  proprietors 
conceived  the  idea  of  "  sliding  "  Lancaster  sufficiently  far  up  the  river  to 
include  all  the  desired  territory.  The  initial  steps  were  taken  in  1766,  but 
as  the  records  were  burned,  we  can  only  give  record  evidence  from  March 
10,  1767.  At  that  date  it  was  voted  that  "  Mr.  Page  receive  one  dollar  on 
each  right  for  altering  the  town,"  and  that  he  "  run  the  line  around  the 
town."  At  the  same  meeting  money  was  raised  to  "build  a  grist-mill  and 
saw-mill  on  Israel's  river."  The  line  around  their  occupancy  was  duly 
made,  meadow  and  house  lots  duly  laid  out,  and  some  labor  performed  on 
roads.  The  lines  of  the  grant  as  it  should  be  were  defined;  and,  in  1760, 
Lieut.  Joshua  Talford  was  procured  to  "  survey  "  the  town.  Going  up  the 
Connecticut  about  seven  miles  from  the  true  northwest  corner,  he  estab- 
lished an  arbitrary  corner  by  an  ash  tree  on  the  bank  of  the  Connecticut; 
from  this  he  surveyed  the  town  by  courses  and  distances  as  described  in 
the  charter.  If  the  original  grant  had  been  adhered  to,  three-fourths  of 
Lancaster  would  be  composed  of  land  now  in  Dalton  and  Whitefield. 

This  summary  proceeding  disarranged  all  the  river  grants  above  Lan- 
caster, and  after  much  agitation  it  was  submitted  to  the  arbitration  of 
Gov.  Wentworth.  It  was  finally  settled  by  Northumberland  holding  the 
ground  she  occupied,  while  Woodbury,  Cockburn,  Coleburn,  and  Stew- 
artstown  were  to  move  further  up  the  river,  and  each  receive  as  a  bonus 
a  large  additional  tract  on  its  eastern  side.  Not  all  of  the  proprietors  of 
Stonington  were  satisfied  with  this,  for  they  were  not  all  included   in  the 

Town  of  Lancaster.  267 

charter  of  Northumberland,  and  some  of  them  made  surveys  and  did  other 
acts  indicating  an  interference  with  Lancaster.  The  first  record  evidence 
of  this  is  in  the  records  of  1773.  On  August  26th  of  that  year,  at  a  meet- 
ing of  the  proprietors,  a  vote  was  passed  to  locate  Hon.  Charles  Ward  Ap- 
thorp's  ten  rights,  giving  him  two  miles  on  the  river  below  Edwards 
Bucknam's  lot,  and  back  far  enough  to  include  ten  full  rights,  and  also 
the  meadow  land  commonly  called  the  Cat  Bow  tract  of  360  acres.  But 
the  vote  contains  this  provision,  "  the  grant  hereby  made  to  him  shall  not 
operate  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  rest  of  the  proprietors  by  the  interven- 
tion of  any  foreign  legal  claim  under  color  of  a  mistake  in  the  boundaries 
of  the  township."     At  the  same  meeting  the  following  vote  was  passed:— 

"That  it  appears  to  this  proprietary  as  a  matter  of  some  uncertainty  whether  doubts  may  not 
arise  with  respect  to  the  northerly  extent  of  the  boundaries  of  this  township  which  upon  a  con- 
struction set  up  by  sundry  persons  will  deprive  the  whole  of  the  settlers  (one  only  excepted)  of  their 
land,  possessions  and  improvements  and  reduce  the  township  to  very  inconsiderable  compass,  and 
the  proprietors  laboring-  under  great  uneasiness  from  the  apprehension  of,  or  expecting  a  calamity, 
do  therefore  request  that  Arnmi  R.  Cutter,  Esq.,  and  Mr.  Jacob  Treadwell  will  be  pleased  to  lay 
before  his  Excellency  the  Governor  such  representation  upon  the  subject  as  may  to  them  appear 
most  proper  to  induce  his  Excellency  to  grant  to  the  proprietors  an  explanatory  charter  ascertain- 
ing the  limits  of  the  said  township  as  the  same  was  actually  surveyed  by  Joshua  Talford  and  is 
now  allotted  to  the  proprietors  and  possessed  and  enjoyed  by  the  inhabitants." 

The  war  of  the  Revolution  soon  followed,  and  no  mention  of  the  change 
of  lines  is  made  in  the  record  until  April  20,  1790,  when  it  was  voted  "that 
Col.  Jonas  Wilder,  Lieut.  Emmons  Stockwell,  and  Edwards  Bucknam  be 
a  committee  to  act  in  behalf  of  the  proprietary,  and  petition  the  General 
Court  of  the  State  of  New  Hampshire  respecting  the  charter  of  said  Lan- 
caster that  a  new  one  be  obtained  to  the  same  grantees,  and  to  cover  all 
the  lands  up  to  and  join  Northumberland,  agreeably  to  the  plan  and  sur- 
vey of  said  town."  In  1790  and  1791  similar  votes  were  passed.  In  1796 
the  proprietors  concluded  long  enough  possession  had  been  had  to  entitle 
them  to  the  land,  and  chose  "Richard  C.  Everett,  Esq.,  agent  to  act  in  be- 
half of  the  Proprietors  of  Lancaster  to  defend  any  lawsuit  or  suits,  or  to 
commence  any  action  or  actions  against  any  encroachments  thai  are  or 
may  be  made  upon  said  Township  of  Lancaster,  to  make  any  settlement 
of  all  or  any  disputes  which  are  or  maybe  had  with  the  adjacent  towns 
respecting  the  boundaries  of  said  town,  and  to  petition  the  Honorable  Gin 
eral  Court  with  any  agent  or  agents  of  the  neighboring  towns,  whose 
boundaries  are  disputed,  or  disputable,  for  their  interference  in  the  prem- 
ises." In  the  suit  of  Atkinson  vs.  Goodall,  tried  in  L853  at  Exeter,  to  ob- 
tain possession  of  lands  in  Bethlehem  as  belonging  to  the  grantees  of  ( Ion- 
cord  Gore,  described  as  "cornering  on  Lancaster,"  Hon.  .James W.  Weeks 
was  employed  to  give  a  general  delineation  of  Concord  Gore  and  adjacent 
territory.     His  map  correctly  located  the  gore,  but  failed  to  make  it  corner 

268  History  of  Coos  County. 

on  the  present  town  of  Lancaster.  The  court  decided  that  the  accepted 
boundaries  of  towns,  occupied  so  long  as  these  had  beeu,  could  not  be  dis- 
turbed by  reason  of  variance  from  original  intention. 


First  Settlements  —  Com  planted  —  Frost  —  Difficulty  of  Travel  —  Canoes  —  First  White 
Woman  —  Supplies  from  Portsmouth  or  Haverhill — "Samp  Mortar" — "Cars" — First  Mills — 
Revolution  —  Emmons  Stockwell  "would  stay" — Major  Jonas  Wilder  —  Rich  Soil  —  Manure 
thrown  away  — Village  Plot  —  First  two-story  house  in  Coos  county  —  First  Bridge  —  First 
Schools  —  Early  prices — "Alarms  During  the  War" — Early  Settlers  —  Residents,  Polls,  and 
Stock,  1793  —  David  Page  petitions  for  more  Land  —  Why  "Upper  Coos"  did  not  elect  Repre- 
sentative—  Edwards  Bucknam  granted  mill  privilege  at  Northumberland  Falls  — Petition,  etc., 
concerning  Taxes. 

