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central ARri4\t>:M (n 

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DtAA., SC^ * I 





WHO neu^vR titit tub niiman truriuE 

M, iinuSm j-wvmiiN-cE, THB (n^ATKBT i5!3T«i‘»B!fr voa tHX>H 


ASD v?iiojnoLO, wjta tiek wnrnai, that 

THIS DOOR tB ts^Bcnaco 


Tiiu work of which I liere puliliRb i.he fii-gi part, 
(itougli tlic outcome of two journeys rouml the world 
in 1SS7—$ and in 1892-41, doea not prctencl to Ijc a 
lK>ok of travel, liallier jjs it an attempt to 
m a comp iif a Live light, the political, social, ami 
ecouomic coiidJtionfl of the kingdoms and. priuct' 
paljtics of tlie Far Hast. Ity this title I signify tJie 
coutitries that lie I^etwecn Iin^ and die Pacific Ocean. 
Tliey include both tlic best known atid the least 
known of Orieiitnl luUions—Japan and China in ihi! 
former categoty; Korea, Toitgkhig, Aajtam, Cutdiin 
Cluaa, Ciau.lxjgia,aiid Siam in ihe latter. Tn respect 
of race, religion, and hahiL% Burma should fall wilhin 
till* same clas?; but since it is now an integral portion 
of the Indian Empire, it will be purpt^sely CiXcluded 
from this surrey. 

The ubjve'meiitioiieil coiinltics lla^'n each their 
special ftintiires of climnte, scenery, architecture, roli- 
gioii, and life, dilTercntinting them From each other, 
and still morn from tite rest of the world. To (he t ra¬ 
veller these idiosyncrasies cannot fail tb appeal; nor 
can he lie inilincrenr. to the atmosphere of romance 
in which ihoEc fanciful regions, when once he has 



k'ft Appear ever afterwstitU to rtoai. To and* 
teerlietie impre€3io»B I would prckfefs ito iiiviiiiu!!r:i- 

bitiiv; aiid the <leseripliori;s whjcli will be fouml iu 
ilte^ of Ike c<iptta|i? of iCorea anil Cliiuji, imil 
of Ollier scenes, will prove the iMRijileteticru of my 
occasional sorrender. On die wL ole, however, I have 
relegatefl tliese aspects of my Joum^s to the back' 
jiroiitui, ninl have preferreil to tlmtiss the problems, 
perhaps less stiperficially iiitoresihig, but incompani' 
bly more iTiip'irtantt ami vastly njore abstruse, which 
are euggcsietlby the national dioracier, resonrcRs, tunl 
omauisation of tIiobc couiimes as iillocttHl bv their 
intercourse with foreign or Westcin rowers, Wliar 
is the part which lliey are now playing, or are capable 
of playing, on Thu international si age I?' irbo. is the 
iMililical future dint may, without foolhartliness of 
preiticiioD, bo anihupateil for the ijcopli^ anil Umls 
of the Far iLjist V 

Ill preparing anti comparing my observations 
upon tliese countries, I very niirh- found that to 
attempt t*. deal with the j«olifica] features of eight 
dhTm-eiil Stales within fhi* coiupavimf a single volume 
cuuid only bo achluvetl at the expense bfpfli ..f imiiy 
and exai-titiule—u conviction which was fonilied by 
the iiatund suldlvislun of my subject info n twofold 
Imailing, .fapun, Koreii. and Cliinn suggest n number 
of problems, aulistanliall}* similar i f not actual I v inter* 
conuecied. Their marilime outhv>fe is towards the 
I^icifjc T Jeean. The remaining countries of the Far 
East arc in a difTerent stage orcvolnrion; and partly 
iiwiiig^ to Ihdr intrinsic weakness, partly to the detrree 

in wUieli tliey alrtarly bteu brou^ilii Hntler 

European c^iiitTol, illustrate a illlferetil jurgutiidiit. 
Tlit>y are also alike in laming a backwaid gazt: 
upon the Ttidhin Seas* Follpwlng tliis namral cliissi- 
llcatioii, r have confined ihe present volume to llie 
exaiiuimtion of the three lirsi-inentioned States, 
reaerriug for a future work the territories of the 
IniTi>'Chiiie6e peninsula. 

fu llu' ease of Japan I must confess to having 
departed widely fmm the accepted model of treat 
muiit. There will l)e round tiothirig iu iliiisepages of 
tW Japan of lem^tles^ rea-housee. and brit>ti'brac— 
that inlmitesinial segnient of the national existenw 
which tlie irai-dler is so prone to mistake for the 
whole, iunl by doing whicli he liUs the educated 
.iapinese with aucb iiuaiwakable. iudignaiiou. I have 
liccii inon* iuterested in (he elTcirtii of a uatwn, stjH in 
pupillage, to assuniH the uianners the full-grown 
man, in the constitutional struggles througli wldcli 
Japan is {noting, in her relations with foreign Powei-B, 
and ill the fuitire ilmi awalfs her imiiien-Se ambitions, 

Similarly in China I have been more coneenied 
with the inictual structurie*>f that mystoriaiis archaism, 
witii the policy of its rnlerg, die atreiiglh or weak¬ 
ness of its resources, and witii the pulso throli^ 
sodcfLintly hcneiith tlie bosinn of its amazing peopic, 

1 hail wltli iht! sights and scenes of Treaty Ports, or the 
superliciai re,atnre 5 of native esifiteiice. bi Korea I 
hope that 1 may claim iu some respeei* to break 
altiiust new ground, fn the few and singularly' 
iiiade<.|uate accininis of that kingdom that have 



ii[ipeAri>il U) ISitropu, nnd IW Iinve^ Itifi it, ta 
Tibetf ibe least biowa part of Asia, uo serious 
endeavour has been mOfle lo e:£:iuuRC its pobtleid 
stalm—tt question of great coiuplesity ami r)f inter¬ 
national ijnporianoe—or to determine its iwariug 
upon surrottaduig States; anil I doubt wlietlier ri* 
most perwuh at home Korea is known except, as a 
land of white olothes ami black hats, IfadiHprop}r- 
tionate space toAV appear to have been alloitwl to its 
treatineni, at compared with tlyit of Chirm amlJapm, 
it will t^e becaaflcf oP an Ininnsic novelty that U not 
yet exhausted, and of a general ignorance that in 
view of jiresent cveuia rlesen*es to lie appeased. 

tf, iit spile of a deal of descrtplive unit ter 
that limy perhaps iiiTorest or assisi both the rtiarler 
iiiirl lire traveller, it be objected that Uk* trail of poli¬ 
ties is over all ibis wort, I answer that audi is Tin- 
principal claim that t venture to make for it. tither 
wTiters of great ability have recorded their iropres- 
eions of tlie social or artistic sides of Esisteni life. 
But, in tbeir iuteresi in tiie governed, they iiavo too 
frequently for^ttpu the govemmeut; nor does the 
photograph of ii fleeting moiiienl Jetiil much Hsaisiance 
lo the forecast of a wider future. Kor myself* lit essay¬ 
ing tlm more ambitious task,I can luiiiciuly ilisdaiin, 
on tlie 30vend owasions ;vheu T have travelled in Uu- 
Eiwt., any it jiritm prepossession for this or prejndii-e 
against that people. I lia Venn anterior theory* sup¬ 
port, and no party mterest, imlcBa the Briiyi Knipire 
be a party uiteri^t, lo serve. But lo my vision all the 
nations of the East seem to gtxutp them^lves as see- 



tions or parts, of varj^ng and utiJitjr, in tUv most 
worid<‘rrul piece of aaLiiml and iiuntaii mectiauism tlmt 
the world now presents, nnmelj', the political et'tila- 
tion of the Afibtie Coiitineni. What function ut fnh 
fiUtfl fay each in the movement of iLis vai^t iiiacfatue, 
bow far they individually retard its progi'ess or <roii- 
tribote to the collective thunder of ita wheels, ie to me 
the most almorlilug of problems. What will l«conie 
of this great fabric in the future, whether its [iiinor 
atoms will break up and split oaumier, thei^by midiiig 
to the already fortuidnldo etraia upoii the larger units, 
whether Uie alow heart of the East will sliD nontinue 
to palpitate beneath the Biipenjnj)i.>sed restraints of 
Western force or example, or whel.her as has been 
predicted, some trernendons cataclysm may be ex¬ 
pected, in which the tide of hutuau coiupiest sliall 
once more he rolled liack front East to West, arc 
specuLitlons to the Bolution of which I have no 
fonder wish than to subscribe my hmtilde ipwiia of 

Filially, these volumes arc part of that scheme of 
work, now nearly half realised, which ten years ago 
I first set before myself in the esaminaiiuii of the 
dilferent aspettta of the Asiatic problem. What I 
have ,alreaxl 3 ' cndt'avoui'cd to do for Riis.da in Central 
Asia, and for Persia, or the couuiries on this side of 
IncUa, i-e. the Near East—whul I hope to be aide 
to do herrufier for two odiur little-known Asiatic 
regions, directly bordering upon India, t.^. the 
Central East—attempt to di> in this volume, and 
in that Hhicii will foll^ it, for the countries lying 


iKiyoriil ludiEi, tlifi I'^nr Ea$t', As I jirocced will) 
itiifi iindertakiiig, the tnte falerum nf Asiatic doini- 
niou eetftns to me iRcreasiijgJj’ to lie m the Empire of 
IHiuIustan. The secret of Lite maslcry of the world, 
is, if only tliey know it, in the possession of the 
British people. 

Xo Engliahmaii need gnidgo die splendid achieve- 
inejita anti possessions of the mighty Power whose 
Imnii is outstretched over the entire north of Asia, 
from tlio Ural Mountains lo the Pacific. He need 
not be jenbus of tlm tmw-bom Asiatic aeal of our ' 
next-door neighbour In Europe, He may respect 
dike the ht>:iiy^ pride of Uhina, and tJie impetuous 
exuberance of renascent Japan, But lie wiU fbidthat 
ibu l*est hope of saK'ation for the old mid morilniiwi 
in Asia, the wisijfit lessons for the emancipated and 
new, am atiil to be derived from the Jiscemlaicy of 
BiitiaU character, nod under the aimlter, where so 
retjuimd, of British doiuinion, If m tjjg slightest' 
degree I succeed in bringing home tliis conviction to 
the minds of my tmimttymen at home, I uTtalt never 
regret the years of travel and of writing which I 
have devoted and hope still to devote to this con¬ 
genial task. 

Jfy sincere thanks are due, for revision or advice 
in cmrereni parts of this work, to Jtr. CecU Spring- 
Kicu, of H. B. M-'s Diplomatic Service, the delij^tful 
coiniimuon of my later journeys ; to Mr, W. C. Haiier, 
late Consul-General m Korea; end to Mr, J. N. Jordan 
of the British Li^tiou nl Peking. 

OKOflOjj X. Ci/Hifas. 



TllS Flfi HAST 


TIjh rn jrh a n^m ant of piYkT^irfft— TT<->iinH^ g ^nq ft ng|i mw — 

Contftcri with civilimtion—Mi^nkl lawiiB—Tli£ Fwr Eupt-^Xu 

Itidlii thfl jH¥« *.**,.» 5 


TH^ i^tktiUTlDN or HaPmKN JAV^ISt 

2a.pAtiBtie f]iILn<vji^TE« itrettii of TaH^^TUe Dii^t—Piilalte 
irympui 34 i 4 --Boek« nHatil—'Thit Mliiii- 
lew AUd B&riiAu^m^Tlia Minjitr;y nf All tLa TaliliU^ 
3;it{»ectaticmi—Smwn af «if TEc ecubi 

^.G«iii£Emt Hteeilma tuf 1 ^ 04 —poEna lii l»tu^L Cliut 
Ol^giifcE^ fr, i- i>f IE 0 

Nnvy— Amy — Dvrabonllt^ o|rfiakjn — Fiiijuavw— 
MuttEittoring la^ttvukh—AUiiiijlu i4 Jn^iAUM kivniTd» 
IbroXgiiew—Behaollmy poifidllim—CE jmu^k^ i>f Clmitiimilj in 
Jepui 4 « , « K L5 


Tr«Aiy BeTii3lmi»llulai7 of thn TWAtiW^PoitttpouaiLtctit of Ik- 
liilotL—Tlio CAM of Japuk—"Hu* cuts of iho Fowm—IV er^iEit 
4i Jlovkion. Ctimti Ino^ye^ i^-T—Count OkmuHr 



IBS^—VtHnMnit Aoiki. 1990 ~£«mi uT ■oltbtauat—PontSou 

of tlm Codiift^-Fttttiicir jhNitpoaamfinlL—^Addi^n |u iLp Tliivtw 
In IHflll—•Auttr^TiiHl ndtluticii ChinH* Qqm- 

tion—Af^tallni utr&uifl funnicn owii«oMp of proficrtjr—Othn 
tlAiDuidB^i'faspqKtBof veUlmutmt < , . , . ■ , IW 



LUTS Alin THiLVati 1 X KOEiaJl 

TlL» fMciiuiiim of Eona—Uiiontwi of ilu aobJoeU-H]* Treaty 

Pnru—Fctoui—OoouJt^CliBmsItto—Tb« Kona* pecrplj!^ 
Total nta btipttiifltt—KatioujJ cha- 

fiMrtw—Tlur oxuonuu of wde^Keeanlio* rf timvisl—Tliii w 
thtf IruiuiaiMl Afonntaioe-^KuMM iniHilf*—Jfoiiuiie filo tiu) 
IiaUla—BaJlilittiyB—Sfiwan ]:l^sntB-.:j]liri^woa]Iip anti Con- 
riwiantEiu—CabdJtiiUi* of tmrel—Sjiarl—Penwat Ufo—Rmel 
twlihs-HuiiDHa) tiOiku^-Tomla—Eonnin 


THE ASro CO^^T OF I. 0 K£A 

Nemo of thn cairiUl—Wall* aud git«a of Biieil—ft* aitoattou — 
Bwicon^tiree—Populatioa luiO eiratfbt^CHrt and ititdiaa— 
HooJea—Htraet^lilo wil emtama^ nanflia^j. yii-la _ 

AmuwmanH—ThaHitf BeD—Slopi —6tona(«tp>J*[vBapjlIarw 
Tmnplia—U «1 AirttwGaia—Tbajioinlail 
ptiwu—Rnyo) fortmaw—.Soviervtfmty iit fio»na.-Jt(§al J'iUacn 
—Eiut, or Now Pakca-^metrOrDlil Ciraal flaJJ nf 

Apilwnoh—Siinunfflf Tatnca—Tfao lvuij( nf Korta— Tlui Tat 
^flo Kan—The mgB—Hu chaiantor—T'he Qitaan— 

The Crown Prinno—Tbaoty of monarnhy—AudviKo witli thn 
FoniRR Miniatar—Conn ilms aud eUi^iusittf—Atiifiwm with 
tUo King—Uoyai prowBaion—Korean atmy—Stat* tan'aw . 139 




rot.tTW!4ti Asi) ooMUjfscm w sratEA 

rAM ■ 

An AAiatic ftfLuuiroltnitifni—And 

Aobt—Trollss—Forrij^n —Prt'jwli mnd 

sipeoulminnv—Tlw 43nisiiUFy—^Xoflr imd iilnsr rcprnit^v)?— 

Biu:ikA^Oti«uu!e« ia coiiuiifrrikl deTolopment. Hiiaiia <rf 
camtnimkAtlon. lloftdi^^BiTer n&vigeikn 

— RftitwAys—GTOwth of imde—St-aMnitllip sjerncft—CutiyM 
Bflrricfl—Siwogi^irae—tlitxiifpDnit — And rutnomls 

—OoldTFuttkP pMsjioctHH-MiJKioiiiwy ^'Orlf ill Kor«A. L 
Perteciiliim —ti* Tote^mtioAi—l^lujdish P^telliLiil ^Us^idn — 
NolivA- binttmcMst * « ^ i, - . « « 171 



AdodiiUoiu |wiUi<rid iiKtu* of Kotva—C nun^dan wjib — 
Tnbuiir yifirom^FriodoiiL pnci of tnllu- 

eiiee^ Trsitv of l^cTC^Cunvention of Ticatiin Ed l^iSfi—Coin- 
nifirclAl HAouiuEcMii^j'-RoooDt Mueter^Tnio uf Jajwi— 

ISoceitt ^ouiplhfALiobs—ConDcodOiii with CHfu—Jilxiitinf; «vj^ 
«lam»s of KiiiWAn trABaa&lii^—DAitli of tbo Qii«u Dowaii^f Lei 
1 ihnmcl nf C Tititife fta poUiftV^ 3^ JBirKpttdiAi EoD—'i X«lEtFnl- 

f*Ati an—Tflrtna of llm wtJOn of oJitOi’A—Q d© 0 - 

tiow ofltooi* ttf Sohl—S. FmcUml Aoi-wii^f—TiiA Ciiimsdo 
Ueddvnt^PaAitioti of ibo JuifinciLbitiD of LI TTititj ; 

Clikinj?—ConDCM^Iioa wiili ^Euam^iiggr^iAii^tf 
in/crim pliiu—Afctitudp of GrcaX Britaiu—OotEoiuiiititt of PtiJt 
HdjdiIeiWi iti less—Tivtj otiitfr S®owpri—TliP t4rt*v aqeI iKft 

—ConUtiAkm IDS 


THi: am^r ajcc cafitiih or caisi 

^IHiiiiituin lo Chill*—Vioeraj Li Hiuig 

Xsterviirw—Joicrtie^ |» Pokiitg^CliED^w ntrul IUk —Ejiimnct^ 
m P*kitig—Gruiisil>pE*ti—Til# ihrie4 —riMnTfmiui of 

ilio i^Tfigy—Xmlv# piscitliiflaBri—Tlu liiipeviiil ry*c«—Ulo 



Tlii^ two Ein|Tiiifiiii Tliu Eiin- 

BowTMper—Til* Einpf*^ Knutti* IJjm—IWii^*? mnum — 

Thft TMttplfi of HfWTfrfj^t^iOknlijr iif sduilMlas^^TllP ^utml 
Sft*Tillef»^Th« Ob«!r¥»uify—K^«mlii*ti«ji Iiiuiditiif—l>tmi4 
ftm-l Hfill Tofr#T¥—CoiiiiKila*—IlsiUof Duiitija* — 
Qt«i l^amn ilm TW Gnrul IttiH— 

^nniDM^E' PaIom—YTOT ti-jiiiJt^‘y<XAo—Wia-*IiM-ilwitt^Thfl 
Uitiiiii Wall—Th« 311i£g Ti^mW—Diitah l^^gniktu * < i- ^ 



Ilflialvmp l>oi7E«n C1i|iiC4B tm\\ I^ujiauii^Tli* Tvmij;!! Ynm^ti 
—A Eofitii of iJfllnj—CliliiHSd diL^oFUEirj—TW Kz^I uf AqiIi^ 
wtbnjaiea Lord Macflnn*^ ii4 ITOH 
—Lim] Amfietirt in Iniarvml—Amliiocc withTmii^ CIi^ 

in LSi^—Aculi«iti4 mih Rndiin llflB In ISJ01—Suti«ii[;ii*nt 
Auiliuiiciis—BiimKkArjr of vchiev^iiiKft—^rrU4i of 

UiA lb|fiitE—Foreign |>oticy of Clciuii—Attittiil* ti^iw-orda RoiiiiA 

_ C ^ h lp'i tbe Fjuiiirf — Attihid* towaitli Umit BritaJu^ 

Ai}£lo>Cbltl«fiO Tmk—Opittto QaestLoh'^MliilouAf^ Quentlcti 
^l^totoaiAUI TL&Er {(ii^od 9Qrd«--3<iwing Ibo loail— 

Ot>jii<tiunjs 4»d ilrmwli^clca—L BoUgiotiij iin\l cW irtiiAl. Ha*- 
taiity d# to nAmo of Ikp XMifty^Aa 

t<r tlu frrfni of fuligiiitl—XTnwrrUoil tfnnjAlAtbuiP of llij» H^rffn 
tixm—ChrUtiiui dofuia—Itne«|HsiiMiliU Ituvnuuijr—IL Poiiticiit 
—Eiidtory of iho Twiirw—fkilwijoiail OddviniiatM.liiiit—Imp*. 
nal RiUot of if^l —CMiii** AiaiiLifnetiLa—Tb* appitil ^ui. 
lwAt»—l^vilQ|5M clwmoil fo** convertA— Ati tin^prrtpwn th 
rloAof fKiliticiil II. I^Viietiedl Mlnirin lifo 

—Kiuplopmmt of of bnniLingv^Bdfirvn! of 

convofiitu itibsorilw—BdUf io tntiHicmft—IJonitlo oLiir^e 
up—Bu^nlU—The rigitt t^t3c;(. ifeepeict fur the 
Tzowiiis—Strictor prctatitLow—fThnice of oiAlicriuJ p * * SSO 



f i Ciiion A tuAtfoli rornnulm:--EiailvntyH in Chino— 

Mnndiiiriofj lUiliiaj i-^Uno In Pi-klng—Gwi Tmnk 
HiiiLow hiuv mnd focUiHes—rwriuMo lOUlwaj—' CHlior cem^ 



iQUbirMitov*—MOitAry r«£ivm—Tlio Matirhii azuI 
Anbitt—l>ufttJiti»^NAUT« of^tr^Eimspmn i^nn-^-Coat 
—Anniyrd itimoM—^dvtntfAl {JtirddaV o|iiiiiDQ 
|'!rj*^-&iiiki--noJniuiJ IMl^Tlwv ChituMo Man acuI 

tfia rifflJ iiJWiijwf*“l’ll* itiwtffliAHM of Eoft^iw^TliD Pf«f* ui 
CTnna—b'ath^ aiii«rjir»—Hui amo of otHdniuiii—TLe bfui- 
JuioAtd—’fk) ('knuRM Auulpoijtt—Tbn pi<cmD:D of proj^rs^- 
Tbff nullify of f £AiiiJ.^ifl ^ . 3^ 



Ctdiui*n BiuldiiiizD—lie nrpariiJiiooi auuniun—CofilrBtTictoiy 
opimcm of iiKkiiJkA—Ila ex]>kTul£[tii—Ori^dnji^ coaecptian of 
iBooiwtkiaiu—lu Inronicm^A ^iiitiul Lucuu^oce—Offtraci&m 
of lUo elowwj"—ro|in1iir cdEom'—Co^nciiori iinpo^ture^DIffofonl 
oliuwR of mrraita—Mwii of Ktibw&coco—^^rnAiutm jocDplftt^ 

E^tmneo i^iowAy—Mnin toiuplo^^^-fc^tirvicE—rf pra^irtva 

niftiCf —Tafuuilt of ^Ieu ItouAoa—PTOcoaaioii-—Balicjtifljy -- 
Doiue«tJe prouiLm—CteojaUali 4 * 41 *. 81^ 



Tim i>e&ttnle;s of tlur EUA? 

SuniLUiiry ^ITlko fktnro of Jji|i«kD—Tim' Gnaot BrUsin of Urn Far 
flaOE ^Futla:ii of KfirM ^ Fnt.wgrt uf il n^ —.Tim f UthijWLw ilb 

nliaiK^^Elu} ih^my of reanftectJjMi—Sir, Feiraoii^a 

ar^muenta iu Um tkrour —Tha now miwh of tib« Siaugulft^ 
Lorda of tho futnrfi—O^Jediou rtf Dii-miipuil nituk ak hokuir—^ 
XtaaiPtia lor diaputkkg 3if*r«ir»oo—AJlc^wl nucpaiea of OiitiA 
—Xtio Cokmial E^tlfeatiBn—(.-lionvcter of Chuiuii oolouiiU— 
MUdlJiry nnakiiwa of (^lina—CliiiiMt moiic|EUHt Impcaailite— 
Hi« droamcjf acudal aiwtiuoab—luJTtioDoa of Daiir^mU c^i^maetar 
^Lvuiw Kjf Ubtory—of rebnilioii—Tba rwU dortiny— 
lUce Alid auipirr , * . * « . . ^ 





(Wat «inTAi7f IX 'tmr pa& Bxllt 


Tb« rft6^ of OruftC Btiliuti—mflusnce 

EiienUl mtprwamK*][ of GMat Brii^— Our wivmh —OuiiBteUdft 

Atit CHiriffttui Mlukuiii—Hiii^limli Hfn SiM 

—^td Doiue&tit lll£^ Eiiji^ib {tjumsJiLC^lXntiib " 

lUkfj—BriLEidi re|iift««ilAdVQi—of ipMUil 

nrfbnmrB—Bt|k]D[iuiJo mflualie*—rtliuTO of Bd)iil4l is 

iba r&r EftM-'tlup , « * i. 41 H 

*■**•**•#•#► 4a7 




L>tEl , 

Kr^=i M Li Eliiz. Clixci CT(f Ki>iixl . 

Tny Dr J^JUU.tJULritt Xt T^MJU h 

JirAju^iifi. Hduih or Pmiw. 

J-ihuriuit H-cirw » 

HciRfiR Dl^ Ili!jTfitMf:SCT4TJiPT£s SEafonsr 
TiiiL E^rEJiifU Jxifx^ l>Kfvt»u vo ru 

llatfjLm^v or Ciiuca Ajf Ha ix Ttih 

< «• 

AtWJ DT X EoWUif MDSi4*ERn¥ ^ * 

Motrsrrju^ or ^I7K Uxi^ . « * 

1 !he i>« Biujn 

Tcxruc fir rm God ^r Wam at SOli- 
UitTwAT cr? Tfti ihJ* Patack 
T fmsx KoAt£A»< DtovrfAKii^ , 

K<mAAX C^ITaIAET and llnrAA STA-VtlAkUi 
Tin SlKfi JS 8 TaTR J^OGX^OEf - 
3rop£inf-ciifiixn> KomiAje IsTAjftiiv . 

Tiee Vtchhoi Ll ITO'^i CilA?ra • 

Walxi^ od Oxtbb or PkilImu « «. 

l'£jfrus AJiH Ai^tar ElisAviEji i 
iiUtxf Wall of Ctiisa . p i 


Comr Tto . . p * - - * * ■ 


fjlTK Of KAtlVa Td^* FCSAS * * p * p 

i'DttT Of CETICHULlfO , « p » « * 



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KiJltlUTC ScliIK»-i*AJfTEJI Hw# ^ t - P 

A Kflinuii lUAsmmAct , * , * • p 

KEtrM Kasto «B Dutitnw MoesT*Jif* 

IS A KoBKAS VUiAllR * , - * K 

A SttrBEAS i"3Ei3iA%'1 FaMIJ.T . • . - - 

Soun) ClATK cr So^L- ... * 4 % 

%\tkr Aaw ASfi Wali- 01^ Brtirip # • h » 

Bvacov Town* os!f Kah Sls ; r * • # 

OsiitifW FIiAV AV SotTL * m u * 

Tin CfTT AM OU> FiiiAdtii Siiin# - P ► # 

K^&Ajr ^um^AiEA 

A ^flltfiAK WAJTno^aiAiJJ . - . . N * 

Tm ,•!--** 

Kf»U!lA^ IIOIIIOTB - * - - * 

Ajicuwat iJf TitA GwMtit C wtfrsaiinffH aA . 

Tmt Cm AXl^ nil* P-WpM:* . . - . 

Tax C^mAT tUiiL of Aouiuua , i i ^ 
txTXSlAK or TBf Oli* PaUI^P- , p t - t 

Tax Stic « , , . * 

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A Ei>a®LAS aJiKffTKii , . p - - - 

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SrwEET 15 Prtno n * * * * * 

$«UTllFa5 ALTAB or BfiA«3t . + . . . 
































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p ^ 


Rn^EJL AJTO P]nil.'o * . , 4 # H - To /rtffif 5W3 

JiTAV^ Eoee-Lp aso Ciu^ * . # ^ 4 mJ- 


THE fAK East 

' Tkw fimlMT fh>w ihA Eobs 

Mtisi tmvbL Aifl] Is SnluFA'iimH^ 

Aaifl by Uw vmma 
£i cm bU w«rr 

Od^ OK 0/ Imnt^ruta^. 

Asia has alw*aTS appenreil to nie to possess a faacina^ 
tioii which iio eoiiutty or empire in Eurajie, stiH li3»s 
Ti„ ony par! of tlie V'^esteni BeinbpJtene, cau 
claim. It 1ms })een ilie crailte of our raoe, 
iLc birthplace of our huiguuge, the hehi'lli- 
Stone of our religiou, the lbuutaiii*IicaJ of the best of 
our ideas. Wide as is the chasm that now severs us, 
with its philiMoplty our thought is sUU tJiteqiene- 
trated. The Asihui ooniiuent has supphE^l a scene 
for the principal events, and a stage for the most 
Iiromlnent hgures iu history, ftf Aslan paretit;tge is 
(.hat force w'hicb^ mote than iiny other iiifluentse, has 
trausformeil and glorified matikiiKl< — ^vir. the belief 
in a siuglc Deity, ^va of the six greatest ttioral 
tcaolicrs that the World [los secti—Moses^ Buddha, 
Confucius, Jesus, luid MoUainnaHl—were born of 
Astati parents, and ln*wl upon jisian soil Boughly 
speaking, their crcetls may l)e 5,01(1 to have divided 


TfIK t'AK 

lh€ o<vri.riu^t of the uiiiverw^. Tlie most fatnoiw 
or tUii wisest of kings—Stilommi, Neibnehailneziiir, 
Cyras, Thnur, Bsber* Akbar—have sat ajK)n Asian 
thrones. Thither the greatest conqueror of the 
Ohl AVorUl luined nsiile fur the sole theatre befit- 
U.n*» so puortoous an amluiion, ‘ f.Vtfe t'irt'He Enrfljie 
toWwkiV* exprcsise^ the half-formed kinrlred aspira.- 
tion of the greatest coaqtierci'r of nutrlcm times. 
The three itwyat populous existing empires—Great 
Itritain, Rtisalit> and Cluna—are Asian empires * and 
it is l>ecaiise they are not merely European but 
Asian, that the two former are inc^lnrled In dip eate- 
gory. Prom Asia uls<» have ejiriiitg the most ter¬ 
rible phenomena hy which humanity has ever been 
scourged—the Turk! Nadir Shall, the Mongol dinglux 

Tet for such crimos as tliese hn» Asia paid to 
no inean comi^nsation. For to her we owe the 
ii„ noblest product of sdl Hteraturct, in the Old 
jiTAiiipia 'p^tamciii of Lhe Hebrew ijcnptiires; the 
sweetest of lyrics, in the epitholamium of a .Tewish 
king; the eiiibi:j'o& of nuxlem knowledge, in the em- 
piiicisin of Arabian geometers and metaplivsicians. 
In A.sia the ilrama was bom. There Llie greatest 
nfiter of antiquity ch<Me a scene for his immortal 
epic. There, too, the irianner's compass first guided 
men over the paiblcsB waters. In our own times 
alone it is with her aid that, we have arrived at 
the evolution of three new isciences—comparative 
mythology, comparalive jurisprudence, and philo¬ 
logy, From -^Lsia we have received the architectnre 



of the >Iofileiii—tliat most spiritual and reffriwl of 
human conceptioiiB—tha porcelain of China, the 
faience of rerei/i, Hhndes, and Damascus, the in¬ 
finitely ingenioiiB art of .Tapatu On her soil were 
rearcil the mtwt astonishing nf all cities, iJalivIoii; 
the most prim^ely of palaces, Persepolis j the state¬ 
liest of temples. Angkor "fV’at; the bvelieat of 
tonihs, the Tj\j ^fulutl. There too may he found 
the most Troiuleifiil of 2fafiirt'’s prodnottmiiji; the 
loftiest motmtains on the surface of the gtohe, the 
moi^l renowned, if not also the largest, of riven;, tli© 
moat entrancing of huidsoapes. Tn the ht-art of ^Uia 
lies to (his day the one mystery which (be nineteenth 
CGutiiry has ^iill left for the twentietli to explore— 
viz, the Tibetan oracle of Lhasa. 

tifroutse, in displaying this panorania of Asi^tn 
womlers or A'$inn chamw, while ciaimkig for her an 
Houl««. individuality whicJi Jxer va^t extent, her 
historic antiquity, and her geograpfiical 
features go £kf to exphiiti, [ do tiol claim for her 
tiny atfsohite unity of product or form. On the 
coulrjiry, the disiinctiiuis of race, irrespective of 
climate, are pei'lia|ja move profound iu Asia tliuti in 
any other continent. Tliere is, on the whole, less 
exterior resemblance between a Japanese and n 
Penjian than there is between a PniSflian and .i 
Spauj.'uid. A Dutchman is more like a Greek than 
.1 Turkoman b like a ^falay, Hiere is a wider gap 
lietween the finest Arj-;ui type and the aboriginal 
barbarian in the recesses of gaghaliii, Fbrmosa, 
or I..aos, til an there is, for example, betivcen the 

n 5 



ami tUe Hoiteiikit, or between the FrencL- 
luitiL ami the Lap. Ni>t less inatked arc the duviiitc- 
tious of iMLguagc aiul hivbii^, of cnste nml creed. The 
Wt-flietii world in tlie Feudal Ag«s was less suadcred 
and split up than if ILtiiliiftan at the present 
Tttoiiient. And yei, iifLer viBiLLuj> oliiiufl every part 
of Aitio, 1 meni^ a* noon as I taste her atmosphere 
or come nillihi range oJ' her iiifliieiuje, to libsctre 
a certairj IroinogeneoiisiieFS oJ' evpi esajnn ^ a certain 
sjiiiilarity tif eharacier. certain common features of 
politU-jil and still more of fiocial organisatiou, certain 
sdentira] strains in ilic cotnijosjtion of iimOj that 
dlltereutjate lier structure from aiiyt.hmg in Europe 
or even iu America, aiu] invent her with a distim-iion 
peculiarly her own. TJio sensation is strtinglhcned 
by the intpressloii left upon most mitids since the 
days of chUdhwxl by Ute two beat books ihat 
have ever been writtHn upon the East—vbt. the Old 
'restameni and die Araluaa Xigbls. If 1 strive stiU 
furUier to analyse Ji, 1 Und tlial bi scenery, as T liave 
elsewhere endeavoured to explain,' tiiedombiatu note 
ijf Asiati mtUvidiiaUty U cuutrnsl, in diariiwsier a 
general ijidilTert'ncc to ircLh and respect ftir success¬ 
ful wiltf, in dupt prtment dignity, in society the rigid 
maiiitetiaiicc of the fmiiUt' uuicn, in govemineni the 
tnntc acnuie&c.e!ice of ilie govcnied, in adniijiistrauun 
anil justice the open corruption of ndniitilstrators 
ajul judges, atid in every-day lift a staluiatiue anti 
itii-shuustShlc palicTioe, which attaches uu value to 
lime, and wages uimp]featiuble warfare against hurry. 

’ VIlk and iJie Ptnina QnuiUtn, vol. h [ip. IJJ. is, 

Tffs PAn SA.^r 


The imiJACt. this solkl 4 'uiulgfttn i»f 

ctuiracter ^iod liiibii, and lUe elastic and inslrtualiitt; 

■ -n 

CAniMi forec which we denammate oTTilisiitba, is 

wEllidi^ , . , , 

liirtiiiM a phenomeiiDn vrludi now lu many countnes 
I have set nn'seif to examiiiie, and which, I venture 
To thiuh. :j[irpas6e3 alt Othm in linman interm. In 
jVsia the uouibat is litfrwe«ii tuiLagonlstv who are 
fairly niatcliML It resembles one of th^^se ancient 
contests between the tffadu$tnr arid the rehViriUif, the 
man with tlie nide Idatle aiul the man with the 
supple net, that iilletl with straining crowds the 
Imperial arena at Rome. For though craft and 
agility and superior scicitce will, in the Jong run, 
generally gel. Iho belter of cnnle force Jitid llie naked 
weapon, yet there are moments when, in the twinkling 
of an eye, tlie tables ore turned, when the ywordsniaii 
slaaliGs iljc nettnan In twain, when the untutored 
Oriental makes short shrift with the subtleties and 
sophistries of the West. If, for instance, 
illustrates the easy victory of tlie European, Cliina 
so far registers an equal trinmph for the Asiatic, 
lu Africa and Atneriea, where no serious contest has 
I men possible, because of the I'ust. moral mrd intni- 
levtiial disparity between the orgrinienm engaged, but 
where eivUii^rtiou ai1v.ancca like flic ini'iimirig fide 
over 1 he rasUes built by children with wooden spades 
in the sand, the spectacle is devoid of any such 

Tile santu rmin of reflect ion may teul us to avoid 
a romtiton pitfall of writer® uiton tha Mast—the 
tendency to depreciate that wbieii we do n«)t onr- 



fidves witU or undersUad, luul wliioU 

an; tierefore proiit: to raisiake for a mark of inf*- 
riority ur dcgradaiiou. Matikiiid Jias btiiU for 
its inoru! Iiabitatioii dlflijreiit struotores in 
tlifTertriit lainLt aiu) times, li lias adopted Uiauv 
.divergent styles of arohiteoture, tmd has enterrainetl 
witlely opposite viewr! upon material, otuuuuent, attd 
design, tktrnetimes the fabric ivould seem to IiftVi* 
been erected all aslaiiLt or even to linve been turned 
Lopsy-iiiiTj in tlie course of construeUoti. Ami yet. 
jtLstas Uieiv are certain common laws observed m all 
Ijullilijig tlmt bas endured, so there are points of con¬ 
tact in all civilisations, coimuou principles windi lie at 
the root of every morality, however couiradictoiy its 
(iTtteriial inauifcstaticins. It is among the ancient 
races of Central jksbi and in CTiina tliai tUtJse reflec- 
litnni are chttJlv home home to the iraveUer’s mind 
AVhen lie meets with a civilisatiuu as old, nay older, 
limn our own, when he encoutitei-s u bistort' whose 
heroes Imve been aiijung the great men of ah linie, 
religions whose prophets have altered tlie couratof the 
world's progress, codes of morals whichhave uiulured 
for ceuturioa and still hold millions within their 
adamantine grip, a lesimiiig which anticipated many 
of Uiti proudest discovertes of motleru gciauce, and u 
social organisation which has iu places solved the 
very problem of reconciling mdividual liberty with 
collective force, w^hereupon the new-fledged demo¬ 
cracies of the ^Vest are eajH'tiding tlieir virgin eiier- 
gius—be feels that it is absurd for him to cmiaure, 
imd impertiuent in him to coudeiun. TJie Itiud ha.n 


not yei cxhaiisieti its k’ssotis for ty, iumI Europtf may 
etiil sit at the feel of her elder tiisior. 

Xo ir)tn>Jiielitiii is iieeUctl in presentinj; the tar 
East la an tilti^lish amlieneet* sintre, on the ivUolts 
it is lietter known to them already than the 
^ Near Ea^^t, or than the Central East, if these 
geograpliicol disiinctioos nuiy be permitted. Asia 
Minor, the Oatieuttiis^ Persia, Ifeludilstan, andTratis- 
easpia, are eacli n (^n'u int!o^ut*i to the majority ol 
OUT couJitrj'iiien cinnpai'ed with Uie <joast$ of China 
and the cities of Japan. The sttimtiou of these, on 
or near to Ute ouean higtiways, and ilie advance tl 
atate of civilisation t,o whiefi their inhabiiant.-i have 
attained and which has long attracteil the tiotice of 
Europe, and the extent to wiilch they Inive iix recent 
ymits been made Bccesslble l.iy steam-Im (lie by land 
and sea, have t!iverted thither the t«treftut of travel, 
and have familiarised men with Tokio and Canton 
who liave never been to SjTacusc or MijstHJW. Coin- 
fort ton phtys a large iMirt in tlte diflcrimuiiition 
of travel. ere Uiere a railroad from the Caspian 
lo Teheran, more [leople would visit the capital of the 
Shah. Were there an hotel at IJaghdiuh wc might 
fihortls' hear of Cook’s parties tothe minsaf llahyloii. 

‘ IL tiisy Ihn^u forj^owu by mwi Ttwtur*, but h in n*tmtnjle** 
tlio fiirti itim the tiiHiwicil comiL'^iwii of Kiigtuia ntib th* hurXli^t 
wu to ber coumeliwi willt InJia, llm LmI IhiIIa rnuliiijt 

(tctmpwjy hiia irwtitijj auihjiiii ui ihii Pcuiiunliii in liiiiiiFUri. 

JftVB, DSit Bunieo, hflfum ibey biul opfluwl n ■iitstu (aetoTj In Hin- 
(ttotjui. tbo -picc imdc beiae tlw Uit iJtot arew tlitm « 

Tbn Hrituli ailnncc iif Um pMt wtUnry bn* tlunefort kweii iimn'ty ■ 
fyjAppmwwup* k mwim; wIjm* llw Emjlbit* ^^>*8 thit flu"’ nflKiy 

SOU ftw iijjUk 



NeferUieless tliere are portions of the Far East wliieh 
tie preciue cleartU of those t^oramuuications of 
1 have l*een ajieiikitig has atiU left JBoitttetl nmUlnitw,! 
tuikiionm. The number of Eiip'Usbmen wbo liave 
tmvelletl iti tie interior of Korea may lie Counted 
upon the fitigei-a of ihe two hiuule. 1 know of none 
who have ^deeied AimaTn as the 3 ceiie of their 
exploratioriH*. I'crhaps^ lierefoie, in mcliwUng them 
tn my surv'oy of liie Far East, I may lielp to fill n 
gap, at tile same lime that I subsenre the symmetr}' 
of my own plan. 

There jireeertam innin distinctions wliitJi separate 
this region rn>m those parts of lie Asiitn continent 
that border upon tlie Mwlitertmieon and the 
Arabian Sea. ilueli of It, comprising the 
whole of the Indo-CSiinese peninsula, lies sonih of tie 
Tropic of Ciineer, and accordingly picseiits ns with a 
climate, {peoples, and n vegetaiion, upon which die 
sun has looked, and which jx>ssess chanicieriaiics of 
iheir own, Grealer lifiat has pi'oduced leas enpneity 
of resisunce; aTid Just as in India all the maauiiluie 
race?! liave thttir IntbitnL above tie 24Th degree of 
latitude, so hi the Far Ejisl is there the greatest con¬ 
trast between tic peoples of Ctiitia, Korea, and Japan, 
lying north of that parallel, ami those of Biirmn, 
Siiwii, Malai'sia, and Annam, whidi lie Ixdow it. The 
one clitss has retnined its virility and its freedom, 
the second has nlreiuly ondergorm or is in course 
of undergoing alwpiitm. Throughout the Fnrliwt 
there is iiliundnnre of water, ami the scorched and 
sullen deserts that lay their leprous Umch upon 

THE Far east 


Pewia, Central and JTongoIia, are nowluire re¬ 
produced. In die Near Rxst., i>. west of the Inilns 
and tlu; OxtJs, iherc arc al»«oliitfclr onl3* two rivers of 
any Unjiortance, tlm Tigris and the Euphrates; and 
the nraitt reason of the ba<*lvwardiitiss of tliose 
countries U the ileartli h4>th of moisture and of 
uteatts of oornmuiucntiou whiolk the absence of rivers 
eimiilfl, A further striking dtflerence. of iiicalciib'vljle 
itnpurtauce iii its effect upon national develciptnenl, 
is that of religion. Western Ask. is in the luivield- 
iug and pitiless dutch of Islam, which ofjposes a 
Qyt'lojtean wall of resktauce to InnoraLion or i‘erorm, 
Ill Eastern Asia we encounter uiilr the ndid. faiOi of 


the Indian prince, more or less overlaid witli super¬ 
stition and idolatry, or sapjieil by seepiici.^itu and 
decay; and the strange conglomerate of ctldcs and 
demonoktn' which stands for religion in Ibina and 
its once dependent states. Neither of these agenines 
is overtly hostile to Weaicrti influence, ijiough both, 
■w'ben aroused, are capable of patting fortli n tacit 
weight of antagonism that must k- felt to he appro* 
dated. Finaltj, whereas in the Near East pripula- 
tioTj is spam* and luaderpiate, in the Far East it k 
crowded upon the st>il. cultivating tlie well-soiikcd 
kndfl with close diligence or massed liehind city- 
walls in seething nggregations of biimanitt*. These 
comlJttolls augment the complectj’ of the probleiD 
which their polltiral future involves. 

Midway Inttweon tbo (wo flanks of the con ti net it 
wliose rival dilU^reiices I have sketched ties liidk, 
aliaring the features, both good and evib of both. 


r//A' rAH SAST 

site lui5 wide, waterless, mul uiLtilkd bm Ebe 

iibo has thrubbitij; liirea of [miaati laixmr siiil life, 
wi. ih. Her surface is luarked both by mighty 
Ttvcrs and by Saliuras of sand. Among her 
jx'oples are Mohamiuetbiis of Ixith sclutub, mixed ujf 
will I di^'ci'se and pagan erccds. Of her races boihc 
have always aubsisteil by tlie swoj'd alone ; ki others 
the plouglnsimre is the otdy kiiowiv impletuent of iron, 
fihe combines the rigoui*s of eternal snow with tlie 
In^uriant ilaine of tlie tivipics. "^'iihiii her i>orf5ers 
umy be siuilied every one of the problems wit h which 
tile reift of Asia diaUenges our concern. iJut lier 
c'cntrai and commanding position k nowhere lietter 
seen than In the political iuHtieuce wliieh sheerer* 
rises over the destbiiesof her neighbouns new and far, 
and the extent, to which their fortunes revolve u^wu 
an lodiati axis. The iodepeuilcince of Afghanistan, 
the contmuc'd national existence of Persia, the main- 
teimce of Turkish rule at Tioghdail, are one and all 
dependent upon Calcutta. Nay. ilie radiating .nrclc 
of lier inftuem.‘e overlaps die adjoining contiiicuiB, 
and uflccls alike the fate of the BoBphanis and the 
destinies of EgJ'pt. Nor is the effec!t less renmrk- 
abltf if examined upon tjic eastern side, to whidt in 
tills book I am about to invite atlenthm. It is from 
jealousy of India and to impair the posit ton which 
India gives to Great Britain in the Far Ihst tliat 
France bEvs ugain eiuharked upon an jVsialic career, 
and is mlvituciiig from the south-east witEi steps thui 
faitlifully correepoiid with those of Russia upon the 
north'west, Tlic heritage i>f the bidian Rmpire lias 

rn£ FAH EAur 


within Uitf htst ion yesuis mailo us *hf UuKl’tiiOJirliljoank 
of Chitm, and 1 im muUipliod ihroofuld the axeaof our 
diplninnry at raking. Even the forinno^ of ronioio 
Korea are iQ a irKumcr l)Ound up w'uU tlie poliliv^ 
of Hinduylau, ^ioeiiig that it is hy the same foe tluii, 
lu the Inst resort, butii (iro li]reateae<1, and that the 
tactics which alro at the appToprialiou of Use sniiiller 
unit have as their ulterior ohjw’tive the dfririiueui of 
the greater. Suoli and so supreme is the position 
enjoyed in Uie Asian coutiueiit by Use Empire of 
tile Kaiser*i-Hind. Towards her, or iuiu her orbit, 
a cciutripetal force* which none appears able to resist, 
draws every wandering star. Jiwu as it may Vie said 
Lhat ibe Kasteru Question in Europe turns upon the 
disiuemberniciiL of Turkey, so tlie Kaslcni llmistion 
in Asia tunss. upon the eoniinued solidarity of 
Iliudiisiaii, In what relation to lliat pnibleni stand 
the countries ami peoples of tlie For East, w'liat is 
their present political conditiou, and in what way 
tliev are engaged in eon struct ing the biatoiy. or re¬ 
constructing (he maps of the future, it is luy object 
in tliese pages to deteriiiine. 



Mnoh h&ve t tnv^sUadi in iJie of gol^U 

Ami niaiiv goodijr slatca oj^lI kim^dom^ se^n, 
liouiiil niiuijr Imva 1 l>e® 





Oiiuiia la a^ninTim «iiMUzitla., nullit r«tifi««ant> 

lIosATB, EfK I. L74 ^ 

DtffiLSa UiP five veaTa thal elafieetl Iwtween my first 
ancl second vlslls to .Tapnn^ la ISST and in 16U2, I 
found Uiat many thinps had changed. The 
Eutope.'wLs'ttion of the country pcoceeds 
ap^icc, though perhaps with a slightly less headlong 
rapidity than liefore. In 1887 short lines of railway 
ran only in the Jieighliourhootl of the twi> capitals, 
Tokio and Kioto, atul of the Treaty Ports, Kobe and 
yokohama, Kotr it is possible to travel by rail 
vrilhiii a single day from Tokio to Kioto, otid also 
from Tokio to Aomori on the aonhem coast; 1(18(1 
miles of the iron road are recorded as alreailv open 
to traffic; and a great prognitatntf of railway con- 
fitructioii, according to wliloli a sum of 8,50(1 jiKlOf is 
to be spent upon fortlier extensions during the next 
twelve years, has received Uie sanction of tlie Diet. 
In a few years' time those to whom the discomforts of 
a marine voyage are inadequately compeiwnftd by 
die faiiy' laiidacapes of the Inland Sea, will be able 



to lra%-el overlfiutl^ without ktiviug their comport* 
ment, from Kioto to Sluiuonofichi; whtk* tlicrc b a 
tolk of bridging thu Straits that bear iho latter rmm i^ 
with A fabric that ediall ejccol iu moiutTositj otcii the 
Kortli lirkljie, Fram Tfikio to ^agasahi it will then 
be as couiinonplace on iot^idcot to travel bv rail as k 
is Loiidot) to *WJck; and the will 

relajm' into tlie iluaty Umbo of the postllioti otid tlie 
stage* coach. 

here th^ * iron horse ’ has rushed in. it may be 
certain that minor fcirtns of Wesieni invention will 
Tb#*tp-t* treai In Tokio iratDwjjvs dat- 

Toad* along die streets: jibs liames in some 

of the princiiml liigliivnys; and the electric light is 
unifonidy employed in the public bnUdings, in luatiy 
of the residences of aiiulgtens aiid nobles, iu the tea¬ 
houses wliich figure so largely in the holiday life of 
the .bipamese gentleman, ami In a uiniilicr of 

stores and even small sirops. Tetephones and tele¬ 
graphs stretidi a web of wires overhead. The long piLV 
tiircsi]ue tines of yt^hikis or fortlGed city rcsideiicea 
of the feudal lords and dmlr stvordej retainerB, that 
covered so great an urea williin dte moats, barfi 
almost nil disappeared, and have been replaced bv 
public: oflii-ea of showy European architecture im'd 
imposing dimeusioua. An iunaense pile of scallbid- 
ing, suiTouiiditig a apace much larger than the Ljtw 
Courts on the Stmud in t.oiid.Hi, conccnla what will 
preseiitly be known as the new Miuisirj'ntid Courts of 
Jiutice, where wiU. W tUsjreused a jurisprudence tlml 
Los been borrowed, with a Inily Japanese eclceiioisiii 


tmp utmim isr P4iiMitui!^t at 



frujtt Uie cociiis pf Italf Uie luniptis of £afO|io, The 
perpetuiil bugl^iipT^. and tlie uf neat 
ill whit^ I'otEiiii unifoMns aiiil Idoiik ImmiIm, an; indtoa- 
lire i»f a nallojial anuy. whose ittobiHeed streiiglL hi 
time of peace is and whose discijiline. phy¬ 

sique:, and wea[n;ms are tlie adininiiton of Eumpeati 
cntica. thU in Tokio Day the smart white Lulls of 
gunboats. Ij’ing at iim-hor, represent a nas’v whose 
ctettUun has forcihly stirml the national arcLair, and 
whieh U destitiml iu the future to he no mean factor 
in the jwlitiea of the PaoiSc. FiJiallVt aftei- a twenty 
years’ tmvjul, Japan lias given hirrU to it Parliu' 
meutary Oonstitutiou; and on nripretehtloim hut 
roomy temporary structure, built of wood, like its 
prt!(lt»i*esaor which was liunit down in 1891, and with 
no iiuce of tsative art or nrohiteeture ahont it, atcom- 
TOixlaTes the iionuriees of tt> 3 ’alty or tlie representatives 
of Lhc {leople, wlnn in the two ChiiniherH, <meated Lv 
the Coiisihiuioii of Pehruary 1889, and resfieotively 
entitlevl the flouse of Peers aiut the House of Repre¬ 
sentatives, I'otistitute the fuiperlal Diet of Jaivm, and 
are swiftly iiitroduohijLr her people to t he uiuenlties 
of ParJiaTnentarj’ existence—ohatructioti within the 
Cliandier, platfotrm ittntory out of doors—to the 
phenomena of Ihidical anil Progrossivc parties, and 
to the time-honoured /miavtftf of begging and refusing 

* Hw JiijaiUlii'Vi iJipi ji|j}3Tujauu^tje4 unym clo*e3y to ttiL Fitltffmii 
ihjm to any frtbpt Eirnkpc^ti or tuoilsiK TUh fil is 

Ktiro^iUrVi piuity ncniiinniijiL ■utl p*rtf;? tfibcttficL Un^r tl» 
fitwl iximr tiln Prinr^ a«ri ihtr bights’ Jif4*klily aEtthtg 

ii3 Ihiri^ uwn ttfdli; ali'iJEurr h ^tKiJupcimil twraoiu noiiil- 



In tht* tlire<? ami a Lalf yenrjt of itS4*xi$t43Uec,3lj:^(;e 
ite lir4Ji. rne^Min^ tii ^'ovemW the Japjincse 

Diet lins ttassefl t>irriu*fli aix M^&sioiin mill 
iliree General Itleeiiims. TUe two Ilousee 
meet in CHmmbera kletititm) in frize ami rlestgn, almoi^t 
tlie onlydiOVrcjic* heiiig the prefteuce of tlie LufMEu^n] 
throne hehiiiil the President"i* nhair in the House of 
Peers, Their jtrotiiKUpltui has; 1n*en Ix^troweil frtmj 
tliat of the bulk of foreigtt Ijegiaiative Chambers, tlie 
seats and deskt< of the meinbers beio^^ rauired iu ihe 
arc of a oii'de froiifmo a raisefl platform, upon 
which are the presidetuial chair, the -Npeakers 
tribune, the desk iif the oflicial reporters, and—a 
speciality nf the Japanese Diet—on either side of this 
centre a row of eeats ixcupied by the Minietm or 
delegated nfEciab of the rarioua (leparuneiits, who 
are in the CliamlHjr, yet not of it, tuid who sli there 
not compuJjit:irily, but of their own option, and wiflK 
out votes, fo defend their departiiiftiits, to make 

ruT^il hy ihfi KiiifwJTOT for xiinFiUiiiQiii stirtleF-) tc the or lirf 

Th» iiuinihm i>r butli ihi^-iio oLunrsiEt «tt tot Vmhr the 
ihinl houElii]^ MTU moImloJ thw htilk «f ihi* iliiin^ imlj fiir a 

TirTO of ftrt'tm years, anil of a ntiriilJiEr of tfuinib, 

biEnioJH Ifjr tkijr oven ainl of r#|arE4c:iitAilir'i« of IJiu 

fMdoLia |nnrtiiNii^ r#»tilrtii^L irth^wl to iiw epprobattmi <if [!ip Einptwr. 
by Riiiidl ftlnrtoral ImplUl^ liu^pcMuU ifhjy i,f ihp lAi-jt&verf:. 

/n» HfOh&ii of Fioitra, tUm cirn^tnimL coniains ai iJfcw pipjvnk tbm 

♦i7ll tnistcils4Pi, Tlirt liiiwrr flotiH, wfil«!h irontMiiq W[lO uieiiilMirv liivJ 

akta for fivtir jfwii kfitttiiij} boliiuk lo ELiaairililM \ii oitt;#!'ni iiry tinu 
for a §^\mi nf UirtMi luixatlw, i# whoUr wkI eoTErpoit^l 4tr Iha 

TM|7inPMniAilvE« of liiii j^qrcfootiin^i icinl temi*, ftiltinivEi hi llu? 

rtf imtv to onrj rjw^idJ r.f ilm jhu|ffo. wpatt n Uu^^i^vin^ 
twoliiiiUiiJ. RDil agi- fnuH^hW, ihp iiuJibHffatiafi for Iki|jip iWtr 

Watinii of laiitl of tiiLs bumtlP of VftWKh or of wn aitncuii 

incoiiHJ of JfltflW, R twiihv niuntlift' witl tJiti uiliiiimiiirr cujti 

of ^ 

fir rciinw 



or to !wii?mfr nueiiloiisJ T]ie J!tpao<?8t 
apjwar it* Iiari? accpured witli ‘'hftraetvrwtit: fiUMllty 
thu fealiiit*3 of l.^i)rl{arta^nt{iry <%iiiduoL, 

Tliny niaku om'dlt-n) spntH;ljfis, ro'qiifiitly tif ^rtat 
liiQglli^ lUid nmrkt'il Isy uraoes of as wdl l>y 
i|uickiie3s of reaaonin^. * >ji the wjiole, cunfiiderinp 
lion- imnuitiirt* ia itie fjower mt(i 1 Iwnv 

tahly, as 1 glialt presently exjilahi, it ifi- hj* Us etui- 
siirutioii idllieted with the vices of an irrespoosihie 
t')pjM>!»idotu It siiuveetleil till lately in eoruinciUi^ if4 
operatums a croditahlt* ilBooruiii, Very full aail 
accurate reports of the speech es are ])uhljsheil by u 
(hjvpnmient staff of reporters, whose sferiographie 
attainments are ou a .par with llip. ino-^t hij^hty-trained 
*^sperts of Europe or ^Vmerioa: anti a conilenscd 
versitm of t he ileliates in EiiL'lish ap]»e.irs iii tlu* 
coin tuns of the ’dapon Daily ifdt ‘ from Lite aide pen 
of its well-known «litor, Captuiii llriukley. 

' Tlio BipnsJjf oiptinrui] nttcflrliuicfi of intnlnwrii in tiHt IrtfiVT Hinw 
luLA ^Kdieti AS ulfnuly pirUTirfitlblrf irriiAlljTfi litii rhAU^piniH of 

IWJiiuiinitJLrv ntuEil)KiE#li^ mini ^utniitiisfiikl Tor id- 

Lli# publbtJLiiil EZrport uf iJln I’^pdftMdlniri 4uniisr weHon of 
1W3-P ibo firtilowio^ inumaiirti; A uir^iiiu vkim 

iimiiln hj A jirmrto mcmlhii-p miiil wm piuiriflil lltfl E'lfHBilpiit 
fiMSiffk} Lu miiufnr wbi:Ei llii* ralttntfi ililikli’P* h* In piLtCttft. 

SohitftjiLE^fitly g tiio G<?i with ioicit? tKikt 

ruiniK^jis riftFui^ pow'of to nmuuE wb^nt^vitT tbw.v pI^wwhL ihvm 
Wn* uii fi.5r tuiijiilMfi £g pnt thctniflifii* to ihc of 

Aiikill;^ ihcJtU Gli Bk H tUI!$uhc«t hr balkvtnl liuit 

ADiua of lliu hk All nikil EhAI n 

iici:ti=)Ea 7>' nti^bl Iw went Uy msu ii4 In Uifl* caifl b® iViniiretl lu mnt<o An 
nnjettuy niotioii. Fin Ally ihc nrs;<^iiiry motifm* matfwlp "Wt* ctctrintU 
on thf* ^rmiitd ibfll iho l?rtbfrnfl inuJ in i<i tlm 

l^pimii\ thi* county, A«Jti ihe llie juilii nfA«£«ii^ 4Jlliwr lltAii 

c^(mfiliillii«tPL£ IrtW and |vrAct!eo.u (ot tiw ftliweiici- of ujifimifirt i* tbti tliw 
IConiA of I’fora raiw-t* botwroirH III u%ui IL 4 .it^+ amt Hohiws ai 
Hi'prtoAiiditaivrA At l.lJt rjl.p i*/, aI ll^tixh^ s1h» mluliinLrH bit At 

wtmk ill fc^wilr ulliiN!*, 

c 2 



Tlje Varljaiii(rutar\' nyimf develiiix'il n 
I>r<Hii"iovis mushrwui prowtU of native journaiii, few 
P y jj.L. r eitjmitt” H< all nn esteu!»ive eirculiitt iititt but 
vacli atlacliwl to ibe ureeil itf sonit; partv or 
eeeiioiu or iiispiretl by some Icatloiv In tliis way is 
tic-hig luanufaf ttireil, witb almost t>ewtlderlng iiaste, 
tt lH>tly *if public opitiitm whose tiioveuuuiL^ it is im¬ 
possible to foi'ttcJb'st, mul with which Japauesc states- 
tueii ulveaily Sod it di^icnli to grapple. In the 
country we txiad of politic al elulis, of large meet tugs 
held in theatrtJa and public places, of eloquent, 
speeches, of i-hceriug audieiutcs, of the virtues and 
the wickedness of public men; and we realise that ut 
Japan, as elsewhere. Demos, having found lictaied 
articulation, is repeating, for the comfort of die 
scienlific litstornui, the familiar and venerable 

There arc other evidences that Japan is in the 
bondage of a universal law. lliough tJie level of 
pirtu- political inteUigptice in the f’liamlx'i- is rea- 

IIMLlUfT T 1 * ’ T - 1 

•3r»ivi44n* Sfurabiy Ingb. it aoiw not appear umt that 
of i.-hiu'ucter or prestige is e<[iinlJy so. The altrac- 
tirm of ft salary {for eftcli niemi>er of both Houses^ 
receives n coiupubury yearly nEow.iiice of JtS0(h 
equivalent at the present rate of liscliaiige to 
not nnirli more than lOllf. a year—no inconside¬ 
rable itnwme in Japan) is not believed to add mndi 
to the popularitj of a jHitliii'iLt caiieer, since, it is 

' Estrmpl HiK ft# mi3 Iitrrc^titfv tli#i Frtttcn #rLt1 

Tlia Tmjierinl PrtiicM ary its i^ip4 at ikrijicifiiil 
frrnn tbo Ijnparor < hfit thi* MAniiiimeft bnw iin fikItLriEBi. mt£t luw iimEij 
Ilf lluiiii v^y pwtt. 


tlml, lliou^U a miimljcr receives 
.'iiiiiLirLlKv he has to spend N:J,U(Vi at least, anti since, 
also, the stmtigest tlUcretiit ai.fadies, thettretU-ally, 
to any snsinetoii «l’ peeiinmry inuiives* liui the sys¬ 
tem of eiliicai Lou orjiajiised nfcer tJie tall of Feudal¬ 
ism—a tiViteiu liar'll on the impimiioii of hrid^iiig, 
wiUi all jxuisilile rapTility^ the gulf that eeuttmes nt 
iscdailoii Irad produced in Japanese kKowliKlpe— 
proved disprtiptu'tioiiiUe to the praotied needs of the 
iiMliou, and calltnl into existence » set of yoiiths who 
regartte<! official and polititTal life its ituf only spliere 
befuting their snpi:rivjr atiainmeiiis. From the 
raitlts of this class there has gradually been formed 
a numerous IkkIv of professloiial politicians, who litid 
ui phitfonn and Parlianieniary publicity a coinpen' 
sat bn for Ihe closed dwrs of raidt or oirice. These 
iiidividnals are in ii pixtitioii of pcrpetiiiil frcetloin 
and no responsibility; they can enjoy the luxury of 
ftltackio” and parjdysing every GitverJiiiiem in turn; 
and, whilst Ijy ilieir votes they ctui neitlier form nor 
oust a Minhftry, tJiey can fetter its liml^ with any 
tint liber of LlUipULiati conlfl* The predoiniiiancc of 
this class ut first deterreil many of the older and 
more ioflneniial men tfi>m olfortng themselves lor 
election; but there are sipus tfmt iheir reliict:uit*e 
is yielding to the necessiiicii of the ^lituatioii. It may 
lie said, indeed, that the ParHamentury lixperimcm ia 
beijj'^ watched, bv iJie more stable elemenls of the 

O * 

comtuunity from a suspicious though narrowing dia- 
tatice, and that a sense t-tf national obligation lo Urn 


hif?hest 11 ties nf cilucia^hip hiw not. yei been al all 
witliily nrnowLL 

Al ilio «iiuM> tttnti, diargca nf Qoveniiueiit iifcpf*- 
tifein null dccforaJ Irrwinv are freelv bandied iibinii. 

mm * 

tt.-!.. It b Hllejsed tital the liniierial nominaticina 
*'***^ to wliieii sire rtservetl by llie 

CoTisf.ituiion for the rewiiril of d^sthln 1 lIHll{^d public 
servbieor entditioti. are dietrilmted among Mlnkte- 
rial adherent-*. At the General Hcctinti early in Itl'J2 
odicLal interference appears to Lave i»eeii opoulr atvi] 
flagrantly exen'ised. At lea^i^ such wa« the declared 
opinion of hoili Iltnjseji of tlie Diet: for, whiUt the 
Ltiwor lioust? only failed lo puss by three votes a 
motion for a iiumiorial lo t.U& ', decioring tltai 
in llie elections administnitivc othcials Imd n-autoiily 
[M!n'i!rted the authority of l.lieir otlice by tempting 
and inveigling ^'oters or by rit!3i,irung to force for their 
coinptdifion — -and seeking in llx the rcsixittsihility 
upon the Oovernment—a motion wlitnli^ if carried, 
ts'ould have aniouuled Ui a direct vote of censure— 
both Uousi's pojised by large majonttea a reprt^nta- 
lioii to iUh Govennneiil urging rbem ft* puiusli the 
implicated ofEcials: and the new" Cabinet so fju- nc* 
cep ted the instruction as to dbmiss five vif throe 
ofFenders from their posts, Tlte Gonerat Mectious of 
I8l>!i and lSli'4 Vicre also distinguished by a good 
detd t>F rioting, and by a mu tal tie percentage of bixitru 
health. We may detect similar Tcprothietions, as yet 
in miniature, of Western IbnnaJn (he commeufvment 
of an agitation for the reduci.iou of the frartelibie. 
which ifl tion- tiaseil upnu a liigh assessment to lUreci. 

Si □ 


: 'W'liile iJio nwjV'Uwiim a|;|0 limit tvf iittvinber^ 
of I'arliaDiiint— via. tbitiy years—implies n tnUtrusi 
of prei:t«:iriUN Junius nliicli is* imrursUy ili^^taateful to 
:iiH 3cir-*'otw’eit of yoiuiji Jap:m^ 

None of thes'e ‘Rofsks ahearl,' lic#wever. ean be 
compared tor sjerioiiJUies.* wiili tlie tit a it i qiiesiioti of 
Ttm aiihk- the relatiotiA of the LUiaiuher with the t Jovent- 

nionr, wliieh reproduce m a tlilFftrejit hut not 
Icjss acute fonn the tjs'iiLniv'ersiiil that is from 

time to tinje pre&eitttid tu Eotflimil, not between the 
llotiso of Couiiugns and liut llinistTy, but lietwtjeii a 
Kuilical niajori!;’ in the Hoin>e of tAimmoiia and a 
C'uj wen'ative majority i n I he I hi use * »f Ltmis. Japan, 
tltoug^li governed by pnrty iiieii, is not blessed or 
eurt*e*l with party government. TJie iliuislers in 
Japan, lihe the Presulent's Cabinot in America, sire 
the nominees and servants of the Emperor, Xlicy 
are not resptmslhle (o the Itiet, and can renmiii in 
olTlca as long as: tJoverelgn liouoars them wiUi 

his confidence. Hut wJiereas in America n iiiaji^rity 
hostile to rlie E^twulive in Urth ITouses is a phenome' 
turn e^cireintlv rare in occurrence, and irertain to in,^ 
terminated in a short pericn:! of time, in Japan there 
is in» 41 reason wliy fiuuli a situalioii shonhl not 

exist in the first place, or be indefinitely prolongwl. 
The tlieorj" of the Japanese OinstiturioJit therefore, 
Iming the nvlu of a fioverumeiU legislating through 
ia*»> Cliambers, but not responsible to either, and 
treating tlieir representatiotw with comparathe in- 
dittercnce, it may readily bo mitlerstood that thn 
popular Chamber at an}‘ rale, which rests solely upon 

friction, tltouijli wi II. tmmiw rratioliUc, licci^mrs at; 
jilmcidii jkij Luinai Lc macluiiQ of o|:ipaBiilou. lliere h a 
Tnore Itr^ nmgU iylMUvieiun '>f jwirtiefij with i}«jk 
jHWfitl supporter or nilvei'snries ol' tlie Of>vt(rfjr»<?ut, 
Hui Llic>a^ do iiOL ill either or fuiy eIl in proopE j 
nor coti tiieir votes he relied ujutTi witli nny t’crtainTy. 
Ilui ‘ Uplow the ■»jui|fway 'altitutle iMiiii^ it* inipular in 
Tokin (13 ii is ill Nortiiainpioi). The lai^^esi coiuhino* 
tion ih iJie last House uunibereti S)fl oui of 
.1 total of S1)(l; ami tliv two. tirniii setitiotis of the 
lladu'al party are in:«:oneilably oppoised. So far ilie 
Japanese HouM-'Of Itepresiiatatlres has reudertal itself 
as ilisagreiiahle lo sttcce^wive tjoviimmentft as it cotthlr 
obsinicibip their raeasiirea. defeating their budgets, 
a ltd generally liet raying an alt i tittle that might liave 
been Eiudietl in IriiiU tuanletuies, Nor can I linagiMe 
a jiiore frailful wciiiuition for the student, be he 
partial or prejiitlii'edt of representative instituiious, 
thati 11 jMiru^ilof Ihe |jrfn?t*e<litig3 of tin* I^iwer numse 
of the Jnpanese Biet (luntig its last four sessions. 
Tlii.-re wiD be inurh in iniefest and inform hinr r 
sumo things to reassure; but not a 111 tie to disjnrit 
and dismay. 

At Uie time of my viait in SepteinWr I8!l2f.a new 
^Minisiry had recently assumed the seals of ofTice, ami 
Tii-Mmi*. as I write those paces (181*41 in still in 

t*t All i 

iiwiTnj« pc«rer. Lkjiini Ito, tli^ Miru^jter Presulentt 
or rriine Minister, is prolmbiy the best-krioum 
JapatiOEse ataieatnad ^lUlside hj$ own (.(oiintTV; Lhe 
adwenturoufr esidoit of his early career, when, wiiJi 
his life-long friend and colleague Count luonye, lie 

THE Kvoumox'or mnsnx jai'as in 

wad 03 uuf'};IiHl in dingulde on board no £ii;!lidb ¥«$> 
iH*! for rvtiTCTatioe to Sii^lnnilT to ftttidy ilu' 
tuanners juid iiisdtuLioaft of tlie Wwt, Lving as 
fnmilirtr to most Coreignftrtf sts ta ilie part wtiloh he 

9rt mi 

9iii}8eipmiitly played in the Itedtoration, and as a 
ptdiieer in the evolution of Mwlem Japan. In lus 
own country his experience^ his laet, and lus hidi- 
vidnal respdUMhility for the new Parlianientar}* 



Cotistilutiolu* re4ukr luiu tl»»? must nsperlwl ami 
iiifluPiitJal of .fap;irLC'S 0 piihlti? uit’fiu Alrt'aJv oiict 
iVbue Minkter anti Prcripukhi of the Privy Coimci!, 
ariil llu- first Preaitlent of tliv Hcnjse .if fttri,, bt; now 
rBturned after an Imt^rval m wUich lu? Iin<1 aetii 
otlier Miiiistver? ('tjiiie atic! go in tlie prt-linuiiary llns 
conj^eqaeiit itpini a new ...nlifr of iLiniw, in order in 
mould into dnrabk' shape iJie oflsiiring of bis own 
polulcul creatioti^ a ml U« etitleavour to give some' 
tiling like sinbility lo the mlnuiiistratioii of his 
coanrry. With him wei'G nssuciateU iti the C^liinet 
hifj old frieml Oi.uui Inouye, a former Minister for 
Foreign Aflhirs, and, [lerha^is, the moat diiring and 
original of Japanese statesmen; Count Yaiiuigata, 
himself a ftiruicr rretnier^ to n'liom wn^ entrusted 
the portfljlioof Justice: and Mr. ilutsu, a trovellfd 
tuid blghly-acnompUshL'd statesionn, ivho li:iil repre¬ 
sented his comiti'y at Wtujhiugtou before lieiug trans¬ 
ferred to the Ffireign rtUlce. The only publte tnan 
of the very first miik who was and who remaiiiB out¬ 
side the new lillriktry ivas Count (Jknniit, ilie author 
of the famous at tempi at Treaty Hevution ihiii «iil- 
nihiated hi an atumipt upon hU Hfe, and who. for uo 
v'ety well aecertmiieil reason other limn that he k 
the ucknoivledged ieailer of the I'rogtessiotiLSl pariv 
in the IIoiisi? of lieprm-ntaiives, was gupjwsed to be 
more or less in «]j(>oaitioju Tlie new Government 
mlgbl almost ehdni to be a Minisiry of All the 
Talents; nini, undoubtedly. iJie fiuminfins of Count 

' 0.11 ait tbi biM liluutoir t.ia.llkl)«(t • UiiittM .1 ronnuEHiiirj' on liiu 
J^poiniw r<.tulitinkii. n'hirb Iit» livon inuiilAtHl Eneliib sad 
If pnhtUhr-il hi Tokia. 

r//A' JSrOfATlOS Of itOO^HX JAfAX 

III) l)y thn Huiiit^mr ihi' tiiU of tbe Mali-uktilti 
Ciiljiiiet in tlw sniimier ISSii, aail ihv iHnniKwitiou 
of Ills .AdjiiiJUBti'Miioii* liiul escifed I he liveliest saiis- 
factioti in pfiUtirid cirdi*& in .Irijian. A few naiistio 
on C’lan govern nient fH’arcely broke the 
general t^fiiiseiistiiv on tin? one hnud, of f!f>iigrnTnla- 
tion tliflt the tnie leutlers hiid a( lenirth inniseniwl li> 


lead, on the other Imnd orjudgnnfut held in snsiKnuie 

until iJieT iiBt! &ht»wu of what siiili' tliev wi-rif iiiatle. 
» ■« 

I enjoyed the plensUfe oti several occasions of uicei- 
ing and rottveramg on the pulifirid almaiion ivitli 
Couma Ito and Inouye, and vriili Mr, HiiUsn: and 
a foreigner may perhapJ! be allowetl without itii- 
liertiiience lo etiinpliment the ironniiy that can pro¬ 
duce such pnlitie lueii. 

The fiuestion of the hour iva#. Uie attitude to be 
adopted by the GovetimiieiJt tiarjirtlH i'arliamt'nt 
Ei|w«i*- wbeti it should meet that body in ^foveTiiWr. 

In tlie Sesair-ti of the Itudgei had 

been in> systeiimtically oppoaeil that il 'vas never 
pft&seil at all, and rc'coiii'se liad to lit; made to an 
article in the Constitution, admitting in «ind» a 
ease (with, wise fureaigbt of tlie idlosyucrjiaiHs of 
ilapaneae ohnracterl of iht* reudojition nf the estimates 
itf ilte prcvitnis year.' The repetition of such a 

• li ]■ lUdUebi^, in tht of wlun hw JiriiuJlj liBriwuL-a. to 

mrriJ CcMliit IidV tHiMiiHttUJirv ujic^u (lii» JiflSirli of tho Colt- 

iititntioii LXXr.\: MVIsf-u ihu DitU doi OH 
OI' tlio fiuiKil bcKin hriJU^bi ini^ wrluHl thu' resiillt will 

hfif if I ciiBif*, tliM mftht luiiimi&l 4^¥Uiif-rtr« I AfuL iu 

puwlilnefj' t*f th« 

Mitrh d u/ i^/oVft h^Hu « oi}Un(nr$ whftt 

pnnnpff^ Hf* ham* nf Ihnr 

fiopMi if it inccmpvtUlir mih a fUf oirrt..* 


ntbuil' 4;t>iili] not tightly W fiinliirtil !>y tlti:! ^t raitgust 
Govemmeiu iluir. modoru Japan could protluce i and 
puhtlc opiriiim uxtiaoated iufilf in sunnise t<» t!i<i 
prf>bal>le Ijcatiug of C^tiHU fto and lit'* colleagiies 
towurda this obstreperous tiui^luig, Unw waa it 
to be controlled—by a policy of ciiH^ or t>y a pro- 
gruduue of cnreeiua ? Should the Jlinistn' rule in 
despite of the Cluuuber, or should it make tenus 
n'ith the latter, aod treat it with tltut aa^imptiou of 
<lerereuce that is so grateful to injured pride ? The 
auswer that w as returned to these (iuc-slions by the 
experienijes of the two Sessions of 3 and ib5-3, 

sheila no luminous a ray both upon die ititemul 
polity of modern JapMi^ mid uimii the dangers by 
which it is threatened, that I umko no apology for 
referring to tJiem. 

The acLiiid facts were as follows, Tlie Gaveru* 
tncjit met IhirliuMienl with a programme whose two 
9 Wh>i« «i «d‘ief iteiuft were u scheme for the roitssesse 
iio±.ii jiu>nt of tJie XjUud-tax—a tInie-hoiLOUi'ed griev¬ 
ance in Japan ever since the Kcatoratiou —^which 

* AiU^r |}i» Iktruliu^En in %h* wim ivirro in 

Ihnon ml in prafiip^ t«f3Aiii^iLt-i^ilL emUiRttea of 

iviUi ficvdoiu lof mtntftfr nitil wst,\n. Hua«vCijinviLri| 

]iiud iJmLT rrnl h* n ^treci Uic in ihn UaTfiTiuii^nt, wMoh liiil T^mn^El 
rtf ilw niiinmii irmiPurtiy. fiiijr=e ih* 
ihu Uk% luLi Uvu J hy fM}t ilm p^spctnifm ^ 

Lwuri tn llte «ji^ro rftTinnift fiiu tlm 

Lncrnw of rercipli frcini €n\m of tAintjupi, ih? 

ciii* ^1^3Tt^0:^tic rpisatlti^ci kn JA|iEin li ttia itifnmi of tin? Ijuid.tAx^ 
pjwni*«i hy a^nTnimitrit wjU rntmtln^i^ m The 

A^ 0 ^aKtluJrti la MiUl trt hii Uatli fil^utqUiLf Anil niuiiiuil l llw Htat* as jvnt* 
CiilttifiKir \% mil jiTOiv to tJimy: buil thti Un leiijj* jMiiil:, fMtL m ftrf * 
tciptIt, in kimh tnl in owb, ^ alfw^d hy ibA Jlnutuiktlun# in 

ihc priM rif grmhL. 

THE EVQEvrios <n' muEits jaeas av 

6C:beni(.> ffoitld involve a red notion of i'<S,Tj»(i.UOO in 
the revenue so find n jil;m for file iin-reiw 

of the N^nvy hy the ejqieinlilute of to 

l>e sprfTjuJ over Ecven years, tlie npproprifitiou re- 
f|iiired for two puriKtsvi- heitig raiswl hy ;m 

iiirreajte of the n>ba<:c6*tnx, the j“f^v-Uoc, and the 
tuctmifi-iiix. From the very firet the Uoiise showed 
it« temper in Uie moat nucompromiEiiig fa^iou, 
Tlie two si'Ctloiift i>f the Dppiisitton, the Iiahduutoor 
Progresaionisrs, under Count Ukiitna. and tlie Jiynto 
or extreme Tlmliails, under Count Itagaki, gleefully 
JoiiKfd hiiuils in order to endmrrjL'iS the GoTemineut, 
Tlie new taxes were refiiseti; a private fill! for the 
immediate reduction tif tliu Innthtex, i[idependenrly 
of reH^sessnieiil, Wtifi uarried by thi» Ijtiwer House; 
e^'en the tJj^per Chamber passed a representation in 
fnviiiir itf the reduetion of all otlk'ird salaries (with 
the exeeplion of those in the military, navah diplo¬ 
matic. ami consutar departmeulst from ItJ cent, 
to 7 ^Jtr iietit. of the total re venue, niid of the difr- 
luiasal of euperllin>u$ oiTnnals : and when the Ihidget 
was fui.aUy introtlifced in the Honse of Representa¬ 
tives its items were ruthlessly nut down, wliolesale 
reiluctions were made in olhclal sidarlus. Mid rhn 
appropriatioiis for the new ship-biiilding jirttgrannne 
were abiiolutely refused. Three times did the iii- 
exorabU" Opposition send back ihe aniended Jhidget 
to llic (Tfivemment; three limcfl the liovertiinent 
refused fo nc<fflr[)t it. TJieii came the erisi#. The 
leader of the ( ippoeition moi’etl tlie ivdoptioii of a 
lepresentotuiii to the Throne^ which was tantatiiaiint 

ui a riu« i»f want tif ftiiiifull!in't; iu tlit* Ministry, But 
im soonur liaU lie u[i«tie«l his speech ihnii tlie Pri^ni- 
cleut tmd pincetl In his tmiuls xii Iiiiperi»I Hescrtpt, 
firtieriitg(uiit1er llie itirtus of ,011 Article in thcCVin- 
iftitutiou) ;i e^XHTtnl niljourmnerit of ih*^ Diet for 
fifteen days. An at tempi, at eoit)prorniB*> in the 
interval rt^ulted iu foilnre; atul when the House 
met again, tlie same resolution wa;; moved, niid in 
spite of a leniperace and ooueiiminry e|ieeeli fivun 
the Prime Miubier was e-ttiried by a majority of 181 
to 1Q3, Tliree ilay)> later an Imperial aie5sa|.>t‘ was 
rend out ui both tliambers, in wliioh the £jujK<ror 
point<«d i>iit, in language of reproAohfnl soleiuniiy, 
that the spectmde of discurd presented by the Par- 
Uonjeiitary couHict was one by which the spillts of 
bis Amrestors weiu likely to be much disturbed;* and 
that to end llie crisia aui! recall the mitiou to iis 
duties it I die mutter of tljouaiJijiiiil dcfeuces, where * ti 
Tiiiigle iky’s neglect might involve a century’s regret/ 
he propOitiKl to aiirrifndHr, thiring Uin space of six 
yeaie, one-tetuh of liis Civil List^ or the sum <»f 

^ Tli^ in All ipuimnuiirul ontiiiiirt^ thf> EnifHrnAl 

mul 111 iimuAum mhA gfivmiiuidfiii rM|^t far tbv Iitipcdai 
«i]]ipK tm mrcliuki fruiu&wiwk fu wln^btlm brflad^tiiiw 
tnKan tK^mnimc* i Tlatt uf dur kltrf 

liirgiii^ wrlih ilio iA'crtil*; * Tirtno of tlw of Oiir Ah , 

piLfttoH, &ioai|iM tks lhiciiii> Mf n lilMTAl ituhn^kan fn? 

cteruiiJ/ Artick T. roptNili tlit^ aamn nm«ulii|Liry firtifin. wliik mxi- 
jwtius It jptj> mi fuiiinfes ' Tho I'lHpiro df Jiipmu ,hdl U 

nri^nJ uw ml ijidvttmmt hjT % liiui af Eipji^pitmi toibrpVifu Jiir 

ittinuiL' In tlw t injuria] (jaPi. ULkc» •) Uia pniuitilgfttioQ gj ihn 
ww CoiJrtjtalLoii, til* Euii>*™ vwli ‘Tiuu m ftjiturmo 

m mir wiipi, in ki'Ulptitl? with lii> tefldwie,? ,a ibb m tu Mciqa- 

pUnIl ihi* wftflf, w* fmp It* ihu spirit* ©/ lltv F«i4iu]» 

ttt our Huum, ut;} af g(ir ..ihnr Jinpafnl 


ojiimnlh'; ni Uif ^Tine lime ilireiMtnv ali 
uilliL’tn’ aiul myil ottiehits io eomribute slmibr 
propottinn fur tht? same period ‘ To ilib Rescript a 
lovai r^fply waii Arid n CnmniUreeof tlieLiiwer 

noijse appointed lo C'Oiifer trilli itie Ooverutnent. 
The latter pracUtAlIy gm'e wai' on the main puinl^, 
tUematdves to •iO'eeping mini]niet rat ive re* 
forms, and to a litrge red in < lion both of olUetnls :tiuT 
of o Hi da] salaries, as well as to «pedal reforms in the 
Xnvid IJi! part men t. The Rudget was then ptissed, 
iiiul the crisis whs lem^ktrsirily at an end. From Uie 
eonJliet the frovi'nimeiit bad only emerged by the 
personal Intervimtion of the Empt-ror, and by a 
capititiadon on many important points to didr ud 
vereurtes. In [he compromise the latter were tiie 
real vh-'tors. 

In the ensuing Session, vvlileh ojwned in Xo^iem- 
ber 189-9, the crisis arrivefi with even greater 
s^flugf rapidity, ami demandtil n more drastic 
**** soluiioti. Xo sooner had the Diet assem¬ 

bled than the Lower Hoiisb jiroccetled to pass, by 
a large majority, a vole of want of confidence in its 
Speaker or IVesideiit, on tlis ftcai'cely eouoealed 
grontid tliab ihiiugh origitially appointed by the 
Ihuiicaht as a Radical partisan, lie Itad fahiiiied expecta¬ 
tions by showing an unbecoming iueliimnon to favour 
tlifc Government. Tlie President, whft had Inicu elected 
for font years, declines 1 to resign: and the. House 

* Ai.vDrtlw^ U> Articli^ CiniiitfTnllDni "Thtt Empinir dii- 

ttmimm thtf i!>f ib+ eHIVithi hrAtu-liii« iif l]i« Ailiititikitv - 

tluD^Atld iUtr rU ^vP \Uiil lllPiUT] VLOd |||J|bL|ilnt» 

niut dynuliH^ Ihi* eamic.' 



ai'cordiiiyl^' lui to i lie* Tliront' on ilie 

8uhjo(;i :unl udjoitmcil- In tint end dm p^rdciilar 
[|iinrrel. i\w iiiiiwriainin «'t’ llio Enijn-rur iiiift ivliieU 
was a avnuptoitt of the advutnred siaie of Uarlia- 
riieiiturr disorganisation, irrminaied in tbn e^pnUiou 
of die reralcitnnii olIii-iaL by dit- a|tpoiriHtit'tit of a 
successor In Uis [*LiL^e. Meanwhile the tioiise of 
IteprescnTatives. bavinp, so to sjieak, tasted l»1o<xt, 
proiaieiled to gratify an eivn more ilan^rotia «p|ie- 
Ltte, Llimblo to wreak t hat personal veiigeinuie upon 
the (To^rrnneiit irhich a tuajonty of its members 
deal Fell, they mlilreftiioil the Throne on iwo subjects 
^ — (l)ou Onk-inl Xytscipliue anti the .'Status of Mhilig ^ 
ters. ptactiraUy demniitiitig the titsmissat of the 
Cabinet i atitl (2) on the strlei ehroreeinent of ihe 
I'oreigii Trt^aiies—a part ttf the petty aiitl vexaiious 
policy recently instituted bj' the Oppoflkitni in order 
to the novertuuenl anil to farce Treaty 


Itevisloii upon their own terms. After this step the 
sittings of the House were again stnsjietnU'tl; and 
Count Ito, in pi^eseniint!- tlm atUiresft to the Tlmnie, 
requested, as a matter of focin. to l>e relieved of The 
discharge of duties whh h a majorii}' of the Chamber 
were Im-'uI Ufjmi rendering tmpoftsilile, 

A few days later the Kmperur repiieth in a states- 
manlike Rescript, tleclining to diAtniss bis Ministers, 

a prerogative wliii-h, he reinarked, aptHT’ 

Tllfi nriKii ^ I rt“ I ^ ^ 

liiiiiLHl. not to the 1 net. bin to ilie Crown; 
and refusing to depart from the policy liithorio 
pursued towards foreupiera, wiiicdi had been liberal 
and progressive. Anything tending to Interrupt the 

niirrrui 1U:^ni]CinEXtikTin:i- R IIKKILUJX 


uccoKiiiif'ly vyieiJ ati mUlress ui tht Tiirotie on the 
6ubji^ct ant.l A<ljoiirnc(l. tu Uie ontl tlxin pEirdoubr 
thf iiupdi'Uitiori of the Eniperor into kIlU-Ii 
was a wyiiipiom of Lhf: iidvaiioetl ftiaie of Parlia’ 
tnentary tliswrgameiilioBi, icrmhiftdKl iu tUt expulsion 
of the re»?aliutrnJii oiBeisU by tlit nppoiutineivt of a 
FiiKx^essor in !iis pLice. MeoiiM'bile the nonstr of 
Eepre«eiitalive*» hai'inpr, sxt u» epeak. tojstffd liUnjd, 
proowxli'J. it» gratify an even more tlan^<«ini appe¬ 
tite. liinibk' to wreak that personal veugeattee u^iou 
the Ottveniment 'wliich a majority of its xiuan1>ere 
ilufiiretl, they the Throne mi two aubjecta 

—^1) on Official Disejpline ami the f^tatiis cf MiiiiH- 
lers, praolieally deinaiiciinj! ila- disinUsal of the 
Calniiet; and (2) on the slrict enrorceutvut of tin* 
Foreigu. Treaties—a |«irT. of the ]jetty anti vexatious 
polior reiMjntly instituted Ijv the Opposition in onler 
to emtvivmsa ilu* flovornmenl ami to Ftir*^ Treaty 
EevUion upon tlielr fnvn terms. AiW this step iJie 
sitimgs ttf tin* Houm? were again sURpeiuletl; and 
CVnint Ito, in presentiug the addi'ess lo the TJnsaie. 
te[|neeled, as a matter of form, to lie relievned of ihe 
tUiichaige itf duties whieh. a majority of liie C'liamljor 
were bent upon rendering iiuposdble. 

A few iloys later the Ivrnperor replied, in a states- 
luaidikt* Ilescript, dcriining to dhtmisa liiit Mituetera, 
^ a prerogative which^ he remarked, ap[jer- 
tnined, not to the Itbr, hat to the t'rotttt; 
mnl refusing to dejMirt from the jHiliry hitherto 
pursneil towards forf^igaers. which Innl lieen iilicml 
and pnigrcssive. Anytliing tending to inremipi the 

IlnlrOK or imjifUUIUITATtVSM IB 



*'tj|isitiiiumitnu of that ftolicv* wtntUI tiv lyHitrary in 
liie Imperial wishes. Eoirowi-atle tiiul vexniluns prn- 
posiiLi «tinli as wviiiltl alienai# FfiTeiim 

rownr^T niitl were IncompatililK wiiJi Hu* spirit of 
oivilisarioii. Upon tlie reiipst:mtiliii;r <>f ihe Coti£i% 
tlit-at viewi. wtJ'O <inrorce(l in a sJnijTilnfl}'- lempersite 
atiil tligniiie^! siHHich by the Tnrei^ii itiinisreTf Mr. 
Mutsii: whiinh boweyer did iioi prereut the 
rein-Ht of violent scenes, and the ««e of opprobnotis 
and disjiraceful liuigiia^e, Tlie Hiei was fonliwilh 
prorogued for a fortmphr ; bni it was oln-iiuis dial !i 
rtfpeuikm of adjonrnnieniji was a pallktive ilmt had 
jdready lost ila efEoney; and, on t.]ie In^itiiuy lint liiii*- 
of tlie Tear appuaral an Imperial TJecree diasolving 
1.1 le Diet, Like many Enro|feati fiirenuniens, tlie 
Japanese Government had realijted that the only pnf- 
gatiTe for a factions am! disrretliied farliainoJii is an 
ajjpfiil to dn* people. f^iniulUuieovtsly tliey a«ertt,yl 
niid sireugihcned the atilhority of the Eseontive liy 
dUsoIving the Oneat Japan Society—an anti-foreiinii 
Asdoinaiioii that had Vweti foniied for the purpose of 
agifatiog against the lievisioii <if the Treailes McejH 
ti|)on terms iiie<iuitable to the foretpucr—-and pro- 
Uibi t rtl (loU tioal fioc i e! ies. 

The progress of the General Ivleetioti, which 
htsiffd for two months, was at-tende*! widi «i;eni?s nf 
^pnf violence and even hlrKMlshml. in whiidi 

fn«-rt 4 AXiA ir t - 

•tine* ilio soiihi or proressiotuil row'dies, who al'fi 
ready, for a consiilt^mtion, to let out their servings 
to either party in Japan, played a pmtaitient part. 
On Atareh 1 the elections took place, the result Ixuiig 



iJiat tlie Govftmiueiit failed to thufter their etnidiiioit, 
the aj?|#reg^ite of the various Opposition parties Iteing 
enflkietit lorctnWr thoiu iiujxitenl in the Itk't, and tt* 
wrtire for Jii[jao n conriiiimnct of tho:^ constitutional 
81 Toggles wliieli, nt a tnonii-jU when all piirties sin mid 
combine to lay hrni the Iuibcs of the new liolity, 
ihreaieti to jeojiarditM* its very existem’t.% and toeon- 
\-iiiec' tijp world that the diipanese are :ii present in 
loo fefttlmrdjefldwl tual wayward tt mot^l lo be able 
(o work out even limit own salvation. TThen I he 
iiftw session opened in May ibe ILIttistry wus velie- 
nieiitly aiisalleil, its billa were rejected, and a vote 
of u'Jint uf cotiUdtiU'e in the liovt-rnment was within 
five voltes of lieiug fiiiTiwl. HcalLslug that with ain'h 
a Oliainljer IcgMiiaunn, or even govenuiieut. was Im- 
ptnasible, Ooimi Ito ugJiin tulvisetl tlit* Entfieror tc? 
dissolve the Ifiet. And (1ms, for the wroiid time 
wdtliiii the jjiwseul year, Japan is plunged in the 
llmKiS of a Geueml “Klection. 

These events are iutereating, and I have narrated 
iliMiiilf^ jiicitlents in a I’arliamentary dniiiia tlian 
Ur.iT-^ Wjiuse of tlie eapbinatioii Uiai lies tarhind. 
*• Thev are avmpioms of tlie threefold preblcin 

liV which Japanese SI atesmen [ind the Japanese lint it id 
art! now confrented. and which will not, in all tiki- 
liliuud, Ik* Bolred w ithout a great straiij, if lioi actual 
jeopaniv to the Lkmtiiiitition itself. Tlio principles 
involved, or the (iowtions at Lsstie, are ibcse: the an- 
eerttriU conflict betwecu deiaocrttlie and oligarchical 
hleas in goverrnnent; iho part to he (ikiycil in a s<*- 
called Cmii^titiitloiiiil hy the Hoveretgii; and 

ri/£ £\'OLVriOX 0£ JAt'AX 

tlie relnuoii ol' miiiiaterial mijoiisibility lo n Pmlia- 
mciiran' systejn, nioy are problems aim lit trhicli 
I'Iuro[K'ati Stales liavx* been (and in sumt* 

cases fire stiU fi{»}iting) for liuiidreds of year*; and 
1101 I 1 ’ iluiL our ottu umilfigoits coulliets am for tJie 
«Ki»t pari over, wc may fontempliite, wkli liie f5eti- 
teiihmi* Matisfftctioii of maturity, (be nJiuost itlen- 
ticoJ struggles of impetuous voutli. 

In refusing the appropriations a^^ked for ilie 
sliip-buiidttig jirogramuie iu 18Ji3, the illpiwsidoji 
epeakent Trere careful to axpUiti llial tt wue 
dkm fjrojii jn> stint of patriotistu or disbelief in 
tUe tieed ttf a ^Kiworl'iil navy lliaf t hey took ilmt 
The adminiatratioji of ilio Naval riepariment they 
Jield to he corrupt and bad. hut, its one speaker said, 
■ ihe Iteotl nmJj front of all ilie reforms iieedMt was in 
fite the navy from the dominatU iiiftueiice i>f the 
■^jrtsiiuia chin.' Uii uticither occasion :ttiuLlier speaker 
remarked': * A man could not- liccomu head of tiie 
Home Office, or of the Hallway UureaUt uttles* he 
were of Gbosblu origin, i>r head of the War Depart* 
nietit, oi the Na\T, unless lie were of liu' ^amurnn 
clan,' These ohaen’atioiis introduce us to :i curious 
feotutie ill the Japanese Mysiem, rarely noticed bt’’ 
huropL'uu writer*, but ncvcrtiiclcss exercising a pre* 
domimint and cousurvutlrc force In ibe uudsr of a 
Welter of change, vjk, the continued dcmiiiiirpti of the 
old Clim system, which lias prtivailed iu Japan ever 
*tnee» Just os it liad done for centuries before, due 
Hevulttdoii, XeyasiJ, llie fottuder of the lust nr 
Tokiigaw a family of Shoguns in KiOS, was jiracllenlly 



the of a iiorlliern coiiftMlGrucy, wliicli defeated 
and held In subordination tlie clans of Ute and 

eoutii'West. Two at id a half cattimes later the 
dfdiuH of llie Toku^uwa Sliogunate gave to lliese 
Live clvauce of a long-postjK>uta.l revenge. Raisitvg 
the cry of tlie reatoraiioti of the legiitmaie tiovereigii 
and tlie expulsiivii of foreiguers, they rallital around 
themselves all tlie disaflecied anti naii'iolifi elements 
in tlie country, iuiJ tatrried lUelr purpose* Haisimia, 
Cltoalilii, Tosa, mid Hwen were the four priuei^wl 
clans concerned in this successful revolution, w’hiclL 
rensfitaldislietl the ascendency of the South over the 
liOTth, In thfdr handa the new gtuvemmenl, ihoiigh 
outwaidly based on European ideaSi was in reality 
admin istertid on the old Japuiiese system, namely, 
Vij* a territorial diqiie. The Sa la urn a ruliellion 
ehowefi that one great section of the viotorious clan 
cared only for the old systeut, mid not at Jill for iht- 
new prineipU-s. It was dcft-atwl, and the Progressive 
policy prevailed, yevertlielisss. under a Western 
exterior the victors have always (dung ligliily to ilie 
inulltloiial uietltods, aud Lave retained nu altuosL 
uncbiilleiiged snprtfniaoy, alike in tluj fore i a lion of 
Cabin(?ls ami the distribution of patronage. In the 
old days, no doubt, tins wiki due to tlie importance 
nf jKiwerfnl princes or nobles liackcd by foreiiduble 
aggregations of armed mim. It is now die triumph, 
not of terriioriaJ inlluence, l>ti( of u civil and militaTy 
hierarchy, largely organised upon Ihe privilege of 
birth, llie army, and eiill more duf Tia\T, which in 
the barkground play a very iiujvnrtant part hi the 



politics of Tnotlern »[ul wli'tch the rent 

niiihtiitay 4'»f the Goveniiqtitit ogdinst the suhverGive 
tenitenjeUjs of ParlktueiUnry nmjoritiea or {Iein»"4^c 
ILifticnlisni, are prjnci|Killy officered by men belong- 
t)ig Ui the cUier; the prcGcut Cnbliict b miuiily 
recruTtetl froiii the simie aources : and the cry of the 
Oppoiuitm Uti* EL large exLotu ^'eli-fpiJtided, that to 
be a (’Itinamati In to possess the key tu the doors of 
oflhdnl pmniotioik 

In reality the conflict is Imly ti Japitiiese vemon 
of the fatiiihAr duel between a powerful niul diB- 
ntistiRhr cibUtietl oligarchy and an aniTfitious but as 
oauf yet iniperfecjtly organisetl demoemey. It is 
essentially the satiu- historical phenomenon that was 
prveeiiied by the contest of the Gracchi with tlii- 
rbnate iii the estpiriug century of th'* Itouiaii He- 
pubUc; niidtltat wns reprcwlacett in our own couiury 
in the jKipiilitr sirugglu agiitnst vchat is 'dimmoiily 
callod Will" ascendency in tIic iirsf ipiarter of the pre¬ 
sent century. The Cahinel of Count Tto bin liiuglbh 
{Hililicttl bcruiiuology a Whig flubinet, composed of 
inemljwni of the great Whig families, tin- (^ivetidislies 
and Ibiaaelb ofnJoiliini .Inimn (ihough without their 
pedigrees), and s*iB[ained by thn pn In in age whicli 
the dupaiiebe mpiivaleuts to rotten boroiighii afloril 
The sysleni possesses ihat desperate Eenuciiy W'hicti 
is ihti result of inherited ability and onusi:ioits worth. 
It hna the aiitliurity whidi prescription and posses¬ 
sion uuito to confer, and it is undoulnedly in coti- 
fotiiiity wiilt dm hlstorj' atid the tncML clieriidieil 
traditions of the people. A long luue nmy t-et elapse 

!>efore it (lEs-appenrs; but ulilmat^ly, iu fnr^ <if mi 
opposiUDii wliidi coinpitiitts wiiU Koirie tj’uih iliat it 
U bmn^* iltfUitled l>y tht* iiiifre tHmihlaiic^ of liberty 
anti ouTwarct form of cLaiigo, tt scfttua tliHitiitftl U> 
{lertsh* as cliii the inlhteoce of the-Wliigf ohgatt?liv to 

It \riU havti lisen noiu^etl that- uf of ilie 
tliree Parliamentary Sessions of arbicli I linve spiikoti, 
tile tnajortLy of tJii; Htiusi\ prolif inii' 

«*»««){<• by the liberty concedetf liy - an nrtbjly in tiu* 
Const! til lion,' atlilressed frecntt;nt represent a tions to 
ihc Tlirone, in a seiis -2 ln>st.ile to tSm i jorerinnent of 
the day ; and further, that in the Stsision of 181^2-3 . 
a settlement of the political deadlock was only 
olitaiimd by tlie ilitvct mterventton of ihe Kmj 
Tliis habit of erecting the Sovereign into an oiiiside 
court of appeal against iJm Exemtive is Ixith in open 
divergence from ilm spirit, even though, pemiiited 
tiy the lettett ff the Coiiftiiii.t.itjnt anth if persisted in, 
cannot fail lo isiuse trouble in (be future. Count 
Ito. In his Comineniary on the CoTistUution,evttleiitlv 
never contemplated such an ubitse of the: prerogative 
of memorial when he thu?ii ea]dained its appliai' 

* The ineiiiimg of l1ii> wgn! *= addrpw*** ” Indiidw thi* 
reply le ui buporlnl djuwJi in the Dirt, addjewes of 
gnUuktiAn « of colicltilnnei% representAticms of opinion, poti- 
tidiat, and thf liha, In tianwriining the writing, ptqwa- 
fijmA of hHiwct til list he obeeirwl. Tho digmtv ef Uie 

‘ AilwU 3a.lX. ‘ aeih UniHM fit iJi£ tuipvrwi Oiirt omit rmwr^ 

Hif®ly priMiit HtUi'siCH (,» ill* ^ 

IPI. CMUuilMU i» i'll -illh PlRI 


Kr»iiffiip ];iii«t Dufi III* iufriiigif'i ty bjjt jitxjeecding uujtlyin^ 

Still jut>re i^criiiiis hi>we\'(!r in iU i»n'BoquL‘iu.'OA, 
if txK> rr^^riTiL'jitly repeated, iniiai be ilie pemiral 
uf the Sovefeigrq ;t» n ftf ,4itic item <%r 
ff»4v/i iVrt, o n to t hv Purliaiutsi ta ry stage. Tli e Eju 
x'Hiinot periMilQally lit? extricating Ills \Luimers from 
ilJtfieuitv, ami Uie Uiet. rroui :i clc.ttlJock, bv n surrf'iuter 
of part of his Civil X*Bt; uur ehuuUl hie interposition 
in tlie ilispnte^ of tlie ilmnibers come lo be regarded 
as llie at>Ie [HJSSthle exit from u rut Aur, carefully 
prepuret i in advanee by ati Op|n)SJtioii osientaiiously 
dev'oid of any sensti of responsibility. The Throne 
occupies a verj' singular and unique iii«itio» iti the 
polity of tiunlern Japan. 8(111 envelopod in the dig¬ 
nity of a limitless past, and not yet wholly' ^trljiped 
of the halo xd' a nnee divine saiiciioiij it si amis out 
ill the brealldess turaiuil of Japanese evolution ai> 
t he.single element of niisluilieu stalnJtty, the ndlyin."- 
imint of all piu'lies, the eoiiinion orneb of wnmug 
social and polluiral creeds. 'L'o the Japanese the 
Emperor is the persouificatiou of tliai iuteJise and 
J>erferv'id spirit of pafnotism which, atony of Eastern 
peoples, they appear to feel, Xb? is iilenufied with 
I heir Iteaiuifnl islmide, with tlieir iimnemorhd Inn- 
- guiige, with ilitir aiicesir;d religion, llo represents 
the triumph of no conquering race, of no alien caste, 
ami of no i.^uipulsory xweeil, 11 w fore lathers created 
Japan for llui Jnpatuise to udnihit, and for their 
descetidants to mte^ So little in Jnpun ore men 
prediB|>o6eil tij qiiejvtioti the Iinpifrial sanctity, that 

it limy l;i*i 9:iid it> olimM of iJo- 

jwrsfjuniity of thfi 5oviirt?itm. Jusi. liowuvtr. tw ilji? 

i*f fUyjnpuSt wlit'ii ilie)* iW^cctitied from tbrir 
misiy beiglitfi, were found In Tic iiieii of lik? paasioiis 
witli iiMUi, Aiid eodetl by lwcoriiii)>! ihe (HirtioiiidcittioiiJS 
tiierely uP exaggerated liiniiaii auributet; or co 

will rlie prf&iige itmi Mill dliigs to tile Hi!iJid.ys 
iiittliority and dome Txf nipidly diiisi|:ittiod Ijy Llieir 
employtueiit oil tJiv listtk'-gmiiiul of or lU the 

strife of faotioiis. Tlie streogth and Mft^^uard of Ike 
'(hrrjjietie mite etitlre «everuiiee from ihe political 
areiiu. For ceiiiuries, wliiie hm pi'actieul outlioritv 
oas a hgiiieni. ihc Kiiij>eror wever kwl Tii« hold uimhi 
the puldif imfi^iiiiifioti, Ijccaiise of the luysturious 
and owe-utspiring brickgrouiid b which he livcil. 
l£lvaJ cuiiilKitonts usetl tus timiie whih' tlivy bughu 
mid liit prcrogoiivetf after they bod conquered. Thn 
ttlotm rose and foil, but Lite liupcrinl ptuver, though 
held in remnined. Wliilst thie m uo hm^jer 

either possibly or wisi*, yet tlte atiif udo of reserve 
and wiihdj jtwnl is still, tinder aPiiHianicutary niyimr, 
the true (tecret of Tipper j»l strengiln The Emperors 
luticlhiu is to support hb Cobilieit who, under ihe 
ilnpancse Consul ution, are Liti own st'tTjiitis luid 
iioiiiineei^, ami to entertain no address tlmi In-iugs 
Inih dfjini. *o to Apeak, from the throne, or ilini 
umrhea his prerogatu-fes a^ fixwl by law. jVnv 
imMliScatinti or idieraiioti of them aliould procml 
from his own initiative, ami not, ai the dictation of 
the Itim, Xor should such a wmr^- be allended bv 
any iuBuperalde dtlliciiti)% seeing ihai thbi Jg iji^. 

Tll£ EVfJUmoy Oi' MOBS&y JAi*AS A1 

lljtyory of tliC! Imptri’iAl prerogative phuniy caLiEeiu- 
plaE€(l by (lie frauien of i.ho aew L'oiiBtiLUticiUt am! 
thur ilte lattor b “nanlc^ with the ))ecti!jar jealousy 
atfsoiling' Iw u uTitteii iiJBtntinenl by a jjftopU' v,']io 
cluifu to see tii ii the embodiitieai of all eouetitiuloiial 
ivis<lnnL, and wlio are $e^ibie enough lo reengniee 
Liie daiigtii' ('f begititiing to titmper with ileliciate a 

A more luimhieut anti less easily sotnble problem 
is that presctittsl }»y the open combat lietweeti tlte 
«- JTuii*' Execuitre arul the I^iu'liimicatarv tnajoriiv. 

lEtiiJ n* , , ^ * 

«pnMhiiit3r It b tvbviotiit Iron) recent eKjjerieace that 
iJiv ijt^renmieni, linwever powerful jIa I’oiniKtjtilion, 
has little hold over the riiet, and but slight conirol 
over public opinion. WcN?kly it lias seen itself HoiitetU 
itssulted, anti crippled Ity a iNJtnbination of parties 
prjWforlt’sa to eject It, ami incapable of repliicijig it if 
ejecietl, llie Address to the Throne presenttd by 
the majority of tlie House i>f liepreseiUattve* iti 
Fobntary coniained the following doliriition 

of tlie sit fiaiioti and account of its origin :— 

* liutnbhr rcEiwliMa lead# your ilnjefty’^ stjn'ajits to con- 
cJmli' tiait till! dtitfobjurt ipf nrprvauiitRlivjf .ggverumuat is to 
pmniiife ooiimnl bdKr'iiji high wul and to siMnuv thrir 
cNW«f)cnitJMn in nil] nf tlio fitate. Heui'e tlit-re (wn bl* on 
jircifDiiiiiIer or grvuler di'eld»*mtain fhmi t.h«f ftio 
4 Uid tlie AduiiniatraiJOii should occupy lowimls e«clj othor an 
uttittido of tlinrou^li siiirority. 4nd ahoaliJ nchii^vo the reality 
til' himnoiiicus co^opcnitiutL Itui itver slnco the opctiiiiii of 
till? Diift, tlw U>gbLii1urt< anil dn? J* dm infstration Iinvo btiori 
WAiiting in coiicord, all. thoir Jiiwa l)0*n jtii|Kd('il, h!I 

thfrir^ tiiflirwl, w tlial io Thi? «j(juel tliiw have 
Tailfd to secOTP for thr oountTy tlit' fietielita of pnignjabr 



ifercUifinn'iit it) coruvrf. with thr tulvitnce nt tip (tp*,. Your 
3tiijefity$ thst t he inRonictULiL'T of tLetr 

owit waJ t 9 in pjtft n?«]>uiiaibh< for tliew things, imt ttitr 
believe* that iJn* cUiuf caiiae ta to U* auuglit in ihr Oiliiio^t'ji 
fttiliirc' Lo tHstTinrgs ita runctktiui. . . . 'line orjgiii «f 
ft^iou lito fioi^nitittm anti the and of tJte 

iltiiconl Wltve^n QtiTi'taJii and fteopli], DniendB to n rcntot^ 
tiriir-. rcltf^s iwaeinniiUcted phiistts hp tvoiiAcd, atxtJ lint 
n«]itjr of trprewnTntivfs grktrvrmuent aeLiPTcd. tlte nutioii 
will Iflpso into a state uf decime. . . , Your Sfajwtty s 
PPi'Vftiite frnve osph.'sslon to tl® nf the jKsjple, hut ^o 
('abitidE utterly dediix^ li^len, niid thu» |jrereTitpd us 
fimu diflcliarHing our legiilative fitiiolittn of consent. Such 
is not ILe pmjHT course In adt-ipf. in adjiisting tlio Unoncos of 
thf Etnpiim auii oinyiii^ ont tho mlmliiisrmtion «f I In? Slnie. 
^ (Htir Mnje^y a Bemnti ts npprelicntl t hat, bo Iring. os thcF sis' 
o^ictnted witii such a C'aliiiift. ji wiQ he tinjjoeidllt! fitr tJirfu 
to iirscrhargo tho truet ro posed iu them by ytmr Maj&ty 
nbQFc,and to give esproafian to i.Ue deuirt-a of the peopfe 

Here h :t sufUeierjlly iihirt uhileiiietit., iliougU wtirlitjU 
in jioiiiewliat eirctiuilcwiitory Innguiige, of tlie tleitinntl 
I>y llip populur Chntnber for ir'itrty OoYOrnnioiit upon 
I he acceptetl Kuropeau Hues. Such a tJeiuiind is 
wholly imrouBistent with both the spirit st^d Uip 
letter of the new ConsiUuliou. ]diuisterlal res|wni* 
sibility is there defioed as existing towards tlip 
Eju|ieror ulnjie, and is thns explained by Count [.to 
ill hi^ tJomiJieiUjirv — 

‘ Who It it, eseppt thn ScffeiK-igti, that am appoint. 
d.,m.^ and pumsh a Jliaister of Slate? Hie appojntniem 
and dimiiji^ of them having Wn indmU by the t/onsdlo- 
tim. the sovereign pm-^r of Um Empmir. It h onlv a 
Isgn.mato oons^mmee, that dm jK,wer of d«jidiiig an to'thu 
fttlMnstbiidy of Mujisu-ra i? vritldjf-ld from tim Dirt. Hut 



tfa(> l)t 0 t niAV put <|a<>^ioud to tlu! Miittsture mill Uenuuiil 
opcu rniSM'Hf^ from thiim. b4*tbru llm puhlie, mul it may also 
pniseut ftiLlresiM t<4 I bo Sovr-rpign ttittug fortli itn ojiuitnnti. 
Mutvovi^r, nltliough !li±* liiiriiivrDr to hitnfiipir in tlifr 

Coru!ttrutt(in tlii* rigtit of A|ijjointiiig bb Mim^ers at Iii^ 
pliHison*, in malting an upiiginUrient tht* sutKyjitibiUtiEtf; of 
tiiti jiCibiiir idTiii] muet ntso be tuk^n into mnaidumtian. 
nmy Iw regurdal na mi indinict [ueLbo<] of L'f'jitrufUng tiu’ 
responaibility of Mrnijit^rQ.' 

