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10th Anniversary Edition 

2000-2010 

Issue 41 - February 2010 


www.mdmpublishing.com 



THE GLOBAL VOICE FOR PASSIVE & ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION 





SAFER TUNNELS 
START HERE 



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tunnels nothing performs better than FT Connecta, our zero halogen, low smoke (OHLS®) modular cabling system. 
FT Connecta has been specifically developed to provide lighting and small power applications in tunnel 
environments. In the event of a fire FT Connecta maintains the integrity of the circuit even if a local device fails, 
allowing escape routes further up and down to remain illuminated. It's not surprising therefore that FT Connecta 
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IFP/FTConnecta/0210 


February 2010 
issue 41 



Front cover picture courtesy of 
Spectrex Inc. 


Publishers 

Mark Seton & David Staddon 


Editorial Contributors 

Brian Robinson, Stefan Brugger, Nick 
Grant, Jeremy Hodge, Neal Porter, 
Mark Froggatt, Ian Buchanan, Bob 
Durstenfeld, James Shipman, Dr 
Daniel Brosch, Kit Bryant, Jeremy 
Mason, Scott Martorano, John Allen, 
Ruediger Kopp, Steve Goodburn 


IFP is published quarterly by: 

MDM Publishing Ltd 

The Abbey Manor Business Centre, 

The Abbey, Preston Road, 

Yeovil, Somerset BA20 2EN 
Tel: +44 (0) 1935 426 428 
Fax: +44 (0) 1935 426 926 
Email: dave.staddon@ifpmag.com 
website: www.ifpmag.com 
©All rights reserved 


Annual Subscription 
UK -£50.00 Europe- €60 
Overseas - US$70.00 
ISSN - 1468-3873 

DISCLAIMER: 

The views and opinions expressed in 
INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION are not 
necessarily those of MDM Publishing Ltd. 
The magazine and publishers are in no 
way responsible or legally liable for any 
errors or anomalies made within the 
editorial by our authors. All articles 
are protected by copyright and written 
permission must be sought from the 
publishers for reprinting or any form of 
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content. Any queries should be addressed 
in writing to the publishers. 

Reprints of articles are available on 
request. Prices on application to the 
Publishers. 

Page design by Dorchester 
Typesetting Group Ltd 

Printed in the UK 


Contents 



45-46 


3-16 News, Product 

Profiles & Comment 

18-21 Interschutz 
2010 prev lew 

22-23 Firetrace® 

provides business-critical 
protection for Middle 
East projects 

25-28 A Fire Safety 
Education 

30-33 Spray Nozzles 

Selection for water spray 
Systems: Options and 
applications explained 

35-37 Chicago Fire 

Department responds to 
unseen threats with best 
practices that leverage 
available technology 

39-43 Protecting 

hazardous product 
storage tanks and 
lpc/lnc gas terminals 

45-46 ^ 

legislation clock is 
ticking for PFOS 

49-52 Pre-packaged 

Firewater Pumphouses 

55-58 High Pressure 
water Mist 

60-64 Audible and 

visual warning devices 

66-69 Aspirating 

smoke detectors for 
early detection 

71-73 Getting to 

grips with counterfeit 
cables 

74 Fire protection of 
Structural Steel by 
intumescent Coatings 

76-78 Fire and life 

safety solutions for 
multi-level and 
mixed-use spaces 

79 ASFP Forum: Apathy, 
ignorance and denial 

80 Advertisers' Index 



74 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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NEWS 


Approved Flame Detectors - 
and then some! 


SHARPEYE 40/40 SERIES FLAME DETECTORS 
offer unmatched performance and reliability — 
including patented, IR3 (Triple IR) Multi- 
Spectrum detectors that enable detection of 
small fires at distances up to 65m, with 
enhanced immunity to false alarms. These 
highly specified detectors operate reliably in the 
harsh conditions of offshore drilling and 
production platforms, FPSO vessels, fuel loading 
and storage facilities, LNG and LPG plants and 
petrochemical plants throughout the world. 

The compact and lightweight design (only 
2.5kg in stainless steel) offers low-power 
consumption with a heated lens for continued 
availability in difficult environments - as well as 
the reassurance of 3rd party FM3260/EN54- 
1 0/DNV performance approvals and IEC 61 508 
- SIL2 (TUV) certification to assure reliability. 

All detectors are, of course, Ex approved to 
ATEX/IECEx/FM/CSA/GOST R/GOST K standards 
for Zone 1/21 hazardous area locations. As a 
result, the warranty period has been extended 
to a full 5 years. 

The Spectrex 40/40 Series detectors 
incorporate an integral automatic self-test that 
checks the device every 1 5 mins to ensure 
correct operation. The 40/40 Series offers many 
interface options for maximum compatibility 
with all control and fire detection systems - 
outputs include 0-20mA, dry relay contacts, 
RS-485 ModBus and HART. 

The certified operating temperature range 



has also been extended. The detectors will now 
operate reliably in temperatures from -55°C to 
+75°C (with an option for +85°C) allowing their 
use anywhere in the world. 

The SharpEye 40/40 Series includes the 
model 40/401 flame detector using the well- 
proven triple IR (IR3) technique, thus offering 
the highest immunity to false alarms combined 
with a massive 65m (21 5ft) detection distance 
for hydrocarbon fires with an enlarged cone of 
vision - 1 00° horizontal and 95° vertical. 

Another major feature is the improved 
response to gas flames (methane, LNG, LPG etc) 
where small gas flames can be detected at 
distances of up to 30m (100ft). An important 
addition to the series is the model 40/40M Multi 
IR detector, which can simultaneously detect 
'invisible' hydrogen flames at 30m (100ft) and 
hydrocarbon fires at 65m (21 5ft). 

The 40/40 series comprises many detection 


Intrinsically safe and explosion 
proof manual call point 


E2S, the leading European manufacturer 
of warning devices for use in hazardous 
areas, has extended its capabilities with 
the development of intrinsically safe and 
explosion proof manual call points, 
certified to both ATEX and IEC Ex 
standards. The IS-CP4 intrinsically safe 
units are approved for use in Zones 0, 1 
and 2 environments and the BExCP3 Ex 
e d explosion proof versions for Zones 1 
and 2. Both types are available with 
either break glass or push button 
operation. The devices are manufactured 
from corrosion proof, copper free, marine 
grade LM6 alloy and are sealed to IP66, 
enabling them to be used in both offshore 
and onshore installations. 

A comprehensive range of standard 
accessories and options can be specified; 
they can be fitted with a stainless steel 
lift flap and series and EOL resistors in a 
range of different values can be fitted 
as required. The units can be fitted 
with stainless tag and duty labels and, 
normally finished in red powder coat finish, 
special colours can be specified to enable 



rapid visual identification of special functions. 

The introduction of this new family 
complements the well-established BEx 
range of explosion proof sounders, 
beacons and loudspeakers and the IS-mini 
modular sounder and beacon family. 

For further information: 

Neal Porter 

European Safety Systems Limited 
Impress House, Mansell Road 
London W3 7QH 
Tel: + 44 (0)20 8743 8880 
Fax: + 44 (0)20 8740 4200 
Email: sales@e2s.com 
Website: www.e2s.com 


techniques to suit every situation including 
triple IR (IR3), Multi IR, combined UV/IR, single 
IR or UV. Thus, Spectrex can offer unbiased 
advice on which detector is the correct solution 
to your detection needs. 

The 40/40 Series detectors are programmable 
allowing the user alter factory default settings. 
Sensitivity levels, response time, alarm delay, 
heated lens operation etc are all able to be 
modified where required, either pre-delivery or 
post-installation. 

Various accessories are available to tailor to 
your environment and a long range Flame 
Simulator to allow full 'end-to-end' proof 
testing in the Ex hazardous area at distances up 
to 9m thus avoiding the cost and inconvenience 
of scaffolding. 


Detection of Gas Flames just got better! 

Until recently, it was difficult to detect industrial 
gas flames/fires as the radiation output from 
gas flames is generally much lower than that 
from liquid hydrocarbon fuels; thus detection 
distances were limited. However, Spectrex has 
introduced additions and improvements to its 
wide range of optical flame detectors to 
significantly advance this capability. 

The new Spectrex 40/401 Triple IR Flame 
Detector can now detect methane and propane 
(LNG/LPG) flames at up to 30 meters (instead of 
18m before). This same detector will detect 
heptane /gasoline fuel fires at 65m. 

The new 40/40M Multispectrum 
Flame Detector will do the -a " 
same job as the 40/401 
described above but can 
also detect "invisible" 



Hydrogen flames at 
30 meters (previously 
limited to only 5-7m 
with other techniques). 

Applications include battery rooms, 
refinery H2 storage, generators, gas 
plant, fertiliser plants, and compressors 

As the products of a hydrogen fire 
do not contain C0 2 , normal IR3 detectors 
cannot be used and users had to accept the 
distance limitations of UV/IR type detectors. 
Now, with additional sensors, the 40/40M can 
detect both hydrocarbon and hydrogen fires 
over much greater areas and reduce the number 
of detectors needed. 

In normal circumstances, people cannot see, 
taste or smell hydrogen gas, which is very 
flammable and easily ignited - can even self- 
ignite in some cases. You will not see a 
hydrogen fire - even up close. You may see a 
shimmer, like a mirage. Also, little heat is felt 
near the flame because very little heat (IR) 
radiation is emitted. As you see and feel 
nothing, you may even walk directly into the 
flame with no pre-warning. 


For more information, email 
spectrex@spectrex-inc.com or visit the 
website at www.spectrex-inc.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


3 



NEWS 


Det-Tronics Fire and 
Gas Detection/ 
Releasing System 
obtains u.S. Coast 
Guard and Lloyd's 
Marine approvals 


Det-Tronics system and detectors 
are hearty enough for offshore 



Det-Tronics has earned Type-Approval from the 
U.S. Coast Guard and Lloyd's Register. 


DETECTOR 
ELECTRONICS 
CORPORATION 
(Det-Tronics) has 
announced that its 
Eagle Quantum 
Premier, (EQP) system 
has received Type- 
Approval from the 
United States Coast 
Guard (USCG) and 
from Lloyd's Register 
(http://eqp. 
det-tronics.com). 

Det-Tronics manufactures 
flame detectors, gas 
detectors, and safety systems 
and is part of UTC Fire & 

Security, a unit of United 
Technologies Corp. 

(NYSE:UTX). 

Approval by the U.S. Coast Guard is 
required for flame and gas detection 
systems (including control panel, flame 
detectors, gas detectors, and 
accessories) in use where the USCG has 
jurisdiction - for example, in U.S. 
flagged vessels or vessels operating in 
U.S. waters. 

The U.S. Coast Guard certificate was 
awarded after rigorous Factory Mutual 
Approvals (FM) witness testing proved 
the system and components meet the 
stringent USCG performance criteria. 
The products were verified to meet the 
U.S. Coast Guard's environmental 
requirements as described in 46 CFR 
161.002. 

Obtaining the meticulous Lloyd's 
Register of Shipping approval further 
verifies that the flame and gas detection 
system meets their specified 
performance requirements and is 


acceptable for operational use. 

"We are pleased to obtain 
certification from these respected 
organizations," says Simon Pate, 

Director of Projects and Systems at 
Det-Tronics. "The hundreds of offshore 
sites and floating platforms that we 
currently serve worldwide can be 
assured of their wise choice for safety." 

Detector Electronics Corporation 
(Det-Tronics) - a world leader in 
industrial fire detection, gas detection, 
and hazard mitigation systems - designs, 
builds, tests, and commissions safety 
systems ranging from conventional 
panels to fault-tolerant, addressable 
systems. Det-Tronics detectors are 
globally certified to current product 
approvals standards, including critical 
SIL2 industrial applications. 

Further Information available at 
http://www.det-tronics.com 


waterproof 
Reset Call Point 
(WRP) 

STI (EUROPE) have extended their range of 
EN54 approved products with the 
announcement that the Waterproof ReSet Call 
Point (WRP) has successfully passed testing to 
the European Standard for fire alarm systems. 

Already approved to the IP67 rating for 
dust and water ingress to ensure it is able to 
cope with the harshest of environments, the 
waterproof conventional fire outdoor model 
now joins the indoor version, already 
approved to EN54. 

It is a highly reliable and robust manual call 
point that mimics the feel of breaking glass 
but features a glass-free operating element 
which can be easily reset. No broken glass 
means it is safer and more economical to use, 
with a warning flag dropping into view to 
confirm when it has been activated and a 
simple key-based resetting operation. Its IP67 
rating means the WRP is ideal for a wide 
range of outdoor environments, from oil rigs 
to ships, while being glass-free means it is 
also particularly suited to wash down areas in 




food processing facilities, for example, where 
broken glass can be an issue. It can also be 
used in dusty environments such as factories 
and warehouses, offering a virtually 
maintenance free option with no potential for 
breaking, losing or incorrectly fitting glass 
elements during installation. 

For applications subject to potential 
malicious or accidental activation of the fire 
alarm system, STI (Europe) also offers the 
Stopper II. This tough polycarbonate cover not 
only adds an extra level of protection to the 
WRP but is available with an integral sounder 
which emits a piercing 96dB alarm when the 
cover is lifted, providing both a visible and 
audible deterrent to malicious activation. 

For more information: Safety Technology 
International (Europe) Ltd. Sales 
Freephone: 0800 085 1678 
Tel: 01527 520 999 
Fax: 01527 501 999 
Email: sales@sti-europe.com 
Website: www.sti-europe.com 



4 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




the standard in safety 




Underwriters 

Laboratories 


There’s a reason 
we’ve been a leader 
in product safety 
testing & certification 
for over 100 years. 

Trust. ..jL jt 





VlMI 



Trust... 

Trust... 



that UL has unmatched technical expertise in product safety testing and certification. 

that the UL mark is backed not by a piece of paper, but by the integrity, quality, 
experience, commitment and consistency that stands behind it. 

Remember, UL has been testing and certifying fire resistance, 
life safety and security products for over a century. 


To learn more about Underwriters Laboratories and how you can leverage our global 
expertise in the fire resistance, life safety and security industries on a local basis: 

T:: +44 (0) 1 483.402.032 / E:: Fire&SecuritySales. EULA@uk.ul.com / W:: ul.com 



Copyright © 2009 Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ® BDi091029-IFP10 




PROFILE 


By Nick Grant 

EMEA Vice President & 
General Manager, 
Firetrace International 


Nick Grant is EMEA Vice 
President & General Manager 
for Firetrace International, 
which is headquartered in 
Scottsdale, Arizona USA. He 
can be reached at the 
company's EMEA offices in 
Gatwick in the UK by 
telephone on +44 (0) 1293 
780390 or via email at 
grant@firetrace.com. The 
company's website is at 
www.firetrace.com. 


Firetrace® counters the 
threat of vehicle fires 

The increasing awareness of the threat of vehicle fires, and particularly buses and 
coaches, has come at a time when Firetrace International has announced a 
number of major orders from across the globe for its FIRETRACE® automatic fire 
detection and suppression system. 


T oday the system is to be found protecting bus 
and coach engine compartments, running gear 
and wheel areas - the most common locations 
for the outbreak of a fire in almost 60 percent of the 
cases. 

These systems are safeguarding operators from 
fires that could easily result in considerable financial 
loss, pose a serious threat to the lives of the vehicle 
occupants, and jeopardise the company's ability to 
continue to provide the level of service expected by 
fare-paying customers. 

In addition to the vehicle's fuel and the risk of fuel 
line ruptures, any number of flammable liquids are 
present throughout any engine compartment. These 
include hydraulic, brake, automatic transmission and 
power steering fluids, plus combustible accumulated 
grease on the engine block, for which frayed or 
damaged electrical wiring can easily provide the 
ignition source. 

While these risks can be lessened by regular main- 
tenance and cleaning, engine fires will remain a 
constant threat, and the dynamics of the airflow in 
and around an engine compartment when a vehicle is 
in motion can seriously impair the performance and 
reliability of traditional techniques such as fusible link 
systems. This is because the heat and flame that 
typically rise from the source of a fire may be pro- 
pelled away from the location of the fusible link by 
the motion of the vehicle, delaying its activation. The 
inevitable build-up of dirt in and around engines, 
vibration and intense temperature variations are also 
factors that are known to cause such systems to fail. 

FIRETRACE uniquely deals with the problem of 
airflow, and reacts immediately when a fire breaks out 
and suppresses it before it has any opportunity to 
spread. It is also effective on every type of fire risk that 
is likely to be present - due to the use of ABC powder 
suppressant - is able to withstand harsh dust-laden 
environments, contend with extreme ambient temper- 
atures, and stand up to intense vibration. In fact, 
genuine FIRETRACE from Firetrace International 
remains the only UL (Underwriters Laboratories) listed, 
FM (Factory Mutual) approved and CE (Conformite 
Europeene or European Conformity) marked tube- 
operated system in the world that is tested as an 
automatic fire detection and suppression system. It 
also comes with approval for use on buses and coaches 
from the Danish Institute of Fire & Security Technology 
and the Swedish Fire Protection Association. 

FIRETRACE is an automatic, self-seeking fire sup- 
pression system; one that requires no power source 
and comprises an extinguishing agent cylinder that is 
attached to polymer tubing via a custom-engineered 
valve. This proprietary Firetrace Detection Tubing is a 
linear pneumatic heat and flame detector that is 
immune to the vibration, shocks and temperature 
extremes found in engine and generator compart- 
ments. It was specially developed to deliver the 
desired temperature-sensitive detection and delivery 
characteristics in even the harshest of environments. 

This leak-resistant tubing is routed throughout the 
engine compartment. Immediately a fire is detected, 
the tubing ruptures and automatically releases the 



suppression agent, extinguishing the fire precisely 
where it starts and before it can take hold. The tubing 
is placed both above and behind the potential source 
of the fire to ensure that the airflow actually helps by 
directing the heat and flames towards the tubing, 
providing faster and more reliable detection and 
suppression in moving vehicles. Depending on the 
particular FIRETRACE system that is chosen, the 
suppression agent also flows through the delivery 
tubing to the front of the engine, again working with 
the airflow to flood the entire compartment. 

The FIRETRACE Direct Release System utilises the 
Firetrace Detection Tubing as both the detection 
device and the suppressant delivery system. If a fire 
breaks out, the tube ruptures nearest the point where 
the most heat is detected, forming an effective spray 
nozzle that releases the entire contents of the cylinder 
to suppress the fire. The Indirect Release System uses 
the tube as a detection and system activation device, 
but not for the agent discharge. The rupturing of the 
tube results in a drop of pressure causing the indirect 
valve to activate. This diverts flow from the detection 
tube and the agent is discharged from the cylinder 
through diffuser nozzles, flooding the entire engine 
compartment. 

All FIRETRACE systems are available with a manual 
release or an "alert" signal light and a horn that can 
be mounted on the operator's dashboard or control 
panel. 

The FIRETRACE extinguishing agent cylinder is 
usually mounted in a convenient location in or near the 
engine compartment. However, choosing the correct 
agent is vitally important, as the possible presence of 
carbonaceous debris around the engine and the 
potential presence of flammable gases preclude the 
use of tube-based systems that rely solely on the use 
of C0 2 , which is unsuitable for these particular fire 
risks. So, while FIRETRACE systems are available with 
clean agents such as DuPont™ FM200® and 3M™ 
Novec™ 1230, which have the essential firefighting 
characteristics that these hazards demand, ABC dry 
chemical suppressant is by far the most appropriate 
choice due to the openness and airflow typi cally 
found in these applications. Illil 


6 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



□ nly 

FI RETRACE 

IS 

FI RETRACE 

Other Tube-Based systems 
Claim td be Like Firetrace. 

They are Ndt. 


+ Only FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL manufactured 
Systems offer extensvely tested Firetrace 
branded solutions with listings and approvals' 
from CE, FM. UL, ULC and more than 25 other 
international agencies. 



FIBE TRAffe Jf l 


Insist on genuine 
Firetrace systems 

FOR PROVEN FIRE 
, SUPPRESSION. 


+ Only FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL has 20 years 
of experience with more than 65,000 systems 
protecting equipment worldwide 

+ Only Genuine FIRETRACE SYSTEMS have the 
tested and proven reliability you and your 
customers require 

Never compromise your reputation by using 
impostor, untested and unapproved systems 
- be sure you are using genuine Firetrace 


automatic f re suppressio 


Call +44 (0) 1293 780390 (Europe, Middle East, Africa) 
or +1 480 607 1218 (US and elsewhere) or e-mail info@firetrace.com 
to see why Firetrace is the right solution for your fire protection needs. 


www.firetrace.com 

www.firetrace.eu 


® ® < 6 > C€ 

IISTEO LISTED — ^ ■ 


Firetrace® is a registered trademark of Firetrace USA, LLC / Firetrace Ltd. All unauthorized uses of the Firetrace trademark shall be prosecuted to the fullest extent permitted by the law. 

* The Firetrex, FireDeTec, and Firetec brands are the property of their respective owners, and are not the property of Firetrace. 

f Listings and Approvals vary by system and agent. 



The Eusebi Group is comprised of dynamic, integrated and flexible companies with more than 30 years of 
experience at an international level in the design and production of fire protection systems for complex industries 
in the energy, oil, petrochemical, naval and military fields. The certifications that Eusebi Group has been awarded 
and the many different systems installed all over the world, often in critical situations, bear witness to the skills 
acquired by the Group and the innovative solutions it proposes. The systems manufactured by the Group are the 
result of the dedicated commitment of each and every member of Eusebi’s staff, from the laboratory technicians 
to the worksite personnel, who all go the extra mile to guarantee protection its clients can count on. Thanks to 
its perseverance in improving performance, backed by a system of values, skills and sense of responsibility, 
the Eusebi Group constantly improves its quality standards. A commitment born from a passion: your safety. 



Eusebi Group. You can rely on us. 


www.eusebigroup.com 




By Dr Jeremy Hodge 


Chief executive, BASEC 


Further information about 
BASEC is available at 
www.basec.org.uk or 
contact BASEC directly on 
01908 267300 


COMMENT 


High 

performance 
fire resistant 
cables 

Fire engineers are making greater use of active fire protection systems in modern 
buildings. 


At the same time, architects, engineers and 
/ \ designers are taking advantage of new 
/ V technologies to produce innovative designs 
incorporating more elaborate layouts, and the 
need for more effective fire performance systems. 
As high prestige buildings become more complex 
in this way, the need for higher performance 
cables has been identified by a number of 
manufacturers. Public buildings such as hospitals, 
shopping centres, office buildings with atriums, 
sports stadiums and even some high specification 
residential premises are all using advanced fire 
safety engineering design approaches. 

Traditional fire protection approaches rely 
primarily on materials choice and passive compart- 
mentation to provide limitations to fire growth 
and spread. Fire safety engineering techniques 
allow a more open building structure, but they 
ensure safe evacuation in the event of a fire by a 
combination of traditional and modern, active fire 
systems such as smoke control and extraction, 
phased evacuation, gaseous fire extinguishing and 
firefighter support systems. Many of these systems 
require electrical power supplies and control 
circuitry to remain fully functional throughout a 
potentially serious fire lasting many hours. 
Examples include power supplies for fire-fighting 
lifts and smoke extract systems. Robust fire resis- 
tant cables are needed in order to satisfy these 
needs, cables that have been tested under quasi- 
real conditions and with proven performance. 

Normal power distribution cables such as BS 
5467 or BS 6724 have limited performance 
against sustained fire attack. Cables which need to 
remain operational throughout the fire need to be 
robust to not only fire, but also to impact damage 
from falling items of building structure and 
resistant to the effects of water spray from 
sprinklers or from fire fighting activities. Some 
well-established cable types, such as mineral insu- 
lated cables to BS EN 60702-1 remain very effec- 
tive under such circumstances and are usually 
smaller in diameter than the equivalent armoured 
cable. A new cable fire test, BS 8491, has been 
developed to provide assessment of cables larger 
than 20mm diameter. The test incorporates direct 
fire attack, mechanical attack and water spray, 
over a variable time up to two hours. Several cable 
makers have produced enhanced fire resistant 



cables to meet this requirements, some incorporat- 
ing spiral interlocked steel tape armour instead of 
the usual steel wire armour. 

A new edition of BS 7846 for fire resistant 
armoured cables has just been published. As well 
as the traditional steel wire armoured fire resistant 
cables (category F2), the new type using inter- 
locked steel tape armour has been introduced, 
classified as categories F30, F60 or FI 20, reflecting 
the length in minutes of the BS 8491 fire test. 
These cables can maintain full operational per- 
formance during such a fire by the use of a 
mineralised insulating tape over the conductors, 
normally made from mica. The armouring retains 
the structure of the cable and protects against 
shock. It is important to remember that cable 
cleats and other cable mounting techniques also 
need to survive the fire, shock and water attack. 

Mineral insulated cables perform well against a 
combined fire, shock and water attack, and the 
BS 8491 test method should soon be extended to 
cover these generally smaller diameter cables. 

Installers are beginning to see these new types 
of cable specified in high prestige buildings or 
where critical operations need to continue during 
a fire, for example emergency power supplies. 
Because the armour construction of the inter- 
locked steel armour is different, new cutting and 
preparation methods will be needed. New gland 
types will be used, and traditional cone-type SWA 
glands may not be suitable. Installers will also 
need to make sure they are adequately trained to 
use such cables. m 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


9 






201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 


CONTROL LOGIC 




201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 541 0 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 


ISO 9001 


CONTROL LOGIC 


CONTROL LOGIC 
Spark 
detector 

designed for 
dust collection 
systems 
to protect 

iiios 

from the risk 
of fire. 


Sparks fly 
at high speed. 

They travel at a hundred kilometres 
per hour along the ducts of the dust 
collection system and reach the silo 
in less than three seconds 

The CONTROL LOGIC 
SPARK DETECTOR 

is faster than 
the sparks themselves. 
It detects them with its highly 
sensitive infrared sensor, 
intercepts and extinguishes 
them in a flash. 
It needs no periodic inspection. 


The CONTROL LOGIC system 

is designed for "total supervision". 
It verifies that sparks have been 
extinguished, gives prompt warning of 
any malfunction and, if needed, 
cuts off the duct and stops the fan. 


IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/FA 
EXPL0SI0NPR00F 
ENCLOSURE 

For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where is a risk of explosion 
and where the explosionproof 
protection is required. 

One detector can monitor a vast area 
and responds immediately 
to the fire, yet of small size. 


CONTROL LOGIC 
IR FLAME DETECTOR 

the fastest and most effective fire alarm device 
for industrial applications 


Also for 

RS485 two-wire serial line 


IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/F 
WATERTIGHT 
IP 65 ENCLOSURE 

For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where fire can spread 
out rapidly due to the presence of 
highly inflammable materials, 
and where vast premises need an optical 
detector with a great sensitivity 
and large field of view. 


BETTER TO KNOW IT BEFORE 


Eye is faster than nose. 

In the event of live fire 
the IR FLAME DETECTOR 
responds immediately 


PROFILE 


SEVO® Systems True 
Retrofit™ integrated 
into FireFlex® DUAL 
and 1230 Cabinets 


For further information on 
SEVO Systems please 
contact: 

Jon Flamm 
SEVO Systems, Inc. 

1 4824 West 1 07th Street 
Lenexa, KS, 6621 5 USA 
1.913.677.1112 
Email: info@sevosystems.com 

For further information on 
FireFlex Systems please 
contact: 

Raymond Quenneville 
FireFlex Systems, Inc. 

1935, Lionel-Bertrand Blvd. 
Broisbriand, QC, 

Canada J7H 1N8 
1.866.347.3353 
Email: info@fireflex.com 


S EVO® Systems True Retrofit™, utilizing 3M™ 
Novec ™ 1230 Fire Protection Fluid, is a major 
component in both of the newly released Fire- 
Flex® DUAL and 1230 integrated fire suppression 
cabinets. Unlike conventional fire suppression clean 
agent systems, SEVO takes full advantage of the 
characteristics of the fluid and increases the system 
pressure to the rated pressure of the standard 
welded cylinder - 500 psi, instead of the industry 
standard of 360 psi. Increased system pressure 
provides greater options in system design, allowing 
longer pipe lengths, smaller pipe diameters and 
more flexible design limits and nozzle placement. 
Retrofit of existing halon systems simpler and less 
costly with a 500 psi system, as existing pipe 
networks may often be used. One-to-one cylinder 
replacement reduces downtime and increases cost 
and space savings. 

FireFlex Systems, Inc., of Broisbriand, QC, Canada 
incorporates the SEVO 1230 True Retrofit System as 
the clean agent suppression system of choice in the 
FireFlex 1230 and FireFlex DUAL Cabinets. These 
cabinets integrate all of the components necessary 
for a complete extinguishing system, including the 
releasing panel. The FireFlex DUAL also integrates 
a pre-action automatic 
sprinkler system with 
the SEVO 1230 System 
in a factory assembled 
single cabinet. All of the 
components necessary 
for both complete extin- 
guishing systems are 
fully integrated, includ- 
ing a common releasing 
panel. 

The FireFlex DUAL 
and 1230 cabinets are 
available in a variety of 
sizes and are designed 
to hold SEVO cylinders 
(ranging in capacity 
from 15L to 345L), 
allowing for specific configuration to the protected 
hazard. The cabinets are free-standing and made 
of robust schedule 14 steel with a rustproof, fire 
red paint finish, polyester powder-coated and 
oven-baked on to a phosphate base. They are 
equipped with one or two locked front doors, 
reducing space requirements for ease of installation 
and maintenance. 

In the FireFlex DUAL, the combined pre-action 
system and SEVO 1230 suppression system are 
configured to prevent water discharge in the 
hazard. If the SEVO 1230 system suppresses the fire 

SEV® SYSTEMS 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



before the room reaches a high enough tempera- 
ture to open a sprinkler head, the sprinkler system 
will not be activated. The SEVO 1230 system can 
be actuated using a single or cross zone smoke 
detection system. 

The pre-action system is available with a single 
interlock, electric release, in which the deluge valve 
will open and fill the system and wait for a sprinkler 
to activate before releasing water in the area. Also 
available is a double interlock, electric-pneumatic 
release, in which the deluge valve waits for a 
smoke detection and a sprinkler to activate before 
opening, fills the system and flows water through 
the activated sprinkler(s). 

The SEVO True Retrofit System exclusively uses 
the halon alternative clean agent 3M Novec 1230 
Fire Protection Fluid (FK-5-1-12). Novec 1230 Fluid 
has zero ozone depletion potential and the lowest 
atmospheric lifetime for chemical clean agent 
alternatives: 5 days. 3M's Blue Sky SM Warranty 
offers 20-year protection against regulatory bans or 
restrictions on the use of Novec 1230 Fluid. 

The FireFlex DUAL and 1230 cabinets offer the 
fire sprinkler contractor a cost effective and con- 
venient method of installing clean agent systems. 
No longer will it be necessary to sub out this 
part of a contract. Only FireFlex Dual and 1230 
cabinet systems meet the ever changing needs 
of the fire suppression industry by offering 
environmentally sustainable clean agent, flexi bility 
and convenience. m3 

"SEVO" and "True Retrofit" are trademarks of 
SEVO Systems , Inc. of Lenexa , Kansas USA. "Fire- 
Flex" is a trademark of FireFlex Systems , Inc. of 
Broisbriand , QC, Canada. "3M" and "Novec" are 
trademarks of 3M Company. 



11 



Ship Halon 
Phase Out 



Retrofit with Gielle Clean agent fire 
suppression systems 

• Utilize existing piping 

• 1 to 1 cylinder/nozzle replacement 

• Existing Halon Systems / Existing HCFCs Systems 

• Express service 

• Worldwide 24h service 

• Full range of International Approvals 


www.giellemarine. com 


Imo Halon Banking authorized 
FP.l/Circ.37 - Jan 2009 







FIA COMMENT 


fia response 

to BBC Tower 
Block fire 
safety debate 


The Fire Industry Association (FIA) has welcomed the extension of the debate 
regarding fire risk assessments and their role within high rise dwellings following 
the 'Face the Facts' programme broadcast by Radio 4 on 7 January. 


T he programme, part of an investigative 
consumer series by presenter John Waite, 
focused on the absence of fire risk assess- 
ments in tower blocks in the wake of the Lakanal 
House fire in London in which six people died in 
July 2009. 

The FIA consider that, as a piece of investigative 
journalism, the BBC programme was reasonably 
well balanced. More specifically, the FIA applaud 
the measured position taken by the Chief Fire 
Officers Association (CFOA), as expressed by lain 
Cox, particularly in respect of the risk posed by 
high rise flats, which Mr Cox very eloquently put 


focussed on the fire at Lakanal House has arisen 
from the very fact that the circumstances in which 
people tragically died were extremely unusual. 

The FIA also acknowledge the amount of work 
involved in carrying out fire risk assessments in the 
case of any landlord with a large portfolio of 
properties. Indeed, it is noted that, when a fire, 
reputedly involving a £1,000,000 loss, occurred at 
the Fire Service College at Moreton-in-Marsh, an 
executive agency of the Department for Com- 
munities and Local Government, in May 2009, 
the College were, at the time, in the process of 
reviewing fire risk assessments across the College 


The membership of the FIA includes many organisations 
that are capable of assisting Responsible Persons to 
undertake fire risk assessments for their premises. 


Further details: 

Beverley Bane 
FIA 

Thames House 
29 Thames Street 
Kingston upon Thames 
Surrey KT1 1 PH 
Tel: 020 8549 8839 
Fax: 020 8547 1 564 
Email: info@fia.uk.com 
Website: www.fia.uk.com 


into context - "The people at the very greatest risk 
are those in the flat or compartment of origin and 
. . . there must be an alarm system there to tell them 
they've got a fire and for them to get out. If the 
building's built properly everybody else should be 
able to stay put. If the building isn't built for that 
then you should have a different evacuation proce- 
dure. And it really is for the responsible person - 
the owner, occupier, manager or whatever - of 
those premises to consider that. High rise blocks 
are not implicitly dangerous in themselves but if 
you're making assumptions about how they're built 
which are wrong then that can be a danger." 

While the FIA agree that it is unacceptable for 
any Responsible Person (as defined by the Fire Safe- 
ty Order in England and Wales) not to have carried 
out a suitable and sufficient fire risk assessment for 
any premises within the scope of the Order, it 
should be borne in mind that the duty to carry out 
fire risk assessments for the common parts of 
blocks of flats did not arise until 1 October 2006 
(unless the premises constituted a workplace), and 
that no such duty exists in Scotland or Northern 
Ireland. Nevertheless, over the forty years or more 
in which high rise flats have existed throughout all 
parts of the UK, there is no significant history of 
multiple fatality fires involving occupants beyond 
the flat of fire origin; indeed, the attention 


site. No fire risk assessment had been undertaken 
for the building in question under the Regulatory 
Reform (Fire Safety) Order; a previous fire risk 
assessment, undertaken in December 2004 under 
previous legislation, was still in place, notwith- 
standing CLG guidance to Responsible Persons 
that, following the introduction of the Fire Safety 
Order in 2006, the Responsible Person would need 
to revise a risk assessment carried out under 
previous legislation. 

The membership of the FIA includes many 
organisations that are capable of assisting Respon- 
sible Persons to undertake fire risk assessments for 
their premises. Such organisations are signatories 
to the FIA Code of Practice for fire risk assessors, 
which requires that the work of carrying out fire 
risk assessments is only carried out by persons 
competent to do so. D33 



Fire Industry Association 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


13 


PRODUCT PROFILE 


ASSERTA range 
from Fulleon 


Using expertise gained from many years of fire sounder development, Fulleon's 
ASSERTA range incorporates innovative thinking, which has contributed to easier 
and safer installation procedures. 


C areful electronic and acoustic design has 
provided class leading efficiency, while the 
integrated beacon has a carefully controlled 
asymmetric distribution that makes best use of the 
light output to give a much higher efficiency than 
omni-directional units. 

The ASSERTA family of industrial alarms has 
been manufactured by Fulleon for more than 
seven years. Over that time the range has grown 
to encompass many more applications and cus- 
tomer requirements, resulting in three key variants: 
the ASSERTA MINI, ASSERTA MIDI and ASSERTA. 

The baby of the family and the most recent 
introduction is the ASSERTA MINI. This compact 
105dB(A) sounder with a robust enclosure is 
equally at home in fire, or in an industrial sig- 
nalling system. Although the performance is simi- 
lar to the RoLP MAXI, the enclosure provides 
higher IP66 protection and like the rest of the 
ASSERTA range there is the option of a bright, 
integrated xenon beacon. The MINI is unique in 
the ASSERTA family as it has the facility to add an 
anti-tamper module to the base, allowing it to be 
used with security systems in exposed locations. 

• 105db(A) output suitable for localised 
applications 

• IP66 protection suitable for most environmental 
conditions 

• First and second fix installation for simplified 
installation 

• 32 user selectable alarm tones avoids confusion 
with other signals 

• 2 alarm stages to provide status signalling 
• Fully integrated high efficiency beacon for 
optimised light dispersion (av version) 

The ASSERTA MIDI is physically larger than the 
MINI and provides a higher sound output of 
110dB(A). Again the protection is IP66 as is the 
option for a fully integrated beacon. The MIDI is 
ideal as a general purpose industrial and process 
alarm sounder, although it is frequently used with 
fire systems in noisy or harsh environments. 

• IP66 protection 

• Simple first & second fix installation 
• 32 alarm tones 
• 2 stage alarm 

The top of the range is the ASSERTA, the largest 
and most powerful sounder with outputs of both 


For more information please 
contact: 

sales@fulleon.co.uk, or visit 
www.cooperfulleon.com 




120dB(A) and 110dB(A) available. Additionally 
there are three alarm stages, together with voice 
capability and a timer to automatically silence the 
sounder after a preset time when used externally 
in residential locations. The ASSERTA warning 
sounder is designed to cope with harsh environ- 
ments requiring protection to IP66. Design fea- 
tures are incorporated to ensure safer and easier 
installation, while providing flexibility with fewer 
product variants. 

• 1 1 0db(A) or 1 20db(A) output versions available 

• IP66 protection 

• Simple first and second fix installation 

• 42 alarm tones 

• 3 stage alarm 

• Sounder time out - user adjustable 

• Optional swivel mount bracket 

• Voice message option available 

• Fully integrated asymmetric beacon uses light 
more efficiently (av version) 

All three of the sounders share the same 
aesthetics, simplified installation and rugged IP66 
enclosures. Both DC and AC supplies are catered 
for and although the majority are supplied with 
red enclosures, grey is also an option. The range is 
are available as sounder only or with an integrated 
efficient xenon beacon. 

The ASSERTA Beacon is also available as a stand 
alone unit. The distinctive shape of this industrial 
beacon allows robust construction to be combined 
with highly efficient control of the light output to 
give a performance normally associated with much 
more powerful units. Versatility is ensured with a 
number of voltage and supply options. D33 


14 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



Fulleon 




|-»#| 




World Class 

Leaders in audible & visual alarm systems 

Wide range for markets catered for including: 

■ Fire 

■ Industrial 

■ Security 

■ Hazardous Areas 

■ Product for indoor and outdoor use 

■ High efficiency, low current design 

■ Compliant with a wide range of standards 

■ Wide range of applications 


COOPER Notification 


www.cooperindustries.com 


T: + 44 (0) 1 633 628 500 F: + 44 (0) 1 633 866 346 
sales@fulleon.co.uk www.cooperfulleon.com 



Say goodbye to 
broken glass! 




EN54-11 approved 
(cert. no. 653a/02) 
Resettable - 
no broken glass 
IP67 EN54-11 
Waterproof & 
addressable 
versions available 


AJS 


Just 

ReSet 

IP67 Waterproof ReSet Call Point 


(STI| 

www.easyreset.co.uk 

Safety Technology International (Europe) Ltd 
Tel: +44 (0)1527 520999 Fax: +44 (0)1527 501999 
Email: info@sti-europe.com Website: www.sti-europe.com 

Safety Technology International, Inc. 

Toll Free: 800 888 4784 Tel: 248 673 9898 
Email: info@sti-usa.com Website: www.sti-usa.com 




0 


Fire Industry Association 

Export Council 


VIM R EX 

ReSet Call Point 
UK Distributor to the 
Fire Trade 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


15 





PRODUCT PROFILE 


STl call Point 
(Re)Sets the 
Standard in 
Hong Kong 


A somewhat unusual problem with condensation in a major Hong Kong 
commercial building has been resolved by the ReSet Call Point from STl (Europe) 
and a little lateral thinking from a resourceful fire safety engineering manager. 


For further details please 
contact: 

Safety Technology 
International (Europe) Ltd. 

Sales Freephone (UK): 

0800 085 1678 
Tel: 01 527 520 999 
Fax: 01 527 501 999 
Email: sales@sti-europe.com 
Website: www.sti-europe.com 


T he China Resource Building, a 178 metre tall 
skyscraper in the Wan Chai district of Hong 
Kong island, was experiencing regular faults 
in its fire detection and alarm system. Peak Trade 
International Limited (PTI), a company that has 
been providing fire system design, engineering 
and maintenance in the Asian market for some six 
years, was called in to investigate. Kinman Chow, 
Engineering Manager with PTI, soon identified the 
problem. The breakglass call points in the public 
corridors on each of the building's 48 floors were 
semi-flush mounted. On completion of the day's 
activities, to conserve energy the air conditioning 
system is shutdown, with the resulting change in 
temperature generating condensation which was 
running down the wall and entering the call point. 
This was causing a fault report in the system, a 
problem which resolved itself during the day when 
the air conditioning was reactivated and the water 
that had collected in the callpoint's back box dried 
up. Mr Chow comments - "We conducted a full 
risk assessment for the China Resource Building. 
The faults were only occurring at night when the 
air conditioning system was shut off and the risk in 
terms of life safety was therefore low. However, we 
all know that fire safety is not just about protecting 
life but also the building itself, as well as its 
contents. From our risk assessment we recognised 
the need to do something to resolve this issue to 
ensure the building's owners had a fire protection 
system that was fully operational 24 hours a day." 

Following the site survey, PTI recommended that 
the existing call points be replaced with STI's Reset 

Call Point and an 
Apollo mini module 
(located in the Air 
Handling Unit plant 
room) to interface 
with the Apollo 
analogue address- 
able fire detection 
system. The 'ReSet' 
mimics the feel of 
breaking glass but 
in a unit which 
offers the benefits 
and environmental 
advantages of a 



The ReSet call point is 
manufactured to EN54-1 1 
and approved by LPCB 



re-settable operating element. Although it is flush 
mounted, the call point's screw-type terminal is 
much less susceptible to water ingress than the 
plug and play design of the units that had caused 
problems. Even though a waterproof ReSet call 
point manufactured to IP67 ratings is available as 
part of the range, the manufacturing quality of the 
indoor version proved more than adequate to 
overcome the condensation problems encountered 
in this particular application. 

This approach also resolved the situation with 
the call point located in the podium at upper 
ground floor level which could be affected by rain, 
particularly when the rain was coupled with high 
winds. 

Since the introduction of the ReSet Call Point, 
the faults in the system have been completely 
eradicated. Mr Chow continues - "although the 
call point we used is recommended for use 
indoors, the build quality meant that it was able to 
resist the condensation in this application and the 
call points located in the public corridors have 
worked perfectly since being installed. Also, no 
false alarms or fault reports have been generated 
by the call point in the podium, despite sometimes 
typhoon conditions, which is a real testament to 
how robust the units are." 

The success of the initial project and the 
positive response from the building's owners to 
the performance of the units has lead to a second 
phase where the remaining existing call points 
are being replaced with the STl ReSet. H33 


16 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




Manufacturer and Designer 
of Globally Approved 
Fire Extinguishing Systems 

Clean Agent 

High Pressure Carbon Di|j>xi 
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Water Mist 
Foam 
Alarm and Detection 
Air Sampling Smoke Detection 

YOUR GATEWAY TO A NEW KIND OF SERVICE 

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1 102 Rupcich Drive, Crown Point, IN 46307 




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C TEC is the only UK fire panel manufacturer with third party product certifications and 
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Currently trading in over SO countries worldwide, our commitment to quulity is underlined by our ISO 9001 
dcaeditdbon (held since 1994) and out corpcrdtu membership of the Tire Industry Association (FIA). 

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17 





PROFILE 



INTERSCHUTZ 


HAHN 


INTERNATIONALE LEITMESSE FUR RETTUNG, 
BRAND-/ KATASTROPHENSCHUTZ UND SICHERHEIT 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR RESCUE, FIRE 
PREVENTION, DISASTER RELIEF, SAFETY, SECURITY 

LEIPZIG 7-12 JUNE 2010 



Interschutz, the world's largest trade exhibition aimed at the fire industry will 
soon be upon us. Held once every 5 years, anyone and anybody involved in the 
fire safety and fire fighting industry will be in Leipzig, Germany between the 
7th and 1 2th June 2010 attending this prestigious event. IFP takes a look at 
some essential information for visitors as well as exhibitors attending 
Interschutz. 


Student's day ticket (incl. young people 
in military or civilian service: ID required) 

11.00 EUR 

Tickets can be bought in advance via the Internet 
(www. i ntersch utz . de) 

Free ride to and from event 

Your admission ticket entitles you to ride public 
transit free of charge* on the day of the event on 
all lines operated by the MDV transit authority 
(Mitteldeutscher Verkehrsverbund), valid for the 
following regions and fare zones: 

MDV fare zones 

*The visitor's free ride to and from the exhibition 
center via MDV-ope rated public transit lines on the 


VISITOR INFORMATION 

INTERSCHUTZ 2010, 7 to 12 June 

At a glance 
Duration: 

Monday, 7 June to Saturday, 1 2 June 2010 

Opening hours: 

Daily from 9.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. 

Admission prices: 

Advance sales and Ticket office 

Single admission 18.00 EUR 

Full-event ticket 41 .00 EUR 


18 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 






INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

DDHCI 1 C 


rKUNLt 




day of the event is valid for the following regions 
and fare zones: 

Leipzig 

Leipzig County 
Nordsachsen County 
Mittelsachsen County 
Burgen County 
Halle 

Saale County 
Altenburger Land 

Catalogue: 

€17 plus postage and packaging (available 
approx. 3 weeks before opening day of event) 
Internet: http://www.interschutz.de/catalogue 

Visitor information: 

Internet: http://www.interschutz/visitorservice 
Email: interschutz@messe.de 

Getting there: 

If traveling by car, simply follow the signs to the 
exhibition center ( Messegelande ) in and around 
Leipzig; the Leipzig exhibition center is well sign- 
posted. Our dynamic parking guidance system will 
point you to the nearest parking space. 

If traveling to Leipzig by train, you can reach the 
exhibition center ( Messegelande ) from Leipzig 
Central Railway Station ( Hauptbahnhof) by taking 
the regional train, the FlughafenExpress train, the 
tram or a taxi. For more information, please 
inquire at the Service Point desk at Central Railway 
Station. 

Numerous airlines serve the Leipzig/Halle Air- 
port. There are over 300 direct flights to and from 
eight German cities and 72 cities abroad. 
Leipzig/Halle Airport also gives you easy access to 
the following major international airport hubs: 
Frankfurt, Munich, Paris and Vienna. 


Travel and accommodations: 

Do you prefer a quiet's night sleep, or would 
you rather be close to Leipzig's pulsating nightlife? 
The Leipziger Messe company can provide you 
with recommendations and reservations for any 
location or price category. Your selection of 
accommodations ranges from hotels, pensions 
and guesthouses with a total of 12,000 
beds between them - from "shoestring budget" 
to luxury. For more information, visit www.inter- 
schutz.de/61050. 

Parking: 

The press parking lot for journalists at Leipziger 
Messe is located inside the exhibition grounds next 
to the Messehaus building. The parking lot is 
accessible via Messe-Allee, South 1 gate. 

Range of exhibits: 

Vehicles and vehicle equipment, fire extinguishing 
appliances and systems, fire extinguishing 
agents, technical support and environmental 
protection, rescue, emergency, first-aid and med- 
ical equipment, personal protective equipment, 
measuring and detection apparatus, control- 
station and signaling technology, information and 
organization, equipment for fire stations and 
workshops, building and construction industry, 
structural and organizational fire protection, 
associations, organizations, service companies, 
technical literature, model making, fan articles, 
gifts, 

Exhibitors: 

The organizers anticipate some 1,100 exhibiting 
enterprises, occupying more than 80,000 m 2 of 
net display space. 

Press Center: 

At the Messehaus building, open from Sunday, 5 
June 2009, starting at 9:00 a.m. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


19 



I— I I— t I 

— HALLE / MAGDEBURG / HANNOVER / A9 (BERLIN / MUNCHEN) 

era 


/ 



Verwjltung 
Meite All i 


Mew -A lee 


Display categories interschutz 2010 


Vehicles and vehicle equipment 

Hall 1,2,4 + Open-air ground 1 


Fire extinguishers appliances and systems, 
extinguishing agents 

Hall 1, 5 


Technical support and environmental 
protection 

Hall 1,2 + Open-air ground 1 


Rescue, emergency, first-aid and medical 
equipment 

Hall 1, 2, 3 + Open-air ground 1 


Personal protective equipment 

Hall 1 and 3 


Measuring and detection apparatus 

Hall 3 


Control station and signaling technology 

Hall 3 


Information and organization technology 

Hall 3 


Equipment for fire stations and 
workshops 

Hall 1, 5 


Building and construction industry, 
structural and organisational fire 
protection 

Hall 1, 5 


Associations, organizations, services 

Hall 1, 2, 3, 5 


Trade literature, model making, gift items 

Hall 1, 2, 4 


20 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 












The benefits of 
exhibiting at the 
show 

The No.1 event in the industry calendar 

With more than 120,000 visitors and over 1,200 
exhibitors, INTERSCHUTZ is the leading inter- 
national trade fair for public safety. Featuring 
the world's largest array of exhibits for disaster 
prevention, rescue and emergency services, 
INTERSCHUTZ offers you a fantastic opportunity to 
demonstrate the competence of your company 
and organization to the entire industry - with just 
one trade fair presentation. 

Unique concept 

Due to the combination of commercial and non- 
commercial exhibitors under the same roof you 
benefit as a supplier from directfeedback from the 
users of your security solutions. This puts you in an 
excellent position to fine-tune your product range 
to meet changing market needs. 


INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

DDHCI 1 C 


rKUNLt 


EG 


TAXI 


© 


Press Centre 
Entrance 

Q 

Station Leipzig 
Messe 

EC-Cash 

dispensing 

machine 


Heliport 

Business 

Lounge 

H 

| First aid 

Restaurant 

+ 

Fair shop 

Parking 

Shop 

Cafe 

Airport-City- 

Shuffle 

£ 

Police 

Taxi 

□ 

Customs 

Tram line 16 

z 

Forwarding 

Agencies 

Tram 


MaxicoM 

Bus Stop 

MM 

(Euro-Asia 
Business Group) 


Efficient business platform 

With over 90% of visitors classed as trade visitors, 
you can be certain of reaching large numbers 
of decision-makers and buyers. This makes 
INTERSCHUTZ an ideal platform for successful new 
product launches and business deals. 

International audience 

At INTERSCHUTZ you'll meet top decision-makers 
from all over the world. This gives you ready 
access to profitable new markets. 

Barometer of trends 

Learn about pioneering innovations and key trends 
within the industry at the conferences, symposia 
and corporate lectures that accompany the show. 
You'll benefit from the professional expertise of 
leading experts and gather useful information for 
shaping the future course of your company and 
organization. 

Attention guaranteed 

An extensive advertising campaign and an attrac- 
tive program of events serve to generate and 
maintain the interest of visitors and the media. 

Excellent facilities 

The modern exhibition complex in Leipzig with its 
fascinating steel and glass architecture provides 
you with everything you need in terms of both 
organization and technical facilities. 

Reasonably priced entry 

For as little as Euro 5,321 (plus VAT) you can book 
a 20 m 2 fair-package system stand, fully fitted and 
ready to go - and enjoy all the benefits of exhibit- 
ing at INTERSCHUTZ. D3U 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


21 





FIRETRACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST 

Firetrace® provides 
protection for Midd 



At last month's Intersec exhibition in Dubai, Firetrace International showcased a 
number of Middle East projects where its fire suppression technology is 
By Nick Grant providing 24/7 protection for business-critical assets. Nick Grant explains. 


EMEA Vice President 
and General Manager of 
Firetrace International 


At the beginning of 2008 the Middle East 
/ \ construction sector was at an all time high. 
/ \ Over US$1 trillion of projects were under- 

way in the GCC [Gulf Cooperation Council] states 
and another US$150 billion's worth was in the 
pipeline. So, despite the recent debt crisis news 
from Dubai, the region remains one of the world's 
most prominent construction markets, where the 
investment in major projects and the development 
of the region's infrastructure is on a world-class scale. 

One of the most prominent of these projects is 
the US$2 billion DOKAAEP [Development of King 
Abdul Aziz Endowment Project] in the holy city of 
Makkah in Saudi Arabia that today has a popula- 
tion in excess of 1.7 million. The architecturally 
distinctive complex, which comprises seven high- 
rise towers overlooking the Masjid al-Haram or 
Grand Mosque - the largest mosque in the world 
- will, when completed in 2011, accommodate 
65,000 guests and visiting pilgrims. The 1,445,000 
square metre project is believed to be the largest 
mixed-use complex of its kind in the world, and 
the central hotel tower will reach up to almost 


600 meters, earning it a place among the tallest 
buildings in the world. 

Among the many business and service-critical 
elements of the project are more than 300 escala- 
tors and elevators that will travel at speeds of up 
to six metres a second. Due to its incorporating a 
shopping mall, restaurants and food courts, as well 
as a large prayer area for 3,800 people, a 1,500 
capacity convention centre and car parking for 780 
vehicles, it also has extensive and sophisticated 
CCTV, heating, ventilation and air conditioning, 
data networking, access control, lighting, security 
and telecommunications installations. 

With such complex building management 
systems, it was judged to be of major importance 
that the electrical control cabinets on which these 
systems depend be protected by dedicated and 
efficient fire detection and suppression. So much 
so that the electrical cabinets throughout the Dar 
Al-Handasah (Shari & Partners) designed building 
are being protected by hundreds of Firetrace 
International's genuine FIRETRACE® stand-alone, 
automatic fire suppression systems. 


22 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



BUSINESS-CRITICAL PROTECTION 


FIRETRACE IN THE MIDDLE EAST 


business-critical 
le East projects 


FIRETRACE was chosen because it satisfied the 
consultant's insistence on relying on a solution that 
is both UL [Underwriters Laboratories] listed and 
FM [Factory Mutual] approved. It also appealed 
because its proven reliability. ISO 9001:2008 
registered Firetrace International's FIRETRACE is a 
"self-seeking" solution that is entirely self-con- 
tained, does not require an external power source, 
and so is ideal for protecting installations spread 
throughout the complex. Significantly, it can be 
activated only by heat or flame and so will 
discharge only when a genuine fire is detected, 
overcoming any potential for false alarm or 
unwarranted discharge. 

However, for all of its sensitivity, FIRETRACE 
systems are unaffected by Saudi Arabia's high 
temperatures, which can average over 40°C 
between May and September. 

Currently, 250 FIRETRACE systems have been 
installed, but Firetrace International's authorised 
trading partner in Saudi Arabia, Husam Sinjab 
Contracting Establishment, anticipates that this 
will ultimately increase to a figure closer to 400. 
For this particular project and application they 
utilise DuPont™ FM-200® clean suppression agent 
that is ideal for protecting electrical components. It 
leaves no residue to damage sensitive equipment, 
is non-conductive and non-corrosive. Also, unlike 
C0 2 [carbon dioxide], which some companies 
erroneously promote as suitable for direct 
discharge via tube-operated systems used to protect 
electrical cabinets, FM-200 does not cause thermal 
shock to the equipment being protected. 

The FIRETRACE technology chosen for the 
DOKAAEP cabinets was the Firetrace Direct 
Release System. This comprises Firetrace Inter- 
national's proprietary Firetrace Detection Tubing 
that is linked, via a custom-engineered valve, to 
the FM-200 suppression agent cylinder. This special- 
ly-developed, leak resistant, small-bore polymer 
tubing is a linear pneumatic heat and flame detec- 
tor that delivers the desired temperature-sensitive 
detection and delivery characteristics. Its flexibility 
is such that it can be threaded around each 
cabinet's tightly-packed compartments and com- 
ponents. When the tubing detects a fire anywhere 
along its length it ruptures, forming an effective 
spray nozzle that automatically releases the entire 
contents of the FM-200 cylinder, extinguishing the 
fire precisely where it starts and before it can do 
extensive damage to the cabinet or its contents. 

Another Middle East project that relies on the 
Firetrace Direct Release System is for Qatar's 
Ministry of Drainage Affairs' Doha South STW 
[Sewage Treatment Works] project, where FIRE- 
TRACE is again playing a leading role in ensuring 
that critical electrical control panels are provided 
with dedicated, fast-action fire protection. The 
latest delivery of FIRETRACE equipment, which is 
being supplied by Doha Electrical and Mechanical 
Projects, Firetrace International's authorised Qatari 



distributor, brought the total number of systems 
supplied for the project to well over 400 in the 
past three years. 

These systems are safeguarding a variety of 
machinery control cabinets, variable speed drives, 
and high and medium-voltage cabinets that 
control drinking water pumps, sewage and water 
treatment processes throughout the southern part 
of the city, which is home to 80 percent of Qatar's 
population. The project manages the flow of 
wastewater for approximately 500,000 people. 

Each of the Ministry of Drainage Affairs' cabinets 
is protected by a single FIRETRACE cylinder to pro- 
vide maximum protection. Every system is linked 
via a low-pressure switch to a Kentec Electronics 
fire panel - also supplied by Firetrace International 
- that is in turn connected to a main SCADA 
[Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition] system. 
Every Kentec panel has a unique address so, if a 
low-pressure switch is activated, the location of 
the fire is immediately evident. D33 


The company's EMEA head 
office is in the UK and can be 
contacted on +44 (0) 1 293 
780390 

Firetrace International 
headquarters is in Scottsdale, 
Arizona, USA and can be 
reached on +1 480 607 1218 
www.firetrace.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


23 




UK Manufacturer of Passive Fire Protection Products 






FI Hi OLA2ING SF.LECTOF 


■ 





Ti 


*>* -*w 


Pyroplex 


Glazing 


Selector 


Architectural design is increasingly incorporating 
the use of fire resistant glazing. 

The Pyroplex Glazing Selector outlines the correct 
seal that is compatible with a wide range of fire 
resistant glass, making fire resistant glazing system 
selection simple. 

Certifire approval provides you with the confidence 
that our products have achieved certification at a 
higher level than the minimum requirements. 

For our full range of Pyroplex passive fire protection 
products visit us at www.pyroplex.com 

For a free copy of The Pyroplex Glazing Selector 

email us at info@pyroplex.com 
or telephone 01 905 795432. 









Pyroplex 8 Limited, The Furlong, Droitwich, 
Worcestershire WR9 9BG, UK. Tel: +44 (0)1 905 795432 
email: info@pyroplex.com web: www.pyroplex.com 



The Derby Roundhouse , 
photo courtesy of Bowmer 
and Kirkland 



By Steve Goodburn 

CGI Sales Director 


GLAZING 



A Fire Safety 
Education 


The continued evolution of fire resistant glazing has prompted one of the most 
current design styles - open plan. Be it a ten floor office block, a hospital waiting 
room or a school corridor - open plan living and working is the design style of 
the moment. 


T his design evolution has been enabled thanks 
to ongoing developments in the world of fire 
resistant glass - longer protection times and 
increased panel sizes now afford us the very best 
in fire safety without compromising design. 

Fit for purpose 

However this protection is dependent on com- 
pliance with a wide range of rigorous testing 
procedures, industry standards and building 
regulations. These are critical to both the specifica- 
tion and functionality of fire resistant glass. 

Test certificates validate a product's suitability 
for use and define its limits. While there may be 
some variation in the testing practices from one 
country to the next, the certifications themselves 
all talk the same 'language' and give specifiers the 
necessary assurances that the product is fit for 
purpose. 


CGI provides fire products to fulfil a wide variety 
of performances and appearances enabling 
specifiers to obtain all requirements for fire and 
speciality glasses from a single source. All products 
are tested to British and European standards as 
well as a variety of International standards for fire 
resistance and impact safety. 

Options 

Fire glass products can be grouped into three main 
categories. The first is integrity only (E) which pre- 
vents flames and hot gasses from spreading for 
the specified time - typically from between 30 and 
60 minutes. The second option is integrity and 
radiation control glass (EW) which not only offers 
integrity but also offers some radiant heat control. 
This significantly reduces the amount of radiant 
heat transmitted through the glass. The third is 
integrity and insulating glass (El) which has the 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


25 



r | A 7 1 M fl 

A FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION 

vjLAZ.II u 




same ability as the above but also restricts the 
temperature transfer to the unexposed face. 

Modern building design has created heightened 
demand for those products which offer integrity 
and full insulation (El) or integrity and radiation 
control (EW). A fire glass with insulation or radia- 
tion control stops/limits the transfer of heat 
thereby mitigating the risks of spontaneous 
combustion, protecting adjacent parts of the 
building and buying more time for fire crews to 
respond and for people to evacuate safely. 

The advice is that any building which has a high 
volume of people or business assets or a complex 
evacuation protocol should select from integrity 
and radiation control (EW) or integrity and 
insulation glass (El). This is because most common 
materials will ignite spontaneously once tempera- 
tures reach 500-600°C, so even if the fire is 
contained in an adjoining room, catastrophic 
damage and further spread of fire can take place. 
A fire glass with insulation or radiation control also 
stops or limits the transfer of heat through the 
glass for a predetermined period of time and 
mitigates the risks. 


Installation 

There is a misconception that using fire resistant 
glass is 'job done'. However incorrect installation 
can render a tested specification useless and make 
fire resistant glass installations nothing more than 
normal glass. 

It's of the utmost importance that all com- 
ponents in a fire-resistance glazing system are fire 
rated, compatible and approved if the glass is to 
fulfil its role and meet building regulations. 

Standard glazing material products won't with- 
stand the high temperatures experienced during a 
fire and will combust, melt or work loose within a 
very short period of time. Eventually the glass 
will twist or fall out, allowing the fire to spread. 
Specialist glazing materials should be specified 
along with the glass itself, as a fire resistant 
system. Ceramic tape is an ideal and economical 
medium for glazing most types of fire resistant 
glasses including both insulated and non-insulated 
panels. 

Choosing the right frame is also very important. 
The combination of a fire glass with a poorly 
designed frame, or a frame manufactured from a 


26 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


Saint-Gobain 
Glass Solutions 



Control of the transmission 
of radiated heat below 
a specified level 

SGG VETROFLAM®, 
sgg CONTRAFLAM® Lite 


Provides a physical barrier against 
flame, hot toxic gases and smoke 

SGG PYROSWISS®, 
sgg PYROSWISS® Extra 


Highest performance limitation 
of surface temperature on the 
unexposed side 

sgg CONTRAFLAM®, sgg SWISSFLAM 


rrffn>i 

SAINT-GOBAIN 

GLASS 






El = Insu ation 


A complete range for 
all Fire Resisting 
Glass classifications! 


We Know Fire 


Your Solution for Fire Resisting Glass 


E = Integrity 






GLAZING 


A FIRE SAFETY EDUCATION 



sub-standard material, will almost always render 
the system non fire-rated and at risk of immediate 
failure in a fire. 

CGI has a wealth of evidence to cover hardwood 
timber frames as well as fire rated steel systems. 
There is a trend to move towards softwood frames 
because of cost and test evidence is available in this 
area too. CGI is also working to develop fire tested 


reducing its effectiveness. It will also no longer be 
a certified installation. 

Continual change 

The glass industry is continuously on a quest to 
develop the next generation of fire glasses. CGI 
invests heavily in research and development and 
more recently opened its own on-site facilities to 


Fire rated glass manufacturer 
CGI International supplies 
the widest range of fire 
glasses for use in buildings 
around the world - which 
has tripled sales in the past 
decade. 

Around 60 per cent of the 
company's glass is exported 
to countries such as Holland, 
Ireland, France, Spain, 
Sweden, Norway, Finland, 
Australia, China, Dubai, the 
USA and Turkey. CGI is 
currently expanding into new 
markets in Eastern Europe 
and the Middle East. 

CGI's products include 
Pyroguard Clear, Pyroguard 
Wired, Pyroguard Insulation 
and Pyroguard Insulation 
Acoustic. 


For more information on CGI 
please call 01942 710720 or 
visit www.cgii.co.uk 


CGI has a wealth of evidence to cover hardwood timber 
frames as well as fire rated steel systems. There is a trend to 
move towards softwood frames because of cost and test 
evidence is available in this area too. CGI is also working to 
develop fire tested wooden framing systems of slimmer 
thicknesses to suit the demands of the architectural world. 


wooden framing systems of slimmer thicknesses to 
suit the demands of the architectural world. Steel 
and hardwood frames are the most suitable simple 
because of the non-combustibility of steel framing 
systems, or slow char rates of hard wood. 

As well as the use of inappropriate frames, glaz- 
ing media and sealant systems, there's also confu- 
sion about the approved sizes of fire resistant 
glass. The orientation and area of the glass is all 
important. A piece of glass that's been cut to por- 
trait sizing should be installed that way. Install it 
horizontally and you may well be exceeding the 
test parameters of that product and thereby 


continue developing technical capabilities. 

Recent developments have included ceiling to 
floor panels in CGI's integrity and radiation control 
(EW) fire resisting glass Pyroguard and increased 
sheet sizes for Pyroguard insulation. 

There's no disputing it, fire resistant glass is 
becoming a more and more common way of satis- 
fying the fire safety requirements of a building, 
without compromising on the architectural and aes- 
thetic qualities of the design. In less than 30 years 
fire resistant glass has been radically overhauled and 
as building design and construction trends evolve, 
so too will the fire resistant glass industry. D33 


28 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




For over 90 years, The Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc. 
has manufactured fire sprinklers, valves, and fire protection 
accessories. They are also a major distributor of sprinkler sys- 
tem components. Reliable produces a full line of both solder 
element and frangible glass bulb sprinklers for virtually every 
type of protection requirements. Reliable has a complete line 
of fire protection valves for controlling water flow and providing 
alarm signaling to include check, alarm, dry, deluge, and pre- 
action valves. 


Reliable Fire Sprinkler Ltd. 

Manufacturer & Distributor of Fire Protection Equipment 

www.reliablesprinkler.com 


HCHN014CT • *1*111/ • SCtl' C t 


Western Europe: 

Germany: 

Sweden: 

UK Office: 
Germany Office: 
Sweden Office: 


Berny Holden - bholden@reliablesprinkler.com 
Hartmut Winkler - hwinkler@reliablesprinkler.com 
Dan Forsberg - dforsberg@reliablesprinkler.com 

+ 44.1342316800 

+ 49.62176212223 

+ 46.87165570 


TECHNOLOGY • QUALITY • SERVICE 


SPRINKLERS 


Spray Nozzles Selectio 
Systems: Options and 


Figure 5 



By Scott Martorano, 
CFPS 


Water spray systems as defined in NFPA 1 5 can provide some of the most 
complex and challenging system designs encountered by fire protection 
professionals. 


Senior Manager, 
Technical Sen/ice, 

The Viking Corporation 


T he selection of the proper spray nozzle that 
achieves the coverage area and water density 
required for the hazard being protected is 
one of the most important steps necessary to 
ensure the successful operation of the system. Of 
course, there are many other steps of equal impor- 
tance and complexity that are taken during the 
design and layout process for water spray systems, 
but it is the selection of the proper spray nozzles 
that can present one of the largest challenges and 
may ultimately determine whether or not the 
water spray system will perform as required. 
Because of the wide variations in the characteris- 
tics of water spray nozzles including discharge pat- 
terns, velocities, distances of projection and the 
variables of the hazards being protected a careful 
evaluation of the nozzle selection should be com- 
pleted by a professional with an in-depth knowl- 
edge of special hazards applications and water 
spray system design. 