FIRST  Settlements. — 1763. — Those  survivors  of  that  historic  band 
known  as  "Rogers'  Rangers,"  who  passed  down  the  valley  of  the 
Upper  Connecticut,  made  known  the  beauty,  extent,  and  fertility  of 
this  section  to  appreciative  ears.  Among  others  who  listened  to  their 
stories,  especially  to  those  of  the  youthful,  enthusiastic  and  dating  Emmons 
Stockwell,  was  David  Page,  Esq.,  of  Petersham,  Mass.,  one  of  the  grantees 
of  Haverhill,  who  felt  sorely  aggrieved  by  the  division  of  rights  in  that 
grant.  A  bold,  resolute  man,  he  determined  to  wrest  from  the  upper  wil- 
derness something  to  compensate  him  for  his  fancied  losses  in  Haverhill. 
He,  with  others,  secured  grants  for  territory  on  the  opposite  sides  of  the 
Connecticut  which  took  the  names  of  the  towns  where  most  of  them  lived 
in  Massachusetts,  and  which  bore  the  same  relation  to  each  other  and  the 
river.  Thus  it  came  that  Lancaster  and  Lunenburg  became  names  of 
towns  on  the  Upper  Connecticut.  The  same  year  that  Lancaster  was 
granted  (1763),  David  Page  determined  that  he  would  have  the  first  choice 
in  the  lands;  and  sent  his  son  David  and  Emmons  Stockwell,  to  make  a 
selection  and  improvements  to  hold  their  choice.  They  began  a  clearing, 
hunted,  fished,  and  trapped  during  the  winter.  They  located  their  camp 
on  the  meadow  back  of  the  Holton  house,  on  low  ground,  however,  and 
the  rising  Connecticut  drove  them  out  of  it  in  the  chilling  month  of  March. 
It  is  probable  that  they  returned  to  the  lower  settlements  in  time  to  act  as 
guides  and  assistants  to  the  company  of  permanent  settlers  who  were  then 
ready  to  start  for  the  new  land  of  paradise.  During  1764,  David  Page, 
with  his  family,  Edwards  Bucknam,  and  other  young  men  from  Lancaster, 
Lunenburg  and  Petersham,  Mass.,  became  settlers.     The  first  permanent 

Town  of  Lancaster.  269 

settlement  was  made  April  ID,  1764,  on  what  is  known  as  the  "Stockwell 
place."  The  colonists  set  at  work  with  a  will,  erecting  cabins,  clearing 
land,  and  planting  corn  on  the  land  cleared  the  year  before.  Their  com- 
bined efforts  enabled  them  to  plant  about  twelve  acres,  which  in  the  rich, 
fresh  soil  grew  rapidly.  "  By  August  26,"  says  Mr.  Stock  well,  "this  was 
twelve  feet  high,  in  full  milk,  with  ears  as  high  as  ray  shoulders."  Dur- 
ing that  night  it  was  frozen  completely  through  and  spoiled.  This  was  a 
hard  blow,  but  the  frost  extended  to  Massachusetts,  and  they  were  no 
worse  off  here  than  there.  The  settlers  had  brought  with  them  twenty 
head  of  cattle,  and,  during  the  summer,  added  twenty  more;  all  were  win- 
tered nicely. 

"  At  this  period  there  was  no  settlement  between  Haverhill  and  Lan- 
caster, and  but  very  few  north  of  Charlestown.  There  being  no  roads,  the 
settlers  suffered  inconceivable  hardships  in  transporting  their  necessaries, 
few  as  they  were,  being  obliged  to  navigate  their  log  canoes  up  and  down 
the  'Fifteen-mile  falls,'  now  known  to  be  twenty  miles  in  length,  with  a 
descent  of  more  than  three  hundred  feet;  and  in  winter  to  pass  the  same 
dangerous  rapids  in  sleighs  and  with  ox  teams,  frequently  falling  through 
the  ice,  and  sometimes  never  rising  above  it.  High  water  to  descend,  and 
low  water  to  ascend,  were  thought  the  most  favorable  times,  the  canoes 
being  drawn  up  by  ropes,  but  when  descending,  one  man  stood  in  the  bow 
with  a  pole  to  guard  from  rock  to  rock,  while  another  sat  in  the  stern  to 
steer  with  his  paddle.  In  this  manner  the  wife  of  David  Page,  when  cor- 
pulent and  infirm,  was  carried  in  safety  to  her  friends  below." 

So  much  has  been  written  about  David  Page,  Sr. ,  never  being  a  resi- 
dent of  Upper  Coos,  that  it  seems  quite  essential  to  say  that  we  have  his 
own  testimony  to  the  fact  that  he  did  reside  here  for  some  years,  and  prob- 
ably many.  See  his  petition  for  more  land  later  in  this  chapter.  Tradi- 
tion says  that  he  built  the  first  framed  house  in  the  county. 

The  first  white  woman  to  settle  here  was  Euth,  daughter  of  David  Page. 
She  came  in  August,  1764,  to  perform  the  indispensable  house-keeping  for 
the  pioneers.  In  1765  she  became  the  wife  of  Emmons  Stock  well.  They 
had  fifteen  children;  David,  the  oldest,  was  the  first  son  of  Lancaster.  The 
married  life  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Stockwell  continued  fifty-five  years.  Mrs. 
Stockwell  had  nearly  two  hundred  descendants  living  at  the  time  of  her 
death,  which  occurred  March  21,  is-2s,mthe  eighty-second  year  of  her  age, 
and  for  forty  years  previous  she  had  been  a  member  of  the  "  First  church  *' 
in  Lancaster. 

In  1775  there  were  eight  families  in  town,  embracing  about  sixty-one 
persons.     Dennis  Stanley  was  here  prior  to  1771',. 

For  the  first  twenty  years  the  people  lived  without  mills,  and  their 
nearest  neighbors  were  fifty  miles  distant.  All  their  supplies  not  produced 
from  their  lands,  or  forest  and  stream,  came  through  the  White  Mountain 

270  History  of  Coos  County. 

Notch,  or  up  the  Connecticut  river.  The  first  lime  used  by  Lieut.  Stanley 
to  tan  moose  skins,  was  brought  from  Portsmouth  in  leather  bags,  on  a 
horse's  back.  A  scanty  supply  of  flour  was  obtained  from  Haverhill.  It 
does  not  appear  that  they  ever  suffered  for  lack  of  food,  except  one  season, 
when  the  frost  killed  the  corn. 