VVliat the ^snst'epLtlnlit'iea of t\w pulilic mind' do- 
nuand in Jitfian is not however :i remote and indirect 
vnipe in iho npjKiiiiiuietit of Mimslei's, btn a direot 
voice iu their disinlssa); and the clia^tn that sepa¬ 
rates the two parties is one ihat no toiioeesions on 
eitJier side appear likely to iill. Prior to the open- 
In" of the second Session of IStlS the (Toveriiment. 
testifted their recognitiou of tliis Ihci by [lublisliing^ 
JUi ail noil ucement tliat until a party ^Jtot an acci¬ 
dental or niomentary combiimtion of pari it’s) aj>- 
ITcared in the Bouse with an absolute majority on its 
side, they would neitlier snriender ibeir power nor 
share il with at it section however indnential; and 
tJtat they would regard no vote of censure or rcjec- 
tiou of iheir proposals, but would retnaiu in oilice 
niitit iiieti appeared with authority to take it from 

This liold acceptance of (lie chMlIeupe to war it 
•mtratii'r uiigUt seem to some nti itnpoliLic defiance of 
the enemy: and in tiny country where the 
FarliameiUarv system was more developed, 
or political irHliiiiig more widely difiiieci!, it might 
lie the prentonitory system of ultimate defeat, In 


Japan tliere asists u party aw* in 

tlia ^called jwpulsr demand a iiiovemeni wliicU 
nrill not lusie, l^nit will, on i,lit eotii.Tiirv>, |jain forct* 
until ii has securtvl its objuct anti revolt)tUmised tin.* 
Constitution. But there art* oppusitjj^ ttonMilera lions 
that nia)' Justify a more aanffiiiiie fontcast. Kirst of 
these k the reajjcec before apoketi of, for tlie writieii 
CVinstitulion. Fnrrher, the promiujetii men in .Japatt 
are almoat, tiiiaiiimoHuly in favour of the existirifr bw. 
and tlic cohesion of ihe Clan and (kuirt party will 
not e<isUy be iTfrokm domi. Tliinllv, the Japaiu^- 
are us yet. toe i-jJtorani of Biny Governnient to bo 
able to work any suoh system aa ia demandtd witJioiit 
rbik of total I’ollapse; the Opposition is so split up 
by persomd anunoAitiei ns to render the creatiqn of a 
workinp majority out of its ranks highly iniproliablt -1 
whilst the Rndieal party in particular is so far much 
tc'o wstiitbg ill dignity or prestige to justify the 
granting of ctiiieessioiiB iJiat might Iraiiiirorm the in- 
tenijufrate fiiiluiBters of t)jt* ballot-box and i he tribune 
into portfolio polltii.'Ians. Finally, the analogy of 
Foreign Suites suggeais i hai a mxlw liWrf)'will utti- 
nmlely lx* establinlied in the Chamber itself, by an or* 
ganiseil Crovernment party less atuenable than now 
t<i the shifting (‘urrentB of p:>piilar caprice. In the 
Uieatjwhiii-, Innvover, we may ejqR-ct a peritnl of 
pdillcal fcniientattou, iiiid even of clmns, by which 
aiitli an issue may be for some time retardwl, and 
from which the Coiwtituiitm itself may not estrape 

Among the respects in wdiidi tlie adviinire of 


nmtlem Japan has been Jin>st rapid. Miongh a« yet 
scarcely appreciatixl Jiy foreigrifirsf, is the clevetop- 
jmuM* of Uie military Hmi naval tb^^^es of the 
Empire* Aspiriijg to play a pt'cdoinitmni fmt'i 
in the jxditlcs of Eastern Asia, she has spared no 
eflbrt and fihniiilt from iio sacrifice to pkee herself tti 
the matter of armed e(|nipmei)l. u|)on a lev'el with 
htT pos:«ih1e competilorB. Tlie Japanese are Ijorn 
sailors; and a country'with sci e:xtensh'e anti e nh m- 
rahle a seaboard coitld in no nose afford to neglect its 
inaritiine defences. Aljout their navy the patriotism 
of the Japanese is aif easily aroused tvn is oiir <iwn tii 
Great Britain ; and although the adininistraiioti of 
the Xaval h>epartmetit is tlie subject of acrimonioos 
party confllet, thvn^ no disagreentent upon the 
broad Iinperiid policy <'f a largely increased lutval 
outlay* When iu 184*3 the strength of the Japanese 
navy amountetl to 40 ves^ls and oO.OOft toiia, and 
the Gi>vernitient laid down the siniidard of naiional 
ref^niretiient as ]2th1HlO tuns, there wen-some among 
the extreme Iladical party who would have preferred 
to see t his figure raised to The siiine coti^ 

trlhiUed by the Emperor in the crisis of 18413, ami 
ordered to be deducted from the salaries of all udU' 
tary and civil ofTtcials. were apccially ear-marked 
from the start for Lbc eoiisiructiouoriiew battle-ships 
of the Gi'st rank. An order auioautlng to 
is nenv in coutEc of execution in Europe: and Corint 
Ito’s boiutt t«> me that the Japanese Heel is the next 
slrongesi r.o That of CJIiIiia in ihi.' Mordiern Bmude, mnJ 
is far more serviceable for action, is amply justified 


by the fuetii.. It ia tai'gety by the oRer nf iltp 
alliaiicp of lier aain' tlijil Japan iti tlw foiitre 

tti uotilml the halaiiee of poo'er in the Fur Esm, 
the tuantJme ilefeiicca of the twin try, 
■w'hicli have been esecutetl unOt*t the supetioteudenee 
IJ a difitin^itishcd Italian engineer, hii\T* reached a 
fotrnklable fiUite of proficiency; anfl !¥{.* are not 
likely to have any *'i^liiuionoseki lioitibarcluieiit' in 
the future- 

Xot less satisfactory or adniirnble is the spectacle 
Itrcsented by tbe Tcorgauiaed Antiy iif modem .fapnii. 
'''■‘iih a mobilised poace-fooiing of lietweeu. 
oO.tJUO ntiil (10,00(t men, witJt a reserve of 
113,001), ami a /twi</icryjj* of $0,0(10, anueO, efiuippml, 
and drilled afcurdiuif to the higbesi standard of 
nmfiteeath'ceiitmy reipiireiiient, and tnorao\-er eco¬ 
nomically and honestly admuiisterctl, the .fopanese 
jVnny need not shrink from the test uf ooinpiirisnii, 
in ixjlnt of dlidencT, with the furctis of European' 
Slates- Iwesi, however, my apprcohitiou skould W 
nltnljute<l to ihc uninstmeted partialliy of the 
ckilioji eye, let me tpiote an Engjlsli miiiiarv' 
nuthority, Colonel E. O. Ihirrow, who has liJmself 
recently visiletl Japtiii. Confining that he was 
‘fairly astoniahed by tlie umrvelbits itiflitre which 
military Japan presenls; he ampMes thb stalemeni 
fuHaiA’s :—' 

‘Thn of tip Supnaf^ Army ]un-b mustlv Uflssrd 

tjirocgh the hup.,,id Sdiool, end „„y 

held lio hi ofjimfiL tin* *uit,i, rtamp prorpssbiiallv i» Hi,. 
Ifsiieniliiy uf uDk\<r.i uf iSmojieAn unnles. Tlio WmekA an* 

* Sfrptrt 

liJ-iJtro Ihr^NTliT 


77 /A’ s\yjivTWX or ai 

4wiM)tuirv<.tt h^khIau Imiltlings, with airv', UventHatri] 

tOOint, fttid emiptiloiidlf deiui. The ^ore-rmrti» ani. how¬ 
ever, the really i^Lriking feature uf the Jn^euiL-jiti iiiiHtaiy 
tTijrein. In completenc^ euu] in qmfy 111*^111 there ia 
nothing )>etter to lje ftmotJ in Eurtjjii*. . . , Aa rr^rvla the 
troops, the iuZBUttn me vriy gond—helttr e»Eij tlitn some 
Eunf}M;fli] irifiiiitr>' 1 raald natjift; tlwf lutillny gnoil, or nt 
least fair ; mwl the mvalry iinflilTenuit. iliu is tsarceJy n> 
hi" wutnli^nHl at. T he Jufisneijo nre not on ri|iit^lriai) ; 
fiteir honierK)»ftesf«a neither of t.lio diar^iig quATitie^uf spevO 
or weight; nmi, tirintty, the physlml aspect of tJo- ctmutty l» 
tnit Ona that couh! ever hupe JW the dovdopifiiutt of glwtl 
cavuIcT, ... The army is not n ]up»>r itbiiii. hut ri coiiiplirt^ 
living <i]'gntii^ntiu|i< fniiiied oit t he hrst tnneteh, and SE ii role 
tlmrciugltly ada[itr!tl to tin; nN^nirt^uiETtls of the countiy. . . . 
Herr w» have an nmuy of 7 a, 1 HKl njeii, cii(»btc of being 
trebled in war, which TOsta only sboitt #H 7 ,O 0 O,UOO, or, ap- 
P'^^tjaitelVi , 1 i T'lie da^MUjeso tioldier ItBR disci¬ 

pline, iiersevemnce. am] gival endtu-nnci;. Has he valour otiio } * 

To ihe latier que’Sltori ao one? who h <U'i|ttaitJtt-d 
TrvJtU the in any atrikin^' paocs itt .lapaiLese hlatur}' 
cat) h^siI ait! to return an aOtrinntive nmwor. There 
is no nation in the worhl, of anythin'' Jikt? rermpa- 
mble antiqiiitr, whose annats t-^rhihic a more brilliant 
record t.f penional v:tJi>nr and patriotic devotion. 
For over a thonsatnl I’oars there have Ijeeii trutig’ in 
Japan jionie vei^a tbat firJr express llie high ideal of 
feudal and national loyalty that has altvaya Ijeen eii’ 
teruiined by the Japanese s«>lilier i — 

* If najF purli npm thi* ikehui jxintte]:? 

Lf>t ih« niy UhI v Itlilv I 

Miiju 1 ovrT |!ilfiii maA tiiinintiuit wuidjirf 

Liet HlMiu ^fpie 'iHTai.1i llud ipu# ttlilii? I 
VVbm*«r f Cfida^i 
Ffir tnfr t\a jmjuii 

I pvriadi Hi V \ I *' 




Xor wviUl atiir jietiplc liavo <iiiac(ed the tmgedy nf 
liie "Forly "RuTiiiiis, or mamt*vineil for eentiiFies llie 
filranee bui heroic code of Uonour iovoh'^ed in hattt 
kin, without po^s^^n^ a siiperlaiive tUoiigli mifi- 
ilirectetl form of Ijiirnsn courage,' 

A still more recent irorli bv an English miiitarv 
critic mniaiiis m equally discrUninutlng hut- not 
Ic’is lauilntory vcnllct upon tlie .lnpum#se 

iiiiinion A toiv,* Thc atitliOT ilescribcs I he cavalrv 

• * 

as iKx»r, for the reasons liefore mentioue<I, bn! the 
rnfaiun' ns quite exoenent, tin? drill ns sinnrt anil 
efliciciiT, the annanient as good» iiad the barrack 
actnuniiKKlntiou os admirable. He stipplies figures, 
derived from ofiicial ssources, of the nutnericnl 
strength of the various l>atialions. regiments, bri- 
gadeSt and di visions; iiiiil he gives the total strength 
of the Territorml Attny and Ileserves combimnl na 
228,850 men. If his views of wliat the Japanese 
Army may be expected to do in the field of iiiier- 
mulonal action are in excess of all probaliilityT his 
testimony to its practical elficiency as a fightiiig 
nm<’hii)e is sufftciontly ntuhoritative to merit quota- 

' Pcn'tuJLiiv initeui?i^ 4iiish ru^ .4, Br Anff|rt^r 4 Tafrt 

o/ Old ihein nmy tw the r(Mii|uirKjJv4j]^ 

iDoiJEmt iStAi i:rnf>iilqdi«l the lE^hBllin^E m 

OI4I ifillh ft h*m[ of il^rnMod i^ilh 4 irmitii« uuLilfi h\» « from ilie 

EmL M* umiy Imd L<»ii uiki utf, to hU iiMtTo jtliwi;. F^rnlum^^. 

Tlicj-e, entmnrUisiL ou a IdU hWe tlio Vowiit Eea nirl hii smm fnit^*Jii 
tllK tbuT iftinabvil^ Whiiii lie fell wouanlnd, ho provtil Eib iIatoiiu] 
friiMiiU hJ nil olf bl* h«JiL Thoy taifiplimi ninl thtm cmuiuttuttl 
Hup bodib* wer^ roiixul tu|;^ibnr. 

' On Lravr faIJ5 Cutituii G, J, Vurtiiufhu»b»rri« 

LoniSniii jbVMi^ xvii. 

Tin: KiroLUTiox of mo deux jap ax 


To Jt syiupiilliiKer witli .faprut nut Oif kunt 
gmlifying miioug Llue eviilcnocs of Lter progress nrc 
i.|k' signs of a qixiit* micoiinnion tinnnrijil 
pmspfTity. Moiioy k pK-titifiil m llie vtniii' 
irvv Tliere k a great ctrcuiaiiun m noiost and a 
Large reserve in specie in the banks. 'Die fioyem- 
nieiit Jiaa a karicTsome surplus ar. its eoruuiuiiJ; aiiJt 
iiiaoiniioli as the bulk of the taxes ai'e lovkd by 
fiietl Laws, the economies resulting from tlie recent 
adniinistrativc reibnus, which hnv'c iilrcaily proditcctl 
an. antiual reduction of ^8,000,000, will cousulorably 
swell thie total. In consequence of the profitalde 
VItrade in 181^2, uH g^xjil stocks rose in value 
tioni it> -10 per cent. There lias fiirtlier licen a 
vety nipid dcvelopitic-nt of < Sovermnent i-redit, as 
ilUistrateil Ity the coiulitions of iln' National IX-ht. 
Bimds paying a high rate of interest have clilier 
been converted intft 5 per ca*jit. bonds or luirc betin 
paid off without, option of i‘ 0 !iversion. Tlie only 
portion of the Debt wliich is still I(.M?:ated outside of 
-Inpan k a sum of Inti,Uhl)/,, T^ liich niis laiwnl in 
IS73 :uitl will mature in l^UT, Upon this 7 jjer 
cent-ioIciest k paid in gohl, equivalent to dapan to 
lo [Uir ci'iit. on the tiriginal capifal. The interest on 
die remainder of the .Debt k pjiitl in silver. The lulal 
internal fUibt jumumu to S2u-.UU(),UUU, to tlie pnv' 
inentof principal Atnl i«tere*t iiiam whtoL 
are applied aimuoUy. daiwucse statesmen have fortii^ 
iiately forinwl a very higli conception of tlic value 
kail of national credit and of hniULcizd rclrenclirncnl ^ 
and the suspicion of extravaguiice or coiTupf.ion is 




itiie iliiit ail inmietliiitoyqcwjv in tljt* i''liniul>pr. 

It ib U> be regrettc^l tbrti hi their dealings ivitli 
nireignirs tin* st^nhinl uF onnmtercialnmraliij iljai i« 
cotumindy obacnTl by Japunje^cnKfrclirttit^fl w Wfither 
iQ bhuncli:^ ui theory nor ^ inllexible in pramiinc, 
As re^ariU Lhi* 'lYrnU* of Jaiiaiv I 'fill nr>i lien* 
I'eprotluce i)i!t.Ll 5 iU:i Llint may be fuutid In iViusNlar 

publll,'Ulii>n^ hut will xiiereK' notiee i.’ertaiii 


salient cliar.teteristios. Her roreigri trade luts 
incruiiaeil eii raplilly i.lmt Us total eterline volue^ 
whieh in 1S1>2 i^ooU at is nenrtr double 

lliat of 1^84, nml five rjiid n lualf times ;i3 nuirli ns 
l.hac of 1807. The slmre In this total tliai. is ohilmvd 
by the tlrillsli Empire (f.r. (ireat llriiahit India, anil 
the L^Ionies) is by fur tin* largest aim muling to uver 
8,ii50,lHlW.; ulcliuitgli these lij^tres represeii]: a steaily 
reociit tleiline, the jtr(i|H>riiou, which in IKUfi svas 
41 .per eenU of tlm uhole^ Imvino'. luuhily i>wing to 
the greuily iucreused ex[>ori of silk and tea lo the 
ITtilled fc'tates, fnllcii to 55 i>er cent, in ISUli,' [n 
shippings however, Great llriioui easily retains her 
predontinuiice; the tutal tonnagif i^f British s’csseht 
tiuilhig with Jtt[iun e.tceeiUug that of till other 
coiiutries, iucluiling Jaimi itetOf, put together. t)f 
the total incrchutidi,$e tm].K>rmil into and exported 
from duptui in 5S per cent, was cairiisd in 

^ Ou fJiB 6 lJi 0 r liuul^ JjEt Ui£ Tnil? BajHjrt fur IffllO, wtikb fraina ta 

liMiij mily «fi«r ilaw in |iriAI. oul of ^ tolid LnEi^Aw of 

infcle of in iho yw |tbc itioroflAq bain^ 

«i34.nt]j ia KhLelly T»:^r ind Omu BnluLn 

jmprovutl fwr ijr of Tflikli w*re 

THK BVOLrrmx or moderx utAX si 

^ UrltUh baltoniG. The Uenonn [irc'pt)rtioii ui the 
year was 10 jjtrr ofut.; ivUib iKt rigiirt dial i& 
htrlil to justify fiiO loti}' commercial iui|n rat ions of 
Fratice in the Far was only la j>er ccnr. 

A (uort- remarkalilc tlev'tdopineiiL of JapaneGe 
coiTi]iicn‘e h [lie fidvaiijce of her own maniiraciuritijf 

tiMUmnw own puireyor, particiilarly of cotton cloth- 
iiii^. TJie simultaneous process is ubsetreil in her 
Custom IttUtirus of a gi'eal iTioressc in the import of 
raw male rial, luiil a com‘Spuiidinj;jf tlccreaiFe in t hat 
of maitufacmretl gootls. lu she titiportiHl 

eleveti times tW ^{uantJty of raw cotton iuiportotl in 
1S87; while since 1S88 Iter iiuport of mauuractnred 
coltOD^i fi3B dficreasetl 4-1 per cent. In the htst hvc 
years her eacjiort of ftoods maniifiiciurcil in her own 
louuts has Ijcen nuadrtipleil. Tiiitt this process has 
l>een very nmch acceleraiecl hy the receul ohtuigcs in 
Indian curreticy tlitrre con he no doubt, .luet as 
India ]i:ts billmitir proQteil in Imr rniiipetitkm wiili 
Luijcashlre, sio will Japan now profu in her mm- 
pctitioii with llumbay. 6Jie is rapidly extending her 
plant, und Ijefore I he yeari* oul, sriil have doubled 
her nniiilwr of spindles. Especially will site profit 
in her export of inaititfaetuied cottons to 
lloili tire •sUrnr-stotulord countries, and in botli wa^^ 
am paid in silver; and when her superior pruihuity, 
her low rale of wages, and tJie cheapuciSfa of c‘oal, are 
taken inio nccounr.,’' M^nuche&ier and UomlNiy 

1 Tlw at a «oiiod (tjtitniLVD in .Tkjwi rnmt 10 la 

JM, to <kf,.i m JftfiHfit M mat 1* lUUvurti} Hi |L 

(trf. Oi. id,) H tun. 


should find in iier n most forniiil^ble I'mmwiitor. 
There is even a Ifdk in JfipiiM of still furtlier stimu* 
luting this naiutnl movement hy alHilishiog both tiie 
import duty on raw cotton, and the export, duty on 
the luanufactureil nrtit-k. Euwpeun merclumia are 
for the niouienl simie'whnl nonplitSM^l 1*)' this 
Japanese development. Uut it may lx; jHUiiied out 
to them that any fallmg off in foreign iiniwris wbieli 
miiy result frtMii native competition shtuihl be 
more than compensated bv ihe increnised purchasing 
power of .lapan in reajtcct of foreign nriicles, suci> 
as niachineni't whtdi slu; eauiiot provide liersfdf. 
Among die other restiurccfi wlilch Japan U turning 
to good account in her induBirlnl expansion is her 
coal, Japnnese inmiI ia ju>w esjiorted every wliore 
througlioui the ‘Far liljist; it is burned on the majority 
of steamers iietween Yrikolinmn and Singapore. hueT. 
it may be siald to have driven the Auatralian product 
from the luistcm market. 

Among the i|iicisiion9 which are much cUs<uis.Bed, 
alike by fareigntrs and iMidenta, and aliout wliich 
Auiturtr^ very «X>nLrary opinions are <?xpTe8S£;d. noi 
merely at difTereiit limes, but by lUffercat 
ior*isM» ■tt'riters at tlif same time, is the general 
nttilmle of the Japiinc-se people, ami particularly of 
the rising gencmthin, low.aith foreigners. It diould 
not Ik* inferred, hccanao Japau has rwaognwe*! that 
Europt? is ahead of herself iii many branches of 
knowledge and resources of civillsatlmi, anil that she 
must go to Germany fi^r her gutis^ lo France for lier 
law, to England for her railways—that she is* ihere- 

Tfis i:roif/TiOA' oy ifODsny r*a 

fore, an uiiliiicriimiiaie atimirer of that ’ffliich sIib 
imitates, or rJiat the Western maa is au idol in hitr 
social patitlieon, Oti tiie coiitran% the more she has 
assimilated European cxotlleiu'es the more critical 
she has become of European defects; whilst tlie at 
timtis precipitate rapidity of her own ndvwtce has 
produced, n reactionary wave, which occasionally 
assumes Hcrious pruportions. The esisteaice of such 
a fetiliii'j is hy no means surprising when we remem¬ 
ber the forces by which it b recruited. Amojig these 
may be counted the Latent Conservailsm in (Jie 
national character, which, tliuugli but little capressetl, 
stlli smoulders with an intertial combustion that, 
like those sudden ahook^ of nature tliai; wreck the 
Japanese laadscajm, now and then breaks forth in h 
passionate vendetta of outrage or assassination; iJje 
inordinate vanity of the people, fostered at once by 
tlmir illustrious antiquity and by the case with which 
they seem to have planted ihemselves in the forefroiiL 
of the files of time; the indiscreet rapidity with 
whicii they have Iwen asked to swallow, almost in 
the same gulp, a foreign (.Ire&j, a foreign languagB, 
and a foreign religioii; autl a (.■otiscjousnesa of na¬ 
tional fitreogtli that resents the smspicioii of having 
bartered its birthright to aliots. f'oUticiil incitients 
-—a proposal of Treaty EcA'isioii on tomis at all 
derogatory lo iho national dignity, tJie not les> seush 
tive atwl sonmtimes brutal candoiU’ of the European 
press, the resoluLions passeil at a meeting of loreign 
tncrchautfr—^may excite this feeling to a white heat 
of {ur}'. At otlicr time* it fllunibcre. 



In TS9J it for n. time In Jmve oxperienc.'etl 

fl sharp liiiiiunnitition, Init nfierwartlH M liAve Bub- 
siiletl. ToTTivitis tJieclose of undj'TW'cnt a brisk 

reviTftblii c<iit&e<[iieiicc of Uie jnil^ienrdf the Hriiiiti 
t^upreme fJoiirt at SliHit^liai, rf-versin^ Mie flecision 
of the inferior Court at VtifcoLama in llio ease of the 
collision of the P. and t) slearnsJnyi ‘Fhivenna' with the 
Japanese eroiser *Clushiina^ inrTapauett'waters* This? 
jiidiroetit, Tvhicb ivas adverse lo ilie Japanese ('laitnsT 
was rriiiciscfl iis though it woto n deliberate exhi¬ 
bition of r^>reijpi tnalevtilenee, directed n^ninsl the 
expand trig" ruabltions of Young Japan. Foreignet^, 
inebiding sonio old and weU-known residents, >vere 
openly insulted In the streets of t he oapiial, wliile t he 
native police made not iheslighreat.eflbri to iuterfere; 
and a sharp reminder reiinirt^i ro Ui- {iddresscd to thn 
latter t)f iheir elementai-y dutiea. Another manifes¬ 
tation is Uie boycotting of foreign raaniifaetu res, even 
when the corre*]iojjding native articles are of greatly 
inferior quality. Lii IS'Ji an attcunpt wm aettmuV 
made upon the life of n welhfcnirwn naliro merchant, 
becaune ho had Ativocaled tin- use of foreign pipes 
for Uie Tokio water-works. These emotions find their 
chief exponents ammig the stndent, clnss, niimy of 
whom, under the tuition of nitssiotmries. 
Imve imbibed American notions of democru/:)', and 
wlios«‘ suiutfering of titiiverHal knowledge seems Tikdv 
to create ii considerable clfement uf danger, Perbnj^ 
the most innocent form is the coufinnous di&nmsjd 
of foreigners from posts in tlie public service, or in 
the employ of bnflincas firm?, their places In hig filled 


by sjjecially inlticntei.!, (Lutij^h not itnlffinnly 

for ilu: piirpiwe.’ SerbTis tliouglj iLest* in- 
divlduii] cbiillitiott^ titutoubtodly arc*, the 1>e!;t imtlio- 
rities tbt nor to uiiiicipitte auy very perilornt 
ikn’elapDient;^ of tins pliaae of natrrmal reaitscitnliou: 
!imJ ti may probably be regarded aa the be^t gafety- 
valre ftjr hiiinourj! tbat mtghr. oibirnriae retpiire a 
oiure tejiijit^siuous outlet. 

A coJIatertil iUtiSLtmtion <if the same ilioughllesss 
and aotiiei imts i'oolbli pat riot bmi is the ptisstonale 
ttctwHiiwj exdtemeot ilisplayotl by the Japanese nr any 
assert icrti, boweTOr eartravaga 11 1 or ritli c ill ons, 
of tbo iiiitional lipiriu In lhi:i respeet lliev may bo 
temit'd. ilto Frenclinien. of the Far East. In tlio 
coarse of I80li there occurnMl three illitstr:itions 
of this unseasonalile ardaiir, A young lieutenant or¬ 
ganised a project for forming a fisliitig and maraud¬ 
ing colony oh one of the Kuritelslaiid!}; and when he 
atarOtl from Tokio witli (liirty volunteer com[niiuons 
iti a number of open row-boaiB upon this straiter- 
!>rairied quest, the popular;* eiiowded the wJiar\'es of 
the i^uniido, and gave an ovation to tlie departing 
hero as thong!i he were Kelson einbarking at Ports¬ 
mouth to take command of die Tilcditerraueiui Fleet. 
Presently came the retribuU-ry sequeL The lieureiiaiit 
eneotiiiLercd a sionii. Two of liis Imats were swamped, 
and seveiiUcui of the would-bo tTolonists were drouncifl. 
'Hie mrcoml inatancf w'os that of a Ja|micso military 

^ In iha UkJiil pniutwr <)f fcrxdgi.iunt 3n i\m ™pby iifthn- 

(Tr»vmmi(TBti which a flaw jtipiip liitfulTi-ii*, 

wiu imly 72. of whQiiJ ffil nnr* Eriti^ UhmusMiA, JO Aiimricmit> aiiol 
5 Fffufili^ 


Be, Petersbuqj, wUo rwle overhuul ftoia ihiit 
pljicc to TlaitivosEuk. WiiHii lie Luiiteil in Jupati he 
vras FL'^ejTpd wiili {i$ umrli htmour as thnugli bt* wert 
Multke retuniiiig from tlic Frauco-fiprjjiiiAi^aiupiiiga. 
One trembles U> tliiuk wliat vrill )>e the fete rcjiei^'etl 
for a genuine heixi, should sueh a one ever 

apjietir. The tliird example wus even more puerile^ 
In pursuit of a forward {wlifry ns regards Korea, the 
Government wss ptjrsumlcd in 1892 to send a ticw 
^fillister to that C^urt. This mdiviiiua], hating 
insulted iliG Itiiig of Korea, and quaiTelled witli Ms 
Slinistera, was Tery atiorOy recalled; hut, •>wing to 
Ms tuime being popularly associated witli a policy of 
so-called courage and energy, iu other words with 
die dating diplomacy of guidxtats ftial Ixuiuce, he 
was eoteiiained and toaalcd at a great banquet at 
Tukio upon hie return, Tlie mlliimy* parade wMdi 
Japiiii, taking advawtage of Um recent diKoider iu 
Korea, is makiug in f.Iial country as these ]Uiges "o 
to preas diid wliicb l.lireateut> to luvolvu her in serious 
dispute, if not in actuxd eonllicl, with CJniia, is u 
later outcome of the same impetuous CJuiuviuiBtu, 

It is prtilHiblt' that these pj-roEwdinics of a some¬ 
what schoolboy patriotisni, which are uut uiitiaiura) 
in the case, either of a country like Japan llmi is oiilv 
tentatively wiimiiig its wav to greaUiess, or of one 
like France that is smarting under the memorv of a 
great uatirtiuil humilialion, wjU diminish iu projiortiou 
as Japan sccurua the recognition ;u which she is 
aiming, and acquire# the wF-controI that is I^om of 
consdous fiirctigth. At present they bring a suiilo 

Tlf£ EWLVTifjy OF MOliSHy JAl‘AK 67 

to the li|> even of the loosi impufisioned fipologist for 
Tui[.iot!Jil delinuoi. 

A further question, much ngitaUtl by foreigners, 
and esju'cially by Kiigliah and Amerleaiis, is the 
iiiKEce* u lil^el'diood of Christianity Iwing ad(»pt<d 

Uie mtioiial reUgiou of Japius. A coiuhina- 
Q(j„ Qf circnnietaiictis—the dj^stablisluuent 
of Btidilliisni in tlie present reign, the reason able 
chiu-acter and general freetiom from tjupeiuiitjon ol 
the people, the admitted itulLffiireuce to older crewls 
of the upper daises, .and the uiihaiupcred field ojitiied 
to the labours of the foreign lulssionary socie- 
lies—has led many to suppose Lliat here, at least, 
the Church of □iriat is sure of a jiiaguilieent spoil, 
imd tJnit Japau b trembling on the brink of a 
mighty regeneration J If I do not share iliese anti- 
oipulioHs it is iiiti from .any denial either of the 
strenuous exertions of the reapers, or of the iiiLriiisic 
rifduiesa of the han'&st. But, though the State in 
Japan has TPiihtlr.atrn its sanction from Buddhism, the 
stream of the cuniniQii people does not appear to 
have been one u'liJt diverted fix>tn its crumbling, but 
still liaTloffi'faL, shrines ; itml in the chippiiig of liauds 
and short prayer belbr*? the gilded altar, and 
pruetieal sermons of ihe bonnes, the lower clashes 
scill find what is to them an adequate salvation. 
At tile old capital, Kbto, there has Iweti building for 
manv veara, out of private siibscripiioiis only, what 
will, when completed, be by far tin: largest Buddliist 

’ Such iiii|Hs*r> tw u ttio vi«w of iho Church MuaoaWj; Sktowij, 
wUck linA rt«!UlJy CRwJed iwu teWlMOiiflJ tuiiHiprira io J«pui. 


ill :l 11 Japan. Nor cau a people l>e Jcscrifved 
OB wlUiont failh, wliw yearly send ftirtii tenii of 
thoiiBioids of pilgrims to oliirih i.ho eaoreil HUTiiiiiits 
of Ftijit feet Mgli, atid of Nantaisan. 

Oii tlie oLtier band, iriih tbe apiier and lettered 
classes, the advance of knowledge Ims lirniigbL n 
widespre-id scepticiam, anti a rebietancc to accept a 
dogiua ihal eludes the test <if m.tiorial anal^'sis. 
XeitliCT can I tlitnk that the luiiiiiuiiiary army,ibough 
it elite IIS dm Held with banners tenving and mildters 
cbanting, utilises its etrongtb to tbe liest atlvantage 
by dividiTig its host into so many con dieting and 
sometimes liostile brigades. I find in tbe directorj’ 
iluit at Tokio alone iliere arc represented tiurty-one 
dificrent missJonaTV churcbes, socletit^s, sects, or 
denominations, with ati aggregate of ilfH) male and 
female missionaries. 'When Epl.'scopaliaxis, Presby¬ 
terians, Haptists, d^lvatigc] Urals, Lutiicratis. Cliurcb of 
Ivigliind, !Metboi1ists, llefnrmed, liussiau tjnbodox, 
Quakers, Unltarlajis, and UnlTcraidtsts appear slinid- 
taneoiiBly upon the scene, each claiming to Iiold the 
keys ol' Heaven in rbeir lint id, it cannot be i bought 
suqirkiiig If the Jaj>anese, who have hardly made np 
llidr minds that they want n Ueaven at all, arc 
somewUnt bewildered by the timltipliciity of volnn* 
TetT door-keepers. Were the eiliicaJ teaclnngs of the 
Bible In be ofTereiT to tbeui in a systematised lx)dy of 
precept and of pr.ayor they might turn a willing ear. 
Nay, X ilcnibl not that a commitlee of Japanese 
exjKTtR wxnild undertake (o-inorrow the codification 
f>F the moral, just as they Lave nlrmidy done rlmi of 

»lt<* civil aiiJ criminal law; and that they wouM. turn 


out for the ctlilicatioii of their fellow-countrymen an 
iwlminible of the etlvics of all time. \Tho 

ahall'say whether die new Japan may not yet ujicler- 
take this momeDtoiis task? In t?je nieamime tlie 
onions appear to he a^inst the oflicial or jHipular 
selLH'tioi) of any professed hmnch of Clirisliaa theo- 


JAJ'AS AJtlJ tub FUrttBS 

And tt«t«nbo» nt bcr cnimcll met 
WTuj Juiew the HoagiH wImb to leho 
Oecniinn bj th* bond anti tnaik^ 

Tbo bou tid* of frnidtiiu wider jrat. 


Etbh since tlic nnd with a pro^n?^ 

tliAl has advanced by and bounds durhi*; re- 

ceut yearn, aa the nutioti hus uicreascd in 
itatuft' and actiuired no modest ur Khriiiking 
estiDiate of its own importance, the biggest politk-at 
(ptestton in has been Treaty Revision. For 

a long while dwarfed by the more serious iiomuietiee 
of domestic problems, and retarded by the limua- 
turlty and inexperience of the new sinking 

at dtnes into a complete background, but at others 
sweeping all before it on a tide of popidar oinotloii, 
it has exercised nmeh the same disturbing and 
setsmlc inQueace upon Japanese pcdiiifs as has the 
Eoiue Hub <iue!itiou in Great Bntnin, It has madn 
and it has upset Itruiistnes, and may very tikclr do 
so Hgaiii. At this tnonuciit it oon&outs tlie strtwgeai 
Govenuiieut that. Ja|tati can produce with a problem 
which even its strength, it may be feared, will prove 
unequal to solve. 

,/A PA Tlfl' ro\r£P,^ 


Tlie Treatit^ wliit;h rogiilatv llie t^m^iieroial rt'Lv 
tioiia of Japau wiili foreign eouiurks, unsi wliu:h 
HirtMj pixtvicle for the rfesidenre in tlie Treaty 
PoriSt and for tlie aeparate jonmlletloii lliere 
of foreig!! subjeetfl* liave been eoncludei.1 at va¬ 
rious peritkls iio fewer than eightwro signatory 
Powers.* siiiee ibe drst Amcrieiuj Treaty was 
stgited by C-ommodore* Peny in Itoughly 

speaking, the contract between tlte two paitsea was 
ill efldi fjasi^ as follows. Japan coiiHeii(t<(,l to o])en 
n limited number of porta to foreign trntlc and resl- 
dence.* There only wen* the subjects of tlie eou- 
iracting Powers pennitted to live, to trade, lo buy or 
sell property, or lo engage in industrial enteqjrisc. 
f lutside the narrow limits of the seitlmeitts all tlie-sv 
privileges were forbidden; nor was travel or move- 
nnmt permitted witliout a passport, tb the Other 
hand, inside the pale the subjects of foreign Powers 
were exempted Iroin Japanese Jiirisdictioji. except, 
(jC course, when sueiiig Japanese sul,ejects, and were 
amenable only to their i>wn Consular tonrts 'U 
[jrcrogutive commotdy Jesorihed as tlie Jixtra-icrn- 
torial system; while the Cnstonv? tiirid ou foreign 
trade was fixed at a oomimil fi }»tT cimt. <i>J vulort^m 

' Tlie™ "» Ijreal Ibitiiin, F«iieB, (!*'nnnnj, .\u»tTi», tCnutii, 
ItiUy, }Irtl«iiTin, aoilaril. SjhuH. IWnflia, Sullwriiutat, BwwJun. 
murk, Amirriru, I’urn* Alriint, llamjut, Clilmt ^ 

* Tiir U]H'n nfw TiJu iToltlol. lisiiu(»vm (Totnihiiiml, tluiiiu 

(EoIm), OiutkA. [lAfatHlntc, Th" jiyi* 

weru *nb«flil(!ntly npuivd la IHUO to ripnjliT* uf ^laiu, ricf, 

Sihimiiai»r.fci. Maji, tUminn, BtiflliitiuOiH. Miiutiii. 

lilztigHliimi. HlUaliimi, Sutuiu. mil OUrn, Tim nnintwra of rowliiut 
forel^m HI thu Trwit3' Part*, <»B I. wru^ u folUMVi 

Itritiati Anwrieim* TW, (lAntmn* till, Fjneni'Jl StU. 

vti tlu! ntAjority of forttjiii imp<jri&, togctW mtii 
II duty of G iitiT on exportif, i^ncrli iltt* 

syfiteiii Tinder which Jii|i;uiestj ussjciftljou with tin? 
outer world luu Itceii corulucludi, at least upon 
Jupuuefie wlL for iicucly forty yejira; froni whU*U 
rUp hiia inadG many jtljordve tiroria to MrajiC} auil 
under which she iirviclauns, with yearly iuci'caaiu^ 
lu^^iaU'iiee. that it ia Utconipaiihlc svltU her tuitional 

djmiiLT L(i l■ollIillUe. 

c ■ 

Hviii i!itr loniis of originjil uproiiiiitui 
could tioi l>e a cbnse iu 

1 \ ic Lii^lisli rreatv* txpiiLdtidi*d In" TA>ril 

i RiAitL ^ * 1 4 > - li * a t t* ~ 

|ti IbijU, provulftd for fnturu rtivkioii* ujhju 
' the notice of eiUier of the hljjh couiraetiiip^ rowers, 
iti lliii vvlum 1ST2 arrived neilJier party wna 

in a position to movci and on lIic varioua uccaaioiis 
sbcct wlicti n^viamii liac been BcriousJy attempted, 
due euileavoii.r has resuUed Iti failure ovkitig to the 
dllUculiy of rijconoiling the coollictiiig claiiua of dm 
foreign Towers, who Tiave bueu averse to ateppint: 
down from lUcir piiiuaelo of vantagu without tuthcr 
a flelinite 4jrtid pn, ,pm, or at least a guarantee that 
diey will not aulTer Ity the aurretuler; and of JFapan, 
who, with a natural couscioutness of licr stcadilv 
imprciriug piiii^tiuii and of the obligations of what 
she terms hisr * sovereign rights,’ whittles away one 
by one the coniiter^coneessions which the was at 
first |irepared to make, and now even talks alxjut 


> Art^XXn.—"h w ftgwJ Uija mlh& khu hi^h 

|Kkrtlii«^, em ^Ivhm fiEiif Tiooiej^ Ui llm o4tisfp iIvniiAJkil a 

vtsio«» lin ur Jnly 1. « itw l«r thfk cJ m^h 

mK i iUTin jtiU u ilmlL prciv^ %v t« 

JAPAX Tits POW'PHh- tia 

tfxaclirig cotKliiibtis hunw-lf, JJeuf.'t iin:< (IfydUick m 
w]iieh, ^iier ur Intor, ncgolljitloiis ji1ur;i_v4 

itivoh’eil. I?'ur my c^h*ii pun 1 do imt sltnit- 
th** feelings of eitlicr of ilio&e sclioob hef.wwn ultom 
publit^ opmitui,. flfl nipr(jsciiiKl in lwot£ jnid nen-s^ 
papers about tiupmi, seeiiui to Ijo divided—namely, 
tUoserOn the one liand, aenTimental side of wUo^<? 
nature, inilamed, if lliuy iite Japanese, by patribtisiu, 
if I Lev are forei^nei'S. by ctnitJnit wjili an engaging 
jKfttple and a pretty country, revolts against vriisr 
they deiw rilie an a great mitional ’tvTfmg, u lieruliy 
Japtui Iia3 hecij elieatCHil oiu of her birthriglit, and is 
being kept in perpetual e^ile in the U‘Nl« of Hlouit 
or^ oil I ho other hand, ihoae wlio argue fur tlto 
Iti’lui letter of the treaLieS ad and tloelkio 

to make the aiimlWst cnnccssioii to titc vast chnugtt 
that forty years have ofloeted in. thu status of modem 
Japmn The former atiliude le adopted—uaturaUy 
ennugh—by .Tapariese writers; focilishly, iis it seems 
to me, by lUe majority of English aud Aiueriirau 
tDUiists hi Japan, wlio, withaut mi inkling of what U 
going im Ijchiud tlie scenes, i>rof the laliours of those 
w-hom they eon den in, pronoimec tr t-citftedru upon 
a Bituntioa of which they re;jJly knt>w as little os, 
for example, tliey may do of the difltrenee lietiveen 
old and luudern luc'tjuer, Tlie second or ulira-Cou- 
servativc attitufle is taken up by many of the toer- 
chont cloM in the Treaty TortG, who, for perfecily 
honourable but seldsh reflaons, w'ould like to main- 
loin tlie iftatnit ifiuf as temp os they cam As a matter 
of fact, there is i^iiite suiheieut Justlee on both sides 


of the contrnveniy to mlmU of tetoiwralo tliscu^siou 
anil of atniMbl& Agreement; and the enej'gieB of the 
true fritfiula of .Jajiafi sliottW he directed to iniwi- 
niisjng the pomta of frictum timl hnwlening tlie 
hasls <»f [loafiihk (roinprointse, itistend of slinrponiTi" 
llu)ir blades for a further barren encounter. 

With approximate fainiess llie two cases may Ue 
lluis atated. Japim ilcmAiitl>« Juilioiat nuutnoiuv and 
slue demandB Tariff anlonoiny, from Itolh of 
uf Jai^a ns already exxilaiiiedt she i» excluded 

the Treaties, She denmnils llic fonner, iiewiuse it 
Is ilerogatory lid the dignity of a civilised Power to 
have alien courts of Justice sitting within lier terri* 
lories, and lieoauw? slic clalnis to have acquired a 
jurisprudence based iijjoii the best Europeau mwlels. 
She djemauda ilie latHir, because she is predudud at 
present trotn utilising her imitons and exports-except 
upon certain narrowly prescribed lines, an expand- 
ing source of Iiuperinl revonuc. Upon Imr imports 
she <ndv makes an average of about 4^ Jicr cent, in 
custom^ and is cotnpdled in «hhi sequence to fk her 
export, duties at a higher figure thiui she would wish. 
She desires to raise tlue fonnar with a view to reducing 
the latter, and the LaiuVtax in addUion. Extra-terri’ 
Toriality Indiig abolished, the foreign sciLkoneuts and 
inunicipaliLiefi would lose thdr preifcut dmracter and 
would, so to speak, * fall in' to the >Taparicse Govem- 
nwiil, which would probably issue new leases for liie 
land held by foreigners t herein, simllnr to llie leases 
held by Japanese. Tf she can gel Iheae uunii roucefi- 
sious {she would, of coui^, like a few more iliitm ii 


ia), Jiipnn ImA hhfii^rta bepn prtj[jam1 tci ojut’ti 
ttiLirfi coHiilry ti> tti-rcuirrnvv, Inke-a 

lit>r tLercfore, i}(tK»irUig iJie prcfieiii Treati^, 

iijM)!! the 8£)lid facts i>f her aUAmetl posilioa ami prei- 
am! H]wa an apiteal to the eaUghteaed syto- 
pathie$ of foreign natiyus. 

The nierchants. on the other hand, for whom the 
iVwers. through tlieir ministers, are the official 
«»««*- sjjokesiiwm, are not partieuLirly feeeii aiwut 
r.«'^ the opening lip of the country', in whidi ihnV 
ilo iioi sec the prospect of great iiiercantile riilvan- 
tnge (o them^elveF; they are averse to tlie t^ondiiioiis 
under which t.h(?Tliohl land in the settlements, (ns the 
result of a covenant with tin* Japanese Oovt-riiment ) 
lieiiig altered or assimiinied tu native custom wiitiout 
their eonseni: and they are genuinely alarnied at tlie 
pntpoiual a In/lit ion of Cotisuiar jurtsdietioii auil tTie 
settlement of all eases, in which they may tic concernefl 
as Urigaiiis, in Japanese courts and lieftire .lapilnes^^ 
jiulges. They i^tiut to the atlmiiied facts tlnit the 
reorganised courts have not been long established, 
and dial the Ueiich, fhough oijeupiLHl by Japanese 
who have Ijwhi partially rtlucated in Western Univer¬ 
sities:, lacks alike the fridition and the dktmction of 
European jmlicliiriL“6, Tlicy cotitetid that luiscarriagt* 
of justice W 4 iuld result. In die iiiaiii fiom the igiuj- 
raiiee. somctinics, perhaps, from (he prejudice, of 
tijitivc j tidges- ^'hpy iear the risk atul complesiiy of 
priMiesseslelbre a atraugo court in a strange language; 
and diey resent the |K>$sihIe tillbje^’tioll of tlidr lives 
and home* to tlie domtdh'ary^ visits of naiive police- 


’iueu. Moreover^ they har^* u t'ery irell-firMmihHl Jis- 
trust, ncft merely nf the ndtnlutstrntioa of Japtmesst: 
InV, Imt (if the huv itself, piirticiiliufly ii» such jjoJtiis 
as Uie law of evidMi»!(e nud the law of coatraei. whliJi 
are intetTireted in Japan in n tnanner little in har- 
iiiony with Euntpeaii ideas. I’lnnl]y Uiey can (ioIjk in 
support of their tihirnis to the constaiil diplomatic 
troubles ansin|r out of *■ miscarriagu of justice' in Ure 
snioll iniIe|M?iitl<!iit States of tlie New 'i\'1t»rld. Stunt? of 
their paperti publish very wilit mul silty articles almnt 
the inherent incapacity of ilie Japniie^ for the exer¬ 
cise of judicial attthority of juiy kind; nUhnngh 1 
suspect thji; mtiny of the firitisli ixierchants who may 
Ite involvetl an litigauta in the tmurUt of the petty 
Siinih Animcttu Hepublics would not m verj' greatly 
object Ut a cbnuge of venue To Dive courts of moclerti 
Jn p [III. J hit I h dlgli these more extra v;iganT d btrl W 
may he di&regaided, there is audoulitedly a snillil 
suhstriitiiin of truth in tUo approhensiuns of tlie 
foreign trading I’oumiuiiity, niul any attenipi to pre^ 
cipitale too hasty a sohitlim iidght mvolvc the 
Japanese Oovcmment itself in iliffictiliies which li; 
hiid not L'ontemplateil. 

Tu what ijiiarier. then, does ihfi solution lie? 
H'he answer w'UJ l>e found in :i brief exaniiiiation of 
vitrious pmiu'psals forTrcftTv Kevision that 
Itnve 30 far been junde by Japanese ^ates- 
men to ilie Ibreign lejirestmladves, or wVw 
' rrrjfJ, Their liisttny lew brcji one of un- 

brriken (lisnppoiTittuent and fniiurc; but it haa al*,! 
been iiiarked by reflaiu aigns of ptugressive devukii>- 

jATjy AXfi rm «7 

tnunt wliii'li may leml giiidniicp to ntaitsmsu at Uit 
prfsent stage. Tliree times in tlie Imst twcjyo years 
have iTaganese Foreign Jitiniaters made overtures to 
llie Treaty Powera. Tlie of tliejse wits Count 
luouyo, the present Minister for Home AfTairs, who, 
in 18^2, oriiiinaUy suggested the nUimate abolition of 
<l^>iisular jitrtsdietfoTi and liic udintarm rbscussloii of 
terms, jV prelUnimuy eonferenre was summoned in 
1883, Jind memoranda, prepartM.1 by the Kritieii and the; 
piapanese novemmems, were successively flidiitiitted. 
Tlje iie^oiiatiojis couimued tilU in ISSC, the actual 
con fere iitt! of all iha Tre.’ity Powers met iti Tokio, 
when a tie6nile scheme, initiated by the British and 
German OovernmeriU wo-s propniindetl, and passed 
through many <»f the preliiniii!ir_v stages ijoih of 
exatnuiatiou and ancept.ince. There were to l>e a 
large number tjf foreign Judges on Ihe Japanese 
bench, the conditions of whose appfimimcut and re- 
‘tnoval evoked much lio^itile crith-mn in the native 
Press Tlie promised rodea and future amendments 
therein wore to Im submitted toTlio Foreign Powers — 
an jtddii tonal source of nnt iniml irritation. It wrw not 
surprifliiig tliai upon these points ilie negcuiaLiona at 
length broke down in 1SS7, although it is to lie 
regrel.ied that the opportunity was lost, of clTecting 
a fieltlemerit on coridiilons even a contracted iH.UtTou 
of which would have been far more favourable to 
the scruples of fcrelgiiers than any future trfaty hi 
now likely to Ik\ 

Undeterred by tlio failure of his predecessor, 
Count Okutuii reaumetl negotiations in 1S8S; bu% 

f a 


having leanietl by ea^inrient-w tbt? niifllafcts dealing 
Tiith It Iltiund Tal>It‘ at wliich the representalivfe» 
cantA. (if eightee a na Lious^ v ith confli* ■ ting in! erects, 

were stJaied in cttncbive, be approwelietl 
iho Powers individuaily, ofTeringT in place of an 
«*labora!e stibeme of conrie with foreign judges, tlie 
presence of a niajoriiy of foreign assessttra in Llie 
Sapreme Court in ciuse& where fcireiguers were con- 
cenuuL A spat'e of three years was to elapse be¬ 
tween tile promulgation of Uie promised code^ and 
the filial abolition of Coiistiiar jurisdiction. TTpon 
these lines the United States, OermauT, and Bussia 
had already signed treaties j nod Great Dritaiii, Ihe 
'vast prepouderaucc of whose coimnercinJ interesis 
in Japan renders her In every case die arbiter of the 
KlLimtion, was witliui measnnihle dieiance of the 
saint- etid, nature and cxlenl of die seciiriiies lo 
lie cfivenfor ihe adiiimistration of justice to foreigners 
being one of the few points at ill uitfletemihied, when, 
public opinion having been already gravely excited 
iu Japan ai the proposed appoinHueuT of alien judges, 
and being furiher tnfliiiiied t>y die ptoiiiulgution of 
the new ParlSanietilary Conedtuiion atid the inipend- 
ing election e for the first Diet, ttu siiictapt was made 
with n dynamite iKunb upon the life of Count itkiimn 
iu OcioWr IS&O, The Biatesruau escaped, diougb 
seiiousiy mutilated. The w-oultl-lie assassin kiLtcd 
himself, But his ulterior rdijeci had already Ijcen 
galucil, for, ai ihe very Cabinet Council in leaving 
which the l)omb was thrown at Count Okiinm, a 
decision hud betfii arriviHl at, on the advice of Count 


Yoinaj^aia, who had jiwl rt? turned from a siiecial 
itibs^mn to Knroiie, to siiK[H?»'d iiegotiatto»w. Otice 
mort, ac<^orain{,dy, was Treaty Itevieion droi>[ietl 
like a hot ooal from tl>e baOled fltigens of the pleni- 
poioiitKiries st Tokio. 2for totild tliis renewed htilnro 
ho fairlv set. dowi 4 to oowardiee, feejug that puhric 
fteiitiiiimt. though not bobind the assassin, was in 
ojwii ayinpaitiy with the oiotiTcs dial liad acttiiiteil 
him to a deed whioh was the more signiUeaiit that 
it bv no means stands alone in the annals of nnslem 


J?ince thill flate tlie opening of the Japanese Diet, 
and the rapid growth botii of naiionid seir-resiiet'i and 

of ]U-marBhallf?tI bul powerful publto opinion 
ASi.i«« jvrcKluced, haiTe nor, combined 

to render a sotllemeiit more easy, wliila ihet’ have 
provided Japanese siau^smen wItIi ati annoury of 
defensive pleas which a purely irresiKinsibh- ttoveni- 
iiient t'oiild not previously emjdov, Ncverihel^'i, 
Visconni Aoki, Poreign M.iiiiat«r in the siieceetting 

Governmetitn, gallaiuly re-enterwl ihe liscs in 181)0; 

and it is midersitood that his overiures, which were 
nutnrallv directed bi the first pkce to the removal of 
the lingering vestiges of British opiMisltion. were met 
ill the mmt favourable spirit by tlie ad mi ids i ration 
ofl^ird t^alisbiiry: and Unit it has «nw only rested 
with the Japanese Government itself, by the fulfib 
ment of windiiions which it- has more ihan once 
.adtnittod to be reasonable, to enter ii|»on the fruiiion 
of tlie long struggle for complete iiitional auionoiuy 
wliose successive singes I have (lescrtbeiL 



AVliiit must )ie Uit* leading fc!a[.L]r(*g of anv divu-li 
Boiiittou will Ijp lUAiuft’ist frotti wliat (isis nln^adv !.w€in 
ll^LryM saltL 111 rbe first jilacet Uif lull ttxt of die 
entirt* t’ivil and t/omniGrcial Codus tuaUi'r 
whiidi it Is proiM^ied tlmt foreign^ fitolt in fiiUire 
mide anii r-wxduct ilieir liusidess, inust Lc proimil- 
^ted, trantilated, and pm Into sausfiictoJ'V openi- 
tioiL No nntloi) erui with Jitstioe call tjpi>n the 
subjerU of aiiotlici', ttvcu wilhin ItA <»wn territories, 
to oxchanj^e a pr^iiicion of judicial sitcuritt", c-sta^ 
hiished by lTt»aty ami raiifitd by king and snuccssfiil 
ujipcrifeuce, for the diibious protection of ait iiiclloalo. 
an iiuperfect, or an ill-conipreheiidwl liodx' of law, 
JSecondly, a periwl moisi elapse in which the new 
cotlfcs Oius pronmlgated shall be teskd bypraetjeat 
c>|jeratioti, the jodgee becoming aociisionied to the 
exposition of rules which involve in many cases a 
uoiniilete revolution in Japanese custoinaty' law, and 
the new law itself ac(|uinog public respect by pure 
and i!oti 3 istciii intorpretittion. Noi until after 
a prolwitionnry periiKl cuu foreigujer^ rent^onably bt 
expected to yield to Ihe Japaue^ demand for com¬ 
plete judicial autonomy.' 'lliinlly, these imditioiis 

|tr ^ Itjtfrj iWrlrii* in hi* 'trirjiCY wUh K<ifM. ubuni it i* Imnlk 
l^eh flvat lo nrise; ftir m (iriitoinl ki ihi> Tyi-sjj (whfpj, ^ 

XwTfsnbtir jjd. issSi conijiiu, Umm viniU:—'ll L i 

Kuina, flwnltrti ttti*!?', febuh be rciiaijHiiilieJ wW in ih. 

jiidgmejH of tls« Uritiih tiuvwniuiml, th* law* ea.l l.»„j Zli , 
K.rLe Oodl Ikh-u .» f.r nuNjilieJ 

Ote objecutum whiL'U iww etkt toUritieli .uljeeiJi nUrlTw T” 

Asn Tiiti poivsns 


jiaving bc'fin rt-nUieil, Lhts firml abandoiiTncni of extra¬ 
territorial jiirifidjction may fitly be mails to syn- 
clironiise iviiJi tlm entire opening up of the country, 
t ither jioiuis may well become the subject of diplo¬ 
matic pottrpi^rl^ and of intermediate stgreement., 
l^ucUr for iust, 111^0, are ati itd ifiitrim exteitimu of ibe 
prt'scnl passjjori system iu return for a revision of 
lilt tariff; and the novel lint intelligible .Tapatiest* 
dvtiiamL of wliiidi I sludl presently speak, that 
f-ireignera fcluib not: 1>€? alUiwod in own real property 
or to buy aliares in Japanese banks, railitiiys, or 
Klkijiping com panics, 

Tbere are a nmltltiide of obsintdes. however, tbiil 
rctpiire to be overcome before anysiu’h ijettlement 
t^tiun eati be arrival at. Tlie first of ibese is Ihv 
rariiarueutary position of ibe f'otles fjiexn- 
selves. Though tJie process of iTapoicse jutlicLil 
reform has lieenfondiicled with commendable rapid¬ 
ity, the goal of even npproxinmie finality is yet far 
distant. Tt was in JS72 that the moderti judicial 
S3'stem was first organicwi and iiourts and judgt!S 
csl,*ibli&lied; liotli lieing subjected to a thorough re- 
orgiiriisatioii in ISitib In tlie intervitl ilu* Codes 
have one bj' oiie lieeii evolvdl, TIu* Criminal Coilc 
was promulgated iti 188f), and has now for some time 
been iu ojmratlon. ^flie Ctales of Criuiinal and Civi 
Proeetlurc were promulgated at die same time, and 
came into operation Lu 181J0. As regards the Civil 
and Commercial Co<l«, however, the situation is less 
advattcetl. Wlmn I was iu Jap;ui in 18112 the Com¬ 
mercial (;odf! had already been promulgfUtHl, but 


iiitT' yet ttiuiiilntetl; ami tbe flfiTe ftf Its f^pc^rutiivi^ 
fixwl for Jniiumy 1,1890, siooil tjoslimned 
Till Jaiiuan' I, 1&9S. Thofiv portiom; of llm iTK-uin- 
jileTt’ C'ivi) (,V>de that Iiad published stood stuii* 
lorly pustpoiied, 1« the SessioH of the Dii-t of 189^!, 
liowevert ilit* ilrifi of popvilsir opinitJit was ctearly 
iiuUcated by the passing witli Tnucli ontbiisbsm by 
of a bill, biiroilueed Ity a privaifi tueuv- 
]mt, for fiinlier posTponiiig iLt* operation of ImiIIi 
j'wles lill [feceuilxT in order to submit tlieju 

hi Japnnefie interests to a tlioroiigli owrIiauUiig. It 
was with little effijct that Mscouiil Eiioiut>tat then 
Minister for Foreign Alfsirs, pointed out the iuunmte 
iMtiuectiou lielween the Cmlea ami the snbjeet of 
Treaty Hevisioiu and urged ilie Chanaber not onoR 
. more to siiini itir door in the face of tluise who luid 
:ii length sbotm sueli a letiiperate willingness to 
f jien it. Const'rvalivti aUnu iti the iimoi'Stious in- 
iT'fjdneed by iLe new ! Vwles, jiarticiikrly in the law* 
of inlierilacce and in niljer nmltfitu a fleeting fam it v 
life, and at the subTOrsion of the iiiiniemjorial religious 
traditions *>f the ootintry, joined hands wiili the 
liailical asplvalioiis ,of Yiiuiig .Tap,in (o settle thu 
ijuei^tinn nf Treaties^ not as t lie Powers Hke^lnil U]n>n 
her own tertns and on a fiuTtingof nhsohite equiditv: 
and the bill vnis carried by tnajarities of inure than 
ro one in both diambuRs, 

This bill had uol net-dml eitlier the assent or 
veto of the Fmperor when Ooimt Ito’s Cabinet was 
toniuHl, atui much spcoulation was buluJged k ;|5 
the adriL-o which he tvould give to the Soverei-Ta 


Aa it ttirupil out, thi' pcatpoiieroput was juic^pici] by 
lUfr Ouvcrtunetir. «n Llie ‘froimtl that the Codes stood 
Furuv^r greatly in need of atnendineiit, l>iit with a 
proviso that eiieh piuls of them as wci'e 
aiuetitled to the s^itisCiction of a Speeial Coniiuissiom 
ajipoiiited for the purpose and of the Diet, miglit 
oome into oiterntiofi at any tiiim. tSiilisofiuenily, 
early in lSt>5, a largo portion of the Commercial 
Oxlc, tlealiog with the law of partnership and com¬ 
panies, of bills of exchange, proniissory notes, and 
ehei|tie 9 , and with the law of banlthig, was pa-sse*l, 
and came Inio force in July it will l>e seen, 

iltei'eforc, tliai iJie Codes ore mil)’ slowly, and b\’ 
pieinfmeal- coming into operation, and that the test of 
the practical working of the entire revised lavv is one 
whose possible application still lies in the fuliire- 
In the same Session (February 1S!>3) the attitude 
of ihe Lower House on the whole ciuestion of 'Ircaty 
Bevbion was sliown by an address to the 
Thrtme, wUitdi, after being debated in secret 
seaaian, was voted bj* 13o to 121- Tl con¬ 
tained thcj» words, which an? signillcant as showing 
not the wiiialont, hut the tenipor, of the Assembly: 

* Tin- unfair Treaties jemaia putevis^h ^n-wnieqoenri- 

tJmt our jnnstlictioii does not extend l£> lUrtiiguert tiving 
bofdenaj nor ila i»iSH4f«3 f arilT aiH«notn}^ 
oti our tiiitiojlul riybtJ can bt? gnMiter ^ t 
nnrl wheaever mir (lifniglita dwretl lipai the sohject we aro 
Gon»tmineil te bitter wgMt*. 'fbo eseriiifie uf tlie extn*- 
temmrial ajeten: fnreignem te oUy only llieir own 

laws «nd to be mjbjMta! to thrirown juJidmy witliin the 

tefritoriefl of tbis Enipiie. Yet we, in Uieir COtintfka^ aha 



Of>m{wr1lci] to olx*;? tlii*ir )»wsi iintl ^dlimrt to tlijilr jurisdirtioa, 
l urtluTj the rHStrictiijti* im port'd in ivsjfodi of cntitoinB tjirifr 
dieHit)]e tin from ijKemaiDg our DOtund riglit lo taj imjjortM] 
gnoila. wlien.'Oj^ fiiroign connti-iei impoicp liaivy ilutb* ou 
gvod? 0K[iottMJ Ly HS. Thus oiir JiiiIJcm] ntut li«oid rights 
Ijcing aiikfr iinpaipml, fo^sigu-ini are taiftlded to imimvA in nn 
dnuinflA TU? result mast Iw that obt ecniDieroe 
«i«d indHstrk* v^ ill daily ilujt the national Wv^th 

will ilwreaWf and tliiil in thn t-nd tlior^ n il) be nu m.-mjH of 
onr tescnrces,* The fjiult of conch ding *aeli 
ii^ftHVa most he attributed to tlie Burt tlml tlu‘ pcofijc of 
yuar llnjcaty's reaftn. botii Mgli mill low. wujt bitkiiig in 
traoqiiiUitv and fhyiCH * and, a# the country Itnd been isoliiled 
for a long tune, ^ of Slate wen* enti rviy iCToraiit 

o urtsi^ii i^xicUlLorw^ ^ „ ^^5E^ right of (joBclndiiiff ft^nJifS 

Muugs to t}ie (.^fogRtii^ of your Mjijentv; and we, yonr 
» wrvajilfl, arc not permitted to i^ore with it. 
Iliil iinu'e yoor Mnj^ his made outh to the goii* in hiuitfcu 
nbiwe and in the enrth Ijoneath, to luaiuigv all iJm* afliiEnj of 
the natioii imd to ndromistiT the l-LDpiio in arai.nlance with 
pipaSar o|ii,iioii. we, yoar MaiestyV w^rTWite, ropraieiiting 
tbeJjj^ef Ocuise of the Dkt ami the opJmoii of il,.- people 
of the n^, may U perojitteil humbly to osp^-aa oiir 
t)puuo.« ■i'in.y Jitoj-Hrstly, thot the estra-temlorinl 
syweuj be nUdhliedf secondly, that the Einpiw’e 
HUlonoiny tie rectwoTed j thinlly, tiiat the ptivltege nf takfuj; 
part in the crttstiiig trade be nesofied; niid, foiirthh, that 

fttl foT»?ii,ni iftterforence iu oqj? domeetic edmiiuistratioii bo 

Sucli liien in rite nttuutleof ilie P-ipiUaraitimljtr. 
But a far Ujoro ueriaiifl oltslacle lo suocessriil iieHolja' 
tn>u couBi^ts ill the IlWlgcsted tnii fortnitlaldo body of 
pubUtr opiiiinii iliat has mioo then heeti called Lito 

* Ijf ^Itwi tiiitt 1| (piiie bnlMiir. ilw Tnatiu tuvii 

a |Wf«ly nff-wt, tn huDiiiag ap 

aj I il at lofidiim J ftjyft] [. 

* atifunl mi iiiiirtm. 

40 Ut ]lJIf1 


exuittinco ttuil orgaitlseil iJir<iiigliaiit ili« country by 
llie reaulioJiary party* luiil ■wbicb iJirtiitoiia by the 
irrniional extravagance of its tktij;u»ls to 
ruiii ibe prosiH.'Ct& of Treaty Eeeiaioii altu- 
•(iuum g 4 ?Ujur. AlliiougU it must be obvious tbiit 
Hei’ision can only tesnh from mutual concf^itms, 
Japan recovtTitig lier judicial and tarUf nutonoiny nt 
the price of freely oj>eiuiig iLe coiitii.ry ti> foreigners* 
Ml assueiatiou uomecl the Great Japan Utiioii was 
started in 1892, and, utiUi it« suppression at Uic end 
of ISUB, conduoteil a furious agitation sgalust wlial 
is colled lllsed Residence in any form in tiie inte¬ 
rior, Jn other wordh, Ibrcigners are to siirrenJcr i‘very * 
tliiiig uovv guarajiteerl to them by the Treaties, but to 
get nothing whatever in return. In the settlejiieiifs 
they are to be Hubject to Jiipauese laws and jurisdic* 
tion, while ouislde their bordens ility arc nut fu iw 
permitted to live or move or have their’ being, A 
milder party exists which J»t^o^>cls^^s to sjitictioii mixisl 
residence Lu all other parts of the conntTy except 
Yfito (the KorihernTsittud) and ccirtain oilier sj^t ided 
isluiids ; but this cinnproinise, whicli h i^uiie illogical 
and iiiderensible in itself, does not satisfy the jial riots 
of the Great .Jnpjm L'uitiu, w'ho ari? limit upon 
making their country and cause rklicxdows in the 
tiu-e of mankind. For, on the one hand, their agita¬ 
tion, which is baaed npon an uiireaaoivUig dread of 
foreign coiupetitiuii, invokes a confession of weak* 
iifise in ludicrous oonlraat To ilie vanity by which its 
niitlton) lire inBpired. Secondly, tt shows a com¬ 
plete igiioraiiCfc of and indiliervBcc towards all 


that ibreigner,? hai’e done for Japan uniter llie 
Trealit*s, in creating its. tmile, in levelling it tlit 
secrets of nniniifaciure anti iniluslrv', in i^onverting 
swamp)”' hamlets or fishing viUngi?® into niagiiificetir 
and ilnurishing towns, in pouriDg daitv wages into 
Jaimiiuse pockets, and in leaving the lion's slirire of 
the profits of commerne in Japanese hands. Thirdlv, 
it [trojjoses to deprive forcigneis of the wry privileges 
which in tlie tloinlnions of their respective uovem- 
tnenta ilic Japanese already er>j:oy. Fonrilily, it is 
iiicotisifitent with ifit? sample set by Japan herself, 
when, in order to aeejuire a convenient precedent for 
Treaty rclaTtonship witli n foreign State without 
ettrjuerritorlttl jurisiliciion, she cvncitided. in 
!h a treaty with ilexico ^^a]tlu)ugh there are no 
llexican subjects in Japan), couceding the privilege 
of Infixed Eesidence without any restriciionsj and 
wiir.aining also a most favoui'cd tmtiou clause, ex¬ 
tending die same t'f»vileges to any nation willing to 
accept the sains eoiulitions. Finally, tins pobeyis 
one of midsummer madness, sitica its only eflVci can 
be to -stifrvu die hacks of the Treaty Powers (whose 
subjects it k proposed to anbject, to this puerile in- 
efpmlityh iuid so to postpone Peviskm to the Greek 
Ivaloijd!!. A certain sceliou of tlu: extreme pariv k, 
however, so well aware of this that they would pro- 

n. «t Tnsfti.v CTJUiltit to Ibe Meiic.ii* * th* nrlHt«u 
im.l (J tlumr htrltw ima «*nipyin;f .,j,l 

l^nAiiEtiittqre^, ami ii^rdl3i.tidl«a of lAT^ftil coimiihrti-* aisjl fijijiiiv 



pose to seize ill© opportunity thus delibenilely irtantl- 
factured, in order eo repudiate tlit Treaties alt<^etlicr, 
ignoring tlie iguoiuiuy tlnU would aUaeli to their 
oountrv if she started upon tier independent career 
wiiJi the brand of repudiation upon lier brow, ns 
well as [he humiliatiiiir results of it probable naval 
deinonatTiitioii of the ForeigD. I’owera who liad been 
so rashly lusuited. 

It should be added thiit (he 3ltJ£ed Eesivlence 
{jnestion is sciniewhat complicated by tlie iitclusion 
Til# nnunig the Treaty Powei's of irapaii's most 
Qwwbiui formidable iiidiiatrinl rivab Chiiia* Were 
the privileg<« of free residence and tratle in the 
interior extended without reserve to the frugal and 
laborious subjects of tlie C^^Ie^itial Empire, there 
tnlght 1» some groiitid for alarm on the part of 
Japion at Uie competition of so powerfid an aiH 
tagunisi..’ Such oonsiderations, however, apply to 
the aubjei'ls^ of no other Power; and can probaJily 
be met by the policy of approaching the dil!ei'etit 
l^owere separately, and negotiating with them upon 
independent though parallel bases. 

A further agitation has sprung up nganist the 
owtict^hlp by foreigners, iis a condition or conse' 
Asitaunn qumice of Treaty llovision, of real or persotnd 
property outside the pale of the setilenienta, 
nf’ilicSiri, The forms of bivestmeut commonly specified 
under this would-be prohibition are laut l s , ininest 

* T Itt t aw Jit pTMBni lu Ills Trflivty Pem sf wii*™ aIoh* 

they M# punnUteil K 44t>0 mtlu «i'J CblE«*if, or 

tkroa-^fUifl of ibfi fflnlirt* £s>reLe?t popnldlUin- 


raijwa\it. canals, waterworks, and felifirea* 

Tills particular oulcomc of naiirt? aiwccpiihilities is 
due to a not unfounded alarm itmt tlie aujicriDr 
wettUli til.fcireignerB might enable tlicm, luilcs^ care- 
fulK guarded by law, to acijuire a cotnmnTidmg hold 
nijoii the national reajuroca, and Hmt Japan might 
some day Qtul hereelf in the disastrous position of an 
Asiatic IW It is also possible that in the first 
instance there might be some danger iu the specu¬ 
lative rush of foreign capirtd for a new form of 
investment; although, in ilu* bng run, natives would 
enjoy an mlvantage with which no foreigner (.‘ould 
cf^iicte. Means ouglit ty be found, lujwever, 
n'itUoiii great difficulty tif recomdiing these appre- 
heiwimts with dm reasoimble ilemaiula of f,.reifjn 
resideriia [a^asessing a large stake in the fortunes of 
the oouritry, aud eapnbJe of rendering it increasi^ii 
servjijc in the future, 

Tlie prohihltiot) of tiie coasting trade to foretgurrs 
is another of the eonditioiia that. Imve been euggesied 
ou„r I he alarms of ilie tiew school that com- 

bines, lu sucli equal proportions, timiditv 
with Irravado. In the event of ilmir extreme 
clemaiuls not lining cimceded, and of the tiovmi- 
meui coutimiitig to jfhTiub, as it [imst do, from a 
Hicj- of repuduitioa, llioy fimUer pn>i»M a 
of polty rev«.go ..po„ ,]« 

I .overs, vrhioU » tat, ,1., f,™ „f , ^ 

ti»«|«ru,nimul« rcsirk-iion. u,«u i|.e Usuo of gam.- 
Iicoosra, UmUMioiis uimn ihe faciliiie* of railroa.1 anj 
eleamboM traftlc, ap,,,, .he |„i,a] „„j 



«ervli‘eSf anil u{H>n lJi(> Tdreign Press, anil a strict 
eiiruj'cutueijt of die existidy laws as regards tenure of 
proftertT nml itidustrinl intestinerit in die inferior, 
which have iKlc'a.stORulIy iiecii eliitled hj foreigners 
tilu Itering tliemselvee under Japnuese tuuues. 

These are the main difHculiies with whiclj die 
piidi of Ti'eaiy iievigion is beset. Arranging them 
i>iui(.c«f 4 side by side and obsen'ing, un the one hand, 

Httlldri' I ■ -4 F k b 

nmm Uie igiuorance and \amly td tho extreme 
lieactionanes in dapan. the pretensions of die Ijict. 
the* openly avowed desire nf the Opjiosition lo 
efabarrass the Hovernnicrit. and die diflieulty e.v- 
perienced by the latter in placing any curb upon 
public Opinion; on the oliter hand, the genuine 
alarm of the foreign merchaws, tiie miitnal jenlousies 
of the vartouG Treaty Powers, ntid the utiibrtuimie 
enmity whieh the postpoiieRietit of revision is likely 
to create between natives and foreigners; we must 
ndniit that here is a problem retj^uiring mi sides 
the ^xcrcise of great inct and statesmanship. On 
some {mints, such qb the ownership of pro{ierfy and, 
fierhaps, the coastitig trade, uonceasions to .fa{>imes<! 
seiithueiit ore clearly poisaible, but on ihe broail 
i]Utisli«n5 of the Codes mid of Mixed Residence, no 
Bcttlement iliat nitempia an uDnaiurid or patchwork 
compromise is feasible, or, even if feasible, is likely to 
be permanent: while to expect foreignerj?, with the 
best will ill the world towariia .Tniian, voluntarily to 
strip themEelves of all ihc safeguards which Treaty 
enactmerits have given diein. ami to iiaud rJu-niseives 
over aa a ttitpun tife for the experiments ul* Japanese 


Jacobin? or neopbyijes iu [y>Uui^d ewiiomy, U to 
|m':^uppose nrv innocence on tliuir ptrt to wtilch 
prcvloiiii IjiHtory ivotihl afTord no pnrnlld, Fnrtii- 
tialdy,uei tiler tLe Ic^iilmg a talesmen of Japan, nor 
the Tnoati rrapotisible orifans of ihc inttivo Fress, have 
liitlierto aUonm any real syuipatliy wkli the JKxiremlflta. 
TJie matter now lies in the Initid^ f>f llie Government, 
^ince the friendly attunde of tljc Pijwers ia well 
kiKvaTit arid stiire it can ru> longer be pret^ndi^ tiiai 
uiireaaomble ficnnilcs or prejudices on tlicir part 
tilock the 'W'at'. Already (.Viunt Iu> h TeiJocted to 
luiTj' upprouclicil the ^everul fiovemmenls with 
iiej:a.rntc juid confidentmt coimnuiiications, hoping, 
no doubt, to estvart from the complacency or the 
tle«^dfl of one a oonceaaiou whiiili shall os a pretre'- 
dent for simllnr terms with the others. yeverUtelesa 
Great Urltaii) remahni, nh she has alt along been, llie 
pivot of the aUimtion—no alight proof of lier com- 
manditig irifliience on the desthdesof distant Asia. If 
the negotialioiuf be cotidticted between iJie two 
inents on Iho basis of a fair and proportionate tf-x- 

chatigv’.xherif sliould lie no insurmountable barrier it 
an jujjiuiibk' solnii<in. Hy no Power ticrtaitilv wuuh 
Japan be welcomed iilore conlially into the i^otniti 
of nations, with whom Jilremly she sliares so nmtij 
vammon rclaliimsbips, than by ourselves, who fill ii 
the West the rnU which she jtflpTrei bi play in tin 
Far. East, and whose ct)niinerc(! and nnergv linvj 
couLributt-4 fio largely to lier own c-x])ansio'uj' 

' tin nisLi tbBi ih*« j**(b 6 1U1 


* L'Chei^t t, I^^Orianl I i]ii^ po«tea i 

Toontn tbb VOrient tos sprits «i tm THas t 
Quins I Qtit i^ponda Iraics voix laagbnatfia mucitest 

Kons Toyoiis bioD lA-txts an jonf m^etcEioux* 

Victor C'AorUi dt Cripuicuit 

t :' «» 

• ■* 



rjPK Axit TTtArKi* IX KmL.\ 

Wlkfii'c^ Tip4i^ ijujsmijijn «J4j|>ci4ivilb sbu ob^fitlint ih^iook-ti'Cf? Iiiuuii9|^„ 
AVEtm liiuiil cK|aicDii4l T7iin[1irr iitid w'lml. 

WLirti iiu4«rTuutbiBfT7-|]Tim£he« tli# 

iJt iibtiikl 14141 mmlzn Uidr '^r¥l<T-w^ii:k« 

IL i'U4iBozt+vtjvriiun 

Fkom thc^ ]ic.‘ 4 »L bidirti aii‘<l moat viaiurd I juiss to tlie 
toast knoUTi nnd lejtsi %'bited of 11 lo coiiti tries of tiie 
Tii.riHo. Fttr Enst, Tlie name of Korea* la ouo ilia: 

nmUkm «t ^ , 

ii«r» ifi flt ill wraitped m ao iimcli mr&terj to tbo 
liiilk of ^L.dlalmitii at Itoau;, anti Uio pUeai^inena 
tliai It prcsetila are at once so iotei-asiln^, for 
so wtvik anti Ul-tlorelopecl a tyountTT, so rckitVi^lj 
tinpoiifiritt tliat 1 Oati imaiLone raw plitc^ appealing 
more sti'oafjU'to tbe travelWa thirat for the aovd. 
llto ^ctacle of a coitn&)' |ioas4*s3ittg an lilatorital 
afttiviuiJy, contampormieotia, na allegtaU wilL that of 
Tliehes and liabvlon/ baf omilng m> mius : iKtttatiiig 

^ T3«t iimw Kwcn* tiw nfriimblij funu nf whii^ im Km! ^ 
(Chtnm Jutidtum JCcuhia'p, ciiH^ifflKy lli» iuuhp^ tjfiim 1 ^ tb4^ 

Diirvo ipt *!* iti» miT fni,, ihui fiLfibisulA 

divided. Xhv I'lirtnjptta^ tmujif^TiM] thf* nmxiB t« tbe wtuit? 

Mill CAlli>d ll tJU^r^tki] rTfln^h Icvuilc ciiiliiil ili. ui 

AriNiTt tUv tgnomiii miiI hiibit fti 

■|i«iikiiif iif *Tli* 'fW imuJth Mill iuun** vf (b* rtiunir!; 

nina* IdCi^i aj^i. u ChuRfin {I It^ TjibwnimT^ ClkiLf^aiatiL 

nr iKn^mi^v flf tbc. moruingJ 

^ Thci tkfvPmiE qliint u ihuW Anikin^ nnrl^li^l 

&i7fii Oblun, md ftnijiikd! m st ii4.‘. 



ft i»(>pftTateT if not an inilejM?niktil, tjatioual 
for cftnliiries, and yet tlevoid of all external syuiptome 
of strengili; relJUnitig laieiJi <if all the kinjrfoius of 
the East the tUlw to suet'esaful esclu^on of ilje 
forei^er, and yet animated hy no real hoatilUy^ to 
aUem>i; coniamiii^ lieautiful imtiirtU acerierj still 
virgin to tlie traveller & foot: claiming to liavv given 
to Japan lier Icitere, Ijer science, liei roUgiou, and 
tier art, and yet bereft i.if alinoi^t all vestiges of these 
liert^elf; inimbited liy a j^oplc of physical vigour 
bnt moral inertness; well endowed vriiU resonrccs. 
yet crippled for want «f fuud:«—such a spectacle is 
one to wMcli T know no connieqmrt even lit A/tia, 
the eoriiitient of contrasts, and trbich from a distance 
had long iind jtowerfullr ufTected my Imagination. 
A bridge between Japan and Cliitia, K»tft>a is never- 
iheless pi'ofoumUy unlike either. If has hulked the 
virile training of <he rcudal System in Japan, and 
the incentives to industry snppiu'fl by the crowded 
cxisrenoe of Odua. Its indiflerence to reUgion has 
left ii without tlm Bpleiulid tr-ni]>les (hat adorn the 
foniier countij', withoni the sinlibom sc-lt-snllicienty 
of character developed by t'onriicianiHm in the lafter. 
Japan swept it clear of nil that was Iniantifnl or 
ftRcieut in tht! I'aminifl invaisioji uf IlideyosIiL ^or 
Tldejosi, commonly tiaUfd lalkcFsama) iliree centurtea 
ago—an aflllction from whi<T]j it h;is never rtN.'Overed, 
t 'hiua's policy has been to keep it in a sinle of 
tutelage ever siuce. IHaCcd in an unfortniuiie geo¬ 
graphical [toaillion midway betivmi flit* two tun ions, 
Korea has l>eei).tike Jssachar, liie strong ass couchitig 



between twrt t^uddcrntyt at tiie end of the 

nineteenth eentuiT, it w^akea tip from its loujj sleep 
to HtuI the nianini of the nationn eoiitidin^ at 
gates; the pleiupolettliaries of greut; Towers appear 
in itfi porta to solicit or to demand reciprocal treaties; 
it enters iJie comity of civilised |ieoplea; and, still 
hall' stupclied. by its long rcpoflo, relaxes bm slowly 
beneath the doubtfid ray# of Western civilisation. 

In tla* examinialoii of tliis country anti its iieople, 
the traveller or stndeiit ha# iii>t the* advantage, oi>eu 
uuntuM lo Iilm in most other parts of the world, of 

* 4 ! Ilm 

tui adei|uate literature com posed by omupe* 
tent writers. Owing to the lung and alisolute seclu¬ 
sion of Korea, no foreigners beyond a few heroic 
lioinan (.’aiholic niissionaries, ti'Uo, in the latter pari 
at any rate of their sojoiini, cariietl tlieir live# in 
iheir bauds, bad penetrated into the interior tif the 
peninsula or become domicUnsd tlierc, anterior to 1111 ? 
llrst opening of the country tw-Hiiiv years ;^o.' A 

3 jicj'ivtiuu ipriu TTi fii^j I iiL tt Put?titUK£T. 

Aitil BtiiMiiw** ml ibe uhlj) *Sjhirtwr,* Hr * SiKwmw-tmwti,' wtw wiii* 
wTockc^lf witJi tliirlj-iivii of tlli* pnjw Joliii 

npfin thti isUnd nf Viisilpa^ ittiilj" ityUtfnji; fm- tln' 
f^Uxts fct Kafpmlii, ill 15Stt. Tl|r*j 'WW fisuveiwl to S^iui hs 1U54. 
rlhe! iVMTKt liiji[u:£!imic!i| Iil ililTotfiiL of ttin coniilr'y lili wlifin 

n few Elf tho aim Ivor* ^ncronilflil in intUung thdr &^»|w=i by m* to ihi* 
*1111 thimco to Jiip*ri. Uflojcl WfW* *ii ftwoitnl t>f 
ibffir wa* ilrpt to at Flytl^juii+ 

ntid irai Quuei trwriUiii4 InJiJ auil Ep^i«b. imtl iiida4lr<\ iti 

FiiikinrUfii'ii. MJiil Gjiitobiir# Cyi<^iinn» of Ffw n 

tb£io {(italic wan upon t tlm 

wiim m ttum df no gn a'i ihbu Alkati^ nuiL fuigbi liari^ tobl 
tiiudli £tiiirB« bli narTH-tTV-ftT loob- im ii Slua Loan aiii|ily ooritiTiittil 
liilor kllovlGi1|p^. mull ia hkhty liiKrrmlin^^ h U aunenu Uuu, wiiun 
Iforiicirm pirij- wGfe wn«laib thitre ^n* flirsoily in Stlnl aiiutb^ 
rhxteluuiiin imu ilmnmmi WeUnrvM*. wlH^ wiiU iwo of bij fallow- 



I'reiidi (‘ompikliou Ivy P^fire DaUet, in wlio 9 « hiuuls 
were placed die materiaift tlnis aeqnirwl, Bpi«arc<l in 
1S74» ami bas almost ever ^Ince provitled die sub¬ 
stance of Eurojxiaii knowledge aliout Korea, of wbose 
people, and Infiiitutiom, and life, ii presenta n tniunte 
Sind absorbing pictore;* altlioagli, btang liaaed upon 
dcH'UTnenta extending over the previous Imlf-centui^'', 
it r<!latee to a time and dtscrilics cn&tijinis wliieb have 
now passed out of recollection or have ceased to 
prevail; whilst, being compiled bv a writer who 
Lad not liiniaeir set foot in Korea, it, Im-ka the advan¬ 
tage ol first-lnuid eilitorial revisiotn Since ilSTO, 
the iLite of the Erst Treari', ihe two most useful works 
on the trountry have ahjo been the prmluctioiis of 
authors who had never jn^t LhX witkin its borders. 
‘Titfc Uermit Xation,' by Mr, W. R Oriffiis, an Ame¬ 
rican, is a scholarly compilation of its past hisiotw, 
maiuly from Ja[jaije5e acmrcea, mid a careful though 
frequently obsolete deacrijition of Its habits and cus¬ 
toms. The other work, by a Scotch iVesbyteriau 
misaionai\\ Eev. J. Koes, who lived long at Xew- 
chwang, is ako in the main bisioricol. Tlie narratives 
of the few foreign iravelltra who have cjqilored the 

l«tl bMi kpjrf roMmm m.i Komm, «.,« le^f, 
wliHi Hioy iiihl Uflu Bern from the • Jutbt Ona^kctkii.* to eel 

^ler end pKivUioM. wen wtP» tiw lint 

Kniijpiiuiu to foot m Kotr^ TJiii tlbtiBrtion IwIeu™ * FWtn. 

JtiAlt, Ofc^n ilia C«ii]i«tihs tifho iTiu, Beiu m^r Irv Htileyiidit 
tn lo94. M riiiniitifl to Um wmiu] etjitJiUon ognluii wld-li 

^ wiiimn«|IinJ hy a japtnoto auiiil«,, !),«« AlipnUu Koniriij 
Ydlumi^m liiui wmtaiinHi usant Cliriiiiiifl* In iu nuikB. Tbn miIv 

tHi> l>ukh vmuIb, uutuuiboa ni Saul b lisaa. 

‘ Hfifrin iU VKfftm Corin. H toU. Piuw; 1874 . 


country siiice its opening are as a rule ficattert-ti in 
the jonrnaD( of Geographical Soeietitsi, in Govern:^ 
tneui reports, or in pnhUcatlous neither easily 
accessible nor generally hjtomi. By far the most 
mcritorioiifi of these, and, inUun a narrow space, the 
most virid and accarste account of Korean life and 
■character that I have seen, is » report written by Mr. 

O, 'W, Campbell, of the British Comukr Smrice, atid 
printed as a Parliamentary paper in IS HI.* The 
earlier work by one of his predeceasorg, ilr. W. B. 
Carles, oontaius much interesting infonmtioii, hut h 
ou the whole disappointing.® Much more so is the 
rhapsodical pruductiou of an American writer. Mi-. 

P, Ijowell* 

The foreign visitor to Korea will naturally first 
land upon its shores at one of the three Treaty Ports 
TiwTf«ij Fusaii, Gensan, oml Chemulpo, ^is I 
risited and stayed at each of tliese, 1 may ap¬ 
pend a paragraph upon their characteristics. Fiisan 
is upon the south-east coa.*tLi opposite to and withiu 
sight of the Japanese islands of Tsuahiina ^The Twins), 
OGiisan Is upon the east coast, about liaH-wny lietween 
riigan and Tlailivostok. Client uI^ks is upon the 

west coast, and is the port of the capital, Sdul. A 
greater variullon can hardly be iuiaguied than 
between the eastern anil western shores of the 
peninsula, Tlie former ai-e inountaiuous, the spurs 
of the Korean Ajieniilnes reaching down in many 
places to the water's eilgc, and are piercetl by a few 

• cikinii. asm.) 

^ Idfa in Lioiaditn s 

* Chotvn-P Thr lMnn4 n;/(h* Catmw Loaiilon* 


fine Jiarboiira, in vrMcli tliere/a but n ivejit tidn, juul 
which ttre open idi the year round. Qu the west 
coast which is lavwl by the YeHow Sea of Chinn, 
theie are, on ihe eoatrary. oiily shallow mid tottuoun 
blets, shielded liy mi archipelago of islanthi, mnl 
either filled or bared by a tide that ria^ from 25 to 
40 feet, and « frequently frozen in winter. 

r^JTT ifU MJtTJacUJUfr 

Tlie lrnrhonrsofT-nsaii ami Genam, me aHke in 
Iwing situated at the Imitoinof deep midaheUeml 
wliitdi could provide anchorage for 
inuaHnse armadas, mid which are visited by a 

yearly meremdng mercantile marine, fiving the Jnnm,. 

wa, tu» CIUMK, and tlm niasian 

«■ f™7, “«». ■«»« 

ih. t^«m 111,, oiiilidy, ^ 

uy£ dND TkATEl IN £On£A 


(.he- |X)ri iicnreat to lifis rt't^uiwl for oenturiei* 

A mi:ire than namiiuil oamicclion iritli the neifrhbour- 
itiii Tower, h» 7 iii|; lieen from early iinie« a fief of 
the doimio or lord of TsuAhlnm,* oiitil, in JSTfitU 
bfoamo a trafling jiort oonstituted by treaty between 
the twoPowera. A tlourishing Jnpmeseoaiimimiity 
etmtalmttn’ over 6 .fi 00 Japani?^ subjects (<acclu.-itve 
of 3 floating [Kipulatian of ti.bOO ilapatieB© fishermen) 
is tim nmdern helrof the.former miHiarv iuid tmding 
colony, and is setllod fuhiuI Uie base of a kiiolL 
iTTOwned with a clump of crypiotitfirbis—an obvious 
miportatiou from over the sea—and with two dilapi- 
thtteil Japanese temples, just; oj^posite to the large 
billy isiaiid called by the Europcaiis l>eer Island, 
wide!I shelters tbe southern aide of the Imy.’^ A 
little to the north of this utwn is a new Cniittc^e 
sen Iciilent, the latter people hskviiig rettt-iiUy broken 
grotind in Fwsan, though liaTidieappcd os yet by the 

' }[ w£iA m tbo ywfij" tJiAt, Ipv «i tBroerPRiu thv 

tVmnt I d' I'inEnliifUfi njjil Liiu fif Ttn^^niu mejiT E'ii<ian}, tlm Hr^l 

J«;iiLiini^ 4ii4iU£M«nE timilfr At Um tMit4:r 

tUuLtlBAlB* JVufll to Jl^plUl nlU'Ali^ uJJaI &tlCt I'rlfiall wbiiii 

istjuiitij; (oit llio tuiiri At KnyiAkarik itml oIa* leiitEUtl 

th* twti HUf^t^CkAiiyM uivAiltn^ ai juIea oi in IrttJSi 

Rr*n iilliir (Jifl ttf tii-n i^rttfulry E-Jf Uni JniHyrt-^v it Ttfifilatpptl 

in liAnrljii a gnlriBitti HtJO iLurJi |iiimirtiiniilLJy f^iuirtA^fnl 

liF.jijjitl A ttwJ^nplr^. thn lyiily ck>Ipiiy ui tbo niilili 

Aftur ihD ril^^vatutiiiu i^i tB 08 « it with |hir aEKot fotidAl |JTiei|]i'r- 

tiA* Ilf irito ihfl tifiutli ul^ [Jj+j 3 fjiEBdfk. lu tmTnial m 

M 'Tmtj Fiii't (it wsh A nf lb* fMuiiii*lu>n vf 

OWliiftviiij], pjtl|jitt4|^t tlic {NuUluilifipt. ft>ir wllicil ■ llUJlllliHil 

{i«cu 1 -TVPt of iPip|Hiibed kt hv jtaiiKreiiiaiRa [iriwtliMlJy a 
pneetniiiioii^ bcui;^ adminiBirrorl bj Uus Jffpiui&fl® iiflct A miiiiJp 

ripflil AsTniidl. 

^ Thu KcFtt^t ibh Ulnml Uib IbI^* *if Euduiuttiij^ 

Vjow, or^fikki. Llifl hkim &/ Qrt»li ftiaturp^ lh«i»WB it wM as 



jjui>eriar elan aurl nlimbers of ilieir rivals, Jforlli- 
warcl again is tbe origitio) pfapanese settlement, 
known as Kuk-wan; while a hi tie lieyond lies the 
Korean town snirounded by a stone wall ami possess¬ 
ing tlie ruins of a caetlet outside wbose gates are a 
squalid native hamlet am! baiaar, Tlie background 
is formed by wild and desolate MHa, with a thin fringe 

(lAtE (*F JfAti™ jpdirsf^ r^aiK 

of firs bristling on the skyline, andhriglit red ternwes 
of cultivjiletl iSoU below, 

Ciensan ‘ is situated in (he eoutlxeni hollow of the 
remarkable inlet in the eaaieni coast, called, ftom 
the British navigaicir who first surveyed it in 1707 , 

Kwr«i tfPmoii flf naiuo; Uu, diJfcrww, *ririn- ,1.. .TJ” 


0 ] 

Brotighton Bay.' rlLVjjer^ niiil even finer indentntiuu 

of the (same Imy. Ehelierecl by tbs Nuk'itnolf peiiin- 
suln, ia tlie Tvelt-known Port Lazartifii first 
surveyed johI tuunetl by the Ibisaiane in 1 Su4» 
i^Tnl ever srate regarded by tliat people, from ilieJr 
ice-bound (juarters ax VSatHvoalok^^urttli a more than 
eitvioiis ej'e. The entire Iniy is fourteen miles in 
lengthy from two to six b K'idt\ mid Las a depth of 
from six to twelve fatlioms. Seawartb its eninince 
is m tusked by an ari'diipekgci of islets. j\s we steam 
lip the ba\% the Jainuiese settlement fomnlcd m 
1S79, and now containing over 700 colonists, may 
be seen cltistered at the base of a Iidl optm the 
right. Some mile and a ludf to the south, and a Lttle 
way iidand, a cloud of smoke indicates the situation 
of the native town, whicli coutaiits 13,001) inha¬ 
bitants. WooiicJ Lilis fi-ame a picttucsiiue bach- 
grotiiid, and vafiour-caps hide the mountabs inhuid. 
A less vigorous trade is here conducted by Ijotb 
Japanese and Chinese flLe Latter havbg duly recently 
entered the field 1 with the norUiem provinces, the 
pcipuloua towns in whitli are more easily reached 
from the westcru coast, mid will ultimately be more 
uaturally served from the river-port of rj'oiig’Vaiig 
(or Ping-yeiig), as sooei as the latter is opened to 
foreign commerce, or as the Korean co.astUig marine 
Ifcconies equal to its supply. 

' ViAr t'Aptnin w. £. iVijraif* t>/ DrtriWfTy ti> tt>* 

JfflrtA LnntWi! iFiOt. 

* Dunn^t thn iBit ynftr. I MO. Ml WM with Jl 4t«a£n 

ic^-cTiisiier ui lt£i:|i itie iwirb^iur of VlmlivDatuk 4[tufi the irholo jvtr 
rDnnd ; Imt t* aMd to rv«alt«fl in Jkiltine. 


Cltemujpo' few natunil njiiitnilea it* u port 
beyontl its siTunticin on thu <.>»tiiar)' of the southern 
chMtmdp, rivtr ITiUi* or Uan-kiaiig, upon 

which siantlg the Koivaii ctipitiih wid its 
couaequeui proxiiiiitv to the itmn centre of pcnw 
hition. Thr river joumey ia fifiy-four milts iu length 
to ilapa, the laudlug place for .Soul, which lies Uiree 

rc^JH i>r 

miles fiirthcr <m, 3-*be land-iiuircli lo Sijul is ;iri nil- 
invitiRgf stretch of twenty-ais milt^55. In 1863^ when 
I'hciiiulpo was Gt^t opt^imil to foreign trade, then* 
was otdy a fishing Inwulet with fifteen Korean huts 

rf iiu. ,p,*« «, i„’Z iZZ Zu 

JwwlMwti, Koit'ui Tjulii’i^i lar Ih^i^ 
Bi-piifyfciK<jftu,„vgkin (Mr«iu».t '-Miwi t-T IniHwi) 



oil T)ie wTiiyrip now iimy seen a prosperous 
tr>«*ii coiitaiujug orer S,tl00 fomgnt'rB, of wliom 
2,501) are Japsuiese, 60) t C'hmomen, iuid over iwetiiy 
Europeiiiis, as well as .i nativo popixlaibo of alwnit 
eiiual numbers. Tliere are a Eumpean club, soveral 
billiard salofsns and resiau rants, and some excellent 
Cliiuese stores. Tlie outer anchorage i» some two 
mile^ from live shore, for the dde nitis out here for 
Toiles (with a rist? uud fall of 25 lo 3(1 fcei), leaving 
an exposed waste of inud-ilitts and a narrow channel, 
ill which St camera of light, draught rest itptni ihe 
ooze. The busy streets and liarlKiur are indiciilldna 
of a rapidly iidvatictiig trade, whicli proiniises further 
expansion in the near future. 

The Grei glimpse of the Korean coast, at or near 
any of these ports, which is mmuilaiiiotis, b«t little 
immin ^^Hlcd, uud relatively bare, gives no idea 
petikV of the thuberei:! heights and smiling vallo^^s 
which may be ent'ountarcil in the inTcdor; but the 
first sight of it? w'hite-robeil people, whose figures^ 
if stationary, might be mistaken at a distance tor 
wliite milepostw or toiidietoue?, if moving, for a 
cohmj* of swans, acquaints us wIlli a naUoiml type 
mill dress that are quite nniipic. -i dirty people 
who iiisUt upmi dresrjing iu white is a first pecii- 
liarity \ a people inhabiting a. northerH, midm winter 
a very rigorous latitude who yet insist upon wearing 
cotton (even though it be wadded in wiiiier) ull the 
year round, is a second j a people who always vrear 
bats, and have :i headpiece accommotlated to every 
mtuation and aliuost every moident in life, b a third. 



But ttU theae cdniLltie to make the wearer? pictu¬ 
resque \ while oi to Korean staniarda of comfort we 
haine nothin^r to do but to wonder. As to their 
phyaique, the ineu are atnlwart, well-buBt, and bear 
ihfiinselves with a maitly sir, tJiougfi of docile and 
sometitnes titnid expression. The hair is worn long, 


hat is twistml into a topknoL, proiected by the crown 
of the aforemeiitioaed luit,^ Thu women, of whom 
those balongiag to the upper clas-ws ore not Tisible, 

* *D^ k lbs oti Cltiqim riMbJr>ii tiaiakr the laifk<nL 


bill t1>e poorer aiuortg wboni may be eceii by 
hundreds engaged iti manuid l&tiotir in iJie hoases^ 
streota, and fields, cannot lie described as beniitifnL 
j^uliur jirmigctueiit of dress by ^liieh 
a ahurt wliite bodice covers tbe.slioidders, hut leaves 
the breasiB entirely exposed; while voluminous petti¬ 
coats, very full at die Idpa, ilupeml from a waist just 

Sditiujf xrmmtJt^imuL 

below the annpits, and all bal eoiiceal coarse while 
or brown paiitalbous below. Tlieir hair is btach, and 
is wound in a big coil round the temples, supplying 
a weloonie contrast to tlie greasy tliough fascinating 
eoilTure of the females of Japan. Indeed, if die 
men of the two naLimia are Qiilike—the tail, robust. 
gtKxldoofciug, idle Korean, and the diminLilive, ugly, 
nimble, indomitable .Tapanc^e»etilt mon? so are die 

its ■» 


woinon—-tile 6mj»|f-timi>ctJ, miwter* 

ftil liovisewife of Korea, iiiiil tlie shuffling, tnoelc- 
kniMtil, laugliingt bcwitcliing Japanese tLamset, 'nie 
Korean bo}", indeetl, might more easilv be taken to 
represent ikc gentler sex, Kiiiee, imtil lie is eagngeii 
to be niiirried, he wears Ins haU' portud in the mirldJe 
and hanging in n long plan down ins back. 

Of this people, l.he males amdng whom exceed 
the females, there are believed to he about 11,0013,000 
Trttt Korea, an area verv sUnllar m extent to 

Great hriiain.^ I giv^ Uils total as a mean, 
possessing a probable approximation to tmlh, l>e- 
tTveen the two estrenies of 7,000,00(1 Jind 28,000,000, 
fKith of wHcli have lignred in recent piiblications,- 
aiid which illustrate the prevailing ignorance aixmt 
a country and a population tliat Ivave not as yet 
passed througli the mill of the statistician, Slarry- 
ing at an early age, prone to large laniill^ and un> 
diminislipd for many yea re by war or famine, the 
Korean population oiiglii to Iw on die increase were 
it not tliaL the iiifaut moruLiky U enonnoiis, and 
the death-rate from epidemics, against wbieh no pre- 

' Tltw W; Miliiijiif 4 ppfAt» Irt In> wiiutfru mllin. 

Uni «ni« iL tu» bijjU 1 UO ,000 

' Evkl4|iift in josltd niAln, S.7l;i,44ll 

lotal Opiicft, III liW7, j^iVf IjT-JiXKI.OOCF 3aW)[S,<KK>. 

Pern r^AlLol^ ill JLST i, gum iipiniitfa in 

QmiA, ill iflAVn bS.WliJidW. ^ e* PitfIceA, in 
iS8S^ B/H)D;<)DQ 10,00G,<XM}, An litiiintutly nu|ilki»iiitUtiLtA e%|Ly|i| 
fcti Ifm, Sr qtioiBil rt3i i^Yim Tln^ Uiftst Cinveniiugui 

citftil tn ihf» Yf^r iiwikf U Turikt. 

Ihfi liii-M foTcIgki WT^ iiniiii-!i Un liiii 

rjtli*!' U kielL Ihti ChlitPiR Ill Ih Wutk wifitW F^ttU 

it* ik* A'ltuftTw sire umkev 

fiinmha t IntAit 



catiUoMir arf! luitl wUjdi dwciep over lUe couiitT\' 
c'very ttiird or fourtli \ car, is oenaiiilv Ligh. On tbo 
other hand, the lar^e tracts of nnciiliivateii and al¬ 
most uninhabiitN:! I'otititry tlint stiU await the ploui'li- 
i^hare and iht* peasant will accommotlale an expaD*- 
sifjti dmt Ciirniol fail to ttlaa|ipoint the 3f;drhusian 
eniJtiiidaat for many years to come. 

Tim Koreans Uclong tmnust^kuhly lo I lie Mongo* 
linn stock, occupying a sort of iulennedinte stajrc 
Etiiwann lietweeti the Moiigolinu Tartar and the 
Ujvb*|h Japanese. It is Impossible to «>nfound 
them either with the Inner or with the f^hincse: and 
a Kerenn would, to arivtme wltft has rvnvellei! in the 
comiiry. bo a known mnu iti any city in the world. 
It has iMfcn snjijHisetl by some wrilcra. who have 
observed n difFertnil variety with blue eyes ami lair 
hair in Korea ilself, that ttiere Is also a i'aneasuui 
olcmemt In the stock; but I mii iml iovare tluit this 
hyp(}[h^ts Itaa found any srdenttiic i.'Otiliniiatioii.* 
Their language is of the Turanian family, with ilic 
udditloTi of many b'liineso words; and they may l>e 
said to tmsaess two syllabaries or alphabet.'r—the 
Nitlo or Korean svllabarv, which gives .1 phonetic 
value to some 250 tlliinese ideograjths in common 
use, .ami whigli was inveuted by !?yel flmtig, a 
famous scholar and priest, IJOfI years ago; and rko 
popular Korean .alphabet, or script, whieli was first 
[iromulgated hy royal decree lit 1447 A.n,, mut ifi 

' Ub^ 1l ura, tv lUtrilmtiilile t6 iIie. tw«lv« neaLikiif 0 

in Krthun tA ilii Duti-'lutitiii JJmiial ^4 Mi tW4» 


tiiUI iiseil by ilic lowiT If oue i«n 

eiLlier speak or Korean oneself» ifi U 

alttnys piiWiblfe To eommniiiiiiUe a Koretin by 
iihIii« ilie Cbinnse Kynil«>i*, svtiieb lie cfpiJtUy onipiovB. 
f»ti the *>iljcr liaiub among the upper and teit^'Tijd 
classes, nhmese itself h the mvarinbW vehicle libUi 
i»f speech ntid lanTesj^ttuleitue, Juhi jis il U also tlit 
official laiignage employed in Goveriiiitcvn publics- 
ttoita, prochmiatiinis, exaiuinimons, lunl ileoteeii, 

or the people swi comiUtiled ilicre nppt^irs to be 
liiiT one oiilnion as to die national dinvacter and 
physiiiue. Whilt an invif;itirating cUnialc 
••haocfaf made ihiim natumUv lotu^-livitl aiul 
Strong, [heir habits of life and morals ' have rendered 
them sabjept' to many fornia of aihiieTit and dleense ; 
u'hilv their want of eouiacl with the world anti their 
fiervitude to a form of government whinU has never 
either mnioni'agr'd or admittiHl uf individitnl enter¬ 
prise, but which has reduced all except the privilegetl 
class to a dead level of uiicomjdiuning poverty, have 
l(?(i them inert.,listless, and npatheiic. As individuals 
they pijasess many attractive characteristics — the 
upper classes being polite, odtiyatwl, friendly to 
foreigners, niitl pridiny themselves on correct de¬ 
portment. ; white the lower orders arc gotid-icinpereiU 

' Tho mm\ inlprfcHhig 6? iha psrl^ -nf KfimM 

Huitiift'# ilifiuchiiiitmtiiiMt that piiik«4 fhuii iiktviiIkI* 

luuLallic iypem Lwu thci]ir kuuwn in Eiirt>[iE. Htf 

p<i:^:gis0i A limreniv mpniit tlin CJurii-iM? Cow/unttp Tithfr^Talk. 
wh»h vnuk prinliifl Iti pp ihim fiMliiivrL 

* iuftjf W aud U> £nf %'\iUn iihh* Kimnuit mly 

iifrvv anm wIFh. k^p mw iiinii.y CQfintljfiinii ju thuir 
jwniiLc- AmiiHir fhv‘ h>wcT ^rrEi^rv ihflfa in neitWr clQt&nIlniLhA sor 
dist'^nir^i AtiiJ atanj vtrrr* pntruiL 

. urt' vIjVZi rjSrjrJY, L\ KORB.i !>!* 

tlioagh very cli«-^rliil, hwI tjilkutive. BK-y»m\ 

n r.ntrt.ain point, however, botli cittsses turn 

a similar iiidifierem.'t*, whirh takes the fonti nf au 
iitdolcnt protest against airlioti of nnv kind. The 
|>nl]iid:m in {^huI reiii iins eivtL but Is wholly deaf lo 
])oi>iuaait>n. llie inyiilie works one day aii<l dawdles 
away Ids wages upon ttie tww ne^t. TJie or 
ostler, takes tsis own thiio alwui hJs own and his 
pa<?k-poiii's tiieals, and iia reasoning or rom|iiiIsifHL 
in the World would disiurli him froiii his itomplaeettt 
lajiguor. Tliese idiosyncrirsies may only be mieresi- 
iiJ" TO Llie uncotieernetl sTiiilem of tiatioiial oharaoter. 
but they are vf capittd importntitte in their bearing 
upon tiJitioiial life. When, further, t.h^- are cn-stal- 
lised into luu-dne^ ami are iiiiiametl by the habits of 
aw up]x?r and oiKciiil rlass—^which Kiifjsists by estor- 
tion Htscl proJiihlts, outside its own eiiber the 

exenrise of suqduK rtCtmiy or tJie aeoutnuktion of 
wealth-^tliey c-xpltdii how R is that tlw Korean 
jH*f>p]e remain poor aniid stori'S of onproltcd w', 
Jetlmrgrc where Uxere Khoiih] otherwise he a hundred 
incentives U) diligence, nerveless in die face either i.»f 
competition or of peril, I batv seen a Korean coollc 
ciirning a xveiglii tliai would niiike thi^ stotitcsi ox 
stagptr, and yet I fiave seen three Koreans Jazilv 
employed in turning up the snij with a singti- shovei. 
by an arrangomeut of ropes that wnslwl the blnuii- of 
three ineit witliout augunjnthig the strength of one. 

iSo it is til every dispartiiient f>r iho nationnl 
nxisfence, jVn imntenise rt^serve of masouliiic forc(‘ 
is diverted from the field of lalxnir and is lost lo die 



naiion by being !ihst)rb(!t} into the or olHcee} 

of tlie kti'nl t]i;ijn»trntej> niitt their 

•ni. funetieiu instend of inrigTjmtmg thi’ bloinl 

'''tlifTniK - 1 - " 1 I * 

«rt«d*TT ot the ociuntry, kj eutk that of ilieir 
fellow-eountrymeii.' The population of Korea may, 
tiiUeeih be rouglily dividerf intu iv>o eliLSse^—tln^ 
upper or oflicial emit led 'vhosi- posilioji 


or pemility is n Iwir to work, atitl who. therefore, 
iituat aill^kt upon others; and the grestt residuum. 

' Ur. ill oiii> <if 111 * R*|KiFi» (CorBA. Kn, ^ laast. ttuaiiiuiitKl 

tim iNnvmDc ni l^i^uif-AiTofln ttA hnvip]^ 44 iivEi|^ttLr4c?^iiti, with ah 
tk\fn^ ni 4 tn.l DfllrijiJ hiuiifw-tfll Ld luiTIHIf Uy iJUi bill In 

tliiJ <ii*tricl Aiiii Lu cuUrCt tOJJiA—144 nHp A Utlni of CBiifi, 

‘ Likimll)* utTwM Ortlirra i civil and niUittir^j^ 

lliu umiocnw^ liritu <l«i*^irb^ fnoni mi nriiErf^firAf y oi 

Mr. CHUipl^ll. ill hi* gho^ 4 hn humi itiom : 

—‘Tlw Ajrmitf fyii uiui> u/ iht umimi s>f DobilUy. 



wliuwe Eiu«iTir!« it ts to bo duijsistoil itjKiii, ,'iiul to filch 

front tlie j^roOtico of tiieir lAlKtor ilu* ^leiicler neoes^i- 

ties of (rslAteiice for tlionisotvos. I’ovfrtv in On* 


iiHtiijo of di’StiiutioTi there itj not : InU povertY in the 
tiflnae of luiviti" wo surplus Ueyoml the hiire uieuws of 
liveJihotjJ and of iluj pundysis of all enterprise is 
almost Any less indolent [leople miiihr 

1h* exj>ecusl Ui rebel; and occusiotuil magisterial 
enerosdimetir^ beyotid the limits of pnictiee or 
enduramx' result in sLort-Uved spasms of mutiny, in 
the course of wliicli an olfciidiiig of[Iri:il b seizittl 
iiiid» perlm|M tas lmpi>onetl once iti ItlSl), h bunied 
idive. Hut ordinarily tins Implies too great an 
exenion ; the i>eoijle art* utuimietl ami verj' heljile^s^ 
and ilie system is mutely acquiesml in. unless* pushed 
To intoleruble e.xtTienies, 

Kor travelling in the iutenor *tf Korea it is ;uUi&- 

alile lo invoke some sort of ofliruil assLsiatire. dthtsT- 

wige the poverly of live voimfrv renders it dillictilt 

Hq li CTPinpk (mu b,v floiriituiin! of tLn Kifipj in’ thv 

^i%'rmikr nf th«« proritirfr in wiiinh hfl irviiLe^h. miiil Ihm Itii ih itut 
lirUjIii tM [Hirdojtiiil fitjiiftiiinrnt, fiTr ibe btaipbI rrliii*^ Auek h# 

Lrfefuion Qr vJCUirthLiii. Htt witld^ nn Awny mtof iSm ioiUAEit-f 

tif Lib buuqi>t ntii! |ia£ fitlj liclmo(» I'Iii'bb^iie ttny rtml nrfniiricd 

til hirti b-j" l\w A4T-*n+ * Ifrw irtoltHtkrini, jnii ik* 

\tff At ilw» muiitf tbt^ lltMt uftekr ^ 

TtvhlfiUMi vh'ti^f I llib n wntnA . ptirAhtnt Jtiiy eDC>'1iLflJ I^r 

tn miy trni?a <rr fniluftnaj oetijjiulionp UtEt4Jt(fi ihn jiiiblie 
v^snrin?', ticHiifrlfiniiif tm Uii' unly fiirn] gtf I'lupluynidtit lipfSTi tta biiD. Jf La 
jHiFikfxt Ally hp tiihbA U* liH' iil L|i 

Tln^rHi li nq law Ldii liowii tm ihb TUe |wtuilly |a en/ortiMl 

wcEuiJyp lA |jart of iLft ultKHt^4tll ctsJw vt mjavff-ptin 

Thrtp* firirilif^ wni obll^irkri- Iiaya naturally inttiiuiK>oil Uw cLa- 
id iLa lhat the A£Bfr«lptf 110 iniUI^ 

jMwr. h {Knmil tual piuvcdliooA aa a SjhuhIaL LitUlyo, not 

■ LiAn wtl?i uitkrt ilLiLtuciL'^ «fTroiik>ryk ytt Item lu 
tPAiniit the thniln of frnrn nn iofudor/ 



iu purtti for the ^inuij^er tv pi’ix'iirt* ektiitr of 

bunlen, or footh Tbv toretpj (URce jil Siiiil 

x«MiiJ4>M tSSUM a (JiM^uiAiRnt known as n 

wVutrli niitliorises llw In-artfr to employ' 
Government coimurs mul ponies, ami to put \\\* at 
Ciovenitfieni inn^ j/onmm, ami whicJi <-ftTk for 
f<Hltler, r-hickena, anil lorclit's at ni^hl. to be forth- 
ooitiin^. The native ft^'^^^oiitlyeinleavoiirtii circum¬ 
vent this order hy Uklmjj away everythiug in tJuur 
posseasiou, nml prottjstint^ rhe entire nakeihieiis of 
the landi Its priiduction at a iiia^stracv ta con* 
set|uefii!y vetr often necessary, ftince it is an ]in|>cra- 
tive mimikie to the Imai offi.dal to besdr hiiiiaeir in 
tilt* interests of tint Imarer, who may otliert^'ise rcjwrl 
his ituliflerenre at Withom a I 

might never have starttil fcrmi Getisan, 'whare there 
was a trojispinjcy among the owners of imnie# to 
reftise all Their animals, (ixcept at preposterous ralea, 
that was only overcome alter a two .lavs* delay and 
n somewhat sioriiiy iuien*iew, hMUrr/uHr in Wrul, 
udtJi the ftH'Hvt t*>n0t9 at the local t/fjwew. 

rrnvel hi tlie Iieart of a count ly brings ihe 
t*tTanger into eotiuict uiUi a type of hiinimiUy mot>5 

tsi'JSd*' more represeiitaiive (jf 

the miiifmal character, ihim that encouiuered 
In the capital or in large cities, whilst if nlstuliseloscs 
featurefi of natural srencTy of wliicli tlis residents lit 
towns or ihe rreipnmim of high miitcs alone may 
reiiiaiii pennancwtly ignorant. iJotli these ndian- 
(ages wen* derivable froiu the cireuitoua jonnmy 
which T look from fiensaii to the vnpitah The 

Ut^ff I'BA i’h’h LV KOkMA 

fiittitllar route Iwtwcen these pLiceii its '>o(i 11^ or lTi> 

nnlir^, ill leiiifllj, anil, I'ith the exi'eptiuit of une 
(ilili-iiiliil ntoxuitaui'Ci'ossLiifj, traverses a luiHlscape 
never without interest, thougli laekiri^ in lUe Uiffher 
elemimts of grniiileiir or runutnec.. A Jivergeure. 
however, of a few dap from i he track hroughi me 
iiiio a region wliieli less thfUi balf-a-dtr/tju Kun>iieiiiis 

Ksrmf <^n mfcrvTJULssL 

Uiive visil-aiUmid wljich tli+i 

romnvTKMl soenery in Korea, as w'ell ns tlie pk‘f nresijtie 

nrul Venerable celitis of the ilisesiaLilkilieil lludtlUlsi 
reUgioii, whkh for years before the foil ltd utiw* 
of the present dynasty'. In alnnii 14d() aji,, wa^ lUii 
otiiciid and popular cult uf the oouniry. TJiis region 
is known us ihn Keum Kang ^ian, or 1 lisiniond Mtmn» 



tavrii?; aiul tliarft—•amid inounLuii) calif>)i‘&tuidt^rasspjt- 
whos«Bapei'bforc* 8 i maul It? rivals in ampliuid*!. while 
it vxueb in .nilttmnal tints of maple ami diesium 
the garniture of CaUfcimlrui viinom^T when; nishing, 
cryBtal“clear lorrents danoe llinjugh evej%' glen, anil 
far okywardsi. bare ^ptiiUered crags lifi. their burns 
above the foUuge—are scnttered a inim)K?r of moniis- 
tenc'S. whose btuldings are iji gtittie 4 ?ases manv 
centiirica old, ,uid who?*e dwimUirtg eongi'egaiion of 
iiiiuates j>erform in Ihefte secluded retTeatSf secure 
from any intruaion save ihai of the itineraiit pilgrim, 
the 3teieoiy(it?il devotions iK-fore gildwl inmgi^s of 
Bmltllm ami hia disciples, in which rher themilves. 
in common with the iiinss of ibrnr roiimrytneti, havt 
lotig ceased to believe. By lovers of the plcturv?ffi«e 
iioliing more eiicliamiitg Umn tliese murmstic retreats 
can anjTThere Im found; nor will the distfoverv 
thut, while every priwjitect pleases, man nloiie m vili 
—Dveu though his depravity asaimie. a» U credibly 
alleged of ihe Korean boii/ef*, the most prolligate 
etspressioii, or, ns it did in m 3 ' own t'xperience, tlit- 
mure mudesi form of larceny of mies tjersimal eOecte 
— tleter the traveller from ket-ii appievialion of ^nr- 
rounditigi^ so romantie, 

Surprise may be felt tliat iu 11 euuniry- where the 
cluister ts so generally and not tinjosil^' dfiapisptl, ii 
Knni.i< i^boulil yet aticcetrd, in spilt of juipukr seep- 
ticism nni) lilliejaJ neglect, In atiractitig to 
itself ii snnicieiit number of rrcniits. Tile answer 
lies ill tbe iucunibh* lasiiness <if the fiwijde. 'Jhe 
monks, who do but little in iht- way lif timmial 

uy 1111 AAil Ah a r:ii tuu 34 L>intii'ikiJEi^ 




occasimially tiUiiig Oje plfds of ^ouiiil 
;ittItched to the ruoiiast^rles, or niakiug 
^ul)sj»t in r.lie umtn upon the cliarity of others'—an 
oi^uipatbn in whhdi tiie Eorenti flnde u.ji michaiitmeut 
tlmt person a I exertion rau. never suppiv. Iliiher 
therefore retire those vi'ho have nothiriff to do* or sfiil 
ujore, wlio ivaui to do lutUimyt hacliekir^ vrho raniioi 
tnarrv or widowers n'lio do not want to ismiTv again; 
cliililreu of whom their families waiif to tret qiiit^ nr 
wliu want to get quit of Uioir faniilie?; sojnetuuea 
fugitivci! from Justice to whom (he Buddhist uiomiS' 
terv is like t!ie Jewish hllty of Kefuge: perhaps, here 
loid there, ttiougli not ouce in a hutidred times, au 
iutUvidual who desires to forsake the world, and to 
muTetider Ijimaelf wholly to study and devotion. 
Hither also comes die Korean s^gJ(t-^ee^, the local 
equiraletit to the English Bank. II<tliday young man 
nil ;i bicycle—a chara<.:ter very commoii among the 
toroaus, who cultivate a keen eye for Sfieueir, ain.1 
Vi*ho love nothing better ilmii a k'>th/cntf, or p!e;tsom- 
t rip in the wuntry, where they can shirk all Luisiriess 
and dawdle alotig as the hiinvuur seizes them; livitig 
tqHnt atul, where pttaslble, abusing the hoepiiality of 
I'tliera, and Italiing as ilioy mo uni ^ach aiicreasive 
ci'cst. and a uew‘ outlook o^teus before ihem. to es- 
imtiate upon its beauty, to deposii a sioiie or luing 
lip A rag in the little wayside shritip erculod la the 
Iwal genius or deity, and, if they be sulticienlly 
talucalctl, either to ipu'U.e die rluipsiNlics of some 
previous poet or to compose u srou^a LtiemseJves. 
Mow deeply ingrained in the peoide h this semi- 



^4>tiiWLiperdutious imTurL<’\vor!<Iii|) may bf; 
illustrated jjy tlia (.'4Uie cF riuk-tn-6au ^White ak 
M(Jiuit.a')ii)t tiie velebrati^il mimntaiii tm t he ntirthern 
froni iar, witli its gteaiuliiv while I'rowiuaad with Eha 
unfathoTiKKi lake m the lioUow of its n^ter. Ereiy' 
year uii oDieial depiitAtloit elnrt$ fortli Fmm Ilam- 
tieungt Oio iieju'esL eeiit of provioiual povemmerU. 
and when ii arrives at a point lieyoml tinclioTig, jhjiit 
the Yahi Itivvr, from wlieuce the Brat, view of the 
sacrM fjeet is oLtarntJ, makf« gentiil^iniiii, laj's tml 
its oflerings, and iiettres^ Tlmt the monasteries liave 
for long Leet) visited far more for plt^^isnr&'s sake than 
for ihity, is akii. evident from the remark of Hamel, 
24d years ago— 

* 'llie fruijiieiit: the Mi>j>li!9teriea very umrh m 

tUveit thenifielves there with coinmou Wmiien ur ciLkirg I bey 
cAny with them, IteemiiBi! thin* ore geacfally delletaaBly 
(ettttKl, imd jdtutaani for I’n^jMsrt luul Bno iiarilen!i. 

thst: Uiiiy mistllt iKitter he colled l^leiisUTe-hnnKS than 
Temples, wbtcii l» )o be uiiiUrrst^Kid nf the ouimtan Monos- 
tcries, wliflte ihe mtigioue meti t(m« to drink bmxl.' 

roll lught’R sltk'p b not easy of aiiaiiuneut in a 
Korean monastery, even though one's l>ed he spreatl 
oil dig Boor of one of the saiTed halls, and 
fci'Wi* a! the foot, .as often In^ppens. of die high 
attar, liefore the Erst glimmer nf <lawn. sonm piom; 
iiiouk, anxious tn antiiipale bis fellow^, bctrins to 
walk round the courts, tapping ti drum, and singEiig 
the luoft hignbrions and discordant, of chants. Then 
sonmlMHly else Ixigiiie to dap, i-Up, n|H>n a brass 
gong. Xext I lie big drum on ihe plaf fiirra over 

i.fFS A xn ritAVEi jy KOUEA 


tiu' etiti'aiice \& t*i n. frantic? hiiie; iitiii liiially 

**vt,>ry btfll, (lOJig, ain3 ilruiD Ill ihi* esfjiljlMimeul are 
set gaing at oiici;. Tlib w tlie conunim (?x|ierieric;f; 
>if all who sojourn in BiidflUiui; tiioii!)^ieri<^ u 

.scrupulous adiierence to riiiiiil prevuilA, onJ where 
the (UJt^kle of the cup .’iml plaiH-r mtich more 
ihougUl of Lhan lUc uluimcter of (lie iiiwurtl parts. 