The complexity of nozzle selection can be 
increased in some cases where a limited amount 
of technical information is available describing 
the specific features or proper application for the 
spray nozzle being considered. In other cases, 
confusion may result from the terminology used in 
a manufactures technical data, such as high, 
medium and low velocity nozzles and the term 


velocity's relationship to the application. Given the 
substantial number of hazards where spray nozzles 
can be applied, and the various listings and 
approvals granted by Underwriters Laboratory, 
Factory Mutual and LPCB, the design engineer and 
layout technician are presented with a demanding 
selection process. This paper will attempt to 
clarify spray nozzle selection criteria for several of 
the most complex water spray applications and 
the terminology used to identify the unique 
characteristic of the spray nozzles. 

water spray and nozzles 

The applications where spray nozzles are utilized 
can be severe. Primarily spray nozzles are used for 
exposure protection of bulk storage flammable 
and combustible liquid tanks to cool the shell, 
prevent explosion or collapse of the tank and 
extension of the fire. In addition, when designed 
properly and correctly installed water spray systems 
can be successfully utilized for extinguishment and 
control of some flammable liquids fires, some 
combustible liquid fires, Class A combustibles, and 
electrical transformer applications. Extinguishment 
of a fire using water spray is achieved "by cooling, 
smothering, emulsifying or diluting of flammable 
liquids or by a combination of these factors" 1 . 
"Controlling of a fire can be achieved with the 


30 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


SPRAY NOZZLES SELECTION FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS 

CDDIIVIIfl CDC 


3r KIIMIvLt Kj 


n for water Spray 
applications explained 


same mechanisms that achieve extinguishment, 
however due to different characteristics of the 
fuel, suppression is not possible" 2 . 

FM Global defines the mechanisms of fire 
extinguishment in the following manner: 

Cooling action results to some extent from 
absorption of heat by water particles but mostly 
from the conversion of water to steam. When 
converted into steam, 11b of water at 60°F 
absorbs 1150 Btu. When the surface of the 
burning material is cooled to a point where 
flammable vapors are no longer evolved, the 
fire is extinguished. 

Smothering action is obtained when the 
water spray is converted to steam by the heat 
of the fire, expanding its volume approximately 
1,750 times. As the steam envelops the fire 
area, oxygen is excluded which helps to 
extinguish the fire. 

Emulsification is obtained by mechanical 
agitation of water with oil or other non-water 
soluble liquids so that droplets of both materials 
become closely interspersed. Such an emulsion 
is produced by the action of water spray striking 
the surface of certain flammable liquids, render- 
ing the liquid surface nonflammable. With 
liquids of low viscosity, emulsification is probably 
temporary, existing only during the application 
of the spray. With materials of higher viscosity, 
the emulsion will last longer and provide some 
protection against re-flashing. 

Dilution of water-soluble liquids is usually a 
minor factor in extinguishing a fire because of 
the high degree of dilution required 3 . 

Spray nozzle selection and operation 

The selection of spray nozzles involves considera- 
tion of several factors, primarily its ability to dis- 
tribute water in a manner which allows the proper 
mechanism of extinguishment or control for the 
hazard to be achieved. Spray nozzles are available 
in a wide range of capacities and angles. The 
design elements used within the spray nozzle to 
manipulate the movement of water through the 
spray nozzle will impact the discharge velocity of 
the water droplets and the discharge patterns 
reach or range. 

The velocity of the water droplets discharged 
from spray nozzles is not a factor for consideration 
of water spray system design within NFPA 15 or 
13. However terms referencing velocity are used 
extensively within manufactures technical data and 
within the testing and installation standards of the 
Loss Prevention Certification Board (LPCB) which 
are used in many part of the world. The exact 
meaning of this terminology and how it applies to 
the spray nozzle application can be confusing and 
at times misleading, but it can be helpful to put a 
definition to the terms low, medium and high 
velocity if for no other reason than to help the 
designer and layout technician gain a better 
understanding of the nozzle application. The only 
written definitions for spray nozzles that can be 


found within the fire protection industry common 
referenced text are within the LPCB Standard 1277. 

LPCB Standard 1277 defines medium velocity 
spray nozzles are "sprayers with deflection plates 
producing conical discharge patterns having bores 
not less that 14 inch (6.3 mm) and meeting the 
test requirements of this standard apart from the 
fire test. These sprayers may be opened or sealed; 
the seal is identical to that of a sprinkler" and 
"sprayers with swirl chambers producing conical 
discharge patterns and having internal waterways 
not less than Va inch (3.1 mm) and final exit bores 
not less than 14 inch (6.3 mm) and meeting the 
requirements of this standard at a pressure of 
20 psi (1.4 bar) apart from the fire test". High 
velocity spray nozzles are defined as "sprayers 
with swirl chambers producing conical discharge 
patterns and having internal waterways not less 
than Vs inch (3.1 mm) and final exit bores not less 
than 14 inch (6.3 mm) and meeting the require- 
ments of this standard apart from those for cone 
angles and distribution 4 ". 

From these definitions several of the key differ- 
ences between medium and high velocity spray 
nozzles can be identified such as the incorporation 
of a deflector on some medium velocity nozzles 
and high velocity nozzle will have to meet differ- 
ent cone angle and distribution requirements. Also 
the term "swirl chamber" is introduced for some 
medium velocity and all high velocity nozzles. A 
"swirl chamber" is used within a nozzle to spin 
the water so it emerges as a solid cone jet. 

Historically, the term velocity and distribution of 
the size of water droplets has been understood to 
describe the reach or area of coverage of the 
nozzles water spray pattern 5 . However, it is the 
velocity and dispersion of the water droplets them- 
selves which will determine a spray nozzles ability 
to achieve the mechanisms of extinguishment or 
control of a fire. 

Fixed nozzles have certain velocity or pressure 
ranges of effectiveness. Below the lower limit of 
the force range, the discharge pattern is ineffec- 
tive; above the upper limit, velocities may be 
reached that will result in decreased effectiveness 
due to reduction in the discharge pattern, delivery 
distance and/or the water droplets 6 . At the point 
where a droplet of water is discharged from a noz- 
zle, it is carried forward by its momentum, down- 
ward by the force of gravity and is retarded by 
friction in the air. The forward velocity of water 
droplets becomes very important in the reach of 
the nozzle 7 . Spray nozzles are designed to have 
various spray angles. The volume of water being 
discharged and the spray angle of the nozzle will 
determine the actual velocity of the water droplets 
and the range of the spray. 

The size and velocity of the water particles will 
have an impact on the ability to extinguish or 
control a fire. If the droplets are too small, they 
cannot penetrate to the seat of the fire but are 
carried upward by the fire plume. If they are too 
large, their surface-to-mass ratio is small and they 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


31 


SPRINKLERS 


cannot effectively cool the fire gases 8 . When being 
used to suppress flammable liquid fires with high 
flash points above 200°F the water droplets must 
be traveling at a velocity sufficient to penetrate the 
surface of the flammable liquid. 

Defining the ranges of water droplet velocities 
is difficult given the lack of published information 
available for spray nozzles. There are many factors 
which impact the actual velocity of water droplets 
including the water droplet size, orientation or 
angle of placement of the nozzle and the operat- 
ing pressure. The large range of spray nozzles 
available on the market makes it almost impossible 
to clearly define the three velocity categories. 
However, for the purpose understanding the 
potential application of each type of nozzle, in 
addition to the information provided above one 
potential method of defining the velocity terms is 
as follows. 

Low velocity spray nozzles are similar in dis- 
charge characteristics to standard spray sprinklers. 
The water droplet size is within the same range. A 
review of two studies from the U.S. Department of 
Commerce, National Institute of Standard and 
Technology (NIST) called "Determination of Water 
Spray Drop Size and Speed from a Standard Orifice, 
Pendent Spray Sprinkler 9 " and "Understanding 
Sprinkler Sprays: Trajectory Analysis 10 " Place the 
measured water droplet velocities for K 5.5 spray 
sprinklers between 2 ft/sec and 27 ft/sec flowing 
1 5 gpm at 7 psi. It would be expected that a spray 
nozzle with similar characteristic may have water 
droplet velocities in the same range. 

High and medium velocity spray nozzles cover a 
much broader range of application. Due a wide 
range of K factors and operating pressures the 
water droplet size can range from the larger 
droplets found in the discharge of a standard 
sprinkler to the much smaller water droplets that 
would be similar to the sizes found in water mist 
systems. At least one manufacture publishes water 
droplet velocity information for a medium velocity 
nozzle. When the water pressure range is between 
20 psi (1.4 bar) and 50 psi (3.5 bar) the water 
droplet velocity was 49 ft/sec (1 5 m/sec) to 82 ft/sec 
(25 m/sec). High and medium velocity spray 
nozzles are used primarily within this pressure 
range so it can be anticipated that the water 
droplet velocity may be similar to this published 
information for many spray nozzles. 

water, spray nozzles and flammable or 
combustible liquids 

NFPA 30 the Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code provides the definitions for flammable and 
combustible liquids. Flammable liquids are defined 
as any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point at or 
below 100°F. Combustible liquids are defined as 
any liquid that has a closed-cup flash point at or 
above 100°F 11 . Water can effectively utilize several 
of the control and extin- 
guishment mechanisms on 
a flammable or com- 
bustible liquids fire. 

Extinguishing a flamma- 
ble liquid fires can occur if 
the flammable liquid is mis- 
cible with water, large 
quantities of water can 
dilute and the liquid to the 
Figure 1 point where it is no longer 


flammable and cool the liquid below its flash 
point; however extreme care must be taken when 
using this approach to ensure the container which 
is holding the combustible liquid does not over- 
flow and inadvertently spread the fire. One tech- 
nique that can be used to prevent this situation is 
to select a nozzle which discharges a fine spray with 
droplets less that. 4 mm. The fine spray will dilute 
and cool the surface layer of the flammable liquid 
limiting the amount of water introduced to the 
container and reducing 
the possibility of an over- 
flow. Fires involving 
flammable liquids that 
are not completely misci- 
ble with water such as 
ether and ketones can 
be controlled utilizing 
water spray 12 . Low to 
medium velocity solid 
cone nozzles are well suited for this type of appli- 
cation (figure 1). 

Fires involving combustible liquids with flash 
points above 200°F that are not miscible with 
water such a lubricating oil, can be suppressed 
using high velocity solid cone nozzles (figure 2). 
When the water is discharged with a velocity that 
is sufficient to penetrate the surface of the com- 
bustible liquid, suppression is achieved by cooling 
the surface below the liquids flash point. 

Extinguishing or controlling a flammable of com- 
bustible liquids fire with water is complex. It 
involves many considerations beyond the spray 
nozzle selection. The successful application of 
water to a flammable liquids spill will probably 
cause the burning flammable liquid to spread, 
unless a dike is present. Another problem is 
encountered if the liquid has a high flash point and 
is less dense than the water. In this case, water 
droplets, even if applied gently, will sink below the 
surface and turn into steam, causing eruption of 
the flammable liquid into the flames and increasing 
the burn rate 13 . In addition, when combustible liq- 
uids burn in depth for long periods of time the liq- 
uid can take on the characteristics of a flammable 
liquid. Careful consideration should be given to the 
application, the volume of water that will be intro- 
duced and it potential impact on the situation. 

water and electrical equipment 

Water spray systems are often used to provide fire 
protection and complete water impingement for 
oil-filled electrical transformers (figure 3). Trans- 
formers are available in many different sizes 
and configurations and a complete understanding 
of all the relevant transformer information is 
necessary to ensure the proper nozzle selection. 
However, high velocity spray nozzles can be 
extremely effective in extinguishing the high flash 
point non-miscible combustible liquids fire that 
results from the catastrophic failure and explosion 
of the electrical transformer. Additional considera- 
tions in the selection of the proper nozzle outdoor 
transformers include the effect of wind, the nozzle 
capacity and placement of the nozzle. Electrical 
clearances may require the selection of a nozzle 
capable of a large water discharge to achieve the 
proper range and coverage of the water spray. 

The water spray system is also designed to 
provide cooling for the structural and metal 
elements while the combustible liquids are is 




Figure 2 


32 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


SPRAY NOZZLES SELECTION FOR WATER SPRAY SYSTEMS 

CDDIIVIIfl CDC 


jrKINIvLtKj 



Figure 3 


being extinguished. NFPA 15 outlines the specific 
requirements for placement of the spray nozzles to 
avoid the live un-insulated electrical equipment 
and it is critical that the water spray system be 
designed in a manner to remove power before 
water is applied. 


surface. For example, when extinguishment or 
control of a flammable or combustible liquids fire 
is the purpose of the water spray system then a 
nozzle should be selected that can accomplish the 
appropriate mechanism of extinguishment for the 
flammable or combustible liquid being protected. 
When the purpose of the water spray system is to 
cool a bulk storage fuel tank the nozzle selected 
should have the discharge capacity and spray 
angle required to the appropriate water density 
over the surface are of the tank. 

Although the terminology can seem confusing, 
it can actually assist the design engineer and 
layout technician in quickly identifying the most 
appropriate group of nozzles for an application. 
NFPA 15 and 13 are the basis for these designs, 
however as you can see because of the complex 
nature of the hazards involved a considerable 
amount of additional research may be necessary to 
develop an effective fire protection design. In 
these cases it is always prudent to consult the 
spray nozzle manufacturer for specific technical 
information of the performance expectation of the 
spray nozzle being considered. D33 


Exposure protection of bulk storage 
flammable and combustible liquid tanks 

Water spray systems designed for exposure protec- 
tion as defined in NFPA 15 provide "absorption of 
heat through application of water spray to struc- 
tures or equipment exposed to a fire, to limit 
surface temperature to a level that will minimize 
damage and prevent failure". The nozzle selection 
for this application will be based on the nozzle dis- 
charge capacity, spray angles and patterns such as 
the shaped spray pattern nozzle in figure 4. The 
objective of the water spray is to keep the tank 
cool. This prevents the liquid from boiling away. If 
the liquids within the tank boil away, the heat will 
not be transferred away from the shell. This could 
cause the shell to rupture in the case of direct 
flame impingement. 

It is important that the nozzle 
discharges overlap to prevent 
dry spots on the surface of the 
tank and that overspray of the 
storage container be limited to 
achieve the most efficient 
hydraulic design. Consideration 
must also be given to the effects 
of wind and possible updrafts 
from a fire in close proximity to 
the tank and evaporation of 
smaller water droplets from 
heat. Typically the nozzles are 
Figure 4 placed and will discharge the 
water spray at the top of the 
equipment to allow the water to run down the sur- 
face. The actual amount of water run down is diffi- 
cult to predict because of the effects of wind and 
the shape of the tank (figure 5 page 30). 

Conclusion 

The selection of spray nozzles can be a complex 
and challenging process. The variables that affect 
the selection can be numerous. It is important for 
the fire protection professional to keep the goal or 
purpose of the water spray system in mind during 
the selection process. The characteristics of the 
spray nozzle will determine its effectiveness in 
extinguishing a fire, controlling a fire or cooling a 


References 

1 FM Global Loss Prevention Data Sheet. "Fixed 
Water Spray Systems for Fire protection 4-1 N". 
Factory Mutual Insurance Company, Norwood MA. 
2002. Pg 9. 

2 Bryan, John, L. "Automatic Sprinkler and Stand- 
pipe Systems" Second Edition. National Fire 
Protection Association. Quincy, MA. 1990. Pg 456. 

3 FM Global Loss Prevention Data Sheet. "Fixed 
Water Spray Systems for Fire protection 4-1 N". 
Factory Mutual Insurance Company, Norwood MA. 

2002. Pg 9-11. 

4 "Testing methods for medium and high velocity 
water sprayers" LPS Standard 1277: Issue Draft B, 
Loss Prevention Certification Board, United Kingdom, 
2006. 

5 Vollman, Christopher, L. "Water Spray Protec- 
tion", Fire Protection Flandbook, Nineteenth Edition, 
National Fire Protection Association. Quincy, MA. 

2003. Pg 10-267. 

6 Hickey, Harry, E. "Hydraulics for Fire Protection", 
National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 
1980. Pg 219. 

7 Hickey, Harry, E. "Hydraulics for Fire Protection", 
National Fire Protection Association, Quincy, MA, 
1980. Pg 229. 

8 Friedman, Raymond. "Principles of Fire Protection 
Chemistry and Physics", National Fire Protection 
Association, Quincy, MA. 1998. Pg 211. 

9 Potorti, A.D., Belsinger, T.D and W.H. Twilley, 
"Determination of water spray drop size from a 
standard orifice, pendent spray sprinkler" U.S. 
Department of Commerce National Institute of 
Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. 1999. 

10 Sheppard, D.T., Gandhi, P.D., and R.M. Lueptow. " 
Understanding Sprinkler Sprays: Trajectory Analysis". 
U.S. Department of Commerce National Institute of 
Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. 2000 

11 NFPA 30 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 
Code. National Fire Protection Association. Quincy, 
MA 2000. Pg 30-12. 

12 Nash, Philip, and Yong, Roy, "Automatic 
Sprinkler Systems for Fire Protection" 2nd edition, 
Paramount Publishing Limited, Hertfordshire, 
England, 1991. Pg 210 

13 Friedman, Raymond. "Principles of Fire Protection 
Chemistry and Physics", National Fire Protection 
Association, Quincy, MA. 1998. Pg 235. 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


33 




RAE Systems has a wide range of products and offers solutions 
for many applications, including: 


• HazMat/WMD/Radiation applications (MultiRAE Plus, AreaRAE, RAELink3, GammaRAE II R, ChemRAE) 

• Decontamination sick building investigation/indoor air quality (ppbRAE 3000) 

• Confined Space Entry Monitors (QRAE II and EntryRAE) 

• Single-gas monitors for EMT (ToxiRAE 3 CO) and for Overhaul (ToxiRAE II HCN) 

• Arson investigation (MiniRAE 3000) 



v 


The Leader in Wireless Gas Detection 




By Bob Durstenfeld 

RAE Systems' Senior 
Director of Corporate 
Marketing. 



Chicago Fire 
Department responds 
to unseen threats 
with best practices 
that leverage 
available technology 

Unseen threats are the routine for first responders. Knowing if there is imminent 
danger is key to getting home safely. This article outlines several cases where the 
Chicago Fire Department learned the value of using available technology in 
gauging an appropriate response. 

M ore than 10 years ago, the Chicago Fire 
Department began deploying single-gas 
CO (carbon monoxide) monitors on all 
200 of its engines and trucks. This came about 
with the advent of commercially available CO 
monitors for home use. The early home units often 
went into false alarm, and this would result in a 
panicked call from a homeowner for a response 
from the fire department. The need to know if 
there was an immediate threat to life or health 
could not wait for the arrival of the hazardous 
material response team. Each engine company was 


initially equipped with an industrial, single-gas CO 
monitor. These were most useful in the winter, 
when CO calls were often due to incomplete com- 
bustion in faulty heating systems. "After a family 
died from carbon monoxide poisoning 12 years 
ago, we first deployed single-gas CO sensors on 
every truck," said Chief Daniel O'Connell, coordi- 
nator for Chicago Fire Department (CFD) Special 
Operations and Hazardous Materials. 

Single-gas CO monitors might still be the norm, 
had it not been for some catastrophic events. In 
one instance, an engine company arrived for what 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


35 


GAS DETECTION 


4-Gas field calibration 
team with Chief 
Anthony 


QRAE Calibration Desk 
at Chicago Fire 
Department Air Mask 
Services 



they thought was a CO call, and because there 
was no alarm from the CO monitor, they assumed 
all was safe and entered the building. One of the 
firefighters turned on the building's lights, initiating 
what turned out to be an explosion from a natural 
gas leak. "We began investigating the use of 
4-gas meters two years ago, after several 91 1 calls 
where the CO monitor was not sufficient to 
detect the unseen threat, and we had two gas 
explosions," added O'Connell. 

Over this two-year period, the department ran 
various evaluations on different combinations of 
instruments and sensors. The objective was to 
determine if there was an immediate threat to life 
or health, and if the instrument alarmed, whether 
it would be sufficient to determine the need to 
secure the area and notify the HazMat team. The 
department's two HazMat teams ran experiments 
using various combinations of instruments using 
the following four sensors: lower explosive limit 
(LEL) for combustible materials, carbon monoxide 
(CO), hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and oxygen (0 2 ). 
Each of the sensors was chosen for the life-critical 
or time-critical threat information provided if it 
went into alarm. The carbon monoxide sensor was 



already proven. The lower 
explosive limit sensor was 
selected to detect the 
presence of high levels of 
flammable gas. The hydro- 
gen sulfide sensor was 
chosen because H 2 S is a 
common threat that easily 
saturates a responder's 
sense of smell. The oxygen 
sensor was selected 
because it would immedi- 
ately indicate the need for 
an air mask and might also 
show the presence of an 
oxidizer. Other sensors that 
were considered included 
chlorine and ammonia, but 
both substances have 
other characteristics that 
make them identifiable. 
Four-gas instruments from 
many manufacturers were evaluated for rugged- 
ness, user interface, calibration stability, battery life 
and ease of service. "We went through an evalua- 
tion process and selected the RAE Systems QRAE. 
The QRAE adds to the complement of RAE 
Systems instruments already utilized by the CFD 
HazMat teams, including wireless AreaRAE RDK 
monitors, MultiRAE Plus 4-gas monitors with 
PIDs, ppbRAE PIDs for decontamination and 
others," said O'Connell. 

"Part of our decision to go with the RAE 
Systems QRAE was the reliability and durability of 
the instruments," said Robert Anthony, coordin- 
ator for the Chicago Fire Department's Division 
of Equipment and Supply. To gain personnel 
efficiency, the 4-gas instrument calibration team 
works out of the same division as the breathing-air 
pack services. "Our in-house technicians maintain 
our fleet of over 200 QRAE units deployed at 102 
firehouses. We currently calibrate each unit using 
the AutoRAE calibration station on a monthly 
cycle." 

The fire department training academy was 
called to develop a training and certification pro- 
gram in the new 4-gas instruments. "Much of the 
initial training on 4-gas instrument deployment 
was done by AFC International, an equipment 
supplier to the Chicago Fire Department," said 
Doug Mayer, RAE Systems Director of Eastern 
U.S. and Canadian Sales. "Jim Seneczko and his 
company have provided much of the on-site train- 
ing and support that the Chicago Fire Department 
required." This training was encouraged using 
rank incentives in a similar fashion to emergency 
medical certifications. "The Chicago Fire Depart- 
ment has encouraged all of our firefighters to 
learn the basics of hazardous material response by 
offering level A and B Technician certifications," 
said Lieutenant Myron Kovalevich from the 
Chicago Fire Department's Training Academy. 

At the same time as the fire department was 
growing in its use of gas monitors on every truck, 
the HazMat team was able to become more spe- 
cialized. The team began to develop new response 
protocols which in turn were made part of the 
academy's training. Two of the procedures that 
have become standard practice are the immediate 
use of an air-mask or SCBA at 35 ppm (parts per 
million) of carbon monoxide, and a CO reading of 


36 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


CHICAGO FIRE DEPARTMENT 

r AC nCTCrTIHM 


Cj ^ LJ tit 1 1 U i % 



over 100 ppm makes the response a level-one 
HazMat event. Other meter based procedures 
include the immediate ventilation of a response 
scene when a Lower-Explosive-Limit exceeds ten 
percent and the use of the 4-gas meter in post fire 
overhauls to determine when it is safe to remove 
the SCBA. On-site response procedures include a 
fresh-air calibration of the meter prior to any 
building entry in addition to the monthly full 
instrument calibration. For confined space entry, 
the fire department has deployed both the 4-gas 
meter and in many cases the wireless AreaRAE 
monitors. As part of each after-response review, 
the on-scene data logs from any gas meters 
that were deployed are reviewed for alarms and 
reading response times. 

The September 11, 2001, attacks in New York 
and Washington, D.C., began a new era for first 
responders, both in terms of homeland security 
responsibilities and the possible threats that might 
be encountered. The first protocols and equipment 
were tested as part of the May 2003 TopOff Drills, 
multi-agency events that included the United 
States National Guard Civil Support Teams, the 
United States and Illinois Environmental Protection 
Agencies, the US Centers for Disease Control, the 
Federal Bureau of Investigation and the United 
States Coast Guard. As a result, the HazMat teams 
began to develop decontamination protocols for 
both toxic chemicals and radiation. The drills 
included the first deployment of AreaRAE wireless 
toxic gas and radiation monitors for public venue 
protection. The TopOff Drills showed the need for 
critical incident information to be available beyond 
the local incident commander. The advent of 
secure internet protocols has enabled the fire 
department to engage remote specialists from the 
federal agencies and allowed all of them to see 
the same real-time sensor data. During large 


events, such as the annual "Taste of Chicago" that 
runs for 10 days and includes both an air and 
water show, connected gas detection technology 
has played a key role in creating safety deploy- 
ment comfort with both civilian and municipal 
data users. 

New technologies have allowed the Chicago 
Fire Department HazMat Teams to develop public 
venue protection protocols that have moved 
beyond the normal responsibilities of the fire 
department. The City of Chicago responded 
potential large scale threats that might require a 
multi-agency response by forming the Office of 
Emergency Management. This multi-agency city 
directorate has responsibility for issues related to 
Homeland Security. The department also took on 
the responsibilities performed by the Fire Depart- 
ment's Bureau of Emergency Preparedness and 
Disaster Services and created what is now known 
as the Office of Emergency Management and 
Communications (OEMC). Today, OEMC protects 
life and property by operating the public safety 
communications system and by coordinating and 
managing emergency situations, and now includes 
911 emergency services, 311 city services, the 
Office of Emergency Management, and City 
Operations. 

On February 10, 2005, the OEMC launched a 
new Homeland Security Grid that includes both 
fiber optic and copper cable. This grid enables 
Chicago to expand its use of surveillance cameras 
and biological, chemical, and radiological sensors. 
These cameras and sensors simultaneously feed 
into the City's Operations Center for coordination 
of both critical city services and emergency 
response. The grid gives city officials tools to 
better respond to developments in homeland 
security, law enforcement, traffic management, 
crowd control, and severe weather. m 


AreaRAE Rapid 
Deployment Kit, wireless 
gas monitors at the 
ready 


Bob Durstenfeld has spent 
the last seven years as RAE 
Systems' Director of 
Corporate Marketing and 
Investor Relations. Before 
joining RAE Systems, 
Durstenfeld served as Senior 
Director and Staff 
Technologist for the Silicon 
Valley office of Fleishman- 
Hillard Public Relations. Bob 
has also held marketing and 
management positions at 
Agilent Technologies and 
Hewlett-Packard Company. 
He has published articles on 
Port Security, Wireless Gas 
Detection, Semiconductor 
Testing and Automation 
Technology. 

MR. Durstenfeld received 
his Masters in Engineering 
Management and 
International Marketing from 
Santa Clara University and 
his BS in Engineering and 
Biology from UCLA. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


37 





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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





FIRE DETECTION 



By Ian Buchanan 

European Manager, 
Spectrex Inc 


Protecting hazardous 
product storage 
tanks and lpg/lng 
gas terminals 


The major concerns associated with the storage and handling of hazardous 
materials, e.g. LNG/LPG, are the fugitive emissions and liquid spills that 
evaporate when exposed to atmospheric pressure. 


T he light gases migrate very fast over large 
areas, hence the need for reliable, fast, gas 
and flame monitoring over large areas of 
pipelines and storage facilities. The heavier-than- 
air gases/vapours tend to accumulate in low areas, 
thus posing a fire/explosion hazard in the congest- 
ed production, pipelines, manifolds and bund 
areas. 

Petrochemical storage tank farms require moni- 
toring of heavy combustible hydrocarbon gas leaks 
that stay close to the ground from leaks in storage 
tanks, pipes and valves. There is a significant fire 
risk due to ignition of these leaks. 

LNG facilities 

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), with its major com- 
ponent methane, is drilled from the ocean bed in 
various parts of the world, using either fixed 
exploration platforms or FPSO vessels. The natural 
gas is transported via pipelines and tankers to the 
onshore facilities where it is stored in special tank 


farms before it is vaporized and distributed to the 
various users. 

At the terminal, the natural gas is stored in liq- 
uid form at -320°F (-160°C). Such terminals are 
situated in strategic locations close to areas of 
high demand or at the extremities of the gas 
supply network where the natural gas can be 
rapidly revaporized and delivered into the national 
transmission system. 

An LNG terminal comprises unloading dock 
area, storage tanks, vaporizers, liquefiers, control 
rooms, maintenance areas and offices. Gas & 
Flame Detection are required in the unloading, 
storage, liquefier and vaporizer areas. 

LPG storage 

Beside this natural resource, the petrochemical 
industry has developed various distillation and 
cracking processes that produce light hydrocarbon 
gases like methane, ethane, propane, butane and 
their derivates ethylene, propylene, butylene, etc. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


39 



EIDE nETETTIHM 

PROTECTING HAZARDOUS PRODUCT STORAGE TANKS 

MKt UtltLIlUlM 



Figure 1 



These refined gases are compressed and liquefied 
for storage purposes and known commercially as 
Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG). 

The unique properties of LPG allow for it to be 
stored or transported in a liquid form and used in 
a vapour form. In industrial applications, LPG is 
typically stored in large vessels that are spheroid 
shaped. These are the large "golf ball" shaped 
and oval vessels commonly seen at refineries. 

LPG vapours are heavier than air and tend to 
collect on the ground and in low spots. After LPG 
is released, it readily mixes with air and could form 
a flammable mixture. 

in the past, adequate detection 
coverage often required a 
great number of combined 
UV/IR type detectors. This 
solution, however, was costly 
and detectors were subject 
to false alarms. 

In developing fire protection methods for lique- 
fied gas storage facilities, the chief concern is a 
massive failure of a vessel containing a full load. 
The probability of this type of failure occurring can 
be avoided or at least controlled to a reasonable 
and tolerable level with appropriately designed 
and operated facilities. 

Most fires originate as smaller fires that become 
increasingly more dangerous. Of greater impor- 
tance, and more likely, is a leak from a pipe, valve 
or other component leading to ignition, flash fire, 
pool fire and eventually to a pressure fire at the 
source. 

Loading stations 

Petrochemicals, whether used as refined fuels, raw 
materials or feedstock for other industries, have to 
be shipped from a processing plant or storage 
farm. They have to be offloaded at loading 


stations in either gas, liquid 
or compressed form - all 
of which are highly com- 
bustible and a major hazard 
to any equipment or people 
working in or living close to 
these areas. 

Railway loading platforms 
and truck filling stations 
require flammable gas and 
flame monitoring capable of 
detecting fugitive emissions 
and alerting in case of 
explosive concentrations or 
the incidence of fires. 

Fire protection design 
considerations 

In order to reduce the fire 
risk at such facilities, adher- 
ence to national regulations, 
various design considera- 
tions and requirements, such 
as layout, spacing, distance 
requirements for vessels/storage tanks, drainage 
and containment control, will help to limit the 
extent of fire damage. 

Equally important are properly designed, 
installed and maintained fire protection systems, 
which attempt to minimize or limit the fire dam- 
age once a fire occurs. 

GasA/apour and Flame Detectors mounted in 
the vicinity of a tank complete the automatic 
activation of these systems. Vapour detection 
provides early detection and warning, but activation 
of water application systems must be confirmed 
through quick response flame detection. 

An evaluation of the facility is necessary in order 
to determine the correct types and locations for 
gas and flame detectors. 

The objectives of the fire protection system are 
to: 

• Detect a fire or vapour leak at an early stage 

• Control a fire or leak in the shortest possible 
time 

• Minimize damage 

• Minimize disruption to operations 

• Minimize the incidence of false alarms. 

Flame detection 

Optical flame detectors provide the fastest detec- 
tion of a fuel fire in the early ignition stage. Their 
fast response capability, adjustable field of view 
and programmability make them extremely well 
suited for this duty. Flame detection with high 
sensitivity and immunity to false alarms is an 
essential determining factor when designing 
systems for this application. 

In the past, adequate detection coverage often 
required a great number of combined UV/IR type 
detectors. This solution, however, was costly and 
detectors were subject to false alarms. 

The Triple IR (IR3) detector solution, like the 
Spectrex 40/401 shown in fig 1, detects fires at up 
to 215 ft (65m) dependent on the fuel, offering 
three to four times the detection coverage of any 
solution using conventional IR or combined UV/IR 
detectors - and, as a result, IR3 flame detectors 
are now widely recommended. The IR3 flame 
detector provides better and faster response to the 
fire scenarios, providing larger area coverage with 


40 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


keep a SharpEye 
on your safety 



5PECTREX INC. 


www.spectrex-inc.com 

Headquarters NJ (USA): +1 (973) 239-8398 I Houston Office: +1 (281) 463-6772 I Europe: +44 (141) 578-0693 
E-mail: spectrex@spectrex-inc.com I Web: www.spectrex-inc.com 




FIRE DETECTION 


Figure 2 - Floating roof 
tank fire detection 



Flame Detector 


t» 200 ft (60m) 


fewer detectors, thus lowering the total cost and 
optimizing the performance of the fire detection 
system. 

Whilst the IR3 flame detector is extremely 
sensitive, it also has a highly increased ability to 
distinguish between a real fire and false alarm 
sources and will detect flames in the presence of 
other common radiant energy sources such as 
welding or light sources (including Halogen and 
X-ray inspections). The detector is 100% solar 
blind. 

Interfaced to a fire alarm system and an auto- 
matic fire extinguishing system, these unique 
detectors will provide optimal detection coverage 
and the safest and most reliable solution for stor- 
age tank protection. Optical flame detectors have 
been designed to perform under extremely tough 
industrial and environmental conditions. 


operators can also utilize an integral colour CCTV 
to improve the 'out-of-hours' fire fighting 
response. Detecting a fire at its incipient stage by 
the infrared sensors and establishing its exact loca- 
tion and size by the colour CCTV camera, provides 
the ultimate solution to fire protection. 

Location of flame detectors 

The number of flame detectors and their locations 
in the protected area are determined by: 

• The type of flammable materials that may be 
present. In some areas there will be a variety of 
fuels stored in different tanks 

• The size/dimensions of the protected area and 
the distance to be detected 

• The types of tank (fixed, floating roof, etc.) 

• The sensitivity of the detectors - the size of fire 
to be detected 


with the combined CCTV/IR3 Flame Detector, operators can 
also utilize an integral colour CCTV to improve the ‘out-of- 
hours’ fire fighting response. Detecting a fire at its incipient 
stage by the infrared sensors and establishing its exact 
location and size by the colour CCTV camera, provides the 
ultimate solution to fire protection. 


Triple IR (IR3) Flame Detectors incorporate three 
IR sensors to monitor the sensing wavelength and 
two other nearby wavelengths to discount 
unwanted or spurious alarms. This flame detection 
technique is the most relaible and immune to false 
alarms and offers: 

• Fast response time 

• Up to 215 ft (65m) detection distance over a 
cone of vision of 100° 

• Highest Immunity to false alarms 

• Built-in self-test for the electronics, sensors and 
window cleanliness 

• 5-year warranty/1 50,000hr MTBF 

• SIL 2 approved 

• EN 54- 1 0/FM performance approved 

With the combined CCTV/IR3 Flame Detector, 


• Detectors' cone of vision (100° horizontal/ 
vertical) 

• Obstructions to the detectors' lines of sight. 

Fire detection system for floating roof 
storage tank 

The storage of crude oil and petroleum products in 
'floating roof' tanks may result in vapour migra- 
tion outside the o-ring seals and ignition to form a 
fuel fire that in time, if undetected, will destroy 
the seal and turn into a catastrophic fire. The roof 
of the tank floats on the oil and enables it to 
vaporize through the rim seal. Thus, there is no 
vapour phase below the tank roof. 

Natural evaporation during movement of the 
floating roof or damage to the seal (ruptures, 


42 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


PROTECTING HAZARDOUS PRODUCT STORAGE TANKS 

EIDC nCTETTinM 


Ml\t Ut 1 tLIIUN 


Figure 3 - SafEye open- 
path gas detection 



SafEye Source SafEye Detector 


70% LEL 


Point type Detectors 


This scenario shows bou> matrix <>f Point type detectors can miss a leak nr eientually 
only see diluted #as la vis whereas SafEye Open -Path Gas Detectors will, in this case, 
measure LEL x 7 m * 1.4 LEL.m - well abate / LEL.m alarm level. 


thinning or degradation) can enable vapours to 
migrate outside, over the floating roof, and 
accumulate as hazardous explosive/flammable 
concentrations. 

The existence of flammable vapours on the oil 
tank roof increases the fire danger. Thus, any spark 
or flame (especially lightning) in the vicinity of the 
oil tank roof may ignite the vapour and cause a fire. 

The main problem here is the difficulty in quick 
response to the fire because the oil tank's shell 
hides everything that happens on the tank roof. 
This problem becomes more critical when the oil 
tank is not full and the floating roof is lower. Thus, 
a fire on the oil tank roof is detected only when it 
is large enough to be seen from outside the oil 
tank, but by then it may be too late and impos- 
sible to extinguish the fire. The solution to this 
problem is to have optical flame detectors on the 
oil tank roof (see fig 2) situated to view the full 
travel area of the tank roof for continuous detection 
of the oil tank's rim seal with very fast response 
time and a very high immunity to false alarms. 

System configuration 

The detector configuration depends on the size of 
the oil tank and the size of the site itself. Each oil 
tank is calculated as a detection zone. The detec- 
tors are located on the side wall (perimeter) of the 
oil tank. Each flame detector monitors a section of 
the rim seal and the tank shell. The number of 
detectors required for each oil tank depends upon 
the size (diameter) of the oil tank. 

Gas detection 

Open-Path "line of sight" Flammable Gas 
Detectors use optical spectral analysis of the 
hydrocarbon vapours escaping from various loca- 
tions in the tank storage area to detect potentially 
hazardous conditions. They provide in-situ 
monitoring in the storage tank's immediate vicinity 
and around plant perimeters (fence line), over long 
distances of hundreds of feet. 

'Point' type gas sensors detecting vapours 
emitted locally at a preselected location may 


complement the open-path gas detectors. These 
types of detectors can be used in congested areas 
where line-of-sight is not possible. 

Open-Path Gas Detection Systems (see fig 3) are 
designed to monitor over long distances without 
effect from the environment or weather and are 
highly immune to false alarms. They comprise a 
transmitter (source) and receiver (detector) located 
at the ends of the desired detection path. Gas 
clouds passing though the path will absorb IR 
energy, emitted by the source unit and the detec- 
tor senses the change and equates it to gas 
concentration. Measurment is in terms of LEL.m 
which is the combination of concentration and 
distance. For example, a 5 meter wide cloud 
containing 100% LEL ( 1 LEL) of the combustible 
gas would read 5 LEL.m . Alarms can be set at any 
point on the 0 - 5 LEL.m scale. 

Location of open-path gas detectors 

Not all gas clouds are hazardous - only if a 
flammable gas cloud or plume is wide enough to 
allow flame acceleration to speeds greater than 
1 00 m/sec does it become a significant threat. 

"Point" type detectors measure gas at their 
location in terms of % LEL, whereas open-path 
gas detectors measure the amount of gas any- 
where along the length of the path, in terms of 
the integral of concentration and length (LEL x 
meters). 

Location of the Open-Path Gas Detector is less 
important than with 'point' type detectors as it 
can provide a warning alarm from a diluted gas 
cloud and does not need to be close to leakage 
sources. 

Location is determined by many factors, 
including: 

• The specific vapours/gas(es) in the storage 
tanks (whether heavier or lighter than air). 

• Expected leak trajectory, taking account of 
prevailing wind directions, release pressure, 
etc. 

• Storage tank layout and ability to have 
unobstructed sight lines for the open path. D33 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


43 


What's the 



( 


That's why Dynax developed DX5022! 


) 


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U DX5022; Environmental Profile 


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Neither derived from nor degrades into PFOA 
Relatively harmless to Fingerling Rainbow Trout 
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Additional product information available. Just call us. 



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F 914 764 0553 www.dynaxcorp.com 





By John Allen 

EMEA Marketing 
Director, Tyco Fire 
Suppression & Building 
Products 


PFOS FOAM 




The legislation 
clock is ticking 
for PFOS 

But what about pfoa? 


EU regulations banning the storage or use of firefighting foam concentrates 
containing Perfluorooctane Sulfonates - more often abbreviated to PFOS - come 
into effect in June 201 1 . John Allen explains. 


T he European Community has passed legisla- 
tion banning foam concentrates containing 
PFOS. Under Directive 2006/122/EC of the 
European Parliament and of the Council of Twelve, 
December 2006, all materials containing PFOS - 
including firefighting foams - must not be used 
or stored after June 27th 2011. This will affect 
the fire and rescue service, industrial brigades 
and outsourced emergency response providers, 
although the scale of the removal and disposal 
challenge is not at all easy to determine. 

In the UK alone, for example, a study commis- 
sioned by DEFRA (Department for Environment, 
Food and Rural Affairs) towards the end of 2004 
indicated that, at that time, the UK fire and rescue 
service had 76,000 litres, while industry had 
2,367,000 litres of foams containing PFOS. The 
high usage of PFOS in firefighting foams, when 


compared with other applications, was borne out by 
an OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation 
& Development) report in 2005 that showed that 
around 90 percent of the PFOS related chemicals 
in the EU were used in firefighting foams. 

While all Tyco foams are now made with fluoro- 
surfactants obtained by a different process called 
Telomer, which does not create PFOS, Tyco Fire 
Suppression & Building Products has put procedures 
in place to provide users of foam concentrates 
from any supplier that may contain PFOS with 
assistance to meet their obligations, and keep 
them updated on the issue. 

But first, what is PFOS? PFOS is an impurity 
found in high concentrations in the Electrochemical 
Fluorination or ECF process that produces 
Fluorosurfactant or Fluorinated Surfactants com- 
pounds. These are synthetic Organofluorine 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


45 



DCnC CHAM 

THE LEGISLATION CLOCK IS TICKING FOR PFOS 

rrU5 MJAIVI 




John Allen is EMEA 
Marketing Director at Tyco 
Fire Suppression & Building 
Products. He can be 
contacted by telephone on 
+44 (0) 161 875 0402, by 
fax on +44 (0) 161 875 0493, 
or via email at 
marketing@tyco-bspd.com 


chemical compounds that have multiple Fluorine 
atoms, which are more effective at lowering 
the surface tension of water than comparable 
Hydrocarbon Surfactants. 

The 3M organisation began producing PFOS- 
based compounds using Electrochemical Fluorina- 
tion as far back as 1949. However, following the 
detection of Organofluorine in the blood serum of 
consumers, the detection of PFOS in blood from 
global blood banks, and the USA's EPA (Environ- 
mental Protection Agency) investigations, the 
company announced its withdrawal from the 
foams market in May 2000. 

Nevertheless, PFOS is still to be found at levels 
exceeding the EU limiting values in all old stocks of 
3M "LightWater" AFFF (Aqueous Film Forming 
Foam) concentrate for hydrocarbon fuel fires and 
AFFF-ATC (Alcohol Type Concentrate) agents for 
use on water-soluble polar solvent fuels such as 
Acetone, Isoproponal and MTBE (Methyl Tertiary 
Butyl Ether). After 3M left the market, a number 
of foam manufacturers filled the supply gap and 
provided a refilling service to 3M customers. The 
problem was that the blending of 3M PFOS foams 
with other foams, and even those not containing 
PFOS, will very likely result in a mixture that 
nonetheless exceeds the permitted EU tolerance of 
less than 50 ppm (parts per million) PFOS by mass 
and so require action under Directive 2006/122/EC. 

So, what steps should be taken if there is any 
possibility that a foam stock may contain PFOS? If 
a system possibly still contains 3M concentrate, if 
it may have a blend of 3M concentrate and 
other concentrates, or if the foam was supplied 
by Tyco prior to 2000 - indeed, any foam stock 
that may be suspected of containing PFOS - the 
concentrate must be tested. If it is found to 
contravene the Directive, it will have to be 
removed, responsibly disposed of and replaced 
before June 27th 201 1 . 

The first step is to identify if the foam contains 
PFOS. One course of action is to use the expert 
laboratory analysis facilities that Tyco has at its 
disposal. All that is required is a representative 200 
ml sample for analysis (a sample kit is available 


from Tyco Fire Suppression & Building Products). A 
report will then be issued from an official external 
laboratory. 

If PFOS is detected, Tyco Fire Suppression & 
Building Products can provide technical assistance 
regarding foam replacement and advice on how 
to check if other parts of the system distribution 
have been exposed to PFOS. For example, the 
cleaning of tanks or equipment might not be 
sufficient to avoid further contamination, as 
porous material can potentially re-contaminate 
a replacement foam not containing PFOS. The 
service also extends to the responsible disposal of 
foam containing PFOS and all other contaminated 
components, such as bladders from bladder tank 
systems. 

Turning to the question of concentrates con- 
taining PFOA or Perfluorooctanic Acid, as yet there 
are no restrictions on their use. However "notice" 
has been given that PFOA is likely to be classified 
as being at least persistent, bio-accumulative and/ 
or toxic and, as such, foams containing PFOA are 
very likely to be reviewed. This may lead to them 
being regulated in future, but it is important to 
note though that many manufacturers have 
already taken steps to remove both PFOS and 
PFOA from their products. 

The regulation of toxic or PBT (persistent, bio- 
accumulative and toxic) chemicals in firefighting 
foams will impact on all users and holders of foam 
stocks. So much so that organisations facing 
decisions about the replacement of foam stocks are 
reasonably expecting reassurance from manufactur- 
ers that the replacement concentrates are not 
themselves going to be subject to future regulation. 

With this in mind, Tyco issued a series of notices 
in October 2008, reminding customers that all 
Tyco European-branded products - Ansul, Sabo- 
Foam, Finiflam and Towalex - are free of PFOS and 
PFOA at all but possibly minute trace levels; well 
below the legislated limits set by the EU regula- 
tions for PFOS. Tyco will, on request, continue to 
provide all foam users with technical support and 
advice, whether the user holds Tyco foam or 
foams from other suppliers. JE2 


46 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


Dr Sthamer - Hamburg 
Fire Fighting Foams 

jMi >* ' 

Proven Reliability 


FOAM 


FIGHTS 


FIRE 




Visit us in Hall 5 
Stand G74 


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We offer a comprehensive range of high performance and environmentally friendly foams. 



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Head Office and Factory Hamburg 

Liebigstrasse 5 • D-22113 Hamburg 

Phone +49 40 736168-0 

Telefax +49 40 736168-60 

E-Mail: info@sthamer.com • www.sthamer.com 


International Sales Contact 

Mr. Jan Knappert 

Phone +44 (0) 7795 101770 

E-mail: jknappert@sthamer.com 




FireDos GmbH 

Admixing Systems for Fire-fighting 
The intelligent choice for admixing systems 

• No external energy required 

• Working flow-proportional 

• Easy installation and handling 

• Retrofitting into existing systems possible 

• Versions for stationary installations, or vehicles and mobile applications available, 
also for use with seawater 

• Large flow ranges and dosing ranges covered 

• Not affected by changing pressure or flow rate 

• Suitable for all common fire-fighting liquids 


f vi 




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Auf der Kaulbahn 6 • D-61200 Wolfersheim • Germany 
Tel. +49(0 >6036/ 9796-0 • Fax +49(0)6036/9796-30 • E-Mail msr@msr-dosiertechnik.de 


www.firedos.de 



48 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



FIRE PUMP SYSTEMS 



Pre-packaged 

Firewater 

Pumphouses 


-The Way Forward 


By James Shipman 


The merits of the traditional on-site block-built construction fire water pump 
house are being very seriously challenged. 


Sales Manager, 
Patterson Pump 
Ireland Limited 


T he increasing costs and the timescale to carry 
out the construction and fitting out of 
conventional buildings including the ancillar- 
ies such as electrical installation and plumbing 
are resulting in a rapidly increasing interest in 
the use of pre-packaged firewater pump house 
solutions. 

The distinct benefit of the pre-packaged pump 
house is its single source responsibility (usually it is 
fully designed, manufactured and tested by the 
fire pump manufacturer within their facility), 
which ensures that all the equipment included 
is fully co-ordinated and the pump house is 
despatched from the manufacturer's facility tested 
and ready to be put into service within hours of 
arriving at its installation site if necessary. These 
systems are usually fully manufactured indoors 
which eliminates the dangers of equipment being 
temporarily stored on site with the associated risks 
of it being subjected to mechanical or weather 
damage when the completion of a conventional 


block-built building is running behind schedule 
preventing the satisfactory installation of the 
equipment as soon as it is delivered. 

All existing fire pump configurations can be 
accommodated in this style; horizontal split case, 
end suction, vertical in-line and vertical turbine fire 
pumps together with their associated jockey 
pumps and ancillary equipment. 

Naturally it is still essential that a correctly 
designed foundation is constructed prior to the 
delivery of a pre-packaged pumphouse to site and 
the building needs to be safely and satisfactorily 
anchored once it has been placed into position. 
However, the convenience that the pre-packaged 
solution provides is immeasurable when compared 
to a traditionally built pump house. 

The concept of the pre-packaged pump house 
solution has evolved considerably over the last 
decade or so. 

Initially, the majority of systems were based 
on standard shipping containers which would 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


49 



FIRE PUMP SYSTEMS 


PRE-PACKAGED FIREWATER PUMPHOUSES - THE WAY FORWARD 



be structurally modified by strengthening the 
floor, adding access doors, ventilation louvers 
and pipework apertures to accommodate the 
equipment required. Whilst customised shipping 
containers are still used by some manufacturers, 
these do present some drawbacks. For example, 
the flat roofs on shipping containers can present 
challenges with weatherproofing, particularly 
when water and debris has collected and corrosion 
has begun to set in. Another significant negative is 
their aesthetic appearance. Without applying an 
expensive overcoat of cladding panels, it is difficult 
to disguise the fact that they are indeed modified 
shipping containers! 

A more attractive solution is the construction of 
the pump house based on a steel space frame 
which is externally fitted with insulated building 
cladding panels. This provides for greater flexibility 
in the building design as it eliminates the internal 
dimensional constraints of standard shipping 
containers. 

One of the latest innovations is the use of 
self-framing panels. These comprise a hidden 
structural steel frame with integrated 


III* 



interior/exterior panels, damp-proof membrane 
and insulation. I am aware that one fire pump 
manufacturer has been so successful with this style 
of building construction for their pre-packaged 
pump houses that it has resulted in their building 
fabricators establishing a new facility local to the 
pump manufacturer purely to service their own 
production requirements. Internally and externally, 
this type of pre-packaged building has an extreme- 
ly professional and high quality appearance with 
no visible signs of the building framework internal- 
ly providing completely clean and flat internal 
walls. 

Pre-packaged pump house floor design varies 
depending upon the manufacturer. Some manu- 
facturers prefer to provide steel decking or 
chequer plate flooring above the structural steel 
frame, other manufacturers leave the structural 
steel baseframe exposed to permit the entire floor 
area to be in-filled with concrete grout once the 
unit has been placed into its final position on site. 
The latter arrangement has advantages in terms of 
suppressing noise and vibration and 
providing additional base fixing 
security but inevitably requires addi- 
tional work to be carried out on-site 
following delivery before commission- 
ing/start-up work commences. 

Overall sizing is a particular aspect 
which requires very careful con- 
sideration at the early 
stages of a pre-packaged 
pumphouse project. Whilst 
more than ample space 
may be available at the final 
destination at which the 
unit is to be installed, 
there are restric- 
tions on the size 
of the unit for 
transportation pur- 
poses between the 
manufacturer's facility and 
the installation site. The extent 


50 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


Introducing 

EN 1 2845 


F RE PUMP L NE 


Patterson Pump Ireland 
Ltd. specialises in the 
production of world class 
fire protection equipment 
around Europe. 

From enquiry stage, right through design, 
manufacturing, installation and after sales 
service, Patterson Pump Ireland strives to 
provide a quality, reliable fire protection 
system, at the most competitive price. 



EN12845 provides a pan-European standard 
for the design, installation and maintenance of 
automatic sprinkler systems, and encompasses 
the basic requirements set forth by local rules 
into one European Standard. 

The new Patterson Pump End Suction product 
line is the latest addition to the Patterson 
Sentinel™ range. Cost effective and efficient, 
these will be used in fire pump packages 
specifically designed and built to comply with 
the regulations of European standard EN 1 2845, 
along with other local rules. 


f 



PATTERSON PUMP IRELAND LIMITED 

A Subsidiary of Patterson Pump Company U.S.A. 

Unit 14, Mullingar Business Park* Mullingar, Co. Westmeath, Ireland 
Tel.: 353 44 934 7078 • FAX: 353 44 934 7896 
E-mail: info@ie.pattersonpumps.com 

www.ie.pattersonpumps.com 





FIRE PUMP SYSTEMS 


PRE-PACKAGED FIREWATER PUMPHOUSES - THE WAY FORWARD 



of the transportation size restrictions very much 
depend on which countries the units will need to 
be shipped through and research on this aspect 
needs to be thoroughly conducted before anything 
is finally designed and placed into production. That 
does not mean that pre-packaged units greater 
than a particular size cannot be produced however. 
The solution is to consider initially designing the 
project so that it comprises a multiple of sections, 
each co-ordinated to accurately fit together once 
they have been delivered to site. It is in the manu- 
facturer's best interest in this situation to fully 
check that all the sections of the module fully align 
and correctly fit with each other before the unit is 
despatched to site otherwise very costly on-site 


heating, lighting, internal sprinkler system, hose 
valve headers, etc. is a very attractive prospect. 
Any issues of incompatibility with the internal 
items will need to be fully addressed by the system 
manufacturer during design, production and 
testing which eliminates considerable on-site time 
is resolving these. The system will have pre- 
determined connection points for the water 
suction and discharge lines, test line, electrical 
interfaces and drains. All site work that is 
ongoing during the period in which the pre- 
packaged pump house is being manufactured can 
be closely co-ordinated such that all interfaces are 
in position when the system arrives on site result- 
ing in an extremely rapid time from delivery to the 


The increasing popularity of the pre-packaged 
pumphouse concept is also related to the rise in the 
number of ‘standard model’ logistics buildings, 
warehouses and supermarkets. 


rework with the associated delays in equipment 
handover can only be expected. 

The increasing popularity of the pre-packaged 
pumphouse concept is also related to the rise 
in the number of 'standard model' logistics 
buildings, warehouses and supermarkets. Where 
the 'standard model' is replicated in different parts 
of the world for the same client, standardised 
designs of pre-packaged fire pump house can also 
be adopted. 

Referring again to the aspect of single-source 
responsibility, the ability for a contractor to place 
one order which covers the provision of the 
pump-house, fire pumps, valving, 
test line, ventilation, 



system being fully commissioned into full 
operation. 

In the event that a client has surplus existing 
building space for their project, the pre-packaged 
concept can still be applied to a slightly lesser 
extent. Virtually the same equipment can be pack- 
aged together onto an open skid assembly to fit 
within a suitably-sized existing building although 
with this arrangement, it is usual for the client to 
look after the arrangements within the building 
for the electrical work, ventilation louvers, 
drainage, etc.. 

Pre-packaged systems can be produced to 
comply with all known fire protection 
codes and standards from EN 12845 
through to NFPA No 20 and 
FM/UL Standards. Particular local, 
regional and national codes and 
standards for requirements such 
as building and electrical regula- 
tions, can be fully accommodat- 
ed covering such requirements as 
wind and snow loadings, etc. 

In summary, the pre-packaged 
fire pump house has evolved into 
a viable commercial and techni- 
cal solution for many firewater 
applications providing a distinct 
edge over conventional solutions 
where a rapid time is required 
from delivery to project completion and 
handover. D33 


52 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 






AVK INTERNATIONAL A/S 

Bizonvej 1 , Skovby • 8464 Galten • Denmark 
Tlf. : +45 87 54 21 00 • Fax: +45 87 54 21 20 
www.avkvalves.com • sales@avk.dk 


— r— JTT7 ' 

Products made for fire fighting in the 
^jcal and petro-chemical industry 


us at Interschutz Hall 5 - booth C46 


From individual pumps to 

total systems... we have it all. 




& 






^ Pentair 
Water 


Visit us at 
Interschutz 2010 

Hal 5. Booth E26 


« !«>:• t your fire protection needs 

Case. Vertical tirtnne.Fonm and Wist punjis 

nil .i - i mi p|: ty cntnpieln |.^ii: k.njri: lysleTis lei 


AURORA 


Edwards 'r Fairbanks Morse 


Contact: thcmas.fahrcnbachjSiporit 
Tel: *49 170 91 B9 99 9 


jrnfapump.com wvrw.e4wnr4smlg.cain www. fmpump.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


53 



omrec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 


Foam Concentrates and Foam Systems 


for all applications 




DAFO FOMTEC AB P.O Box 683 SE-135 26 Tyreso Sweden 

Phone: +46 8 506 405 66 Fax: +46 8 506 405 29 
E-mail: info@fomtec.com Web: www.fomtec.com 



oimec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 




High Pressure 
water Mist 

- Safe Protection for Archives and 
Libraries 


By Ruediger Kopp 
(Dipl.-lng.) 


Conventional fire fighting technologies such as sprinklers, gas, powder and foam 
systems, continue to have disadvantages in terms of resulting water damages, 
environmental compatibility, toxicity, or refill costs. 


FOGTEC Brandschutz 
GmbH & Co. KG 


O ften, the consequential damages caused by 
the extinguishing agent are greater than 
the potential loss by the fire. Therefore 
most buildings containing valuable goods are only 
protected by fire detection systems. 

The benefits of fire-fighting with water in the 
form of smallest droplets have been known since 
the 1930-ies, but only have been identified for 
archive and library protection during the last 
decade. For many applications, high pressure 
water mist technology is a true alternative, reduc- 
ing or avoiding the disadvantages occurring with 
other fire fighting agents. 

Principle 

Water is the most effective cooling agent to fight 
fires. Conventional water based systems require 
large quantities of water to control or extinguish 
fires, mainly making use of the cooling effect. The 
primary reason for the large water amounts 
required is that the majority of the water is not 


effectively used to fight the fire, resulting into 
large water run off. This is due to the limited 
surface area of the water droplets getting into 
contact with the heat from the fire. 

If water is atomized into very fine droplets, as it 
is with water mist technology, a substantially larger 
surface area is available to absorb energy and 
consequently fighting the fire. The fine droplets 
convert into steam at in the vicinity of the fire. Due 
to the vaporisation, the energy and the combus- 
tion rate of the fire are effectively reduced. Once 
the fire has been suppressed or extinguished, the 
droplets being discharged continue the effect 
by removing heat from the fuel source i.e. fabrics, 
wood, paper etc. and prevent re-growth or re-igni- 
tion of the fire. 

Additionally to the cooling effect, the fast 
vaporisation results into a local inerting effect by 
volume increase of water, resulting into oxygen 
depletion in the direct vicinity of the fire. Different 
to other inerting agents this effect is a local effect 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


55 



1AIATED MICT 

HIGH PRESSURE WATER MIST 

VVA 1 t K IVI 1 3 1 




Scenario with fixed 
shelves 


at the fire source, not reducing the oxygen 
concentration in the entire space. 

Fire Tests 

Water mist is not a gaseous agent and therefore 
can not be designed and approved like a gaseous 
agent. Likewise water mist cannot be directly 
compared with conventional sprinkler systems 
where design is based on two dimensional water 
calculations. 

For each application the required nozzle type, 
droplet distribution, flow rate and discharge time 
have to be individually determined to provide the 
optimum protection of the relevant risk. 

The International Maritime Organisation (IMO) 
has established guidelines for the approval and 
design of water mist systems in accommodation 
areas on board of ships. Similar to these test 
guidelines, protocols for light and ordinary hazard 
risk applications on land have been established by 
Factory Mutual (FM 5560 standard) and CEN 
(CEN/TS 14972 standard). 

These standards and guidelines are today 
applied to generate design parameters and to 
approve system components. For some applica- 
tions like Ordinary Flazard risks, the standards 
prescribe fire test scenarios to verify the system 
technology. The type of fire load and risk to be 
found within archives and libraries are normally 
not covered by these standard scenarios. Individual 
fire test protocols and scenarios have to be 
developed with fire experts to test the technology 
and to generate layout parameters. 

An extensive test series for the above men- 
tioned risks has been carried out by the French Fire 



Research Laboratory CSTB. Three different fire 
scenarios were evaluated, since these are typical 
for storage facilities for documents and other 
goods in archive and library environment. 

The first test scenario included fixed shelves 
being filled with 900 archive folders. The second 
test scenario was created for areas with moving 
compact shelves. The dimensions and the fire load 
of the shelves were the same as in the test with 
fixed shelves, but each two shelves were arranged 
closed to each other with only a small gap. The 
third fire scenario was elaborated for storage areas 
containing plastic goods in shelved, e.g. video and 
data tapes. 

The aim of the fire tests in all three scenarios 
was to control and suppress the fire, thus after 
automatic system activation each fire test was 
conducted for 30 minutes. After this test period 
the fire brigade entered the space and extin- 
guished the fire using a high-pressure water mist 
fire fighting gun. 

All fire tests have shown a rapid control and 
suppression of the fire as soon as the system has 
been activated. No fire spread occurred to the 
adjacent shelf. All temperatures in the area were 
rapidly reduced to a safe level, most below 50°C. 
The damages to the fire load mainly resulted from 
the time before system activation. All documents 
and goods were analyzed for damages after the 
test duration of 30 minutes. It was found that they 
were damp on the surface, but dry inside. 

System set-up 

High-pressure water mist systems mainly consist of 
a pressure generating device, a high pressure 
pipework and special nozzles. 

The required operating pressure is generated by 
means of high-pressure pumps or pressure cylinder 
systems. The selection depends on the type of risk 
and the area to be protected. Larger risk areas 
such as archives and libraries are normally protect- 
ed by pump systems. The main design features 
of high pressure pump units are similar to a 
conventional sprinkler pump, whereby positive 
displacement pumps are used due to the higher 
pressure levels required. A difference to conven- 
tional sprinklers is the water storage requirements. 
Due to the substantially lower water consump- 
tions, water storage tanks are only 10% of the 
size of conventional sprinkler systems. In many 
cases the high pressure pump units are directly 
supplied by the public water main via a small 
intermediate tank. Maintenance requirements are 


56 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




The Smarter Way of Fire Fighting 



www.FOGTEC.com • information@FOGTEC.com • Tel.: +49-2 21-9 62 23-0 • Fax: +49-2 21-9 62 23-30 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


57 


1AIATED MICT 

HIGH PRESSURE WATER MIST 

VVA 1 t K IVI 1 3 1 



Nozzle arrangement in 
the library 


Ruediger Kopp completed 
his studies of Chemical 
Engineering and Safety 
Engineering at the University 
of Dortmund as Diploma- 
Engineer. Since 1 4 years he is 
involved in the development, 
approval and marketing of 
high pressure water mist 
systems. At present he is 
Sales & Product Manager for 
these systems at the 
company FOGTEC Fire 
Protection based in Cologne. 


Further information is 
available from: 

FOGTEC Brandschutz 
GmbH & Co. KG 

Schanzenstrasse 19 A 
51063 Koln 
Germany 

Tel: +49 221 96223 - 0 
Fax: +49 221 96223 -30 
Email: contact@fogtec.com 



comparable to conventional fire fighting systems. 

The low water consumption also has a positive 
effect on the pipe dimensions required. Not 
only the flow rates are much lower than with 
conventional sprinklers, also hydraulic pressure 
losses of up to 70 bar allow to install the systems 
with pipe diameters of 10 to 50 mm. These prop- 
erties permit installations in confined locations 
and ease retrofits in historical buildings. 

The system can be triggered either by a 
separate detection system or by thermally activated 
glass bulbs. All system configurations known from 
conventional systems, e.g. deluge and wet 
systems, dry and pre-actions systems can be real- 
ized with water mist technology. Room heights up 
to five meters are protected with ceiling mounted 
nozzles. Higher areas, e.g. an atrium, can be 
protected by installing nozzles in different levels. 
Beyond that, it is possible to install wall cabinets 
with water mist extinguishing guns. These offer 
the possibility of rapidly suppressing initial fires, 
using the lowest possible consumption of water. 

Case study 

Due to substantial benefits of high-pressure water 
mist technology for archive protection, numerous 
smaller and larger storage areas for paper docu- 
ments are today protected by this technology 
around the world. Among these is the Bizcaia 
Library in Bilbao, Spain. 

Due to valuable documents stored in this library 
and the building being national heritage, there 
was a requirement for an automatic fire fighting 
system with minimum disturbance of the old build- 
ing structure and reduction of the fire damage and 
consequential damages by the water discharged. 

Since the building has an open ceiling structure 
with no false ceilings and only minimal space for 
the pipework installation, only small bore pipes 
routed along the ceiling and the walls could be 
used. 


Additionally, no fixed fire zones could be 
defined. Large open areas demanded for an 
automatic fire fighting system, capable to rapidly 
control and limit the spread of a potential fire. 

The system used to protect the reading hall as 
well as all book shelving areas of the building was 
designed based on specific fire tests independently 
carried out for storage areas of paper documents 
in shelve structures. 

With small bore stainless steel pipes of diameters 
between 12 and 42 mm an architecturally pleasing 
installation without disturbance of the old struc- 
ture of the building could be achieved. 

A wet pipe system with glass bulb activated 
nozzles was used to protect book shelving areas, 
offices and technical areas. The nozzle spacings 
used for the water mist system are comparable to 
those of conventional sprinkler systems, but flow 
rates are substantially lower. 

The entire pump system, including a 1000 liters 
break tank, has been installed in a room of only 
10 m 2 floor area. Although the area is very 
small, the pump equipment is easily accessible for 
maintenance and test run purposes. 

Conclusion 

Even if water mist systems initially were mainly 
seen as alternative to gas extinguishing systems 
for machinery and special risk protection, more 
and more applications in areas that traditionally 
have been protected by conventional sprinklers are 
identified for water mist. 

Due to partly higher initial investment cost 
and the lack of general design parameters, water 
mist systems will today not substitute sprinklers in 
most traditional applications, but they have found 
their market place for applications, like archives 
and libraries, where benefits of water mist 
technology over conventional sprinklers or gas 
extinguishing systems are recognized by users and 
insurers. nn 


58 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




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INDUSTRIAL WARNING SIGNALS 


Audible and visual 


By Neal Porter 



In the great 
majority of 
automatic fire 
systems, the end result 
of the detection of a fire is the 
initiation of audible and visual warning 
devices that alert the occupants to the 
danger so that they can evacuate the 
premises. 



Sales and Marketing 
Director E2S 


G iven the complexity and variation of differ- 
ent types of buildings and structures in 
which fire systems are installed, and the 
further variations to be found in the homogeneity 
or otherwise of the occupants, it is clear that, for 
maximum effectiveness, many different types of 
warning devices will be required. For example, at 
one end of the spectrum may be an offshore oil 
rig, which is manned by highly trained workers 
who operate under strict safety procedures at all 
times; at the other end is a large retail develop- 
ment crowded with shoppers who are unfamiliar 
with the general layout of the building or the 
position of the nearest emergency exit. Clearly, 
the technical requirements for the warning 
devices and the nature of the warning signals 
themselves will vary greatly. The key consideration 
for the system designer is how to produce clear, 
unambiguous audible warnings throughout the 
protected areas in the event of an emergency. 