The  samp  mortar  was  an  "  institution  ''  in  all  the  old  families.  This 
was  an  immense  hardwood  log,  about  three  feet  in  length,  hollowed  out  at 
the  end  like  an  ordinary  mortal*,  with  a  stone  pestle  hung  upon  a  spring 
pole  in  the  corner  of  the  kitchen;  in  this  mortar  the  corn  was  put  in  small 
qualities,  and  crushed  with  this  pestle  until  it  was  as  fine  as  hominy,  and 
was  superior  to  it.  The  hull  could  be  taken  off  by  putting  it  in  water. 
Samp  was  a  standard  article  of  food  long  after  mills  were  established,  and 
the  mortar  maintained  its  place  in  many  families.  The  Connecticut  river 
supplied  fish  of  the  choicest  kind,  and  the  family  who  did  not  "  put  down  " 
a  supply  of  salmon  was  looked  upon  as  improvident. 

Even  at  this  early  period,  "cars  "were  used  for  the  transportation  of 
baggage;  not  constructed,  however,  precisely  like  these  on  our  railroads, 
as  they  were  made  of  two  poles,  one  end  of  each  resting  on  the  ground, 
the  other  passing  through  the  stirrups  of  a  saddle,  with  two  transverse 
sticks  behind  the  horse,  on  which  rested  the  load,  and  to  one  of  which  the 
whiffletree  was  attached. 

First  Mills.— The  very  first  mill  was  operated  by  horse-power,  but  it 
did  little  better  service  than  the  large  mortar  and  pestle  attached  to  a  pole. 
David  Page  built  a  small  water-mill  on  Indian  brook,  northeast  of  the 
burying-ground,  about  1770.  This  and  its  successor  was  burned.  About 
17S1  Major  Wilder  built  a  grist  mill  at  the  foot  of  the  "sand-hill."  Be- 
tween 17'J3  and  1800,  R.  C.  Everett  put  up  a  large  mill,  one  hundred  feet 
long,  and  three  stories  in  height,  in  which  was  a  grist-mill,  a  carding  ma- 
chine, and  two  saws.  This  was  burned  about  1800,  with  much  grain.  In 
the  same  year  (1800)  Emmons  Stockwell  and  Titus  O.  Brown  erected  mills. 
In  1810  an  improved  mill  was  built  where  the  present  one  stands,  and,  in 
1817,  one  occupied  the  "  Wesson  "  privilege. 

During  the  Revolution  the  little  settlements  on  the  Connecticut  were 
much  retarded.  The  fear  of  the  Indians,  who  captured  Newcomb  Blodgett, 
and  others,  inhabitants  of  Coos,  led  to  the  idea  of  abandonment  of  the 
country.  Emmons  Stockwell  was  made  of  no  such  material,  however. 
He  told  those  that  spoke  of  leaving  "  to  go,  if  they  wanted  to,  but  that  he 
should  stay."  He  did  stay,  and  sometimes  alone,  and  sometimes  with 
the  company  of  several  families,  he  kept  the  settlement  alive  until  the 
war  was  over.  Even  after  the  war  Lancaster  settled  slowiy.  The  pro- 
prietors did  not  willingly  part  with  their  lands,  some  would  not  sell,  and 
the  town  grew  slowly.     The  destruction  of  the  town  records  of  the  earliest 

Town  of  Lancaster.  271 

days  makes  it  impossible  to  give  the  exact  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  early 

In  1778  Major  Jonas  Wilder  came,  and  was  chosen  to  office  in  March. 
17 7i».  He  was  followed  by  many  of  his  relatives  and  friends,  who  came 
with  all  the  enthusiasm  of  men  who  expected  to  make  their  fortunes  in 
a  very  short  time.  The  contrast  between  the  sterile  soil  of  central  Massa- 
chusetts and  the  Connecticut  meadows  was  so  great  that  it  seemed  to  them 
that  they  had  only  to  come  here  to  be  rich.  It  was  understood  that  the 
meadows  were  so  fertile  that  manure  would  never  be  wanted  to  secure  the 
finest  of  crops,  and  so  impressed  were  they  with  this  idea,  that  the  drop- 
pings of  the  cattle  were  carted  from  the  Wilder  premises,  and  dumped 
into  a  gully  near  Indian  brook,  and,  in  some  instances,  barns  were  moved 
to  get  them  out  of  the  way  of  the  manure  heaps.  This  paradise  included 
also  Lunenburg  and  Guildhall. 

Village  Plot. — In  settling  a  new  country  one  of  the  first  things  done  is 
to  lay  out  a  village  plot.  The  proprietors,  knowing  from  its  location  and 
advantages  that  Lancaster  must  become  an  important  business  center,  laid 
out  two  streets,  (one  south  from  Israel's  river,  the  other  easterly  to  the 
river,)  and  sixty  building  lots,  deeded  the  "  meeting-house-common  "  to  the 
the  town,  deeded  Israel's  river,  with  a  strip  of  land  on  each  side,  from  the 
island  below  the  bridge  to  the  great  bow  above  the  paper-mill,  to  the 
town  for  school  purposes,  and  offered  fifty  acres  of  land  to  the  one  who 
brought  the  first  set  of  blacksmith's  tools  to  the  town  and  established  a 
shop.  Few  buildings  w^ere  erected,  however,  where  the  proprietors  ex- 

The  First  Two -story  House  in  Coos  county  was  the  present  residence  of 
H.  F.  Holton,  which  was  commenced,  according  to  tradition,  on  the 
memorable  "dark  day,"  May  li>,  1  780,  by  Major  Jonas  Wilder,  and  "raised" 
July  26,  1780. 

The  First  Bridge  on  Israel's  river  was  built  by  Emmons  Stockwell,  and 
it  is  said  that  he  paid  five  gallons  of  brandy  for  the  privilege  of  crossing  it 

First  Schools. — Mrs.  Euth  Stockwell  was,  beyond  question,  the  first 
to  impart  knowledge  of  books  to  the  settlers,  but  she  kept  no  regular 
school.  At  an  early  date  a  log  school-house  was  erected  in  District  No. 
one.  In  District  No.  two,  a  school  was  established  early.  From  ;i  letter 
of  Capt.  John  Weeks,  dated  Lancaster,  June  15,  17s7,  we  extract:  "  John 
values  himself  much  on  his  spelling  and  reading  at  school,  as  he  gets  the 
better  of  all  of  his  age,  and  of  many  much  older.  The  schoolmaster,  Mr. 
Burgin,  an  Englishman,  boarded  with  us  last  week:  we  take  turns  to  board 
him  weekly."  According  to  the  Bucknam  papers,  Joseph  Burgin  began  a 
term  of  six  months  at  $5  per  month,  June  20,  1787.  A  Mr.  Bradley  was 
leaching  during  the  summer  of  1789. 