The internal arrangeiueiiis of these niunasTeries, 
of whidi there are !${iid to be ncarl)* fortr, aJ«ng 

.. willi a few uutmerbs, in thi* DianuuuJ Mouu- 

taiiia. and of which 1 aleovieiteJ the chief or 
metroiiolittm moriaateryofJ^ak WuniT.Sa, aliout twent}' 
iiiifea from tJeiisaii, are conimuitly ilie eanie. Adjoin¬ 
ing, stimetitties over, t he entrance, is a roofed phi i form 
»»r terraec, the and miles of whicJi are iJiickly 

iiniig with Lhe voiiveoraubmtrtpttoii faliluts of fonner 
pilgriitis. Here is itsuoily plaee<I a i;igajuic di'Uin, 
ropt»5itig iqwn tlie liaek of a painted wondn-n motnster. 
Hard by a lag brotute In^ll hangs htditiid n. grit). 
The central court, tmo which one first e)Lrer$,conUina 
the ptiiiciptil shniin or tcinpb, usually ai the upper 
end, mid fiiilisitlLtry iihrines or giiest-ehamtx^rs uu 
either side. jUI are of ihe same juilteni'—low de- 
taclu^l buildIngBt ivliJi heavy tileil roofs and over¬ 
hanging eaves, closed by screens, or shutters, or 
doors along the front, in side b a single glooiny 
clianiljiir or hall, the rit-hly i‘:irv«l .mil painted 
ircjliiig of which w susiJthictl l>y iaige retS pillars. 
Opiajsite the entrance is die imdn til tar, a g mm nr 

^ T^ifi APGonijiiui^inj; |kluitopiL{»l^ Fii ilw Kintin Kiuiff 

M4tl troTP lAkuii b^v i|r. Wi CuTPptiptL 


])mk g»u;ee veii banging in frunt of which but hair 
eonceats the gUiieil hgiircs of senUHi nr Ktandjog 
Uud(llui£ bciuhd, wlilh* all round ibc £idc£ arc ratigod 
fpx)tc 84 iie and gnnning images, usually in paintcil 
clay, of oihcr dciuigculs, saliUj^, or beroeu. A low 
stool stamb iti frani of Ltie tuaiii allnr, and auppurt^ 
a copy of tlie liiurg}' and a small brass bulb Uierear, 
when die liuiir strikes for inonung or evening 
prayer, a monk, Imetily pulEng a grey robe and red 
liot»d over iiis white dress, kneels down on a mat, 
int<me£ a prayer in a langunge wbich he does not 
undersiand, umohes the ground with lib forclu-ail, 
and strikes the brass bell with a small deer’s horn. 
Suialler replicas of die eantc sanctuary, dcilicated to 
dilfereiit deities, stand ia the neigbbouring courts, 
Tlie Korean form of Buddhism is, it will ilius bt* 
seen, doscly akin to the (.’liinescT and is widely 
EenMt divorced from that wliU-L fouiui favour iu 
■vOfliw more artistic atuiospluirc of .lapatt. Its 

hideously bedaubed temples, whiclt only Ixtconte 
tulcrablc with age, and its multironii, grotesque, 
luid barbarous imttges have little in common with the 
boaiiiy of Ikegauu or the glories of Xikko, or even 
with the less a:Sibcti<! attracMons of Asakusa. EsseU' 
l Udly Chinese, loo, is I lie manner iu whidi the ori¬ 
ginal faith luw been ovcrhdd with anthropoiuoiphic 
or djcimmolairoMS sojini^titiom, find bus hid grafteiL 
on U> it an entire pantheon of seniMleilicd lierfiea. 
Nevertheless, it is n welcome relief lo^ alight upon 
the shrines eveti of a dishonoured and morilmitd 
faith ill a country where no |»u[)nlar cull appears to 

' Ji 




sav'c tJiht of spirits, ilk'tattutl in uiititt 
nm'cus ajiprebeut>ioii of the forces of naitire^ ami 
where, a;9 the old Dnteli itartjL'ator put it, *as for 
lieUgiou, the rVirc^Latui have scarce]j atty.‘ 

To Ujcse supers Li lions h the Korean jiejmilt pecu* 
liiirlj prone. (tuiside his villnges are seen wo<xlen 
fifwii. dihtmiee-jMjSts i:iirve(l into tJic liideoits ami 
grintiiiig likeiitiss of a Itiimnit lieail. In ordt^r to 
fiu!uv»«ia [][^(, (jyjj spirits," Of similar applica¬ 

tion arc the bttmjie figures of ino)e?ters tluii appear 
II pull the roofs of [wilftces aiiJ city gHte*, tlie mgs aiul 
ropes that are iiei.1 lo the bouglus of trees (aii[i- 
pjsed, ill Korean rleiiirmolngy, to he tlte iiarticnlar 
alnHle of spiriLsi, aii<I the stones that are heap'‘il 
togethe'r on the sjuiriniiis of hUl-romls. in jjassing 
which oiir juitive eainteibilowers woidtl iuvarinhiy 

' Tlii=^ uru c 4 iiiu]tEjnly from -4 iv fit^l ut Tlmir 

Inwrr pftit crtfwi^ of m roEijjliij lioffii liJij nr *m T^n famt uf 
wlitfli » 411 riiPcriE^ioti tn wlnle th^ np]k.<]r iinrfc j* 

^jirvttd ijil*> lJi*» 13k#iJLsM. 1--/ tt grol^jiiu Wii, wkli /miifiirii ki^rut45itnHl 
with tiftl puiiiL irhilf> myc^htilU, ajiil trriiiciiiiff TlwNir 

orij^Ltmt n|)p«Ara ui h^rp Iwim UiM of to nsocFnl 

flrjfiaxtr^itiv lo irbiicli ttm iTnlkail. iir t kiit 

plufttt^ in totT# At rJ±!* ^ntnuaiw *n*\ fiit nf ibi-i- nrn 

I4|JH^ riillr J lOid iw i^jt^nnicnJ AS tLitaljinr giijwiHinfl 

htU tij;ii:rit&. CljAn;2-Aiing U &«i1 in ll■ vM ihit msfijo iif m 

nolorioETft Kfijiiftn mipinnl ii4 kyunit^ *thl* tiiiiiddiib] waa » 

^fii-rnl iir iif hiiell rAlJii wiw, nrcortUiiiJ lo ^uraiijm* 

lliii ■^niot* Liilinl^irttil iili ffilo AOtl of miaJTiiiJ III* 

own duiightor, wliu* fur hvT |i«rtt <imtiiiJSKid mindr. Dtf'UrM anrl 
fieifcdp hr wavi pill ta ilotiih by thi? (ik^-nm uf biu 

<*'RA rtsmrl *4 A wiiminf! u|khi tbfl ihrouiilljoiii iloi 

CTOtiilry^ k ■.tibljA^s iilbH le EOjireHmlci>iE ixi ihu Komiui 

pmclifDt at (TfjtAiEi kahum of Uifi yoiirT ^ mokinj^ Mttb ilrbw 
Alpom t| font In m tlir- «i+tn« dlillkutl intJiTiUJiiftl- 

iU'wHin^ A fow liwt rAok sJofi^ wiili a Ahort *iid iliL-n 

hliiTtizi|^ Ijiji whfdn Uifnif i&n tk or |art'ASlidJl^ it to a Ipn^'^inri 

who wdl A|i|knj|iiiAU] iln» gifi iw tbo »Akw •>! iUti coins. 



l«»w anti £jcj>£H;ttirTile. st'^trU- 

Kai'trs, TO taat. liDrtJSiiiopeSt =iinl ii' dEitriuiiK* the jin*- 
plliou)} mmncmt for nny importiuit »f;Tton. are aiso iii 
^rcnt retpu'''t,' Lii SiViil I heitrtl a iit(»ry rtf a Biek 
in:ui who was anjjpoeetl to b»j Ity a devil, 

hut was $uocrs,«fiillv cureil liy an English TnisFiori 
(Itjctor* who aflet'ted to tlrivv out tlui eril {tpirh, 
which was forthwidt puwueil down iliV etrcel hy a 
large eritwd and *mn U> gninntl* iit (lie itd^aictiL 
eompoittid. .'Vinmvtf tlie itinjer clawca tite only vital 
form of rcdijilon is lUieestor worsluji, (Imdopt-d by 
fanuliarity wIfJi ('-onfncianisni ami by long coiiiwctiDii 
witti the (.’hinej^e. A man luaa no higher atnliitiivri 
Uiati to leave male descendants who may worship 
his fnrtnw tuul ofier sacrifice at his gj’uve. Au oiiTCOiiit' 
of tlie aaiiiv ethiuul syTittiii is the sense lif filisd piety, 
which would have rendertnl J\ueas a typical Cliina^ 
man, of unquestioning olxtdience to the sfrverL'igiu 
and of duty I" llii'flgwl and ii> friend*. JTii [hidilhht 
monks are aUoweil Inside the ciiie * — it priilnbilion 
whirh iii said to have i>rtgin:tuu1 in the Japanese 
invasion tJlHi years agf>T when the invaders crojit 
into sonit? of the towns In monastic disguko— 
allhotigl) Llir Ki^t ill Ihc imightnxtrhond nf 
capirah lias one or niore eec;ia>e mcitntain retrenis, 

* Oiit«l<tii Urn wnttn (iT £l(iti 3 T (hv Imusp nf • eumfpte-fl 

bij? hbkftk ^uiEUkri ivitli a futb^EtlLlirk^ r^ounK^nndE^e imil mi 
hkrk kiiir n t#. Ui liidi «[ju pHit Vdt Atu\ pET, nl Uin ^uw timio iluai 
iluiiiuiil dLUiefiiiil ^iiiluii^d ¥iyh&, Wdi^iiijr fthu wbik ti» 

till* bouii^ <jf flniuin fmil ttrid dronhiji n tihuftl, uutfih 

Ui tbii uf Itti Urgm «mwi] who Xm^l coq^? to dtiu^ult 

briii«iiiif bSjf mhlti* jiiM wijli hut win? wirr. o^^ik-^Uy 

imioli fr{|ihli?iwnl hjf bw luwHitfltkoi. idiiJ htr wUU ■nsiaiL* 
mill Unrtiii «i3U«iitl«». 



vv'ltitliiir* Lti iiiiKr oi' tlatiger, Iw! tit*es 1« ihe [)ir<!le<.'‘tio;i 
(if II moiikhlt jrnmifcm. 

TrAvellhi^ in is l>eM u]ii1i«ftiik(!Ti hi Hk' 

;ii,iiUti 4 U jutiiitliii of ilio ytar* TIio climnite h fJitn 
(Jinidiiimr. P^T'fcct—4 "M ann ^un by da^' auil r£*frf;slini^ 
«t trui-t (-ooliiiiss al uiglit. Iji OiP wiiiiw dflt'i* ^^utiw 
fdtls and tlto <-old is (sxcessii'e, Tlio snmnuT h«afs 
ar(? ecjiiall}* impieaaant. Thort- awt no nintli- itxnl>i 
in tlie coitiitrr, and flie tv;ic:lw are iiit-iv bridk-^fMiks, 
of grpAKir or less witlllit according to tlie i^xTent to 
niiitili ijiey are tHidden. Li nennuiry tJuit h plen* 
(ifully spriukli’d willi tuounlain^E ns « ploujjlKHl field 
is with ridges, these arc frefinetiih' steep and stony 
in ilie ext rente, and in die outHiPtUe-tvay [lartA 
which I Yisitnd the track waii tioi iihfreijueittly tlm 
precipitoue and bouldcr-atrewn bed of a memntain 
torreitl, amid and over die Jagged rocks of w^^hudi 
none but a Korean jHitiy eonhl pick his way. A 
wonderful litrle animal indeed is the latter. With 
the exception of the fix, whicli iis the Iseast of heavy 
Innvlen, ami the donkey, vv5licit ii? much afi'cefed by 
ihc iinfKcuiiioiie gentry, no other pack or ridhig 
aniniid is kuMwrti. Ihirely man* dian tdeveu hands 
Itigh, combarive and vicious, always kicking or 
fighting when lie (.'ftin he will vDt, with .i biirdtni ul 
lo(l ibst. or 200 !bs. uptni Uia back, cover a distarice 
of thirty mUea jwr diem ; and providetl he has 
his slush of beans and c'linpjfctl straw, Imilcil in 
water, thiN^e times a day, Ijcfore starting, ai noon, 
and in the eveiiTag, he emerges vvry little the worn* 
at the eml i>f a lengthy jmiriiev. Each pony is 



nUiindLal l>y its inapn^ of ilrivori and lU^ 

hninours c<r sing suiokt* 

BtKl cntck jok<*^ nriil quarrd all the <lay long, are 
amoug I he alleviaiioiis of travel. If Uio tlestmiitiou 
l>o not readied laifore n'lghtfaU the |>earera nf oflittal 
pit«siK>rt« liavo tlie right to iDreh-lM^arera from (.'aeli 
village. l.t«ig before reatThitig the latter, tremendoirf* 
dioiits of ‘ tlmr wt!' Ufirch h are r.aUed by t he iiutpuA 
or titters j otid if iijiuu arrival thif C'ovoru' 

mem link men art* not forthcoinmgwhli their torclii.’3— 
mafle of a lopja^i pine-log or a intw of »lmw—iliey 
are roiifirtl from Umlr sliimbet^ or hIdUig wUU cnllk 
aiifl violent iniprecotiotis. In a few [noiiicnts hfilf^a- 
(lo:ten Torebeu are ignited, and, amid vraviiig banners 
of flame, the cavalcade disappears into the utgliL 
Sport is a furilicr and agreeable coneomiiant «ii 
loumeyiiig, aliliowgU, fts in every oounlry in the 
world, not much game can be seen exctrpf 
bv tlivergence frrmi the hurried irack ol 
travel. Pheafiaiils abound in the uiulergrowLli on 
(he nummains. In the w'inter months every va¬ 
riety of wikl-fow'l, from W'lkl geese and swans in 
wild duckf teah water hen, plover, and empe, sivanu 
along the coast and rivers or in lh« soaking rice plofs. 
Tlie natives eiilier snare I hem or dioot them sitting; 
and tin* ftpectaeh' of a rockeiiug mallard brought 
dowrt f«)m a great height in tli^ air is prceied by 
them with frantic shoiilR of admiration and delight. 
Turkey bustards, cranes, heions, pint and while ibis 
aro also encounteretl, --uid there is a largo eagle, 
whose tail-foaihers are much priced by ilie Chinese 

. ZfF£ A.YI} THAiT/. W A'O/lliA lia 


for fans, Hut tbo ridniess of th^ Korean covnrt 
miher in fur atid skin than in feather. Efares, 
fr>.xe»f. l>aJgers» wilil i?ai, wild bcnar, aableA, enuiiu 
and otter in the far uortlt, and different kinds of 
deer (which are hunted lor the Tnetlicirial properties 
•nipposed in Cliina to fjclonp to the honis of the 
Toiiiig buck) am to be iVnincl in the scrub on the 
moniitains. Letipards are quito i^omniDiL, and in 
the winter months sometimes venture even kiBlde 
the walls of Silul. But the tiger la the king of 
Korean qu.arries. He b of great sizej and I saw, 
wltile ill Korea, some splendid skins. His Jtaitiii is 
tTie wooded niotmt;tLii*slDpes near the east cHiast, 
and the entire belt of countrj' northwartls as far as 
the forests on the Vain, where man-eaters are not 
iincomutou. Ill w'inier-titiie tigers have more tliar» 
once come down Into the eettleitnmt at Oeinmii and 
canieil off a ^detim; 1 even heard there of a Kuro- 
jjcan who, gidng put to dine, met a tiger walking 
down the middle of I he roatl; .and when I wa3> at 
Ohang All Sa (tliG Hall of Eternal Peace), the 
principal of the Ketnn Kang fiaii monanterics, oite 
w,as said Lo palnd tJie ijuatlrangle ever}* nigiu, and 
we came across their spoor and droppingB, Tlie 
King maiiitains a body of royal tiger-hunters, who 
capture them by inemia of pits and traps, the 
commonest <'f these being a sort of big wooden 
cage constructcil of timlicre and stones, rather like 
a gigantic mouse'rj’ap, A pig is tief! up inside, 
and the entrance of tlie tiger releases the ijt^.tr and 
-confmefi the beast, wlio is tlieu despatched with 




spears. The iiaiivest however^ reganl \hv aiiinial 
ivith Hti overpowering apprehension, nntl there is an 
old Chbieee saying that *T]io Koreans hiiiil the tiger 
during one-lmlf of the year, while the tiger hunlf the 
Koreans during Ihc other ludf.' The^' will tiot travel 
Bingly at iuglii,biit go nbroiul iu company, braiiilbh- 
iiig torches and striking gongs. They are also imtat 

relutftani to ad as beaters; wlietiec, perilaps, ii arlitea 
that, eotiiiaon as the tiger is in Korea, 1 liave rarely 
heiml of a European who has bagged one to hia own 
ritle. I am aometiinee asketl by sportamen us to 
the chanus or chances of a Koreuit expedition. As 
reganls wild-fowl shoodng, die greai nutsjince ta that 
there is no iiieaus of disp<»itig of the aliiii, and after 
a time mere slaughter polls; while, as reg'ards big 


gnmc, the ciilhcultles sucl hardships of r.i-&veL necom- 
mudntton. food, and following, will probably send 
beck the sjiortamaa Viiih a iiiuoh worse appetite Lban 
when he started. 

Thus wayfanng through tlie country one sees 
miidi of peniiant life and ngriculture. The rQ- 
I'lMiHirt lag&s are colleciioiie of inutl-hiics, tlmu^hed 
with straw (over w]4i(;U, as a rule, mns a 
diinblng gonnl), tvaiutetl by flues running WueatJi 
rht* floors, and Biin'ornided for proteetion or seolndon 
by a wattled fem.-e of bran dies or reeds* On the clay 
tliior ontsiile are usiudlv seen drying a matliil of red 
ciulliee. or of millet and rice gridns fresh ihresluid by 
ihr; Hail; long Stdngs of tobacco teares, suspended in 
festoons, have been picked from tJu> garden plot bard 
by. from which also a few castor^oll plants are 
rarely absent, A small sty of black and abominable 
lUUe pigs usnally fronts tbe road, on wbieb the 
children are disponing thenieelves in a state of 
comparative nudity. Inside, the donr-vissge] femalea 
are perforriung the work of the honst^huld, or are 
grinding, threshing, or winnowing the gram on the 
open l.hresliold. The men are away in the rice-fielda 
or among the (:ro|H» of millet, be.'ius, and buckwheat, 
whicdi are Uic staple cereal prutluec of the country, 
Cuitix'ation is assiduons, but not close. Hundreds i>f 
acres of c ill livable, but uncleared soil, alternate witli 
the tilled patohos; and coarse gr.isses wave where 
the yellow gram should be rifining for the gamer, 

I saw iio carts or wagons on. my jonnmys, aliliough 
Uiey are used in the north, near Hauvheang, and in 




a few other plates. The ox. which t$ the familiar 
Ilf burden, sometUMOS drags nl\er ban a rude 
wooden sled. Slore comiuoiily a sort of 
iwbit* ^ filled on to hw liaek, and h packed 

with firewood for fuel, ^feu do iiot^ as in Japan 
and China, carry burdeiia on bainlMio poled, bui in 

A iiOWtJiM tkAftAKf rjouir 

wooden racks, called cAf-4ai, upon their backs. Tliey 
test iljemaelves by sitting down, in whirb position 
the rock, having a wooden peg or leg, siouds uprlglit 
upon the ground. The long, thin pipe of the country, 
between two and three feet in length, when not be¬ 
tween the lips of its owner, is stuck in Ia$ collar at 
the buck of his neck, iind proirudes sideways into 


the air. When u pony is shod k Is Llirowii liowu 
upon its back, anti ks legs tied logtfthcr at the fetlock 
by a rope, 

C^utside towns of any sisse may cotiuDoaly be seen 
a uuinher (jf stones, or Uiblets (someiitiies of iron 
toppcJ*)! bearing insirrlptions in CUitiese 
*"^'*** characters. These are erM^refl either in con- 
fiection with some hietoru;aI event, or more fn?qpexitly 
in hoiiotir of a icwial governor, who has earued tJje 
^latitude of the people, not for justiL'e or ciemeiic-y, 
wiiich are not f?xp<*cted, but for wielding iritlj tio 
more than ordinary iscveriiy Uis prerogative of 
squeesiet or of a successful [ocal candidate at the 
literarj' esaminaiions, -tir of some public lienefactor. 
or of 11 virtnons wife who has found in suivide tjie 
sole consolation for die loss of her spouse. 

Chinese inJUuence hi visible everywhere, notalily 
in the disposition of the death Tlie Ilnyal Torid>^ 
are at ti dlsinniu; of ten miles from ilie oast 


gate.of fNiul; hut ilwy are on a ntodesi scale 
compared with the tnaiiBoletmis of rddng and TIuo. 
Mandiwina' graven ate frequcnr ly marked by a efojie 
table or altar for ofTcrings, and a fftele or pillar, 
bearing the epitaph of the deceased. t$ome times, 
after the Chinese fashion, stone edigies of warriors 
or animals are addeil, or a ^tadillcd stone liot^c, in 
ca&e the spirit of llie defunct should care U) take a 
ride, or a small column in rase it should have been 
uietaniorpUtised into a Linl uiid shouhl require a 
perch, ‘file conmionest form of grave, however, ia a 
large, circular^ grassy mound, mtuully pbcc«l upon 



the ei«le of a lull vr summit of a, Uttic kttoH, and sur¬ 
rounded with Srotcli iirfl. Thi' dvte is selt*ct€d ah;er 
consultotioD with si sofJttisaj'erT ta vMltsd even* year 
on iixed dap* and is tiftcrwai^ls fc^pl mviolnte 
from the spade or plough. The cn^nrous of Sfiul Are 
spnnkled. with tltousautla of fiujch graves, 

OillciAlisia, vrhicli ig the curse of the conn try, is 
not witliont its ellcct even upon tlte fort unes of travcL 

tjucli oji incubus is the truveUiug tuAnda- 

tV«7fAicn . 

nti, who qiiATtcre jiimseff whero he pleases 
and eLxa<^ts rations for which he never pays, Uiat the 
villagers tlee frfjm nn ofTicial passyicitt afl from the 
pest. Tht>ugU t paid for everythingj chickons and 
eggs were eonsiautly refused lae, on the plea that 
none were fort licoming, hut really^ I snppcee, from 
fear Thai, on tljt streugtli of the X'«f(ri-<?A«rc, I should 
npproprhile without piiyirient whatever was pwduceil. 
Under these circomsiarices, ii ie n&cessary tt» carry 
almost evestythiug with one, in the form of tinned pro¬ 
visions. Tn the out-of-tlic-way parts few waytlurers are 
encountered % tmt near the espitaj ihc road will be 
crowded widi officials, tucked up in sniidl iiud com- 
forllcsi^ sedans, will) CAMdldates going tip to or 
rcTiumiDg from the examinations, with pilgrims, 
traders, professional players or mountebmihs, beg¬ 
gars, piemcers, amt impecunious vagabonds of every 
quality and style, 

Tin‘iie are the picturesque stdea ^d spectacles of 
Korean Lraveh There are some who would jSnd in 
the Korean inn, which is the unavohkble resting- 
place at night, A more ihan fiompensatiiig jjain. 

lfr£ TJtAVEL lA' K0H£4 


Th&re ure »o good inns ui Lha oountiy^ Uecatuie iliare 
is i\i> cln£9 to patronise lUeiu, Tlie officials and 
Tiw ns I have ahowiif quarter themselves 

0» the magistracies. The peasant accepts the 
rude hospitality of hie Idiid, and the village ran is 
oalv the compulsory resort of the tesiduuto, Sur¬ 
rounding a aiiinll and filthy courtyard^ to which 
acee^ is gaiuetl by u gateway from the street, is on 
one side a long shetl with a wooden trough, from 
which the ponies, suck their so<klen food ; on another 
aide is the ejuihenware vat, anil the furnace by which 
it is cooked; openingoif in a single, small,low-roofed 
room, usually 8 feet square, unadonieil hy any furni¬ 
ture save ono^ or t wo dilapidnteil stiaw tnats aud 
some wooden blocks to serve ns pillows. There tlie 
traveller must eat, undress, ilress, waeh, and sleep as 
w'ell ua he can. He is fortunate if the surroundiug 
fi ft.h is not the pareutof even more v’exatious cneniies 
to slumber. Nevertheless, I have wooed and won a 
royal sleep in tlic Korean iiui; wherefore let me not 
unduly abuse it. 




liMUtiifiil for MtnftliciTt fo Slwini JSimr. On the lide «t ihn tuwh in 
i\u> eity of the Orent Kbu;. Widk nUmi Ziom ttoi] «n itnmJ nliuni 
lur; tirl] the luweta ihsceuL Mwli y* it fiU Ikir foihe jn-lf*, mtuidu- 
lier iintiieeB !■ ihnt yo may teU it Ur i\m itBiumOldiH fulfoieiat;. 

PtaltH tltlij. !>, Ui, 1» 

Amoxa tbeunespGcieiireatuiesofEun'a Is thepcws*!®' 
siou of a tliat, iis regards »tzt* »otI populaiiott, 

XNWie fiiirly tio tnie of tbiTgrejit cities 

UKcaiiitui I haveapelletl llie luunt; 8 i*ul i? 

but 1 should Sfly in ndvuuce tluit I hftve never met 
two persons, even soholargi, who proiunmced the name 
in exactly the same n-«y. fjeouh SvooU Satvulh isuwtil 
aty anioiJg the more popular pUoiienc translitcrnuone, 
Thai tlie word is a diesyllatile seerus to la* certaiu; 
but not even on the lipa of Koreans does ihe preeiae 
ei|uivalent to tin; vowel-sounds employed make itself 
apparent, Porhai>s to an English ear the tnife prf> 
nunciation is best conveyed by sa^'ing llutt the wav 
in which an Irishman pronounces the immortal part 
ttf him fairly represents tbe sound. 

’ ITti* fiaaid • eKfiital «ty,' Coiti|iAn< U)« CfaiuMj Pb.Utis- 

«ea KMA^kinx, uarOurit nnirKiutbHn cnjihnlimuKi 
Tokia «iul tKlokiil. i>, cajtrrti itml 'WhI«»» «apil 4 il|i. g^nJ 1> 

ii» of tlfintfrili Hiiiimt 

THH AITJ} C&ent mUBA lil 

To those wiio bear in mmtl the Chbe#e contiee- 
iton (if Korea, iqiou which I ebiC 641 freq^uenUv Inive ^ 
Waiu<ii4 to in^t, it will he no Burprisc to learn thai. 
staT^* Soul 13 hi most eacterior r&spccte a ChLnew 
city. Lnk'Vil. it first mudt* the capital oJ' tluf 
Korean kitigfiom exactly lire cmiuriee ago by Ni 
Taijo. the founder of the reigning lionse,' a monarch 
who in everything apetl the Clfinese iiiadeL at Utat 


time* HiiiL \re mar uliuciat sar tioav, the sUmdarrt 
of majesty or fasMoii to tlie petty surrounding States. 
He built tim stone w:dl, over twenty feet high, with 
l>attlements and loopholes for archers, by which the 

' Tilt f«8nlla 4 hjI rtlw* nf «tAUi uf Ni ThIJa ■» «fll jwaiitirvBiI in 
tb" motcioipulitiiii uujuiiuan^ of fi»ii tValuJ whictl Im fowidflJ w 
monorj «if jii* *ntl' *a rain &otu (bw ipoi, TIib iiifflwmpfjr i* 
•iqKrrbI; iii ii moustiD trtniilird t;Q^, tn’tuly tuUet 

fruiu Gt:n«uii 



city is surroundtit! ^ am! Le zujidL* llu; L>j:glLt grenL 
^gates* cousisiing i>f a tutuielied pa^sajfe in tUt* wall, 
8urni(Hinted by a single or a dniibli^^toreyed project¬ 
ing tiled pavilion* by wkLcb access ii? still gained to 
tJte interior,*' Like the gat-ee of I'eklng. tlieije have 
ttimies of swelling ii]i|K>ri—the ftaie of Eleeaied 
Uuiiiaiiity, the Gate of High Oeremutiy* and the Gate 
of Briglit Aniiahility. As at Peking, also* the heavy 
woixtcn dixtrs, sheatlted and clampeil tirith. Irviti, arc 
shut soon after sunset* tbe keys Iwitig taken to the 
King s Palace, and deposited with Ills Jlajcsiy, or, 
when llie Cliinw^ Cotnmijisione]:^ are ia Si.>iilj with 
the (atterd Ifo bribe can then open lltctni and the 
only method of ingress is by dimbing. wirli iha aid 
of a friiiDtHy hatnl with a rope, n dihipidaiwl portion 
of the wall. Just Wore my viiit a Pridsu adniim], 
being a few luimttes tfvt bte, bad been r:t»ii])e!led to 
enter in tliU not nnnantieal fashion t whereat ihe 
Korean dignitaries could not make up tlielr uiinila 
whether to Imj more sliocked or anniscil. 

Tlie entire space circiimscribed by the wall is not 
built over, for the latter climbs whh nutelupe-llke 
fncLlity tlie scarp nf the raritius fJicky hills and 
latkbn- mountains by which tlm city pro|)CT is aur- 
rounded, and inchides much groiuul wliich 
could by no possibility mbnit of hiimijii dwelling, Tn 
fact, the wall may be said merely to eiuhi-acG a de¬ 
fensible area, in the tnhbt and low-jying pociiona of 

' Tbiiy IL» ((ittulfti two on ilm cortli, ow on tb« nunli^nn^ qj» 
<nt iJw nut. miB on Uio N,riith'M4i, Iwu ou Uw toiUh-wett, arnt urns ih» 
tljr !llki timm ^tei ibf^ -oiwt uul 

* AiilukirMliciii iMluikaioti cf Cljiiifiw. 

rtfj: CAPirAf. a-yi^ coukt of koffa lss 


whiclt has l>C(m [>kc€d a great hiiiaou liive. ITie 
aituatioti of tiie ck^, tiius nt^tJlngiu ri trough httweeu 
high bills, ia tberoforti picturesrjue in llie e^ctremo, 
and would appear to have been epeciallj designed 
for the purpose, were it not that the coiiSned atmo¬ 
sphere in summer, operating upon a densely erowded 
Diass of dwellings where the most contemptuous dis- 


regard of saiiitaiy laws ptevsibs, retidens it at tliat 
time a nurserj' of pestilence and Bickuess, Unlike 
the seeneii' whicli I have described iti die last chapter 
as prevailing in the more northerh’ and eastern |Ktrts 
of Korea, ilie hill* suiTounding Sold are bare, arid, 
mul uninviting. The disintegrated granite of wldch 
they are composed does not adiiiiiiOf much vegetation, 
while Such verdure as once adorued their slopes has 



ill large measiin> been swept isway, A scmity growth 
of timber clothes the north hill, calletl Pouk Sain 
wlut:li, ven much like hyeabeltus at AUitna, rise* to 
a sharp elevation I wtliTtuI iheHoyal Palace. Tint ilie 
other hills are almost treetess, mth the escejitlou ol 
Nam Sau, which is spiemlitUy liniberetl itp to its stmi- 
mit, S0O feet above the city oti the south. Further 
away on the northern side the nearer elevations are 
dominated by the inipo^iig mass of the mountain of 
I'^ouk. Han* whose gleamijig grey piimactea prottutle 
ilieinselves frcftn sterile lower slopes. 

U is worth wldle to ^dltnU N^:un i?au; for from 
there is a wild and elooniy outlook over monutains 
rolling like grey billows on eveiy side * while 
*“* along the widening vaJlffy betwwti them the 
river Him pushes Its hronil and shining coUe lo ihe 
sen. On the top of Jvitni San, ti>o, are four i^eacoii- 
towers—circtilar structiu'es huill of big sioiit's, in 
whose intorior tali ]iites of leaves and brusiiwtKxl are 
nightly sol ablnzc, to signal to theeapjinl dm message 
of peace mid security or the rev’-etse, which, like the 
bale-fires of Troy, is supposeti to have lieen pa^^sed 
Ihan peak to peak Irom ihu souihem imnfines of the 
kitigdoni. Oil die nortli-wtSL side auoihnr tall and 
threc-poiiited hill—known Sam Kok ban, or Three' 

peaked Ilill. which the French in their expetliiitm of 
liitlC called the Cock’s Comb, hocause ol' the liery red 
wliich it bhn>hcd at the early tlawn—^flniihes nn au- 
sweringglemn from the opposite quarter: nor has lids 
primitive Form of tetegrapliy Wti iio mhiatl y aban¬ 
doned (tlwmgli it is belinvwl to have fallen into 


jiraclinja (lisiifte), ftX47ei)l ou tlie lines where it has been 
replftowl by rlie elecmc wire. A sptrcial of 

signals, ftepcn«ling flft «be numliert pisitioii, and se¬ 
quence of tlu* beftcon-fires, h employed in times of 
danger to announee to the eapitnJ the scene or moment 
of invasion and the fortunes ol coml>at in. the prt^ 
vinftjs. Toward* nighiMl tho eye of the nsitor. 

unaeeustome<1 to the novelty, insist* ‘W luming skj' 
wards, and is not satislied tiU dm reassuring spark 
giintmers brightly from each sentinel peak. 

Within the space thus enclosed and built o\er is 
wiitained a popubiion, the various csii- 
mates of whose numerical total range fiiom 
150,01H) t« SOOpOOO, An official cakulation placed 
the number of houses at 3tJ,OOfl, nucl we may accept 



20U.U00 Qs a. prulisble luta! for Uteir 'ITk* 

bulk of these ate crowded in thatebsd hovels. Unitij/ 
narrow and fetid lanes; but in ainc^nlar and nufy 
0nent4il Gontrast are Uie luam streets, three in 
TiimibeT, one of wMek nins lirnm the Palace to ineet 
the second, which intersects die city from east to 
west, while die third sirikes off from the latter to the 
south gate, Each of those U of a breadth ami arnplU 
tudo I.Uat would dignify a Eurujican capital, being at 
least fifty yartls wide iiinl smoothly graveUed; hut 
even here the native love of crowding and wpialor is 
nllowed to assert itself, for the roadway ifiencmachftd 
upon by’rows of rude straw-ihutched shallth‘» lhat 
have been erecteil by poverty-stricken squatters on 
eitiier liaiid, enenmhering the passage, and redudng 
the space available for looomotLOii ii> a uarrovr strip 
in the middle. When the lung goes out, or when 
any state function of great soleniuity place, nil 
these knprovised teiiementa are pulled iloivu 1>efcjre, 
hiuid ih'it re-credeil tlireclly alYLTwanls); and l own 
that I was far from sorry t(i a large block of them 
blaring Tiierrily one night, both becanee tlie street for 
a brief space resumed its proper diiueimans, andjrom 
the hisiglit which liie specUicie afforded into ihe 
inantiers of the natives. Some of them snt tju the 
neighLouriug housetops, praying to the spirits hi 
arrest the ootiilagraiiou, which they made no effort 
to retard; others adopted n remedy by one stage 

' On the nthftf linntl ihp Chlnt^w piiblirntiain.' Faett 

tfjAttm/ ih^ liMtfrn I hit nitmhrr <if bAiiMH ju 

4C,SCiS, auil of Mubiluita lU !iua,0S(l, 


niorp prricllcal, dtat thf^y rau about rirlili ^tucill 

piAs* Ik>wU, JWid crveu teacopis lllltsi with ivutcr, 
which ttiev <iasli&l wiUv «fugume futflity upon the- 
ihuaes. Hut iwd U not bequ. for ihe privai«ly orgtiri- 
iswl lire brigade mnmtnined hr the Chmeee Resident 
for the protection of llie Chined quarter, in or near 

ott^iiKP iiaK or 


t. 014 riihifT in-n^nr rtff tiTlif | 

L HrliAU 

^ tEsiii# TbI Vm Kna 


7* tUiBiii 


% fMcitlUl 
lU Oeftfab 1 Jnptiloi 

iL QfctMBit BaitlnuiT 

u. rmpA ii,fi mmtfi 

li. JapiiMif 

to -which the burning houses Liy, tliere eeeraed no 
plauaiide rensou :why tlje eonfiagration should erer 
Imve stopped until it had retiuced the'entire city to 

In the niniM» Sibil is maiie tu stand u^iori the ri\'cr 
U&ii; and wlien 1 iiad read in hist<in'‘-boola! of the 
French itnd Auitu-ican Irtg.itcs steaming up the river 


TO tlireal«ii or attack ii, I liml pwiiiitd tn myself 
:i scene nnti a sHe not unlike the 2file at Kliartniu^ 
THrtm-i ^ ^ matter of faci, the river is Jwtween 

AiithM ftjitl four tuiles ewuy; and the only 

kvcal stil^stititle for It ts A narrcfvr canal, vriiich may 
be an Abaua or :i rUarpar in iJie rainy season, i)ut 
whicli, when 1 saw it, was merely a Ulthy and sliallow 
sewvr, ill whielt t lie Eoreaii urebiua appeared to find 
pleasure in paihlUnij. liaeh street or alley, moreover, 
has an open gutter running upon eitln.-r sifle, ;aicl 
containing uU tiie refuse of human and anitnal Ufe, 
:5oul is conseqneiiLly a noisome and malodorous 
place 1 and esploradon iimong its labyrmtiiitie alleyH 
is as ili^sigreeable lo tlie uoatril as it is Ijitwilderitig 
to die i?ye, A few elevations epriu" up from the 
general level of the city busiti; and these liav*^ l,M*en 
opportunely occupied by ftireignet® with a su^utrior 
appreciaUfju of site, the British, Kussian. and Jaitanese 
Legatiotia and the French Catholic Eatabri&luuciit. 
Ijeing from nnyallitmie the most couapicuous objects 
in the tovrii. A seiileaient of l.flOtl Japanese is in 
nciite competition with an even larger and iticreasitig 
colony of Cliinamtm, Kearly lOtt Eiuo peons and 
Americans rejiresent the remaimler of the foreign 
coitimnniiy tbui tliisadmistiire makes little siiperfidol 
impression upon the white-coated, whitG-troiisercd, 
wliite-sockcd moss of humanity that sWanns to and 
fro iu the ihr^uiged dioroughfares of die city. 

The public bnlUlviigs of Siiul aiie rertmrknljle for 
their paucity and iiwlgnificimce. With the cjmeption 
Iff the great Uoiided roofs* of the Audience llalb in the 


ill* M'liole city, whtn eeeiv l>om alxiVfr, [irp' 
an even le^’d of tiled roof-tops;, packed so 

cltMWfly Kigetlior ilint it looks as iliuiigh » man 
might step from oih! to the oilier. Tlie rjaiTOw 
alleys between them cannot 1^ diacerned, and only 
tlie wliite riband of the three principal streets, 
rendered whiter st.iD by the white di'esses of ilie 

THt cm is® iHJ* rAceJi. *5Dt 

Koreajis, struitiinr Up and down by the hit mired, 
breaks the brown inonotouy. [Even when we descend 
into the town, we lind no beauty in the exterior of 
the [tomes; for they are, as a rule, cnrifitpucted of a 
mixture of mud, paper, and wpotl: although those 
wliich are more strongly built have walls made of 
riniiid stones, winch nre tietl ptnmd and lield together 
by plaited straw iti lieu of the luo expensive luxury 




Ilf mortar, TliiTt* ate iit> wmilwwi ui i.Uo: Iiousc’ 
£ruiii6—only lifting or billin'! gcteens; anti wlmtever 
(jf neaitic«j> or elejuancif i'jdtfU in llie nlKHU* ih ctnt- 
ceiilptl in the !nteriiir» wbi‘r« tlie jtrivaie i3w«lliiiji@» 
uniseeufrcm ilie sf reel* ate ranged round small conn*. 
The houses of all classes arc imifomily built either 
on. platforms or tJti ralsetl tluorSt ft»r tlu' purpose of 
wariniiijf by mean a t)f Hues running imdenieath frotn 
a single fumace that seta’es tlie entire huiSding. At 
the other eiul the nTiiohe escapes by a blnckenetl hole 
in the wall, usually into the .sireei, where it adds u> 
ihu ajsthetic pains of pertunbukitiom There is no¬ 
where in the city anytlmjig hi the least resembling 
the elaborate carveii and gihled woodwork that 
adorus the shoprEninta in Peking, or even the monu¬ 
mental painted sigU’boariiU of Canton. Another *jb- 
stade to street embelUsliineni lias been tfie e:sisteTii:« 
of crude aiwl foolish sumptuary laws, prohibiting the 
erection of houses of more thou a certain abteT or 
Wrond A dsetl ouiby. 

For these drawbacks, however. Soul does its best 
to atone by two properties of unqnestionetl and more 
siiwt creditable individuality—^viz. u singular and 
picmrescjne streeidifc, and a Court which is 
alteoutely dignilieil and comic, ami same times l>oih 
at the Mime time. Why the Koreans should all 
dress in white cotton no one seemfl able to say. It 
is not a fashion imposeil by eotii{ucs(, like the pigtail 
in Ohlna; nor by smarLness, like die Alhatilan petti' 
coat; nor by dignity, like tite Homan toga; nor t>y 
scrvicvablentBA, Eke iLt? Highland kilt j not even by 

TIIS CM>iTM. ,iX£f couar OF KOUFA Wl 

rhtf riilgiir enter ion of i'oiiifort, likn Uif Euro(H*an 
troitser. The oobur camiol have beeu designed t<i 
resist the aait, IhU'^Liise in \eiuter there is not tn<i 
much stm to resht; nor can tiie maierlal have been 
•wleetetl for he lighlnes^, since in the weather it 
is only rendered wearable by beinj? thhfklv waddi^l 
with rotto«-w<Hil. 1 can otdy attribute the pheno- 
menon, therefore, to mie of those inexplicable freaks 
of fortune which have endowed the world, for in- 
, stance, with the crtnuline and tlie top-hat; alibotigh, 
whatever the cause of its originai iniroilitctioti. 
t harbour a secret suspicion that the white cotton 
ctirtuenia of the men are now maintakietl by them 
for tilt exeeUput puqMxse they serve in keeping the 
women, busy. All day long, as you are wulking in 
the streets of Sijul, yon will hear » mysterious tap, 
tap, tap, emerging fixun the closed ahuiters of the 
housea. This is the housewife wlio is nt work in¬ 
doors with a wooden cylinder with which she Iteate, 


beats, beau, her husband’s wliile cotton clothes, in 
order to give them the pecidiar gloss which masculine 
fadiion adecu in Korea, Over their while cotton 
drawers, wliidj terminate in a kind of padded stoi^k- 
ing, the men of die mhtdle classes wear au outer 
tnnic or skirt of similar material, which is split up 
at the sides, and looks very much like a nightshirt, 
ijecretaries mwl persons in ciril employ wear over 
this ,'i simiJar semi-transparent garment, in black. 'Die 
women of the lower onlers are also as entirely clad 
in white as a dius uf English girls going to a Con- 
drmation Service; but tn the upper clusses a gown of 



green, ar Crimean, or purftle, instead «f Uangitig from 
lUe shoulders, is drawn u|» over the beml, wliii the 
sileoves iiauging down in iwo long lappets beliiiid, 
and is held 01066)7 together in front, admitting Old)' 
II fugitive gUmpBo of bliick eyes lieliintL The most 
astonisliiug Korean coi^nre is i.hai of ilie Abigail or 
waiting-maid, who wears a colc>ssal erection ujHin her 

Lead made of greasy black hair twisted in plaits, 
bigger by far iliaii the artUirial Lead’dress of an old 
E^'ptiaii Plinriiiih,, or tlie wig of an Englieli Lord 
Chancellor, Upon the anmnut of this an enor¬ 
mous tray reposes as safely as upon a four-legged 

Another peculiar coiffure is that of the King-a 
ilancing-girls, or * corjis de ballet,' whu are a regubu 


feature nt every Korean euienaiuittent.^ Tliese girls, 
who are called ' coiTefi|>ond tu tbe Geieslia 

t>»ficiQ(- Japan* Cotupaiitcs of tbem exist In eveiy 
tonTi of anr ^ize, comhinhjg prostitution 
witli the pursuit of their profession, i^fatiy of tlteiu 
are far Eroni bniUlookiiig, the type of feat ore being 

A l^iUUUC W^mh^HAlP 

jiiuch more regular, even if waiilitig in the feminiiie 
attractiveness of the .Tapuoese girl, Xbe natioao] 
dance, which is ^lerfonued (o the strains of a slow 
pliuiitivu uiusie evoked by a seated, baud, is mono¬ 
tonous in character mtd iutemiluable in lengtli. 

* Tbp KtwiiMiii^Ra |ibiit«irnirU wil thai tlw 
want uUteu C«rtaui CaMi*. U.M.B. * tdouJar,' En ISOS. 



Like ail tlie dsuivc$ of tlie Far it of 

a seriee of postures free from Indelicacy, and some of 
Lhem noL Vithout grace, and lias been described ns 
■» not iiupleasiug mixtnrc of tulnnet and qiiadrlUe^^r 
witk A dusk of the reel townrik the fintflh.* The 
Koreans will sit and gaze at It in rapt ei^tasy for 
hours at a stretch. 

THE ftjoen 

It k AS n country of liak tlinl Korea has Attained 
the widest eatemal fame, and in the course of a sitigle 
stpiU tlte streets of Suiil will aflbrd material 
for au exteuatve clasailication. The onUnary 
headpiece is a twofold atnteture • for the outer hat, 
hroad-brinuned and with alightly coiiical crown, not 
unlike the old raarket-hnt of the Welsli woman-— 

in-fi-sT ttrf tItJ 



tboQjrti mafle of a mnienal more ilelicnte diaji Woles 
ever sow—namely^ anumir the npjnr classes ^plii. 
bamlxio iibres, woveti lo^rether auU laoqaered black, 
and among the lower oniers a cheaper variety of the 
same, or horj^ehair—la only the extedor covering or 
superslruciure of a skull-cap or headband of the 
same maicrial, which is pressed around the terupies, 
in order to hultl in placf the tmcut hair of (he met:, 
drawn upwards and lied m a fciiol njuin the erown, 
Tlie exterior hat is kepi on l>y a riband or string 
of amber and cornelian lieads lieneath (he etiin. 
Then thore are hats for every riinfc, occupation, and 
even phase of life. Tiie yotilh. when he is lie- 
trotbed, wears, till liis marriage, a smart fabnea(ioit 
of straw. 

Tile snccossful candidate at one of the literary 
examtualiotis is dtstiuguisliefl by two wires ndumed 
with coloured rosettes, which project like hoops or 
antmnu over the sinmuit of his liat. Peasmits anti 
bull'd rivers are retuarkiiblc for col ossid gumthonses of 
jUaited straw, which abnoei conceal the fentureii, and 
whose circumference embraces the full widtlt of the 

I'erhaps the mouruer Las the worst time; for, 
not only must he wear a somewhat similar cstin- 
gniaher, hexagonal at die britit, but for a period of 
one, two, or three years, according to his reUiionsltip 
with the diu'eased, he is comi>elIed to don a henipeii 
robe tied bv a cortl round tlie wahst, and to carry in 
front of his nioutli a small hcmgwn screen lietwcen 
two sticks, in order, I Irelteve, to keep at a proper 


dbt-Auce the spirii af liie departtsi* Durtiig l)if^ 
period of mourniug, prescribed hr art inflexible regii- 
tiiUoii, he is further forhiiUlen to mmtyt (tr indulge 
ill any of the ligJiter uceupalioiie of lifej aiul 
iiistances have occurred of iJl-starr«l bridegrootus, 
a ooiitinuoua moriiility imtoug whose reladotii has 

left them striuided high and drj' for years on the sad 
saiuU of celibacy, their Jfrniot^saf meanwhile growing 
grey and ilhfavaun*d before their eves. Monks have 
a peculiar to iJieir order, made of rush-matting 
with a hexagonal >rim, and terminating in a conical 

WH CAi*iTAi. Ajra €ot:ftr oy KO/iSd !.i7 

opex: wUilt tliei'o ia a sepa-raie loii^ narrow atniw 
fabric for nuns, Tlic Korean iraldi&rs also bare a 
dialingluahiti" Uat, nuule of blaok bof^bsir felt, tied 
on vrlib coloured tape riliaiids •, a superior variety of 
the same article, adoniwl witii plumes, (iiakes of 
Llirir officers a wondrous siglii. li is ontj’, however, 
when we reach tlie grades of court and official so- 
ciety that the Korean batmaker achieveij his greatest 
inastfi-piecea. Tims, for tlie govemtir of a pro^'inoe 
he supplies a son of mitre of gilt pasteboard i while 
for luinisters and ofSciwts geueridSy are pre4!t*J*ibed 
Turioufi J^cea of hendpiere, constructed with re¬ 
ceding stages, like a Doge’s cap of state, tmd Otie<l 
witJi wings or paihlW projecriitg friuii the back. 
Even Uie royal lackeys liave a liemlpicco, coiishsthig 
of u sojal! bamboo strucuire, stuck on sideways, with 
a huge bunch of aniCcial flowers at die back, which 
is oidy IcJis faiilastic tliau iby lutrlei^uiiM cap of the 
fJhiili's runners at Teheran. 

With nine out of every ten persons clad in white, 
and with the entire ten a^ionied witli these aatooiflh- 
Amuiifr injs Turieties of headgear, it may readily be 
‘'“"*** imagined that etnetit-lifc in Soul is not 
e2£avtly the aamc, for instuuce, ;is In LauuIou or New 
York, Nor are there any cariiagfis. or wheeled 
vehicies of whatsoevor dcsi.-riptioti, to suggest a 
Western paralleb liocoiuotioii is entirely pedeairian, 
save lor such peraouB, usually of high estate, as are 
pf-rchetl upon the Imcfcst of the diminutive Korean 
jwnies, clinging with difficulty to the pommel of 
ii saddle, which lifts them ahiiost ns high altove die 



back of ike ntiininl :i.s the laUer U alHivtt tlie gromui * 
or as are lK>nie along by shtniiitig aii-euiLuiis in open 
chaira, or ^ext to piifiie» tbe moat famitiar 

atihnals ettocoiitereti in tbe street of ore mag- 
niileeiit hiilb^ mareliitig along itrnlai* vast ati^plfg of 
bnisliwotxl^ and behating thi^maoh’es xnth a docility 
tliat is quite estraoriiiiuiry. They are tin* only other 
lieast of bunleo known to (lie coBmtiy'j are highly 
priicd, and fetch o^mparalively heayy prices. Chil¬ 
dren alwund everywhere, and derive a |)OCiiliar grati¬ 
fication from sporting in the gnttm. Tliey art* 
freqtiesitiy cliid in pink or some otJier bright colour, 
and are nsnally engagtjd in tljing Aniall PL*ctai3|iu]ar 
jiainteil kites, made of the woiulerfnl oiled paper of 
the couiiiry,' iCiie-fighting consUts in diawing une 
kite sharply in'toss auoOmr when at a great lieiglit 
in tiMi air, so ns ki sever the rival string. Another 

*■ Thd Karc«tt [TApt^* m lh« mmi. rrin&rk^Lki ftA^vo ounni^tiLiie. 
li U nidib Iron) moTTi ttuEii iitu* mAzrnol^ ih»TTTg 1 r!i nvfioJ],^ frifcuj tho 
iiiiwr Wk Ilf 4 siinIbiety-tTv^i but ia Itumlijf 4ii>’kbiD|f in Kur^t^ 

ihiii €iiintioi Im nyuli^ i^r iL ARtr j I hmn lifsih rifinkcij in. dll 4 f hiauw 
ii bfidoiiaj^ lidlli sxrDDifiJij^ly dunliiUi dtiiI i/intEn^iirdtif. vrurli it iA 
TiESil in»tfa4 ctrrTHit* on tbp cf pii|S«r un iJbe vaILkl 

utiiiuu! pr ill tbd ffiniJi^wi^ uniL initt#4uL nl icbhd'iTuti nn thp 

teiliiifii. CJuOiiia^ iiuii, lyihl ioiii juc Jiiunl^ cif \t i 

to ftr«i Ei][i1}dflllrLf, liiiit(muii ikntl lutc-e, TLooma ar? by paptir 

tVrPQTlN ; dirtlutlt HEP kfijll in. |qh|l4:r ubltMtA J IIU?n tjKWCl. M'ith 
trnukft: dtiliZcirit pU;? wiih toyn, llipji ibm ajti tho i^rdiimry 
pojpuw* uf wtttlUjR djid luinti ^; «3 tuv Lh» Kamui, tbui 

Pfpii £ii:MuiiiRtj«]-|kfljkEn of tiui C^uiilubitfi* in llip litoz^o 
linat, iuMlDiyl of \>nin^ tiirpwn Kvmy^ dinpoi^il of fnr (t ftiW flo{P|HJi>L 
Ami iinWipjttiitEy ib n# bu|irriiirir«iJ on ibe 

Aliimldiir* tif tUfl ctwilws wlw go in thi? mJn* limAc^tly 

pnmtlnjf Uid iiiRxloKK Coiil\iciti« tm timfr TJin gTinri| 34 ^ 

EiuiiiiEriiorDfj laUiA Tikllty wnicrntliy a fiircAjii putaiilot}iO luirUi 4y| 
Rod n AURin pftpoT^tniJL willi iiuki.dunei 7 p Kii« jiut liv^ti 

tifeeud-at TiUiC'Uwm t?ltb on tW Ilaiii, fbui luikp fudirw tha cApiLmt, 

Tfrs cjit*iTJiL counr of kokfa m 


ItopuJur urban arouscrmont is stone-ilirowine, EHffe- 

rent piirta of the capiinl, wLicli b lUviikU uUo five 
fjuarti^rs or wania, or diJfertirjl villajijea, Herc'e 
w'rtrfare on an open 8pac« of ground, driving each 
other baekwartb and forwartU witli sUowetvi of 
laiasUes. Tliese <i<mtea(s are eontiucted, 'riili great 
ferodtv, and frequenily resalt in losa of life. Even 
wii h rJie advance of .dvilbatioii their javiigery haa 
scarcely aLated; Uiougli Uie epori, which Ints nothiijg 
to reeoinmcnd it, is iatd to bo less popular than of 
3 'ore. It is not unlike the custom, still prevailing in 
one or iw'O Euglbh places, of an annual focitball 
tuat(!li in the luaiD streei between tw’o ports of a 
town, in wliich every one who likes may take part- 
A history of sack and siege has left very few rolice 
of atttiquitt' either in the capital or in its neightwor- 
hoot!; but^ such as they are, T will tlescribe 
them. At the jiinutiou of the two iitain. 
streets, under a roofed pavilion, known as the (.’hong 
Kak. or Jiell Eiosque, and behind wooilcti bar*?, hangs 
a famous old broiiw bell, wiuidi is reporEvd. with a 
modesty that 1 cannot tiuiik remarkable, since I have 
found it shared by at least Indl a doiteii rival coin* 
l^etitonj iu the tmurseol tay travelB, to be the third 
largest hi the world. It is in no respect an mitoiiish- 
itig bell, lu'itig without, orttaiiieiit, save for an inscrip- 
tlon, whii;)i relates that it vvcis erected in .\.n. 1468, 
by Tmjo Tal Woaiig. Eut the Americam* lire jfatd to 
have tried to get hold of it fttr Chicago t and it never 
allows its own presence Ui he forgotten by strangers, 
for it b bulged with a swinging wm-tden beam evert' 



I’veniu^ fur sotni' LtL-twecu 7 ami i> I'.a, 

l>elbre the gHie^ are , and aljm Wfore simrbet 
betwetn 3 and 5 a.4i., aj> wdJ on other oc<Taaion 3 , 
wlieii there is a fire, The roads divet^iig from the 
Chong Kak are known as Cliotig Ko, or Ikjll Ilcnds. 

wai* close to the JleU Kios^pe tliat the atone 
Wits placet! in bj- tlie old Itegent, ilje Tui Wen 
Kuiu iviio reigtiwl before the present Ebig 
liatl atiaiiied his n\fljority, niib iin inscripTioti 
eolUiig upon the Eoreans lo kill all Ciuistioiu; nor 
was it till that k was finnll y removed. Adjoiu- 
iiig ilie same sUt- lire tlte only two-storeyed shops, or 
wareliotises, in Siiul. They beUmg to tiie King, nntl 
:ire leasetl to the inerchariLs of the six great trading 
guilib of Korea, who pay him a substantial price for 
the privilege of oouiroUmg the sale of Chimwe and 
native silk, of cot torn goods, of hemp and gross cloth, 
and of Korean pai»er. Tli e fi]iops> oiwn on to a narrow 
ceutTfd court, but thegood^ there displayetl, consisting 
of silk and cotton and figured gauze fabric*. Chinese 
shoes, native paper, and bratw tttcnalU,' do not greatly 
atiraei the foreiguer. Ee is^ more likely to pick up 
s^imethlng amid the old rnbbish lying upon the open 
st:ills iti die inniiv street outside. 

til the back court of a mean hovel, at no great 
disttuice, stands a small and exquisite, though mneh 
deCacwl, white granite pugotla, whose asoeuditig tiers 

• aiuoti 4 ; UieM It \» uiUiur ta |ijui tHtlHiui (wstW ihii nalkiiia! 
lUijtltfiiiijDk of H riitrulnj briiH |mt u'Mi a IM, hn% nn tnuiiPa^ 

whialiiAcofruiiiiWil Uy thfi iff 

m fiiiiillMtfck, Mb-j»biu, i|ijtUkOiK imd 

dT# thdtxfhr^^ 


Ttwirt-t nr tuv ow! mini, (ittiTii 



are rieUy catred wlUi images itT the seateii Buthlhn. 
'rUe tojjnniiii tier lias been lirokeii off—it is tmid by 
the Japanese during their iuraiilon 300 years 
(ilfw agfi^aiid is U"iug upon the ground hard 
by. Tlib mouumeut was variously rejunied lo me 
as havbig l>eeu broiiglu over frrmi Oima by the 
Chinese w'iie of a Korean inonareh some suven 
oeiiUmes ago, and as maTklng the site of wliat was 
once an iuii>ortant Buddhist monftsi-erj' in llie heart of 
tlie I'itv. Xot far away stajids a Ohlnese stetg or tall 
grauite piUar, wiUi wreathod tlragoti^ af the top, and 
an vindecipheralile iiittcriptioii on the fai^e. rtipoaiug 
upon uii inrmeneti gtwiiUe tortoise.' There are a smiilar 
ami tortoise outside altout 7^ miles fitnii 
the east gate, with an iri-teriptiOTi in Chinese and 
Maiicliii uiwu the opposiu! faces, commamoratiufi the 

tTiRiitution of the Korean king, who at 

l)nii gpfit to the Maiif.’lni (^omjiieror, upon his second 
invasion of Korea hi 1337. and renounced albgiunoe 
lu t h** Mings in his favour, Between Ihtn pillAr and 
the citv is passied the Sen Kuang Kio, an old biidgc 
uf white stone slabs, resiing ujmjh twenty-oue stoUe 

Keligitm at present has but few alt.'irs in or near 
to Llie Capitid. Then* is an altar to ihe bpirils of the 
Land (someiioies iniscidled llitt Temple of 
H^iaven), coimsling of ft bare open platform* 
upon which annual sacrifices are offereil by Ihe King* 
as on the She Ctii Tau in China and in Aiin:im. 

* ITw (oitot® tn mjUiuloay it *>«* t»f ctbprina 

vftht drt|Niu»nrl \t plMedLoluw itiBJiMiAl jillwi iuhI w 

nH ciuilt|i!iij uf &txioiij5lbi 



lnslclii> tlier walls on tlie nortL-vast » ilit* Tt*tiipln of 
ConfiK'iujc, where there is tlie i;ustoiiiiiry saiicttiary 
containinff liie tablet of ilwt phUosoyiljer.'aTifl a krjre 
bttilditig for students aiul iitiffitti I also naitet] the 
Temple of tlie Oral of War, outside t he smuUefti fjate, 
one of Ihose semi heroic adiUiiong lo the axhieae 
pantheon ithe gtnl being reported to have been a 
real Imtoriral jietsoiiaj^ or distinguished general who 
was eanouLsed by Imperial etiirt) which are familiar 
to the traveUer in the Celestial Empire. The images 
in tlie temple are hiileous beyond words, but in one 
of the oonris is an mterestmg sundial iu a basin; 
ami two side galleries contain a curtoiis collection of 
getuibie old helmets atid armour, exactly Tiha those 
which I sliall slionly daseribe in the JiEoyarPrTk;essiom 
ami a tmmlter of wail-pain tings, repreeentttig battle 
scenes iiy land and sea from the famous Chinese 
historical novel San Kuo Chih, or Reconl of the 
Three Kingdoim; 

< >rie of the most conspicuous oibjects in Siiol is 
the Hong hal Muu, or lietl Arrow' Gate, erect«l at 
B*v «>me distance from the Palace. This is a 
'***• lofty wmxkii areli, some 3b feet high, paiiji erl 
red—the royal colour—and ooiisiating of two per- 
pendicuha* iioste, iinitedat the lop by two hoH^ontal 
traverses, through whiclj a niimlier of red arrows 
are Gxetl vdih their points upwartls. Tliis andiwaT, 
which is cif Tartiir origin, and somewhat r<>setnblei} 
the toni (or so-callwl bird-rests) which precede 
Util Shinto and Buddhist temples in Japan, as well 
as the wtumemorative arch t^rpailyw in Cliina, h a 


syrntx)! of jnajeaty and govurmaout in Korta, and is 
acGonliagly erecied in front of royal palaties, GoTcm- 
ment buildings, and tomiilus or tuonastcrifs vsa at 
Sak "^rang Sa) raider roA’ul {niironage. In i?aul it 
marks tlie approaclt to the Xam, Piel£iuig, or Palace 
(if the Chiinjse Irapc-rial Commissioners- A not dis- 
similarljul farmora elegant a ml pundy Chinese stone 


archwaVx called the Ceo Muu, stands about a mile 
outside the western gate on the road to I’ekitig, and 
mark® the |j«*ini to which the King goes forth to meet 
the lm|:rerial EnvoyXeur to it is the Bokakan, or 
luansiDii in which he awaits their arrival. 

Contintiing past this gate to a point about three 
miles from the city on the north-west, otie arrive* at a 
gigantic itnage of Buddha, 15 feet high, winch hai^ 



been pauitod upon the upri|jhl surfjn'e of tt luige 
fallen ln>ultler. ’Hie is all white, bin 

the mouth, enrs, and hend*tlres 6 liave 
SS-hi* Wn coloured; and a gaudily painted temple- 
roof ha-> been erected &> n sheUtii- ovcur rJie whole. 
One hand of the image is upUfteil, the oilier re^tuses 
at hi» aide. 

The place of execution luicd to be near ' the 
southern gale, where, .after decapitation- the bead- 
£jMwntkiii^ less trimk and trnnltlesfi heatlof ihe criminal 
lay exposed for iliree days. Ulic Lntroduc- 
tion td The foreign element, with its sernpless baa 
removed the scene of oju^ratiuns to a site 'SOlue miles 
fntm the city, where a friend of mine witneaised an 
exeeutioti of leveral milpriish—the head never falling 
till after several ski^hriii from a big sword—and evi-u 
pa hi ted ii |ticinte of the grnesonip B cene. 

-\matig the other envircitiG of Siiul, the only ojies 
worthy of mention are riie two roval retrejits or 
fortresMUf in Um mountains of V'ouk Snn and 
finwLLu:. 3^111 i^tik San, which are suiTOiuided by 
walls and fortified, und are litld bv monkish «av- 
rismis,’ To one or other of these, in times of 
invaaion, revolution, or danger, the King eseajMis, 
provisions being stored tliere in amieipaiion of a 
Uiug siege. Tile nearest of them is eleytm miles 

• TUi* rfiri-W aOlltJa li« (ram ihn wiu-u tlut liudilUht 

luBiwdyr was »ffmn [wwer iii ilio kai, mA piHtdunrS a,vj 

wHiiufi H wriU) H JitvotMn w.iatiu1ettla, Thd oiciiuuMmt h'c» th*n 
ItilMws*. ftTtd Krtti, cBimimva by tb^ir inuintiit; U wiu from 
tihi> of Ibmo fwUfita w Miutorbi* tluU ihp Frrotb met wlib ihaJi iliwu. 
tFUuv bci RAi4fbii^j& Iw lfintl |it i^>riL 

rii£ i'Aj>iTAL coVKT ov KonF.A m 

a»8fnm, mill b friilled HuUmizan, the wallod enclosure 
beitii/ five uules in circaiu llte larger h sixTijeii 
iiiik^ (lislmiti and its wall is seven miles nnuid. It 
is called Kan1tmi£an.' 

1 uexi lum to the Hoyal Palaces. Jusi as the 
oapit^d is die centre of tlie kingdom, to whidi 
. evcrvliodv mid as'crvilimg—society, oiliciala. 
tf In itemi* Ciuididaies, inorehants, huaiiics&, eniplo 3 'nieni, 
relaxation—graviUle, so docs the eniire life of the 
^mpital revolve roimd the centre of ihe Pahice ami 
tlm King. The latter niav be a small personage to 
\ho outer ivorld—jK-rliaps a large majority of man' 
kiiul may be nnpware even of hk existence—but to 
his subjects lie is Boineihing ovenvhelminglv great, 
trhilo to tbese attributes is added, in the case of 
Cldiia ami of its once depeudent States, iJie prraiige 
i»f a rank that is bchl divine, and entitles its wearer 
to be calk'd the Soti of Tlcavcii. I'io celestial arioii 
in I he world In all probaldliiy exercises less iudnenw* 
upon its destiuiea than lbs Majesty the King of 
Korea; but that does not in the least detract from 
his titular eminence in the eyes of Koreans, which an 
aiiciont and inflexible etitpiette maintalj'iB in n l»e- 
iromiDg atiunsplicrc of mystery anil isobiiion. tor' 
tunatelv in the case of Korea, the hedge of royal 
dignity, atill imimpaired in the co^e of the suzerain 
Power and of the Court at Peking, has liecii sutli- 
cieujJy broken through by the force of eircuiBStantais 

' TW» nn»» Iw Uw • F.Trt n{ Xuunjui SniiAinnir ' of ni?n<Wk Uiuiinl, 
u-be» ibt. Uliie fotirud in *jit, wbifh VTM ill M »v«i JenKPW, orthiw 
honr*. ftmu Swt. wn* wiiJi tkrco provisitiw, fcBil wpa 

^rrisozi^l bjf ^ ^UgiOEiE.* 



I tn 

lilt* pa&t lw(*nty to ulmlt of 

l»eiog readily coucedwl l)y » nionarcli. whom cloHr 
ogntacr rev«d 9 a» an amiable pemMiage^ not ies» 
human—j>erlmpfi tti ceirtam respects rather Jiuire *o- 
—limn the bulk of bis fellovr-creatures. 

Tliere is quite n tuuaber of palnt^es in S^iul. fhie 
of these, the Nam Kjing, near tlie soutli gate, is 
iinv*! emploved for tiiarrioge ceremonies, h*j* 
r 4 M 4 M (Sometimes been the residence of tlxe Com- 
inuiKler-itt-CUier Atuilher, the Njiui [*iel Kiing, near 
the west gate, is reserved for the oceonnuodatiou of 
tlm Diq>eriai Jytvoys from Peking. A third, the Gn 
iVon Kung, in the norUteni quarter, was tbimcriy 
occupletl by the Tai Wen Kuii, or liegent, the fttUiiir 
of the reigning King, wloj pricticolly usnqicd the 
throne during his son's nihioriuv persecuted tlie 
C'bristians, tortuied an<t kitlixl the missionaries, aud 
by bis KiTage and reactionary policy hi reed upon 
foreign Powers the first opeuiiqr of t!ie cosmtrj'. 

Ilia principal resideiico of Rfyalty has usually 
Ihm'q i el line of two palaces of much, greater .sute than 
ihttse hitherto meuttoned. Accoimts vorv 
KtKx- as to the rRspeetive antiquity i>f the pjuc. the 
otiL' that ia tenijioraiily occupied by tlie fit>veroigii 
being commonly ilcnosmiuKed tbe^'ow Palace^ pn*- 
sumaltly because rqtttirs have recently been required 
iti ortler to render it iiabitablc. 'Hie two together 
occupy an enormous space, surruunded bv walls, 
anfi entered by gretU gales, m the nortlieni part of 
the city t and in their preeiticfj m* indnded ficvcral 
hundreds of acres of eiii'bBOil but uncultivated ground, 


exrtendiuj:; ta the sittntutc of tbe north IiiU^ n 
flevatiou covnretl with biw scruLs lliat rises to a 
atrarp and lofty j>oint just b«iilrifl. As a matter of 
faer, lim more easterly of rlie two palaees ia the 
newer, huviiijr been erected for the Utor Apparent, 
about 4fh) yeoi? It has thirteen gates and 

4?ov'et^ ati enoniious space of groiuiil. niueh of which 


is laJc! mil \i% pa^T:lcii^ and Tralke, and is ^ulorued 
with lotiis-pondit, bridges, and stimmerdumses* It 
was occupied by tbe King in the early years after 
his ficcession, was partly burned, down in 1S82, was 
rebuilt and resveciipieii, but again deserted after the 
TtebcUion of I8Si, aii»I, when I was in Sold in 1892, 
was without a tenant; though it was n^pottetl that 
the King w'as going bsiclc there, beennso a Hiiakc Jiad 


fnUi?n from tlte cfUifijj of the Cn^wn IV'mee's room in 
tin* otht^r piUinHu StioririLij# of supplied, honc%‘Br, 
Uiicrffcred with the execution of l:lii> ilwsigUi Intt tJn? 
King Iiad already (’ouiiected the gToutid:* of tIub palace 
by m eiicliwil pafiJiage-way itt the Ixick with the 
oUier piUace in which he wafi lIjaii re'^idiiig. 

ITie taller, wlUdi ia tlte tuare westerlv aud now 
ilie principal ia also ihe older build mg, having Imjch 
erected 000 tears ago. It atanda at die 

■erf OH *' ^ 

vaIm head of the broatl ilioruughJare known as 
Palace-strct't, the end of which is entirely fiJkd by 
its inaasive stone gateway, aimnouiitwl by a hea^y, 
double-roofed jiavUion. Outside ilje gate are two 
greteiUjue alone lioiw lijxjn pedestals, mmI a ramp 
with eighteen bw stone piLlare on eidier side. To 
the base of the gate-tower are i hree arched doorw'ava, 
closetl vritb wooden dotjrs, adorned witli painted 
figures. Of these the middle door, or Thoi Uwa 
Ittun, is only opened for f he bgre^s or egress of the 
Khig, or of a Minister Plenipotentiary going lo present 
his credGftiiala from his Sovereign ; but Uie others are 
the regular pasaagc-way to the muitinulo of interior 
courts, which ore crowded with tiffieialis retainers, 
soldi ere, niiuisi(?rs, secretaries, lackeys, rmiiiors, and 
hangere-on of tweiy dj^cripiion. Tive hundrwl 
guards protect the royal person, (he remainder of 
ihegnrrison of ^idH>0(w!ucli repreaents, under normal 
circumstanoea, ihc entire standing armr of Korea) 
being stationed ia barracks otjtiide. ' There are 
further reported to be about ii,OUO rctaliiore in i,lw 
Palace ('ticlosure. 

iUOWAt Qt MIK rilM 


Tlt£ IWriTAL €01’MT Of KOHt’A H!> 

First t'Otiiii Mvo immense pnvetl eourts, aurroumU'd 
Uy low LniUlinjrSt niid termiimtiiig in great gateways. 
tiiMi The* secoHtl of these comlueis to a furtlier 
Aaiikfiuco quudraiij^lej aUo of great si:fe, at tlie upper 
i'liil of which, iiH a twofolil lemiw or plaifonii, sur- 
rouuded by wliite granite balustnuUs, mid aaceiJiled 
by triple llighu of steps, tlie uiiddletnost of wbieh are 

resen'e<l for ili« palanquin in which m lionie ilie 
rfiyal person—stands tlie Great IlaJJ of Audience, 
wherein i» held the im[]Osing pageatiirv of the annual 
Uv^ins on the King's birthday, on New \earii Day. 
and on other festive aiimvetaaries. The b nitflinp 
conahiia of a great twin-roofed iiall. constructed 
entirely of wf*ofl, the richly <rarrei.l anil reticulated 
ceiling of whieJa, paiuied iwl, blue, ttini greeut b 


niipp«trt«<l by ijjimume drcuLtr pillarfl, culoumi rctJ 
aUiTG and whitu Ht tlie base. It is empty except for 
9 lofty sc‘iirle( datt faring! the ®J'd itseendwl 

Uv six steps, ujKiit wliicli, to fn>iit a. beaudfnUy 
fUirved ficarlot ioid block screeuof pierced iir nod work, 
is placed the clioir ftf st tite of the Kinjr, From this 
|MtHitinii he lixik* diivvji npou the tuotteil lluor uf the 
luilL through ilie open doors on to the double leirare 
ont^id^ Olid tlufiu'c U» ibe poveil tpiadrangle, where 
twfeU’fi iuaiiribcil pillars on eitlmr hand iniHt^ate the 
various poiiii.ioiis taken up by ihe different ranks of 
Tioblea and officials at the roval The furthest 

of these ifi ko distant os barely U» render visilile the 
uugu-st. form of the iSovereigm The idea of this 
gpleudid Audience ITall, grandiose in its nvusaivtj 
simplicity, is curiously analogous to the talars, or 
throne-rooms, of llie Persian king? from the days of 
Darius to tho^eof Xoar-ed-tUii $hah j uud the spectude 
wliich it presents on the great days of auditjiice, like 
ilint wliiclt I shall describe in my succeeding work at 
Uiu^, b one of the few surviving and miaci pageiinta 
of the Far East 

In an adjoining court is the tSunnner Palace, a 
latge hail or pavilion raised uik>u rorly-eight ]>illitrs 
tiiiiBntr atone, Iwelvo feet high, in the middle oJ 
a lotns'poud. JJard by may also be seen 
the Chin Olmng Hall, ar Hull of Piliyence, due Ynu 
Hall, or Hall of DttparU'd Spirits, which is used in 
the funeral uekbr til ions of royalty, and the lliai Hfdl, 
or Hall of Fasting, llie rear part of tlie building, 
where the King and liU sei-agUu rcsiilc, eoimata of a 

n/£ CJPfTA/. Ayj> OF KOitSA lal 


Iiutiitwr of smalli^r cmirui, kiosques. awl pavilitwis, 
with a gDotl tlcal of hriglii painliJi;*. iwiO 
poi^Bsalng a r*ertftii» ftoitaatic ckiraiu't!. Tlie elftoiric 
Ugli) wa» iriHtallml in lUU part of the by nrtkr 

of llii? IuiJg» who has the OrionUl s foiiduess for any 
new aiul expensive ifi\'«iifioii ^ Inu it vety ^oou came 

iftTHuraK tmt oiJ> rAt4i:K 

to grief. It waa in one of tlie smaller edifices tliat I 
was ailuiiitexl in an audieiii'e with fits Maji^ty. 

Li llei, Kingof Korea (whose oripmal Korffiio name 
was Miwg I'okd), ss the Iwenty-elglitlj sovereijrn of the 
Hi.Rhsb reigning dyrinsty. He was llie nephew of 
jj Hwati, tiie last king hnl one, who having 
ao children had l»eeu sticceedod liy bis tmcde I*i Pingi 
who also dieil cfdldless in 1S04. Tliereuiwu t he ytnmg 
tiov, at that time twelve years of ago» was selected 



fls heir bv tlie lltoy.'il Camn'll, aiiil triis adopiPil by hi^ 
gren^t-grimduioUier* I lie Uueen Utvirsi^r Choo, tile 
widow of til® Crown l*riuw liV Yiiig, who liad never 

sucececled to throne. This old ladvdied in 1890. 


The yoticg floverei^ beiii|i a minor, tlie royal 
autln>rU.y vtoa vestiid Lu a t'^ninoil of out: fif 

Ttift T»i whom- Li Llsia Yitig, the faUier of the hoy and 
Wmi Kmi prcal strength of chtiracier. toot 

advantage of hia |»osttton to usurp tli® chii'f jnuver. 
Nommally as Hegeni. with the Uite of Tai Wen Kini, 
J/ord of ilie Oreui Court, he niled the kingflom with 
great fisvftrity from to 187^, He ti w:in who 
was responsible for the fiii'kiits persecution uf the 
('liristian iniviionarics that brought the misuecessiiil 
Trench expedition of 18fit5 into Ivoresu and for the 
franlii' finii-foreipn misade whleh eventually broke 
down niuh r the coiiihinetl prcsisure of the foreign 
l^owers. He was once aptly descrilxid by a iiniivi* 
ViTiter as having ^ bowelii of inmand a hearc of Btou®,' 
the assnmpiiou by the King of ftill sovereignty 
in 187;L and the sul>sciiucuL opening of the couiUty. 
the Till Wen Kun headed the Conservative or Iloac- 
tiooary party, against all treaties and all foreigners, 
and is lieUeved to have imtigated Ute first outbreak 
against tlie Japanese I.«gadon in 18S2, when an 
attempt wart moil® to kidnap the King and u* kill the 
Clintcn,' and when the Japanese Minister, Hauabiifia. 

tilt iiiOrenatlj'wcrabnlh tlujQthuni mjtJ tbe rrawii griner 1rtiliav»iS 
to IntTiit tiwTi tIuK their deiiih wtm j^ruiltHt He m tart Li Mr, R 

tlfiSlH I7«rmit .Vii/toif, whleh WM pubhabjMl eliortJy Hlliii'wai'liii [< 

btriot! tin-lesif aUv Ii,r a whilv <o rtvrel th» tnilh, i,4iliotwJ 

for H yjiaf weji wen ivOeMit. an.t wiu oluenoa fyr tijn ftilt [wrioiL Jt 


and liiB fuUoff tng kid to rctreai %kt1n^ to (.lu!ntuI|io, 
where ikev wen? picked oj* ky a British raau-of- 
war. Very shortly ike Japanese ilinister reappeared 
witlt Jcmuiids for immetliate and ample reparndoQ ; 
l>ui, wlule the negoiiatious »tiU lingeretE, the sky was 
siKlilualy cleared by a thiutderboli kiunelietl by LI 

Hiin/r Cliimg, the great C'kinwe Viceroy, who liail 
Mdtteil til a oppertiiiifty U> reassert iho comprotiiised 
suzerainty of liis Imperial master* The Tai Wen 
Kuu was himself kidnapped and dej)<)rted to Ckuiii^ 
when* he wjis kept a prisoner at i'aoting Fu. 

•itkMi|iii!«lly ttw* but l»BB *juoq|s?l*J ™i i» 

iltift wpife fi ||4 wiiv of 4 oolfUnTr liltLl llirtl nt» of tUi? hiuL 

h^va liiilwl ill luit ^um4 


i .'»4 

Durinji Ilia in lBis4. neecoucli wolutinn, of 

eouiGwIiAt simUar dianiinGr, brobt om in iht c«pil4iV 
frocfi whicli ^hG King otiIv eaifapeil by jumping on to 
On? biit'k of it euiiUGh, in wkicli not loo rtignifitNl jjmsi- 
liou Ug wijs cjirried inUj theniintf^onnip outsitleSiinl. 
After nifttletB Itmi beeii tiouiewluit compK^U llie lCing 
iH'gan to tliink llmi the tihilitic'S of llie ohi 
iiiigliL [jerlmps after all bi* more uaefiilly emplovfHl 
iif home; iml accordingly he hitUBcIf applied ti> 
(Jiina for Jiia rest oration. It cniiuot be said that tin- 

esperimeui was :i auwess, sti far as the relations of 
the pair were coucemed, for in the euiimier of iSH2 
3 flftcnnitu.Kj rUtempt was made by the ptiJilical 
ifppijjienia of tlu: Tai Wen Knu lo blow hini up with 
jifiuiiiiiwder, though the niisdlrccuon of the 4 :spUjsive* 
irhicli l.ilew out the aide ol t.Ue room whieli he 
ocou pied. Instead of the floor, saml the old giuitle- 
iniui's life. It could not fail to lie lemarfeed Hiat the 
King evincifd no solicitude at t!ie ttiiraculous escape* 
cf his parent—a calJoufflies* vliich was the more 
extraonlinary in a cuujitry where Confucianism Iuih 
im*uloated iliial ro«|ifct as the highest duty. The 
1’ai Wen Kim, now sefrenty-two yean^ of .ige, is ittill 
living, and h probably expectbig to be blown up again. 

• TliP Im J&r uf t iui i«io1uii<ni. Kiin Ok Kimi, wluj ««iaped Hi ilw 
time liTud for roiiu, ypm a< ■ netri;^ nnilw n-i.ii«i>tiun 

lU KiiHu, hflvuiv bMiitiaudj ir. aUifflid. wh luuvdered 

UMMTti in ihin Spnwj of iSSi Iij' & t«U^w.|!OitiiU^tniui, K i« uiil m tho 
TMUsation of ihn Ring. Ai^bow.hiirm^, uj^ui l«liw tmk.^ 
iMuk w Kwim fcjf rthlw of tbs OoviimmiiDt,«rerfi Umn, lu 

J piOilw j iho iniSBt^re of Iun funily 

w.-iti iml to dBfllh. «i,l lUe- munW •imi loajpil *,th b„n.Hi». Ronn 

n*v« w iTHJihtnUd buc diiiiu to ^tUnian From tbs nul^r 

Hit ciTTliHtlmu ^ ^ 


To thi- rcjnarlcal-iJe expariftjL'es ivLirh f Kax*® relatei! 
lie also ;hU!s l.he acaroiiiplisliiiientJ of aiiarfist; ruid 
] .ttii the {JOMiWitor of an excelleiii signed peu-and-ink 
drawing liy iiiti hand. 

With the exception of the two ahoTe-tnetitioiied 
revoliB hii 18ft2 ami ISS4, which w-cre in Innh cases 
Ti-Kms. poiitical and L'otirt intrigue, 

miller (liati of any iiopnlsir movement, the 
King has until tUt* present I’ear occupied the tluoiie 
lor Iweniy years willioui menace or peril- Upon 
both ihose occasioDS. though (lie external symptom of 
the outbreak wai? itii nitack upon the ,lap8Uiese Iji- 
gatiou, who luvarittbiy repre'sent the least popular 
ek'Uicnt of society in !?onh the real object of tJie con- 
spirator? was to capinre, without iujuriiig, tlic person 
cif the King, whose seal tunl signature lend a iiiucli 
Coveted saiictioii to the siicrissfiil facivon,* It was 
not the life tif the Sovereign ilnit wa^ aiineii at in 
ciitUer ; but iho inUnciicc of under iviiose 

Control he was, and is suppiised to be. In I'ebrnary 
of the jiresent tiear ( lliit^) a plot wiut discovered far 
blowing up with gun|)Otvder the King, (>otvn Prince, 
and cliief Mtttisters of State while <m a visit to the 
Ifoyal Ancestral Temple; but what Uie t^xact object 
of this Korean Huy Fawkes may have l>ee]i> or who 

' TJw pirmin of ihe S 4 rt-i!rot«n i# livtit «Krfwa fttiil mrinktil*—hfc 
rtal ; txit it Is ibr rovnl jkiJ tliiti it tlm 

<w votoil (thippt liE fwnit yw. m rliJuuw of i»ny In KortoJi jfOT^ 
itirni ivJikh ibw* I* no iiHrMuury for odfctic^ by h i,ienrrtil elwdupy 
H'Mi htvjiriAbly nu-rfed «itiui follow#;—I'he «in»|iiTftlnrs- (pilhiifwJ hi 
BiifHckni minibtfs In ttw l'nl»rt% umiMd mhI wiBMUiuiwt til* tr^ilM* of 

lb*U..vcrmiienl.iiiblb(iblorii«iK;iisaiia .if aii. 

prll«,l hiiu to tbh- wjhiwu* for t>in rumulion of iho mitrdweil 

US thnlr dWh coiiiuii^ions.. 



were thu real iiisiigaiors uf the design, has ixat yet 
trauajjired. It is getieraliy snpp^wietl ti> havt? I>eeu 
the old Hegt’iit% reply i€) ihe attempt upon Mmstdr 
two years fearlitfr. Whether the father, ur the ssoii, 
will iiist sucjjot'd ill tliift campaign, of coinpehilve 
explosion it will he iiitercEiing to ohserve. 

Uis ^fiijesty is ii mutt of tntxch anuabilitv of clia- 


racier; and luaiiy inslane&t are related of liis personal 
cliaTTit oi disposition and l^aritig, Lf Le tluea 
not share tlie higoiry, noiiher does ho TiilierJt 
the determimiilou oflib failieri ami plafoil tia hth-^ 
Wii ill diltlcult cireuinsiftdces, for wliieli,by trajiung 
atnl iruditioitp lie w;m eqiiailj' unprepared, there art* 
many excuses to Ije made .alike lor volatility fif jmr- 
pose mtd irreaoIuitU'm of action, lie takes a keen 
zest ill nny m-w ili;>covury or indention, but is not 
free from die super^iiiions of his race and cciuiiUy. 
Tt will lx* aceoutitt'd n remai'kaldc fMci in UistorT.' that 
litiili Japan and Korea should have undergone m the 
second half nt the present ccutiiry the greatest revf^- 
lutioM in (heir atinnls, iincler I lie wi^eptre of su\'e- 
reigiiii whose persotiality struck in neither case a very* 
definite or individual note. 

The moat powerful inducnce in tlie l‘alace, find 
iiuleed in tlie voimtry, is reixiried to be ihat of the 
T]ii,QBi,rt members of whose family, known 

fts Min, hiive been introdneed iiiio uearlv 
every poaiiiun of impiirtaiice or einolitment about the 
CJourt and in the <.lov6rnnu*iii, and have thereby 
Bcipiired an ascendency which is the canse of great- 
political Jaaluusy ojul iiitrignu, Tim Qm-en's infor- 


multi* and. spies are eaid to Imj every ivhcre, and 
noibing h- done TntUoot her knowltstlge. li wiis 
ftgaimi tills otniii|Mjteni uiilueiire that the Tul Wen 
Klin directed alt the forces ni Ute dispci&al; and h 
hua long been felt in Korea that the enioti«iTOi of the 
lioatile and tlisconifiled parly may at any lime cultm- 

tiate in an ouLhreak iu which heads may Util. 'Hie 
tbieeii is believed not to e<d®y very rohtist lie^lh; 
and ill the event of ntiy acekknt to her, the pow-wful 
olan of the Mins would probably experience lively 

‘Fiji? King's eMe&t fiou by tht* Queeti* Li Hsia by 
name, tfi ihaHeir Apparent, of Crown Vrincej and was 


liom in lS7d. Uis abilities, iiowever^ ure s<^ mnoh 
t>Ue iiverti^if, nml is !m> little c]iatii‘p of 
TMUrwm ^ foimdiujx a fiuuily, that, hb poatiou in the 
State is It^sa important iban itmiglitoihenrisc 
bet sittl attention 1ms lately U.'en tUreetedtoanotUfr 
and elder son oF tlie Kliijr by a oonouliine, uf wlioni 
mure may he heartl in tlie future. 

Tlie Korean luonardiy is absolute, liereditaryv and 
(liviiue. Tlie is master of tlic Uvea and uroimriy 
■n««y i.f subjects ami of the entire resources of 

kingdom. .:Ui are held ai his 
pleasure. TTis won! b Uw, In hk peJ-wn is contreii- 
traced every attribute of Oovenunent, If in relation 
to l.Huiia Im is .a hnmide vassal, in Ids own dumiiurm$ 
he is supreme!. Tim openinf? of Ivor at to the world 
has, however, not been arcomplislied svithout deaUnjf 
many and ijievitalile blows ai tlje peculiarly sacto- 
sauoL cliancitT of die royal aulhority, upon wide!j 
etrfi -^13 has t>een kid by so many writ ere.' This ha.s 

^ ati^ tu ih^ nutin hinu desenU- 

rmtiirtH Cwnt MmrjmmiUr luul <if xW ihfiQn of 

wlijcli Witfii proliAlkW derj^Fm! [ritmi tlit Itilfliwm iLrvlulfci fif tlir^ 
kiD^om, liEil iriikb tiRTc heen* &r mt! ueiw. obtuilftlii. 

^t^tioQA tuiTip AllaLniT'Ef h n’ulrt popnlont)-, uiiun3,v f^wiciig ity Lhoir mppif- 

tiim ill Ti^rkd ill noiitpAnUcr^ MoauAtt^ nu^k m - Tliii UoliiiLEi Ikm^h/ 
liy J, U- YimMjtT VI Foli, IMHJ)- Tbn IaIevt. in %aL L ftp. IeW, ^ 

that ilifi Kin^ of Koi’p* are elml up iu t^Milr palihcitt fhjiiij 
li^dWn tir fiftwm ; ibal if a unflitr wiib^i^ U^ Eibtain jTiutktt ij|‘ih4i Im 


wbmi Ikim; piMm &til llij? PuliLAi!. #11 dwrs^ ih«m tjMiti 

niiifrb kniuil Wtorr hh UirDiiluEtd iftiili n brouiu anii « diiKi^ 
pan \r fiifl tiftmin whtUt all i/i:uu|nvr% fisparially tlia app^r Jh* 

^ tWM ItKlk doitTj u^lti tlliv 

tiiM-J that fia J3QI, luAy tolicb ihv KlTli^ [ ^idthat jr 
a Muh^iOTit ike npox bictdiud iiiiiiretL uid tli*^ iirrrvnii 

bonnmd nmM M^mr m tihiIiIu itiark fgtiitnillj r cord iif n,d kJJj^ 


iH'tii nfFepieil repair. JtnU will I'railiiiLlly con- 

Iract iuli> tUe mur© nuxlest tonceptkni nf Itiugship 
lliat has Ijeeii evolved hy West-^rn ©xperieiinJe. 

Itefoie prcNjeeiliiig U) the auditing*. 1 vnjoyefl 
ail iiitervk'W with the rressltlMii of iho Korean Koreipn 
Otliee.*^ an old ifeutlemfm with a fauUles* 
Pmt^ ^ iM'nigti aiiil iilet^py e^xpresaiaitt 

itinivMir plump clieeks, and a Ions; tl litj grey moustaohe 
(Vml bcaj"*!- I remember sotne of hi is (piemiolis Btnl 

111 I- rtsi af liM Jiw. Jlio* iltPM* oiu^mmce* U now uuHttUiiiiiiil. 

Snitctn urlsiiiiw m obtain » hE*iinj( Troni ilm Kiiuj ilo ixii lisfit * boo 
IriO Bt snl«ilii li»e tboif pfiiuon " 

liibl* in fewti nf tiiaui. ootH Cbo iiict U to lim Kiiip, (taH ;hr 

|i*tItiiniHi lAkeo Ih and wiisliiwpl. Wbanilw Einp |?oe* tnil of th* 
FhJuu ill piocviuiaiLi ibo il»o|» lha roHt*' nit- Injl no if 

AriiTtion t*pl»C(pd ifp«m ih* ii«otatoi», ifTOMfji (hn «itrrut».!vnilov<m 
ltd* nMitlApa, eoiiiing in &aitt iij# loifitr? in ilioiisiiiil* lu bm tin* 
imf w *nf olud—iien miuifii'd fixUn ibaui* ll#>l giixltw, H'hiuli 

!iaf ijuita eouuuoiL, liav^ alM ecaeod l(t lufjir Unr nlltHwI pi^ifionfnf. 

dtiioi’ et&temBiu [Kipiliriy repcaiod iu ih* '¥die,vcliip»:ilij* Hri- 
uuuiicn'I.iauH nit Biirrilf<o taniw liielitwniun 

ta tannhhim «iih bwt»* wui ««y bowtninii iomI diamowii whon 

, _i..)j tb« Vdw^, aw tiiiuillj WTiiiiocni*- Odljr iliowoflkuiU d» 

uiwinl wlu* jiroliwe to Bittar tho SimiWIr ib" rtiHiual**! rnlf 

forbtddmc Konraii sibjeaJtoipjflalaJ liiglnidSJjul. mi>ept*''aii*jo. 
..(Uaitlk, Bid Mind prt»atu.ri«- bin* dwnma'le tine# tbs jininlH.r 
•Ut’hitaM still in tbs eiljr. wid of MO ftnu in Um euijiltij 

(affifffiiiiv, lift* niiiddrsil ii* unfotwDnsiii it imporalijpi 
' TLfiw wn llii« pnnciiiBJ Miaitiim* of Stata ilt lioiM. d^toinl- 
imt«d Co«i]<iilb«v*.f Uis ilubUKUfl. KMi 'JHan- ulso «« 

GotfitunMit I hipartnivou. touutl^ tlia OflSwrt of ii.> Civil Afhi« w 

Palilir EiucjJi^y ; l'lti4«iPPt i.-r. ili* Trtuk^j^ 1*“;* 
iiiLikiiiM iinil I'lihlvc tnxtrticfei^iii; li^*i U'iirt <v*l 4iwliPit; ixO 

Ti* iimm ibMv)»#aiin|j ut tJw Enimlrf^ *iiiv» Imii ^de-l 

two new ot Hunio Oai^ts wbirt knn 

A tw^^ lULiitP VicfrFnwiiltmiiTiwfi r^ivi^ V jccaVpidliiJiU 

iho AikiA^rs.), wiw CfltittJrtikTP- m ^tafTciT twtr^y 

tkr^. *nil whi^h iirw«llr «ii«r«iilLJ Um six himrdp; 
Atia ibc m w*tli ^ 

HhSffh wd# ivtiiwth tliv df Or^mwnlns thf^ buriiH? 

Umv in litiMW dnjt |>riWl3HniJ_V no AiEiif* 


1 ^ 

an?frer$. Having lieon p&rtit'a1(i.rly warned not to 
iidinit lohiiii tlint I was otil)'thirly-ihnw years nj* 
age to vrMdi no rc-speet altitoln^s id Konta, when he put 
to me the stnught viut'sf ion (invAriulily ilie first in an 
•Om-tilal «lia]i.igiiei old itre youF' I iinhesita- 

lingly respondiifl, * Forly.' * Hear me/ he said. * vnu 
look very young for (hat. 1 low iki you aecouiu for it F 
‘ Hv the fact,' I repliiHl, * Umt I liave been travelJiiig 
for a month in the KU|«!rb uUmateof ITis Mnjesty’s 
dominions.' Hearing that L bail been a Jttinifiter «f 
the Crown in. England, he uu|tilre<l wluit had heen 
juy salary^ and added. ■ I suppose j’ou foiind tluii by 
far the most agreeable feaLure of oHice. Hut tii> 
doubt the periptwiiei. were verv much larger Rtill,* 
Finally, oonscions that in bta own couutry it tint 
easy for anyone to become a me in tier of ilte (yovem- 
meni, unlesg he Is rehiicil u» the family of the King 
or Queen, he said to me, * I presume yoit are a nenr 
relative of Her Majesty the Queeii of England.' 
*Xu,* T replted, ‘i am not/ But, oWmng the 
IcKik of dlsgast iliat ptwsed over his iwimtenance, 1 
was fain to axld,*I am. hoiivever, as yet an niimarriml 
man/ with which unampulous sug«t*stion I coni- 
pletoly regained the old geuilemau's favour. 

Til the l\*dace everj’tbmg—dress, deportment, 
movxmieiit. gaii—b regnhitcd by a minute ami im- 
comproniidtig eliqueue. Upon one (nra- 
$ion H lirilish Conaul was not admitted to 
audience with Hie King, because, having packed up 
Ills unilbrm, be came only in eveuitig dress. The 
iriichlle ami lower uflicials wear brightly-coloureil 

Til£ CAJ’ITaL ^XI) COVRT Of' KOHEa 101 


rtdic* of scarbu Ulut*, mhI yellow; but I lie uiJiuister!; 
lutd eliief notables alTeci :i rii:Iier niid more sober 
hue, o&ually dark 'or ihe nmleml being 
of Qgui^d ailk* Oii llie Ikx^iii h fixed a {duatrou iir 
paiud of <.*otinie embroider^v represeiitiiig a liger, or 
stalk, or some otlii<f> symbolical creature; while 

iv>u.iid iho waifil is wotii a broad lielt, variously 
adorned witb gold, silver, jade/jvary, or liorii. wliicli 
projeeis several iticbes from the person, like 
the hoijji of a beer-barrel tlmi. hns starteil from bs 
ptacfi. On llie head reposes one of ( he winged tiaras 
wlik^h. 1 liave before d^uibeib There is also a 
jiocaliar 9trut, which is known as ilie 'yaniikm walk,* 



anil vrbicili jiU miniffU'n; ur nuLless aflVtJt wlitm ibey 
appear m public. It is a slow' and measured move* 
menu tritb the feel planietl wide aporu and 

an indescribable Inu niiinlstakable swing of budy 
that Ib most comic. Tbe nmm attribute or manifes¬ 
tation of dignity in Ivoren Inm'eeer,' to be that 

its fioisea'^ur U incapable of moving w'itliuul fmpptirt. 
Unsustained he w'ould, 1 suppose, fall to tlie ground 
from the slieer weight oC bis Own importatiee, Ai-- 
iv^rdingl}', ji minister, if seen walking in die streets, 
is invariably Enpported by one, sonu!rimes by two 
atteinbinui, who deferentially prop him np under the 
atm or amw, as lie iilowly and t'onsetptenlhtlly stmts 
along. If he Ije ininiiited, tbe same tlieon’ pre&eril3e9 
that he abalt 1>e held on to his »adtUe by retAbiers 
running on either side. Tlun! uphelil, the 3itttiister 
for Hoine Affairs and the IVesitlent of the Foreign 
(Ifhce were soleiinily escorting me to the preaeiiee of 
royalty, when I stnUleuly seezoed to observe a vacuum. 
’L’lie sapjKwtfets had disappeared, and the ministers 
Itad hurUn] themselves, forehead forward, oit to tlie 
groutnt My old frieiuU who vras far advont wl in 
years, tuimI have found it extremely trying. 

'Die King w'as siatttliug in a small, brightly- 
painted pavirmn. wliich opened on to one of the 
Amikw* minor courts of the l^ulaee. His hands 

vIiIl tlM * * ■ 

atiur reetetl upon a table, on wdueh a liideoii.s 
linisseb table-cloth lialf rroncealed a gorgeous piece 
of Chinese entbroidtiy. fk-hind and ivmund him 
were olnstcred the Palace euntich* in Court dresses. 
At the tude stood the inferpreier, with hia shoulders 


rffj^ lurmti dxj) coujtr OF kcucka m 

and head lioweil in atiTtude of die lowest I'evereacOt 
repeating the wonls trhicb the iving Trhisppred tn Jiis 
par. < >[i eitlIer side stood dnr two swiml-l»enrers of 
mid at a little distiuice die tivg Hlukters^ who 
Imd resniufd an erect position. I'pou die Twal 
brow a double* tierwi violet lipjtdpiece. Uis 
robe was of senrlel iigured silk—tlu' royal eolaur — 
w'ltli panels of gold euibroiderr upon tbe shoulders 
and brenst, and a ^rjld-sludded projeoitng lielu. Li 
Usi is a man of small stature and salhivv L'oiuple^oUT 
widi hair ilmwn tightly up from rhe forehead he- 
neutb the Korean skuU’^'up, voty slight eyebrows, 
small, vlviwions black ei'es, tetiib disciiluured from 
chewing (be hetoL a piece of wliieb he continoeU to 
iiiasticate ihmuglioiK die interview, and a sparse 
black moustache and tuft below iW cbm. The 

Kings countenance wears a singularly gentle and 
pleading expression; am] in the enur^ of the 
audience, which lasted about twenty miuutes, auil 
was entirely condiicticd His Majesty in person, he 
evinced the most, lively interijst in ibe friendsliip and 
consideration of Great liritain, and a persoimtl regartl 
for the services of Mr. W. C, HiUicr, the capable 
ofiicer by whoiti die Queen was at that time repn;^ 
sentetl in Soul. After the audiema* with die King 1. 
was coiiilucted to anoilier pavilion, where f was 
sttnllarlv receiveil bv dm Cmwii Prirme, fhifc hia 
rpiestions or re mar ks, wlilcli were dictated to him 
by his cliicf euimoh, were* of no interest, and the 
interview was one of tiiiire cereimmy, 

The true coniiciitity, however, of I he Korean 



Ciiiift can only lo properly esiUimted uptMJ one of 
the occii^uiis, ^ontewLat rari' in occinrencet wliett 
the KIo^ jiiniA in stole thmiigh tlie dty lu 
pcwuiw gymp tianple or tomb. OF ime sudi 
faiioiion 1 wffj the iuterestetl witnes'^. From an 
early liour in ibe monung the streets 'n'erv gitorde<l 

^ KOIUUL.'^ 

by militaty, of a ’•pectes unique in the world. Tim 
infiuitry lined (jjo roadway, and were for the 
tnoat pjirt lying nfiteep upon Qje grouliil. Tliey liatl 
aliHfWi aa nwny lings as men; and iheir muokeis, 
wrhieli 1 totaimned an tliey stood piled tugetlier, wet& 
coniiiionly destitute eitJier of lianimer, trigger^ or 
pliite, soiuetiunrs ol all three, mid were frequentJv 

n/K Ciwnwi j.vfi coriiT or hnkMA usii 

oriij httW l>v string; while die hayotieii: 

wer& Wilt and rustv, Infiniiolv mfjrt' rvmarkjiljiv, 
IiowevcTt were tlie caratrv, Hiese were clod In 
uniforms probahty Siime 300 3 -earti^ old, consisting 
of a haltered helmet wUh a tpihe. and of a cnirasa of 
[>kek leather sutdded with brass bosses, and worn 
over a heavy' jerkin of inoth-eaieii brocade.' Enor- 
mons jaek-lxiotii completed the co$tiimc%aiid remlerwl 
ii difficiilt for the men to mount their steeds^ even 
although these were rarely more than eleven tunids 
liigh, Ilannor^k of yellow, red, and greiut, with a tuft 
of pheasant-feathers at the top, and stacks of arrows, 
were l.■a^riell in front of the ofhcere. vvho were with, 
di the Lilly supported by squires u]«>u iheir pjTaijiiihd, 
saddles. The middle of the rojidwny was supposed 
to W kept clear, and waa strewn with a riband of 
saml, about a foot iumI a half iu breadth; but diis 
vas trampled upon ami scattered ainiast a? soon as 

TliroughotU the rnortiing proeessjonsof ministers, 
courtiers, and oHiciiib? posst'd along on tlieir way to or 
from the Palace. Tlie nuajority of tliese were borne 
by shot It mg retitinere in open chairs, on the back 
of w'hich rested a leo]>ard-skin. In some cases the 
sedan was ahso supported by a single leg imdeoit'ath, 
lertniuatmg in a wheel, w'hitii ran along the middle 
of the roadway, easing the liurilen and ini’reiunng 

' ComiMuno tlift Acenttni <tt lismel, V4a jroimnflD;—‘Thptr 
'tnutr CnirMMA, UsatlppMifi xul Swc«rIh< u plto liimt 4itil 
«tu] \Mii|» like irnts, rmly ttnO OieU* hat* melJ hen t'oiiils. Tiicir 
yout u Well MQkey Wiper eCotDcleL elltwlpiecpi. iLSwunti anil Mutkfl 
or Hilf pike, Offleert aaty MitklnK knt » wnil Airnwn-* 

the p:iw or the in from mA iMjhiml. -Snne 

of (iio offleialfi wrore gil* helniets of piisielioitrfi, with 
Cliuit‘JS€* charaeterg upon the fww'k. The (.'bitiegt: 
liesitleniT tJji? principal pefstmage in I lie I'ity, a* 
reprfcHJDting the suzierain power, JasUed past in 
a lihn:k velvet seilan, swiftly borne by stalwart 
Celestials witii red ta^els, Upon eitber suit of 
tlie nireet the ivhUe-robeil crowd were pressed 
tia<;k against the Imiise-fronts, and were protlded 
by the soldier® with their musket®, or spanked by 
active runners, who laid about tlieni liberally witli 
long wooden padities, tin the occasion of the 
previous procession tlie molt htwl been suifereil 
to ajtproach too nearly tti the person of royalty; 
ar^ fl a notificaLlon hatl in consequence appeared 
iu the * Official t'iuaeite/ tlocldng the Minister of 
War of thit'i! months* sjilary for his faulty arrange^ 

At length, alter hours rjf waiting', the Palace doors 
were Uirown n|)eii, aiul there issued forth the most 
motley processiun ever seen ontside of London ori 
LortI Mayor's Ihiy, or in the Chrlslinsa piiiitoiniine at 
Dmrv Lane. Tim soldiers snatched up iheir vene¬ 
rable mtiskois, or climbed on to their niicn>acopic 
steedB. The Imnners were plucked up, and damp'd 
in lines of colour along the streets. First from the 
Palace gate® emerged a company of men in red 
mitre®, ferrying st'arlet hicijuercd cluiirs; then a 
stiTiilar baud ui blue. Presently appeared the Boy a! 
StandanUon which was embla^'iued a mighty dragon 
upon a grouiiil of yeUciw silk. The sound of dminii 


TffH VA/*ITJf. A A If rot'jtr OF IttT 

ffocreeded I anti iliere trsu) a shout t« k«eii sileuc^. 
Li the eetjtre of o running crowd there fpllowetl 
ujtUfjrue a single empty sedan, coloured tlie royal 
rwl, I heanl two explatiatbus given ttf this episwle, 
One was tbit In funner ilaytt, when etiquette hiul not 
l>een sufficiently relaxed to adjuii of any ]>orlloti of 
the royal person Ijeiiig iseen, two identical chairs were 
used in the processtmifi, ao one knowing wliicli of 
the pair conumietl the King, much in the same way 
as an empty train frwpieutly precedvi* or folio vf> Unit 
<n}ntaihtng the ItiissiaiL Cjiar, vrith a view to frustrate 
the possiWe designs of conspirators. The other 
theory wtis that the firss chair i» kept intentjonully 
emptjv in order to lined wink the evU. spirits who 
would be likely to assault it in the idea that thej' had 
got hold of die royal jjcrs^ni. 1 have also heanl it 
suggested that the empty Utter may coinain the 
ancestral tnfilcts of the roytd family. .Next came n 
long procession of the King’s valets, in yellow* robes 
and tiny fiiraw hats, with W'orsted rosettes, pertrhed 
sideways on ilielr heads: tlie corps of royal ilruni' 
iners, beating with fruntic lloiirish the royal drums; 
a medley of cnvnlry, sliamblliig along without, the 
least attempt, ai order: a small detacbmeni of 
artillery, dragging after them two small Gatling 
guns; files of niniierSt m alEeruate blue and green 
gauze, Etretehing across llie Street; a company of 
fintc-plavers, blowing a lii.sty monotone on a shrill 
note; then a ruah of feet and shouting of voices to 
moke way, and a phalanx of stunly bearers, clad in 
rwl, with double mitrea on their heads, running 


uwiftjy, and supporting in a canopied ohjiir of stau^ 
witU ml Mlk screens and the npiiftecl person 

of die King. As lie pas^l alt mg lie looked to riglit 
and tefi, itiid the movement of the i>earert; made bim 
Iwb up and down. At a lirrlc tltsianr;e behind fol- 
lowed the t-’rown Prhvt’e, tn spi-ctadeSf in a similar 
scarlet pabuirjuin, cjuried tiy men in green mitres; 
and then came <t heterogeneous jntnble of courtiers, 
generals, colonels, matchlock-niim, and tottering 
cavaliers: the processkm being closed by the Enro- 
peaii-dnilett troops, who made some attempt to march 
in fltepT and whosn^ I'ommunder. hcrtdded by stento¬ 
rian cries, carried an immense banner on his ow^l 
shnitlder. Eater on, towartls dnak^ I met the sniue 
procession nuuming. Everything ami everj’luKly 
had got tJioronghl)' mixed np in the narrower streets: 
soldiers and vitisceus, cuiuncls and cbarnlierlaiiiB, weit^ 
all wedged together in Inextricable confuskm j but, 
alwve the licads of the crowd, ever oscillated tlw 
scarlet pidaiiqiitn of the King, lit np W lanterns of 
blue and crimson silk, tossing at the pikcheadis of the 
infantry soldiers; 

It M'ill have Ijeeii gathered from the above 
description that the Korean Army is not the least, 
rotten adjunct of the Korean monarchv^ 
Those infantry regiments that have been 
taugln by fon-ignm ami llmi constitute tlie garrison 
of the capitaL 4,0(KI strong, are said to show n 
capacity lor drill and discipline. Up till the itebelltoii 
of ISbi they were officered by Japanese; but since 

jci Hitt 

^ vAmAi vf-V/f vmmr or kon£A iRa 

that date iJier Imve Jmco iiv tbe tutTids of two 
Atiierk’aii ilriU-iiifttruoIoiTi, wlio possiiss tliO luirli- 
titles of Vice-lVesidem mwl Gt>iin:cMlor of the 
Board of War, but who eKercise no coiumaiid, am! 
do Gof acotiinpany iJidr men on (o the fieUl, This 
Ibrtw is dmded into thr*-Hj battalionp, mid is arme<I 
with rifles of a great variety of pattern. Its native 
ofhcers are Ijetmatli P.^nitempi. Tliere k mi ani^eiial 
(Ki^ke-tuk) it) Siiul with forei*?!! niai'hinery: hot it 
is oTilv used for the repair of anns. As for li)t 
purely native regimeuts, they are not a atamlhig 
army bitt a «tamliit» joke; while in Europe the 
cavalry would wiih diflicuityseetrre ati engagetnent as 
supers in the pantominie of a SL'irtuid-rate provincial 

Once everj’^ twenty or tliirty years a review ts 
held of the entire force on n pamde-ground nutaitie 
tlie city, the eacperinient Wing so cosily that 
it caiiuot be murt* frequently rciwated. -\s 
a spectacle it is more nnii^uc e.veii titan the royal 
priHrefisloiu One such review was bpld during the 
past summer. It was aiiiiounced tt* liegiii at .1|, 
but from that hour till s I'.M were tin* 3h,tj0(t 
spectators on llie grtmntl coioiielled to wait. Iwfore 
lilt' vanguaol of the royal certtv/f appearetl. Tliis 
consisted of no fewer than 10,UI)fl i>efsons, in themiilsi 
of whom (hr King and Crown IVince rode on hor&e' 
hiu’k. Tlio troops, 7,000 to S,000 in inmiber, then 
marcJvetl past the sahitiiig-polnt. saluting by ixjwing 
ilifcir hollies to the ground. So iiiisafisfactory, liow- 




ever« ixm the display held lc» hove been that there 
gnoU duiteriijg In the military ilore-cote^ mud 
the Conunnnder-ui-Chier roriiLwith degraded 

from his po^t. It. b tiov eoiitemplated to hold 
A review of tJie troops drilled npoti Ute modem 



(’ILAFriiK TL 


xyi^ti ni iluiaxet h ijitiir 0|^ai» esat, * Xiiiic 
Hiiiihiin pBitlliiliiiu.’ inituft.' w. ■oIk-^ Ch-kjuii Tiup. 