Voice alarms 

Voice alarm systems have unfortunately suffered 
adversely from historic confusion with Public 
Address Systems, enshrined in most people's 
minds as the source of the muffled and incompre- 
hensible announcements to be encountered in 
older railway stations. Thankfully, modern tech- 
nology and the introduction of robust standards 
mean that this perception is now no longer 
relevant. The introduction of EN54-16, which 
defines the requirements for the control and 
indicating equipment, and EN54-24 that covers 


voice alarm loudspeakers, have defined test 
methods, environmental tests and performance 
criteria comparable with those required of 
sounders and strobes. It is worth noting that CPD 
compliance for such equipment will be mandatory 
from March and July 201 1 respectively. BS5839-8, 
the relevant code of practice for voice alarm 
systems, defines five different types of system, 
broadly increasing in complexity to allow for more 
complex site and messaging requirements. 

Voice alarm loudspeakers will typically combine 
pre-recorded standard or custom messages with a 
choice of pre- and post-message tones, enabling, 
for example, phased evacuation instructions to be 
broadcast in larger buildings. The E2S Appello 
range is available in industrial, marine and 
explosion proof versions, allowing the more 
sophisticated instructions of a voice sounder to be 
made available in both interior and exterior 
locations across many different operating environ- 
ments. BS5839-8 indicates that as a starting point 
for system design the spacing requirement for 
voice alarms is broadly similar to that for tradition- 
al sounders, although intelligibility requirements 
and the wider frequency range associated with 
voice will normally require closer spacing when a 
detailed audibility survey is carried out. 

Sounders 

Many countries, such as Germany, France, Holland 
and Australia have a national 'evacuate tone'; the 
UK does not. The relevant standard, BS5839-1, 
merely states that the evacuate tone should 


60 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


AUDIBLE AND VISUAL WARNING DEVICES 


INDUSTRIAL WARNING SIGNALS 


warning devices 



contain frequencies within the range 500Hz to 
1000Hz. However, for specific applications such as 
offshore use, specific tones are defined. Known 
as PFEER, Prevention of Fire, Explosion and 
Emergency Response, as a minimum, there must 
be provision for three types of alarm on the 
installation or platform: 

1 Prepare for evacuation is a continuous con- 
stant amplitude signal with varying 
frequency of 1200Hz to 500Hz 
over 1 second then repeated. 

2 Toxic gas alarm is a constant 
1000Hz tone reinforced where 
necessary with a red beacon 
or strobe. 

3 Other cases for alarm (Fire) is a 
1000Hz, 1 second on, 1 second off tone 
reinforced where necessary with a yellow bea- 
con or strobe. 

In normal commercial environments such as 
offices, hotels, hospitals and public buildings, the 
ambient background noise will typically be around 
65dB, and most individual areas are relatively 
small. Such environments may be covered with 
multiple sounders with typical outputs of approxi- 
mately 100dB(A) at 1 metre; even the traditional 
6" bell is effective in small installations, although 
not particularly compatible with today's low-cur- 
rent control systems. BS5839-1 states that the 
effective distance of a sounder is when the 
calculated dB(A) is at least 5 dB(A) above the 
known ambient background noise, so the effective 
distance of a sounder in an ambient of 65 dB(A) is 
the distance at which the output level reduces to 
70 dB(A). Using the inverse square rule/rule of 
thumb that the output falls by 6 dB(A) each time 
the distance doubles, the output will reduce by 
30 dB at a distance of 32 metres. 

In high background noise industrial environ- 
ments, higher output devices are obviously needed, 


on large industrial and petrochemical sites and for 
civil defence requirements, electronic wide area 
sounders will normally generate multiple interna- 
tionally recognised alarm tones including fire, 
security, civil defence, alert, COMAH (SEVESO II) 
toxic gas alarms and disaster warnings for flood, 
tsunami, tornado and other severe bad weather 
conditions. 

Electronic sounders are increasingly replacing 
the traditional electromechanical sirens, hooters, 
buzzers and bells that have been the mainstay of 
the wide area warning device market for many 
years. Now, complex new digital to analogue 


in normal commercial environments such as offices, 
hotels, hospitals and public buildings, the ambient 
background noise will typically be around 65dB, and most 
individual areas are relatively small. 


although there is always the danger of installing 
units with too high an output; high output 
sounders should not be used in low ambient noise 
areas or as a means of "drenching" the area in 
sound. Alarm systems that are too loud may be 
dangerous, cause panic and discomfort and make 
communication very difficult, impeding evacuation 
procedures. The overall alarm level should be a 
maximum of 10 to 15 dB(A) over the ambient 
background noise. 

Wide area sounders, with an output at 1m in 
excess of 140 dB, significantly higher than the 
human threshold of pain, have an effective warn- 
ing range of between 500 and 750m depending 
on the atmospheric conditions. Used in quarries, 


conversion software and the latest in SMD class D 
amplifier technology enables E2S Hootronic 
sounders to mimic, in one product, an industrial 
hooter, high and medium frequency mechanical 
sirens, a buzzer and a bell with amazing fidelity. 
The operational advantages of replacing electro- 
mechanical devices with electronic equivalents are 
the savings in power consumption and weight; 
traditional sirens and hooters can be extremely 
heavy and often need three-phase mains power. 
Unlike electro-mechanical devices, the Hootronic 
range is continuously rated, requires zero 
maintenance, three remotely selectable stages 
are available and signal quality and performance 
will not degrade with age. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


61 


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Strobes 

It is becoming increasingly common in both com- 
mercial and industrial applications for visual signals 
to be required to reinforce the primary audible 
warning device. A visual signal should never be 
used by itself as part of a life safety system, 
although they are widely used by themselves in 
industry to indicate machine state or environ- 
mental condition. 

Advances in lighting source technology have 
generated a number of alternatives to the tradi- 
tional Xenon tube as the basis for strobes. In 
particular, high output brilliant white or mono- 
chromatic LEDs provide the benefits of low current 
draw, long life and simple electronic configuration 
and control. 

The Xenon strobe beacon has 
the best light output to power 
input ratio and is the most 
widely used and versatile 
technology currently available. 

The Xenon tube uses a very high voltage, gen- 
erated by an inverter circuit, to break down the 
Xenon gas in the tube, creating an instantaneous 
brilliant flash of light, normally enhanced by using 
a 'Fresnel' lens. The light energy of the flash is a 
function of the Xenon tube size, the voltage across 
it and the capacity of the capacitor discharging 
into it. The Xenon strobe beacon has the best light 
output to power input ratio and is the most widely 
used and versatile technology currently available. 
Tube life is critical: it may be as little as 1 million 
flashes in cheaper devices but specifiers should 
typically expect 5 to 8 million flashes from higher 
quality units. However, traditional Xenon tube 
beacons cannot perform to their full potential 
when managed through intrinsically safe barriers 
for use in hazardous areas; the input energy that is 
allowed to pass through the Zener barrier or 
galvanic isolator is limited and consequently the 


62 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



AUDIBLE AND VISUAL WARNING DEVICES 


INDUSTRIAL WARNING SIGNALS 


performance of the Xenon tube is severely 
compromised, significantly reducing its light out- 
put. In such cases, the solid-state LED (light 
Emitting Diode) unit has far greater potential. 

An array of ultra bright LEDs produces a bright 
flashing warning signal when powered 
through a Zener barrier or galvanic isolator, 
overcoming the restrictions associated with a 
Xenon strobe. 

Hazardous areas 

Hazardous areas are defined as areas 
where concentrations of flammable 
gases, vapours or dusts may occur, either 
constantly (Zones 0 and 20), under 
normal operating conditions (Zones 1 
and 21) or unusually (Zones 2 and 22). 

A whole series of additional conditions 
relating to the temperature classification 
and the auto-ignition temperatures of the 
type of gas or dust to be found ensure 
that any equipment will not initiate an 
explosion or fire. Hazardous areas are to 
be found in a very wide range of 
manufacturing industries, far beyond the 
obvious petrochemical plants. Food, 
pharmaceutical and cosmetic manufacture 
all involve processing potentially explosive 
substances, while the problems of explosions in 
grain silos and sugar processing plants are very 
well documented. 

There are two ways of ensuring that the 
sounder or strobe does not initiate an explosion 



when operated in a hazardous area: intrinsic safety 
of explosion proof. Simplistically, the input energy 
entering an intrinsically safe device is constrained 


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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


63 



INDUSTRIAL WARNING SIGNALS 


AUDIBLE AND VISUAL WARNING DEVICES 



so that any arcing or sparking within the unit 
cannot generate enough heat to start ignition. The 
alternative approach, explosion proof, is to 
house the equipment in an enclosure that is 
sufficiently robust to prevent any internal 
explosion from reaching the outside. Clearly, 
explosion proof devices will, by their very nature, 
be bulkier, heavier and more robust than intrinsi- 
cally safe ones, and are therefore more likely to be 
installed in external applications, particularly as 
they will be environmentally sealed to IP66 or IP67 
in order to achieve the degree of protection 
required. 


full 360° coverage; in order to minimise cabling 
costs, the systems are often battery powered and 
are radio controlled. As well as providing wide 
area coverage, such systems are often used on 
building and construction sites, where they 
provide excellent protection levels for the work- 
force. Typically, the sounders are initiated from 
radio manual call points, either through a system 
of master/slave control panels or directly if the 
system is self contained. Mobility is a key feature, 
with the individual units being moved around the 
site as the work progresses. Such systems are 
particularly useful on a temporary basis when 


wide area sounders, with an output at im in excess of laodB, 
significantly higher than the human threshold of pain, have 
an effective warning range of between 500 and 750m 
depending on the atmospheric conditions. 


E2S is the world's leading 
independent signalling 
manufacturer. Based in 
West London, England 
the company designs 
and manufactures a 
comprehensive range 
of signalling products 
for industrial, marine 
and hazardous area 
environments. 


Wide area coverage 

Wide area sounders, with an output at 1m in 
excess of 140dB, significantly higher than the 
human threshold of pain, have an effective warn- 
ing range of between 500 and 750m depending 
on the atmospheric conditions. Used in quarries, 
on large industrial and petrochemical sites and for 
civil defence requirements, electronic wide area 
sounders will normally generate multiple interna- 
tionally recognised alarm tones including fire, 
security, civil defence, alert, COMAH (SEVESO II) 
toxic gas alarms and disaster warnings for flood, 
tsunami, tornado and other severe bad weather 
conditions. Typically, systems consist of three indi- 
vidual sounders are pole-mounted at 120° to give 


construction work is being carried out on large or 
congested sites or for more permanent installa- 
tions like those needing to meet obligations under 
the Control of Major Accident Hazard (COMAH) 
regulations. 

Conclusions 

Sounders, reinforced by strobes, are the primary 
mechanism for alerting people in the event of an 
emergency. Voice alarms are also playing an 
increasing part in providing protection; whatever 
the warning system chosen, the primary function 
of the system designer is to ensure that the 
audible and visual output levels are adequate 
throughout the protected area. EOS 


64 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




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FIRE & HAZARD CONTROL 





ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTION 


An example of an 
aspirating smoke 
detector in operation: 
aspirating detectors are 
particularly well suited 
to difficult conditions as 
here in a high-rack 
storage facility 


By Stefan Brugger 

International Product 
Manager, Special Fire 
Detection at Securiton 
Alarm and Security 
Systems 


Aspirating smoke 
detection 



The solution for safety-critical 
ambient conditions - when standard 
smoke detectors no longer provide 
adequate protection 


There are many monitoring areas where fire detection using point-type fire 
detectors has its limits. Challenging ambient conditions and interference factors 
may rule out the use of standard smoke detectors. 


S uch applications call for the use of special fire 
detection technology such as aspirating 
smoke detectors. And thanks to the new 
European product standard EN 54-20 today's 
aspirating smoke detectors (or ASDs) achieve 
new dimensions in detection speed and reliability. 

The new European standard EN 54-20 has 
had a major influence on the use of aspirating 
smoke detectors. These automatic fire detectors 
are divided into three categories: Class A detectors 
for very high sensitivity; Class B detectors for 
enhanced sensitivity; and Class C detectors for 
normal sensitivity. And it is worth noting that the 
sampling hole of a Class C detector corresponds to 
the response sensitivity of a conventional point- 
type smoke detector. 


In the past, tests focused on the response 
behaviour at the evaluation unit of the aspirating 
smoke detector. Today it is the response behaviour 
of the system as a whole that is defined, i.e. the 
aspirating smoke detector complete with sampling 
pipe, sampling holes or sampling devices and its 
accessory components. That's why it is no longer 
necessary to include maximum sampling time 
requirements in a system's specifications. 

Approval requirements 

The air-flow monitoring requirements have been 
made considerably more stringent, with even a 20 
per cent change in the air-flow rate now detected 
as an error. But a 20 per cent change in air-flow 
rate does not mean that 20 per cent of the 


66 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTION 


ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTORS 

detectors for early 



sampling holes are simply 
covered up so that a func- 
tion test can be carried out 
in the field. The aerodynamic 
connections are much more 
complex and only computa- 
tional programs can supply 
binding results. 

What's also important 
is that since 1 July 2009 
the provisions of the Con- 
struction Products Directive 
89/106/EEC state that only 
aspirating smoke detectors 
that are type-approved 
according to EN 54-20 and 
have the relevant Certificate 
of Conformity can be used. 

So any national standards 
for aspirating smoke detec- 
tors such as Austrian 
standard F-3014 or French 
standard CEA 4022 had to be withdrawn by that 
date. 

The aim of the CE marking procedure is that in 
Europe a fire detection system and its components 
now only have to be tested and certified once by 
a notified body as a construction product based 
on harmonised European standards (hEN); it can 
then be used throughout Europe and bear the 
corresponding CE mark. 

The CE mark used previously was affixed to the 
product on the basis of a manufacturer's declara- 
tion. What's new now is that the CE mark can only 
be affixed after testing and certification by a 
notified body and once the certificate of confor- 
mity and the declaration of conformity have been 
issued. 

Design of aspirating smoke detectors 

The planning of aspirating smoke detectors is 
regulated separately in each country: in Germany 
it is set out in VDE 0833 Part 2; in Austria, in 
TRVB S 123; in Switzerland, in the Technical 
Guideline for Fire Alarm Systems of the SES/VKF 
and in the UK in BS 5849-1 with the additional 
FIA Code of Practice for ASD systems. All these 
guidelines have now undergone revisions (or 
such reviews are about to be completed). In most 
countries aspirating smoke detectors are planned 
in such a way that one sampling hole corresponds 
to one point type smoke detector when it comes 
to the areas to be monitored. The starting point 
is an aspirating smoke detector that complies 
with EN-54-20, Class C. Class B aspirating smoke 
detectors can also be used in the case of halls 
with very high ceilings. As before, the highly 
sensitive Class A aspirating smoke detectors are 
used for early fire detection purposes, for instance 
in computer centres, clean rooms or other object 
monitoring applications. 


Application 

The main area of application of an aspirating 
smoke detector is not to replace point type smoke 
detectors. This only makes sense in the case of 
very large continuous monitored areas that all 
form part of the same fire zone for example in 
shopping malls or in large halls. Its principal remit 
remains the use in applications under difficult 
operating conditions such as: 

• high humidity environments 

• steam baths, tropics 

• high temperatures 

• large sauna installations 

• low temperatures 

• refrigerated warehouses 

• outdoor applications 

• very high ceilings 

• high-rack storage facilities 

• halls with high ceilings 

• premises difficult to access 

• laboratories 

• cable tunnels 

• Ex zones 

• high-voltage laboratories 

• hollow floors and false ceilings 

• premises at risk of sabotage 

• prison cells 

• equipment monitoring 

• electrical/switchgear cabinets 

• telecom facilities 

• IT installations 

• dusty environments 

• waste recycling 

• mills 

• invisible fire detection 

• collections of cultural artefacts 

• museums 

• churches 

• modern architecture 


The ASD 535 aspirating 
smoke detector from 
Securiton represents the 
new EN 54-20 
generation of devices 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


67 


ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTION 


Aspirating smoke 
detectors can also be 
used in very dusty 
environments 



The new generation 

The latest generation of aspirating smoke detec- 
tors is ideally suited to these operating conditions. 
The main features include a universal detector 
for all applications which can be complemented 
with a number of options; one or two high-quality 
smoke sensors in one aspirating smoke detector 
with adjustable response sensitivities; and an 
adjustable high-performance ventilator for large 
monitored areas featuring whisper-quiet operation. 

Air-flow monitoring ensures that the sampling 
pipes are constantly checked for pipe breakage 
and the sampling holes monitored for pollution. A 
high-performance ventilator sucks the air from the 
room or facility being monitored through the 
sampling pipe to the evaluation unit. There the air 
is continuously evaluated by the smoke sensors. 
The display of the ASD system indicates the smoke 
concentration of the sampled air and alarm, fault 


measures ensure a long system service life and 
durability. 

Obsolete laser technology 

The actual core of the aspirating smoke detector is 
the smoke sensor and what is crucial here is not 
just its absolute sensitivity, but its long-term 
response under difficult ambient conditions. Lasers 
were long considered as synonymous with high 
sensitivity. But today there is no doubt that the 
technology of a high-power LED offers significant 
advantages. Firstly, the useful temperature range is 
much greater; secondly, it has a much longer 
service life than a laser diode. With the vast 
measurement volume of >1cm 2 and very fast 
measurement times (up to 100 measurements per 
second) particles are now measured several times, 
which allows the use of a patented electronic 
particle suppression system capable of filtering 


The latest generation of aspirating smoke detectors is ideally 
suited to very harsh operating conditions and detects a 
multitude of fire risks. 


and status messages. Any increase in the smoke 
concentration is detected very early on. Three pre- 
signals and one main alarm can be programmed 
for each smoke sensor and are signalled to the CIE 
(control and indicating equipment) via potential- 
free relays or directly to a analogue loop. There are 
four expansion slots in total to which additional 
relays, interface or memory cards can be installed 
in modular form. 

The specially developed high-dynamic smoke 
sensor is the result of comprehensive research 
work. A high power LED combined with an 
LVSC sampling chamber (Large Volume Smoke 
Chamber) yields unparalleled adjustable sensitivity 
with minimum aerodynamic resistance and 
utmost resistance to pollution and soiling. These 


out large individual dust particles. Overall reliability 
is boosted enormously as a result. The large 
measurement volume also means that a dynamic 
scatter angle range is achieved from the forward 
scatter to the extreme backward scatter, which 
detects every possible size and colour of smoke 
particle equally without the need for additional 
measurement systems (2 wavelengths). 

Commissioning and functions 

Many installers shy away from familiarising them- 
selves with new aspirating smoke detectors. And 
yet the new generation of aspirating smoke 
detectors offers considerable advantages. On 
simple standard systems for instance the aspirating 
smoke detector can be activated without a PC and 


68 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTION 


ASPIRATING SMOKE DETECTORS 



the main settings carried 
out on the building site 
itself. A PC tool is also 
available for expert users; 
it provides the full range 
of setting possibilities via a 
USB interface and allows 
the data to be visualised. 

In difficult ambient 
conditions in particular it 
can be very important to 
record and display all the 
ambient data during a trial 
phase lasting several 
months. And with an 
optional Memory Card 
module and commercially 
available SD storage cards 
it is also possible to record 
the values for impaired 
visibility and airflow for up 
to a year on the aspirating 
smoke detector - without 
an additional PC - and 
then analyse the data in the office using Microsoft 
Excel. 

An extensive range of accessories is available 
(e.g. alternative sampling pipes, sampling holes, 
filters, water retaining boxes, detonation flame 
arresters). These accessory components are also 
tested and certified along with the aspirating 
smoke detector in accordance with EN 54-20. The 
range of accessories must be listed in full on the 
certificate issued by the notified body. 

With the optional interface the aspirating 
smoke detector can be ideally integrated into the 
fire detection system. It is then very easy to display 
and adjust the day and night sensitivity, for 
example, from the fire alarm control panel. 

Planners of sampling pipes all know that the 
design of the installation always had to be 
symmetrical, which is why T- or H-shaped configu- 
rations were used in most cases. However this is 
not always the optimum solution, particularly on 



larger premises, and compromises sometimes had 
to be made due to the space needed by the 
sampling pipes. But now with the new sampling 
pipe computation software ASD PipeFlow asym- 
metrical sampling pipes can be used as well. This 
results in sampling pipe savings of up to 20 per 
cent and a further improvement in response time. 
The only requirement is that the sampling-hole 
diameter calculated using the software be observed 
accordingly also at the implementation stage. 

Soundproofing included 

Most operators of fire alarm systems do not want 
to hear or see anything of their fire detectors: they 
just want them to monitor things quietly in the 
background and then leap into action at the crucial 
moment. But until now the use of aspirating 
smoke detectors was limited in applications where 
noise was an issue as the aspirating noise (the fan 
in particular) was audible. In most cases it meant 
that an expensive housing or even special versions 
of the aspirating smoke detector had to be used. 
Not so with the latest generation. Thanks to the 
adjustable high-performance ventilator sufficient 
air samples are now aspirated even at the whisper- 
quiet fan level 1 to enable the implementation 
of large aspirating configurations. ISO 11690-1, 
i.e. the recommended practice for the design of 
low-noise workplaces containing machinery, is 
complied with just as easily as DIN 4109 on sound 
insulation in buildings, which means that aspirat- 
ing smoke detectors can be used even in inhabited 
areas such as hospitals and retirement homes. 

Summary 

The aspirating smoke detector is a multi-talent 
that can be used practically anywhere. It includes 
not only room protection applications (such as 
high-rack storage facilities, dropped ceilings and 
raised floors, large halls, museums, galleries, 
theatres, airports, computer centres) but also 
object monitoring (such as distribution cabinets and 
EDP installations). Thanks to the new technology 
the equipment is even quieter, more resistant and 
more reliable when it comes to false alarms; 
what's more it is more responsive than ever 
before. D33 


The ASD PipeFlow 
sampling pipe 
computation software 
allows asymmetrical 
sampling pipes 


Stefan Brugger is the 
International Product 
Manager Special Fire 
Detection at Securiton Alarm 
and Security Systems in 
Zollikofen, Switzerland. He is 
a member of the CEN TC 72 
WG 16 and IS0TC21 SC 3 
WG 21 Standard committees 
for Aspirating Smoke 
Detectors. 

info@securiton.com, 
www.securiton.com 
T +41 31 91 01 122, F 
+41319101616 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


69 



Smoke means an immediate alarm. 


SecuriRAS® ASD aspirating smoke detector with HD sensor 



Securiton AG, Alarm and Security Systems 
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70 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





Draka is one of the 
world's leading cable 
manufacturers 



By Mark Froggatt 


Marketing Services 
Manager, Draka UK 


CABLES 



Getting to grips 
with counterfeit 
cables 


Just about every sector of the fire protection business now seems to be targeted 
by counterfeiters and rogue manufacturers. Nowhere is the risk greater than 
when the product is electrical cable. But what can be done? Mark Froggatt 
explains. 


T he first thing to appreciate about counterfeit 
cables is that they are almost always sub- 
standard, posing a life-threatening risk to 
installers and end users. The second, and perhaps 
more harrowing realisation is that these rogue 
manufacturers are not in the least bit concerned 
about anyone's welfare; their total focus is on 
making a profit. Their game plan does not 
stretch to protecting their company's reputation, 
establishing integrity, providing safe products or 
building a reputable brand. No, it is all about 
money. 

Ironically, the very fact that there are standards 
and regulations that bona-fide cable manufactur- 
ers adhere to can help the counterfeiter to dupe 
the unsuspecting wholesaler, distributor, installer 
or fire engineer. These rogue manufacturers and 


suppliers are more than willing to lay claim to 
standards that are totally fraudulent; unwarranted 
BS, EN or other acknowledged standards are 
often to be found displayed on the rogue cable 
sheathing. So, everyone in the trade - wholesalers 
and stockists; contractors and installers - need to 
check very carefully that the cable being supplied 
does meet the required standards and not merely 
claim to. 

This scenario, understandably, alarms reputable 
cable manufacturers as it undermines confidence 
in the standards to which their cables are manu- 
factured and used. 

But how big is the problem? Although precise 
figures are difficult to come by, reliable UK 
industry estimates indicate that as much as 20 
percent of the cable being sold and installed in the 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


71 





CABLES 


Draka's Cable and Tables 
Handbook covers a host 
of technical and 
legislation issues 



UK currently is counterfeit, unsafe, or both. 
Annually, around £30 million of counterfeit 
electrical products are believed to reach British 
shores and those with an intimate knowledge of 
the problem assess that the vast majority 
emanates from China. 

Today, cables can be found where the diameter 
of the copper wire has been reduced, lowering the 
current rating and increasing the resistivity of the 
cable. This could potentially result in overheating, 
which could lead to fire or reduce the level of safety 
against electrical shock. There have also been 
numerous instances where materials other than 
pure copper, such as steel wire, copper-coated 
aluminium or badly recycled copper have been used 
in cables, and instances where the insulation or 
sheathing is sub-standard are also commonplace. 
In many instances, of course, it is not easy to 
detect a rogue cable simply by looking at it. 

Although it is difficult to assess the precise 
impact that this is having, it is a fact that, in the 
UK there is strong correlation between the 
increase in cable-related fires and the amount of 
unapproved and counterfeit cable entering the 
country. According to statistics from the Depart- 
ment of Communities and Local Government, in 
2007 there were 4,093 fires in homes and busi- 
nesses in England alone that were caused by faulty 
wires and cables. This equates to 27 percent of all 
electrical fires. In the past five years 15 people 
have died in fires due to faulty cable and 1,200 
have been seriously injured. Of course, in many 
major fires the damage is so extensive that often 
investigators are unable to establish the precise 


cause of the blaze. So the government's fig- 
ures may well grossly understate the number 
of fires that can be attributed to faulty cable. 

The question, of course, is what can - 
indeed should - be done? 

The first thing to acknowledge is that 
everyone in the industry has to be involved 
and accept their legal and moral responsi- 
bility. While the majority of distributors and 
installers that have used sub-standard cable 
have done so innocently, it would be wrong 
to believe that there are no instances where 
a "blind eye" has not been turned in the 
quest to reduce costs. Certainly, there has 
been sufficient international publicity about 
the issue to argue that nobody in the indus- 
try can reasonably claim not to be aware of 
the problem. 

The first step that needs to be taken may 
seem obvious: take a very close look at the 
cable being offered and supplied. Draka is 
currently focusing much-needed attention on 
the absence of cable marking, without which 
there is no means of establishing the cable's 
authenticity. In the absence of such marking 
there is every probability that the quality and 
performance of the cable is highly suspect 
and is from a disreputable supplier. Under 
the banner: "If it's not marked, it's not worth 
it", the Draka campaign focuses on the fact 
that there is a legal obligation to include 
certain information on the cable; the more 
demanding the specification, the more informa- 
tion is required to be shown. 

But what markings should a cable carry? To 
help installers, Draka has published a pocket guide 
and has an explanatory video presentation on its 
website. Both are available at www.drakauk.com. 
Among the markings that should be clearly visible 
on every cable are the manufacturer's name and 
the British Standard number to which the cable 
claims to conform. Providing the cable has been 
tested by one, the name of the independent 
third-party approval organisation should also be 
included. 

The next step is always to corroborate that 
what you are being told or shown on sales litera- 
ture or websites, and that the markings on the 
cable itself are not misleading, incorrect, or simply 
downright dishonest. However, relying on the 
manufacturer's or supplier's assertions that a cable 
is manufactured to a specific standard simply will 
no longer do; ask for copies of test or membership 
certificates. Better still, use only cable that is 
supported by independent test certification by 
fully accredited organisations that, in the UK, are 
themselves accredited through UKAS, the United 
Kingdom Accreditation Service. This is the sole 
national accreditation body recognised by the gov- 
ernment to assess - against internationally agreed 
standards - organisations that provide certifica- 
tion, testing, inspection and calibration services. 
The UKAS website contains information on all of 
the accredited organisations and can be found at 
www.ukas.com. 



72 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



CABLES 


GETTING TO GRIPS WITH COUNTERFEIT CABLES 



Draka runs regular 
factory tours to 
demonstrate the 
integrity of its cable 
offering 


The importance of this third-party accreditation 
lies in the fact that the specifier, the trade supplier 
and the installer can be sure that the cable being 
supplied today is built to precisely the same 
standard and specification as the cable that was 
originally tested and approved. If the cable is from 
a producer that does not have this third-party 
accreditation there is, in reality, no guarantee 
whatsoever that it is manufactured to the standard 
being claimed for it. 

This requirement for third-party accreditation is 
important even when buying cable from a well 
known manufacturer. Without it, while earlier 
cable from that supplier may have been up to the 
standard claimed for it, re-sourcing 
materials and accepting a different 
specification, changing the formula- 
tion of the coating or sheathing, or 
modifying the design are just 
examples of changes that may have 
affected the performance of the 
cable. 

It is important though to remem- 
ber that rogue cable manufacturers 
are every bit as willing to fake third- 
party accreditation as they are BS or 
EN standards, so always check with 
the accreditation organisation that 
the claim is genuine. They are also 
quite prepared to misrepresent their 
accreditation. In one instance, a 
company's sales literature proudly 
carried the logo of one of the 
world's leading product certification 
organisations. In this particular 
instance, the company had every 
right to include the logo, as it had 
achieved an international quality 
management standard. However, 
the way in which it had been 
included on its literature might 


easily have been taken as implying that the prod- 
ucts themselves had been tested and approved. 

So surely the message is clear. The more difficult 
we make the counterfeiter's life and reduce his 
chance to make easy money, the sooner this 
scourge will come to an end. But, this will not hap- 
pen on its own; we must all play our part to the 
full. Wholesalers and distributors must verify the 
quality of the cable they are stocking; contractors 
and installers must be equally diligent and avoid 
buying cable from suppliers that have shown to be 
prepared to side-step the issue; and fire engineers 
and building services consultants should be ever 
watchful for substandard product substitution. D33 



Mark Froggatt is Marketing 
Services Manager at Derby- 
based Draka UK. He can be 
reached on +44 (0) 1332 
345431 or via email at 
cableuk@draka.com. The 
company's website can be 
found at www.drakauk.com 


In-house test facilities 
complement rigorous 
third-party testing 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


73 



PAINTS AND SPRAYS 


Fire protection of 
Structural Steel by 
intumescent Coatings 


Dr Daniel Brosch 

Global Product Manager 
PFP in PPG Protective 
and Marine Coatings 


Fire protection can be obtained by 
different methods. 

T here is "active" fire protection comprising fire 
detection and extinguishing methods on one 
side. Passive and reactive fire protection 
materials contribute to the fire resistance of 
structural steel by insulation from the heat of a 
fire. "Passive" means the product provides the 
insulation in as it has been installed and does not 
change in the case of fire. Reactive materials such 
as intumescent coatings are installed as a relatively 
thin layer of a coating that under normal con- 
ditions does not provide insulation. But in case of 
a fire a chemical reaction triggered by heat is 
taking place The coating changes and forms a 
thick layer of char insulating the steel covered by it 
from the fire. 

Intumescent coatings are often used to protect 
structural steel from fires. Steel loses its load 
bearing properties when heated. Applying an 
intumescent coating to steel columns and beams 
will maintain their load bearing capacity and pre- 
venting buckling and collapse of a steel structure 
for a defined time. This buys additional time for 
people to be evacuated and to fight the fire. 

There are intumescent coatings that protect 
steel form cellulosic fires in civil buildings but also 
special types to fire protect steel on oil and gas 
installations onshore as well as offshore from the 
most extreme fire conditions such as hydrocarbon 
pool and jet fires. These "thick film" coatings are 
in general based on 2 pack epoxy formulations. 

Apart from protecting the steel from fire, 
intumescent coating systems also provide corrosion 
protection. 

Intumescent coatings for protection of steel from 
cellulosic fires are normally 1 pack products. They are 
also known as "thin film" intumescents. Their appli- 
cation is very much like paint by airless spray result- 
ing in smooth surfaces. Structural steel members fire 
protected with intumescent coatings preserve their 
appearance. This is of major importance in modern 
architecture, because the steel columns and beams 
are often visible and meant as design feature of 
buildings, such as airport, hotels and sports stadia. 

To proof their "fitness for purpose" intumes- 
cent coatings have to undergo a demanding fire 
test regime. Fire tests of several types and sizes 
of steel columns and beams are conducted at 
standardised conditions by accredited test facilities. 
In these fire tests the intumescent coating system 
has to proof it ability to keep the temperature of a 
steel section under a certain level, the critical 
temperature for a given time period, such as 30, 
60, 90 or 120 minutes. From the fire test raw data 
tables with film thicknesses of the coating for 
different types and sizes of steel sections are 
derived. In many cases these assessments finally 
have to be verified by an independent party, often 
a state authority by means of certification. 



The film thicknesses stated in the tables are 
meant as minimum dry film thickness of the 
intumescent coating excluding the film thickness 
of primer or topcoat. 

Although all intumescent products share the 
same basic principle of how they contribute to the 
fire resistance of structural steel members, not two 
have the same film thickness tables. 

The thickness of the intumescent coating 
required for proper fire protection is also depending 
on the type and size of the steel section, the type 
of fire, the protection time and local regulations. 

Because every country normally has its own 
standard for fire testing and local building 
regulations the way of testing and the critical 
temperature tested to may vary by country. In the 
European Union it is intended now to harmonise 
the local fire testing standards in the member 
states by introduction of EN 13381. Because prEN 
13381-4 has not differentiated between passive 
and reactive fire protection part 8 of this standard 
has been developed. The final draft is out for 
voting now. Also a part 9 is worked on presently, 
taking care of fire protection systems applied to 
steel beams with web openings. 

To form a fire resistant coating system meeting 
the demands of the regulations the correct choice 
of primer and topcoat is essential. By choosing the 
wrong primer or sealer the fire performance of the 
intumescent can be affected adversely and lives 
and assets put at risk. The intumescent coating 
manufacturers normally have tested various 
primers and topcoats for compatibility with their 
intumescent coatings to ensure sufficient fire 
performance of the full system. 

Further to the correct product choice the 
preparation of the steel substrate and application 
of the coatings to the steel are important for the 
final performance. 

Intumescent coating systems can provide efficient 
fire and corrosion protection in many areas. They 
are particular suited for applications where 
aesthetics or weight are issues. D33 


74 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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RETAIL CENTRE PROTECTION 


Fire and life safety s 
level and mixed-use 



Successful retail projects today benefit from a comprehensive approach to fire 
protection and life safety. This article discusses the ways in which the application 
of such an approach can affect the layout, design and construction of a 
project. Further, it describes how such an approach may result in savings for the 
retail developer, and a more successful enterprise for the design and 
Kit Bryant AIA construction team. 


and 

Jeremy Mason, P.E. 


A recent project completed in Dedham, MA 
/ \ serves as a good case study. Legacy Place, 
/ \ a development partnership between W.S. 

Development, Inc. and National Amusements, Inc., 
is a new Lifestyle center consisting of 675,000 
square feet of leasable space located at the inter- 
section of Routes 1 and 128 in Dedham, MA. Early 
in the development of the project, the developer 
engaged Rolf Jensen & Associates (RJA) to assist 
their design team of Prellwitz/Chilinski Associates, 
Inc. and spg 3 in better understanding the fire 
protection and life safety issues the project might 
encounter. RJA initially provided an analysis of the 
building codes enforced by the local authority 
having jurisdiction (AHJ) and an approach report 
that set out the options for best conforming to 
those codes. The approach report provided 
the design team with multiple scenarios for the 
construction types for the various buildings, the 
separation requirements between use groups and 
the associated fire and life safety systems. It also 
provided the design team with an outline of the 
major fire protection and life safety code issues 
that the various buildings would need to address. 

Mixed use parking retail applications 

Large retail projects, both open air and enclosed, 
have become more complex in recent years. Land 
values and parking requirements limit the amount 
of buildable land available for development, often 
resulting in denser, multi-level mixed-use projects. 
Stacking of diverse uses, such as retail over parking 


and parking over retail, and assembly and residential 
over retail or parking, can create fire protection 
and life safety challenges. 

To accommodate the leasable square footage 
required to make the project economically viable, 
and the parking required to support that leasable 
area, it was necessary to construct portions of the 
project as mixed-use buildings. For instance, while 
there is substantial at grade parking, the majority 
of the required parking is situated in three levels of 
open parking garage located above ground level 
retail spaces. 

The newer model codes are set up to deal with 
a mix of parking located above and below various 
retail occupancies. Generally, the model codes 
require that the lower occupancy be separated 
from the occupancy above by a 3-hour fire resis- 
tance rated horizontal assembly. When separated 
by such an assembly, the spaces above and below 
are permitted to be treated as separate buildings 
with differing construction types. This offers the 
developer a significant opportunity to save money 
in protecting the structure of the building (gener- 
ally fireproofing) and potentially eliminating sprin- 
klers, as was the case in the open parking garage 
at Legacy Place. 

The at-grade retail was designed and built as 
Type IB (Protected Noncombustible) Construction 
and was fully sprinklered. Above the retail applica- 
tion was a 3-hour horizontal floor/ ceiling assembly 
which separated the at-grade retail spaces from 
the three unsprinklered parking levels. The parking 


76 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


RETAIL CENTRE PROTECTION 


FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY SOLUTIONS 


olutions for multi- 


levels were designed and built as Type MB 
(Unprotected Noncombustible) Construction. The 
3-hour horizontal assembly subdivided the project 
into two separate buildings of two different con- 
struction types. This approach saved the developer 
substantial money by eliminating the need for fire- 
proofing and sprinklering the open parking garage 
structure on the upper levels. 

Properly planning for future tenants 

Retail spaces often need to accommodate varying 
uses such as mercantile, business, and assembly. 
Because the developer's leasing efforts continue 
throughout the design and construction process 
and even over the life of the project, many of the 
uses will not be determined until the shells of the 
buildings are already constructed. For all of these 
reasons, a comprehensive approach to fire protec- 
tion and life safety initiated at the start of such a 
project can provide significant benefits to the 
developer and their design and construction team. 

For example, the occupant load of retail appli- 
cations at grade or one story below grade is 
calculated at 30 square feet per person while 
restaurant type assembly spaces are required to be 
calculated from 5 to 15 square feet per person. 
This difference in possible occupant load factors 
can have a significant impact on the number and 
location of exits that are required. Thus, a retail 
space of 1,400 square feet would only require a 
single exit as a mercantile occupancy while the 
same space if converted to an assembly occupancy 
would need two exits. 

Further complicating the matter is the fact that 
egress for the general public is not permitted to 
pass through commercial kitchens or through stock 
rooms in retail applications unless there is a 44-inch 
wide aisle defined by partial or full height partitions. 
Thus, properly locating exits from the start can give 
developers maximum flexibility in leasing their 
spaces to various tenants and occupancy types. 

Spacing between buildings on a limited 
site 

Many developers strive to construct their buildings 
to be one story in height. The model building 
codes permit one story mercantile or business 
buildings to be of unlimited area and to be built of 
any materials except wood framed construction, 
given that 60-foot side yards are provided 
between buildings and the buildings are fully 
sprinklered. As long as the buildings are spaced far 
enough from one another, this approach allows 
developers to build large retail strip malls with 
no fireproofed construction and at a substantial 
cost savings. This approach also results in a trade- 
off when the site is of limited area. Unlimited 
area buildings can save the developer significant 
construction costs, but they require more site 
area because the buildings must be spaced 
appropriately apart. RJA played an integral role at 
Legacy Place by helping to properly place adjacent 
buildings to maximize cost savings, and at the 



same time helping to make sure the developer 
achieved their goals for leasable area. 

It should also be noted that restaurants, consid- 
ered assembly occupancies, are permitted in 
unlimited area buildings but in only small propor- 
tions and must be separated from the balance of 
the building with two hour rated construction. 

Assembly occupancies mixed with 
retail 

Mixing assembly spaces with other retail applica- 
tions is a fast growing trend in retail development. 
This provides added benefits to developers beyond 
just filling lease spaces. It expands the options 
for their customer base and the time those 
customers may shop at their development. How- 
ever, because of the increased occupant load, the 
code generally requires a higher level of protection 
for assembly occupancies than for mercantile 
occupancies. 

The multiplex cinema at Legacy Place provides 
an example of such an assembly occupancy mixed 
in with retail occupancies. The multiplex cinema is 
located on the second and third levels of one of 
the retail buildings, above retail and other enter- 
tainment spaces. The initial fire protection and life 
safety code compliance report identified several 
code related issues that were the result of the 
mixed occupancies and made corresponding 
recommendations. 

At Legacy Place the multiplex cinema has an 
occupancy load of approximately 3,000 people. 
Additionally a waiting population of 800 people 
was assumed based on the capacities of the two 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


77 


RETAIL CENTRE PROTECTION 


FIRE AND LIFE SAFETY SOLUTIONS 


largest auditoriums. A strict interpretation of the 
building code would have required a larger wait- 
ing population (based on square foot calculations 
per occupant in the waiting/lobby areas). The 
design team was able to demonstrate, based on 
an analysis of movie start and stop times at similar 
multiplex cinemas, that use of the capacities of the 
two largest auditoriums as a worst case scenario 
for a waiting population would be more than 
adequate. However, even with this reduced waiting 
area population the total occupant egress capacity 
for the cinema required a significant amount of 
exits and exit capacity. To address this capacity the 
design team created an egress approach similar to 
one used for cinema projects located on grade. 
This approach gave the cinema occupants a 
straightforward and intuitive means to egress the 
building (studies have shown that occupants will, 
during an emergency, first attempt to egress the 
way they entered). 

Early involvement by RJA with the authority 
having jurisdiction (AHJ) during the development 
of this equivalent egress approach successfully 
allayed their legitimate concerns about the ability 
to safely egress so many occupants from the upper 
levels of the building. These early meetings helped 
the design team better understand the AHJ's 
major concerns and allowed the AHJ to better 
understand the projects goals and approach. In 
addition, by preparing life safety drawings, the 
design team was able to show the AHJ how egress 
should function. These drawings could also be 
used as a resource in the future by the design 


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team and the AHJ to ensure that proper egress will 
still be provided if renovations occur. Laying this 
early ground work helped keep the project 
focused and on track and resulted in fewer mis- 
understandings between the AHJ and the design 
team and resulting in consequential changes. 

Because the area required for the intended uses 
was large, the fire protection analysis recommend- 
ed that the multiplex/ retail building be of Type 1 B 
non-combustible and protected construction, 
allowing it to be of non-separated mixed-use and 
unlimited area. The main entry to the building 
consisted of an unprotected two story space 
between the first and second floors and the 
cinema contained a two story lobby from the 
second to third floors. The initial report also 
recommended that the cinema be separated from 
the remainder of the building to prevent the con- 
nection of those multi-story spaces. This prevented 
those multi-story spaces from being considered a 
three story atrium which would have triggered 
the requirement for a smoke control system in the 
building. 

Fire alarm systems in retail applications 

The design and installation of fire alarm systems 
can have a significant impact on retail applications. 
A system with separate panels for each tenant 
that connect into the master building fire alarm 
panel can ease the burden when new tenants 
arrive or leave. In addition, having a single con- 
tractor who is responsible for the entire building, 
not just individual tenants, can ensure that the 
work is done efficiently and on time. 

While not used in the cinema at Legacy Place, a 
phased evacuation scheme tied to the fire alarm 
system is an option that may be considered in 
similar assembly occupancies. Because of the large 
number of occupants in a modern multiplex 
cinema, phased evacuation can increase safety by 
sequentially allowing occupants to egress from the 
various auditoriums. Instead of all of the occu- 
pants attempting to exit at the same time (3,800 
people in a cinema such as the one at Legacy 
Place) several hundred at a time are directed to 
egress. This phased evacuation process is typically 
controlled through voice commands that first 
egress those spaces and auditoriums closest to the 
origin of emergency event followed in a planned 
sequence by the remainder of the building. 

In conclusion, retail developers are facing new 
challenges as the types of tenants they covet are 
changing and as the land available for develop- 
ment is constricting. For these and other reasons it 
has never been more important for developers 
and their teams to address fire protection and life 
safety concerns up front. By being proactive they 
can help assure that the numerous and often 
restrictive requirements contained in the building 
codes do not conflict with the goals of the 
development. [Q3 


Kit Bryant AIA is the Operations Manager based in the 
Philadelphia area office of RJA. He can be reached at 
+1 (484) 690-1 1 1 8, or by email at 
cbryant@rjagroup.com 

Jeremy Mason, P.E. is a Consultant located in the 
Boston area office of RJA. He can be reached at +1 (508) 
620-8900, or by email atjmason@rjagroup.com 


78 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



ASFP FORUM 


By Brian Robinson 

ASFP President 



Apathy, 
ignorance 
and denial 

- ASFP President spells 
it out 


dip 


ASSOCIATION 
FOR SPECIALIST 
FIRE PROTECTION 


More than 100 guests attended the 
Association for Specialist Fire Protection 
(ASFP) annual President's Lunch, at the 
Palace of Westminster in December, to hear ASFP 
President Brian Robinson spell out the current problems 
with regard to the control of fire protection in the UK. 


"I have been questioning whether the Regulatory 
I Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005, the CDM 
I Regulations 2007 and Regulation 16B of the 
Buildings Act were working together to raise 
installation of appropriate fire protection measures" 
he commented. "Have matters improved? Sadly, I 
think not". 

He blamed the lack of a national audit proce- 
dure and claimed that the biggest challenges faced 
by the industry were apathy, ignorance and denial. 
"We all recall the scene of the tragic fire at Lakanal 
House that unfolded on our television screens 
recently, in which six people sadly lost their lives. 
At the time, the media were asking the obvious 
question - how could this happen? Lakanal House 
gained national media attention because people 
died", he stressed. "Only then were questions 
asked of Lambeth and other Local Authorities, to 
ascertain their legal requirement to undertake fire 
risk assessment". 

He questioned if Lakanal House was a one off, or 
if it was symptomatic of a much more deeply 
rooted problem. He also queried if other issues 
were contributing to a picture of worsening public 
fire protection in the UK and pointed to the recent 
Association of British Insurers (ABI) fire loss figures. 
They show fire damage up by some 16% to £1 .3b, 
which represents a record high. Life loss figures also 
indicate that we will see a significant rise over the 
next year. "Such a combination of factors should 
at least raise the question of, why", he stressed. 

"Disasters such as Lakanal House could be 
minimised by much tighter Building Regulations" 
he claimed. "However, it is arguably just as true to 
state that if appropriate fire protection measures 


were installed correctly, in accordance with the 
Building Regulations, both the human and finan- 
cial cost would be considerably lessened. "The 
demise of the Clerk of Works is symptomatic of 
how, piece by piece, our systems for delivering 
excellence of works in buildings have been 
stripped away and the matter has been made 
worse through the introduction of competitive 
bidding between local authorities and approved 
inspector bodies" he maintained. 

Mr. Robinson confirmed that if the evidence of 
malpractice or inadequate passive fire protection 
witnessed by many ASFP members on an almost 
daily basis was anything to go by, the courts 
should be overflowing. The journey from the archi- 
tect's initial design, to occupancy, is one loaded 
with opportunity for error, compounded upon 
error. The ASFP President drew the analogy of 
taking delivery of a new car. "Do you give much 
thought to the process of manufacture, or how 
the vehicle was inspected before delivery? You 
assume they put brakes in it, that the steering 
wheel is connected correctly and that your family 
will be safe in it. If you think that way about a car, 
why shouldn't the same rules apply to the fire 
protection measures installed in a building? The 
hazards are the same. Get it wrong and you run 
the risk of killing, or seriously injuring its occupants. 

"It is simply not good enough to state that 
measures exist to ensure against incompetent 
workmanship, that everyone will take ownership 
of their responsibilities, utilise properly qualified 
people and proper independent audits". A full 
copy of Brian Robinson's speech can be found at: 
www.asfp.org.co.uk D33 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


79 


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ADVERTISERS' INDEX 

AVK International 

53 

Chemguard Inc 

65 

Control Logic srl 

10 

Cooper Fulleon 

15 

C-TEC 

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54 

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Detronics 

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IFC 

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Fogtec Gmbh 

57 

Furnace Construction 

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Gielle 

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Halon Banking Systems 

2 

Janus Fire Protection 

17 

Matre Maskin 

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Metron Eledyne 

62 

OCV Control Valves 

OBC 

Patterson Pumps 

51 

Pentair Water 

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75 

Pyroplex Limited 

24 

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| 127-3FC 

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In today's business climate, we believe a company should be held accountable by more than 
just regulations and government entities. At OCV, we answer to you-the customer-and you 
expect a high standard, demand solutions that work, and insist on products of quality. 

We also believe in longevity and commitment. Our Sales and Engineering teams offer new 
talent combined with seasoned professionals for a sum of over 283 years of experience. With 
companies failing and economic conditions changing overnight, isn't it nice to know you will 
get an answer every time you need help with an application? 

OCV wants to be your partner for managing fluid application needs - large or small. OCV 
continues to develop its broad spectrum of technical expertise, turning field experience and 
problem solving knowledge into a refined offering of services and state-of-the-art product. 

At OCV we put customer service at the top of our list. Our slogan says it best: Global Perfor- 
mance. Personal Touch. 


1983 


1980 


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| High Pressure Fire 
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| 108FCA 

Fire Pump Relief 


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t One Way Altitude 


65FC 

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fire market 


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Control Valves 


Control Valves 

Global performance. Personal touch. 


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tunnels nothing performs better than FT Connecta, our zero halogen, low smoke (OHLS®) modular cabling system. 
FT Connecta has been specifically developed to provide lighting and small power applications in tunnel 
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IFP/FTConnecta/0510 


May 2010 
issue 42 



Front cover picture courtesy of 
Advanced Electronics Ltd 


Publishers 

Mark Seton & David Staddon 

Editorial Contributors 

Mike Troiano, Ges Wallace, Alfred 
Thornton, Graham Collins, Matthias 
Ecke, Mark Froggatt, Sarah Brewer, 
Mike Wood, Ian Buchanan, Tom 
Cortina, Nick Grant, David Gentle, 
Bob Choppen 

IFP is published quarterly by: 

MDM Publishing Ltd 

The Abbey Manor Business Centre, 

The Abbey, Preston Road, 

Yeovil, Somerset BA20 2EN 
Tel: +44 (0) 1935 426 428 
Fax: +44 (0) 1935 426 926 
Email: dave.staddon@ifpmag.com 
website: www.ifpmag.com 
©All rights reserved 

Annual Subscription 
UK -£50.00 Europe- €60 
Overseas - US$70.00 
ISSN - 1468-3873 


DISCLAIMER: 

The views and opinions expressed in 
INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION are not 
necessarily those of MDM Publishing Ltd. 
The magazine and publishers are in no 
way responsible or legally liable for any 
errors or anomalies made within the 
editorial by our authors. All articles 
are protected by copyright and written 
permission must be sought from the 
publishers for reprinting or any form of 
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content. Any queries should be addressed 
in writing to the publishers. 

Reprints of articles are available on 
request. Prices on application to the 
Publishers. 

Page design by Dorchester 
Typesetting Group Ltd 

Printed in the UK 


Contents 



12-26 


4-10 Profiles 

12-26 Interschutz 
2010 Leipzig, Germany. 
Exhibitor guide and 
previews and essential 
visitor information 

29-33 The Phaseout 

That Didn't Happen 

35-37 Modern water 

Mist Technology 



39-42 



39-42 Detecting The 

Right Technology 

45-49 A case of 

double standards... 

51 -55 Call point 

evolution: past, present 
and future 

57-60 Remote 

monitoring a fire pump 
system status 

62-65 A Visible 

improvement 

67-68 Fire 

Suppression 

70 Removal of Fire 
Extinguishers - is it 
worth the risk? 

73-76 industrial 

Flame Detection - the 
'pros and cons' 

78-80 Protecting 

Electrical Cabinets with 
CO z is a high risk option 

83-86 Testing times 
88-92 Fire Rated 

Duct Enclosures 

94-95 New Code 

Raises The Bar on cable 
Fire Safety 

96 Advertisers' Index 



57-60 



62-65 



78-80 



Collins to join MDM Publishing Ltd as Group Editor 

W ell known industry figure Graham Collins will join MDM Publishing Ltd as Group 
Editor, starting in June 2010. He will take direct responsibility for all editorial 
matters involving MDM's three leading trade magazines, International Fire 
Protection, International Fire Fighter and Asia Pacific Fire. When asked to comment on 
the appointment Collins said "I am thrilled to be joining such an exciting and dynamic 
organisation as the Group Editor. MDM Publishing Ltd has established its titles as the 
leading business to business international journals available to fire professionals around the 
world. I am looking forward to shaping new editorial features and exciting new content in the coming 
months within all three journals". 

Graham has worked and lived in the USA, Middle East, France, Germany and Japan and brings over 
1 5 years experience in the international fire industry, particularly fire suppression, foam concentrates and 
hardware, detection and alarm systems and emergency response. He has been a regular contributor in fire 
safety and construction industry magazines including the MDM Publishing Ltd titles. He has also worked as a 
specialist campaigns director for a fire industry PR company for the past 20 years. Graham is married and 
lists photography as one of his major interests. 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


1 









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PROFILE 


Latest Industrial 
Flame Detectors 
from Spectrex 


SharpEye 40/40 Series Flame Detectors offer unmatched performance and reliability 
- including patented, IR3 (Triple IR) Multi-Spectrum detectors that enable detection 
of small fires at distances up to 60m, with enhanced immunity to false alarms. 


T hese highly specified detectors operate reli- 
ably in the harsh conditions of offshore 
drilling and production platforms, FPSO ves- 
sels, fuel loading and storage facilities, LNG and 
LPG plants and petrochemical plants throughout 
the world. 

The latest SharpEye 40/40 Series flame detec- 
tors include the model 40/401 using the well- 
proven IR3 detector, offering the highest immunity 
to false alarms combined with a massive 65m 
(215ft) detection distance for hydrocarbon fires 
with an enlarged cone of vision - 100° horizontal 
and 95° vertical. 



Another major 
feature is the 
improved response 
to gas flames 
(methane, LNG, 
LPG etc) where 
small gas flames 
can be detected at 
distances of up to 

30m (100ft). An 
Fig 1 Ed - 40/401 detector important addition 

to the series is the model 40/40M Multi IR detec- 
tor, which can simultaneously detect 'invisible' 
hydrogen flames at 30m (100ft) and hydrocarbon 
fires at 65m (215ft). 

The 40/40 series comprises many detection 
techniques to suit every situation including triple IR 
(IR3), Multi IR, combined UV/IR, single IR or UV. Thus, 
Spectrex can offer unbiased advice on which detec- 
tor is the correct solution to your detection needs. 

The compact and lightweight design (only 
2.5kg in stainless steel) offers low-power con- 
sumption with a heated lens for continued 
availability in difficult environments - as well as 
the reassurance of 3rd party EN54-10 /FM perfor- 
mance approvals and IEC 61508 - SIL2 (TUV) 
certification to assure reliability. All detectors are, 
of course, Ex approved to ATEX/IECEx/FM/CSA/ 
GOST R/GOST K standards for Zone 1/21 
hazardous area location. 

The 40/40 Series detectors incorporate an 
integral automatic self test which checks the 
devices every 15 mins to ensure correct operation. 
The 40/40 Series offers many interface options to 
ensure that the detectors are compatible with all 
control and fire detection systems - outputs 
include 0-20mA, dry relay contacts, RS-485 
ModBus and HART. 

The certified operating temperature range has 
also been extended. The detectors will now operate 
reliably in temperatures from -55°C to +75°C (with 


an option for 
+85°C) allowing 
their use anywhere 
in the world. 

The 40/40 Series 
detectors are pro- 
grammable allow- 
ing the user alter 
factory default set- 
tings. Sensitivity 
levels, response 
time, alarm delay, 
heated lens opera- 
tion etc are all able to be modified where required, 
either pre-delivery or after installation. 

Various accessories are provided including a 
Flame Simulator to allow full 'end-to-end' proof 
testing in the Ex hazardous area. 



Fig 2 Ed - Flame Simulator 
with collimator 


SafEye Open Path Gas Detection for 
Combustible Gas Hazards 

Spectrex's SafEye ' Li ne-of-Si g ht' IR Hydrocarbon 
Gas Detectors feature unprecedented reliability 
and exceptional detection capability for flammable 
hydrocarbon gases/vapours in a wide range of 
hazardous conditions and ambient environments 

SafEye Open Path Hydrocarbon Gas Detectors, 
Series 700 and 200, monitor for combustible 
hydrocarbon gases over an open air 'path' of up 
to 460ft (140m) and can provide alarms prior to a 
fire or explosion event. The normal unit of 
measure for open-path detectors is the product of 
distance x concentration. Typical full scale is 0 - 5 
LEL. meters. Unit of measure is LEL. meters i.e. 1 
LEL. meter = 1 00% LEL over 1 metre (or 25% LEL 
over 4 meters etc). 

The 'flash' type radiation source ensures immu- 
nity to any false alarms and the unit functions 
effectively even in extreme environments, such as 
fog, rain, smog etc. Heated optics are also avail- 
able to ensure continued detection in extremes of 
weather. If the 'open-path' is ever completely 
blocked due to environmental or human interven- 
tion, a warning signal will be generated to allow 
corrective action or investigation. 

Alignment is a simple one-man operation using 
a telescope - no electronic hand held device 
needed or connecting cables between source and 
detector units. The wide alignment tolerance 
ensures that SafEye. 

SafEye detectors are fully Exd approved to ATEX 
and UL standards with a full range of interfaces 
including mA analogue, RS485 and HART. A SIL2 
version is also available. 


4 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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1986 


| 127-3FC 

Pressure Reducing 


In today's business climate, we believe a company should be held accountable by more than 
just regulations and government entities. At OCV, we answer to you-the customer-and you 
expect a high standard, demand solutions that work, and insist on products of quality. 

We also believe in longevity and commitment. Our Sales and Engineering teams offer new 
talent combined with seasoned professionals for a sum of over 283 years of experience. With 
companies failing and economic conditions changing overnight, isn't it nice to know you will 
get an answer every time you need help with an application? 

OCV wants to be your partner for managing fluid application needs - large or small. OCV 
continues to develop its broad spectrum of technical expertise, turning field experience and 
problem solving knowledge into a refined offering of services and state-of-the-art product. 

At OCV we put customer service at the top of our list. Our slogan says it best: Global Perfor- 
mance. Personal Touch. 


■ 108-2hp 

High Pressure Fire 
Pump Relief 


1980 


1974 


| 108FCA 

Fire Pump Relief 


' JTV 3331 


One Way Altitude 

65FC 

OCV enters the 
fire market 


1952 m OCV Founded 
Control Valves 




Control Valves 

Global performance. Personal touch. 


A 


Fin 





PROFILE 


For more information please 
contact: 

PPG Industries (UK) 
Limited 

Mr. Charles Taylor 
Tel: +44 1773 837 300 
Email: 

charlestaylor@ppg.com 
or visit our website: 
www.ppgpmc.com 


Steelguard fm 550 

Ferrari world - YAS island Complex - 
Abu Dhabi - united Arab Emirates 


P PG Protective & Marine Coatings is a world 
leader in the development and supply of 
performance coatings to protect steel and 
concrete structures from fire and corrosion around 
the world. 

We work closely with the world's leading 
architects and engineers to enhance the use and 
appearance of our fire protection products across 
many industries: construction, petrochemical, 
chemical processing and also for railway and road 
tunnels. 

Passive fire protection with thin-film 
intumescent coatings 

A 'thin-film' intumescent coating is the passive fire 
protection method that enhances the visual 
appearance of a structure and will even add to the 
design with decorative finish and colour. This 
allows architects to show the steel construction 
while at the same time protecting its structural 
integrity in case of fire, allowing for safe evacua- 
tion and enhancing the access time required for 
rescue workers. 

Thin-film intumescent coatings are commonly 
used on steel frame structures in airports, stadia, 
commercial, leisure, education, retail, manufactur- 
ing and industrial sectors. Intumescent coatings 
for the protection of steel from cellulosic fires 
are normally one-pack products - also known as 
thin-film intumescents. Their application is similar 
to painting by airless spray and results in extremely 
smooth surfaces. 

Structural steel members painted with fire-pro- 
tection intumescent coatings preserve their 
appearance. This is of major importance in modern 
architecture as the steel columns and beams are 
often visible and meant as a design feature in 
buildings, such as airports, hotels and sports 
stadia. To prove they are 'fit for purpose', intumes- 
cent coatings have to undergo a demanding fire 
test regime. Fire tests on several types and sizes of 
steel columns and beams are conducted using 
standardised conditions by accredited test facilities. 
In these tests the intumescent coating system has 
to prove its ability to keep the temperature of a 
steel section under a certain level - this being the 
critical temperature for a given time period, such 
as 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes. Raw data tables 
from this test will identify the appropriate film 
thicknesses that should be applied on each type 
and size of steel section to provide protection for 
the required period. In many cases these assess- 
ments have to be finally verified and certified by an 
independent party, often a state authority. 

PPG offers, under the trade name Steelguard, 
a complete range of intumescent coating systems 
for various grades of fire protection, climatic 
exposure conditions and application techniques 
while complying with many national standards. 

Fire Engineering Service 

Large projects frequently require additional fire engi- 
neering in which the coatings supplier, designer and 
contractor develop solutions for specific project 


Ferrari World YAS 
island - Case study 

PPG Protective & 

Marine Coatings in 
the Middle East 
was awarded the 
supply of the cellu- 
losic intumescent 
fire protection sys- 
tem for the Coast- 
er Bridge Buildings 
on the prestigious 
Ferrari World - YAS Island complex incor- 
porating the Abu Dhabi Grand Prix Circuit. The 
inaugural Grand Prix was held in November 
2009. 

Ferrari World Abu Dhabi is the world's 
largest indoor theme park, sitting under a roof 
designed in the style of a classic double-curve 
body shell of a Ferrari GT car. There is energy, 
excitement and passion for the entire family at 
Ferrari World Abu Dhabi. With over 20 rides and 
attractions, including the world's fastest roller- 
coaster, Ferrari World is more than a theme park 
- it is where Ferrari's legendary story is unveiled. 

Steelguard FM 550 was supplied for this pro- 
ject, protecting about 15,000 square meters of 
steel structures, protected against a 60-minute 
cellulosic fire. The constant professional 
perserverence by the PPG team resulted in the 
client selecting PPG Protective & Marine Coat- 
ings not only as the preferred manufacturer and 
supplier of the passive fire protection system, but 
also to ensure that the fast track project would 
be completed by November 2009. In addition, 
the contactor for this project made product 
comparisons indicating that Steelguard FM 550 
had the most favourable application and drying 
features. A polyurethane topcoat was used as a 
decorative and durable finish. 

This project represented a key strategic mile- 
stone in the drive to establish the PPG 
Steelguard range as the leading cellulosic fire 
protection product in the Middle East. 


applications and construction solutions to meet all 
fire protection requirements. With an experienced 
coatings supplier like PPG Protective & Marine Coat- 
ings, equipped with the latest laboratory facilities 
for formulating and fire testing, custom-made 
solutions can be developed to ensure dependable 
and compliant fire protection. D33 

Efi 

PPG Protective & 

Marine Coatings 



6 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




LG UARD 


Proven fire protection for civil building 


• Up to 120 minutes fire protection 

• National ancUirfternational certification 


• On-site ancWFf-site applicatiol 

• Engineerin^upport I 




/ 


3 PPG Protective & Marine Coatings 


www.ppgpmc.com 


PROFILE 


2010 NFPA confer 


Mark your calendars and plan to attend 
the most important event for the fire, 
life safety and electrical industry. Join 
NFPA and other likeminded professionals 
as we gather on June 7-1 0, 2010 for the 
2010 NFPA Conference & Expo - widely 
regarded as the most comprehensive 
event in the industry. The event 
combines an unrivaled educational 
conference and an exhibition with more 
than 300 exhibiting companies. You'll 
want to take advantage of the 
networking opportunities and gain 
up-to-date knowledge on codes and 
standards that relate to you. 

The Education Conference 

T he education conference includes an impres- 
sive list of industry experts. Presentations will 
included many case studies, code updates 
and results from a myriad of research projects. On 
Tuesday June 8, the featured presentation will be 
given by the newly appointed, Administrator for 
the Federal Emergency Management Agency's 
United States Fire Administration, Kevin Cochran. 
The presentation - "Putting the Fire Back in the 
U.5. Fire Administration: Shaping the Future " - will 
certainly be a huge attraction during the event. 
Kevin has over twenty-five years of experience in 
preventing and responding to fires and emergen- 
cies and extensive experience in the fire service 
including fire fighting, emergency medical services, 
hazardous materials response, public education 
and research and development. 

The entertainment during the general session is 
an annual highlight. This year the general session 
will feature Gerry McCambridge, better known as 
"The Mentalist". Gerry has been amazing audi- 
ences for over 30 years and has headlined many 
shows and appeared on countless radio and TV 
talk show including, "Late Night with David Letter- 
man," and "The Today Show" . McCambridge is 
also the crator and executive producer of the hit 
prime-time television show "The Mentalist". 

The conference schedule offers more than 130 
education sessions within 1 1 conference tracks. 
The Society of Fire Protection Engineers is pleased 
to once again sponsor the Fire Protection Engi- 
neering Track which will focus on the advance- 
ment and education of fire protection engineering. 
Rounding out the conference tracks are: 

• Building and Life Safety - This track concen- 
trates on practical information needed by 
designers, engineers, and building and fire 
officials, such as plans review, inspection tech- 
niques, and updates on code requirements, 
new technologies, and best practices. 

• Codes and Standards - This track focuses on 
providing information to assist with code appli- 
cation. Includes many sessions which discuss 
important code updates and changes. 



• Detection and Suppression - This track con- 
centrates on code requirements and design 
issues, the application of new technologies in 
alarm and suppression systems, and the impact 
of maintenance on systems performance. 

• Emergency Preparedness/Business Continu- 
ity - This includes information on assessing 
risks and consequences, emergency prepared- 
ness, contingency planning, incident manage- 
ment, and recovery plans. 

• Fire and Emergency Services - This track 
features current information on fire-fighting 
apparatus and technologies, safety and 


8 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


PROFILE 


ence & Expo 



preparedness for first responders, incident 
command strategies, and fire prevention and 
inspection techniques. 

• Facility Fire Safety and Security - Features 
of this track will emphasize new technology in 
industrial fire protection and emergency 
response, fuel storage issues, and security of 
industrial processes. 

• Electrical - This considers new electrical design 
issues, successful maintenance programs, and 
best practices in electrical contracting, effective 
inspection techniques, and practical electrical 
safety programs. 


• Loss Control/Prevention - This track provides 
essential information on preventing property 
damage due to threats posed by fire and other 
hazards. Help protect your organization and 
better understand how various hazards can 
affect your day-to-day operations. 

• Public Education - This track includes fire 
and life safety planning and strategies. Also 
offers the latest in safety education including 
challenges and creative solutions. 

• Research - The research track considers the 
latest information available on many timely 
issues, such as video smoke and flame detec- 
tion systems and reliability of water mist fire 
protection systems. 

• NEW! Green - This in-demand track includes 
session with a focus on environmentally friendly 
initiatives that affect the design, maintenance 
and testing for fire and life safety systems and 
components. 

The Expo 

The three-day expo will showcase many of the 
latest technologies and services from more than 
300 of the top solution providers in the fire 
and life safety, and electrical industries. Knowl- 
edgeable representatives from these companies 
will be available to answer your questions and 
offer solutions to your most pressing challenges. 
The exposition provides attendees the ideal 
location to see, touch and try products as well as 
meet with a company's technical staff. As always, 
the expo is free when you register in advance. 