272  History  of  Coos  County. 

Early  Prices. — The  stock  of  the  first  merchants  was  "  W.  I.  Rum,"  "N. 
E.  Rum,"  tobacco,  chintz  (calico),  salt,  tea,  axes,  hoes,  nails,  glass,  etc. 
Little  money  was  here,  and  barter  was  the  rule.  Home-made  tow-and- 
linen  cloth  brought  from  two  to  three  shillings  a  yard,  cotton-and-linen 
cloth  three  to  four  shillings,  chintz,  for  wedding  dresses,  one  dollar  a  yard, 
and,  as  women's  wages  were  from  two  to  three  shillings  a  week,  it  would 
take  "my  lady  "  four  or  five  months  steady  labor  to  earn  her  bridal  dress. 
Men's  wages  for  the  "season"  (six  months  in  summer)  were  about  $8  a 
month  in  stock  or  produce,  and  ten  or  twelve  days'  labor  might  possibly 
buy  sufficient  cloth  for  a  pair  of  shirts.  Pearlash  and  potash  would  bring 
from  $75  to  $150  a  ton  in  Portland.  Nails  sold  for  nine  pence  a  pound, 
glass  from  six  pence  to  one  shilling  a  "pane."  Cows  were  worth  from 
$10  to  $12  each,  oxen  (six  feet  in  girth)  from  $35  to  $10  a  yoke.  Potatoes 
were  in  good  demand  at  the  distilleries,  of  which  there  were  several,  and 
brought  from  ten  to  twelve  cents  a  bushel.  Furs  were  plenty,  and  brought 
good  prices.  In  January,  1786,  John  Johnson  worked  three  days  at  Buck- 
nam's,  shoemaking,  for  which  he  charged  four  shillings.  Bucknamkept 
a  house  of  entertainment  as  well  as  merchandise  for  sale.  Prices  for  meals 
'  '6d3 "  lodging  '  'Id, "  toddy  one  shilling,  rum  one  shilling  eight  pence  per  pint. 
In  1701  shot  sold  for  one  shilling  per  pound,  brick  2s-ld  a  100.  In  Octo- 
ber, 1771,  Bucknam  credits  Joseph  Whipple  with  two  yards  calico  six 
"shillings  each,"  and  charges  him  for  pork  and  butter  lOd  per  pound, 
wheat  six  shillings,  peas  seven  shillings,  Indian  corn  four  shillings  per 
bushel.  Salted  bear  meat  brought  Sdalb.,  salt  fish  Sd,  hay  $5  per  ton, 
leather  for  a  pair  of  breeches  18  shillings.  Joseph  Currier  is  charged 
August  25,  17bl,  with  over  two  quarts  rum  "  when  married;"  June  8, 
1785,  one  quart  "when  ye  child  died,"  2  sh_. 

"Alarms  During  the  War."— June  22,  1786,  Jonas  Wilder  and  Em- 
mons Stockwell  as  selectmen  give  this  "account  of  the  alarms  in  the 
Upper  Coos  during  the  late  war.  In  July,  1776,  1  alarm;  Sept.,  1777, 
1  alarm;  1778,  do;  in  July,  1779,  1  alarm.  Indians  took  prisoners  at  Strat- 
ford; in  June,  1780,  1  alarm;  August,  1780,  do;  Oct.,  1780,  1  do;  Thos. 
Worcester  taken;  in  July,  1781,  1  alarm;  some  wounded  men  came  in, 
said  Pritchett  was  near;  Sept.,  1781,  1  alarm.  Pritchett  went  to  Wipple's; 
in  May,  1782,  1  alarm,  Abel  Learned  taken;  June,  do.  1  alarm;  in  Oct.,  1 
alarm.  Nix  taken."  This  was  endorsed  "Account  of  the  number  of  days 
spent  in  scouting,  guiding,  and  foiling,  by  the  men  inhabitants  of  Lancas- 
ter, in  time  of  the  above  alarms,  and  other  times  during  the  late  war: 
being  117  days,  Jonathan  Willard,  10  clays.     Total,  157  days." 

"Moses  Page,  David  Page,  and  Emmons  Stockwell  were  in  company 
in  constructing  the  mill-dam  in  February,  1785."  -Bucknam  Papers. 

By  1786  the  tide  of  emigration  set  strongly  this  way.  Col.  Stephen 
Willson  had  a  clearing  and  log  hut   on  the  interval  near  the  present  vil- 

Town  of  Lancaster.  l>7:; 

lage.  Capt.  John  Weeks  came  from  Greenland,  and,  following  his  step-. 
the  same  year,  and  later,  came  Joseph  Brackett,  Coffin  and  William  Moore, 
Phineas  Hodgdon,  Walter  and  Samuel  Philbrook.  and  others.  Central 
Massachusetts  sent  a  respectable  number  at  about  the  same  time,  or  a  few 
years  later,  including  Titus  0.  Brown,  Jonas  Baker,  Jonathan  Cram, 
Humphrey  Cram,  Joseph  Wilder.  Elisha  Wilder,  Rev.  Joseph  Willard, 
Benjamin  Boardman,  and  others.  In  1700  the  town  had  1  < >  1  population.  The 
growth  had  been  slow,  but  largely  compensating  for  that  was  the  charac- 
ter of  the  settlers.  They  were  men  who  came  to  stay,  and  their  presence, 
merely,  in  a  community  was  an  addition  to  its  prosperity;  they  were  men 
of  strong  mind,  possessed  fair  education,  had  borne  the  hardships  of  a 
long  struggle  for  their  liberties,  were  self-reliant,  and  could  endure  with 
patience  the  privations  of  pioneer  life.  Some  of  them  had  served  with 
credit  as  officers  in  the  army,  and  they  could  all  turn  their  hands  to  varied 
employments,  use  the  axe.  guide  the  plow,  "run  lines,"  construct  a  barn 
or  house,  shoot  a  moose,  catch  a  trout,  or  trap  wild  game. 

An  extract  from  a  letter  of  Capt.  John  Weeks  to  his  wife,  written  at 
Lancaster,  July  15,  1787,  will  throw  a  little  light  on  the  mode  of  life  of 
that  primitive  period.  "We  shall  move  into  our  log  house  this  week.  It 
will  be  a  very  comfortable  one.  The  logs,  all  peeled,  are  smooth  and  clean. 
The  house  is  eighteen  feet  wide,  and  twenty  feet  long.  We  shall  have  one 
comfortable  room,  and  two  bed-rooms.  Our  family  now  consists,  beside 
myself,  of  one  hired  man,  one  girl  (Patty),  one  boy  (John),  one  cow,  one 
heifer,  one  sheep,  one  hog,  one  pig,  one  dog,  one  cat,  one  hen  and  one 
chicken;  we  have  also  a  pair  of  geese  at  Coll  Buckmans,  which  we  shall 
take  home  in  the  fall.  You  would  be  pleased  to  see  our  little  family,  and 
Patty's  management  of  it." 