1p the people, ilie scenery, the capital, atitl the Court 
of Korea have each an iodivitluarity Uial ilistiu- 
An guialics litem from similar piieiioiuena tii 
SSISr oihor coumriefi, ihere are yet in the 
Korean polity, viewed as a form of govemtueat, 
featnres inseparably associated with the Asiatic sys' 
tem aiul recciguisable ut everj- ooreformii! I>riett1,»l 
State from Teheran to Soul- A royal figurehead, 
eiiA’eloped in the luyatery of llus palm^ and the haroin, 
eurrouiuled by concentric rings of eunuclis. Minister* 
of State, officials, and retainera, and rendered almost 
tDUuigible by the predominant atmosphere of iii- 

trigiie; ahierarchy of oflice-holders and ofEce-fieeliers, 

who arts leeches in the ijiirmesl disguise; a feeble 
mid insigtiifioant nrtny, an Itnjtei^unious eacltenner, a 
debaseil currency, and iiii impoveriahijd people 
tliesb are the invarittble symptoms of the fast vaniih- 
mg of Urn older and unretteeineil Oriental t>*pc- 

Add to these the drat swarniiug of the flock of 
foreign practitioueta, who sioeiu the enfeehlerl consti- 




tutlun fVom nfiir, <tiu1 from ilji' four witifU of ht'urfii 
come preiiain" flieir pbHFiiuit«fi<£l.'i of Irtiois, 

banka, iuml». fflclories, and sill tlie recog' 
nisetl mufthUiery for ilJIing Wpsteni purses al tlie 
expense of Rasierti pt>ckets, and you Itave a fair 
pic I lire of Korea as slie stands nfier len years of 
emergence from her long fteelusiou ■'iml enjoymenl oi 
the intercourse of the natti^us. Slie is going to pur- 
rhase her oivii e3qierience, and to lenm that, rrMie 
eiviUiiatioii is a mUtresa of rare and irresistible 
attmetions, she retjuirea to be paid for in coin of no 
‘finall dcnonuijuiioii. 

Xotitmally, every Otiveniitient [jost in Korea ia 
given by competitive examination. In reality, the 
Bji« exaiuiuntiiMis—which at'e conducted in the 


iniiua open air in the Palaoe-gronnds in the pre¬ 
sence of the King, nnd comsist of little more rhuii ihe 
compositirm of mi cs>?a.y (probably prepared in ad¬ 
vance) upon some well-known sentence from the 
(Mnese classics—are a farce j tuid the posts are 
gi^'cu to tlnjse wlio pay for tlicin, t!u> successful can¬ 
didate uid the price paid by him being, as a general 
rule, matters of common knowledge beforehand. 
Tills Iming no. it may lic thought surprising that so 
itiaiiy caiitlliljites should enter. The examination, 
liowever, is always an cxciiHe for a viaii to the capi¬ 
tal and a plea^faiii holiday; anil, n few po«i^ being 
oi:rasiomiUy assigned, for fona’s sake, to merit, each 
competitor is Grmly coiivinceil that he will bu the 
lucky uinn. The successriit caudiilftte has lo undergo' 
a sort of school I H»y‘hull jTaggj'ug'iU Liie hands of 

I'OLrriCJt. uQJUMXfiaAt. )7.i 

Lit* ^;^>mrll(le 5 ♦ which retnludis OfU^ of th« ^M:<‘iiliar 
ceremonicii fonnerly i'(i BrUifili $hips wlieii 

* ihe Ijhc. His and clothes- jitc 

swetired all over with ink, and art' (Ik- a lietiiaUcrGil 
by one of the examini rs a'ii.h while soap. Fee- 
qneiiily, too, his hn1 ie smasluMl hi, and tus cloihes 
are torn otf lus back. Finally, after ibis nitleal is 
over, he is waslitKl ami «p and I'l takni round 

in slate to m:eiv€ ihe t'^jiigraiuhitions of his friends. 
j\ll Llie liijflier posis are filhiil by the ytut^ffumt or 
geutrt". and the highest nf nil 

111 gr^!si! |}t3^Uuiils ilt CtiUTL Thti eight pre*- 
viiicT<?« and 332 pr4>fecrnire^ of iht kmgflitm aJw^rh 
nn iniiii43itsc amiv only tin* s^up^iior 

rnttk^ anioini ^vlnnii tveoive any aiul this 

ufeitullv ifi jirrtia'ns ts,'1i'ilje tUt; ret^i tuiist Ijiitt-er tii-th' 
own bread as tlity t'niL All is lt<?ld for 

[i pen*>«l of ihrei* year^i iluriog w ltlch rime \h^ 
inouinhent from jt Tvluit^vef he (um, t]lt^ 

nonual level uf extortion bning inniluniialiejiUy 
a^rtained by tong prantiei^ that. vtIjiIg any exce^ U 
voted tyranuienU aiHiert^nce Tm tlio n\i-Wiige jitivndni^fl Is 
regarded ns :t prwf IxdJiof iiitegrity ami ntocIeruiioiK 
XTtiiler SI fotni of goveruni^^nt m organised u becomfei 
easy eiiDugli to uiiderstmid why the contiiry hoi- 
gaishe® and stagnnuori relgn.^ aupretne, 

Tlie Ooyeninient it^svir—to other woriit?. the 
King* who k rhe (iovemtivent“k always in debt; 

nod (he BnmvM whieh ui mo- 

ftii.1 40 ht ,4^ emhajrasjtinent Ua i? r^^ver loth to 

accept from imerested parties, whilst it dcie^ not 



(.‘iinblc Itiii e^tclwqiicr tti fct^fiver fmaricnl equilibrium, 
tslill furUier monga-ios llie ftwi ilwlnilling ursmiires 
of naiiorutl wealth ami iudegemWii-’e, Tlie .iitiouul 
r>f (Iju royal rtfii'eniw? cannot be ascenaiiied ; but it 
is derivtnl from the following sources li a Land* 
ucfi, whicli is priitdpallv' paid in grain, and fluetinUes 
according to Ibe nature of the lim’vesi! (2] a Douse- 
tax, ven MpricimiBly tissessed ami levied : (3) the 
Ciifitotin; ileveiiiie, w'Liok is levtwl upon imports and 
exports at the three Treaty I’ortfi. and wliichin liiOl, 
the hlgli-water mark yeJ reaclimlt aniounietl to over 
but whk'Ii, with a new tariff rUssifieatiQJi, 
[he npenlug of another 'Ireaty Port,* and a preventive 
eenuce to stop the enornmiis iimoimt of smuggling 
that prevails, might lie very greatly incj eiwed; (4) 
the proceetls of mtmopoly;- ^o i the pro- 

' H«? Britiah mu] Fun l^ii ThaILh wiiU Kuttm 

fiji the <?f * fiLrtitfrc iVftatj VoiU V^tiff hwn^tldii nn ihe 

A- a rivt!r-|ifirl far tiirt If iho at^unt-trattit im Uia llaii 12 

at whkh ii milw fr^Tni Stpul, 

jitM+hl Irt BRli>rT4>d- Tlic ^enteib oO vgjiUuj^ ^uuUl r^inJl tiifl rf»iisiiT^ 
fmin thd oipcniiur af Pjupj^h^vaui: m Tii£dtiti($ tlr^r, n-hHi Id imJv 
MrTfhil KEDdl! oAtlvic steiiimira Hiid jLinksL 

* iPiiinu g7r[rrYif</p;tNm} Ift ihd jiUm, cif the Ate^iinctit 

iir Ivjwon txlUv nbufli rovt ti ^ Miami iur mHik'kuir 

ttiLil liur^sen iii CtiineL. Oiin ot lie priii-eijinl af 

ftnxlim-llpn ii Koran, whvm It Walk ^lil iri llm at 

ttiidli (&il4ii]i)iiv rotni hdrnj^ MjnuPtimPft pniil fur a ftkmJn hkKU aeh| in 

ar t i ftH a t ljr rtdtiiaW tiuJej- A l«* %Alnatdrt vwlt-tv rnf ihtf 

cMi iiinfit U Hhit |}itidiJO«irL In .limirtoik |.trliii,-lpji1tv in \Ur^ 

w eUrtfipd wbioli l^pri^jiArnlliytljimDijjiA^bir rthulow klJUtif 

wtitrr, i# i>f tho Hins im Kdtimik lu cikport^ by 

A liussb? Id. i-rtihCbitiM! bj [rtfuty* anit h |mtiwb*bk hy iliyiih 

Forywrt li iuH IrtMiJi rAmiL'if] uni; tci iku fn, g. Ijtalv Clin nuetl 

l4> tlrft TriUno SJiwiea to Ptkiiie am intPriin-tw-A in wbirb 

fKjvtcity I h*^ Htd ^ Httff* truiln on iJirw own bl^colI^t. Tbpj are now 
a plow. eyip.jrtabni. aiuI ftjr» «a]il ta py thfc Kuijr firtin SM,nQf>/. Uj 
ItKMJtNif. A ymt. \ III ii tdjiii kHU itpjf, tii^ s:ro-64h and prs^^rt of 

t*OUTiVAL AXU ('OJ/lViVi't'/.lf. tiTMl'TOMS i 76 

ct*e<l« f.'f otlier mo)Ui|mli€iS or GaTflHimftnt-Iiciaiees, 
Buoli HB gold-iiwung, and tbe various Trade guilds; 
(d) irrogidar lAxatlon. 

I( is yeara siuoe tlic fir.-tt Foreign Treaty 

was sigU(3<l with Japan in 18T(». .Lai:er iroiivt-ntiotis 
F°«nBn opened! Ciensan m 1871*, ftiiij Cliemtiipo in 
1881*; aui] runJter Trade and. Fislitiry Eegu- 
latloua were coJiL'Itilled between tbe two Govertmitiiia 
ill 188S utid ISSy, Tbe (’'hinese Trade Regulations 
and the American Treaty were signed in 188^. 
Great Dritawi and t^ermauy follou'<^tl in 1883, KussIil 
and Italy in 1884. Franoe In 18S6. An Overlrntd 
Trade Conventitui was also eonc.luded witU HutiBliv in 
1888; luid linally Austria entered tlie list of Treaty 
Towers in 18'*8. For a full deeiide. therefore, exclu¬ 
ding Llir fijiecial priority of Jnpau^ Korea has had 
the experience of (xwntaerne and contact xdth the 
outer woricL How has she beIle^ite^l by it? 

The sudden leaven lug of S<' archaic mnl stubboni 
a lump by ilie stronions agency uf civilisat ion hasuot 
Iteei! pursued witliour the fniniJinr sympromfl. 
Mrtstpp* i?rt,;ii forejrfii country thought itself or its 
citiaeii!* the l»est ipiallfled to bcI as guides to ilie 

ordinary wlianli in pm|tiLnri1 by klryinit Ibfl foot over A chnift^iAl 

lire. Ai [Iiiift|3 b£ii*.«vDr, it i-i ha unt uf thn 

rmuitry at jiw «4 tte hs.mU of ihi^ gidbl b 

in rhiiiii by timing tifi ilit* twt iata urtnut^ titi4 

tlicLu in itJue. iiai li la lutmilly miiEeiEl with uliier At 

l6n^f At 1617, Cwk^ Factor of fcbfi Kart Imlia Cmnp^ny 

Hi PlmniUi in lapui, teni Koiuv m pirco of 'vhkh hr tdihl 

tbal it wu * frtirtli it* wetrhi in Mlv^ri nil that wn bi* b utlLtu 
by if JO Kmpinur i U U btld lu jAtMiu ihenioiii fn«eJiii£9 thine in [ib|ilk 
ill ih^ H-orid. aiul inifilciri]t in pul hfe into mik_v man if he can hot fir»w 
br^th/ St^ir iS^rnsi, 



t renib[]iig footsiep^ of the bewitilertKlfVyf^m. 
ext«rnij ttidis (o local entharrAiismeTii: pcjliaps rti© 
wot^t renmrbkhle lmj» bpeutlie- conthuioiti) tuatiilc^iiatic-t' 
of one or niorfi t3{H>a1[ed Foreijm Advismtu* Ihe Kiii«. 

p««« fc C 

Tljerts have t>eeii sitcce^^^ively four of tlieao jjeiith?- 
tueij. The first wi« a (Tenuau* who was to 

the <loubIe |x»sc of Director of ICi>n?at» C?«iHton»s ntiU 
I'tjreigo At!vj*er *1,)y the li*iccToy Li iIu]L|| ClinJi". 
He dl6api>eare(i abruptly in coDseijuuiicef it h saifL 
of liavlnc' drawn up a secret treaiy witli Itus^ia. 
The second was an American, who ci'eatetl a 

stir by msiiinii a paiuphh't in deftttic* of Korean 
iudepemleiice. and in repudialiau of the Chinese 
claims of Bio;ei*aiiit\% and who sjmjhI: liis whole time 
in ijomlmtittif the CliinwH' Hesidcnt. There are two 
prr^seiit w'ciipaiiTS of the post* both of whoiit are 
America Its. Tlte function of iheBe indlvitlnalt^ Ls 
apparently to aiivise the Korean t^nvcrmiient on any 
fiepotiatiori or com plica u fin that- may arifie with ’ 
foreign Powers, and to assist them in the making of 
purchases frimt, or sale of oonoessioiii to, onieidft 
parties. With the policy of rlie (^iuvemnient IUbv 
have iicrthing hi dfr; and tli« greater part of its ad- 
ministmtive and ejteeiitire action is iierfonnetl hebind 
their hacks and without Their cognizance. It ia noi 
surprising that a m atnbignous should ope- 

race against, any very letiglhy tenure <tf the office in 
([uestion. 'I'he historiniJ sequence is, as a rule, ihf 
same in each caso; great ambitiouR gn the part of 
the newly appointed ofiicial, gnuliml ilisendunj^ 
merit; adary in arrears; fitial/rtic/M and departmv, 


lieliiud uni^$fie<t claims, will: futile- 
of legftl eMfortKsmi'iit. 

lu lU'.partmeiitA 1e«s ulTiemJ Ijui <>ipi:illy 

have pmJfi^refl a riol mnre tli«- 
e(uj«H* iukTe«teil jissiAtiUiee, S few years ago a 
Giimiaa inulenoob to Tegieiicrate die country 
by intrwhicmg iho silk hulustty ^ and llie grnunclss 
of a d'-^ertetl [wiluw? were hnrtdfl over to ilie spiuU' 
auil llie juulbtrry‘i.ree. There are ^he frees; Imr. 
the Genuaa and the sllk.-jvomi6 have di-ijippearesl 
SuinelaKly elsf was desirous of making m:itelu'>^ 
uiidglsf^st others were uuseliislily uiteresrcd iu ilin 
creation of an arsenal aiul tlie mantifacturo of gun- 
jiuwder, A Potst-oDicie n^as started ami stamps wt^re 
priuied, but the rosUnasierGeneral lost his life In a 
]»olilivaL rirvolotion, and the stamps are tii^w only a 
joy to the phihUeUat. The Gemians were willing if 
fell some str-umers to (Jie Korean Goveruinejir in 
order to eviiconrage Jhc i^ofUctiiig trade, 'the .;\meri- 
eniis, MS already iil*fetvod, have taken !ti hand the 
Army. A’or was agriculture left oui in the cold, 
for tlie King was persuiidcd to slarf a Model Furiii 
for (he gri>Trtli »tf fiTreign cereaU an*! tlm hreeding 
of foreign stock. Almost sll tJieso icntnies Imve 
failed ^ though a Foreign School which was startetl Ui 
&')iil to lni[i.'tct the elements of a nicHleru edttcaiiou 
to young Koreans of good position, and in whirb 
the King takes or took such an interest tital on otir 
uCcusiuu he pcriR^untlv ezuuniued iJic pnplts, :uiil 
awarded nuik or olfice to such as distinguished 
thmiutelves, sliU continues, in spite of liiadctpude 



fupportr lo exlsi. Till' average aitcrmlaneo of stu¬ 

dents Is suited tc> lie iweittv-fivc. 

^ TIicnMst ittterestiug illufitmiioiis. Iioirevcrt uf tlic 
cBparities of n alive ignorance in allfaiire wriiii roreipii 
speculation b supplied by the Jiistory of the 
Korean cnrretioy, to winch tiie Japatir-ae 
have timied an imreDiitiing aitcntton. Among rtn* 
devires for replemsliing its exohcqner tlml was sug¬ 
gested to the Korcfati (rovenuoeni itv one of Us Fo¬ 
reign Advisens a few years ago was ilie issue of a new 
ensh piece (the pierced coin of btass or copper and 
ienil which t* ihe }a>pulur iiteiliittu of nxclntiige hnre 
as in (TlitJia^ that should be decbired equal io live 
of the old {;as]i tlieti iu circulation. The new ca'^.h 
Itcing of verj' iuforior quality (i t w»s of 

copper .and lead iu the proportloiiE of three to two, 
iUtd its intrinsic value was than two of tiiu old 
oAsb), the Govenuiienl louknd ti* gain a tidy ftuui 
upon the tmnsaclioii—a [irofit whicli they siibaeT 
qiienlly tfuik'avoured to enhance by fanning out the 
right to coin, or rather to east (for the coins are 
moulded, not sir nek), this debased aumlgoni to native 
speculators. Tlic reaultiiwere liireefold. The t[ualiiy 
of Uie coin became steadily wmrsi’. brass Unng suIh 
sLliiited for copper, and sand for lead; outside the 
capital and iiei«ld«nirhood, wjierc wsii forcet! 
ujKJii the jieopLe, tr.aiiere absoluiely declined Ui take 
it; and the depreciation advanced so rapidly tliiil 
prices nws iratb was serioiisly alfected, iiiid the 
money market was paralysed. In 181>2 iJu* Japanese 
ytm, or silver dollar (then cqinil to .about 2s, llW.), 

poLiTfCAL cojiJi£sciJL fiyjfpwuf? m 

which, at the firal iQ^tilution «f llie ietrujm, or 5 ciish 
piwes. rcptcsenied 70 of the lauer, or 350 old cash, 
was cfjtiivaJvtit to as many a» f»5tJ ntyw wwh, or 
3,ji50 of the I'OiSh in ootruiiim circulatioju TIip draw¬ 
backs as well as t he cnniberaomeiiess of a curreni^ s<j 
pnwtimted Tiught eiis-ilylte ccjnceired. 

Ill this emergfitiey the daparu'so saw their oppot- 
ttity. In 188S a Governineuc Alim had been erected 
Kttw itiDi at Siiul ff>r the issue of a new silver curreucY 

■iwJ vilTiir 1 T' ^ 

eciuuini on the European mcMlel, at id a few speeiiueti 
dollars had lieen coined bat never circulated. An 
c-vjiensive imnexo was now, in 1891, aitde<1 to the <lis- 
mint, and heavy machinery was iiii|?ort:et] bi’ a 
Japanese spidicnte, who. in reiiiru. for a loan to ttie 
King, olitained iht concession Ifi memufacture and 
issue a new silver and uichel currency of kitidretl 
deiionnnatiou to the Japanese. Ifo sooner, iiowe^'vr, 
had the mnclunerj'^ arrived titan it. was found that, the 
4Cost of puUing it up in S^ul and of impttrling tlie 
metal would render the specuhiiion an unprofltable 
one, Atfixirdingly it liad to Jte carted bach to 
Cheniulpii, on the coajst, \rhere another mini, costing 
was erected for its reception. Hero a 
number of new coins were at la&i struck ofl", con- 
slating of a advor G r^o piece or yen, equivolout U> 
5tl0 caisb, a eliver ryw or IhO cash piece, a niche! 
25 cajsh piece, a co]jpcr 5 rasli piece, and a brass 
1 cash piece, which, however, were found to be s^i 
unsut is factory tlint it was rumoured they were all 
going to lie meltwl down and miiiitHl ugain Simul¬ 
taneously it had been arranged to start a system of 



baiilc-notC'S, a few of which were priwtcil in Toku' 
hiiL never iMned, At this 6ta|ie it seems to have 
struck all parties that the esperimeut of keepinj; 
open a State \|<nt in Kttrea, to which all the metal 
rerpiired lunsi be imported at ruinous cost, and where 
the machinery was not f>f first-raio (quality, was 
ali^urd : liaviag iudecil uoihing but the pratitication 
of national vanity to recommend it. AciHjrdingly the 
only possible refuge was at last mlopted : and ueoo- 
tiatiun^ were entered inio ami a contract signed with 
the Japanese OovemmenI in 1S!)3 to undertake Uu* 
entire Korean currency in the excellent Imperial 
Hint at Osaki Even so the experiment is rettUy 
superduaus; for sinne the Japanese t/rn and tlie 
Mexli'au dollar are made by treaty legal tender for 
t;n^iu^ dwesr mul are everywlicre freely acceptetl 
(exccipt perhaps in the remote interior) in Korea, all 
that is reallv wanted is the i^ue of a stnble cuali 
coinage, the old dehaaetl currency being called in 
Jiiitl melted down or deatrojed. 'lliis tale of nir- 
reucy woe fills, however, a most characteristic page 
of Korean history* 

•, Among othfw commercial ventures in Korea, the 
Japanese liave idw> Started branches of Japanese 
!intiL-» at Chemulpo and Sonl, into one of 
which »«fi?r the Cnstoms revemic b paid, 
and whereat the Government account is pcmuuienily 
ovdTflrawn; sind are -said also to Imve contemplated, 
in couneclion with tlicir new currency, the institutioii 
uf exchange idfices, or banks in ilUguise, where the 
new coinage should be protniralile in exchange for 


Uie iiltl ciJiiiwr casli, whieh it wn* foniJlv bui ftM>lisWv 
expected would i.hereby disappcat from popttlar use. 
It will luf iotere-^t ing to wutcli I lie fjite tlitrt experi¬ 
ment. In tluf meujitimie, with, the view of pbciiig 
Korean tinuTU'c tu mott? exjierimced Lamb, ii ha^ 
Itc-eii auggcsieil iliut ii bnineh of the FJoiigtotig aunl 
Sh&uglini iJjinkittg Clorpataiioii should i>e opened 
in Korea—a vuniure by which, if canted out, 
no otic would itrofit njore iLaii the Korcftti Govern- 

By an udiniubtratiofi st) sorely eniljarrassed and in 
such habitual fiiiatidal slraita a» tljc Korean, ouc 
odghl expect, that, instead of embacthtg 
riiu'iuT^ upon risk}' if not unsoiiud financial trails- 
actions wiili advetilurous outsiders, n 
lut« at tempt would he made to tlerciop the 
****** iuterual resources of the conutiT, which .a 
consensus of opinioti admits to be cciusidernbli;. ^ly 
jiiiirticys iii die iiUcrior, restricted as they were, con- 
viiicoti me that there is a great future for Korean 
agriculture: anti this view is I«»riie ont by tticisp who 
hnvo travelled over a wider range. Indeed, In tlie 
possession ofun excellent clini.iu*. aeoilof more tluin 
ordinary fertility, vast tracts of still virgin countryt 
and a robust rural po|inTatioti. Korea possesses the 
four conditions of agricultural pTi>spprity. Already us 
a rice Mini I>eaii pr^ubicing country eUe is rising into 
commercial importance, ami providns a valuable 
feeder for the neighbouring islaiuls of Japan, 
Aiuoug the self'created olist-icle-s that stand lietweeu 
her and a full enjoymetit of ihesc advantages one 



stniicli; out hi disoredituhle pmuiiTioiice— y\t.. the 
sciiTtiklous poverty of means of counmuiiictttlon be¬ 
tween Uie protluclnp and the coTwimiijp aress anti 
between the interior and the coast. There are u<t 
roads in tUo couutr}^ m any senfe in whleh the word 
would be understood in Europe. The pack^ronds are 
mere bridle-lmeha, which frwtuently degenerate into 
rocky torrent-beds, or precarious footpaths across in¬ 
undated swamps; No one looks after them; they 
are never njpjdrwl, Traniiport upon them Is very 
costly* and on some occ.talons abs«.iliit 0 l}* proMbitii’e, 
No means for conveying ilie surplus produce of any 
area to an aviulnble market in lime of dearth are 
rorthcomiiig; and one district maybe sinitlcn with 
stire famine, while its nelghliour, at no great distance, 
cannot get rid of its superduous grain,. Better rojitU 
would be followetl at once by a better orgajiieed 
system of transport and by a rapid increase in tUe 
volume of (ixptjrls. 

Tim sariH! remarks apply (o river and coast com- 
uiunications. On two only of the five great navigable 
Bin* u«Ti. of Korea ' do steamboats attempt to 

ply. Small native steamers ttm between 
Eusan and the inoutlt of the Naktuiig Sliver, seven 
miles distant, and even ascend the si ream for Jiftv 
miles as far us Mirlang. On the Ibiuliiver, which, if 
pro[ierly iiavigaletl, would almost convert the capital 
into a seaport, two small steaniurs started running 
from C-limnulp<i in 1880; one was wrecked, the 

^ Tlttt \&Jii tu tlui^ DiMTthj cJift err Pyoii^^jiiiig' liiirsTi tlifl 

uiil Ua ttiliiiUrj Lkn mA tlw KiikUhU^ 


tttlut^r was uauallv Agroiuirl. Veef«If 4>f ligUKr 
tlrnugljt and sp(?ciat build were required for llie 
shifting and gJiallow duumcl. By the energy of 
(tie Cluiieee lleflideiit fi Chiiiese compimy was lif 
length orgaiuswl iu 1892 to undertake this venture. 
I'wo new steametg were plaewl upon the river, rnu- 
iiitig tile fifty-four utiles from Cliefijulpo toKyoug-saii, 
ihrce miles from f^bul fwhich it is proyiosed to conneel 
l>y irjijoway witli the landiug-plfloe) | imd liy one of 
these ILr. O’Oonor, the liritisii iltuiflter to Korea, 
jUfceuded to the capital, to present Iiis letters of 
credence in 1898, 

itiiullarly upon the onaata ihc supenscssion of rlio 
Korean junk, which h one of the least seaworthy 
of eiafiis by a litie of small scUooncit rtm- 
iiluo from port to [x^rt, would develop tlio 
jirovincIaJ trade to an euonnons extent, and would 
cheapen the cost of tlie neecssarii-s of life. A Korean 
slijjuusJiip com[muy wlueli charters foreign veaselB 
has for some little time been in esaifteuce, and Inin 
laiely es1entte<l itjs voyages to Cliefint on the oji« side 
and VlinJivosU^k on the other. Enjoying the mono¬ 
poly of the transport of tribute rice inmi tliv non- 
treatj’ porta to C-IumhuIijo, U uiiglit easily become a 
nui^t liscratH'C conoenii iliough in eonipetitioii with 
the two keenest metxantile uaiioimUticrfi ol the lliasi, 
it can hardly lie exjHM-ied that ciiher nioniqioUes or 
lioimtios will ever galvanise an under! aking owneil 
aud worked by siiiuh a lieople as llie Koreans, into 
jiennanent vilalUy. 

Aconcesdon was at one time applied for byaoum 



Aiiieriutm for a Bfiori rallw'ny betwei'ii 

CUcmuSpo aiiil ,Si)ul; mid it iss^iid ilmt thi; oisntnu’t 
'ivas about to lio sigiiiHl wLoii ii was retood 
Itesidc-m. In iho jjrosout state 
of trwle uiul IrafRc il Is. doubtful wltoiljpr such :i line 
—Uif ptiymeal obstacles to the coiiHiruotum of which 
ure not ^eal—would jiay : ibo more so, if die river 
iiuviguiiou is siicoessfuUy and clieuply couductetL 
^ ild sclictiies for a uptwork i>f raiitvavs tlirou^hout 
Korea are said to liave been formulated iu tlie brmus^ 
of lliose who uutictjKitij iiii early liuseiaii seizure of 
the entire peniusula j bnl U will lie worth while t*. 
wait till the KuasjELUs are Tliere before ilisciissiti^ 
wlmt limy will do. 

The clrawbaiike whieli I have eniiuiieratwl—vli, a 
ddciseil currency ; dearth of c'omiimnicatioits by 
Orimhrd luiid uiid Water; the cousequout cost of 
iiuiisjion; the iticubitfl of nuiivt moimpolists 
wlio foutrol the prices and evade the Treaties by 
fi’esh local tikiti Or t^chW-dm^ in the interior; the 
apathy of the Korean producer, the fwverty of the 
Koreau coiibuiiier, and the hurt of enterprise of ihe 
Korean mercliaiU; alxive aU tlm Inea^n.-rieime and 
iniyucl^cnt of the Korean Govcrniijcnt—are obsla- 
ch^ Ui any sueli heroic eaq)an8ioii of nadc a* wa^ 
once pretlicted by the optimists. Kevenhcless, both 
in volume ntid value, Korean tnide pursues, with 
occasional relapses, an upward wireer. In um 
which was ihft !,esi year yet n<ali.>;ed, ihe net vTilue 
of the foreioo tnwle was nearly 1,440,000/., and the 
total trade during the ten years since the opening of 


ilie Triraiy ia staled to liave been ^50dK)0.(JDO, 
n lijmre wliich, if the enormous amoiint of siiiMggUug 
that goes QtL be tiilten into autroiuji, does uot pro- 
bal'lv rtfpresetil more ihaii two-iliirrl* of ilit real value. 
The trade is praoticflHjr ehiired Ky tlie Chinese aiid 
JiipnneseT between vrhom the moftt acute comj>eiiiiou 
prevails. The foimer have almost entirely inoaopo- 
liscd the retail business, both in tmdve proiluce 
and foreign imports. Tliey p*:ijeirato evertTfhere, 
anil C'vorywhere their stores ami shops are to be 
found. The Japanese, on the tither li:uid, have 
aeipiiml the virtual romoiaud of the export trade, 
over tiiiK'ty per eiint. of wUeli is to Japan, The two 
great atapies of Korcon prodiioe are rioe and Uons, 
which are increasingly deniuialed by her southern. 
ludglitiPiir, as tlie population of Jaim increases lUid 
more soil is surrendered to the oultivatitin of silk, 
lienee the tiitense Japanese irritation when, f“'f 
reasons of ititenud policy, die Korean Covemment 
fiees fit to place even a tempomry embargo u|ion tliu 
export of native grain. As regiirdi* iinporta, iboagh 
tlwre are no Uritlsli mwchisjiLS in the coiiiitta''—the 
system of L'Jiiiiese or .Japanese brokers operating 
with siiiriciciit succe.'j?—^ver sixty per cent, of the 
sum tomb and practically the whole of her trade in 
piece goods, had from fireat Britain, who may claitn, 
even in renuite Korcji, to liave (Usc<:ivered one more 
market for ilanchceter.* 

• It U iHjdxly flOO fenn *lnc#, tn HKM. tli« fi»l Royul TJccum * to 
tltftMVar lliA cuniiirjaii at Cull milk. Cliifi*. itrtikiiii, CotM, Mill fiuptHilk, 
uJ to tiniia wilit ibe ikE)ii|h]ih ihore,* wm ibsimhI ty Juibm U U* fitr 
EOku'iI itiohelbnnis, fur liip Eiva tuitia Caiti|iuij. In laW E, SayoC 


Evitlence of cojamfirciiil expamioii is iilso pro- 
viiled by [iit iiicreasin/r number of steatn^ps tijat 
finil it prutitaLIe lo include the piirls 
•*"“* in iLelr publialied sailing Ikts. The well* 
known •lapnu««e :)team8htp conijjany known ns Ihe 
^tppciii ^ useii EnisUn keeps ttp a ^Tvioff of three 
TO/ui steamers fortnlghily between Eol»c and lire 
Korean ports, l>estdes sendicig outride steamers for 
Lbe carrying trade direct rK»m ifeaka, Anoilitr 
Japanese company, rJie Osaka 5hi>6en Kaklm, toui 
lately apjieared U]hhi the scene, and runs boats at 
nnstau-d iniervak from the former port.* The year 
iSUi tdso witnessed the rntroductiou of a Uberallv- 
aiibsidised formightly Russian packet ^tvhe be- 
tweeji Shanghai and Tladiv.>s(ok, teaching at tlie 
harboum of Fuwiti and Geosan on the way* Thouoli 
tijis venture cannot as yer (ronceivably be atteiubd 
with proht, it k characterktic of the energy with 
which (he Rnssians advaiu-e tlieir flag in Eastern 

ww «nn tu Tiiohmn (•>, TsHihiiiiJtt. htu rup^rted Um < ^ 

hop* p>r sajr Irt bo irme thunt ur fn Coeem,' In IflJM Ehtiiuil 

tho Wl -if ibii ITjwiflrj at in SmjMux. on tbii 

of .»» qf tho ^I'nbuto MiMioiw fraiu • oalM07iir,MJ ift gnin 

whh Uifi AEul>ft8flitetijf, but wai Tiiitfaj*Eio«trEib tbft Kinir of 
Tuiluiio lida^ tho «nw, 1 ih Winj? iluu tho Hijj-tii niiKiirB 

iTsJn If Kni wllll ttiM lunblUB^iiol^ Tli.. Jddq.., 

T^rdt ubod wliy h* ooutrLt with raqb b»rbimni* ip<.onlo ■ 

bhtt i Eml friififi SmVrj.vuk L (1518-KUflh b'c,. ajja 

;^l.. I i«ir l«*l). X,., J78, g,., ^ ai .!> bm ^ “;"i; 

Uuin. w» Iio 4i«nl AnsJrt-KoTiriii irortft, in 1703 ’ih- 

?■ rwonMOtTM) by tbo JHntion or iu„ 

uvt lijdiHi CdHi]jiMjij \ T(riU!o''i ^ifiujfZn, voj. 4fl3lji 

’ I»T« soquirod *«rJi S ootnmond'qf iho dil™h,a 


wafer*, and toake an experinieuta] and ov(!U expen¬ 
sive commerce suJuserve larger pulitical ends, tt jb 
not Icr mercamlle gfiln iliat ihe Russian stibsidies 
arc given, but for the avowed object of providing a 
usefifl auxiliary marine, with wcll-orgattised cample- 
nieut, in tbie of war. 

In the tiunure of Korean conunerc* t»H' much 
credit cannot be given ti> llie infcml>ersQr ilie CJIiiiiese 
cniKNiu Itnpcrifd Customs Service, mio whoso liands 
the predomman'C influence of ilie suzerain 
|K)wcr bsiired that the coUetUion of K<irifaij Citatoms 
should be committed when the Trearj Ports w'ere 
first opened in 1883. A nmn tier of Eiiroiwan ofTicials 
liave since been lotn for the puqjose from l!)c admi¬ 
rably or^'faniswl Chinese service under Sir Ibfhert 
U:»rt, Tliair salaries in Korea arc only iti part paid 
by the Korean Govermneiit, for tJiey ooutitme to 
remain on the Chinese list and to receive Cbuiese 
pav- It is ruraouretl that the Viceroy Li 
Cliaiig would like to supersede Sir Roticrl nari’ia 
Ber\’ice, which hi? is said to regard with a jealous ej e, 
l>y <1 privately organised Chinese service of liis own. 
In rJu* interests of Korea thif would be a most 
tuifortunate step, sbee it would mean the subs tit it- 
(ion of ttniveraal jobbers* and amuggliiig for a pure 
iunl ellident admintsiratlun. 

Were steps takon by,Uie Korean Government to 
check the systetuatic smuggling tbit even now pre¬ 
vails nil along tUe coast between the Treaty 
smi^tint wliicli the jimedicttou of the 

Kuvopeati Customs ofKcers is conGned), mtioh more 



Imsijujss wtmlel ihroiigb their bantlji. Opium, 
whifJi b pr«lii1jit«i ill (.he Tim-igTi I’reaiief#, is 
smogglerl into the eountry^ and out of It in 

t|uainitie 3 . Of the enoiingiis iiirrcpiitious 
Lraiiic iu. golihdual I aluiU apeak pftseiiiij. Under 
liie teniiB of the Fishery C^>uvcntion iMslween .lapan 
mill Korea* ilie fisiiermen of the (bnner country have 
liilherit- been peniiintHl to land and sell their fish 
wherever they please on the sotiiljom K«ireati coast, 
I^ch imiri dttes a little contrabiuid buaiuess os welL 
It ifi the same* with the Chinese junkmen on the 
west coast, tinite recently the King bas Ijcen pty- 
suuded Uj iwganise a smalt rruiser eervico, which 
may deal witli this abaac, and mayfurtlun* in time 
develtip into the nucleus of a small but e^ctive 
Korean navy. For this purpose he hits applied for 
the loan of Iwo &ig][sh officers, to give the reqttlsite 
start to the uiidertabiii*'. 

Though the wymptoms of commenjlnl ileveloj^- 
inent in Korea arc thus encouraging, it ts not believed 
that, tin; trade has hitherto Ijcen verj' profit* 
able to those eng,age<l in it, mainly owing to 
the diniciilties arising from a deluised anti fiuetiiiittng 
metlium of exchange; whilst the natural apathy of 
the Koreans, whieii renders them irresponsive to any 
appeal Thai places an unaccusloonnl eLmiii upon their 
energies or prepossessions, has so far found an un¬ 
deniable stimulus in the fact that the advem of the 
foreigner tiaunot 1» said os yet to have bought 
much profit to them, The prices of ex'Ci'vihing in 
Korea have, since ihe opening of the connt^, shown 


a ten^eucT to ftssiniilute tlieTiiaclves lo diC^ of 
siirrouiicling marlceis^ widi the resiiU that the 
ne-c^ssaries of life have become dearer^ and tin* ciwt 
of food stufia in particular liua been greatly aug¬ 
mented. Xone of the Customs revenue derive^! from 
increaJ^ed inute goea Into the pocket of die Korean 
peasant, and he probJibly has niomeuts of acute 
though stolid disgusl at the boasted regeneraiioti of 
Ilia eouiiiry. 

^Vnioiig the resaavce* to which the atteutiou of 
fnreiguers baa bug been drawn, either as unrealised 
assets of national wealth nr us a suirce of possible 
lucre (o iliemstilves, are die minerals of Korea. It is 
known tliat gold» lead, aiul silver (gri]i'n.-ih copjier, 

MhirtitM found in some abund- 

nijHiiaU aUliougb UUlierto worked in the most 

spasmiulic and clumsy of fashiona. SfJinc years ago 
the most roseate anticipations were iiululgwl in of 
impending mineral prorluciioii i and a fiimncial 
antUority w’as even found to assort tliat the currency 
problem of the world would l>e solved b,v the 
phenoiueiKil output of the precious metals iVom 
Korea. Tjitterly ibcie hue been a ijorrefponrliiig 
recoil of opiniout which lias led ]x.'OpIe to declare 
that the Korean niines are a fraud, anti that the 
wealih-proiliicing capacity of the peninsula will 
never be demon strain 1 in tliis dircctiou, Tlioite, 
Jiowewr, who have tlie most iutiiuate knowledge of 
the interior agree in thinking that itic inirierala are 
tliere and arc capable of bebg workwl by European 
haiulii at an a^nreJ profit. Should the Government 



consent to a coucessitm on al all a lilwral ftcole, niKl 
jiersomiUy assist tnsteutl of ol>9tructirig its opera[iotia, 
the lufmcy iroiild l»e forthwntiing to-mormw fifim 
more tiiau one (inarlcr, and it is iucontjuivable, vain 
ibough the Koreans are abotit treasures of tv'Mch 
lUey know notliiug, btu which, Iwcause a few 
foreigners are mniiing after thejti, tliev ctinoeive 
must be unique in the world, that many more year« 
c:ui elapse before a serious attempt is made to (»pen 
tlicm up. Excellent coal, a soft antliruejte, burning 
lirightly and leaving Htile ash, is already prueureal 
by tlitj most priinilive methods from a mine near 
Pyong-yiuig, which is said to contain itnlimitwl 
fjiiantitics, Nearly all the iron that is used in Ibe* 
couniry for agricultural and domesiie purposes is 
also of native |>rfKlucli(ui, the ore lacing seratched 
out of shalloTV holes in tbe ground and anu'lied in 
cliarcoul fiirrmfcs. The Koreans have no qonrexition 
either of voaiihtion, drainage, blasting, lighting. 
There is now a Mining Board among the Oovem- 
mont Th;piinincTii8 at Sbuli but of its activity no 
evidence is as yet forlhcotniiig. 

'ITie mineral, liowever, that has excited most 
iuiurest abroad is gold, wliieh, in the form of dust 
from river washings, has formed a notable 
item in tlie exports of Korea for many years. 
During tim last decade /IS,0(IQ,OOU uf gold imd gold- 
dust bnve passed through tbe hands rd the Customs 
ill export, But this does not in all probability repre¬ 
sent more ibnti twenty per cenu of liie real export, 
few .htpanese or Chinese leaving tbe country ndiliout 


smuggling out a litlb of tlie precious tlui?t upon (Iieir 
jK*i:)3ori&; while the MiidtuntioiiB in the juinnal retorus 
may be explained by die higher rule of wages 
procurable from agricultur© during years of good 
lLarveai&, whereby ltdiour is diverted from die more 
pnioortous c^ay of the goltlitelih. I*hu‘er mining is 
pnilrably best suited to iCoreaD conditions: but tlie 
introducdou of qtiartx crushing and of scieutiiTc 
appEauees might be expected to add hugely to dte 
annual production. Five years ago the Ooverameut 
did piireliase foreign macbineryi ami engag«l foreign 
miners to work the gohhiutnea in the Pyong-yang 
district, blit the entcrjiria© was abandoned before it 
bad liad a fair trial. 

Anyhow, with mineral resources of undoubted 
value, even if of uncertain quantity, with graiu- 
Fviut* producing capacities that ai% suscepilhle of 
(wapKt* hitlefiniic multipEcadoiJ, with ready markets 
and wiiiing customers close at Iiatitl, Korea will only 
have to Ihatik lieraell' if she prefers to remuiu plunged 
in poverty and squalor. The iiiitiativ'c must, of 
course, come from the tiovchimeni. At presEm in 
Etiten, unhappily, as in Persia, tyuK'iyrnW tMirmit 
ftlin'htntHt' JfAm. IIut iL is uoi too late to hope for 
change. The first tiling dial the Government Ima to 
do is to abandon tJjcidca that Eorca i^au Amaltliea's 
horn, into which foreigners will pay unoriiioiia prices 
|in the simple of mynUifia or coimuisatou) for the 
privilege of dipping dicir Etigera, The iifixt step is 
to realise tliat without foreign capital little can lie 
done, and under native management nothiug. At the 



pallid iJiiie a ^'ai'y eye iriiiai l»e directed njK»a tli« iini 
too (lispnssioTmie (itTm of finituclal ftsshtonee wliicli 
are jircsscd upon tie intcrtrstiHg d^'butantif witli sindi 
fiiiaplclous emulation by her astule neiglibcmra, 

OwUig to rlie so recent fn«:ning «f the couivtry 
and to the savi^e ^erfiecutiim by wlucli CUti^t innity 
umcoufT hnd been practically cxtenuinatecl a short 
wi? time before, tite misaioutny rpjfcsiiott iu Korea 
BtuuK i$ in a far IcaS advaticexl stale of dcveUipiuent 
than it is m eliher of the. neighbounng countnes of 
Japan and China. Xot tbnl tlie record of Chnslian 
inUsiofiary cflbrt in the peninsula has Ijcejt eiiber 
slender or abortive. It is uovs' a little more thjin 
100 years sifire the imcrcoiit^ Vitli Peking I whore 
there A tlon rial ling Itorutm Catludic Church), 
Orlgiiiaiing from tlie journeys to and fro of the annual 
Tribute Missions, was responsible for the firsit Korean 
convert to (he faiilt of Clirisl. Since Unit ^lato Ihc 
infaiit Korean Church hafi shown a htTobni, Ini* 
endured suflerliigs, and has produced a martyr-roll, 
that will compare favourably with ihe luUsionan' 
annals of less obscure countries and men* fonvard 
peoples. Frtittt (he start it was prosrril)etl, ImnitHl 
down, ami deliveroil over to occasional spasms of 
Heice persecution. It was not till after half a centUTy 
of dtslnrlicd and precarious exislence, iu winch the 
Oiuue was otdy kept tdlvo by the devotion of native 
or of Ghinese converts, that in 1830 M, Maiibant, second Papal nondneu to the post uf 'I'icar 
Ajuoislolic of Koixia, sucoeetlcd in getting acio^? lilt* 
frontier, the first European priest who had sul foot in 

rourwAL J.VB coMMKHvuf, arjimm lUJi 

Kort>a piiK» 151>4- 111 1837 the Gi'st C^athoHc tilsiiop 

oF Korea, tmherii followetl, oiJy to Iib life 

in a. viciliijit perneeulioti tlmt irnmeiHately emued. Tii 
apUe of ooutimieii iiml rekimless lioatihty ori (he pa.ri. 
of the (jrovernmenU the iin.livB CHtwiiwis sire said in 
1S3P to Itave numbemd I7,finn. After the usnrpa- 
tioxjH, however, *>f ihe Tnl Wen Ktiti in 18(14* ih« nmit 
nith ‘ the liowels of iron anti the heart nf stone' was 
cotttent with tin iLalf^mejiflurcs* A tuerclleas war of 
extirpniion was wageil against ( he hereticsil secii ihe 
t'rcnch esxp<»Ulion of 180(1 that ivas sent to avenge 
these mnrdeta heat an ingJoriniis retreat; aail by 
8,001) native Chrigiians were sahl to have paid 
the penalty with their lives. 

The end, bjowei'er, was near at hand. TJif reign 
of I he tduodLhii'sty Ucgeni was now over; more 
K. teiu™. iilieral ideas animated the y<nmg Sovereign; 

and the vraniing chmianr of the nntIona was 
heard sounding at the gates, llio earlier 'Freaties, it 
is truoi demanded nothing nioro than the free exerdse 
of tliidr religion in the Treaty Ports for Liu* pubjeets 
of the plgnatorj' Powers; nor to this day does any 
article, express]^- sanctioning missionary enteqniBe, 
appear in any of the Treaties. The French are said 
to have Laid out long for aucii a convessioii; t.iut 
the only substitute n>r it which (heir Treaty, con- 
diiiled in 1880, cottlaitu*, a clause permiLiing of 
iha uinploynicnt of natives ns fffrroti, interprefere, or 
st!rvati(«, or in any oltier lawful caimuity, by the 
Frenchr and promising tlie laitcr every a^Isianco in 
their study oi the native language and institutions.* 



WJiiitifver may liavt* Imn llip ulterior meaiimg of 
tliose words, tlie Korean Goverameut, with nipre- 
sentativea of uU the g^E^tl Powers of Europe atatioviwi 
w Ita Ciiptiid, ami witJi the guulioats of ihcir st^uadrom 
floating upon the iieigUhouring sttis^isno longer in 
A poaillan, even if it had ihe desire, ii> asaume a 
hostile aStUuile; and missionaries are at liberty to 
come and go as (hey please, and lo make converts 
fl'here they chiu Tiiere ai t* i^aUltobemiUiy tlionsiind 
iiarive (Jlvristians, Dmuau Cutliolies, uj, the country. 
Their j.trieets, many of whom are Koreans, live in 
tlieir mills*, i and every niemlA^rof tlie fluckt hitwever 
remote hb residnnet^ is visited once iu each year by 
his spiritual father. The French Catholic t.ttiurcli and 
Establishment, occupying a natural elevatioii, am 
one of the most proiniiiflfii objects in &jult and Uieir 
earlier start haa given them an mlvantage which the 
Proti'Stftnla will not easily retrieve. 

In l8iH> an Eligible iVotestaiii; BMiup (whose 
diocese is Korea and Shiiig-king, Manehnrial first 
eVkS appeai'ed upon the scene, ami wiieu 1 was 
im-wi In Soul. The Mission establbhiiieui. consisted, 
in a^Ulitioii, of several clergy, liome Iny-helpers. a 
doctor, and Eome sistera of St, Paul's, Killnim. 
Churches had been built Ifi Suul and Cliemulpo, 

' Artich t£. niiiB u Tallawi:—* Lea niitcititH y'nuifKitiut ^i. kn 
FrHiii(tt)fl (tn Cflrifc i»TTiri\mi iIm snjota LW^ihi i titrDilp 

^'IniitriiHrt*. <1w wrviUrir, au A t4>[ti anir* ttltv lloliiv, um qu* |«a 
■aiouli* CfjitDeaitiw piiteMiit y iiniin, ulMtouik. . . , I,«v Fmiti^aU qtd 
■« rartUiuciic Ati Ccrlt jicKir j «i) y proftfsaio- !& Umiq« 

QPt jwtiil*. ta (qiLftri!*, If* ld« nt Im uOn, HwKini, ttn t1«« 

ttHiiuiitaljt lie U'UBe MmliA itmu iknit «i)iut4Ae Jjj, Hjiiiifl* f^igs 
tL.4^lrau Un ifDe<i]Vt3ir lOEijfatu-i mJiI^ 


hmtntiilH liatl bwji 0|>erir.Hi in l^otb places, a piiutin^^ 
prw:? Imtl iKiCti eaiabliflheil ut SJiiiL Jiiid Uie mission¬ 
aries were still engaged iti actituriug tbe language 
before rurniiig tlieir energies cither to trmiigeiisa- 
tioii or to the tranfllntioji of the Praycr-byfjk into 
Korea IIJ Tliore was njs yet iicillier Korean cotigre 
gaiiou Dor Kjrean contiert. Sitnolt^Lncously. and 
even earlier, Anierioan, Canaclian, ami Ausiraliai] 
Societies or Churches had deputed bands of anient 
workers to enter the field; and, all tokh there wore 
l>etween thirty and Ibriy Pro kill ant ministers at work 
in Korea* 

What may flie futoretiuLt lies before them ii. 
would 1>e liazartlous at tliis stage to predict. The 
I'^orean wolf lias not bcjcii eon verted atraight 
•?iiiuuBut cxigciicies of national weakness 

or ouifiide pressure, into a lamb; and a i>eople at once 
»o Incurious, iiud s!0 firudy wedded to Chliieae ethics 
and ancestor-wgrehip, may Im- eipecred in some 
[ihicHH 10 oppose a stubboni front of resistance, in 
others ro iminlge in oecitsioaiil onlbursts of frantic 
aiitagiiuism* _V few sncli casus Lave oi;curred even 
^liticc the Treati^, In ISSS an ciutbrcak t<H>k plu<‘e 
in the streets of Suul, the ridicuInUs nnunur (not 
iniUkc til ill which pnniJcdcd the famnus Tientjjln 
rum^amifi in iS70, as well tis later outrages in C'liirva) 
having been spread limt tJie j^nericau uiisdounries 
had iaren stealing and Wiling Korean babies in order 
' Th:t» "Spw WM IfinEri Kn^^mr»giT^rtwiiU-« viiH.n 

Jiy ftim% nf ^ytr#cltwAix^: Biid Ui tho }iCtMj-c4»ii iviwl 

^idtv HI, |jtr£ihljll!tlMn I4» It, afltl <tf ibft ciili4 

LTj 4 :lrin« 4 , in fidmtL 

19 « 


ii> ttuuLufut^lure cUeuiicals for use iu |>lto(ii|frajjhy. 
Nine itiitlvc officials wlio were aUu^L't! to have he«jF\ 
concerned in tlve txansaction were seized and decapi¬ 
tated by llic mob; and tbe itrow^ nf tlio foreign gnu^ 
bDati> at CheninJpo were nxarched up to the capital 
to protect the subjecla of their several niitiuuali- 
tied, ^lurc receiuh’ there lias bnou a recmdsaceuce 
of the sjime feeling, In ISft’d n Catholic mbsiemory 
was Rttachwl ami Ijealeii at a town in the interibr- 
auil a threatening proc'lamatioii was posted, ou ilu? 
missionary drtors in I?oiiL Early in ISyS a poliiido- 
religiouB party, calling itself the Tokagnttt, or Party 
of Orieinal Ijcarniiig, and appealing to the Coiiflen'a- 
live imtincls of (he poisple, started infi» betng and 
attained menacing projiurtions baih iutbc capital and 
in the provinces. Its leaders presejited a j^etltion lo 
the Throne demanding the prtihihition of all foreign 
rellgiona and llic exjitikion of the merchfinta, in 
other words the abrogation of tlip Treaties. ^Jor was 
it till after iJitc ringleaders had Iwen arrested, tuid 
foreign men-of-war hiid hurried from alt quarters of 
the tliina Seas to ClieinTiipo—while the JapnFiese 
ix>inniutiity in S^iul, who are always the first victims 
of HLiack, had organised a militia in (heir own 
defence—that the peril sijibf?ided. Because the 
Korean is ordinarily friendly to foreigners, it does 
not follow tliai tie Icis any* geimiuo foudjiess for n^ 
btlU leis for our creed. Instinctive In him is the 
Cousei'vutism of a inde-bound Etedidily: and lo 
suiqiose flint tho waits of the Korean Jeriolio are 
going to fnil down flat nt the first blast of the 


missioiian’ trumpet, tit to olienub belief from wbicU 
the flit lire will m all lihelilicKMl pro^iile smiti'^harp 
avrakertiiigs. Oti (he other Iiaxitl, since in the 
ilramattc liietor^' of Koreuti CJirUthiiUty there is 
much cause for admlriiiion, itiero is uonsotpienilj 
good ground for hope. 



CUAlTEli vri 


lUihotd, 0 poojilfi tlmll friOil ITIK lliJrtb^ Ul] D. uMlriH, 

iin*\ luiu^ tmgi ih*]l ihIunI up from ilio aniMts of tho eaith, T\my 
ilifiJl Iwlil Uifi buw puiiJ til# Urtm t Lboy urauli oiiJ will iiot sh-tnr 

iiivrcy ! Lkioir ifoic* ilukii iw Ukt tiw- 4thl lijjt li|iMi 

cvM'y iinc pot. in jifny^ likn il tkiii'ti. 

jK^mxa I 

BKFoitR leavmg Kort^a I muet devote: a iirtal eWpter 
lo a. tlificiissiqTi of tlie u> 'nhitdi. all other 

AihiBwiUHBi Moreau qiiearions are eutraidiarj', mid to nml 
a clue to wbieh I was attracted thither IVtunri 


afar—vir. the ]>oUtical fiiiure tlmt awjiits^ 
Uij& shuttlecock among the luitlutis. I use the phrase 
m accuratelj' descripilre of the rdation in which 
Kitrea stamU m> tlie various Powerri wht* are reprc- 
EK'.nt£il nt her capital, who ireat her from entire!} 
different* anil wholly UTeconoUahle stamlpoiuts, ae- 
cordtiig to their own interefils or [irejudictt, and at 
whoso Iiamie slie Is idternaiely—uaj, even 
iniieously—pitroTiitied, cajoled, bullish and cart*ssod 
A more niiontalous 'political romditinu certainly doe$ 
not ladst ID the wtirhl iJutn iluii of a countrv which 
itftt'lf ehimifi to Ife Ijoth independent and de|}ciideiii, 
and can [jToiIuce powerful evulsnee in stippori of 
cither h}’potheeis; and as to w'liirh outride Fowem 


Uilviiuce prtrteiisioTis of suzerttinij't (.‘miinil, protec- 
trtrfltc, ttllifitico. Til tired natifiti tnyiiment, or 

teitlinicnl equtdity, fcir r»U of vrfiich Uieri* in. coiiaidpr- 
ftUle sliow of jiieiifloatloii. Tltis tUTions sui-te of aJrdJrs 
has amen, m the lirxr place, out of tTie peculiar 
gKigraptucal flituatJoii of Ivoriia on a ^rt of political 
Tom Tiiitllfir's ground beivceen China, liu^rsia, and 
•ra()iui: aiiflf ttecondly^ out of the coutrailictory* policy 
puTKiied hy tlieSrat-namecl of Uicfie Powers iii tuouieniH 
of cfthtiilaumi or of alai'iu al tli&attituile or cnoroaoh- 
tncTits of the others. Hy a sHiTey^ of the rcTq>ectire 
positions oisciipied or daim<‘d by this trio, ivho aie 
tlic proia^^iiists in the iutoriinLiaual drania fur irhicb 
Korea provides an luviilaMtary si age, ivhile the 
reniaiiiiiig nations arc either cast for minor parts In 
the same piece, or sit :is hiterested apeetators in ilio 
niiditoriuint it may be possible to tinravd the tnuglcd 
skein which han liere lieeu woven by ilio wits or the 
tviles of the stronger at the expense of the weak. 

Though Korea has fieen nikd by succi^ive 
dynasties of tuonarclia for cent uries, there has scarcely 
ir«nnfiokm Ijceii a time ahice the eoinmencejnent of the 
wniiJnfinn it [i£^ uot Holaiowlwlged 

a greater or dependence upon eillior China or 
■fapan. The claims of the latter Power, which in the 
declining ^■eiii's'of the SlKJguuftto were nlloweil to 
Khrink into the hnckground—tO tht^ great regret oi' 
Japanese ]ia.iriots—were litith the earlier in origin 
and have tiren exercised over the longer ^pace of 
time, li wa»i as early as the tliiril tiGiitury, a.d.. that 
a Tuusculitie Empress-llcgent nf Japan, bHuring the 


i'Oit mXEA 

Appropriate name of Jingci ur Zingu. herself loti ati 
expedition agaijuit Koroa and n'ceivetli.lieeuhmisston 
of that State. Frtmt tliat time tlowu to the end of ihu 
foiirieriilh, centuTTi the Telatiuns between iJie two 
couutrieWj tlioiigii fn'iiiicivily disturbed^ WTirOt oe a 
rule, th(5fie of Japautjse ijsreudtaicy and Korean 
alhrgijuice. Tribute Missions coiijjtmitly sailed from 
Fusati to the (.'miri of Miksnlit or Sfiogun: and tlierfi 
grew up 111 tTapiuiese lutinls the lauivietioiL which has 
not yet iietm extirpated, that to inrrender Korpa 
' would lie us Indelible a strahi u}Kin tlie naticninl 
honour as Mary of Iinghunl felt it to lose Calais. 
After 1S92, however^ wUen I he Mings nislelwi Hit* 
Ki dynasty lo establish itself oti the Korean llirono, 
tile inilucnce of Ciiimt purumoimt, .md the 

marts tif (Jeferenoo to itajiaii dwindled, ujitil in l liHJ 
the hut Korean iMubassy start t:<l for the Shcigiin*^ 
Court ai Kmiiukura. li was atk'ordingJy as nnH-li ii> 
piniiRh ,1 refractoiy raifsal us it was to prosecute 
loftier fichitmes of conquest against China hereelf, 
that BJdcyoiilil designed bb fanioiti Korean expedi* 
tioiis, This invasion, l*y winch the peninsula ivus 
desolulcd from end In eml for sLs years (I5t<2-Su 
has pcnnaneiiLly afrceicd the relations indween the 
two I'ouiitrics, It has left a heritage of wotiniloil 
pride ami national antipathy in the breast of ilie 
Koreans, which three rcuiuries Intre nut availed to 
erase; while it tins heightened the exasperation felt 
by Japsm t|mt the T!is.^al Whom she crtighefl so utterly 
shniild ret In the long run have nianugwl to nliido 
her clniuli. 



TUu iy*ireai of t)R> iTiipjuifBe for a tiun? suspemlfid 
i':oiimtimkA-tion8 bptTrtseti tJbe (■wh:i Sfaitt®; Imt in 
lots fKifiimHl tin? Korean lo T^hiiib 1 Iwvve 

alrcmly alluded jn a fooi*uam; ttial iu lyvniHsii 
donn'UidC'd tlie trjvivnl of the iribuitr; atjtl 
MiBhm in spile* o(f Itie alisulute 

of the Korcun Throuo to tin* ManiJiUH 
fi’om 1637 oiiwarils, ALiesiond cantiancd lo make' ibeLr 
atuinal excursion to Tokio, entirely iit Uie expeiL^i* of 
Lbe Japatiose, uiid tvitli uu adi^antaget to the kilter 
btiyond tUoK'nren complimoni lo Uioir pride. Owing 
to rlie exorbitant cost of eiilorumiiietit n change 
was cireeted in IT00, wheu the envoys^ Itistcail of 
crossing tt> tlio n mini and, were inviteil to 

proceed as far ns Tstislihna only; with which chojige 
the so-called tribntc slirank still nioie inti) mi .'iiiiiuai 
exchungo of presciilii with little or nu adiuission i''f 
Itollticid subordination. Ttm iiictiiJgmoits comliuoa 
of adains lasted till 18S2, when the Usi coni£]ilimeniiuy 
mission upon a fShoguii's acceesion wns Jcspatcbed 
from Korea tii the -TapiUieso t^oiul. 

A new era now upened, in w*bich Japan, by diiit 
of liar own pditic-al resnscitatiom wJts to ra-esiablish 
PrEiTiitiit a powerful infliienee in Korea. aUhoijgli at 
t«ni i.he cost of ihe feuihuory reJaiionsIdji which 
for aty tnfuiy centiinc's It hatl bi^ her lioariful jire^ 
temJon lo nmiinain, Wiifii the Korean tioveniniwit 
wsie tlircatened bv the French invasion in iSflil, it is 


siiid to hM*® rempinlft-nffd Us ohl wmneciinti, and hi 
have solicited ilie adviire and aid of Japan. Ki> reply 
Ijcing returned to this rc4ues1, it was not surprising 



wliL‘n iti IS IIS a -lapaneso embajssy amvc-d Iti 
Soul to ctuivfey the foranl antioimceinent of tlie 
polllical revolution in Japan* aiul tJu‘ resumption l>y 
the Mikado of full sovereignty, and to from 

the Koreans a rontwal of ancient fnendship iind 
vaR*afaig(', an Iniokuit refuiial svaa relurttetl by i.Ue Tui 
Wen Ktiin In Japan tlin Saiuuriujmrty were ftinous; 
hut the r»)untry was too poor amt to<' much tiornporeil 
hy other complications to go lo war; although tlu' 
Chniivinist spirit fonmt angry vent in rclxdiiun hi 
Saga, and in an attempt upon the lifeof the Japanese 
statesman Twnkura, who, on Ida I'etuttt front Eurt>|y6 
trllJj t.tkiibo in 1»TS* stoutly resisted n policy of 
slrotiger tneast!res. To satisfy these siMimt sjnrits. 
two successive lnjj Ix'xttlesa Japanese missions, cun' 
ducted by niuiahusa and iloriyauia. wero sent to 
Korea in IfiTti atifl 1S74, to re-eat.ablish Jnpanesi' 
authority by pfaoefid means, wliile the llliliiisierhig 
Fomitisftn expedition was iinderiaheii t« keep the 
wrif-party employed in 18T4. Kevcrlheless. when in 
Is75 a Japtuiusi.' luaieof-wnr, the TJnyokaii, had hecu 
fired upon by the Koreans froui the isl:uid of Kaiig- 
hwaoii the K:in, Hud after an appeal to Peking and 
I he receipt of an /is^umuce from the Govern* 
Tuent that nil rcspoiisibiliiy was dL^wnnd by them, 
the first Japaiu^ TiTUty of ISTfi was prestnnetl as 
an ultimatum and signed, the inilitnrv party again 
iiroke forth into stormy discoiuem, lunl the great 
baigo of siatsitiiiu, splitting irnevoeably with, liic 
(iovtTimieni, rtnirn-d to hw patdunmy to plot the ter¬ 
rible civil war that commeticed in iho following year. 

rilk' t*OUriC.iL FUTl'ItS OF FOft£J 2 <)» 

Tbt' «dr-refit mint and ouullon i>f lli£^ tbeti rnw 
of Japanjest* fitniGsnion were, however, amply re- 
wtinled. Tlier wiaelv rec<xgnLsc-d tlmr tlie 
•"» Tiriie for lui .ig'gTfsSTVe |>oIu'y Wiw not IIicju 
idTt* itnd that Jopaiio^ mfliieaee in Korea could 
onlv be recovered, not hv attstained invasion or con- 

m ^ 

(ptefit, but by lilt iubder inovemenM of dlploumlit! 
ptfim tuiil commercial control. In tliis sagacious 
policy they* were ae.sisted by the trenkness and iinleci- 
siotiof C'liina. WTieii ilicaliov©-meiiIiotiwl Treaty was 
concluded, in 187tf, with Korea, the opening words 
in Article 1 wntAiticd the remarkable statement 
that * ITlio^eii, being an indepenileut State, enjoys the 
same sovereign rights aa does Japan —an atlimssioii 
which was fbolisUh' winked at by China from the iiiis- 
laken iiotion that, by dbavowiiig hcpiionnection wltli 
Korea, she ouuhl escape die tuiploasaiiluess of being 
cidkal to iicconnl for the dcIiTKjaertcjcs her vassal. 

This preliminary ailvantagt- waa more than tbiuliled 
in value to •rupau w'hcn, after the rcvciliii:ion in Siiul 
i-su™, by which her lUplomatic reimfsen- 

i.. tative wiis cwTupclicil to JU-e far the second 
time from the Korean.capitid, slie sent troops 
10 avenge the insult and declinctl la iicinove them 
until ('Hdna hnd tuadu a similar (>«in:easu*ti with 
regard to the Ciiinese giirrison. wJtich luul Ijeeii 
runintaiiit-il since the previous outlirtiak in ISB^ in 
ihtiL city. Illy the Convention of Tieutsiii, which was 
negotittied m 188u by Couiii Ito with the Viceroi- 
Li tlung Chang, both parties iigreed (o withdraw 
their Irtiops juifl not to fietid nil nmuMt force to Korea 



ai flny fiitun^ dale to iiitppre^i reLisllioii i*r dtshirlj- 
mtite without, previous ititltnituon lu the other. 

Thin diXTiuiient was a second di]>lomatic tritiQiplt for 
Jnpo]'!; for, whilst it was safe lo aver ilmt noilhor 
Power woultl over be scrlcxisly deterred therviiy 
from hostile action, it yet itivotTed tho veiy admission 
of sobstaiitMil etpmHtv of rights ns rifj'anh- Kor&a 
which plapan had all atoii^ l>£*<*u Liboiinng to reassert, 
and ivliioh Gliinu, except in Lhc* moments when she 
had lieen caught napping, had as coiiBieieiilly repti- 
dinteil, Japan, therefore, if slue hs/ItiotfewvRredlicr 
former i«xsition, k-nt at {east re-ostahlishud her CFG^ 
dif,. If Ifi, in my judgment, greatly to In? regretted 
that in (he prtalent summer her novcrmnent, tuixiniis 
to I'Scape front dudiestic ttmjiies. hy a spirited 
foreign policy, lias ahandoned tUis statesmauliko 
att'itnde, and lias exnhaTked upon :l liendlong coarse 
of .iiggrcsaiou hi Korea, for which there appeura 
to have l>ceu no auilicienl provoraiioiit and tin* 
ulterior consciinenccs of whiolt It is impossible to 

So much for the political rovindicaiton of Japan. 
StiiiiUaiuiously sho fias pnrsiicd witli unilaggjiig 
*-*“‘*4T iKdiry of cojimtcrdal and fiscal 
.(«nr.y ascendency in Korea. Active mid liusjiiesa- 
like compitreil with rite imlolent Koreans. pjssi?ss«*d 
of cnpiul, untl underfitmiiliiig how to make others 
pay through the nose fur the ban of it, her colonists 
and incrchatiis have grttdnal})- fiistened u grip on to 
tlie wefdter eomtlry which it will }«- exceedingly 
dltlu.'uU to shake off. The iliipiuii^c! have got the 

fiiK roLfTiVAL nriUKv: or k'o//£A 

mint nn*l b34ik» sJreydy. Tlie Govenuneni i# hirjw'ly 
ill tlinir dfbt. They atliiUy pressiu" for foiiM^- 
Eioiia of eveiT Their eye Ims long Ijih'U 

iixeil upon the CuetomSrpresent in tJje Iinnils of 
llieif riv;iL« the Cliinese, ami in a few years’ time 
they hope to liave obtained so coinniatiding n hold 
upon tlte national resources of Korea in render 
her poUtiiwiI depeinlenct' upon China a eoiistJuaioiutl 
lii'tion which tho wi$<lcnn born of aceomplisheil furls 
Timy ultimatdy allow to espirf. Tins policy is-, of 
Course, one of seliishne^, IJut its sucecfes will uot 
tlieroby be so much imperilled as it may lie by ilie 
iiiitionnj racc-hatretl lieiween Xoteans and Japanese, 
that is one of lliu inosi striking phenounrija in con- 
teinporan' Chosen. Civil and obliging in their own 
oouiltry, the Jaijanesif ileveU'p in KoiL'a a filuulty for 
buJlylijg arid bluster lh«t L* the reauU partly of 
natiouaJ vanity, partly of the memories of the past. 
Ill I' lower orders illtreal the Tvoreaiw 011 ci'cry jki«- 
siblc opportunity', anil are ciinlially detested by them 
in return. Lndccd it is wry amusing to con trust the 
eKtreuH* sensitiveness of Japan towards the Treaty 
Powers in her own territoriC'S and her iudigtuint 
protest against the severity of the Treaties, witli the 
domiijtietiiig rallousunss with width slie, the first, of 
tho Tmuiy Powers in Korea, treats ihc latter nufot' 
tunate ctiuntry because of its weaktiesjs, and exacts 
every ounce of tleah pennittctl in’ the Treaties be tween 
theuu^ Such a rekiioiialiip, which is in marked 

* JAjuLb tEsfl Unt KoTviit Ttrfttjr cfi ihp topif'il 

irliliiR** IW 4111L Vi 

20 $ 


coutr]i^,t wirh Amiciihlc iE>nuR ^iii. whteli iui> 
Soreniui and Cliinese appear to subsist side by side, 
will not facililate iJie issue whidi Japiunise twiibilicm 
bus in view. 

A striking instance of this atiitucle wns alTordetl 
during the past, year. In the conrsfe of 1889 the 
Eoremi GovernuietiU lltiditig tliHt the riativt>- 
**’"**^ grovrii beans w'er© beiiip l^oiight up in great 
i|ttimtity by Jnpauese tnerehants for exportation to 
Japan, Issued a temporary proliibiitou of exjiori in 
two provinces. IJj' tliis doertfe ibe pureliasers. w'Jio 
had tdrvady made advjufcea 1o tile cidiivators. alleged 
that they were the liters by nearly ^220,000, owing 
to ibelr inability tO recover their loana amt rt^ the 
non-deliv^rj' of the grain. A’ow by Uiu Trade Regu- 
L’it.iun.1 agreed ni>oii laitweeu Korea and Japan hi' 
IS S3, the foniier country has the right to prohibit 
the export of cereals in time of scarcity fir emer- 
geney.* *Dib Japanese, however, iiheged iliat the 
emergency bid not arisen ht this va^, and also that 
the stipulated iniiuth''3 notice had not bi^n given in 
ailvanci!. Tlic claim w'ns pressed with greater or less 
insistence for four years, the Korean (Sovetrimenl 
aibnitiing n certain liabiUty, but expresBing its 
Incapacity, owing to continued inipox'crislimcnt, to 
jmy more than in uompeiisaiioii. At. leiigtli 

the IXailical aJid Jingo party in Japim Ikcuidc very 
much excitetl nt this jimiltitig prwTastinauori. Aj; a 

vT tlui Trval3^ and liu mvnr diuiivn Kity 

lnvto-n» lo wii ui ii]ii±jiilipii SOju'u £li9 prayi^ioui of which aliu 

couj^uii^to liilicd) wbmi fIJIllllrJ tr? btdxiUf. 

" luvIL 

Tili( i'OfJTiCAL fljTnUg OF KO&EA ->07 

iM>p ID iJietii (he JapoiKise JIiul5t(.‘r lo Silnl was 
recollml, anil n young Ikulii^al firebrand- wlio Iiml 
r<r(*eiii]y ptiblisljfd u knjt on Korea on ibc fitrength 
of atbon I'uii ikere, was sent out to pursiu^ a {hiIicv 
of brag, 'FhJs milividuat, b^rpresejiting an itlmnainni 
nc iJiP Ihnat nf *lii' Korean Courts t^ventiiaJly cotn- 
pnundicl ilie dispute for iff 10,1)00; but, Ueiiif! lotallr 
destitute eitiier of mannurg or of ofSeistJ training, be 
nffrouted lii* King and bis Miuistecs to suti aji 
extent by bis unseemly viobtioti of all diplonmiic 
etiquette iu Ins interviews witJj tlieni, that lie was 
smmnarily rt'ealled by Ibe .Fepanese Cioveriunetitt 
returning to Tokio to lie made the recipiciU of a 
popular ovation. 

At that time atul till quite reoemly' Dimut Ito 
imd liis eolleaguee w'ere not believed tu have anv 
sympathy willi tlim intemperate .'ind swag* 
•Ahjmu gerijig attitude towards I he w eaker Stale. 
Tliey appeared lo recognise dial Japanese polioy in 
Koii'fl could only attain its ends liy a friendly nn- 
derstimiUng W'itJi Oiina; that tJie eflbrt lo ret-wer 
purely politicaj asceiidemty iu SOul w as inuompaiible 
with aiit-'h nu iniderstaiiding; and Umi everj’ attempt, 
to hiiuiiliatf or terrorise over Korea waft lo play 
Obuin’s gnme, anti tiglitcii the bonds tliai miiiMiI 
die vassal with rhr auKeraiii, At the same time no 
JapmiGse minister could aifortl idtogother to almiidon 
the immemorial clnhitsof his country over tlie pelty 
adjaeetU kingdom; wbik-every Japanese minister lias 
ROW' to ileal with a iJcople—^narndy, liis ovra cotmiry- 
tuvii—w’h<», wdmii their so-called patriotic instincts 



are apiKJJili-tl Ui, are apt tr> n-iipunil Iiy gt>ing 

It i® Mi(* )attt.T phffliotiitjnon, niul r.Iie s.Ititfii! 
huL not loo scmpLi.IiOiU^ use tliat liOJi iicen iiiafle 
SttiaiA of it, iljat are resjioii'^ilile for tlte uvent.'i 
oecomng m Korea as tfni?sG pages go to 
press, Taltitig lulvantage of reuetit ilUturbanoes in 
lUe peiiiuBtUa, wlvIoU demanatraletl with renuwHl 
eleoj-iiess tliu InifiQleiice of the native (jovemnieut to 
pnivide eitlaT » diM.'eut julmiaistratiotj for its own 
subjects, or adequaie proreclioii lo Lite interests of 
foreigners, and ingeiuqusly proQting by iJie loophole 
left fur luture iiitcrferetice iti the Tieiitsm AgreenicTii 
of 18S5, Japan has (in July liSH4| landed a turgi> 
mtlttary force, estimated at l.bJJOtl men. In Korea, and 
Se in iirmt-d (a.'cnpaliun of the capital. Ti Hung Chang 
has responded by the desjiaieli of the Chinese Heel 
and of an expeditionary force, marching ovcrtauil 
into file northern provinees. Fhiili parlies ileclino 
so far to retire; Chiiia relying upjn her genulim 
auihority and inlUience. but feeling that she has been 
et'jtiiewhii! outwitted; Japan lieing resolv'eil to atone 
for previous blunders, ami i.o reap a full advantage 
from her cral’ty but scarcely defensible diplomncv. 
War has in»t actually been declarctl; but *ii)gage* 
menis ])eta'Geu ihe rival forces by land and sea 
have uken place, rind the ditiaiton is scarceK* dis- 
tinguLshablr therefmm. In the uveiii of open war 
Japan cannot, in my judgmeiu. escape the blattie *»r 
provocation, and will, iu the long run, be tlie suf. 
ferer by the issue. 


I Him jiexf. to iii9 |)oaif.i<m of Cliiim. Tl^r 
tiK'entbncj* in Korpti^ wbiith Ji3b far mocfi nftttiml 
c.biitu«UAb <^ 0 iuliUnii 8 in tin* sh;iij« of common lan^uttgo. 
•jui min: religioit, ami |>iIu](iso|ibjf tw ^^lJl a* 

torritorial c^nneotioTi, to reooiimiODd Ii ilmu can Itf 
advancetl Uy Japan, practioalif from tlm 

faiiJiil!i.r[o]i of tlie present reigning dyiia<ily of k'ora:t 
500 years ago. It was n niter tfie pntri>iiane of the 
ifing Kmpertir>; that Si Tnijo, a. soldier of fortune, 
raised Iiiuiself to \h<r ICort^:i(l throne, nml e^i nidi died 
a ami capital nt whieJi still fniilitully 

repr^nluoe the Chinese cJvaracteriatics of iliai epoch. 
'VVlit’ii the Japanese hiviided the iienitwula rniiu 1502 
to 1598, the Chinese defended h with as mueh cuei:^ 
tr* though it wen* part (jf their own territories, and 
uliiojateJy expelled the intimJers. Suh'MHpmiiLly, 
on lUeir way to China, the Manelm eiiiK.juero'rs 
devuatated and exarieil an even more humiliating 
submission from Korea, wlilch lifm never since lieen 
jsitrrfiniiurcil, timl is. to this tiny eiiforecat by ilio 
sititoraiii Power, While Iliiujel was in Kor*,*;^ IfinS- 
1 lifts, he Tesufit!^ to the coiistaiit visits of ilie t%'- 
pitjsenlative of the ‘ Great CTliam,’ and to the eolii* 
piete humility of ihe Km’eati Govenuilent. Atnnmllv 
a Tribate Mission wemled its way by latnl from .Stiul 
to Peking, coiiw,vying the sperified trihifle,^ and 
rtfceivlnof iu roliim tlie (\iImuUr, whh'Ji it. ivi die 
Imperial prmigativo lo prep'in:, and the mark, of 
vai'sulage iti receive. In the sncceccling ciminrv tho 

• IlA Bit miiM bj- DntliW (toI. ]. p. jtv.J ; bui ii » ttfuf 



iriljute grail ujilly rtsJxu'iitl, mu I iLe cmliiissy 
appeared at times tt> (bviiulle into a i:t:Tennmial 
fuuciton. enrryiiLj* jimienls In n*tum f»r llie per- 
nii^un to tmtle tU tlie frouUerr raihitr lUaii tokem of 
polit ic,il snbnnssioii. Xcvortlieleas, duniig tbis e|KK;U 
a rioleni illattirliatim} took plmt; if tlufj'e ira-« tlm 
sViglitest nmissioii of preserUiOiI ilitfeteiire; nml u!te 
Kon^nn monarch stuartlv finC':! for his omii^aion 


of fiome piuictllJo. Fixim the time of Ute UancEm 
iuvjuisoii to the pi'i'Steiit day every King nntl flitecii. 
of Korea Iiave roceivetl ilieir p'tieiit of royally from 
r.lie i’outt, at iV-lEmg:* on<l the hifliorical tutelary 
posiitlori iif t.’hina coiiimue^ to Iw AimUeattul in (he 
roltowiiig uvuiiicr. 

[ii adilitton to the Imperial investiture, aiwl to 
the aiwiiiiLl denpatch of tin* Triimle Iroiu 

£t«iii^: 'vhijL'h is still tnain talimd—altltOUgh li 

*1'!!'*!!!^ practical and mereantile aspect b now leni 
^“*‘*** lo tilt* [jrmHieiUug by ils iHfhig utilise for 
[lie e;qiorL ro tlliliiu by ibe Cliuop In of the King’s 
red —4he iioniv of ilu,' reigning niormrrii of 

Korea is also given to 1dm by tldna, and the era 
specified in Korean Treaties is tlmt of the accession, 
iiui of ilte King, tint of his» ^n/ernlii the ISjuiiefor. 
Tlic King of Korea b nol ulloM'ed (i> nrear thu 
Imperial yellow. When ibe Imperial fain missions re 
luvlve from Peking, he is reijuire<l loprtx'ced outside 
of lufi eapiial in order to receive tUem, iho chief 

* M, hiMi lnuudkl«i] hiiw FnniiU mul juilillKh«i] in JtfWffrtt 

Ji danM PAnt Centm!^ H OrujU 

ib^i clwy i>f Uio prinvifioJ <;hiiuw ^-liu muI httm 

i^vking U> intiai tiie pr»rui <4 ihcmuk La ItflHk 

ruE roimcAL Ft^TritM of fohea 


Cmnri¥tfMmTn,T iMfitig of lii^Uor rank m f.Ut 

hiftmttihy diau [iJiiiGeir; atul 1 Uave |jrwit)iialy 
of tile omainetitAE ari^Hway outside (be ^cst 
gsite of al nvbitili ibe tu'ssal jiririce receives tlit 
I'jivoys tjf his Siizffratu* Wlicn nay iidtablu oveats 
tKaiur ia tiit* f-oiirr, ai Pekiu;; lliey are cammniilcated 
to iIjh vassiil lAuirt, jwhI an? lliu uausc of a res^ti-iiol 
iiTess;i;ifi tihher of c'OniloIeaca or of r^ugmtuIilUuii 
from thft l:U(or. Sirtiibrly if any death occurs lurtoug 
the lendijig irieritbers of ttie lioyal Family al Soul, 
nn oHictal Juiiuiailrju of i!ie fact must Ijc seal to 

Vilieii ihe liiie QiiecJi Dtuvager of Korea died in 
1SI)0» the King depiiied a mission at once id report 
tile fjiot. to the Emiwror ; And, ia pciitioniag 
iSIw^JSbTSi latter to disfmsu with iJie ordinatT 
cerenionial of a ret.imi niisslnn to convey 
the condole urea of the Siuerain, Iwcausc of the 
difliiiutty dijit wcadd Imj experii'iieed by Korea in i'on- 
sequence of her tiiiaiiclal embArrassmenr in earrying 
out all the prescribed oeremtmies— lie msile the foUoiv- 
ing staUnticul of his position u iLh Cldtia; — 

* (hvr countiy h a siadl kitigdmti anil a vjuuat] StutQ of 
flhhtn, tv trJiinh iJta blmpernr has shown hia gntelaufOie^ 
fenm time imniemDriAL thir (tovirninenl wne eiiHblutl to 
sarvif-e the political tmulilea of uiJ Ittd-l thnutgh the 
n^stoaco leceiv^it fivinj the Threms which aeenreJ for our 
country 'peiice nml tmitqmUily. Sinci? His Majenty hiL* lietin 
AUtiii^h to confer thi^ae fovenm opoti Uf., weehuiitd Tnatie 
Ildovtd to him whntOTi*er we dusire ; niid whatever we wish we 
trust that lie tHHy allow, as to nu iutkut conBdut^ iu the 
teailer uiercirs of its |nrviitiL^ 



'riiese CTJDiplimtiuR, Tiowtver, dit! tiwl itiduw; tJit* 
3uzer:dii ro forej-o ont? tUtIp of his f radii biiiil righu* 
allhoiigh lie m Tar yielded to tho Koneftti iihm of 
ixjverty ns to piji nilt Ids 0>ttuui$9ionpr* l« travid hy 
sea Chemulpo, iusieml of overland* ilierehy ijreaily 
redueing the eost nf their emertamment An 
lurooiinc of T.he luiiiute and elalioraEe eeremontes 
obsen’eil on both sides has sinco been publishihl with 
eviiknt design i>y the Secretary to the Imperial 
ConuTiissionersiJ The laiu»r* it appeanit among oilier 
marks of comU'seenHSon, saggestetl ihit otnissba fmiu 
the progrMiine of the nute hampiets, mtisic, and 
juggleri’, with wliieh it was usmil to eiuertaiii them. 
* Their njotine Irjr this sa^eeiioij was to show their 
eonstderaiioTi for Korean imptf uniesiiy.* They aUo 
declined to reeeive parr.hig pri>senls from the King, 
at vihieh the latler ■ felt very grateful, ant! at the 
same time n^-retied the fad.’ all wju^over 

the Jung sent a niemorisd to the Emperor, tliauhing' 
liim for his graeitmfiiiess. *The stmiimenta of this 
iiieiiional —in iheir fiincerity liml ittijiorlniice—are 
lieyond expression in wortlsi demonstrating Umt 
China’s manifold graeioiisticas towards her depeti- 
doiicies k increjiaiiig w ith iho limes. TIil' Jilujperor's 
considerntitm for liis vassal State, ns eviiieetl bv his 
lliouglitfulttess in ratilleniperiaimiig to the .Vlisakin, is 
fit thornless. How adrokable and satisfaelorv ! And 
how glorious I* 

Sudi m the tedmioal and ofliclal expression of 

* EoItm «« l>t& Imptirial Ctiiw^e SJhtiun (o Corta iii 1*™. 

r/w to uric AL rvTuns or korka 

llie aiizerAlniy of Cliiiia wltieli i$ obs^n'eii to tfita 
, tlajr; aiitl «itch ar« tiie cviduni-'t's of Ihe iiidispulaUe 
rwallty of tlmt relationsli ip. l>f even greater mi|>or- 
tnaco is it to tmoa tlte cjctent to whii;]! itt rectmt 
yeans U lias been aocoiupaiiicd liy practical iloiiiiiia^ 
tioii of Korean statecraft—a subject wliicli brings us 
into itiiuiediato aci^oaintAncre irilh tbe ilipk>iu:itic 
indecision of C'luna, as well ;ts wliii Let euoniioiw 
latent streogtli. 

fTp to the titiie of the masiUicre the French 
iiiissioiiaries iu Kotva hi iSDfC the chtlnt of Ivoreaii in- 
T T —A .j depcuileiice luul never seriously l>Gca made. 

At that dale it was adrauiwl, of all jteriple 
iu the svorld, Iiy the Cldnese lliemsclvt's, 
Ausiotis to est:iipe respouaibiUiy for the act as well 
ns the irk^Tiie duty of either paying an iiideiuuity 
themselves or extorting it froiti Ibeir vassal, when M. 
de llelloujei., ibe Frenoh Cliargi! inquirtiri 

of the Tsiitigli Yammi what he was Lo do, the latter 
dhfOwnwl Korea allogetlter, and left the ['reiieluuati 
to puliIisL a ridieulous manifesto to Prince Knng, in 
which lie took upon bituseir to announce in ailvjuice 
the tk*|K>fiition of tliC Korean Bovereign. Sitnilarly 
when, hi ISTl, the jUuericon Expedition, tiuder 
Admiral Eutlgers, proposed ttt sail against Korea to 
deniaiiil reimratioti for the loss of I he •f jeu.ertd 
i^hernmn * and the murder of its crew oil Korean 
shores Iu 186(1, anti to force a treaty npiiu the 
Korean Court, it was again with the conui^i’aiicD of 
the Chint'St! Oovornment titat the project waft under¬ 
taken. Finally, when in 1870 the Japanese, before 


sending an cxp<‘(1Iiion to Koron wIiL a tfluiitar ttbjecu 
apijlitid for informatioa to 1‘ekmg in ad^i’nnce, a rhinl 
time came Uie diijjdaliiier of Cliiim, which i&sald on 
iliis occasion lo have t-ven Ijoen comimitcd to paper. 
This was a poUcT of Itepudiatioiii mid was ('liina's 
first im'tmsjsteucv. 

Discovering her tnl&takeTnud realtaiiig that tlw* 
foroignor, having once been allowed lo niwttlh* with 
• Sin»- Korea prt}pni* mofu^ (;ou]d not ho (ienua- 
iaUmUo) excluded fmtn cUiser rehittniis, 6!«* 

then triid to repair her error by en con raging the 
various Powers to enter into Treaty relations wiili 
Korea ou mi iudependiml ha.^b, hoping^ apparently^ 
that the inutnal jealousies of all would preclude tlic 
nsi’ciuleticy of any one. Ontmmvlore StmfeUlt, sui 
Anmricou naval oJliccr. who in IStlT had tieen Bent 
upon a futile iDis^ion to Korea after the loss of 
iJie ‘.general Shemmu,’ being iti Tienlatii in 1881, 
was iitIJiBed by la Hung Chang ns the dret instru- 
xnent of this new policy, 'flic Aniericau Treaty, in', 
tendc*! to serve as a pattern for its suci.^easors, is said 
to have Wen drafted b}' the Viceroy liiniself; anti it 
was with the escort of a (Tlnnese stpindrou ilmt the 
Commodore prcsciiteil hiuundr at iJm mouth of tlte 
Ilun. Shuultuncomdy the Mceroy wnitc n letter to 
the Tai Wen Kun, strongly urging upon ihe Korean 
Clovennnent the signature of treaties with the foreign 
Powers as ilie sole means of continued wcurity and 
indopendence for the tlirenteimd kingdom. Under 
these conditions the American Treaty was signed in 
1882, :uid the Treaih*s with Oreat UrUain Jind Ger- 

THE rOLiTicsr. FirrrnE or koiiea Sis 

many ill dm first lirUtali draft Tremy, wliicli 

nn!f frjtmMl Ijy Adjiilral WlMe* in lSS2on iIms modol 
i)f l.hi> Amenonti, Imiug wujM.*rst‘flwl liy iLi- imw* 
litmrul inatr«m*Ttii nt-goiiatud wiili iircai nliility ?tmt 
wiiflutbJ liy Sir Ilnrry l’jirkt*a in the followitijr i-onr. 

?fnw the first aniclti of ilm Ja[>aTif^si? Tnfaty of 
I&Tft lui<! opejit'd with tlie^o worcU:—CUtiseu, Imiiij; 
Tinn* an iinlepefnlent i^tato, enjoys the same 
Hwcreitni righu as does Tnp^n' Coii^uioii!^ 
of the serious significAiice of dib ;ulitiis^ii^t4 Cliiiia* 
in reoommtiiulini; the adilltional foreijfii Treaties, now 
sought to giianl bersdf by a eiatemeiit of her own 
IHiaituiu, The Ameriftan Treaty, when first Jrafied. 
irtuitaiiied :i i'lauso whieli ran as followsKorea lias 
always been tribitliiry to Chino, and tius is aduiitft'tl 
by tL IWiileiit of Urn United States;' but "r!ie 
Treaty sliall he jienuaneuily regardtid as having mv 
thini! EO do thcrewilli.’ This ftb9iir*i <?ouin|»lielion 
was of course expunged l>y tlie TiV ashirijitoti novem- 
ntejiU who liemg invited to con elude a treaty 
will I Korea, naturally ittsisted upon treating Korea :is 
an indeiwtideiJL State, Accordingly in die Amertcaii. 
as in tlie Ilritkh mil subsequout foreign Treaties, flwi 
King of Korea is throughout, rtiganled (though not 
actually described) as an iiul^speudeut Sovereign; 
and proviak'ns are lUEule for llie ciist* unary iliph*- 
raatio representation, fmtiliarin the of IVtvers 
negotiating upon an equal basis, of each of the fligh 
Coiilrsclinp Uorties ut the Court of the ot tier. ?fot 
ro be circnnivented, however, Ghiini insisted upon the 
King of Korea sending the following despatch to thn 


of tilt' rniteil Sintes, pncr t(i ^i'tnnl 
irmiclii^'iiHi of tlitj Irttaty; .1114 of tlie ^iine 

hyv« since! lieiunimiti^iiiitteHl Ui ibe&>vere'igiiB of oacJi 
Ilf till!'licniiuiiiiig Tivnty Powei'S :U tlie 
JunctUfti ;*— 

‘TLe King of Korea nckn!>vi. lei}{;«fl ihaf Korea is a rri- 
liiitsrr of China ; hut in rejjitnJ to Wh iiitf^rtial R<lmiuiatnv- 
tioii hUil roivigti itit^reuur^ it 

Now, being nlititil tu r^tabliiib Treotj" reJaticmil hstween 
Korea oocl the l/niietl .StaJofl of America oii ceniis of 
i^jusllt r^ the King ijf Koren, aa *111 Iflll wpifl ltil-iftn l lT|H Tiqrr|p^ 
iliJiliuctlji' tuid^rtoks tu gjotj osit tJi** urttcla^ in. 

fli&'rmr.y, irrtsfipicrirt; laf npiy iiiAttenialfi^ttiug th^ tHhotury 

Ktjre-ftiLrid OHjiii, with wkicb ibfi 
I f niteJ .StiituB of Aimirlca JiaviiJ no ooitcom^ I f uving ftpiiomtijii 
uHictaU to dobbemte' upon ami kittle the Trentv, tliu King 
of Korea conaiLUTJ it hw dnt)- to address this ileajmtcb to 
the PreshhJtit of the Umt«t] Ktfttfrj.* 

It will, 1 tliiiik, beconmltHl tliiit jt more strictly 
illogiwtl Rtate-papor tliaii llie aI>ove iviis never 
jictimil, anti that a mora incongruous or e.iaiivadic' 
Uiiy iifwition was never taken mi. The King of 
Korea ackiiowlmlges Ids vassakigo to Cliiita ; Imi iu ihi; 
suiiic breath |)ronOitiiccs k'ta trompleio bi(k*|jentlcuce 
lioiii iu the ftilriiinisiration of hU own coutiLry anti 
ia Joreigo rehiiioiis. In wliat, then, we may a^k, diice 
liis vassabge eotisistf He ilescrities iiiinself atnjuJta* 
i«?ouely as a tributiiry ainl as an tmlapetuk'nl monarch. 
So lioublfe-facetia portent, ao complex a pi wmoracuou, 
luis ndliier purulleL nor precedent in iriternational 
law. If ho is a vassal, hu lit*s ni> business to be 
making treaties^ or to be sending amJ recotviiig 


'A of tHiiiJiUty, Il'Jiit is litdep^ji* 

ileiii, wliy tWs liy tlet'kre bimsfelf a feijibit^ry 

Such was Uio irratiounJ position in whicli Obhiiu 
bv her jxilicy of an atteiti|j(ttl [leutrnUdatton of 

... „ ,f Korea, lajided both hersdi' anil the 

Srate. The full <:t>[iscqiieiictfs of her ati iiiidtt 
Mfriifc clearly mmiifestcd when, il few years later. 
Korcji pn>p<wied to carry out her Iriitiul prerogaiti-e 
of sending duly acoredited cjitots to the foreign 
(.tnurts w1h> Were already represented at SwuL Tlie 
Viceroy IJ, who had la tlie nijcantiiiie Eenaibly tight 
ened the reiiis, was coiusnltcd; and once more seeking 
to recover the ground whicli had la-'eii techmcalh’ 
abandoned, lie attached conditions to the pii>p4ised 
appointments which, alrlcilly rugartled, were, if pissi- 
ble, even more aitoiualotin than the origintd paradox. 
'Hic Korean Kns'oy, on arrival jit liis dcstUmUon, was 
to report himself ro the Chinese Kepresentaiive then?, 
and to Ih: iniroduced him to the Foreign AUimicr 
of ihi* State. Chi all public occaaioas he was to yiuid 
precedence to the CJiinese Minister, and he wits in- 
varialjJj'^ to ctmstdt luid take the advice of the latter. 
IliTC was the Siune cinilnuUctiou in icrnis in a more 
j>roQounccd shape. If the King of Korea was a 
vassal, he had no ImsbicJis to l«; sending rcpriisciitu- 
tives ni all; if he was an hidepeiideitt moimrch, Chinn 
had no business to interfere with him. Kither Ids 
envoys were private iiidividinds or they tvere <lipli>* 
matic representutivtis. If they were the tonner, no 
question of precedence could iiriM*if they w'cre the 
latter, they were subject to the uoniitd regulations of 


dlpIoniAtii} Gtiquiitie. J-\|ir 9i>me ^veeks tljo President 
Ilf the Uiiited S^fates, tiatiiraU)' somewlmi iMswUdeml, 
keiit the Kureau Envoy tit Wadiitij^tmi f«r 

his aadicnce; hui when ilie common aeueo view of the 
t|ucslioii iirevatletl a;jaitist the riniliblcs couisocled id 
self-defence hy the Ohiticite Qnvertiiuenh add llie. 
Envoy was received, without any reference to the 
('hidPie MiiiiHftTt as the repreijeutath'e of an incle- 
pendent Jkjvereijrn, li Ilimg Cl mug was very wroth 
iv’itli Qis Majesty of Korea, who for his part retimiotl 
tlie aUtreotyped reply iJint the oireuding envoy hud 
exceedetl his insiniftiiotia, Ifowever ihU might lie, 
his hrcitluT-rainisler, who had been accrediteil to 
the Courts of relershmg, llcrlhi, Paris, and 
never got beyond Llongkoiigt so that tlie Eiiro]wfttv 
Eoreigti ufKces were saved from a repetition of ihe 
f.aTne incodvcitieiit wrangle. 

Before the dkpuie aliout the envoys nrtifc, Cliina, 
iiol yet alive to iJie initial error that hnd hnl her to 
QuHthmnt antluiriHe tlu-TreittieSihad been temtited into 
BBiti a repetiuoiv of the same weakiiOJt>*, on ati even 
larger aenje, by the C'onventinu, already refffrrwl to 
iv^ winoluileil at Tietiisiii in 188o Wt ween herself and 
iTa[t!ifi. If China is the suKerabi Power, she lias ihe 
same right to titardt irnojis into SJjul, in the event of 
iliaitirbailee, m the Itidlaii Gtivnninieiit has, for in¬ 
stance, to order liritish regiments in a tiinilar etiicr- 
geiify to Uyclerabai]—whilst Japan has no corte- 
siiondiiig right wUalsuever; and any agmement by 
China with a second Power involving a surretnler <*r 
that right is to dm*agat« from her own preteiwions. 


If China is m»l t!io ("uxemin Powi*r, liow cjiii iliu oblni 
iMty ri^iUL) hiit tJmt wliioii war cotift'r*. iip<*n any h'-*l- 
lig«reni atrODg enough (o fexfi'cipe it, to ec-in.! trncips 
to Koma iti alt 

If, Itf^wcrar* on ilie Gehl of diplomacy, wliero )*Jie 
t$ ordinarily supjiofetl to be so ckver, but wliore I 
«.i*nwtuiiii 'liiiik I have shown that in tlio iraseof Kurt^i 
iilways ln'cn taekiug to anil fro 
between opposite extreme^, Cliina lias been luore 
timid or less fai-'^igbtod ilian Japait, she hns to a 
{Treat extent atonetl for her discordant poliey liy a 
very practical assertioii of Boveroigtiiy in It^If- 
"ttljeix tire rel»eUiou broke oni. ihcre bi and the 

King appealed to I 4 Hung Chang for tielp, the latter 
renpoiided by nt once sen di tig a tut ml wr of io- 'iioLuls, 
juiil ■1,000 troops, the bulk of whom rein at s i ct I in a 
permanent camp outshle tin* city for nearly 
ytai^. He compellwl the Korean Govemmeiit to 
accept the .Tapaiiese dninuntls with a tpiite nn usual 
alacrity; and eflectlvely nipped all autagoitisiiv in the 
biul by liistructitig ilic Chinese eotnuuuider, MaKiou 
Clinng, to itivit® tbeTtu Wen Kin to dinner, to pop 
liim into a sedan'Clisdr, and carry hbn down (o thw 
coast, whence he was deptiricd straight to Cbitia and 
inttimed for three years. Again it was li Hang 
Chang wlinm ilie di(M?onsolnte King was obliged to 
]«»tition for the resioratioii of his troublrsLijiit' paretii, 
and who allowei] theohlinlrigner to go back. When 
tlifi Treatr I’nrta were opened, the isiime gre.vt states^ 
man took gorwl care to reserve the Customs Benice tor 
Cliiiit^D hands; anil in the Biminier of 1S02 the Bean 



with <uj1t otuliwl hy Siis inten*eit- 

(!ojl iiiTiJ “by a Chiiiuse loan to Kor*'a, tin* security fur 
whu:b vTas 10 in? tlif 4 ^tsioiiiii tievenue—an uigoiuoua 
frustration of one of liit* ptt projtH-’U of Japan. Klien 
In iStsS negotkiioiis were ojienett willi Great Rritiiin 
about tiio emcnation of Port Elfiinilton, it was Obinn, 
null not Korea, wlio tixtk up the J^eI^. Until ISPS the 
only ox'Ei'Iajii.l telo'.TapliJc tount'i'tion wIticUllifr Vice¬ 
roy allDWCil to Korea outside of her own doDiiuious 
was* n juiiclion tt’itlt llic f-’liincs© wire to Peking, and 
'wtian die rjiissiau donuuid for a ocinnnction witit 
Tinadirostok could no lonjicr bo refused, he wiselv 
backoil it np Ijy otTerin^ to eotjsimet and to oRicer 
ilie line tviili Chinese mate rial and tnen. 

Finally, in Soul itself every one of tlie Foreign 
Dlploifiatle Corps, Lliougb In- gaily proelaiitis himself 
Tiu the representative of Ms ikiveruifm at an 
allicil ami wjua] Conn, knows perfectly well 
who i# the real master. The tTliinese Ueakleui, who 
is a man of great energy and ability, ua«i«i Tuan 
Sliik, is in the jiosition of a Mayor of the Palace, 
without wLtjea knowledge noUiing, and whliour 
■wlii^e wnsent little, is done, jyone amon*^ ilie 
foreign represieutaiivet;, he is entitled to sit when 
received in audience by the King. Hin c^siftbllshmcni 
mill guard and display in the streets are among (lie 
eight-s Sdul. The viirious cl lamp ions of the 
fteudemic theory of Korean independence havt' one 
by one dti:ippcarcil tVoin the atage, but the Chinese 
Itosideui remiiins, Tiiiio after lime he has l,een re¬ 
ap jminted, as was tlie Marrpiis Tseng iu Furitjjt*; 


ainl eTOn afttr lus prumiitioii to tlit. Taotfttifliip ut' 
W.itn:ltow in Clima 1j:wI lieeii foniitiUy gazt-ituil in 
181>3, il was siill felt (huT tti mtlrl not lit spaml 
fmiii Eioul, and he stiived on. lit- is oue*d’ ttiw 
Clilnn^t? I liavn mtjt win* impressed me with fra iikuetw 
as well as with power. 

Tl)e susceptibilities of the King, who can |i<>lut, iJi 
defunw of hid own autonomy, to Treaties whicJi lie 
j was allowed Tr> make bv tlie snat^rain Ptover, 
tmuiiTVIrally pi^iuethives Jiil!?curil l<y 
tlib dmatioH; and then- is no reason wljy iliey 
slioalil not be troaied w'lth the utJiicsi retpcf t by 
foreign Poweta. But they do nof eoiicenJ ilm reality 
rff the situation, wlucli is this—tluil in the eretn of 
real diffu'ultv or danger ic would be lo China that 
lie himseif would turn, as li« always has tiunetl* 
and that the two pobdes of repiuliation .ind ot 
neutrabsation. etislimicd though they lie in Treaties, 
have uniil recent erenU been superseded l)y a 'dgO' 
reus and ttntlispiiti'd reasstiritou of CUitiese conlrol. 

.fudged, there fore, by its results it might fie said 
that The policy of U Rung Chang, however little 
elmped fiy the catious cittier of logio or 
1^'““ of intfirnailoiial custom, was not unsuc¬ 
cessful. Kach logical fujtjr F<tA wa^ in the cud 
nitrieveil by wime practical advantage. If be rlc- 
clinfH,! to punish Korea in the first place for her 
attacks ii[am missionaries and foreignera, he ilit-reby 
escaped responsibility for her cruelties. If be allowed 
Korea, a vassal State of f-hina, to make Trealtes 
witli foreign Powers, he at the same time vindicated 

liin ri^'lu lo npiteur n.i gri*bulwt‘L*ti —a rapntuly tri 
M liieb was must aimoiis to figurv, Hy 

Up tnigUi clmin to Imve ffiilktpd I he Entcrpat of 
foreign IVwct« 119 » to tlio injly tvvn rivaU 

ivhoiji s.’ltiiia wriously faura in horta, nst. Japan anil 
Ivnally, Uavixig surmnlei'CHl isoruo iif the 
ledinlcal symtMib of sozeruinty, he ollbreil a t en* 
prac'Lloal ilumoiifitrnLtou of the roniamtlcir at nil 
momenta of crisis: and by judicious advajicw of 
money oliialuHl a Snn Itold upon Korean ad¬ 
mit litstra lion, His policy^, jjtdciah lotrards Korea 
might not. inaptly be compared iriiU llint of ftreat 
jiritain dttriiig the last decade towards Krypt, wliere 
ei'try species of teclinlcal anonutiy liniii yet been the 
iiUiiuate preimrwr of a vigorous and t'Oruninuditig 
contoiL Ii retnains to 1 m* seen whether Ite can ftojM’ 
with tilt* new stUlntioii. 

I poll this scene having hotni IirougUt 

l>y the CUiiiese mnccssions of ISaS-llifin * down 
CMWttiiiJt to the River Tinmen^ and having thereby 
iiuMbi become coienuitioua with Korean lerriiorv 
on the north, appeared for the first time as an actor 
about lUirty years ago. At her maritime Urho\n 
and l^ose of \'Jadivoetok she is but Ullk removed IWmt 

* ^tnutavieU; tlifl Tiie«iiin Qfivnmur'Oniujrti] i>f SikOn, 
iitnffliajio i^I tin nbipriHum <if ClHtm b Wtnipciiiliii^ t,nr milt 
DrlWo, Mul tit ilt« ^ptiRT iginjninuii ot the Monehii fniniiEr nflifiiJi, 

■prraiiiuloil ilw ut tii;i9 ihe 'rmt^v nt Aijfim in tS4>S,<g«ilb^ %o 
tLa .Vmiir Itftivliii-i. Ib iflcy, ib* ww ^wm ftntolnaeJ 

wilyhilp U»» Kinirtw wm atilt m I|Pi*ihJT U f'lALitV. 

«i(l bj k tuKbpr TruMj friHii jliBtpmliBil Uotatliawit gut Hus l^fiowni, 
tmwlM* aJl tiM. tiiiriturjr Ijrin* i« ihn oMt ai itip Cwmi. muI flait 
ujilrt *r M'a.foiiim » wtii K,vm «iu ji Rim iMnbipn » (Wnlr (ir 
liiifT* i'lKvijrlj’ yt<m* 


iliu Korfinri J'rrnitltjr. acrm^ vrliidi Ut-r ofiictTs anil 
littvfi purtu(?d iLyir *niu‘vt>ys fer and wide 
only ileeenl map of Korea t>ein" one that emanates 
(mill liuatdiiii stnirncs), while tile Koreans Lave l>eeii 
etic’ouraf'ed to develop a e or respot ramUIarity 

by'mvltattoiis to eame and Mettle in Jiiissiun viUa>;es 
uvross the liorder. Here iJtty wv're uLilkcil at first, 
as scjnatters and colomsU in the praclieally until- 
Iiabited eonnlry, Ltfcr gji as ffimers and graziers} 
uttd wotsknilers. lit the towns hiixinr wnsfoiind for 
them and setiooU ivere opened (in- tlietr ehitilren, in 
wliieh the hitler were brongJu up in t he Ifussiaii fiiitU. 
supplying, ao they grew to tnnnhood, a utiiive pasto¬ 
rate li> evangelise lludr fi»Iti#w-nouTitmiu:n. lu 1SS5 
there were said to be Koreans in ttusslan terri- 

lor}** and iht* figures are probably now tnuch liiglier. 
It was ihrongU the agetioy ol' these volntiteer emt- 
graniaand uatui-alised ettiaens ih.'it llussia first opened 
her rampaign of political intrigue in the petitnoidn. 

Tlw general territorial ae}|iiisiiiveups3 of Kussta 
at the ex|)ense of weaker neighbours, her adiiiitTM 
Amgn-^n* *^e!fire fur a naval marine in ihv Pavifie, and 
iiuixn> siipi-rtor advantages jKtssesseJ by Korean 

! I arbours over the more northerly l»ort. of VltuU- 
voAlok, whieh is ieelxiund for four tnotiths in the 
year, iis well ns i.ln? diplotnatie taoiles adopted by her 
represe Ota lives, have given universal credenee in the 
East to the Udief linti Korea is regarded by Ihissia 
with n more than covetous eye, I’hene is consider¬ 
able evidence in sujijiort. of thU hypotjiesiB, It was 
during the Knlja dispulo wttli Chitia In 18S0 that 


hiif iinconcealHl nllci Lion for ibt> iilivhereil nnresiiea 
uf T'lirt I4i2iir<'jr (lUe jjhms for l^le seuurc anti fortl* 
Itcaiion of wliich art> saiil io havff liepiiUitig prupartiJ) 
firat niaclti iti^ of Hi a diplnmarlc ajul w 

T^etii^vefl iii c^oiii^efjut^ai'e ro Jiavi; atUl titrtbcr iiielinul 
rhe mi I id of Li Ouq" L'liaJii; ton-ards tlie policy of 
tlii+ Kiiruiti Treaties. In while France was at 

war with Cliiua ami was anxunts t<i eulis) the syui- 
patiiy rmd aUiance of Japaa, the quesiian of Uie price 
to lie paid to the latter stjon Hrouglil tnattera to a 
deadlock^ wdiea it wiyi dijcovtu/cd tUat Uussia would 
riol let Um opjwrtunity sli]> of also doing a stroke of 
lm3iiK.‘i!& ill Kiirtiaa waters, lu 1884 the Uu^aca 
were said by niuiiy lo have been at tlie bottoitj iif 
the conspiracy and outbrf^nJt m Soul : but I am 
wot anwre of the evidence upon which iliia is h:i$cti 
About ihc sauif) Uim; rumours, ntit w'Uhuut 
iVmndatioii, were cirenlaiwl of a Eecret agrcjoinent 
iml ween Russia and Korea, uegminted by the CWmau 
Adviser of the King, by wlijoU Russia was to n:org!»^ 
nisc the Korean army and to support the Kfireau 
claUus to'rsuBJiinui,* winlu Korea ill retuni wab to cede 

^ OLhcim uid Lhat IIii&bLa witm t-a oeigtnt5 Tjnalt ^titra ^ 

wKteh iltu ‘Xdvcirt Vrotnyfc^ nrutid Hirtio iho Ouv^rnttafint eh h tuan 
lauhltiAhin^ftrtkHl#, mva\ wlilirh pTiwe±i^ii iJir nhiimi of jin hfHtariea] jirfi'- 
J V ill IWU |1i» muLi wjui af^nspHKti frir m 

jduoiliLi by t1ii» tm'w lliu friifiLU ^ l^j^nadniK" ^lui thm 

liipwKJiti fliHf* frimusa « Niukll MUtDinfmi c«iltii,aUjdih««0l;U 

tin- U- wiu¥ isit Utlvhh Uititritpr m iicmi Jfr, Ln^vreiitH 

OltfilMUl, Limn I* MiitliiW Ibis U* and mil wltal wnf 

(*n- TliP iDittt r Uj AdiuEnd Sir J. litip*, win:* wi* blctrtnmntid 

Ilf UuF Ttai£!fiU?ii2iic[| wLiiudrnn, nml wbn ropriri^iiUiiL io Hi* EuMilm] 
AdiiiirsJ fluu b*- *-hmM U fi- ki> lo bfiyKlf niztt la 

»ini' thttifi M Litiii OB Oiii tlm biMiMiii, T\i, rtwtat iHuunli^. 