Pre-Conference Seminars 

While the 2010 NFPA Conference & Expo officially 
begins on June 7th, you can arrive early to attend 
any of the 19 comprehensive pre-conference semi- 
nars being offered. Some of these seminars will 
only be offered in Las Vegas. Pre-conference 
seminars are priced separately from the main con- 
ference and are offered at a substantial discount 
from NFPA's regular seminar pricing. Why not 
come early and enrich your overall experience? 
The seminars include: 

Five 1-Day Seminars on Saturday 

• NFPA 3, Standard on Commissioning and 
Integrated Testing of Fire Protection and Life 
Safety Systems 

• Changes to NFPA 13, 2010 Edition 

• Designing and Installing Photovoltaic Systems 

• Risk Management/Property Loss 

• Water Mist Fire Protection Systems 

Seven 2-Day Seminars on Saturday & Sunday 

• CFPS Primer 

• NFPA 1, Fire Code 

• NFPA 1600, Disaster/Emergency Management 
and Business Continuity Programs 

• NFPA 921, Fire and Explosion Investigations 

• Code Requirements for Maintaining Fire & Life 
Safety Systems 

• NFPA 72®, Alarmas y Deteccion (en espanol) 

• NFPA 70E®, Electrical Safety in the Workplace® 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


9 



PROFILE 


Three 3-Day Seminars on Saturday - Monday 

• NFPA 13, Installation of Sprinkler Systems 

• NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm & Signaling Code 

• NFPA 101 , Life Safety Code Essentials 

Four 1-Day Seminars on Sunday 

• lAEI's Analysis of Changes - 201 1 (NEC) 

• Dust Explosion Hazards 

• Changes to NFPA 72, 201 0 Edition 

• Aviation Fire Safety 

NFPA Conference & Expo Blog 

Stay on top of all the important details regarding 
the NFPA Conference & Expo by visiting the blog 
site! To view the NFPA Conference & Expo blog 
site, go to: http://npfa.typepad.com/conference. 
Visitors to the site will find updated articles, live 
broadcasts and downloadable podcasts. Give feed- 
back before, during, and after the conference 
regarding your experience on the conference blog. 

NEW! Social Media 

Whether you are looking to get a recap of sessions 
and events as they happen or are interested in 
joining the conversation, NFPA's social media offer- 
ings make it easier and more accessible than ever. 

We're Blogging! 

NFPA's blog is the perfect source 
for news and commentary: 

http://nfpa.typepad.com/ 
conference/ 

The blog is also available in 
Spanish: 

http://nfpa.typepad.com/conferencia 

Twitter 

Interested in meeting your fellow Tweeters? Follow 
@NFPA to receive information on how to meet 
other Tweeters at our Tweet-up planned during the 
conference. You will also get updates on confer- 
ence news and details on giveaways! We hope you 
will join our conversation during the conference by 
using our 2010 Conference & Expo hashtag, 
#NFPA201 Owww.twitter.com/nfpa 

Facebook 

Check out Facebook for NFPA's fan page and the 
2010 Conference & Expo fan page for updates, 
photos, and general information. 

www.facebook.com/theNFPA 

www.facebook.com/NFPAconf 

Linkedln 

Find out what other NFPA Linkedln users are talk- 
ing about and join in on the conversation by 
becoming a member of our group! 

www.linkedin.com 

NEW! NFPA Mobile Application 

We are excited to introduce 
NFPA's new mobile application 
NFPA C&E, specifically 
designed for the 2010 NFPA 
Conference & Expo. Virtually 
all smartphone users (Black- 
berry, iPhone, Android, Palm 
OS, Symbian, Java, Windows 
Mobile, etc.) have free access to the application. 
Access all the information you need to make the 
most of your conference experience in the palm of 


your hand. To download NFPA C&E, you may go 
to the iTunes App Store, Android Market or Black- 
berry App World and search for NFPA C&E. If you 
are on any other mobile phone, you may down- 
load the application directly from your mobile 
browser by going to nfpa.boopsie.com. You will 
be prompted to download the application for your 
particular phone, or you may use the 'web lite' 
version of the application from your browser. 

The Association Technical Meeting 

At the heart of the codes and standards develop- 
ment process is the Association Technical Meeting. 
More than 30 documents are up for review this 
June including NFPA 70, National Electrical Code, 
NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Sys- 
tems and NFPA 654, Standard for the Prevention 
of Fire and Dust Explosions. Documents that cover 
flammable and combustible liquids, aircraft 
hangars, Class A foams, liquefied petroleum gas, 
explosive materials, laboratories using chemicals, 
and fire protection for marinas and boatyards and 
more will be voted on during these sessions. Tech- 
nical Committee (TC) members will receive 
20% off conference registration prices. 

Las Vegas 

Did you know that Las Vegas offers much more 
than casinos and bright lights? When you travel to 
Las Vegas, you enter a world that will captivate 
you by its international flare, superb dining choices, 
and award-winning shows. You are sure to be 
impressed by the unique building structures, mas- 
sive hotels and the countless attractions, sights 
and sounds of this destination city - especially the 
brand new $11 billion City Center. Depending on 
where you are traveling from, flights to Las Vegas 
are relatively inexpensive, couple that with endless 
dining options and reasonable hotel rates, and you 
have a perfect destination for any company 
budget. Come to the 2010 Conference & Expo for 
an incomparable learning experience and be sure 
to explore all that Las Vegas has to offer. 

Hotel Reservations/Registration 

NPFA has negotiated special rates at four Las 
Vegas hotels close to the Mandalay Bay Conven- 
tion Center and easily accessible by tram: 
Mandalay Bay Hotel, THEhotel at Mandalay Bay, 
Luxor and Excalibur. Hotel reservations can be 
made online at www.nfpa.org/conference or by 
calling the Las Vegas Hotel Housing Authority toll 
free (US) at 1-888-892-5822. Don't delay! Register 
now! D33 





10 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




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PREVIEW 



INTERSCHUTZ 


HAHN 


INTERNATIONALE LEITMESSE FUR RETTUNG, 
BRAND-/ KATASTROPHENSCHUTZ UND SICHERHEIT 

INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION FOR RESCUE, FIRE 
PREVENTION, DISASTER RELIEF, SAFETY, SECURITY 

LEIPZIG 7-12 JUNE 2010 



Interschutz, the world's largest trade exhibition aimed at the fire industry will 
soon be upon us. Held once every 5 years, anyone and anybody involved in the 
fire safety and fire fighting industry will be in Leipzig, Germany between the 
7th and 12th June 2010 attending this prestigious event. IFF takes a look at 
some essential information for visitors as well as exhibitors attending 
Interschutz. 


Student's day ticket (incl. young people 
in military or civilian service: ID required) 

11.00 EUR 

Tickets can be bought in advance via the Internet 
(www.interschutz.de) 

Free ride to and from event 

Your admission ticket entitles you to ride public 
transit free of charge* on the day of the event on 
all lines operated by the MDV transit authority 
(Mitteldeutscher Verkehrsverbund), valid for the 
following regions and fare zones: 

MDV fare zones 

*The visitor's free ride to and from the exhibition 
center via MDV-ope rated public transit lines on the 


VISITOR INFORMATION 

INTERSCHUTZ 2010, 7 to 12 June 

At a glance 
Duration: 

Monday, 7 June to Saturday, 1 2 June 2010 

Opening hours: 

Daily from 9.00 a.m. to 6.00 p.m. 

Admission prices: 

Advance sales and Ticket office 

Single admission 18.00 EUR 

Full-event ticket 41.00 EUR 


12 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

D D C\/l CIA# 


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day of the event is valid for the following regions 
and fare zones: 

Leipzig 

Leipzig County 
Nordsachsen County 
Mittelsachsen County 
Burgen County 
Halle 

Saale County 
Altenburger Land 

Catalogue: 

€17 plus postage and packaging (available 
approx. 3 weeks before opening day of event) 
Internet: http://www.interschutz.de/catalogue 

Visitor information: 

Internet: http://www.interschutz/visitorservice 
Email: interschutz@messe.de 

Getting there: 

If traveling by car, simply follow the signs to the 
exhibition center ( Messegelande ) in and around 
Leipzig; the Leipzig exhibition center is well sign- 
posted. Our dynamic parking guidance system will 
point you to the nearest parking space. 

If traveling to Leipzig by train, you can reach the 
exhibition center ( Messegelande ) from Leipzig 
Central Railway Station ( Hauptbahnhof) by taking 
the regional train, the FlughafenExpress train, the 
tram or a taxi. For more information, please 
inquire at the Service Point desk at Central Railway 
Station. 

Numerous airlines serve the Leipzig/Halle Air- 
port. There are over 300 direct flights to and from 
eight German cities and 72 cities abroad. 
Leipzig/Halle Airport also gives you easy access to 
the following major international airport hubs: 
Frankfurt, Munich, Paris and Vienna. 


Travel and accommodations: 

Do you prefer a quiet's night sleep, or would 
you rather be close to Leipzig's pulsating nightlife? 
The Leipziger Messe company can provide you 
with recommendations and reservations for any 
location or price category. Your selection of 
accommodations ranges from hotels, pensions 
and guesthouses with a total of 12,000 
beds between them - from "shoestring budget" 
to luxury. For more information, visit www.inter- 
schutz.de/61050. 

Parking: 

The press parking lot for journalists at Leipziger 
Messe is located inside the exhibition grounds next 
to the Messehaus building. The parking lot is 
accessible via Messe-Allee, South 1 gate. 

Range of exhibits: 

Vehicles and vehicle equipment, fire extinguishing 
appliances and systems, fire extinguishing 
agents, technical support and environmental 
protection, rescue, emergency, first-aid and med- 
ical equipment, personal protective equipment, 
measuring and detection apparatus, control- 
station and signaling technology, information and 
organization, equipment for fire stations and 
workshops, building and construction industry, 
structural and organizational fire protection, 
associations, organizations, service companies, 
technical literature, model making, fan articles, 
gifts, 

Exhibitors: 

The organizers anticipate some 1,100 exhibiting 
enterprises, occupying more than 80,000 m 2 of 
net display space. 

Press Center: 

At the Messehaus building, open from Sunday, 5 
June 2009, starting at 9:00 a.m. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


13 



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CHEMGUARD M DESU 


CHEMGUARD 

FIRE SUPPRESSION SOLUTIONS 

HALL 3, STAND C76 f 
BOOTH NO. C4 

Chemguard Leads with Innovative 
Products, Comprehensive Support 

Chemguard is a full-service ISO 9001:2008 certi- 
fied manufacturer of UL and FM approved fire 
suppression foams, equipment, and systems. 

Chemguard's Fire Suppression Division has 
been researching, developing, formulating, and 
distributing high-quality, dependable fire-fighting 
foam concentrates for more than two 
decades. Our efficient and environmentally friendly 
UL Listed/FM Approved foam products are used 
worldwide. Chemguard performs topside and 
sprinkler fire tests for a wide variety of test stan- 
dards at our onsite Fire Test Facility. We have 
obtained international approvals for Chemguard 
foam concentrates, including IMO, DNV, LASTFIRE, 
and EN 1568. 

Chemguard designs and manufactures an 
extensive line of fire-fighting foam hardware, 
including nozzles, monitors, and foam trailers. 
We also offer on-site product fabrication, includ- 
ing ASME bladder tank and custom foam 
skid fabrication. Our intensive quality control 
procedures ensure that equipment shipped from 
Chemguard reflects our reputation for excellence 
and is delivered on-time at competitive prices. 

Chemguard's systems engineers provide fire 
suppression systems design and applications 
assistance - reviewing specifications, providing 
value-added engineering alternatives, and 
supporting systems start-up. Working side by 
side with customers, we apply our years of 
experience designing systems for petrochemical 
facilities, hangars, flammable-liquid storage tanks, 
warehouses, and other challenging installations 
to maximize performance, efficiency, and 
effectiveness. 

The Chemguard Specialty Pumps Division man- 
ufactures a complete line of UL Listed/FM 
Approved positive-displacement foam concentrate 
pumps for fire-protection systems. Based on a 
proven design with several unique features, these 
durable pumps are built for years of dependable 
operation. 

Chemguard's research-based Specialty Chemi- 
cals Division produces a rapidly expanding selec- 
tion of fluorosurfactant and hydrocarbon 
surfactant specialty chemical products for formu- 
lating all types of fire-fighting foam products. 

Known around the world, Chemguard is 
recognized for comprehensive customer support, 
high-quality and field-tested products, and the 
ability to meet customer requirements through 
product customization. 

Contact details: 

Vice President of Sales and Marketing 
John Vieweger 
jvieweger@chemguard.com 



HALL 3, STAND NO. FI 9 

Having been in business since early 2005 success- 
fully, Desu Systems BV - Special Hazard Fire Detec- 
tion & Suppression - continues to strengthen its 
position in the EMEA market being specialist in 
Flame-, Gas- and Spark detection as well as Low 
Pressure C02 and kitchen fire suppression systems. 

During the Interschutz 2010 on the detection 
side of its business, the company is pleased to 
introduce its brand new line of 40/40 Flame Detec- 
tors ranging from UV and IR to UV/IR, IR3 and 
Multispectrum flame detectors, all CE marked, 
EN-54-1 0, ATEX EExde, SIL2, DNV, GOST-R and 
CPD approved and standard equipped with heated 
window optics. 

On the suppression side of its business, the 
company is pleased to introduce its UL-300, 
NFPA17A, NFPA96 approved and CE marked 
Kitchen Mister kitchen fire suppression system for 
which it obtained the distribution rights in EMEA 
from Buckeye Fire Equipment. 

For enquiries please contact Ronald 
Verkroost, rverkroost@desusystems.com or 
visit www.desusystems.com and come and 
see us in Hall 3, F19. 


DR STHAMER 


HALL 5, BOOTH G74 

Dr Sthamer - Hamburg, one Germany's oldest 
companies and Europe's leader in Fire Fighting 
Foam Concentrate Technology, will be displaying 
their latest developments in fire fighting foams 
and how they should be used utilizing several 
interactive displays. 

Dr Sthamer has the full range of Fire Fighting 
Foams to protect you assets, including the latest 
generation of Fluorine Free Alcohol Resistant 
Foams. 

Please visit us to discuss your needs and require- 
ments for Industrial, Municipal, Aircraft Rescue, 
Marine or Wildfire Fire Fighting Foams. 

Contact details: 

DR. STHAMER - HAMBURG Liebigstrasse 5, 

D22113 Hamburg, Germany 

Tel: +49 40 736168-0 

Fax: +49 40736168-60 

Website: www.sthamer.com 

Cell +44 7795 101770 • 

jknappert@sthamer.com 


14 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 










When It Comes to FIRE 
Only The Best is Good Enough 




SEE YOU THERE 

HALL: 5 

Stand No. C 20 (Main Stand) 
Stand No. F 77 - F 78 (bvfa) 




INTERSCHUTZ 

LEIPZIG - GERMANY 

7-12 June 2010 


■ Car Fire Extinguishers 

■ Portable Fire Extinguishers 

■ Mobile Fire Extinguishers 

■ Fire Fighting Trailers 

■ Self Actuated Fire Extinguishing Solutions 

■ Fire Cabmets with a Big Variety of Models and 
Accessories 


■ Rescue Equipment 

■ Detection Systems 

■ Total Suppression Systems 

■ Fire Fighting Equipment 

■ Fire Fighting School 

• ISO/IEC 17025 Accredited Laboratories 
According to EN3 Norms 


BAVARI Fire Fighting Solutins 
Germany - Egypt • Lebanon - U.A.E. - Sudan 

www.bavaria-firefighting.com info@bavaria-firefighting.com 







D D C\/| ClAf 

INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

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DUPONT 



The miracles of science"" 

HALL 001, STAND H10 

DuPont has been a leader in fire protection and a 
driving force in the development of safe, clean 
alternatives to commonly used fire suppression 
systems. We pioneered much of the science that 
makes clean agent fire extinguishants possible. 
Through the Science of Protection™, we are 
committed to protecting what matters most. 

DuPont™ FM-200® is accepted and respected 
worldwide, with a history of protecting some of 
the world's most critical and irreplaceable assets. 
In fact, FM-200® is in use in over one hundred 
thousand applications, in more than 70 nations. 

Many fire suppression systems can cause major 
damage to - and even destroy - the very things 
they are supposed to protect. FM-200® fire sup- 
pressant stops fires fast. When you consider the 
potentially devastating environmental effects of an 
uncontrolled fire, it's easy to see that an FM-200® 
system is an important part of an environmentally 
responsible fire suppression solution. 

FM-200® systems reach extinguishing levels in 
10 seconds or less, stopping ordinary combustible, 
electrical, and flammable liquid fires before they 
cause significant damage. That's the fastest fire 
protection available, period. When fire is extin- 
guished this quickly, it means less damage, lower 
repair costs, and an extra margin of safety for 
people. It also means less downtime and disruption 
of business. 

FM-200® fire suppressant can be safely used 
where people are present. 

In applications where space is at a premium, 
FM-200® fire suppression systems are the superior 
choice. The FM-200® agent is stored in cylinders 
as a liquid and pressurized with nitrogen, saving 
huge amounts of storage space. FM-200® systems 
take up to seven times less storage space than 
systems based on C02 and inert gases. 

For more information, visit: 
www.cleanagents.dupont.com 


FI RETRACE® 


FI RETRACE* 

AUTOMATIC FIRE SUP^SSION SYSTEMS 

HALL 003, STAND B76 

Firetrace® to showcase UL & FM 
Approved Fire Protection 

Firetrace International will be showcasing its full 
range of FIRETRACE® automatic fire detection and 
suppression systems at Interschutz in Leipzig, the 
only UL [Underwriters Laboratories] listed, FM 
[Factory Mutual] approved and CE [Conformite 
Europeene or European Conformity] marked tube- 
operated system in the world that is tested as an 


automatic fire detection and suppression system. 

The ISO 9001 :2008-certified company will also 
be highlighting a selection of the 1 50,000 success- 
ful FIRETRACE installations completed around the 
world. Today, these are protecting business-critical 
"micro-environments" such as electrical cabinets, 
machinery enclosures, fume hoods, engine com- 
partments, wind turbines and a host of other 
applications in the mining, pharmaceutical, manu- 
facturing, power generation, mass transit, 
telecommunication and petrochemical industries. 

The tried-and-tested system is truly unique 
among tube-operated systems. In addition to its 
endorsement by UL and FM, and its CE marking 
that confirms its compliance with the essential 
requirements of the relevant European health, 
safety and environmental protection legislation, 
FIRETRACE has accreditations and approvals from 
more than 25 other world-renowned independent 
agencies. It also stands apart from its competitors 
by being able to be supplied with a variety of 
suppression agents, the choice of which is tailored 
to the precise fire risk. 

Currently, the FIRETRACE suppression options 
include the latest environmentally-acceptable clean 
agents such as 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire Suppres- 
sion Fluid and DuPont™ FM-200®, together with 
ABC dry chemical agents and AFFF foam. C0 2 
[carbon dioxide] is another FIRETRACE extinguis- 
hant, although the company points out that 
extreme care has to be taken to ensure that it is 
not used in any applications where there is a risk 
of thermal shock to delicate electrical equipment. 

Genuine FIRETRACE is available only via Fire- 
trace International's global network of authorised 
distributors. These trading partners are skilled in 
hazard analysis, agent and system selection, instal- 
lation, commissioning and support, and use only 
genuine FIRETRACE components. Details of these 
authorised distributors are available by contacting 
Firetrace International at info@firetrace.com. 

European, Middle Eastern and African opera- 
tions for Firetrace International are managed from 
the company's EMEA administration, manufactur- 
ing and logistics facility near Gatwick in the UK. 

Further information is available on +44 (0) 
1293 780390, or from Firetrace International 
headquarters in Scottsdale, Arizona USA on 
+1 480 607 1218. The company's website is 
at www.firetrace.com 


FOGTEC 


FOGTEC' 

FIRE PROTECTION 

HALL 5, STAND NO. D45 

FOGTEC is the leading specialist for high-pressure 
water mist systems. FOGTEC systems use pure 
water, converting it to fine mist at a pressure 
around 100 bar. These systems are not only 100% 
eco-friendly but are often more effective than con- 
ventional gas or water fire fighting equipment. 
The high energy binding potential and the local 
inerting effect allows to reduce the required water 
amount to 10% of the one required by conven- 
tional systems. 



16 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 









From individual pumps to 

total systems... ive have it all. 





r— 




ducts made for fire fighting in th 
^ical and petro-chemical industry 

us at Interschutz Hall 5 - booth C46 

1 






A4? 


AVK INTERNATIONAL A/S 

Bizonvej 1 , Skovby • 8464 Galten • Denmark 
Tlf.: +45 87 54 21 00 • Fax: +45 87 54 21 20 
www.avkvalves.com • sales@avk.dk 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


17 


D D C\/| C1AI 

INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

r K t V 1 1 VV 



With 45 system partners FOGTEC globally offers 
its systems for applications like offices, hotels, 
museums, archives, industrial applications, ships, 
trains and tunnels. A team of specialised engineers 
are developing and designing the systems in the 
head office in Cologne, in Rostock and in the 
Asian offices in Mumbai and Shanghai. 

In the field of tunnel protection FOGTEC is the 
market leader. Tunnels have been protected in 
Madrid, Moscow, Newcastle and along the Bren- 
ner motorway in Italy. FOGTEC has been awarded 
as part of a consortium the contract for the fire 
protection system in the Eurotunnel. After success- 
ful full scale fire tests with fire sizes up to 200 
MW, an optimal protection concept including 
detection and fire fighting with water mist in four 
SAFE stations of each 900 m length along the two 
bores of the Eurotunnel is currently in the installa- 
tion phase within the tunnel. The system localises 
a fire on the train wagons within the tunnel and 
reduces the heat release and temperatures to 
allow personnel to safely evacuate the trains and 
the fire brigade to carry out fire fighting measures. 

For more details please visit us at our booth Hall 
5 No. D45 on the Interschutz exhibition. 

Further information: 

FOGTEC Brandschutz GmbH & Co KG 

Schanzenstrasse 19 A 

51630 Koln 

www.fogtec.com 

contact@fogtec.com 


GIELLE srl 



HALL 001, STAND NO. D16 

Gielle srl, the parent company of the Gielle Group, 
with more than 45 years of experience in the field 
of fire fighting, has become one of the leading 
European companies in the design and manufac- 
ture of automatic fire fighting systems. 

Technological innovation, quality and interna- 
tionalization are the strong points that have made 
Gielle one of the most qualified companies in this 
field. 

This active and dynamic company supplies its 
systems all over the world and offers a level of 
professionalism to its clients that is unsurpassed. 
ISO 9001, ISO 14001, BS OHSAS 18001, SA 8000, 
ATEX 94/9/C E and PED 97/23/C E certifications of 
its integrated management system make an undis- 
puted statement of Gielle's full potential. 

In nearly half a century the Group has always 
considered flexibility one of its major strengths. 

Gielle also has an advanced R&D division which 
is supported by its motivated engineering, techni- 
cal sales, administration, production and market- 
ing departments, all with a single goal in mind: 
customer satisfaction. 

Our mission is to make the world a safer place. 
To do this, we develop and supply advanced fire 
fighting products and systems, supported by first 
class service. People and businesses everywhere 
trust our brands and depend on our expertise to 
protect what is most valuable. 

Including fire detection, fire suppression and fire 


control products. Our products set the benchmark 
for fire safety detection, prevention and protec- 
tion. We are devoted to protecting people, proper- 
ty and processes from everyday hazards and 
danger. People trust us to do that because we are 
experts in our field. And that trust is reinforced by 
the quality we instill in everything we do. 

Our fire suppression products include: 
FM_200®, Argonite®, 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire 
Protection Fluid, FE-13™, WHDR wet chemical, 
IND dry chemical and a wide range of fire extin- 
guishers. 

We hope that our company can be included 
in your vendor list and You can request any 
quotations for any type of project. 


BLAZEMASTER® 


Blaze Master 

FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS 

HALL 5, STAND NO. El 3/1 

It may be surprising to learn that the first fire 
sprinkler systems were not designed with any 
thought of protecting human life, but were 
installed almost exclusively for the protection of 
buildings and their contents! It was not until the 
middle of the last century, following several fires in 
the U.S. that resulted in large losses of life, that 
authorities realised the importance of providing 
life safety systems for building occupants. 

A fire sprinkler system with proven performance 
in protecting lives and buildings worldwide is the 
BlazeMaster fire sprinkler system, utilising CPVC 
pipes and fittings. 

CPVC stands for chlorinated polyvinylchloride 
and is a plastic material which was developed orig- 
inally in the 1950s. BlazeMaster CPVC pipes and 
fittings are specially designed for use in fire sprin- 
kler systems. BlazeMaster fire sprinkler systems 
have gained world wide recognition with over 300 
million metres installed around the world since its 
introduction in 1984. 

Today BlazeMaster fire sprinkler systems are 
used in a wide variety of residential and commer- 
cial applications such as high rise buildings, hotels, 
educational and healthcare facilities, and in domes- 
tic dwellings. BlazeMaster systems are increasing in 
popularity due to the following benefits: 

Durability and long service life: No corrosion! 

Superior Hydraulics: Hazen Williams C-Factor of 
150! 

Fast Installations, Easy Handling: Fast jointing 
process! Easy transport and handling on jobsite! 

Light Weight: One fitter can lift, carry and install 
the pipe work on his own, even for bigger 
diameters! 

To learn more about BlazeMaster fire sprinkler 
systems, please visit us at our stand El 3/1 - 
Hall 5 at the Interschutz in Leipzig, Germany or 
contact Sinikka Freidhof, Market Development 
Manager EMEAI, Lubrizol Advanced Materials 
Europe BVBA, Chaussee de Wavre 1945, B-1160 
Brussels, Belgium, sinikka.freidhof@ 
lubrizol-be.com, Tel: +32 2 678 1911 


18 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 






FireDos GmbH 

Admixing Systems for Fire-fighting 
The intelligent choice for admixing systems 

• No external energy required 

• Working flow-proportional 

• Easy installation and handling 

• Retrofitting into existing systems possible 

• Versions for stationary installations, or vehicles and mobile applications available, 
also for use with seawater 

• Large flow ranges and dosing ranges covered 

• Not affected by changing pressure or flow rate 

• Suitable for all common fire-fighting liquids 

Auf der Kaulbahn 6 • D-61200 Wolfersheim • Germany 

Tel. +49(0)60 36/ 97 96-0 • Fax +49(0)6036/9796-30* E-Mail msr@msr-dosiertechnik.de 


7 




www.firedos.de 


Manufacturer and Designer 
of Globally Approved 
Fire Extinguishing Systems 

Clean Agent 

High Pressure Carbon Di|>Xid 
Low Pressure Carbon Dioxide 
Water Mist 
Foam 
Alarm and Detection 
Air Sampling Smoke Detection 

YOUR GATEWAY TO A NEW KIND OF SERVICE 


+1 219-663-1600 • www.janusfiresystems.com 

1 102 Rupcich Drive, Crown Point, IN 46307 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


19 






Mcwic Alice VA«se Alice 

n F==ni 

i 


Display Categories 


Vehicles and vehicle equipment 

Hall 1,2,4 + Open-air ground 1 


Fire extinguishers appliances and systems, 
extinguishing agents 

Hall 1, 5 


Technical support and environmental 
protection 

Hall 1,2 + Open-air ground 1 


Rescue, emergency, first-aid and medical 
equipment 

Hall 1, 2, 3 + Open-air ground 1 


Personal protective equipment 

Hall 1 and 3 


INTERSCHUTZ 2010 


Control station and signaling technology 

Hall 3 


Information and organization technology 

Hall 3 


Equipment for fire stations and 
workshops 

Hall 1, 5 


Building and construction industry, 
structural and organisational fire 
protection 

Hall 1, 5 


Associations, organizations, services 

Hall 1, 2, 3, 5 


20 


Measuring and detection apparatus 

Hall 3 


Trade literature, model making, gift items 

Hall 1, 2, 4 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 













n n 



Beiucher 1 


The benefits of 
exhibiting at the 
show 

The No.1 event in the industry calendar 

With more than 120,000 visitors and over 1,200 
exhibitors, INTERSCHUTZ is the leading inter- 
national trade fair for public safety. Featuring 
the world's largest array of exhibits for disaster 
prevention, rescue and emergency services, 
INTERSCHUTZ offers you a fantastic opportunity to 
demonstrate the competence of your company 
and organization to the entire industry - with just 
one trade fair presentation. 

Unique concept 

Due to the combination of commercial and non- 
commercial exhibitors under the same roof you 
benefit as a supplier from directfeedback from the 
users of your security solutions. This puts you in an 
excellent position to fine-tune your product range 
to meet changing market needs. 


INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

D D C\/l CIA# 


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EG 


© 


Press Centre 
Entrance 

Q 

Station Leipzig 
Messe 

EC-Cash 

dispensing 

machine 


Heliport 

Business 

Lounge 

H 

First aid 

Restaurant 

+ 

Fair shop 

Parking 

Shop 

Cafe 

Airport-City- 

Shuffle 

£ 

Police 

Taxi 

□ 

Customs 

Tram line 16 

z 

Forwarding 

Agencies 

Tram 

i 

MaxicoM 

Bus Stop 

MM 

(Euro-Asia 
Business Group) 


Efficient business platform 

With over 90% of visitors classed as trade visitors, 
you can be certain of reaching large numbers 
of decision-makers and buyers. This makes 
INTERSCHUTZ an ideal platform for successful new 
product launches and business deals. 

International audience 

At INTERSCHUTZ you'll meet top decision-makers 
from all over the world. This gives you ready 
access to profitable new markets. 

Barometer of trends 

Learn about pioneering innovations and key trends 
within the industry at the conferences, symposia 
and corporate lectures that accompany the show. 
You'll benefit from the professional expertise of 
leading experts and gather useful information for 
shaping the future course of your company and 
organization. 

Attention guaranteed 

An extensive advertising campaign and an attrac- 
tive program of events serve to generate and 
maintain the interest of visitors and the media. 

Excellent facilities 

The modern exhibition complex in Leipzig with its 
fascinating steel and glass architecture provides 
you with everything you need in terms of both 
organization and technical facilities. 

Reasonably priced entry 

For as little as Euro 5,321 (plus VAT) you can book 
a 20 m 2 fair-package system stand, fully fitted and 
ready to go - and enjoy all the benefits of exhibit- 
ing at INTERSCHUTZ. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


21 





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MINIMAX 


£W Jirur* ' 
fist Proitchnt itf 


HALL 5, BVFA STAND NO. F78 
HALL 1, VBBD STAND NO. H38 

At INTERSCHUTZ, Minimax, a firm world leader 
in fire protection, presents new visual product 
highlights of mobile fire protection: design fire 
extinguishers and wall hydrants. In addition to 
this, innovative developments for smoke and heat 
exhaust venting systems will be unveiled. Concern- 
ing system operation, visitors at INTERSCHUTZ will 
be introduced to the 'Smart Systems' compact 
systems with easy assembly. 

Functional safety, durability and the best 'Made 
in Germany' quality - Minimax Mobile Services has 
developed its new generation of fire extinguishers 
based on this pledge. As a fire extinguisher pro- 
ducer with the highest rate of vertical integration, 
we use complex quality control procedures to 
guarantee standards at every production stage. 

The Minimax design extinguishers not only 
ensure safety, but also add stylish design touches. 
Thanks to the four new versions - the refined 
Edition Line, the Logo Line, the unique Individual 
Line and the exclusive Luxury Line - you can now 
let your creativity run free. 

The design wall hydrants in the Minimax Pres- 
tige Line & Future are also guaranteed to be the 
stylish centre of attention. This individual combina- 
tion of reliable protection and style is currently 
only offered by Minimax Mobile Services - the 
company has received exclusivity rights for distrib- 
ution in Germany. 

The smoke and heat exhaust venting stairwell 
system provides effective smoke ventilation in the 
event of a fire, thus ensuring vital smoke-free 
escape and rescue routes. Reliable smoke removal 
from lift shafts in accordance with the valid EnEV 
law is guaranteed by the new lift shaft smoke 
extraction system (LiSE), which will be unveiled for 
the first time at INTERSCHUTZ. 

The product portfolio offered by the new Mini- 
max sales branch, Smart Systems Sales, consists of 
pre-assembled fire protection systems with easy 
installation. Examples of this are the active extin- 
guishing system OneU and the MX 1230 or MX 
200 compact extinguishing systems. The Smart 
Systems can be used almost anywhere where 



compact systems optimally meet fire protection 
requirements and can be installed without com- 
plex assembly procedures. 

Unified, structured and effective - this is the 
motto of the new operations control for the ELSA 
field staff service, which ensures that capacities are 
used optimally and effectively, whilst also greatly 
reducing reaction times for emergency services. 

Press contact: 

Minimax GmbH & Co. KG 
Business Unit Technologies 
Marketing: Airi Loddoch 
Tel: +49 4531 803-495 
Fax: +49 4531 803-500 
Email: LoddochA@minimax.de 
www.minimax.de 


MSA 


AA5A 


The Safety Company 
HALL 3, STAND NO. A74 

MSA has once again redefined the high perfor- 
mance multi-gas detector with the new ALTAIR 5. 
Capable of measuring up to six gases simultan- 
eously, the ALTAIR 5 can be fitted with a wide 
range of both toxic and infra-red sensors, providing 
the flexibility required to meet most applications. 
There is even the option to have a diffusion 
instrument or one with a built-in pump. 

The multifunctional alarms, MotionAlert and 
InstantAlert, are standard on the ALTAIR 5. When 
enabled, the MotionAlert with motion detector 
alerts anyone in the vicinity if the user is in distress 
with audible and visual alarms. The user can also 
alert anyone nearby with a 3 second button press, 
activating the InstantAlert alarm. The ALTAIR 5 
comes with the proven high performance triple 
alarm system, 24 hour bump test checkmark and 
comprehensive data-logging facility as standard. 

On top of this ALTAIR 5 can offer the Wireless 
USB option that allows the integration into the 
alpha Personal Network. This monitoring and 
alarm system consists of modular and wireless 
components. These can be individually integrated 
to enable those wearing breathing apparatus and 
portable gas detection equipment to be easily 
monitored by sending information to a central 
control station. Gas readings and alarms can now 
be transmitted and displayed in real time. 

Gas concentrations and other data can be seen 
at a glance via the full graphical monochrome dis- 
play or the optional high resolution colour display 
which provides simple yet comprehensive informa- 
tion instantly and can be customised with a 
company logo. 

The rechargeable battery provides up to 15 
hours of continuous operation from a charge time 
of up to six hours. With reliability a key factor, 
ALTAIR 5 has an extremely durable rubberized 
housing for water and dust ingress protection (IP 
65). An intuitive three button operation ensures 
the ALTAIR 5 is extremely easy to use even when 
wearing gloves and the 18 pre-programmed 


22 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 









Dr Sthamer - Hamburg 
Fire Fighting Foams 


Synthetic Foams 

• Moussol APS 

• Moussol FF 

• Sthamex AFFF 

• Sthamex 

• Sthamex class A 



Protein Foams 

• Fluor-Foamousse 

• Foamousse FFFP 

• Foamousse OMEGA 

• Foamousse 

Ready To Use Foams 

• Fettex 

• Mousseal-C 

• Mousseal-CF 

• Mousseal-ATC 

Training Foams 
24/7 

EMERGENCY 
SUPPLIES 
+49 40 7361680 


We offer a comprehensive range of high performance and environmentally friendly foams. 



Dr.STHAMER 


Head Office and Factory Hamburg 

Liebigstrasse 5 • D-22113 Hamburg 

Phone +49 40 736168-0 

Telefax +49 40 736168-60 

E-Mail: info@sthamer.com • www.sthamer.com 


International Sales Contact 

Mr. Jan Knappert 

Phone +44 (0) 7795 101770 

E-mail: jknappert@sthamer.com 






D D Cl/I C1AI 

INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

r K t V 1 1 VV 



languages further enhance its user acceptance all 
over the world. 

The GALAXY is the ALTAIR 5's perfect com- 
panion providing automated record keeping, 
calibration, testing and charging system. 

The versatile ALTAIR 5 can be configured for 
individual requirements to suit a myriad of applica- 
tions in and beyond the following industries: oil 
and gas, chemicals, steel and iron, utilities, fire ser- 
vice, waste water, civil engineering and contractors. 

For further information please contact your 
local MSA representative or check our 
website www.msa-europe.com. 


NFPA 


[ 5 ] 

NFPA 

HALL 3, STAND NO. B76 

NFPA is an international, private, nonprofit mem- 
bership organization founded in 1896 as the 
National Fire Protection Association. Today, with 
more than 81,000 members representing nearly 
100 nations and 320 employees around the world, 
NFPA serves as the world's leading advocate of fire 
prevention and is an authoritative source on public 
safety. In fact, NFPA's 300 codes and standards 
influence every building, process, service, design, 
and installation in the United States, as well as 
many of those used in other countries. 

NFPA codes and standards have helped save 
lives and protect property around the world. The 
volunteers and staff of NFPA are dedicated to the 
single mission of continually enhancing public 
safety. That dedication can be seen in the 
codes and standards that are adopted - docu- 
ments developed through NFPA's commitment to 
creating a true consensus among those interested 
in safety. 

NFPA's mission to save lives and property from 
fire and other hazards isn't limited by national 
boundaries. Over the past decade, NFPA has trans- 
formed itself from a national organization with 
international influence to a truly international 
organization. We have established offices in 
Canada, Mexico, France and China, and many of 
our codes have been translated into Spanish, 
French, Portuguese, Chinese and Korean. We've 
established collaborative relationships with our 
counterparts around the world, and not a week 
passes that we don't get visitors from other coun- 
tries. We also conduct seminars worldwide and 
host hundreds of international visitors during our 
annual member meeting NFPA's Congress and 
Exposition. 

Further information: 

One Batterymarch Park 
Quincy, MA 02169 
Tel: +1-617-770-3000 
www.nfpa.org 


SOLBERG 



SOLBERG 

HALL 5, STAND NO. F29 

Solberg Scandinavian "The Foam Experts" are 
renowned for their forward thinking and active 
Research and Development program. They pride 
themselves on being at the forefront of new, 
state-of-the-art technology and indeed are proud 
to be able to offer our customers the very latest in 
PFC free Foams. 

We are now pleased to be able to add two new 
innovative products. 

Customers have told us that there is a need for 
a multi-purpose foam for use on both Class \A' 
and Class \B' fires. Solberg Scandinavian's R&D 
team got to work and has developed an addition 
to its PFC Free foam range, which we have called 
'Re-Healing Foam MB'. 

The benefits and characteristics of this new 
foam is that it can be used at 0.5% on Class \A' 
fires, and 3% on Class \B' hydrocarbon fires, 
including Bio-Fuels from E5 right up to E85. This 
pseudoplastic foam concentrate can be used with 
most of the existing proportioning systems and it 
can be used at low, medium or high expansion 
(800:1). A further benefit to this new product is its 
ability to adhere to vertical surfaces creating a 
thermal barrier from radiated heat and allowing 
constant cooling as water ebbs from the foam 
bubble structure. This new feature gives fire fight- 
ers the opportunity to seal surrounding risks while 
they extinguish the main fire. 

Sealing and controlling ammonia spills is 
extremely difficult due to the constant boiling of 
the ammonia at ambient temperatures destroying 
a conventional foam blanket. It requires a new 
product to secure and prevent any further escala- 
tion. Solberg Scandinavian is pleased to be able to 
announce a new state-of-the-art foam concen- 
trate designed specifically to resolve this issue. It is 
an addition to the PFC Free range of foams and is 
called 'Re-Healing Foam H+'. 

'Re-Healing Foam H+' is specifically manufac- 
tured to deal with ammonia spills, allowing fire- 
fighters to control and secure an incident without 
compromising safety. 

For more information on these new products and 
to review our current range of PFC Free foams which 
include Re-Healing Foams RF3 & RF6 for hydrocarbon 
fires, Re-Healing Foam RF3x6 ATC for polar solvent 
fires, Fire Brake a USDL listed Class 'A' Foam and of 
course our Solberg TF5X Training foam please visit us 
at the Interschutz Exhibition in Hall 5 Stand F29 

Solberg with offices in Norway, UK and Australia 
is an innovative, forward thinking foam manufac- 
turer and very aware of its environmental responsi- 
bilities. At Interschutz, this company has decided to 
focus 100% on their PFC free foam range. 

Besides the Fire-Brake class A product, often just 
at forest fires and also suitable for tyre-fires they 
would like to inform visitors also about their PFC 
free Class A and B product line: Re-Healing Foam™ 


24 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 







\ EUSEBI I M PI ANTI 

m AUTOMATIC FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEMS 


oil & gas plants 

power and nuclear plants 


I industrial facilities 
chemical plants 

logistic centers and malls 
navy and shipbuilding 
military applications 
civil applications 




» 




Ui 

a 

£ 

a 



INTERSCHUTZ 



MS 


Eusebi Impianti srl is pleased to invite 
you to visit its stand, F 53 Halt 5 , 
during next Interschutz exhibition 
that will take place from 7 to 12 june in Leipzig 


CC 

o 

£ 


www.eusebigroup.com 
EUSEBI IMPIANTI srl 

Via M. Natalucci. 6-60131 ANCONA Tel. +39.071.9504900 - Fax +39 071.2865099 

www.euaebMmpianti.it eusebi@eusebi-impianti.it 






D D C\/l C1AI 

INTERSCHUTZ 2010 

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Within this group their are two new products: 
One, Re-Healing Foam MB, especially designed for 
the municipal fire-brigades, it is suitable for extin- 
guishing Class A fires as well as Hydrocarbon fires 
including bio-fuels El 5 up to E95. The other new 
product is Re-Healing Foam H+(+ at right top corner) 
which can be used to cover Ammonia-spills. 

We like to welcome everybody on our Stand no 
F29 which you can find in Hall 5. 


SPP PUMPS LTD 



HALL 1, STAND NO. FI 5 

SPP Pumps Ltd is the world's leading specialist 
manufacturer of quality fire protection products 
including fire pumps, pump packages, pre-fabri- 
cated pump houses and fire pump system remote 
monitoring solutions. Unrivaled experience in 
design and manufacture together with advanced 
testing and accreditation ensures the utmost in 
equipment reliability. 

SPP fire pumps are proud to comply with the 
demanding requirements of the Loss Prevention 
Certification Board (LPCB), Factory Mutual 
Approvals (FM), Underwriters Laboratories Inc. 


(UL), APSAD, CNBOP, ZUS, PSB and ANPI. 

You will find SPP products in major airports, oil 
and gas installations, in many of the tallest, most 
prestigious buildings around the world and in the 
channel tunnel between the UK and France. In 
fact, you will find SPP fire pumps wherever people 
and property need to be protected from the 
devastation of fire. 

The protection of life is not a matter for com- 
promise. This is particularly true for fire protection 
systems where they are only as strong as their 
Xweakest link'. Any compromise could result in 
avoidable loss of life or property. 

That is why SPP fire pump products are 
designed specifically for the very particular needs 
of fire protection and are approved by most of the 
major fire protection bodies around the world. 

Fire pump approvals are essential for the peace of 
mind of those that build, operate or use buildings. 
The approval demonstrates that an independent 
assessment has been made of the fire pump manu- 
facturers' products and processes and maintain that 
they conform to current industry standards. 

See a demonstration of the latest SPP remote 
monitoring capability on stand FI 5, in Hall 1 . 


VICTAULIC 


\As. 


■ctaulic 


Quality Fire 
Resistance Testing 



Fire resistance test equipment for indicative testing 
and certification of horizontal and vertical specimens, 
including columns, beams & ducts. Suppliers to national 
certification laboratories worldwide . M 


/ FURNACE 

/ CONSTRUCTION 
fCo. Ltd. 


Newton Moor Industrial Estate, Hyde, Cheshire 
SK14 4LF, United Kingdom. 

Tel: 0161 368 8419 
Fax: 0161 368 3813 

Email: sales@furnace-construction.co.uk 


lurgical Heat Treatment Furnace 
Non-Ferrous Melting Furnaces 


; ■ Kilns for Advanced Ceramics 
Cremators and Incinerators 


HALL 1, STAND NO. J62 

Victaulic, the world leader in mechanical pipe join- 
ing systems, is showcasing its latest fire protection 
solutions at INTERSCHUTZ. The main product on 
show will be its new FireLockEZ® Style 009H Rigid 
Coupling with its pre-assembled, no-loose-parts 
approach to installation. 

Based on feedback from contractors, the revolu- 
tionary FireLockEZ® Style 009H Rigid Coupling is 
designed as a lightweight, installation-ready cou- 
pling. It is a fast, simple coupling solution that is safe 
to install, even with hand tools, and delivers a solid 
performance. It has no loose parts to drop or cause 
injury, ships to the jobsite ready to install and offers 
the fastest installation times currently on the market. 

The Style 009H Rigid Coupling is available in 
DN32 - DN1 00/42.4 - 114.3mm sizes and is FM 
and VdS Approved and cULus Listed for fire protec- 
tion services up to 2517 kpa/365 psi. Frank 
Lewandowsky, Fire Protection Manager for Victaulic 
in Germany, comments: "We have chosen to show- 
case the FireLockEZ® Style 009H Rigid Coupling at 
INTERSCHUTZ as it is central in terms of cost, time 
and maintenance benefits for any consultant 
involved in the design, installation or management 
of a fire protection system. With the built-in speed 
of installation of the FireLockEZ® Style 009H Rigid 
Coupling, we are expecting the range to be very 
popular throughout Europe and internationally." 

Victaulic fire protection products are employed in 
some of the world's most prestigious building pro- 
jects, such as the Sony Centre in Berlin, the Alexan- 
dria Library in Egypt, the Grand Media Towers in 
Indonesia and the Shanghai World Financial Centre. 


26 


For more information, visit 
www.victaulic.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 








FIRE SUPPRESSION SOLUTIONS 


FIRE & HAZARD CONTROL 


CHEMGUARD 

THE GLOBAL LEADER IN FLUOROSURFACTANT AND FOAM CONCENTRATE TECHNOLOGY 

AND 

WILLIAMS FIRE & HAZARD CONTROL 

THE GLOBAL LEADER IN FLAMMABLE LIQUID FIRE FIGHTING 


(r) (r) 

Chemguard now manufactures the complete line of Williams Thunderstorm and T-STORM products, 
including the premiere fire-fighting foam concentrate, F-601B 1x3 AR-AFFF. 


www.chemguard.com 


www.williamsfire.com 







What's the 
>t way to si 







| That's why Dynax developed DX5022! 



In 1994 Dynax pioneered the industry's first C6-telomer derived Foam Stabilizer for AR-AFFF 
and AR-FFFP agent producers. Fifteen years later Dynax introduced DX5022, its third generation 
C6 Foam Stabilizer, which provides superior polar solvent performance. 

DX5022 is the Foam Stabilizer of choice by AR-Agent producers worldwide. 

DX5022 allows agent producers to formulate 3x3 and 1x1 AR-Agents with little or no polysaccharide 
gums - Newtonian agents meeting international standards are now possible! 

DX5022 is neither derived from nor does it degrade into PFOA. DX5022 meets the US EPA PFOA 
Stewardship objectives of 2010/2015. And DX5022 has low aquatic and mammalian toxicity. 


DX5022: Performance Profile 


H DX5022; Environmental Profile 


Provides superior performance on acetone, 
ethanol and gasohol 

Reduces or eliminates the need for 
polysaccharide gums 

Can be formulated into Newtonian 3X3 or 
1X1 AR-Agents 

Can be formulated into products that meet 
EN 1568 and UL 162 


Neither derived from nor degrades into PFOA 
Relatively harmless to Fingerling Rainbow Trout 
Relatively harmless to Daphnia magna 
No harmful oral toxicity (rat) 

No skin or significant eye irritation (rabbit) 


Has low viscosity for ease of handling in production 


Additional product information available. Just call us. 



DYNAX CORPORATION 
PO Box 285, Pound Ridge, NY 10576 USA 
T 914 764 0202 techinfo@dynaxcorp.com 

F 914 764 0553 www.dynaxcorp.com 





FOAMS 



The Phaseout That 
Didn't Happen 


AFFF Foams Move into the Future 


By Tom Cortina 


It has been ten years since 3M sent a shock wave through the fire protection 
industry with their announcement that they would end production of PFOS- 
based AFFF foams because of environmental issues with the fluorosurfactants 
they contained. This is also about the time that many so-called "experts" said 
that all AFFF foams would be phased out of production for similar environmental 
reasons. Instead, telomer-based AFFF foams continue to be the agent of choice 
to protect against flammable liquid fires, and manufacturers have developed 
enhanced foam formulations with reduced environmental impacts that can be 
used well into the future. Why were the experts wrong in their predictions? 


Fire Fighting Foams 
Coalition 


Halon experience colors industry view 

P art of the reason for the speculation about a 
possible phaseout of AFFF foam after the 3M 
announcement was that at the time, the fire 
protection industry's only real experience with 
environmental regulation was the phaseout of 
halons as ozone-depleting substances. Based on 
this experience many people in the industry 
assumed that this is how environmental regulation 
works; a chemical is determined to have some 
negative impact and is banned from future pro- 
duction. In reality, however, the phaseout of 
ozone-depleting substances was a unique situa- 
tion. Most environmental regulation focuses on 
the toxicity of a substance and has the goals of 
reducing emissions to the environment and expo- 
sure to humans. Very rarely are chemicals actually 
banned from production. For ozone-depleting sub- 
stances, the focus was atmospheric effects and it 


was determined that the only way for the ozone 
layer to recover fully was to end the worldwide 
production of these chemicals. 

The other reason for speculating about a pos- 
sible phaseout of AFFF was business related. Com- 
panies selling non-fluorosurfactant foams saw an 
opportunity to use the negative publicity surround- 
ing the 3M announcement as a way to enhance 
sales of these less effective alternatives. Unfortu- 
nately that practice continues today, even though 
it seems clear that global regulation of AFFF is not 
on the horizon. We continue to see articles in fire 
protection journals from manufacturers of fluo- 
rine-free foams that contain misleading and in 
some cases false information about the environ- 
mental impacts and future regulation of AFFF. The 
strange thing about this situation is that many of 
these same companies also sell AFFF. If they actually 
believe what they write in these articles, that 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


29 



C n A M c 

THE PHASEOUT THAT DIDN'T HAPPEN 

r ft! j 




facility for a relatively low cost. 

All current manufacturers in 
the US and Europe use a 
process called telomerization to 
produce the fluorosurfactants 
contained in their fire fighting 
foams. Chemicals produced by 
this process are generally 
referred to as telomers. Telom- 
er-based foams do not contain 
or degrade into PFOS. They are 
not made with PFOA, but may 
contain trace levels as a conta- 
minant of the manufacturing 
process. It should be noted that 
there is continued production of 
PFOS-based materials for AFFF 
applications in China despite 
the restrictions in other regions 
of the world. 


fluorosurfactant foams are not safe for the 
environment, why do they continue to sell 
the products? 

Focus on fluorosurfactants 

Historically, most of the environmental concern 
related to fire fighting foams has focused on 
aquatic toxicity and residual foaming, which can 
be a concern for local waterways and sewage 
treatment systems, and are common problems for 
all foams 1 . Starting about ten years ago the focus 
shifted to the fluorosurfactants that are a key 
ingredient in aqueous film-forming foams (AFFF). 
Fluorosurfactants provide AFFF with the required 
low surface tension and positive spreading coeffi- 
cient that enables film formation on top of lighter 
fuels. It is this film formation capability that gives 
AFFF its name and its effectiveness against 
flammable liquid fires. AFFF agents provide rapid 
extinguishment, burnback resistance, and protec- 
tion against vapor release. 

Fluorosurfactants and related fluorochemical 
polymers are used in many applications besides 
fire fighting foams including paper and packaging, 
textiles, leather and carpet treatment, and coat- 
ings. Some of these fluorochemicals and/or their 
persistent degradation products have been found 
in living organisms, which has drawn the concern 
of environmental authorities worldwide and led to 
both regulatory and non-regulatory actions to 
reduce emissions. The focus of these actions has 
been on fluorochemicals that contain eight car- 
bons (C8) or more such as PFOS (perfluorooctane 
sulfonate) and PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid). 

3M used a unique process to manufacture the 
fluorochemical surfactants contained in its fire 
fighting foams. This process is called electrochemi- 
cal fluorination (ECF), and fluorochemicals pro- 
duced by this process both contain and degrade 
into PFOS. 3M stopped the manufacture of 
PFOS-based foams in 2002, and regulations in the 
United States (US), Canada, and the European 
Union (EU) act as a ban on new production. EPA 
regulations do not restrict the use of old stocks of 
PFOS foam in the US. Regulations in the EU and 
Canada require old stocks of PFOS foam to be 
removed from service in 2011 and 2013, res- 
pectively. Excess stocks of PFOS foam concentrate 
can be destroyed by high temperature incineration 
at any approved hazardous waste destruction 


Global stewardship approach 

Rather than regulate emissions of PFOA, the US 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed 
a global stewardship program that has been 
adopted by other countries such as Canada. Under 
the program eight fluorochemical manufacturers 
have voluntarily agreed to reduce 95% by year- 
end 2010 and work to eliminate by year-end 201 5 
both plant emissions and product content of 
PFOA, PFOA precursors, and related higher homo- 
logue chemicals. As a result, telomer-based fluoro- 
chemicals that are used in fire fighting foams are 
likely to transition to only six carbons (C6) or fewer 
in order to comply with the global stewardship 
program. This will require some reformulation and 
likely some type of re-approval of most current 
AFFF, FP, and FFFP foam products between 2010 
and 2015. There are telomer-based AFFF agents 
that have been on the market for decades that 
contain greater than 95% C6 fluorosurfactants 
and meet the world's most challenging foam 
standards, so manufacturers are confident that 
the new products will retain all of the same fire 
suppression capabilities as existing AFFF agents. 

Environmental update 

Over the past several years makers of telomer- 
based products, not surprisingly, have undertaken 
more intensive study of the toxicology and envi- 
ronmental fate of their products. For AFFF this 
research has focused on the predominant break- 
down product of the C6 fluorosurfactants they 
contain, which is commonly referred to as the 6:2 
fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS) 2 . Although there 
have been articles and conference presentations 
that claim the 6:2 FTS to be a PFOS analog, the 
scientific data do not support this allegation. A 
broad range of existing data indicate that 6:2 FTS 
is not similar to PFOS in either its physical or eco- 
toxicological properties 3 - 4 ' 5 ' 6 . Recent studies on 
AFFF fluorosurfactants likely to break down to 6:2 
FTS show it to be generally low in acute, sub- 
chronic, and aquatic toxicity, and neither a genetic 
nor developmental toxicant. Both the AFFF fluoro- 
surfactant and 6:2 FTS were significantly lower 
than PFOS when tested in biopersistence screening 
studies that provide a relative measure of bioup- 
take and clearance 7 . Aerobic biodegradation stud- 
ies of 6:2 FTS in activated sludge have been 
conducted to better understand its environmental 


30 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



AFFF Foams . . . 



So everyone 
will make it home 
safely tonight. 


Today’s advanced AFFF agents: 

■ Are most effective to fight flammable liquid fires. 

■ Provide the best extinguishment and burnback performance. 

■ Have minimal environmental impact. 

■ Have a low toxicity and biopersistence profile. 

■ Are approved by global regulatory agencies. 



Fire 

Fighting 

Foam 

Coalition 

www.fffc.org 



by Tyco Fire Suppression & Building Products 





omrec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 


Foam Concentrates and Foam Systems 


for all applications 




DAFO FOMTEC AB P.O Box 683 SE-1 35 26 Tyreso Sweden 

Phone: +46 8 506 405 66 Fax: +46 8 506 405 29 
E-mail: info@fomtec.com Web: www.fomtec.com 



omrec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 




THE PHASEOUT THAT DIDNT HAPPEN 

C n A M c 


rUAivi j 



fate. Preliminary results were reported at the 
Reebok foam conference in July 2009 and a 
publication is in preparation 8 . 

Work has also been done on a possible contam- 
inant that may be found in trace quantities in 
AFFF-type fluorosurfactants: perfluorohexanoic 
acid (PFHxA). Extensive data on PFHxA were 
presented at an EPA PFOA Information Forum in 
June 2006 that gave a very favorable initial toxi- 
cology (hazard) profile 9 ' 10 . Additional information 
was presented in September 2007 at a major foam 
conference in the UK (Reebok) that further sup- 
ported the favorable toxicology profile of PFHxA 11 . 
Preliminary data were shared on four major toxi- 
cology end points: sub-chronic toxicity in rats, 
reproductive toxicity in rats, developmental toxicity 
in rats, and genetic toxicity. It was noted at this 
conference that PFHxA was neither a selective 
reproductive nor a selective developmental toxi- 
cant. In addition it was clearly shown to be neither 
genotoxic nor mutagenic. Combining these data 
with those presented in June 2006 provides signifi- 
cant evidence that this particular end product has 
a low hazard profile based on current data. 

Fluorine-free foams 

Foam manufacturers continue to evaluate many 
types of potential products that do not contain 
fluorosurfactants, but efforts to date have not 
yielded working products with fire performance 
across all fuels and in all operational circumstances 
equal to film-forming foams. Some fluorine-free 
foams can provide an alternative to AFFF in some 
applications, but they are not currently able to 
provide the same level of fire suppression capabili- 
ty, flexibility, and scope of usage. A recent paper 
from the University of Newcastle shows that stan- 
dard AFFF foam can suppress n-heptane vapor for 
140 minutes, while the best available fluorine-free 
foam under the same conditions held for only 60 
minutes 12 . 

Fluorine-free foams are often championed as 
"environmentally-friendly" alternatives to AFFF. 
Although such foams may not contain fluorine, 
their environmental profile related to biodegrada- 
tion, acute toxicity, chemical oxygen demand 
(COD), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is 
typically no better than fluorine-containing pro- 
ducts and in many cases is not as environmentally 
responsible in use as AFFF. A recent study of 
commercially available fire fighting foam agents 


indicates that fluorine-free foams are at least an 
order of magnitude higher in aquatic toxicity than 
AFFF agents 13 . 

Moving forward 

AFFF and fluorochemical manufacturers have 
worked closely with environmental authorities over 
the past decade, and are currently doing the 
research and testing necessary to incorporate into 
their AFFF formulations the new fluorochemicals 
that are being developed to comply with global 
stewardship programs. This work will ensure that 
safe and effective AFFF agents that meet new and 
challenging environmental requirements will 
continue to be available to fight flammable liquid 
fires in military, aircraft, industrial, and municipal 
settings. 03 

References 

1 Environmental Impacts of Fire Fighting Foams by 
William H. Rupert, Daniel P. Verdonik, and Christo- 
pher Hanauska of Hughes Associates, Inc. (2005) 

2 Quantitative Determination of Fluorotelomer 
Sulfonates in Groundwater by LC MS/MS, Melissa 
M. Schultz, Douglas F. Barofsky and Jennifer Field, 
Environmental. Sci. Technol. 2004, 38, 1828-1835 

3 DuPont 2007a. H-27901: Static, Acute 96-Hour 
Toxicity Test with Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus 
mykiss. Unpublished report, DuPont-21909. 

4 DuPont 2007b. H-27901: Static, Acute 48-Hour 
Toxicity Test with Daphnia magna. Unpublished 
report, DuPont-21910 

5 DuPont 2007c. H-27901: Static, 72-Hour Growth 
Inhibition Toxicity Test with the Green Alga, 
Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Unpublished report, 
DuPont-22048. 

6 DuPont 2007d. H-27901: Early Life-Stage Toxicity 
to the Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. 
Unpublished report, DuPont 22219. 

7 Serex, T. et al, 2008. Evaluation of Biopersistence 
Potential Among Classes of Polyfluorinated Chemi- 
cals using a Mammalian Screening Method. SOT 
2008 Poster #958 

8 Aerobic biodegradation studies of 6:2 fluo- 
rotelomer sulfonate in activated sludge, N. Wang et 
al, DuPont, manuscript in preparation, 2010 

9 Chengalis, C.P, Kirkpatrick, J.B., Radovsky, A., 
Shinohara, M., 2009a A 90-day repeated dose oral 
gavage toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid 
(PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational 
battery and motor activity determinations). Reprod. 
Toxicol. 27, 342-351. 

10 Chengalis, C.P, Kirkpatrick, J.B., Myers, N.R., 
Shinohara, M., Stetson, PI., Sved, D.W., 2009b 
Comparison of the toxicokinetic behavior of 
perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and nonafluorobu- 
tane -1 -sulfonic acid (PFBS) in monkeys and rats. 
Reprod. Toxicol. 27, 400-406. 

11 Loveless, S.E., Slezak, B., Serex, T., Lewis, J., 
Mukerji, P, O'Connor, J.C., Donner, E.M., Frame, 
S.R., Korzeniowski, S.H., Buck, R.C., Toxicological 
evaluation of sodium perfluorohexanoate. Toxicolo- 
gy 264 (2009) 32-44. 

12 Schaefer T.H., Dlugogorski B.Z. and Kennedy E. 
M., "Vapour suppression of n-heptane with fire 
fighting foams using laboratory flux chamber", 7th 
Asia-Oceania Symp. Fire Scie. Tech, (in review). 

13 96-hour LC50 Value in Fathead Minnows (flow- 
through test), Report of tests on six fire fighting 
foam agents performed by Aqua Survey Inc., Flem- 
ington, New Jersey, USA and 96-hour LC50 Test in 
Fingerling Rainbow Trout, Report of tests on six fire 
fighting foams agents performed by Harris Industrial 
Testing Service Ltd., Nova Scotia, Canada 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


33 



International Water Mist 
Conference 2010 

03 - 04 November 

Prague, Czech Republic 


The 10th International Water Mist Conference is presented 



in conjunction with independent member institutions 

Please see 

www.iwma.net 

for more information 


The second day of the conference will be held in a water mist protected building. 
A tour through the building will be offered to the attendees. 


Registration 

Name First Name 

Organization Address 

Tel,- Fax: E-mail: 

Payment received on or before 77 June Members 460 Euro Non-Members 520 Euro 

Payment received after 27 June Members 520 Euro Non -Members 560 Euro 

On-Site Registration Members 640 Euro Non -Members 600 Euro 

□ Bank transfer □ Credit Card* 'Payment by credit card available for attendees outside Europe through Paypal 

CXate Signature 

Fax or mal this registration form to Internaltonai Water Mist Association Btederltzer Sir S, 0-381 75 Heyrolheberge, Germany, 
or register online at www.lwma.net 


Phone +49 - 392 92 • 690 25 


Fax +49 - 392 92 - 690 26 


E-mail info@iwma.net 


Mikado House 
equipment. Pic courtesy 
N oven co 



By Matthias Ecke 

Secretary General, 
International Water Mist 
Association 


WATER MIST 



Modern water 
Mist Technology 

The history of modern water mist technology for fire-fighting has been discussed 
in detail in one of the last articles by the International Water Mist Association, 
and the specific advantages and efficient fire-fighting capabilities of water mist 
are widely known by now. 


W ater mist technology at present has 
become a well accepted and well estab- 
lished fire-fighting technique throughout 
the world. However, the rather slow development 
and introduction of mandatory standards prevents 
this technology from spreading even faster. 

30 years ago the ban of Halon as extinguishing 
agent and new requirements by the International 
Maritime Organization to install marine sprinklers 
on passenger ships mainly leveled the way for so 
called modern water mist systems. 

When the first Halon systems were replaced by 
water mist systems about three decades ago, one 
could find very often the perception that water 
mist systems have to always extinguish fires. How- 
ever, these systems can also be designed to control 
or suppress potential fires as we usually see in 
applications where conventional sprinklers are 
being installed. This is just a question of the objec- 
tive that is pursued. 

Water mist systems are more and more 
designed as sprinkler equivalent systems where 
fire control or fire suppression is the required 


objective. Today we find a considerable and large 
variety of different applications for water mist sys- 
tems around the globe. However, what are these 
applications? This article intends to give some 
answers and will address some real life sample 
installations where the fire-fighting capabilities of 
modern water mist systems are actually utilized. 

The Oasis of the Sea - state of the art 
vessel yard technology meets state of 
the art fire-fighting technology 

The International Maritime Organization has been 
revealed as one of the driving forces for modern 
water mist technology. At the beginning of the 
90's the IMO had to realize that new requirements 
for the safety of lives on passenger ships had to be 
brought into force. The serious fire catastrophe on 
the passenger ferry Scandinavian Star in April 
1990 is considered the key moment for the devel- 
opment of these new requirements. It became 
rapidly obvious that conventional sprinklers are not 
applicable due to the big amount of water needed 
and the heavy piping. Particularly high pressure 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


35 


WATER MIST 


Oasis of the Seas. 

Pic courtesy STX Europe 



Technical Library. 
Pic Courtesy Fog tec 


water mist systems are considered an excellent 
protection technology onboard passenger ships. 
Up until now a few hundred water mist systems 
have been installed on passenger vessels. One of 
the newest and most famous cruise liners carrying 
a water mist system is the Oasis of the Seas. 

The vessel was built by Aker Yards, Turku, 
Finland, for Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. and was 
delivered on the 28th of October 2009. This ship is 
currently the largest passenger cruise vessel in the 
world. It is 361 meters long, 47 meters wide and 
65 meters high. The 225.000 gross tones Oasis of 
the Seas is able to carry 5400 passengers. It pro- 
vides 2700 cabins to accommodate its passengers, 
and all cabins are protected by the high pressure 
water mist system. Besides that the public and ser- 
vices spaces such as shopping and storage areas 
are equipped with the water mist system, too. 
Moreover, the laundry and galley ducts as well as 
the deep fat fryers in the kitchen area are protected 
by water mist nozzles. Finally, an additional water 
mist system in the machinery provides a higher 
level of safety than actually required. 

Altogether roughly 15,000 high pressure water 
mist nozzles have been installed and approximately 
90 kilometers piping of different diameters has 
been mounted into the vessel. The whole system is 
divided into 126 sprinkler zones driven by two 
electric pump units. 

The National Technical Library Prague - 
modern architecture combined with 
modern fire-fighting technology 

Whilst one can observe a rather steady market for 
marine solutions, the market for land based appli- 
cations is on the contrary constantly growing with 
growth rates in the two digit area. An interesting 
example for a water mist installation in an impres- 
sive new building is the National Technical Library 
in Prague. 



This building has been constructed between 
2006 and 2009 and was opened to the public in 
September 2009. The building consists of 6 above- 
ground floors and 3 basement floors. The 
coverage for each floor is approximately 5200m 2 . 
The library accommodates on these floors book- 
shelves, lecture areas, exhibition areas, bookshops, 
a cafeteria, a night study room and other areas. 

According to the architects they intended to 
create "comfortable ambience for study mutual 
meetings and relaxation" and underlined the 
social importance of such a meeting point. 

The architects and the owner of the building 
have chosen high pressure water mist for the pro- 
tection of this building because of a number of 
reasons. First of all fire tests have proven that the 
system can effectively protect the building and the 
interior by using considerably less water. Due to 
that the expected water and overall damage 
would be much lower. Moreover, the system 
would not endanger any visitors in the case of a 
fire and would allow people to rather escape 
controlled. Furthermore, the small dimension and 
the design of the stainless steel piping (piping is 
visible) lead to the fact that this system could be 
integrated harmoniously into the architecture of 
this modern library. Additionally, the significantly 
less amount of water to be stored for the system 
was another reason to choose this technology. 

Altogether 4000 glass bulb nozzles have been 
installed in this building and 20 kilometers of pipe 
work has been mounted. The objective is the 
control of any fire incident. The fire brigade is 
expected to arrive within 1 5 minutes. 

Finally, this building provides also modern meet- 
ing facilities, and the next IWMA conference in 
Prague on November 3-4, 2010, will be held 
partly in this building. Please see www.iwma.net 
for further information. 