Adjoining  Deacon  Brackett's  farm  on  the  east,  was  the  farm  of  B riant 
Stephenson.  He  was  a  good  man,  a  worthy  citizen,  and  one  of  the  first 
clerks  in  school  district  number  two,  which  was  formed  in  L791.  He  was 
also  town  clerk.  About  1790,  Phineas  Hodgdon  (a  soldier  under  Gen. 
Gates  in  the  Revolution),  a  young  man  of  military  bearing,  became  a  set 
tier;  John  Mcln tire  came  later,  with  a  yoke  of  steers,  a  pair  of  "' block- 
wheels,"  a  chain,  axe,  and  a  bushel  of  salt.  He  was  uneducated,  but  pos- 
sessed strong  common  sense,  took  up  one  lot  of  land,  which  by  his  indus- 
try he  brought  into  a  fine  state  of  cultivation,  and  accumulated  a  large 
property.  Edward  Spaulding,  (whose  mother  brought  him,  a  child,  to 
Northumberland  in  1767,)  on  arriving  at  maturity,  bought  a  lot  of  land  on 
the  northern  slope  of  Mt.  Pleasant,  which  he  cleared  and  occupied  during 
a  long  life.  He  was  a  man  of  magnificent  proportions.  He  was  a  great 
hunter  and  fisher;  honest,  kind  and  hospitable.  He  died  in  1545.  Coffin 
Moore'  son  of  Dr.  Coffin  Moore,  of  Portsmouth,  married  Mary  Bucknam, 
and  resided  in  Dalton  and  Lancaster.     Among  his  children  were  Dr.    Ed- 

271  History  of  Coos  County. 

ward  B.  Moore,  an  eminent  physician  of  Boston,  and  Joseph  B.  Moore,  of 
Lancaster.  Capt.  William  Moore  settled  on  a  farm  near  Martin  Meadow 
pond.  He  married  a  daughter  of  John  Mclntire,  held  various  town  offices, 
and  was  very  popular.  Asahel  Allen  lived  on  the  southern  slope  of  Martin 
Meadow  hills.  Amos  LeGro,  son  of  Dr.  Samuel  LeGro,  was  a  useful  and 
upright  citizen.  Joseph  Howe  and  Daniel  Stebbins  lived  near  neighbors, 
on  the  hill  road.     Both  were  trustworthy  men  and  excellent  citizens 

Residents,  Polls,  and  Stock.  1793.  — The  first  inventory  of  Lancaster  other 
than  of  real  estate  appears  on  record  as  taken  in  April,  1793.  Col.  Ed- 
wards Bucknam  has  one  poll,  two  oxen,  five  cows,  two  horses,  four  young 
cattle;  Lt.  Joseph  Brackett,  two  polls,  two  oxen,  two  cows,  one  horse, 
six  young  cattle;  Jonas  Baker,  one  poll,  two  oxen,  two  cows,  one  yearling; 
James  McHard,  no  poll  nor  personal  property;  Phineas  Brace,  one  poll, 
one  cow;  William  Bruce,  one  poll;  Titus  0.  Brown,  one  poll;  Lt.  Jona. 
Cram,  two  polls,  two  oxen,  two  cows,  two  horses,  six  young  cattle;  Thad- 
deus  Carby,  one  poll;  Abijah  Darby,  one  poll,  one  cow;  Isaac  Darby,  one 
poll,  one  cow;  Fortunatus  Eager,  one  poll;  Robert  Gotham,  one  poll,  one  ox, 
two  three -year  olds;  Benjamin  Green,  nothing;  Daniel  How,  one  poll,  two 
oxen,  one  cow,  one  two-year  old;  Phinehas  Hodsden,  one  poll,  one  cow, 
two  young  cattle;  Jonathan  Hartwell,  one  poll,  one  cow;  Oliver  Hutchings, 
one  poll;  William  Johnson,  no  poll  nor  personal  property;  Nathan  Love- 
well,  one  poll,  one  two-year-old;  William  Moore,  one  poll,  one  ox,  one 
cow;  John  Mclntire,  one  poll,  two  oxen,  one  cow,  two  young  cattle;  Ben- 
jamin Orr,  one  poll;  Capt.  David  Page,  three  polls,  three  oxen,  three  cows, 
eight  young  cattle;  Moses  Page,  one  poll,  two  cows,  one  horse,  three  young 
cattle;  Walter  Philbrook,  one  poll,  one  cow;  Joel  Page,  one  poll;  Lt.  John 
Rosbrook,  one  poll,  two  oxen,  two  cows,  two  horses;  Charles  Rosbrook, 
one  poll,  one  horse;  Jona.  Rosbrook,  one  poll;  Ezra  Reeves,  one  poll,  one 
cow,  one  horse,  two  two-year  olds;  Lt.  Emmons  Stockwell,  two  polls,  two 
oxen,  four  cows,  one  horse,  nine  young  cattle;  Lt.  Dennis  Stanley,  one 
poll, two  oxen,  five  cows,  one  horse,  four  young  cattle;  Edward  Spaulding, 
one  poll,  one  cow,  one  horse,  three  young  cattle;  Jere.  Stickney,  one  poll, 
one  horse;  Benjamin  Twombly,  one  poll;  Col.  Jonas  Wilder,  one  poll,  four 
oxen,  three  cows,  one  horse,  six  young  cattle;  Jonas  Wilder,  Jr., one  poll,  one 
cow,  three  horses,  three  young  cattle;  Joseph  Wilder,  one  poll;  Elisha  Wil- 
der, one  poll,  two  oxen,  one  cow,  one  yearling;  John  Wilder,  one  poll; 
Eph.  Wilder,  one  poll;  Manasseh  Wilder,  one  poll;  Capt.  John  Weeks, 
one  poll,  two  cows,  one  yearling;  Lt.  Jere.  Willcox,  one  poll,  one  cow,  one 
horse;  Smith  Williams,  nothing;  Ashbell  Webb,  one  poll,  two  oxen;  Syl- 
vanus  Chessman,  one  poll;  Joseph  Chandler,  one  poll. 

By  this  time,  the  intervals,  or  meadow  lots,  on  the  Connecticut,  had 
been  mostly  occupied,  and  farms  on  the  hills  were  beginning  to  be  de- 
veloped.    Although  harder  to  cultivate,  they  produced  well. 

Town  of  Lancaster.  275 

It  appears  from  documents  published  in  "Hammond's  Town  Papers," 
(Vol.  12,  pp.  351-361,)  that  David  Page  petitioned  Gov.  Wentworth,  Jan 
uary  7.  1773,  for  a  grant  of  more  land,  setting  forth  thai  he  had  been  "at 
great  trouble  and  expense"  in  attempting  and  prosecuting  the  settlement, 
bringing  on  his  own  and  several  other  families,  "having  live  of  his  own 
children  married  and  settled  about  him,  who  have  made  considerable  pro- 
gress," etc.     His  petition  was  granted,  and  Edwards  Bucknam   directed, 