Port HAiTiiUon; nnil it wns Eomelhini* more than 
nitiiour of the latter inteitliuTi that intluced 
British Govemmeui iv aiilieipjiUi an impeiidijig 
HuBCtiviic fleiznix* i>y Iwlstin? the British iipoii 
tlkise isiatid^. Tii ISStl a ftirli^er plot for placing 
Korea under Pussiun protection was deteetetl by tlie 
l/hinesc Resident. Pour leading Korean ofiida ivere 
arrestwl mnl iinpri^niid, and sulnsequentty atituitictl 
their complicity hy tlight. In ISS6, Lowever- C1 uii:l, 
furnished with » gohleii oppC'rumity hv liie witl- 
ingnesa of Great Britain to evacuate Port Hmnihon, 
prodded she could ohtaiti gtiarantees tliat tm other 
foreign Power would occupy it, scored her first 
getiiiine diplonuitic Iriutnph as nr^gards Korea liy 
extorting a dtstinct and nfiidal pledge fro in the 
Kitssiari Govern men d that under no circmusfajtctis 
would Kiissin ocettpy Koreiui (en ilory. This pledge 
w’ita alluduil to witl) some pride in the con verst*iton 
wliich I eiyoyed at Tietitsiii with tJie Viceroy Li 
Bung Chang. But an Kngllshninn who rcmtiutxrs 
the ofTidal {deilges ns to Sniivai’kand, and lOitvit, aiiil 
Merv, raay he pardoned if he prefers an .'ittitudo of 
more iscepticnl reiterve. This, hnwever, K for the 
time iKutig, the cue to httssimi nfficiut avgutnent 
touching Koi'ea, ami has tn>f:n folioiv*>d quite nicontly 
hy the * Vix'Jiiyn/ which acts as a suri of 
iT&sin for the ftehemes of the Uussian Gciiiiriil 
5Jt;ifi', jiiul which has gone so far as to rctison against 
Uiissian nnnexatioti of Korea on the gromid that tim 

itrfU!UKUp>i;L. (f ui Atlletf* b| £. b BiiMslttmyd'i 

JIqcl ijiil lioNim/ 



eouiitry is too lliiokh' pf^juilatetl 1o atlniii of e^j' 
€!Oul|Uf^t, tfjo (lifTereiii. from Itussui to iwnJtu: asaum- 
latioii possible, «rid too poor to make the expufimcnt- 
remuoenitive. Theft' is much to be said for this 
view; find undouhtetlly U caiincil for sonii* lime 1«? lo 
tlte tnlerest of TiuKslfi to involve lierself in direct Ihis- 
i Hiiy wiih i-’kina, who would 1 if liouud tn fight again:«l 
a step that would give to htu mist, fonii idol tie land- 
enemy the iiioidou table additiomd ailvantage of tieiiig 
able lo bloeknde tier northern coasts anti to Htriho :i 
swift blow at. T'ekin™. t >o lUe other Imnd Fluswa can 
honlly desire lo have as her iiinncilinte neighbour, 
within a few hours' sail of Thidivotitok, su pugnarioiiM 
and aflpiriiig n Towit as Young JapaTL 

The Uussian appetite, if it be inflamed either by 
Korean altratuirins or by Korean weiiltinti3tniiiy ihere- 
. i . . fore reftuiftf lo moriifv itself for aoine i-eiirs 
r*"** TO come. In the meimtimc the tniditional 
UH‘thod?» of aioieiible luflueiice can siic^iesj^ftiUy lie 
punnieil. By a Coniinorcial C'oiiveution concluded 
witli Kore,a in iB86i the Korean land fmntier was 
opened to Tluiyslmi trailers t a Korcati markm at the 
mtiiilh of tlie Tinmen Itlver was opened to tfiisaum 
iiado; a lower rate of OuBtoms dues was fixed for 
Uiissiaii land iniports than for oilier foreigu importa 
li\' sea; mid Itiissia aeoured the right to have agents, 
whatever that may mean, in the norLhern parts of 
Korea. Slie also makes ht^ ooniiguouii Iron tier ati 
excuse for communicating with lier Tcpresentutive at 
Sihil overland. Jtore recently, wiih a channlng 
naivete, ahe invited permission of iLc-Korean Govern- 



ment to fount! n lius^ian n^icaltimil colony, for 
seven veal's oiiJv, witliin tiic K^irean bonier. Itiissiaii 
drill'instructors have more lUau once Iweii oSeretl 
to the Korean arroy—a step iviib which the histo* 
rics of Itoklinm, Kliiv.t, and Persia have R*mk»rftd 
118 fiunllinr. An overlmal telugraphic oonnectioii 
between Korea ami En&siii was secured in ISO^. A 
sicaiii service Iwlwcen Korean |>oris ami Vhidivrutok 
U betti^ maiutaiueil by nti ample stilMidy fmiu the 
Imperial (kiveniiijcnl. A Hussian (IVmsiil has been 
appointed at Kmart, where there are no itusiuau 
subjects, atttl as yet next to ito Ilnssmn trade. Tliese 
are the rceogriised ami mure or less legitiniaie 
symptoms t»f irns<?oviie mticeru. Tii Koren an 
impression prevails tlmt they are only the forerunners 
of » movitmcnt which will not shickeu till a Kusslan 
lleeT. is moonnl in Port LastareiT, uml the Pussian lla^ 
waves over Fiwftu; mid it must be admUtfid iluit the 
lessons of liistory are not unfavourable to such an 

The position of the remaiiting I’owers may be 
briefly siniinuinsed. TJie primary interest of Great 
Britain in Korea is as a market for an 
Biiuw ainiady considerable iratle. Of fiu- jfrenter 
moment, however^ is the secondary and contingent 
interest arising uiii of the ^mUtical future, A eouutry 
so well provided with liarboiifs wltieh could lioih 
supply ami shelter great flotilla a, itiiil sti richly 
eiuluwed with many puteiitinl Bourc<.nf of wealth, 
might involve a serious ineiiiice to British conunerce 
and intereats throughout the China seas, and evon iu 



the Pacific I'Jecsiii, if t>y a Itnstilc A 

Euesiftn porf ftiitl licet, for Instance, in the Oulf of 
Peduli would, tn time of war, i;crnjTitnt«* :)S formidable 
a (buigcT lo Eritisli shipping in tlie Tollow $ea as 
they would to the inetropolilan province ami the 
capital of C'hbia, Pemiaiieiii iiitesian stpnidrorm at 
Port Itazarefl'and Fu$aii tyould converi her itilo the 
grcaTciiii naval Poorer in the I'acific* Tlie bahuice of 
jKvwer in the Par Eiiet wonlil be sscrioiwlv jwpartlbcd, 
if not absolutely overlunied, by stuch a devdoptneiu; 
and England b prohibited alike by her Irnperiai 
objwts ,011^ liCT conimtndal needs from lending her 
sanction to any Buchi$siie. 

The It-mporary occupation of Port HaitiiUou, an 
almojit ludnUabiieil gmup of isleltt forty milc^ Imm 
o«n|«tu«i southern coast of Xorea, by ihe Urltisb 
ileel it> 1SS5 w.Vj dioiated by the poliitral 
necessities of that limr, Ijcing undhriaken in 
order to anticipate a Eussuiii seisjure. and as au 
aiutwer to ibe niisstun aggression at Peiijrleli, but wa^ 
in>t ‘nilMe<;uonily pereistt'd in^—a reiirement whidi, 
less for its own stke Uniti for the pho^^ibie use of 
eoiitlancd fK'Ciipation as a jilea by others, w;ls ghully 
welcomed Ijoth by CHiina and Korea, am! ecmiUiteil 
the friendly twUtions between Great Britain imd 
llio^ft Statesd In llie iiegiiiiations that btf- 

' F{*tt TEmnillnn it ^mnoil ajii] (ma iiWl cnllnil 

t*iIM-etivr>ty B«dD, SmowUs wkI Clmwtn, tir i lalmili li«‘ 

Lu tills Nniilmif ttilrir+^btfiin«t« {emii tbt? 

or Qtwltrttt VS'hco rtci-tjpiiHj by dm IfriLhih %h^w foaml to eotiuin 

fi vLllfc|{tei onfl Enrvui offidjdfu Irftd GmnviHaf Ln ini3J>EinciiL^ 
%h^ Monfwro^ or(-u|iniui4i Ui Ciiiiiiu liii ina4|nesi in itmun to 

on Iiat on div jDKtti5ri unJ t*> piL^ juurjy ti^ Kofm juiv 


rween the resitectivc OovcTirmeiits it waa obvious^ 
indeed^ that what Cliiiia frtttn, aoiJ what Keren 

drcatlf-d, was net the establialvraentol'a liritish naval 
or coaling atatiou, or even of a British marittnie 
fortre&s in the nicnuh of the Sea of .lajjaiL, but the 
chance of a corresponding liu&siannioveinenl iu SM-*jue 
neighbouring nuarter; and bf)l]i Powera have every 
reason to be grateful for a step which forctsi the 
hand of Kussia, and co>ni>el!ed her to give a guaran- 
teo, which, even if it should prov© to be waste paper 
OIL tlie approaidi or outbreak of war, has at :iuy rate 
lent a renewed lease of life to ihe phantom of Korean 
integrity, and has saved the Htrle kiTigdom from 
suiUleii or surreptitious deglutition in time of peace. 
The evacuatloiiuf Fori Hamilion has also shown Umi, 
while (Sreat Britain is interested, in keeping out. 
otliers frujni this KalHJtKfl'vineyard of rite Piir East, 
she has no revursionarj’ desire for iis [k^e^sassjon her- 

irtvemiUrt rltfrivTul f min ihn [tJiLiul^ Tin TKIIP4;^3t Yninnn, wbo in Ibn 
numiidMii liul y±[TiAi4iii±[| wtdj 

hiiiibft niijl Jujimii dtMfllimL ■nil msinirCitJ tn 

(initts^ — «Ltt wbi^h L^m^I Gmsvilli: «iidi44ivmi!in!3 mt^t b^' 

H nriit of ill klw nahfiftdeitu 

■^Imiraii nupMrtol U^t the porl odiihl Api M biJi] 

TinliiiM iffunf wen* mcurmil in rurtiJSoEktianf (tiiuJi tbfkl in Wnf a 

trdulil fwlttlinl ip it* Iwi&s *lusil^il 

HuEu wliiiuLUr Afteu.- mn^li ^uiTiyf|yiiH*liriJfle LonI lloscbtjfy^ in April 
oObriHl lo nWxa ii|Kin a ^utuniiitrQ Rivpn hy Ctdxui BKiiiitet 

lliE LKITiipAltOI] of Van HaIIuIU)!! Uj AIIJ iflbLT PpW*'X« err Dpori tLu 
fiq4Kluw4n i)i «i [hifTfsatiiTtml A^nrnniirftl ifiMranlewltM^ thv itHr^iiy uf 
A ^Dobuyiliuii of the^fi 4ui^p^Uudi Vim liliiniaijJy * 

aiul til# BuidiAa M.i Pttblini^ hnrii^ ^ m Iup&Il 0X|ilicit 

^ ibm ii ilm UmiBh Vort Hajiklhcm *ltnaam wcmttl 

liiiit ^wfijiy Krvwua tio-ntcrty tuiiW aqj eirfiVtuktAim* TvliAtmrvte,' tb« 
Bntiih dii4[ wju biKilAiI t\ivwjt m F^bv 1^- iVUk ChiujLp 1, 

Thv Kurfuii Cl^vi^rmo&nt I lab li^tuly ( 181H1 i^ikcturteiZ IIa Atitlimiy u^r 
ihc Mifcftdi hy sodiLui^ Uaura HA o&ioiai of ttnajoiliajitieticfru 



ftelf, ruid IS alfOtit aa Iflctly to stire or t<f annex Korea 
as ahe ia to iiivadQ licit^iuiu—tltiuuousijfn.Uou wLich 
^ill not merely liiive been gratel'iii 1 o Clihut, Imi will 
alst^ liare b^^eii useFuJ in allajing Uk* phenomenal 
fensitivonosB of Japan. 

The reimuiiiitj' Powers in Koiva, lurcordiji^r to 
their |ioljtical prc<lile<‘tioiis or objecta, wv ilispcMiod 
ts-tfiiipr range tbomselves partly on the eiile of 
Fo*Df> proclaim, partly wUli those who 

iliftconrage, the pretenaiojis of Korean aiitonomy^ 
their attitude being generally asoertaiiiatde front the 
cJiaracter aiitl title of the diplomaliQ represouation 
which tliey maintain at the Korean Ctiurt, Prance, 
of wurae, iuTopts the former line awl dept) tea a 
Consitl and C*unmm<iin^ cimming prccedeiu^ of the 
llridsh and Gorniwi Consuls. Ihiesia, her ally, h re¬ 
presented hy a Char^^ dA(rairtJt. America appoints 
a Jlinlstcr and vigorousl)* et won rages the dretun 
of Korean uidepeudenceT beat qiiuMed to pro¬ 
vide employment for American dollars aw] biuins» 
Crfermany sends a Consul wul t.'ornnjtssioner. Great 
llrliaiij ia technically represetilwl by n Minister Plc- 
nipotenttary, the MiTiister at Peking being aimnlta- 
ueonsly accredtbHl, in aurtne of ihe Treaty of 1883, 
lt> the King of Korea, TiU ISViS^ however, when 
Mr. tTConor went tip tt* Son! mid proswitcd his 
haters of credenee (<► the King, no visit of a Brilish 
lliiuater had taken place since that date; and the 
Uueeii is onliuarily repnesented in fionl 1 >t & Consul- 
General., whose relatively subordinate posttioii is the 
source of not unnatural vexation cm the part of Uie 

THE paimcAL mwuE of coeea sai 

Ktwfaii Gov^mmt, as w&M os of inisumileriiEsutlinif 
lilt Diplomaik TWy. These alwund niioisiiJJcs 
and disputes are a furilier bill iuevitabk (jousecjueut e 
uf tLe idogicttl poliay of tlie Treaties. 

Suoh is tUe positioo that is oc4;upiijd by Korea 
uisHi-rw witli die more pTmej-fLil nsidotiii with whom. 
Th««r«» the Diarch of events has brought her mlo 
ilireet contact. She ts coiifrotited with Lhf* 
ill'Oiippressed cupidity of Ituasin^ the pradigioufi 
latent force of Chimi, dm jeakms and vainglorions 
inieresi of Japan. By hereelf she is quite iiteiipahle 
of auc<!esafnl resistance lo any uno of these three, 
thoU'di her staicemeu are not doficiewt iii the skill 
required u> pls^y off eacli Jigjkkisjt oLbt^r* Hur 
lULriiLsit! weakness ili reality \i& sole istrengtli: 
Tor were alu? iHJweiful enough to render her owu 
allLauee an appreciable weight iti ihesMjaJt^^lu.^tliight 
Jk t^rupEed to adopt a cour^ of action tluii: muet 
ijifalltlily re^^nlt in final absorptbiL The foolish ]icr- 
sons wlio, from intirrestjed moliveiSi prate to licr t;f 
indepHudeiii!,'^ are inviting her tu sign tn^r own death- 
warnUiL Alone she lia^ no more stTcngth llimi a 
child in thonghi m hmg aji lier tJiree gre^t 

iLciglibours eontinuDtl to regni'il enoh Dsher fnjGi n 
watchful d bratice^ Kor^t which Sins unghL 

e^k^pe lim animntenLs tif eatili* hf>weYcr, tlint 

llie gjiga iff Imttk has bntiii Uirown down fK-hreen 
two of the three, her tei:Tilnrinl hjt^rity, W which 
idl tlirec ari? yirlmtlly pledgHh vatusliing into tluti 
air, and wih l>o dilliculi to re^esmblislt- An inter- 
naliotin) gimrmiiee has sormetipitia been suggesk'd as 

a ; liu! we may K' sure, woii[cl de¬ 

cline to move one etop beyond licr exi sling plwlget 
which s)ie probably alreinly regTttU>, while China. 

hardly 1 h* asked to guarantee her own vassal. 
Mv own tcnviction w iliot the ojily hope of continued 
imtionrd exietenoe for Kro'ca lice in Oie main te nance 
of her wumectUiti with Cbiim, which hisloiy, policy* 
and till turn eoinhine to I'ectimiiietiil* and ivhieli olibrs, 
in adiUtlon, the guarantee for the recovery and 
preservation of peace. Clilna liaa kept her alive for 
51*0 vears* and the shadow' of < 'bitm. in the huck- 
(Tvoiiud has been the one stable demimt in ilie dis- 
ijolviug view of her LtUiputian jiolUiea. 

’HiaL ibis is lUe ojimioii, not merely of an outside 
Kiiglislt spectiUor, nor of Ciiiitu herBelf, bn I of tlie 
second most inlcrested Afliiitiv I'ower.Japan, 
CtmriuMim tniicli rcastm to believe, 

iJoth < Tdmi and JaplOft the one for historical pride 
of sovereignly and empire* the other for popular 
sentuneut ftud iratlitum, have heen compelled tn aifi- 
tndioise som<ivrltflt in llie matter of Korea. Ih>th an; 
tti reality liXikiug over ihcir ahoiildera at the real 
aiii.'Lgonlaf, Eii^Iu. Both arc e<]tjally concemetl in 
keeping her oat. She wimld he iiol more iHlioits to 
tlie one in the Yellow iica than to tlio other in llie 
tieii of Japan. Thith are secretly coascions that by » 
inutiml ami erst and) Iig alone 1>etween them can thia 
♦ihject fie securniL Bueh an undorslauding may be 
compromising to tlio leglttcjAie stiwrainij of (^ina, 
and may be conipUoated by ilif? sentiitii'iiial chumy 
of Jajmi; hut each knows that whemte Uussla with 


1,1jb tacit iicquiescence or t.Ue ncutniiitTr of the otlvcr 
at atiy duj^cast out her fllioe’ovcr Korea* 
Itussia* ihrcateowl wiili Uie conibiiictl jmiagomsiu of 
both* must restrict her ambit iona to the Bortbcrti 
bank of tEio Tiumcii. Of this oommoii coDvietiou 
there may be very Uttlo evident'O m the externrd 
gymplomg of Astatic ikiIict ; for the Chkiese Goreni- 
fuettt, ^rith the cartla in lla posacssiQU* has hail 
no reason to proinaturcly: show its tiaiid; while the 
Jap;inejse Govemmentf dealing 'sriih a newly con- 
atituietl chamber ^uul a newly eiij>Aridtise<l elec¬ 
torate. both of which are doiniiiated by patrioiic and 
Chauvinistic eniottous, ie engaged in playing tc# the 
gallery. TJuit llie truth,, however, is manifest to 
the able statesmen who respectively guide their 
coiiutnea' destiiiLea, to t'toiitit ito and to the Ticeroy 
Li lluug Chang, ia evident from the co-ojjej'allou 
w-hi<;h at moments (if genuine crisis the two Powers 
have hitherto a)ways esdiihited in Korea, mnl to the 
practical agreement whiclit <>1 aome co$t to ilu* pride 
of both, they succeeded in concluding in 1S85. 
Jleceut events have complicuteJ the situation, anti 
luiiy aeeni to presage die daivu of a new era. Xever- 
llieless, I adhere to Uie hope tliat solver sense may, 
even at the elettmlh hour, prevail with Jafum as 
well os with Cttiina; A continuation of this statesman¬ 
like tradition will be the best means of pretfcrviiig 
the integrity of a countiy ilutt is so csseutial to the 
Bafety of both. 


* And m pttesBd witli tui £blk, and h-dii die Lodd 
of CalLA^i diat is Giretteat K^j:;ddm of din World * 

Sir John Mauni^evill^Ii IVurcrij 

mAvrm vm 

Hnianim Hjdi^ 

VmnL.Mj^n\B^ v>. 

A. >ioRB singular eotjtrast oiui eciroety l)e rouiiil lliiut 
is prewnied liy irarisiiiou from K(:*rcn to (Tltiniu 
■Tnintitm From romantic moiinimn sceneir flie travd- 
ta ciiiM pasims, at least on his way up to Peking, U» 

flat and fcatureJass plains. He exchnTige:s the miniatnre 
Kfvean slnllion, which rarely adraiices Itcytuul a 
walk, for the sturdy China pony, upon which he wilt 
with ea% rover seven milts »ti hour, or a day’s iiiarcli 
ol' forty miles. In place of the troriliiiwl and filthy 
Korean Iiosielrj\ he will sleep w'iili titiiuparative 
tomfort in the ample surroinidinps of n Chiniwe inn. 
lie has leA 1)ehi)3d the most supine and sjiifttlesS of 
the peoples of the Far East, and sees about him the 
frugal^ hawl-limbeti, indomitabUs imgraeitms race, 
who opj}Ose to nil overtuna from the outdde ttm 
sntleu re^stanoe of a national character sclhcoaliileiil 
mill stolid, fi religions nnd moral imde of iru-riHliUle 
and all-absorbing rigour, and a governing sv^^tem 
that luts not varicil fttr i^res, mul is stilt wmjipeil in 
the ni antic of nhiperb and pantlystng conceit, ^ost 



travtUijfs the Irnnsition froiu Jiipnn to Ch]n:L 

as one* fium s\srtretiicjs» to srpinlur, from Watttj to 
uglmoss, from oiritisoLion to barlarifijo.fttHii ivarmth 
of welcome (ci r-lietirlcgs repuisiuu. .-Vud j'ci T sin 
not ^re Uiat :i Inter eslimate is not fomteil of Uie 
prodigious airenjith of Cliiiiese cliarjicler niul nuHttmi 
by the iibiUtr to contrast them with the <japtlvfttiti*> 
extenmlAttrihotes of Majm ; whilst a check ia pbceii 
upon the too iiuUscrlmiuate I.-iUilatiori of ihe IntesT 
recruit to olrillsation by the apeclx-vde of si people w'ki 
liavp lived simVwould fa* f-oiiient, if we permitted them* 
to po on living wLtlioiii ttiiy ootUact with Ute Wvsl 
at alt, ami who think what we cull truth error* our 
progre.«3 weaknesi^ ami our fondest ideals an laVamii- 
Tialioii. rerluips as a steppltig-sioue between the \ wo. 
akin to yet also iiiohutmUy diisindhir from ehher, 
Korea supplies a link that iniiy ai once break nml 
lend p*omt to the abruptness of ilie rouirast.. 

Thu journey fiKmi the i.-oast of tlie fniirof Pechili 
up to the capital seems ti. have won an nmlesen'etl 
xepiitaiioii for painfulriess in travellers’ 
wntiiiga, Tl ik mte that the visitor may lie 
tossing for out, two, or more ilays on the mmbbnr 

outside the Taku foTts at rJie moutli of (he retho_ 

in whidi he may picture ilii! plight of ilm 

Hritiflh giiulrtjats, wliloh on that fatal day b ISof) 
rollwl helplessly in precisely the same plight under 
Urn pUllefis poiiuding of the enuuty’s guns. Hut. 
one** lauded, he may now avoid tlie further iblayb of 
(he seriM'iitiim river-course toTicnisiu by uikiug the 
railway trab that runs thrice daily lu ilmt qliy; 

TKK C0VN7HY CAl^rTAl OF CltlJfA 259 

\YbUG the Mgbrs of Tientsin itself arc, to ^ny l>u£ 
ilioge wlio liave never lji?fore seen n great tiHnnese 
centre of |iopiiltttion. very* rapuUy eshiiUfltutK To 
llie ovillnary Kuropoaii traveller aiinoat its ;K}le 
interest iiea ut the faf;[ that it v;m tUo scene of tJ^e 
fsntotts masftitcre of 187l>, an elotpieiit teHtixnony 
to wMcL still survives In tlie mined towera anti fa^atlo 
of tin? French CailioUc i^atliedrriL) on (he right hank 

of the Plrilio. 

To all ivhii liavo followtsl ihtt course of Chinese 
hUti>n' iluritig the last gunner of a rcjnnryT TieutsEn 
■will prestnit tlu* whlitinnal interest f>f heing 
the residence of the foremofli. living Cliinese 
auitesninn, the Vicenjy U Hung Chang, First 
nintle fittuinis liy Ilia conduct ami g^eralshlp during 
the Taiping Kelxtllion, his connection in ivluch with 
the Iflie General Gortlan is well known, he eini-eeded 

‘Ell. Vi. 

Tseng Kwo Fan (llic elder of the two Tsengs, and 
failier of tlm ambassador) tis Governor General of 
Kiangsn in 181*2, and liecanic Viceroy of Kukuang 
ill 18fi7. lu 187tf he untiled at Tientsin, where he 

succeeded i.he same eminent siatesniati as Vicoioy of 
i he metropolitan province nf Oliildi, and was entrusted 
with the delicate negotiations with England, arising 
out of llie Margary iinmler, that resulted in the 
flhefoo Couvmiikin i>f 1870. X<iw for nearly twenty 
vrars the Senior Grand Secretarv of Staie, tlie first 
CWnL*sc who iia^ Ijet'U pm^nor^d to flisit 

lie abK> in his persi ui Llie vii:ereg:il 

» 'Hijr Nei Kjn wliMi wnt tbir SuimnnKi Coimfil., 

dc CabrinDl^ cf lliit Ciilu£^fr nudiir llie d^riutBiy* ii tlia 



fuuL'tinim abctvi* raentioive^l,. n? vtell fis of P'lijwr-' 
iiiletwieai-of dio N'l^rthoni Pons aiul liiijicri:il Colli- 
missiozier for Foreign Trmle* As sueli lie ttol merely 
(livitli.^ wUI) j.lie late Tjjeiig tln> iltsUnetuni of 

lieilig I lie most reiniit-Lible figure whom Ills coaniry 
liMS pro(|iicc<l duriitg tlie la*l thirty years, Init he 
remains to this day n sort of uitofficial Forelgtt 
Miniater and eon fide iitial ad viser to tiia £k>vereigtt* 
withcmi who^ kiiowleiiga (lOthing, btiwever iinim- 
portiwU Uikea phiee, and witliont wliose advice 
uotklng Important is done. Hia Cliinoan mctracrioik 
nnil his ixHtiin.tiiidiiig itosilioii bavi! aomelimc^ Sttg- 
gastiul to Olliers the liypotliests of a riaitig againat the 
Staachii ocimpunl^ i>f the ihrcne, and of a new 
{‘fiiinefie <lyiiaai.y, fouiiiktlby Li lliingi?liang 
nml it i!- even said i hat he has ai djiCiiBnt Lbues, iu 

M'llinf iif tbb two LkhUm urlstrh Kiilrrvi'ite liiFtntei iLu (tnil 

iLiii AiliuiiiLMtrali^T iX^kHTtiitirnl# in the ClilD€«a luiit c«tiuivU 

tbn □'n.'lioidliy two yniifrlfn twi? tlTimit hrdfUTtnri^^ whK 

thair ami hURTu- 1* nww* till- CMiiwr^, rtf 

CrtUrt rtf Ani-Uii-Wr Bwil mlrniBsSua la mtu iU «uj^pnof 
thv lujiUsil dlutlitL’tioii itHaitinUlip hy a fJtitmiu Klihodiifh cn- 

tJiiriEiit litll# iiirtrrt ^inii qjjiuiiiAl Ftw of h^itpaI iii1> 

riiiiiiPbtJHtiiuii ii hoM liiriiii ttir ■dcNiiiil Uijulj, tiat, (Ha Clmii 

ebi ^ wbHi b tliu ioiitt]# l^ivy C^iitiril nf 

^in^hfiirt# Ilk imiubnf^ tfHEikiict Xha 
ijf Hlaln. tri H rtf tiiP JtnpCTiiil at l^ulchi^^ Pfci ilwt hicoiunbi^^Mij 

Iniiif rtC 4 rt'tplNjck in. thu tBnmiiig* Ti It n CAblrLft i-iniipoiMrt'li uf Minin- 
tan. ^ri iHa 4iUi»r ^uUumtiw Tliisir di;mtt«r ic 

yailftmiiiiitiir Lut itir majiy ypunt [miik ]im iurl fmcedildil 
i*peiJdoiitiAl itbiiiffc wtiJeli wita by FiintHf Kim^ 

Aiul lMTi£i&<niini-n«il i* rttJfr filW by Li,ti iirM'ikimUjr «uiiii viHniit 

Em ihn pfwrt rtf llrtmn oif thrw meiiibm nt ihrr fffrtngii 

Ymiirnn^uf I^rjLtfbsn liEklil mmU in tkb r44«Eii^b 

liU inmuilrtriflt^rty tbfl icnlititaiT tighi iif Mtili^^Diw mih Ihfi iilikiptfroi^ 

For iinmt rrtimitn ts^-icMnnl ftf Ib^thiirtWbifll afpfnijaiiilrtn apid Biikcfirtii# 
itf tti* tw* tjivniifilk* Frftt tt tL Un^ka' s^evLUnt 
pntilialiMl work, m China. 

• "i 

rmc tuathov u uvwh 


crises^ Tjgmi souudfnl upon iLe maMfr 
both hy En^Jaiul' anti bv France. Tbtatr has never, 
liowcver, been any reiVJon, to ^usjKict Itis lojaliv, 
wbieli, if tempted, lias not beotLserioiislv impugued t 
and Im‘ reniahis to this day the strongesr pilkr of the 
Imperial throne. Mtiny (imi'S lias tlie Viceroy, who 
ts now seveiii\--tnie years of age, |jetUiniii^ Ui he 
relieved from the txsfwnsibiljties, offieiaJ and super- 
nunierary, of liis great position, hut ou. each oi^casiou 
lias appeared an ImjicrM Eetcrvipt, cotninandiiig him 
ill conipliiuantiiLry terms to contiimo the discharge of 
duties from whidi he (.lould not lie spared. I'erhaps 
not the least evidence of his ultUily lies in the fact 
that whilst he 1ms been Justly celebrated for his 
liberal sentiments, and U nmiid^' responsible for 
whatever of Weatern esperieiice, invention, or know¬ 
ledge China has seen fit to adopt, he has never 
compromised llte deeply groiimled iiLsiiueis of the 
riatiomd cliaractjer, or forfelied the autrnlHn^ coidL- 
denev of his own ftllow-countrymell. 

At Tientsiu I was boomired by the Viceroy witli 
iut iateiTiew, to tvldch 1 lotjh baiik with rhe greatesi 

tii!«.rTwv 1*^^^*®'**'®* "^<1 Viceregal i'ameu b a buihUtig 
in the official t^uartors of which, at any rate, 
there is neitlicr distinclioji nor beau tv. Carried in 


green pidanqiiins lo tlie gate, we there descended 
and passed through on&or more dingy anterior courts, 
small, iM^ualid, and coarsely jeuiiied, to on Inner room, 
where scats had lieen placet! round ii long table. Bit 
Viceroy entered, a loll and conuminding figure, con¬ 
siderably oyer six feet in height, dressed in & long 




grf;y mlk n>be, wUli n l;kick rsilk ov&r Iiinf 

shoulders. TakiJ^ tus seal ai the bead of the table, 
the Viceroy', with the aid of a c^'impeteni interpreter, 
coninieiiced a di^citesiou, maud}' upon content |iorary 
[Kjiiiics. which lasred for over an luMir. Uo oou- 
tiinmlly put tiie most seurehing' and iugemons (|ue#- 
tioiis; iKuiij; reno^etl, indeed, for his faculty of 
•pumping' oth<fre about whai he desires toasceruun, 
witltnuL emitiiog the lea^t Cfiirespimding drop of 
moisture liintseif. Wldh* sjieaking or listening his 
smiU], black, restless eyes follow keeulv everv inove^ 
ineiu of the features. A hig moustache overhanga 
atul partially conceals Ms luoiuli, and a sparse Chiiiese 
Ijeard adorns his chin. IIis Imir is q^nUe grrey itud \a 
turning while. Speaking of England, he wished par¬ 
ticularly to know whether ihe recent cliauge of 
Govemnient Involved a change in roreiga policy^ or 
wlierher Mr. Glatlatone tiiight Ij* exiteoted to pursue 
the Bimie liue as liord i^nlisbury, U^kdii thia point the 
nomination of Lord Koaebciry as Foreign .Secretary ena¬ 
bled me nji give the Viceroy coiiBolatory nssnrauces. 
Disoussing the tortuous jjolky which had l>een fol¬ 
lowed in relation to the Chinese vjw?sal State which I 
bad jnst left., he udmiltctl that Korea luid been ill- 
adx-ised, and ex'cn ahoxved. that ‘ there Imd iiccii ill- 
ftdvisere in China also,' The Pamirs and Umsa were 
the remaining aubjecta of our couveraaiion, and the 
\*iceroy produced one of ihe Eoyal Gwgrapbicnl 
Society’s snudl map!? of the rormer region. 

From Tientsin the traveUer lia« the choice of 
coverbg The distance that separates ifiiu from Peking 


«iilier by mi aifreeahlc Iwo tTays' ridf^ of eigliiy miles,^ 
or by a honi^lxiat on rha river, wMcIi, by 
Jcanw* fiailiiig, poiuig, ro'w'iiig, and tracking, sliouJit 
tvF*kui|( destination in soinetluog 

iietweea two *mfl three davs.* 

TJje gccneiy, eonsiating ^ it does of a vast expanse 
■of alluvial mud, not unooitimotily under wateTj and: 
ffirniiiii relieved oiUy by mud v^lages of greater or 
ruM til* abte, tnaj' strike the itcwHioouer as repul¬ 
sive. Itiu a little deeiwr insight will sliow him in 
iliese selfsame iinllafrea, and in the wide tilled plains 
about tiieru—countless replicas of which I have seen 
during borh my vimis to China—Uie evidtiices of an 
agricultural conteutnieiit and prosperity Uiat contraai 
favournbly with the more picturesque suiTonitdings 
of village life in neighlxmfitig countries. The msdn 
street ttf each village is frequently sunk, conaiderablv 
lielow tlu* level of the houses, and is apt rr> be filled 
with the elib of an miexhuitsteil inntidationi The 
houses are humble, but neither small nor poverty- 
stricknn. j\rtifioial privies, miule of reeds, are fre* 
qnently erocced outside, with a view to economise all 
avaihtble njiiiiure. Tim villagiLi threBliing-tloor, mlleil 
to a eompaoL and level lianduesa, lies near by. The 
shops exhibit at least as many commodities as in .-m 

* rtut anj—tltfM linnn* riifa> (lO Votiatauti (hiu(, SU idQhj 

In Hdh'Etsi.iTb finn), tHk mDsA. Becauii Jay^—Ihrw lirara' Hjlr uludf- 

■ay vUbffv^ tticin-l'H} SO jmlMi dilcu la I'ekJnc, 30 hiiTnii 

ToIaI 80 milt^ 

* It i# 0i odUHO. bi tidp a|idm! Id aaHikrwn ; llm 

rntmuT hy winsLun^. with ut wimi, Oftimpis frmn 

fENir Ui Eltii [JbpJ{», Xh# FEiltmi ™j bt* iJiDmiHhI. hjriiliu^ &tnn 

Pbkiui; M far jw ILiUjti, mUm, 4nil Mji tha lifinw-W iJwiif. 


English Tiilnge <tf correB^ioiidiug eiie. fiUK-tt aiifl 
cliildrcu alKmnd, tile rDrmt'r lu-ftily di't^aed aud 
(HiitTureil, 111* latter dirty Imt cUefarfah Upon a. wn^e 
of less t han Ds. a moiiih the imen fitKl 
aiib&istence. A jn’eat variety <jf aninials tu good 
CMiatlitioii—|M}nte$, and oxen—are 
employed either for tillage or huitltm. The eating- 
hotiees and tea^Uop^ are filled with nowy crowds, 
and the intis are {rw^uent and commodious. The 
jM?ople inhabiting smdi a locality ore liable to ocru- 
sional and a|ijiallmg visitations of Hood, pestilence, 
or famine. Bui* these risks excepted, tludr lives are 
probably as happy, their condition as prosperoiia, 
and their contentment as well assured as diose of tlie 
rural population in any Eumiieau eoiintrj'. The 
taxation imposed upon diem is only nominal* The 
obligations whicli tlioy stiipUIly incur to pawnshops 
or usurers, in jmrsuit either of the national vice of 
gambling or of other forms of extravagance, are a 
greater burden upon Liieni tluin is die hand of tin* 
State, So little feai' is there of ilisiurbance that the 
force behind the provincial goverouieut is In most 
caeca ridiculously smal]. lii Cfiina there are no 
police except the unpaid haiigers-on of die yanica?, 
assisted, in the event of a riot, by any sohlierj’ iu the 
neighbourhood. Life nmy be uneventful; but so it 
is to the peasant in every land. He usually ilemamU 
little lieyoud the means of Itvellhood* freedom from 
exaction, and llie peaceful enjoy meal of liis modest 

From siniU summndings, which, however respei'i^ 

ri/£ COVWTNr AXn capital op CIIIXA 

ahli', are too tmlorely To lit- Ulyllif, iliestrajigsr rfcks 
into tlie ilbi anf] dustt^be liltU lunl fouliie^s, liie rtme- 
„ raUp ant! meastirelees bewiJdenneivt of Pe- 
b'i’eiei'itj liiiig.i XJnnjnfee and of kind uni?qualled, 
is tlie inipressioo pri^lu<.‘«d by lliis gruat city of over 
tliree’fjuarters of a million souls * upon even tlie sea- 
eoned traveller, 11 o may have seen tlie drab squalor 
of Bokhara and OanniaoiiR, have tasteil IIjC odours of 
Canton and SSnlt ami heard the babel uproar of 
Baghdad and IsfnJtan; but he has never seen dirt, 
piled in moutnains of dust in the summer, spread in 
oozing quagmires of mud after the rams, like that gf 
Peking; his nostrik have never been assaiitjd by 
such myriad and assorted efllitvia; and Iho drums of 
his eara haw never cr&cked beneath such a romorse- 
lesss and disatmant concussion of sound. Tiiese are 
tlie hrsl impressions of the stranger; they ajqjear, in 
n great many cases. lo be the abiding association of 
the resident. If, however, a man can succeed in 
dotaohhig himself frem llie eeuBuous uitKlinm upon 
Ti'Iiioh aucJi cjons^aQi and violent attacks aremade from 
without, he will ihid in Peking miieli both to excite 
hie JiBtonialiment and hi arrest hia concern. In the 
mightj' walla, in some parts fifty feet Iiigh and well-nigh 
an broad, covering a rectangular circumference of 

* l^yutij^ {■ wriUisfi Mnil pfontfuwftJ tbp "ChinfeBu P4^[.c;h[ci|^, 

und Ndiriiinib CttfiSifilK jiifft ftfl Nwi-kioe fligtiltiai jwutJionJ 

* Hkid w^nxt to b# the W^l n^BiKyimljl« ihm |>o|ni]likbiu 

Jmvin^ ^rm^y ill imMleni IUwe*^ lii tlw* Hviiiiil«i*Eilh notary 

tlltf JwwiU OrfmaJiLc rKliLTuUMitL i 1 m> V>\r\ M t>ll 

^ukonod ^kCmCiCX}, ‘wlUiiti numWswere •Iwj ffivun tp Itwe^nwy 
X3L IISIJK Rkpr&tb nomeil 


ttretily-oui^* tuiltd,' aiiil n^iiig akywiirLb wiih cijlossal 
symmetry (>f oritlme^ Bive ^tbere lUeir vertlcJit prciiile is- 
broken bv biigeprojeciiii^basiioiigjor iSjeir hqrmiiitnl 
etl|,'e ]& Interrupt^ by tmomuius tvistelUited 
or jjate-towere^ iioobBcn'es a sight without parallol iti 
the tnotlem world—one wliieli, more timn iwiy rebeof 
Uie past Uiat. I have ever steen, recalls tliat Babylon 
whose &tti pend nits baltlemeiils were Mil- wotiiler i>r 
militiaiQr, the mystery of gin- cliihlhood, and Uie 
batUeground of oiir iiendemic ibiys, Sluoiided 
behind these monimieiitnl defeuees. the gates of 
which are still opened ami dosed with the btii), Jaat 
flji they were tn llie Crttnhalno of Marco Polo, of which 
this modem Peking Is IjolIi ilie linuql Udr and lh& 
faiiUful repttjduction,® the fourfold city—Cliiiiese^ 

* Tint ijf llir Ujuidin fif Toftar eity (cdlluil by lliw ChiqiaBe 

'-i- T ii tiftr City) in L^tr ilst^ ibo 

titin? of Uh) Stall; lilEnpirrcim. iLif. frtjin ihtt cif tlw iLfluntitli 

ceiUiiry oEiwanlit. Thi^y art fjxmi forty lo fifty im\t tu nud iiiEy 

fpcl irittb at tb* hMs»^ tji jii atfino fnnuEliUEuu Hud i^Ek waHji ni 

hiEuicnw brifki, ih^ qianf haiw^tt Tirltirh k Allfid in \ritil tmitl imd 
tmved Willi bridii mi Ujm lAp. TUq TniUir s:ily ]« fcjurUrji tiil]i'« 

in drruiiifurtiisor^ imd w emuniiit hy nin^ gbc bi thtt imUc WalJ 
ntul iLtv^ ijs Lb* inaer nr wnuth wull* which la ulwj tt» nardi w«ll t4 the 
Clilo^b city-. Tim baivi'. Cf Outer (lity* Wu i* ttifietoilfl* Id cit^ 

ciunluroLuw. «XElutlii>g iliEt iiuiiji4m ur minminu wuU. etiil iu wolli aew 
troniiwiuijy-avj* !o ibim Jjigb*<uii3 iwenty-five fr ai wiiLjiU Ombuit. 
TJwy (trr pntf Tn] by tinier nuil ihrwn innnr fthti Uiicr bom^ 
liliartital wCih tb«* ulnwj^: nmnMd), Th& toinUf ii them, 
fvm Hlxtmsiu uf whkh iMitettu umib Uw cutw’ wiil(* Itj 
ff tlup |(iu»^-|aHera flffi fixHtI bvAzilp npoui whiirh imu {hrlDteil th» h^Hke 
til miunnuy rucnume-iLu UiowunK ikvke wlilch U Rut!r|:H>A£i1 both la 
iMtiify ilu, :utT{ui£|it|^ ummy awil limrcim wm- ^ Kiua-tii wliu. 
HI h^^ lot^H Joirti JKnu k «!* th* dty in n iiHtiP uf 

™b i^ikniTiil iU-£sue^ Xn d^krenett t* tlitr pTf^Juiiim vi ih& 

Mutt WimuTD aiii niji Hilow^d tifPOft iho wnlliL 

* of tltr Kin TiOliia^ whigh w«a flltimt^ n hltJu 
m ihp wbtH fif 111 * (ffftteui Pebti^, wn* cttptEUrd by Jinghk K 3 mu in 

* / 

WAUji i^E» [uifiEu at rifaixu 


Tartiir, Imiwrial, aiul F«rbidiltiii—ie at ouce an hbto* 
rical montmient, camniig a& back to the of Kiiblai 
IChan: a vaat statiouarr camp of nomatls, jjoUEuig 
dovvTi Mongolian deserta and Tartar ifteppe^; 

ilie capital of an empire tliat is to Eastern Asia wliat 
By^antinm waa to Eusterji Europe; Ebe aaiu’tuarjr of 
a religion iJiat is more mautfuld tliaii iliat of Alliens 
aiul inor^ obstinate tliaii ibat of Borne : ami the resi¬ 
dence of a monarch who is still the Stm of ITeaven to 
iiof)tlhi0,00(l of Unman lieings, wlioin a Imre pcore of 
living foreigners have ever seen^ and who at tlie end 
of the nineteenth century continuea to lead ;in e^dst- 
eijiMr that might liotter 1>efit either the Teileil PropUet 
of KUoraaau or the Dalai Lama of Tibet. 

The ground-pbu of Peking^ which dales directly 
fi-oio Ihe time of the Mongol KiiblRi ICh/in. and was 
pfiictirally a reproduction in brick and 
mortar of a militarv camp, is escoedingly 
Koiiple; and its priucipjd landninrks are so promi* 
nently placed, iliat In spite of its vast, siise and the 
sameness of iN disgoeting aueeUf, a stranger very 
gftoii lean IS liw way alxiut. Tiie watts of the Tjirtar 
city fl um p sLJi ImmensG qiiadriingle, almost a square, 
facing the points of the troiupass, and on die soiitliem 
aide suhtendtKl mnl sligliily overlapped by the more 
eloiignted parallelogram of the Chinese city. U 

I21S, Ilia i^daon KiifctiiT Kl«ii <llio lyX^n fif ltt»f« Pnln) 

ih® riipitiJ Ji T»l linT iaaf« netirtbirtljf 111 15i04 7, an4 enilotl it In, 

CWrtrw T*iw 0s*rnkituL*. Ornut CottrW It wm ilknieJlad 

Lf* Ciiy ttf llie KliiiH- tint CarubidiJii of Wmto iuhI env^red 

|iroxij»oifi!y tho ijio u iht jiioUum TflTturpftyi bftyoatl 

lanir, ite <tiD tffa ttdi^ oti ilift mutb+ 



Eljuuld be utld('d lliiit tliia eilmogmpliieiii dtsniictioit 
of inhabitiintii, wlilt'k waa eufortx'd for racpcdjcticj'A 
6ake at tUt tinie of the iMtujchu eonquRac in 1G44. Inut 
BUKrti been almoat entirelyeflheed, the Tartar element 
having been in the main ab:<orl>c{b and t,he Chinese 
having (jvcrUoTveti into the qiiariera that w^ere al drsi 
resen^ed for tlie eontiucrhig race. Within the wDs of 
tile TartJir ciiy is a second ivnlled ijuadraiiglet coti^ 
aiiLiitlag the Huang-cheng, or Lnperial dty^ about 
seven miles in circuit, cutUaiiting the public oJlices, 
barracks, and many temples and resideuces of 
priimes, nobles, and officials; and in the centre of 
the Itiipeiiul city is the fimd and innermost trailed 
enclosure of the Tsm-cliin-cheug, or Piids Forbidden 
dly, a 8tieoes-5toii of magnificent yelkw-tiled IndK of 
palaces, kitjsques, lakea, and gardeua, where, Ijehind 
tlie proteciioti of pale pink rampart and wide ntoat, the 
Lord of this great domain, the master of 350,000.000 
hmnan beiiiga, and die Fjcdgereiit of IIeavei 4 himself 
all but a god, liYeea pmoncr's life. Uu tUenortlieim 
side of die R'daoe riwa tlie (’iung-shau, or Prospect 
Hill, whose wooded ^des and five suiumits, crowiied 
with kiostjues or temples, are the moat doiiepicuous 
object in the city as seen from the Tartar wall 
Tradition relates that this elevation is made of coal, 
and was iutiiicially raised by the iling Emperors as a 
pruvisioii against llio hardships of a prolonged siege; 
it is therefore also called Mei-shan, or Coal Hill 
Put 1 am not aware tliat this h}qKitheBi8 has evor 
b^nested by driving a shaft into the interior; and 
the Idn, whicli ewjms to Iw absolutely identical with 


(be one i)v Mfireo IVjb ai Imving been 

til row tt lip by the ilon^ols, le more likely to have 
l>eeii raised ns a siireen to ibe Imperjal dwelljiig on 
ii4 tionhera «tde^ in dererttnue lo iJie popuisr super* 
atition of the fetigikm, Tliertf is sometliinj^ imposing 
^nf 1 hieratic in the mysterious symbolism of the 
jjTOniid*plaii of r(:kiiig, iii the ooiiceptiou of these 
concentric defenccas successively protecting and 
shielding from mnndane contact the ceatral sane- 
tnan', the yij?, i\'UeTe iJie rcpnifieiitatjve of 

Henven, ns tt ivere In a Holy of Holies* resides. 

From another point of view there may be said to be 
three Fekings,—the exterior Peking tis seen From the 
*, city walls, ivlucii is a delicious wikk-rnesa of 
ivutip preen trees, in the deptlis of whicli die dust 
and tiiistbiess are submerged^ and from whose leafy 
surface riae only the curled roofs of yellow-tiled 
palaces and temples, an occasional ]uigo(la, a rlistaoi 
tower; the interior Peking, or die Peking of the 
streets, inmultuous, kaleidoscopic, pcsiilenttal* shrill: 
and the innemiost Peldiig, or the mysteries hidden 
behind the pink and yellow walls that eouceal so 
hermeticallv from ilic alien eye the pwtriiw/io lioth 
of secular and spiritual adoration. The first ol iliese 
is the iMiIy aspect in which the eburm is uiishattcred 
by Jarring aESOclations ; althongh, when we descend 
into it we wonder where the shade and the verdure 
have gone to, ?o completely do they seem to have 
disappeared. To the second, however, a few more 
wonls may be devoted, inasmuch as it is the Puking 
of every-day life. 



A a w(f go roi-iii into ii for every eaceursioiit eidier 
of tlutj' OT pleasui'e:, we have tg settle our means oi 
piaafwm ItH^omot SliiJl tUejT bo pome^, whose 
least itiovenieut ii'iU envelop us in an mirid 
whirlwind of dust, or tlie Peking cart, Lliai, strange 
and npriiigless woolen vehicle of which it U doubtful 
whether it was first invented to resist the (diaants and 

■irasxi ur rmuisi 

crevasses and moraines of the streets of Peking, or 
wheitier they were devised to hartuouise with its 
primitive and barbaric structure ? Ori, rejeetbg the 
two sole means of ausisied lofowiotion—for no othur 
animal and no other vehide are avaitablc, clmirs 
being reserved for vety high oHicials In the capital, 
and Europeatis preferring for etiquette's sake t\Ol tCk 


H9<f tlit’im—shilil Wi* prot-etad ou foot, and pick our 
Yray cautiously from peak to peak ainid the jtrchipel'- 
iigo (tf miivennd ordure? Tri.'seiitly on 

(o a rnimi street, lis oraat breadtli is snccesisfiilly 
conceaJed by ibe two lines of Ijooths tliat have 
apnitig 11]) in tlie klinl of ditch ilmt extends on ciUier 
side of the elevated centml roadtray; but dirongli 
the dust we may dlecem a long Tista, the paniUel 
walls of which present a line of fanuude proles, gilded 
siguboardaT carved woodworkt nwd waving Btreaniers 
and {iLatems—the insignia and atiTeniseinent of tlie 
ahopa that oijcu Itclow, X>otvu this avenue streams 
and joaties a ]>erpelual crowd of bliie’clad, long* 
i]UGUodf close^filia^'ini, br:uceii-liiuged men ; f,'liiuese 
women hobliliog feebly on their muiihited siwiups ^ 
thidtlV'rouged Tartar wove*, blushing (artifu-laUv) 
beneath a Ueiid-dreifs of smooth black haift parted in 
aevetui ]daoea on the crown, ami plastered tightly 
over a iirojectiug comb llmt siaiith) out like a long 
paper’Cniter at right angles to the head; a sparwly 
Iwarded tiiaTidariii seen nodding Ixditnd life saucer* 
like spectacles in. a screene^l sedan i long sTrings of 
splendid lwo*huTnped camels^ parading a magutheunt 
winter coat, and blinking a supercilious eye as they 
stalk along to die lieavy cadence ol tlie leader’s l>eHi 
liulen with socks of Imie or lujal front the liilfe; 
HongoUana in eliaggy caps bestriding aliogpier 
pontes: half-naked coolies wheeling casks of oil or 
buckets of manure on croaking barrows; bi^ 
perched on the tails of minuio donkeys; raniahadde 
wagons drawn by mixed teants of midcs^ Jtsses, 



p 4 >[iit$i, «iiKl oxen hy n (‘oinpllcnteil 

i^ntfLuglement of ropo irtid^s pftftwnif tbrou^li au Iron 
Tinjj; abominable ancl bairy black pi^rs mnning in 
anil out Uie aniiiiala' le^; g<ioi]‘toukiiig but 
covvaj dly dogs i liai bai*k atiil akiiilaildlo; mid above 
all tlie cftiub ami roar of rho ubiquitous Peking c art^ 
tbiuidenug whh ita aiutlded wheels o\'er ibe iitoue 
bridges mid ernshijig into tlie deep ruts, drawn bv 
the most majestic mules in Asia, cruelly bitted with 
a wire acmes the upper gimn 

This is tlie panorama of Lbe ceuttal aisle. In tlie 
side aisles or alle^'a all the more stationary’ purvevors 
jsrtiit. of the atnuseiuents or necessitie^ of life are 
tiniii.i» janiiueil up (ogetiier ‘ barbers shaving wiib- 
oui soap the foreheads of stolid customera setited 
upon siooLs, dentists and iduropodlata procluimiug 
(lieir extraordinary’ skilb auctioocers screaming the 
glories of second-hattcl blouses and pantaloons, cob' 
blera puncturing the tliiek sole of (Jie unlive shoe, 
gamblers shaking Spills or jilaying dominie, or back¬ 
ing against all comers a welbnurtured fighting 
cricket, pedlars aud hucksters irith tlieir wares 
extended on improvised bIuDh or outspread upon die 
grt>und» 4 'urioHiealers oreriug carved Jadu snuff- 
bottlijs or porcehun Imwls, vendora of ifie opium-pipe 
and tile water-pipe, charm^llera and quacks with 
traya of atratige powder® ami uaviseating drugs, 
acrobiiia performiug feats of ngility, @t 4 onl-player® 
Blushing the mr with huge naked blades, Btort'-teilere 
euchaliiuig an open-tnouthed ctowil, itinerant mnsi- 
,cian$ tweaking a Riugle-atringed gnitnr. country folk 

fns covsTM xxD dPiriL of ciusa 3.>3 

ventUtij; imuienee caUlmgejs or rtuliU- ipd 

iioltliera wiili liows iiml arrows behhiil 
their backs going out to practiBe, cwoliea tlrawiiig 
wnier fi-om tlie (leoply grooViitl marJJe coping <»r 
inunemorial ^toUs, juwI men ajid Iwya of &gc 

carrying hiida in cages or n siwfiitig ijlintUndi 
all ached by a string to a stick, A more than 
tirdiiiary dioutiog will herald the approach, though, 
it ivlII hardly dear a way, for a bridal procession, in 
wltich the bride, t^hdy lixtked in an embroidered 
red palivmiuiti*’ follows after a train of Iwys bearing 
Ian terns and men blowing iioneutous tnmiiaJta or 
lapping Gargantuan drums; or of a funeral 
in which the corpse, preceded by umbrellas and 
tablets, rests upon a gigantic red catafah[ue r>r bier, 
w'itli dilliculty l»c»riie upon the slioulders of sev<u‘al 
score of men* In curioua eontrasL with the caeci- 
phoQous roar of this many-^otigtiKd crowd a melo¬ 
dious whiiTiiig slugs in llie air, and is produced by 
whialles jUtnehed to the tails of domesdc pigeons. 
Such is Lhtf street, life of Peking, n phaut:t«- 
uiagoria of excrucialing incident, too bewildering u> 

p!2!iim absorbing to escape. If w'c tunj iroin it In 

1 R<»A U tho (Nil<ror tn lliUift. TiM= WJftlriiiiiFh Ji«Ft.ciiEMJ3*l 

l*t tbe bfiiV* hnntVi MCKnu[iAiiii94l by aiiuiiE, IitntcOHt pii-'i lT*y» <»f 

R vdeUuoiUb. ’nufH) *lm ontiriM, muL ^’'**“*• “*"1 

liiUdWiHl bv anil oflier ti eonreyoil tn Uiotiriil&fn-iiw'n ltuiii*>. 

hclns w liinmotlrallj einre up In tlw »«1 m tJini •uuwUjum in Uio liw* 
MwiDiiir wtinthtr nho 1. tftlwti aul CUnUtuf, mtil uMiutifSMUjr vvea aeyiiU 
* Hift tmmbHT of iHnnrn minnj* twin Ifi Im 13S uciirdiiia to tin. 
rank of th» dHcascd, fil l»in« * ma fnicctmiuia nnil nr^iccliibk 



Uie Ptifcing of fiaiictiiaritHS, i^aliutes, arul slmiua, ire 
afiii in a verv difi«:retiL atmosphere at oncev For Just 
as everjnhmg In the other I'ekiog is public and 
itulecent, so liere everrtliing is e-lniideatme, veQcal, 
and sealed. Tlio keynote to liie remaiudcr is struck 
by the enclifstire mthin enclosure, tin Porhidden 
city tnsiilo the Xinperial city, where tlte Lord of 
count less niiiUons, so well <Lesor1hed as (ie ‘ solitary 
man/ reaidea. In former days, iuleed as late as 
ISKT^ parts of the I’jiiaee-grounds, the lakes and 
jpmlons and marble bridges, irc-re acc^sibhi to 
foreigners; pliotograplLs can Tx; purchased that 
reveal <hetr features, ainl the majority of resident 
Europeans can speak from recollemhjti of the site. 
Now )dl is dosed; and from the esrierior nothing'can 
be wen but the yellow roofs of the great hjilL and 
lJxe degant pavilions tbitt crown the higher dovalions. 
Ti> the iuiiemiosi enceint^f or Palace no man is ad¬ 
mitted. There the Imperial pereoti and baretn are 
sutTOunded by a vast body of eunuchs, estimated at 
from S.dOO to It),000. Wlicji the Emperor goes out 
to worship at any of the letnples, or io visit his 
palaces in the vicinity, no one is allowed in the 
fttre-eta, wliieh are swept dear of all stalls and Ixwiha, 
ami ate very likely paved for the occasion, while the 
houses are lairricadod or closed wiili mats. Only in 
the coutitiy, where such precautions are impossible, 
can the Tniperkl jier^oii lie seen, borne awiftly by 
ifcores nf retaiaent in a magnificeui st'djin. 

Of ihe diapositloii and taates of a unmarch thus 
vhronded from human gaze but little can be known. 

rus cocrjrrRT < 7 ,t/ 7 rjx of chlva 255 

ITis lmp<!riyi Majusty, whose title h Kuang 

II su, i» now nTeuty-tbitJt years of age, imil 8iu'<;eeiled 
!rbe liifi eoiism» the Emperor Timg Chih^ nineteen 

EaiipRi't I . <1 

Ttintt cii3i years ago, uruler cireumatmices Tiat throw 
an iitteresiiiig Ught upon the inner mysteries of Cotut 
esisEenee in Peking. Tung CliUi also was u ehihl 
when he aiicceeded his fktliur, lisien Feng* the 
fugitive of the AngltHFrench ♦campaign, in. ISCl. 
During hb minority tlie Ooveramieut was virtually 
iti ihe hands of two Indies, one of the Empress 
of tlie Eastern Palate, liad lieen the prlncipid wife 
and Empress of Ilsien Feng, while Llie other, who, 
though the mother of Tnrig Cliih, had not been 
Einpreisvs, w'ns in ctnislderat ion of the accession of her 
son named Empress Mother and Empj'ess of ihe 
\Vestern Palttee, Seiatng the reins of Govenimeiit. 
by a bold emtp tTitnt^ in whiolt they were aflsisteil by 
one of Ilsleu Feng's brothers, well known to Enro- 
peans. as Prince Knng, the^e Indicjs aJmitiiatered the 
♦State as Uegenta, with Prince Kvmg us Chief iliuister, 
until in 187^ Tung l.flub aituiued his majority and 
shortly arierwanla tmirricil. The young wife then 
tiecamn Empress, and the two elder Indies retired 
nominally into the backgroim^h 

Tung Cbih, however, was addlete<l to dij$sipauoii, 
jtiul Tcrv soou nave signs of a lailitig constituiioD. 
tTuriiMi Itnriog his illness a tiecree was issued, ui> 
doubt at their iuitiative, in wliioh tlie 
Emperor, jiassiiig over liia i)wu wife, invited them to 
resume their former fiindtions until hU restoration to 
health. By this clever step tlie two hcdiits, who tore- 



' Cill^A 


saw a M:ci>iid tint! tiot ksa agreeulile U*hjjt of powtr 
during tlie miiiuriiy of a fccaad infant, found Uii.'iu* 
selves lu t.lie yghesL jilatM;, when, in Januoiy lS7t\ 
ilie Emperor Tuug (."hili died 4UiUdkss, but leaviiig 
widow who expected l>efore long to become a mo¬ 
ther. Tliey were now in a pottiiioti to tnanipiilati? 
1.1 le succession accoriltiig to Iheir owu desires. 'Uie 
uaiurni course, foUoiTing the ordinary practice of 
IniiMjrlal succession, would have Ireen to wiit for the 
birth of the deceased Einperor*^s po<thutJiou^ cluld, 
i»nd in the event of its being etillivnu or n girl, to 
select froni tmioug the luendH-'rs of the Imikerial 
family n child who should be adc^pied os his smi, ami 
during whose minority ihe widowed Euiprtrsd should 
rule as Ilegeot, This, how'ever, was not at all to the 
taste of riic two ex-Empresses Eegent. Of these the 
one who was mothirr to the late Emjjcror Inul a 
sisu-r luarried to Prince Chun, the youugnr brother 
of Prince Kung, the cliitd of which, union was there* 
fore twice over u nephew of ilic Euipomr TJsien Feng 
mid cousin of Tung Oluh. Ignoring ilic pregnancy 
of the Emprci-s Ah-lu-ta. and passing over the stina uf 
Prince Chung's elder brothers,* tln-y selected tliis 
infant, wUciie name wasi Taaittuu, and who having 
only been liom in August 18TJ, would insure them 

' ELuuj; to totliLiTbd'CftnAf U osinr^il him 

ft u Firn MiniirtJiri whjfikh, to Chui««e 

viffTi of JlptEty, wflutJ not kikv« biiuij bit erwn 

ttoii Uh»iiic Euipt^r. Tint kU«r« luidl [iftAdiMl hv 

ftilo}>titm inio ihA fbmily of u kather wf tho EmfrtmM- Eiiteii 

Fckfi- Pritveo homiTuti fTo]ii£*J uXi Innir du 

hk cjwfi wha, Ulc Lti Uit kotkii^ unlfl 

bk doftlli In ll^L 


TitE vousrnr j . v/j caeital of vttiXA 4^? 

u luti^r tspiSfll of l.T^: wns aJupunl jt^i 

a son to Hsien Peng, thud ^[)«iirin;i tr< Mitm n rnTi> 

tiunation of tlu*ii‘ finicilotifi as ilowaj^trs, and was 
ulevated iviUi die riiHii^' liile of Kuauo ilsu (Glorious 
Oontiriuity) to ibe Dragon Tlirone ; tUe Ec^'Ent^i 
fiirtliEr jirtHludng wliat puqKirtEd to la* a lunntina- 
tiou of ifie cljild by the tain Tung Chili as las Uolr. 
The only step that remniiied to eotnplete the saocesis 
of thu amaigemeiit. wa^ tUo ilm[ipeiiraMr*e of the 
young widowLi;! Empress of Ttmg Cliih Ijefore the 
birth of her child could upset the plot; and Chinese 
opinion can liave iKjeti little fiurpriseil whim the early 
anaouncemeiit of her death vra^ nmlLv the eata- 
atrophi; lierng generally p.^plaiJJed I>y the jiopTdnr 
Gliineie practice of (uiUudeT though u’his[ier>> were 
not lacking of a more glnister diH>m. It uiil he seen ihe alxjve acooiint that there was nuite a dus¬ 
ter of Irregularities, to use no »tr<Jtig*er term, «i the 
nom 11latlon of the reiguiug Sovert'igta But,acoorditig 
to Cliluese ideas, the xnaiu flaw in his tith* consists hi 
his hpfungiiig to the same generatiou as Uie Eniiieror 
Tung Chill, ami jn bis consetjuein distpianhcntlou 
from peifonuing tlie soicririees that are due from a 
descendant In his Imperial pre<l^i'«ftr*r, whose legal 
successor therefore he oaiiuoi he. Tt was this injury 
done to die memory of Tung Ghih that fi^niied tlir 
proiesE of the ceusor Wn-ko-tu, wlio eoTiiudtteil 
suicide tliiring one of the Imperial visus to the 
ancestral tombs, in urtler to iitiriifTt pnbUu attention 
to the siuindah 

The second Regency lasted for fotrrteen years, iincil 




in IS&'J rlie young EmiM'mr lisauinwl Uib reiiw uf 
power a)nl iiiarrioil hie Ye!i'-iut-iia-ht- iVovi- 

TiwE»- tlencs luis not ytM favoured Hni with an heir, 
* aldioijgh, ar^iatrcUng U> tlie Chinese jiriicdrct 
several apyioinlTUPnts hnve alrcaily beeji uiadt* lo ihe 
tlcuJar offioB of <]l^uardijiix to the Heir 
The senior of the vwo liegentij, die Biipre??s 
Dowager of Hsieu Teog. h:iU (lied in Ilisjl. hut the 
second, or mother of Tung ChiJi, the Ejnprv'js 
T 2 U Esi, epitliiuml mul uoniiimes to survive, and, in 
spite of her iioimual withdrawal frnin putiHc life, si til 
wields a predonduaut iiitiiiencu in the government of 
file Empire. In Xovember of the present year(18B4) 
filie attains her sixtieili year, and. great are the 
celebrations and rejoicings in linncmr of this auspi¬ 
cious event.. The Emperor has paid her the supreme 
compliment of adding two nioix; lileograpLs lo her 
idriiady elongated title, which now run* us ftilU’iws ; 
* T^n-hsi-ti I a ti-pi-kaiig-i-i 'hiuv-yn-eimang-cheng - shoii- 
kutig'diin-hsiea-chung-hsL' A recent issue of ilie 
‘ Peking Oiaetie' .’ilso contained the following eiui- 
nctilly lillal aimouni’ertieni:— 

‘ Tile «i|WfrI»tivc gtudoes# of the August 
■Dflwager [« lirigttfly itinftire*(, uni Hnr uoni |tfekeiistve fiim- 
alglit liOTpiits die whn]*! mce. liy i^nwelib,^ rtiligunioe tritiiin 
Her PftlfMw stie setrnrve the pean* of dit- eatirt; realm. Since 
Our njccoflsioh to the Thniiie Wu Iiavo ia tn^pectfid attend- 
ftTiw foffurtfljitly weivfd tier JidminihU’ iiislttictltnm. With 
great gliultitfss We jUTceivi.* Her gmcuitis in tnlrngt 

liuahU Mild clietirfiil spirits. rhe yeiir lilVl H^r Mnjiistj* 
will huppitj nttnm the iltnBtrioits ^ of idxty and li 

■will Our duty at llii? ht^ad nf the tiflidok aud |?i*=jple 

THE Asn capital Of CIIIXA sasi 

rtf till* wIiwIb KiMjiin* to tfistify (jiir ntid t*.» [imy for 


It is a ^iurious uouieidence — in couiraiiiotion of 
the ptnpular tijeories trijnceniiu^ tire Kiiiterii suljjec- 
(.ton of women — -111at Iwtli in t-litiia sititl Korea 1 
»tionI(i foimil ilie de/ack^ sijverei"n belonging 
to the female sei. 

CfKiH iio l)eil of roses, however, can the Em¬ 
peror of lie. The (^ereiiioitial functions of his 

nicEni. life, whether as. ffupreme Killer or as roii' 
tifi?x ilaximna of his people, are mauifolil 
ami engrossing. His edneailon, both in the unlive 
clRssif's aiid in such departments of foreign learning 
as 111 ay be thoiiglu ilesirahle, ts not tieglecled; and 
the premil linperor, who is known to take a deep 
interest in everything English, retieive." daily English 
lessons, at u veiy early hour in the morning. Iwtore 
giving audience to his uiinisiera, front two Chinese 
Students of the Tmig Wen Kvian, or Foreign College 
.at Pekittg, who, unlike tlie Jluiisier?, are allowed to 
sit in the Inijierml presence. As an instants of the 
young ruler’s keen ootivero in hi*s English studies, I 
umy ineiitioii that when he received u copy ol the 
* Ufl* of the Prince Consort' as a present Jrom Tier 
Majesty the (Ineeii, he sent it down at once to the 
Tiiiig TVen Kuan to Ite translated, ;md was iiiipntienL 
iiniil he liad received U liack.^ In tJie still hours 

• Tbft fiinnwhui JMeriptiun tft hii ipvati W 

OD Uns* Ilf tbv Auitl«iti!o ot IS!>1‘ Bih sit )■ oiia i>t nxpeqiiinR 

iutdUiiiEoHtis Mul »^^tfrtiatles^^ Kunewhrti snrt mplwntholy 

tlin ftie« is |wh, luuJ iJriiraijh it t* t>jr tvfliwifitiit 

wilt ■iniot it hs» Mtit tit tb* tneo •A bln iiiicMt«r«. 


of (he Di^ht. when uo but 

n'tlmiiwil (.-iji inti udei^ upon Un* silenre. pnlanf^tnnis 
may be ai^en vveiuliii^ Uieir way to (hf Piilace^ak'A; 
nml tiiere, at 3 atid 4 a.m., lou^f suun^OT 

uusiotti presorilati tlml 111 ? yontig monarch shall giv*? 
audumcc lo sm'h <if liifi Mhutters as hnve to 

his person, tind shall give or refufi^e to the docttmetit^ 
wliicli they present the entwning' snnetion of the vt*r- 
miliou seal, 

^Tiat with the noccseary but ilolotx>ys foutiue of 
his oflioia) existence on the one hand, rijttdlv pre- 
sorlbed by an adamantine and punetiliciiieeti- 
queite,and with die tempiniious of the harem 
on the other, it ia rardy that an llmperor of China— 
usually an iufant. and fftOeeted liecunse ofhis infancy 
in Use hrai place, and exposed thi-ough the tender 
yeatTi of his yoiilh to these twofold pt^ccnimtlims— 
can dev'dop any force of oljaracter, or learn the ni- 
iluuentary lessons of stateeraft. The safety of Use 
dynasty and the sanctity of the Imperial title are 
supposed lo ht Buniined Up in Uil- sinswervin^ maiii- 
seimnce of this coloasal Imperial night inure ai Peking. 
W*rp it to W disaipateil or shatteml l>y the apisear- 
ance of a strong tJofereigru who to the aaeeiideiicT of 
personal nuthorliy adiled an enmncijmiiou from tlte 

tuithinif coiutsuiliditisr nr irn|uiriini^ hut i* mltogriiiiir mlltl tldleiitjL 

«j kind He«.,wLuj^ ia I,;* (laliy m Imfi: hla c.™ ij. uv^l almtwil ^iih ^ rwry lutie 
(inmni nhin, lu^il m wnidiivA nwtTHh witli Uiiti ucstviia ItM) |ik t)o»n 
l* wpJ|,i4iu{)nt «tia uinLUtt, hSf fj vKraw* rjigtikr muU Vtnyiuglua 
thr «vju tUB qnuMi>Uf Wifft vii| •vnn^wfiil £n ^^romiDn. Tliii 
fMreilsoAit it fSiill.tlinjMKi mill Uiuad, mi lIi« it |Miyp,irt ittp 


rnn corxTUT j.V£> capital of chixa sai 

p{!lrifU'<l tnwUtiiuis of itjc‘ Palaoe, tUi,* pliaiitom of 
hii[^»erl;\f power would, il is ^rtiuiiiKHily sAid, 
irtieiriev’able coMaiwi*. Hut nt ItfajJt die Mpteiacle, «r 
Ujc tjqjerimt'iil, w'ouU U* one of sui'pa^sin^ iiiieresi \ 
nor do 1 see any veiy clear veasou why ii present' or 
n future Kiii]ieror should twu tuke diat tnoit puhlte 
part whicli wiis liUed t'uly a century ugo hy lliu 
Eiujxjror ICifing i*uiig, and ii euiifury tjurlier by the 
Etnperor Kang Hsi. 

Profoiijul, bow«e«r, 3» is the ot>,>furily nttaelilug 
lo the Palace life, a scareely less, uml a fur more 
tTiiii esuiiijenitiiii', mviterj- luu; in rliu last few 

I . T 1 

rears }>eeti uilowt'd to gndier about tut* 
various saored eudosures wilhin the city, wiiicli are 
the giiai to wJiicIi the traveller’s gaxe Wu 1 urtinl 
Pram afar. Till within llie list fourteen years most of 
these were easily accessUde, mul old i^^aidonts 
how they have pla\\'d at cricket in the park of tlu* 
Temple of Heaven, find if:qiIyrtKl the Temple’^ of Agri¬ 
culture, die i^tm. oml Moon. In proportion, however, 
a? the memory of t he war of ISfid has receiktl, uiul the 
|>ower for meuaee of the foreigner been ili i nii ii Fl ied, 
30 lias [lie arrogance of the Chinese grown: and 
ttodiing now givesi them greater plcjisure tlian the 
sullen ami eijiue times insolent reject ion of the 
•foreign devil* from the d<K>rs to which lie 'uiee 
gaiueil umlistuvbed entry. In the ease of I he Im¬ 
perial Templos ur enclosures die re is die furtlicr 
e^tcusu, that whereas during the long ruiurtritieH of the 
present ami the precetUng Emperor, they were not 
used for worauip, uiul were couseriuently neglected. 


tlieir SiuiEtity Jias now l>W‘ii riA<lii‘ati'il atid rf^viveil, 
I Imow Ilf lUt fisrel^uer, aeconlmgly, wln> lias* Uien 
admitted to thtj Temple of Heaven for uiue years; 
altitouj:;h, Imvttig eliinliet^ not. witUnut jiidicioi]i<!. 
bribery^ the soutbern wall -ff Ibe CLttiese cUy^ wbieh 
immediateiT OTerlookH the saereil cnckisiirti, 1. couh! 
with eiw oWn'e ffom tlienre Um vmjt n>o[le>? altar, 
three stjiges high, glittering white marble, where¬ 
upon, at the summer and winter solstice, at two 
hours l>erore auurise, the Emperor makes burntniller- 
ing am) saenhue on hi-hnlf of his people to tile 
Supreme Tjord of Heaven ; could recognise file Fall 
of Foaling, wiiere he remuiiiN in soUtnrr mwliialiou 
during the night; the southern circular Temple of 
the Tablet*; the three great reil jwles, from which 
are hung lajiiems to iUtnnino the I'eromony; 
ami the sciiffuliliDg surrounding ilm site of the 
renowned tiiplfr^roofetl, bltm-tiletl leniple above the 
Hurt]mm altar, the clucf glory of the entire onchtsure^ 
which was burned ro the ground a few years ago, and 
is now in course of a studrvs jmee recoinstTnciiDii,* 

It is still quite jx^saible to pass the (niter wall oi 
the entire enclosure, ivhlch is a paraJlelogram about. 

oircumfensnee, for the dust 
has blown up agiiitisi it in a nianmir which 
renders it easy to clamber on to the coping mid then 
to drop dowm Ihe other aide. Here, however, the 

‘ Tt WH* .l«ck hji IWUBiafl in IHUU. Ui* c^trut tur iw 
rtrurtion «u 1.(W,o«) twl, jubMil mJt ilw ii^w hiiiUinsr i* 

li> b* nmiploi* tn l«ie. Ai Uic time Uiw I wu Ih PiJttbe (Nov ISfW) 
(bB b*d fur hi^lirr p*,. ni«i»tvlti,; a*. • 




visitor merel}’ ilnfb in rhe winmltHl jiark where 

ihe aniiiifll* are kejit; atwl lhoii"h he tnay 

succeed in taking the guards by surprise and in 
rushing one of thi: (hwwava that leatl into the inner 
eiiclosnrcs, hr is Imnlly likely to repeal the suc¬ 
cess suflLcicDily often to conduct him ro the iuner- 
jijosj f 7 tmnt( where lire the altars. In former days 
nothing but a little dash to start wltii, and a suhse' 
<jueut douceur, trerc required to overcome the scru¬ 
ples of the custodians; hut such a Teivtiirc, it. is 
generally tliougtii, rnrglit iti the present state of 
uaiive feeliug be provocaii^'e of violence. 

Fascinating^ indeed, would the experience of 
the man wdio, by whatever device, aucc^'ded in wil- 
Ti» uessing the great annual observance of De- 
ccuiber 21 1 when, in tlm glimmer of tlie 
breaking dawn, the KmjMjrof, who has passed the 
night in soli tary prayer in the Ball of Fasting, comes 
forth and dona the s-acrtficial robe oi blue; when he 
leaves on bis left hairul the noriliem altar and the 
cinndar temple upon it, with its curving ajsure roof, 
like unto a threefold outspread parasol; when hi* 
ino^'es along ilie marble oauspway tlet^^e^L the ct’prtss 
groves, anti beneat h the* or arches of sculp- 

tnreil marble; when he passes iJie single-peaked 
(liroulur U:dl of the Tablets whence the [ableis of 
kShang-ii. ihe Supreme Ijord, and of tlie eight deified 
Manchu Ihuperors lave already Unm transferred to 
their temporary realing-plaetfl on iho roofless south¬ 
ern altar: wdieii to the music of over 2t)(l niusi- 
einns, and lo die mj’Stic movements of a company of 


<1fUicci's« lie apfiiNjsu!!lie9 fill* marble inouiit, aiid iLsceitd^ 
ilie triple flight of nine steps each, r«»m the grouiu) 
to the lower, and from the lower io the central tier, 
whereon are dieposcii ihe tablets of the San, IMitoii. 
and Stars, and of the Sjiirits of the Air and Water 5 
when, finally, from tlte eeiitr.^l In* tnoittua to the 
up[)ermost terraw, where, under din open vaiih, a 

vicraiux ^ltar «fr muren 

pavilion of yellow silk overshadow’a tlie taldeuof the 
dfeifitnl £ntpi;ror« and of Shaiig'ti, the Supreme Lord, 
There arrived, he kneels; there he bnrua incense 
and uAers libations on belialf of his people before the 
Baereil tablets; Uiere, nine liinee, he liowaandatrikce 
rhe taarble plaifonii witli his Imperial forehead, in 
obeisance ti,i the Ood of Heaven, 

Till; }'OVSTHV JtSl* VATITAL iif t'ttLYA t!fiS 

While in Peking I $nv,‘ tlte eights nr buikHngs 
wliicli 4 vrc »iUl rteet.'saible «m tlie foreigner, though ia 
^ fioiuf eusos iiol ivithout diflicuitv, aiui in few 
iriihout h>ag pai ieyirig at the ii'ickei^ and 
the gift of aw exorhhaui Uribe. Of thr*ae, petliapss, 
(he best knowini! the Kiua-Hj-iaiig-iahorf^biiervaiorv, 
originjiUv foimik'd iit 127^> by Kiiblai Khan, to eon- 
trtia the itistrmueiits of bis fauioim Astronomer lltyal, 
Ko*i“biiw-tsiMg. Tour himilretl years later the ilimgol 
msiranoetiis were pTionoiiiH?ed out of date by Ferdi' 
nnndo Verlne^t, the. desitit fat!ieL% who was rnesideiif. 
of the Jkjjii’d of Work? at the Court of the ilandiu 
Emperor Kang FIsi, aud were superseded by a new 
set of instniineiitSf niamifactured under Verbiest's 
directions at Peking, or fas in tlie case of the ariinuth 
dial, preseiiied by lAmis . to the t.'hinesc tjove- 
rtdgnl Lmjjorted from Eurojn?. The Ming iiistniinente, 
all of Urtuijio, and |>nlt^jpd 'o a glassy siiKHithness by 
long exposure to ilie dust-cliarged air of Peking, are 
placed under tlic open sky, nn an eJcvaied Iwistion 
I'ising nlsiv «■ iJie smiitnit of the liafit Tartar wall, 
whicrb. liowever, is only acci^ssible through a wicket 
and courttanl at the base. < tf far gri'ater interest, lo 
my mitid, than lliese objects, wliieli consist of a sex¬ 
tant, a quadrant, au aimi 11 ary sphere, a great relestial 
gluW adoiued with gilt coiisteHatione, and other In- 
■^tnimeuts, m'O the older ami discarded fabtications of 
[Jie Mongols, which repose nmler tJie shadow of treea 
in the grassy eoiirtyiinJ below. Here are two atmilinry 
spheres, great Ititeriwmed circles or hoops of bronze, 
on sLands siipijorted by chistfDed dragons rampant. 



!Iere» ahu, shut u(t in Iwo dmiy uompurtmeiit^; of an 
adljoining huiUlin*?, are two objects U'filc:h no nuuderti 
traveller, wliost? writings I have np|>ears to iiave 
uoilceil. One is a or ivater-clock, probably 

daritig fioni the Mcmiiol era. and composed of three 
great bronze jare, plaml i^ tiers one above the oilier, 
so that a measuret] qoMiiUy of the water overtlowiKl 
within a given space of time. Atmched to them in 
former times was a figure holding an arrow, itri wltich 
the hours were markcil, and which rested on n vessel 
floating in one of the cisterns, and changing ele¬ 
vation iis the water rose or fell. This, I think, must 
be the disosed water’Clock, which the early JcsiitL 
luiastoimries deiscribe ns Imving (brmeriv been placetl 
in the Kii-lou, or Drum Tower. Tlie reniainmg m- 
sirmneut Is a gnomon, or long tnlile of bruiute. along 
which, dfjun iJie middle. Is marked a mendian of 
fifteen feet, divideil by transverse lines. Upon tins 
the snn's rays struck, pa-^ing by an aperture lu the 
ivall, the horizon lietng foninal of two pittces of copper 
suspended in the air. The instrument liaanow ikUeu 
to pieces, and no one seems ever to notice it. 

Aneuig otljcr places which are usnallv visited 
within the Tartar chy is the Kao Chang, or Esaiiiintt- 
Buihling, which lies bobw' and is t-a.sily 
m visible fnim the nijservaiory Platform. It 
con^bls, like the corresponding strueturea in the 
provincial capitals of Chhm, of long parallel rows of 
many tboueaTid cells or pens, in which, once everj 
three years, the candidates for the second and tidrd 
degrees of literary promotion art immared for several 


tkj'B aiii] nigliis, wliile iliey art* compos'iriff the jejuiie 
though ilowerv tliimuyiidns that line to turn the 
Etiecessful citiii|ietiJots into tlie liigtier of iiuui- 
flnritifi. It U rttf) npor}i€<K3S^ —Or sluill I iiot rather sav 
tlie *id (tbfitmhm ?—of tltt-sTSietu, irrnn whose 

preiiiontUiTy wyjjiptoins cnir own country, a tardy 
coHTeri to Celestial tdea^. ia already begiiuiing' to 

lit Uie tiortheni part of tlie eity i> Pt'oajK^ct 
Hill are ilie Ku-U^u. or Drum Tower, con tail ting an 
timwMid immense drimu which is beaten to minuitnee 


(he wiUclies of tlie ntglit,. nnd the Chiiiig-lou, 
or Hell Tower, erected by the Emperor Ktcri Lung in 
1740 to shelter one of the five groat Ttells that were 
oast by llie Emperor Yung IjO at t lie Itegiiining of the 
fifteenth centun’, TJoth these towers are iiunieriaely 
lofty struoturesj qitiie 100 feel idgh, pierewl Indow 
by a wide arch. 

Everyone also goes to see iheTeniplBof Confucius, 
a vast and dusty hull, of the fainiliarCldnase puttem, 
Tp>i»pC.ii* fa-ised upon a sloue lerraLC, and cctitttiiijrig 

noildiig inside but tlie dull red pillars Uint 
suppori the lofty timbered roof, the tohlet of the sage 
standing in llie eouire in a wooden slirinc, with the 
tablets of the four next most eminent sages, twi* on 
either side, and tliose of anoilier dozen a Utth* lower 
down, Tlie Emperor is stippfiseil to visit and worship 
at this tcrqple twice in ei’ety year; but at the (iuie 
of my visit thu I'eignlng monarch wo* reported not 
yet to have Ijeen ar. all. In an adjoining court are the 
so-called stone black cbeese-sbaiuHl blocks of 



jrrmiite iuiM^ribetl n’lih siati^asiimn ititcicmt cbflj'iiuter. 
tluii :kre siip[if.i«t<i ro refer tt hiinTiii^>' expetilrinu of 
the Eui|ientrSurn in ibg eighth century B.c. f*n tJi& 
opposite side of the same gaiewav sire the repUeas 
that were juaile of them by the Ejiiperor Kieu Luug. 
A Jieiglibourmg eni'lii^Dre i!ie cotameioo* 

rntive tablets. like the earved [ctim iii the 1 >iht 
S^' hia*! iU' iEtiuit that ilisplar the tiaines oif all the 
learned aiK^ctn's who linv« taken tlie lughest literary 
degree, or CJfiiu-^aliih, since the days of Uie Zdoiiyol. * 

Adjoining again ie the Kiio-fru-nliioiitOr iMperhd 
Academy of Learning, an mlufaiiimal establishment 
H 4 U^ut* '“^hich exists only in reaped of habitaiibn 
and of jmmt ; and in llie centre of [ljlaeiicit> 
sure stanrb the I'i-ynng-kting, or Hall of the (lassies, 
where, upon a raised Throiie, the Eiiiperor i<*'supposed 
to, liiit, T bellevt% dues iini read an adtlress to the 
hki'oti. ( Ill the skh?^ of a court in the Kiio-i Kiuehten 
are ;tl.4o planed under wver ilie liOll tableti con¬ 
taining the graven text of the (’onfiittian eiasaics. 
.\l»oui all tlmse faUrtes, and their ailejo and diMrf-rted 
courtaf there is. an air uf academic tmd uumcnao 

No such impressioti is derived foatt a visit to liiii 
1 ung-ho-kiitig, i>r great Lima temple, whidi stands 
chjse ui the last-mentioned micloynre in the 
Tf-tirt. iiortli-easL comer of the ciiy. Its l,2l)h 
Slongidlmi innmle^, presided over by a Oegen, 
or Ijviug iSiifldiin, are celebratetl for their vicious 
habits and olfenVive nnmneni. It was considered a 
stroke of rare gotxl fortune that, with the aid of an 

Tfl£ AXU CAt'iTAl 0£ Ct/tXA 'im 

i*xp«neiirHl «(’lrattir^ I pblfiiite<l etitrujir'e to 

llie n)orifisl:«rv; itliUau^ih oiir anitUl ^^Arty tlitl riot 
esttape from tlm of trs fikhy ajiiI insolent 

inkabiUnts wUltOrtt lieadly rniLlctei! at tb^ 

tfatc of cacL t'ourt and satmi iiurv. wltldi uvre barred 

^ m f 

aj'aiuHi. ns aiie after tlic oilter^ anil botug subjected 
at iuteirab to rougli Dsago well. I relftin a vivid 
recolUxtiioii of the maih temple, with its three 3t*3ted 
Buihthas iLiid two scatidiii^ Ggnres, ouo on either skle 
of Uie central image t with the eighteen Lohans, or 
ilisetples. along iJie side^^ aiul with u unhjue nollec> 
tiim of old cLi^niM and eik Iironxe resaels, censol's, 
and utensiK the gifis -if rmpemre, on the various 
altars. The funiiture of this tetnple iFi the htiest iliac 
I have seen in China, and rc'flRcts a smnptiious miil- 
quity befitting a sajiclnary of such higli repute, 
kehiud tlie tuain temple is tlie jVayer Ilall, fifletl 
ivilh rows uf low forms or stfiols, facing east and 
west and divided by mats. As the hour for evensong 
was a|iprr>ae]iiiig we were nneeremoniondy lin?- 
iletl out of E-liiE building liy ihe ussetnbling monks. 
Beyond again Is. a temple rontainiog a huge gib 
wooden Image of MaUreya, the Buddha To Coitie, not 
seated hui stmnliTtg, and with his head touching the 
roof seventy feel nliove, ti is pi»siltle to climb up 
to the top Ity wfjoden stairs leading to two up{>er 
Storeys, where are iiiiiiunerahle small l>rass Ihuhtha* 
di9i>oM!<l ill shrines and nicheu. Tlie Lamas dedineil 
to part iriiU any -if these except at an exorhitaiii 
price; Imt I hai'e one in cny possession which was 
snlmnjtienlly broughr to the EiiiUrstty by a monk. 



less itiouH or lutin* pliable (Imn his feUcnrs, At the 
l»iiek aimtlujr aliar wifJj a iHjmbcr of porcelain 
Buddliafit resenibtliip Lm^a della Eubbia ware. We 
next saw a cliiapiilaicd building^ contuimiif; the ter¬ 
raced strui'-ture or dimne, on the top <if which ilie 
Einj)en>r Kieii l.aiii; Is said lo havi- fasteil for a night 
prior to lib i iiJ t iath >u tnio the 1 i’h u rch. In another pa rt. 
is the telnple of the Gtnl of War, crowded 

Afirh Uideous paiuied and grinning iumges, mnl widi 
ligtireti of warriors in heimuta and armour. Here 
aliso are live troodeii models of two liipj>u|K>tanu wifli 
their yoimg, which are saiil to have Iwen killfd by 
jtieii Liing wlillc bitiiting at Kirin in llaiichnria, Uu 
01 ]r way out we saw the monks and their pupils, 
many hundreds in uunthcr. engaged at evensong in 
the vorkiua rhapcls. Ijtmd miig the deep, base 
monotone of tJieir voices, shoiitiitg ndtli irrevereiit 
iteration tlte responees of the Tibetan Uturgy. jUl 
wore yellow rimutlts, and in front <»f eacli upon the 
bench was Ids yellow tufted full IiRlmBt, I'Xai ily like 
the headpiece of it Bellenic or Homan warrior. Tlie 
Lamas of higher grade, tn purple and crimsau 
iiuinttes, wore Tlieso u[JOii their heads hm they Wiilketl 
ut atnl fro between ilit benches, conduriliif; the 
service. The appearance of n group of Europeans 
excited indignant protests from these itidivjduals; 
and w'p hiul a long wail, in 1 io|m; of a crowning bribe, 
iHffore we were permitted to leave the final gate and 
quil this nest of profligate scofitidrels However, the 
ex|KTienoe wjis well worthy of ihe time and triiil to 
temper involved, and is thought by the Imai resident 

TifS COUyTMy VAl'ITAL OF €UiyA :ill 

atiUiorUles to th{» most siugubr of the now nvall- 
able sigliLs of Peking. 

Vt-ry graTifyiiig ig it to turn oneV back iipott thiH 
citi’, wbcrc all that is worth ^eing la so tliffiimh, anti 
Oiii>^ where sucli savage itii'oatk are made upon 
et^uMiimiiv, patiettce. and cveiy huititui scui^ei 
a I id to make a trip to some of the weil-knowo sites 
that lie wii hin n range of forty to sixty miles of ihe 
aortliem gates, tlere, onti»ide ilie Tartar wail, but 
wltliin the mml rampari of the Alongoliau KaiulMilUf 
is the Btutng-Esu. anodier J..aina iuoiiAsters% coiiunonly 
calletl tiie YelU'w Teroph, It consists of a serits of 
great enclosures with irarit|uil courts, old trees, 
shniies covering niernuriai tnlileia, and vast lemple* 
liaUs. The largest of these possesses one of the nlLtet 
iniprtisaive intcrioiw iliat I have ever jieen. Three 
great solemn seated Buddiias are raised aloA, and 
jieer down with the inscruTable serenity of the fami¬ 
liar reaturi>e and Uie rudtlv Ldituuiei* of burnished 

r w 

gold. Tlic adjacent figures of Ijohatis, the coloured 
fresco of Buddhistic sceiw^j?, the Jo Ay iimbeml itxif, 
the splendid altars and censers, are :dl features seen 
elscwliere; bin the majestic stature of tiic images, 
the sumptutMW though huleil colouring of the pillars 
and wails, and the deep glootu in which the ImU Is 
pltmgetl, cornpel a rovercjiuy which is almost wit hout 
idloy*. In a neighljaitruig court is the or 

white mariih* tomb, erected by tliC Kinperor Kicti 
Lung tfi the Teshn I,ama of Tibe^' who, while on a 

' Ttip Twliti Lfljuj*, Bdiijjfn l:^fulTiit4ilLii+ h lb* 
b liur BuddM«t himreliv of Tilmlp uml at 

visit m Peking^ (lifHl thci'e of smallpox in iT^l. Tlit* 
shape of the inuriwiueut 5a ttjily, but the »«'ulpturt;s 
ivii Ua eipUt sitle^, wliivli reprewtu Siteuv-i in the 
history of ihr> ileeeasetl Lniim, nro fine amt linmoroui^ 
in their fide Lily to life. 

At a slmrt ilistutit’e to the tti>rtli‘WeAtj the 
of the five lielk of Vuti«-ljt>, ■whloh wa.-j east iilxmi 
aimOMi 5« siispetidefi hi a temple 

that waservvteil ITftvear^ later. Thedhueo- 


aions ortUuariiy j/iveii are 11 feat in Leigh L, 34 
feet in oirenmference at thehrtm. O inehe^ inthtek- 
uess, 120^000 lUs, in weight. More remarkable i»% 
the fact ihtu the surface of the ntouster, Ih>i1i inside 
and iiiitsidef U covered with thotwands of tlilnese 
cliaracters, representing extractH from two of the 
buddhist classics. 

One of the bitterest of lUe tunny disapiKMtiiments 
of tiaHlertt iVkIng k the iimbillty, also of recent 
Tii» oripin. to see The groiiufk or niins of the 
i^uta celebrated .Summer Piihice tlmt wajf de- 
moiUlie<1 by tlte Allies in Uf this a«‘t I oh,, 

serve that it has betiome iii recent years the faslni>ti 
among iravellera, who have probably never rend a 
line nf the hisiory of the war ir^jlf, to say that it wa-^ 
a thoughtless or intemperate act of vandalism appro¬ 
priately led by ilie win of tliat Lord Elgin 

wholuwl perjKftmied a corresponding deed of violetn'e 
by wresting from the tick of the AcTopolis the 
marble treastirefi of AtTiena. Ihith crilicisTus are 
ei|ual]y ignorani and empty. F<jr titough we inuv 
n'grct that the nifnlern Acropolis* iiuw. fur ihe first 

TifK cotm'RY Ayn caj^ital qf atiNA 

time leiiiletl aiud (;arer1 for, (toes not contain the 
(i(nilpt«n?s tliat once formc-d ita oliief jjSniy, anti 
thdiigli we limy deplort? tlie losa to the world of 
^rehileclure and art of ilie splendid fabries and [lie 
priceless treasum of the Cbmtae Taisaillest vet hi 
Uie one ease it must 1*0 rememliered that but for 
Iho first r^rd Elgui's mtervcDtion, the marbles wtucli 
bear Jiis name would probably not now be existing 
at all i aud in the uUier tliat the second Lortl iiHgiuV 
act was a ddiberate ajul righreous measure of retcibii- 
tioD for the barbarous cnudties and torture that bar] 
lieen practised for dajn and uiglus in tlie voorts of 
that very Palace upon. ilriiiBh prisoners of war; thai 
more iliau any other possilde Step, short of the sack 
of the TtupcrinJ Palace at Peking, it. signified the 
luindliatioii ami discomfiture c.f a throne cklming a 
prerogative aluiost divine; and that tlie reason for 
which the Bubiirlmu instead iif (lie rirban rKiidenrn 
uf ilm Ein))eror wjis selcelod for JjGSirticlion was the 
merciful desire to the liiliabltonts of the capital 
from a rotrilmtioii which was felt to have ije«n 
specmlly, if not solely, pitwoked by the hisolemie 
and treachery of the 0.iurt. Twenty-seven years 
liiier the Ifnnjiits Tseng, writing in Liic pages of an 
hlnglkU magazine,^ admitted ihai it. was iliis step, or 
‘singeing of the eyebniws of China,* aS he called it, 
that firat caused liur to awake from Jier long sleep, 
aud to roallsO that s fi p was not iuvulnerable. So far 
from cherishing an nndying grudge agaiiwt the Frcndi 




r>r for the act, as is alifo commonly represenietl 

IjV travellers, iLe fliiuese 1 hcmselves, who ImTo a 
woiMlerfol faculty for rtblirian, have ioveiiJiHl (ht 
Hctu'itt tliut iheSmniiiiirrfilaue'wasloottHl by rolibrns; 
nod this is now lUo |>opular belief. 

The term Sunitner Pnliice is sirktly applicfl hj 
the Yuan-mi ng-yna II, M. G«rik*n of T'erfoct Cleuniess, 
Tmu*. 1^**g*^ enclosure syrroiiiulcfil by a high wall 
four and a hair mil^ in circuii alxuii seven 
miles to the nottli-wesUff iVhhig, TTc-re the kmperor 
Y 11 tig Cbijig in the first half of ilie eigliieeulh century 
first hmlta palace ami laid out the groumls—a work of 
twenty years ; ami here it was that a fjcries of magtu- 
ficeiiT htiihlitigs.designetl upon The motSelof VersiiiUes, 
It ml framed in a lamkcape ganlenlug that was n 
sinuiiU' TciiunbcenfO of France, were raised for the 
limperor Kien Lung by the Jesuit missionaries In 
his aervicc. Of ihese, Perc Reuoisi under look the 
hydraidics in 1747-5fi; ami the descrl|uiotiB !iy 
l*i!je Aitiret, who was (he l-jn^teror's CJourt Palntt-r, 
and by Pere Bonrgcoia, which art* to l»e fimml iti the 
' Ijettrea tCdifuintes,' give u most itilereatlng account 
of the inaniiBr and success of their uitdcrtaking, I’o 
the average European sitting nt home it is pryliably 
news to learu Lhut the Summer Palace, of whieii lie 
hits heard so much, was a series not of fantastic 
purcelnin pagodas or Chinese ]iavi)ifuife, but of fw ini- 
Etiropeiiu balls mid p:daces adorned tvilh llie florid 
sph-ndniit of the Court of the Grand 11 ounrijue. The 

gi'eau-r part of ibese were wnrcked in ISOn, but for 

the Iasi tw'outv ream the work of reetoration lias been 
’■ «• 


slowlv aiul tm for^j^cr can uo^v 

gulii iiccuss f,o ihe inierior. 

Till lately tliia prcilui>in»n did not apply tiv tUe 
Waii-el loti's! uut, **c. THU of Teti Tlioufinid Ages^ 
Wan-riwi*- ^ similar Impenal Pleasatmce about tkree- 
quiiriers of a mile to t he ft iuth-east; and many 
are the Europeans xrbo liai’e ^'isLted and deaciibed 
its beautiful lake and island coanected with the short 
by n white niarbk* UaluatradiKl bridge witli sixty 
marble lions ou the parapet; the marble boat that lies 
iu the water; the liroiixe cow reposing on a stone 
petleatal; iUid the great hill rising from the lake's 
edge, ascended by a lofty stalri^se iipou Ijotii sides 
of a colos!?nl terrace of stone, ami cniwned by ele¬ 
gant tentplee and pavilions. The bulk of lliese loo 
aucoinibed to the lutyonet and the torch; but on 
nttumptvng to enter the great gates, wliere are the 
brotixe lions, T foutid the whole place alive wiili 
movetneut. Thousands of iiiiisons and coolies were at 
work, rebuilding Uie ruins ns a palace for the Empress 
Dowager. Enirnucc was siriclly proMbiicd, and only 
from one of the neighbouring uiouTiils was it possible 
to obtain ;t view of the itvLcrior. 

N^o visit to Peking is aecounicd cfniipleie with¬ 
out an expedition to the Great Wall am! die Tombs 
Tii*Oi~i. Emperors; and though I shall 

refrain from describing ;iii excursion lli:it 
is so well known, I rony remark that neither sec¬ 
tion of It bhoiild be omitted by the travelhir. The 
WTill is most easily mid (jonuiionly visited at one of 
two places, either at Pataling, the far exit of the 

t :2 



N’ankow t’asj, forty milts fri>m Peking, ornt Kn jTfi' 
kow, Tiearty douLle thal diit^lance on llic* road to tlie 
Emporor s Mongolian hiiiuing-lodge at Jtliol. The 
firat-nameil jjoint is in f lic Inner Wall, tie accoinl in 
Ihe Outet* This great niontimcnt of human, labour, 
that stUl, witli some interruptions, pursnea its aerial 
climi over 12,,000 miles of peak anti ravine, aiinoai 
in variably excites lie eulighteued almse of tlie 
foreigner, who can see in it Tiotliing hnt a blimtfolcl 
conception anil inliulireoted iumou power.® To me, I 
confess, it ftp])ears as a work not merely auiasting in 
plan, hut of great practh'al vviedoni (in its day) in 
esceniioiL To iMe ilate the Mongol Iribus regard 
tJte Great Wall as the iintiir,!] limit of tbeir pastnres; 

' TDftflt: IWTWniii knc^i IhfTTip Ntnj' OriMt uf Cltma* llwr 

rn^Uti cir OuU'r AVull, Wnn h-^hruii^^clif^i TbimvitM 

Xit Wollt uhkh tiiiu IfaCEi Bltau-kmukiLuri nil tbi> Gulf of rooliILL bn m 
(Ifr^crikio ihft i^4)n|icrio fb^piiit-r uf Qiiim rwpwr for 

unil ihi^ Inircr Witlb wliitiH bmcuiliiM nif imm thu ikr^i tfir 
tkit rjf ilp4utii1j»«g thu Itte uf m c:lrrli> rntind till* 

uurtli-imLL estruMjiUy cf of GliiLiE.i1ivi[Uu|t il foCMn SlumRik 

For A loloi fif iiCilft miln. Tlift yiiif^T W(klj ih aitiibtitod lo 

lb- Tisrti-ibi-bifciin^-lt in ii.t.: bttt nf rhi^ 

Atnieturn It i« Ibut Utito vmw TtmalnMr Xfur llvt it 

b miiln csf iitibitwd iil«ue4: iii iJjm KT«4t«'i»ir1 of liM efiii^Mi it b 
vilb IjtfgiB bnekH TfvitTur o^ihip m fupniintiijnp uiil ib tnm Ifi ii> 

SO fillet in ^ UrkkniiM i In iu w^ftirnn imrt 

H 4 iiiiid ut i^vqj uu^uiiiL uvpr ^lilvh luai*fiiiifip 

Mn Tulf withiint (Jivumtipiuiit^ In i*txm It Imm vullrvly dliu{i|hfiiiiimL 
Intiiir W«Ji !■ alinSnilk'iS n* th* \Xiii d>iuiBiy -in A. 4 IP. ; hi]t in 
}\% |m-«m ^4ip b b 4linir*t Mitijfiiy ilit tH* ihu M\n^ Kippmirv. 

flmlr f^n vi die tt'hU i« IJtjjlL i|f uLihiii, KUil {pj^u ^ ii^ 
bviijbt, inaiaiiin^ dk4 onlet |nirt^oL iPid tini 4 Jtum] WM]k dii» 

«niumjt 14 i^et in Hiillhi piswit^ frrn^utuii mill luutB 

Up-Kim «{th HtubuMumd ftosu u fni in At iho 

I'dtfiliiii; GaIh 31 tjid I'ify itujKMiiuis iimaitifr. 

* Hr* WiUmitii. fw Iiui4nr4k in bit Utddi^ ijHAkji nf it m 

«n • rndiTMvi nf \hi> im3a*trj, 4nd fmriAi'vrjtpn of iia |iE)ijder&, 

4A H«U mi. of thrir vifWUifoM 


ilhnAT ¥iA9Ai 4ilr mtKA 


ami tlwuirli it multi «oi have been expected at ftny 
lime to Tender the Empire or tlie capital absolutely 
secure from inviiiicm, yet In daya wlieu men fought 
only wilJi Iwws and arrows, and indulged bi guerilla 
raitU of irregular Ixitse, linica without number its 
sullen bairier arrested the passage of predatory 
bamle, canned tim examtiiatioii of possporia, and pre¬ 
vented the illicit entry of goode. Uecaiise wo do not 
now, ill day# of artitlciy, entdtda an empire any 
more than a city w'itli a wwH, ii by nu means follows 
tliAi fiucli tt defence may not ont*o Imve lueen »a 
nscful to it kingdom ns it wns to n town. 

Ctf the Stiih-saUr-Iitig, or Tliirtceii Tombs of the 
Ming Emperors, whinh at tine<|ititl diatntices, endi 
iiuuiiir *’'*‘*‘ woodwl MUidosure, surround a 

Tvuait ampliitlieatro in due liiils, thirty 

miles nearly due north itf Peking, 1 will merely 
obiHtrvG that the ronious avetmu of ittiiie aiiminlfl 
through which one outers the valloy from tlm south 
is to my mind grotesijne vritlioiit tioiug impreMi\'e, 
the iniagea Wuig low, ftiimred, and without pedeatnis ; 
lliat ihrt Great Hall of Tnng Ijo, which coutjilna liis 
tablet, is in dlnionsjuiis, and cxtremi; slmpU- 

trity, one of the most ]m|HM!tig of Cliiliese oacnitl 
iitnmlttrea; tliat, like the Igypiian kings in the 
Pyrmnids of Ghiaeh and in the suhlerreiiean gal- 
leriea of TliKbi^, aiid the Persiiui kings in ilm roek> 
eepiilchrea of Persepolig. the object of the Oliincae 
fxivereigns apiicat^ lo have loseti lather to wjiireml the 
exact spot in which the royal cor|i«! was dojiosited, 
or at least to render it itrtpwiMblc uf accesn; and tliat 

37 « 


ii visit t>r shoultl Iw rcroiimieiidffll tu fomjh'ire i!ie 
Ming Tombs with llte MauRulea of the rcigiuiig' 
tljnajsly, which an? i;)tuate(I in two localitifs hnowii 
as. tlifi Tiitig^iiug and Ilsi-Jing, to the east atui west 
of Pfiklng (wliile the tmet^tors of the Imperial 
fmitUy were iriteiTed in Soiilhem MiLachiiriJi), and 
arc reported to he of great bemtly and apleti- 
dour ; though no Etitopean wonld sitanil a eiiaticc? of 
being ndmitted to tlieir iimor temples or liails. 

Tliflse anti (tunilar exctmioiis to the delight fid 
monastic retreats in the wcsi^ni hillfi, or rules in the 
Britii* San-liui-tzu, a great^Imperial park three miles 
i<x*Ufla soutli of tljc Cluiiese i-ity, Eurroimdeil 

by a wall and containing f-ome very peculiai' iker,* 
are tin agrecahlo relief to the vlslior, whu Sfion tires 
of the dirt and confusion t>r I’ekingi Evtu such 
tcla^cattous, however, are found lo pall ujmti the 
r^ident; and he is apt to tnni from Uu* surfeit of 
d^ffr^nu'7itji ill die streets to die repose of tlie walleil 
eoitipomids within whicTi the varioua Foreign Itoga- 
lions reside, and wliere Jife, tliougli conlliicd, is at 
least cleanly aiitl free. Of (liese bv far the most 
imposing is tlie TlritisU Legation, an cijclosure of 
three aciiefi inside the Tartar city, once the palace of 
nn ImperinJ prince, whose enirance-arcJiwas'a and 
hails have Ijcen skilfully ailnpted to tlie needs of 

' Tlii* ii tliA ii^-pn-hiiyioi IUl Fniir-l'iu'!4.pdiki)< ilve» 

vjuiotll part* vf Ulr llrMly r«t4»UlllU UuMi nf ililtkTVnt lUITlUAli}. „r TmI. 
(loir, tAlltnl y.(iur Ilk flnt (llMuvyrEr Cmmi JDitviiiiMauh Ii has nn 
inuiiEnsir wtl, om a fool in leuf^h. «it,1 uiBnjjtijj nuOwf, 

tlin«*) of a rnhtiJc^r, Tiia simicfii* liji* tiv,v«r bmu fuiind 
wtlj, wan mu ktiywn U( ukt tm^liyrri hi tli. nxirlil eifopi U) tbis 

rlf£ COU^NY 



Euroiwon where the members of tlie staff are 
oocommtHlated iu separate bungalows, where the 
^inwans of stutlj'antl recreation all he exist, and where 
II generous and uniform hospitality prevails. 

i Tb* iiwauae* ff lli» BnUdi Lifgikitioin inelnd# Ihi UW<*«tV 
rrtfir|tUrti.tiMHiiJt aaii rtwIiJww' ia llw tpumdan* Iwtiw* 

for tba FfW »nil SmtUiuIbiii Imwm* iA tluBMe Swratarw*. 

fhmoUn. will accoooiwit, tHr (n mniwl l fir y. Uliiwy, Shulifiit Iisiei>. 
nr^n.' iiu»nen ■adnuw. Di^iauy. FiroBusbio, An mniry . 
Teuni* will Fivw CourU, atiil Bowling Mtey, with * bijilr-gmnJ <rf two 





LAiciBtB ujni sjMmnta, voi *Ii‘ cntnt«. 

DAKTk, ltt/tTfK\, Cuito n. 

At fio Capitol in ilifl trorld are relations lietweeii the 
ntn'enmieni of tlie coimtiy amt the reprciientotives 
of Foreign Towers i'tmduotet! under circum- 
profomuUy diafiatMacii^rj- m ac 
Peking. There is ofjsolute!;^ no itiUjrconrse 
betuoen the notttreonielnls and foreigneps. Pew of 
rile latter have ever l)een» except for a purely ceiv- 
nioniotis visit, iijsifie a f.1iineae annistor’s house. No 
ofRcial of any slanding wovild apontaneonaly aJiaodate 
with 0 European. Even the Caiinese miplitjfh of tlie 
various Ii^nitiona would lose ‘face* if obsen'etl 
speaking with I heir tnasters in tlu* streets. Soiwrior 
force hits installed the alien in the Celostial capital; 
but he is made to feel very dearly that he k a 
sfrnnger and a sojourner in Ute land; that aOimssion 
does not signify intercourse i and (hat no uppmaGhes, 
however friendly, will ever bo rewarded with intimacy! 
'Pins altitnde Is more parLioukrly reJIeeled in the 
oOicial relations that subsist between the Dipknuatic 
Corps luid iLe Foreign Oflicu ut Peking, 

ciiiSA ri/r powers aai 

Ttial office, if it can l>o said so mucli as to exist, 
U an office witlicnit either recognised chief or deport- 
Th- m^ul organisation. After Lite irar of 18(10, 
11 board named the Tsuugli ramen iras in- 
ventotl in 1861 by Prince Knng, who became its 
first President—a titular pt-wt which lie heUl tiH liis 
fall in 1884—in oi-der to take the place of n Foreigti 
Office, and to conduct dealings with the Ministers of 
the Powers wdio insisted ou forcing" their nnwelcome 
presence upon Peking. Up lill that lime all foreign 
affairs had been conducted by the Ij Yan Yuen, or 
Colonial Office, » depantnentof the Ministry of HiEcs, 
which dealt with i:he dependeni and tributaiy nations, 
and therefore—siace^ according iti the Chmeae theory, 
tile whole exterior tmii’ersc fell into that catcgoiT— 
with all foreign peoples. The war, however, showed 
conclusively that Europe «lid not apiireciate tlds sort 
of h^c; and some deference requir^I to Iw paid 
to scruples that had just been so inconveuiently en¬ 
forced. llie new Board consisted at Uie start of ihree 
monibera only; Prince Kuiig; Ivuci Liang, senior 
Grand Secretary; and Wen Hsiang, \lce-Priisideiit 
of the Hoard of War. In tlic following 3’car, 18G2, 
four oildittoml members were appointed, and bj' 
1869 suceesstve additions had brought the number 
up to ten. In recent years the total lias ranged 
from eight lo twelve, with a prejjonderajjce, as a rule, 
of C’hinese. But it possessed, from the start, this 
reniarkable iiliosvnicrasy, ilmi its luembers did not 
constitute a separate <lcpartuiem in any Icgittmate 
sense of the term, being mainly selected from thu 

2 S 3 


other Minlstriea,^ widioui any special aptitude:} for or 
knowledge of forei^ aHHirs, For uumy years past 
it lifls be<ui cUvscly ident.LQrd 'nilli the Grand Cnuiicii^ 
a majority ot die members of die latter Board l^ing 
fdiio luenibers of the \ainen. It is much as though 
the Board of Admiralty iit Wliiteliall were composed 
of the Home, LidLiii, and Colonial StMjretaries, widi 
perhajis the President of tlie Bgiircl of I'rade and rhe 
Chatieellor of die Dutdjy of Lancaster tlirywii iii. 
This is tlie ecratcli bo<ly that takoa the place of u 
Foreign Minister, and acts af? an intermediary between 
the foreign repreaentalit'es and the Imperial CJoTern- 
nieii t in i*ekJTig. A number of Its memlsiers, ranging, 
maybe, Irotn three to n dozeit, sit round n table 
covered with sweeimeatB to receive the diplomat and 
lisien to his represemniifujs. No privacy is possible, 
since the conversation must in any case be conducted 
through inierpretersy and Ihero are identy of InmjLmrs- 
on suouUug about as well'While Prince Kuug wjis 
Presideiit, all cortie3i>ondeiicc was carried on in his 
owTi nanie. But since the appointmeut of Prince 
Cling til 1884, o01cial communications are drawn up 

‘ me tke XTiiiistflaartf | 1 } (fivU Ailuiti nnil Apjwmiqirulii. or 
TnwMrj. taj Ri^veuue mil Finduci;. ur SidiMiTier. iSi aai rure- 
i4i WuT, tf-> fnlli-i IVtirke. pO C‘ri,jiltial nr 

I’tiii liOmiinii. I iifr ft. K. Shirty in < 7 Ajii/j, iip. 44 

In tliB Mceltriil tHciiUy Li/fo/ Hir mrfy l»4rir*. b» 

Mr, ^ puie.l'iMiln, iliere ere leverAi ertr^cU tma hi, f(irr=iii«,mtMiei;, 
iJfU43riuiii^ with hi* itupri^sn^ df tli^ Titmtgli 

If I. nimiab of fiDiitB 10 the Yamcb aitil (imilivj „ 
nil ,^4i ur ten vh» eti like to .p«,k la »na »!.». 
nmitriL Jiiii rnjwni all U«y lt*v* :>«ul WW. lo nom- iveMru it in m 

■IMitslwn of jihifwoil «ULliJi-,iini ; ftiul. if me not In goml «m,liiipu 
Ui* *tn}g(;ln 1, tiymu,* VoJ. ii. p. im»; eomiiue jip, astl, 394. 

Cf/iyj jyii THE vowerb 


in the uiinieBnf liimself and Ids coUcni^u*^ conjointly. 
The PriiH^e, tlumgh vitkiuiwa iu Eitro^i^, is a ty^ncal 
sjMJciiUpn of tbe Mmir hti geiiilemaji, and a slated 
umn of greal ability, 'vntb a wide gr.isp ot foreigii 

li may be inuiguied that, whatever the knowletig^ 
or the ability of tbe President, busiuesis tan with 
. to r difficiiltv be cotiducted with a IkkIv so ton- 

A rHWU ■ " * 

toi a.t*r etiiuied. Their Jaek of Individual experience 
inanres irresolution; their freedom from all rtsponai* 
bility, ineplitude; and their excessive numbers, para- 
h'sls. Witli whom the de(;isioii ultimaEcly rests no 
one appears to know, 'rhe Bi^ard b in reality a 
Board of Delay, fra object b lo palaver, and gio^e, 
and promise, and do notblng—an attitude which, has 
Iteen in great favour ever sitnie its notable suiniefs after 
the Tientsin niassaeres of 1870, when the Ohiue&e, by 
dbit of shilly-shallying for several mouths, till the 
h’reiich were hard pressed intlie Franeo-Geramu war, 
escafjed very much mure lightly lliau they wuiild 
otherwise have done. Sir ILirry Parkes said that to 
get a decision from the Tsmigli Y.'uiien was Ukfl trying 
to draw water from a well with a Iwilomless bucket. 
So long as the result is procrasimaiion, and Chinn is 
tjot erjnLpetletl to act, except it 5 shehet«»*ir may lU'sire, 
die Tsungli Yanien has served Its purpose. .'\s a 
mutter of fact any important business lietweeti the 
British ilinister and the (^'hinu'se Govemmeiil is for 
more liktdy to be successfully concluded in london, 
wheru, id though no Chinese representative, wLili the 
exceptioj) of tlic Marquis Tecug, has fio far had aity 



knowledge of Engllsli, ilie assistance of Sir ITaUidiiy 
Macartney, the accompltdied Councillor and ^Englisb 
Secretary of the Chinese Legation, gives to liia chief 
an advaiiiHgo which is not ei^oyed by the oHicial 
superiors of Uic latter in Peking. 

This dihtory' attitude on the part of the TsimgH 
Yamen is enconiaged by the illstovery. wliich the 
c^w» Chinese hav^ made long since, that the 
Powers, Mibnse joint action. Wftujil still lie 
almost irresistible, are eandercd by irremediabte 
dilFerences, and wui be played off one against the 
other, Tliej" know that an allied French and Britiali 
army is in the last tlcgree unlikely ever again to 
march up to Peking and sack another Summer Pnhtcc. 
Oiiii*r hostile combinations are almost eipiaily bn* 
probable. Herein lies theu"opportunity. Postmasters 
in every trick of diplomacy, they picture it m the 
light of abalonne-siheet, with credit and debit, account, 
in which no expenditure must be entereil without U 
more than coiniHmsntiug receipt. Oblnn never voiim- 
itirily makes a concession wlllmut aecuritig a aub- 
“taiiiial fyutV/pifi' 7 «t>; ami the toedea that recovered 
Kulja would have done credit to Csvour. With 
eipial ability have they recenlly pressed U[wii tlie 
Ibitiah Government their aomewhat almdowy jirettai- 
Biotis on the conhima of Kaaliniir, Hurtiio, and Siam, 
The Til>etaii iiegoiiationB, that, after going on for 
years, have just reached im ttj)parentcoucluaimj,lmve 
been eonductcil tii precisely the uanui spirit. With 
such a iHHjplo the only sj-stem tu adopt is to borrow 
a leaf from their own book, lo act remorselessly ui>oa 

cnisd Axn ms rorsits 


tlie Do ui fits principle^ to p«rstie a waitiugr g-iine, 
and to demand a concessimi, not solely wlmn it is 
wanted, but ratlier wlien they want someiliing else. 
In Oils way will tlie tTunsaoiiim present the aspect of 
ft mereatitUe biirgain so dear to tlie flcientAl miml. 