The Felbertauern tunnel - innovative 
solutions put into practice 

The major fire accidents in tunnels some years ago 
lead to a heavy discussion about appropriate safety 
measures in traffic tunnels. It can be observed that 
accidents involving burning cars or trucks in 
tunnels occurring rather often. However and 
fortunately, these fires do not always trigger big 
catastrophes as seen in the past. In September 
2008 for example a truck caught fire in the 
Tauerntunnel. Fortunately the truck was carrying 
fruits and, therefore, the fire brigade was able to 
prevent a disaster. Even a relatively small fire, how- 
ever, can severely damage the tunnel infrastructure 


36 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



MODERN WATER MIST TECHNOLOGY 

1AIATED MICT 


VVAI tK IVII 3 1 



since extreme temperatures are reached within 
minutes. Therefore, it is very important for tunnels 
to suppress potential fires immediately at its origin 
without any time delay. Fixed fire-fighting systems 
are able to provide this safety, and water mist sys- 
tems have been found to be an efficient solution 
for the safety objectives in traffic tunnels. Today a 
number of water mist systems have been already 
applied to tunnels, and the Felbertauern tunnel 
shall be named as one example. This tunnel is 5.3 
kilometers long and is bi-directional. Due to the 
missing second tube that could be used for escape 
the installation of a fire suppression system is of 
utmost importance. The tunnel was divided into 
148 sections and 8000 high pressure water mist 
nozzles have been installed. Two diesel driven 
pump units are located in the north of the tunnel 
and two pump units are located at the south end 
of the tunnel. These aggregates ensure the neces- 
sary water supply. The detection system is able to 
locate a fire with an accuracy of four meters. The 
immediate suppression of the fire at its origin pre- 
vents the fire from spreading to other vehicles and 
ensures a cooling of the surrounding atmosphere. 
The temperatures are kept at a low level and the 
structure of the tunnel, particularly the concrete, is 
protected from severe temperature levels that 
would heavily damage the tunnel itself. Further- 
more, people are able to escape from the fire 
under rather safe conditions. 

Mikado House - a new office building in 
Copenhagen 

Reference has been made already to the increasing 
number of land based applications, and this devel- 
opment does not exclusively refer to high pressure 
water mist systems which normally operate around 
lOObar. The number of buildings accommodated 
with low pressure water mist systems does 
constantly increase as well. One of the newest 
projects carried out is the so called Mikado House 
in Copenhagen, Denmark. The building is an 
office building with lots of open spaces and an 
atrium as well. The premises consist of 5 floors 
and the total floor area is 32,000m 2 . This office 
building is equipped with a low pressure water 
mist system operating at about lObar. In this case 


there is no water storage and the system is directly 
connected to the main water supply. The pressure 
pump will provide the necessary pressure if the 
system operates. The low pressure water mist 
system combines all the benefits that are known 
by now. The system uses less water, the piping is 
smaller and the expected damage is considered 
less. Furthermore, the system provides excellent 
cooling of the environment. In total 2300 nozzles 
have been installed in this building. 

international Water Mist Conference 

2010 

The forthcoming International Water Mist Confer- 
ence 2010 will take place this year in Prague, 
Czech Republic, on November 03-04. 

The conference is open to anybody and will be 
an excellent opportunity for those responsible for 
selecting fire protection to extent the knowledge 
about water mist technology. 

The conference will be held partly at a confer- 
ence hotel and the National TEchnical Library 
Prague which is a water mist protected buidling. 
Attendees, and particularly newcomers, will have 
the opportunity to join a tour through the buidling 
and to view the installation. Interested parties can 
find more information about the conference such 
as the program on the web page of IWMA 
www.iwma.net. 



Mikado House. 

Pic courtesy Novenco 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


37 




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38 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 







DETECTION 


By Graham Collins 



Detecting The 
Right Technology 

While great strides have been made in fire detection technologies in the past 
few decades, the guiding principles remain unchanged - it is all about saving 
lives and protecting property. Graham Collins explains. 


I t is not that long ago that fire detection was lim- 
ited to choosing between one or another type of 
single-sensor device. More recently, highly effec- 
tive multi-criteria, multi-sensor devises have been 
successfully developed, aspirating smoke detection 
is now a well regarded technology, and significant 
strides have been made in CCTV-based video 
smoke detection. 

But are we as individuals, the buildings we 
occupy or visit, and the assets we use better pro- 
tected? The reality is that today we have reached a 
point where the reliability of the technologies used 
for detection are far less frequently an issue pro- 
viding, of course, that equipment appropriate to 
the fire safety challenge has been installed. Human 
behaviour is much more likely to be the culprit 
if a detection installation fails to perform in an 
emergency or if it false alarms. In all probability an 


otherwise dependable fire safety solution will be 
found to have been incorrectly installed, poorly 
maintained or simply not to have been kept in line 
with altered working practices or changes of use 
of the building. 

The international trend away from prescriptive 
measures and towards engineered fire safety solu- 
tions has seen any number of impressive structures 
emerge that a few decades ago would have 
remained firmly in the architect's imagination. This 
has placed a huge burden of responsibility on the 
shoulders of fire engineers, system designers, 
installers, maintenance organisations and system 
users. It has, rightly, focused attention on ensuring 
that devices are selected only if they comply with 
the appropriate standards and codes of practice, 
and has witnessed a growing requirement for the 
installation of detectors and sensors that have 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


39 




ncTcrTin m 

DETECTING THE RIGHT TECHNOLOGY 

U t 1 t L 1 1 U IM 




these quality claims underpinned by independent, 
third-party approval by such organisations as UL 
[Underwriters Laboratories], FM [Factory Mutual], 
LPCB [Loss Prevention Certification Board] and VdS 
[Vertrauen durch Sicherheit]. 

Irrespective of the technology that is adopted, 
the primary aim is to protect lives or safeguard 
property - in many cases, both - by detecting an 
incipient fire as quickly and reliably as possible. 
Certainly, there is no single solution; no one device 
that can be relied upon to operate effectively with 
fires that can range from slow smouldering to fast- 
flaming hydrocarbon fires, and environments that 
can span from cellular offices to aircraft hangers. 
So, let us take a brief look each of the current 
options. 

Detection options 

Traditional fire detectors are designed to detect 
smoke, heat or flame and can be either "conven- 
tional" or "addressable". In a "conventional" or 
"non-addressable" installation, these detectors are 
in one of two states - normal or alarm - and 
individual detectors are not identified or given a 
specific "address" or location. In an "addressable" 
installation, every sensor has its own unique 
"address" on the system's control panel. The 
custom is that non-addressable devices are usually 
called detectors, while addressable devises are 
most often termed sensors. 

At one time, ionisation detectors were used for 
detecting smoke but, despite being very effective 
for detecting small particles of combustion pro- 
duced by fast-flaming fires, these are now less 
acceptable in many countries due to their radia- 
tion content and issues surrounding their shipment 


and ultimate disposal. Their place has been taken 
by optical or photoelectric devices where, in the 
majority of designs, smoke particles are detected 
using light scatter or obscuration techniques. Heat 
detectors come in one of three main types: fixed 
heat detectors; rate-of-rise detectors; and linear 
heat detectors, and detect temperature changes 
using a temperature-sensitive resistor called a 
thermistor. UV and IR Flame detectors are also 
available but are appropriate only for certain 
specific fire risks that usually involve flammable 
liquids or gases. 

Alongside improvements in the reliability of 
these detectors, the most significant advance in 
this area was probably the development of multi- 
sensor devices that increase the probability of 
detecting a fire. For some time, dual-sensor devis- 
es have been available that combine both heat 
and smoke detection, and heat detectors can be 
installed that offer both fixed temperature and 
rate-of-rise detection in a single device. A number 
of manufacturers have also introduced tri-sensor 
devices, in which the smoke and heat detectors 
are augmented by the addition of a carbon 
monoxide sensor. 

Most recently, dual optical technology has been 
adopted by some manufacturers, notably in Gent 
by Honeywell's S-Quad and Nittan's latest Evolu- 
tion sensors, and dual optical smoke detectors 
have been introduced alongside combined dual 
optical and heat multi-detectors. In this type of 
detector, the optical chamber either contains two 
optical paths at different angles, or two different 
wavelengths of light. In both cases, the two 
signals provide information about the nature and 
size of the particles being sensed, allowing more 


40 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





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ncTcrTin m 

DETECTING THE RIGHT TECHNOLOGY 

U t 1 t L 1 1 U IM 



accurate differentiation between products of 
combustion and non-fire particles that might 
otherwise trigger a false alarm. 

There are also a number of special application 
devices, such as beam detectors, duct detectors, 
intrinsically-safe detectors, waterproof and marine- 
approved detectors manufactured by such com- 
panies as Apollo, System Sensor, Hochiki and 
Notifier by Honeywell, which has just unveiled its 
new Opal range of detectors. Radio Wireless 
detection that uses radio technology is another 
option that is available from such companies as 
EMS, which has just unveiled FireCell that uses 
what the company calls "smart cluster technology", 
and Cooper Fulleon, which recently launched its 
Radio+ system. These systems are claimed to offer 
faster and simpler installation, and lower cost 
when compared with the conventional wired 
detection systems. 

Irrespective of the particular type of detector 
that is installed, a major consideration that needs 
to be taken into account is the protocol of the sys- 
tem being considered, as the decision can impact 
on the life-time cost of the detection system. Pro- 
tocol is the language used by electronic products 
to communicate with each other and can be 
classified as "open protocol" or "closed protocol". 


particles suspended in air, using light scattering 
technology. Aspirating smoke detectors are highly 
sensitive and can detect smoke before it is even 
visible to the human eye. 

Video detection 

Video smoke detection - often abbreviated to VSD 
- is based on the computer analysis of video 
images provided by standard CCTV cameras. The 
particular motion pattern of smoke is automatical- 
ly identified and analysed in real time by applying 
digital image processing techniques to provide a 
fast response to a potential fire. It is particularly 
appropriate for voluminous areas, high ceiling 
buildings, where a high airflow may be present 
and for external applications. VSD systems can 
now be found protecting forests, tunnels, aircraft 
hangers and industrial buildings and the major sys- 
tem suppliers in this field include D-Tec, Fike and 
Notifier by Honeywell. 

Clearly, one of the key benefits of these systems 
is their ability to use existing CCTV cameras that 
would have been installed originally for security 
surveillance. These systems generally work by 
looking for small areas of change within the image 
at the digitisation stage and pass only these pixel 
changes to the main processor for further filtering. 


Public expectations concerning personal safety, fire safety 
legislation, health & safety legislation, escalating insurance 
costs and a general feeling of insecurity in a troubled world 
have undoubtedly helped to fuel many of the developments 
in fire detection in recent years. 


Open protocol systems are where the detection 
components are compatible with products 
produced by other manufacturers, whereas closed 
protocol systems offer, as the term implies, no such 
flexibility. So, specifying a closed protocol system 
does tie the user to the manufacturer of the system 
for the lifetime of the system for any upgrading, 
replacement parts, servicing or modification of the 
system. An open system though enables the 
system owner to choose a different company to 
service the system, or supply other components. 

Aii^sensing detection 

Aspirating smoke detectors sense microscopic 
smoke particles in a sampling chamber and these 
systems have become particularly popular in appli- 
cations where the presence of traditional sensors 
and wiring is aesthetically unacceptable. 

However, while aspirating smoke detection is 
most commonly associated with museums, gal- 
leries and religious buildings, one of the contracts 
currently being highlighted by Xtralis for its VESDA 
aspirating smoke detection system illustrates how 
broad the appeal now is for this detection tech- 
nology. VESDA systems are covering more than 
290 underground railway stations, retail shops and 
escalators in the Madrid Metro environment. 
Other global players in this sector include Wagner 
and AirSense Technology. 

Essentially, an aspirating smoke detection sys- 
tem comprises a central detection unit that draws 
air through a network of pipes to detect smoke 


The video information is passed through a series of 
filters that seek particular characteristics that are 
associated with smoke behaviour. Further analysis 
is carried out on the filtered characteristics to 
determine whether all the conditions have been 
met for the system to confidently predict the 
presence of smoke. 

Things to come 

Public expectations concerning personal safety, fire 
safety legislation, health & safety legislation, esca- 
lating insurance costs and a general feeling of 
insecurity in a troubled world have undoubtedly 
helped to fuel many of the developments in fire 
detection in recent years. At the same time, the 
high price-tag associated with false alarms has 
ensured that manufacturers strive to improve exist- 
ing products and develop new technologies that 
are ever more accurate, dependable and robust. 
Certainly, we have come a long way from the time 
when fire detection depended upon the diligence 
of a night-watchman. 

Many of these changes have been possible 
thanks to the increased sophistication, reliability 
and cost effectiveness of electronics generally, data 
processing, digital technology and the ability to 
have real-time control via the Internet. The indus- 
try though remains, quite rightly, conservative. So 
the next steps in fire detection are likely to be 
evolutionary developments of current proven tech- 
nology rather than ground-breaking advances. But 
who knows. 


42 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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44 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 







EN54 versus UL'864' 


ALARM CODES 



A case of double 
standards... 


By Mike Troiano 


In this article Mike Troiano President of Advanced Fire Systems Inc. describes the 
differences and synergies between US & European fire systems and gives 
examples of future convergence. 


President, Advanced 
Fire Systems Inc. 


C ompanies, whose main goal is to engineer 
and develop fire detection systems for appli- 
cation in the world's global markets, have a 
major, almost insurmountable task on their hands. 
One of the most significant challenges they face is 
the differences in fire codes and standards. Despite 
attempts that have been ongoing for over a hun- 
dred years to agree on common fire codes and 
standards, the end is still not in sight. Not only are 
there differences continent to continent and 
region to region, but in Europe there are differ- 
ences in requirements from country to country and 
in the US state to state and even in some instances 
city to city. 

To make matters more complicated, fire codes 
and standards effect: 1) the way the products 
themselves are designed and how they must 
perform, 2) the way that the system shall be 
installed, effecting for example the wire types, 
location and spacing of smoke detectors, sounders 
and strobe devices, 3) how a system is operated 
once installed, and by whom, 4) how and when 
a system shall be serviced and maintained over 
time, 5) the manner in which fire departments 
and fire brigades are notified and ultimately 
respond to the report of a fire and 6) As the world 
speaks more than just English!, the operating 
language. 

Two major standards dominate the world 
market, the US National Fire Protection Association 
(NFPA) based UL'864' and European EN54. Both 
standards have the best interests of fire detection, 
fire prevention, building and life safety at heart 
and have committees made up of leading fire 
authorities and experts constantly searching for 
and seeking to improve the way that fire systems 
perform. 

In Europe, despite adopting the EN54 stan- 
dards, each country has their own unique 
requirements. For example, in Sweden and 
Germany, you can't have a system installed there 


without a common user interface that includes a 
"Fireman's Key," which enables control. The prin- 
ciple here is that they don't want their fire fighters 
having to learn every nuance about every fire 
system sold in their country, so all systems sold in 
Sweden and Germany must have common style 
interfaces designed to a specific standard for use 
by the fire fighters. 

Today, Voice Evacuation and Fire Fighter 
Telephone Communication Systems, although in 
common use in the USA, are not widely in use 
in the EU. Voice Evacuation might be seen in 
large sports stadiums, but not typically in other 
commercial, industrial and residential applications. 
Fire Fighter Telephone Communication Systems 
remain in use today in many of the US states, 
although in some states there is a trend toward 
replacement with high end, radio communications 
systems. 

It is very common in the USA to have the status 
of a fire system transmitted over phone lines, or 
more recently the internet, via a stand alone 
or integrated Digital Alarm Communicator 



EN54 (Germany) Penta Control Panel 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


45 



a i ADM rnncc 

A CASE OF DOUBLE STANDARDS... 

L tm IVI V* U L# t ^ 



UL864 9th Edition 
(America) AX 'V Series 
Integrated Fire & Audio 
Panel 



Transmitter (DACT) to 3rd party Central Stations. 
These stations monitor 24 hours per day, and have 
the responsibility to contact the fire department in 
case of emergency, along with the property owner 
and service company. In Europe the use of DACTs 
is much less prevalent and it is common in certain 
countries to have alarm communications direct to 
a municipal station or fire brigade via hard wired 
routing equipment. 

In some USA states, it is common to see a 
requirement for a City Box interface. City Boxes 
came into existence in the late 1800s and 
although mechanical wheels have been replaced 
with electronics, the principles remain the same. 
Basically a system going into alarm transmits a 
signal over a pair of wires that run directly from 
the facility to the City Box, then onto the fire 
municipality or fire station. 

When comparing two fire panels that have 
been designed toward complying with the NFPA 



EN Manual Call Point 


versus the EN standards, they are quite dissimilar. 
Further yet, if one were to compare one manu- 
facturer's fire panel to a competitor's fire panel in 
the same market, once again one will find sharp 
disparities. There is no truth to the statements: "a 
fire panel is a fire panel" or "all fire panels are the 
same." In fact nothing could be further from 
the truth. 

It would be impossible in such a short article 
to list all of the many differences and similarities, 
but below is a summary of some of the major 
issues: 

USA versus EU - Major differences 

AC/Mains Operating Voltage: The USA is in the 

minority compared with the rest of the world in 
that its primary supplied voltage is nominally 120 
Volts, 60 Hertz. The majority of the world is 230 
Volts, 50 Hertz. However in all cases the AC/Mains 
voltage supplied in the various countries fluctuates 
plus or minus some percentage of nominal. In 
addition, the power supplied is not always "clean" 
and must be filtered by the fire system or else 
power line "glitches" can cause false alarms and 
other problems. 

Wiring Types: The quality and variety of the dif- 
ferent types of fire system cabling allowed by the 
various regional standards is surprising. Wires may 
be thick or thin, shielded or not, mineral insulated, 
highly capacitive, have various levels of fire pro- 
tective ratings and current carrying capacity, etc. 
However in all cases wires carrying high voltages 
and currents versus those carrying any low voltage 
communications signals must be separated with 
the separation distances specified, and the circuits 
the wires connect to require different levels of 
safety protection. 

Message Terminology Examples - Alarms vs. 
Fires, Troubles vs. Faults, Supervisory vs. N/A, 
AM-PM vs. 24 hour clock, Fahrenheit vs. Celsius. 
In the USA, when a detector goes into alarm or a 
pull station is activated, it is viewed and reported 
as an Alarm. In Europe and other parts of the 
world, this same condition is viewed and reported 
as a Fire. If there is a problem in a fire system such 
as from a dirty smoke detector, a broken wire or a 
low battery for instance, USA fire systems view 
and report this as a Trouble Condition, whereas 
others see this as a Fault in the system. NFPA 



US Horn/Strobe 


46 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 






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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


47 






ALARM CODES 


EN Sounder Beacon 



Codes and Standards recognize problems with a 
monitored Sprinkler system as a Supervisory 
Condition and so is treated uniquely different than 
other trouble conditions, whereas EN54 has no such 
separate recognition/distinction. In the USA, systems 
time stamp events using a 12 hour clock with AM 
and PM designations, whereas Europe uses a 24 
hour clock, so for example 2:00 PM is 14:00 hours. 
It is common throughout the EU and much of the 
world to measure temperature in degrees Celsius 
where the USA measures in Fahrenheit. 

User Display - Both US and European systems 
prioritize Alarms (Fires) but present the informa- 
tion in different ways. For example if multiple fire 
alarm conditions are reported, which gets 
displayed, the first or most recent event? Is the 
system allowed to scroll the messages automatically 
or manually? Is the total number of devices or 
zones in alarm displayed? Must the display show 
the type of device in alarm, etc., etc., the stan- 
dards are quite prescriptive and diverse in all of 


these areas. Also there is a great deal of dissimilar- 
ity between what must be displayed when there is 
a mixture of alarms (fires), troubles (faults), super- 
visor's, and non fire events occurring at the same 
time. Finally, while still complying with the 
required standard, the equipment must support 
and display the information in the language 
required by the installation. 

Switches/Buttons - Reset, Silence vs. Silence/ 
Resound, Acknowledge, Mute, Fire Drill and Evac- 
uate. The requirements for what happens in a fire 
system when a Reset switch is pressed varies 
country to country and even city to city, especially 
if the system is installed in a high rise facility. For 
example in New York City, a reset switch cannot 
interfere with air handling systems. The Silence/ 
Resound button on an EN54 system allows alter- 
nate presses to Silence or Resound sounding 
and/or strobe devices, but typically, only the 
Silence function is presented on a USA based 
system. Other switches of distinction are: 
Acknowledge (USA), Mute (EU), Fire Drill (USA) 
and Evacuate (EU). 

ADA - In the USA, a law was passed in 1990 
called the "Americans with Disabilities Act" and it 
affected fire systems such as requiring the synchro- 
nization of strobe lights and their luminous inten- 
sity levels as well as affecting the sound levels of 
sounding appliances measured in dB (decibels). In 
Europe, there are equivalents (i.e. DDA - Disabili- 
ties Discrimination Act in the UK) standard with 
the same intentions in mind, but there are differ- 
ences including the sound levels, spacing of 
devices, luminous intensity levels, etc., and how 
these levels are measured by 3rd party approvals 
agencies is different. Such differences have a 
major impact on the fire panel and system design 
due to the extreme differences in the voltages and 
currents, the backup battery size, system wiring, 
and programming options. 


Virtual Panel Display 
showing Loop with on 
board Meter 


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48 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



A CASE OF DOUBLE STANDARDS... 

a i ADM rnncc 


/» L 1 VI X* Vr t J 


m » i 

i j • t t 



/ 


ipGateway 


Loop Power Technolo- 
gy - In the EU, it is com- 
mon to have a fire alarm 
system contain on the 
same pair of wires: smoke 
detectors, call points (pull 
stations), input/output 
modules, strobes and 
sounder devices. All of 
these devices receive their 
power and communica- 
tion control signals over 
the same pair of wires. 

Due to the combination 
of their low operating 
currents, installation and 
operations standards, as 
well as safety standards, 
such a design has large 
ramifications in the 
reduction of power con- 
sumption, backup battery 
requirements, wiring and 
labor costs. Loop power technology has not yet 
been fully embraced by the USA, but certain for- 
ward thinking manufacturers of Fire detection 
equipment (such as Advanced) are well on their 
way to bringing this technology to the US Market. 

EU Country Differences - While the EN54 
Harmonized Standards are accepted by the EU 
member countries, it is important to note that 
each country has an "options with requirements" 
exception to the EN54 standards that must be 
adhered to. No two country requirements are the 
same, with France standing out as the most drasti- 
cally different from the others in that they require 
the system power supplies and system wiring to 
be supported completely separate in a self con- 
tained enclosure from the User Interface - key 
switches and display. 

USA Regional, State and City Differences - 

Some examples of different requirements across 
the USA include the following areas: Fire Depart- 
ment Communications -City Box, Radio Transmis- 
sions, DACTs and Mesh Networks. Hi and Low Rise 
applications - Smoke Control Systems, Elevator 
Controls, Fan and Damper Controls, Automatic 
and Manual Voice Evacuation, Fire Fighter 
Telephones. Non Fire interfaces to - Facilities 
Management Systems, Graphics Annunciation, 
Video Monitoring systems, Nurse Call systems, etc. 

Advanced Technology is Universal - regardless 
of the country, city or town and regardless of the 
national and local fire codes, smarter global manu- 
facturers are applying advanced technology and 
global experience to the best benefit possible. 

For example, the better systems provide peer to 
peer network topology and deliver high speed per- 
formance regardless of the number of panels or 
nodes on the network. That means that when a 
switch is pressed to perform a life safety function, 
it always responds as it should, regardless of net- 
work traffic or conditions present on the system. 
The same goes for any message that has to be dis- 
played or the fast response to a fire or life safety 
condition. The networked user displays on these 
systems are capable of viewing an entire system 
and can be customized to suit the application. 

Smarter systems include built-in intelligent volt- 


age and ammeters which allow technicians to 
assess the voltages and currents on any wires in 
the system, 24/7, regardless of the state of the sys- 
tem. In the more advanced type of systems, these 
meters can be turned on and viewed at a control 
panel, or from a remote location via PC based 
monitoring and control software. 

IP Technology is becoming more prevalent 
through the use of secure IP Gateway technology, 
such that systems may be monitored locally and/or 
remotely as well as providing Email and text 
message alerts. Quite often not only does this 
allow the maintenance company to provide 
enhanced service support to their installed base of 
systems, but facility managers may be given 
remote access to the system in order to give them 
piece of mind that their system is performing 
properly every second, minute and hour of every 
day. 

Mike concluded that by applying their expertise 
of global standards, local market requirements and 
technology the Advanced group of companies 
have brought together a truly advanced range of 
fire and life safety products which go together to 
provide systems which meet and exceed the 
various market requirements not just in the US and 
Europe but also across the globe. JE2 



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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


49 


A Fitting 
Improvement 

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A challenge for 
manufacturers was to 
simulate break glass 
activation in the 
resettable call point, 
given the deterrent glass 
has proved to offer in 
terms of reducing false 
alarms 


By Ges Wallace 

Managing Director, 
STI (Europe) 


CALL POINTS 



Call point 
evolution: past, 
present and 
future 


Break glass call points can hardly be called the new kid on the block in terms of 
fire detection and alarms. They have been used as the means to manually 
activate a fire alarm for decades, with their forerunner, the simple switch based 
street fire alarm, going back as far as the turn of the 20th Century. While the 
introduction of the means for people to raise the alarm in the event of a fire has 
undoubtedly been a major contributor to fire safety, so it has brought with it the 
problem of false alarms, a problem that prevails today and one that the fire 
industry, the fire service and building owners throughout the world continue to 
grapple with. 


in the beginning 

I n the earliest devices, the simple switch was 
located inside a box, sending a signal to the fire 
service when operated. In London, by 1900 
some 675 fire alarm boxes were installed, signifi- 
cantly improving communication and reducing 
response times. By 1936 this number had 
increased to 1,732 but already it was apparent 
that the issue of false alarms would need to be 
addressed. Of some 9,297 calls received in 1936 
by the London brigade, 3,422 (or over 30%) were 
false alarms. Given the newness of the technology 


and the vagaries of London's electrical circuitry at 
the time, it is perhaps not too surprising that 
almost two thirds of those were down to electrical 
or other malfunctions, but this still means that 
over 1 ,300 were the result of malicious activation. 

The first attempts to combat this saw manufac- 
turers placing the switch inside a red box. This 
went some way towards reducing the incidents of 
false alarms generated by curiosity or malicious 
intent, but it took the introduction of glass to 
significantly impact on the problem and make 
false alarms more manageable. The insertion of a 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


51 


r A 1 1 DAIMTC 

CALL POINT EVOLUTION: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 

LALL rUIN 1 j 



Early call points used 
telegraph and 
telephone signaling 
techniques to alert the 
emergency services 



glass panel, which anybody activating the call 
point is required to break to trigger the alarm, is a 
real deterrent to the casual misuse of an emer- 
gency switch. So called 'break glass' call points are 
now widely used for a variety of emergency 
switching applications, not just for fire alarms. 

Inherent problems with glass 

However, while the introduction of glass certainly 
addressed the existing drawbacks, it brought new 
ones of its own, some of which were specific to 
the design of the early break glass call points but 
others which hold true today. In the early devices, 
the design of many was based on the switch being 
held in the operated position, usually in the centre 
of the glass. The switch subsequently put the glass 
under stress and, as many break glasses were 
often installed next to large exit doors, the result 
was false alarms generated by the glasses breaking 
without any human intervention other than from 
the slamming of the door. The switch also ejected 
the broken glass from the call point onto the floor, 
presenting another potential hazard. The glass in 
these types of early devices was unprotected and 
one widely held theory was that call points were 
manufactured in red to hide the blood from 
lacerations caused during their operation! 

In 1972 a revolution in call point technology 
was introduced with the advent of the first break 
glass call point to address the issues outlined 
above. The patented design moved the switch of 
the call point to the edge of the glass, thereby 
overcoming the issue of the glass being under 
constant pressure. The glass was also scored and 
fitted with a clear plastic protective film, holding 
the broken glass largely in position rather than 
ejecting it onto the floor. While the glass was still 
used for its very important deterrent features, it no 
longer presented a hazard to the user. 

This simple approach to the problem provided a 
truly unique concept that helped create and form 
the then UK standard for call points, BS5839-2, 
and even now, almost 40 years later, this approach 
to call point design is still adopted (albeit with 
some changes with the introduction of EN54-11, 
more of which later). 

In recognising the undoubted success of this 
approach, it is important to realise that there are 
still disadvantages in the use of glass as an operat- 


ing element. One of the most important is that, 
once broken, the glass is discarded and a replace- 
ment is required. On many occasions I have seen 
call points in the field with other objects inserted 
into them to maintain operation - with obvious 
consequences in terms of fire safety. 

Operationally the break glass concept is excel- 
lent. Glass offers natural deterrence from misuse. 
While working with such call points for many 
years I attended trade shows where we encour- 
aged visitors to come onto the stand and "break a 
glass". The immediate reaction from most people 
was an instant refusal. When questioned, the 
reasons largely revolved around not wanting to 
destroy the product or a fear of being injured by 
its operation to the extent that some visitors 
removed shoes or used other objects to activate 
the alarm. 

Meeting the challenge 

The challenge therefore for manufacturers was to 
emulate the operational and psychological charac- 
teristics of glass but with an integral operating ele- 
ment that could be reused - in effect a resettable 
break glass! Hence the introduction of the 'reset- 
table call point'. This proved another major step 
forward in call point technology, with a number of 
resettable products brought onto the market. The 
resettable option prevents inappropriate 'heath 
robinson' attempts to put the call point back into 
action without replacing the glass or, even for 
those who do follow the correct procedure, elimi- 
nates the potential risk of inserting the wrong 


Fire Box Traps Pranksters 



m* «itti • her. Aim AiinM g ml III** iImmi 

T HE sending of fa be fire alarm* by mla- 
cbU'vou* persona may b a eliminated 
through use of a newly developed cal) box 
To use the device, the sender of an alarm must 
pat* a hand through a special compartment to 
roach t! a signal dial. Once the dial has been 
turned, the sender's hand ia locked in the 
comportment until released by a fireman or 
noliosnisn with a kev 

Innovative and sometimes unusual ways were 
adopted to try and reduce false alarms , 
trapping the hand of the sender until they 
were released by a policeman or fireman 
being one of the more extreme approaches 


52 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


53 




CALL POINTS 


London Underground 
was an early adopter of 
resettable call points , 
recognising the 
importance of keeping 
downtime of a fire 
alarm system to a 
minimum 



glass in the wrong call point. There is another 
major advantage of resettable call point devices. 
By eliminating the need for replacement parts 
after every operation, the call point can be put 
back into working order and the system reset very 
quickly, keeping downtime to a minimum - a very 
important factor in what is a life safety system. 
Resettable call points were adopted by the London 
Underground some years ago for this very reason. 

Standards 

Returning to the issue of standards, BS5839-2, the 
UK standard for call points, was replaced in 
September 2003 with the European standard, 
EN54-11, which permits the use of resettable call 
points. This new standard, together with demand 
from the marketplace for a more user and 
environmentally friendly product which reduces 
maintenance costs will, in my view, see the end of 
the use of glass in call points. 

Changes in moving from BS5839-2 to EN54-11 
were largely an attempt to try and standardise the 
look of manual call points, as well as addressing 
major advances in electronics with the inclusion of 
sophisticated electronics in call points for intelli- 
gent fire systems. This is an important considera- 
tion since familiarity with the means to activate an 
alarm, wherever you happen to be, is obviously 
vital. This provides the all important early warning 
to enable a safer evacuation of the building and 
provides the optimum amount of time to tackle 
the fire. 

One major difference between BS5839-2 and 
EN54-1 1 is how the operating instructions are pre- 
sented on the call point. Originally these were 
white lettering against a black background, which 
was easily achieved by applying a clear label onto 
the glass which was printed with the operating 


instructions in white. The glass was then fitted 
into a black moulding and the necessary white on 
black instruction was visible, but the operating 
element still retained its glass appearance. EN54 
reversed this requirement and the operating 
instruction must now appear black on white. For 
resettable call points this could be achieved by 
moulding the operating element in a white materi- 
al and printing the instructions in black onto its 
face. However the important operational deterrent 
properties of glass will have been lost, and this 
could lead to an increase in false alarms over time. 
Function marking has also been addressed by 
EN54-11. European language differences have 
been overcome through the use of a 'House Flame 
Logo', although the option of reproducing the 
word 'Fire' or equivalent text in the appropriate 
language is still permissible (again the logo or text 
must be in white). 

The 'Reset 1 

One innovative solution to the problem highlighted 
above regarding the black on white lettering is the 
STI 'ReSet' call point. Its operating element is 
moulded in a clear material, overprinted with the 
required black legend, and assembled against a 
white moulding. The plastic operating element 
takes on the appearance of glass, thus retaining its 
deterrence from misuse. 

The patented operating element provides real 
action on operation and simulates break glass acti- 
vation. An activation indicator drops into view at 
the top of the window after the 'ReSet' has been 
operated. The unit is then simply reset with a key 
and is immediately ready for reuse. This unique 
approach eliminates glass and encompasses all the 
benefits of a resettable operating element. Down- 
time of the fire alarm system is minimised as the 


54 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



CALL POINT EVOLUTION: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE 

c A 1 1 DHIMTC 


CALL rUIN 1 j 


call point can be quickly and simply reset in the 
event of a false activation. It is very important that 
we retain the appearance of the use of glass in call 
points to prevent the possible trend towards a 
simple push button worded Tire Alarm', with the 
obvious consequences for false alarms. It is impor- 
tant to learn from history and the figures from 
London in 1936 that we opened with in this article 
demonstrate all too clearly the dangers of moving 
away from an approach which features an in-built 
deterrent to misuse. 

installer benefits 

Turning from the benefits to the end user to those 
for the installer. Resettable units are virtually main- 
tenance free, with the operating element easily 
reset after activation. There are no glass elements 
to break, lose or incorrectly fit during installation. 
Stocking requirements are reduced and there is no 
possibility of fitting the wrong manufacturer's 
glass element. Unlike traditional break glass units, 
which use a key for testing, call points like the 
'ReSet' provide a complete functional test with 
every activation. 

Another important point to consider is that call 
points are often delivered to site well before the 
building is commissioned and secure. As anybody 
who has worked on a construction site will testify, 
damage to products is an all too common prob- 
lem. Many of the call points will have broken 
glasses prior to the fire alarm system being fully 
operational. In order to combat this waste and 
inconvenience, some call point manufacturers 
offer call points fitted with a piece of plastic to 
substitute the glass. While this enables installation, 
testing and commissioning they do render the call 
point inoperable. Call point glasses are then deliv- 
ered to site for fitting at a later date. Unfortunately 
this practice, while effective in reducing break 
glass wastage, is dangerous. Call points will often 
be left with the glass substitute in place after com- 
missioning, rendering the call point inoperable. 
There is also the danger that the glass substitutes 
will be retained by the installer or end user and 
used as a quick-fix when glasses are broken and 
no replacements are available. All these problems 
are avoided by using a resettable call point. 

Added protection 

The use of protective covers on call points, 
although previously not permitted by BS5839-2, 
has been accepted in certain situations for more 
than 20 years in the UK. EN54-1 1 now recognises 
this and permits the use of covers to protect 
against accidental operation, requiring that opera- 
tor instructions are provided or indication arrows 
are placed on the cover. Protective covers also per- 
form a crucial deterrence in many applications 
which are notoriously problematic in terms of false 
fire alarms, schools being an excellent example. 
The headline figures for schools demonstrates only 
too clearly that they remain a prime focus in fire 
safety terms - the latest estimates from the 
Department for Communities and Local Govern- 
ment show there are 1,300 school fires a year in 
England and Wales, representing a cost of £58 
million. What these figures do not provide is an 
estimated cost for false alarms, an issue in many 
schools along with the extensive disruption to 
classes, staff and pupils that false alarms inevitably 
cause through persistent evacuations of a site. 



Once a break glass call 
point has been 
activated , it is not 
always a replacement 
glass that is used to 
'reactivate' the unit 


There is also the cost of the Fire Service attending 
a fire call (an estimated £1,000 per call out) and 
the fact that if a Brigade is at a false alarm it 
cannot attend a real fire - £1,000 wasted and the 
impact this has in terms fire cover. 

With the recent publication of the Chief Fire 
Officers Association (CFOA) Policy on False Alarms, 
the focus on reducing such alarms is now even 
greater. Consequently, head teachers, along with 
many others working in environments where false 
alarms remain an issue, are looking for ways to 
address the problem. The challenge is to provide 
added security to prevent malicious or accidental 
use of a manual call point while ensuring that it 
remains readily accessible. This is where covers can 
prove an excellent solution. The cover makes the 
operation of the call point a much more deliberate 
act and the operator is forced to linger at the call 
point in order to operate it. 

Protective covers can be integral to the call 
point itself or be a separate product that can be 
retrofitted to existing call point installations. To 
add even further deterrence against malicious 
activation, in certain circumstances the covers can 
be fitted with a sounder that emits an ear-piercing 
alarm if the cover is lifted. o a 





4 ■ 


UFT HERE 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


55 




Introducing 

EN 12845 


F RE PUMP L NE 


Patterson Pump Ireland 
Ltd. specialises in the 
production of world class 
fire protection equipment 
around Europe. 

From enquiry stage, right through design, 
manufacturing, installation and after sales 
service, Patterson Pump Ireland strives to 
provide a quality, reliable fire protection 
system, at the most competitive price. 



EN1 2845 provides a pan-European standard 
for the design, installation and maintenance of 
automatic sprinkler systems, and encompasses 
the basic requirements set forth by local rules 
into one European Standard. 

The new Patterson Pump End Suction product 
line is the latest addition to the Patterson 
Sentinel™ range. Cost effective and efficient, 
these will be used in fire pump packages 
specifically designed and built to comply with 
the regulations of European standard EN1 2845, 
along with other local rules. 


. f 



PATTERSON PUMP IRELAND LIMITED 

A Subsidiary of Patterson Pump Company U.S.A. 

Unit 14, Mullingar Business Park • Mullingar, Co. Westmeath, Ireland 
Tel.: 353 44 934 7078 • FAX: 353 44 934 7896 
E-mail: info@ie.pattersonpumps.com 

www.ie.pattersonpumps.com 





REMOTE MONITORING 



Remote 
monitoring a 
fire pump 
system status 


By David Gentle 


Initially you would imagine that a system that is tested and approved to stringent 
standards, runs for only half an hour each week and is regularly maintained 
would not be an obvious candidate to need remote monitoring. Fire pump 
packages are such systems but it would be wrong to believe that vigilant 
monitoring is not required. The consequences to life and property are such that 
not to do so would be irresponsible. 


Business Development 
Manager, Industrial Fire, 
Northern Europe 
SPP Pumps Limited 


I nitially you would imagine that a system that is 
tested and approved to stringent standards, runs 
for only half an hour each week and is regularly 
maintained would not be an obvious candidate to 
need remote monitoring. Fire pump packages are 
such systems but it would be wrong to believe 
that vigilant monitoring is not required. The con- 
sequences to life and property are such that not to 
do so would be irresponsible. 

The regular fire pump tests prove the system is 
working at that time but can you be sure it will 
work without failure if it is called into action later 


on? There are many reasons why system perfor- 
mance may be compromised after the test and this 
short article explains the sort of circumstances that 
could cause a failure with possibly tragic con- 
sequences. The need to keep an eye on the fire 
pump at all times and not only when periodically 
tested is what led SPP to develop a remote moni- 
toring system designed specifically for fire pump 
applications. 

Ultimately it is the building operator or manager 
that needs to assure themselves that fire pump(s) 
are operational at all times. In the aftermath of 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


57 




fire, insurance may meet the immediate costs but 
it has been proven that damage to a business from 
fire is a multiple of the insurable risk. Such losses 
could all be saved through something very simple 
and avoidable. 

Problems with the pump system can arise from 
simple oversight, carelessness when doing a simple 
(and perhaps boring) task, intentional damage 
caused by a disaffected person, poor maintenance 
or system misuse (e.g. car cleaning using plant 
equipment). Each of these is cause for concern but 
is also preventable using available and affordable 
technology. This technology can not only help to 
keep an eye on the equipment but also to identify 
where it is used inappropriately and confirm its 
readiness to run. 

In many cases faults continue to go undetected. 
This may result from service operatives being 
unaware of the fire protection requirements, inad- 
equate hand-over, insufficient knowledge/training 
which has rendered them ignorant to equipment 
service requirements or a lack of regard for fire 
protection significance generally. Operatives might 


not be qualified service engineers or service-minded 
at all. Alternatively, faults could be put down to a 
lack of attention because of resource or time 
constraints. Weekly tests are sometimes carried 
out by members of staff whose responsibilities lie 
normally with security, car park tending and recep- 
tion each of which can distract from the rare but 
serious risk from fire. 

A lack of information or inexperience of the 
pump, driver, controller or any other component 
of the pump room could lead to valves being shut, 
the engine being starved of coolant water, isola- 
tors left in the off position, batteries losing charge 
or pump sets being left offline/not in automatic 
mode. System failures can occur because of 
frozen, bent or broken pipes, leaks as well as low 
or empty tanks. Inaccurate instrumentation and 
component failure prove a direct problem them- 
selves but have the potential to cause faults 
further down the line as well. Pre-empting these 
faults so as not to cause others seems inarguable. 

Wilful tampering by disaffected employee(s) or 
school student(s) for example is often irrefutable. 

The repercussions unfortu- 
nately cannot be denied. 
Remote monitoring devices 
can take inputs from addi- 
tional pump room (intruder) 
alarms, valves etc and alert 
the designated contact per- 
son^) best placed to see 
damage is minimised further. 

A poor understanding or 
little regard for the impor- 
tance of fire protection will 
incur poor and inadequate 
maintenance from the start. 
Human error sees alarms 
being muted and wires 
damaged with no due con- 
sideration. Without remote 
monitoring problems are 
likely to persist. If nobody 
knows it is broken then it is 
less likely to be fixed, if a 



58 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





SPP’s New Remote 
Monitoring System FireEye 

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Total peace of mind 


With approved pumpsets and a professionally 
commissioned installation - 

WHAT COULD GO WRONG? 

Poor maintenance System misuse 

Human error System failure 



Simple carelessness 


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Tel: +44(0)118 932 3123 Fax: +44(0)118 932 3302 Website: www.spppumps.com 


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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


59 





REMOTE MONITORING 


REMOTE MONITORING A FIRE PUMP SYSTEM STATUS 



potential failure isn't identified then fewer 
measures will follow to prevent it. If somebody can 
put in less effort to complete a task (and get away 
with doing so) more often than not they will. 

The reason might not be apathy. Commercial 
pressures too induce corners to be cut. There have 
been frequent instances of a manual log being 
filled in erroneously giving a deceptive history of 
an installation and a false sense of security. Repeat 
data and repeat instrumentation measurements, a 
column of identical handwriting and the same pen 
being used over a long record of dates are clues 
which may rightly allude to the weekly tests being 
carried out quickly, falsely or perhaps not being 
carried out at all. 


in the processes, proce- 
dures or attitudes affecting 
maintenance and the abil- 
ity of a system to do its job 
as needed. There is even 
less room for poor vigi- 
lance in the case of non- 
preventative, gross intent 
which gives less or no 
chance to manage or con- 
tain effects of fire devasta- 
tion. In such circumstances 
however, even if the pump 
room, control room, recep- 
tion or complete structure 
is lost as a result of fire, 
logged data on a support- 
ed, third party (hosted), 
remote web server can go 
some way to be able to 
provide valuable informa- 
tion after the event. 

Whether the causes of problems are accidental 
or intentional, the result can be substantial in 
terms of financial loss as well as incalculable per- 
sonal, environmental, social and economic costs 
too. Whether circumstances affecting the system 
are common or infrequent, planned or not, a 
means is required to monitor in near real time 
where such misuse, abuse and neglect is taking 
place in order to prevent them. 

Equipping qualified engineers with information 
to put right first time or pre-empt system failures is 
a basic requirement. It is useful for them quickly 
and easily to have the most recent system status 
and alarms sent back to their mobile phones 
before they enter the pump room. This may allow 


Whether the causes of problems are accidental or 
intentional, the result can be substantial in terms of financial 
loss as well as incalculable personal, environmental, social 
and economic costs too. 


Please visit 

www.sppfireeye.com or 
www.spppumps.com for 
further information 


Interim and annual service contracts might have 
existed previously but ceased because of changed 
building ownership, commercial cutbacks, struc- 
tural/job changes, job losses or insufficient 
handover. Where service maintenance is in place, 
service personnel are often located in distant 
headquarters remote from the multiple sites they 
are responsible for. 

All these are concerns that can be addressed by 
remote monitoring of fire pump systems. Benefits 
can include the ability to recognise and prompt 
when regular service intervals are due; the evi- 
dence to prove pump drivers have been started 
each week and what alarm was activated when 
(date and time); direct access to device history on 
the smallest to today's biggest (multiple pump 
rooms on one site) installations; alarm occurrence 
notification from remote locations and low GSM 
signal areas. Remote monitoring can also highlight 
where, when and how frequently the equipment is 
being used outside the operating conditions it is 
intended for (e.g. jockey pump starts within select 
durations). 

In fire protection there is no room for shortfalls 


them to evaluate and put right the issues on site 
more safely and efficiently. The nature of preventa- 
tive maintenance using remote monitoring reduces 
or can prevent unnecessary engineer call-outs. In 
turn the associated mobilization costs are mini- 
mized or saved respectively. 

All applications including warehouses, factories, 
schools and offices can employ and benefit from 
this concept. Controlled environments, airports, 
hospitals, power plants and other transmitter free 
sites can use the device, confident that other or 
integrated building infrastructures will not be 
interfered with. Being compliant to CE the product 
is suitable for integration both on existing/retrofit 
projects as well as new fire pump installations in 
the European Union and outside. 

FireEye remote monitoring has been designed so 
that system faults may be identified and corrected 
in time to prevent damage and even loss of life. A 
demonstration will be available on the SPP Pumps 
Ltd stand FI 5, in Hall 1 at the INTERSCHUTZ 
international exhibition for rescue, fire prevention, 
disaster relief, safety and security from the 7th to 
1 2th of June 201 0 in Leipzig, Germany. IlMil 


60 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





CONTROL LOGIC 
Spark 
detector 

designed for 
dust collectio 
systems 
to protect 

ri . 

of fire. 


201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 


he 


The 


Sparks fly 
at high speed* 

They travel at a hundred kilometres 
per hour along the ducts of the dust 
collection system and reach the silo 
in less than three seconds 

CONTROL LOGIC 
SPARK DETECTOR 

is faster than 
the sparks themselves. 
It detects them with its highly 
sensitive infrared sensor, 
intercepts and extinguishes 
them in a flash, 
no periodic inspection. 

CONTROL LOGIC system 

is designed for "total supervision". 
It verifies that sparks have been 
extinguished, gives prompt warning of 
any malfunction and, if needed, 
cuts off the duct and stops the fan. 


SO 9001 


CONTROL LOGIC 



BETTER TO KNOW IT BEFORE 


Eye is faster than nose. 

In the event of live fire 
the IR FLAME DETECTOR 
responds immediately 


IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/FA 
EXPL0SI0NPR00F 
ENCLOSURE 


CONTROL LOGIC 

IR FLAME DETECTOR 

the fastest and most effective fire alarm device 
for industrial applications 

■j -t ^ 



IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/F 
WATERTIGHT 
IP 65 ENCLOSURE 


For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where is a risk of explosion 
and where the explosionproof 
protection is required. 

One detector can monitor a vast area 
and responds immediately 
to the fire, yet of small size. 


Also for 

RS485 two-wire serial line 


For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where fire can spread 
out rapidly due to the presence of 
highly inflammable materials, 
and where vast premises need an optical 
detector with a great sensitivity 
and large field of view. 


201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 541 0 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 





AUDIBLE ALARMS 


A Visible improve 



By Bob Choppen 

Cooper Fulleon 


Audibility? 

Audible alarms are firmly established as the warning method for fire detection as 
well as many other types of safety system and yet their effectiveness has always 
been limited and now appears to be decreasing further due to changes in 
people's behaviour. 


T hat may sound like a strange statement to 
come from someone who works for an 
organisation that provides literally millions of 
alarm sounders of many different types every year, 
but it is I think a fair assessment. 

Alarm sounders, or Audible Alarm Devices 
(AADs) in current parlance, have not changed in 
their basic function since their conception; that is 
to make a noise to warn of an emergency. This is 
in contrast with other elements of safety systems, 
such as detection technology which constantly 
advances to provide earlier and more accurate 
analysis of emergency conditions and has benefi- 
ted greatly from developments in electronics and 
software. So why haven't alarm sounders moved 
on at the same pace or in the same way? The 
underlying technology irrefutably has changed and 
has brought benefits to efficiency and cost, but 
the basic function remains unchanged. A 50 year 
old bell would be just as effective as any current 
sounder. In fact many bells Fulleon still provides 
are based on designs from the 1 970s. 

The limiting factor for audible alarms is people, 
the basic auditory sense is not evolving so the 
basic technology is locked into providing an 
acoustic signal covering a small frequency range. 

The observation that the effectiveness of 
audible alarms is diminishing is based on the rapid 
changes in society and the built environment. 

The often casual regard for alarm signals is born 
out of the sheer number of alarms we endure 
every day, right from the microwave "ping" to the 
invariably ignored car alarm and the ever present 
mobile phone. The difficulty of identifying an 
important life safety alarm is compounded by the 
lack of a nationally recognised UK fire alarm 


signal, so even critical signals can be consigned 
to the general morass of contemporary noise. 

Mobile technology has spawned the "Podestri- 
an" who are estimated to be involved in as many 
as 10% of minor traffic accidents (Telegraph Oct 
2008). The use of music players and mobile phones 
either masks the noise of approaching traffic or dis- 
tracts the user to the exclusion of normal safety 
considerations. While the "Podestrian" is an essen- 
tially external manifestation, there are a surprising 
number of employees using personal music sources 
to ease the boredom of repetitive jobs and are 
quite oblivious to their immediate surroundings. 

Normal hearing is taken for granted by most of 
us, but there are estimated to be nearly nine million 
people who are deaf or hard of hearing of which 
700,000 are thought to be severe to profoundly 
deaf. (RNID 2005). For these people sounders are of 
little use. In addition, increased concerns over health 
and safety are encouraging the greater use of ear 
defenders in the work place and so there is a sizeable 
contingent of people who work in environments 
where any alarm sounded is unlikely to be heard 
over process noise and may also be rendered below 
a normal hearing threshold even when the noise has 
stopped because of the hearing protection in use. 

Audible alarms are, however, still treated as the 
most effective alarm method overall; they are cost 
effective to install and the efficacy of the installed 
system can be easily assessed with commonly 
available instruments, but in many situations they 
do need to be supplemented. 

Visual alarm devices 

To overcome the issues mentioned above commu- 
nication needs to be broadened to stimulate 


62 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


A VISIBLE IMPROVEMENT 

AliniDI C AIADMC 


AUUIdLC ALAKIVI j 


ment 


senses other than hearing alone and in 2010 the 
focus is falling on visual alarms. 

Visual Alarm Devices (VADs) have been used to 
supplement audible alarms for many years either 
as separate units or integrated with the alarm 
sounders themselves. The awareness of the need 
to complement audible alarms has received more 
attention in recent years, no doubt driven by 
observance of the requirements of the Disabilities 
Discrimination Act (DDA). 

As the use of visual alarm devices has grown 
there has been a consequent increase in the load- 
ing placed on alarm circuits and Fulleon has 
responded by producing more efficient visual 
alarms and also by developing versions of all of its 
sounders with integrated visual alarms to reduce 
the power and ease installation requirements. 

The problem that has been faced by both 
manufacturers and users is that in Europe there 
has been no standard method for the measure- 
ment of visual alarms or any documents to provide 
guidance on how to use them within a building. 
The lack of standards has given rise to manufac- 
turers rating their products in a number of ways, 
most choosing to use joules, the amount of 
energy discharged in the flash tube, but this has 
only a tenuous relationship to the amount of the 
light produced and nothing to do with where 
the light goes. Now this has not really mattered as 
the installers and systems designers had little idea 
of how bright the visual alarms needed to be, so 
the criteria for choice often boiled down to power 
consumption. Aware of the need for a more 
meaningful comparison of light sources, whether 
xenon flash tube or LED, Fulleon took the decision 
to rate all visual alarms by light output, based on 
testing to the American UL standards and were 
fortunate to be able to call on the facilities of their 


sister company Cooper Wheelock for the measure- 
ments. This aided comparison between Fulleon 
products, but did little to allow comparison with 
competitors or with the decision of what to use in 
any particular application. 

As in any market where there is a requirement, 
such as the DDA, without any related regulation, 
there has been much confusion and misinforma- 
tion in fire industry, some arising through the inno- 
cence of ignorance and some intended to exploit 
that ignorance. Many systems installed with the 
best intentions may well fall far below the stan- 
dards required. 

Salvation 

2010 Will see the introduction of two important 
documents to the UK. The first: EN 54-23 2010 Fire 
detection and fire alarm systems - Part 23: Fire 
alarm devices - Visual alarm devices, is close to 
publication, although at the time of writing it is 
not exactly clear when. This will provide a method 
of test and classification for VADs, allowing manu- 
facturers to rate their beacons/strobesA/ADs in a 
way that allows the system designer to compare 
and assess performance and suitability for an 
application. The second document being prepared 
is by a joint task group from BRE/LPC and the FIA 
and is targeted for publication as LPS 1652 Code 
of Practice for Visual Alarm Devices used for Fire 
Warning, later this year. This document will directly 
complement EN54-23 and provide guidance on 
how to use the test data to give effective results in 
typical situations. 

EN54-23 is a parallel to EN54-3 for audible 
alarms, but differs in that VADs are classified into 
one of three categories by their intended 
application. Two of the categories for "Wall" 
mounted or "Ceiling" mounted products have 


WALL MOUNTED 
W-2.4-6 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


63 


AUDIBLE ALARMS 


CEILING MOUNTED 
C-6-6 



specific targets for light distribution patterns, 
whereas the third category "Open" allows the 
manufacturer freedom to specify particular charac- 
teristics which fall outside of the other two 
categories. 

The area of coverage determined by the testing 


is based on the distance at which the "required 
illumination" is achieved, which is 0.4lumens/m 2 
on a surface perpendicular to the direction of the 
light emitted from the VAD. 

The Wall and Ceiling classes will require differ- 
ent light dispersion characteristics, the Wall format 



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64 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




A VISIBLE IMPROVEMENT 


requiring the manufacturer to state a mounting 
height on a wall, minimum 2.4m and the width of 
a square room over which the VAD will provide 
coverage. So the data on the beacon could 
read W-2.4-6, ie mounted at a height of 2.4m 
the VAD will cover a room 6m square. The VAD 
will therefore be required to cover a volume; 
below its mounting height. Any light going 
upward will be wasted as far as this categorisation 
is concerned. 

Similarly the Ceiling format will be assessed on 
the diameter of its coverage volume when mount- 
ed at a height of 3, 6 or 9m. The VAD in this case 
needs to radiate more or less equally all around. 

The Open class will both allow existing designs 
to be measured, even if not optimised for wall or 
Ceiling mounting, or permit a manufacturer to 
design dispersion characteristics specifically for 
certain applications, maybe to suit corridors or 
where mounting heights fall outside those pre- 
scribed by the standard. 

LPS1652 aims to provide guidance on how the 
data generated by EN54-23 can be used to plan a 
system and also fills in many of the considerations 
absent from the information provided regarding 
visual alarms in the fire industries bible: BS 5839- 
1 :2002+A2:2008 Fire detection and fire alarm sys- 
tems for buildings. Code of practice for system 
design , installation , commissioning and maintenance. 

A key element of the work that has gone into 
LPS1652 is the assessment of how effective VADs 
are in practical situations and how the basic data 
from EN54-24 can be adjusted to suit variations in 
viewing conditions within a building. This takes 
into account both direct and indirect viewing of 
the light from a visual alarm as well as the effects 
of ambient light levels in the locality. 

An outcome of these two documents is that 
VADs used with fire systems are likely to need higher 
light outputs than are currently employed to meet 
the requirements of the DDA. Low power devices 
whether xenon or LED based are likely to be effec- 
tive only in smaller spaces similar to toilet cubicles; 
larger areas will require higher output devices with 
consequently higher power requirements 

Undoubtedly this will affect the present genera- 
tion of visual alarms whether and will particularly 
test the ingenuity of the engineers working on the 
next iterations of addressable products. 

Future considerations 

It should be remembered that VADs are only one 
solution to supplementing audible alarms and that 
they too have many limitations on their effective- 
ness which will require more careful planning than 
for an audible system. 

Increased costs to both manufacturers and 
installers brought by the new standard will encour- 
age the investigation of other alarm methods such 
as portable tactile devices, mobile phones and so on. 

Despite its shortcomings and the changing 
behaviour of the public there appears to be little 
on the horizon to displace the audible alarm from 
its place as the staple for alarm systems. Voice 
alarm is commonly used to improve information 
and understanding, but does not help where a 
sounder is inaudible or masked by other activities. 
The way forward appears to be more integration 
between different techniques and may require 
solutions tailored more specifically to individuals 
and locations. CD 


Fulleon 



9 d 



IU«'J 


World Class 

Leaders in audible & visual alarm systems 

■ Variety of markets catered for including: 

■ Fire 

■ Industrial 

■ Security 

■ Hazardous Areas 

■ Product for indoor and outdoor use 

■ Diverse range of applications 

■ High efficiency, low current designs 

■ Compliant with a wide range 

of standards 


COOPER Notification 



T:+44 (0)1633 628 500 F:+44 (0)1633 866 346 
sales@fulleon.co.uk www.cooperfulleon.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


65 




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By Alfred Thornton 

DuPont Fire 
Extinguishants 


CLEAN AGENTS 



Fire Suppression 

With increasing corporate and societal attention on product stewardship and 
sustainability as part of achieving long-term environmental goals, many companies 
are looking at ways to improve the environmental profile of their facilities and 
processes by selecting an environmentally preferred fire suppression solution. 


T he fire suppression industry has been at the 
forefront of adopting practices in support of 
responsible product use since the Montreal 
Protocol regulations came into effect more than 
twenty years ago. Industry-driven voluntary codes 
of practice have helped ensure that the societal 
benefits of fire suppression agents are maintained 
while environmental impact is minimized. 

It is important to consider all key criteria when 
choosing a safe, effective and environmentally 
responsible fire extinguishing system. It would be a 
mistake to focus on only one aspect of a system, 
such as the global warming potential or GWP of 
the extinguishing agent. The reality is that an 
agent's GWP contributes to climate change only if 
the agent is released into the atmosphere. Fire 
suppression industry data indicate that minimal 
amounts of extinguishing agent are ever released 
to the atmosphere since most suppression 
equipment doesn't encounter a fire scenario. 

Voluntary codes of practice within the industry 
have established best practices for installing, main- 
taining, and servicing fire suppression systems, and 
these measures have proven highly effective in con- 
trolling and reducing unwanted emissions. The 
industry has also been working closely with the U.S. 
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop a 
reporting program to track fire system emissions, 
the HFC Emission Estimating Program (HEEP). 1 

In fact, worldwide emissions from fire protection, 
including fire events, are estimated to represent 
less than 0.02% of total greenhouse gas emissions 


on a C0 2 equivalent basis and less than 1% of 
emissions from the basket of gases manufactured 
for use. 

To put these volumes into further perspective, 
the average fire system in the U.S. contains about 
155 kgs of extinguishing agent, meaning an aver- 
age system releases about 4.5 mt C0 2 equivalent. 
According to the U.S. EPA, this release rate 
equates to the same GWP impact of 9/1 Oths of a 
passenger car or [less than half] 4/1 Oths of your 
home's annual energy use. 2 

What about the future environmental risk of an 
ever-growing base of protected facilities? The HEEP 
data shows emissions from fire systems leveling off, 
indicating that system emissions are not directly 
tied to the number of installed fire systems System 
installations have increased consistently every year 
over the period of the HEEP data, from 2002 to 
2008, yet the volume of emissions from that grow- 
ing base remains the same. One explanation for 
this non-intuitive data is that the number of fire 
and false discharge events is steady, no matter how 
many sites are protected. Further, the industry cur- 
rently has a well-established maintenance, recovery 
and reclamation infrastructure, providing a robust 
global market for recovering and reusing clean 
agents in new fire extinguishing systems, recharg- 
ing existing systems after fires, and removing 
agents from use through conversion or destruction 
technologies. Over the years, these maintenance 
and recovery programs have become more refined 
and efficient proving that, with proper care and 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


67 



ri CAM AfZCMTC 

FIRE SUPPRESSION 

LLtAIM Au tl\l 1 j 




market incentives, emissions can be reduced, agent 
and system sustainability can be attained, and 
environmental responsibility can be realized. 

Since clean agent fire systems have a low 
emission impact, how should an end-user (i.e., 
facility manager, building owner, and administra- 
tor) evaluate and make the best choice in a fire 
suppression system? Fire suppression systems 
should be considered as an integral complex 
system, including, but not limited to, the choice of 
agent. Just as the science and politics of climate 
change are complex and interrelated, so too, the 
choice of the right fire suppression technology for 
any given application is more than a single com- 
ponent or even sum of components, and requires 
careful decision making. 

First, it is critical to ensure that the performance 
of the suppression system properly matches the 
application. Protection of life and health must be 
the top priority, followed by protection of property 
and the environment. Selecting a suppression sys- 
tem with the main focus on achieving an arbitrary 
GWP target not only wastes resources but may 
ultimately prove to be a worse choice environmen- 
tally as well. A high quality system from a recog- 
nized manufacturer, carrying an internationally 
recognized approval (such as Underwriters 
Laboratory, VdS, or Factory Mutual), helps ensure 
the system performs as expected, releasing only 
during a real fire event. Proper service and routine 
maintenance by trained technicians with respected 
service firms will enable the suppression system to 
protect lives and property from fire. 

In evaluating the environmental impact of a fire 
suppression system, it is important to consider the 
quantity of equipment required, including system 
storage space, as well as installation and servicing 
costs. Achieving the same hazard protection goals 
with physically larger, more complex fire systems 
can increase a facilities overall environmental 
impact. Systems utilizing efficient, high performance 
extinguishing agents such as DuPont™ FM-200® 
reduce resource requirements, going back to the 


hardware manufacturing process; 
they also require less floor space, 
thus reducing all of the attendant 
operational costs associated with 
managing a highly protected risk 
facility. According to a Data Center 
News article 3 the operational cost of 
a U.S. data center ranges from $80- 
$11 2/ft2 ; a large part of that cost 
goes to power and environmental 
controls. Displacing functional floor 
space to accommodate a less effi- 
cient fire system increases the oper- 
ational overhead requirements for 
these facilities and creates an added 
environmental impact over the life- 
time of the installation. 

When considering the overall 
environmental performance of your 
facility, consider LEED® (Leadership in 
Energy and Environmental Design) 
standards. The U.S. Green Building 
Council (USGBC), a non-profit coali- 
tion of building industry leaders, 
developed LEED® to establish a com- 
mon standard of measurement for 
environmentally sustainable building 
practices. Several clean agent fire 
extinguishant options contribute toward LEED® 
credits in the Energy & Atmosphere category, con- 
tributing toward USGBC Certification. Money saved 
by choosing a high performance, cost-effective fire 
suppression system can be used to upgrade building 
materials or for other energy performance enhance- 
ments. Improvements in these other operational 
areas are weighted five to ten times more heavily in 
the LEED® certification process than improvements 
related to fire systems. Focusing limited resources 
on areas that provide the greatest return is both 
fiscally prudent and environmentally responsible. 

It is certain that "sustainability" will continue to 
be a growing concern for critical facilities. Facility 
managers, building owners, architects and design 
engineers will continue to review and examine 
options for improving a site's environmental profile 
and fire systems are not exempt from that process. 
By combining a safe, effective fire suppression 
system that offers the highest performance with 
an efficient use of space, energy and capital, 
owners can focus their resources on making a real 
difference in reducing a company's environmental 
footprint. 

For nearly two decades, HFC clean agents have 
clearly demonstrated they offer the best balance 
between performance, economic value, and 
environmental responsibility for the special hazards 
fire protection industry. To choose a fire suppres- 
sion system based solely on the GWP of the agent 
used in the system is to fail to properly appreciate 
the true impact and importance of fire extinguish- 
ing system in the overall protection and operation 
of a critical facility. JE2 

References 

1 Report of the HFC Emissions Estimating Program, 
March 2010. 

2 US EPA Greenhouse Gas Equivalencies Calculator; 
http://www.epa.gov/RDEE/energy-resources/calcula- 
tor.html#results 

3 Data Center Locations Ranked by Operating Cost, 
Data Center News, 25 Jul 2006. SearchData 
Center.com 


68 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



Basic if you like. Complex if you need. 

ALTAIR 5 - The high performance multi-gas detector 


The newest member of the ALTAIR family is equipped 
to measure six gases simultaneously with combustible, 
oxygen and a wide range of toxic and infra-red sensors. 
ALTAIR 5's full graphical monochrome or high resolution 
colour displays provide comprehensive information at 
a glance in up to 18 pre-programmed languages. 

The multifunctional alarms, MotionAlert and InstantAlert, 
as well as the 24 hour bump-test checkmark are standard 


On top of this the Wireless USB option allows integration 
into MSA's alpha Personal Network, transmitting gas 
readings and alarms to a central control station in real 
time. 

Never before has a gas detector offered so many 
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FIA COMMENT 


Removal off Fire 
Extinguishers - is 
it worth the risk? 

In recent years it has not been uncommon to see risk assessments 
recommending that portable fire extinguishers be removed from the common 
areas of blocks of flats. This seems an odd recommendation when one bears in 
mind that there is a plethora of statistics from the UK and Europe that show that 
portable extinguishers have a life and property saving role to play. 


I n some cases the removal of portable fire 
extinguishers appears to have been supported by 
the local fire brigade at a time when fire safety 
legislation in the UK has placed the responsibility for 
fire safety onto the shoulders of building owners 
and occupiers. 

The rationale behind the removal of portable fire 
extinguishers is the belief that they are a hazard in 
untrained hands and could encourage people to try 
to tackle a blaze themselves rather than leaving the 
building. However in view of the large number of 
fires that are safely extinguished every year using 
portable extinguishers, surely it makes more sense 
to focus on providing training rather than removing 
what has proven to be very effective means of con- 
taining a small fire? 

In general fire brigades believe in a "get out, stay 
out and call the fire service out" approach. How- 
ever, this advice means that the residents of a 
block of flats should resist any urge to extinguish a 
minor waste bin fire in the foyer, activate the alarm, 
evacuate the entire building and await the arrival of 
the fire brigade. 

This approach appears to be very sensible until 
you take into account the fact that things are 
very different in today's UK fire service as a result of 
the Fire and Rescue Act in 2004. This act requires 
that every brigade has an integrated Risk 
Management Plan which is aimed at the complex 
problem of balancing its obligations with its 
resources. The outcome in some parts of the 
country is that brigades will now not respond to an 
alarm unless there is "visual confirmation" of a fire. 
In other cases fire personnel in fourwheel-drive 
vehicle or on a motorcycle are sent to assess the fire 
before committing further resources. Also, some 
stations now have lower manning levels during the 
night. 

The fact of the matter, according to a survey pub- 
lished by the FIA is that portable extinguishers save 
the British economy alone around £500 million 
every year and extinguish completely around 66,000 
fires. Even these figures may underestimate the role 
played by portable extinguishers as they are 
designed to prevent relatively minor incidents 
becoming major conflagrations, so their use often 
goes unreported. 