January  20,  1773,  to  survey  and  mark  out  a  tract  of  1,1 acres  for  this 

purpose,  which  he  did  in  Jefferson.  December  14,  1775,  David  Page,  select- 
man of  the  town  of  Lancaster,  James  Brown,  selectman  of  the  town  of 
Stratford,  and  Josiah  Walker,  "inhabitant"  of  Stratford,  report  to  the 
Provincial  Congress  convened  at  Exeter,  December  20,  L775,  "that  the 
nine  towns  in  the  Upper  Cohos  have  not  complied  with  the  precept  of  the 
last  Congress,  issued  to  them  for  the  election  of  a  Representative."  because, 
first,  "the  needy  circumstances  of  the  people  render  it  impossible  for  them 
to  be  at  the  expense  of  supporting  one."  Second,  "the  distance  of  the  in- 
habitants and  difficulty  of  communication  is  so  great,  that  it  prevented  a 
general  attendance  at  the  meeting."  They  also  state  the  universal  desire 
of  the  people  not  to  be  taxed  to  defray  any  expense  of  delegates  as  there 
should  be  no  taxation  without  representation.  Edwards  Bucknam  and 
Emmons  Stockwell,  selectmen,  make  a  return  of  ten  (1Q)  ratable  polls  in 
the  town  of  Lancaster,  December  2,  1783.  Edwards  Bucknam  petitions 
the  General  Assembly,  October  8,  1 784,  "  for  the  privilege  of  using  and  im- 
proving the  Earth  and  waters  between  the  Eastwardly  and  Westwardly 
banks"  of  the  Connecticut  river  at  Northumberland  Falls.  "  in  length  the 
distance  of  one  (1)  mile  each  way  from  the  center  of  said  Falls,"  and  states 
that  the  falls  are  convenient  for  building  mills  and  keeping  a  ferry  boat. 
and  that  "  he  is  now  actually  erecting  a  set  of  mills  both  for  sawing  and 
grinding  on  said  falls."  His  petition  is  granted  in  1784.  Jonas  Wilder, 
Edwards  Bucknam,  and  Emmons  Stockwell,  as  a  town  commit  tee.  pe- 
tition the  General  Assembly,  September  4,  1787,  to  pass  an  act  empower- 
ing the  town  to  levy  and  collect  a  tax  of  three  pence  on  each  acre  i  public 
rights  excepted)  for  the  purpose  of  making  roads,  building  bridges,  meet- 
ing-house, etc.,  etc.,  and  a  continuation  of  one  penny  on  the  acre  annually 
for  five  years,  to  be  appropriated  to  the  same  object.  In  this  pet  ition  they 
set  forth  as  follows:  "  Nothing  more  effectually  hinders  the  emigration 
of  inhabitants  to  this  part  of  the  state,  than  the  badness  of  our  roads,  and 
the  want  of  a  convenient  place  to  worship  that  being,  to  whom  all  owe 
their  existence.  The  formation  of  the  town  being  very  peculiar,  on  account 
of  marshes,  creeks,  and  large  streams,  and  the  number  of  inhabitants 
being  but  very  small;  consequently  the  expense  of  making  and  mending 
roads,  building  bridges,  meeting  houses,  etc..  must  be  very  great.  <  )ne 
large  stream,  known  by  the  name  of  Israel's  river,  is  so  formidable  where 

276  History  of  Coos  County. 

it  must  be  bridged,  to  accommodate  the  travel  up  and  down  Connecticut 
river,  and  likewise  the  travel  to  and  from  Portsmouth  (our  most  advan- 
tageous port),  that  it  must  cost,  at  a  moderate  compensation,  two  hundred 
pounds.  The  inhabitants  have  solicited  the  non-resident  land  owners  for 
assistance  (many  of  whom  live  out  of  the  state),  but  they  have  entirely 
refused."  Such  a  graphic  statement  of  facts,  and  the  justice  of  their  re- 
quest, caused  the  legislature  to  grant  their  prayer.  It  appears,  however, 
that  by  some  unforeseen  fatality  the  business  was  not  accomplished,  and 
November  12,  1792,  another  petition  was  sent  to  the  legislature  for  author- 
ity to  levy  a  special  tax  of  two  pence  an  acre  for  two  successive  years,  to 
be  applied  to  the  same  purpose.  This  petition  was  signed  by  Fortunatus 
Eager,  John  Rosbrook,  Jr.,  Charles  Rosbrook,  Jonas  Wilder,  William  Bruce, 
Jonathan  Cram,  Titus  O.  Brown,  John  Holmes,  Elisha  Wilder,  Phineas 
Bruce,  John  Rosbrook,  Emmons  Stockwell,  Joseph  Wilder,  Asahel  Bige- 
low,  Nathan  Love  well,  Benjamin  Orr,  David  Stockwell,  Moses  Page,  Den- 
nis Stanley,  William  Moore,  David  Page,  Abijah  Darby,  Joseph  Brackett, 
Walter  Philbrook,  Jonas  Baker,  Edward  Spaulding,  William  Johnson,  and 
Coffin  Moore.  ' 


Lancaster  in  1795  and  1804  —  Lancaster  Bridge  Co.  —  Extracts  from  Joseph  Brackett's  Diary, 
1799  to  1801  — Gen.  Moses  Hazen  —  South  Lancaster  or  "Cat  Bow "  —  Lancaster  in  1810  — First 
Sabbath  School  —  1820  —  1830  —  Stores,  Articles  of  Traffic,  Etc.  —  Freight  —  Mail,  Vehicles, 
Etc.  —  1840  — Extracts  from  A.  N.  Brackett's  Diary  —  The  Great  Hail  Storm  — Climatic  and 
Weather  Records  — Hon.  John  W.  Weeks  on  Lancaster  in  1839  —  1840  to  1850  — J.  S.  Brackett's 
Summary  from  1850  to  1876  —  Village  Streets  — 1870  to  1887  —  Real  Estate  and  Personal  Prop- 
erty — 1886. 

LANCASTER  in  1795-1804.— The  number  of  tax-payers  in  1705  was 
fifty-nine.  The  six  who  paid  the  largest  tax  were  Jonas  Wilder,  Dennis 
Stanley,  Emmons  Stockwell,  Titus  O.  Brown,  David  Page,  Edwards 
Bucknam.  In  1799  there  were  ninety-one  voters,  and,  in  1800,  apopulationof 
440.  In  1804  there  were  only  seven  dwelling  houses  in  the  village,  north  of  the 
burying-ground.  They  were  occupied  by  Artemas  Wilder,  Stephen  Will- 
son,  Samuel  Hunnux,  William  Lovejoy,  A.  Cram,  J.  Cram,  and'  Mr. 
Faulkner.  Between  the  burying-ground  and  the  river  were  the  dwelling- 
houses  of  R.  C.  Everett,  and  by  the  river,  those  of  a  man  called  "Governor  " 
Bruce,  famous  for  his  facetious  rhymes  and  speeches  at  raisings,  and  that 
of  the  sturdy  David  Greenleaf .  On  the  south  side  of  the  river  there  were 
six  dwelling  houses.     Titus  O.  Brown's,  in  one  end  of  which  he  kept  a 

Town  of  Lancaster.  277 

small  store;  Sylvanus  Chessman's  house,  then  just  huilt  for  a  tavern;  Ed- 
mund Chamberlain's,  Dr.  Chapman's,  Chessman's  old  house  under  the 
meeting-house  hill,  and  the  house  of  Mr.  Hinman,  the  clothier.  There  was 
a  mill  on  one  side  of  Israel's  river,  and  a  clothing-mill  on  the  other.  These, 
with  the  meeting-house,  Boardman's  store  and  potash,  the  school-house, 
and  the  Carlisle  store  at  the  upper  end  of  the  street,  comprised  the  village 
of  1804. 