The one question of foreign polities at Peking 
which equally afTecta the Teprescntaiives of every 
Til- foreign Power, 15 the Bight of Audience ; uf 
which, RS it fills a inost important and a 

thoroughly characteristic page of Smo-Kuroiiean 
historyT 1 will give some account. The Enumrors of 
Cliina th) not appear at any time to Lave taken up 
the position that their own person was so supremely 
sacred as to render muUence witli n foreigner an in¬ 
dignity. On the contrary, in olden days, n*hen the 
Imperial state and prestige were imtneaeurahly greater 
than they now are, andienoe was freely gran tail, and 
the person of the Sovereign less hermetic ally 
concealed than is now* the fasliion. Two quest lotis, 
however, have succcsslwly been made uppennost in 
ilu! settlement of tliE- matter, viz. the ehftracter of 
obeisance rnatle by the foreigner admitted to the 
itiusndew, and Uie nature and loi,'aliiy of the buildiug 
in which it look place. As regards the former the 
favoured individual was eJtiJCCteil to comph" with the 
Ohliiese usage by perfonning the (.e. kneeling 

thrice :itul knocking hit fotehcail nine times upon tlie 
ground, The theorj' of Chinese sovereignty lieing thai 
the Kmperor is the (/ejwrr monarch of tlie whole earih, 
of wliich China is the * MidilJe Kiiigdom, all other 

nations, therefore, must be either his tributaries or 


Ms t the exaction of iMs niutk of 

doliiveticti from their envoys, A$ i^urds tlic aiti* of 
imilienc:t;» tlie practice of l■mphasi9inJr thetowlincas uf 
thesiraniier Sn presence of tin? Hon of Heai en hj fixing 
file audience in a building llml carrie* with it iioiue 
implication of inferiority, appears to Jiavc hcen the 
growili indy of die lasi fifty years, if not more rticently. 

In the fiove!in!enlh mid eight era tli uentiirtes borli 
the Jesuit Fathers, who were in the Berviee of the 
... Emperor and die envoys of Eoropenn Courts 
or Companies* who csm.0 tw Pekin;j foF 
i»iuplitiienlan' pnrjwjses or to secure rnciUfies for 
l.rade, performed the ItuvttttP irilhout apparent 
comp I Luction. One Hussian official, however, who 
nrriveil at Peking in the reign of the first Manchu 
Emperor Shim Chih (1044-1001) w:ut rufuaed an 
Hitdience Ijecanse he decTmed to kowtoie, lu those 
days tiif audience w/innionly took place in one or 
other of the great Ceremonial Halls of llie Tiiii>erial 
Palin-e in tlie IieftTt of tlie Forbidden City, where no 
Eurojjean is now peniiittcd to enter. IJero srauds 
the Tai Flo Tien, or OaD of Huprerae ETarinonv, a 
magnificent structure, 110 feet in helglii. erected i^imiu 
a tturace of marble 20 feet high, with pi-ojectiiig 
wings, ascended from the on ter court by iiights of 
steps. The Great Audience Hall on the fiimiitut uf 
the phuronu h n vast pavilion, in dcaigti not unlike 
the -Mcmoriid Temple of Yung Lo at Uieititig Tombs, 
2(Ji.t fool in length by 00 feet in deptli, siisiaiticd by 
72 imtatmse eoluiiiiis of pabtt^l leak. In this Halt 
thu linperor Kelt! and still holds the eplendid annual 

Ciffl^A AXD TUB POWEli.'i 

:i[ Ihe TilTml^r Solstice, at tine *sew Ye«r, and 
nti own birthday. As hi the Auilietice H;iU which 
1 have previously tlesentieel at Soul, and ns hi liint 
Tvlueh I shall aftenvarils describe at Hue—IniLb. of 
wklulu iKdug erected for (Jie of tributao' 

sovoretgtiR, were exactly Tumlvlled upon the Chiutse 
paiierti—so here in the Tai EIo Tii?Ti the Ernperor 
takes his seat ujrou tv raised tbione In (lie centre. A 
few Mauchus of exaltetl rank okuie ore adndtled to 
the buildiug. Outsido juid below the marble balus- 
trades are ranged the nobililr niul olticials in eiglitten 
double rows, the civil oflioEra on the east aide, and 
the milUary ofTiccrs on the weal* their resju’cdie 
ranks ,Hnd puslitons being marked l>y low coin tuns. 
Hare at tlie given signal Ihey kuoel, imd tihie limes 
strike their foreheads upon the ground In homage to 
the Son of Heaven, dimly stjon, if at ali, through 
clouds of incense, in the solemn globm of the plh 
lared ball. The earliest picture piibUshetl in 
Europa of an Imperial Audiem-e, which w;is griuite<t 
to a Dutch Embassy in IBoG, represents it as having 
taken place in the Tai TIo Tien.’ The Gecond Hall 
lieyoud this in tlie series of successsive pavilion^ of 
ivhieh the ceremnniat p<»rtu»i of the PalacB consists, 
is the Pao Ho Tien, or Hall of Precious Harmony, 
also raised upon a marble terrace, wherein tlie 
Emperor twufcrs the lilgheal trieiiiiiaJ degreys, and 
in former days gave oHictal banriiieta to foreign 
guests (notably U» the liloiigol princes and lu the 

* df tAmJtAMviidj' d* ffi IlQU^indiiut mw 

f dt la Chintz PjuiA. 10£1K> 



Kfii^aii nud Lmcluii envoys if in Peking) on tile 
day precetliiig the New Year. Here jilsu we read of 
,1 1 Mitch niuba^sador, tme Vivn Itrasm. as having 
Iwcn recd^'etl by the Emperor Kteu Lting in ITDST.* 
Jloth these aiubussatlors kowlotrtd. So also hnd 
done a Ruslan envoy in ] 710, in w'liose company 
trf.vcUed dalio Jlell of Anterniony, it Si;oich doctor j* 
and a Portuguese Envoy, Hetelto de Sousa lieiieKCf?, 
in 1727. 

The first Engruth Plenipotentiary admitted to an 
audience inth a Chinese Emperor was Jj^nl .Maesrt- 
HttgUJi nt'v in 1793. He waa twice received by Uic* 
Enng; first m a pavilion in the 
iiii7» groimds of the Einperor'a liuTidng-retrcat at 
Jehol, in Mongolia, and afterwards at the greai 
Pirtluky Levt^e in Peking, Tliere were bug disputes 
beforehand as to the e^act nature of the oliei^tn^e 
which the Hcniijoletttiarv fhoiild perform i and in hb 
desire lobe agrecabb, the latter ciirried complicency 
ao far as to olTer to ktttrfatis oucoiulkioti tlial a Cliiiiese 
olllcinl of eorrcspniiding rank did I he same before ,i 
picture of George ITT., which he had i>roiiglu with 
him. This offer was refiiard, and Wd lilacartiiw 
U limkl to liave only knelt upon one knee on the 

' t'ofOjTf Jir rfr to Coilfpaffnk ih* hUet Oi^Htabo, 

nuftamMt^m'teEmp^TvmrthUCMrtt', ltu7, 

SL Tetjiriilmrii Atrl* f>/ aiirt, nn'lJkon 

Entia*§iffiK>m S-T.M^ PfUr L. by Juhn IkilL 4 v^J*. I TUB, 

Tlw ineelldiit did nol hi idl lik« iMring tri ({n U«um,-|j thl* 

Mn-iltf 4i|icnLMi>. iJm at tb mitlieneo Luruyi ; *Tb« luaDturtof tbii 
tlum wrOwKid nil Uir wiuiiMijr tn khMt ntid muk* nUjunni 
nina tiniM to Ift* 1i:ni]ATnr. Al Atoiy tSiur wt* ilAwl U|t and 

n^aitu Oiont |win« were laken Xu nroid Ihii jwe of Imhuuk^ 
but nitiiuul au;;(3int>.' 

\ crnsj jxj} TUK p(n\‘j£itH M#ttr 

of UiL' Iniperinl tlinme as Uo [irese-tilttl hts 
creiJeiitials.' Wliiitover ho aotually diiU thf 
evor flficrwiiftU insisted that he hod x aiitt 

I'artlicnoore tceik of the RnthiK noblo- 

luaii'a tgriortuijco of the OtiDese laiigust^o to iix 
iiljote the boat that, branght him upihe IV-Iltu Kivor. 
anil on the irelitcle that took him to JeljoU :i ijatr 
Tiearliig tiio inscripticni," Ambosaador licariijg iributr 
fnira (lie Country of England ^au incident uhidi 
f IS ill itsflf a highly wndeased epitome of tJ^eoationfil 

The next British Eoyoy, Lord Atnlierst, in iJSUI 
f'^Captid, it is true, the but Jie never saw the 

1-^ Sovereign at all. mile nt Tientrio and during 
ifl iiiii hia jomiiey up ilie river, pro loiigtjd daily mii- 
fcrtiieea took pbre between liimself and the CliTnese 
oJlieials, who insisted that, liord ilacartney hatl ktne- 
/t'lTtfd, and detiianded the same deferaice rroin Iiim. 
Lord Aniherst not merely repeated hia predecessor's 
first ofTer^ vrilli Uek nf success, but. he even 

oonseuletl to Jcotct&tCt if tlie. next Chinese Arul'ia’isailor 
to Enghuid would do the same to the Prirt(;e Eegeiit. 
lliis proposal also was si’outctT; ami Ivonl Atrtbersf 
finally procemled upon r,lio uuderstiuiillng that instead 
of kointturinfff i.c. kitceliog on lioth knees three 
times, and Joiocklng tJie ground niui- times, lie 
should knee) on «iic knee tliree times, and mike a 
low bow nine times. Upon bb arrival, however, iii 
the Rummer Palace, where the Emperor Chin Ciutig 

* ^rrd«yt(iff Cif .fhf EmbaJ*^ /mwi YA^ MJn^ ^ff^f4 

IMidn (o YAr Mmprrer 0 / Ckmm. tTolujO from pvijtett hI hUp 
E iirl <if lljicfimiiiy Sir a toIi. liomloiik l?0», 




■was staying, Le was Imlilou tjy tTie; liilter, who 
was eitliET devoured with euriosUy or was K*iJl 
ujion ,1 rtipiure, to an iminediaie ainUcHiro, byfori' 
his luaggage Itad arrival, iwnl conse<iiHit!lly liefore 
he oiiiiJd ekliftr ck'aiiBf: ni'rer ihe journey, or 

doll his uniforni, or prepare his preainua. Ixtrtl 
Aiuhenit^ suspecthig in this iimi-ilinnte liasto some 
iiitentloiifil slur u]>oii tlm Scivereign whom lie repre- 
scnled^Iw^fged tribe excused tlie honmir of llie iiiter- 
vifw. and was bundled nneeretnoolously out of the 
I'abee the same evening. Tims abmpily ended his 

Jfo other British re presetu alive was jnlmittcd h* 
the tniperial presence up till ihe war in IKtlO; and 
^ the rigiiL of andieiiue upon Ike tenuis that 
prevail m every other foreign Ckuirt w;ia one 
of the hrst ndvaiiliifros exacted by the conquerors. 
Article irX, of the English Treaty of 13(5d, without 
airlually clainmig the right, inferred it bj' stipuliilitig 
that tlie Briiieh representative * shall not lie culled 
upon iii perfonn any ceremony derogaion’ to hitti mt 
represeiiling the Sovereign of un iudepenelfiit aaikiii 
iMi a foQtitig of equality with that of CliiTia.' After 
the conclimion of tlie war no audience was {m^sible 
in ihe reign of Hsien Ff?iig, ta'i^ause he was ii fugitive 
and ati exile from his capital till his death in 1801 t 
nor, during the minmity of Tiittg C’liili, in which 
interval the [>uko of Edinburgh visited reklng in 
I8(ht without' the qiiestiim l>ciug; raised^ could the 

1 ly l>riMrcJinffii y (A<t tat* Iimt,u*Y tn Chimt, by Uriiry 

IrJlin, Tiilid Cniirtn^imtef, Lo>i4jJ4ja, 



demand lie put Ru'U'artl Ait soon, fiowever, !u Tmjg 
CJiiili o^ufUtiiJ rhe reiiM of govcTm»t*nt m 1ST3, the 
foreign Minbter^ in Peking addre^d to tiim a col¬ 
lect iv^* note, in whicli tliey iuIchI tx> lie permitted to 
present dieir congrntulntioiis in person, 

Tlic days had long passed when iho Oliincse 
nuthodfies ronld ineifit uixm the lutriitte. June 20, 
AvdixnN ftt a very early lionr of the morning 

ctSiItt*** (Lord Macartney had iieen received ar day- 
break) was fixed for die collective audieiice. 
Compellt-d to evacuate ibetr original redoubt, how¬ 
ever, the Cliinese, with characierlsno strategy, fell 
back ij[Kvri an inner and unsuspected line of defence, 
endeavouring to fiafeguard the dignity uf ilieir own 
Sovereign and to htmiUiate the foreigner by Beteeting 
for the site of amlience a building in the outskirts of 
the Palace eiiclcisure kTiow’ii os the Tjiu Knaug Ko, 
which stands on the w'cstern sltore of the big lake, 
Li this HaU, which iif hung with pictures of combats 
and of eminent C3iittGse generals, many of tlieiu 
painlnd by die Jesuits, it is lliu habit lo entertain (he 
envoys from tributon' or dependent Slates, sncii ns 
Mongolia and Korea—^anJ in. former days al.«i die 
Uudiiu Tsiandtt, Nepal, and Aniiain—-at the festival 
of ihp New Tear t and the objoi't which was direully 
served by the t!ag upon Lord Macarlney^s l>oat in 
J7flJcoiitd,it struck the crnlly Chuniiuan, tie now in- 
direedy secured by mlmttting die foreigners to an- 
diunce in n building that to L'hliiesc iiiinds a 

tributaty sigiiificauce. The audience,at which threat 
Jirilaiu was represented by Sir Tiiomas Wjule, look 


t but. conaiilerablp irritation was by tlie 

olllcia] aiiuouDf^eineni of Liie eront itt tbfl * Pettug 
Gazett4i/ which dc^trribed the foreigu Mitiisters by an 
incorrect and infenor title, and represented them aa 
having * suppllcnteil * for m inteiriew. The objtHV 
tions, however, to the building were, it is said, not 
sliannl in their entirety by some eminent authnritieii, 
including Br. Williams, who was present at the au¬ 
dience, and Sir Thoniua Wade biinself. 

In 1879 the Emperor Tung Chib died, ami w'as 
succeeded by a. minor. It was not. therefore, till 
tbp iissumptiim of government by the 
Emperor Kuang Han in 18Sl» ibat the 411^0- 
” tion again arose. This time, however, the 

Emperor (or rather tlie Ejupress l>owager, inspinng 
him) liiiiiself took the itiiiiatirt’ by ifili ng on De¬ 
cember 12, 1690, the folJnwrng Froolaination, wliich 
testified to a common sense or a coiivetsion on the 
part of the Government, wliich was iu either t:a«e 

‘ I hate now bren in charge of thp Goteniineiit for tiv« 
years. The MinUtersof l^ortiign I’iowers ought to he received 
iy me at an iiiidieinTft; anti I hi-rehy devTVe that the audience 
tn Ire ttelni 1)0 in noconluiLV: with that of tits twelfih year ot 
Tung Chih (1873), It ti aW herehy derreett that a day Im< 
fixed every year for an nadiioiee, in oedof to ahow mr desire 
to tioat with honour tdl the 3liui»ters of the I'orejgn J’owets 
incident in Peking.' 

TliGse senliincuis were emineiitJy laudable, but 
by reviving the preoedeni of Tung CliiJi, theyufSiTed 
no solace to the spirits that hid l«ea outraged by 


I lit? recoj>uoii iti the Tzu Kuang Eo. Cere Giially.Lii 
sjitte oif u good deal of prLOimluiiry grumbling, the 
audimice again took place on ^MiireU 5, 18111. Fix 
Blioisters and rJieir staflis were received bv the Em- 


peror, who uijoii a dola wttE a table draped in 
yellow aitk in front of him; the ^fitnatera being first 
recelvcil separately, in. i he order of Lbeir length of 
residence in Peking; and the united stafis lieiiig 
subitei|tiontty introduced eii muw. Each Mitiiater, 
upon eut(a*ing, niarched up the ball, Ijowiiig at stated 
intervale, ;uul paused at the Pragoii Pillar, where 
nAer reading his letter of iTcdance, and bearing it 
TTAiislated by die interpreter, be luLudcd the docu- 
mettt to die Presid(?nt of the Tsungli Yamen, The 
latter placed li on the yellow table in front of die 
Emperor, and suliaeqiieudy knell to m.'cive die 
Imperial reply, written In Manchu, which, after 
descending ibe daTa, be repcatifti in flbinese to ilie 
Minister llirough dila interpreter. Some of ihe re- 
jiresen tali VOS afe said to have been dutsatisfied with 
the arraugemeuis, ami tlie foreigti press rthcclioed ami 
luagnllied i.ho cry. fl was perTiapsnoi su rprising aAcr 
Uib tJml. t!io ti'cAirentdi, io Ins tour round tlie world 
in die same year, shoultl liave btseii am'j:(fl; 5 fiilty kept 
away from Peking, both by the Ohinese, who dleaded 
a compiilifOrj' nurremler, ami by die Tsar, who could 
hardly have bixtoked anything approsimatiDg to an. 

■Ci w 

After the aiuEenee of ISdl, tlie Doyen of the 
Diplouintic Corps gave becoming expression to the 
dmatUfaotion of hb colleagues, among whom the 



Frcncli ami EuE^iftris bare alvrays taken ttic load, by 
ap laying li> tho 'I'sungU Yanien for reception «m a 
future necJisioii, not ouifilile lUe I'lilace, ami 
■diiiBiHM jjj ^ tribufarv biiiklirtg, Imt. as ia old itay's, 
iii^lde the aoLiud preoiiicti of the. I.mporial ren'idetnrB. 
A sort of half eomplianoe wii.b ikis retpiest "was iiiatlo, 
first by lUe promUo to erect a ueir btiilding for tlw 
ceremony, and aHerwimla by the oHer of unotLer 
halL Tins is the Ciiniig Kiiong Tien, a building 
ihttiug frittii Mungnl limes, rrhicL appears to bare no 
peculiar rigniricance or applioatioii, andelaiKUoutbe 
eastern side of the marble bridge across tJic orna- 
iiieniat lake, ll is nat aue of the ceremonial. bal!& of 
Qie Palace proper, but, on tlip oibi;r band, Us use coil’ 
veys no slur. Acting upon ilib opiiitrm, the Ausiro- 
Hungariaii ^llinisfer wa.s ibe first of the Foieign 
Diplomatic Corps to Iw reircived liere in iSftl; and 
here also 51 r. < t’Conor, Her Majesty's preeenl repre¬ 
sentative ill IVking, was granted an aiidience upon 
his arrival in December 18112, and Herr vou Brandt, 
the retiring Genmin Minister, upon his departure In 
18!13: u more bimorifin dmracier liaviiig iu diese 
hitter cases lieeti leni to the rceepliou of the eiivov 
by bis introduction tbrongb the main or Porcelain 
Oiuc, instead of a aide gate of UiePahw. So the 
matrcr iiDvr stands; thougli France and Ituiuiia, wlui 
have adopti.>d thronglifiut an attitude of a most un¬ 
reasonable turn Hlill Ividd out. 

It will be oliserveil from this bist<)rif:al summary 
that since Lord Macartney's autUenre at Xeliol Just 
ll)(J years ago, tbe following points have beeti gaiuetl. 

citnw AXU THE rowsm 


tdi'rflv ilo<j3 a rid'iupoteiitiiiiy enjoy the 

ri^ht lo nil audience witli Uie Stivereipn, but lo 
damsuTT Tore^ni Mill [filer acctedi teil tti ilie 

vibiATA- Oliinese Court, m tliTe prerc^^'atlve now eon- 
ceiled, l>ofJi upon liw artivnl and departurp» 
or when prestuiiing any cominunlcaition from hid 
Sovereitrii l «nd» U" the lernis of the Imperial VrocLi- 
iiijiLioii of J 81*0 be carried mit, rmcte everj' jear in 
:ulditioii. The lias disappeared, not merely 

from foruigu praciice, but even from discussioiu Its 
place has been taken by a oeremouiai not es-'seiitially 
diiTeretiL from tlnit wiUi ivUicli a new Menilior of Parlia¬ 
ment is introduced to the TJritifik riouae ofCointnous. 
These au'e considerable adi’ances. Un ilie other hand 
the diplomats liave not yet won their way back, to 
one of the great Audience Flails in the main l>ody of 
the Palace, to which it appears to me tluii precedent 
and e^piity alike eiiLitle fhem to advance a claim. 
Perhaps the recoYery' of the T'al Ho Tien is one lU 
the triumplis that is reserved for the diplmiiacy id the 
ensuing ceiltiiry, 

rkigli^jmea,living freely in aiicmocniuc fouiitry, 
where the Pouiitain of Honour is iniit'Cessible to few, 
mid where huinility has never l>eon con- 
fouinleil witli Imniiliar ion, may not he aiiie to 
comprehend all this pother .iliout die nalitre 
of a I hvw, and tlie siguifieance of a building. To the 
dhtueso they are all-importaiit t and just us t)ic Greek 
Timagoras was comkniued lo death by the liberty- 
loving Atlmniiine years ago, l>ec.antfe he had 

kmetoteed at Susa to Artaxeraies ilnemoii, the Grent 



Kiii<i^ so liave liriiLili to 

maintain T.lie putml prerogatii’ie of tluyti' Sover^if»ri, 
in Ihctf of (Ixe of ji icajt^tv 

that was fliijiremtily i^noraiit of its oiiwi limitaiionsi—• 
been justlfictl in %bilQg streimoufily for wlmt to 
Ltirope nuiy aeein a shadow^ bur in Asia Is tbe suTi- 
stuitce. Wlieii Ijord Maairtney took om a beauflfut 
iTincb ft'ith ptun’is as a present frorii Gi^orgt- TIT. 
to the Enipei-or Kien Lniijr* the OMnese olliimil* 
were k^rrifieil at a stnietore trbicli wonTfl jilaofi the 
l oarlnriim on a blither bv<il than the monarch, ami 
jirotuptly f:ul nwjtv the boje-seat. 

*Sucli ami mi tmih^rfect being tlm status of foreign 
tliploiuttta, amt dm mevhotlsof aiplomatir iniemHirsc 

impure trJiaL art- the 

xmm ohjam For wlm-b (tieir intervention is 
reqtiiml 1 * In orher words, what is the foreign policy 
ot (.'hiiio, in 50 far at least as concerns our own 

coiniiry? We have not here, at am- rate for tiu 
pri-sk'nt, atir demand similar to that which tre havt 
iiotiwd in ,r)ipriti. for the mdsion or abrogation ol 
thcTreaiies iimler wliieh Europeans am admitted tc 
trade or rcsidenct! in certain ports on the gea^,■oa^t, 
and in cities in rlie interior.' Ohina has not, like Iiei 
neighlwnrs, any judicial sysieai, nomiimlly based 
upon a European niodei, to offer in aulieliiutioii for 
I he lamsular cnurlA of the foreigner. She is far moi^ 
dependent upon I lie latter for her wealth, parUcntarlT 
• A mi.plwii mii« t» Iti llio |wr»(fl ef ih* 

cuisA jLy2) TB£ rovrERs as? 

ilt^rivi^d fpi>m titp Imperial Cusionifi, wbitrii, under 
iLe *2xLreiiiely capable jnanagenieni pf uii Englishman, 
Hir Kobert Hart—whn enjoys the unicjtie (lislincrion 
of liAvlng resugncd tlinappniolmeiit of Eritlsh Mbiistcr 
111 order to reiufiiii luEpector-ticneral. a poai wiiich he 
has now^ held for thirty years—have pouml a lai^^^e 
aiul aTiiiunlJy increasing r(n*enue into lier eschequer.’ 
The foreign clement itseli' is Iwth mueli more 
titimorous and more i>owerfuI titan it is in Japan “ 
JWtirtrovcr, the Cliimige tcmperameut is naturally 
disposed to acr4uiesoe in established fuels, and is 
wnippti^i hi a complacency too aliaorluug to feci the 
porpctual smart of foruigu intrusion, liach a move¬ 
ment may rise into view later on; but at [iresent it is 
below the horizon. 

Tlie foreign policy of C^na chiefly conce.rna 
Englisitmen in its relation to St. Petersbarg ami to 
Aiutnds Bownitig Street. Tlie Bticcessive advances 
usiai- tnade liy Eussia, largely at OMna's owti 
ex]>eiise, have taught her to regard that Power as her 
real enemy, whom, however, slie fears far more ih:iu 
flhe abhors. Tl ia lUt^ia who threatens her frontiers 
in Cliiiiese Turkestan and on the Pamii^: Rusal.! 
who te always nibbling, in ^entific disguise, at 
Tilict; Russia who has dfisignaon Manchuria; Russia 
whose elmdow overhangs Korea; Rnnsla who is 
hiiililing a great Tr!UJs^:outinent.!l railway that will 

■ llu- CiuOaiub' ItATvtinv cUnvstl fruin Hie Fonui!]] of CtuM 

111 ISOa fftuf 

* In mva tluiiiiniticirof twrrij5nor»reii(iing twtBty-four TfeBiy 

Prtrt4, inKliulm* jHfHtteM, apoA 1U.0DKI. Of ih™ lioisfly 4.(M¥) 

wi'p* llritli4i; AnuinoAouuB msau *iUi 14^00; iboii Fiwun wiib ki«a 
Hum INK}, lui j GernuulV' wiili TAO. 



«iiahk licT to pour iroopii into Ohtua at any jwiiit 
3,■!>(.(0 miles of conliguouK Ijorder, jUl tlib slie 
knows w'ell eiiougli. and wlien the C'«sarevjt€h passed 
tUi'ough Asia he w;iSt as I hare pointed out, neitJier 
iJiTiteiltu nor himself proposed to risil rekiiig; hitt 
tlif? knowledge, so fiir from instigalliig (.liiQii to any 
ilcfiniie poltjy of eiflf^lefeiice, extrept in tlie isolated 
ease of the proposed Matichurian Railway, filis her 
with an alarm that is only eqnallwl by her mispicion. 
of Uio counsel of ,any other Power. 

tliina preietnJfl, for instanee, to Iw int^trestod in the 
iVitijim, but she cannot lx? Teekoned. upon to move a 
*ingle battalion in their defence, jmrticularly 
e^uiin if it is whispered in her ear that she is thereby 
lutlpiiig to pull Homebody oheV cbeatTiiits out of the 
lire. We read in the newspapers ni^s'sterlous para¬ 
graphs alxiul the atjlivity of Chinese diplomEits at 
St. retersburg, and of Russian diplomats at Peking; 
and the world is invited to beheve that Chinn is as 
stillcifoiiK of Imr Turkestan frontier as Griiat tlritalii 
is, for instanoe, alirml the Ilindu Kush. We hear of 
garrisons l>emg rein forced in Kaahgaria, oml of the 
telegraph wires being pushetl westwards over tlie 
Mougolhui desert. .tUl this h ititended to give, iind 
perha{>s succeetls in gUing, a generiil bupres^on of 
abounding ai.'tivity; and so far tts more dlj>loniacy is 
concerned, China will no douhi fight as stiibUiriily to 
retain her precarious foothold oo ihe RooFof ilie World 
as she did to recovw Kulja. But no greater mistake, 
in my judgment, can be i-oinnulled Hum to anppose 
tliai (his mixture of diplomatic finesse mid bravatlo 

CmXA AA’B ri/£ P0t\-£/tS 

rnttak-H tyilter atiy Lnt^jniiow to lifrlit serimisly for (he 
territories in (juestion, or lUe poBBeasUm of atiy 
mnterinls to %lit witli* iJorinjr tlw fraens on the 
Parnirs hi utlijeii si null detoclmients of Hussiana 

jnardiecl aboni filibu6teriiu|r mi[ luinexiiig whatever 
they enultl, the Cliiuese ouiposta at Sttina TasU anJ 
Ak Tadi fikwbuUlIetl wiili headlong rapidity at the 
first gliiiipse of a Cossaok; and an English tra^’elJer 
fasnd tlie Chinese nutlbodty, -whioh dahns to be 
pnranioiiiit over the entire easiom Jialf of thel^mirs, 
representcfi by less than a dozen eoUliera. Ami yei 
there exists a large coq>s of writers tvlio never cease 
to press upon the public aceeptattce an implicit 
belief in the fitrengtli and resulntion of Oiiiia in 
Ceittral Asia. I prefer to accept the opinion of 
General I'rjevalski, tidonel Itell. Captain loutig- 
busbaiKl, Mr. Carey, anti every authority (so f^r as 1 
know) wiio has vbited Qie Cldnese froiuier dond- 
moiiflt however long Russia may find i* iKiSitic 
postpoT)(! a forwanl move, her advance, ulten 
finally titade ai'ross tlie outlying western portions of 
1.1 IV Chinese Empire, iidiabited as they are by a 
Mussulman population w*ho have no loyalty ion aids 
tliuir present masters, will be a military promenade, 
attendMl by little fightitig atid by no risk, Memi- 
wliilc, Lite goldtm hour in whicli China might make 
herMtlf strong if she either bad the will or coulil 
resolve upon the way, is oUnwetl to slip by t and a 
frontier which might, ivitlt certain modifications, be 
rciideretl almost invidnerflblo, continues by its osten¬ 
tatious helplessness bj invite lh<? enemy s assault. 



The very Uiat render Rui^ia tlie 

natural enemy of Cliiiia would upjjear to cotistittite 
Great Briluio her iiaturnl friend. China de- 
sioL-s to keep the Rusaiuu army out of Korea 
and the Bui^hin navy awav from the Yellow 

w m 

J?ea, "We are jumilorly iatereated in both objects. 
China wants to retain Yarkuud and K;tshgar, ami 
ihei'efore requires a defeusILle and tlefeiultid fitmtter 
on (he Pamirs. We also are ;iiodoii 3 to avoid 
linsdaii coniqiuity with omielyi^s at the Hindu Kti^h 
or the Karakortiin, China attaclies a lii^h value to 
her aiiaeraitity oi^Ter Tiliei, which Bns^ia notoriou^lv 
covets, hjiglaml does not quarrel with the former, 
Imi (*ould Imrdly welcome die latter slattia. If the 
Trans-Siberian railway will he a tnenace to Ciilnese 
lerritoml integrity, it will oIro generate a sharp 
fcomja^litioii with British Asiatic trade. Farther lo 
tlio soitili the recent aptiatition of France as an 
aggressive factor upon die coufines of Slam and 
Buruiu b a source iif no slight annoyance lo Ciutui, 
already exnsperatetl hy du- theft of 'iongkingj It b 
not more acceptable to onrselvca, who Imve no desire 
Ibr Fratice as a next-door neighbour on die honlers 
of our ludian Empire. There are therefore dm 
strongest h i>eb>n re.a«ons in favour of a cUisc and 
anupatheiic understanding between China .aud. Onua 
Hrltaih in the Par East. Kor, though Chinese arma- 
uieiits are, in their present stale, a dehision and 
trhiiia'i mtlitaty strength a farcR, can anyone deny 
that her protligious numbers, her vast extent, her 
obatituite and tenacious t:liaracter, and her catculaiiuu 

CmXA A.W TlfE rOWE/lE 30 « 

(liplomacr render bier an ally ui Gentral aiiil Eiistero 
Asia of liie Itigltwt value; jiwt as it would appcfar 
tbal the preadge and power of Great BriUiin its the 
■jame regioDs miglit be tif correaiKuulitig and cTeii 
greater ecrvu;® to ber. Were it not iluit Cbiiia la so 
ttbaurdlj' suspieioivs of iiiterefited eoun.seli, and ait 
well aeqoainted with ilie weak jiduta of our Purlia* 
mcntao' annonr, such an alliauce would already 
have s|iruiig into definite existence. A greater con¬ 
fidence in the honesty of Great' BritAiii tlmii in tliat 
of lucr rivals undoubtedly exists in ihn breast of 
Chinese siateament and is largely due to (he integrity 
of our oouiToeroial rebiious, and to bidief in the 
Btraightiiess of British character; w'liiist no efforts 
have Iteeu apared by recent British Goverimientif to 
oondliaie Chinese scruples in ex^cry pninl where the 
cot)cet« 5 )Ou could lie made without sacritioe of priu5»j 
ciple, I incline myself to the Ijclief llial time, with 
itfi inevitable developunuils, will add greatly to the 
strength of this unwritten com-'ordai. aud ilifii when 
Cliiiiese snspicions have become less morbidly acute, 
whilst Clunwso needs have grown more i»r<sfting, the 
remaining ol«taclM to a hearty eo^peration will dla- 

Dufortimately tlw; relations of tlie two countries 
are litible from time to time to he iuiperilU^d by out- 
Art|i!*. Bido circumstances, which play a largo part 
rSiSr' in determining liw cbiracter of their otficml 
ititercouree, I do not allude to the qiiesiion of 'fradc, 
which is the principal ground of mi^etitig lictwpeu the 
two countrieSf because a comiuerce which ennehes 



Itotb ts unlikely to 1>e $erious)T rigkeHl 1'V either, nnd 
Lt'causo the wider the sphere of mercHntiie relntioos 
between theui (and h must esrpatui instead of ^lirink^ 
ilie less rather than the greater are the sources 
of friction likely to heeonie. Already Anglo^hinese 
TVmlehna attained dimensions that, at the lime *>f the 
ttrsi war, fifty years ago. would have heen laughed 
at aa an idle drcain. At ihat tune China is<*nt to 
England less than lialT a million sterling of gtXMls in 
the year. Now tlit total foreign trade of the Em¬ 
pire amoimU lo -l^gEiDdlftO/., of which 27>5«,0()0/, 
are imports and 20,5l)lhmHJf are expona; ami of 
lUis enoririous totid Great Britain and her colo¬ 
nies (ituiliicliiig UoiigkongJ elaiiu fiO per r;eiU., or 
2S,600,t)Uh/.; and Great Brjiain alone 8,00U,00(1 
over diree fourths of which are expended by China 
in Imports from this ooujtiry. If we take lije returris 
of shipping, the Briibh preponderance is eveii more 
clearly markwl; for out of a total of 29,n( tons, 
that entered niid elenred fn*ui the Treaty Porta in 
J8h2, tlfj jier cent., or nearly l»,5fN.).0l)0\fjus, were 
British vessels; Gurtnany, the next. Eiimpean ci*m- 
jjctitor, having only l.5U0,(J0(>*' Taught by us, the 
Clitiiesp theniflclves now iihsorli no inconsiderable part 
of the Treaty Port trade t but the vessels which 
CliiiicsQ merchants own and run are cornniauded hv 
Briiish offlcei^ and art- guided into the rivets and 
lurhnnr^ by British pilots. 

■ Th»* Uotom* tie IistMl that ih« muJ vmtha jrf rhInAUi 

^•mta T(1^ la,t hy efltjn.rtUif/, txm IltitkU 

toiftl jkOt twuL, mtd «r ttM- dii}i|ung ^ ji^^r tfitsi. 

CillXJi dXD TUB rOWElfS 303 

X<ir is lliis trade^ iiiimctise tUoujjIi it seems ro be 
in rL'latioti lo tlie time vritbin which it lias been deve- 
lopetU more tlian n fructhm of whnl, mnler morn 
favourable ronilitionfl.iiiay be expected in the fufure- 
Wlien we reflecL that w supply the needs of a popu¬ 
lation of SoO.flUfl.ClOt) there are tmlv' twenty-foitr iHirts 
nt which forei^i cojumerce is allowed ill Qn- firet pLice 
i 4 i enter; ’ that river naviifaiion by ateain, exct^it npion 
the Yaii^se, van scarcely be said to exist; tliat vast 
niarkeis are hhlden away in ihc tar interior which ai'C 
praciirally under prevailing conditiotia inacoessible; 
that the paucity and toUery of oommuidi^ttlona are 
a hy-word; that every fonii of native etiteqirise is 
St ran fried nnless powerful oificiala Imve a pemonal iu- 
tereal at. stake; that oflicialism opiituies eveiywhere 
by a niatliematical progresikni of stj^neex®; ihni ibe 
niiiltiplicatioii of inland Uktn or oiitroi stations swells 
tinf cost fjf fttreijm comniodities to famine prices 
before tlu^’ are offen^l h)r sale tti the itdand markeis; 
tliat Ctliina is deliberaielv ihrowiiig away lier staple 
SrOUTce of wealth, the ti^a-lrade, by failure to atlapt it 
to the altered rfit|uirenienls of consumers; that in 
the same perlotl in which slie has doubled her trade 
Japan has trebled hers f and that wiih dLhO(.lO,tK )0 

' TliP TiD«iy ['(iru, »nritnw op Coi^T4finiiT«» 

whh OroiU ttritshu Frwrjeo, nuil Otmitiiiiy. ilnc# Uir> Sfl.n.lfins 
b Biv a* fntlowai CMitop twilli t'ltwniim ol 

■ni] Amoy, Foochow, Xiujjpoi Shnn#h^L Siuihina, noilMn, 

Kir* 4 cli»ims, Chotoo. St»i«w. (in Hmiumt. Tmiwwl muT 

Taiuiui, witJi thnir ij«^%it,ru4ric< J[cltiii^> TiJinw, Aiii'iiijt [n 

PoniKiOL Cliibklaji^i Kiiikipim, Hiwtow, tohiinii', Wflhn, oiif 
PpXfaoi, Ctittbgtium- TIib FftiioIii hy » Trod* (Jouvimtiwi to t6<67, 
mtw ini*le otodsml willi iJiusjfUttw. ilHeogt*, BJiil SUnifkinik 



more months to fml imd hoclies to cloUn\ her totiil 
coiuTiiitrcc w yf?t le«is imr amtum thitii 

iluat of IiitlhL: when, all these fads are retutiuiltercd, 
it cmrnut be douhtefl that tiomiKired ’n'lth wLat might 
be^ anti Bomc day will I>e dime, we are otJy staiuling 
oil ike LhrefiUold of Clmiesse ooiumercial eipatwioii. 

N'eitliur, in speaking of the oceaaioiiaL stnircos of 
fridiou between and ourselves, do I allude to 
0|?npii the Opium Question, which in t)ie jianda 
VMMjAn enthnsinstic or prejiulieed ignoraiico tu 
Lrfindotj baa been prtiseiiied lo English aadienoes in 
a guise that excites a smili; in cverj* Treaty Fort in 
China, Then^, at least, cverj’body knows that ilm 
helpless Celestial i» neither being forced nor boftioled 
by an iuattlious and inuiiural Government at Calcutta ; 
that if tiol an ounce of Tridifui opium ever agaiii 
passed through a Chinese customdionse, China]ueti 
would go on smoking liieir owa luferior drug aa 
keenly as ever; ’ amt rliat the prddice that Uhina is 
hofidle to the British people or to Cliristiau mbsiotis 
because we introduced to her the cipTum habit (vrlucli 
she had rdread}’ practised for oditiiriee), is about as 
rational as to say that the fiatiuiiiil soreiiess tliat 
sometimes arises between England and France k due 
to our resenLmmit at luiving to cross the Ciiannel for 
our best braiuly. In any caac, Joiig Imfore our 
domestic PuritansItave purged the itflii ong ) rouscience 
of wluit they m'h this great aiu, the Ophiiu Questiou 
will have settled itself by the rapid ilccUne of the 

' A* it tiijiun c^)ittta ii finly muJiaii »|>oul 3 tt Arm J.tlW 

« UW pcrptilati<4i, 

ciitAW ASif Tif£ roa’f:/is 


liiillon import hud llit; a^'ceptauce C'hiim herself 
of the uiitlivideU rtfajJOiisiI>Uitr for her own morul 

Ther^ reniaiiis the 3Iissioiian* movement inCtMfiar 
Mthich^ next to, perltape oybd more the iiiier- 

iii«j™iii 7 ohiints, compels the at ten non of the British 
vn«(i™. y„nii|rti Otiiae, and will here be treated only 
hi so far as It alTects llie international relatloits 
lieiweeii ihe two countries. The mlssiounry hitnsell' 
resolntely detdiues to reg^iird it from tliis standpoint. 
Hi* conceives hunself to be there in olie<Uence to a 
divine summons, and to be punsuing^ the noblest of 
hinnati esllings. A frientl of ray ovm, an eminent 
divine in the English Church, speaking at Exeter 
Hull in answer to some observations which I hail 
made in the columns of the ^ Times ' injon Clirlstian 
in Giino, thus stated llie case from the 
t3iurch's point of view *— 

*T]ir gain itr lti»i to civilUwt.ioa fm,m Christlati mis^knitt 
-Unot the qnestiorn for the ntiseianarv. Be ie sobjeot to n 
&[tutor higher than any etatesmim ur dipiennatis^ of thu 
woclitL It U ttut the misahuiiii:^’ who Inoi tu reckon with tlut 
diploiiuitint, blit the diplomnttst with the missiuituy/ 

A variation of the same roply is that which 1 
have in many lauds received from the lips of mis¬ 
sionaries, and w'hich in their judguient appears U* 
cut t he grouml away from all criticism, and to render 
argument superfluous. Tins is a rejniiltton of the 
divine injunction wliidj closes the Gospel of St. 
Slaitliew: Go ye therefore, andteatih all natioiui, hap- 
tHng them in the nante of Gie Father, atidof tJioSou. 

sinfl of tUe HoIt Ghost/ ^ Obedienoe to t fajs saiireniie 
cotninaiiil is the sole llual test to the mlsjtioiinry 
is willing to submit bis action. He b tUe tmwortliy 

but chosen iustmiiivTit t if Qctd lumself. It is useless 

as I liave experieui.'eil, to point out lo him that the 
selection of a single passage from llie preaching of 
the fouTiiler of one faitji., as; the sanetion of a move¬ 
ment against all other fait Its, i& a dangerous esperi- 
meut. If, for Instance, the diseiple of Coufucitts were 
to quote an aphorism of tliat philosopher that jiisti- 
fie<l the persecution of Christian mbsionaries, as tlie 
spottsors of a mischievous ixuiovatiou, what value 
would the Clirbtian inbsionarr attach to such a form 


of Chinese exculpation? Equally useless is it to 
remind liim that Christ liimself seems to have con' 
t.erapUted the likelihood of an uusuccessful or itioppor- 
tune jiropaganda when hesaisl: ‘"Wlien lliey jjersecute 
you in this city, See ye into another j * ■ and again : 
‘ Whosoever shall not receive you uor hear you, 
when ye depart thence, ahnJke off the dust under your 
feet for a testimony againsT them.** The authority 
which the missioimrj enthusiast h willlug to attaclt 
to the ukase that accredits his enthusiasm, he ignores 
or deprecates when it appears to qualify its sanction. 
To hluj. the course is clear, aiid lias lieen mapped out 
in advance by a higher hainL That goveriimerita 
slinuUl fights or that intemaiJonal relations should be 
IntpcriUed overliis wrecked Itouse or iu-mlted pcrsoti, 
would strike him as but a feather's weight in the 
s<;ale compared with tlie great final issue at stake— 

’ MmL xxTui, le. 

' A]«il 21. 

* lluric »i; IL 

t'ltiyA Til£ POWERS 


vii, llie spiritual regiSiieration of a vast coimin* Jttijl 
a population plunged in l^ieatbeuisni and sin. 

,)ua>, liowav'er, as ilie statcamau ts frequently called 
upi)n to cotreeL the fighiing general’s plan of campaign 
in tlie light of diplomatic possibilities, so the im¬ 
partial observer must submit even the im|>aaiiioiieiI 
apitln^ux of the Christian evangelist to the cold test 
of political and prncLit:al analysis. 

In eudeaviourittg to arrive at on opiuiou iipoii so 
vexed a qiiesuon, ill© risks. Even after a careful 
PmiT-it-rtt study tipon two separate occasions on the 
spot, of involuntary igtiorauce or uncotucious 
bias, are so great that it will perliaps be wisest to 
state the pro and ffdn. with as much fulness as 
space wth permit, leaving the render to form hi* own 
concluaion. The facts are these. Whilst the Jesuit 
iiussionaries have tieeii in China for centuries, and in 
maiiv cases have don© spleuilid work, the Protestant 
missions (of wliotn alone ^ desire to speak) in the 
main date their institution from the Trctitles that 
ckised the first Cluna war fifty years ago,* and the 
second in 1S5&^60. Whereas In 1844 there were buL 
thirty. Protestant, mbsioimrios in China, their uume- 
rical slroiiglh in ISOO was 1,3On. and h:is consider¬ 
ably inerfased siiice, JSvery year Ainericn, Canada, 
Austi*alia, Sweden, and in a not inferior degree 
Euglaiid, pour fresh recruit* into the field, ami the 
money tJiat is subscribed for tlicir support and that 

* TliJi fc!i Pimf^^TUunt in Cifilni. was liw E. 

who romui to Cwatrfin in I8r>7> mid [iuhlifllifd hW fnmmli dietimiAry jinil 
tmmiUlttiio of t1i+^ In Iktt ifik wt^ nit itHf 

loir on lnoJiuted pifTorl.^ 

3 (« 


of Lkeir propagiuitla excels the re^'entte of many 
States. Tke i|(iestion is. How do the fioldiet? of tins 
cosily crusade not^uU tliemsiilres 

The points that will univerfeatly be toucetlpd in 
tlieir fnrotir are sa follows i Tlie dcTotion and sclf- 
sacrifice of iiifliiy of iheEc lives ([Ktrticiilarly 
■nuv those w!nt in dress visit or inhabit 

the far mterior)^ and the example of pious fortiuide 
set 10 those iintong whom they lalHinr; tlie iuJIucnce 
of the educaiioTi andeuliure thus dirtlised in kindling 
the softer virtTtes and in ameliorating the couditious of 
lifet the slow hut certain spread of Western know¬ 
ledge ; the visible products of organised plahmtJtropy 
in the shape of hospitals, medical dispensaries, 
urptnmages, relief dlritribution, and schools; the 
occasiuiiut witmiig uf genuine and ooble-heaned con¬ 
verts from the etiemyV fold:* the exalted character 
of the spirit I sal sanotiou claiiiied by the mismonaries; 
the plausibility of the analog}’ drawn by Lhein from 
the tardy inception of Christian lalioiir in other 
countries at»d eartier times; the excellent work doim 
by iiiissioiuirios in writing Icajiied, though I'lfteu 
iimieadidile, es.says about the ctmutry and people. 

I should be the hiai person to claim that even ihis- 
tabulated statement contained n complete record of the 
goiul work done by tlie ini.teiouarie.^. 31ue]t of their 

' A hoHtrii} critie iiikthi rttUtrt IlirtL tbn ttl li|» TVIplii^ JUi- 

kUkfl^ wlio wn» « Climu^P cftll v#r^ mid irn mdi wna linllntl hy many 
bf lhi« fiiinifmvdns Ai th* bmlil flf « n*npk inii3trK>tl«^1 m 

lititijina U«*i' liliiiti m rhJrlwrn iiij^ cf ibn pnwiJMWii 

uf CliiiM. kiilI in tlui Uv<?* thy. !i>nvjrtt miii i tif 

iw;*>]«n,oorp iticji. 

t'iii.wi Ayn Tii£ P(^\v£tis 


labour is uecessartly <1evoIcl of imincdiaie result, and 
is incapable of l>eiu» sciciuifii'nlly registered in a 
luetuorai Ilium. Titer bow die seed; tind if 
It does not fnietify in their day or before 
our eyes, it miiy well be gerniinatiug for a future 
wartime. Xo fair eritio would willdiold fhrua the 
Chrisiiaii missions in CMtta t!ic credit of any prospec- 
tire harvest that may Ixj reaped hy ilieir successors 
whan they have gone. 

On the other liaiid it would be fooUeh to deny 
that ill China their operations evoke a cniicism, even 
at tlie hands of Uieir own cuuuttymen, of 
which Exeter Hall very likely lias no inkling, 
but wliirh in Cluiia itself, w'here Haeler Hall has 
never lieeii heard of, is not to be despistxl: and that 
there are feature!!: in iheir conduct of tlie campaign 
which may be said, not altogedier unuMmintably, to 
funiieJi the enemy with cause to blaspheme. The 
alleged drawbacks to the w'ork. or at least to the 
ww(/iMr of tlie tuissioTuu'ies, fait under ihrt-e 

heads: (ll religious and doctrinal; (2) political; 
and (3} pritciical; witli each of which I will deal iTi 

With rare exceptluiis, more liberal-minded than 
their fellows, the missionanes adopt an attitude of 
I EdS- itnplacjtble lir^tility to ad native religions 
and etliics, ignoring alike their virtuous 
asjwots and indueiice, the all-powerful hold 
whhdj they have acquired upon Chiiiesi! 
char,'icter, and the sanction lent to theui by a vene¬ 
rable antif^ulty. Particularly is this the case with 


regAtil t4> :iiti;e8tor wontltlp} willi ikdiilu 

all parley; aUhougli a rare retort n'ouiit appear to 
Ite op«ti to a Chiiituiiuti in EngUiul wko aocitlentally 
fontul liln way antn Wofiiniiiister Ablnjy or Si. Paul'i, 
Id ITDO tlie young Cikrieiiaii Cliuroti m Kurca^ ^'ery 
much exerciijed alxtui this questum, sent to tlui 
Ttoman Colin flic lilaliop at Peking !(i inquire wlmt 
members ought to do. The resijotise came that 
ant^estor worship of any kuirl or in nny degree was 
bcoiopatible with Cnmutianity, and tlml mo Korean 
could be a Christian who worshipor burned 
incense before the family tablets. Wliat the French 
bishop thflti answered^ his co-religionifits liaw always 
answered: and the same reply was from die earltcst 
pciiofl re turned by the* l^rotestant missions also, 1 
atu not Uiite concerned with Ute doctrinal justice itF 
this decision, 'which is a matter frjr iheologians ratlier 
thiui for the lay mind, I am interestctl only in pointing 
our the inevitable cotisequences of Buch .in attitude. 
The Clunamaji. who is omirely content with Ids own 
religion, and oniy asiks to be left aione» is assailed by 
a propaganda that commeaoes with mi attack ui>oii 
all that he holds most dear. To him the ethics of 
(loufucuis Sinn up the whole rluty of man Ui the 
family anil the State; while the payment of lunnage 
to the higher [K»wers is providetl for by the poly¬ 
theistic conceptii>us of the BudiUiisi cult. He hears 
die former disparaged, the latter derided. He is 
iiivitctl u> Wotoe a convert at the cost of eeasiug 
to Jje a citisen: to tear up the sheet-anchor of all 
TTiorality as the Dret couiliLioJi of iRoral rcgciioratioii. 

cfitxx fas poivBiiii sit 

ijxiiiill womiftr tliat a ptopAgutixlxii wliidi tlius layi5 
the (vse to the very riwitof tin* ireef^lKiutil wjcomiter 
Uie stublxoru rfiistxmce of all those who have been 
aecustomed to seek shelter ttudei its braiichesJ Tf 
the eTangelistt of aome uctv faith were t<t appear in 
Englaud, tlrawn from a race whom we liated and 
despised^ and were to eoumienee tlteir preaching by 
deruiuncing tlie Ribk* smil crying Anathema Mara- 
natha upon the Apostles' Creed* wliat sort of receptioii 
would they meet wdtii ? Moreover this attitude on 
tlio part of the missionaries mvors the risk of ilefeat- 
inja its omi object; for such Icoimclasm, in the eyes 
of many critics* could only, eren If siiecassfuL Iciid 
txj two restilis* both efiitally to he deplored—‘the 
complete disiniegralion of the Chinese sociid fabric, 
and (he collapse of Chinesu fiioraJliy. 

While tluis warring with the most clierished Ixeliefa 
of llieh hopethfor converts, the luissiumiri&s liave not 
agreed aiiiong themseU'es as to the Cliiuese 
wonlto express the single l^eity whom tlmy 
preach, and for whom the Jesuits, ilie Americans, 
a?ifl the English liave each coiiifid or employ -a 
differcut title, with tlie result of complete hewililer- 
ment in the native tinderslatiding, ill able lo cope 
nilli the subtleties of theological lijguinachy. The 
hrstruamed aflopt. ilie title Tien Clin, rif. Lord of 
neaven. Tlie Americans prefer tlio more impidpablt* 

' II t» ci|Uiilty Weiuuliiit At ttw ttToii# sdupt lli« 

imliiCtTiufuw to lUtHu Ruj^tUuiiv ihni U in voting aI ■oini' of the 
CdtlMlIo osLohluhiuinito; f.9, ut tlio toAorint Or^hinugfl nl Kiiikkn^. 
when' iho foot el gnl" a*i> dnlctnijiil ht ordaf to ftiuiriiMt* until« 

311 * 


Chen Shell, ix. True SpiriL Tha Eiiifhali iVurijsianU 
adopt- rlie Chiutse Shaiig-ii* or Suprenie Ltini, tW 
Deity whose worsliip (a jiiirYivai nf the primitivf 
nature ivorahlji) I have (Icsmliecl ujK>n the -\har of 
Hea^’en at Peking', Imked, 1 have heard of an 
Euijljsh imEsionar}- wdio, in the old days when the 
latter enclosure was acceasihle to foreigners, ia tiaid 
to have oondouted a Sfervioe of tlie ChuTch ofhiijgland 
ou the suOTTiiit of the marble altar, 

StUJ less do the foreign teachers oaiiicide upon 
the form of religion itself, which is promulgated by 
the divines of :■ score of diETerent scliools, 
rttipw each claiming the koIc custody of tiie omoles 
of Gijd. To a Chimimau a separate sect Is indis¬ 
tinguishable J'roin It separate rrccd; and betweeti 
Jesnits, Lazariets, Trappisis, Riissku Greeks, Pifi- 
tesiauts, aiurclies of England, Scotland, Canada, 
and America, Baptiets, rresiiyleriaiis, Slethixliils, 
Cougregationalists, Episcopalians, Fi^ □irisiians, 
and all the self-accj'ediled polTOnymcms TDissionarv 
societies, he fimk it Imrd to determine who ;iw# tin- 
true and wild the false prophets, or whetlier any an* 
true at alL Again, coticeive tlie parallel case in our 
own country. Supprarc the api'xitles of some new 
manifestaiior* to reach our shorfie nith a creed m 
their pockete that> claimed a stijM.*matiirBl origin ami 
a divine authority; and supjiose thefte pioneers to be 
presently siicceeiled by oLhers, not in one batch only, 
or in hair a doxen, or in a do^ien, but in n score 
of detachments, each proclaiudiig the fallibility or 
spuriousnesii of the others, and its own superior 

(V//XI dxt^ rut' pon'i'm 

abtlieniicniion—Tnhat wt* say tf> iliese btar^^rs 

tjf ilie lienvtnily mt'sftage, wlio couM ooi even agret? 
togetIu*r upou iis Terms ? 

Anoiliijr cause tor siumbiuig is TuiTplkii by tbt 
axxl ill-TH vised trauaiulioHe of tlifc Bible, and 
rum miT particuiariy of tlie ttltl TesLament, that are 
printed off by the luillioii; aad scattereil 
bntatleast IhpoHgli llu* eouutn'. B never 
see«iR to occTir to the niissionan’ societies that the 
Holy Scriptures^ which reijuire in places some es- 
pkiiatioiit if iio^ some tapurgalioiiT for ourselves, 
may sttmd in still greater fteetl of editing for a com^ 
itmnitv who care nothing aboiii ibe lUJStom* or pre- 
posseiiona of the ancient Jews, bill who are invited 
to accept liie entire volume ns a revelation rnun o»i 
liigh, r aiu aware of a eo-cnlled English miriaionar)' 
who rampages alunit Ceutral Asia with the funds 
supplied by societies at home, nud who, taking with 
a portniaiitenii fall of Bibles, tijiidw that by 
drtippiog its couicntB here and there, he is wiiiiiin.g 
recruits to the fold of Christ. Wliat is tlte eilucated 
ndttntiiftu likely to think, for instance, of Samuel 
hewing in piec’cs before the Lord, or of iDa>id 
setting Uriah in Uie forefronr of the batUe, and 
i'ammissioiuTip Solomon to slay Shbnei, whose life he 
had lumsclf sworn to spare, or of feolomon ciccEisnging 
love-lyrics with Uie Shtilaniite woman ? Even in the 
New TcsEauient the bidding to forsake father and 
mother for the (jake of Oirist must to the Chintmnm’s 
eves lx? the height of profanity, whilsst if lie can 
follow the logic of St. I’aul. he accomplishes that 



\Yhicb is iMyymiil tlie pcm’er of iiuiiiy educated 
Christians. To the Chinese people, who liave jireai 
faith but little hope iu thtir own creeds, a simple 
statenieiit of the leadiitig of Christ might be a 
gloricins and welcome iievelatioiL JJut the text of 
the Scriptures, nnsoCtened and unexplained, has no 
such necessary effect, und is capable, in ingenicma 
hands (as the Hunaa puljlicatloiiB suihtuently showed), 
of l)ei[^ converted into an aigunient against that 
which it is intended to support. 

If the text of the Bitile ia thus WTe 5 t>ed into a 
cause of oilejice, lu-itltpr is the intrinsic abstrusenei^i; 
dmnUan ^he dogma which it itunilcates easy of 
interpretation m a uiaiuier that couvevs 
eiiHghietLinent to the Chinese intellect. TheuxysterlGS, 
foriiietaiiee, attaching lo tlie ChrUtion thec^ony, and 
to the doctrine of the Trinity, whilst to ilie h^ever 
they only supply welcome material for faitli, are to 
the mjbeUever excellent ground for suspicion. 

Finally, the religion whose vehicles of iliffusion I 
have diseussed is dtsseminated in many cases by a 
im^uu. number of irresponsible ir.luerants, each of 
««.7 whom is a law unto himself, many of whom 
disown coniumnioti with any Chimdi, and whose 
single-minded rer\'our b dearly purchased at ibe cost 
of the doctriiml coufuaiou entailed. Some of mvown 
echooltellow's had fell the cull, and Lad spcuitaneously 
given to China wliat was meant for mHiiltjn d Upon 
inquiry as tfi Uieir whertahoiiU aud doings, I leametl 
(hat more than one had severed Ids coiineeitoti with 
any dvnonniiadon, and was proceeding against the 

cmxA AXB Tut: 


Infidi*! upon liis own plciti f>f Tlit? tii!ty'lJ6 

magnificent^ liul it is not w^trfare. 

Tlie ^KiUlical drawbacks to the missioriarieij' vvcirt 
are less excUisively matters of tlieir own creation. 

Cliitut Cat! never forget tltati imllke the 
a Tijjeoj Borne, In early Gaul, or 

in early Britain, liitfy owe tlietr atlmbsioji Imre to no 
tacit acf|uSeiM:eiice on her own. pari, nmtU less to ant 
expre-aed desire; but sokly to the ooercioii of a 
superior and victorious str«igth. Eacii station is a 
sardooit: reminder tu ilnmi that limy have been made 
to pass under the C'aiidinc Forks. Xay, U is more; 
for it iff a remiuder of the duplicity as well as of the 
power of live conqvieror; tliat the right of 

residence in the interior of China is only enjoyetl by 
Llie British and other missuinarics in virtue uf the 
most favoured nation clause in onr own Treaty, rakhig 
advantage of a spurious paragraph introduced by a 
French missionaiy into the aiiuesc test of tiicFreurU 
Treaty ct ISCU, and eitlicr not discovered by the 
Chinese, or not I'epiidurteil by them undl tl was too 
late. I jet me brietiy recapitulate the lu-story of 
this curious and not altogvilmr creditable page of 

Tlie oidv passage in Lord Elgin * Treaty of Tibu- 
laiii ill IjSoS' relating diiecily to the mi^iou^ies,is tliat 
UituifT commoidy known as the Toleralioa Clause, 
nn Ji**.. which was copied without substantial altera¬ 
tion from the treaties alreatly coticlmled by China 
with Bussia and die United States. Article XUI. of 
the EugUsii Treaty nrns as follows 

CliH.iituui rdi^dHt «• by t^iltstatitf and 

lloinjut i'o^holics, Incidciites tiid pmntiet) uf wme, and 
toadies Ruu) to do a* tw* Wald boduiio by, T’ersonateaclim^ 
Of profesaini; it, tli(^ref«rt*, »li*H alifc li# viititjpd to tiu' 

imuiiictioii («f {he Cbbe^u* autboritlf 91 nur t^batl any *ucJi, 
{tcflcetihly ptmuing tlitfir oaUiitg:, aimI iiut oSettding tij^inst 
the law, be jpeiseeiiied or idteriorefl with/ 

A later ckuae m the same treaty (Arik-lo SlI/i iras 
eub:se<.[uetitly appealed to as giving English lulsslon- 
aries the right to rent «r own land and bnilduigs in 
the interior 1 — 

‘ Brithh subjects, wh«Ui*!r at th<? ports or (tl titiwf 
de«;iring to build of open houses, wafehou^ea, cbni^bea, 
hospitala, or burbl-grouada, «h&tl make their agteemeut for 
the land ur baildiai^ they re(|qire nt the rsteti preraiUsg 
uirunig the people, e<|iLilub!y end without eseettonv na either 

Bui li was Uihh explained, and bjta tdwavs^ been 
held by tbe BtUiah Government, Uiat the words, * 0 / 
other pheeA* upon whitdi alone the preienaiou rested, 
had never lieen intended to oonfor, and eimlil not, be 
eonstruedas conferring sucli a right, Lord Elgin having 
only inirDducetl them in order lo cover ihv ca^e of 
placJes such as Wbamjioft, Woosmig, and Taku, whicli 
aresitiiatwl respectively at the distance of a few miles 
below Canton, Shanghai, and Tien lei n, and where it 
might lie found desirable, instead of or in addition to 
tlie Treaty Ports, to estahlisli foreign settlements. 
Indeetl, if the wordfi had meam places in tlie interior 
pnmiiscttoiisly, there would obvionsiy baw lieea no 
neoesrity for suliseqi lent treaties oiien mg fresh Treaty 
Ports, which ooncessioos have only been procured as 


CUiSA AXD TffJS ron^m 

a compeiiiMLtioi. for outrage, or vnlh iuuuen^fc 0101- 


The Treaties, accordingly, wLUl* they 

secure to the tntssiouary fuU protection everywhere 
in lUo pursuit, of U*fi cdling, and in the possession of 
house and church property in the Treaty Ports, do 
not give him the right eiU»er of rerideuce or of 
own^ip itt die inlerior. Ii was reserved for the 
French to supply the deficiency 

Already !n the French Treaty of 1858, the 
privileges' aliove inetitbued bad been definitely 
gmtranteeil. Article XHI. say^ in lemis not uTdihe 
those of the English Treaty :— 

*TLh Cbrirtian religion havinjr for it* Metsatbl ohjert the 
leading of wen to virtue, tin. members of all f'liristiflii 
cotninniiitiea ftbdl enjoy entire wcurily for tbuir I*™™ 
iirtjpertv. and tbe free eseroise of thdrnflignm; anti riHci™:, 
proteetbn lAmil be given to wissioimrieswlio travel ftm’wibly 
in tbB interior, faniialied iritb itossports os portiled for w 
Article vm. No hindranw sUnll be offi-reJ by ilioanthonUes 
cf the Cliineso Empire to Uie tttcogniwd right of «v^ry 
indivitluri ia Chiiia to embrace, if hr- *0 plenae. ClirfetianUy, 
and fe* follow it» pmrticea ivii lmut bi-iup linhie to nay pwiiab- 

Tivo years later, after the capi ufe of Teklug and 
the sacking of the Sumuicr ?[ibce by the alUed 
forces, iKitli England and France exacted siippleti'ien- 
tary Conventions which wore signed at lekmg in 
L860. Article Yl, of the French Convention sti- 
pitlatetl for the restortitioii hk (hem of the religious 
juid philantliropic establifilunenta. die (iemeterios, 
and other deiiendencios wliich had been confiscated 



duriiig ilifi pereecutions, Al tbw jiinftufe mitt in this 
section of the treaiT it was that a Freiicli tuI^ioBArv, 
acting as iuterpreter for the French mission, rntro- 
daced the following clniise into the Chinese text, 
while the document was being irauscrihod:— 

‘It itt, ia Kflditioh, permitted m FwacJi rniedianuncs to 
rear imd patchnse Innti in all tho protinwe atul to en'd hatU- 
mg? therwii at plttaRur^/ 

Xotv by AfticU' HI, of the previous Treaty of 
Tietitsin (185i>) it had alreatly been o^eed that the 
French text shotdd bs coTlst{.!eTe^J the auihiiritative 
version; aiul ihcrefom this danse, thus siirrepii- 
tiottsly interpolareil into die Chmesc text only, and 
not to 1 m! foiiTid in the French text, was itivdid ah 
tmiuh The Cliiuege, however, did not at once detect 
the fraud; and w hen tiiey did, were either too proud 
or too fearful of the cousetpiencee to contest the 
jioitu. The British Covernmotii profesed its reatU- 
uess to mire from a positidn whUli liad iio stdid or 
legitimate foiiiidation. Bui as the claim whs cousbu 
ently vindicated by tJie Frencli, wiiliout serious pro¬ 
test from tlie Chinese, so the British tatrilJy actpureil 
the right also; and to tt ie owing the privileged status 
which the missiumiries now etijoy, aad which is not 
sham] by a single Oliver class of their countrymen 
Though the Chinese did not repudiate tiie iuter- 
jwlated chiuse, ihere was nevertheless some dis¬ 
pute and voiTespondeuce thereupon ; which culmi¬ 
nated. about ISOO; in an uivderstnndtug between the 
Tsuiigli Yamen :uul the tlien Preueh Minister, as to 
the exact iiiierpreuuion that was to bo pkcwl upon 

CHtyA .4-VZ> Tits I'OW'ERS 

it, Ollier thiiij'3 it wiis agreed that property 

neqoir^tl liv Preudi mlssioaariefi b the mieriorshooUl 
be registered in the tiftiaci not of individual 
luii^ouiiriea or eonverta, but of the parent 
8o*nety* Other stipulatione provided for due 
notice to the local authorities of the iiiteniion t<» ac¬ 
quire irropertj, &c-, iu the interior. As a tiiatter of 
fact these eoudilioue are not JiltvayB observed by the 
rrotestaut missionaries, much of the property ac¬ 
quired hr them being registered juul held in the 
name of converta, and made over by ]>iivaie agree¬ 
ment to the foreign miBaionary, 

Ill the diplomatic fajinplicatioas arising out of the 
iiii^iouary nias^sacre^ at W'uhti and Mfuliaueh in 
[mpeELd 1 SO L the coiubined pressure of the foreign 
Tepresentaiives, reinfoiced iiy guuljoata, 
av.^ed to extract froui the Chinese Government jm 
Imperial Edict, ndiich was published in the * Pekiiig 
Gazette' of June 18, 1891, ami was ord^ed to 
be posted in the principal cities of t!m Ihiipire—aai 
order whiclit it Is needless to mUl the Provincial 
GoTemors, wlmrever iliej' convenienUy could, dis¬ 
obeyed. To this decree the Ohristian missiouariea 
are now disposed to look as the cliarter of their 
liberties, confirming and to ^oine extent sujierseding 
the text of the Trt-aiies- After directing the civil 
and military authorities in the dislurbtijl provinces to 
fUTcat and try the principal crUiuD.'ile, and lo con¬ 
demn the guilty to death, the Emperor proceeded 
with this generul statement «f tlie missiinianes* 


330 rU/,VA 

‘The right riff fnfifipi ^JlL■^{r:lllfl^i^^ii to prnmplgsiitT th«ir 
reli^ona in C'fiiiui b pTOviJL'd fiir by Th*«ty nud hv Biiicr* 
wiijcli wfln? prtvtqiiily | th^ tiutli(iritli:A of oilJ thv prch- 

wejne dciiap^Pilqd jifTonl tlie^n prof-i^rtiion rircum- 

ftjuicn^ n^qnined h . ^ Tlie r^igion? of fUe Wtiet hsiva for 
their object, t.hp tuculcnrloti uf virtue^ anil tboiigli Jhxiple 
t>acomr! eemrertfl tliej still mnsin Cliin-^ Subjects, snil 
tn be nm^nsblti U\ the jctri^ctioii of tho locul 
ftatli0Tirie$, There b oiitasoTi wJiy ih^na &hi:<Litd imt be 

hitmiuDy between the onlitifuy people und rha mllierent'^ i>f 
fonsiffn religiQTiii j and die ^hn\^ trouble (hjtii hiwkw 
mUmofi fhlirbs^ting etories iiul muking ctn opijor^ 

tttmty for cresilTtig dieturbaJice- ^riiese bad cliAniclers 
^'verywheFre* ^Ve cnuimniid the 31anchu {.ieriera[s-ln-Chinf, 
tlie Viceroys nnd Governor ifi nil th<? prtwhic^^ to bJiOt* 
prcwIiiijiatiDtis clearly eiiilakimg to th*- iwplc ihat tiify 
on no iicvt]iiii.t give n ready tar to siiah tdfo tnj4 mid 
rrsTitotily cauite- tpcitible^ Let sH who po^st nttonytnou^ 
pbcOTil'i und eprenti fidss mnioijm, inflaming thn nijjidfi of the 
people, Im ut once am^ted and ^verely puuuLht<d. Tin* bicaJ 
anilunritjeA ate bound Ip afTnrtl due prolectkin nt all tmik^ to 
the persofLB ami property of fareign uirrebanite and foreijm 
nji^oriaric^ and moirt not allon' thqjo to be injuTifd or 
moketetl by mil cbaracterir* ShoM tha precauibnan’ 
ra^urea Ij4^ InckiDg in etringeiLCyp and trouble W die 
result, we oomnuunl tliiit. the local am bud ties he 
dimomicod/ ^ 

This decree may pc>rlia|iis \y^ said to caviar and 
wiidaue any jireviou^ly e3ci$dug flaw in the iniEsioii- 
iiries' positunt, and to lend a direci Irn(K?rial sanction 
to their presence and propaganda in the interior. 
Extracied m it iras, liowerer, by sheer compulsion 
from the Chinese CovenuiionU J^iul in the main dic- 
tateil by the foreiijn Ministers^ it i*eprejient 3 no 
* li^k\ ChriiM, N'a L 




Fjiontaneo«5 cbange of attitiule on t)ic jiart of llie 
former* it is to lift feaniii dint |L<i prACtk'nl 

itidufsiicc will bo vor)' small. 

Such is die history of die oiroum^tnnties under 
■which the Gliristian mbsioimi'ies Jnive gained a iWii- 
ntii„H- kold in (tie interior of the Ohinise ICiujiiii’. 
.iiiiiHiniis ij- t’Jiiijeae* ivitli their ingraiiiod dlsposi- 
liou to nceept fnet*, Irivn forgiiiteii alike the duplk 
eiiT of the foreigner and their own fiitiMlUatiiMi. 
n even! 1 C less the prewupe of the niiBsioiinries is a 
tesjdmonv to die coiitimiefl nseendenev of sui alien 
rower, still mniulainiKl. 3i» it was iirmitiitLlv iolivi- 
dured. by force. As such the I'liinese- who dislike 
«li foreignerR, regal'd dji* mldBlunaries in partkitlar 
widi an irUetmi nversiohti'joiisiileriiig diem iln^ agenia 
of R policy whicJi has bi^en utid b foreeil upou tlient 
in Dpjnkiithiii btii.h to die interests of dienorcmiitfntt, 
the simtiments of the :uid the rniivictioim ■>!' 

die people. A. t'^OJlrn^se ill ustratum, minus ihe sii> 
iiinhts of the tfjinm is supplital hy the 

detestjuioii with whieJi the Gdnese iiumigrnnt is 
hlmseir elsi^whero regarded by the white niuii. liy 
the AiisU-aliati la 6ydueyj or die Anmncim in San 

Xor is iltis Impre^ioii dlminishetl by the Rttituile 
of I he niissiotianes ihem«!lre!), many of wdiom, 
Ttir ihougti Ihuv liiieklu ou their aruumr as ihv 

ti-T * * 

soldiers of Christa renienilr»er only in ihnes 
of imril that. du>y are oiiii!en:v gf ijib iir dutt empire 
or repnbliot =md ^dauicmr for a guidjiwn with w'hit'h 
to IriBtirc rt!ipem for the Gospel. To this ((m> renrl 3 * 

Etp])■>:») ti.i thff plijB'ivil saiiotioii of ft natioTift! fl:i" 

there are nmiiy honi'iurahle txeeptlonsi—men \tUci 

carry Uioir lives ju Uielr liaiiib, ami urn'oiitplaitun^lj 

aiihrmt lo in(li;:iitries which tficv have iiuderliiken to 

tniliim irr a bi^Iier eain^e tljau «lmt of tJieir natitmallty, 

Xevertheli'o* llie (ircfifitice of tlie iwxlu-s ii!i 

it ivliole In tlie coiiDtry i& n consfaiir. auxiery ro i.he 

Ix'giitlotiSf hy whom ill t)ic iasl resort their inrerests, 

resiiii^r a5 they do treaties, must In- defijjtilinl; 

nod is ei|Uft]ty distasteful to rliR t’liiiies© Govenimeut, 

wliieh frwiufiiil}' fiiuhs itself called upoti to rcpriuimid 

a unlive olliciiil or topuutsh a local I'omiiiituiri^' tit the 

cost of great odiuiu lo itself Tills Is iLc espLumtiou 

itf l.lie extreme reliictaui e exiiihited. ns n nde, hy the 

cetitrtd authority in briiigiug to jiiRtjcj* the iioliirloiis 

aiitUui-ij of (‘ftlumnv or outrage. The seerfit avm-^ 
^ ■■ 

pal hies of the people are liehtud the malefuelur ; and 
the Uovermuoiii feels tliai It may lie straitmig pt liorid 
oF idkfriuiice, trltirh alretidv, ia the cose of maDv of 
Ilia outlying provinces, is stretched almost to the 
ppjiijt of rnprure. 

Li some districts tlie iwipopularity of the oiis* 
eiomrios has been increased by the sjjectii! [irivUegeJt 
rriTitflBK!* which they are dianoaed lo clahu oa belipiir 

4.Ulnu<lfuc /IF 

of tmtive convertii engaged iti litigpiuon or 
other disputeii; and by their interf&renco in the civil 
atloirs of tlm neighf jo urhood in which tliey reside. 
Just as ill Soiilliorn India, many a native becoriios ii 
(.Jiristlmi in order to get a situaiiuii ae a Hcrv'aiit or n 
I'lrrk, 90 ill rhina it not mirctjiienily luippena llitit a 
shady character will auddeuly find aalvation for thu 


CliLVA THE m'EflS 323 

!take of tlic mafeml atlv7intjipe9orpron:*piion wliicii it 
iiiiy lje to i^onffr ujKm him. 

liut lo punetraiitig 

n littly i>*yloiiv the suifare, the real poHucnJ danger is 
riKire deeply rinjitnl (Intu niiviiuch superficial 
•>ni«rw symptom migld appear U) Me sees 

in tnisstonaiy enterprise the existence of an iusidioiis 
in »a/*rr»>, of a sa-ret grHueiy hostile to 
the f:ojiidio)iiiVcallli, of dauiago and (letriiuent to the 
Slate, He rememljcrs that the most frightfnl visita^ 
tiou wJiicU (.'hiiia has sufTered in tinxiem rimes, the 
Tttlpmg rebelliun, by whicli over liO»0(KI,lHin of lier 
iHjopte perished, was in Its iDceptioii a Llirlstiun 
tnnvenient, k-rl Iij a Cliristian convert, and pmjected 
to Clnistiauise hi-* counirynieii; and witli tlie«‘ ex- 
[icrienees before liiin he may wel! feel (jmiJtus at 
liny signs (jf increasing missionary infimmee. In the 
cjise- of the Fi'eneli missions, with ivltnin os Itoinan 
('athohes f hare not liore been dealing, there is an 
.'ulditioiial groutul for inistrusi \ for (Jie Chinese see 
that the Frcudi Goremment is here engaged in 
for<,*lng upon ilieni the very men and the stilsamB 
religion whom, it has sought to expel from its ttwn 
land—-an act of dupUcily which in tlieir minds Can 
only mask some dark 7 >o)itic,al cabal. 

It is soinetJmt^ said, by inissionaiy' rhnmpioiis, 
that of the recurring oiitbreaks against them, the 
iTniitir missionaries, thongh the victims, are eotn- 
•ciiuimi motily not llie cansi''; the movement )>eirig 
in reality a deeji-seaietl plot coneneted by political 
makontenta to embroil eiUier the provincial with the 

T 2 


Imprial GovcniuieiiU or tlie latter ^ritTi fnreign 
Totr&tis. How far tJib 15 lijfc eaiso tliere exist feiv 
meuii^ of Bfjiruniti'h- cleterminitig. But the pka ia 
,l>eUeveil I>y thoiM' w 1 m> know Itcgt tu be dtrslilute of 
validity : though there ure obvious reaaLtjis for its 
eiu'ouragetuunt bj the Taungti Varavii, who iiiiu 
Lliereby plead iiiteninl ili£H;rrchT as aii excitoe for 
tlieir own reaponaibilitv, 

Piiially, llvere are the priu;tic:tl obarges Itrouglu 
againfit the work, ariisiug partly from tlie inl.soioti- 
nries’ own coiidma, partly from thu grtas ioi[)er> 
stiiiuua of the people. Of the foniier 
iti* character an? the altegutiotiy that are so 
freiiuenlly made, uoi wliboui aitparent jiistiikatirtii, 
altotit the sujd surromiditigifof the niissioti^, 

paj'tkularly ill the Treaty forts; aljoul the l.-mk of 
f«rsonal aptilmle^, inseparabh^ from a eareer llmt 
hue already hi some eiujes, ta-iwdally in tbai of the 
Amerit-an missionaries, eoiue lu lie regarded ns a 
pmIV'ssinn; and alKnit the weH-a|>jK>iiHed Jioiiss^iS. thti 
eoiufortable timnner of living, tJie stinimer exodiis 
to the LUts, due doinesih- eugriissmenti jiiid large 
famtltes, wbieb, strange to saj-, an? eiiconrnged Ijv u 
liberal «ol»aii|y froui the parent. ^iCoiOy for each new 
arrival in the missionary nurii<-ry. 

Another son rre of nihmad erst an ding ia the *xm* 
staiitly iiH-reasing employiuein t*r women, and panicu- 
krly of iiimiarriw] uoimui, by Mm inissipuary 
^*ili(ts, A steamer rarely srdls froni the 
Ajimm an sliores (t^r ^okcihatim wHtbi^itt' carrs'ing *1 
bvvy of young gii'h, fresh from the 6t:ht)olr«>ni or 


tlift wmiiurj', who, wifii (he impalsive mno«Guceof 

youth, are alxitit to devote fJteir j'oiiiig Uvgs and 

Giitrgitia 10 n*Jiai they eontroivc to he the tioldest of 

purposes in Japan or r’hina. A tifanrely inferior. 

stream of female retu-uitineni Hows in from the 

L'nitwl Klngrloui ami the Cobnies.* I do not 

ear tJint the work of the female nusaloiiarv is 
* ♦ 

tlirowii away, or that there may not be in 

whleti her duTVotiou reaps au ample harvest. JCeithef 
dn t prestime for one moment to cjiiesiion the honest 
Belf-sarrifice of the act; hut I do say that in a country 
like China—wliere, on the one liaml, wrj’ dilferent 
notions of the emuiu-ipation of women prevail from 
tln>iie n> wbifh we are .'tccusioimal, and on tho other 
hand an element of nh»)>at brutal eoarsent^sa enters 
largely into the composition of iJie naLive (diameter 
—rtie institution of siiterhoatU, [danted alongside 
of mate estaUlxshtnenta, t!ie spiiotacb of nnmarried 
persons of IkiI L sexes residing' and working (ogetlier. 
brftli in putdin and in private, ami of girls itmking 
long Journeys into tlie tntedor wiihoiti responsible 
escort, arc sources of a misunderstanding at which 
the piire-mituled may aflbrd to (fcofT, hut which in 
many oases has more to do with anthmisrionary 
feeling in China (ban anvamount of national hoatiUtv 
fjr (]oer.ritiat uiitagoiibtn. Only ye^r, at the 
remoie inlaml towu of ICuei hwa-i^tiettg, a friend of 
mirio exicoiiiitered a missionary ouiuniaalty eoiisigtin^ 

■ Of llio IJIOO TVntaluil InCbiiMitft tetNI, «# tii«py 

B3 700, or tmipp ihan b&lf, l imd gf tlw^e ^OO wm Uii^ 

EuariiiNl WDUiflii. 



of one male Anil of tweniy SwediAli if iris. TluJ l>roj»A,- 
Ifjuida of the ktter consisted in fiorfuilTig the si roe ta 
Atitl sinking liyiiiiia lo Oie Blniniinmg of Liinliounne^ 
and gaitars. Tlie socieiy iMt hod cotimiiitc*! the 
outrage of wemliiig out these innoeent girls only 
allovptal thetn or 27/, IDs. a year apiece^ for 

Uoarii, Lodging, and do thing, ,a consei^ nonce tliev 

were destitttte of the smnUesl eoinforts of life, ami 
c*ould not even {jerforin tlieir toilette without the 
impertinent eyes of Cldiiatnen lieing ilirectod up«i& 
them Uirougli the i>aper greens: Can anything more 
futile than suclx an enterprise he conceived, or tnorc 
calpabfe ? 

lo the same of preveiitible sources of 

mischief belong ihe charges of aJTtjgarjr.e and tact- 
lessriess that itre someiLmes Icvelk'd against 
^ llie niissiounries In their selectiaiis of sites 
tor churches or private dwellings. Ttt the European 
an elevation or (;omn)o riding site is always, I Kith lor 
piclureatpte and wmiiary reusotis, prclerable lo a lower 
position; svliile for pur{>oseK of pt ivjwry or ]trotectitni, 
n high enclosure ■wall is superior to a low oue, Ihit 
to the Chuimuau, with hit; extniorditmn' ideas nbout 
The or Spirits of Air .-md Water, mid his 

geomiiutic smwr&titions, :i building In nu elevatctl 
slhiatiun apfKjars to have aii efiect lite the ‘evil ene,' 
ami is }i source of genuine suspidbii and :dann; 
while anytljing npjieriatntug to secrecy suggests lo 
hb depraved huaginaijou die aiiihiguouB character of 
Meusinian mysteries, ti h strange that iniasioimriea 
uf all sects and creeds seem to be quite nm d i fe 

C///-V.I J-V/» Tif£: roWEti^ 3*7 

10 rmsi these easily sormoUTited temptatiom. At 
Tokio, in Japan, the most edifice iti tlm 

entire city is tire Iin«iiaa OnLUedml tliat crowns one 
c*r its timWed hc^kts. At <>intoti the fwhi towers 
of the French (iolhic Catiicdral, erecti*d umfer cir- 
fiumsiances U»at. should briuf? a blush to every 
(TJiriitiiUiV cheek, may be seen for tulles across the 
level country. At I’eking, one of the I-’retmlLCalhe- 
dral.s,lhe reitatur, Jictimlly ororlooted die sacrosanct 
enclosure of the Forbidden City: until at longih, 
after prolonged nego lint ions, and thu gift of a 
auiierior site elsewhere, the French aiithorkios were 
persuadod to ttcquiesce in ita removal. 

Another Boort.* of friction Iwiween the mission¬ 
aries and the Cluncse b the refusal of dm natis'e 
converts made by die former to coturiliuie 
tti the expenses of the niiraerous semt- 
reUgitiiis fesiivals that tbm such rui imponaiii, factor 
in the social life of China. A certain iiin«ta i.s 
ileinandeil from evmy CliincBe family towards Ihnae 
iMTiotlical ceretncitiles; and the more eonveris Lhtrt* 
arc in the town or locality, the more t he uiiconvcrietl 
have to pay. The cxetuplion of the ChriEiIan jiro- 
selytes from ctaions of tlda kind has been more or 
less reoogiilsefl by tho Oliinese fTOvemnieiit ^ but no 
officud samaion cmi avert the social osiracism that is 
tlio local pcaaliy of refusid. 'Hie name of the 
defaulter is removetl from Un? family register, ami 
he is deburred from poriicipauiig in all the advan¬ 
tages C 0 nfcrr«l by the infititutiort of clan Ufe in 


l*iirLlj(?nnore t.h^ mufsioDarit'a are uuiver&allv 
irmlitcd hy Uie [>t<.t[ik> Ti'hh n jmww of 
luucf easentwilly similnr lu kim\ *o tJie IhiH 

iist'ii to y<r£fVftjI witicly in i'lnglajHk anil aio 
Htill not nlco^eilier <£x:tlr{iate<l, li> tlie ni^ical 
jwwers of ludiv^iihiul |j«?r!«otis, 4^7minoiily oUI winiiea, 
TO 1)e in intiiimte adUanco wiiL r.Le ilavU 
Uiniself, H iliere U n ikou^ht, nj- a Jjoott, or nny 
^ixkteii fkitatAon iu diinu, ti 13 frcfiuvnily atirilmietl 
til itusaioiiary iniiantAiions. If sickness or tleatb 
assjuls n Infuse ciHitigtious to flut inissioitarr's alnxle* 
it it equally itsvribcil to die uisilovoleut iiiUiieuce of 
till' roroijjiier. 

More fantustie in iqjpearunce, kul alsjo moi-e 
simeter in opernfion, are tin- alKHiunabli! and lUs- 
mnm» ij'iifidiiii cliargiis tljat arc freely lirouglii. 

“**■ a^ainsl lire niisaionaries l»y tlie iitiniti — 
filin'^ of grosi jier^oual inimorttiity and of kill, 
u/ijiping and inutilatkin of ciiUdren. whicli, tiowevyr 
iiioiisTroua and inalevolenl, are nut the Icjss, l>tj( the 
more jcrious, because they are flnnly IfcHeveil hy 
tin? ipnomid nutUetices to wliom they are aildiiisseii 
Tliu mysren' of tUe Feust of Oie IToly Saerfiiiimt, the 
priefii't' of The CWfcsaioiiaL, may W lo tht* Cliriatinii 
muong the most iiiolisikl siul sw:rfed of lii» rtdqdous 
assoeiarioTis. The loul-miuded CVmew rritit? set^i 
iu tlii-m only a hjqjoci itical mask for indecency aud 
IS ron{/<-iIi>i(i^, The lii>spitals am] orphann^es of ihe 
(liriHilait souieties have sometimes beim recrnileil for 
wiih a not Too jndicioiis anility by their philanthropic 
imtroui!; while they receive imiiiy tuiserablc tiuuates 

cmxA j:ri> ms nwsns m 

wliotu an eiii'lv duatb overtjikes iti die imiurali flourso 


of tliinjisf. It is finuljT believed by tbe masses in CiUiui 
tlmt fotiiHliiti^s are lakeu in, that sick woitieu 
iiiul <-liildrGn are euUfed eo ilisse iiistituiioiis to he 
murdcreil by (lie missiomtritrs for*sakc of (lie 
Utem[i«uUc or cbeniloa! proj^nics aiiacbiiig (« Uieir 
1 ‘Uvera, or eyes, or brains- 

ii jnufii Ik; remernttered that in I be Cliinesc 
[ibaniiui-'OpcBia uiiihro[>ojdtugoua rtuiietUes are held iti 
the highest efiteem; and (hat pariicuJnr parts of the 
Uumau laidy, admimslered in potrders or decocTions, 
lire ret^^mtiiemlttl as si sovereiipj remedy* A Sun 
who diiis saciitices some portion of Ills flesh fur a 
Btok parent, or wife for .an invalid husband, is 
regarded 2 is having performed ilte iiitisl. meritorious 
of acts, and is sometimes rewarded by the prtirlneial 
fJovenimenC with a or csommemorati ve ;ir(di. 

The medicines ilistj-ibutetl in the niLssmo dispensan', 
iho (ihcrnicnlp employed in the seieniific processes, 
such as photography, to which the foreign magician 
i# jifone, have tiiulonhtedly, in the eyes of tlie igtu'^ 
rant masfses,lHK!n obtained by i heseiiieihoilB, It was 
to SRieh a belief that the niTnous Tientsin massacres 
hi 1$7(), and the Wuhstieh iniirdefs in iSOt, wore 
mainly ttiie; and tvlieii these horrible chargee are 
■reinforced by every variety of pamphlet ami leailet. 
and liltliy caricature aud obwetie huupuou, issued 
with the secret coniiivatioe of tlm local authority, as 
in the publications of lim notorious Cliowflanin iSfH, 
in the prormce of Utinaii, tl may readily l>c ci>n- 
ceived wluit a terrible ami almost msunnoun table 



TVeight of prejudicfi is excited. ititelligeiit peisoiis 
JtU tIuM may tjQiiml sE’tigeless ami irrat ionat mioiigb; but 
again I aiu coinj»eIletl to rejuiutl luy reatlere that to 
fliis ilay there aju many parts of Eiircipe where pre* 
cisely analugnua supeTStuious prevail aiLosig ilje 
igHOFiint jWitBahtiy% agaitisl iJio in partictihir: 
and that the last decade aloue liai^ wiinesfipil a kmger 
list of murders and outrages in CJiriatbn Murope. 
due to an altuo^if icknlicid cause, than lias Iwen con- 
tuhutod m jlitr same period l>v tlio wltoli' uf luigsin 

t^uchf briefly suttitoarisod, is n list tjf the main 
drawbacks, or in sonic cases faiJiugs, by wliiidi die 
i^annuuiK inissirjtiaiy movement in f'liiiui is 

* xelardoil* I I'efraiu from iinlicalitig imy 
intreomd aci;eplnnce of rlieir iriitlu sbico U maybe 
^d Lliat my iipportuaiiiis? for forming n tnxstTr«irthy 
judgmonl have non* in spite of two visit-i U* tlm 
fomiiry, been siiffietenH but I state them as I hare 
derived tlmiu orally from numerous resident anilmri- 
Lies, as well its from the stmly of newspapcrts jnildiahwi 
in China, of official reports, and of the ivritinos and 
speeches of ilni misimnaries iheinficlvesJ 1 tmve no 
other de*rire than to enable my readmits, Qrstlv. t« see 
iliat there are two sides to the mistsiouarv (picsLton, 
and secondly, before making up tlmir own minds 

I'flr tJis ihulir tti dll* iitiDAiiiii ttiiif U r«(wiiuiiend<»l, Titr Juti- 

N',*, j, 11® 1. 

lu f arutimOj,. Ljr Sir. A. 4^ Ttoimiti: 

btiiJt Toninrkiibl^ mtighl ju^d 


Upuu Co romi fioiiie u[t*a of 'tvlini tli0£4> aidos 

Wliatever tlie prajKyrl.taii of truth or rjil!iPlnH«l in 
this plHisentiiKjul of the iliero aeenis. at lea^*l to 
my mind, to i>e sniwU dnuht tlml llie ratise 
of (JiirisUntiicr tn itoc advattorng m Cluna 
with a rapidity in Ujc least ooium^usurate to the 
prodigious outlay of tuonoy, edf-isacrifiet’, ami Uu- 
nuii power. To many it appears to lie retediug. 
iSucii, of rourftBf is not the uiipression that win be 
derived fi'oru missionary piiblicaiions. But, if we 
aeoepi ilieir iigiives, wUiidi in the year ISVn* 
allowed n total of l,S0ll rronisitant isiissiotmrks 
(I women included) and only 3T,ot)0 native cotiverits, 
or a Ibid of less than 80 to each sliephenl, amt a 
pro[Kjrtion (d only one iu every 10,000 ot theOUiticse 
jiopuLiiioii, it must be admitted that the Uarvejif ot 
half H century’s laliour is not lut^e.‘ ileanwUiJe 
the teniiJcr of the native peoples may l>e t-'athet^d 
from T.lie iucidenta of conteinporary liis^ton'- Dnriiij' 
the ehort itme that I was in the Ciima Seas in 1S02, 
three fresh oases were recorded of aygra^Tited ;issault 
u.|K)u inissionuries and their wives. Since then two 
iitiollbliding Swedish tnisiiniiartes Lave biieu brutally 
tuurdoreil at Sutigpu, This does not look ns though 
the reign of jienese Lnd yet dawned. 

1 A few >wn afio tlic Uauuii CiUttcUc* iirUiIbtlMl the ti^rei of 

tluiiir niL^iiritt fn Chin*, wluflli wrre S* foUmvi: Uietit^ Ltutwfnnn 
pnarnto (HM, iJTijaiiui JSfiU, OrtHej?** nJ, ConTfftl* Wi Naiiw emi- 

■tTuit fcr thi* I iiiiuLrr ttf Jiii»iopinm mirtituuufiiM 

tb#r tto*» thirty tiiuei the uniiibt* lif iliarijitEi. Ort the ottua itand 
Uivy It&fft Uiti wtrnutaea at a mueh oltlor oeiahiithtnAUt. 



Uerfi. however, I luo ouly ccmcoriKHl tvith iLa 
danger thai. it tiitivrjuervt exposed, whether jivsily or 
unjustly, to tlu'so attacks must eiitaii ufMjn 
the general Interosts of foreiijii Powers in 
■s^u™ Chitin. Ihnse interests are not solely eo- 
extensh-e with the work of eraJigeHeation. 'I'ltey 
embrace thu entire Held of intenifltiijnal relntionship 
upon, wliich pwjples ttieet and hold intervuni^e: anil 
it Elioiild be the first idiject of dijtlomaev lo remove 
fr^jTU this arena, or at leiisi to muiituUe ujiou its 
surhiee, all ptjssible sources of conipLieiitiou. The 
Clirisiiiui tulssiuiis are in Oliiua; they were ititni- 
diit:ed tliere by ourselves: they were accepted or 
at least submitted tii by tlu: Chinese fitivennnent; 
there we have liilherlii maintaiiied tlumi j there 
iijiilovibiedly tliey will remain. However much the 
mifnemlly critic ntight welcome tlmir wholesale de- 
porlation, no aueh Roliitloii b practicabb. f>i long 
as the Treaties are not rescinded, their obligation 
can nciilier lie evaded by foreign Oovidiments nor 
trarapietl on with impunity by the Cliincse, Whether 
it was wise or not to in trod nee missionaries in tlio 
first place, C.Tiitia, having muJertakeu to pi^tcct their 
persons and to tolerate their faith, must lidiil her 
pledge, and catuiol. im permiitrd to combine a niero 
lip respect for the engagtuueut with secret comiiTanco 
at its vioktion. Still less must the idea be ollowctl 
to [irt-viiil that a mere money compensation will 
fiuttice to expiate any or every outrage. The 
action of blood-money is at tJm t>esc btit a poor form 
of diplomatic amends; but blood-money in return 



ff»r die livea of iiinooeut taen, iivhtise proi^etiou lias 
guitraiitWKl by treniy* and who UftTw Tioefi 
hrutally ‘louo ty death, ia aJmi>at uu agjjmvatimi of 
the offeticft. The GUiiiese tJjemseh-es will bo the hisi 
to feol aurjtriwe at au aiLkude of resolution on ihc 
l>an of the ftn-eignor. Pitiniiteis h ibe only policy 
for wliieh they entertain ntiy rtspeei. It wcuild of 
Ciiurse ho liest if b all t;as<*s of outTage or crime, 
wild her liappening to an Ejiglusluuaiit a hreiiehniati, 
or atj Atnerican, joiut action were taken liy alt the 
Powers. Such united pressure it won Id he ahnost 
iinpossiblo to resist. Uuforimmtely intematioiial 
Jealfiitsies or tliflerences render such a C0"0|)eratiuii 
difiieitU of aualiiinent: and the steps in that direction 
wliieh were inken. at Lord Salkhuiy s initiative, after 
the innnlers of ISDl. and whioh assumed the fom ot 
a eoTltM.itive note adiintsscd by tlm Pow'er^ to tlie 
Tsiuigli Yfflineu, failed in their ohjeet, owing to the 
wiUidttiwal of the VtiUed .‘^tales from the concert. 

AVverlheless ivhile ihe primary canon of jJoUtical 
tieduii ehould Ije the atle*piau" fnllibiifiit of mbniued 
oldigatioiia, atatesmanship has other and 
supplementary dtilies to perfoniu It slmtild . 
aim at a cautious tlghtcmiifr of the reiiis. 
whereby lim of oreuce may bn abridged, tii^ 

vagariii of mdiscreet enUitisiaem hejil in clu-ck, 
and the jwlltical aspciits of imssbnaty' enterprise 
rotitrnrted within the ^mallesi possible dimensioiirf. 
Tlmi^ arc some who recoinmeinl that fliemi<^ioiiftrieit 
gheudd ditipen£c with foreign protection altogether, 
and, iwoeccding without passports, should Uve 


(^liinesG 6ii!)jecis anJor ttlimese Uw*, Sudi ft solution 
is probftblj more (iaixDtin tliftn fensilJo. and 
lend to worse disaster. A very atHct revision, liow- 
ever, of tlie eomlitions of travtd ajul resiJemie in i.he 
interior is mneb to be desired. Some lluiitation rni^Iu 
li> tie placixl upon the trTesponidhlu ^*3L^njney of 
liuropean subjects over roinoie and ffttintiunj parts of 
Uie C|iifi/.se dominions, I'asgjwrta should tie ulisck- 
lutely tt'fijspd ai the discreiion of the Minisier, 
exernised with re>;ard to the I'Jiameler iKitJi of itie 
toeidity and tiie ftpplicant. Wlien nnuiied, they 
uil^hl spi'cify file nanic of flio province, diatrici, or 
town to whidi, and to whiidi only^ tbe lM*arer is 
(nrererlited. A bendy t hey give a yen end sketeli of 
the route wbieli lie proiKm-a to follow. Upon his 
arriral he mijflit be cmnpelled to rejiort iilhiKeir 10 
till' Jtrt'ji] ntjij^istracy, and to notify hjg future move- 
menta to the ktier, gncli n ilennuid lias, I iKdieve, 
tnort! tlinn once been made bi^ tlie Chinese Govern¬ 
ment, but haft lieen steadily refiiseth ^Jlie relations 
between the cIiitI autUoritiea and the Christians in 
tnairers pertainmjr to the acquisition atid f*iniire of 
hnd slifiuld Iw elearly defined and asaimilatfld as far 
ss possible to native custom. Tlte cipeiuiig of all 
mission establidiments to the inspection of Govern- 
nieiii. oflichUft is recoin 111 eni led by some as an antidote 
to the horrible prevalent ftu pe rsii tions, f >r m ore avju 1 
wciui<l ti be to curtail within the narrowest limits the 
insiituiiona, such as orphana<?e 8 and sisterhofjds. rhat 
give currency to these odious Tlie employ¬ 

ment of Imudredft of young unmarried foreign girls 

r//z-v*i ASH ms rowsss 

in Taribus broudies of mi^iotuiry worTi, tliougti 
(he tiuw( f»opuIftr curreiil jiTiasw of Uie movement 
I!; grciitly 'o Ijc <ieprecate«3» as riie to die 

very paTilonablo mistuierpretaliotis of wliivli T Imve 
spoken; ami ought lo he curuUed by 
opinion a( home. 

In the last resort more will rlepeml upon the 
character aiul conduct of (he miesioiiimea Lhemseh'^es 
ilian upon the checks deviiw?d by even n 
friendly diplomacy. Impulsive nt^ue ami 
raw eiiihiisiaani are not iaei;essarily the best credentials 
fur a misaitmary eareer. The sensational appeal from 
the platform of Exeter Hall, and die despatch of iho 
heterogciniOiiB company that resptaid to the summons, 
like a draft of yomig Tolunteer recruits to the (heatre 
of war. are fraught with infinite danger. It behoves 
tilt parent stwietieij, both in Groat Hritaio and America, 
by a more careful choice of the men whom they send 
fortli, and iho emissaries iheni^eives, by an mixiiJus 
regulation of their own conduct, to anticipate and, If 
it may be, to avert the danger wliich, under Ksisting 
conditions, confronts alike the mlcrests of the coiuiiry 
under whose llag they march, and the subUine cause 
to which they have devoted their lives. 





jfi^m arit. qiltinlAin ldi idciiiij 

p*Ure* nljaiiiv^ aep<j4is 

AfipidkiU Ifeiw M qai unn niaUiiir Pi *1:0* * ^ * 

S^t^^iTiitFi, A^iwon* I< 

Saviis vfurs ago die Western;’awl I W tfie 
Eastenj lujrlrl also, in *0 far as k was msfle awartsVif 
ta rwak fttfit, W)i8 startlinl ky tlio appc^ranoe in 
t.lie pAgea of an ^Engliek iiiagiwtaL’ of^an artiein 
hs ihv forcmoijt Chiuaioim then’liviiigrajrieJ stat^ 
man ;mil a succesafal amlwiss^or* in wlii^rk; with a 
skilfiilne^ that was to be cjqweH'tl of his Wlitlei^ 
aiKl witli an emtmoipation of Benliroein lliat was sur¬ 
prising in Ilk imOannlity. he inlvifnwi the pTup<4^^ 
tinna iliut riiina hatl at length been aitnifwid from her 
nge4oag ah.'ep^aiKh ^th*the Mme oncrgr ilmt she 
IjAtl for so mahr centuri^ puranwl nml id'ealiae^ilm* 
mimobile,^about to enter into ilur tuiimlent' 
<mnipetltli)n fif uiuik-rn pntgruss.^ Ifo doubt lUo 
ifaniiiis Tseng sineerely boU^-veil in hia own nswr^ 
aurtis i iimiiiesuoniatly they proven! puktubli^ the 
large class of Knrtipean rendera who cunnoi coiw^eive 

TUJi so c.iUKii jjrjAT^rm; or cmsA n; 

stAndard life, either for an tiulividun) or a 
ii^Siou, lliat wlitoU prevail-s lit tiie «'oumry of 

wlijcti lliey lltumwlTVP ifi'e driittsus- wik* ItiisL'Ct iii.'ni,- 
kiud hiU* inrt caTUps,'tli& f.MviJifrfrtI anti (he tmrianaii, 
aiul liohl it TO Im; Imsli till? Ueatwiv atul (lie duty of 
the lltlor to wear ilie foniier's ^yves. Uail t'bhia. 
,-it liisT^ the Tiif»4i,:arrti5rnut of rht febels, the tnns^ 
fonniilnMe of ihu^-UiirhnriAii^, U^ti dritx'ii to otipitii- 
luteif WtLS iJie tVliniiial al)oui t j eIl a cliasiened 
ijuTirert fl< the fi'et tif Wisa'i-rn dijoHtw? «So lilesfevtl 
a'^proeUtTitiiium liiul nol for bnji Inren spread ahrond 
4{ion ihe earth; aud. loud were tlte yos:tiiiias lliut 
Went tip from eliapel tmd iJonriim.ii.'Ur, from platfntiti 
and pidpit fliitl at tlie^ gtrtil tiding .of great 

joy/ Itutay bfi vronh our while, who arc iietlhor. like 
ttv^Manpib Tfeiigi jlipjrimaU whose interest it is r<» 
e»hijlU«(e,'tn»r pmpltei' who are aliead of our ittuesT 
ro cxaiL^iie, how far it is irue that Ohjtia hriSimdly 
awakeueil fi»tu her aintij^^irjtl ^leep, or wht* she 
m\ay inH merely haa'e risen to slop the rauliug of 
a wimlow-sash* or the crcnkiitp of a shiitier, that. 
iiiEerfere-i wiilf her ?|uietnde, with liie ib;ed iuietiihiii 
of settUug down oi^’e mitre lt> the yj^nymwii of ofi 
' Tinal>ashed repose, 

I'Of itow iiuire tlinn fifty wars hit* the eomlilnetl 
force of the iiatJOiis, exercised couiiuoiily 

'jit^aruai hy dijihiinaey. freqioeitlly by iUri‘.ais, and i^mi> 
Mnwuiin dtiica by OfKut war^ luaju dlreeli'i:! jigniitsl that 
and eolhl wall of coTiserraiive ri-sistance. 
tike the city wallit of tlieir own i^apitnl, wliich the 
Chlnej<e ojiposie to nny pressure from the outfido. 



Th j>nrta an oppiUTt^ l»is been plTeetird !>y the wiperkir 
PttTjitifth of the fofej^ier» u[i Ity'fiinljoatjs i»i* 

eatiiioti. Of sueli a elirtTucter are the t':o»ieeasif>n!ii 
as re^iards iii|ji£ionnrie« and traiJe, wliidi fall more 
properly ujuler tht heading of t'hiria'# estemal than 
ui' luir mtemol rebtiunit^ atui, itT shcIj, have lM>en 
deah within the previons chapter. In what reepeciR, 
however* nuij’ sU^^ he said to have yieldeih or to 
iie weti u<Av fllmting her {^tuldiorn <}|i|>oaition* ut 
defcirence to no e.vterijjr compultion. but of her own 
free will? The aiwwer, w'lietlier we hnirk al the 
hilroiluotiott of the electric telegraph aTitl railway's, 
at th« adoption i>f roreign mechaniu'al appliaticei in 
anu'tials* lioi'kyards, atid work«hoi>^i at iJie inHUtiitioti 
of 0 native press, hl the dwelopmera of imemal 
resources, or at the etictmragement of dometstlc 
eiiteqirisi^^—^lUe ramiliar hritt. li.>fi«ou« of the Weit: t<» 
the East—will teach us ihai, k is with no lighthcaned 
or ^ponUntroua stepj Inii fmm tiie keenest iiistiinis of 
Hell-presw^rvftt ion alonft, that ndna liu^ dt?sccnded 
from htsr pinnacle of supureilioue seh’suffieleiic}'. and 
ctmseiited to graduntc in WeS'icm aciidennes, 
i>iie I night Lhliik lltat in iho contemplntion of llie 
tnagiiiticcni wharves and fitrecU and buiklinp of 
Sliaiighai. which wuri.ldly claims th Im* llio Calcutta 
of the I'ar hbst; of tlic a|iadous anil Onterly foreign 
eettlement of TicntaTiii contrasted with the filth of 
the native dly adjoining; or of tlio i^fnwdcd dof'k' 
yards and shipping of Lbrngkoug—the (iliineae would 
lian? fhimd at once n reproach to Llieir own back- 
warilncits and il elitnulun to mnpciitioin It la 


Till' isO^CALLEli AWAKMKIXO OF C/if/Xi 9S9 

iliitilitfiil vrliuthfr .tny such iii>pre‘sion han t<v«fr Wen 
jmHliJr'Kl Mjjoii ilte Celestial nimil. Wliat suits ilie 
Ibreipner's taste is nut neiressririlj' requirerl by his* 
if flifi foreigner [»reftirss lo W comfortaliie, lie is 
content, lo be s<|uaUi1. IT spjio* auJ jnundeur are 
esseiilhil t<i ilio one. they have for rejjturite la-eu 
ctispeDH!<l witli, mill are. therefore, not necessary to 
the ciUier. Were it imt tUnl experiene^ Iius sborni 
Ijeyontl posslbiliiy of eavil ihnt, in the strujrt'le wiiU 
the foreicmer to wltieli ilte niarcb of event** has 
coiuinitUnl Iter. Cliitia is Uerself Iiamlinapped by the 
ahscnee of those applinnees whieU bnve rcndeml 
her fintngiotusts so fomiiilable, she wuuUl not have 
maUe tin* ^infilitast t:oni'i**si«n to a [ire^snre wlneb she 
still desplfips, even 'wrliile yielding to it, lit a word, 
her snrTeniler h the ciflsprin^. not of admiration, 
blit t)f fearr It i& Imsinl nixtii ejtpedieiiuy, not itpcm 
convict !un. 

No Tiiprc strikbijj illnstmtlon of this thesis can lie 
farrtlfiUetl (lini: tlie enliri^irise wliieit will «h?iu to the 
Rtnitft# superficial observer the evulciice uf its very 
luiMmk (jjijjijjjite, viK. the ititnjfbtclion of railwn^vjt 
into China. When I first visited the CUbitrse Empire 
in IbtiTt there was not. a mile of railroad m tJie 
txnintry. The little aWrtive railway from WooMinif 
to f^han^jhiii, whitdi had been constI'utUcil in ISTO 
by English merchauts, ami had been cotnpulsf>rily 
fietpiiretl anil torn up by the pivivijicial auihc)ritie« 
in 1877, waft only a ineinory and a warning. Xow, 
liowc'ver, the avi-anger can travel in lui Englishdniilt 
carriage upon English steel raib frotii the station of 



Tougku, tiear Taku fiiru at tke mouth of the 
Pftilio lliver^ over the mile* ttiut isepnriite luni 
from ’nojitsiii; ivhlto rrf>ni Toiigku lljo line Ifl 

iiWndy prolougeil for 67 miles to the Tuimshan anrl 
Kiuptiig coalUelilE, and tlienee as far ssi^luindmi-kiiam 
at the seaivard cennlntis of llie Qrcut WjiU, Lli the 
direction of Maut;liuriii beiyomL 

Tlie reaiion of tliusc ftfcvend extetisions has l>e«i 
ns faUav\Ti; Of the first ^wbitiL was bej;ruit in 1B87), 
Unniibi>. the alarm, protlucpd Itv tfie French war in 

^tan * 

Hallway ihS i : of m'Ojul, tile ueLH-^fisiiyp in the 
event of ft flit II re campaign., of |K>5sos&iiig native 
G<ialil£)lils, Tu^tt'iid of heltig depetidejit upon foreign 
Btipply-^f well as the interests of a specitltittoit in 
which the Yicerry Li Hung L’haiig is personally con* 
certitfil; «i IhetUinh llie fear gl'Rtt$atnn nggressioTi. on 
the north :—tieif-iaurrestorupprohensiQUlmving lieen, 
therefore^ io each case the' moT.ive power. In tither 
tvorik, the iiilrmluetlon of iIk^ railwnyshtu liecji a 
conipidsorj' operation, not mnlertaketi of free will 
orlncliiiatloU; but ffmmd from tlie outside. At one |)t*- 
rif«l the works stoppl’d by tJie nrsurj'ctii't* of old- 
fiiiihioinHi anti aupersrit ions Ideas.' ami by llte weight of 
ruliice itvlrigne. Hut the infliieaim of Li Hung Chang 
. lias iriiimpliedt luid the Hue, ihongh uoiniimllir mer- 

^ ^VliDn it atiiwiiER'iMi ihvd a Ij-Eniifli lEioi «lu I'utiElniftnit 

fniiii Itaiiliilon la Niowcrhwaii^, i||n <jf fcbb fiitimir 

ilitl mat viEii it rtl Fill, th<‘i gt j whO' 

iliat mtU^hrm ^ \h^ dt> +if 

iwimril ]m iHindfn^il by ilmtni: tltii Luii^ mtiU 4^ ilu^ n^ilww 

sftfbftpiiri inu. tlwm. AftnnbiiKiy lirt nth Hii, rwju.viO *.f huu 

from 111*- (wihi df iThi iln^i wfli ubimatblv beared) 

i>y hhifi&ii* jliii a buiiilml yiuyiji. 



THE AWAKEyiEG Ot' till 

ruttltlL it^ its tiH:tt(ii.iint, Itas n<iw Ix’ccune in reality n 
slrutejrieaJ railway, w1ih?Ii is SECiulily puslied 

forward ill tho direct ion nf ICijiu. Its total will 

tlieii iie ju6i. sliorl of O&il roilea. Tlii* firsi 94 mile* 
were by a «‘ompaur, the i^iuiia Eailvvay 

Conipatiy; the remaimler b a State railway. But 
imu^ittch lb bolh miilcrtakings are roriEmlliHl by 
liie Mi>erov, aiitl ;w ihe former is iti no seiiee n 
coniTnereiaJ die sliarehtilifors lieiuo all 

oUidals, anti no aecoittus Win^ publlsheil, llie entire 
project may be eoiisldered as one schome. At ihe 
presetil rate of titlvancc, 4t> looO miles ate lieiiig lititl 
yearly^ n stun of -lOtbOOtt/ being allocaletl for the 
piirpoae* 'I'liis leaves a gap of several veal's before 
Kirin is expected to lie teaebtal; but ii ia ctilctihiied 
llmL, owing to the paiidty of pbysiral obstaelea, and 
the ability of the iJhijiGse navvies in throwing np 
eartli works, die whole line could, m a pine it, Iw 
compleled iu tw<t yoare* Meatiivhilo in the present 
ye;ir furtlnfr progi‘t*ss has been for a wJjile suspf/ndeil, 
in onler that the funds so releaswl may lx* clevoitKl 
to the otileliratioiut of the sislietU blrthduy of the 
I'anpress Ilowager—a proceeding prnfotmdly Ctliinesfe. 
Branch lines are also cmUHmplatei] from Moiikden 
to the treaty port of Xewchivang, a distance of 
1 Jb miles: and from ^iewchw'ang to tlie naval flock- 
yanliif Port Artluir, hoiji striitegical in design, 'Dm 
eiiliitJ soheuiL% in fact, is t’lmia’s reply to ilie Triuis- 
Sil^rian Railway of Russia to VlajUvostok—the pro¬ 
digious eifoct of wliii'li upon the future of Asia, at. 
pn^scjit but scantily realised in this country, is clearly 


ftppfe^iEaied by a few Chinese Btaresmen—iUiil i# 
warninp* ui tlie Ta;ir that Cliitin tiut inemi li» 
let M.’uieliuna mid the Sungari Uiver slip from her 
grasp quite sb easily us she dkl ihe Amur mid 
eltmitielit, mid Uiu previnees ujwn lUeir nort,hern and 
eastern iuthka. 