In comparison figures from the UK government's 
Department of Communities and Local Government 
that show that the fire and rescue service in the UK 
attended 88,400 fires in buildings in the UK. Thus 
the effective use of portable extinguishers is undeni- 
able, and adopting a widespread policy of removing 


them would place extra strain on the resources of 
the fire service. 

So, shouldn't we be concentrating on the safe 
use of portable extinguishers, rather than dismissing 
them and leaving nothing in their place. In England 
and Wales, for example, The Regulatory Reform 
(Fire Safety) Order covers the common areas in such 
buildings, which means that there is a legal need to 
appoint a "responsible person", to ensure that 
adequate training is provided, and to ensure that 
residents are aware of the fire safety precautions 
being implemented in the building. Training in the 
safe use of portable extinguishers is readily available 
and inexpensive. Many fire brigades now include 
information on the selection, placing and use of 
portable extinguishers on their websites, as well as 
offering short training courses. In addition reputable 
suppliers of portable extinguishers also are only too 
willing to work with a building's 'responsible 
person' regarding the selection of the most 
appropriate extinguisher and to help ensure that the 
legislative requirements are being met. 

Any training provided should cover emergency 
procedures, familiarisation of the building and its 
escape routes, an understanding of the different 
types of fire and their likely causes, the different 
types of portable extinguisher and their safe use, 
and when not to attempt to use a portable extin- 
guisher to fight a blaze. This may, at first glance, 
appear to be a somewhat onerous schedule, but 
most training courses take between a couple of 
hours for a basic portable extinguisher course, to 
half-day courses that combine both portable 
extinguisher training with fire awareness. 

Finally the fire sector is becoming ever more 
aware of the need for third-party certification as the 
only reliable means of verifying that products gen- 
uinely comply with the standard being claimed for 
them. This is certainly the case with portable fire 
extinguishers and end users should be encouraged 
to put their faith only in portables that are main- 
tained by installers that can prove their competence 
by membership of a third party certification scheme 
such as those run by BAFE and LPCB. HU 



Fire Industry Association 


70 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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By Ian Buchanan 

European Manager, 
Spectrex Inc 


industrial Flame 
Detection - the 
'pros and cons' 

Optical flame detection has progressed to meet the ever-growing demands for 
maximum reliability, availability and minimal false alarm events and is widely 
employed in many high risk industries, such as those in oil & gas (onshore & 
offshore), petrochemicals, hazardous material handling and storage, etc., to 
protect both high-value plant and personnel. 


F lame Detectors are the favored solution for 
high risk areas and outdoors where smoke and 
heat detectors are not effective. Unlike smoke 
and heat detectors, the fire/products of fire 
(smoke/heat) do not have to reach the optical 
detector to be recognized as it can 'sees the fire 
(flame) radiation from distances up to 65 meters, 
within a 100° 'cone of vision' in all directions - 
and raise an alarm within 5 seconds. Detection is 
taken to the fire rather than waiting for the fire to 
reach the detector. 

Optical flame detectors provide the fastest 
detection of a fuel fire in the early ignition stage. 

About flames 

Flames emit electromagnetic radiation at a wide 
range of wavelengths, which vary depending on 
the fuel being burned and environmental condi- 
tions that affect the radiation transmission in the 
atmosphere. Optical flame detectors operate by 
sensing one or more of these wavelengths. (Fig. 1) 
Many combustible materials include carbon, 


and combustion of such hydrocarbon fuels, 
typically generate hot carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) gas. 
Hot C0 2 has a characteristic infrared (IR) emission 
spectrum, with a relatively strong and well-defined 
peak at wavelengths from approximately 4.2 to 
4.5 microns, and relatively little intensity at wave- 
lengths immediately on either side of the peak. In 
the presence of an actual fire, the radiation 
intensity in the peak band is generally high, while 
little or no radiation is received in the side bands. 
Thus, high radiation intensity in the peak band as 
compared to that in the non-peak side bands is 
used to determine whether a flame is present. 

Some other combustibles lack carbon, for 
example hydrogen, ammonia, metal oxides, silane 
and other non-organic fuels. In their combustion 
process, they generate a lot of hot water vapor 
that has a characteristic IR emission spectrum with 
a relatively strong peak around 2.7 microns. 

One of the problems in detecting fire conditions, 
particularly small fires or at long range, is the poten- 
tial for a high false alarm rate. Such spurious radia- 


I INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


73 




INDUSTRIAL FLAME DETECTION 


THE 'PROS AND CONS f 


40/40 plus 



tion sources might not be large enough to activate 
short-range detectors, but may activate detectors 
whose sensitivity has been increased to maximize 
their detection distance. A false alarm may result in 
a costly discharge of the fire extinguisher and its 
replacement and/or plant shutdown. 

Several generations of flame detectors have 
been developed over the years to address the 
various fire and explosion hazards, particularly in 
today's high-risk industries. 


Flame detection technologies 

Flame Detectors usually employ several optical 
sensors, working in specific spectral ranges that 
detect simultaneously the incoming radiation 
at the selected wavelengths. These signals are 
analyzed in one or more of the following ways: 

1 Comparator techniques (and-gate techniques). 

2 Flickering frequency analysis. 

3 Threshold energy signal comparison. 

4 Mathematical ratios and correlations between 
various signals. 

5 Correlation to memorized spectral analysis. 

Modern Flame Detectors employ several of the 
above-mentioned techniques using multiple sensors 
to provide enhanced reliability and accuracy. The 
spectral bands selected for each type of detector 
determine the detector's sensitivity, detection range, 
speed of response and immunity to false alarms. 
The flame radiation spectral pattern, being unique, 
allows several spectral ranges to be employed 
simultaneously in the various detection devices. 

The following, in chronological order, is a brief 
review of the technologies, their limitations and 
the solutions that have been developed and 
incorporated into modern flame detectors. All 
are still in use today although early types tend 
to be restricted to very specific applications. 

UV flame detection - single sensor 

The earliest flame detector utilized the UV spectral 
signature of some flames which have a pattern 
that can be readily recognized over the back- 
ground radiation. UV flame detec- 
tors detect flames at high speed 
(3-4 milliseconds) due to the high- 
energy UV radiation emitted by 
fires and explosions. However, the 
UV flame radiation can be attenu- 
ated by atmospheric pollutants. In 
addition, false alarms can result 
from random UV radiation from 
stimuli such as lighting, arc welding 
and radiation, X-rays, solar radia- 
tion (not absorbed by the atmos- 
phere). 

The latest generation of UV 
detectors are more reliable but still 
susceptible to false alarms and 
limited to approx 15m detection 
distance. They tend to be used 
indoors where interfering radiation 
is not present and where very 
fast response is necessary, e.g. 
munitions manufacture. 


IR flame detection - single 
sensor 

IR radiation is present in most 
flames. However, flames are not 
the only source of IR radiation, in 
fact, any hot surface emits IR 
radiation that coincides with flame 
IR radiation wavelengths. 

Most single band IR detectors are 
based on pyroelectric sensors with a 
4.4 micron (m) optical filter and a 
low frequency (1-10 Hz) electronic 
band pass filter. This type of detector 
will recognize a 1 sq.ft. Gasoline pan 
fire from a distance of 1 5m. 


fa) candle flame - id) eunfcgpit 

(b) gasoline fire (el incandescent lamp 

(e) foen gas Tire (c) hot substance 



Figure 1 



Detection ot the flame's characteftetic infrared and 
uttrawotet radiatkm 


Figure 2 


74 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



40/40 Series Flame Detectors 

The new SharpEye 40/40 Series Flame Detectors are designed for long-term, reliable operation in severe, 
high-risk environments. All 40/40 Series detectors offer enhanced reliability and durability with a full 5-year warranty. 

A heated window, fully SIL2 [TUV] certified and EN54-10, FM3260 and DNV performance approved, along with Ex 
hazardous area approvals [ATEX, IECEx, FM, CSA] ensure your peace of mind. Interfacing is also easy - we provide a 
choice of relay contacts, analogue mA, RS485 Modbus and HART. All of this combined in a compact, lightweight but 
rugged package makes the 40/40 Flame Detector the one to choose! 

The 40/40 Series includes well-known and proven technologies such as triple IR (IR3) and UV/IR, and even a new Multi 
IR that allows simultaneous detection of hydrocarbon and hydrogen fires at long distances. 


5 YEAR WARRANTY 


Headquarters NJ (USA): +1 (973) 239-8398 
Houston Office: +1 (281) 463-6772 
Europe: +44 (141) 578-0693 
E-mail: spectrex@spectrex-inc.com 
Web: www.spectrex-inc.com 


A 

SPECTREX INC. 





INDUSTRIAL FLAME DETECTION 


THE 'PROS AND CONS f 


Figure 3 



Wavelength 


Defection of the name s characteristic C0 2 emission line 
by the use of three wavelength bands 


However, these IR detectors are still subject to 
false alarms caused by blackbody radiation 
(heaters, incandescent lamps, halogen lamps, etc.). 

UV/IR flame detection - dual sensor 

Dual spectrum UV/IR technology employs a solar 
blind UV sensor with a high signal-to-noise ratio 
and a narrow band IR sensor. The UV sensor itself 
is a good fire detector but easily false alarms. 
Thus, the IR sensing channel was added, working 
at the 2.7m or the 4.1 m-4.6m spectral ranges and 
serve as a reliable detector for many mid-range 
applications. (Fig. 2) 

However, even this advanced technology has its 
limitations, since each type of fire has its own 
specific ratio of UV to IR output. Hence, specific 
dual UV/IR detectors must combine both signals 
and compare them to distinguish a fire signature 
from false alarm stimuli. 

To ensure reliability, a discriminating circuit 
compares the UV and IR thresholds, their ratio as 
well as their flickering mode. Only when all 
parameters satisfy the detection algorithm is a fire 
signal alarm confirmed. However, UV radiating 
sources are sources for false alarms. 

Since false alarms can affect both UV and IR 
channels, certain scenarios may occur when a fire 
is present. Unwanted solar spikes in the UV com- 
bined with flickering IR sources (such as moving 
objects in front of hot sources) are liable to cause 
false alarms, even when a fire is not present. 

Again, detection distance is limited to max 15m. 

IR/IR flame detection - dual sensor 

More recently, the fire's main IR spectral character- 
istic feature at 4.3m-4.5m is analyzed thoroughly. 
This "differential spectral" approach is where two 
spectral ranges are analyzed: one emitted strongly 
by the fire, while the second is emitted weakly by 
the surroundings, thus the ratio gives a substantial 
mathematical tool for fire signal processing. 

However, since most dual IR detectors use 
the 4.3m sensor as their main channel for fire 
recognition, they suffer from atmospheric 
attenuation, especially at long range detection 
applications. Again, detection distance is limited to 
max 1 5m. 

Triple infrared (IR3) flame detection 

TRIPLE IR (IR3) technology is a major breakthrough 
in fire detection, which detects by concurrently 


monitoring with three IR 
sensors. These signals are 
further analyzed mathemat- 
ically with respect to their 
ratios and correlations. 

IR3 detectors will not 
false alarm to any continu- 
ous, modulated or pulsating 
radiation sources other than 
fire (including sources like 
black or gray body radia- 
tion). The high sensitivity of 
the Triple IR technology, 
coupled with its inherent 
immunity to false alarms, 
enables another major 
benefit of this technology - 
substantially longer detec- 
tion ranges than previously 
obtained with standard 
detectors - 65m compared to 15m for the same 
test fire. (Fig. 3) 

Multispectral flame detection 

A major concern in optical flame detection is IR 
radiation with spectra, at least superficially, similar 
to those emitted by flames, which may be pro- 
duced by many non-flame sources, including warm 
objects, sunlight and various forms of artificial 
lighting. Such IR radiation may be misinterpreted 
as a flame. However, simply ignoring or filtering this 
radiation may result in actual flames being masked. 

Analyzing multiple spectral bands, identifying 
the absence of a strong peak, eliminating spectra 
resembling a blackbody curve, employing wide 
band and narrow band filters, are some of the 
modern 'tools' in flame detection. 

Multiple IR sensors is the best technology, pro- 
vided the selection of sensors and filters covers 
most of the flammables spectra (including hydro- 
carbons and hydrogen flames) and eliminates all 
the false alarm spectra in the monitored area. 
Such detectors can simultaneously detect a hydro- 
carbon fire at 65m and a hydrogen flame at 30m. 

The increased activity in LNG and LPG process- 
ing and storage also requires the use of flame 
detectors, and recent improvements in the 
effective detection range for such gas type flames 
(e.g. methane, propane, etc.) means that fewer 
detectors are required to properly protect any 
given area than was previously the case. 

Due to the increased reliability, durability, high 
quality and performance, Spectrex 40/40 Series 
Flame Detectors are approved to SIL2 (TUV) for 
safety integrity; performance approved to EN54-10 
and FM3260 as well as Ex Zone 1 hazardous 
area approved with a resultant extension in the 
warranty period to 5 years. 

Summary 

Flame detection technologies have advanced 
significantly since the first UV detector, primarily 
'pushed' by the ever-growing demands of modern 
industries for reliable and cost-effective detection 
equipment for their expensive high-risk facilities 
and processes. Smaller in size, larger in brains, 
modern optical flame detectors provide enhanced 
flame detection reliability and longer detection 
ranges with minimal (or no) false alarms, backed 
by independent confirmation of their performance 
and integrity. D33 


76 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



For over 90 years, The Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc. 
has manufactured fire sprinklers, valves, and fire protection 
accessories. They are also a major distributor of sprinkler sys- 
tem components. Reliable produces a full line of both solder 
element and frangible glass bulb sprinklers for virtually every 
type of protection requirements. Reliable has a complete line 
of fire protection valves for controlling water flow and providing 
alarm signaling to include check, alarm, dry, deluge, and pre- 
action valves. 


Reliable Fire Sprinkler Ltd. 

Manufacturer & Distributor of Fire Protection Equipment 

www.reliablesprinkler.com 


Western Europe: Berny Holden - bholden@reliablesprinkler.com 

Germany: Hartmut Winkler - hwinkler@reliablesprinkler.com 


UK Office: +44.1342316800 

ucHMoncr.tnutr.itn tt Germany Office: +49.62176212223 


Reliable 


TECHNOLOGY • QUALITY • SERVICE 


PROTECTING ELECTRICAL CABINETS 


By Nick Grant 

EMEA Vice President 
and General Manager of 
Firetrace International 


Protecting Electri 
with C0 2 is a high 



Using C0 2 to protect electrical cabinets and enclosures risks doing considerable 
and expensive damage to the very equipment it is seeking to protect. Nick Grant 
explains. 


F or the past 100 years or so, C0 2 has been 
successfully extinguishing fires and continues 
to this day to be a popular, versatile and effec- 
tive fire suppression agent. Frequently, the only 
detracting consideration has been that it is not 
suitable for the protection of areas where people 
might be present, as its discharge in fire 
extinguishing concentrations would be lethal to 
room occupants. 

However, while the full-room total flooding 
discharge of C0 2 can be used without damaging 
electrical equipment, this does not mean that C0 2 
is suitable for every electrical environment. This is 
because the C0 2 discharge nozzles in a room 
are typically some distance from the sensitive 
electronics. This is not the case with direct- 
discharge, tube-operated systems in enclosed 
electrical cabinets, where the C0 2 discharge may 
be a matter of only a few centimetres away from 
delicate circuit boards or microchips. 

This has the potential to adversely impact on a 
vast number of businesses where electrical cabinets 
and enclosures maintain and control an array of 


business-critical processes - machinery control 
cabinets, switchgear, substations or simple fuse 
boxes - and where the loss or damage of the 
equipment could have devastating consequences. 

In these applications, the direct-discharged C0 2 
suppressant agent is released in liquid form that 
transmutes instantly into a gas, reducing the 
temperature to a super-cooled -70°C. This instantly 
freezes the humidity throughout the cabinet and 
effectively transforms the electrical panels into 
"snow boxes". This "snow" is a mixture of frozen 
carbon dioxide - often called dry ice - and water 
that can also collect dust and dirt particles from 
inside the cabinet. This "snow" melts into water 
inside the panels and then comes into contact 
with the energised components. The dust particles 
that are collected within the snow are deposited 
on to surfaces inside the enclosure, creating an 
electrically conductive substrate. 

The rapid cooling from ambient temperature to 
-70°C can also damage sensitive electronic com- 
ponents through a process known as thermal 
shock, which can damage some - possibly all - of 


78 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



C0 2 IS A HIGH RISK OPTION 


PROTECTING ELECTRICAL CABINETS 


cal cabinets 
risk option 



the equipment in the cabinet. Also, there 
are still direct-discharged C0 2 systems on 
the market that discharge the C0 2 as a 
gas, rather than as a liquid that then 
transmutes into a gas, where on dis- 
charge so much frost is formed that the 
cylinder valve freezes up and discharges 
only a portion of the cylinder's contents. 

Estimates suggest that this may be as low 
as 50 percent. This serious drawback has 
though been overcome in ISO9001: 
2008-certified Firetrace International 
FIRETRACE® automatic fire suppression 
systems by the innovative development 
of a modified direct/indirect valve. 

However, when the C0 2 transmutes 
from a liquid to a gas it expands at a rate 
of 500:1. This sudden expansion in vol- 
ume creates a significant over pressurisa- 
tion that can also seriously harm sealed 
enclosures and deform metal panels. The 
result is that, while the fire in the cabinet 
is suppressed, the damage caused to 
nearby electrical equipment by choosing 
to use direct-discharged C0 2 is likely to 
be extensive. 

This might, of course, beg the ques- 
tion: "Is it necessary to protect electrical 
cabinets with this type of dedicated fire 
suppression?" The answer is an unequiv- 
ocal "yes". Reliance on facility-wide sys- 
tems, even with the most sophisticated 
and integrated installations, is seriously 
flawed because, by the time a ceiling- 
mounted smoke, heat or flame sensor or 
a beam detector has been activated by a 
fire in an electrical cabinet, it is all but 
certain to be extensively damaged if not 
destroyed. By their very nature, enclosed 
micro environments are isolated from the 
facility's main fire detection and alarm installation 
and firefighting facilities. 

Any energised equipment - both low voltage 
and high voltage - can catch fire. Typically, fires in 
electrical cabinets are caused by loose connections 
and faulty cables that, when power is running 
through them, the electricity can arc. This arced 
electricity is extremely hot and can cause the 
cable sheathing to burn and spread to other com- 
ponents. It is therefore essential for the fire 
detection and suppression to be targeted on the 
connections and components, such as switches 
and transformers. 

So, what suppressants are suitable for electrical 
cabinets? While there are any number of agents 
that can be trusted to suppress a fire, not all can 
be relied upon not to damage the electrical 
cabinet they are endeavouring to protect. Certainly 
not C0 2 . 

Unlike C0 2 , properly designed systems with 
agents such as DuPont FM-200® and 


3M™Novec™1230 Fire Protection Fluid discharge 
at much higher temperatures and have proven to 
provide fast and reliable suppression without the 
detrimental side effects of direct-discharged C0 2 . 
Both FM-200 and Novec 1230 are non-conductive, 
clean suppression agents and, significantly, neither 
has either the huge temperature change from 
ambient, or the huge pressure change from 
ambient that precludes C0 2 from being suitable 
for these applications. 

Novec 1230, for example, exists as a liquid at 
room temperature. It is stored as a low-vapour- 
pressure fluid that, when discharged, transmutes 
into a colourless and odourless gas, using a con- 
centration of the fluid that is well below the 
agent's saturation or condensation level. Both 
agents have been used extensively by Firetrace 
International in its FIRETRACE systems, of which 
there are now more than 150,000 installations 
around the world. 

Both agents are also approved by UL [Under- 


I INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


79 


PROTECTING ELECTRICAL CABINETS 


CO ? IS A HIGH RISK OPTION 



writers Laboratories] and FM [Factory Mutual] and 
are listed in the appropriate codes and standards, 
such as NFPA 2001 [Standard on Clean Agent Fire 
Extinguishing Systems] and BS EN 15004:2008 
[Fixed firefighting systems. Gas extinguishing 
systems]. 

FIRETRACE provides reliable, around-the-clock, 
unsupervised protection; it is self-activating, which 
means it needs neither electricity nor external 
power. It also requires neither manual activation 
nor monitoring, virtually no maintenance, and 
can be fitted as a new-build installation or 


marked tube-operated system in the world that is 
tested as an automatic fire detection and suppres- 
sion system with, globally, 150,000 successfully 
completed installations. 

Briefly, the system comprises an extinguishing 
agent cylinder that is attached to technically- 
advanced proprietary Firetrace Detection Tubing 
via a custom-engineered valve. This leak-resistant 
polymer tubing is a linear pneumatic heat and 
flame detector that is designed to deliver the 
desired temperature-sensitive detection and delivery 
characteristics. It can be routed throughout an 


firetrace provides reliable, around-the-clock, 
unsupervised protection; it is self-activating, which 
means it needs neither electricity nor external power, it 
also requires neither manual activation nor monitoring, 
virtually no maintenance, and can be fitted as a new- 
build installation or retrofitted to existing 
micro-environments in a matter of hours. 


Nick Grant is EMEA Vice 
President and General 
Manager of Firetrace 
International. He is based at 
the company's EMEA head 
office is in the UK and can be 
contacted on +44 (0) 1293 
780390 or via email at 
grant@firetrace.com 


retrofitted to existing micro-environments in a 
matter of hours. A FIRETRACE installation does 
not affect the IP ingress protection rating of the 
cabinet or any internal enclosures, as it does not 
necessitate the drilling of holes. It also does 
not involve the introduction of any electrically 
conductive hardware. 

It is the only UL [Underwriters Laboratories] 
listed, FM [Factory Mutual] approved and CE 
[Conformite Europeene or European Conformity] 


electrical cabinet and, when the tubing is exposed 
to heat and radiant energy from a fire, it ruptures 
instantly and immediately directs the suppression 
agent at the source of the fire. 

In addition to FM-200 and Novec 1230, FIRE- 
TRACE systems also use ABC dry chemical agents 
and AFFF [Aqueous Film Forming Foam] con- 
centrate. In appropriate cases, C0 2 is the chosen 
suppressant, but certainly not when it comes to 
electrical cabinets. m 


80 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



Only 


FI RETRACE 

IS 


FI RETRACE 


Other Tube-Based systems 
Claim td be Like Firetrace. 


They are Not. 


+ Only FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL Systems 
offer the extensively tested Firetrace brand 
solutions with listings and approvals 1 from 
CE, FM, UL, ULC and more than 25 other 
international agencies on agents such as 
Dupont FM-200, 3M Novec 1230, C0 2 , and 
ABC dry checmicalT 


Insist on genuine 
Firetrace systems 

FDR PRDVEN FIRE 
SUPPRESSION 


+ Only FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL has 20 years 
of experience with more than 65,000 systems 
protecting equipment worldwide. 


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- be sure you are using genuine Firetrace. 


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SfcTi 


AUTOMATIC FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS 


Call +44 (0) 1293 780390 (Europe, Middle East, Africa) or 
+1 480 607 1218 (US and elsewhere) ore-mail info@firetrace.com 
to see why Firetrace is the right solution for your fire protection needs. 


www.firetrace.com 

www.firetrace.eu nsmi iism» APP*OVtO 


LISTED LISTED 


Firetrace® is a registered trademark of Firetrace USA, LLC / Firetrace Ltd. All unauthorized uses of the Firetrace trademark 
shall be prosecuted to the fullest extent permitted by the law. 

f Listings and Approvals vary by system and agent. 





Pilkington Pyrostop® 
Pilkington Pyrodur® 
Pilkington Pyroclear® 





The primary function of any fire-resistant glass is to consistently, reliably and uncompromisingly 
protect lives and properties in various applications and situations. Pilkington offers a comprehensive 
range of products for specific requirements and types of risk: 


• Pilkington Pyrostop® - well-proven with its high performance providing full thermal 

insulation as well as integrity (El) 

• Pilkington Pyrodur® - a barrier to smoke, flames and hot gases effectively reducing 

the level of dangerous radiant heat (EW) 

• Pilkington Pyroclear® - the clear choice for consistent and reliable basic integrity 

performance (E) 


It is the unrivalled range of fully tested and approved fire-resistant framing solutions available for 
the product lines in combination with additional functional properties which contributes - to a 
substantial degree - towards facilitating safer as well as space giving, brighter and cost-effective 
fire safety design. Pilkington fire-resistant glass is fit for purpose - a sure choice! 

Pilkington Deutschland AG Haydnstrafie 19 45884 Gelsenkirchen 
Telephone +49 (0) 209 1 68 0 Fax +49 (0) 209 1 68 20 56 
fireprotection@nsg.com www.pilkington.com 



Pilkington 

NSG Group Flat Glass Business 



Testing times 


By Mike Wood 


Advances in fire safety design now include a significant element of risk 
assessment as a supplement, or an alternative, to prescriptive rules. There are 
major implications as a result. 


Head of Fire Protection 
(Glass & Glazing 
Design), Pilkington UK 


P roduct reliability and fitness for purpose 
become key considerations, and manufac- 
turers have to give more consideration to the 
reproducibility of product performance in realistic 
and alternative fire scenarios. A risk-based 
approach requires confidence in product perfor- 
mance, linked to assurance on the reliability of 
product function. That requires more attention to 
the range and validity of furnace test data as 
evidence for product capability in fire. 

Best practice principles 

The successful application of fire-resistant glass is 
based on three core factors: 

• the development of fire-resistant glass tech- 
nologies with reliable and effective function, for 
use in the wide range of fire environments that 
may be possible; 


• repeat furnace testing of fire-resistant glass, in 
as many different furnaces around the world as 
possible to demonstrate consistency of behaviour 
and effective fire protection function; and 

• testing in as wide a variety of different glazed 
system applications and framing options as 
feasible to provide the maximum of specifier 
choice. 

These best practice principles for fire-resistant 
glass need to be recognized and reinforced. Inno- 
vations in architecture and construction continue 
to set challenges, and fire safety is even more in 
the spotlight. Pilkington continues to be at the 
forefront of developments. Advances maintain 
reliable effective fire protection whilst expanding 
the variety and capability of applications. Fires in 
modern buildings can be intense and the course of 
fire growth characteristically unpredictable. The 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


83 



FIRE RATED GLAZING 



underlying fire-resistant technology for glass 
products therefore has to be inherently safe and 
reliable, requiring a significant technical input. 

Implications of risk 

Risk-based approaches lead to focus on scope of 
application, product sensitivities, failure mechan- 
isms and limits in fire. At issue are both the level 
and validation of product performance. Both are 
not easily satisfied by reference to a single passed 
fire test, least of all by an assessment that may be 
tenuously balanced on scanty test evidence. 

Development of risk-based techniques calls for 
a greater focus on the depth and spread of test 
evidence, not less. Wider consideration of real fire 
conditions, in what could be a range of possible 
fire scenarios and a variety of fire safety objectives, 
is increasing in fire safety design. The uncertainties 
and risks of fire are well known. Deduction of 
expected performance in real fire conditions is a 
projection from test evidence involving an element 
of uncertainty. The further the claimed perfor- 
mance strays from the underlying test evidence, 
and the weaker that evidence is, then the greater 
are the potential uncertainties in predicting fire 
behaviour. The degree of uncertainty can effectively 
be minimized by increasing as much as possible 
the scope and range of available test evidence as a 
testament to product reliability, consistency and 
effectiveness. 

Furnace testing 

The prime purpose of a standard test is to allow 
product classification according to broad functional 


categories which are defined by prescriptive 
pass/fail criteria. A base of standard test evidence 
is essential. But, the prescriptive process is not 
ideally suited to provide the type of information 
required by a risk-based approach to design. The 
test evidence therefore needs to be as extensive as 
possible, to maximise the information content for 
the designer. 

Assurance on repeatability and reproducibility of 
performance can best be provided by a demon- 
strated track record of testing - as many tests in as 
many different test furnaces and framing situations 
as possible, backed up by large scale tests and real 
fire experience. Such considerations can hardly be 
answered by a single test, or a limited scope of 
test evidence. In the approval process, test failures 
are not recorded, and no distinction is made 
between a product that just scrapes through by 
less than a minute and one that can achieve a 
safety margin of several minutes. 

Test evidence is crucial, but the information 
should not be stretched beyond its point of 
applicability and relevance, at the risk of becoming 
misleading and unrepresentative. Scrutiny of the 
evidence should cover applicability, scope, rele- 
vance and validity. The designer also has to note 
the expected fire situation. There are some key 
points to be mindful of: 

• Fire-resistant products should only be installed 
as part of an approved and tested fire-resistant 
system of matched components. There should 
be no short cuts, such as mixing and matching 
of components, or using a system based on 
incorrect test evidence. Different glasses made 


84 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


TESTING TIMES 


FIRE RATED GLAZING 


by different manufacturers should not be 
presumed to be equivalent.. 

• The product tested must always be representa- 
tive of the routine product coming off the 
production line. And if that product changes, or 
varies, in a way that could compromise the 
submitted test evidence then controls must 
be put in place and the product re-tested. 

• There are limitations on furnace test informa- 
tion. A proviso included in fire resistance test 
reports is that a test result only relates to the 
behaviour of the element of construction 
under the particular conditions of the standard 
classification test. 

• Test reports remind users that the result applies 
only to the specimen as tested, also that the 
result is not intended to be the sole criteria for 
assessing potential fire performance of the 
element in use, nor to reflect actual behaviour 
in fires. Time in a standard test does not 
necessarily directly correlate with time in a fire, 
under fire conditions that may well vary signifi- 
cantly from those of the prescriptive test. 

• The fire test evidence must be relevant and 
applicable to the application and the function 
of the fire-resistant glazed system. For example, 
a test report for overhead glazing is totally 
inadequate as evidence for a fire-resistant 
loadbearing glass floor (on the presumption 
that any horizontal glazing test will do). 


Practical limits 

Even relatively low levels of radiant heat can cause 
serious burns and smoking on the protected side, 
perhaps secondary ignition. Radiant heat absorp- 
tion by a glass can also give high surface tempera- 
tures on the protected side, leading through 
convection to a high temperature environment on 
the protected side. 

The UK's Building Research Establishment (BRE) 
guide safety limit for human tenability is 2.5 
kW/sqm. That is within the range of insulation 
glass, but not integrity EW (limit 15 kW/sqm). 
There is a tendency to pass off the EW class, in 
some way, as a substitute for insulation. In prac- 
tice, there is no comparison. The 15kW/sqm limit 
represents a high level of intolerable heat, and it is 
of questionable fire safety benefit. 

Insulation on the other hand provides protec- 
tion against all heat transfer, defined by precise 
temperature criteria. Insulation performance there- 
fore effectively protects against the risk of serious 
burns, for enhanced life safety (especially for 
vulnerable groups) as well as benefits in providing 
containment and limiting fire spread. 

Assessments 

Assessments provide an opinion on performance 
were the product to be tested. Assessments are 
generally used to support minor variations in the 
product as originally tested They should not be 


Test evidence is crucial, but the information should not 
be stretched beyond its point of applicability and 
relevance, at the risk of becoming misleading and 
unrepresentative. Scrutiny of the evidence should cover 
applicability, scope, relevance and validity. The designer 
also has to note the expected fire situation. 


Fire resistance 

Applicable fire resistance classes are either integrity 
(i.e. holding back flames and hot gases) or insula- 
tion (i.e. the limitation of heat transfer by all 
mechanisms, plus integrity). Integrity (EN classes E 
and EW) refers to the prime performance as a 
physical barrier to flames, fumes and hot gases. 
Insulation refers to the ability of the fire-resistant 
system to act both as a physical and a heat barrier 
(EN class El). The insulation function is unambig- 
uously evaluated by measuring the surface 
temperature of the test panel. Insulation effectively 
reduces the risk of dangerous heat transmission 
for the fire, by all transfer mechanisms. 

The differences between the performance 
categories must not be blurred. For example, 
interpretation of the European EW class (integrity 
radiant heat) can be ambiguous. The EW radiant 
heat limit - less than 15 kW/sqm at a 1m distance 
- is not recognised by UK regulations. Radiation is 
determined by pane size, orientation and distance, 
as well as the intensity of the source fire. The level 
of radiant heat from a glass, even under standard 
test, therefore varies according to the situation. As 
a result, a single measurement cannot be taken as 
a characteristic material value. 


used in lieu of fire tests, although this is a develop- 
ing trend of suspect practice which requires careful 
scrutiny since the supporting test evidence can be 
tenuous. Assessments should be withdrawn when 
tests show the opinion to be mistaken. 

If assessments are used to support a product 
claim, then it is absolutely important that they 
are based on valid and applicable primary test 
evidence which is owned by the assessment owner 
and approved for use. If specific test evidence of 
this validity is not referenced then the assessment 
should be dismissed. Above all, assessments must 
be carried out by properly accredited authorities 
with experience of testing and the fire-resistant 
glass in consideration (e.g. a notified body accred- 
ited to BS EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005, General criteria 
for the competence of testing and calibration 
laboratories). 

Fire-resistant glass floors 

The development of fire-resistant integral loaded 
glass floors is one of the best examples of the 
capability of intumescent fire-resistant glass based 
on co-operation between manufacturers and 
specialist systems developers. 

Pilkington has worked closely with specialists 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


85 


TESTING TIMES 


FIRE RATED GLAZING 



Pilkington Pyrostop, 
Pilkington Pyrodur, and 
Pilkington Pyrodur Plus are 
extensively tested fire- 
resistant glass types based 
on an established resilient 
intumescent interlayer 
technology. They are 
available in an extensive 
portfolio of framing systems, 
and are capable of fulfilling 
the range of fire safety 
demands from regulations 
and risk-based design. The 
record of use includes major 
buildings across the world in 
a range of challenging 
situations for glass. For more 
information on Pilkington 
call 01 744 69 2000 or 
visit www.pilkington.co.uk/ 
fireresistant 


Glazeguard to develop a robust fully tested 
loadbearing fire-resistant glass floor system. Glaze- 
guard's Triple-Lite™ Firefloor is at the forefront of 
transparent building design. It is the first fire-resis- 
tant glass floor system to attain the CE mark 
under standards EN 14449 (Glass in Building: 
laminated and laminated safety glass) and 
EN1 365-2:2000, (Fire resistance tests for loadbear- 
ing elements - Part 2: Floors and Roofs). The test 
load has to be appropriate for the type of activity 
and occupancy characteristic. In the UK, guidance 
comes from standard BS 6399-1 : 1996, Loading for 
buildings - Part 1: Code of practice for dead and 
imposed loads. 

Triple-Lite™ has shown fire resistance insulation 
and integrity for over one hour for both integrity 
and insulation when fully loaded under test fire 
conditions. The floor structure has demonstrated 
robust stability in several tests. Triple-Lite™ is avail- 
able in individual panel areas 3m by 1m standard 
single panels for construction of glazed floor areas 
or glazed transit air bridges. Both timber and steel 
framing are approved. Major applications already 
include a range of situations. Major projects 
completed and in progress illustrate the value 
engineering benefit of a complete approach from 
design through to installation. Applications are in 
a wide range of diverse situations, including health 
care, commercial, education, and even domestic 
buildings (e.g. Rolls House, a commercial and 
court building in Fetter lane, London; United 


House, West St London, a commercial develop- 
ment; Dublin dental hospital; and private domestic 
installations in flats and houses). 

The fire-resistant backbone of Triple-Lite™ is 
provided by Pilkington Pyrostop® 60-101, a well 
tried and tested insulation with integrity fire-resis- 
tant glass classified for 60 minutes. Not only does 
Pilkington Pyrostop® 60-101 have an extensive 
furnace test record around the world. It also has 
demonstrated fire performance in the major 
Center Parcs Elvedon Forest fire (2002) when the 
product had to survive severe fire exposure for 
more than seven hours - which it did comfortably, 
effectively stopping the fire in its tracks and 
protecting the heart of the site. 

Fitness for purpose 

The current widespread application of fire-resistant 
glass is fundamentally dependant on the applica- 
tion of best practice principles in furnace testing 
linked to systems development. Tragic headline 
fires involving fatalities serve to remind everybody 
of the risks and unpredictable nature of fire. The 
costs of fire are rising not falling. And the focus on 
fitness for purpose of products and constructions 
is accordingly getting sharper. 

Against the background of fire risks, those 
principles of furnace testing need to be empha- 
sized, rather than eroded. That is critical if the use 
of fire-resistant glazing is to keep in touch with 
advancing design. D33 


86 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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FIRE RATED DUCTING 

Fire Rated Duct 


Fire rated enclosure of 
duct located in exit 
passageway ; protected 
with flexible wrap 



Shaft Alternative for Air 
Distribution Systems (ADS) 


By Sarah Brewer 


Fire rated duct enclosures are increasingly being accepted as a shaft alternative 
for air distribution systems (ADS) by design professionals and code officials. 


Group Product 
Manager, Unifrax I LLC 


S haft alternatives, such as ducts protected with 
flexible fire rated duct wrap, provide solutions 
for better building space utilization and 
physical access to air control equipment. Listed 
and Labeled systems verify performance when 
tested under duct application conditions and 
provide documentation necessary for code com- 
pliance. The benefits of these systems can help 
resolve current project issues and offer potential 
future building design options. 

ADS ducts function under operational 
and emergency conditions 

Multi-story commercial and residential buildings 
must utilize a variety of air distribution systems 
(ADS) to provide the necessary heating, cooling, 
and ventilating functions required to provide occu- 
pants with a tenable environment. These systems 
must meet minimum standards of performance 
and fire safety set by the building code for both 


normal operating conditions and emergency fire 
situations. This is accomplished through a combina- 
tion of code prescribed passive fire resistant build- 
ing construction and active smoke control systems. 

Fire rated duct requirements, 
challenges and benefits 

Innovative design, retrofit occupancy changes and 
the push to achieve greater efficiencies in all 
aspects of building construction present challenges 
for designers, installers and code officials. These 
challenges certainly include balancing air distribu- 
tion system functionality with fire protection 
requirements within the shared space of structural 
building elements and other building service items. 
Requirements for fire protecting duct systems are 
clearly defined in the International Building Code 
(IBC) utilized for building construction in the United 
States. This code dictates duct systems that pass 
through fire rated horizontal assemblies shall be 


88 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


FIRE RATED DUCT ENCLOSURES 

Enclosures 


FIRE RATED DUCTING 



located in shafts; transfer open- 
ings in shafts are to be protected 
with fire or combination 
fire/smoke dampers; and special- 
ized ventilation systems such as 
ducts serving smokeproof enclo- 
sures and exit enclosures shall be 
enclosed in construction as 
required for shafts or ductwork 
enclosed by 2 Hour fire barriers. 

Despite these prescriptive 
requirements, unique job site 
conditions arise where "alterna- 
tives" to shafts (often referred to 
as fire rated duct enclosures) 
offer potential solutions and 
therefore are given considera- 
tion. 

These conditions can include 
but are not limited to: 

• Insufficient space to construct 
a shaft enclosure 

• Inadequate access to fire 
dampers for maintenance, 
requiring the shaft enclosure 
be "extended" to the new damper location 

• Fire rated enclosure of ducts that pass through 
exit enclosures and exit passageways 

• Penetrations of shafts where steel subducts are 
installed but lack continuous vertical air flow 

• Penetrations of shafts by kitchen, clothes 
dryer, bathroom and toilet room exhaust 
openings, where steel subducts are installed 
but the exhaust fan lacks continuous power in 
Group B (Business) and Group R (Residential) 
Occupancies. 

For these situations and others, there are 
numerous benefits to using fire rated duct 
enclosures including flexible duct wrap systems. 
The most common include: 

/ Uses less space than shaft construction, thin 
installed profile 

/ Potential for more effective space utilization 
/ Contours to fit complex configurations 
/ Easy material handling 
/ Lower installed cost 
/ Listed and labeled systems 

Existing and potential fire rated duct applica- 
tions that could benefit from shaft alternatives 
include: 

• Smoke control, including stairwell & vestibule 
pressurization ducts 

• Exit enclosures and passageways 

• Bathroom and toilet exhaust 

• Commercial dryer exhaust 

• Trash & linen chutes 

• Hazardous ducts 

Shaft alternative: approval using 
alternate materials and methods 

Fire rated duct enclosures, including flexible fire 
rated duct wrap systems are increasingly being uti- 
lized by design professionals and accepted by 
Authorities Having Jurisdiction (AHJ's) as a shaft 
alternative for unique job site conditions. 


The building code does not define shaft alterna- 
tive requirements for an air distribution system 
(except for commercial kitchen grease ducts). There- 
fore, Section 104.11 of the IBC can be utilized, 
which permits "An alternative materials, design or 
method of construction to be approved, where the 
building official finds the proposed design is 
satisfactory and complies with the intent of the pro- 
visions of this code, and that the material, method, 
or work offered, is for the purpose intended, is at 
least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code 
in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, 
durability, and saftety" 1 This option is further 
defined in Chapter 7 on Fire Resistance Rated 
Construction, Section 703.3 Alternate methods 
for determining Fire Resistance. Approvals for 
Alternative Materials and Methods are typically 
granted for project specific requests. Applications 
should include supporting documentation, prefer- 
ably with Listed and Labeled systems tested at an 
IAS accredited testing lab & inspection agency, 
which are recognized by ICC. Accreditation 
Listings can be found at www.iasonline.org or 
562-699-0541. Intertek Testing Services and 
Underwriters Laboratories are examples of accred- 
ited companies. 

Shaft alternative: performance criteria 

One guideline for defining shaft alternative perfor- 
mance criteria is the International Mechanical 
Code (IMC), Section 506.3.10 Grease Duct Enclo- 
sures. For this specific air distribution system 
application, the code states, "Duct enclosures shall 
have a fire resistance rating not less than that of 
the floor assembly penetrated, but need not 
exceed two hours." Enclosure protection can be 
provided via IBC requirements for shaft con- 
struction, a field-applied grease duct enclosure or 
a factory-built grease duct assembly. Section 
506.3.10.2 Field Applied Grease Duct Enclosure, 


Example of duct with 
insufficient space to 
construct a shaft 
enclosure 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


89 


FIRE RATED DUCTING 


FIRE RATED DUCT ENCLOSURES 


Duct enclosure system 
being prepared for 
testing per ISO 6944 
under full scale duct 
application conditions 



defines the criteria that must be met for it to be 
used as an alternate to a shaft. This includes: 

1 Listed and labeled material, system, product 
or method of construction specifically 
evaluated for such purpose (as a duct enclosure 
configuration) 

2 Fire tested per ASTM E2336 (under full scale 
application conditions, including ASTM El 19 
engulfment fire test) 

3 Duct continuously covered on all sides from the 
origin to the outlet terminal 

4 Duct penetrations sealed with firestop system 
tested per ASTM E 814 or UL 1479 

5 Firestop system shall have an F and T rating 
equal to the fire resistance rating of the 
assembly being penetrated. 2 

In this example, the fire rated duct enclosure 
demonstrates equivalency to a shaft by limiting 
fire penetration and temperature rise to the next 
compartment (per ASTM El 19 criteria). Both 
criteria must be met and results are reported as 
the Fire Resistance Rating of the system. Meeting 
the pass/fail criteria of the standard verifies 
stability, integrity and insulation capabilities of the 
duct enclosure system and its ability to provide 
equivalent fire resistance to the code prescribed 
shaft. In addition, a through-penetration firestop 
system must be utilized to seal the duct penetra- 
tion opening, which shall provide fire ratings (F) 


and temperature ratings (T) equal to the duct 
enclosure and assembly penetrated (per ASTM E 
814 criteria). Results are reported as F Ratings and 
T Ratings. Temperature rise limitations are a 
mandatory component of ASTM El 19, used to 
define a shaft. Therefore, T Ratings that are equiv- 
alent to the F Ratings are mandatory for firestops 
installed on grease duct enclosure systems used as 
shaft "alternatives". See Table 1 . 

Extension of performance criteria to 
ADS ducts 

It is logical that the shaft alternative performance 
criteria for grease duct enclosures defined in the 
IMC can be used as a model for other type air 
distribution system (ADS) duct enclosures. Since 
the IBC requirements for fire protection of ducts is 
based on enclosure in shafts, then a shaft alterna- 
tive for ADS would have the same performance 
objectives and components as grease ducts, using 
an engulfment fire exposure test conditions 
appropriate for ADS duct application. Using this 
philosophy, the ADS fire rated duct enclosure 
system must provide equal fire and temperature 
ratings to demonstrate equivalent performance to 
a shaft. 

ISO 6944-1985 (BS 476: Part 24) "Method for 
Determination of the Fire Resistance of Ventilation 
Ducts" is utilized extensively in Europe and other 


Table 1. Grease Duct Enclosure Shaft Alternative Performance Criteria 


Criteria 

Duct Enclosure (ASTM El 19) 

Fire Resistance Rating 

Penetration Opening (ASTM E814) 

Fire Penetration 

No collapse of duct support 

No passage of flame throughout 

F Rating - no openings through firestop 

Temperature Rise 

Temperature rise limit on 

T Rating - temperature rise limit on 
unexposed side of firestop 


90 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



Save Time. 



FyreWrap® Elite 1.5 
Duct Insulation provides fire 



FyreWrap® Elite™!. 5 Duct Insulation is ideal 
for the insulation of grease and HVAC duct 
systems in densely populated areas such as 
hotels, schools, restaurants, high rise condos, 
medical facilities, research labs, and sports 
arenas and stadiums. This lightweight, flexible 
material also saves valuable building space 
and minimizes labor and installation time. 
FyreWrap Elite 1 .5 Duct Insulation offers: 

2 hour fire-rated duct protection 

Space-saving shaft alternative for grease 
and HVAC ducts 

Thin, lightweight flexible blanket for faster, 
easier installation 


Solutions for building design and complex 
job configurations 

Offers both fire and insulation performance; 
made in USA 

A FyreWrap product specification in several 
formats is available at www.arcat.com; 
search using keywords Unifrax, FyreWrap or 
www.unifrax.com. For additional information 
on FyreWrap Elite 1 .5 or other products, 
certifications, code compliance, installation 
instructions or drawings, contact Unifrax 
Corporate headquarters USA at 716-278-3800. 



www. unifrax. com 


Zero clearance to combustibles 

Complies with NFPA 96, ICC and 
IAMPO Codes 




FIRE RATED DUCTING 


FIRE RATED DUCT ENCLOSURES 


Through-penetration 
fi rest op system with 
thermocouples 
measuring unexposed 
surface temperature of 
duct enclosure and 
sealant to determine 
compliance with 
requirement for equal F 
and T ratings 


Sarah Brewer is a Group 
Product Manager for Unifrax 
I LLC with over 20 years 
experience in various 
engineering and marketing 
positions supporting the 
North American passive fire 
protection business. She is 
member of the ASTM E05 
Task Group on Duct 
Enclosures, UL Standards 
Technical Committee on 
Grease Ducts and current 
President of the International 
Firestop Council (IFC) and 
Chairperson of its Duct 
Committee. She is also a 
member of the National Fire 
Protection Association 
(NFPA) and Society of Fire 
Protection Engineers (SFPE). 



parts of the world to evaluate the fire resistance 
rating of ventilation air ducts and duct enclosure 
systems. This standard evaluates full scale duct 
systems under application conditions, which is 
representative of the configuration they will be 
installed in the field. Performance per ISO 6944 is 
reported with the following Ratings: 

• Stability Rating - no duct collapse (of duct 
support system) 

• Integrity Rating - no passage of flames 
(through duct or opening) 

• Insulation Rating - temperature rise limit 
(through duct or opening to unexposed side) 
Testing per this standard is conducted by North 

American laboratories (including those with IAS 
Accreditations and recognized by ICC). Listed and 
Labeled systems are available on line in each lab's 
Listing Directory. Design listings reflect the individ- 
ual ratings achieved for each criteria. However the 
equivalent fire resistance rating for the system is 
the lowest rating achieved of the three. Manufac- 
turers of fire rated duct systems under considera- 
tion for approval should produce evidence of an 
Insulation Rating that is at least equal to the fire 
resistance rating of the assembly penetrated. 
Approvers should be cautious, as not all systems 
have achieved an insulation rating that matches 
the assembly, which demonstrates equivalency to 
a shaft. 

Acceptance by local jurisdictions 

Some jurisdictions are developing acceptance 
criteria for fire rated duct enclosures for ventilation 
air ducts or ADS. This permits broader approval of 
the systems and elimination of the need to apply 
for approval of Alternate Methods and Materials 
on an individual project basis. Support documenta- 
tion typically includes Fire Resistant Duct Design 
Listings provided by IAS accredited labs as 
evidence of successful fire testing. 

One example of a major metropolitan area and 
jurisdiction that has developed acceptance criteria 
for the ADS application is the New York City 
Buildings Department. Their Office of Technical 
Certification and Research (OTCR) has defined the 
acceptance criteria for Fire Rated Flexible Duct 
Wrap Insulation as an Alternate Material in the 
2008 NYC Construction Codes under Building 
Bulletin OTCR 2009-028. Fire rated duct assem- 


blies (duct plus enclosure materials) shall be tested 
per ISO 6944, ASTM E814 and ASTM E84. Mini- 
mum F and T Ratings for the assembly are man- 
dated and defined in the bulletin. Similar criteria 
are being considered for adoption by many other 
cities, indicating a growing trend of acceptance for 
ADS duct shaft alternatives. 

An ASTM Test Standard for fire rated ventilation 
ducts is under development. Once published, this 
standard can then be considered for inclusion in 
appropriate sections of Building Codes that cover 
duct fire protection requirements. Testing and 
Listing of duct enclosure systems per this new 
ASTM standard can then be conducted at national 
testing laboratories providing additional evidence 
of compliance with shaft alternative criteria. 

Evolution from project solver to design 
option 

The use of fire rated duct enclosures as shaft 
alternatives have provided designers, installers and 
code officials with solutions to unique project 
conditions. There is no doubt the benefits associated 
with flexible duct wrap systems are evolving this 
technology from project solver to design option, 
creating the potential to value engineer solutions 
as the building is being designed. The culmination 
of industry activities already underway aim to 
provide AHJ's with a code defined criteria for shaft 
alternatives beyond grease duct systems. In the 
meantime, existing Listed and Labeled fire resistive 
duct enclosure systems are available as supporting 
evidence for local project submittals and accept- 
ance criteria. m 

Footnotes 

1 . International Code Congress, 2006 International 
Building Code (IBC), Section 104.1 1 . 

2. International Code Congress, 2009 International 
Mechanical Code (IMC), Sections 506.3.10 and 
506.3.10.2 

References 

1 . International Building Code 2006, International 
Code Council, Inc., 2006 

2. International Mechanical Code 2009, International 
Code Council, Inc., 2009 

3. BS 476: Part 24 (ISO 6944-1985), British Standards 
Institution, 1987 


92 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





the standard in safety 




Underwriters 

Laboratories 


There’s a reason 
we’ve been a leader 
in product safety 
testing & certification 
for over 100 years. 

Trust. 





1WI 


Trust... 


Trust... 



that UL has unmatched technical expertise in product safety testing and certification. 

that the UL mark is backed not by a piece of paper, but by the integrity, quality, 
experience, commitment and consistency that stands behind it. 

Remember, UL has been testing and certifying fire resistance, 
life safety and security products for over a century. 


To learn more about Underwriters Laboratories and how you can leverage our global 
expertise in the fire resistance, life safety and security industries on a local basis: 

T:: +44 (0) 1 483.402.032 / E:: Fire&SecuritySales. EULA@uk.ul.com / W:: ul.com 



Copyright © 2009 Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ® BDi091029-IFP10 




FIRE RATED CABLES 


New Code Raises 
Fire Safety 




The publishing in February of the new BS 851 9:201 0 Code of Practice has led to 
a number of misleading claims being made for some cables, with the confusion 
appearing to have arisen from a misinterpretation of the different test methods 
required for power and control cables. Mark Froggatt explains. 


Marketing Services 
Manager, Draka UK 


B S 8519:2010 (Selection and installation of 
fire-resistant power and control cable systems 
for life safety and fire-fighting applications. 
Code of Practice) replaces BS 7346-6:2005 
(Components for smoke and heat control systems. 
Specifications for cable systems). Among other 
changes it calls for power cables - cables connect- 
ing a device to the power supply - to be tested in 
accordance with BS 8491:2008 (Method for 
assessment of fire integrity of large diameter 
power cables for use as components for smoke 
and heat control systems and certain other active 
fire safety systems) that itself replaced BS 7346-6: 
2005. 

The new Standard aims to ensure that the level 
of circuit integrity is not compromised by other 
components of the whole electrical distribution 
system, including cable glands, terminations, joints 
and cable support systems. It covers: the source 
of supply; the high and low distribution voltage; 
the appropriate location of the main intake enclo- 
sure, high-voltage and low-voltage switchrooms, 


transformer rooms, generator rooms, risers, fire 
life-safety plant rooms and firefighting/evacuation 
lift motor rooms and shafts. 

But what inspired the creation of a new Code 
of Practice? The main drivers were the increased 
size and height of many high-rise and complex 
buildings, the sophistication of the active fire 
protection installed in many buildings, and the 
adoption of fire engineered solutions; solutions 
that demand a high level of reliable performance 
from building services, including the electrical sup- 
plies. In the UK at least, this change was set in 
motion by the Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) 
Order 2005 that heralded in an entirely new 
approach to fire safety. In place of being told what 
they must do in terms of fire safety in a building, 
designers were told what must be achieved. 

This Order was followed in 2007 by Approved 
Document B of the Building Regulations of 
England and Wales, where certain "large or 
complex" building structures were singled out: 
"Where it is critical for electrical circuits to be able 


94 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



NEW CODE RAISES THE BAR ON CABLE FIRE SAFETY 


FIRE RATED CABLES 


The Bar On Cable 


to continue to function during a fire, protected 
circuits are needed. The potential for damage to 
cables forming protected circuits should be limited 
by the use of sufficiently robust cables These 
cables have to achieve a 120 minute rating when 
subjected to integrated fire performance testing. 

The main changes, when comparing BS 8519 
with the now withdrawn BS 7346-6 were an 
expansion of content to include all life safety and 
firefighting systems - not only smoke venting 
and firefighting cores, and the inclusion of new and 
revised technical guidance relating to the selection 
and installation of fire-resistant cables and systems 
for life safety and firefighting applications. 

BS 8519 also makes reference to the recom- 
mendations identified in BS 9999 (Code of 
practice for fire safety in the design, management 
and use of buildings) with regard to the design 
and installation of the electrical distribution 
systems and the design, management and use of 
buildings to achieve acceptable levels of fire life- 
safety for anyone in and around buildings. 

Significantly, in terms of cable selection, 
BS 8519 identifies three categories of circuit that 
are required to maintain their integrity under 
defined fire conditions for fire survival times of 30 
minutes, 60 minutes and 120 minutes. Appropri- 
ate cable tests are identified for each category, 
giving the relevant British Standard for the assess- 
ment of cable performance under fire conditions 
that might be expected in an actual incident. 

Traditionally, the solution would have been to 
use mineral insulated cables (MICC) that incor- 
porate insulation of highly-compressed MgO 
(Magnesium Oxide). These cables are undeniably a 
robust and long lasting solution, but they are 
costly, difficult and expensive to terminate, and 
the quality of some imported mineral insulated 
cables has become suspect. Supply problems are 
also often cited as an additional reason for their 
not being used. 

Currently though there are believed to be two 
cables available on the market that can justly claim 
to be viable alternatives to mineral insulated cables 
that meet the power cable requirements of BS 
8519:2010. One of these is Draka's 600/1 000V 
Enhanced grade FTP120 cable - until recently 
called Firetuf Powerplus. This is an LPCB (Loss 
Prevention Certification Board) third-party 
approved SWA (Steel Wire Armoured) power cable 
that achieves BS 8491 's highest integrated-testing 
120-minute rating. 

This demanding integrated testing regime 
involves flame irradiation exposure, direct impact 
and high-pressure water spray testing for cables 
that are destined to provide a secure power supply 
that will retain its integrity in the event of fire for a 
whole raft of fire safety systems. These include: 
automatic fire suppression installations; fire detec- 
tion and alarm systems; fire compartmentation; 
smoke control and ventilation; sprinklers and wet 



risers; ventilation and shutters; and firefighting 
lifts. The test incorporates 115 minutes of direct 
mechanical impact followed by five minutes of the 
application of water - in five-second bursts - at a 
pressure that equates to that of a fireman's hose. 

Somewhat alarmingly, cables are being promoted 
as complying with the new Standard and hence 
suitable for power applications that have been not 
ratified in accordance with BS 8491. These cables 
have been tested in accordance with BS EN 
50200:2006 (Method of test for resistance to fire 
of unprotected small cables for use in emergency 
circuits) and are suitable only as control cables - 
cables that carry information as inputs and 
outputs. So, great care should be taken to ensure 
that claims of compliance are not misleading. 

Like any Code of Practice, the aim of BS 
8519:2010 is to encourage best practice and takes 
the form of guidance and recommendations. So, 
any company claiming compliance with a Code is 
expected to be able to justify any actions that devi- 
ate from the Code's recommendations. Installing a 
cable that has not been tested to the required 
power cable regime is a high-risk decision that 
could have dire and expensive consequences. D33 


Mark Froggatt is Marketing 
Services Manager at Derby- 
based Draka UK, He can be 
reached on +44 (0) 1332 
345431 or via email at 
cableuk@draka.com. 

The company's website can 
be found at 
www.drakauk.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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ADVERTISERS’ INDEX 

Advanced Electronics 

47 

Apollo Fire Detectors 

41 

AVK International 

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C-TEC 

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IFC 

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28 

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71 

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Gielle 

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53 

MSA Auer Gmbh 

69 

OCV Control Valves 

5 

Patterson Pumps 

56 

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Securiton AG 

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75 

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59 

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53 

System Sensor Europe 

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91 

Vetrotech Saint Gobain 

87 

Vimpex Limited 

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INTERNATIONAL PROTECTION 






SAFER TUNNELS 
START HERE 



FT Connecta from Draka is the ultimate range of fire performance cables. And when it comes to fire safety in 
tunnels nothing performs better than FT Connecta, our zero halogen, low smoke (OHLS®) modular cabling system. 
FT Connecta has been specifically developed to provide lighting and small power applications in tunnel 
environments. In the event of a fire FT Connecta maintains the integrity of the circuit even if a local device fails, 
allowing escape routes further up and down to remain illuminated. It's not surprising therefore that FT Connecta 
has been installed in major tunnels worldwide. Contact us today for full details or visit www.drakauk.com/ftconnecta 



Draka 


The world’s most trusted cable brand 

Draka UK Limited, P.O. Box 6500, Alfreton Road, Derby, DE21 4ZH, UK 
Tel: +44 (0)1332 345431 Fax: +44 (0)1332 331237 email: techinfouk@draka.com www.drakauk.com 


IFP/FTConnecta/0510 


August 2010 
issue 43 


r ) 

www.mdmpublishing.com 

INTERNATIONAL Fffi PROTECTION 



Front cover picture courtesy of 
System Sensor Europe. Series 200 
Advanced all-digital detector. 


Publishers 

Mark Seton & David Staddon 

Group Editor 

Graham Collins 

Editorial Contributors 

Stuart Bell, Paul Bryant, Wilf Butcher, 
Bob Choppin, Mark Cooper, Tom 
Cortina, Graham Ellicott, Rudiger 
Kopp, James Lane, Airi Loddoch, 

James "Andy" Lynch, Ed Orazine, 
Samir Samhouri, Scott Starr, Al 
Thornton, Mike Wood, Graham Collins 

IFP is published quarterly by: 

MDM Publishing Ltd 

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The Abbey, Preston Road, 

Yeovil, Somerset BA20 2EN 
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Fax: +44 (0) 1935 426 926 
Email: dave.staddon@ifpmag.com 
website: www.ifpmag.com 
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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION are not 
necessarily those of MDM Publishing Ltd. 
The magazine and publishers are in no 
way responsible or legally liable for any 
errors or anomalies made within the 
editorial by our authors. All articles 
are protected by copyright and written 
permission must be sought from the 
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content. Any queries should be addressed 
in writing to the publishers. 

Reprints of articles are available on 
request. Prices on application to the 
Publishers. 

Page design by Dorchester 
Typesetting Group Ltd 

Printed in the UK 


Contents 



37-39 


6-16 News & Profiles 

19-20 Structural 

Steel Protection 

22-24 Sprinklers 

update 

26-27 understanding 

Fire Stopping 

28 Teamwork works - 
ASFP Forum 


30 Standards Round-up 
32-35 The Advance 

of Video imaging 
Detection 


37-39 The Appliance 

of Science 


41 In my Opinion 



53-55 



42-45 


42-45 Safety in 

Numbers 


46-47 watermist 

Technology Comes of Age 

48-50 Turbine Fire 

Protection 


53-55 intelligent 

Fire Safety Design 

57-60 Fire Alarm 

System Design. Key 
Changes to NFPA 72 



62-64 



46-47 


62-64 For Whom the 

Bell Tolls 


66-69 Protecting 

the Past 


70 Toast, Smoke 

Detectors and the 
Healthcare Sector 


72 Advertisers' Index 



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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


1 










the standard in safety 




Underwriters 

Laboratories 


There’s a reason 
we’ve been a leader 
in product safety 
testing & certification 
for over 100 years. 

Trust. 





1WI 


Trust... 


Trust... 



that UL has unmatched technical expertise in product safety testing and certification. 

that the UL mark is backed not by a piece of paper, but by the integrity, quality, 
experience, commitment and consistency that stands behind it. 

Remember, UL has been testing and certifying fire resistance, 
life safety and security products for over a century. 


To learn more about Underwriters Laboratories and how you can leverage our global 
expertise in the fire resistance, life safety and security industries on a local basis: 

T:: +44 (0) 1 483.402.032 / E:: Fire&SecuritySales. EULA@uk.ul.com / W:: ul.com 



Copyright © 2009 Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ® BDi091029-IFP10 




FROM THE EDITOR 



Graham Collins 


Good words and 
Bad words 

Most of us would acknowledge that, in the past few years, a number of words 
have entered into everyday use. Two spring to mind: globalisation and 
networking. 


O f course, in the current somewhat turbulent 
times, the concept of globalisation is not 
universally embraced with enthusiasm 
particularly, it seems, by the environmental 
lobby; and the term networking comes with the 
implication that it is a lazy computer-world texting 
alternative to good old-fashioned, face-to-face 
communication. 

But there is another way of interpreting both 
globalisation and networking. Globalisation can 
mean that thoughts, ideas, research, opinions and 
solutions that are known in one business sector or 
country are made readily available to a worldwide 
audience. Networking can mean making the right 
contacts - those with specialist knowledge or 
experience - to achieve the best possible solution 
to a problem. And that is precisely what we aim to 
do through the regular pages of International Fire 
Protection. 

Our goal is to provide a vehicle through which 
the latest fire protection technology is accessible 
across international boundaries; to present 
solutions, products and systems that are being 
developed or have been established in one country 
to a much wider audience. At the same time, by 
including articles from experts in particular areas 
of fire protection, we aim to connect people with 
specialist skills, firmly-held views and knowledge 
with those seeking to learn more about the latest 
thinking in fire protection. 

This latest edition of International Fire Protec- 
tion includes what we hope will become a couple 
of new regular features of the magazine. The first 
is the inclusion of a section of the magazine 
where the latest standards and codes of practice 
will be highlighted and briefly overviewed. The 
second is a feature called "In my Opinion" where 
an opinion-former in the industry gets the 


opportunity to say precisely what is on his or her 
mind about a current fire safety issue. 

Also in this edition you will find articles from two 
of the world's most prominent fire safety consultan- 
cies; one on the special life-threatening challenges 
associated with large building egress, and the other 
on the latest detection codes, particularly as they 
relate to voice alarm systems. We also cover fire 
protection for the world's historic buildings in some 
detail with examples from the Czech Republic, 
China and Germany; delve into the science behind 
some of the clean gaseous suppression agents; and 
get an update from the leading authorities on 
sprinklers. There is also an interesting article looking 
at the various options for protecting vulnerable and 
high-value wind turbines. On the passive protection 
front, this edition includes updates on the impor- 
tance of effective fire stopping, fire-resistant glazing 
and intumescent coatings' standards. 

To take things to the next stage and further 
improve two-way communication with our readers 
around the world, we have recently created an 
International Fire Protection page on Facebook, an 
entry on Twitter, and one on Linkedln. The 
Facebook page will keep you up to date on what 
is about to appear in the next edition of the 
magazine, while both Twitter and Linkedin give 
you a chance to contribute to any aspect of the 
global fire protection debate. 

They also give you the opportunity to initiate 
your own topics for discussion; perhaps you 
have a good word to say about a new code or 
standard, or a bad word on what you consider 
to be an emerging trend or fire protection 
practice? Whichever, they just might be themes 
that we expand on in future editions of the 
magazine. Please feel free to contact me at 
graham.collins@mdmpublishing.com D33 


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NEWS 


lthd detection in aggressive 
environments 


SECURITON AG is promoting its SecuriSens 
MHD 535 LTHD [Line Type Heat Detector] 
as offering faster detection of a fire, even 
in aggressive environments, than 
conventional smoke detectors or 
conventional point-type temperature 
detectors, particularly in applications with 
high moisture or dust loading. The 
company is citing wide-spread systems, 
where it offers cable lengths up to 2000 
metres and network capability and fire 
detection in aggressive environments and 
hazardous areas in the oil, gas and 
chemicals industries as the main 
applications. Typical examples are floating 
roof tank monitoring, monitoring of 
inflammable liquids, or fuel transport 
processing and handling areas. Recently 
the system has been installed in a glycol 
plant for ATEX zone-2 fire detection. 

Other applications include road tunnels, 
cable and utility tunnels, ceiling voids and 
other industrial applications, plus harsh 



environments with aggressive gases or 
extreme temperatures. In addition, the 
system can be used for product 
temperature monitoring in pipelines or 
leakage detection in LNG terminals. 

The company claims that its SecuriSens 


MHD 535 - which offers solutions with 
ATEX approval - is the fastest LTHD on the 
market, even for external or tunnel 
installations with high wind velocity. The 
maximum cable length is 2000 metres or 
250 sensors, and temperature information 
is transmitted to an evaluation and alarm- 
generation central processor unit where it 
is converted to calibrated temperature 
values. The 250 sensors can be segmented 
in up to 64 reaction groups for different 
rooms or fire sections. Each sensor can 
have up to four different thresholds for 
pre-alarm and alarm generation, and 
conventional relay contacts are used to 
transfer the alarm information to the fire 
control panel. The SecuriSens MHD 535 
can also be used for temperature profile 
measurement. 

For more information please contact: 
Securiton AG 
www.securiton.com 


Chequered Flag 
for Nittan 



NITTAN's Evolution analogue fire detection system has been installed in 
the new Brooklands Hotel, within the legendary Brooklands motor 
racing circuit in the UK. The installation features dual optical detectors, 
optical detectors, heat detectors, call points and interfaces and runs on 
eight loops controlled by two Advanced Electronics control panels on a 
fault-tolerant network. 

The fire system is directly interfaced to the hotel's own network, 
enabling information, including faults or fires, to be immediately 
converted to voice announcements broadcast to the relevant staff via 
digital-enhanced cordless technology phones. As the fire detection 
system has an "investigation delay", staff can quickly inspect any alerts 
and react accordingly. 

Evolution is Nittan's premium fire system and is claimed to combine 
extremely reliable fire detection with a very high degree of protection 
against unwanted false alarms. Its advanced, highly flexible protocol is 
resistant to noise, plus it allows substantial amounts of information to 
be transmitted at high speed. 