The  Lancaster  Bridge  Company. — "Richard  C.  Everett,  Levi  Willard, 
Titus  0.  Brown,  Jonathan  Cram,  Stephen  Willson,  Jonas  Baker,  Artemas 
Wilder,  Jr.,  and  such  others  as  may  join  them  *  *  -  ::"  ■•  ••  *  are 
permitted  and  allowed  to  erect  and  maintain  a  bridge  over  Connecticut 
River  at  a  place  called  Waits  Bow  in  Lancaster  in  the  County  of  Grafton 
or  at  any  place  between  the  mouth  of  the  Israel's  River  and  the  upper  line 
of  said  Lancaster."  The  charter  from  which  this  extract  is  made  was 
dated  June  21,  1804.  The  first  meeting  was  held  August  20,  1804.  Rich- 
ard C.  Everett  was  chairman  and  Thomas  Carlisle,  clerk.  The  number  of 
shares  taken  were,  Thomas  Carlisle  &  Co.,  2,  Isaac  Bunday,  1,  Richard  C. 
Everett,  3,  William  Lovejoy,  1,  Levi  Willard,  2,  Stephen  Willson,  2,  J. 
Cram,  1,  Daniel  Perkins,  2,  Jonas  Baker,  1,  Titus  O.  Brown,  1,  Humphrey 
Cram.  1,  David  Bunday,  1,  William  Huves,  1,  Artemas  Wilder.  Jr.,  12. 
Elisha  Bunday,  1,  Daniel  Dana,  1,  Urial  Rosebrook,  1,  Lemuel  Holmes,  1, 
Asa  Holmes,  1,  Samuel  Howe,  1,  Timothy  Faulkner,  1,  Bowman  Chad- 
dock,  1. 

"Voted  that  Richard  C.  Everett,  Wm.  Huves,  Levi  Willard,  Isaac  Bunday,  &  Wm.  Lovejoy, 
be  a  Committee  to  report  a  plan  of  a  Bridge  &  the  exact  place  where  it  ought  to  be  erected." 

The  first  bridge  was  built  in  1805,  and  the  second  one  in  1825.  This 
was  of  great  benefit  to  the  mercantile  and  other  business  of  Lancaster. 

Extracts  from  Joseplt  Bracket  fs  Diary. — The  early  settlers  were  close 
observers  of  natural  phenomena,  men  of  strong  reason,  and  independent 
thought.  They  attended  church  twice  each  Sabbath,  and  listened  atten- 
tively to  the  two  sermons,  to  which  they  gave  a  searching  mental  analysis. 
They  read  the  Bible  at  home  for  its  literature,  also  standard  authors  in  Eng- 
lish. These  extracts  from  the  diary  kept  by  an  early  settler,  Dea.  Joseph 
Brackett,  in  1799-1  on   L801,  are  of  interest  as  showing  tKese  facts. 

"  April  7,  1799,  Sunday.  After  getting  up  read  13  psalms.  Read  two  sermons;  in  my  opin. 
ion  the  best  I  ever  saw.  Dressed  and  went  to  meeting.  Heard  two  sermons.  Returning,  read 
another  sermon.  The  sermons  read  were  by  Dr.  Price,  who  appears  a  man  of  greal  abilities,  pos- 
sessed of  an  acute  judgement  and  pleasing  style;  in  truth,  the  doctrines  he  advances  are  supported 
by  sound  reasonings.  April  12.  Snow  lies  three  feet  on  the  ground.  Air  fur  two  days  pastes 
trenuly  cold.  15th.  Warm  and  pleasant,  but  yet  good  crossing  on  the  river.  Read  several  psalms, 
after  that,  read  four  lives  in  British  Plutarch,  <>nc.  I.ishop  Latimer,  very  remarkable.  I  also  read 
to-day  Humphrey's  Poems.  His  style  in  some  respects  resembles  Goldsmith's.  Also  read  tem- 
per's "Retirement."  No  poet  excels  him  in  strength  of  expression,  or  energy  of  thought.  All  his 
poems  tend  to  make  mankind  better,  but  he  is  a  little  too  severe  on  the  clergy.     34.     Came  six 

278  History  of  Coos  County. 

inches  of  snow.  No  sugar  of  consequence  yet  made.  25.  National  Fast.  One  sleigh  at  meeting. 
Snow  two  feet  deep  in  the  woods.  First  good  run  of  sap.  28.  Read  before  breakfast  nine  psalms. 
As  pieces  of  devotion,  none  excel  the  Psalms  of  David.  Attended  meeting.  Heard  two  sermons. 
The  first,  ver}r  good;  the  last,  indifferent.  Have  since  read  two  discourses  by  Dr.  Sherlock,  one  of 
which  appears  to  be  the  same  that  I  heard  preached  today.  Sound  reasoning  they  contain  in  an 
eminent  degree.  29.  River  entirely  free  from  ice.  Sunday,  May  5.  Snow  a  foot  deep  in  the 
woods  on  the  level,  Read  Psalm  119.  Went  to  meeting;  heard  two  sermons.  Tolerably  good. 
Read  Fifth  book  of  Cowper's  "  Task."  The  more  I  read  Cowper  the  better  I  like  him.  The  con- 
clusion of  this  book  is  inimitable.  10.  Some  snow  came  to-day.  No  man  with  whom  I  have  con- 
versed ever  saw  a  season  so  backward.  But  few  have  begun  to  plough.  15.  Began  to  plough  on 
the  meadow.  19.  Went  to  meeting;  heard  two  sermons,  rather  better  than  common.  After  meet- 
ing read  14  psalms.  20.  Sowed  2A  bushels  wheat,  1  bushel  rye,  and  3  pecks  of  peas.  25.  Planted 
corn.  30.  Finished  ploughing.  Thunder  storm.  June  1.  Quite  cold.  3.  First  planted  in  ihe 
meadow.  5.  Black  fiies  first  came.  11.  River  higher  than  it  has  been  for  10  years.  16.  Still 
higher.  Giain  of  all  kinds  been  under  water.  July  5.  Corn  spindled  out.  21.  Corn  silked  out. 
26.  Finished  stacking  hay.  28.  Mr.  Willard's  forenoon  discourse  was  very  good;  but  the  afternoon 
was  not  pleasing.  Aug.  11.  Had  roast  corn.  27.  Frost  to  be  seen  this  morning.  Sept.  30.  Frost 
came  which  killed  all  kinds  of  vegetables  that  frost  could  kill.  Nov.  24.  One  sleigh  at  meeting. 
1800.  The  winter  has  been  uncommonly  favorable.  Snow  at  any  time  not  more  than  two  feet 
deep.  April  17.  Frogs  croaked.  Mr.  Clark  and  Toscan  ploughed.  18.  Killed  a  duck.  20.  A 
fine  morning;  so  far  one  of  the  most  beautiful  springs  I  ever  knew.  Read  two  chapters  in  Matthew 
in  one  of  which  I  remarked  the  passage:  "Provide  neither  gold,  nor  silver,  nor  brass,  in  your 
purses;  nor  scrip  for  your  journey,  neither  two  coats,  neither  shoes,  nor  yet  staves;  for  the  workman 
is  worthy  of  his  hire;"  This,  without  any  other  text,  is  sufficient  to  prove  that  ministers  ought  to 
have  a  salary.  May  5  &  6.  Sowed  wheat  and  flax.  10.  First  heard  whippoorwills.  17.  Finished 
ploughing  old  ground.  June  5.  Frost  killed  some  things.  15.  Frost  killed  beans  and  corn. 
July  19.  Great  sort  of  corn  silked  out.  Aug.  20.  Finished  reaping.  50  shocks  from  4  bushels 
sowing.  1801.  March  16.  Killed  a  snake.  Have  had  an  uncommon  winter  The  last  of  January 
the  snow  was  uncommonly  deep,  perhaps  3  feet  at  Lancaster.  Now  almost  all  gone.  Wild  geese 
were  seen  flying  a  week  ago;  ducks  and  a  fewT  spring  birds  have  been  seen.  29.  People  have 
ploughed.  April  27.  Sowed  wheat.  28.  Sowed  flax  and  peas.  29.  Swallows  came.  The  snow 
went  off  without  raising  the  water  so  as  to  make  a  freshet  here,  though  at  the  mouth,  and  up  the 
river  the  water  was  higher  than  known  for  70  years.  May  1.  Maple  leaves  as  big  as  a  base  copper. 
Black  flies  in  considerable  quantities  and  whippoorwills  heard.  3.  Found  white  clover  bloomed 
out.     26.  A  ripe  strawberry  found. 