Ti woH origiiisdly enuietiipliLted to run n lim* 
from Tienisin to Tnitgchow, the river pfut tliirtmi 
riuii ti> milfiis disiniit from IVkutg—a project whidi 
I’v^ would liave tjecu oi great sendt^e both to the 
Chhaeoe iuhnliiiahta of the eapitoi, who find tlie prictia 
of till* neee^rie* ot life awollhu (« I'xorblimil figure* 
by the diflieulty of commuuieutioiis iu wimer, and to 
the EiiropeuTia who by the flame noudiuoR5 arc mit 

far luoulLs e^ery year from the outer worltl. But 
ndiiese f’oiiHeryatisin oould not stomach any such 
airront tu the of Hoyivlty, wlule tlic .tugU" 
nteut that a ru'd road to the eapital would only avail 
ti> tnmflport an invader sdl tiie more quickly, is one 
that iKNfsessed pecidiiir fascitiaticn Jar C-elestial ears, 
Aceanliiigly, the direct connect ion of Pdting with the 
ctiiist will, [imbubly l>i; postponed for sonie time longer* 
although I entertain nu doubt that it will ultimately 
bo aocompil^i^. ilony more Ibreiguers will ilien 
visit the Chinese capital, hotels will fliinug up, and 
ilu! curiixloitlors will rejoice. Li practii^e the familiar 
obicciioii to railways in. Chinn that tluiv will olTciul 
theor Spirit Ptwers, ami liistui'b the re¬ 
pose of iliii dead, )■» fouiHl to 1« less serious thmi 
the contentitm* which there is no school of [nditicai 
ecuimuiy in Oluua to controvert, that the displace me i it 

TUK SO^CAlhED jir^ JT.m c OF CmSA a IS 

t.f lalHjtK causca tliereby mU ili«>w fio nwuiy 
or tliuswajulft o{ coolius or juaknu-ti or carwnmj out 
4.f foiplomiiiit- Tliiii is a liue oft^mig Ibat 
lUrt'aUy Wn siu^^'essfuUy empl-irc'd tor ii> 

resist 'live opetiiug of the Upp^-T Vaugise lo Btewm 
navi}*uli«n, aval tlvat "ill be xejieatetl tid nntuffotn 
jigtUHSl every [vroi»o«d for railway t^ieRsbii for maiiy 
yeaia lo eotne. 

There are af eoursc itatesmen in Cliivai wW, bhe 
U Ilung Uhaii?- ere superior U> vJje fiUiaeies or the 
,w superstiuoue of llieir rounm'nwn- It will 

^ U< remrnibertMl dint a few years iigo Uit- 

Emjieror, or railier tlie Empress-l )t>wsger, who w:t9 
still ttoffent. iesned an iiiteirc^timi lo the prirunpal 
iirovliiriiil Governors mnl Goveniors l^vnertth inviting 
their uoansel uivoii the subject of railway extiuision 
tii the Empire. Their reiilie-i, wUdi wro pubUsliw!, 

contame*! several exprc^Kor^ of i-xrj* sensible oititiioiu 
Hue gtwernor riscotmneiided not mtrely the ilancihii- 
riaii lUilwav, but a sectnul line tn a luitih-westerly 
direcivon thrnugb Slmtisi ami Eaiisa to TIU mid n 
iliinl as far as remote Kr«ih^. iissipmug \h^ 
reu&onB — 

‘ We shall UnfTfliyl"* able w «nil troepe. imiuey, Ac., any' 
.vhere ui oar Eujpin:-witlnii ten days; ami nwtwvi.*v wc M 
Ini nble to roiinfl ni«flperatiB«iltiQits m tW outlying teirifiini 
of wonte who in i3Uma pn^iwT are only a shining pn-lnhiriaf , 
iind a Bmirwof trouble to the„ \M who. -nice 
,raiw,ili«it«l thither, wiU 1» able tn HikI a fruitful 6eW f-w 
their u^w unemplDved Inhoiir, and «'» “ 



|iul the tuf'sl Htf llif.“ij(? ;iiJv%K‘nU^ Was? iLt* 

t.‘»flL-hnift?i) i/lian I'liili Tiiiig^ ijf line Tnxi 

Kiinii»6, vrliKt |jre!s^txi for tine I'lirmtrhHinn rif a jmjrtt 

Iniiik iJaiKvav rioaiiet'tinu I%!kiti“ with Hankow-, lo 

c-oinmi^iii:ciI simuiUujeoiisly at luJili etuis Xut tLe 

iiioiit I’lnifim'atiTe nf (‘binanien route! fl^nv ttat surb 


a line u! least was stilt)lueuilv itmuved frinnllie «^'ftaii 


U' be of Uutfc iissistniiee ity nri uivaiJer. tu IftSSl 

an Ttnpeiiul iVoclIttnatinin aiitltafUiln;i tW 
exeeitiioii of itiis unly hiUf-eoiwHirml Milieiiie, and 
l.'liiiitg L'hilt 'lung wiis sbtiI as Vieeroy lo Hiiukow to 
f’uiry il uiit. Siibsequeul re tier t ion appeals lo bare 
i'onviucetl lutu ilutt il tnin;t not be uttderUiken nxeept 
w'Uli t tltinr^G exipitaltand witti steel railsnnuntfaclured 
in Cliiuesc furtinres fruui Cliitiiaie meiul—n dmslfin 
whir 1 1 looks very rtnirli like a pijslpuneiiietil lu tlie 
f're*'k Knlenils, 1 titil tl>e Ctiineso have realised rh:ii 
iJiey are bjoapulile of ronst meting a great tiiieexc«[iT 
I<y foreign siseistance, mid tunlejks diey are prejmred 
to pledge llii* Luperinl Exchetjittr tothoTUKlertaking) 
to some extrint by foreign tjipitul, it is aafe io priHlict 
fltai tlie great ttankow'I'ekiii" t*gg will in-ver be 
liatdied ai ail. 

In [be nieimtunc the Ticerfiy le vnergettfiallr 
piimiijig the first pnrt of his cnrlailt-d sebejne bv 
t'rifcliiig iron am! sree! works (Lu addition 
lo already exiBihig eottOl^ brick, and tile 
fiKTlonea in llie tieiglibrnirhood) at Hanyaug, near 
Hankow, while he can llnlter hiiuself that he has 
ndlway all liis own in iJie of a short line of the 
siEiiiilaixl gauge, seveiiieeu tniles long, w’hich he has 


fffk so^cjusn An'AKh'xrw OF CffiSA 

(‘oJfcitriii.’r* 4 il rrdrn Shih'IiJP'va^f on t>1<P batik.5 of Uitt 
Yjiit;:r 9 c. sovi^iify ffului Iwlow IJuulto^', l.o the Iron 
iniiiee ofTliin-Rhsii pM, ^vUeitrc- lib ore is lo l>e tlerimb 
linuiidi liiics are alfHt tonlemji!ai:c(l lo The nMjdibour- 
iiig ctiliiories of iinil Ma-an-^^bnii. In 

"WntJiiuig n laboraiory bast lieen usLablisbetl slnee 
I SA I for lljo aii/ilysis of tlie ^ jirious loeal mineraU. 
!SiiniiUautK.tT]ii1y, but evwi ttiore leistiitly, the ftciiontl 
]>iirt oi ihu scbenifi UWitig ailvaneed by the ilespaieb 
of a jimnber of t'bineso to Eicropot to aoiuirc the 
rtecessfin' tnecliauitnl hiuI eu«itii:ering e^|i«rieiioe. 
Ttiejie are lUii restarts* I'ttmlxJi^omeT Jilaton', aial 
iiifuiiiely tosi ly, lo which China <» iiupoUed liy an 
ootifitleuce iu herself and a t^orreftpotul- 
iiig iliislihc of estemal jisslsittuiix*. 

The oiilv other riulway in ibe t'iuiiL'se dominions 
is a line iu. the north of tJie islaiii] of Foni>os:i, 
tviciu..- originally commejiccil with Uit- torn^up 
Woosmig raik, by one of the most exitei^ 
prisinjr of L'hinese stattssincnj tiu Ming f liiiaii, who, 
li.‘i\'irio gaineil grcal (ircilit for hia flki l f nl defence 
of ICvluiig apabisi Mie French lleet, tinder Adnhral 
Conrliet, in iSSt, was recently reiKtrted, in coiir 
wijoence itf searifs iii^nn the ramirs^ to be abtuit tt» 
prtieeml its luitltary roainiander to Chinese Inrkcstnii. 

The idea of tlie Fitrmosa Ejiilway was to etmnect the 
IHiri of KeUivig, on tlic north-easi, ot the island, 
with I hill of Tainan on rbe west. xUwioi fifty niiles 
Ilf this |■sU^t^ad have already lafeii laid; but recent 
rc[Hjrl3 sja^nk of its proltable abaudonmenl fr^nn 
ehoniitiss of finnk. 



This! shurt sketeli qf the iiicoptLoii of railrojui 
fiiiUTpniH.* itt China will show duU wblkt the ndvict: 

«r It prcmilnent mtc^man liure, or tlie 
•atbiBi intlunnco of an eiHirtn-'tic itov'cmor tlierc* 
muymuU in the conmieneciiiDiit of iwlnletl iititjei** 
takinifs, wlue!i are i-ei'ointdeiudeil hy particular 
«cjt,'Kncie3 of policy or i^peeiilation, tlie fJiuiiftse 
Ooveriimeni is far from having rcalLscd the over¬ 
whelm ing ifii|>nrtiirjoe|. not luerely to the ci'onomic 
anti hiiliiHtrial iteveiopnmni, tint to the iniiiiifiiteii 
nntjonrit esitiieuce of liio KnipireT of tt wwle’rencliiijjj 
mill promptly exetmtHl system of nulwnys, 'Jlte 
predictioti loity saf&iy tie liaaanleil that withmit rail- 
mmle Chinese Tiirkeanui anil Westum MtmgoUa. as 
well ns tiiher oiidym;j parts of dm Empire, cannot 
tm jjcmiaiieiidy hehl. Tlmrp is lu'it the sUghttist gWiHl 
in mamifucluriiig (vnipp, ami Uolcitkiss, andilntlmg, 
ami Wincliesier, niul ^fnriiiii-ITniiry impk-mrnis of 
war hy the thcrnsoml, if ificre exist no inenns of 
c'lmveying tin* tiwijw who are (o use them t«i the 
scene of action. Iti rallroatk ntut rele^iruplis (tlw 
laiier were sUmt(y resisietl at dm start li)- the po> 
viticial goeeriiorfl beesuws of tlw restraints whicli 
w»iu!(i iherehT lie piaced npori timir intlepemtem*el 
lies the Wilo !ioi»f tlmt Cliimi ixissesne^i uf retniii 
iiip hf'r tcmtorial inteyriry- Ami yet so pen-enudv 
ignorant is the tlovemmeiiE this eSementnn' 
axiom, ihni eoumiuuieaiioiis of any kiml are treateij 
hy ii wltU unilevinting ncjilect, Th^ milifnry rflirft 
hre ciibumltwl In trmlgn to their staiiotw over 
thtitisancls of miles of eiecrabh* triw^k. E\-eii the few 


mililtirj' rontk tliaf have Txh*h nimr iJiw 

coast aro allowetl to out. of rafniir, gjiiiiil- 
laiU'Oiifily, wUh Uie most umi/uific'ciit tivera hi ^/sta 
ruiJiiln^r tUroui-'h her territories, ami invitvii” I'lienH 
mul rapid comiiiuaicaUDii with the iiujmlous dlifs of 
the tutmor. It is only* so lo speak, at the have net "s 
point that asspiit. cati he gaified to the e.xteasioii of 
river navigatiorj hv steaiu: aud whule 
iiiUBt be si tirvml hi order that small coiuratiniihs ol 
boatmen or raftmeti may live. 

Similar reUeelions ai'c stiej/ptifcil by an eiratnitin- 
iif>ii of the miliuiry equipment and resoutres of 
utiibtr t-^hina,^ which have fcinufid die subject of 
(•ania j)iuc;!i prmnatiiTe coD$rrntnhuion. It is true 
that, partinnlarly aiine tlie Kreneh tvar in 
ivlurh, in ispite uf I In* eonnuirative Ciilmti of rim 
Frcmdi, mill ilie pretenshms to victory that have 
smf'e been advaueed !?>• (he Chinese, yet taught the 
latter a great nianv weli-Deedml lessons, miJUons Jiave 
lieeii spctit in providing the Empire with the nieeha' 
nical appliances I bat fibidl enable h eiiccessfully to 
resist the foreigner. At Kirin, Tientsin, £;hangUiU, 
Xnnkiiig, Foochow, anil Canton, are faciorics or 
arnuude, capable of tiirnitig out gnn]iowiler, car¬ 
tridges, repeating riilcs, field and iiiotmtain artillery, 
projw’tiles, and nmdime guns of the moat approved 
and recent patterri. The majority, if nnt all of 
these, were cstaltHslmd in liie hrst pliWfC, and for n 
long lime suptirvised, by foi’cignefs. Il is tnits also 
lhat n tniliiary i*cluwl for officers bus l»nn fonmlfd 
at Pi-kitig, and admols uf gunnery, musketry, and 


en<itiiii-cnngt luiiler r^iL> fiatrnm;^ i^f li Himg 
ai XienLsiu. StiualLaii(;ou$l\\ a large ntmiber of 
ibreipu oflicOTs or mstrnetor^, prixiclpaHy 
liave l)<!en to iiiuirucl llic! C'Une^e in iJie 

iimniifiDClurv^ or Use of tlicefi ftriciitirtc applkneee. 
Thus eqiiipptrtl, the (’hineso -;\rfuy ia on paper a fore* 
not merely tituiientailly strong, hut nrcchaiilcalh* 
powerftil. A more minute anil eu-ordiiiig aerutmy, 
iiowever, is nc^tlefl tx’fore we ciui ucctrpi these 
exterior aympioms as liTcrittalile evitJein^ of a re- 
formeil miiitary system. Ia*l me lirlttly exaiuuie 
hotli Llwi const[luiiuti of the Army its a trholc, ami 
the opiimna that are liitertainiHl of its efllcieimy 
by competent observers.* 

Tlie military organisittifin of (jliioa is little less 
antique mid nu li?ss rigid than Us civil coutiierpart. 

It ha^ not, TTdricil since the llttnchn hivnsinn 
N,tik>u4 %hU yenrs ago. Tlu* dissi'endants of the 
***'** conquerors,, with a certain aUrrilxlun4 of 
Mongnliatis and Chinese, stDl form the Army of ihe 
Eiglit Jhumerft,* from wliicU the garriaons of Peking 
null otlmr greui provincial cajnials are drawn; 
tMiristituiing n sort of liermlitaty profession or caste 
Muiiiviainml at, the expetnk; of thu Crown, and, like 

' I urn Cut m:w jwrtEOTUi of Lbn iiiToTtuntbii^ |{i 

iliii t uiirii-wv pf Ikirwri Sjwerk ymi tit ihn UmnAn 

UK itnkAn A dW poiminU «11% nCibi itiUitQrx 

tit CbiiiM, 

^ lihf Ehihl Bnnjiimi va 

iniikthw^mujiii iir I'iailii ecff]ii Miuifliui. tind CifUuw, 

thtf laticr Wm# nf ilm tirmin wbieti u^k pm tii w 

fuiiht.rtl thi? iiiiTMitritt. liitfrriiiwiiiH« it efnnpiiWy wooiig 

Uii^ Uiutuef 

TtfE HO C.UI.rJ} OF CHtyA SiO 

tho Itomaii l('gii>riarka vn tIic* outlyirijx provinces t'f 
the Eiiipir«, tiwiving niiUtary Innih, The iiomiuttl 
armigtliof iJie Eighi.IhiiyrvCTsisvnrimisly retomert ns 
fmm 25HI.OhU to SS()i)tKI mutt: hm of these con- 

slclerttlily than Hll),tKJ0. [}erhtt|i3 iiiU SSO.Wh, are 
tu nnv lense ol* the temv opoii a war footitt^. The 
best of tlieitt- amounting to im Avtuy eorpa Si.fllM) 
strong, ai'fi Ktaiionefl in ^rjtiicHuria itself, lehere, faik 
tu face wtttv tUe dreatleil oiiemy, EiigstiL, large gaiTl*- 
i^iis are iittiitttaiiied at Moukdeu, I^in, uuil along (lie 
Ijstfti rh The Imperial Guard in rekiug, winch b drawn 
From the Bimiier Army, consiate of eiglu regiments, 
or A,0ij(t to C.tHKl men. Side by sidt^ with tltetti is 
ilie Ving Ting, or Niit.ioual Antiy, failed in i^'OiUrtulis- 
tinciioii the Green Fhigs, or Five-t’amps ^ftve lieiiig 
tlie unit of subtUviBioii), and lanifitimthig a territorial 
army, designntiitl :is Braves ' Of llvis 
armv there ditj ciiiiireen eotps, one for each jiiovince 
of the Empire, Tinder the onlt'r>s of (he local Governor 
or ("Jovcnior General. Their iioiuiual strength b 

given by JiUcretii attLlioritIi>s as between 54ilJHJ(J and 
biUMKHi mett,^ of wUnm fwiiulTn,(iy(l to 2oO,thK> .are 
YiirioiiBly ropiiried to be availablf war. The 
NutlotiaJ Army is hi fnci bettor described :ts a militia, 
aboiU one-thinl of whom are iismaJly eallctl tuK, and 
tlie wdiole of whom are never organised, /nul are 
probably incapable of beiiiti orgntiised, for war. 
Tu this fotv'tt miisi he added the nierei-ittiry trtwipSj 
ntiseil in erruergencies, and dining ri'oiu ihc tltne of 
the Taipiug JieheUion ; .and aoroe trregittars, consist- 
* ChitifiMi Anity lijit ittvs* OSltikiT mw nnd T4S7 

Ui" Ilf iiiit! DiUer cavnln', T^omniallj 

in Tiiimber, in rcnliti'Icifs ibwn'Jb.OOO. andnf 
lU'niiiitnry Tahus. The inily scrmu'i *jr forniiilflliU 
cnniinjrent of the yribonal Amiy is ibe Tien tain am it 
corpSf cailetl Lien C'hnn, or flrillnd tr(K>[is, which wart 
first started iSiiro^Kiim olficera aHi-r tin? war of 
iSflIJ, ftiid ac<|Uireil iis itohesion !ii ilie 5up[)tf*£aion of 
the Trtipintf ItebdJion, since wliieb it Una iiwni niatii- 
tAined in a state of cuin|iamlive fiftiniency by the 
Vicfiroy Li Hung Ohatig^ in* orgaiiisacion and iniitnjo- 
tion iMsitig based on ilie lYnssian ni^Mlel, Notniutilly 
t.lilrt (Tivirticm is IbO/Xin strong, but iirt mubiliaed 
ti I'engtUis not nnir^lUnu 3^>.0(.>d, i>r a full arniy eor])®, 
which is ctupUkycd in garrison the Takii and I Vi tang 
FuPts, llie oily of TieulsUi, and Tort Artlntr- It 
is sijnietiTnes cnlletd tiie Hlack Hng Army, and 
is ci[nip|)pd witiv monluni firenanus, breccli-lumling 
Krupp gtjns. smd ^?nider, l^Ioiciikiss, .Uemington, and 
Mauser rilleS. Tlie pay is also su^a’rior to tliat of 
iJir iJiiimer Anny; for wJiereaa in the latter a 
L-ovulry soUiur receives only lOif. aTUontfi ait<l fumge 
allowance, mnl Llie foot soldier 1 h . it tuoutU and 
rations, the Tienlsm privnle reewivTi* L'm. a uuiiith. 
If iUiT real business ret|nires to lx* (U>ne in tlie 
polUttu province or neighl>nui'1n)od, it b to tiie 
Tientsiti enntingent that reerjurec is tnailn. This la 
the total land uniay of Ohiiia—on a pence fiiottug 
not nnire tbaii 3(lfi,0bil, tm a war footing aboni 
l,<iDU,(JI)li nien—^iiut is catlud U|4t)n tu garrisoii urid 
defend an Empii'C whose area ie one-tliird of the 
whole o| Asia und half as large again an Enrope, Ainl 

T/fK iiO.CALL£7> AWAk'^Xryff or CffIXA .l-'il 

wln>^ |H>jniliUinn is liitlf of ilit; total of A«ia and 
i.‘f[uivaluiii 10 tlie wtiole of Eiiroiio, 

So miirK for Uit? men. nnumrieiilly cotiwidered. Tl 
L% «-)ieii we apiirojkcli lUo ^^ 1 U‘?^ion of their dlstaidliie, 
traiuoi", and jsiill more when wi? 

1*^*^*“ ftjtamine their ofliem and leaditio, that the 
trtio vahif of the Cliineffe army enmr^ps. The China- 
wan Imw iiiaiiT excellent qmditiefi as a soktier. s\z. a 
sphiiiilid physique, tmtiiral dociliiy imtl sobriety, eon- 
shleralth* iiUolijgen<!ei,audirreat pwers of cmluruuce, 
Thf sum of these nequirtimenfs does not. bnn:- 
ever, necessarily muhe a lirat-rate fioliuitg-wiwhhiL-, 
ludifTeixmee to ikaJh b by no weans iihmtical witlt 
real bravery; animal ferocity is a very ciiHiTeiU thing 
fr<jm moral courage. Of disrtpUne in iho highest scribe 
the Chinese luive none? ami no arms in the worhl, 
sluifllwl out ftxiiii the arsenal upon the declaration of 
war. like cards from a ]wtck. nutl placed in unM’ained 
hands, cun make them follow leaders who are nin- 
compoiqis, or resist an enemy whose tactics, except 
when it ixmies to getting tiuliiiui a mud mrn]>!iri 
t lienujelves, thev df* not nniderstami. They have fu> 
idea of marclujig or skirmishing, w of bayonet oi‘ 
musketry practice, ’I’lit* only recruiting test is the 
Uftitig to the full Mretch uf the arms at>«ivo rho 
himil of .an iron Lmii% frimi ilio ends of which -ai'c hung 

I wo stones, weighing stone the pair, rheir drill 

i? a $nr( of gv til mist i I* iJOrfonnance, juidiheir ordinary 
weaponi* are lufredhunes, spears, battle^ves, tridents, 
ntiil Ih.>ws and mrowjf, with an ample uctft.iiupaiilmcnt 
of hmuiei's and gtHigs. Bille# of oltsoleie paitern|. 



iliinVUauil in Eiirtipo, ant* tUalt.^ 
ml lo ttioSL' who are uii aeiiv'e service. TJieee lunl.^ 
iheir aiumaniiiou arc mostly worthk**,^ frinii age. 
the weitjion of the iiinjority is, Iwwi'ver. an mniMii 
matcliliK^k, of which Uio moat familiar pat tern is the 
jiayiif, which rcnoircs two mpn to Hre U. On aiiiHHjt 
any day in Vckhtg Oiu Mairchu garrison may he 
seen engaged itt archery pnietice undcir I he walk, or 
shooting with the siime weapon, while at fall gnllopt 
at a straw dijll iivjirk up in it djieli. In war there 
no nuityt cither of aduuulst ration or amiaujent. 
Tlieru is no trrgftniaed tniiuiport. service or commis¬ 
sariat mlumn. A inetlicnl or amliulanre service is 
also unknown. Tn the fight'uig against the l'tetii;li in 
Tongking the mett of the same regiment had dilTereiit 
riiles, itud An even larger ooiirhsioii. of cariridges. 
To a Chinaman all cacrridgeB are alike; and what 
with tlio^ that were (do large and ilnwe that were 
too «inall, ami those tliat jammed nud Could not lit* 
exiractml, it may be judged what amount of success 
aittiiuh.d (lie lirvng. 

All (hese drawbacks or deiinqiicneies; however, 
shrink into notUiugness when tsontpomd with the 
»*«« emwiiitig Ijatulicap of the native ollicer. 

In many parts of Aiia I Imve had ocrn- 
eion to observe and lo corimmin upon tlie strange 
theory of tlie seiejiCe of war (fMnifiiietl nppa- 
rently to the East), which regnmlB ilie 
<tf an army ns wholly Independent of its leading. 
In Chiim them k a special rbaj^>n for this phe- 
nemetion. There, where all distiticdon is ideuti- 

Till- An'AKsyhve op c/ilya ssa 

' fil'd nnth fanilliuriiy witli the daHsics^ aiid depetiiU 
- Mpoa hi a wmpetUivr e2c3iiuifiiitioti« ihe 

miliUitj pmfiiijsiQm which requires lui eucli tnjjniu^, 
is looked upon with cotitompt, aiut attracts onlj* 
ijiferiur men. In tJie bulk of the anu)' (I except the 
Tientsin anny eorpa) an officer still only requires to 
qualify l)ir pas^big a standani in archery, in fencin'? 
tviih sivonls, ami in certain ^ymimattc i-xerdses. To 
the aniiie cleeph’ embedded falhic}'uniat he aitrihuted 
the oollatero] npiuion tliul n civilian mnat i»o nmeh 
better htted to coninsand :i Uattalioii tliaiv a luilituiy 
man, liccaiise he ia supposeil in the eoimso of his 
i^tudica to have read liomctlimg of the art of nar. 
And when we e^aniine wlmt tlm art, in its literary 
presentation, iif, we find ihat the standard mUlUtry 
work* iti Uhiiia am some 3,00(1 years old ? and iluit 
the auth»->rity in highest I'epute, Suiet'^r Ky name, 
solemnly rccotiimends such luancEiivros as theau r 
‘ *>preafl in the camp of the citemy voluptuous 
musical airs, so as to sottei) his heart —a dictum 
tvliich might have commended itself to riaio, but 
would liardly satisfy Vtm Moltke. Tlie ilritish army 
(xnihl not Ijc worse, nay, it would 1 m; far lietter Jed, 
were the Coiiimauiler-uj-Chief compellud to be a 
Senior raugier* and the Qeuoruls of division drawn 
from Senior Classics. It cannot be considered sur¬ 
prising that the Chinese oHiccfs so recruited ami 
thus taught, destitute of the slenderest elements, 
cither of military knowledge or Gcientific trafiiiiig, 
shun Id earn the coniempt of their followers. Their 
posts are usually iici|uired either by favouritisin 



or piirchaae. When it is iidJed that iliev are aJiw, 
ns a rule, both foirnpi And (uswanlly ; llnit they 
stint ilie weti’ti rations atnl pilfer Uiei? pay? at'd 
timi when an euynjierootit takes plAee tliej’TOinmoiily 
Tuisdirert it Iroai a sedaii'Chair in the rciw, we liAve 
iho Wst of rejisoiifi for cxpeoiing iinifonn and syKt<?* 
iiifltit' disaster, Tlie General oiTieer is seldom (tlien? 
have, of course, l^eeii remarkiihlr exeepltotis) uiiy 
better than hia subordimie ; In warfare there is no 
siojrle mivving spirit or phut of aitnpaigu; iind oit 
the field of battle eadi t'orntnandiT acts with irre¬ 
sponsible light-heartetlness for Llmsetf, and yearns 
for the inglorious seinirity td the rear. 

It may, howi>vt?r, be thought that ill Ute occa- 
aoiml employment of Europeao officere some sort of 
Einrf^ gnarantee is providefl agahtsi the imivennil 
ftAdun j>ruvalence of this huge scandal. Ti is with 
no such iutention that China hires the brain or the 
e:s:perit!nce of the foreigner. She is ready enough to 
enlist ami to pay for tbein, ^Terhap m a liiph rate, in 
the initial stages of a imliuy of military or naval 
recoustmuiion i but she is twi jealous to give him 
the power or the chAnee to which he isc-ntltlcd; nml, 
like a Eueked orange, she thnws him away as soon as 
she has drained liim ihy. Iti stitdi a manner lt;is iJii< 
treated both the iLHgtish officer, Captain l^ng, who 
pros'idwl her with tJm mideus of a powerful ra¬ 
il rgauised and the Oennau otiicer, CaptAin von 
llaunekeu, who has for years l^ecn engaged in forti¬ 
fying her wastB niid reconstituting her nrscuals. 
l^he to the foreigner as h>ng as shu has 


&otn€4li[ii<; to gain from bira j but li«r inordiruiti; 
conceit prc!i4^ntty rr^jL^rta Itaaift miil a (*liinaiiu<t] U 
apjHituiti'd to ^loiitinue, otip miglit roilier «ny to takfc 
lo i.1jo lalxirious ctfbrls of his preUweswr. 

To clt’biils must be ailded the fact tiiat tlit* 
anutnil ouiltaty expenditure, uv periutpa t sliouhi 
niitier fiJiv wasio, of Clilna, is es[iii]ai;e<i at 
between 15,01^,01)1)/, and 20,0011,000/. 

But it may 1 h! '^i<U )he c,'ise tliat on 

several oceaaitViis I luring the Imi thirty years, r.ijf. in 
the Eitpprei^iott of the MohAinincdaii recoil 
■“*'*“* in Vutman, in tlje rt^covery of Kashgar, atitl 
ill the Friineo-CliiiieBe vciir, Chma sltowed a miUtaiy 
capacity which would render her anywhere a fonuid- 
alile tidcersary ? J^ucU, aoi luiiiaiurally. Is her awn 
coticlusiotL. But thifre are qiialifviug consiiliiraiioiia 
that, must be borne in mincL TJie Mnssultnnn up¬ 
rising, if. is true, w.'ts qiudled, but tUiK was UJaiuIy due 
to the deplorable tactics of the insurgents. Bastern 
Turkestan was won back; but oitly )«cau«r, after 
Yakub lieg had Ix^n got rid t^f by treacheiy' and 
puisoii, liic life audsuul of lire rebelliiin were extinci. 
In the Fnjndi war, which w claimed na a victory,by 
both parties, t.lm ('iunese pride theiiuielvea gn^ttly on 
havniig successfully resisied the ridiculous Frciicli 
dutiKUids for an indiiiimity of RbbbtMIIH)/., on having 
repulsed the attack on Fonutwia, and uti having mode 
])oace after i.^igson, i.t?. in rim hour of temporary 
triumph. Everyone knows, however, that, had Cluna 
licen able to contirine the struggle, she woidd Itaye 
<Lone so; anil that she eagerly seiitt.>d the opportunity 



ft»r 10 terms. The French coniitiitted eTerr 

coQceleulile lilutuTvr. of strtkitjg ut Peking, 

ivhicU is the onlr Tvay to hritig thi> Cliiiieee Govcru- 
ineiit qukklT to its knees, tiit-y condnctect '» foc^lish 
campiiigu iu Tongkhig- under a detully eliiiuite, wUlt 
a viisljy inl’erior force, jiitd in a eouiitry Utterly 
uiisiuietl to Enropean warfare, uaraelv, ricf-fields 
imerseclcd trilh canals, or hills mvercd wilh dense 
covert. 'Hie cjunpaigii alTordefl II Hie or tio critfinDti 
of ilic uewlv ei|iiipjteil and fareign^flrijled nnuaments 
of Oliiua; for tliest* can linrdJy Ik' said to have Iweii 
Had the (.■hinese .Ann)* rtallv heen wortli 
vvlial is dainied for il, the French would .scareej)- 
now be comfortably iniiallct;! in Ute lied Eiver 

1>.'I me fortify niv npinioiii iiowo'er—which niust 
in inself be valueless—of the aitnese nniiy, hr citing 
fllvitS™* Verdict of three Fifrojican olTieere, pn> 
.it-duini baWv iHitler qnalUled Fnnu then' peculiaT 
expt.Tiencc* to jiidjrL' than luiy ilirot- other men during 
the IflHt quarter of a century. When war was on 
the eve of breaking out betwwMi lliiasLa and i.'hina 
in 188(1, over the aRair of Kulja, the late General 
Gonloii WU8 iuviled to Peking to give his advice to 
the linperiid (lovcmmem. In a chariteteristii: anil 
ciutepfiken memoratidum to his old fellow-ofllct;r, the 
Viceroy Li, he exposed tiu' utter rotteiiEfcss of Lite 
(Chinese mlUtaTy organisation, lujil strongly advisetl 
them ii> give up playing the gome of scietilifli; 
warfare with foreigners, in which they were sure tol>e 
bi*aten» and to adhere to the tradiiioual irregular war* 


fun' for wiiiclt tlwir ajitiludes Hsjwicmlh* fitted lliem, 
Skiniiisheit its agiiiiist buttles. bretHdi-luailing rirtes 
a^aiti^L big guns, tins was tus mcnto of mlviofc.* 

'Hie la It General PrjeTiUski, the faitiOUH TJnSalan 
expIrtriiT. who s|h’nt umuy years of his life oti i!ie 
„ , coniines of the Gliineso luupirc, uiid Tnudc ;t 

<1ifnenT ^ * giydy of it4 imUtJiry res^Jitiiccs. llms 

suinnieil up, only six years ago, a long and iiitGresting 
essay upon the i.'elesUaJ Army ;— 

' Cliiniit luuler its fni^sflrit. loul for tiwiiy u Jcmit 

day, cannot pfKssibly hope to croUje *m amiy nt all ttmiiar to 
those of l-Iuiopccni Slater- She lacks both tin* mateiwl anil 
tbL* ftpifit. Eueopiaiiis snpjily tlic Clituese with jis many 
arm? ■« tiny plwtiic, Ifft tlu-m itrive Id Imio the ClurLMO »b 1- 
dicrs. lot them ev^en supjdy lemli-fs—aiMt tbi- GliiiJi'sf? WT»y 
will uftvortbek^ss never Ine irmo: than im artilicinlly cPcHleil, 
mecbauica-lly ouitoti, unatablo orgaiiiftui. Subject It but. once 
iH> tilb‘-eeriouji trial of wnr, and Bpecdy dlfisolutioii will ovor- 
tabe it.* 

Tliirdly, I tpiole llu-opbionof 1‘oIoucT Mark Belt, 
V.C., one of the grealfS!, tliougb the mosl nimk-st, of 
living Euglisli Iravelltrs: wlio, after covctrlng 
***'* tliepi'tKligious jouTiiey, SidlUl rniles in letigth, 
from Peking to Kashgar, tliiissomintal up hb impres¬ 
sions rtf tJm Chinese anuy;— 

• A sIulIv Cif CMtiit's intureste, positiou. oiiil niiiTcrinl 
stn'Ogtb, all aloiti^ lier Rintdiia border, wlitrlJjer in Ktudignria, 
or Uonsolii^ or MatHihnria, has Iwl iwe to iMnclnde tlml she 
h&s no njilitflpy .Etmiigth, and must las vaJci'lees to it4 a*- h 
uiilitiiiy ally during the noil several decades.' 

* Thit laamiirajiduni t* rBiiiOfluc«'il in A. <J. llakt'e iffaVy m/ 
Ckiiinr Oonltnt, |i? STP^ JjMittun, LSSl. 

Stndslics differ sws to the csact strength of iho 
Chtciese Xa^'y: Lnit ii£ history jithI ct{itipittchl afford 
an ahnosi precise [mralld to those of the 
Kiivy Army. Just, ns (he dtsosiers of the war of 
iStjiJ tieratded file sumiuous of Europcnii offujors 
io l*ekmg, and a complete schettie of iintiUiT re- 
organigaiioii, so does the modern Chinese N 
fixmi the same epoc:h and events. In Mr. U. 

X, Jjiy, who find btjcn appoiiil^d Ltspeetor cif the 
Imperial Cnstoina at Slianghai before tlie war^ was 
entrusted with the commission to punihaae a lleot 
of sTuaJl gunboats in JCugliunl. ^oiiiinaUy tlietje 
vetsels were to be employed for the proieciiott of 
i-he Ireaiy Ports and tfu- suppressioa of piracy. 
Ihcy were really iat ended for use against the re I at) s 
who had nut yet been subdued. Seven gunboats 
atid one stoTO'ship re bought in Etiglaud and 
lakcn out. But ii|)ou their arrival a dispuli- arose 
l>6t.weuii ifr. Lay luid t'aptaiii Shorard Oshoni twlto 
had been offered the command) an the one hand, and 
the I'litucsD nnthorities <m the oilier, as to tiit 
uppointment of a Chinese collosgue, and ns to iJm 
source, whether provlodal or Iniperialt from which 
iirdt-re were to be received. So long was the scpiabble 
prf.>triiciod ilmt the ships were never used at ulL mid 
were fiimlly sent back to Bomljay, wliere they were 
soltl at a hi>E3 of hiilf a roillioit sterling, Mr. ,T.,av 
having in the meantime left (he CJiitiese snrviee, 
This unfortunate mtsundersuintlU^ greatly martied 
the naval advance of China, and was thus idJuilett to, 

I wenty^five years later, by the Marqiiia Tseng 

the so^CdUsn or cuika 359 

♦Twicp «JMw t’liim Uns ba^ to lament tfci* as a 

tiiuioiial rabfortiiiia, for tvrkv aiaen tb«ii ehe Laa Uad to sob- 
mit to occnjjatkmB of ter lemtory, wiiicli thv Vlerulopiiieiit of 
that flwt wen Id loivr teinlonsd iliBicnlt, if not impoBiWe. 

Since lUose ilitys. however, and more p&rdcuiarly 
aiiice the war with Fnince, China has bestirred her¬ 
self ill tlie matter of luival etinipment. The 
residi of the Freimh war was the atldition, iu 188-5, 
of a Ministry for the Savy, or iJoard of Admiralty, lo 
die seven ejEi@tbi|^ adiiiinifimidvo departments. At 
Foooliow, Pon U, Tieiiiaiiu Wd Hut Wei, Caotoii, 
Shanglitu, and Port Arthur (Lu SJmiiKou),* have been 
estnblislied i>owerftil arseiiala or iloekycinis* the hist- 
iiajued pkieo being the naval base of defence for 
Peking, Pour naval colleges for the education of 
cadets have btneu started at Wei Uai Wei, Tientsin, 
Whampoa, and Nanking- There is a lorped^vscliDol 
under li German at Canton. Sir W. Armstrong ac 
Elswick has built for them fast cruisers: Herr hrupp 
at Essen lias lurneil out tin? iHfSt h'oiiulmls. Tho 
lutal Chinese fleet, divided into four squadrons, the 
Fei-yaiig, or mirth coast sciuadroiu and the fleets of 
Tbochow. Siuinghid (calleil the Nanyaug .‘fqumlron), 
and Canton, compriaea alamt G5 vessels of war. 
mostly built abroad, and including -1 inmclads. 
Id (-ruisers, am! 17 gunboats, as weU as over 30 
torpetlohoau, and fi floating bniteries. The tonnage 

» nu *ttwkYttrf »1 Pwl AfUmMiow t»« prinrlp*! iwsd rtAiiort ot 
ih» in mJ. Ilw m v.rtu. of 

rL» L ihclr <if «»5. bfti-iD#: BMu«d thp 0 

nnuplvlM in IWtO. Htiit U defe«flwl bj btiUtiljf fortit, WlUt » 

j^Uirtl tit IJOOO mjHi 



of the combinetl fleets is about tons, the 

aniianieni 4fl0 guns, uml the L’Oinpletitent of nieu 
7,000, Tlie usual experbueut of a Kurnpeim eosn* 
TTiantler was tried, with the usual result, expubbni. 
The fleet is now otlicereiil and mamie^t \ry ('binewe, 
roreigoers being rotamed only for Instruetiou in 
gimneiy. electricity, torpedo-practice, &c. No doubt 
the fleet, like tbu aniiy, is, on pa]M:<r, a fightitig force 
of no mean capacity. The question ii», wbelber 
under tiatlve cominiiTitiers It is not likely to proTe a 
greater Foui'ce of weakness than of strength, and by 
filling a prey to the ilnihliiropeaii force that seriously 
engages it, to lend no inconsiderable Licrenient of 
atrength to the hitter, A Further element of present 
weakness is tlw* total luck of ndmiidstrstlve cctUrali- 
sai ion. The Navy is. not properly im Imperiil or even 
a Nalioiial force, Tlie four fleets are Provincial 
squadrons, raised, equipped, and maiutained l>y the 
ricentys or governors of the ntaritime provincea to 
which tlicy are attaclied, Eiieh acts ihdepejidentlv 
in its own area, tliough they am nk>bilised for oum* 
mon evoliidcms eveiy autumn. Fr>r instance, when 
In 188 d the French !jlockadi»l Fonuosa, ibey Tirere 
not opposed by the combined Chinese ileeit but oidy 
by tile Foochow squadron ; and when tbit? had been 
annUjibted. by the Nauying squadron, wbiub UK.ikiist 
plaixq no idea of concerted action being aiiteriiined. 1 . 
There is, filially, in tlie Navy, as b tlie Amy, a total 
want of n conqieient staff. 

Two reflectidmj arc snggesUwl by this i-eview of 
the niiliiary and naval refonns of luoilem China, The 


first h tlm. Unaware that Iter aile gemuiie danger 
ties iipow liar lirul frftnilere, she ifiiiiks anly of 
Tt»t piiTiboaia Jiful maritiino defencst*** and speiiila 
iulUioiis Its fort.ifj’ing Iier const*. Ifecaaso 
Eogkiitl luid France once landed their trcirips at 
Ca'inon and Tientsin, she appear to think that no 
Etn-opean enemy can ever aitaok her except in ships. 
Because the great Towers of Europe art- repreeenletl 
in ilie Far E;i*t by naval Hotillas, she must have nn 
equmdeiit or eiiperior dotilh^ in order to ftitaulate 
the idea of licitig a great mariirme t'ower rtiso, 
ileauwhile, on tlie one hand iio steps are taken to 
combat or excise ilie canker of otheinl corruption 
that preys upm the vitals of bulk services. On the 
other hand, in full view of the bewitched prey» the 
toils are being spread* and from the I'amirs and 
Turkestan and ilie Trans-Amur * w'ill flow itiro K;ish- 
garia, iLongoliju Siitigaria, and Manchurisi the tide 
that wiQ #verwheTm her outlying prtwiiicee, and may 
pt>faiUly not he arrested till it has ai tained the capital 
itself. ’ Truly Q>iem 7?riM vuit j^erdifre, jtritis 

N'everthelcsft, diarespectful lo purely Cliinese avis' 
ccptilnlities as these remarks may appear to have been* 
Ttmoivt- it miisT not be forgotten that in Iter vast 
pSIST''* empire tlhlnm however ill she may utilise it, 
possesses an inuxliauetihle supply of the very finest 
raw mnterhd, so far as mere imminiml h eoncemed, 
in the Ivaat; and that what she is too hliud or uta 

‘ Cliiim him by Tretity mj onua) rirfit nBTisei" A^iir wHfli 

Il,n Itiu 8ha hbH ftflt Fliw™t * •'“S'-- 

ibough its right tank ii *UU mmiiUy ChiJ4S«ii. 

obstmiite to do for hemlfi oihcts, witli a snperioi* fore¬ 
sight ^id stmtgth, muy insist upon doing for tliem- 
eelves. In otlier words, the L'hiiiatunn, wlu> cow fights 
for tlu3 Tartar just na lie once fongiit for ilie Mongol, 
niay one day be persuaded to fight for the BiiBsiari 
also* If iha tiiamiarlii with sj*ectaolesou Ids nose Olid 
a cane In Lis Imtid cancot make a soldier of him* pei - 
haps the Eiiroi>t:aii, drUbsergeant wili, Euder good 
ieaderalup ho eati fight suJlicioutly well, as was shown 
by Gortloti's term, Yalueless, tlierefore, as under 
ogling fotitlitioiw ntnl macagement ive mav believe 
t.'hinesu ancaments lo be, their potmliat value in the 
lianila of another T’ower must not be Ioa( sight of It 
is conceivable licit, so organked mnl directed, the 
Chinese Army and Navy may yet liave a good deal to 
say ill dotfrmiuiiig the flestinios of the Ear East. 

Some Mrriters liave poinied to tlie tentative in¬ 
stitution of a native Press in Ohliia as evideuco of 
Tii*p«- internal feniientation aynonyraous with 
iitCisLs* j-efonu. Xo such hifereniie can with justice 
l>e drawn, < hitside of Peking, where liie ‘ I'eking 
tro/eite' is ,i atriciiy edited Court jonrnaland Govcni- 
moni record and nothing mure,’ lijenaljvejotinialiiare 

’ Tlie Ti-ittijr flantHe^ nhirii !• Oiu ulitort iiam|i«|ipr in thtr wnitrl, 
ill (Prisir Uiiig Atlnlutteil tci ili« littitii dytiirty, wHith ««Wl»diiilttltaA.D„ 
httcii tMiubllyaa (Ifflewl pnMirttiaii, liko ibc JkpndbN O^urffip. but in 
a ion «r mliuAtuftiU or Gnvrrinujint aijfHi, tha of which is 
by tbft Gdyimnucut, »lut > 1 m> HTply rmrt uf 

ibii HintiPiml, Ai uiflli It is MhwiJy olDnU oiwl i* mMiiiuST 

«iith#iJtlis. Ukonln m wmlained nU llw Tmporwl «ct». ijrcrtuDlioiu, 
tkenif* "«aB****. iwtitioii^ ffom iiwviuiiBl gavwiioii. |>roc]atnii- 
tion* of ibfp fEB9w>p. *t„ without may oliiorbtl o.tmififinU fvr 
RTurfo. ll k pot>U*lk«it ilnily, uiil $■ nuul uml iIltcttK^d with at-yh)' 
t* mntM. iiL necy iMui cf ihrt TTmTiro, tii tb« iirtiviiuw* 


oiils' or uiostlv to he fouiiCl Ixi the Tre^iiy roriB. Tlioy 
are utterly unlilte i.he native Press iia it is rapitUy 
tiecyrniiij'' cleYeloj>ed In Japaiij wa it liits alreiiily been 
tleveloped in Iiulljt. Free criiicism, tUe formuiion or 
n:fIectioii of puhlie opinion* an independent altitude 
for these it is v<tiii to senrcb. tlienit sintl ha^rdous 
in I'inno T^’ould be the experimtiii. roUlIciilly ilieir 
(Hllnvra are suflicienilT wise to tender a general sup' 
port to the GoverDment, while the advantjiges of 
publie encomitnii are suffieienily recogtiiseil by iha 
lociil odicials to intluue in some cases a liberal pay- 
m«nt for complimentiiry mention. Outside of this 
harmless divmioti, they serve a useful purpose in 
acquiring leiegraptiic infonnation, in circulutiuj^ 
general news, and in caUing atteiilion ui vlBitationa 
siicli a.s fiocxla, &e,, whicii might tjtherwiae be ignored 
liy the oJlieial eye.‘ The total absence of party politics 

tiiLMinuTtlft of |iiiffcfinii mr¥ Miiployddlii 

for lliiHbft wiw caiiuot Hi piufcluiM thv rdiU^H- it i« 

^irrniotl liv Uivaiii of miKidtii mpTiJtJa lif n'OltJW o* wowL 

An OiU^fh iTUMSaU iiT tr« to iwijvis h^x&i t^f tliiil litottnirili 

turtuurifl^ 71 h^r 8i lunLiJt* miil eiioTtrted haiwn^ik Iwiveflp fhint 
Ami Lcu^Ii. of br4;bl (MfMr. to f.irai m ipaiiRe Ktuluig. T-Imj 

vrbol^ IP ronghlj KttiwtiiHl or iiui'b 

\tidtAg folitwl dfrtihlK ih 111# uftual Ikukwiu «Jiiw iweni^ 

W uiijt# of ttutlloT. pa4Tp. boijsjf by reil Uiittii 

ijito AoLimuitUi Encrii ooltiDiii ooiii4tuiH funrtoei diMu^iArf# Ihim 
lop lo bouittoi iritb # Llitiik «puiNi aI tko 

* Tha natiifiP ti«w*ptA^iulr #JHWttriiJ ml SalntCu^hai ■ l]ithiiOVt!r 
lldrty yimrvii^s Juui w»* frtliiiiifuil by lAlmra nt TionUin luid Cnnioia, 
wkMi WIJT^I TwniinaJly iUrtwl by EohoiwahUt in wrkr ui 
xuiml t>ii* rviiily ownoil unrl «uifliMfrt«4 by Chiri^R 

fiinLiilMnng. Thftrt mtm fi^w mvm] CbiitrtJifl tn Hiilijriiaiid?; 

ihrm JU Cwitikp^ ^th # ditily wrculiJioii of O.ttXJ wk: viid dd^ tiHi# 
rmniiy Ikwu ntnrtsHl ml lltyikoWi ITltt hM nativH injssuj k ihv 

* daily u i™kly 

ckiuiin^r ft ckiriiktifiTi of ISim U Miiudly BWWm# % kadijitf 



ill Gltiiiji h Itself a diseonraijeinisit to ilte esiutence 
of an organiseJ the other Itaad, the 

atisencc of so eh a Press is a ■welcome preventive to 
the dissenunalioit of novel or revoUiliotmr)* j<lea?, or 
to the spread uf any propagaiula at whidi the 
(TOfVemnifint wtiuld iix>k askance^ 

(Jliiirn is a couurry of itiLtneiise, prohablr of un¬ 
equalled, natural resources. Her ininenil weal Li i is 
Xdui* believed to be greater Ilian ihat of any oilier 
4iut»r{)OM Ijj Her ports receive '.tr 

diirnse a irada that emjiloys thousands of IctTelsi ntid 
{xuirs wealth Intfi the pocketo of half the nations of 
Eurrqie. Her people are gifterl w‘Uh infinite per- 
severance^ Industry, and sobriety; tlinler these 
circutti3taiiccSj one might expect to find iiaiive oiiior- 
prtfie everywhere active and trhiniphawt, and to see 
ilie resources of tlie country profitably exploited by 
hiM* own tuti:xens, 'Fhe vtsty reverse is the spectacle 
before us, Of the many well-stotiked mines, only 
(he coaS-rnirK?s ne^ir Tienisin are BnocessfuIIy worked 
by a native company (under foreign mauagmiient). 
Among the hinidrcLlfi of merchant steamers rarryitig 
loaded bottoms from port to port, only thtrtv (ami 
those (lUlcered and engineereil by foreigners^ fly the 
flag of a native eoiiipony worilt raeuMouing, that of 
the Ohiiia Mei chants. And hi both these cases the 

mUoIb. TOfl «■ ITO pttliUEd Milt kaclkt fiii'levM, ^viiiH of officini itocrees 
wil nitwm, iHilici! nnii's; tolofjpraui* of Kiiroiiaii tneni 

Uti'^ioomiisiit*, Oullieoll]i>i- lt»».i tLu Tiwumh 
llu liruma « fllW, ’rh(t p«0|Jb lillfi ui4 KMlilftl, uhisb u« 

iiiiii»(ii,jiija tlidr ytni rkuin, wJilcii un mwiiUit A>|-imbtieuioD : bvt 
ta iroaoral uawc tb«y 


psfjept'ion 16 merely ilue to ilie fs'ct tlial ofBciaJ 
patroiijjjje is coucemctl in pri>niot3tig tlie veutnrei Aiid 
thnt the money of emiiieDt nmntlnrins b at slake. 
The Viceroy U Hung Clmngwn'tmrted to bt? beUmd 
the Kaiping Cwd llmmg Companr. He It was who 
secuieil for tlu> Lliiua merchants an Impfrial suUsUly 
aud an assured revenue in the freight of the triTmte 
rice. Quite lately a fresh boimly was given to thym 
in the aliape of a reniiSjjion of tniport duties lo Tiativn 
mci'idiuuia shipping Ijv their vessels, and of cnstoms 
e^miiiuthin to native oflifdala travelling in them: 
but the discovery lieing made llmt these exemptions 
ciiniititilted a breach of ArlhJii HI- of the t.iunmer" 
cial Treat}- coududed l>etw<>en China and tlie l-nitod 
States in tliey were rescinded as the result t-d u • 

protest from the Rrillfih Minister, i etin the oases of 
both these etunpiinies I have heard that iho profits 
are not what H\ey might be, and that slmi-eholders 
complain of scanii accounts and of iiifrwiuent and 
arbitrary tltvidemh. In fimt, as a commercial speca- 
latkm, the Clnna Merckmts' Company b said to be u 
fiiiiure.' AYhat, tben, is the secret of ihb par^yab 
that would seeiu lo liave overcome the energies ol 
Cliiiia just at the very monienl and in ilie verj' direi’- 
tion where they might U employed to such obvious 

Tlie answer lies in llie immeiuoriiil curse of 
Oriental countnes, the trail of tlie serpent ihm is 

I li la ywy lUflfliunt trilh lltn Cliiiia uwTeliant* nf ITimaJiaafl. whu. 
f™, lo iKvtut «u1 Hiiiir wplUl withiral of at-vflnaniun 

int^rfurouc^ «r 1»W “ llowilu wi Danerw, to 

6i3i4»ftpor<?, iMiil 



foiinil evcrj-wliert* from Siamboul io Pckiri^^—tJia 
vioious incubtjs of oIHimiiILsiu. {»iramuuntf solfiaht 
^ofiiineeriDjrt arnl ixjrrupt. f>isirust yfprhvttc 
mtt'rpniiu is rfnited in the miutl tr.ttiicEl up 
to believe that the Oov^ninieiil is every tiling niid 
tile Uiilividiitil notliuig, Tlie I>on^ii may rot and its 
fruit may never he gttme^■l^d sooner tLan Uint. the 
spoil ^hotild fall into any Ixit t^fficial fianils. Sy it 
haa always been, ami 50 it must. coDtluue itt be. 

all Viceroya far^iiglttetl and all Tnantlariris 
liberaUtniiuied* there wouhlhelesseause for reproach, 
lint a system that has prevailed for twenty cejitcirlea 
does not easily ixrliis tlie rigour of its bonds or admit 
of i:onvert3 from its own raiiks; and those who have 
IxR-n bred iind nurtured in a satisfied i.wilight do not 
relish the senuatiou of n siuldeu introduction to the 
nooTitido blaite. Let mo give an iltusinitioti of the 
uiiuinor in which tlds system aficct-s ihu developineiit 
of the iifitioiial resom cea. Kear to Keluiig ui Formosa 
are stmie rtoal-minea- 'Diey were opened in lim 
place and workwl by private imlividuab. Then the 
IhxiTrnoial Oovontmeiu mardieil in, almi up ^11 the 
private mines, and t1 ms procured for Itself a monopoly, 
wliich it procoedeil to develop by sending for Euro¬ 
pean plant and Ihiropean earnneers, Tlie nest step 
wa.H 10 appniiii a Chinese suptrin ten dent as colleagtic 
to the foreign eogincfr; with the normal result of(l) 
fnctiom ini) dismissal of the foreigner, (5) resiimptioti 
of the mine by the nativtis, (4) complete coUapso and 
eWre of tlie pit,. ut« o„ a Bwig, £„a„ci„| 

syndicate ofTerctl to take over the miuea 011 favonrabJe 


terns. Tau^lil by ailrersky, iLt* rfotinpial Govern* 
riietil gladly acceptwl? but ibis lime die Central 
Governnuiiit refuaatl. So the niiiit’S lie idle; ami 
this is tho way in wbleh liiiiigs are ilone In (lilim. 

In n;ality, iherefore, I he instUmlon of wlii(.'h C'hiriJi 
is most prutid, YiK. a lettered bnreamjracy, is the 
tvWm- soim:e of her greareat weakness, lliu* 
cated upon ii system wlucli. has tiol earitnl 
■for ages, stufTed with senseless and mipracticable 
precepts, discharging the ctrenioiual duties of hk 
ofRce with it niechniiical and servile acotiracy, the 
victim of incredible superstitions and sorceries, but 
arrogiuit with a pride lieynucl hutuEiu coneepiton, 
furnished with an insulHcdeui salary, and therefore 
coinpellefl to peculate and plunder, the (binese 
mandarin is (’bWs worst enemy. All private enter- 
[iritie is killed by ollicial stratigidatiori; all public 
spirit is extinguisheit tty olliciul greed. Nor, as it is 
the ambilion and k wdlliin Uie scope of cvcrylKMly, 
whatever bis class, to bet'otne an onicial liimselfi is 
there anv order to wliich we <;an look For success- 
ful protest. Tilt entire giwortilitg cla^s, it-^clF re- 
cruiled from the tnaes of the people, i* interested bi 
the prestM'vation <jf the stutiis fhe forces ordi¬ 

narily enlisted on the side of change, those «d tii*; 
/iVmtri or etudent class, arc mure roneiionary irt 
Chinn than any other, seeing that, unlike Ibissia— 
where they are trampled upon and ignored—and 
unlike India—where they complain of inadequate 
range for their ainlittiofn -they already, by virtue of 
their degrees, hob I die keys of power. Neither can 



U be 8np]»>s«i1 vUli a pcoplt’ so obstinate aud 
w vain, thcce is thi^r smaUest itn^imtioa aniotig iTie 
lower strata of atciety to thoto where their leuilcra 
decTint* to advwure. both lirti] tm equal ehanu in 

Wlial the foreigner tvahst^s only dimly and by 
slow deftn?oa h tlmt tlui tlduanian has not the 
’■lightest desire to Imj reforined by hint: that 
he di$[»utee in Mu tluit reform b refttnii; and 
that, no I lem« Hist ration in the world vriU convince 
liiui of thu pxialence of a flaw in liU own iln-oiy of 
natioind |K;rfeciitiiL tie pottita to a ttoventineiit 
itilliutelv more staldc f haii that of any European tiutU' i 
to order obdervcil, mid to Justice eOeciively, if rmigblvt 
ndmirtiuii-refl (the fact that rehelJion i-inmterB in sonic 
provUice?^ wher« olTicial euil>»‘i:zletintnt in times of hard¬ 
ship rednves tho people lo scmi-starva1 1011.1101 Iniiug 
of aiiilirbully wide appljcattmi to cUeturb the peneral 
projMsiiioii); he cluiing a civilisaUun ihai was nl- 
rcjidy ill a Itiglt piudi when HritoitH wore wamleruig 
paitited hi tho woods; he boasts of a eiale of ethics 
equal in wisdi>ro and lunpliiudc 10 our own; he 
ulisorves fi rcHgjun which, while it kHtches the ex- 
ttiTuics of ]nii-jiy in doiitrine and of degradation in 
pratrtict\ Is yet at-cnmnuidaled to every altnatiou in 
life, Slid cmhlcft hhu, subject only to the lest of duti¬ 
ful olitervatice. Up puss with confidence into a future 
world. And he turns romid to u®, and, wkh a 
panlonable self-coniidt'nco, asks what wo have to give 
him coniparctl with these, 

Thi* is one aspect of tin- question—namely^ tlto 

THE SO Clf^f^££> A frAlLSXmf Of Cl/IJfA 36S 

fjjiiv^Ince<l and embitierwl rcstUtAnco of all classes to 
reforuj, and tlie fear that fefonn, if fonied upon 
Him llijetn, nmv (lialodgc of rtia foutidaLloji- 
Stones of that fabric of i^Uich Utcy >irv so 
dxirrhitaiiily proud. On llje otLor biuiil. must not 
Binne be act ac bed to ilic ooiisiderniion—wbicb 

til tJie Eimvpeuii mind npptnrs bo irresistible—that Ibe 
first toulativo steps haive ftee.n taken in a forward 
iUreetion, that the awakening trumpet has wutuleil 
ttt Cliiua's cnrs, and ilmt once embarked on tho path 
progresst she ia alrandy launched upon nu in- 
elLned plaite where it will tie iiiiposstble for her lo 
stop ? This la a phuwible ami a pretty picture, iiiul 
even its approximalo TcalisaUon might eitaljle the 
Chinese—a nation superbly gifted atnl ]j-,mse5siug 
uiiii|ue advantages of chtiraoter, country, and clime— 
oijco agam U> repeat the history of tho nge* tniil )o 
overrun the world. Is this the future thni awainj 
them 'f Is tins tliu fiite that tJircatens usF 

1 tnust have arguwl feebly if I have not alrujidy 
ahowu timt in my jndgiiicnt this cuniiuiiiRiAtinTT is 
not either to be ejtpefltcd nr lo lie fearetl. 
Kofonn, it is true, cannot nliogeliier be 
buetled out of ilie dwr. Ti* force is like tin- wind 
tluU Idowetb wlieru it lintcth, and can penetrate even 
througli tlie etiiiiks and cram lies. Douhtle® in time, 
as from different i[uai1ers foreign, milwaya touch the 
i-otidtiti^T of China, tuttivo rail Ivan's will be luadt.- to 
meet tht-Tii, A dpy will come when miniai will be t-s- 
idoiti-il, a ih'i'eut oiimmcy adopted, amt river? will 
be it£ix*tgai€Hl by steantf'' Keiths, though 0iinn may 

3T0 CmXA 


bo ov'cmtiL, and may ewn* as ahe lias uftcii iloiie 
before, aceejx a obange nf maattrBj is she iikely to 
Ix' submergotl, Slie is for erer pro<»f against sudi a 
fat* by tieasoTi of lier moral eJiaracter. her swarming 
milliortit, unci Lor terri t oriul estont. Tiio continued tm- 
tioncJ existence of the Yellow Tbico niav be regardoil 
asassnroci. But tliat the Empire which in the last fifty 
years lias Ickst Stain, Burma, Amiam, Tongklng, anti 
part of llnuthuria, and has alreaily Ftwn a forcugn 
army Ui Peking; whose standard of civil and political 
perfection Is snnuued tip in the siaiioiiary idea; 
which after half a ceniurj^ of iiilerennrsp with minis¬ 
ters, missionaries, atid merebants, regards all these 
as intolerable nuisances, and tme of the uiimlier with 
peculiar aversion; which only adojjta the lefiaons ibat 
they have taught her when the snirender is dictated by 
herueoessitles nr her fears; and whjf'h after a t wenty 
years* observation of the neijjhbjiiring example of 
Japan, looks willi increasing contempt upon a frailty eo 
feeble anti im|Wtuotis—lliat this Em]nre is likely to 
falsify the whole: course of iis Jiiiiiory and to wTemdi 
round tlic- bent of iu» own deep-seuted inolinations* 
BUDply because ilm shriek of (he Rtc,atu-wliiatJe nr the 
mar nf cannon is beard at Us gates—is a iiypolliesis 
lhat iguc.res the accuinidutLHl lesson? of jjolitical 
science ojjd postulates a revival of the age of tiiimch'S. 
I have iiuri'afcd the stages of Cldna's r:irily mlvancp, 
and I have shown how far she lias condescended to 
Tfform, But k reiiiains a UR'clianimii and noi a 
moral advoiu'e, tt is an artlfiohd a nd not on organic 
refoniL She may still continue to play an ImpioTtatit 


part ill U»t? developtueut of (lit* Asiatic world. Her 
Iianly wtoriista may sail to oveey q^uarttir of the 
Easteni heioispliere, and by their frugal toil may 
euriiJi themeelves, while tliey fail to agj^rmidise her. 
llut^ imllliuaHy iit>eakingr her star ia a waning anrl 
uoc a rising orb. Sedit estef tuiittuiw sciJUltii is the 
liwit of Oliitta & owit ospirattone, It may even turri 
out t4> be beyond the limit tif her poweml' 

* Thit preblviu k faxilicir dkuiiEud lu chipier 

■ »3 





Tuntnin FoUIgio pMuii nuidero nuUnruiUi 

Lv{MiXTtii», D» Return Xntttrn, Lllii 1> IQI. 

Tx A previous ubjipter I Itave said srtdietlimg aliout 
Huddhliitu ia Korea» ■wiiere it is tlie discreditwl but 
"not wholly dlsavuTwed sorvival of a once 
BtuMiiiwi creetl. I propose in tliis diapter 

to deal with liudtUusm in China, where, though 
flGcadcnt, it. is still dominant, and where the ejqilana- 
lion of its indueude ptovidcs a clue to many of the 
dark riddles of tiie naiiotial character. Iluddhlsm in 
t?hina is indeed a curiaus mixture of |)erishing titcs 
and popular Biijjerslltioua. There is probably no 
■.’oujstrj’ \vbci“e there are fewer evidences of rdth or 
devoiionT or where, on tho oilier hand, an apparently 
doomed system diea so hard. Prom the a(|iialid and 
dilapidatei] ronditlodi of the temples, from the Indif¬ 
ference and irreverence with which tlie worshippers 
etitict their nftiiiclal ftarta, and from the nitsembk 
BtaUu of the priesthood, it miglit be inferred ilxat the 
days of Buddhism were iiutiibered, and that a rival 
eysicm wns driving ii fi?om dblionoured shrines. 
Such, hovrevor, would be a most superJiciaLview of 

/.V aii.YA 


the (UbW, Tiiis iiij’stericuts rfiiigiou, whit'li Iias sur¬ 
vived the vaiitid uompetiLioD of R;iti«iiiilisin. (.*on- 
fuciaiusm, Jtud Cerentcrmalistn, and tvkivb has nn 
atititiuitT tioi far short of two thtmaand years in 
diiiia. Is yet the favourite cree<l of o. onnmiutiiLy 
itumbenitg S5tKOOO,OfJ(3; and despised and dcfiene- 
rate tUoti^li it he, it wiU stm lift its head and eudle 
its serene Ilii<hlhaHaxnilo long after its purer and 
prouder and more splendid counterpart La Japan Jins 
cniTTihled into the dust. 

Tile exphumtiou of this strange nuomnly Ls that 
the popular faith has with rare discretion intertwined 
tt> itself %viiit Uie j>t>pular suiterstitious. Partly 
creating and partly awommotlaijng itself to 
them, BuddlM.<;iit, involved in the sacred ties of 
AlicesUtr Wiiraiiip, and itUitnitig to dispense tlie 
ja>rtioiiR of another life, has wrapped itself in a 
covering of triple brass, and can afford to laugh at 
its eneiuiee. It bod found die key to tlie inner being 
of ihiR inscrutable people, and, in eecui-e commmnl 
of the lock, takes pootl care that none others shall 
tamiier with the wards. It niay safely be eoutended 
ilmi, were it not for the uneasy anxieiies of the 
ChinLae about tlieir isouls. and the universal and 
clierlslnd cult of the 1^1111 lily Tree, ami for the part 
played in relation to both by ihe Buddhist priest- 
iioofl, Chinese Boilflblsin would long ere now have 
languislmd and disapjjeared* Dogmas, tenets, riinal, 
ami liturgy in iheiuselves lire of small hit port to tlie 
Celestials. The stately (reretnomal of the offieial 
creed* the intellectual aadums of Confucius, ihe 



paiiile<t tnmge-woTslnp of the Ttuthlhbi lemplo, itie 
tiiyisiiciaui of the lintlontihjtj, or seot of 
piTOiiuce little ijenujiiuiiit eirt-cl iiptm Uieir PtoUil 
iiiiaigiiiatiLonH. 'llie l^eautifuL teaching enshnned in 
thf aacrei^l writings as they came innn Intliai the 
jn^cepls that minle iviiiu* lives niirl hroaigiit tear¬ 
less ilcaihs, tiiat almo&T. C'hrlgtjauLied itlolniryt rmil 
might have ri}tteemi>d a world, have long ago tlieti 
(I own kilo frigid calcnlatiotita, tain dating in oppejsite 
columns with mathematical nicetv the credit tmd 
lU’iMt accQ utils of (lie ortliodox disciple. 'IlrLis on 
the one Uaml the people are phtnged in ghxtiuy dread 
of ft hercJifter, determined byiiie exact hiAvs of mural 
relrn>utiuii; on the oilier, deeply emlteddwi in the 
apriTiga of tlioir nattu'c, is a fanatical attariimeui to 
their Inires ami Penaics, and to the worship of the 
dead; and hence it comes aboii) that the teUgion 
whicJi, whatever its shoricontings and rTtaqoaUfica- 
tious, miuiRters thejr reqnlreinents in linlh these 
i-espects^ is simtdiajieously derided ami advocated, 
ritfglected and espoused- 

Xo better itlnstriiiion of this anotnalouf; state of 
itffiiira can lie given iliaij the condition and public 
c„=i«. estimation of tlic Butldliipt ntoiiks. A 
«pi^Qt Stranger will at first l}e puzzled liy the 
opposite verdicts which he hears passed 
ujion ti)is class of men. He will hear Uicm denouncwl 
as con tempi iblfc oiitcasis, as pariahs from soiiiety, 
who have forfoited all the ayntpntides of htimanity 
by entUng themselves atMfi from all Imman ties. 
And this ifi a sentence wiiicb to some extent fitnls its 



oorroliorMioa \n their forltim aiul clecreiiit. aitj>ear- 
^nce, ill llwir cheerless iu«il« of life, anil in llieir 
ilivorc'e iVoiu the liauiits ftuJ liotiies uf niea. Oti the 
other hiuid Ite ^ Uiniid these ikseitisede-viJe*supported 
by fjopultir coiitriliuiious, pecruited l»y voiimtary 
adherents, aud engaged iti the tlischar]ge esstijiiud 
rites at the most solenm uioments of life aud death, 
and ill tilt service to die dead, A groafier ■w.'flnibg 
I'OutrmlietUiji can scai'cely be LmaginetL 

Atid yet k is an identical feeling which is partly 
respunsible for buth altitudes, and whidi prepares 
II. for these unhappy creaiures this opposite 
mijtuire of toleration and contempt. The 
peculiar sailluity of Ihe fninily relattona is one cause 
Ijoili of their ostracism and of their employment. 
'I’ hey are needed to dischiirge on behalf of oiliers the 
very obbgalions which tliey have renoiiuftKl tiiem- 
eelvea. Expelled from the world becuuae they liave 
ignored tlie family, they are brought back into it to 
testify that the family is the drat of nil earthly iif«. 
C’jiti any thing more strange be conceived? It is a 
creed whose opfestates arc enlisted as ila prophets, 
uiul whiMW perverts become its priests. 

When Sakyauiiiiii first instituted the monastic 
order, like Sl Antliony he did not contcmphite the 
creation c>f a priestly <>flice, or the rise of a 
hierartliy. Tim clerical profeseioo had no 
epeciat conneclion in his mind with moiikLsh 
life. The first DmiaiiisL monks, like those of Kgi'pi, 
were pious inou wlio, m punsiilt oi their masters 
leaching that worldly juid carnal ties were Ihu source 


or fill •-''.’iL, aiul the luiuii olistacic to thnt i^crene nltl- 
laile of iouUmjjlwliorx by wMoli ;ibtior{>lioT) into tlu" 
hi|j1ier life cil leiiHijtl] became pissiblor several Uiem- 
eiilves from iheir fttnow-creaturt!>, cwiil tiought remote 
jind untriended retreate for pur|jose 9 of spiritual 
esercise aiifl soLT-morlificailDii, 'rhov were priiiiainlr 
recliistvs ami secotidimly preaubers, but in no report 
priests. It waeotdy in laler limeet as ilie first pal lenj 
was foi^ttei), and accreiious developed by oilier 
coiiRl-rUs ami eireumHiaxiees grew itj*, that the mani¬ 
fold accessories of sacerdotalism, pfirticuJarly among 
the peoples of the nortlx^ tiivirontal and obscured the 
origituil ideal, 

Tim logical cairyiiig out of Ttmldlia’s pm.'epls, 
liowevcr, brought the Jiueliorite into carlv ejiIlTsiotj 
ip \,»^ Ibe most Idolisetl Tmliefs of Chinese iifk 
The essence of laonastteiisiii, viz. (he riv 
pudiatifin of all entUdy conBectioriB, the lifelong 
abandonment of faiher, tnotlier, brollmtis, jjnd sisters, 
the surrender of the coveimiii of wedlock and Lhe 
hopes (>r paiernlty, aliove all the ntter severance 
of the Ikiib from the ancestral trunk, is the very 
autipodi'S of the lughest conception of duly that, a 
Clunesc can entertain. Hence arose the iHshononr 
in wliicli the ruoukish order has long Ixeeii held, nud 
from which it has only rescued its existence l>v 
ahandotiing Its Iruditioiis. The mouasteiy has in fact 
become the very converse of wha* Htnh!lia ever 
mtexidisl ilmt it ebnuld be. TJie secular has put on 
Tim religious, and the iiiotik has saved himself by 
tnnihig jiriest. 


Wi’ !iavt> seen how indispensiible ttw hisministta- 
t.lDiiB in tile worship of tlie OeAtlf luitl in expediting 
tlie liappv trmismigralion of tlie dejjsvrted 

A airttitlwJ » r- t m 1 

inKawuw giyiil. There the muffluieries of tue teiiipie 
are enllisted to fili up the incomplete dredenlTals of 
the dceeased, and U» his passptirtt so to speak, to 
iinailier world. To the more pious or sSuimrstinous 
(thEre U no diatiiielion between tltv two classes in 
t’hina) they are not less oldigaiory as a policy of 
spiritual insurance, to be taken out with precaution" 
my object during Hretbuc- Tlte Cliinaman is a iinii 
Vieliever in the dootririo of justilicailou by works: he 
expacts a reuifn In the next ILfeeaiactly proporflomite 
to the lalKmr and money fie has spent or cnnsetl to 
be spent. In deserving it in ihis- Every mumlikd 
prayer, every tap of the drum, or dash of the cyiubnl 
bv I lie paid hieropliaiil whom he has engngt'd, will 
be rctvarded by &0 mutth taiigible gain in tlie iiext 
stage of existence. Motempsychosis may bring him 
II ivorse or a lictter lot; he may groan in poverty or 
Inll iu weafth; he may sink to hdl or lisu to the 
acme of piinulisal felicity in a future atate. Tlie 
Hudfdiist monks are the wtablwhed mediums tlirongh 
whom his merits may Im demonstrated anti made 
known in heaven; and from whose hands he looks 
to receive his ofliciai diphmia of l■elcsllal prmnoiion. 
The isolation of the novice fn>m all tlm ties and 
eonsolatlons of life may well couflict with tTliinese 
prejudices; for'it is ghastly in hs comph-te- 
rieaa. Not only, aa has been said, dotJS lie 
renounce all relationships ami take vows of celibacy. 


Imt Im: onsU aside even tlie ultii]L<iie ambol of 
ideritiij, hi& own luuite. From thft litmr timt U« 
passes i!ie conveut tluresliobi, Ji« tsi known only by a 
reUjnoii$ appellation* in the very |p?ii£im]D<|^uen.ce (d 
wliidi tUere is something pitifut and absurd. H^ee- 
lorvvard be must shave Itla iiead^ eat no anitnal food* 
drink no strong tlrink. and wear no skin or wooliun 
gannetit^ but only the prescribed veattnetus oi hia 
order* His life is mappetl out I>erore him in a aiertk 
and dolorous ruvitlne. And not only bos Ue ceased 

he a lUKinlier of dfmiestic Bocietj, but ns a unit 
In the civil tonojuioity lie can 6 caj‘cel 3 ' be ifaid ti* 
cxitrt. For lie acknowledges no real alfeghuice to the 
limperor, alladt the latter ia of tho fumii^' of the 
Gods; yieidiiig n dkeretbaaiy ubeilfence to the civil 
authorities^ tvith. whom he rarely comes in tsontnet, 
but conceuiraling .dl tmpaciiy for duty in a slavish 
oliediuiice to the jurisdiciiou of hifl abbot or religious 

The tturiUe exclitamuiess of tluB discipline, re- 
Iiellcut Uioupb ii ia to Chinese ideas, \^’oiilil uol be 
e«i<niitr sufficient to account for the odium lu which 
die JiiDuasteiy k held, were it not for the 
suspicion thjit ita stringency is a riiom, and tliat Uie 
cowl is often either asaumed as an escape from just ice 
i>r worn as a cloak i>f hypocrisy, Ii k difficult, for 
obvious reasons, to dktmver how far the charge tliui 
fn^ntives from fhedmeli of the law aheker ihmuaelve^ 
vdthiu the monaBtciy walU h a true one, though it is 
cmain that when once julmitted the culprit is wife 
from the blooiUiounds of official Tetrihuiiou, 1 Lave 

ifoxASTtcisit ix any A 


even bearf^ it argnefl, by way of r^jnnlialioii of (hib 
ohaiise, that it is only the most alwuidoued characters, 
Ih'cing from the pcnalLies of a capiiai ofTence, who 
U'lU take jidvaiititge of a refuge so di&eretlitefl as the 
cloister; though to contend that a society is not 
rrimiiially Tecniiled because only criminals of the 
decjjeai dye can lie persuaded to attacli themselvea 
to it, does not eteem to me a very happy metiiod of 
exculpatiou, I am reminded by it of an incident 
which I came across while travelhug In Gretwe some 
years ago. The public executlouCT in that country 
was a character btM in such general rletestaiion t hat he 
was forced to live npoi'tj stridly guarded, on a little 
ialatul in the harbour of Nauplia, And not only 
that; blit such dilficulty was ex^ierienced in fdlhig the 
place, that the selected ttandhlate was, us a rule, taken 
fnini the criminal idaf® itself—u bandit being par¬ 
doned in order that be might be utilisctl to cut idf 
ihc heads of iither bandits. At the time of my visit 
one of theiic worthies had just compIcte<l the temt of 
bis ofnee, biil whether owing to the unpopularity be 
had contraoti?il by its discharge, or to tiie distrust lu? 
liiid inspired by his previous habits of life, he oon- 
Kidcr<Hl himself in so much danger that he solvetl the 
problem of Ilia fuinro mode of csiatcuee by entering 
a inonaatery and atsuumtng the cowl. In China be 
wotihl prcsumaiily have taken this step at an earlier 
stage in lus career. 

Wlmtever l»e the truth about the Huddhist 
tnoi last cries in China as Cities ofTRcfuge, and whet her 
the slur cast upon them by that siispiciim be just or 


iiul, there is less rociiu for tlu.ubi tiuit l!itj pattern of 
ascetic life to wbicU the motile u* umlenUoocl to 
CdiiiBHfi aspire* b one to wSiicli he most iiifro- 
tiBfucMv Conforms. His celihncj’ mid lib 

vegeutrhuikm nre freely Impugued. It is perhaps 
only aatuml ihnt the theory llmt. ilriuking'waier and 
vegeinLles at'e teeining with animalcuhe or with tlie 
genus of animal life, sluniiil Ije one winch he iii' 
dlgnanily rejects, seeing thut were he lo iwcept it he 
would he hard put Ui subsist at nil, witJi any rejjard 
a[ least to the precepts of die Bmldhistie eanoa, 
ihii, alas, he is the tlctim of mure suhstantiul 
charges. It is whispered that the odour of meat and 
fish, and the tell-tale fragrance of the opium-pipe, are 
no stmngers to the recluse's cell. 'Widi greater 
certainty he Is accused of iieing dirty, degraded, and 
iyiuirant.of snbsmiug on jdnifl which he does nolliiiig 
tu merit, and prostituting his worship into a 
mnmuicr)' whidi he does not himaelf ccimprehcud. 
If even a fraction of iliese charges he true, there can 
lie smalUnrprisetliat the monastic profession is held in 
so little repute atuong a people who are hy no means 
deficient in their standiirds of the sober moral virtues, 
li itiiiy Im; woiulered Iww a society held iu sneli 
slight esioem, aud olRtring fni few ndv.-uHagc^, aavo 

can i'onlinually 

<«niii. repkniith its raiihs, ITie means of doing so 
are, however, numy ntid varied, even if we reject the 
criiuin.d hypothesis to which 1 liave allinhuh' In 

* U l« •eutVly tq llo HI, in thi* fhab orUiii bvuIii11i!» ur«Ulll 

on Jitithonij, ftuU eye-wiiiiM* ilu Ime jUxilnlwicoij Gmj. who. m lib 


soirt© ca»H*3 the oliiMren are botiglit at an earlv nfre 
from tlieir parenis; though $o strou" b tlie fiunily 
feeling in China that it is only uijder pressure of the 
tlire?.r necessity (hat the average jkiteiifamUinn will 
coitfientf even for a pnctfj to part with his ofisprnigj 
particularly of the male sex, Sotnefiiues the young 
chihlren art- kiiinapped and sold to ilit priesta ; this 
professiou being, however, a dangerous -me, as if 
djeteet£{I it is punishable by death, llore commonly 
iTiimg laths are volnnUrily dedicated by their parents 
ill fuldlment of some vow, or for the sake of spiritual 
gain, the transfer being effected with all the fortnidi- 
ties <rf a iiierc-intilc tntnsaction, Tt is forbidden, 
however, by law to snirender the entire male stock 
of a family to the cloister i and in the event of lliere 
liebig two sians, the younger endy may be sacrificed. 
A second class of adherents will l>c tiiose who. from 
satiety' of the world, or pecmiiani' collapse, or otEcial 
failutv, or material disappoinluient in some form or 
other, have decided to abandon the thorny patlis of 
life, and to seek a safe retrcnl from iU multitudinous 
*:ares. Lastly, tliere will be some* even in China 
and hi the nineteenth cenlutyj to whom n life 
of joyless pcniuice and austerity will appeal with 
irresistibli.' force, as an expiation for the sins of the 
llesh* and a plank of passage into the world to conn- 
—Slid, sorrowful wretches, after the pattern of 

wort: nii ChiHHt pniluntjiiig thu of * tofiR 1 Mb* ™ii' t* 

rliap. iO itwl Iw limuielf *jiw itl tin»« in liwIdhEai fui>iJiul«jiH 

m lUHT^ciur, * l)r<iilit!j'lioi!8« ((©•ppJ'i *nil « wiidKiiiiiiiil loftltfel, 

w)iQ »i4mI boen Rruiaftily winititwl li.*<a*ii*e ht « UuIb uuimiy, 

wliidi want to »w»U tbe eurpOtxlA iwiita* 


?{, who live apnrt Irt isobi^tl liells, pirfomi- 

ing iif:t5 of cnit! ik-if-liiri ure, and mutiibUu|; in 
fioiitude the accents of an iininLolUgible rltiml. 

Tlivir meariA of suLsiaUince are aa vnrieil as tlie 
ratiks fironi wliich flieir disciples are drawn. Tlio 
BeuHqi lama monaatenea noi^seas cindowmeuta of 
properly, principally in laiul^ fniro which 
Lliey derive lui income, inLhtir iu rent or in ilie prodis 
of the enUivation of their own Lands. Voluniaiy 
ilonatiuntt are al£o made to their fiincl^ h>' tLi:*sc who. 
while despising the moiiRJitci^', cauuoi dispense witli 
the services of tint monk. The sale of josa-sticks 
and incense, of gilt paper and tapers, and the fees 
for services, ceremonieg, and jirayers, are also a 
cunsidefahle ftiurce of enuolumenl. And when all 
these fail, there is ad ways liegging to fall l*rtvk up>it, 
die ultimate resort of all creeds in all ages. Tlifi 
liiiddhi.'!l, priests are no amateurs in the art of 
iiietidicaiicy. Someiimfis large bauds of them tnav 
lie i?«jn pairoUing die streets, and by the diBrainkur 
clamour of a gong calling attendnu to tht umnis:' 
takabk* chariitler of the errniid wliich hfts bronglii 
them, down into die thoruiighfarcs of men. iJy ilnjse 
tliFercui niedmcls they manage to scraije along; tln*ir 
liuitdings and tetiipies just Siivcd fiiuju dJUpIdadou; 
their persons and costumes in the last stage of BLt;dk 
ness and decay; itieir piely an illusion, thi-ir pre¬ 
tensions a Iraud; ihemselvea at once llm saviours 
ami die outcasta of sot'iety, its courted and its 

I have visited many Duddhlst momistetles and 

juoxAsr/ciSM Lr culva 

temple# ill Cliin:L; hiuI tmve usually fuutitl tk-il tliey 
♦.tUTospcuHl to tiio following dfiacripiioii- Throe 
Miuwiifo liuiMiiigs are ranged one bohiittl the odior 
twiipk* tcrraoes, and apprcKicheil by A series of 

paved courts and rows of gruMie steps. There ia 
something solemu and imposing m this sucees^ioii of 
structures, each oue properly esceeiUug its prede- 
ceastjr m inagrtificGiioe, and leading on the imugina- 
tioa from what it has already seen to what is yei to 
come. It b an archiiectiiral device Uint we ktiow 
was familiar to the Jetts and Egypiiana, and iliat 
appears to be common to all Oriental religions. It 
is nowhere employed witTi greater uflcct than in tlie 
fipletulid Bmldliist sanctuaries anti royfil niausolewins 
of il apart. 

Thi) etiiraiice gateway, wliich is of the nature nf 
an opeu teuiple, sometimes coutnins a colossal gilt. 
eiiiTiina centre:, representing Mai trey a 

Buddha (in Chiuisc Itlli Po), tir iJuiltlha To 
CoJtiti and on cilher side are the four diabolical- 
looking monsters, with painted faces and llaiuiiig 
cyehalls, who represent thedeifierl warriors appoiuted 
to keep guard over the ehriuee of Ituddho, and who 
syoibotise an abaolttie command over all the forces 
of earth and heaven. Tliey are identical with the 
iluloamjahs, or tireai Kings, of Hindu mytlioIogTi 
who, attended by a IiOou of spiriiuul Iwings, march 
hither and tliilher to the protection of devout dis¬ 
ciples mid the esHCutimi of Buddha’s will over the 
ftntr fiuiirters of the universe. In China tliey nre 
known ns the Tien Wong, One of them* with a 



white fm'e. holds an umbrella, the cireimifereuce of 
which, when o\'ershiuluwe the whole earth, 

and is lord of the forces of thunder and rain. 
Another, witli ti red face, controls tlie elemcjits of 
fire, water, and air, and pUya a ap«:ies of stritjpfd 
instrument, the vibrations of whose chords shake the 
foundations of the world. The third, with a j^een 
face, Itrandishing a nword, atnl the fourili willi a blue 
face, idasping a serpent, are typical of supreme 
ilominion over nature and man. In these figures, 
which are oomiiion throughout Cliiim, and are 
uniform in design and monstrosity, the artist has 
combined the hitleous and the grotestiue in very 
equal proportioria. Bui little skill scents ever to 
have been e.x]icndttl upon their conBimction. 

'Dm gateway Lcails into a spacltius paved court, 
at ttie' up{}cr end of whi'dt, on n granite platform, 
rises the fabric of the Tiialn temple, A huge 
high-pile.had tile roof almost edipfies the 
front and side walls, wliiuh are commonly destitute i>f 
ornatnentatirm. The interior consists a big par¬ 
allelogram, divided br circnlar painted columns into 
Three main and two side aisles. Fronting tlie prin¬ 
cipal avenues are tlie three fniniliar figures trailed the 
Sang To, or Frecibus i hves, which are always fountl 
in tlte churches of IJaddtiisi monasteries, and which 
are incamatiotis rcsimcrively of the past, the pre¬ 
sent, and the future Buddha j or, to give them their 
correct titles, of Saky am I mi. Kunonyin, and Miiitrcja,’ 

» SoMintiiiHiB ill Utb iiJuia liall uf BuiUluiit tfuntikji m Chin* tbi* 
trinity ifl](i%oei4ji Sa!™uuttBi ta tlia ccnti*. viUi twouf faji suubi 

Moyjsricis2f ix cmxA skv 

Tbeie idol'i urt* imdo of clay^ ihieMy gilt, atul 
highly Imml&hecl. TJieir wear timt ezpreesloii 
of ini;ffahlL‘ selT-f'Oinphii'cucy whtct) ‘in coDunoti. to 
tilt* Butltlh.'i all ovier the Ecuft^ hat which, while iu 
Japau it is always snhlinie;, in Chma is apt to 
ovmlip the razor's etlge into the ndiculouB. The 
btxiiea are seated, atiJ rise from tliB calys of a, 
lotus-Bower, Below the inuigies arc altars laden with 
weigh ly brotues, witli big oaiulelabrn, and witli 
censers, a tliiii smoke curling upwards from the 
slow' oombusiiun of blocks of sandalwood, or tV(»m 
sheaves of stuoiddcring joss-slicks stamliitg tit a 
vase. Oil either side of the lateral alalcs are ranged 
along a reciJKS in the wall the smaller gilt figures of 
tilt! Eighteen Loham or Disciples of Buddha, whose 
fealures exaggerate the aillliicas, while they alio- 
gether miss the serenity depicted m the countenance 
of their iUiistriouH master, ^fhe premUing coloare 
in the surfam* (Uc^oratious of the columns and rafters, 
which arc nidety painted, arc everywhere red and 

’Wlien service is going un, the aisles are laid out 
with rows of long, low, shiping stools, upi,>n which at 
intervals resti circular straw liassooks. Baliixu.1 these 
stand the monks inlonhig the words of the prescribed 
iitnriiT, The service is led hv one of their number, 

Kdabki 4 »ihr tha [Miruifvtip rcprEvunt^Hl » mi old imn^ 
on luid Aimtulii, llu^ loi^pcniJ pAtruirrh^ nn m ^rrmiig umo, oti th& 

uih«t.< tJii- two ftapjiorieft (lodliLiAttwiiji^ orpriipi^htiiritvo 

Sin ihn evolntToji of iliAir itiJtnLi^}i^ nmobjoii ilvi 

igtogc: mu1 nf wIukii tlio bscl kno^i is of 

Miutn>y4^ thD BudElbn To 

V C 



who oflicirtt^a nt wn )srikle<l Diat beftn'O tlie fmenl 
altar. Their tlresses ure t:ai rtftur ono pauem, ntid 
im? din'jy io tiie HjEtrfeiue, eoiuiifiting of 
luoio cotton rolxis of two colours—jrellow 
ajid an aslieti-grey—^with tnra-ilown coIIatb, and a 
clasp in Eront. monk h uLloweti, according to 
the flirict reguktion of the canon, to possess more 
Umn one set of garments, imd this be k roiu- 
pelled to wear laith day and night. Their heads 
are dean ehaven, a i^erenionial which Is- jierfomictl 
about twice a wontli. Here and there on the baUl 
craniums one may note «m:dJ dke-Uke eicatnees, or 
stMura, burnt m by the Imnd of Uie abbot alone, as a 
liadge of their sacred coUiug, or in fuliilment of some 
parltcalar vow. ’Uheir limuk are piously folded in 
front of ihem, and the nmk have been sudered to 
grow to munlinnte dimensions. 

The expreaGiim of ibeir fe.itur^ is usually one of 
blank and idiotic absorption ; wiiich is, perhaps^ not 
rgjri surprisiiig, consideriDg that of the words 
•'itf which they iiitone scaredy one syllable do 
they themselves understand. The mass-book is a 
dead lettor to them, for it le written in i^anskrit or 
Tali, which they oan no mon* decipher than fly. The 
words that tliey chant are merely the equivalent 
in sound of the original senietices, rendered into 
ClmiHise characters, and are therefore totally devoid 
of sense. To this stale shiblHileth. or ignorant repeti¬ 
tion of iiiimeouing wuiuIb, they aitribule a vibd im¬ 
portance,* li; is, they point out, tJm sacred kriguagG 

' C«mi«w Mutitui* tl. - = .Um ^ban yn fmy, »■ not ™ii m- 

MOjYA.rmmr /s chixa 


of Ffm 1^1 Le Ijirtliplaco of .HudiUui'l, and is Therefore of 
divine origin and cffivaty, TJic ‘ blt-'ri^ed ivord JIcbo^ 
potiLinia' was md hsow fniught Tvilh coixiolatioa to 
the bicurioua ChriBtkn than is this Etivpid jargon to 
the Chinfesa Ixirute. Or lei me give a more praetical 
illustratsou. Tlie case would lie a eimUor one if the 
respuuses in nti English elinrcb. were to bo uttererl in , 
file Greek toogiie, iranseribed into SAgIbh apeliing 
and gabbled out by illiterate rusties—an aliaurdity 
of wliieh, as a matter of fact, our chant-books ate 
not, altogether giiiltlciSif, eeemg ilnii the responses to 
the CiTiiLmaiiiliuimts in the Cbinniuhion J^rvlce are 
always dewjribed in their pages as Eyrie Eleison* a 
phrase wMch nmst- be gibberish to niue out of every 
ten ehotiaters who read it. The elTent upon a service 
so conducted, and still more upon iho ministraDts, is 
obvious. Xo sincerity iran be expected of a purely 
phonetic devotion- It is niMl, 

And yet we musi not lie roo st-vere upon these 
benighted dkclples of Huddha in the uplands of 
I'^iuid the CHleHiiftl Empire Other diurches ami 
iwfl-wi oLber creetls Imve been guilty of the same 
pretence, and liave foimd ft -saving virtue in the 
tjse of wti iin'kniiWh tongue* Jew and Gentile, 
nirlsiLQJi and heretic* Catholic and ,\Eos]eni, have all 
acti.Hl uixni tlie priticiple that the more restricted the 
umlerstandiiig the more impliidt the uceeptouce, atul 
have imparted ihe secreta of saivation iti accents tbal 
kept them secrets stUb to tm interpi’ciiKl iiuL by the 

th# liiiBiJtf n 411 1 Ibr tliink ibnt ibit^ ^iaII W 

lilf tijBWrMiUcilj 



ear of hui that of faith. To dll’. iLiy lunr 

many of the sin^rs in the dailr of a GalUolie dmrch 
tiiulorstaiul even n fraction of Llie Litin rnanv H'hicit 
they mione 

Tlie murmur of the ohimt is noootnpaiuetl by 
intermittent mnalc from such instruments as the 
Oriental love$. An. acolyte fjtjm (tme lo 
time strikes a tlnim, Uie frame work of wlitdi . 
is of wood, carvetl ami painted to represeiiL a huj^a 
jm^bellied fish. Another tinklfia a bell in the back¬ 
ground. and now ntul then breaks in the dissouAnt 
clangour of a gong. After a while a fresli note is 
stnirk; and .at the signal the priests separate into two 
companies^ and proceed for a long time to wind in nud 
out of (lie lines of stools in a slow and solemn prtj- 
t^essiotu Bai.'kwnrtls and forwards, in and out, with 
tread and ev^en s^tepe they pace along, dieir 
liands clasped, their lieads huweil, their lips still mnr- 
ttuiriiig the Baiuo unintelligible refrain, in which tuny 
Ik' distinguished the eouiide Otnito Fo (Ainitabha 
Ruddlmh tlie repetitian of which many thousands of 
times is pregnant witli salvalion. 

llehintl and boyoml the Main Temple extends a 
second parwl quudronglc, a further temple at tiie 

KtiutBMT wluch very fpequeiiily contains 

innarble or sculptural reliquary, willi 

oltai-s ami sluines, Hereb concealetl some peculiailv 
sacred object, very possibly a tooth of the great 
Buddha himselfi Even devotees have Ijeeu eomiJ- 
what staggered l>y the uilinlier of thifsu well-autlmatl* 
eated relics that arc scattered throughout llie Eastern 

.voxASr/ct.<?M jy cmyA 

world; aiut an. (.‘arly Cbiocse geographer, vi$itijig 
(Jtijrlon, awl being evcrj'wljere slnjwii tontU after 
iiKilJi, ended by solemid^' remarkiiig of his muster, 
'He was !>orij with an excessive tniitil.>er of (eetb/ 

At the rear wid sides of (lie templejs: are the do^ 
ntestic premises of tite monks; the kiiehen.wlierethe 
Th-Hj^ow boiled in » hnge earlhetiware vat; 

the refecttny, where on imrd tables and hauler 
lieneJms it is eom=iumed in silence under the super¬ 
vision of tlte abbot; the guest-chambers reserved for 
the not (.00 enervating eaUTUiimieinof guests; and the 
sIfKfping ajmrtmeuts beyond iheae. whicli can rarely, 
save by a eupbeoiiani, be so leniently dtssmbed. 

Tlie iKHlies of the monks themselves are in the 
greater part of China burned and noi buried after 
death; although in the north this is a jirivi- 
ttwMiUa, resvTved for llie Fang-changt 

or head-priesla. Contrary to the cuatom in Japan, 
where cremation is universal anioiig the common 
people, in China it is rmly the prerogative or the 
■peoiiliiirity of the religioufi order. Each raonasteiy 
contains its and its nimpti ttitniti, where 

are depths!ted the aslies of the dead. Tlie body is 
placed in a silling ijositioii in stn open plank co^n, 
and is carried out to ihefttniace, wliicb is of the sim¬ 
plest desc^ripiinn, consbling merely of a sniail brick 
chiimVier or loiver. standing by itself in a detached 
situntiou. Tliere the corpse is placed upon the ground, 
fiiirrounded and supported by fagots: the attendant 
luoiiks intone a chant; and the mortal remains of 
their departetl Ijrother me speedily reduced to ashes. 



wliUe the smolu* Iroiu the {jjrc escaptis throii^li a 
single orifice in lUq roof. Thus, uupreteoilcnisl^ and 
vilU scant attempt at decorum, tlic mortal coil is 
shniBed ufi^ and itsilbcharged hmtnle goes on his war 
to solve ihe greai. myswtrv. 


■To rcfBie liof«nu Bonittne, mempiita! 

Hir tibi cninli utes; piiriaijue itupouflro 
Porceii^ mbjectist et duliellun fupcrbo** 

ViotjiL. .-UiKiJ n. esi-a 




iVqJmi* fntiwi Ump^wri* ^^sdliuu 
nocl* fpemlt 

lUdo^un ti monAiic itUra 
Fa^ irfl^idiu* Qncnt a<!i^ 

CompcxHirp KHinw, 

Hotuci^ C^rm* 

Ln r.lie two remaining cliapt^r^ I propose to 

sam ap f Ue cohdusionB to wUicU I liave flutleavoiired 
to iMfl tbe readers of tids book, anti, in ao 
far as ther appear to Ju5ta> so ip-futurosome 
an enteriJriae, to cast tlie boroacope of the futurt. 
t (leaire also to Indicate tlie part tijat is now Ix'in" 
played, or is likely hereafter to be played, oti the 
majestic stage to which I liave invited attetiiiou, by 
the Govermiient and the eitizons of my own countiy. 
In this first portion of my study of the kiiigtlonia of 
tlie Far East I have dealt with three f^tatea alone 
Japan, Korea, nud Cliiiia. these, Japan and 
China arc powerful Empires (though ittvety dUTerent 
senses of the tenn) wlmse orbit, in tlie finaatnent 
of nations may claim a certain lisity, and wht^ 
national esistenc'fi, in spite of the fact that their 

ruE /^EOh’i^scr 


poUdcat lioiimi-iries. ure liable lo luodlilicaiimi, is 
uol. likL'ly »t any litiie (o lie Nubiiier^etl Kflrcn, oti 
th® contrary. Ijclou^fs lo a r!a&f of Stalea of vb<»m 
future flxtty is the last utiribiite to be pmlh'uteil, 
anti litifote whotu an atoctotiis course of videisitudeA 
opens. Ihou^li nomiujiUy ttujejKitidetilf her terri- 
tories are oveiTUn by Uie armies i >f her jealous nej^h'- 
boursi though actmully feudatory, she lacks Uie 
moral strengdi usually impartetl by that tie. 

-The superficial features of Japmues® character 
ami [>olitlo are kuovni lo ail. Her nimble-willed 
Hm: httrm ^t^d I iglit-beaitcsl people^ ilie lODiHiitio 

tif ^MpsH ■ # L 

envtroutuent of her past, atwl tiie astotiish- 
ing rapidity with wlilclt she is assmulatiiig all thal 
the West has to teach her, have beeu pruLsed with 
aji indiscriminate prodigality tlmt has already begun 
to pall, ami has not lieeu widmut its bail eflecta 
upon herself. T cotuteive that no worse sen'lce 
coiililhiive l)ecn ten tiered to Japan llimi the piiblh 
Cttiiou of ilie last work in Knglish which has liccu 
dedicmctl to her charms by u weU-kiiown Eiiglbh 
writer Sind jioet, Ihese overtcwided encomiutns not 
merely doy tin, palate; they foster n growing vsnity 
against whidt the Japanese require to U nji^n their 
guard, mid which may, unfosg iihatod, IwUi provoke 
and deserve the chastisi'mcnt of some smart rebuff. 
Japan is sure enough of a distiugnisijsd ami eren 
bnlliant future, without Ixjhig ,ohl il at iu,g 
ejthau6i€«i the sum of nil Umimn excctenceg in ilic 
premt. Moreover, a time of intimvid formeutation 
lies before Imr iu il,ii attempt to graft a purely 


dtfiiiCK'ratk product €iu to u stem frtitu which the 
feudal Eap Ims not l>eeu entirely expuugal, and to 
reconcile die widest aspiraiitvns of coustiTiiticuial 
IHierty ivilli the relics ' tf n tlter*cimtic r^finu;. This 
smi^gle will ret^mre the lulk'st measure of seust* 
and aelf-ccrntrol, ati<l may» perhaps, not be tided 
over vvitUour (’risis ujicI eiilTering. From siieJi a 
crifil the patriotiBin of her |^ople ftjul the liberal 
sentimeoia her statesmeu are capable of britigm]? 
her forthr if ttot unseamed, at least with vitaUcy 
imexhansted ; and dint in the eruirso of the next 
ipmrter of a (;eutttry she wiQ take her place on a 
level of teoliiticul equality with t he great Pf>wer» of 
the West may W accepted as certain, Tlie liet'isioiL 
of die 'UresUies, edected just as these pages puss into 
thf pritiiei'ti bauds, will free her from idl urtifitaal 
traiiimi-li. and while ratifying will also ttr$t her right 
to iaicrnattoTial autonomy, 

Japan has been blamed for squouduring to<» 
much Tnoney upon arutamejiis. tuiliLnry and naval, 
and for nwrleetitig the reiiuirententa of 
BritxiiicZ lutluatrial ^aiid ifxpuiiftioii- It 

^ is true that her resources are capable of 
very eonsiiierahlp development, ami that a prudent 
i)nance, already in part iiiHUguruled, will greatly 
iucreiiise Iwtli the nimiljcr? and the prosperity of her 
jieople. But the oriiica to whom 1 allude lose ^glit 
of I he part which Japan sis]iirc& to piny in llie I'ur 
Eastt !\iid to wliich her preseui policy of expcDditare 
anil orgaiiiaadoii h strltuly eubcirdiimled. Tlmt part 
is dotcmiitefl by her gnograpbiciil silualioii, Phiced 

Tt/£ puo.^i'£cr 


nt H maritime! coi^ of Tanta^e upon tho daub of 
A-iia, precisfelir aiialogouif to timt fh'i-tipU^d by firtai 
BrJtabi on Llie (hiiih of Europe, ewtx:i3ioff a power* 
ful influence over tlu; adjoining coiitineiiU bui tioi 
uecessarily inv^>lvei! in its rtispiuisibHiti^, *the sets 
before herself Llie euprciue lUubltioTi of becoiuittg^ on 
:i s-malier scale* the Britain of the Eai- East.. By 
utcana of an army strong eiuiugh to defead otir 
shores^, and to render mvasion nnribcly, and still 
more of a navy suflicieiiUy powerful lo sweep ihe 
seas, she sees that Jijgliinil has retained that unique 
a ad eoTnuiaiKUiJg position iu the IVeat wliieU was 
won tor us by iKe industry and foree of cliaracier 
of our j)eopk’, by the uiiuerai weidtli of Oiese islands, 
by the stnbilit}' of our Oovttrnmcnt, and by the 
colonbing genliiB «,>! our sons. By similar niediodn 
dapan liopes to arrive at a more nuxlijet edition of 
the earne result, m the East. Dke the English, her 
people are stubboru fighters and Iwni -aiJora! If 
she oan but Imimidate any wt>u)tbbe enemy from 
atteiuptlug a landing upon her pJiores, and can Qy 
an uucUaUcuged flag over the surroiindiDg waters, 
vyldlefrom her mvn resources she ptovides occtipa- 
tion, sustenance, dothing, and wages for her people, 

she trill fulfil her nVf in the inlenmi.ional politics of 
the future* 

Ami how important a one thk may lie those 
who consider her position in relation both to the 
Paciile thean and to the ueighbouring mainland 
oi hi the light iluu is oast upon it hy the 

ambiiion of rival Biwers, wifi easUy be able lo 

TUH t>E.iThyiKif or T/fE FA/I 

juUgp. Tlie ojjfiiiiug of tUe (yMiiadiaii Paoiiic liail 
wiLV' Riid Trsm^'Pacific' wjutt' on tlic tfiiAfcni sulnt 
tUu* tiltimati' ftoniplfition of Hia Xlearagoa or s^^rac 
oibnr intcrocoaiik Canal farlker lo the south; ihe 
m-irldjin; auibliions of Uti^sia, alrea'ly ilisaatiafn^I with 
licr biwe at VlAilivosstok aud tbirating flir a Pacific 
commiiice ami a Pacific nnimment^ tlje impetus diat 
will be lent to tliciie desires tuiil the revoliitian tbal will 
lie pwiduced in Korlheru Aain by the iilberiaii tiail- 
way; the emulous zeal with wbick foroigu PowerSt 
England, America, Frajicc, and Ucjmiaiiy, are s^nap- 
pitig up the iales and is^lets of Oceania; the eoimec- 
tioR (t'criatu to increase as lime advaiiccs) between 
Japan and the British Colonies of the Austrulaslim 
grouji —tnay io the course oi' the coming century 
develop a Pacific Question, tl<e exisience of which 
Is now not so tuucli ns suspected, and llie out lines 
of which imii at present tie only dimly foreseen. In 
die solution of such a quesTion .lapatu l^’ virtue of 
her sitnation, sh':'uhl lie onpable of playing a con¬ 
siderable part. That she should be free to do so, 
gtiil sbould develop the requisite moral force and 
strength { in both of which she is at present lacking), 
it ia itecessarv dial she should hold herselt aloof 
from foreign entangiements, mid, jifjove nil, that she 
should not come into susiainml collision with her old 
and here di tary an ingonisr, (lii na. TfVl i at ever might I le 
the issues of such a ttT'ugglc—wliciJicr, as some aver, 
die guiwrior eqiiipmeni of the smaller Power w*onlct 
prevail agminsi the .administrative rottenness itf the 
greater, or whctlier, atf more IhhiJc, tlie might}- 

THE rmiiPEvT 


millions of the Yellow Tlnce woiiM roll Lank ihe 
Siinall ifilnnd j>oi)ulatii.ii into I he sen —ll b pro- 
f-iiit nlt T to be Geelret!, in tlte intereals of bumanity'T 
that no such. ctmiUcI ahowUl occur, 'lliut the tnie 
policy for Japan, ignorlu" tradiiion and history and 
burying naiional antipathies, is a rricndly under* 
eianding witJi China, iuierested like imrself in keep¬ 
ing at a distance the single uommon t>erit—namely, 
the advance of the Muscovite from the imrth— 
ap[Ktars to me self*eTidejit, and is, I believe, appre¬ 
ciated by her owti siatcatuen. Such a solidarity, 
without taking the form of an oflctisive and defen¬ 
sive jilliaiice, wonhl Iw sirong enough to pri^erve 
the biiliiiice of power in the Far lilait and to prepare 
the way by whtnb Japan timy attain to that bigli 
place which she ycams to Gil timoug the nations ol 
tlie world. 

To the esisieuce of such a compact. Kj'ftfa, niwjn 
which Ijoth jtarlies lm»k with an inlerestetl and 
FtEiin«»] eye, is somewhat, as recent expe- 

rience shows, in the tmture of an obstacle, 
Tlmi iliiLt petty kingdom cannot expend for tong Uj 
retain jmy real Indepemlencei, the description which 1 
have given will have shown. A palace intrigtie, tlie 
de:Uh of a king oratjueen, an inUTual retiellion, may 
at any moment protluoe au dmcuti! or indwoglio, aucb 
as lius .tlreiuly invited outside bierfcretice, and cau 
otdy end in a diiniiiutiou or abrogation of tlie tmtional 
ctmms ti» auiouoniy . Tlie friends of Korea do wrongly, 
in my opiuiou, in eticourngitig the kiier pretensions. 
A c-ountrj’ tliflt is Uk> weak to stand jdoiie gaiii« 


nolliing Ijy iLii alToctei! m{li£R?ren<» to Kstmisl 
8iip}K>rt. If Kort*a is not to collnjjse irretricvalfly, 
*lie most lean npoii a 8lrou|rer Towtr •, and every 
1 ‘OiifllderAtioii of ]>i>licy points towfuda niaint(uriiiij 4 
Cliiioi ill the position "if protector wlucii hIic lias 
liitkcrtu filled. ;Ut-er all, Japan would sooner see 
Korea a twoguised vassal of the Middle Kmi^otti tlian 
alie would see ber under Uie Iieel of or gaze 

upon St. Andrew’s Cro^ fluttering lu the barbonr of 

Tbe future of China is a pnjblBiii the very 
bvei^e of that involved in the future of Japan. 

^ i -j The one is a conntrv intosleatcfl witli die 

Fc-turi] C4 ~ ■ 1 ¥1 

mixlerii spirit, and retpiiring aljove all 
things tlie stamina to anderstiirid the sliodc of too 
sudik'u an upheaval of aiident ideas and plunge 
into the unknown, 'fhe other is a comiiiy atiipefietl 
with tlie pride of the past, and standing in ne«d of 
the very iinpuke to whicJi it^ neighbour too ineon- 
tiiienlly yields. Japan i^ eager to burj' die past; 
China worahiiis its einbaimed ami ^tiU Ufe-like cot^jse. 
.hqiari wants to l>e reformed out of nil likened lo 
herself. China declines t.i be reformed at alL She 
is a Tnonstrtiua but mighty anaclu’otiiam, dfifianily 
planted on iht^ fringe of a world to wliose contnct 
she is iudifferant and whose inilucuiie bIic abhors ; 
uimjh as die stones of S<jl«mou*s Temple look down 
iiftfin an alley hi modern Jenmtem, or m tlie Column 
of Trajiui rears tb head in the heart of mneteenth- 
ceutury llomn. 

In the foregoing pages 1 have depicted in their 

Tits PftOSPA'Cr 


t)vrii ixMiiitry niul onpiutl tki^ rliamrtrriaiicA uf tlitK 
unlovtily Irat atlmiralilji? |>(?opl)L', Eui I ;wn‘ tifti.j>iirft 
Th- tU;it ;hey are not crsen more nx>n«WFul 
^hen outsiilti tlicir luLtivo IhjiiI. 
Hongkong, Hanoi, ClUoteo* -Siigapore, iV'uang, Hang- 
kok, tia nfao at Hangoott and Mandalay on ihe ont: 
stde^ and »t Hutavin atid ManlL’t oti the otiUer^ tln>y 
liave «slul>ljshed great I'ommonitie*, living con¬ 
tentedly under alien laws, and drawing into their 
luigera the reins of a tnultifomi anil lucrative com- 
meroe, Not tliey al^sorb and freifueuth' 
nioriopt>liae the retail trades, bm they farm tlie State 
nioiiop«.»lifs; they mu big steaniships and own tm- 
raeiise milts; they tioai eompanies with large capital: 
ihty own atid work protlucdve mines, Under 
Hritl^U pnitecuon 200,OUii of tJiein live serfeiudy in 
the city of Hongkong, and I80,0l>l) on the Island of 
Suigapore, Tn the adjoining native State of Johore. 
2Jl)Jiril> out of a total population of SOO,UOU an* 
Chutese, Tbrougbont ibe Malay Slates they far 
outnumber tbe MiUays, In Siam there are said to W 
l>etweeu two and three millions of the Vellow llace, or 
nearly tme-third of the cnlbre pfipnlation. Freed from 
the exactious :ind intpiiait.ion of their own (torenimeut, 
they develop ou foreign soil, and for the edlheution of 
foreign commerce, the ven' riualities which if applied 
to the regeTienition uf their own country niighi make 
her once ^aiii die miai ress of the Eoaiem worhl. 

It is bdtnettmcs tj^iicsdoncd wliether tins ever- 
increasing tloiMi of Uhinese emigratiiui may not coii- 
stitiue an ulfinmte danger to the countries wliicli it 

Tii£ DEsr/yii's or the far east 40i 

ovtrtHiis, Aiiil \vbiiLUtr \Xi<^ luvaisicui uf tU& Iit>rcl«s of 
JingU'u capialilo of » mildrT^nticth-' 

-n,„ t'oiiltify rtprotliioticMu Tluisc apprL'liensions 
Tifi w rwejitly received n freali. and foriuiduiile 
tunvotnt from tlio cricuiTt-agemenii given To 

them in tilt'scholiidy and remurltaldeworkof tlie hito 
Mr* PeaWiL* Tliereiu, »iUpporitnl by ntiu-k learn¬ 
ing, coiiliniiiHl by ingenious nnalogies, niid rendered 
nfiractivc by a Jniiiitioiw iirnl agreeable style, may be 
J'oitinl developed at length the dismal thesis that the 
future of KiisEern Aibi, if not of parts of Ceniral AaTa 
also, is not for the While Imt for the Velio»v Itnce 
and that iieit Jier Great Britain. »ior France, nor Ttnaaia, 
liUL Chiiia^ is die Power Into whose Iiautls will piLs:s 
lie pn*desiinjed ecepire of the Far East, With l>otli 
tlte premises and f Ue i^ondusious of 3lr. f’eaiisim's 
fk&eituitlug but tiiGkiiudiuly argument I dnil myself 
in total liisagreeiuent. Before exphining. liotvDver, 
the {mints and gronnils of diflereuce between us, let 
mo summarise Mr. Peaftion'^s propositions as far os 
possible ill !ns nwii words. 

With the view Ilf suslduingliLi main and nliiniate 
iuduciioti, Mr. Pearson first marshals the ovideuties, 
Ilf. t»«i- ^ 1'^ conceives thorn to ho, of the power 
and vitality of China. Ffe {mints to lior 
lui^raur revolted province of L'biliese 

Turkestan or Kashgaria frotu Yakuh Beg in 1^74-7; 
he says she clomiiiattB Korea; and he reminds 
us that she succeinled in finally stamping out the 

• XatioAol Eif* and Ckaraotef . rt Foncatl, bj C, S, Ppwwu. 