For more information please contact: Nittan UK Limited 
www.nittan.co.uk 


Fire Protection for 
Capital's Museum 

Five new galleries at the 
Museum of London - 
one of the world's 
largest urban history 
museums with custody 
of more than two million 
artefacts - that recount 
the story of the capital 
from the 1666 Great Fire 
of London, through to 
the Blitz, and right up to 
the present day, is being 
protected by a 
combination of XTRALIS 
VESDA and ICAM ASD 
(Aspirating Smoke 
Detection) system. 

The solution was specified for its advantages over conventional point or 
beam detections systems in protecting large open spaces; the Xtralis ICAM 
technology is used in more confined spaces, especially those that are 
difficult to access. Unlike conventional detectors, Xtralis ASD solutions can 
be flexibly and unobtrusively deployed to preserve aesthetic features, and 
maintenance and service is done at a central detector point, minimising 
scaffolding, ladders and workmen in busy gallery areas. 

Xtralis aspirating smoke detectors constantly sample the air for even the 
smallest of smoke particles, so preventing a small fire from becoming a 
major incident. A network of pipes can be placed where the smoke is most 
likely to go, sensing it long before traditional smoke detectors. 

This latest installation is one of many undertaken to protect London's 
heritage buildings. Others include the National Gallery, St. Paul's Cathedral 
and the Houses of Parliament. 

For more information please contact: Xtralis 
www.xtralis.com 



6 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


NEWS 


New Air Conditioning Duct Detectors 



As close-control air conditioning systems 
for computer and IT rooms and air 
conditioning systems for personal spaces 
become increasingly common throughout 
Europe, the risk of fire or smoke spreading 
through the duct systems they use to 
transfer the warm and cold air increases. 

In response, SYSTEM SENSOR EUROPE has 
developed new detectors to provide 
specific fire protection for the square and 
circular air conditioning ducts that form 
part of such systems. 

The new range of InnovairFlex™ range 
duct detectors comprises both conventional 
and addressable versions. The addressable 


version uses the Series 200 Advanced 
optical detector, while the Series 300 
optical detector is used for the conventional 
version. Both ranges offer what System 
Sensor describes as class-leading false alarm 
rejection, through a combination of 
advanced hardware and software 
engineering. The air management design of 
the sensor cover allows the units to monitor 
ducts with air velocities ranging from 1 00 
feet-a-minute to 4000 feet-a-minute 
without an increased false alarm risk. Both 
versions can be fitted with a module to 
control ancillary equipment; the module 
is mounted in the unit, saving the cost 


of an additional conduit box and extra 
wiring. 

One of the claimed unique features is that 
the housing is made of two interconnected 
sections that are hinged together, allowing 
them to be installed in rectangular or square 
configurations to suit the available space. 
Also, to simplify installation, the air sampling 
tubes can be installed, replaced or removed 
from either the front or the rear of the unit, 
with a large termination area giving plenty of 
room for cables. 

InnovairFlex has a very wide range of 
operating temperature and humidity, 
allowing the units to be installed in 
aggressive environments such as machine 
rooms, roof voids and spaces where the 
temperature and humidity excursions are 
likely to be extreme. 

For more information please contact: 
System Sensor Europe 
www.systemsensoreurope.com 

BSI Offers 
ATEX 

Certification 

A comprehensive range of ATEX explosive 
atmosphere directive support and 
certification services is now offered by BSI 
(British Standards Institution). ATEX 
compliance is mandatory in the EU for 
products that are intended to be used in 
explosive atmospheres, or Ex compliance 
via the lECEx scheme for markets outside 
Europe. 

BSI, a Notified Body for the ATEX 
Directive 94/9/EC, offers services that 
include design advice, pre-assessment of 
products to ensure they are ready for full 
assessment, type testing, certification, and 
storage of the technical files that hold all 
of the data used to substantiate 
conformity claims. At every stage of the 
certification process, support is readily 
available from the BSI technical team. 

BSI claims that using the services for 
ATEX certification has many benefits. The 
organisation's specialist expertise ensures 
the fastest possible access to market for its 
clients, as delays and uncertainties are 
eliminated. To provide the most 
responsive testing service possible, BSI 
works in partnership with TRaC (Testing 
Regulatory and Compliance) Laboratories, 
the leading British testing and approvals 
company. 

For more information please contact: 

British Standards Institute 
www.bsigroup.com 


Five-star Cable for Five Towers 


200,000 metres of PRYSMIAN's 
FP200 Gold cable is currently being 
installed in the vast fire alarm 
system throughout the soon to be 
completed, billion-dollar, 77-storey, 

Etihad Towers development in Abu 
Dhabi. Consisting of five towers 
and located on the waterfront at 
the end of the Abu Dhabi 
Corniche, the development 
incorporates a range of amenities, 
including a five-star hotel tower, 
huge shopping mall, 870 luxury 
apartments and an extensive 
conference centre. 

The Etihad Towers is the latest 
high-profile project in the Middle 
East to opt for Prysmian FP cable, 
following on from the new 
Emirates Headquarters in Dubai 
that last year used FP200 and 
FP400 cable and the new Ethihad Airways 
terminal, also in Abu Dhabi. 



For more information please contact: 
Prysmain Cables & Systems 
www.prysmian.co.uk 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


7 


PROFILE 


Fire Fighting 
Foam Coalition 


By Tom Cortina 


In May 2001, AFFF and fluorosurfactant manufacturers met in Washington DC 
with representatives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US 
military and major foam users to discuss the fallout from 3M's decision to stop 
production in 2002 of PFOS-based AFFF due to environmental concerns. 


Fire Fighting Foam 
Coalition 


Tom Cortina is Executive 
Director of the Fire Fighting 
Foam Coalition 
www.fffc.org 


I t quickly became clear that users and agency 
staff did not fully understand the differences in 
chemistry between PFOS-based and telomer- 
based foam agents. It was also evident that 
speculation about the future regulation of AFFF 
was causing problems for the industry. As a 
result of this meeting, the Fire Fighting Foam 
Coalition Inc. (FFFC) was formed to ensure that 
accurate information about telomer-based foams 
is disseminated to appropriate audiences. 

FFFC is a non-profit corporation that represents 
the AFFF industry's interests on all issues related to 
the environmental acceptability of firefighting 
foams. The Coalition provides a focal point for 
industry technical reviews, development of 
industry positions, and interactions with relevant 
organizations, such as environment agencies, mili- 
taries, approval agencies, and standards bodies. 
Members are AFFF manufacturers, fluorosurfactant 
manufacturers, and distributors. 

Key messages 

In order to clarify the differences between 
PFOS-based and telomer-based foams, FFFC has 
developed the following key messages: 

• Fluorosurfactant-containing foams such as AFFF 
are the most effective agents currently available 
to fight flammable liquid fires in military, 
industrial, aviation, and municipal applications. 
They provide rapid extinguishment, burn-back 
resistance, and protection against vapour release. 
• Telomer-based fluorosurfactant foams such as 
AFFF, FP, and FFFP are not banned from use. We 
are aware of no pending legislation to regulate 
telomer-based fluorosurfactant foams in 
Europe, Canada, Japan, or the United States. 

• Telomer-based AFFF agents do not contain or 
breakdown into PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonate), 
are not made with PFOA (perfluorooctanoic acid), 
and contain between 30 percent and 60 percent 
less fluorine than PFOS-based AFFF. 

• The C6-based fluorosurfactants that have been 
the predominant fluorochemicals used in 
telomer-based AFFF for the last 25 years are 
low in toxicity and not considered to be 
bioaccumulative or biopersistent. 

• New products based on C6 telomer chemistry 
are currently being developed and introduced 
around the world because they are considered 
to be safer for the environment than C8 and 
above. Fluorochemical manufacturers are 
voluntarily working to eliminate C8 and higher 
homologue chemicals from products and plant 
emissions by 2015 under the EPA PFOA Global 
Stewardship Program. 


• Telomer-based AFFF agents that contain greater 
than 95 percent C6 fluorosurfactants and meet 
the world's most challenging foam standards 
have been on the market for decades, so 
manufacturers are confident that the new 
products will retain all of the same fire suppres- 
sion capabilities as existing AFFF agents. 

Key activities 

One of the important roles performed by FFFC is 
to respond to inquiries from organisations around 
the world as they evaluate the impact of the PFOS 
phase-out on foam use in their countries. FFFC has 
a philosophy of open and honest communication 
as it relates to the products that our industry 
manufactures. We have provided extensive infor- 
mation on firefighting foams to environmental 
agencies and armed services in the United States, 
Europe, Canada, China, and Australia that 
includes the following: 

• Amount of fluorosurfactant actives used in the 
manufacture of AFFF in the US. 

• Chemical structure of the fluorosurfactants 
used in major fluorotelomer-based AFFF 
formulations. 

• Mechanics of film formation. 

• Groundwater monitoring data from US military 
fire training areas. 

• US inventory of PFOS-based and telomer-based 
AFFF. 

• Overview of the different types of foams, the 
market channel for their distribution, and the 
environmental fate once they are used. 

• Aquatic toxicity of fire fighting foams. 

• Toxicity, bioaccumulation, and biopersistence 
potential of AFFF-type fluorosurfactants and 
their likely breakdown products. 

FFFC has also published an AFFF environmental 
fact sheet, eight newsletters, and numerous 
journal articles on foam-related issues that are 
available on the web at www.fffc.org. 

Moving forward 

The PFOS issue had the potential to deprive 
firefighters of their best resource for preventing 
loss of life and destruction of property from 
flammable liquid fires - fluorosurfactant-based 
AFFF foams. Fortunately, telomer-based AFFF 
continues to be the agent of choice to protect 
against this threat, and manufacturers have 
developed enhanced foam formulations with 
reduced environmental impacts that can be used 
well into the future. One of the main reasons for 
this positive outcome is the work of FFFC and its 
member companies. D33 


8 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



AFFF Foams . . . 



So everyone 
will make it home 
safely tonight. 


Today’s advanced AFFF agents: 

■ Are most effective to fight flammable liquid fires. 

■ Provide the best extinguishment and burnback performance. 

■ Have minimal environmental impact. 

■ Have a low toxicity and biopersistence profile. 

■ Are approved by global regulatory agencies. 



Fire 

Fighting 

Foam 

Coalition 

www.fffc.org 



by Tyco Fire Suppression & Building Products 




NEWS 


Controlled Flow Cuts Suppression Costs 


KIDDE PRODUCTS has launched ARGONITE® C60 
total flooding fire suppression system for enclosed 
spaces, the next generation of its ARGONITE 
product range. The new system introduces a 
unique patented Controlled Flow Technology, 
allowing considerable savings to be made on 
system installation costs, while delivering 
performance that meets or exceeds applicable 
regulatory and environmental requirements. 

When activated, the ARGONITE C60 system 
controls the gas release throughout the 
discharge period, meaning that the peak mass 
flow of the gas is 60 percent less than other 
systems, with no reduction in fire suppression 
efficiency. As a result, smaller and less costly 
pipework can be used in the distribution 
network, and pressure relief requirements are 
greatly reduced allowing further savings to be 
made. The controlled flow technology allows 
homogeneous distribution of the gas in the 
enclosure, as well as reducing both noise and 
pressure impulse impact that could otherwise 
affect sensitive electromechanical equipment. 



It is suitable for use in a wide range of 
applications, including data processing and 
communication centres, clean rooms, oil and 
gas installations, power generation facilities, 
museums and galleries. For buildings where fire 
protection is required in more than one area, 
the system allows significant space and cost 
savings to be achieved by using a single bank 
of cylinders in conjunction with diverter 
valves to direct the gas to the area where it 
is needed. 

ARGONITE is a 50:50 mixture of argon and 
nitrogen, gases that are natural constituents of 
the atmosphere. It is non-corrosive and non- 
conductive; it produces no by-products when 
exposed to high flame temperatures. It may be 
used in manned areas, and it has a zero Ozone 
Depletion Potential and a zero Global Warming 
Potential. 

For more information please contact: 

Kidde Products 
www.kiddeproducts.co.uk 


New Detectors Use Hart 
Communication 



DETECTOR ELECTRONICS CORPORATION - Det-Tronics - has introduced flame 
detectors and gas detectors that use the HART communication protocol. It has 
added HART functionality to its X9800, X2200, and X5200 flame detectors, 
permitting digital signals carrying information such as diagnostic parameters 
and device configuration to be transmitted simultaneously with the 4-20 mA 
analogue signal. 

The enhancement results in a more efficient device set-up because facilities 
can easily configure and adjust many detector variables. For example, a device 
can be given a recognizable name, such as "line 1 flame detector." Variables 
then can be set and adjusted using universal HART commands. 

"Workers in the control room or field can configure or change device settings 
using a variety of tools," says Product Manager Mike Bragg. "They can enter 
HART commands locally or remotely via our FlexVu Universal Display, a HART 
communicator, or an asset management system." 

Modifications to device settings are simple. By sending a command, a user 
initiates calibrations, reviews logs, or adjusts alarm and warning set points. 
Additionally, users accurately assess device conditions, such as fault frequency, and 
prepare for tasks before venturing into the field. Easily accessible, automatically- 
generated event logs present viewable history and possibilities for improvements. 
Time- and date-stamped records of activities, such as calibration and device 
replacement, provide regulatory-compliance evidence for system audits. 

For more information please contact: 

Detector Electronics 
www.detronics.com 


New intrinsically Safe 
Panel Mount Sounder 

E2S has added a new 
product to its 
intrinsically safe range 
of sounders and 
beacons, the IS-pAI 
panel mount sounder, 
which is certified II 1 G 
Ex ia MB T4/5/6 for use 
in Zones 0, 1 and 2. 

The IS sounder is said 
to be ideal for use as 
fault indication or 
process alarm in 
control panels located 
in intrinsically safe 
environments. It 
produces a 100dB(A) at 
one-metre continuous 
600Hz tone that can 
be pulsed externally to 
produce different signals. 

To reinforce the audible warning signal, E2S also offers 
the intrinsically safe IS-pBI panel lights. The high efficiency 
LEDs, which are mounted behind red, amber, green, blue or 
clear lenses, have a typical operating life in excess of ten 
years. Powered via Zener barriers or galvanic isolators, the 
panel mount sounder and lights produce reliable and cost- 
effective status indications with minimum power 
consumption. 

The E2S IS range also includes the IS-mini sounder, 
beacon and combined units, as well as the IS-L1 01 L LED 
beacon and the IS-A105N sounder, which are approved to 
ATEX, lECEx and FM. 

For more information please contact: 

European Safety Systems 
www.e2s.com 



10 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


m m 



Tested to extremes i 


y The hottest temperature ever recorded in the U.S. was in Death Valley, 1913. 

It soared to 56.7° C, which is pretty hot! But not as hot as our heat-testing 
chamber, which subjects our new WCPs to a sweltering 70°C. So when the heat is 
on, you know who to trust. 

Rigorously drenched, frozen, bashed, dropped and subjected to all sorts of abuse, 
KAC’s WCP is guaranteed ‘waterproof’ with IP67 protection. 

So, whether you need conventional or analogue addressable, resettable or glass 
element, you can rest assured our WCPs are built to last. 

What’s more they’re quick and easy to install. 


The new waterproof WCP form KAC. 

Reliable in the extreme. 



KAC House, Thornhill Road, 
North Moons Moat, Redditch, 
B98 9ND, 
United Kingdom 


Find out why at www.kac.co.uk 


www.kac.co.uk 


PROFILE 


For more information, visit 
www.xtralis.com/vesda-eco 
or www.xtralis.com/icam-eco 


New VESDA 


ECO 
ECO from 


and ICAM 

xtralis 

xtralis adds gas detection 
to its market leading 
VESDA and ICAM 
aspirating smoke 
detection technologies 

A fire can have catastrophic 
consequences and cost millions of 
dollars in business disruption, and result 
in the tragic loss of lives and assets. The 
key to fire protection is the mitigation 
of risk through early warning. By 
detecting a fire before it escalates, an 
effective response can be staged. 

T he same principle applies to gas detection. 
This invisible hazard can originate from the 
release of toxic gases, oxygen deficiency or 
the presence of combustible gases and vapours. 
Yet when detected at an early stage, counter- 
measures can be initiated to protect personnel and 
property. 

Xtralis has launched VESDA ECO and ICAM 
ECO, the industry's first system to cost-effectively 
combine aspirating smoke detection (ASD) with 
gas detection and environmental monitoring, 
building on its market-leading VESDA and ICAM 
very early warning smoke detection technologies. 

These newly available solutions use new or 
existing VESDA or ICAM pipe networks to reliably 
detect smoke and hazardous/combustible gases to 
ensure air quality. They also integrate easily with 
other building management systems for real-time 
situational awareness and intelligent emergency 
response, including the activation of demand- 
controlled ventilation to control costs and save 
energy. 

"Because we want to deliver more value to our 
customers and end users, Xtralis has extended the 
integrity and high performance of its ASD systems 
beyond smoke to also include gas detection and 
environmental monitoring," explains Xtralis Presi- 
dent and CEO, Samir Samhouri. "Every VESDA or 
ICAM customer now can amortise the cost of their 
existing smoke detection infrastructures to reliably 
and accurately detect certain gases early enough 
to prevent damage to staff and assets and prevent 
unnecessary and costly down time." 

Now customers across a wide array of indus- 
tries, including data/telecom, manufacturing and 



transportation, can rely on the VESDA ECO and 
ICAM ECO for very early warning fire detection, 
protection against hazardous gas leaks, air quality 
monitoring to ensure safe working environments, 
and help to reduce energy consumption and costs. 

With an ECO detector installed on a VESDA or 
ICAM pipe network, air can be conditioned or fil- 
tered to remove moisture, dirt and other particulates 
that can cause traditional gas-detection systems to 
false alarm or become contaminated. As with fire 
detection, early warning of a gas leak or build-up 
enables countermeasures to be taken to protect 
personnel, property and business operations. 

Each VESDA/ICAM ECO detector can house up 
to two gas sensors, and additional detectors can 
be added easily to the pipe network to monitor 
more gases if required. In its initial release, the 
solution can be configured to detect ammonia 
(NH 3 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H 2 ), 
hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methane (CH 4 ), nitrogen 
dioxide (N0 2 ), oxygen (0), propane (C 3 H 8 ) and 
sulfur dioxide (S0 2 ). 

VESDA/ICAM ECO provides point, zone or total- 
area coverage to suit different applications in a 
wide array of environments, including battery- 
charging rooms, underground utility tunnels, 
boiler rooms, manufacturing facilities, parking 
garages and transportation centres. The systems 
easily integrate with fire alarm control panels 
(FACP), programmable logic controllers (PLC), 
heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) 
systems, and building management systems (BMS) 
to provide real-time situational awareness for 
intelligent emergency response. No construction 
or electrical conduit is required. D33 


12 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



Gas and smoke 
detection in one 
Thjtjs total 
aspiration. 


detection 


Reduce the threat of fire and gas 
emissions with VESDA ECO by Xtralis. 

From the makers of the world’s No.1 brand of Aspirating 
Smoke Detection systems, specified by fire professionals 
around the world. Introducing VESDA ECO for very 
early warning smoke detection together with reliable 
gas detection and environmental monitoring. 


VESDA ECO by Xtralis: 

> Uses existing VESDA ASD pipe networks 

to cost effectively detect both smoke and gas 

> Provides detection of multiple gases through 
simple expansion without major construction 
or retrofitting 

> Reduces energy consumption and costs 
through demand-controlled ventilation 

> Integrates easily with FACP/PLC/HVAC/BMS 

> Works in challenging environments. 


For VESDA ECO videos, whitepaper and application 
specific data, visit www.xtralis.com/vesda-eco 


by xtralis 


Car Parks 


Underground Utility Tunnels Manufacturing Facilities 


Transportation Centres 


Battery-charging Rooms 


Warehouses 



PROFILE 


Strength, Functionality 
and innovative Design 


The new generation of stylish design fire extinguisher from Minimax 


Stronger extinguishing power and a well 
thought-out technical design to make it 
more user friendly is what distinguishes 
the new generation of Minimax fire 
extinguishers. At the same time, the 
company has focused on design to raise the 
aesthetic standard of mobile fire protection 


M inimax Mobile Services has developed its 
new generation of fire extinguishers based 
on the pledge - functional safety, durability 
and the best 'Made in Germany' quality. As a pro- 
ducer of fire extinguisher with the highest rate of 
vertical integration, we use sophisticated quality 
control procedures at every stage of production to 
guarantee our standards. The use of high-quality 
materials also ensures that our extinguishers are in a 
state of permanent operational readiness, which is 
characterised by their impressive extinguishing 
power and sophisticated technical design that 
ensures enhanced user-friendliness. However, in 
addition to the proven Minimax performance attrib- 
utes, our new series is also strong on innovation. 

More powerful than ever 

The new generation's improved high-performance 
extinguishing agent formulations and the equip- 
ment design combine to guarantee abundant 
extinguishing power. 

More usev^friendly than ever 

The revised operating instructions simplify fire 
extinguisher operation by using more symbols and 
less text. Consequently, even inexperienced users 
can operate the fire extinguisher safely in the 
event of fire. The colour-coded controls - safety, 
pressure level and tube grip - also ensure safe 
operation in the event of fire. 

More versatile than ever 

The newly developed armature made of shock- 
resistant, high-performance plastic, and with 
proven single-handle operation, enhances the 
Minimax offering. The result is a significant weight 
reduction of up to one kilogram compared with 
other Minimax armature models. 


More environmentally friendly than ever 

Minimax uses exclusively extinguishing agents that 
are harmless to people and animals, yet offer a 
maximum of extinguishing capacity for safe 



Minimax Hydrant 


extinguishing without on- 
going environmental risks. 

Minimax fire extin- 
guishers share nearly 
identical design and con- 
struction features, ensur- 
ing efficient servicing that 
is a measurable benefit 
for Minimax Mobile 
Services customers. 



Minimax Portable 


Perfect combination of safety and style 

Minimax offers entirely new design options to its 
demanding customers, particularly those who are 
concerned to ensure that their extinguishers can 
be integrated tastefully into their particular envi- 
ronments. First-class craftsmanship and creative 
decoration have transformed the standard red 
extinguishers into unique and decorative works of 
art. 

So, Minimax extinguishers not only ensure 
safety; they also add stylish design touches to an 
interior. Thanks to the four new versions, you can 
now let your creativity run free. With the refined 
Edition Line, you can choose the support colour 
and pattern to create the perfect match for every 
environment. In our Logo Line series, your own 
brand logo can be positioned in any size and form 
on the extinguishers. Our artists make every 
extinguisher in the Individual Line unique - with 
the design of your choice or even incorporating a 
personal photograph. Whether chrome-plated or 
coated with real beaten gold, the exclusive design 
extinguishers in the Luxury Line are a real architec- 
tural luxury. 

Of course, as the regulations stipulate that 
portable fire extinguishers should be red, approval 
by the local regulatory authority for fire protection 
will be necessary if the different coloured designs 
are to be used in commercial environments. 
However, the design fire extinguishers in 
domestic applications may not be subject to 
such constraints. 

The wall hydrants in the Minimax Prestige Line 
& Future are also guaranteed to be a stylish centre 
of attention. This individual combination of reliable 
protection and style is currently only available from 
by Minimax Mobile Services, as the company has 
the exclusivity distribution rights in Germany. IlMil 


14 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




...combines safety & style! 

www.minimax-mobile.com 


Fir ^fe,£?yf«ems 




Your Life-Safety Solution 




»> fejr&fe connections and comnuncafcm 
»> reliable architecture 

@ © C i 



satety.det-tronics.com 


Eagle Quantum Premier* (EQP) 

(A ; Fire and Gas 

% y Safety System 


A DETTRONICS 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


15 




PROFILE 


Manufacturing the 
Market Leading Sounder 


For more information, 
contact Cooper Fulleon on 
info@fulleon.co.uk or visit 
the website 

www.cooperfulleon.com 


The more things change, the more 


they stay the same! 

The ROSHNI is the fire industry's leading 
conventional alarm sounder and has 
been for more than 20 years, although it 
does find use in many more applications, 
from industrial signaling to security and 
safety systems. 

T he ROSHNI existed long before any of the 
current EN54 fire standards existed and yet 
required no significant modification to pass 
the test regimes of EN54-3 and became the first 
sounder to be approved even though the standard 
was still in draft format. 

Even though the product looks the same as it 
ever did, beneath the skin there has been a steady 
evolution to both improve performance and 
improve its environmental credentials. Changes to 
the electronics have often been enforced by 
component suppliers, but at each change the 
opportunity has been taken to enhance the 
ROSHNI either by improving efficiency to reduce 
power consumption, or to improve accuracy of the 
alarm tones or even to offer additional features for 
particular customers. 

The mechanical design has changed too. The fit 
of the bases and the performance of the sealing 
has been improved, while the need for the encap- 
sulation of the electronics has been eliminated 
allowing the product to be both lighter and easier 
to recycle. The major visual change has been the 
introduction of the ROLP (ROSHNI Low Profile) 
over ten years ago. 

The ROLP performs identically to the ROSHNI 
and has the benefit of a reduced profile for 
improved aesthetics. While the ROSHNI and ROLP 
have run in parallel for over ten years, the manu- 
facturing issues of running the two parallel ranges 
does mean that the original ROSHNI will, for all 
practical purposes, disappear during 2011, leaving 
the ROLP as the main version. 

Fulleon has made attempts to upgrade the 
format over recent years and offer extra benefits, 
but the resistance from customers was surprisingly 
robust proving that the basic concept for the 


Fig 2 Red ROLP 


Fig 1 ROLP Solista Red 

ROSHNI and ROLP are fundamentally sound and as 
correct for today's market as they were a quarter 
of century ago. 

Flexibility has proven to be a key feature to the 
ROSHNI and ROLP's success. The variety of bases, 
"Shallow", "Deep" and "U" provide the installer 
with solutions to fitting the product in most 
locations using the variety of wiring practices 
found across Europe. There is even a shallow base 
variant for use with American 4" x 2" wiring 
boxes. The wide operating voltage too allows the 
sounders to be used in all types of safety and 
security systems. The addition of the "Mains Base" 
in recent years has built the range by allowing any 
of the standard 24Vdc products to be used with 
1 1 0 to 230Vac supplies without having to resort to 
specific product versions. 

Markets have not been static and the growing 
awareness of disability has driven the move 
toward combined audible and visual devices (AV) 
so the original "FLASHNI" with Xenon beacon has 
spawned the ROLP SOLISTA with LED beacon and 
much lower power consumption and "Combi" 
units, which allow the ROLP and various types and 
numbers of beacon to be combined to suit cus- 
tomers specific requirements. Certain customers 
have also demanded a louder version, so the ROLP 
MAXI was introduced with the main tones 
enhanced by 5dB and a complementary AV 
version was also included. 

With over ten million ROSHNI family products 
manufactured, the reputation of the product is not 
just about performance, but reliability and consistent 
quality. Manufacturing processes employed at 
Fulleon are the foundation to the continued success. 
An experienced manufacturing workforce with low 
staff turnover has resulted in a high level of aware- 
ness for product quality and the way they are pro- 
duced. The Quality Management System (QMS) is 
audited to IS09001:2008 by UL and LPCB, and the 
many Lean Manufacturing initiatives provide greater 
efficiencies and reduced time to the customer. m 




16 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




Basic if you like. Complex if you need. 

ALTAIR 5 - The high performance multi-gas detector 


The newest member of the ALTAIR family is equipped 
to measure six gases simultaneously with combustible, 
oxygen and a wide range of toxic and infra-red sensors. 
ALTAIR 5's full graphical monochrome or high resolution 
colour displays provide comprehensive information at 
a glance in up to 18 pre-programmed languages. 

The multifunctional alarms, MotionAlert and InstantAlert, 
as well as the 24 hour bump-test checkmark are standard 
on the ALTAIR 5. 


On top of this the Wireless USB option allows integration 
into MSA's alpha Personal Network, transmitting gas 
readings and alarms to a central control station in real 
time. 

Never before has a gas detector offered so many 
intelligent features - contact MSA for your local 
distributor and make your own evaluation. 



/VISA 


The Safety Company 


MSA EUROPE -Thiemannstr. 1 ■ D-12059 Berlin ■ Phone: +49 (30) 6886-555 ■ Fax: +49 (30) 6886-1517 ■ E-mail: contact@msa-europe.com ■ www.msa-gasdetection.com 





omrec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 


Foam Concentrates and Foam Systems 


for all applications 




DAFO FOMTEC AB P.O Box 683 SE-1 35 26 Tyreso Sweden 

Phone: +46 8 506 405 66 Fax: +46 8 506 405 29 
E-mail: info@fomtec.com Web: www.fomtec.com 



omrec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 




PAINTS & COATINGS 


structural steel 
Protection 


By Mark Cooper 

Technical Manager 
Cellulosic Passive Fire 
Protection Europe 
PPG Industries (UK) 
Limited 


Passive fire protection. The role of 
thin-film intumescent coatings 

Thin-film intumescent coating enhances the visual appearance of a structure, 
allowing the architect to show the steel construction while protecting its 
structural integrity. Mark Cooper explains. 


T hin-film intumescent coating is a passive fire 
protection method that enhances the appear- 
ance of a structure, and can even add to the 
aesthetic appeal of the design by adding decora- 
tive finish and colour. This enables architects to 
display the steel construction while, at the same 
time, protecting its structural integrity in the event 
of a fire, allowing safe evacuation and providing 
the access time required by the fire and rescue 
services. 

Manufacturers of thin-film intumescent coat- 
ings are constantly expanding their theoretical 
knowledge and developing their products 
that, naturally, have to be subjected to the 
prevailing standards and assessment methods. 
However, following the recent introduction of 
BS EN 13381-8: 2010 (Test methods for determin- 
ing the contribution to the fire resistance of 
structural members. Applied reactive protection to 
steel members) there is currently a degree of 
uncertainty within Europe regarding each country's 
implementation date and the withdrawal of 
national standards. 

This is further complicated by the existence of 
DD ENV 13381-4: 2002 (Test methods for deter- 
mining the contribution to the fire resistance of 
structural members. Applied protection to steel 
members) to which numerous manufacturers' 
products have already been tested. Clearly, the aim 
is to have one standard throughout Europe with 
CE-marked materials and systems. Work has 
already started on the beams with web openings 
standard, EN 13381-9, with ETAG 18 Part 2 [Euro- 
pean Organisation for Technical Approvals: Fire 
protective products. Part 2: Reactive coatings for 
fire protection of steel elements] also undergoing 
revision. 

Product certification 

During the past few years there has been an 
increase in third-party certification of thin-film 
intumescent coating manufacturers, which result- 
ed in greater end user confidence. Manufacturers 
have worked together with several certification 
bodies to identify which critical manufacturing 
processes and key raw material changes could 
influence the performance of the product. This has 
resulted in the creation of industry-standard guide- 
lines such the British Coatings Federation's BCF 
Guide to a Quality Control Fire Test Regime for 


Intumescent Coatings, which is being adopted 
gradually throughout Europe and beyond. 

Specification and application 

The main focus for the choice of a thin-film 
intumescent coating on new-build projects is often 
determined by the thicknesses required for a given 
fire protection period, coupled with the material 
price. Surface preparation, coating application, 
primer and topcoat selection is often an after- 
thought. However, if not correctly specified, this 
can result in failure to perform in the event of a 
fire. 

The first process is to identify which intumes- 
cent fits the building designer's requirements, in 
terms of the fire protection period needed and the 
durability requirements of the final system. This 
information can be obtained direct from the pro- 
duct manufacturer, who has relevant certification 
and approvals for the particular market. 

Environment classification 

Most specifiers are familiar with the Environment 
Classifications described within ISO 12944 Part 2: 
1998 Cl, C2, C3, C4 and C5 (Paints and var- 
nishes. Corrosion protection of steel structures by 
protective paint systems. Classification of environ- 
ments). However, it is necessary to note that ETAG 
18 Part 2, which is used for the durability testing 
of intumescent coating systems, has its own 
Classifications X, Y, Z1 and Z2. As yet, there is no 
clear crossover between the two standards and 
advice from the intumescent coating manufacturer 
should be sought. 

Surface preparation and primer 
selection 

With the exception of galvanized steel, all surfaces 
should normally be abrasive blast cleaned to Sa 2 V 2 
- ISO 8501-1:1988 [Preparation of steel substrates 
before application of paints and related products]. 

The type and dry film thickness will be decided 
by a number of factors: 

• Construction time from fabrication/primer 
application to project completion. 

• Intumescent type (solvent based/water borne). 

• Environment during construction and end use. 

• Expected durability. 

On many occasions, steel may arrive already 
primed, and this primer coating will need to be 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


19 


PAINTS & COATINGS 


STRUCTURAL STEEL PROTECTION 



intumescent Graph 

The 3D Interpolation method is an 
assessment method for the characteri- 
sation of intumescent coatings for the 
protection of structural steelwork 
against fire. It describes how the factu- 
al data from fire tests is used and how 
measured performance times are pro- 
jected in a 3-dimensional space. 

Each test specimen can be presented 
by a dot (x, y, z) in the 3-dimensional 
space. Three dots form a plane and the 
mathematical equation of the plane 
facilitates calculation of the perfor- 
mance time t (z-value) for any combi- 
nation of section factor Hp/A (x-value) 
and dry film thickness DFT (y-value) within the boundaries of the plane. The combination of a large 
number of intersecting planes forms a landscape of 'rolling hills', identifying the performance time of 
any intumescent coating with great precision 3-dimensionally. 

The 3D Interpolation Method can visualise the performance as a function of Hp/A, DFT, time and 
temperature. The illustration shows a 3-dimensional graph of an intumescent coating in the heating 
process at one temperature stage of 750°C steel temperature. 


Mark Cooper is Technical 
Manager Cellulosic Passive 
Fire Protection Europe 
PPG Industries (UK) Limited's 
website is at 
www.ppgpmc.com 


identified correctly to ensure compatibility with the 
intumescent coating. This can generally be 
approved by generic type, as in ETAG 18 Part 2, but 
should always be approved by the manufacturer. 

Failure by the intumescent installer to identify 
that the specified primer has been applied may 
result in delamination of the intumescent coating, 
as it has been known for alternative primers to 
have been substituted without informing to all 
parties involved in the project. For example, if an 
epoxy zinc phosphate was specified, substitution 
by an epoxy zinc-rich under normal circumstances 
could be considered as an upgrade in corrosion 
performance. However, application of a water- 
borne intumescent coating without an additional 
sealer coat would result in detachment of the 
intumescent coating. 

Top coat selection 

The final process is to identify a suitable topcoat. 
This is determined by the environmental exposure, 
required durability and decorative finish. 

Unlike corrosion specifications, the durability of 
an intumescent coating is reliant on the integrity 
of the topcoat, which provides a barrier from the 
environment. Continual inspection and mainte- 
nance of the topcoat is therefore vital, particularly 
in aggressive environments. It is essential that 
all topcoats are approved by the intumescent 
manufacturer before application for compatibility, 
durability and performance in a fire. Although 
primers tend to be approved on generic types, this 
not the case for topcoats. Application of the 
wrong topcoat may result in loss of insulation 
performance in a fire due to it restricting the 
intumescent char expansion. 

Fire engineering 

Large projects frequently require additional fire 
engineering to meet all fire protection require- 
ments, in which the coating supplier, designer and 
contractor develop solutions for specific applica- 
tions and construction solutions. Experienced 
coating suppliers are equipped with the latest 
laboratory facilities for formulating and fire test- 
ing, and custom-made solutions can be developed 


to ensure dependable and compliant fire 
protection. 

One such project was the Muziekpaleis or Music 
Palace in Utrecht in the Netherlands, where PPG 
Protective and Marine Coatings was awarded the 
protective coatings contract. This iconic music 
venue is part of a complete €133 million renova- 
tion of the area around the railway station, and 
the new building will replace an old music centre. 
It is predicted to become one of the world's 
premier music venues. 

The building has space for 5,300 people to be 
entertained simultaneously, and around 725,000 
visitors are expected each year. The decoration 
will reflect the world's musical diversity, with the 
building being divided into four main halls, each 
developed in a different style by four different 
architects. 

The main contractor, Heijmans NV, which oper- 
ates in Belgium, the UK and Germany, is building 
the project for the City of Utrecht, and specialist 
subcontractor CSM NV, one of Belgium's most pre- 
eminent steel fabricators will produce and paint 
the 4,000 tonnes of steel to be used in the project. 
Much of the steel will be protected anti-corrosive 
or passive fire protection systems. The anti-corro- 
sion coating on carbon steel will be a three-coat 
system based on SigmaWeld 199 as prime coat, 
SigmaFast 205 as build-coat and SigmaDur 580 as 
durable finish coat. For the galvanized steel com- 
ponents, a two coat system will be used based on 
SigmaCover 280, top-coated with SigmaDur 580. 

The prefabrication primer system for the passive 
fire protection system will be SigmaWeld 199, fol- 
lowed by SigmaFast 205 as permanent primer. The 
intumescent coating for the passive fire protection 
is Steelguard 561, which will be finished with 
Steelguard 2458 topcoat. 

One of the main reasons PPG Protective and 
Marine Coatings and its Steelguard 561 was 
selected for this project was the timely release of 
the "three-dimensional assessment method" used 
for the Steelguard passive fire protection 
system test data that, under the new European 
standard, can be used to optimally assess the fire 
test results. D33 


20 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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SPRINKLERS 


Sprinklers Up da 



International move for greater 
adoption of sprinklers 


By Graham Collins 


A lot is going on in the sprinkler world, all of which promises a bright future for 
sprinklers even if today the market is depressed following the construction 
downturn. Alan Brinson, Executive Director of the European Fire Sprinkler 
Network, elucidates. 


With reference to Alan 
Brinson, Paul McTurk, 
John Bonney and lain 
Cox 


T raditionally, fire safety has been designed into 
buildings through compartmentation. This 
approach has been successful in many fires, 
but it will not help anyone who remains in the 
compartment. Sprinklers are the only technology 
to offer some hope to anyone unable to hear the 
alarm or to respond to it. For this reason sprinklers 
are required in care homes in an increasing num- 
ber of countries - Australia, Canada, Denmark, 


Finland, New Zealand, Norway, Scotland, and the 
United States - where it is obvious that residents 
may not be able to evacuate in time. 

In Finland and the United States, the require- 
ments are often retrospective. Sweden has 
announced it will join this group in the autumn 
and one of Germany's sixteen states, North-Rhine 
Westphalia, has drafted regulations that give 
incentives to fitting sprinklers. Norway is the only 


22 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



SPRINKLERS UPDATE 

CDDIMI/I CDC 


jrKINIVLt j 



European country to require sprinklers in hospitals, 
but thousands of hospitals in North America are 
sprinklered. In Europe, fire engineers are increas- 
ingly designing fire safety in hospitals with a 
protect-in-place strategy, since it can be dangerous 
to move some patients. To make this possible they 
include sprinklers in their designs. 

Over the past five years, most European coun- 
tries have introduced requirements to fit sprinklers 
in high-rise buildings, where evacuation and rapid 
fire brigade access can be difficult. However, the 
height at which this becomes mandatory can vary 
from nine metres in Portugal to 200 metres in 
France. Large new hotels are covered by these 
requirements and are therefore often sprinklered. 

Again Norway is the only country to require 


suffer a fire. Furthermore the Environmental Liability 
Directive has established the polluter-pays principle 
in European law. Emissions to the air or ground 
water from a fire can lead to large fines. To help 
prevent this scenario several countries now require 
sprinklers in large new factories and warehouses. 

European standards are advancing to keep pace 
with fire safety code developments. Updates to 
EN 12845 (Fixed firefighting systems. Automatic 
sprinkler systems. Design, installation and main- 
tenance) the sprinkler system design standard, 
have been drafted and it is hoped they will be 
included by 2011. The committee is working as 
fast as the CEN process will allow for this standard 
to reflect the latest technology. Meanwhile the 
sprinkler industry continues to innovate, with new 


Over the past five years, most European countries have introduced 
requirements to fit sprinklers in high-rise buildings, where 
evacuation and rapid fire brigade access can be difficult. However, 
the height at which this becomes mandatory can vary from nine 
metres in Portugal to 200 metres in France. Large new hotels are 
covered by these requirements and are therefore often sprinklered. 


sprinklers in all new hotels. The Norwegian 
requirement took effect on 1st July 2010. 
Sprinklers are now also mandatory there in new 
housing of more than two storeys. This measure is 
part of the Norwegian government's commitment 
to Universal Design, under which homes should be 
safe for everyone, including those with disabilities. 
Several other European countries are studying the 
benefits of fitting sprinklers in homes, and there is 
a real likelihood that Wales will mandate the fit- 
ting of sprinklers in all new homes in 201 1 . In the 
United States, campaigners are pressing each state 
to mandate sprinklers in new housing. Half a 
dozen states have already adopted legislation, 
including California where it will take effect on 1st 
January 201 1 . 

Fire engineering is also encouraging the use of 
sprinklers; for example, with moderate relaxations 
in compartmentation or fire brigade access that 
is permitted if sprinklers are fitted. DIN 18230 
(Structural fire protection in industrial buildings) 
and BS 9999 (A New Approach to Design of Fire 
Precautions in Buildings) codify some of these 
permitted relaxations, while CEN (European Com- 
mittee for Standardization) is looking to introduce 
a methodology to assess designs that use 
sprinklers as an alternative to prescriptive codes. 

Another important reason to fit sprinklers is to 
protect the environment. Carbon dioxide emis- 
sions from buildings due to fires are enormous 
when one considers not just the material that 
burns, but the embodied carbon in building 
materials. The carbon footprint of our buildings could 
be reduced if they were all fitted with sprinklers, 
even allowing for the added carbon loading for 
the sprinkler systems in buildings that do not 


sprinklers for warehouses, homes and prisons, as 
well as many other excellent ideas to make it 
easier and more economical to install sprinklers. 

The cost of peace-of-mind 

The British Fire Consortium claims that a 
sprinkler system is the only device that 
can detect a fire, sound the alarm, 
call the fire brigade and control or 
extinguish a fire all at the same time. 

According to the BFC (British Fire Consortium), the 
most common cause of fire-related death is smoke 
inhalation. Sprinklers dramatically reduce the 
amount of smoke created, as they attack the fire 
in its early stages and, because sprinklers wash the 
larger particles out of smoke, its density and 
toxicity is reduced. 

Each sprinkler head is individually activated by 
the heat of a fire and, in the majority of cases, 
only one head will be triggered, which will be 
sufficient to extinguish most fires. A key barrier to 
the adoption of sprinkler systems used to be the 
fear of water damage and clean-up costs, but 
domestic fire sprinklers only spray ten gallons to 
15 gallons of water a minute, compared with a 
fireman's hose that jets out between 250 gallons 
and 500 gallons a minute. 

Paul McTurk, Managing Director of BFC mem- 
ber company, Phoenix Fire, cites fear of arson in 
schools as the key driver of most current local 
authority sprinkler specifications. He comments: 
"We have fitted systems in schools that have 
suffered serious fires during in school holidays, 
because a sprinkler system is seen as the only way 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


23 


CDDIIVIIfl CDC 

SPRINKLERS UPDATE 

jrKINIvLtKj 




to protect premises when they are empty. " He 
continues: "However, this peace of mind repre- 
sents a significant investment, as a system 
comprising 1500 sprinkler heads - a typical num- 
ber installed across a large secondary school 
premises - can cost up to £350,000. Primary or 
first school installations may comprise as many as 
250 to 300 heads and represent an investment of 
between £70,000 and £90,000." 

On the plus side, he does point out that the 
installation of a comprehensive sprinkler system 
may provide scope for negotiating insurance 
premiums. 

UK brigades encouraged to 
promote sprinklers 

The UK f s CFOA (Chief Fire Officers 1 
Association) believes that sprinklers save 
lives and it is vital that this message is 
received and acted upon both within 
and outside of the fire industry. 

John Bonney, President of CFOA announced recently 
in his speech at the UK Fire and Rescue Conference 
that all fire and rescue services within the UK will be 
issued with a briefing pack highlighting the key 
protection benefits sprinklers can offer. 

John Bonney said: "Sprinklers are surrounded 
by myths and misconceptions and it is up to as the 
leaders of the UK fire and rescue service to provide 
factual information to dispel those myths. As such, 
we will (today) be issuing briefing packs to all our 
members to help to co-ordinate national activity 
and spread knowledge and awareness of the 
benefits of sprinklers beyond the fire sector." 

New sprinkler alliance 

The BSA (Business Sprinkler Alliance) is a 
newly incorporated coalition working to 


achieve greater business resilience 
through enhanced protection against 
fire. 

A new organisation has been formed to promote 
the uses of sprinklers that brings together the 
majority of the "big guns" in the industry. Found- 
ing members of the new Business Sprinkler 
Alliance include: the Chief Fire Officer's Associa- 
tion (CFOA), "the professional voice of the Fire 
and Rescue Service"; the National Fire Sprinkler 
Network (NFSN), a non-profit organisation that 
works in partnership with the Fire Community; the 
European Fire Sprinkler Network (EFSN), a Euro- 
pean coalition that encourages the greater use of 
fire sprinklers; the British Automatic Fire Sprinkler 
Association (BASFA); the UK's trade association for 
fire sprinklers; and leading commercial property 
insurer FM Global. 

Commenting following the inauguration, Chair- 
man of the Business Sprinkler Alliance, lain Cox, 
CFOA Director for Prevention and Protection, 
Chair of the National Fire Sprinkler Network and 
Chief Fire Officer of the Royal Berkshire Fire and 
Rescue Service said: "Tackling a fire at its earliest 
stages is vital for protecting a building, a com- 
pany's assets and the welfare of the people who 
work there. The recent warehouse fire at London's 
Heathrow Airport is a perfect example of how fire 
can occur at any time, especially in hot weather, 
and how sprinklers can begin suppression within 
moments, thereby extinguishing it or at the very 
least preventing it from becoming wide spread." 

He continued: "Had the company involved 
installed sprinklers, the building would not have 
become being fully alight, requiring over a hun- 
dred firefighters from London and neighbouring 
brigades to extinguish. Sprinklers would have 
turned the incident into a minor inconvenience 
and ensured business continuity at Heathrow was 
not compromised." D33 


24 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




For over 90 years, The Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc. 
has manufactured fire sprinklers, valves, and fire protection 
accessories. They are also a major distributor of sprinkler sys- 
tem components. Reliable produces a full line of both solder 
element and frangible glass bulb sprinklers for virtually every 
type of protection requirements. Reliable has a complete line 
of fire protection valves for controlling water flow and providing 
alarm signaling to include check, alarm, dry, deluge, and pre- 
action valves. 


Reliable Fire Sprinkler Ltd. 

Manufacturer & Distributor of Fire Protection Equipment 

www.reliablesprinkler.com 


Western Europe: Berny Holden - bholden@reliablesprinkler.com 

Germany: Hartmut Winkler - hwinkler@reliablesprinkler.com 


UK Office: +44.1342316800 

ucHMoncr.tnutr.itn tt Germany Office: +49.62176212223 


Reliable 


TECHNOLOGY • QUALITY • SERVICE 


FIRE STOPPING 


Understanding Fir 



By Wilf Butcher 

Chief Executive, 
Association for 
Specialist Fire Protection 


Fire stopping is a serious business. Getting 
consequences, as Wilf Butcher explains. 

I n the current tough economic environment, all 
contractors will look for ways to increase the size 
of their offering by finding additional, related 
works they might have previously sub-contracted, 
or seen to go into someone else's contract. At the 
same time, quantity surveyors are often on the 
lookout for ways to combine works in order to 
minimise the number of sub-contractors. 

For interior specialists, a common application 
that they will consider is the fire-stopping around 
service penetrations and movement joints. As 
these can often be in partitions that these sub- 
contractors have erected, there seems - on the 
surface - to be an obvious synergy. Fire-stopping, 
however, serves a number of functions and has to 
fulfil several criteria that, if not met, could leave a 
contractor vulnerable should things go wrong. 

The primary purpose of fire-stops is to reinstate 
breaches in compartment walls and floors. The 
compartments themselves are designed to limit 
the spread of fire and smoke within a building 
making them a crucial element in the life safety 
and property protection elements of a building's 
fire strategy. 


it wrong can have dire 


All compartment walls and floors will have a 
pre-defined rating, usually between one and two 
hours but this could be up to four hours in some 
circumstances. The rating will cover two aspects, 
the ability of the product to withstand the passage 
of flame and its ability to resist the transfer of 
excessive heat. 

This second requirement is to ensure that fire 
cannot spread through the build-up of heat 
causing spontaneous combustion on the non fire 
side of the wall. The ratings for fire resistance and 
insulation should always be the same. 

A product's literature may state that it is 
capable of achieving up to four hours, but it is the 
responsibility of contractors to check if that is 
achievable in their specific applications. The sort of 
details that the contractor must check are: 

• For what substrate is the product suitable - 
solid or drywall construction? 

• Does the drywall opening need to be framed 
out (letter boxed)? 

• Does the thickness of substrate in which it was 
tested relate to the application? 

• What services has it been tested around? 


It is generally easier to fire-stop in solid wall construction 
compared to drywall. This is because a drywall will move in a 
fire and this movement can dislodge the fire-stops, 
compromising the compartment, in brick and block walls the 
key issues to look out for are that the products are capable of 
lasting for the requisite time and that they can accommodate 


thermal movement of pipes and ducts. 


Following the British Government's White Paper 
on Fire Service Reform, in the UK the fire and 
rescue service is responsible for not only identifying 
the route cause of a fire, but additionally looking 
at how and why it might have spread. These 
investigations are carried out in order to uncover 
faults in both the design and installation of fire 
safety systems and can lead to contractors being 
liable to prosecution in both the criminal and civil 
courts. 

So what are the pitfalls and how can they be 
avoided? It is generally easier to fire-stop in solid 
wall construction compared to drywall. This is 
because a drywall will move in a fire and this 
movement can dislodge the fire-stops, compromis- 
ing the compartment. In brick and block walls the 
key issues to look out for are that the products are 
capable of lasting for the requisite time and that 
they can accommodate thermal movement of 
pipes and ducts. 


• What is the minimum/maximum annulus of 
fire-stopping material that must be used? 

• What pipe diameters and types of plastics has 
the fire-stop product been tested on? 

• Can the product accommodate pipe/duct 
movement as a result of temperature changes 
and other movement criteria and still perform 
to its required ability in a fire? 

• What additional restraints might be needed on 
services in order to prevent the fire-stop being 
dislodged? 

• Does the product meet the requisite acoustic 
requirement of the wall/floor? 

• Does the insulation material around a metal 
pipe need to be fire-stopped; most probably 
the answer is yes. 

• Have dampers been installed in line with the 
fire compartment? 

• Has the product that is intend to be installed 
ever been age tested, as it is impossible to 


26 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


UNDERSTANDING FIRE STOPPING 

CIDC CTHDDIMC 


Ml\t jIUrrlNVl 


e Stopping 


predict when a fire-stop may be activated. Age 
testing will give peace of mind that it will 
perform up to the time period stipulated. 

It is the responsibility of the contractor to verify 
all these points and, if the answers are not imme- 
diately available from the product's literature, then 
copies of test reports and assessments should be 
obtained. In terms of products, there a many 
suppliers of proprietary fire-stopping systems. Look 
for a company that can offer adequate training 
and that has its products third-party certified. 


oxygen that can fuel the flame and so the foam is 
able to withstand the passage of fire for four 
hours. However, if the hole is increased to 50mm 
and the wall thickness reduced to 100mm the 
foam can burn through in less than five minutes. 

If a product is specified and installed in line 
with its third-party certified detail, this kind of 
life threatening mistake can be avoided. The 
most common fire-stop product certification marks 
to look out for are Certifire, LPCB and IFC 
Certification. 


Third-party product certification schemes regularly assess 
that the product sold is manufactured to the specification 
used in the original fire test, and that nothing has changed 
that might affect the performance of the product. They will 
also be application specific in order to ensure that products 
are only used in a configuration that will meet the integrity 
and insulation performance achieved in the fire test. 


Again referring to the UK, Approved Document 
B is the British Government's guidance document 
for fire safety in the construction of buildings. This 
document, together with the UK Insurers Essential 
Principles Document and the Regulatory Reform 
(Fire Safety) Order guidance documents all 
recommend that products used for fire protection 
measures should be subject to independent 
inspection and certification. 

Due to the lack of knowledge at compart- 
mentation design stage of the size and types of 
services that will pass through a fire-rated floor 
or wall, most specifications will consist of an 
instruction to reinstate the compartment to the 
recommended fire integrity and insulation, rather 
than mention specific products. This can poten- 
tially lead to incorrect or inferior products being 
installed. 

Third-party product certification schemes regu- 
larly assess that the product sold is manufactured 
to the specification used in the original fire test, 
and that nothing has changed that might affect 
the performance of the product. They will also 
be application specific in order to ensure that 
products are only used in a configuration that will 
meet the integrity and insulation performance 
achieved in the fire test. 

A very good example of a product that is often 
misused as a passive fire stop is PE "Fire Rated" 
Foam. Guidance on the can will often state that 
the product is able to achieve a four-hour fire rat- 
ing. However, on inspection of the original fire test, 
it can be seen that this type of product will usually 
be tested in a 1 5mm gap in a solid wall that is over 
200mm thick with no services passing through it. 
The limited size of the hole restricts the amount of 


The final pitfall to look out for is the practice of 
patressing. This is where off-cuts of plasterboard 
are used to either reduce a hole size prior to fire 
stopping the penetration with mastics or, in many 
cases, the plasterboard is cut tight to the services 
and then glued in place using a fire-rated mastic. 

The Building Regulations for England and Wales 
are clear. For a solution to be acceptable it must 
be shown by test to work. There are recommenda- 
tions made by the plasterboard manufacturers on 
how patressing should be used. These involve 
fixing the patch back to the studs either side of 
the opening with plasterboard screws at 300mm 
centres, with the addition of metal cavity fixings 
being used around the services. Even these 
onerous details have not been proven by test to 
work and so the ASFP (Association of Specialist 
Fire Protection) is clear on this matter - patressing 
is not a recognised way of fire-stopping. 

If this all sounds too complicated and risk laden, 
then the ASFP would strongly recommend that life 
safety packages such as fire stopping should be 
sub-contracted to third-party certified installers. 
These companies not only demonstrate expertise 
in the installation of these products, but also have 
their work certificated by independent certification 
bodies that in turn are, in the UK, accredited by 
the United Kingdom Accreditation Service (UKAS). 

Should the decision be taken to sub-contract 
this package then it is imperative for site produc- 
tivity that the dry-liner prepares any openings in 
fire-rated compartments, ready for the services to 
pass through prior to the fire stopping taking 
place. This will normally involve the framing out of 
the opening in accordance with the fire-stop 
manufacturers' recommendations. tm 


Wilf Butcher is Chief 
Executive, Association for 
Specialist Fire Protection 
(ASFP) 

www.asfp.org.uk 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


27 


ASFP FORUM 



4»P 


ASSOCIATION 
FOR SOCIALIST 
FR FRQTtCTtQN 


Teamwork 

works 

A while back, I attended a short Outward Bound team- 
building course designed to demonstrate how, when 
people work as a team, the desired results can be 
achieved with greater speed and efficiency. 



By Wilf Butcher 

Chief Executive, 
Association for 
Specialist Fire Protection 


Wilf Butcher is Chief 
Executive, Association for 
Specialist Fire Protection 
(ASFP) 

www.asfp.org.uk 


O bvious, you may say, but such courses are 
designed to demonstrate that one person's 
approach to achieving the goals can be very 
different to the next person's. Until they "see the 
light" and start communicating with each other, 
the goal can never be effectively achieved. 

Even when the team starts to work in a more 
efficient manner, the whole process falls apart as 
soon as a number of teams are brought together 
to achieve the set objective. Self interest takes 
control, and the whole exercise becomes highly 
competitive, with the result that everyone loses. 

Of course, these were just games. But the mes- 
sage was very real - work together or collectively fail. 

As the course progressed, the objective became 
clear to all. But the real challenge for those attend- 
ing was how to take away the lessons learned and 
convert them into practical benefit when addressing 
the issues that each faced within his or her industry. 

The fire protection sector is not one generally 
associated with fast or dynamic change. So, it 
could be argued that the need for all those 
involved in the business of fire protection to come 
together and work as a team, is not an issue of 
any real importance. Evolution, rather than revolu- 
tion, has always been the order of the day. 

I for one no longer believe this to be the case, 
and I know that many of my fire industry col- 
leagues from the passive, active and firefighting 
sectors share my thoughts on this matter. 

It could be argued that the tragedy of the 
Lakanal House fire in London - when six people 
were killed and at least 20 were injured when fire 
spread through a number of flats in a twelve- 
storey tower block - may prove to be a catalyst 
that will bring together the fire protection commu- 
nity, at least in the UK. The disaster may prompt 
recognition that such fires will continue to happen 
unless the fire protection industry learns to oper- 
ate as a single entity to identify, in a non-partisan 
way, the issues that need to be addressed, and 
pursue the appropriate way forward. 

But, as demonstrated in my team building 
exercise, we are but one element in the process. 
So, unless we can encourage the other "teams" - 
Government, legislators, insurers, designers, 
builders and building owners - to get involved and 
join with us, our industry goals will not be realised. 

Firstly though, we need to agree what our 
collective goals should be. What are the issues that 
we need to address? Here are a few suggestions. I 
am sure you can add your own. 

• To what depth should specifiers understand 
the detail of appropriate specification when 


considering the fire protective needs of their 
design, particularly when adopting a fire 
engineering approach? Who should take 
responsibility for this process? 

• We are advised that there will be no changes to 
the Building Regulations of England and Wales' 
Document B until 2013, and that these will not 
be implemented until 2016. Is this the right 
approach? If changes are not made, how can 
we ensure that the current Regulations reflect 
and direct the need for correct selection or 
installation of appropriate fire protection 
measures? For example, while we continue to 
allow totally unqualified and untrained individ- 
uals, or companies, to install fire protection 
products and systems, the industry will 
continue to lose the battle for appropriate 
minimum standards. 

• How can the industry ensure the main contrac- 
tor understands and respects his legal liability 
and obligations when appointing a contractor 
to carry out the required fire protection works, 
particularly if the chosen contractor carries no 
third-party certification? 

• In the UK, the Fire Safety Order gives a guid- 
ance framework in theory, but how can this be 
made to work in practice? Driven by case law, it 
turns the onus of responsibility onto those who 
do not have the knowledge to determine 
appropriate fire protection measures. 

• Undertaking a risk assessment currently 
requires no qualification, but these are the very 
people/organisations giving assurance to the 
Order's "Responsible Person" that the building 
is fit for purpose. This is a real issue for those 
who are qualified by experience. 

• The process of building inspection does not 
require detailed investigation of the fire protec- 
tion measures in a building and that they are fit 
for purpose. Should the fire industry therefore 
be looking to a "Permit to Occupy" approach? 
The tragedy of Lakanal House and the subse- 
quent fires are a wake-up call to all those involved 
in the process of fire protection. The danger is 
that, with time, they will disappear into the annals 
of history, buried under the weight of justification 
from all quarters. So much so that any attempt to 
affect the status quo and raise the bar in fire safety, 
will place an unnecessary burden on UK Pic. 

If team building on a sunny afternoon with like- 
minded people showed itself to be a challenge, 
then the one we face on just the issues raised 
above is positively herculean. But, as an industry, 
face them we must. 


28 


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REGULATIONS 


Standards 

Round-Up 


The recent NFPA Technical Meeting in the USA 
accepted a number of Standards, several of 
which are going to impact on the provision of 
fire protection. 


Inspection, testing, and maintenance of 
watei^based fire protection systems 

NFPA 25 (Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and 
Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection 
Systems) sets down the minimum requirements for 
the periodic inspection, testing, and maintenance 
of water-based fire protection systems for both 
land-based and marine applications. It does not 
though address all of the inspection, testing, and 
maintenance of electrical components of the auto- 
matic fire detection equipment for pre-action and 
deluge systems, which are covered by NFPA 72 
(National Fire Alarm Code). 

The types of systems dealt with in this Standard 
include - but are not limited to - sprinkler, stand- 
pipe and hose, fixed water spray, and foam water. 
Water supplies that are part of these systems, such 
as private fire service mains, fire pumps and water 
storage tanks, and valves that control system flow 
are also included. The Standard does not apply to 
sprinkler systems designed and installed in accor- 
dance with NFPA 13D (Standard for the Installation 
of Sprinkler Systems in One- and Two-Family 
Dwellings and Manufactured Homes). 

Road tunnels, bridges, and other 
limited access highways 

NFPA 502 (Standard for Road Tunnels, Bridges, 
and Other Limited Access Highways) provides fire 
protection and fire life safety requirements for 
limited access highways, road tunnels, bridges, 
elevated highways, depressed highways, and 
roadways that are located beneath air-right 
structures. It does not apply to parking garages, 
bus terminals, truck terminals, or any other facility 
in which motor vehicles travel or are parked. 


where only residential equipment is being used, 
where fire extinguishers are located in all kitchen 
areas in accordance with NFPA 10 (Standard for 
Portable Fire Extinguishers), where the facility is 
not an assembly occupancy, or where the authori- 
ty having jurisdiction has approved the installation. 

The requirements include - but are not 
limited to - all manner of cooking equipment, 
exhaust hoods, grease removal devices, exhaust 
ductwork, exhaust fans, dampers, fire-extinguish- 
ing equipment, and all other auxiliary or ancillary 
components or systems that are involved in the 
capture, containment, and control of grease-laden 
cooking effluent. 

Examples of operations that might not require 
compliance with this Standard include day care 
centres' warming bottles and lunches, therapy 
cooking facilities in health care buildings, churches 
and meeting operations that are not cooking 
meals that produce grease-laden vapours, and 
employee break rooms where food is warmed. 

Watei^cooling towers 

NFPA 214 (Standard on Water-Cooling Towers) 
applies to fire protection for field-erected and fac- 
tory-assembled water-cooling towers of com- 
bustible construction or those in which the fill is of 
combustible material. It cites a number of factors 
that should be considered in determining the 
extent and method of fire protection required for 
both induced-draft and natural-draft cooling tow- 
ers: However, when a cooling tower's structure, 
fan and distribution decks, louvers, and fill 
materials are all non-combustible materials, no fire 
protection is required. D33 


More information on these, 
and the other recently 
accepted NFPA Standards, 
can be found at 
www.nfpa.org/aboutthecodes/ 


Ventilation control and fire protection 
of commercial cooking operations 

NFPA 96 (Standard for Ventilation Control and Fire 
Protection of Commercial Cooking Operations) 
provides the minimum fire safety requirements - 
preventative and operative - relating to the 
design, installation, operation, inspection, and 
maintenance of all public and private cooking 
operations. The Standard applies to residential 
cooking equipment used for commercial cooking 
operations, but does not apply to cooking equip- 
ment located in a single dwelling, to facilities 



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VIDEO DETECTION 


The advance of 
Detection 



James "Andy" Lynch 


Video image detection (VID) has progressed tremendously over the last ten years. 
The technology has evolved from a concept to a prototype implemented by a 
few progressive early adopters, to a refined, listed and code-recognized product 
with applications ranging from cultural properties to nuclear power plants. The 
speed of the technology's progress and acceptance has benefited from its use of 
video and computer components widely used in other industries, such as 
imagers and processing chips used in high end CCTV security cameras and 
HDTVs. This article will review the history of the technology's progression and 
the evolution of the VID industry. 


Technical Services 
Manager, Fike Video 
Image Detection 


A recent 2010 NFPA Suppression and Detection 
(SUPDET) conference presentation given by 
i Bob Elliott, a senior engineering specialist 
at FM Global, identified the 4 stages of VID histori- 
cal development. The presentation was entitled 
"Video Image Detection, No Longer a Supplemen- 
tal System". The four stages are identified as: 

Stage 1 - Flame only 
Stage 2 - Smoke only 
Stage 3 - Combination Flame and Smoke 
Stage 4 - Single Package Combination Flame and 
Smoke 

These stages identify the evolution of the tech- 
nology, but what can be overlooked is why it has 
progressed in this fashion. Stage 1 to this day 
competes with the traditional UV and IR optical 
flame detectors (OFD). Rather than using a UV or 
IR sensor, the Stage 1 VID flame detector uses a 
CCD imager, the visual spectrum, and pixel analy- 
sis to identify a flaming fire. The unit itself looks, 
feels, and provides alarm contacts like any other 
OFD but also provides a video signal. The units are 
therefore treated as OFDs with approval and instal- 
lation occurring with little or no change to the 
standards and fire code. 


The next stage was the development of the 
video image smoke detector (VISD). These systems 
are server based in that they receive analog video 
through a BNC camera connection and then 
process the video feeds on the server. This provides 
an alarm in the form of dry contacts located on 
the server. These systems generally handle 4 to 8 
cameras at a time. At the time of the inception, 
these systems were not recognized by code. How- 
ever, due to the supplemental use in the field FM 
took the initiative and began to test and approve 
these systems, setting expectations for a properly 
installed VID system. 

The benefits of this technology were quickly 
recognized by early adopters. The detectors can 
identify smoke in large volume spaces (even if 
stratification took place), provide video for situa- 
tional awareness, and provide large coverage areas 
with minimal and easily accessible camera loca- 
tions. However, these systems also have several 
drawbacks. The combination of the server and 
cameras makes for a bulky, power hungry detec- 
tor. A typical camera consumes 5 Watts of power, 
while the servers can consume another 200 W. 
This requires tremendous amounts of battery 
power to provide an uninterrupted power supply 


32 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


VIDEO DETECTION 


THE ADVANCE OF VIDEO IMAGE DETECTION 


video image 


Increasing energy- 


Increasing wavelength ► 

0.0001 nm 0.01 nm 10 nm 1000 nm 0.01cm 1cm lm 100 m 


i i 


1 1 l 1 1 

Gamma rays 

X-rays 

Ultra- 

violet 

Infrared 

Radio waves 

Radar TV FM AM 




Visible light 


400 nm 


500 nm 


600 nm 


700 nm 


Fig 1 - Image of the 
electromagnetic 
spectrum that includes 
Ultra-violet (UV), Visible 
light, and Infrared (IR) 
spectrums all used in the 
fire protection industry 
for the purpose of 
detection 


(UPS). Each camera also needs a dedicated con- 
tinuous Siamese coax and power line between the 
detector and the server, increasing installation 
costs. 

Stage 3 combined the two algorithms (fire and 
smoke) into one server based system that can then 
be tested as a flame and smoke detection device. 
As supplemental installations continued and the 
NFPA revision cycle for the 2007 NFPA 72 code 
came around, it was advantageous to provide guid- 
ance in the code for future installations. The code 
insured a minimum set of requirements be fulfilled. 
One such requirement is that only listed systems be 
installed. At the time only Factory Mutual approved 
video image detection systems by using modified 
ANSI 268 and FM 3260 standards. NFPA 72 also 
required an uninterrupted power supply. For the 
server based systems of the time, this required a 
large amount of batteries to meet the necessary 24 
hours of power required by NFPA. Communication 
integrity was required, so the systems had to moni- 
tor their camera feeds for interruption and ensure 
an alarm signal reached the monitoring point. 
NFPA also requires these systems use a perfor- 
mance-based design. Because of the wide range of 
performance, architecture, and lighting require- 
ments between each system they will most likely 
remain performance based within the code. With 
the introduction of the technology into the NFPA 
code and FM's ability to approve systems, supple- 
mental installations continued. Due to the cost, 
privacy issues, and the technology's ability to cover 
large volume spaces, VID systems (both smoke only 
and fire & smoke) are generally installed in only 
non-residential applications such as power plants, 
warehouses, and manufacturing facilities. 