Gen.  Moses  Haze  it  was  one  of  the  most  prominent  early  nonresident 
proprietors  of  land  in  Lancaster.  He  was  a  retired  colonel  of  the  British 
army,  living  on  half  pay  at  the  commencement  of  the  Revolution.  He 
espoused  the  cause  of  the  colonists,  raised  a  regiment  for  service  in  the 
American  army,  .and  was  to  receive  for  a  salary  the  same  amount  which 
he  was  entitled  to  draw  from  the  British  service.  He  had  previously  mar- 
ried a  wealthy  French  lady,  whose  beautiful  home  at  St.  John  was  burned 
by  the  British  during  the  Revolution  and  her  estate  and  other  valuable 
property  confiscated.  Gen.  Hazen  served  with  distinction  during  the  war, 
but.  by  the  depreciation  of  the  Continental  currency,  and  his  failure  to  get 
just  claims  allowed  by  the  War  Department,  he  was  a  great  financial  loser 
by  his  espousal  of  the  Colonial  cause.  His  name  is  prominent  in  many 
affairs  and  early  settlements  in  Vermont  and  on  Lake  Cham  plain  in  New 
York.     He  was  stricken  by  palsy  and  for  seventeen  years  before  his  death 

Town  of  Lancaster.  279' 

lay  perfectly  helpless;  and  under  the  old  law  of  imprisonment  for  debt,  he 
passed  some  of  this  time  in  close  prison.  A  few  years  before  his  death, 
which  occurred  in  L803,  he  was  pronounced  a  lunatic  by  the  chancellor  of 
of  the  state  of  New  York,  where  he  had  resided  after  the  Revolution,  and 
Major  Moses  White,  his  nephew,  and  aid-de-camp  in  the  army,  appointed 
his  keeper.  He  had  been  much  interested  in  improving  and  settling  new 
sections,  and  Major  White  found  his  business  affairs  extensive,  "scattered 
from  Virginia  to  Maine,  and  from  Canada  to  the  Atlantic,  and,  from  his 
financial  condition,  much  embarrassed." 

Gen.  Hazen  purchased  of  Charles  W.  Apthorp,  October  5,  1783,  among 
other  lands  twenty-four  rights  of  land  in  Lancaster,  N.  H.,  including  the 
"Cat  Bow."  The  price  to  be  paid  was  $115  per  right.  He  at  once 
began  improvement,  placed  several  tenants  on  the  "  Cat  Bow  ' 
tract,  and  laid  out  considerable  money,  which  was  expended  under 
the  supervision  of  Ezekiel  Ladd,  Nathaniel  White,  Judge  Richard 
C.  Everett  and  Edwards  Bucknam.  It  was  evidently  his  intention  to  build 
up  a  large  manorial  establishment  here,  and  to  make  Lancaster  his  home. 
But  his  finances  became  reduced,  his  lands  were  sold  for  taxes,  his  tenants 
were  ejected,  and  all  became  confusion  and  litigation. 

South  Lancaster. — Among  the  early  settlers  in  this  part  of  Lancaster 
were  Nathaniel  White,  his  son,  Samuel  White,  David  White,  John  Picket, 
William  C.  Ford,  Daniel  Howe,  John  Miller,  Francis  Willson,  Daniel 
Young,  John  Moore,  Charles  Howe,  Israel  Hale,  Timothy  Whitney,  and 
Isaac  Wood.  Moses  Blake  contracted  to  build  a  house  for  Gen.  Moses 
Hazen,  in  1785,  on  the  "Cat  Bow"  tract,  and  cleared  land  there.  Ephraim 
Griggs  did  work  in  the  same  year  for  Gen.  Hazen,  amounting  to  8100. 
Asa  Bucknam  and  Joseph  L'Esperance  chopped  more  than  eight  acres  on 
the  "Cat  Bow."  A  Mr.  Hartw^ell  was  a  tenant  here  in  1784.  About  the 
same  time  George  Wheeler,  Walter  Bloss  and  John  Hopkinson  cleared 
thirteen  acres  on  the  same  tract.  P.  Griggs  became  a  tenant  of  Hazen  in 
1786.  Rev.  John  Wilber,  of  Attleborough,  Mass.,  brother-in-law  of  R.  C. 
Everett,  purchased  lands  here  in  1808,  but  never  became  a  resident. 

1810. — The  growth  of  the  town  was  slow  but  solid,  roads  began  to  be- 
laid out,  gaps  were  made  in  the  pine  groves,  and  in  the  hard  wood  tim- 
ber of  the  highlands,  and  stead}r  improvements  were  made,  year  by 
year,  until,  in  1810,  the  population  was  717.  The  town  bad  been  se- 
lected as  the  shire  town  of  the  county,  had  a  court-house  and  jail, 
the  academy  had  been  incorporated,  school-houses  erected  in  two  school 
districts,  and  Willson's  tavern  dispensed  much  "flip,"  and  entertained 
hospitably  man  and  beast.  The  village  had  six  houses  at  the  upper 
end,  besides  those  mentioned,  which  were  occupied  by  Samuel  llnnnnx, 
William  Lovejoy,  Artemas  Cram.  Benjamin  Boardman,  and  a  Faulkner. 
At  the  south  was  that  of  "Governor"  Bruce,  a  soul  of  merriment  at  all 

•230  History  of  Coos  County. 

social  and  public  occasions,  and  that  of  old  Miller  Greenleaf,  so  sturdy 
and  well  known.  On  one  side  of  the  river  was  a  fulling-mill,  then  much 
patronized,  and  on  the  other  a  pretentious  grist-mill  which  did  good  work. 
Titus  0.  Brown  had  a  small  store,  the  new  Chesman  tavern  was  well  pat-