Mohatanjwlaii relwUlou w yiinHa.u. Thttfif are ills 
teatiinumifs ttvlmr iriUriial urjjiuiifiatltMi-ind straijstii- 
(Jflsiiiig Ills eyes over a ■n'Uler miige, lie next ol»- 
serves 1-Ue plieiioiitenii V' whiiili I liave already 
alliuletl. He sees^ {.'liiamTioa llootlin" Sin"a|)cjre and 
the Midav Feivinsulu, beginning to <^(110 in 
and Siuimtra, tnuatwicUtiig upon tlie lalMiur niiirkcts 
of Calircnrns and Australk, and already supplanUn^ 
the natives III Hawaii and otlier islands of tUePanlfie. 
Hr drasrs atteutjmi u> llif IlexiliUity and remtiUty 
of tlie ijlunese eharajctesr, to tlieir ea-sy mlaptatlon To 
eKtTevrtes of fiUraaie, to tlieir esce lienee ti» lalyjiivers, 
T.lii'ir VIM lust ry as ineiThants, and ilicir dwdlily as 
wAi)iiisls. Fitinlly, lui CtjuLeiupliiies tlie acquiallioii 
by the Power thus endowed by nature, of the re- 
jfoiii’oiis of tuixleni invent ion, of a network of rail- 
wjiys eotinceting the great cities of the fuiipire with 
each other and with adjuining eoifiitrife8,t>f lelegi’npU.'i 
and fltciiinors, of lUe use of foreign capital, of ioi-ge 
annies d rilled and equipped on the Enropeati infKleh 
of anillery and aoieniUlc itiiplcment& of war, and, 
above all, of the leadership of a really great iimn. 
^^ay, mLoxIcated by ibe enchantmeni of the, picture, 
he b actnally wilUitg To dispense with the last-nanved 

Chines do nCt coed >lni accidenr. of a fiioji nf 

genitui To develop thinr mngnilireat fiitniv. Onbaniy <<iatea' 
.mnnahip, ftdoiiting the impfoiffiiiifinia of Enitipe, Pfidioufc 
elfending the ciKtoiior nnd prejodiccd of the people, may maka 
theta n State whicti nt Poorer in KiirD()e will dare to dHro* 
gard; with an army which ooalil tuiurli Bsed $tagee luroaB 


Asia, nA l!^t irbick Litiilil !]<dM iim own Eigniiifft anj tliiit 
the of' Kqm^HfGiii ctiuld ftfToDi to beep 

inniieiitly iii C.’hmffte 

Thf* iifw 

•Huch Wei;; rjii* of lik cimliilii^iict! lii the 

Cut lire of (^{iliuL, ifr, iVnraoti ricjct pro -efitk lo indi- 
i:ait‘ In liisopmtonelie nin)' bf* <^x|iCKrR>d 
to flo, M)ii LlLi‘(>n sidts of luir lie i^outiLru^s 
tbrtt she mtiy easily seijie, ovur wliicli vtT^* 
often Elie Inis some olil nlaiiu, ntiil In tin* eliinatii of 
wliicklier people n fni live, li Is iiicitt! thnii probtilile 
(kat some of these will pass under Chinese rule.' 
Itonieo iviJl ncrtaiiily be lu-ra. ‘ Eipaitfikm lowardfs 
■ he south ani] SiitiLh-wesT. seems nifisl protjaUe; lint, 
she IS not (lehatred either towartls the north anti 
wesC >>[«»] iiii^lit lie wreslwl from ilnglantl, pads 
of Turkesiim from Unsalo, and the Amur Pivniditee 
from the same Power. The danjjer of this roiliUrj 
nilvauce would lit* still further jieeeiiiiialeHl if Cliiim 
becuuie a Jlrfolianuaethiti Power, 

Finally Mr. Pearson gums up his presetiiiiient 
of the triple fitiiire that awaitu liis a^ :t 

Uminiit cohiniaini; Power, a military Power, and a 

Power, ai^d the 'fauTesiKiudiiig de- 
rline that Oireatens the Caueasiiiii slock, in Uie 
following language :— 

‘On tJifi whnle ilifeems ilifBcult tn ilonla that the block 
imd yellow Indt, wliirh nlwnya enoireles tlio ftlolKi 
tlto Ttttpicfi. will esteml its area ftod deepeti its colour with 
tiinn. 'lliK work of white man in theiM Ixitiludiis i* 
only to introduce order nttil lui taiiiiuiulaueir with llie Ixwt 

' Chitjwur, ]»> tia. 

e n ^ 

Tlf^ tmSPlVT 


inilufirrlul laatfiodKof the West. 'ITie cotinirie4 tc^tlitTir 

i^iitocLtlioBOti.^ race! ? iinu tlitie, tlif-ugh ibey uuiy in jitim 

iu±^|it tlir' wiut *3 iis (I •tomjiLU'fiif tiTnl cir]|{a,F]i 86 r* in's!! 

grtriufiUy lipetnne too stjritijf ^nii uri^irlily fcr (tint 1^$ 
itijl; or, if they mJiip BTa* inU dn it only witJi tli+‘ rioudi^ott 
that ht^ assimilates hipifi^ir lo the infeHor mcc. ^ The 
citlscetk? (if the Lliick nnd vdlow w^ill tiiBti Ijo tJiJcew pp 

|] I to the Aocinl tvlstioiLtc^ tile wliitH ruLT^Af will tUruii^c iiu* 

I'lu^lish ttnf ot the 4 of <ini] mU l e mluiiited 
intorpiiftrrifiw- - - It doubt Ihnt thi* Jit 

liiinii wheii Ckiim wiU Imre oLeflp fiiol fnim her eci'vl-inines:^ 
eJictflp tuAnap^rt by rail wayi and dtratTi^^i^, and will Im'm 
Ihimdw] bechiurul to il^v^lop bef ipiliifttrie* ? Wheii^ 

I'l^er llu'il, dny L-Oinet?, alie in ay wn;^=t th^ cont-fol of the world V 

niEukeis, esipedtilly ibojughont Asbi, frum Eiif?limfl imtl 

riiatmciiiLy, , , , A Imiiiltud Iupuvt when lite diitiaao^ 

and ntgecbea, whuare nnvra?. 2 to t lo the higher 
shall liO S to 1 ; whert they iaxfe liomiwod. the acioiiuo ot 
Knrope and develop^ their »tilJ vitgEO ivoi-lfis, tlu^ prie^nro 
tjf Lhoir iipm tile white ipnh will Th? m^e^ktible. 

He will !«■ dn>eii rn^tn eroij aeittml morb-t^ mini futwil to 
^rii^line blinSi^lf within Ida own. * ^ » Whh eiriliHAtrDii t.^gially 
ililTuifedi the tnoHl |)rjpptDii!i cotmtTy Tneei; iiltiiiiatfly lie tluT 
most powerfiih ond the prepopileniiice of China over any 
rival—evuii qvi^t the IJuited Slnit^ of AiTierii:^—is Hkcdy lo 
pvetw hill Hung.* 

iL Will \m cont^eili^^l Mr* P(? 3 r«iori litas not 
errtiiJ on the side of liuiidiiy in tlik furecjt^U 

so comptiinentarr to t 'Kina and aivlu^liriDus 
for onrs^lve&j nnd Uud iJie colours of lus 
are applied wdlk no Uesitnliiig or 
piccotneal brush. On^ object ion alone he aH.UiiiLs, 
atui that in order to refute iU Tlit? thi^iry of con¬ 
tinued Ulnutrsc expaiifiioii outside Cliinu proper might 
ii^em to l3e quailficd by the cnormoua unoccupied 


arvJi at luir itbijoaul witUiu. Eciuh'uknt In sizs to 
twcuiy-M«^ or, as otliers say, to "lands, 

site could intunhuii a |io|iiilutiori of tir 

iSO.llOd/KIO; M. filif iiicrc'aae for iifiy years 

iK'fore retiuirin^' relief by exodus. In fact, front her 
superior fertility, Clhitia ooiild support ruori- iii- 
babitruKs iliiiii Eiigland to the stpiare iiiUe, mxd 
nilglit ilupUcote her numbers before she needini to 
trouble her tieiptilKiurs. To whirli wmsideratious 
niiglit be adiktl the couserraiive gctihis of Cliitiese 
goveromeut^atid the dlseouriigemoiit oftered to luiticu 
emigratiem. This Ihie of remioiiiiig Hr. Pearson 
answers by pointing out Uial I hough the Taipiug 
Iklndllon forty years ago, which lasted for foijrte<'ii 
yeai-s. cost tTiina from twenty to fifty milUtin lives, 
aiid (hough lietwecn and 1883 tliv naliou is 

calculait'd to have decreased by thirty millions, yet 
It w;i5 diuniig tins very pcriiMl that she coiitinteiT to 
pour her colonists into Siam, Mnb 3 'sia, the* Sf rails 
SeUlemenl^, America, rent, and Aiisirilia. 

t have now sinnmed up, 1 hope with fainiE^sii, 
Mr, Pearson's mg tin tent, and will pr*Joced to shuw 
a.tin 4 m* ’*'hj\ in my opinion, it is lor the most pari 
UTiPomid, I am c^inscitjus, of CoiiiStS of the 
cxti-cmc fallibility of any itulividital spociil:!- 
lions »s to the fniure; luul am tpiile prcparetl tn 
believe that a priari my own forecasi is morci likely 
to be in Villi dalwl than oiii! proceeding from so ac- 
complish(*d u stdiolar as Mr, Pearson, But If the 
laiier writer had, as i tielieve, never lieen in f'hiita, 
Imt only studied the tliinc^e question from the 



of im Australinc aiudy; anil If, 
further, I (MiiU ^fiowlile pniul^e^ to Wof ipicsfumultli! 
%'(Uiilitv mill iviitfioritr, there will !h? some reason ftw 
rtjgavdim! Lis ciointlusionsi wiiJi Biispiciou; llit- more 
80 lluit they are, to Uie Ijest of my Liiowlfilge,sliariid 
by no I'oiaeuiporaiy authority who either kiiuwa or 
l3:Wi resided lit CMuu itself. 

I will fullow Mr. T'earsi'jn'a reasomtig in the order 
in which he Las hiiiiseir disphtyed it, preiiilahig ihat 
much Ilf it luts olreadv been answereit iti 
uciitiu aulieipiiiiou in the pages of tliis work. Tim 
suppression liy fluna of iJni rebellious iu Kashgar 
and ^ 11 ! I mu I juattlles uo such uomplimealtm'- inference 
:ts Jlr, Pearson hiis drawiu 'fhe foil tier deiiendeU 
only njKiii the porsoniiUty of a sitigte indirlduai, 
Viikiib I leg, Hpi>ealhig to religious tanoticisin and 
taking adrautage of the military weakness of Oiiiia 
at jv diHtiiiice of IS.otK) miies from her base. With 
the n^ by poison t»f f.lie usni'per, the movement, 
.•ilnioir without fighting, ctjliapscil. Siiniliirly the 
Tni[iiiig and Molmnimednn teiieliioms. so fur fiom 
testifying to the might of (^hiim, deuiMiisrrated the 
full measure* of her weakness* for the resources of 
ilie Empire were strmucil almost to bieaking point 
io cope with the dtiuhle peril, which not less than 
t.wenly-five years of fighiing were requirctl la sup- 
jin!.Hs, lly afcoiiiii of the siiuatioQ in Korea will 
have shown iLat Innvever uredituhlu to thenstutetiesa 
Ilf the suzerain Power, China's autliority there can 
si'iiretily lie cited ns uti evidence of materlul or 
military strength. 


I next (um lo liio argument bsisecl iipou llifi 
gmiiui (*r Clilu% as lUuKt niittKl in tlie 
Hi# luariiitiie oountriiia and i^ands of ilie Far 
East, iw Avell aw in luore disiaui Lmds 
poswesiiiii^i n troiitfigp on tlui Facific Ocean* It ia 
Mssiimed tliat ilie tslendy infiltmuan of Chiiu?ite 
emigrmit£ into ilitsn regiou 3 r mnl (he oon 1 r<d of the 
Utlxmr market which tliev sso rapiilly aeiiuire, aie 
du* iiiedtablf* [jreenrsors of a contpleUj piilitical 
jiiid coiiiiiierciai clfjTuiBaiioii. Tliese anticipsiltoti's* I 
do m»i share, Chinese emufraiioii I lieUeve to bo 
dictated b\* the .uiitiial intertjsis of self-niainienancet 
and bv the craving of masculine iabour to find an 
outlet, which is denied to it by iht Eelfish and 
ra^Mictona ivranny of ihe Chinese adininistralivt- and 
economic S)" 3 tcm ai home;' and to be divotced 

• Simf* wrilinc ibuee word* T Wve nut * mrim# cctiftrutn- 
liori (tf Hint rtowticj.- m Uia fcpewt of a ChlaitH rtflirwl. vlii' w« 

by h» OiiTDmuwtn «» Cfinwl-Otnantt *i> Siii^juMe In ISUS* tt> »|»n 
Tipoii tbo wliirU iatisitA uwiiy iliuiiMiid Chmiiwen v> 

TAlunUnly CTiwlrmt* tliiuuaal!fe*ni«l(* fonJ^n Hi< wrirt*: 

*>ked wUj‘ tbfiv do 110 * tidre iho ('Kimtimitv M n>tnf(niJi! wia 
Mttliiifi in tluiir iBUvJ Iard,Uiiif Itaimrt wul ln>wi^ cortin- 

b.. ob«r>tii. tbi- 
gounmlk m-iln; 'Tbey «ii1 llutt ili«y 
tiMto-'' wf tiour lncnl tufliiilnriiw; Uio onirewiim *t ^ 

Uiifti; Mid the ctntrtitm* of ilieir fl*J(>blj,iur% uuiiiuo*! 

cf vJiicb cHUd U ffirm nuiiiUr. ITu-y muipIwhinI t »l 

ibo*i> »Ii« ti«in"in"d Itt reium Itouif b"it lx»u uinlunwiuiily 

0ua Tohha*; « ouJiimbnoil m ^ 

iiition oionffE 10 airjiiily wa pirates; ofld tw hwiw kidimppim 
of fliMtio .Iftvw for llM i^ixpiwr of 0iinib-i«« 
of tbsm tt-il HimI lIiElr l.aanfi* 

fnmUk Ukfu *w0>- Criou tlitiu khI jiMtitlftiiiid motniK’Vl"^ 
mnd ioiii# luul Imd hitir lictiw# putfoil fatbidil™ to 

Imiia ua tbe liurt of thi if boyina. AliW0 -ud m(|i«uoiHiL 
u. Ih. iirwitsiiw nnd sltmi* imh0ih»1 Omt killed, to wbaui ooutit 
ftf-rb for hidp. MirroiuidEd 00 they ii'ons on 0II sulia by rapwiMu 



fmcn my Liltcrior of eonfjuefil or 

Tile Afrtniuis Tsttng^, m hh fiuuouij wrotij aa 


*The flkinrAe Itace nn ftjfirtesft'rf- tnc^, Bh- 

tgry them to Iiayi? ivlwnya Iwu n pfinfu^fnl [}eople, nml 

Ih^ k no rea^n why tlu^y etsiHikl [*.« otliorwi^^ in tho 
fuLiird. f^hinu lih.'?. nono tif ttmt Imirl-kuNj^-r ao 
of mb#>r intHouft, mu\ what U grnoniily 

in Etim|Hi^f uhn k miclfir no newsjliity wf tEmiiTig in other lanft$i 
fin outlet for si isurplns* populdtictti. CojidtJemhliS nnriilKTs of 
i!hitiefte bftFe nt ilUferejit timm Iwa ti» leav^? ilkir 

homi% ntwi Jjnah tliftir fortQnert in J>eru, tba ruJtrJ 

Stfitp*p imd tbi* liiitidi Colonies^ bnt this must b« iininitwJ 
ratlier to IhT. poverty nnd niiQ in whieh they were Ixivolirefl 
by the Taiping und i^IrjhiuiiniLilnn luboUions, lliMt lo tlio 
difftctiky of hiiiliiig \lw tuoimd tif ^ultAiAteiuii^ iiiKltir imlixmry 
Iti liiif whli* driniiiiioiiH thfre Ib Tvioni and to 
♦pri^ Ibr nil biT It.eiiiing ih^pnlution, Wbot Vhimi wont* b 

hawkft, of bhth fiijd lov^ ile^ea? flNiofi. IkULviujf uiioti q. (lom 

HTfpwntsncei of ihu wtolthitzr (.'Tuo^n in f&jrriiTfl ^imntriri ciirffil 
to Mum to thu Imiil of ihtiik tnu^Mtrim Thrwti who did ^ lo €hsiia 
to fratb or tmvd, went oiili« iu l^htinb ur iJutrb tttbjvcU, irmbr the 
|)roiof:tion of h fum^in Oovcnnwimt,* A hirtlurr ocmfinumlon ti/ \hi'i 
tBiiig f^pinign I# fiimifilixvit hy s. rm^oi lectiiiu of h ^v«Il>kiiuwn Diitclt 
Eitr fb titrrot, of f,£ydmi wbim» rnmjtrytoca bi tlio Ejut 
liiOic-B to liJvvt btfiTp jiriKetl'TFiUt a j^imikr jiiok to Mr* PfmmMi, 

n« MPf^u bi tlujl ihtB^ lL4m iin> vitfibr ti» ^Ertmiy 

tiid ]im«t bk> tinrsd lu llitr main in [M]|jnti!i!i liufnihriusc^ 

rtm^ling tho cbiuf rau^# nf ChLn«M Mhkli ho llmiti to 

tlus ruti |H^i^ intern of Kiwngtnnf; and Fitkirn. Thtw raiutcit ]ig lUwribori 
■a ibo alioiica of atid dparlli of rnn^ tli« pmubrn) wiodhiuii 

rf tbui iltHcaiira^fmkQut nnA noipasktDnci* lil limlitP iudtit* 

inw, tbn ■nperabunslamr* of iky ?ai>ounrra, aliil ibu li^iv rale ef m 


* Tliit aiiiliixuriiL minirt be implbitly ftrro|i 4 ttb ilul tha 

otnknitjfTn «f iiiiiMumui u> ^im |iarla und fs^imik of tiio 

Arebtfielafio, am| to Aiifltralih luid Atiierkii, ImuJ hagun loit^ before tli# 
TatpiJi 4 t or ifcdiiiimuiMkn R.kt||bin«i atnlwaa thn natoral can iHi|n bikiNi 
of poa''trty actmg ti|Hku mu ikHet^fpH'jjjnd r^*pnfrtlitjii 4 


luit ctnif^tton, but n proiwt organisolinn for the 

wf Uitf [ig[jiiliitititi. Lti China pm|Hir mucb InnJ 
liiuj goiii* cut of I'ultivntlaii, i^hiint in MjtUt'liiirin, MoBgw1i*f 
mill C*}iTti(i«« I’qrlfietftiiii ihetw titxi ijf wutittr 

wbJcU hare ne?ur f«k the tondi nf the biurbiiDitmaii.' 

lliia reasuiung is for llifi moat jjart true» liioiigh 
it la to t»e ragrtired that neither the itarrjnis Teeiig 
nor aril' othfu' CUiiiew staieanian seems lo have 
{leraiimh'tl his GovernmcJit lo dedtijcft from it die 
oulv praciical leasou. viz. that publtc worki in Ohiim 
iTOulil provjtie that very Tjeenpidoii ami outlet for 
lack of which exputriatiou is forced upon lier 

An examitialibn of the CliintJac emigrant cous- 
muiiitiea iii llriiiah, French, Lhitcli, or SpaniaU 
ci»i«iin lerritories, to the sjime cOUt'luU'iuti aii 

to their u1itinictr*r and objects. For, ou 
the one hand, the Chinese are by iiaiirrc tract able, 
orderly^ and couteut to he governed, Tlmy fully 
appreciate the boneitts of a just and organised 
adtiiiiiiBiraticn. In a pfitidoa which was Ijeiiig 
eigued wliile I was In SingajKire, praying for ti 
contintiadaii of the term of office of tiie reticing 
(Tovemor, Sir Cecil fhiutliT the CliiiKJSc populalion 
of die colony mentiorKul among oilier grmmds of 
his popnlarlty and of their gratUtide, hie supptijsfiioii 
a few veani liefore of the Ctiineso Se^Tet Societies, 
which W'ere as much a curse to theiiiselvce as they 
were a danger to odiers. On the other Imiidt the 
Chinese populntiou in the aliove-nieutioued places 
ifl of a two-fold character. Either it is wmiawcd ol 

Ti/£ fJt osrecT 

u ^IciiiL'nt whi> come dovni frciii CbiuH lo 

nmke liioiiey for ihemselvt^ bw-iuse tlieri! area lietier 
opciung !iml liigiwr wages tliaii at hoiue^ but wlio 
coutuinplnte sl's itjieedy :i retiirxv ;v& [possible to their 
native 1 ,‘otjutj^'; or it oortsiBisi of h sedeiitAry iwjpu* 
latioii, who tivver meati k> go liack at all» bccauGe 
tliey prfiter tiie city of their ailoptiui 4 anti have 
luiirried Uie woiueu of ilie country. Ugly as Is ilie 
Oi'nuumm to the European eye, he j«>9aeasf^ the gift, 
tmique in the world, of luakJog iiuneelf acceptabb 
as a Ixu^hatul to I.Ue wmuen <if kaif-a-score of ilifTerciu 
races. Oe wetis, w'itJi readiness nud saUsfae- 

tiou to both parties, the Kjorexm, the ATinamite, the 
Catiil>ogiini, the t^iamese, (With the Maluys, who 
are McLaiiuaedatia, ii is, of cours^ dijrar^iic.) This 
eoiuiubia] I'aidllty is an element on the aide of onler 
and good i.'ouducl, for it e«laljlLdii!K him, not merely 
as a wanderer, but as a con tented oiiizcn in the 
imul of Moah. At the same time it sevetit bim, ^.o 
ki from the imreni stock; far he loses the 

fomiection with the mother country which a <!'lilncaii 
fc]KHHM! ami <‘U[tnectiuna wouiil fortify, while the 
eiisuing geum':ition is hybrid Iwlh In origin and 
sympiitlij. 1 rlonld^ iride<>{i, whether emigrauie liavet 
ever anywhere estabiishefl a iwriiianent dominion, 
who did. ijoi bring llieir wives along w'ith them. 

Passing from iJumoe to the argnTitciit that rests 
upon 'the capiibilities of (jliina ria a great militurv 
i'ower, I loive sulil enough Iti previous pagea of thift 
liuok to sliitW' that in my jmlgiiierit imy such esti- 
iimiei is u deluaiuu. Many Euro^ieati writers appear 


rns liESTlUlES of the fah east 

to think ihul because Clitna msuy mili'ions 

of stalwart »iul tougli4imbetl eons, she must tlit-n-’ 
KBUdrr foFC ja>S5CSa SO Iliaity hufttlml lllOUSliTlds of 

7a^ excellent lighting f=^*!aief&; miii that hei^aoso 
she has atseuak* where, under Euroiwaii eye*, ilie 
turtle out European catmods, projeciileis, ritles^ ear- 
(Tidges, anil itowder, slie has therefore an orgiiuiscU 
force capable of l>eing pliu-ecl in tlie field against, 
and of giving senous. troulilo to, it Europcau armj, 
So such opitiiou has, T hclieve, ever been entertained 
or advaiiijt'd by a tiompeteiit critic. There b no 
trountry iii the world where the uuhtary profcsakin 
is of sintdler account, or where the science of war¬ 
fare is less intplligcndy sludieil than in (.liiiia. Tlve 
fdirsse cedunt ^irwo tttffoi is there no tispiration for 
hoivoiirahlt peace, no sigh of satisfuciion over Live 
corvcliisiou of a succesaftd campaign, hut is ihf cou- 
fesaiou of an abitUng cmitcmpt for the art that 
prefers the sword to ibe pen. The Chinese arnty, 
under Chinese- ofltcers, even with niuskeiH in its 
hands auil cartridges in ils poudies, i** au imthaci- 
idiuutl rabble of tram[»s, alntut as well iinalihcd W 
wiihstaiul a European force as a Ivwly of Hyde Turk 
processionists would bfc 'o repel a charge of llie Life 
Ounnis. Whatever tlic Cihiiiese rank and file have 
already ahowm themselves capable of doing uuder 
Europ'eun lend, whatever thea' might do vvere such 
lead repeated iu die future,' they are, vWwl as a 

■ I *115 hiH Iwro JiMUBniuj; ih*> 1 iia^^ 

wbti, eouteiiit-biH^rt. »f Uj. Cliliw' to*' 
nr inreinri!*or «fffn rtf ttflaiiMi V «» “1““ IVtwer e 

co.n|;!«e « in prrtiiil Uiu of idKlrtl tin vwtw 


TitE PtmfECT 

national armv, a rolaitvnlv iiifcoior mlltiatr ittstru- 
mcTit ifi tljft vveak^^t couiiiufeiit in live furt^ i>r the 
feihlffit Tltjrrtpoan State, 

Under these ccmditions^whieh migJit Txj prwlieied. 
ill a itcar(,‘ely less degree, of the naval ns wnll an of 
ehifi^ ttie military forces of i^na, to talk, as ilr. 

r 4 «^iurfOT^t I * I I-- 

iPnprtHiiiiu Uearsoii tio<?s. of a i.liinese antiy marc Ring 
by fixed stages ni.Toss Asia, or even ctiufining iiJielf 
to the iijore iRimble apemttou of i^ooveniig the 
ad joining con Ulrica wlddi once luikiiowledged the 
Bovereignty of Peking, appears to me the vrililest 
freak of fancy, Xo one who Inwl the leaei acquaitit- 
aiice with the state of (ho fiontier gnrrisons in 
Kaaligaria, or with the feeUuga of Uie Mohamiin?- 
dan population of those regintia, could evor speak 
seriously of Cliina arresting from Ituesia tuiy j^onitav 
of Risteni Tnrkefilan. Tlic idea ttf her iiiundiing 
ihrough Tibet, and across the lllnialayafl, lo recover 
Nepal from Oreat Britain, is scarcely less fantaettc; 
while, on tire day when Thtssta is ci>m|>elltil Ur 
uiilhary or diploniatlc repulse lo hand back to her 
the Amur Province, it trill i«> longer be possible to 
return a negative answer to llie qneatioii of tlie 
American poet—- 

I« e^viluKU^H ft iuluir, 

in i\m ifiit ? 

ofb CtuRjpwcL wil^i lbi> Chinese iu ccititnil iiiifikary 

Aiid TiATitl fniTc* af tht Snell n iuk> of thp CtnitE«i« iuTi;y« 

whkh U wii fc> niUfAj luijiKiliiilil# m Hip fhf fittiirA oj Ui W irnwnrih^ 
nr ficciiHtdf^micjii, uiJ^ kivi^t CMnii with a delbitidt^tt At 

undmcEumtl t»r; kjiH iiiiplit mtm (iLlouc^i iliEi 1» litAM Likely) 
iiUae at IMn li k 4ilirhiii4^ fj Lhftt tbe 

uiitliunly *ii ei^vnHiliKl nr^raliL nat Vm that df Ubiit^itr ftn'V+iriiEj^tVp which 
k thm iMiiilimlar [utint mkad Ujr Mr. ftfcttn^iit. 

Ttin OF TtfF FA.'iT 

To Jvn ev«i more lujbnious fusuie. into 
even lUe dmrma of an uofeiUTHil imaginaliuj. wiU 
»h,a.<«, seaiicc me, t»cUjiiiis M\e eifocli whem accord- 

iSlil. 114-1.. ilr. roareuu, ('liina* pmiWnicn «i 
lltn»m Ilia •>' *““• ''“i" “f 

Mall: »U« a Chin™: palnai Ilie larf "ill W 
ka:k 10 tlia aei^l'iag-n"’” a iviancr lla: BigMi 
IWrby *, and wUeu tUe problem of suiieHluon^ uoumii^ 
h«««l will Bolved by r-be appnritbu at Chnstiavi 

aliars of elifiible Cldiicae Uu3b;Lii(bi. _ 

Wlml itr, Pearstm ajfpeafj} to Uave losi sigbt o * 
in casting lila political boioficope for CMna. ns ()ii t!ie 
one baud tbe iiifluenoo lUat miust, inevitably 
1 « eserdsed upon it by tim faults weU 
,lie virtues of the mitioual character, by the ..erufe 
of CLiueae oRldaldom, and by tbe qnnbty of 
ndmiuistratioii i ou the oilier band Ibe ki^n^- o 
hislorva vviiidi are wrillen in characters so large bat 
be wh'o mns may read. He omit, from iKuisukra lou 

the fJbluese system of ^ 

exliirtionate, umm-sally corrnpt-aud the ' 

the people, ftveme from national enterpruie,im raim I 
Ui ixrmiuest, devoid of patriotic ardonv, content, o 
Blagnate. la the face uf tlmse ol^utdes im. even 
exemplary Bobridy i*f China,iicti, their _ 

eiiergj', or Lheir genins for accutimlatiou, can m 
that wblcli is a sUlionary if not a receding, Ui o ■» 

dvTiamic and aggresKive force. 

' We are led bv the teadiiiigs of history to tin, omioluskm. ■&> f"-- ft*'" 

career ef coulees., it is rather ie her !««« of nssreu- 



latjiig tlmse 1»r whom hsvj hufsrif [iemi omi- 

(juered. that Chma has cliKpIavoii ]it!r 

T ji -T il-* Two and It tialf c^iiinries tlu* miUirtris 

I'M**? oF China sturctimbiMl easily to lln* as.^atjU iif 
a. few hiiudretl thoueand Tartars, whcwe voke i.liev 
have ever since ccnieutedly Iwme. Four ceutitrits 
earlier they bad in similar fitahton accejitetl a ilun- 
t:t)l master. W)iat the Moujiols did. and whaf ihe 
!&tau(duis did, I foil to see why others shoidtl not do 
after them, wlj<tse jifiwer^ as <-ornparwl with theirs, is 
ill the smne ratio as a fiehl-min lo a Itomaii catapult, 
or a repealing ride to the cros&'l»w. Nay. the work 
of detHtiou has already begun and proceeds apace; 
nor is it The least, peculiar feature of Mr. Pearson's 
doriiiff forera-sl that it should have been framed ia 
nil epoi‘h wide 1 1 , &ij far from revealing any syniptoiiie 
ot recovered or expaiuling strength, has on the con- 
tr:«y witnessed a steady mid still inwirresieil decline. 
It is enlirejy during die bisl half, and mninly during 
the last fpiarter, of a ceninry that Tongfcing, Aiinam, 
and CXnthin Cliiaa have Ijeen wrestetl from the griisp 
of Cliina by France, that Siam has rcpudialed her 
ancient aliegiance, that Burma, once a vassal, has 
been nlisorlied into the British system, that the 
Inuchiii Islands, also a irtlniian* State, have been 
lUloweil to pnss tacitly into the hands of Japan,^ tlmt 
Korea has become a playground for the jeidoiis 
rivalry of foreigners, that r.Le Amur and TIgauri 

‘ Tti* niuii'iitlflo by Jitjww ef Un* Liucluu Tilajula, whluh b»i nif 
wiUtrint w««|ii44 iJie fmnnrijihip nf Thinii, ufd hnj Mnt on puintiil 
TribHi^ wmmUm MiHflyupv arthulWinNuj Eiiwdiiitm 

in 1874, Til* Ctmiwfi l»h*V4i.l rMlil> taUiii uuiUcr; Miiltlu; Juikaiu!** 
wha airitggjeKJ ui4 uauuiMl ibo ofTeiuii e, won. 

77/J.' OF TliF FAR FJFr 415 

rrrjvluces Uavp lieen imsiUtuiiinoiisly ceil(?il td Russia. 
Atiil yot. in faue of this nnhroknn rti^nl of r^on- 
iraotion, npnvnat wHcli tln-ro is tioiUiug U> sot liut 
the rwovery of Knljn,* we are mviteiJ to beiioTe tln>t 
the rower vtUcU Iim sufferetl tltw coniiniiouB (iinumi- 
lioii ie oil the tUresliolil of n niiglity revival, an<l is 
prxdestiiieii to overruti the uuiverao. 

Another iLinger which Mr. reurwm lias over- 
looketl, iukI which, rlion*!ii it need not umoualy affeot 
i>^, ihe natioiiitl existence of CJhiiiii. tniist yei 
rablEk* crji>ple her power of extenisi wUanof, i^i the 
chance of internal €llsriiptii>ii. The items that oom- 
luise the vast congeries i)f peoples ami communities 
fetitl acknowleilging tlie Cliincse sway, are Inil Imvicly 
strung together. Kven if wi- omit from consiileration 
(he Tihetans,ihe JLingolimis anti the enomiotis mi&a 
of Tnrki ami Mussiihiian subjects, ever liovcriiig on 
i hc brink of revolt, there is in Oiiina pmper litTle or 
mine of tint cohesion which is essential to national 
strength. Each province an Intlejiemltint unit, 
with its own goveninient ntsil army, capable in times 
of (;ou\ntlsif,m of breaking away without iliilifnlty 
frotii tlm cenLr,\I fabric. No real Ixiinl of union t ou- 
Tiects the tiortbern with the soutliem portions of tlie 
Empire, whose peoples c.'itmot even iincitwManil each 
other’s dialect. In some of the ouiljing 
the lower orders, though lightly taxed, arc plunged 

I trUtii liaa K«9iTi>a WI tvan fiintUtr 

tto wliiA mii « vmmjlk for il« diplMwjf tf 

lh« !*• w.n«tti:iu: W ili« urttwi^on. which 

»fwr 4lU>« fiilfiTii*-Ji.lor eonijaci, IIuj.b« v«7 

cttit- (A set hw 9fe. which ilicrc wwundiUiS m »ht oinijiMl 



111 tilmitiic ^Ksniiry. Tlwi naUidrity of Uu^ dyunstv' ii 
maintiiiiteil by Its saci^anct as^iocutions, by a iiiglily 
ot^uiwed ;«ml iutercsUHliiflirbil b!ei'arcliy,anil by the 
|>reatig^^ of Peking, Bui were Uie capUul o(if U]>ic'd 
bv an eiiemv. as it could whU verv litile dvfJicultv 

# p - * 

{particularly by au enemy Julvancing from the tiorih)t 
the Emperor expellHtl, ami the ily nasty overturuofl* 
il is doubtful vvbetlier China would peraeTere in any 
protranlnl resistance, ur inithtte a policy of revenge, 
TJie various elements of disonler sc/itlered llirougUout 
the Eiupirc would each jlnd its local fo(;us, and a 
reign of einukuat utuirdiy nm] uidTers;il dislceatioit 
migliL lie L'Xj^ected to ciwue, 

\VLat theii, it may be askeil, U tins picture of a 
resuschatdtl mid noiirpiering China Ite reject Ltl as a 
l^rillL'iiic exii-avaganza of the uuugiimlion* is 
the alicntalivo future that luu}' lie anticb 
puted for iliis i-Ktraordiiiory jujoplf ? As regaiila lire 
pliysit^ul (litl'usiou of Yellow Hace, Mr, Pearson 
is [jossibSy right, Htwnw aud Buiniitra aittl ^'ew 
Ouinea will be the imlustrinl siioll of her frugnl 
colouisia. She mar completely swamp the Malays 
in Mulayiiia; she may gain u hmier foothold In Siani, 
Ifer intrepid sonfi umy cross the occau and knock at 
new and unsuspected ]X)rtaIa. Whether a Mamdiu 
Emperor haiidleai tite rermllion pc-iudl in.the hulls of 
Uie Korbiddeu City, or whether for the ptoelainatioiw 
of the Son of Heai'en is substituied the ukjtse tif a 
Muscoviie Tsur, tluii expansion, like the Hwelliiig of 
the fiap willdu the rind, will continue. But extension 
of race is not the same tJiiiig as exteudon of empire, 


Aiwl physical m.ultipliciitH)n may cvoii he a syrojttam 
orpoliiical dedlne. 'Hie extinction nf Cliina U iiU' 
piJUJsihh* anti [il«unl. A population of 
human soiUs camiot Ije esiiriiaitKl or bodily tniuB- 
ferml On the contrary, I lielieTe it trill Increast*, 
and ^jweli, and eontiivut* to overdow’< Hut ia this 
tMovtifliieijt 1 delect no seed of empire^ and I foresee 
no idtiniate peril for the White llace. 

On ihe coiitraiy, 1 fhinlt it may Iw argu«l tliai 
Kiiropenu mlmiiiiatration and protection are esserukil 
luintlitioiis for the continuance of lliat very 
*"'i*"* jiregress wliieh is supposed t*r constitute 

their peril. It is in iiritiah i mmun ities and under 
ilic security of Hriiisli rule that the expansion of 
Chinese energies htis liitherto altaiueil Its maxim unr 
developnieiit. ^Vhv is the rellowrltace to luru round 
and roiul its beiiefactora? Why is ii ro flestroy the 
veiy* ej'Stcni to set’ure wUidi it at'/qiiiesces in expa^ 
triatiou front its own country, and to erect a ^epIt^- 
ituciion of lliat from TvSiich it has Qetl ? To me if 
aijpcars no more IniprohaLIe that Cliinamen should 
' ontiuue to accept European domination, iu any 
country to whidi the nverlloiv of population may 
poipel the emigrant stream, than is iJie sjiectacle of 
thoir jjreseul coiiditioii in Hongkong or SingtHHire, 
T)ie Yellow belt in the Far may ronceivahly 
snatch from the White the Uiilfc of the spoils of com- 
nievce, and tJif- hi?si. of the wages of roil; but that 
(t u ill ever seriously dutch at the keys of empire, 
or diallerige the racial dominion, of tlie West, I am 
• juilo unable to believe. 

It It 

7 UK tHQ:}l^UC 7 

dlAPTEB xm 
oRtaT tmiTAiN i\ THK far fjst 

, Unre moiliAr of Vflriik 

Fnim bef hhId^ down, 

Wbffl. C}(»d-}i&ct ilio IrittlA feck*, 

AjuI, Juii^4ik«, wMts 111* (mtus. 


PjSHiiAiiti till* nixiet graiifying ri^dectimi hy 

{hefi^'Olwurvatioiis oti the. inoi% lUstiuii kiiigiloius of 
the As i a tic oonltneut is the psii't tlint miitit] 
BribOK Ineritiihly be pkyeii in their fntutt; by tJib 
potmtry, 'Qie iohahitRtits of a small Maod ou Uie 
face of tilt* northern fieas, wc exeri^, oiritig to the 
valour of our ancestors and the Intrepid Bpirii of 
our merchants, a controlUng suffrage in the destinies" 
of the Far EaaU Tiiat iuitnence may, fortunatelv, 
be employed b the undiA'ided iniereiita i>f peace. 
Friendly retationa lietwreen ourBelTes and Japan will 
assist her in that mercantile and iudnstrial devolop- 
mont, In wliich she is followbg in unr own Iboisteps, 
at the same time tliai it will confim to us Um 
coutmued ci iminand of the ocean rotites, A shn'dar 
attitude towarils China will stmigihea her b a 
rMiatance, for whidi then? is yet time, against tlie 


Qtilj* t!tn;ujy iN'luiin itht* has teal cause tf» fear, aiifl 
^’ill facllltatp iiur own i^cnnmerdiil ateess i« her 
teiTiioriDS liy land. Wariiirc wilJi Kiissia need nnly 
tuaue frotii nlt.'U^ks made upon Wriru^li intei'esrs or 
Uritisli terriiory ekewljere, and assurttHy will mtf 1 m? 
provoked by ourselves, Tlie possibilities i^f ilispiite 
with Prauce, with wbJcli f slnill <ieat in my next 
voUimfl, nfe depeiideni upciii b-r own ucthin, wliitrli, 
if it is confined to the reditu is nr presetit mnler Ixir 
s^vny, and rts-pecis the liberiiits of intervraiinir Stjitesi 
need awake no prolieisL from England. Wlintever 
the future may bring forth, lo tbie couuiry it oafmot 
fail to Ik* a tmitier of capital imjiortauce, seeing ihat 
the Empire of t.ireat Britain^ though a Eurrux-jirj, 
a Canadian, and an A.uatnili;m. is before all else an. 
Asiatic domiinon. We atill arc, and have jc in nnr 
hands to reiimin, llio first Tower in tlie East. Jiut 
:ls I)e Twjqneville remarked that tlio coinpteai iiud 
govemnicut of India are renlly ilie aclitevemeius 
which have given to Eiiglaml her place in the 
opinion of the world, bo it is tlie prestige anti die 
wealth nrishig Iroiii her A.sbtic position that ate the 
foundation stones of the British Empire. Tliere, in 
the heart of tliv old Asian continent, she sits upon 
the ihriifie that has always ruled the £:i$t. Her 
sceptre is ontsiretchcil over land find eea^ ' Gml- 
like,* she ‘ grass[>s the triple forks, tmd, king-like, 
wears the crown.' 

Bat not only are we politically coucerued in 
the evoliitimi of these cotn}iles problems by reaftou 
of our Imperial situntiun tn Uindnstaiu o nr own 


TiiK rR0,<pm7 

|)(>raon:il actors in tlie ilnunn uliirh 
1 have (les^Aj-ibett, niiit The rettux aotioii whkh it 
UidM iijjoii tlieui in n subject of fitiuly 

not less iuien*;sti»|; tbaii the |uirt wliidi they 
rjniwM play^ or are tapible of phiyiiiji-, themselves. 
Englighmen and Eiij^Ush influejire Imve been taken 
[o The I'ar East by one of tliree puri^ses—conimerce, 
ilie iliiTusioii of the fait h of Cltrlst^ or the respmisi- 
btUtiesof empire. In the first i:ate}|t>ry we-are the 
lielrs of Uve rortngiiese and the Puieh, of whom 
the former survive only at the dilapidateil port of 
Macao, wliiie the latter, in. their ishmd jHfSs^'stions, 
lie tiutsidc of the tnick whitih I have het'n exammitig. 
Fi'iiiii the fomier* loo, we inherited the eelf-im^Mised 
thity of carrying the which, has sent our 

missionaries into all lands, and whidu if it iiisptres 
Ihe etnhuslasiii of Kxeter Hail, k a source of not 
inferior anxiety to Downing Strwn, In the domain 
of empire the ctiuquest of Imlia has enrrieil us for¬ 
ward on a title of inevitable advanre that leaves ub 
knocking at the Inland door of Clttiia and over- 
lapping die nor them frontier of Siam. Tlie wars 
at die end of the last centurv and in the ilrsi 


Iwdf of tills, whii'h w'ere part of that Exjiansiori of 
England which lias been so ably portrayed hy a 
contemporary historian, pave us Singapore, which, 
lying on the ocean liighway from West to East, is 
tile greatest coaling statton of the Orient, and Hong¬ 
kong, which is the second port of tlic UritisU Empire. 
It hiis not lieeii without war that we have w*on even 
a nicrcanlile entry into llio^e oouritrit^s at wliost! 


Treaty P(»rm fptu* flag is now in tbe ascendaniT 
wLioh have benefited by our interctmrse with (heiu 
iii>i less Ilian we ourselves. 

I have shown by figures in the eourEe of this 
lj(wk» in die eases VhilU of Japan and Cluua, rliat 
Omiww. the iNiiJituercial aupretnaoy of Great ilriiairt 
ill die Far Eastern seas, though sharply 
assailed by an ever-inereasing competition, 
liiis \m as yet liceii aerioiisly slmken. When we 
leani tliat out of the vessels that passed 

through the Soesc Canal in 189S, no fewer than 
were llritldi, while next on the list came ilic 
(ierraans wiih liTlt, die French with lim, and ilie 
rtulidi with ISU, we may form some idea of the 
exteiii to wliich that usremlency w still [mshcd in 
Eastern waters. Dow vitiil is its luaintcjiniice, not 
merely for die sake of onr Empire, Iml for f.lfo 
sufiteiiaiice of tuir [‘iHiple, uo argiimcuts ai’c iieeiled 
to prove. It is only in the East, niid especially iti 
tlie Far Ea-^i, that we limy still hope to kec}) ami 
to create open markets for British niftinifiietures. 
Every )iort, every town, and every village that 
passes into Eretich or llitwistu Imnth?, ta au millet 
lost to Hill I chest er, Bradford, or Homhay. 

lu till* et.iiuiiierelaJ conipedtion ot dw Tar East, 
German)', as the above returns iiuUcatc, comes 
second, and never lofics groutid. Fmnce U 
Onrri!^* ^ doubtful tlunl. The real rivalry, how* 
ever, U radmr between EuTO[jeans of wlmtever 
ruitionaliiy ami the Olikeso, wh(M(t luirivaBwi busi* 
tieas capacities aow seek tlio widest fiehls, aiidj 

Tin: i^msyi'ncT 

u[> Iiy irtipital amt iiuLiring' (iEurfgj', 

daily steal tunr© gromid It-om Iwiieallj ilm ftM-t uf 
the West, Tlid ICngUsli niLTcIianis conipljiiii iu 

^me that tliisir interi'Mi^ artf uisiiilif'icutly 

eared for aud pasbed by ttuur eaiistils or dlplmmttir. 
T'epresetttJitIv&s; and I have hetml of ^nses tu which, 
^'sieaiadc dilulonlles^ or txin(tMiiptiiotts hidinerence 
ill high plaei^ has seenietl jaatify s^vuic nieasuru 
of cxas|H^rattou ; alllioiigh the reply of ihe laiipuguetl 
aathoritie? not ivitliouc force—U\at The? are 
sent Oiir not to act as touts in Leliiilf of this or 
that, particular enterjinse, but to accui'v fair p)av to 
all; and that the prestige acquired iriih ibe native 
funruouaries by im atlitude uf vigilant iuipartiality 
iti tiicir coatitry # interest is forfeiieil upon suspicion 
of acting even as puirioUc parueaiis. I'lia cowplaint 
seentSf in China at any rate, ii[i Ijatc Iteen juirtly 
protnptiril by the success that :ui.e]i(led the early 
elTorts of a recent Genuuii Mimster at Peking in 
securiTig contmetfl for his coiiiitryiuetu und by nlamt 
nt the projected o|»erations of eontc huge financial 
syndicates who sw'tniped down a few years ago 
Tientsin- Those have noiv relireil es j 

ami I d<i not myself think tliai over the whole field 
of action tlie charge of neglotU of Hritislt inieresrs is 
one thill has any serious foutiihiliuiu* 

‘ IMiea I ftrrt iiubtitihvd au 4 iniiIi>){[pHi» tifttcrfirni to tiiii In ilia 

«un hf* gIm* e«ii|itoi[ of vrw» not tlun IWtwlt ti^iM.;]itiiUvct 
Uf ftjiWBti tlrtljiiihl to Brt IU tiMiH fur ihuiu, but tJrni Uicy iM luii 
pr-vont UiH wjfriaMiiiutivw t-f Powir, iit thu Pni E«t 

from miTiiji m , ,b„iliur aiHwny for UuJr 'Thtt la. I 

Uwil., «p«nn^, liUj, u„u:li ..f JlptouuilW uf totttnni. 


At Ihe sauie time, it is eviileni that imamess 
('oiupeiiuoii \i mueii kcseiier now ilmn. il ever was 
behire, Large fortunes are luude wiUi 
(lillievilry; tlie merdiiLut prices ami magui- 
{Jcnnt hwff>i of an earlier thy Imve i3i>fapjtt?Arw]; 
iicasris. Jariime, Mailiesoti & Uj. remam alimist- 
alone among the great Uouses wliose eaiablishments 
and operutioiis a generation ago wet^ ilie talk of 
the Euijt. Men do not mw expeet I'ortunes; tliey 
arc content with co^mpeienciee* Wealth is more 
cv’enly disti l ho tttU and h disleonted liy slighter 
ahocke. It lie for lids reaeoii that spetmJatiou 
IS more indulged in tliait of yore, and that iJie 
ftlmn'-andrStot'k market of Hongkong has »o many 
tales of woe to tell. Everywliere the traveller finds 
tlie Hciikli tneriOianta homU-il together in a jjowerfu! 
(Hmfederacy, possessing strong views, and a very 
outspoken articulation in the local English press, 
reganliiig matters from a some what imrrow but a 
very inl^liglble and a forcibly argued standpoint, 
and occupied in slowly uccuiaulatitig the where¬ 
withal which «haU eimlde llxem stmm day to return 
homCr The struggles and the interests of tliese men, 

linn, IT* fiwlJtn: of Ihs * jwfsiifi-i'i ■uJindp ot <011. 

icuipUtuu* iadinmme* Pwliwenr towanU *a 

nici'ciiJ nittlWnh' «w3 uf itw "I"®*'-** ^ #iuesU«M 

BrittiH Kmlwt* *«tl Tfiut* ta ilw Tn Enel. If “''ly/"J 
ktisr* hMW tjpioiwl It Hw Hcom «f t^noo* of tW 
iuj(i liow jMiOltiiit it it* itiairferiunm tIie» it Iw^o* to tobW* 
la LmiUin wliieli U ion* mt irodoratjand, k> woakX li*nUy dvplOT mi 
l„ailTc.roa« wtiirfi it id hwA pflefttbl* or etopidity. 

fXtrlwm^ net' f 'IW pt'linWr. ^ 

ttiamt, Imv* Aam * BO«l to iniwo. the En«i.ini 0/ Urent 



who bear tlie heat luitl tiurik'n of tlje (Jay ia foreijfM 
laruUt anej whose giiins, if they are dieir titvu, arL» 
aLfio their roiintr}''ii» deaen^o a wamt-r syinpafhy 
tlinii they cotamoiily receive, 

A:» regard? the Chriatitui tiiissioii&T I utav sum ti[i 
toy fonoiir argutoeai. They are tjci monopoly cither 
of die Pr(>tt*~itaiit i’/htircii or of the EogUtfli 
peK>ple, In Japan. In Korea^ ia Cliina, in 
Toughing, in Aiinam, in Siam, Koinaii t’atholic 
missionaries, French or Spanish, hut chiefly iJie 
tormer, hare been long establialieti, Iiave drawn 
around themsdvea native couiTnuiiitles aniongsi 
whom they reside, and hare acquired a tmnierlcal 
hold unquestionably greater tlmn llmf of their 
Protestiiut successors. ^Vmong these ilie Juigllsh, 
after the China War? and the Treaties, t-Kik the 
lead. But an even greater .-iCtivity b now being 
diiiplaved by the Aiiiericans, who are flooding the 
Far F.ast wiiJi their tamasariea, male and female, and 
arc yearly pouring thousands of poimds’ worth of 
human lals'mr into China and Jiipan. ’Hie Fnglish 
missionaries (ippear ou the whole to be inore care* 
fully selected and to Itelong to n superior tyim. 
file g(KKl douc by these iticti, in ilie secular aspt'ci 
of tlieir work, ia llie slow but aure sprcail of tditca- 
thm, ill die tlifliision of ungrudgitig charity, and in 
tlifi example of pure lives, cannot be galtigaid. On 
the other htuid. it is inipiwsible to ignore the faces 
that, their mission is a source of poUtk/iI unrest and 
frequently of inteniatloiml trouble; thiit k ia siili- 
Vfitstve of the iiaiionul institnlions of the countiy in 

CRKAT nttmux LV TtiK m* *55 

wlilcli Uit^y resilile, liecjiiis*;, while iuuiiU‘»iiiif! Iht^ 
Christ iftii virtue of sell-rt^iwct, i( temU u> desiroy 
that ff>t ‘rthern wliich h ibe fouutluiioa of 

(,‘lril Kocicty; ihat ihe Dumber of converts is woe- 
di&iiroporrifinate to the outlay in mcuiey, br:iin 
■^i^wer, and lift; ana that, from whatever cuus.% the 
:'ini:^^ionarie> as a rbss are mrely popular witli il.eir 
own coimimupu. Intleed. one of tlie most striking 
phenomt-na' of Eiiglish-speabbg Bocmty in the 
4 «iiiitrje* to which 1 Imve referred U the ahs-jlLtte 
s^everanet of its two main ooiuiKuietiL items, the 
inissifrtiariea and the merehanis, neither of whom 
think or speak over favouratilT of the odter, and 
who are rarely seen at each others table, fho 
missionary is oflemied at what he reganls os the 
mere quest of lucre: the meruhaiii stieem at 

work which is apt to pariidt ii very Eatiothiioiuous 
expression, tiud sometimes results in notliiug at all. 

I have come lo ihe couolvision that it is futile either 
to app^irtioii the blame between the two parties or 
ro hope iliat any argument eau effect a reconcilin' 
lion. Tlicre are, of course, may ciuws where no 
eucli divergence exists, and where a harmony of 
interest and Intercourse prevails; but L have not 
ftjund them sufficiently mimetous to invalidate the 
general pri'positiom Wlmi tufty Im the luture of 
roisstoiiary i-Hbrt it is impossible to predict; but it 
would Ik! a service of iufeniaiicmal value cimhl some 
nmaus be ilevised, not of arresting or diverting, but 
*,f controlUng its ojierations, which arc nl pri'seut as 
random as dm winds of heaven simultmiemisly let 

426 Tt/A' 

ItHwe ri’oiii the J 3 oius-bag of all ibc> Cliurches in 

Everywhere tliai I luve been I havi* fouinl 
Etiglbh Ule retaining its ussentinl characteiisiica: 

Biigliifhiiian expatriates himself with- 
rwEmu out a sigh in Qn* pnriuiL of livelilimKh 
ailvcntiiref liealUi, or duty. He is too robust to bi! 
liottiesiek, too busy to repine. But lie keejMj up a 
coiisUint and unbmkeu eoimiinulcation with lioine, 
and is familtnr ^vith all that is passing there. For 
Farlianient, perhaps^ lie oiirea little, lieestuse tJie 
deWres are over and forgoltea long before they 
reach him, and berause mth the bulk of ihe vytea 
he Im no coneeni; bub for the national Flag he 
■cares a great deal. Lt>yalty is his passion j and the 
toast of *The Queen' Ls dnutk ivilli Ixjisteruus u 
fervour In Far KatliaY as at a Unioiibt banquet in 
St, tlaiues 9 JTalt. IFr. GlailsU>tjp wimld not havt' 
Irtien complitnc-med had he Ijeen informed of ihe 
result uf a voluiitnn' poll that waa taken among 
the reiiflers of the principal imwspapcrii, at tin? time 
«r tin; last Oem-ral Election, in Yokoliatna, Hong¬ 
kong, and Singapore, In business matters the 
Tuerchnnt works on, looks fovwunl, und «iv(±s for 
hhi decennial holitlay-; but he means to spend liia 
declining yeai-8 nowhere else than .,m bis native 
soil. In the mcfliiLime he sustains a perpetual and 
iumn^etit iUiisiou. by an imporradon of all the 
adjuncts, and a repetition tif nioai of the habits, of 
home life, MagniJieeut dub-honsw afford a meeting 
ground for tiHin in (he midiUe of ilm day, for 

tl^EAT MITM\ IS r/IE rjJt EAST 427 

iMlliaiils and awwkinii when the (lav's w(jrk is over. 
Sonic of these iKStiinfioruf, as at Shntiifhai, Histig- 
kong, ami ShigaporCt are aa well furiushed with 
Kagliak newspapers and periodicals as any of the 
palaces of Full ilall. in liis liassiou fur giuues, 
which kijciis him hi^althiest of all the foreign settlers 
iu the East, while the Gernuin grows fat, and the 
EtvnHimaii wiiliei^it the Eugiislramn plays lawn- 
tennis under a tropical sini: he has laid put golf 
links at Hongkong and Chefoo; erickcl ruaidies are 
as ficEiiieiit and cjscite as kufiu itn interisst as ihe 
doings of a county tenm at houjct nay, 1 have even 
heard of footlwll and hodtey at Singapore, wiihiu 
eeveiitv miles of tlifl Et^imior, A racecourBe must 
lit' constructed outside every town where lliere is a 
£ul1icient aeltletnent; the aiuiual race nice ting, iu 
which the owner fre*iueuily hays or brewls, trjuiiB, 
and ruhis his own ponies, is one of tlie events iil 
the year 1 and the wiiiurr of tlic Hongkong or 
.<hunghai ‘Derby’ enjoj-s a more than ephemeral 
renown. On fesiive occasions dances reuuiW tlie 
and, where it is uol lt)0 hot, riding is a 
fn>'ouri te recrea tion. 

Tliroughout the Fur Ea.'tt (stcellcnt and well- 
info rmod newspapers are owned atid eiiltfid by 

lUhmeu; and among them ‘The Japan Daily 
•chB Pfl— China Fatly Kews/atid tlie 

‘Straiis Times; os weU as several other?, wonhl be a 
credit to tlie Press uf any Eutopeim country. Their 
teU'graphii* mforiimtion is serntty and had; but that 
is the fault of the telegraphic ageuoy npon whom 


lliCT- onct and aJl du|jvml, aiuI vIjuih* 
jire a hji*wcj)’«l throughout ihii Eaut. If 
frequently attack the hn-Al rejirtstentative^ of (Iriitsii 
jjoverumenr* it TnuBt be reiueniWreil that Eiigliiliuieii 
like to grutubJc, ttnci that the Press ig cutnttiutilv Uu* 
moulUpiei-e of the non-olTitrml and mercantile mm* 
nmiiity, who enjoy [liekih^ a lame with ilie --daned 
servants of rJovcnvinenl. 

The domestic environments of life are not less- 
reiujuigceiiL of Uji* old Cimntty . 'Ilie exteriitr of the 
^■naiie Iioiise confonus to cUrnatie needs, ami S]>rendi^ 
itseli out in rtity verandahs i but ilie funiltwe 
IS not 3eltlf»m importea dirmt fnim Inane. l‘hc 
national love for neatness and deeonitn appears in 
the private grounds, the hanh, and jnililic gardens 
of tin* cities where the Ktiglish ai'e in the ascendant; 
and, were other mark of hntX^i infinence 

erased tivniorrow, it w-onkl always remain a manel 
how from a seordiing rock Imd Ijeeti evolved tho 
Kl\-sian graces of Hongkong, 

Everywhere, too, 1 Imve foutid the Englialiman 
enjoying that reputation for integrity and tuperiority 
rhicmiery, carruption, or intrigue, whicfi 
has given him his ittmtiianding p»>sjii,jn 
in the worlii. The olBeiab are (tf a higher tvpo- 
than tlioise b)* whom other Powc'rs lire representetl 
and m-e freciuentiy drawn from services speciallv 
orgmusftl and recruited. Nothing, uideetl. U more 
tmd tUa.. U.« daracter ,,u>J p<,rw„.lltv 
.Jlhcme,, ,vlio a«, iwartioMoftiriBl 

troa th.- iirtertau of (ir«u llriuui. in far toils The 

QltEAT iSkiVAiy LV THE EAll EAST 42® 

Inrgvr atmuspliiire of life lunl tlii? striise of rea|iCiiisi- 
hility ststini to free them from the pef tiiit'fwtw of a 
InMiie exi^ieooe that let apt to Ijv comsttined in 
jwriv conJliet, auil to sug'wsf brcmtler Ttetps of incti 
iijitl diiiigs. 'rite fame high toini exists thmtigh the 
various strjifa of sot'iety and employmeal, and the 
<*lrrk behind thi* counrer of ifi.e KnglisJi bank will tx: 
no less a geiiileiium both in birth and tdueation tUiin 
the Governor in Ids palace or tlin MiniHicT in hhi 
lv?gatton. I do not think ibat ibe same can be said 
of the Oeniiftiis. or of tho I'rendi, or of the Dutch, 
t.!oinTneTce has not' yet be(*otne poptihir among the 
iipjicr da«.se* of ffennatt sooiuiy. In France promtt- 
tion IB t<t<> frequently the reward of politicni fidelity, 
of joDTtialisiic service, or of successful ClianvinisTn, 
tti ndniil of a ciintiiiuoits evolution of useful public 
eervaitts. How inaiiv of the bkitiden# made by tliat 
people m Tongking huve I teen ilite to the character 
fif the men who in times past liavc bettii appointed to 
]>osttiotvs of iiiijxjriaiice Widtlinut the faiiitc^tl know¬ 
ledge of the country or nualiliciitio«« for the f>ost, it 
would bo hanl (o i;onjecturt?, 

Siinibrly, liiotigb our rivals and ,intagoniflta in¬ 
variably ascribe our politii ol snceeas and our wide- 
iwtiai spread Empire to a more than oniinaty 
aiptfliaiw7 duplicity, 1 have not found that this im¬ 
pression is anywhere shared by the Imfitem I'tiwerii 
with whom, by virtue of onr commanding ctmunercial 
pottitiim and tht^ multiplicity of our interests, vrt are 
brought into frequent, and sometimes contention^ 
i^ntai;!. On the contrary, it appears ilmt English 

TJ/K PJtOJiP£rr 


OovortiDientii^ a>iii]K 7 £e iltt’lr diAputPSt their 

bouTularics. and (^o]Lcttl(le iLdr troatt^a, with :i 
greater faciiitj* limn otlier Powers, mid that 
comuls are hioVeil up to as the leading men by every 
section of ilie 00011111111117 in which they reside, utid 
are frequendy apjiealed to by otliers as arbiters in 
matters lying oulsiile their official ken, TlKHigli. Itw^ 
we are credited by France with being tlie mmt ag¬ 
gressive of iHKiplea, this accusation does not seem (o 
tally with the voluntary cymuiatiou of Port Harnilioiif 
in deference to tlie susceptibUiries of Cliitta mid 
Korea, nor with our conduct in disposing of the vast 
heritage that came into otir hands iijioij tlie aiitiexS' 
tion of Fppor Bui'nin; whilst it comes with iltgrAci^ 
from a people wJio liave recently perjieiraleil the 
mdcfensihle outruge upon Siam. Similnrly, though 
it has rreqiiently appeareii in print, panicukrly lu 
America, that Grtsat Britain alone mtands in the way 
of Tvoaiy Itevisioa iu Japan, the facts which 1 have 
elsewhere disjilayed will have shown the buselcitiiiness 
of ihi- cliaige. w'liieh narie km>w better the 
Japantse atatcsmen tiiemselvea. 

TUcic are ^yntain points in eoimection wlih nur 
diplomatic represenlatinn in the Par E:i 3 t to which it 

•j**” The Foreign UJTice has sometimcH oppMared 
to regard certain of tlie-se poKis as of otdv scirondary 
imj[jorta«w, and ns refuges for failures eliM-ivht-Te, or 
lU loAM for pemouii ijossessing no peculim (jimliflcn- 
tions. To my mind, there are few more imp-utant 
apiMiinimeuts than those to the Courts of J.iftati ami 

(ikK.iT iiktTAtX ts TJIH FAR FAST 


of Cliiua, UiiJ, m u somewliiit toss djej^e^ of SLuu \ 
;md yot it biis in times past ocrurrofl (hot gemtleiDeri 
havo been appointed to tlieac pci&is who have no 
]}erso]ial njctjuaiiitanee with tlie I5ast or kjiowledge of 
tlie problem with which they umy reqdire to deal. 
The reception accorded to Hr. O'Ctonor, ojj, Jib ootui- 
iiutloii to the Hrlti^i I.egation al Feking in 
sttJBcienily imhcatcd The rejoicing of the JJritisli 
commimit V in the Far ISasi at the ajipohitiujenl of a 
man wlio roaJIy knew both the coimir)" to wMeh he 
waa iicei-i>tlin?i,l and the business which he would 
have to tratuiaut. There appeal^ to Ih* still an ini- 
mcnee ojiening in the Far Fast fur a diplomatic 
career* We maintain at Tokio, at iVking^ ami at 
Bangkok, a number of jftecalleil Student Inicrtirelers, 
wltg, after [inMing & prclitumarr examinetiati ut 
Lome, gi> out to the East, undergo a steatly course of 
instruction in the language of the coirntry in whicli 
they will paK« much of ihck lives, and thence art- 
drafted into the Con-sular Service. Fn'Ui their rntiks. 
huve spniug surJi men ns the late Sir ITnny PnrJtcs, 
whose uaiue b as familiar a luiuaehold wort! in Jiipan 
nnd in China ns b tJiat r)f lib still-surviving Uiune- 
fljikc in AuEtndla; Mr. Sntow, the present HritiaU 
Miniflter at 'I’aiigicr; and others whose nmnes will 
occur to tilt uuimory. There is just ait great scope 
Ibr the production of such men, ami even gre.-ucr 
need for their aer^iecs now than in bigone days. 
The Fur 13naf ileiiiands a knowledge tJiat can only lie 
uequiretl after years, aod a Btacesmansliip that must 
have t>een in fiart nurtured in a hwal utmospliere. 

TitK VaoSP^VT 


The j^real iKiiiUfui atliimMl Uy tin* laJ*‘ ^ir WiUmu 

Wiiilt' Jil (,‘utist(Uiliiio[)lLS surtiiig frani a. similar 
oriiiTu,i«ny be emi^ated In ctvutilnfe? whtrre tJiO tU*?r<‘ 
U rtii Eastern (luestjmi ii«l murli less iimiurtant Ibuu 
lilt fiHilrcjl of the 13os|>horu^ or ihe ownership of 
S^ipliia. 1 would fain hope that among llm rising 
generation may he found, some ivlm will be worthy 
heirs of these great tradtUous. 

In another respect the i’oreign UJliec appears to 
nie to have neglected an elemenlaiy jiari of «U]>Iotiia- 
vducatimi, and an iiulispeii&ildfi adjunct 
t” the sntooth working of tiie diplomatic 
machine. One would sttrelr I'xpeet lo find 
ju the iJriiiak Legation in every foreign conmry^ 
moat Iff all in the a compact, we11-cho$eti, and 
icrvn-eable library of the beet l)of>Us relating to the 
cornurv in ijuesiloii, and the politiciil problems which 
it is likel)’ *o suggest. Such libraries w*ere in 
coUeeted many years ago. 1 fouml die fragments of 
«uch u one at Peking, just as J remember rf,)Utiiig out 
from a dusty vloaet the dt^hrit of unoiher at Teheniti, 
At ilfshwl I could mu discover a single publicatum 
on [.he Afghan Frontier Quest ton. Kiinilarly, at 

Bangkok there was not one volume relating to the 
froiUier between Burma, Slam, ami (Sihia, though 
a small but eicelhmt literature e^sis upon the 
suhjecl^ and might at .-iny nimiient In/ rerpiirtsl for 
olliclal reference. My impression is that at Tokio 
there Is iL siTnilar absence. What is wantcil in 
each tuise is, tmt a libraiy of general referem-v. 
but a collection of authoritative works, within n 

G/tSAT ItSirAIY I.V 7’1/A' A'Afi £A^ 03 

liTDlltytl ntiigc!^ to wUkk rp<^oiirFe run lie Ita^T at 

Aiiv mom«at. As soon as the uucloiis, of such a 


collation lifwl l>ee(i fonuwl, a few jMVUnils n ywr 
wnnltl aiiiplr siiHioe for the nireesAftrv incremot^t, 
wliicli alioiiM tit (rarefully Heloctl^d and sent: oiu from 
)iome. Tlie India lias sometimes extended 

eiicli n patronage to itsefiil pul jU cationic pnrrhashi^ 
u oertAiw inmtliex (>f nopitis. ;uitl <listributijig t lie in 
among tlm loiralrties concerned; lvu( 1 have never 
heanl of Llir Foreigti Offiee exercising n SjRillarly 
wise geneitssity. 

(Hirer diptomatic ationialk'S,easily rei«ov:iWe, if 
iUh-’HiihI of suflicieat un porta nee, have come nnder 
T)i| 4 n)«ui:t my noiice wlilln travolUiig In the Far East. 
HdiMMiiM Peking it might be wuU were the diphv 
matketnlf of Great Diitaiu to include an Indian oiTtcer 
iir so miui}' JWe the pnrtly Indian rpiestions 

that (tune op ftiT disetission tvilh Uie Tsnngli Yamen, 
upon svliicli iliere is^ iii> one on the ajad to throw the 
imecsaary light. An even greaier desIderaTuiii is the 
appoiiittiieni of a i’ommer(?ial uWichi^ (similar to out? 
or two analogous nilieials in Europe), who should 
travel about from, jxjst to post in the Far East, anti 
visit the inland districts; and who alioiihl rejxrrt 
ujHni Uie changing tosin and styh^ of ihe naiive 
markets and ujjoii the ecouoiviic products of ihe 
country, as well as coUct'i any information that 
migbi. lie of service to Uritish nieichanis. In days 
of euuh acute coinpeiiiion, when the represmitatives 
of foreign Powers resort k> a mc^re tlian diplomritTc 
strategy in tlie interests of their countiymen, uo 


Tll£ PItOiSI*£CT 

legkimAte step lie iieglceteil fi>r the ptvlection 

2 in(l esceiistoii of British trade. To the uniiisimeted 
eye it further seems tt striinge anomaly diiii wlulet 
.lApoti, Ctuna, aivd ^ioin are uudiT the Fort>ign Olfice, 
Hongkong, wldeii all but touches ilie Chinese main- 
laud, and the Slrait$SetUeinent$,«bich actually touch 
Slant, sliouhl be under tlit* CiiloniHi fJfhirej whUu 
Burma agani, which touches both Slam and China, 
is under the ludin Office. Verliaps «uiie ihiy we 
shsdl arrive at a more rational concentraiion of 
intcreslR, ]>osslbly even, as lias been suggested, at the 
creation of a new depaTtment which shall deal with 
the llfltkh affidiB of the Asiatic ctuiiiitetiL, 

lireat as is the position which [ luive ilepictc<1 as 
liemg enjoyed by Great Britain in the Far East, I 
FnUtraijt believe lUat it will be in^ater still. The im.- 

^ r - * 

piDveiujent of existing aiitl lie of 

PwEMi (j^iw means of coimniJiucadou are rapidly 
developing a, solidarity between the East and Ibe 
West which our gratidpnreiita w^oult! have deemed 
imiUissiVjle, Fusion and iioi disintegration will lie 
the keynote of ihe progress of the eomiiig i.-ehtiiry. 
Til ore Tciaain now but few countries to which ucct-Ea 
has not alrendy been gained j thoiigh there are 
severut whose poUtical stubtllty is precarious, or 
whose political ‘boimdnries are not tlotoruiiiied. 
soon, however, as fixity can lie predicaftal of either 
of these dcpartmeuL^mucli mure, if of botli— 
iKumiiercinl e.xploitation will begin. Tor this object 
British (yjergy, Britiah capital, ami British 

l>e Inquired, TJio l^ow^ir wUlcli IjBenloiigv&i 

HltlTAtS M' THE fA!i EAfST 


Wi the wliieii erijoys (lie best ^o^-apli'n‘;il 

{riv^itiuit for the fliHirtliutioti ai U» (iiTjiiiiif'rce, or 
the djfis£‘iiiluiitimi of iis inlliicnee. .‘iiut whicli eiin 
CctuiTDaiicl the liirpest resources, rnusE iiifiJlibly 
triumiih in AttV'siieh eoiupetitiou. Our jhisltlcrri in 
Iiuliagi^'C^ UJt iho eertnltt i:«imajaiul of the iiiitttt id- 
routes nud raitroails rltut wiU lay open die Fiir 
ill the not disdiit future. Uiir pixtkiou upon the 
iiot'jui, if duly softf^uimleil, sboiiH .%<<^ure to iis the 
control of the maritinic highway.^ KiirrTiemort*, ilu? 
oouiitTy which h»s tuillioui^ ui puipping up 

th* ruMon Itcpuhllc's of llii* New N\>irhl niny very 
well ropiiy ita age-lotijr debt to the t)hl by a similar, 
even if )i tanly, servh^. 

Atiove all will ihis task, be fucUttated Iiy the iu- 
crcasing ditTusion of the English tongue. /Vlrently 
Tiiip spuketi in every si ore from Vokolmmu to 
Eaiigoon: alreuily hitiglit iti the militJtry 
and naval colteoes uf Chum, luid in the sidiools 
of Japan and of Siam; already enipJ«y«l in ihu 

^ I IrttiNmlnr^ Ihii qimJifIfiitiAll Jittumw «4n'n^)i uf 

Urltuljt ill lki« Fat Nliut, i« ibv wiiiert k>4u4^4tti Slii||ptiporQ mtid 
VUil[vi>iii>lf. wlioit c«iii|]«.nfd ihiB eKAitltitiiAl «jf Ffiin^i# Riul 

liUAgijifCiin AcUK'ki^y b<k ifiu^ n> t}|iil ii]LMiait0<t>liW im^dumUuMic* 

mtidty vmiitiyt lir* la. A[jnl i8ti4 ihe 

hrit^ Mitmiliwiii hi ihiJ Fur Em* «uiuimo*i id St imiudail# ^ 

tutiAV^ t^O uftArmourinil cmufiriHTi]^ 7 rruiLd^rn auiI 7 

r Aiul Ciiieh!!- I|f a 44 llt| 

lamn^A fit vUji p. mmu At 

period tin# Frpiieli iJu«t comdAW vt 2 tuupi. 1 #ruhfir, 

ajjjl StJ iiiifiJlM ve«e>iu nmiidy ptuub^iutiu ha u-^11 b» 1-i rivpf-ttiimifMai’* i 
uHth ft I4ln[ laiiiift^ <il ur» ux-o1iulu!}| IIeh rivur^fiCfliiinori^ 

ftTiii ft eniiiplAiii^t finuffi *Th^ ItriHiHii 

cocudjil^d nkf 11 \'*iHiMatA. viS-1 A luui ipHiboH^ wilii 

m. tutttl iif 15Jlt>. w,i] II cuuipftiiiaiit pC 

rii£ 7 >jf 0 .s 7 '/rr 

4 !lft 

telegrapWr. si'rvicesi; of JatuLii, Cliiua, ami Konsi, 
aud stamiwd iipoji tlu' ailvyr cotua iliat ifisot* fnitn 
thp .minis of Osaka arid Cautfni; xlrtEditr tisoil bj* 
Clnnameii iUeiusidr^s a iiieatift 4>f cammttiuiiiHtiim 
'Letu'wii subji^cts fTtmi diirereiit provmcea «>r;i:U<?ir 
luiiflitj Einjnre—it is dvatiueil witit absolute cerlaitity 
tn Ik* ihi; laii^ua^'e of the Far Eaat lU sound trill 
mu Into all latuls, and iu trortU unto tlw ciula of 
Uie world. Tliat this splendid future is no idle dream 
faun^v hut i» castable of realtsaiiou at tm iwlefinile 
period^ nolle tTho Iiave travelletl ti'idoly Iti East uni 
Asia will doubt. Moml failure alone cm) shatfer the 
pptiapeot that awaits Uiis country in iho^^ijendiiij; 
task of regeueration. 

We wtiererer thip ccmti] salt, 

We fonuded tmuiy a iniglit^ Stute^ 

Prtiy (ifott our uw\ itol Oiil 

'fliRiUjdi cnivuu fears of betug geeai t 


ArriTNTt, Sit fin 
AiiicriciubiiJi Ktifisiw IT^- lT7i 


Amtir. Tb^, m ai50^ 4M, 4lrt 

Aiiwistkii!' \Vi3FBfitp Jik OhiiiiC 

- \n Ki«io»» yiQ 

AoH ViiioiTtiaiil 

Army, JE:gminM* KcnW^-p Cbkio«i^ 

1''^;^ *11^ yiuw litlR** 

Ad A, FiL«cm«irtoii ofp l-G 

Au^lbnao m Peking, 

lUuiir, K. G„ m 
IkT«w» b Kom, l^M 

— coLMwk. moa? 

11^ ibr ^10 
firiiikby, W 

Btou^hliua my, yi 
Itron^litoup C4^ W* Ul i 

l^zMliillui. J, I 

HTikMhuitt in {ItlttA, ir#i-dfiO | 

— In JlnjmiU 

^ in Kaiw. Fiif# tmh Iklonkf; | 


Cvikitolih < 1 W.. JWJ irw u liW ! 

Cnntiin, *47, m, WJ. 4iWfc 
CwW W. H,*W. *DO 
Cwftvitcb iuCLiudiXlu^:^^ 
CUiiiin Alt ^ llU I 

Clilli Tuuif, Vfswiyt I 

C'lwtiuiilfw.»?- -a. m JTU. l«Oi 1 


Cbk CJiii^R, EiopcrLirp :SdJ> ifQ 

Chhiik, Etajpttof nt 141)+ 

1W5. aaTp H7a 

— l>nftiin&r nil 
27.3, ^ US 

’ — Fnttire flC aOi)—117 

CbluBW AdmiiiiitrdUijiiif 4(>. 
tim J%4JH 

^ liJl* 348 

— a\miT, W7’ 57, 41i-l 

— » Cbmlkfiftr, aaT -flH 8Ca, 410 
^ 4il0p 4flt3p m ill 

Furgij^ii 31l« aoi 

^ In Jn^ixk 'i? 

— In KofiAi Vide mft XurruL 

— K^vyp 856-60 

— NoftifiioerA. 8012 i . 

“ PnpuwutE^ iifii 1l48p lit 
^ 873 -00 

C!inii^, PTiison+iaa 
Chiiw Hail^ IMS) 

C'inutiixn^ tn Kdi-etii, ll-HI-ii Sl^k 
I'lJiymC MiddoiLiirira- 
Chiiiip IViimop li40| Ji65 

tllii/i-guvr'mi»4nc In JiipAni 65-^ 

tlUiuiiaiB Lf ibd Fm- tjut4 B 
^«i-mmes In Chinm 


— m Karn*. m 

CoutuivrtKi. rti Tjrtnljf. 

Unofnciiiimn) ui (Ihliu, 3ff7, atr\ 


— in Kflf^ lilJp 14i tU 

<'4jiiirtiliilimi+ lYc/r nwO 


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Attbotk— A Histih*T Of Q«w 4. I Bewat-— Tuf HirrnKv <jr Lokuou.. 

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History, Polities, Polity, Political Memoirs, &tj — 

Fnml&. -W.*r 4 .* tv JjutM JL Fvtufun* | 
Kcsiu* FnitsHV Mo^ltfn KWtmy t) til# | 

(j Qiv^t^iy nf Oxfb#^ 

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ii (^own 

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lEam/YUl. U wnm 

Tlin &Turcr 0^ TRfe 

4ti«| ffUw HiiEjafiti! sttl f^emip 

tiiXK Qsvwn Std, ^ 

rifb BMffLmi IK iMfelo^u^p 1^ tiiE 
Cmvrir j vw. Ctcwn 


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Felif/w ijf MttiiBi C^Ej^, Oxfbzjd 

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Heant.^-THP Grvb»>hbmt ur 

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Hlitoric Towns.—Edited 1 ^ tL A. 

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Eft* IWFd^m^ g1 (LfLie tlic niiK^ mI 
\Vj14a Cruww 8vi^ xa M#- 


Histary, Polities, Polity, Political Memoirs, SLO.^&nfi^nfd 

—W<pri^ by Lujtu Mjlc-mtu'V 
UsypLETm OP Lord 

^E^RTCt Edltioia- l-fi v^iL Fiat 

LUwy FifilintL: ^ r&tli fTCLi £$ pL 
ffirTflRt Sif EnCil-iHU PJCOV TTIIE Ac- 

cvsiias or Javi# tue 
F ofi^lAr Etifilim. j vnti^ 

Studffnt*B KiSnw). 

Editiatt -i pobt Cs- SvTi-. 

CaJuiiiUl E4ilii)n- Svak Fo«^Tra.- V'^ 
Libfirj EtHiwn. 5 vuk £™.. £4- 
CJIITEC AL A>i w Hirra«iC*L Eswri, wnn 

Law m A^wji^ Eumh, ui i viiluitie^ 

FripctiAr Eklition^ Ctewni iwo,i &f* 
Autrivk^ CfB^m 3^Qfc, 

ot 3i firf-j gitt cd^, 

SU'^Ei UliHiuw Ediijon. Cr. 

^iuiakifl^p 1 Tolbtna. 

j Ci, Sviom St 

7ri?V4d|:jmn 4 

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E&SAt» wliith may l» baij enpa^atcty 
frffice tfvL cac^ WFodp 1 ftifib rkub* 
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Tia* tLsrl flf CHJihAiTk ITvU 
Kibi OlaimiacF 
^tll&an ATid MadlUvclU* 



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Ukc Reidiiimticit 

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Pcoalc't Ekliooji. irol, CronTidvD.H^CMi 
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pi^ylMt Hdir iiaiL. ClrOMltl S9# 

btudcxal'* EdtlicA). R^ii 

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Kimtajrn liriiXiiie A«i=i4<« ef G«f e III- 
Oy iiiT tHOXMk Hrwmis MiV- 
jVdJa. Oawa 


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fui jga_ By ihr P^. Kiaiap 

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}do{«*, h An*, JtE. Crairn Hva.. 

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ujijT i!fc Rujiai. DtJiiiuim: Atfcmnmi aifi 
flail, fl■AHT€.STmTPA, M F 4fa., 
III. Alt L^^lrpului Edi^KKi. crorwM B«k, li- 

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Wkvolvttois, % Hj Mow*, 

BaIIiiM Oa^v. OadurtL fTcli. JW*, Vot*. 

I ani tL MHk 

StablMk— HirfoMt OF TTta Uai\'Bfifitri a». 
nrrutrH. IHpn Ilf FfittRiibatm en tbe Eod al 
ifie ^ghiiamih C&itmy. By J • W- ifOt 
^Ul, ITL 


LONuilttSS fa.’3 *st> ftSftKHAL WlUKS. 

History, Politics, Polity< Political Memoirs, Sto.— 

Sutlwiisjii. i*ra Nirtiint ^ 

axs^ Niw litrtn io 

Ht Au4i.i»m 

Jyiit CnirfiV Cmrfn 

Hvo,, *1- fij 

Th™pd*a — ut a DsKo^iyu:! t 

*ii l^y. By IlMMif. Omnrwr T 

ClMklk i^n,, ^ 

Todd.—Pit I Li* a iWTAffT ^UVE^HftW t» 
iTit* CoLwraiviL %■ Ax-nivw 

Tuii tv i-t- 1> 3«*- m*. 

Tttpper.-O^in Isibbui Fj£ti«CT«HAXE $ ■□ i 
]riiTi«loc£^ 19 tiK &t3idy of iJ3e RfeUtkttH 
BriiHd] Q oiHfl iraif n viA- in 
lo^nji FftitigfiWK?*. Cji*i**Lv* Lawa 

T^pItfi. JtiiUim CivB StfiWfr i^ 

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in^Cttrtn ItP Tip bftvm^ Iji# Ctw 

«TfTTTittr^CAL Unruri ^ fii' Kisiiltial Mw^ 
liCrt of tho li n^mMy of CKfnr4» M 

H titrt OrruT W^MiiAii. ^ iM 

4jtf HUB >1*A* 

WiJBoU.“W<iiflw bf Srm« VVAf.mtJ. 
Htsfirtt flrr ftllt CiJU- 

CMtiiiL^M or tni; Qi<t*T Ww m rtii ti* 

lil*. dwk CrtAfo ^ul, tii. 

Till LutK* uf Hinil RuLl: Fxiitie JUT 
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f itimBom nf 

i Vul I. 

im fi« 

4 Hdli. Cfowm 
lOB. IL* Iff* 

Vol, ill. 


Biography, Personal Memoirs, &a 

Anuitriiifj^Tiii Lin *?fp Ltttbu i 
lLiyiUP4D J. AoicirmiQ'i^ii. flditikdi by G. F. 
Atjnnttrnt*^ Mof. INu. i ! 

SAfiooL—Tan t-crrii* ikh- Lipi ©p * 

|=|LaitC3:» t«tuL-tHJip aU, li« Uc- 

c«iAnBci4 Wmin. Btbittil by jA^trt* Sf t n- 
iHLhd. T jf4 +L 

BiiehoL—Hiftrk«i.iPNic*i- ^ymmIha. By 
Wai^vei Baoihut. a»o^ m 

Boyd. rirtwYtc-KiVD VfAii vf St^ 
fly A- K- H^ lkirn, 
n,fX. LLil>^ AstftcM of »|%oc*Biiiatti of i 
Couaciy &C_ t Ifit* Voi. 

I llE Vi!]t. tt. 

ClrifiAL-TKauxv CahLtu:: m Hiiiiory 
irf Ob* Ldt By J. Al Fatumii^ 

^twrt - Aukuih PiiiKit: Go-Yrraur 
©f Stiimi 4iM3 HatfIuJ of Fwcl Ha E.jfe ' 
ItwllonoAk 13 ^- 1 ©$^. t9y<jrn«&p flcMiPiCHi. 1 
A^iicx «[ WArabDd.' A*. ' 


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:*fi,^K 4 wKV,>M. 

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IfAM^TOSU Ry p OlAYl*. 1 'I'ailt 

/DfUEUDflM T» TliU -LiPIt pr U"^*!, 
R4W4II HAJEn+tvi^ J^L D.,I> 111- 
fiif. «ewut 

EflMiE.—T he XABkJtmfc * Bvit 

Tafu : iDi iBio^c«Eq|f|y. By AiritUli 
HitJ. tl*ii%*Lt. MJJ- ^ 

HAVElOCiL-MEUftllil PP Hs^hME 

HEtUPCTEv % JsvHit 

>i«5AnlAy.—Tfg Life amp Letthei «r 
l^mt ^Iai:jipw- By iJ±r Ki^u Ki^a. Sif 
G- Tii«vi£tY 4 (E, llifT. 

Foptiliii fldifiotu 1 ttiiiu^ Cf« 


^tudanl '* lidliTra. i, Toliunc. ^vn, ^ ©T* 

CoLiitcl Bctnionk A lulh. Foril JejI 
Lilany flilkiqa. * itilr- j<U- 

Uvbftti—T he Mcwpirb w mP Baroii 
m HjiAjiaT* Tnunbuoi-lietm flse VWcidi 


liM. II. 

Montxofl©.—liEExiA #j- Tnm 

MKaniaAiif J^vEft, li1itmi^^i«OF UciTmu«Ep 

li^FiE^^ By iIh Rmt.Geoihie WuifAir, 
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nf ihi CifTArmchi amdi H- Ki fclu«E4APff 
Mh.v iCsimb:} iSoMii 

PmWeA CoUt^ 4ljg,, 

& co*s sTA.WDAitb Axn g^hsral works. 7 

Btogrsphy, Persona! Memoirs, &e,- 

S 4 fbti 1 ltCL-- £ H|f 

JiJ'HN €ur.rT^ EsAriiii^i avuThuilu Mwk; 

A Wdtp &y Kjiim- 

llttL tkRian^. T41L 

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l*itai.i,w« With rwmifnti* 

«mJ FA£-^iki. xy«^ jfx ir. 

5faAkfiat«m'A Tfttm Life. Bjr Jaue^i 

TA'At,t5^ fDa- miHiraiinfi* bj^ 

(io_ij.ij iL Imp. 

ei]»tbrf>ahj(|.—Lrt-n aap LiTTBen or the 
filnriT Kf^BUT LwSt At 

8^£4A4jRi«iu Q.C-'B-i vUlv a 

Meaiuuf ul ■"< ifiiutiiicuk^ juiiH' 
filHTEia'KmE. O-Ctt, Rt a. PATi^MATT 
Hjitnjf* Wicii 5 |*octeSi*L ^ v«lfk 363, 
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f tgU ito^al 424 . 

I Wa^EET.—W.wj^xE A« I Hjii_ By 

FEbitinructtr F^^EHEk. Cronm }iva., 7^1 64. 

I Wnl&JTd—Twil-VE E-Mtrt4AI| AlITtfWtf" 
EiBKi 9 - D. WAEirOEl^ AuibiOC CH 

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‘ UflBiidih iVforr, Cn?^ Fi'vri . 

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WjriJ.R9i3Tair. B>‘ zhc Her* &. Hr 
>LA. bwci, jj. 

WordtaviwtlL — Worb hy CttAKC«E« 
\V 4 ii«iwiHTK, D.CI^. Imu of Si. 


Ai(XEl-i or SIk Ejkia-r l-iFtr iSct-sR^JL 


AsxALi DF Bva,. 


Tj'avel and Adventure, the ColonieSt &Q- 

tijf itie Utt 

—SiAi Lasuj^. By Sir Bo- ' 

wm AtjfnitP, AmW of *T>ie 

tJgtci <if iJaai WbdiL" Ajc- Rcfurinied kttm 
irftoi* liaB " lliily Ttk^rapISfi \ Wib ji 
irru^fritiun*- Cwo fivo,, Ti, fcrf. Owip 
LdiLbifc. Crt?wn 11 , W- 

Al-STRALfA AB IT IS^ or. Fact* fijn) 

F*uit¥?^. aihi tiM-Eiiintj of 

AiiPttEk* AUffnlLiA Li^. with 

Sxlcc* bl NV-m* A C^GY* I 

tbit tec a WOK nm^nl fn iiat£t3Qi 
»f ^E# Soncli We^, Cjiawrt Ji- 

Bakot. WerfU by Sir S^utEt Wimi 


Eimwl Vfc 13! CfitJAjft. WUh t> filiw- 
listKiitE SS™.. Jfc CJ- 

1 riE Kiri-o amt nii- HoitBU iw CctifiM- 
A’jJltt^rrjUnmt Crw»vrt jci W, 
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I B V. T fl C S ^ 

RtiiMiio Cn iE* 3^.iJiiii»JAJLAjto: 

bt^ E IKeCtmi of iy«avAti£tfi dmi £»■ 
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TcrtitJ^ % H' M W. With 

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the Tns CTwn %«»., yt 6J. 
i iix BtOti:!* Crrv or tits Bthiufiass: 
h*inK a Kwuaio^TraYii ami In 

Ab^rti* til I Sw Willi M rtM* wid fij 
IliniiTittpanft tn tba Tcil Hvia., isi. 

Boothliy.— O?* TilEWatLiET p w^ThrouKli 

Eftat Aexi^ A«lnllWir By Ovi 
BocTfiat. tttotraioJ hy Ry> Bocmtifp 


BtEssey. ^ W of ts 


Tiik Last VotAflE TO IWDIJI k^d At:n* 

TSaU 4 fit THK * SUKBa. 44 tf/ Wlik CbACtU 
2 ftd MajMi and n|a lltuuiti:ation> eH 
couep lUiA neatly acKf lllminilwt* in iif« 
Teat 51J- 

A VOTAOE IH Jill ’ ISsvxiiflAiiOui 
Bom OH Tua Octjj ru« itutYi* 


library Rd^ioG, \Y\th H ,iilbE» and 
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CA^inm EdLlWi WiiJi Map kiKif 
iUiiUibttbJiiL^ CtOwii jt. A#, 

jiilra Uhtiey EditrtiBu IViibiifrlKmm. 

ijtRia. Crown 5%T®,p JA> fiif.i 
FOfiuloi EdflAoui VVTilili Cu Itli m balMi i A . 

4ID.. fikf. icwxik tiflth 

S^dHKiJ li^tWD. 37 TnujMmkiii!^ 

Ma Of >r- *ii±c iwichnajoL 

Siinittisc]; AJ<i* Stoiif ru the IU«t. 

Llbtiuy Bditiun. \KlBt 2 . Mii|n amli^i 
iUmValliiiik tlAp 

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mtnsnpmne- Qo«n Ktil, n. arf- 
EopuJar E4itH]n, VVfib (Oj llLutnittmiik 
4iir.. sHOfl. (ti ekm 


»Ki»«t 3 «i| Forties 

BdnwtL W\th Map usii zi» 
iQuimiiDQTi. Clown JfTo., 7f. ttf. 
f^ipnlu Bdltioo With laj llIntttAliorPi^ 
4(0 1, bdi, %evi^p i 4 > tloib. 

THNIE VatAOli IN TUI 'Srj«nEAif"* 
Pbpultf 34^ likMijwkittjk 

iL|im 3 a. 64 /. 

MESSK.'? Ll^vriu.'t.vs S- CO.'S STANiyAm <fSSERAt. 

Travel and Adventyre* the Colonies, &o. 

*tfd Naitifil Iftitm “ 

CaCrny, w,lh 4 mUflc; <tC t3*f|W 
Md of it» |i£Mnl dirtiibiflion-cif th« Anft- 
kipcv Gitnt By il- A. 

Wfth IJ ninartriWim 

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OuKtsTT?^ VVuh ;i 9 ft 

iU-id u [a&X fly iluJ rliOft- 
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sport and Pastime. 

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Sport and PastJme—*vfu/^>W 

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iCH, 64. 

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^-! ^ J-C. WjicciqiiL 1LkuaiiaiK»L 

Mentatp Moral, and Political Philosophy. 

1 - 061 C, ^fftroit/c, psrcHOtorii'. etc, 

4* #1. AJUarr, fl-Hr iisaux^ 

A^tcAle.—'Wmin b*. TnM PoLftieii: latipauLiOfy PlMcyi. 

TimyAUTim; G.'lkkliir* Greek Text {*'' '*™‘“ BoiUnrf an^ 

tifcv Gbu-I, ilrtrt.. s vtdp lyvlo.^ |ij_ 



liOUftnaiL — CtfkM ___ 

\\\ tewfioiua. Fqi,j^%o., 

I Ctomn 314, 

MESSRS. ^ CO. ^ Sr.tfiftAttH M’CKkS. it 

Mental^ Moral and Political PfeUesophy— 

TMt Nicn9i4cm«k Kcwly | 

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LOS<aMA^^!^ 4- CD- S- A^n I^EA^SiTJL 

MoraJ and Palitieai ^hilQBophy--cmipineil. 

TliiSiiiQa--dt7ii4ii» m Ttifc 

Lawi of Tif4HwiiT: ■ TmliT« <w Pufc mA 
Am^ Lfieic Wtu-iiH Trnumtm, 
D.IJ. Asnti^ir Lnta ArshHi^ler <ll 
Fo«« ili 

Webk—Tim Vwi- of Ijiifc : * Scr&^ or 
HMiyvon littaliiin- l^T. K. ^'twt m«i- 
uu . 


liHI.— im TI1» PnKW[u;(BitA 

ilVHAF BlrFO- Jauu ^Iili.. 

JUIL— lit Stt AiTT 

A STArfiuortwic^ Cn5wciBifm5i-iy 

Qfk LtMtnr^ Cwsn Bvft^ XI 4 4*^. 

Of K j=FM^j£ii.TJtii Gdw bKFinxHT,. 

Qtnffl Hv&i ^ 

UXIUTAMI^^CtM. jBvo^ 51 . 

K&jiU]if#.xiofi Of Sm WimiAM 
T«l'» rilUfl^irJFIlT. . Ii¥5>-I itia 

mr. Ut£14TY nt K^iuioii. 
4IIIT4 TliwEiKm. Onim 

Monet— t>TfiorniCTio:t TO Look- By 
H. ^ Mji!tc*_ Cton ^ 

Elbot-^Twi F^tTCHoi^CHii' OH AtwiItu^in, 
BtTm Hihoth C^Tom Bvo^ jj- 

^d^xrtet— DrsTijictfOF: aM rbe Crtu- 
ciuu o# -Bdict IV AiufMM 

Btoet— nB.i}i:eTivis Looic. By 
(i£DiLij£ iStoc»- Ftp- ^ 45tft- 

Still^^— Works ^ J A u& Sy J^tif« 

Tuc Mu«a?i Mifo: a. TfeJd-bmofc irf 

FffWt;Mk^ f XU. 

GirTiiFi:^ or PavcHOMMf^ Bvo., 

Tflfc TfcJiciieit'i Hh^uomit or Fay- 
Ciown H'Vtr., 

Bwiatemo .— ile Locptc: An Atienrp! 
iO Pk^idulK £fckm#e of HtUKidiEn^. 
&f AlFvUt jAUta BwiKMLMcilfc, 

'VVh.h 1) WoodtnU. FikI 

Tlu3mpelAmv--kVDrhi Ixy Oakiel GH^est- 

LIAF TooMnuSp 

t^iioner^ or Bvil: mu Iniioiuc* 

tti>ti(OtnelWtiuj±kK«Ocn. dvOr, 

A SYiTlSW VI' l^TCJIOI-OaT' 3 Yoliu 

SVi^j jiBjli. 

Tui Bifutiifvtim SniTtKEFTi m rm 

UiLi^^ iXtistw p. bd. 

StficiAi- FmvuHMSi&s Jin Ewy. 

Tut FTiiLtiiinpitT or Futtiof sh ljrf.H> 

Axnms: m Ewy- Dwo ^roi, On 


; Wti*telr.—Wortt* bjr R- Whatsit* ti.E>; 
i Bacon'i* E»my»h Wrtll Aan&WKm, 

I By ^ WtiAimiT* Am m- 

EuitoiT^ nr Cr 41-Anr 

I ELMKrNTH or tBSTQlIC- Cm WO '-rij*. 


or? RmAbttiiiNfn Fcp- 

El. 6f^ 

I ZbHw.—W cEtks hf IJr- EnnrAMO ;£tttp|pftv^ 
IVcds^ujut inibi C-itintriity ofUrtUo. 

Htnort ^rr EenMttft;ttu OUEim 
I^1ttali€iFHT« . Tcmiuliiii^ ^ au4.H F. 

! Aluihi. CiwF tun fidL 

I TtDDIilltfil ^ the B«.v; Q, J, RilE^BLi 

iI*A, Ci«a^ ^t>.r 

dttiititAm or tKE IfixTOiET nr QmiCB 
I PHrLiW^nVii Tcain^tnlei hf F. 

I Au^Ynr 4114 Awnur, C^two 

$¥*., tCLT* OiL 

Fmtcp aho the OnnmR AtAiitrir. 

TsanslsJEit by Sultan r. Atumfri. ind 
Anrrmn BJk. Cmvq tvo« 


SocmATB* AMO TBO SociiArie 1kinonj-m 
Tr40ilst<4 hy ibo Rtr. O. J. ttmiLiiiEi*^ 
K^* Crowrr Giio.* lox* lU. 

Tlie FFe^SocitArjc ikKOox-i: a ||»toTy 
ol Grack FhiliiEVprvy Ircnn itiF Kaillo^ 
I I^tIcmI Id ific Ihrlc of SiiKram TranllsE^ 
bry BAtmi F. Anutrtaim c Cmrn 

%YO,» iot 



MoiAn Faitoaoriir iETUJCt A^oT^itirirun. 
J:*Air_ By Ji*™n S.J. C/owtt 


A or Foi iTjiSiAn EcohoiiIYa "By 

Pxvu. Ci0Wfk Bl Off 

FrtmT P^^cirua uf Knownmiwn By 
joaii; Bior^mT. Cx^vm Sro., 31 

GiBtrMi- IkluTArirrucf^ JnMi* Ricl- 

A Hr; 9-j. CsEtnni 

I.11UK;. By Eiciumn F. Cuus. ShJ. 
CtO^n tti^ ta 

SATUiun By BjiKt^mn 

BomnoKF. S-J. Ctoawif fin M* 

F&vciioi.ooY- By Miottun Mamu, S-J. 
I CuTwn As 

MUSSJm, l,0.SGV4IVi>^ STANDAlta *lA/> O^EJtAl. irOflA'S. i| 

History and Sclenoe of Lang^uage^ &e. 

, ^TfdmxtL — AHV tu^oKtA’^T , Hu M3Jkr —WorUJ>y F, SIai 

— fPiaJ/BiwC 

Thii&e L|;e:mu uoi TiriL Sciutoi dir 
]*AirnL!Afi»« m trv 

£TlUGATtC»l» dclivttfl[l It. Chrfer^ 

Cw«it tvfr, jj, 

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aJNii pM.tiAiiLR«, Omikd Htri AjTSf$c4 to 
Bt to FuHiitUo Ifw of ^<$£» 

Aiack 'm LUisajjf tflcopewifeon- Oy 

PrrBK Hxkja H«hi¥Ti 
cofflpoBHf ihfoaitbiuLt. ntliiTgici^ nM kn3> 
pfyveil, p^ly Imm il» AulJi>iir"% Ho^m* 

wM^ X ftiir lfuk; 3 (, i^y tlx AuUiDf^i 

JoE?h Li;wT« Ri.wQj^. iM.fmt, 

Whately^.— B4^t,i5H SyKot^vw*. Bf a 


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JSra , 6«_ 

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9 Jtdi EiqtiKJMhJi MrilK Pttict»! Kweix^ 
Uj Ci- F Fc^ <y. 

Mm Worim F- -VL%-5L 

Sii.^cTTiin SfmT* 

Rjjtii.tu'W. Z VcdlL CfOWn 

IncL, ifit, 

nil ^Lii^Kci or on 

tielkmil ilJ the tloyal iFvithtltifiR 
rn fi^t aiiil :vd4k, Cnwnfro-^PEi- 
BttiiSKtrnTi^ft aw \Vd*±ix aico titt Mome 
Qf^yue AxVAii. Cewn Sycu.1 7# 6d. 

PoJitieal Eeononay and Economies 

■A uhl oy.— F. itliHtt ScowJiuic: HijiToifV' 

jjip By. VV. J, AjHitiT* MrA. 

Citiwn Plsf f,, Ji PjlfI U I<H. tti* 

BigeUdS:— BcfTstaMtt^ iTfoiEi By 

TJ71 Svtl^ im- <jrf> 

Bainott— FiucTiCABiiE Ea- i 

%iy* vn SodeJ Re^m By th? Bev. S. A. 
lua-d ST I a. LTAXitmi^. 

A.ND Ajllt*:ES^E5 OX 

SVqwr axti WAFi4eJ»^ l.Ofd 

iltowii 8yo. 3fci* 

Gnmip.— .Ax Isirmmomfiii ti^m mr 

Cal-xga cff -rttm (tXEAy F*ti- f?i Ftiizte 

w titdt took fliit* cotneniMniJy with 0^ tSc* 
monnif^icn of Sllntr by Uermeoy. By 
AaTHI: H CM^ Ktl-. Ilt- 

A MaicuaIi o> iViirfiCAi. E^:o^"- 
pirr Uy C. S. Dxy aii, M.A Cto^'^i . 
fii- 6«f. (JtfifjfHitli CnuflflAf 
Dowirli“A Hwifoity ur amif 

Taxks tP Ewwi-A^pfr™ti thpUailistTt Tiirn^ 
Mj the SV^ iBIti S^iimiix Powi](44 
W-n L Atid JL The IBtfcvy 
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lititusy tif Txatl jji- 

JnrdAiL’-Tisp STASTOAttp Value. By ' 

SViJ.cAaM ijtHhnrojit Jo^DAx #yo., ^ 

Ij jwitfl —EjAAIX IK ftlUfKAL Ki»«OBlr. 

Bv T, CLiyxi i:wiuE, im bf- 

Mxtlood fcv EttLiy DuirSixo I 

MjtctAih, ST A. 


■fUE ^EuRKTa nr BAWxtTifc^* Own 

9le%th.-^K<iAFEKrrv on FAnpcsimii ? 
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By tic Eahl nr Swo-t *iu 

MUI —Fut.rti^AL EcOhiuBy. By Jiiim 
StiiArr sritt. 

Silver Libnp^'Editii3iL OtrW 

LihiAfy EdUtOCE- j htP.» jCEi 

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apanebfitt FSnxnc* llJ^nScr-EiiKarelii^' pf thf: 
CkiwojikerTt vt Ctowii Si^o,, fri, 

Bfiaa—F^iLisiULt Et^s^owyT 4 Shdrt 
Tod-hooli pf Ppliiiail Ewtmny. ’^lUf 
Ffolileaii fcH Sdiiliiifii and iiJnU kn 
«lcmeittv^^ UcadiRlP By J., |L 

SvHU, M A.iofUimeniiy Cotlex^t Xotlhi^- 
|e 4 £u_ Cro'en Hvel^ ij- 

Tflyn’bftff.-^LEcTiriffisON fw* I^iiuAtiial 
ur TUi Jhtb C'eATim m 
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A ^l^iMitr pf the Aullidr fl Jota-ttr 
xvo.t rvu. 

Wfthk — fitm KiKTitffy op 1 «a^ 

UiltPJttaV. By SlOXEV SJtd lISATMICft 
SVeOlk WJLh iml Hili Uiblu^^TxiEby ett 
the SjihyKt- Ram*- 

WBboil — VVVirib bf A* J. WlLtox- 

Ch^ci^y icpirMcil &ofa TA* Rt* 


PttACflUL WH¥tairP 
GiiWH liyOi.. fr. 

Am-ILE AHorr Uifh fr^irmrAwtaL, 
CfonTi iyo.. t* 

Hcccnl, cl 

TiJl> 1 nxmrt A>ti pBAe-ptex op BAxit'«6. 

VflJ. 1. etitt, *2* Vc)|, tL B - ft 

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Fmp II t *t*L M: I 

Socoi Bifid Ecorvootk t»r£e*e Ely 
W, SVeuTr. i^|.7L ^ 



Evolution, Anthropology* &ft 

doddl—1’Kf STnu-riif CHtA?l£MT: A FUiLti 
A Maum «f t^y EwarD i 

Witb ClWfl Kvfl- ^Avl. I 

Hlltlt— T hI; ^r4lfjl£JU:ic: OP Kl!^i 

^th: RcifM^ tn ib6 IaRv c 4 
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ItmMngh df By Ai-puo U PMmi 

JI ihr^. Kw t 7*. .4/. 

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Bjt 1> U(At-5r a±id By Asihew 

L«K!i,M.At Wtfbl^lTfuitt^hcPirp. Ctmn | 

LnbbMlL—T iir fiwiii» uf CivtLtJginoK 
■wiil thr Cowitiikm Qt 

Sir Jt LuAscr. llAir-, HLPt Witli j ftiiB 

Rni Jfw tlhmiukTTTi m Ibt ToSt Ut« 

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f^iCwiFi APrpAfTCT t>AiKwiir; in 

hKTdtll^ tff d£A: phu^inlflB I'bndcT* itiit ■ 


Ful I^TIm la«iAiiiHfl W*tb 

t^xnwm Afsi t;t5 JUuj rjnlio?» . 
Qowii iQft, 1W. 


Classical Literature and Translations, &e, 

[tt.LliSnCA. A CollEcljdn 
K giBya PhLb3WFpl^% Hia* 

fny, urd jy^tcd ^ Einit¥» 

t, AlA., I-LJA Sirn., itiL 

JEschr^iaa.— E i'mehihe^ fti" MucHXLtfi.- 

Wciii McPirai J, 

F DAvrii. iTiXiTT, 

Ari3t9piliA»«x— T ilt tii* 

AJtiSTn^A^h. rraqAtuTtKi IgUi tfifeliiai 
Venc- It Y. TFl^RLi^. Cronvn8m. IJ. 

Bffc-Irr -liVfliki 1^* I'PiifeEiirTr 

OAtit'iip pfr kpnan Scer» io the Ttmf 
qI Angiuiuii. lUttatGiri^. 


CiiAviciacx: [IkiiiiiniridFin pr thn 

MlMJcaJL-SlLU^CT EMdAA^ fstpw fit ft 
Oftftft r A^iTBPiupOT* Sjf Ji HAaMtL, 
F«)kiw cT Oidbrt!. Edkcd 

ivlth A Teau lnttbihKtJ^« Ttisi- 

lutbn. anil iIv. 

Plft!boL— Pamhehiubp tip Pt-iTO, Tc^t, v»itii 
Immhtoian, Anjdjr^bi^ Tt aai unri^ 

7*. ed, 

Ejt!L—A fizcTcoiAJiY or Ki>uai£ aAji 
Ofiw Ai*tti3<5ttlty!i. B) Ap BA. 

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3ciphiK!S^—TruiiUlEil Info n^i^JtAh 
tej itdRijir Wurm^M, m,A-, 
Awiank Mum HI fbi|jhy SeIhiiI] im 
Felli>w ti TfSnJiv Cs^k^, 

Cw*=m Avn,t ftb ml ^- 

liHtaLr l4ib ^ lAr Alttmtrt Gradki. 
lUuduud* f I5d» 

CicttrOt^tJiit nji ti*% CmtieimiM By 

Sl V. TTimi]j_u Voli. L, It, HLp &vol 
udi lu. 

CtftvtA. -KAyiLiAii STt-HJitA tn Kouiix 
By Atfsuii i|. dsTtm. Ciw^b Gdt 

^kelL— O mm Ltyjc PtiutiiT; a C<mr* 
ykit iUiEle^tioii d the Puhm 

rtra tJ» Grtcli Sn>|;-WnEi4d^p Ajrin^ 

-.lit* Ariidl^ InikodiKUHy Uiuue 


M Ai Wiib I it»,, tftt 

HsiTWiL-MTTin or Tiift OBYBftxr m 
A*t *j<ii ItmuAYUiti. By Jarr E Ha- 
itlyii*f*it4 wbfh nwratlN 

floWM AK» fHi! Eli^ Ity 

CiO^ a™., ntfX 

- Tim ln^n;j.i arTyiKKntTiric. 
TrAnAlilid i-tiJo EoflUl^ Vku: tir fAllli! 
Urmjiv tl*LLaftlP^ ^JL Oxibi. Ftji. 4tOu 

& . M, 

TjfiTftlL—I’RANStAtiow GiirftJi a4h> 

UatItt VUf^ Mitcd Ijy ft. V. Tyriufu*. 

VlrgiL-^TnK ot* Viioii- Tnmi- 

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row* Cttwtt fmt fa,. 

Tni! Fi>£ut df VlMdU Triiiafafcil 
atrto En^iflh fVine liy JiHiR 

Tiw Vriiaiui%lytnnaai«d 

mw 8)«nk V««. By W. J. 

TKUEimiLU i:fmNKvo.,^flA 

in' ViiwH-. Hootii t. (a 

VL TfitiialiJbl Ijitd %f 

KtitrAm ChBrn 

I liVfunEit. ^ 


Poetry and 

- WAtkl by Wl ^1 

imirS(L^h-i4« AVer Pf]»ii»m. Wiib Fjiwi^^ 
vl ts^ Wit£tCill of Amro^ per- 


t^i;iiE94ri |lt<w>f rtEj-EX Wiib pnrtn:^ 
jf tile Achm* Fej-^ Awu, if- flrf. 

Paowuit PirzLCfjE^ Uat ami NlItttT 
U iLLAiM. .Wkh <Dvlqsiu ^ 
It Oi ilotk«n% Fep, Uq^ 

pttpci €^lion, i:tti * 

l^irc 4,Hti huwTAAiTi iftiUi FttimliptECc 
hy 5ir. J. E. Mili-UA. Bift.. irnd Ek^ 
AATtn!L Fcfi. &»: 

bin^ cdtboii, m- 

Tiiodiiin AiiD Wo^Mn, A»hi*V 

M*f*ti*! « Pia^. Wtb Poffrak tif Uae 
Aaxhof MTi^ four Tbe¥tris=ii ikem* 

t^vu ky sir. ; 

large wEtbirif ts-^ 

fiijLiiitAiAiiiJiA: Imperial i^fio.h I 
hScCh </ citmit E'sIL jwuT k **if *■ , 

/♦« pvttw joi. 

Arw< trpfaj —Wort* by G- F. SavaoB- 

Foiuiu; Lyrk^ ai«l SSthum^Ch. FqF, 

)jlvn.i 6l^ 

KfiSTr Sj>t:i., <Thc Tn^tsty of IktcI, 

Fvi t i Fuffc^TOWp i*. 

Kiivki Daviii. (1‘Ih: TTT^-cdy oI Innd, 
Ibtfl' tIA Fep- fivoi. *1^ 

ItiTO SotCThe djf fii I itouL 

Fart Ittl Pep. ’54 
GuDJiti : a Trip^iidy. Fqpi. kViLk £»« 

A r«nH QMtwtiW i Pocniiv 

Fty yj, M, 


SlFfaurroPMitt** BaifAifcunti t 

■ tjuttif*. Ftp. hiiTi., fk 

etiii. f iiWMtftn fl Poem. Cfom'ii 

Annaltmg—litM FomtAA VVoium up 
■EiKlfjrfii J. AiHVTiOitr.. Pep* SfOii 51 ^ 
Aiudici —hv Euu-ift Abiv^r.iii, 

1 C . AyAhaf«*f‘Tb*l^i#Aja*,*At^^ 
TWi! IhJobti or JTii Wol^.ff^ or the 
rt^t4t A FNxmL Corti'n 

md. fTKl; 

Pr^^ctiia£iao \\%ik 14 Ilfiu- 

tfailv4L» b> VV. ilbuHAaf UunT, 

JOA npi. 

FoBjiiiiAJiS WiE]i. And other FocmL, 
Crgvn ihiH i 5** 

;4jjjLrnA3 ffTtbcJiiuuMc Wift+ AFky, 
Crrm^ *fO« ^k. 4|. M, 

BarroWp-’^l^”SdrAiCrrsta or twb D 
Dll] enher PMnt^ Sy Sir |ott* CAOiie 
Btau Ftp. JJ- 

the Drama. 

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CdufSomiB^s B Coltoctkin d* 

ip^ft *sii Miamiiuijiuta £Sf itia rArtwtcif 
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fer Oi£lilrvn, Fcp. Avo . Aa. Ad. 
^enSJBH*“WtKit by 13|ei3ui*T(KBi*A 

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imq Eitgliili hyO»«A^ EtMA aujrfi. %«lik 
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?^pa Teat, wsfuliit wh3ii tJw lid ^ 

ibie mcnct ^aMllt fedfcttOft* *rt4 4,qll!UiillfB 
SfRAll Svo.. frl. 

t'Av*T, Pjut t, the GetBun Tiat, 
IjitnMiacrioq and rtnticf^ iJy AUfiUtTM* 
.S^LiiA. PIlO.. MvA.- CtoTO Stm, jL 
Fu-lrt. T»mljitcii#«'liJii Sow. By "L J&- 
Weu. ^kftiL, [u. idn 

V^0w. The Fim FajrL A New Trani^ 

huioili thic% In Vfco-fe; 

irbdnidl^ atid Sdlc£4 13^ Jam* 4iiit 
Biapii. Cljirnu Ais%» 

FAuaf. The ^ictiod Pin. A Sew 
tmxdAtlne in V*ne. By 
IhHb^ Crowti riVftifpi. 
lEgeiaw.^WnHc* bjr IhHsitiAPw, 
PomoAL WoiiA. z vol«. Vcfk 

ftiMi (b* WirmiE& d JrAB 
Fc| 7 u- Bd, filibi, jt. 


Lang-—Work* br AjitiHiW l-Aita 

ASM AiifjfertP lUH ; m tUBj ot 
Fopitiie irfajHHHs FqA 5™. jii iTrr 
GlAiAitf Pabb ^ssa' 9^ Fqi. Sva^ ia. 

BAt.I,AltttJT FblfiK.iL EdlledbyAXCI 
ArOit ill- 

Till Bluii lAi¥ritr Edtied by 

Ui?iO With tf t%te 
Bliiatation in tH* Tsrt bv M, 1. Ffran 

Aiid L&VtBl-iiT SrtJKt Cmwit B™ . 6a 
m Tw-^tls 

li*iBk N'ottt, Nr arxlAMf /tfiiiir*ift»itt 
t^nwn fo«u, yA <it 

By V/. IL y- I-ficBi. 

Pepr |tVO,.5A 

£i«|rt4TL—Worba PnA^ih LBvroA, 

I'lju Sufiovn trr tUB LaNIL ^^4 f^fher 
POettt«. Crown p- dirw 

Edfliork CwrpBviqt, i*r 6d. 

Ukavbi: PottrcL Crown 

dvo. iW. 

m MEifSilif. t^SaUAKS ^ CO.: 9 STAHOAftO A SO GESEkAL WOEK& 

Poetry and the 

LyttoZL -Worku bjTm LrrrgjE 


lltiujx, 6^ &d. n tTitntiiAijL Willi i Vlaiit 

«iuj nn li^ lin. Uvftlr*- 

Cio^ loi. ict 
Th¥ WAWPifcHifc Crnm iw. 
IJ7I;1I4L CfTiifrIt ICH. 

‘SKX.ECTEti Fu£,iiiu ClU'wn lof- flki. 

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ft; Lwil &,Air« 

in»s»teil Uy 4 u;iu^ ijX 

-- j£Hi±ixm. 

iSnw^, M, 64 IdjL 

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IPB9tm«4 trt j, R. Cn^ 

frvo , JJ. Ilj, 

ARnQ44tcd Pcfl. idiYpi,, 1^ fc^cd^ 

u. 6il cloth. 

ITealiU,^t-a« AMD Hy 

^»t4rpi7 Thtrii- EIdbAJtt HbA^^riiJ l^im 
ScTK Crbwtt ^ Chf. S^joaftil 
Wiih. Oavh hfm« 5 A, 

PljtL—Ah P«4:iiA?rm> CAvrtft, *to 
sriciii FaiHH: Pki^utA. imd 

Ptusfik In trilwL fly PUft- 

Cto^u 3A. 44 


PlAtt—Wl^iCKft Dl jiKIA rUTT. 

Idtui 41ID Lirsir|;i or im Ohio 

VjtLuv, i!ir!vvi9^d^T JA. 

Lirtt-A N^dw IftruL Cf. 

I P b p < ^ iw, ^TifnitiLa Ajtti oHlltl PdtiHMk 

' fly jAiUM ^jidAntia Cwm lira., J4 M 

' Eil ^.—by jA¥iLh WiiiToiM^ 

Oe- 0 FasuiDRiu HoriE^; Poem*. ]±fiiO^« 

E’oiiiJi: 1 [cue 111 [[flific. Fc^HiYiL.i!hl^K<4 

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Works of Fiction, Humour, &e. 

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By £(. 

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I'PH liurr Lhvva ‘WilksT-'-A llAvuiKiQfi wdm Mainpjt^^ 

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Ca)l No Cu)»-- 

Author- Cuhi5«>-n,<S-N. 



Title * 

**A bcck^pkt ia n^ m tmt a 

iS- Ac 

DeparnrjtflV of Aidueclegy ^ 


Please help iis to keep the bopk 
clean and movinf. 

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