Stage 4 is the most significant stage to date as 
it combines the two algorithms into a single self 
contained device. This advance was possible due 
to increases in computational power over time and 
advances in the video security industry, especially 
the migration toward IP based systems. This stage 
put the analytics at the edge of the network, pro- 
viding a more reliable system. It also enabled LED 
indicators and contacts to move to the device 
location - a configuration more similar to conven- 
tional detection devices. With the contacts on the 
device the communication loop is direct to the Fire 
Alarm Control Panel and therefore the com- 
munication integrity does not have to take into 
account the sometimes numerous and long runs 
of coax from the cameras to the server. And 
because the device can sit directly on the FACP 
loop, the NFPA code mandated UPS only has to 
ensure the cameras (~5 W) stay active rather than 
the cameras and servers (-200 W) for 24 hours. 

Until this stage UL had not listed any VID 
devices nor did a UL standard exist that VID 
systems could pass. One hurdle was UL 268, 
which has been used to test beam, spot and air 
aspiration systems, required detection within a 
predefined obscuration limit. The conventional 
technologies being tested relied on the smoke 
reaching the sensor, therefore an obscuration 
measurement can be made at the location of the 
detector or sampling port to ensure detection 
within the bounding limits. Video "sees" the 
smoke - in many instances before it has reaches 
the obscuration measuring point in the UL268 
room. In other words, tying the pass/fail criteria to 
a point measurement was inappropriate for the 3 
dimensional VID detectors. UL has since created 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


33 



VIDEO DETECTION 


Fig 2 - IP camera system 
architecture with 
connection through 
addressable modules to 
the FACP and on to a 
Local Area Network 
(LAN) for video and 
alarm storage and 
viewing 



“I "I I 



UL268B which uses the same test sources and 
room dimensions but removes the criteria that ties 
obscuration to the detection, and instead uses a 
time to detection. FM, which has traditionally 
tested the systems to modified ANSI/UL 268 and 
FM 3260 test standards, has begun the process of 
creating a new Video Image Detection standard 
(FM3232). This standard will better define the 
expectations of a VID detector and take into 
account the advances in the technology, as well as 
the knowledge gained by FM, manufacturers, and 
industry personnel. 

Currently VID systems that are being installed to 
code take advantage of the new IP camera system 
flexibility. The cameras are placed in fixed positions 
and attached to a 12-24 VDC power supply. This 
can come from the Fire Alarm Control Panel (FACP) 
or a listed power supply. The cameras are then 
monitored by the FACP using dry contacts attached 
to an addressable module that indicate when the 
camera is in a trouble or alarm condition. In addi- 
tion, the cameras are attached to the Local Area 
Network (LAN) using the RJ45 jack. This can be 
attached to a Power Over Ethernet (POE) network 
switch to provide a redundant power source. IP 
video and alarm information is then transferred 
over the LAN to a server for recording purposes. 
This allows the user, whether it is the building 
manager, owner, distributor, AHJ or fire personnel, 
access to the archived video and alarms. User inter- 
faces usually allow easy access to this information 
as well as floor plans with camera locations, and 
live video. In certain situations, AHJs can approve 
the replacement of a traditional code mandated 
alarm system with a VID system. Some installations 
forgo the code required power from a listed supply 
and FACP, instead relying on the POE switch with 
battery backup and user interface monitored at a 
control room or security desk. This configuration is 
generally only used for supplemental purposes. 

Lighting 

Lighting has been an important issue over the life 
span of video image smoke detection systems. 


Critics point to the necessary illumination 
needed to see a smoldering smoke source. 
Since flaming fires produce light, additional 
illumination does not need to be supplied for 
flame detection to occur. However, all video 
image smoke detection systems need some 
form of illumination to function correctly, 
much like how air aspiration systems require 
a fan to pull the smoke back to the detector. 
If the fan were to malfunction or the piping 
became blocked, the smoke would no longer 
travel through the piping and the smoke 
would remain undetected. It is for this reason 
that air sampling systems supervise air flow. 
In a similar fashion VID systems will fault if 
the light level gets to low, or if the camera is 
covered, dirty or out of focus. These condi- 
tions need to be supervised. 

The supplied illumination can be either 
Infra Red (IR) or white light depending on the 
system. Statistics show that a majority of fire 
incidents reported to the fire department 
occur at night when a business is closed or 
has a reduced staff on hand. A challenge to 
the end user and installer is to provide proper 
illumination so that the VID system is effec- 
tive on a 24 hour, 7 days a week, 365 days a 
year basis. 

There are advantages and disadvantages with 
each illumination type (IR and White Light). A 
foot-candle (FC) is the English measure for light 
intensity. Lux is the metric equivalent with 1 FC = 
10.76 Lux. Both are measurements of illumination 
produced by one candela or lumen over one 
square foot or meter respectively. As Lux and FC 
are measurements of visible light, and by 
definition IR produces invisible light, how do you 
measure the appropriate IR illumination level? In 
order to measure light radiation in terms of 
Watts it is necessary to use a radiometer which 
typically exist only in laboratories and are usually 
priced beyond the means of normal installation 
companies. On the other hand, white light is easily 
measured with a calibrated light meter. 

White light illumination provides color images 
whereas IR can only deliver a black and white 
image. This is due to the fact that IR illumination is 
light which the human eye cannot see but that a 
monochrome CCTV camera can. In addition, 
switching between IR at night and white light dur- 
ing the day can result in a focus shift. The different 
wavelengths create different focus points through 
the lens onto the camera chip. This can lead to a 
loss of image focus in dark conditions, particularly 
if the camera is set up during day time operation. 
IR light used in CCTV applications is in the 700 to 
1 ,1 00 nm range - just beyond the visible spectrum, 
Fig. 1 . As white light is visible to the human eye we 
have natural protection against an overexposure to 
white light. On the other hand because humans 
cannot see IR light our eyes cannot automatically 
adjust to overexposure and potential eye damage. 
Applications that require covert surveillance or 
where no light is allowed due to light pollution on 
light sensitive materials, are ideal for IR. However 
the majority of installations are better served using 
white light illumination as it provides a higher level 
of safety and security. In addition, system perfor- 
mance is not changed and light levels can be as 
low as 1 ft-candle, the emergency light level set by 
NFPA standards. 


34 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



VIDEO DETECTION 


THE ADVANCE OF VIDEO IMAGE DETECTION 


VID systems without IR filters can also be blind- 
ed by large fires in the field of view. These fires 
produce a large amount of IR that can flood the 
imager, creating a blinding affect. The camera may 
generate a fault condition, but it will also miss the 
fire source. IR filters prevent this but also make it 
impossible to use IR illumination for smoke 
detection. 

Using white light provides more options to the 
end user because it can be supplied by a number 
of sources including incandescent, fluorescent, 
High Intensity Discharge (HID), or LED lamps. LEDs 
are the fastest growing lighting solution for VID 
applications. They are extremely efficient and offer 
tremendous reliability. LEDs may cost more initially, 
but they offer the lowest possible running cost 
(lower wattages) with longer operating life (up to 
10 years). 

Some VID systems have built in illuminators 
attached to the camera. In many cases, a single 
source will not provide the necessary and proper 
lighting for a facility and may be unnecessary. In 
addition, a single high powered light creates large 
pockets of light with dark areas in the image. 
Lighting should be placed to provide uniform 
illumination within the cameras field of view. 

Another advantage of white light illumination is 
that many facilities already have the required 1 FC 
of illumination. The life safety code (NFPA 101) 
Section 7.9.2 describes the required emergency 
lighting levels for safe egress in case of loss of 
power during an evacuation. The code states 


that "emergency illumination shall be provided 
for not less than 1.5 hours in the event of failure 
of normal lighting. Emergency lighting facilities 
shall be arranged to provide initial illumination 
that is not less than an average of 1 FC (10 lux) 
and, at any point, not less than 0.1 FC (1 lux), 
measured along the path of egress at floor level. 
Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 
no less than an average of 0.6 FC (6 lux) and, at 
any point, no less than 0.06 FC (0.6 lux) at the end 
of the 1 .5 hours. A maximum to minimum illumina- 
tion uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceed- 
ed." 

No matter which video system is installed or its 
purpose, proper camera placement and illumina- 
tion is vital. Video image smoke and fire systems 
rely on proper illumination that generates uniform 
and adequate levels of light. 

Video image smoke and fire detection has 
evolved a long way in a relatively short period of 
time, and will continue to do so. Higher processing 
speeds, increase storage, mega pixel imagers, and 
advanced analytic capabilities are already being 
considered for future development and inclusion. 
The increased use of networks and the impending 
demise of the Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) 
will allow for greater access to information pro- 
vided by fire alarm and suppression systems. It is 
necessary that the fire codes, listing agencies, and 
customers embrace and define the use of new fire 
equipment and technologies in order to support 
the changing fire industry. D33 


James Lynch has been 
employed by Fike Video 
Image Detection since 
December 2005, and has 
served as the manager of 
technical services. As the 
manager of technical services 
he is responsible for fire 
related research, the 
development of Video Image 
Detection (VID) technologies, 
approvals testing, 
certification training and VID 
system implementation. He is 
a member or the Salamander 
Honorary Fire Protection 
Engineering Society, the 
National Fire Protection 
Association, the Society of 
Fire Protection Engineers, and 
the International Association 
Fire Safety Science. Mr. 

Lynch's educational 
background includes: a B.S. in 
mechanical engineering and 
an M.S. degree in fire 
protection engineering from 
WPI. 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


35 



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0 



By Al Thornton 



The Application 
of Science 

Since prehistoric times, when people first extinguished fires with dirt and water, 
mankind has looked to science to develop new and improved technologies for 
managing and controlling fire. Al Thornton plots it growth. 


I n today's complex, interdependent electronic 
society, the need to effectively manage risk and 
control fire is critical to modern life. As our need 
for fire protection increases, the criteria for choos- 
ing a practical, viable clean agent becomes more 
complex as well. Understanding the science that 
drives clean agent fire protection development 
is crucial to making sound, responsible choices 
for protecting today's critical infrastructure and 
ensuring business continuity. 

Fires happen every day. In the most critical facili- 
ties and installations, clean agent technologies are 
often the best tools for protecting lives, valuable 
or sensitive assets, and maintaining operations. 
They offer the best balance between performance, 
safety, economic value, and environmental 
responsibility for the special-hazards fire protection 
industry. 

In the early 20th century, several different 
halogenated hydrocarbon molecules were used to 
protect mostly military vehicle applications; ships, 
aircraft and tanks. Carbon tetrachloride (Halon 
104 or CCI 4 ) was the first "clean agent" put into 
use, and by 1910 portable carbon tetrachloride 


extinguishers, tested by independent agencies, 
had appeared. 

Carbon tetrachloride was soon followed by 
methyl bromide (CH 3 Br or Halon 1001) and 
chlorobromomethane (CH 2 CIBr, Halon 1011 or 
'CB'); both agents being employed in military 
aircraft and ships during World War II. While these 
options served as very effective fire fighting 
agents, they exhibited high toxicity and were 
unsafe for use around people. 

In 1947, the Purdue University Research 
Foundation conducted a research program 
evaluating the performance new-candidate fire 
extinguishing agents. At the same time, the U.S. 
Army Corps of Engineers undertook a project to 
evaluate the toxicological properties of the same 
compounds. These studies extensively charac- 
terised over 60 candidate extinguishing agents 
according to fire efficacy, toxicity, corrosivity, 
electrical conductivity, and the effect of tempera- 
ture and different fuel arrangements on agent 
effectiveness. From these review candidates, four 
agents were selected for further study - Halon 
1301, Halon 1211, Halon 1202 and Halon 2402. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


37 


CLEAN AGENTS 


*: y jl 



The results of the Purdue Study were: 

Halon 1202. Most effective and most toxic; the 
U.S. Air Force chose Halon 1202 for 
military aircraft engine protection. 

Halon 1301. Second most effective, with excel- 
lent toxicity; U.S. Army chose for 
portable extinguishers; FAA selected 
for commercial aircraft engines. 

Halon 1211. Selected by the UK for aircraft and 
portable applications. 

Halon 2402. High toxicity, liquid agent; selected 
by Russia for total flooding and 
portable applications. 


In the 1960s, DuPont introduced Halon 1301 
(CF 3 Br) to the commercial fire protection market 
using legacy C0 2 equipment and technology. 
Hailed as a "wonder gas," colourless, odourless, 
and safe for use around people, it left behind no 
residue making it an ideal product for the nascent 
computer and telecommunication industries. By 
1970 NFPA had created a design standard, NFPA 
12A, and the modern "clean agent" industry was 
in full swing. 

The extremely efficient fire extinguishing prop- 
erties of the Halons cannot be fully explained by 
consideration of the traditional fire triangle, which 
tells us that fire can be extinguished by the 
removal of heat, fuel or oxygen. An additional 
factor must be added to explain the high efficiency 
of the Halons - that of chemical chain reaction - 
leading to the concept of the fire tetrahedron. In 
addition to the methods of heat, fuel or oxygen 
removal, fires can be extinguished by inhibiting, or 
interrupting, the chemical chain reaction which 
produces the fire. 

The Halons extinguished fire predominantly by 
this "chemical" mechanism, which turned out to be 
an extremely efficient method. This mechanism 
involves the removal of the key fire species, which 
are responsible for keeping the chain reaction of the 
fire going - Halon serves to "break" the chain reac- 
tion. The key chemical species responsible for main- 
taining the chain reaction in a fire are the hydrogen 


(H), oxygen (O) and hydroxyl (HO) fragments 
produced in the fire. Halon 1301 reacts with 
hydrogen to produce the CF 3 fragment and 
HBr - the "magic bullet" which slays the fire: 
HBr reacts with H and HO, removing the two 
species most responsible for maintaining the 
chain reaction, and breaks the chain reaction, 
shutting down the fire. 

The 1980s introduced concerns about 
ozone depletion from chlorofluorocarbons 
and Halons and the subsequent passage of 
the Montreal Protocol. The key to the highly 
efficient extinguishing properties of Halon - 
the presence of a bromine atom in its struc- 
ture - also led to its demise, as bromine is 
also a powerful ozone depleting species. 
The Montreal Protocol initially froze Halon 
production at 1986 levels, and ultimately 
eliminated the production of new Halon in 
developed countries by 1992. Today, many 
Halon systems remain in place protecting 
critical facilities throughout much of the 
world. 

With pressure to find a new "wonder 
gas" - with the added requirement of zero 
ozone depletion potential - the fire suppres- 
sion industry mobilised and introduced a 
wide variety of alternative agents for both Halon 
1301 and Halon 1211. Fire extinguishing theory in 
hand, one can begin to deconstruct the building 
blocks of these clean agent extinguishants, 
comparing, contrasting and evaluating additional 
alternatives and options. The first schism in 
next-generation alternatives came between 
"chemical agents" and "physical agents". 
Chemical agents extinguish fire by interfering 
with the chemistry of the fire. Physical agents 
extinguish fire via physical mechanisms such as 
oxygen reduction or heat absorption. 

As already explained, Halons are "chemical 
agents" that extinguish fires by interfering with 
the chemistry of the fire; removing the key flame 
species and breaking the chain reaction of the fire. 
Physical agents do not interfere or become 
involved in the chemistry of the fire; they extin- 
guish fire through physical mechanisms, such as 
oxygen depletion or heat absorption. Inert gases 
and carbon-based clean agents are both physical 
agents, but extinguish fire by different physical 
mechanisms. The inert gases extinguish fire by 
oxygen reduction, whereas the carbon-based 
agents extinguish fire via heat absorption. 

The inert gases - nitrogen, argon, and a variety 
of inert gas blends - act as physical extinguishing 
agents, reducing oxygen levels from an ambient 
21 percent-by-volume down to below 14 percent- 
by-volume, essentially starving the fire of enough 
oxygen to continue burning. Oxygen reduction is 
an inefficient method of fire extinguishment and, 
as a result, inert gas systems require large design 
concentrations, typically in the order of 40 
percent-by-volume or more of the protected space. 

Inert gases cannot be compressed and stored as 
liquids, but can be stored only as gases. As a result 
of their low efficiency and inability to be stored as 
a liquid, inert gas systems require a large number 
of storage cylinders. The number of storage 
cylinders required can be reduced somewhat by 
resorting to high pressure (for example, 300 bar) 
systems, but this requires the utilisation of 
high-pressure storage cylinders and high-pressure 


38 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


THE APPLIANCE OF SCIENCE 

n CAM ACCMTC 


LLtAIM AutN 1 j 



piping and manifold systems. The inert gas 
extinguishing agents themselves are readily 
available, low cost, industrial gases, but the 
additional hardware requirements often 
result in a higher system cost and a much 
larger site footprint for inert gas systems 
than for other clean agents. 

The fundamental construction of a 
carbon-based clean extinguishing agent 
consists of a carbon base molecule with 
halogens substituted for various hydrogen 
atoms. The introduction of bromine atoms 
into the carbon base greatly improves the 
fire extinguishing effectiveness. However, 
this can also lead to increased toxicity and 
reduced chemical stability; most importantly, 
the introduction of bromine results in a mol- 
ecule characterised as an ozone depleting 
substance (ODS), and hence subject to the 
controls of the Montreal Protocol. 

The introduction of chlorine into the 
carbon base results in a moderate increase in 
fire extinguishing effectiveness, and lessened 
effects on toxicity and stability compared to 
bromine. However, the chlorine atom is efficient at 
depleting ozone, and the resulting molecule will 
be classified as an ODS, subject to the controls of 
the Montreal Protocol. 

The introduction of fluorine into the carbon base 
has four desired effects: increased fire extinguishing 
effectiveness, increased chemical and physical 
stability, reduced toxicity, and reduced boiling point. 
Unlike bromine and chlorine, however, fluorine 
does not participate in ozone depletion and hence 
these compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, 
and fluorine atoms (hydrofluorofluorocarbons or 
HFCs) have zero ozone depletion potentials (ODPs). 

Using the science and chemistry of clean 
agents, DuPont set about developing a family of 
physically acting fire extinguishing agents designed 
to balance the needs of the market with the com- 
peting demands of life safety, fire performance, 
environmental acceptance, and suitable physical 
properties. The results of this extensive develop- 
ment program are four halocarbon extinguishing 
agents targeted for specific user requirements. 
None of these clean agents contain bromine or 
chlorine, achieving the goal of zero ODP All of 
these clean agents are physical agents, extinguish- 
ing fire via heat absorption. 

DuPont™ FE-13™ (HFC-23, CF 3 H) 

The simplest of the molecules, FE-13™ offers 
some key physical features that make it a unique 
solution for certain difficult applications. 

Due to its very low toxicity, FE-1 3 can be used in 
occupied applications that require a very high 
design concentration, such as difficult flammable 
liquid and gas extinguishment and inertion haz- 
ards, or in areas where the volume or temperature 
of the protected space varies dramatically, such as 
cargo holds. The low boiling point of FE-13 allows 
its use in applications involving low temperatures, 
such as environmental test chambers, turbine 
enclosures, railroad locomotives, and mining 
equipment. The low boiling point of FE-13 also 
makes it more effective in the protection of areas 
with high ceilings. 

DuPont™ FE-25™ (HFC-125, CF 3 CF 2 H) 

FE-25™ is characterised by flow properties very 


similar to those of Halon 1301, and was selected 
by the U.S. Department of Defence to replace 
Halon 1301 in engine nacelle applications in new 
aircraft, and by the U.S. Navy in the engine 
nacelles of existing aircraft. 

FE-25 is effective for many surface fires and 
most solid combustible materials and is used in 
grain elevators for explosion suppression. Origin- 
ally provided as a close replacement for existing 
Halon 1301 systems, it is now also used for new 
systems. 

DuPont™ FE-36™ (HFC-236fa, 

CF 3 CH 2 CF 3 ) 

FE-36™ is proving to be the standard in-kind 
replacement for Halon 1211 in portable extin- 
guishers. FE-36 is characterised by lower toxicity 
compared to Halon 1211, and has zero ozone 
depletion potential. 

DuPont™ FM-200® (HFC-227ea, 
CF 3 CHFCF 3 ) 

FM-200® is the most frequently specified and 
installed clean agent in fire protection systems. It is 
safe for use in Class A ordinary combustible mater- 
ial applications and Class B flammable liquid and 
gas applications (Classes B and C in Europe, 
Australia and Asia), where people are normally 
present, the so-called "normally occupied spaces". 
FM-200 can be used where conventional extin- 
guishing agents such as water, dry chemical, and 
carbon dioxide are unsuitable. These situations 
exist where there is sensitive electronic equipment 
servicing a critical operation, where a loss would 
include the equipment and the cost of business 
interruption. 

Other situations involve delicate or irreplaceable 
materials such as those found in museums, 
libraries and historical sites. FM-200 is arguably 
the most cost effective clean agent extinguishant 
for total flooding applications, including computer 
rooms, telecommunication facilities, semiconductor 
manufacturing facilities, data processing centres, 
clean rooms, and industrial process control rooms. 
Other examples of applications include marine 
engine compartments, petrochemical facilities, 
chemical storage rooms, paint lockers, and other 
applications where hydrocarbon-based materials 
are present. D33 


Al Thornton has sales 
responsibility for the fire 
suppressant business of 
DuPont 

www.DuPont.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


39 



CONTROL LOGIC 
Spark 
detector 

designed for 
dust collectio 
systems 
to protect 

ri . 

of fire. 


201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 


he 


The 


Sparks fly 
at high speed* 

They travel at a hundred kilometres 
per hour along the ducts of the dust 
collection system and reach the silo 
in less than three seconds 

CONTROL LOGIC 
SPARK DETECTOR 

is faster than 
the sparks themselves. 
It detects them with its highly 
sensitive infrared sensor, 
intercepts and extinguishes 
them in a flash, 
no periodic inspection. 

CONTROL LOGIC system 

is designed for "total supervision". 
It verifies that sparks have been 
extinguished, gives prompt warning of 
any malfunction and, if needed, 
cuts off the duct and stops the fan. 


SO 9001 


CONTROL LOGIC 



BETTER TO KNOW IT BEFORE 


Eye is faster than nose. 

In the event of live fire 
the IR FLAME DETECTOR 
responds immediately 


IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/FA 
EXPL0SI0NPR00F 
ENCLOSURE 


CONTROL LOGIC 

IR FLAME DETECTOR 

the fastest and most effective fire alarm device 
for industrial applications 

■j -t ^ 



IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/F 
WATERTIGHT 
IP 65 ENCLOSURE 


For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where is a risk of explosion 
and where the explosionproof 
protection is required. 

One detector can monitor a vast area 
and responds immediately 
to the fire, yet of small size. 


Also for 

RS485 two-wire serial line 


For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where fire can spread 
out rapidly due to the presence of 
highly inflammable materials, 
and where vast premises need an optical 
detector with a great sensitivity 
and large field of view. 


201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 541 0 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 





St Pan eras Platform 



By Paul Bryant 


Chairman of the Rail 
Industry Fire Association 


The Rail Industry Fire 
Association was formed in 
1 996 with the objectives of 
sharing information, 
experience and best practice 
in the management of fire 
safety throughout the 
railway industry. Its website 
is at www.rifa-rail.com 


Paul Bryant is Chairman of 
the Rail Industry Fire 
Association 
www.rifa-rail.com 



Railway Fire 
Safety - As I See It 

The unique fire safety challenges posed by railway stations around the world 
need to be more holistically approached. So says Paul Bryant, Chairman of the 
Rail Industry Fire Association. 


L ondon recently experienced a major fire at a 
main railway station and while the fire protec- 
tion systems at the station worked as intended, 
this still did not prevent wide scale damage. How- 
ever, it was not the damage that was the main 
issue, but the fact that the fire disrupted the jour- 
neys of thousands of people for many hours; yet 
another example of how a fire in a railway station 
can have real or potentially devastating con- 
sequences. While most of the travelling public are 
unaware of the implications of a fire, it is vital that 
those working with for and in the railways are. 

More people want to travel more often. 
Consequently, the strain on rail networks around 
the world will continue to worsen, and the contin- 
uing requirement to explore bolder railway station 
designs puts even greater pressure to adopt an 
effective performance based approach to fire 
safety. The traditional prescriptive approaches for 
fire safety in buildings have been replaced by the 
requirement for a "free thinking" scientific 
approach, which surely demands that the skills of 
qualified or experienced fire engineering specialists 
need to be used and not those who are just happy 
to follow a set of rules. 

One of the issues affecting railway station 
design and use is the need to gain an understand- 
ing of how performance-based fire safety engi- 
neering approaches can assist in providing 
effective fire strategies. Hence, any fire safety 
engineered design for railway stations invariable 
has to consider the large open areas that are 
essential for the movement of large numbers of 


passengers, many of whom will make several 
stops inside the station for shopping, ticket collec- 
tion and refreshment. It also has to address the fire 
risks posed by areas such as restaurants and fast 
food outlets, plant and control rooms, store rooms 
and waste collection areas. 

The need to ensure controlled evacuation in the 
event of a fire or other emergency, particularly in 
these troubled times, is another major considera- 
tion, particularly given the fact that most travellers 
have little knowledge of the station environment 
and some have only limited understanding of the 
indigenous language. Finally, there is the ever 
present requirement to minimise business disruption 
due to expensive and distressing false alarms and 
ensure that the station is "back in business" as 
soon as possible after a fire. In short, it is essential 
that a more holistic approach is taken to fire safety 
in stations around the world, if nothing is to be 
overlooked. 

Every station should have a distinct and specific 
fire strategy, and the specifics of each individual 
station should be presented in a similar way. This 
consistency of approach is vital when protecting 
the millions who use the rail networks, an impera- 
tive that led me to author the British Standard 
Specification PAS 91 1 on fire strategies, which was 
published in 2007 and is designed to be used 
internationally. This sets out the preparation of a 
fire strategy as a process, with key inputs and sub- 
strategy outputs, along with guidance on how to 
evaluate the factors associated with fire safety and 
protection. 132 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


41 



EVACUATION 


Safety in Numb 


,4 * 3 - i| 



By James Lane 



Buildings are generally becoming larger and potentially more complex. Can we 
be sure that the principles of fire safety have developed in line with the changes 
and remain adequate when dealing with means of escape? James Lane gives a 
professional insight. 


Hilson Moran 


irst we have to avoid a common misconcep- 
tion; what do we mean by large? 

When anybody mentions large buildings we 
immediately think tall. However, a quick Internet 
search will reveal that the largest buildings in the 
world, in terms of occupiable space, are mainly 
linked with the aeronautical industry. Vast sheds 
used for the assembly of airliners and space craft. 
This has historically been the case since technology 
enabled powered flight and hangers were required 
to house airships and transatlantic aircraft. Even 
before the dawn of this brave new world it was 
the industrial revolution and the call for increasing 
mass production capability that gave us ever 
increasing factory buildings, with a population 
equivalent to a small town, but it was the need for 
property protection that led the insurance market 
to push for the development of automatic fire 
protection and the birth of sprinkler systems. 

Since then, automation of the work force has 
reduced the number of people and even the space 
requirements for production facilities. But the 
large concentrations of people did not go away. 
They moved. Renaissance in our leisure time 


activities has led to larger public spaces such as 
sports arenas and, where a high street would have 
had individual shops, the street was covered over 
to create a single common space and purpose- 
built shopping malls have changed our retail 
expectations. 

Nowadays, large buildings are a feature of all 
sectors of the built environment from industrial 
and warehouse, to leisure and retail, to residential 
and commercial. So what are the fire implications 
for these large buildings and how does increasing 
area affect means of escape? 

How important is means of escape? 

The provision for achieving evacuation from a 
building in an emergency is the fundamental 
feature of any fire strategy. All other fire design 
features have the underlying aim of maintaining 
conditions that will enable escape. In the UK the 
Approved Document system for compliance with 
Building Regulations states that: 

"...the Building Regulations do not require 
anything to be done except for the purpose of 
securing reasonable standards of health and safety 



42 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



SAFETY IN NUMBERS 

c \i a r 1 1 a t i n m 


tVALUAI IUIM 



for persons in or about buildings 
(and any others who may be 
affected by buildings or matters 
connected with buildings)." 

This effectively limits the Building 
Regulations for fire to dealing with 
matters of life safety. The benefits in 
protection of property are a happy 
coincidence rather than the main 
purpose. 

Prescriptive codes will stipulate 
the number and dimensions of 
escape routes, the doors and stairs 
and the type of fire alarm required. 

Although it may not be clear from 
a simple set of rules, the purpose 
of specifying these parameters is 
to ensure that the provisions for 
escape will be suitable for the 
expected number of occupants. 

Legislation has moved away from 
this prescriptive approach and has 
adopted a more risk-based philoso- 
phy. The Building Regulations are 
built to a set of functional objectives 
that require that "reasonable" pro- 
visions are made to achieve an 
acceptable level of safety". This has 
given rise to one of the fundamen- 
tal principles of fire engineering and 
the engineered solution. 

Available Safe Egress Time (ASET) 
is the time from ignition until condi- 
tions become untenable and injury 
or death may occur. Required Safe 
Egress Time (RSET) is the time taken 
from ignition until all the occupants 
reach a place of safety. While ASET is 
greater than RSET then it is claimed 
that the functional objective for 
means of escape has been achieved. 

The process which greatly influences building 
design is one of a balancing act. On one side the 
provisions made for escape such as the number of 
exits and stairs and how wide they are allows esti- 
mates of the time taken for people to reach a 
place of safety. By increasing the number of exits 
and the aggregated width available for escape the 
time taken for people to flow through the system 
is reduced - RSET is lower. 

On the other side of the equation, division into 
smaller fire compartments, limiting fire size 
through the application of sprinkler - or similar - 
suppression and the removal of heat and smoke 
are examples of the active and passive measures 
that can be employed to delay the onset of unten- 
able conditions - ASET is higher. 

So how does the size of the building influence 
this balance and what measures may be necessary 
to overcome any potential problems? 

First of all it may be useful to examine what 
we mean by large. We could consider three 
categories: 

• Large; but with low population (typified by 

industrial or warehouse facilities). 


• Large; and with high population (sports, enter- 
tainment, transport interchange or retail). 

• Large; tall with high population (commercial 
and residential). 

Of course, it is possible to think of examples 
that do not fit with this way of thinking, or build- 
ing types that blur the edges between the 
categories. But overall this serves as a convenient 
way to address the issues in dealing with large 
buildings. 

Reducing the RSET 

It is reasonable to assume that with increasing 
building area the time taken for the occupants to 
reach the exits will be longer. Implications for the 
required evacuation time include: 

• Buildings with a large footprint area are likely 
to be deep plan. This means that the conven- 
tional travel distance limits to reach a fire exit 
may not be achievable. 

• Large public buildings are likely to have a 
greater number of people. Sports arenas and 
shopping centres, exhibition halls and enter- 
tainment venues have the potential for large 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


43 


EVACUATION 



area floor plans occupied to a much higher 
density 

• Visitors to public buildings may be unfamiliar 
with the building and the emergency proce- 
dures. Motivation and managing the evacuation 
of a mass population from a building brings its 
own headache. Unfamiliarity means people are 
less likely to begin escape unless there is a direct 
and unambiguous instruction. 

• After entering the escape system a prolonged 
route to reach the final exit may lead to fatigue 
and disorientation. This would be particularly 
the case for tall buildings where many flights of 
stairs could be off putting. 

To deal with the problems encountered in large 
buildings, fire engineering offers a range of 
solutions aimed at reducing the time required 
to escape from the immediate danger from fire 
and its products. 

Low volume population 

In the industrial setting, factories and warehouses, 
while having a potentially large floor plan and vol- 
ume, are likely to have a relatively low population 
density. The value in these buildings is in occupy- 
ing the space with commodity, not people. 

Standard guidance for means of escape 
assumes that there will be a period of queuing 
while people flow through the exit doors. How- 
ever, where the population is small this may be 
greatly reduced and although it might take a little 
while longer to reach the exit (typical speed of 
travel often assumed to be about 1.2 m/s) if there 
is no queue at the exit the overall escape time may 
be shorter than otherwise expected. 

Phased evacuation 

Where the building will have a much higher popu- 
lation than the industrial warehouse example 
above, one way to cope with the management of 


the number of people is to divide them into dis- 
crete groups and evacuate each group at different 
times. 

Commonly used for tall buildings, this type of 
phasing will usually call for the immediate evacua- 
tion of the floor intimate with the fire. After this 
most vulnerable group are out of the danger zone 
the population of subsequent floors are evacuated 
in manageable chunks, usually two floors at a 
time, above the fire origin and then similarly for 
floors below, until the building is completely 
empty. 

The advantage of this method is that generally 
the required stair width will be less than when 
compared with a simple simultaneous escape. It 
may also be possible, in certain cases, for the 
population remote from the fire to remain 
operational. 

For very tall buildings it may not be reasonable 
to expect the occupants at the top to descend the 
stairs all the way to the bottom in a single journey. 
In this situation it may be necessary to provide 
refuge floors. These are selected floors in the 
building which will have higher fire precautions. 
Occupants evacuate from floors above to this level 
where lifts provided with special measures to keep 
them operational during a fire can be used to ferry 
them down to the ground floor. 

Progressive horizontal evacuation 
(PHE) 

Where the building is large by virtue of its plan area 
rather than height, a modification of the phased 
evacuation method is divide the footprint into a 
series of fire compartments. Again the most vulner- 
able occupants are moved in the first instance, but 
this time into an adjacent compartment horizontally. 

Separated by fire resisting walls, this neighbour- 
ing compartment acts a refuge area. Organisation 
of the evacuation from this compartment can then 


44 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


SAFETY IN NUMBERS 

c \i a r 1 1 a t i n m 


tVAtlAI IUIM 


be done in an orderly manner outside of the 
immediate threat from the fire. Typically used in 
healthcare facilities, it is an additional benefit that 
occupants less able to effect their own escape 
unaided can be assisted during the secondary 
phase. 

A similar method is applied to shopping centres. 
The central mall is considered to provide a place of 
relative safety and will usually be provided with 
some form of smoke control. Dividing the mall 
into smoke and evacuation zones makes it 
possible to evacuate one zone of a shopping com- 
plex at a time. Occupants in the mall are ushered 
into the neighbouring zone and the heat and 
smoke from a shop fire is dealt with by the venting. 

Focused exit provision 

Location and size of the available exits will also 
play a key part in an efficient escape strategy. It 
has been documented that human behaviour 
favours the familiar and where large public build- 
ings have multiple exits people will often pass 
emergency exits in order to use the main entrance 
through which they gained access, or which pro- 
vides the ready route back to the car. If the most 
favoured exits can be identified then measures to 
improve flow through the exits and management 
of the people after escape can be better focused. 

Computer-based evacuation models that apply a 
probabilistic element into the predicted movement 
of a population, while theoretically applicable to a 
wide range of scenarios are put to the greatest 
benefit in these types of buildings. 

Increasing the ASET 

Extending the time before untenable conditions 
are reached is a valuable means of protecting the 
populations that require longer before escaping. 

Increased compartment volume 

A feature of industrial buildings is a general 
increase in the roof height to accommodate the 
industrial processes and machinery. The effect of 
this is to allow the heat from a fire to rise above 
the people and the volume created will take 
longer to become clogged with smoke. This may 
be sufficient enough delay before the heat and 
smoke build down to a height that would affect 
escape to allow all the occupants to evacuate the 
compartment safely. 

However, industrial, and particularly storage, 
facilities have the propensity to contain a greater 
volume of combustible materials and contents of 
unusually high heat output, leading to larger fire 
sizes. A careful analysis of the rate that heat and 
smoke are generated is required to compare it 
with the benefits of the higher compartment 
height. Where there remains a problem an 
alternative strategy may need to be adopted. 

Limiting potential fire size 

Subdivision into smaller fire compartments will 
reduce travel distance to a place of refuge, as 
described above, and has the additional benefit of 
limiting the potential fire size and restricting the 
extent of damage. 

Where subdivision is not possible, the applica- 
tion of automatic suppression has the significant 
advantage of keeping a fire relatively small, or 
even extinguishing it. There are many types of 
suppression, starting with standard water sprinklers 


thorough to stored liquid and gas agents and even 
a method of permanently reducing the oxygen 
content of the space to prevent ignition, and 
discussion of these could fill enough space for a 
separate article. 

Venting 

If the heat and smoke generated in a fire is 
released to atmosphere then the build up to 
untenable conditions within the space will be 
delayed, or even prevented completely. Theoreti- 
cally, the conditions could be maintained within 
the limits of tenability indefinitely, allowing a 
greatly extended evacuation time. This might have 
more of a psychological effect on the occupants 
who may not be in a position of understanding 
the fire strategy and the calculations that have 
been applied to achieve this happy state. 

Conclusion 

Increasing building size brings with it a double- 
edge sword. The larger volume may mean that a 
fire has less immediate effect due to reduced 
proximity of the occupants with the products of 
combustion. But the resulting increase fire load 
and distance to an exit, potential population 
density and the problems of controlling a mass of 
people make means of escape the key considera- 
tion in developing a fire strategy. 

Escape is likely to be the driving force that 
shapes major aspects of the building design. James Lane is Principal Fire 

Provision of fire precautions is to achieve the Consultant at Hilson Moran 

functional objective of escape. Du 



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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


45 



SUPPRESSION 


watermist Techno 



By Rudiger Kopp 
(Dipl.-lng.) 

Fogtec GmbH 



Watermist technology was once seen as a niche product for special industrial 
risks, but today, says Ruediger Kopp, it is widely accepted as an alternative to 
sprinklers and gaseous extinguishing systems. 


W hen watermist technology was "rediscov- 
ered" in the 1 980s, it was seen mainly as 
a niche product for special industrial 
risks, such as protection of turbines, generators 
and other pieces of machinery. Today, however, 
watermist is accepted widely as a viable and 
effective alternative to gaseous extinguishing 
systems. In the marine industry, its benefits have 
been transferred from machinery space protection 
to accommodation areas where, traditionally, 
conventional sprinkler systems have been used. 

Indeed, marine applications were the first 
where standards for testing, approval and installa- 
tion of watermist systems were developed. The 
IMO (International Maritime Organisation) stan- 
dards for machinery spaces and accommodation 
areas have been a good basis also for land-based 
applications, and still are used as a reference for 
the definition of fire scenarios in land-based 
watermist standards. 

Watermist technology now has a firm place in 
the fire protection system market, with applica- 
tions spanning from the protection of machinery 
containing fuels and lubricants, to cable tunnels, 
within the food industry, hotels, archives, museum, 
high-rise buildings, hospitals, laboratories, hotels 
and heritage buildings. Its use is also becoming 
widespread in the automotive and power genera- 
tion sectors, for the protection of test cells, 
paint areas, hydraulic risks, generators, turbines 
and storage facilities. In the past few years, sophis- 
ticated and innovative fire protection solutions 
have been developed based on watermist technol- 
ogy that ensure highest possible level of safety 


where, previously, no appropriate solution was 
available. 

Standards and fire tests 

Since watermist combines the fire fighting effect 
of both conventional gaseous suppression and 
water sprinkler systems, it can neither be designed 
nor approved based on the standards applying to 
"conventional" systems. In their place, there are 
now a number of standards that apply specifically 
to the design and approval of watermist systems. 

Among these, those that are most referenced 
internationally are: the IMO standards; NFPA 750 
(Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems); 
ANSI FM 5560 (American National Standard for 
Water Mist Systems) from Factory Mutual; and the 
European CEN TS 14972 (Fixed firefighting sys- 
tems. Watermist systems. Design and installation). 
Based on these international standards, national 
guidelines and standards are under development, 
or have already been published by organisations 
such as VdS in Germany, APSAD in France and BSI 
in the UK. 

All standards have in common that for water- 
mist technology the required nozzle type, droplet 
distribution, flow rate, nozzle spacing and dis- 
charge time have to be individually determined by 
carrying out application-related, full scale fire tests 
to provide optimum protection of the respective 
risk. Transfer or extrapolation of design criteria 
from one application to another, or basing the 
system designs on calculation models, is not 
possible. In past years, numerous full scale fire 
tests have been carried out at independent fire 


46 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


WATERMIST TECHNOLOGY COMES OF AGE 

CIIDDDCCCIHM 


jUrrKtjjIUN 


logy Comes of Age 



research institutes and laboratories 
that have lead to broad acceptance 
of watermist systems as alternative 
to conventional systems. 

Hamburg Philharmonic 
Orchestra Hall 

Special buildings and architecturally 
challenging environments require 
sophisticated tailor-made solutions 
to fulfil their fire safety needs. The 
integration of an automatic fire 
fighting system into the Elbphilhar- 
monie Philharmonic Concert Hall in 
Hamburg, Germany was one such 
challenge. It is a typical example of 
where watermist technology has 
delivered an innovative fire protec- 
tion solution that provides efficient 
cooling, low water consumption, 
minimal potential water damage, and straightfor- 
ward installation due to small pipework and small 
water storage requirement. 

A conventional sprinkler system could not be 
used due to the height of the area and the poten- 
tial water damage that would result from system 
activation. Similarly, a gaseous fire suppression sys- 
tem could also not be used due to the evacuation 
time required by the audience. So, it was decided 
to develop an innovative fire protection concept, 
based on high-pressure watermist technology; a 
concept that was verified in full scale fire tests that 
determined the system design parameters. 

Since the fire load in the concert hall is con- 
centrated in the floor and seating area, the 
firefighting agent preferably needed be focused in 
this area. So, instead of attempting to contend 
with the concert hall height of 25 metres, it was 
decided that a floor integrated system would be 
most appropriate solution. Rapid activation of the 
system after fire detection would further increase 
the safety level, so the fire detection and the 
firefighting systems were jointly evaluated. 

Full scale fire tests were carried out with fire 
loads and test scenarios derived from standards 
such as CEN TS 14972, and the fire test results 
were evaluated by independent fire consultants 
and a certification body - HHP and DEKRA - to 
confirm that the concept met all of the safety 
requirements. 

A zoned deluge, high pressure watermist 
system was installed, triggered by a linear heat 
detection system integrated into the floor area. In 
standby condition, special nozzles are covered 
with lids and incorporated into the floor areas 
between the seats to meet the demanding 
requirements of the architects and acoustics 
engineers of the building. Three adjacent areas 
can be discharged simultaneously to cover the 
worst fire condition. 

This protection concept for concert halls 
resulted in a safe and architecturally satisfying 
solution; one that was successfully integrated into 
the overall fire safety strategy of the building and 
approved by the regulatory authorities. 


Eurotunnel protection 

The Channel Tunnel Rail Link under the English 
Channel links Calais in France and Folkestone in 
England and is used by around 16 million passen- 
gers each year. Up to 450 train journeys are 
made through the tunnel every day, including the 
high-speed Eurostar passenger trains and the 
Eurotunnel car and truck shuttles. After truck fires 
in 1996 and 2008, Eurotunnel, the operating 
company, decided to reinforce the already high fire 
safety standards. 

To achieve this, a special fire protection concept 
was developed based on the establishment of four 
separate firefighting sections within the tunnel, in 
which a fire on a train could be fought quickly and 
effectively. Due to the significantly larger potential 
fire load that trucks represent, these so called 
"safe" stations are primarily to protect truck 
shuttles. 

The decision to incorporate a firefighting system 
inside the tunnel was based on the recom- 
mendation of an expert group that had carried 
out a quantitative risk assessment and a cost- 
benefit analysis. High pressure watermist was 
chosen due to its high cooling potential that helps 
to create a safe environment for passengers, staff 
and vehicles within the tunnel. The watermist 
system potentially contributes significantly towards 
reducing the intensity of a fire, and the heat 
absorption supports the successful evacuation of 
people, particularly during the first critical phase of 
a tunnel fire. 

During a lengthy test program with the fire and 
rescue service, it was established that, even with 
heat release rates of more than 200 MW, the 
watermist system facilitates the fire brigade's 
rescue efforts and allows for effective control of 
the fire and rapid extinguishing. 

The tunnels are fitted with four times 29 deluge 
fire fighting sections, each 30 metres long and 
independently controllable. Only open nozzles are 
used in order to provide full flow rates for every 
activated section, so maximising the effect of 
watermist from the beginning of the system's 
activation. m 


Riidiger Kopp is Sales and 
Product Manager at Fogtec 
Fire Protection 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


47 


SUPPRESSION 



By Scott Starr 

Firetrace International 


Wind Turbine Fire 



Fire detection and suppression 
has become a top priority for 
turbine manufacturers and 
wind farm operators. Scott 
Starr reviews the options. 

W ith governments across the 
globe becoming ever more 
aware of the environmental 
benefits of wind-generated power, the 
number of wind farms and the financial 
investment in constructing, erecting and 
maintaining wind turbines is increasing 
exponentially. Today, the market is esti- 
mated to be worth $60 billion annually, 
with global wind capacity expected to 
double every three years. According to 
the WWEA (World Wind Energy Associa- 
tion) World Wind Energy Report 2009, 
the United States is the world leader in 
terms of the installed capacity of wind 
power, followed by China, Germany, 

Spain and India. Together, these five 
countries - again according to the 
WWEA - last year accounted for nearly 
80 percent of worldwide wind capacity. 

Such a high level of investment, 
coupled with the increased dependence 
on wind power, has led turbine manufac- 
turers and operators to become acutely 
aware of the financial implications, safety 
issues and environmental impact of fire- 
damaged or destroyed turbines. Indeed, 
fire safety has become such an issue that 
the USA's NFPA (National Fire Protection 
Association), Germany's VdS (Vertrauen 
durch Sicherheit) and Germanischer 
Lloyd have developed recommendations, 
standards or codes of practice. 

The NFPA has recently added wind 
turbine and outbuilding fire protection standards 
to NFPA 850 (Recommended Practice for Fire 
Protection for Electric Generating Plants and High 
Voltage Direct Current Converter Stations, 2010 
Edition). This document provides fire protection 
recommendations for the safety of construction 
and operating personnel, physical integrity of 
plant components and the continuity of plant 
operations. The revised 2010 edition includes 
detailed recommendations relating to wind turbine 
generating facilities. 

VdS 3523en (Wind turbines, Fire protection 
guideline) has also been used as the basis for the 
CFPA E (Confederation of Fire Protection Associ- 
ations in Europe) Guideline No 21.2010 F, which 
addresses the same topic. VdS is a highly-regarded, 
independent, international, third-party accredita- 
tion and certification body for fire prevention and 
safety technology. Germanischer Lloyd, which 
specializes in classifications for the maritime and 
energy industries, has developed Renewables 
Certification Guidelines (GL Wind Technical Note 
Certification of Fire Protection Systems for Wind 


Turbines, Certification Procedures, Revision 2, 
Edition 2009). 

Scale of the problem 

A report by the AREPA Group, a technical service 
organization with operations throughout Europe 
that specializes in the assessment and restoration 
of damaged technical equipment, suggests that 
184 wind turbine components were damaged by 
fire since 2002, while the Caithness Windfarm 
Information Forum believes that, as of September 
2009, 122 wind farm fire incidents were reported 
globally. The cost of property damage on each of 
these reported incidents spans from $750,000 to 
$2 million. 

However, many in the industry believe that 
these figures grossly underestimate the scale of 
the problem. A significant number of turbine fires 
go unreported, possibly because of a combination 
of their remote location and the fact that the 
emergency services are not always called upon to 
attend, and these fires do not form part of any 
official fire incident statistic. 


48 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



WIND TURBINE FIRE PROTECTION 

CIIDDDCCCIHM 


jUrrKtjjIUN 


Protection 



Turbine fire risk 

The almost inevitable con- 
sequence of these industry 
initiatives has been that a 
number of detection and 
suppression systems have 
been put forward as suit- 
able solutions. While many 
are effective for what 
might be regarded as 
"conventional" applica- 
tions, they may not be 
suitable for the particular 
fire challenges found in 
wind turbines. 

The majority of turbine 
fires are started by a light- 
ning strike, brought about 
by their exposed and often 
high-altitude location and the height of the 
structure; turbines are now being built that are up 
to 320 feet high. Mechanical failure or electrical 
malfunction also account for a significant percent- 
age of fires that can be fuelled by up to 200 
gallons of hydraulic fluid and lubricants in the 
nacelle, which itself is constructed from highly- 
flammable resin and glass fiber. Internal insulation 
in the nacelle, which can become contaminated by 
oil deposits, adds to the fuel load. 

Electrical equipment is another high risk area. 
Capacitors, transformers, generators, electrical con- 
trols and transmission equipment, all have the 
potential to catch fire, as do SCADA (Supervisory 
Control and Data Acquisition) systems. There is also 
the risk of fire due to loose or broken electrical 
connections or the overloading of electrical circuits. 

Braking systems pose a particularly high fire risk. 
Overheating can cause hot fragments of the disc 
brake material to break off, rupturing hydraulic 
hoses and resulting in highly combustible hydraulic 
fluid being expelled under pressure and coming into 
contact with the hot disk brake fragments. Hydraulic 
pumps and connections have also been known to 
fail, allowing the fluid to erupt into flames when it 
comes into contact with a hot surface. 

Unique fire protection challenge 

What are the special challenges that an effective 
fire detection and suppression system for a wind 
turbine have to overcome? 

The core issue is, of course, remoteness. This is 
particularly the case with off-shore wind farms, 
but even on-shore farms are routinely in difficult to 
access or isolated locations. The essential charac- 
teristics of an effective wind turbine fire detection 
and suppression system are that it should: 

• Deliver around-the-clock reliability and 24/7 
unsupervised protection. 

• Ensure an absence of false alarms. 

• Contend with vibration, dust, debris and 
airflow through the nacelle. 

• Contend with extreme temperature variations. 

• Stop a fire precisely where it breaks out and 
before it takes hold. 

• Require no external power. 


The options that are often considered can be 
generally categorized as: 

• Air sampling detection. 

• Watermist suppression. 

• Compressed-air foam suppression. 

• Fusible link detection and suppression. 

• Total flooding C0 2 (carbon dioxide) suppression. 

• Total flooding clean agent suppression. 

• Linear pneumatic detection and suppression. 

Air sampling aims to offer early detection by 

collecting minute smoke particulates in the early 
stage of fire, but they do require a power source 
and control panel, which means that the system 
will fail if the external power or battery backup 
fails. These systems are also expensive, in part 
because they only detect a fire, and so need to be 
integrated with a suppression system. 

The major drawback to air sampling in wind 
turbines though is the ever-present risk of false 
arms. These can be caused by tiny particles of dust 
and debris and atmospheric pollution that are 
propelled around the nacelle due to the turbine 
housing having a number of openings to allow air 
to circulate to reduce the internal temperature. 
While false alarms are the bane of any system 
owner's life, a false alarm in a wind turbine 
inevitably involves extensive travel and possibly the 
hiring of expensive specialist access equipment. 

Suppression-only systems 

Water mist suppression systems convert water into 
a fine atomized mist, but they too have limitations 
when used to protect wind turbines. 

Due to the turbine's remote location and the 
distance from the ground to the nacelle, water 
mist systems are often impractical, plus they call 
for considerable space to be devoted to water 
storage, which increases the weight in the nacelle. 
These systems are also a costly part-solution to the 
problem, as they need to be linked to a detection 
system. 

Water mist systems are total flooding solutions, 
which increase the potential for damage to 
electrical components and possible corrosion. Also, 
because in some locations the temperature can fall 
below freezing point, antifreeze has to be added 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


49 




CIIDDDECCinM 

WIND TURBINE FIRE PROTECTION 

jUrrKtjjIUN 



Scott Starr is Director of 
Global Marketing at Firetrace 
International 
www.firetrace.com 



to the water, and antifreeze is a combustible liquid 
that is itself a corrosive substance. 

Compressed air foam systems work on the 
principle that compressed air is injected into a 
foam solution to achieve a quicker fire knockdown 
when compared with conventional foam systems. 
While they need less water than conventional 
systems, the storage, weight and freeze-protection 
problems are similar to those of water mist 
systems. In addition, these systems require consid- 
erable extra space for the operating components. 
After discharge, clean-up can be extensive and, 
like water mist systems, the cost is increased by 
the need for a separate detection system. 

Fusible link systems do however combine detec- 
tion and suppression into one package and work 
on the basis that heat from a fire will rupture a 
fusible link - the detection element - that in turn 
will initiate the discharge of the suppressant. The 
challenge with these systems is that airflow in the 
nacelle can seriously impair performance and 
reliability because heat and flame that typically rise 
from the source of a fire may be propelled away 
from the location of the fusible link, critically 
delaying activation. 

Total flooding gaseous systems 

Whether using C0 2 or the latest clean gaseous 
agents, traditional total flooding suppression sys- 
tems are designed to fill the entire space being 
protected with suppressant. 

C0 2 , while an established suppression agent, is 
not without its drawbacks. It is unsuitable for total 
flooding applications in potentially occupied 
enclosures, as its discharge in fire extinguishing 


concentrations would be lethal to occupants. 
Flooded areas must be adequately ventilated after 
discharge to prevent accidental exposure of 
personnel to dangerous levels of C0 2 when 
investigating the cause of a discharge. 

However, these challenges do not exist with 
clean agents, such as 3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire 
Protection Fluid. The suppressant is stored as a 
low-vapor-pressure fluid that, when discharged, 
vaporizes into a colorless and odorless gas. Typical 
total flooding applications use a concentration of 
the fluid that is well below the agent's saturation 
or condensation level and its low design concen- 
tration means that less space has to be devoted to 
cylinder storage. Novec 1230 has a negligible 
impact on the environment, with insignificant 
global warming potential, zero ozone depletion 
and an atmospheric lifetime of just five days. Once 
discharged, it leaves nothing behind to damage 
sensitive electronic equipment. 

Traditional total flooding systems are not 
without any downsides. Vibration can loosen con- 
nections, while dirt, dust and temperature 
extremes are known to cause unwarranted 
discharge. Additionally, openings in the turbine 
housing significantly inhibit achieving the desig- 
nated agent concentration. Devising a solution 
to overcome these challenges can add significantly 
to the weight in the turbine. 

Integrated detection and suppression 

The major drawbacks of traditional total flooding 
suppression systems, and the shortcomings of 
other technologies put forward for the protection 
of wind turbines, are overcome in the FIRETRACE® 
linear pneumatic system that provides both fire 
detection and suppression in a single package. 

It is a self-contained system that, significantly, 
requires neither electricity nor external power; a 
solution that is activated automatically around-the- 
clock without the need for manual activation or 
monitoring, and requires virtually no maintenance. 
It is an intrinsically safe solution, as it does not 
contain any components that produce sparks or 
which can hold enough energy to produce a spark 
of sufficient energy to cause an ignition. 

FIRETRACE comprises a cylinder that, for wind 
turbine applications contains 3M Novec 1230, that 
is attached to a purpose-designed proprietary Fire- 
trace Detection Tubing via a custom-engineered 
valve. This leak-resistant polymer tubing is a linear 
pneumatic heat and flame detector that is 
designed to deliver the desired temperature- 
sensitive detection and delivery characteristics. It is 
routed throughout the areas to be protected and, 
when the tubing is exposed to heat and radiant 
energy from a fire, it ruptures and instantly directs 
the suppression agent at the source of the fire. 

A key factor in its success - there are over 
150,000 FIRETRACE systems installed around the 
world - is the system's reliability. The fact is that 
the only thing that will rupture the tube is heat 
or flame from a fire, so there is no prospect of 
false alarms; yet, if a fire breaks out, the response 
is unerringly immediate and accurately targeted. 
It is the only UL (Underwriters Laboratories) 
listed, FM (Factory Mutual) approved and CE 
(Conformite Europeene or European Conformity) 
marked tube-operated system in the world that 
is tested as an automatic fire detection and 
suppression system. JE2 


50 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



□ nly 

FI RETRACE 

IS 

FI RETRACE 

Other Tube-Based systems 
Claim to be Like Firetrace. 

They are Ndt. 


+ Only FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL Systems 
offer the extensively tested Firetrace brand 
solutions with listings and approval from 
CE, FM, UL, ULC and more than 25 other 
international agencies on agents such as 
Dupont FM-200, 3M Novec 1230, C0 2 , and 
ABC dry checmicalT 

+ Only FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL has 20 years 
of experience with more than 65,000 systems 
protecting equipment worldwide. 

+ Only Genuine FIRETRACE SYSTEMS have the 
tested and proven reliability you and your 
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impostor, untested and unapproved systems 
- be sure you are using genuine Firetrace. 


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FDR PROVEN FIRE 
SUPPRESSION 


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Call +44 (0) 1293 780390 (Europe, Middle East, Africa) or 
+1 480 607 1218 (US and elsewhere) ore-mail info@firetrace.com 
to see why Firetrace is the right solution for your fire protection needs. 


www.firetrace.com 

www.firetrace.eu 


® @ <FM> /■ £ 
LISTED LISTED APP * ovto ^ ^ 


Firetrace® is a registered trademark of Firetrace USA, LLC / Firetrace Ltd. All unauthorized uses of the Firetrace trademark 
shall be prosecuted to the fullest extent permitted by the law. 

f Listings and Approvals vary by system and agent. 




Pilkington Pyrostop® 
Pilkington Pyrodur 4 ® 
Pilkington Pyroclear® 

m 


■ m 



is 


w 



a 


Pilkington Fire-Resistant Glass 
Tried - Tested - Trusted 


The primary function of any fire-resistant glass is to consistently, reliably and uncompromisingly 
protect lives and properties in various applications and situations. Pilkington offers a comprehensive 
range of products for specific requirements: 

• Pilkington Pyrostop® - (El) 

• Pilkington Pyrodur® - (EW) 

• Pilkington Pyroclear® - (E) 

The Pilkington fire-resistant glass range provides safe and sustainable multi-functional transparent 
bespoke solutions. On-going production certification audits, quality checks, fire testing and application 
know-how ensure compliance to high quality standards. The technical pioneering role of Pilkington 
continuously sets benchmark standards for transparent fire protection in and around buildings. 

Pilkington fire-resistant glass - a clear choice! 

Pilkington Deutschland AG Haydnstrafie 19 45884 Gelsenkirchen 
Telephone +49 (0) 209 1 68 0 Fax +49 (0) 209 1 68 20 56 
fireprotection@nsg.com www.pilkington.com 



Pilkington 

NSG Group Flat Glass Business 


GLAZING 


Chicago Art Institute 
Building. Renzo Pianos 
Modern Wing 



By Mike Wood 

Pilkington UK Limited 


intelligent Fire 
Safety Design 

Fire safety professionals have to admit that fire safety is too often relegated 
down the list of priorities. Others, sadly, do not share their passion. Fire safety 
tends to be seen pragmatically as a minimum measure, an imposition driven by 
regulations to be side-stepped if at all possible. There are lessons from the world 
of glass: work with the flow of design and not against it, as Mike Wood explains 


integrated design 

Architects have had a dream for a light-filled, 
crystal palace of glass architecture ever since the 
mid 19th century, articulated by the visionary Paul 
Scheerbart in Glasarchitektur in 1914. This was 
taken several steps onwards by Walter Gropius 
and the foresight of the Bauhaus school in the 
1920s and 1930s, and later explored by Mies van 
der Rohe in the towering skyscrapers of US cities 
from the 1950s onwards. 

The central thread of the architectural story 
through the 20th century into the 21st is an interna- 
tional one that is fundamentally founded on an 
increasing use of glass in ever more creative building 
styles. This is linked to increasingly innovative and 
complex highly-engineered and calculated struc- 
tures. Today's skyscrapers carry the legacy of 
London's original Crystal Palace of 1850 -which was 
destroyed by fire in 1936 - based on design and 
construction ideas a century ahead of their time. 

It is the use of glass in buildings that has pro- 
vided the continuity and drive for architectural 
development, to satisfy both basic psychological 
human needs and lofty ambitions. Natural day- 
lighting, comfort, security, privacy, sustainability and 
energy efficiency rate highly. Image, decoration and 
presentation also receive a particular emphasis in 
this modern marketing-led consumer world. As a 
result there is a high technology sophistication to 
modern buildings. Fire-resistant glass has followed. 
And fire-resistant glazed systems, like all fire- 


resistant systems, have had to develop accordingly 
to match the sophistication of modern buildings. 

The earliest development was wired glass, intro- 
duced in the 1890s for the first large span glass 
roofs of the central city rail transport hubs of the 
time - still one of the most effective, reliable and 
robust types of fire-resistant glass; the sterling 
workhorse of the fire-resistant range of glazing 
solutions. The current range of clear fire-resistant 
glass types have only developed, in the main, over 
the last 30 years. They are still relatively new, and 
based on a diversity of glass technologies each 
with its own strengths; some with weaknesses 
that could be potentially critical in some fire 
circumstances. They are still undergoing develop- 
ment in order to keep pace with the fast rate of 
architectural change. 

The case is that fire safety has to catch up with 
design and building practice. Fire safety is not a 
leader. And therefore fire safety has to integrate 
with the full architectural context, as part of the 
functional mix. Fire safety cannot sit outside the 
design process and be seen simply as an add-on 
after all the other building needs have been 
addressed. The risk, however, is that this is where 
fire safety, in effect, chooses to make its stand. 

Range of application 

The range of application for some fire-resistant 
glass types is now so extensive that it is no exag- 
geration to say that virtually all potential major 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


53 



GLAZING 



applications where glass could be required in 
buildings are possible in fire-resistant glass. Other 
fire-resistant glass types are more limited and 
restricted in use. Each one needs to be taken on its 
own merits; evaluated in its own right. Assump- 
tion that one fire-resistant glass is exactly like 
another can be risky - potentially dangerous. 

Internal applications cover door vision panels, 
full glass door sets and surrounding screens, large- 
area glazed partitions, some including integral 
blind systems, overhead panels and even sliding 
door systems. Advanced load-bearing fire-resistant 
glass floors are also possible. Pilkington has taken 
the lead in this development, being successful with 
not only steel framing but also timber framing for 
particular aesthetic effects. For older heritage build- 
ings sensitive refurbishment may be needed to 
bring them closer to modern standards. Secondary 
fire-resistant glazing systems have been developed 
to preserve the character of the original casement 
without damage to the exterior while providing the 
required fire protection on the inside. 

External applications include not only the fagade 
but also multi-layered overhead glazings for hori- 
zontal or inclined roof applications to allow the 
maximum light presentation into corridors and 
working or living areas, also fulfilling safety require- 
ments necessary for overhead glazing. One of the 
relatively neglected aspects of fire movement in 
buildings - that of break-out followed by break-in 
through the external glazing of upper floors - is 
receiving increasing attention in view of the analysis 
of fire disasters in glass towers. The fashion for atria 
in designs has also led to some interesting fire-resis- 
tant solutions, including smoke control and preven- 
tion of break-out and break-in of fire from adjacent 
room glazing looking out on to the atrium. 

The designer has many available options in 
glass. And the adaptation of fire-resistant glass to 
fit the overall glass and natural lighting concept is 
a key development in allowing designers and 
specifiers to meet their overall design objectives. 

Function 

Glass, of course, is used primarily for its transparen- 
cy. That imposes limits on fire-resistant glass types 
that have only a basic integrity function, lacking 
significant performance as a fire insulation heat 
barrier. The dangers of heat in a fire are high, so 
basic integrity function limits such glass types to 
relatively smaller sizes and limited runs of glazed 
panels. Such types may also only really be suitable 
for the immediate needs of fast escape, within 


15 minutes or at most 30 minutes from the time 
occupants start to move to a place of relative safety. 

Fire-resistant glass types, which have a full 
insulation capability and integrity, provide a much 
wider scope of application and they are capable of 
countering a much wider range and type of fire risk. 
Insulation performance provides less uncertainty 
for those who rely on fire protection and have a 
much greater capability of providing safe working 
conditions for firefighters. 

Products with good insulation performance are 
therefore especially appropriate when escape could 
be more hazardous, the building more complex and 
the conditions less certain. That would apply, for 
example, to health and education establishments, 
transport centres - particularly airports - multi- 
functional buildings where the occupants are not 
accustomed to the building, sleeping accommoda- 
tion, and major buildings, for example museums, 
art galleries, modern offices and industrial plant 
containing high value assets. Fires may well last for 
up to 24 hours and the exposure of an element of 
construction could be several consecutive hours 
within that period. Fires in modern buildings, based 
on fixtures, fittings and furnishings with a high plas- 
tic and synthetic content, can be particularly intense 
and fast moving. Insulation performance provides 
the additional assurance to minimise risks. 

Flexibility in design 

One of the main requirements for designers is 
flexibility and freedom to develop core design con- 
cepts; in particular, an ability to make adjustment 
to meet the demands of the client's specification 
and budget, without compromising on the basic 
requirements for safety, security, comfort and 
efficiency. Implicitly, fire safety has to be a balance, 
in tune with design. 

One of the prime objectives of fire-resistant 
glass, in addition to providing safe escape, is to 
allow effective fire compartmentation without 
sacrificing openness, vision and innovation in 
layout and building arrangement. The first require- 
ment for fire-resistant glass is to fit the design 
requirements. The second objective is to satisfy the 
demands of fire protection for the building and its 
occupants, restricting fire to its place of origin, 
preventing spread and avoiding collapse. Fire 
compartmentation is a basic requirement for fire 
safety in buildings, as it provides a basic founda- 
tion for all other fire-safety measures. 

Clear fire-resistant glass cannot readily be distin- 
guished from other glass products surrounding it. 
That has been a key objective for the development 
glass technologist, as fire-resistant glass has to look 
and function the same in all other respects, with 
the addition of resistance against fire. That is why it 
is particularly important to specifically identify fire- 
resistant glass with a permanent, easily readable 
mark, normally positioned in a bottom corner, at 
least noting the product name, manufacturer, fire 
performance class and, where relevant, impact clas- 
sification. Too often, the mark is illegible or non- 
permanent. If there is no mark, the assumption 
must be that the glass is not a fire-resistant glass. 

Fire-resistant glass can now be combined with a 
whole range of other functions demanded of glass, 
such as impact safety, energy efficiency, security, 
privacy, and solar control, while providing the high- 
est performance of all - fire resistance. One of the 
particularly useful additional benefits of the 


54 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



GLAZING 


INTELLIGENT FIRE SAFETY DESIGN 


Comparison of acoustic sound insulation data 


Products not classified for fire resistance 

Sound attenuation index 

R w (C;C tr ), reference EN ISO 717-1, in dB 

Pilkington Optilam (6.4mm standard laminate) 

32 (-1 

-3) 

Pilkington Optiphon (6.8mm acoustic laminate) 

35 (-1 

-3) 

Pilkington Optiphon 6.8mm in dgu, 16mm gap 

38 (-2 

-6) 

Pilkington Optiphon 9mm in dgu, 16mm gap 

39 (-2 

-6) 

Products classified for fire resistance 

Integrity fire resistance 

Sound attenuation index 

R w (C;C tr ) index, reference EN ISO 717-1, in dB 

Pilkington Pyrodur Plus (7mm, E/EW 30, El 15) 

35 (-1 

-3) 

Pilkington Pyrodur (1 0mm, E/EW 30, El 1 5) 

36 (-1 

-2) 

Pilkington Pyrodur 10mm in dgu, 12mm air gap 

38 (-2 

-5) 

Pilkington Pyrodur (1 3mm, E/EW 60, El 1 5) 

38 (-1 

-2) 

Products classified for fire resistance 

Insulation with integrity fire resistance 

Sound attenuation index 

R w (C;C tr ), reference EN ISO 717-1, in dB 

Pilkington Pyrostop (15mm, El 30) 

38 (-1 ; -2) 

Pilkington Pyrostop (18mm, El 30) 

38 (0; -2) 

Pilkington Pyrostop 18mm in dgu, 12mm air gap 

40 (-1 

-5) 

Pilkington Pyrostop (23mm, El 60) 

40 (-1 

-3) 

Pilkington Pyrostop 18mm in dgu with 

Pilkington Optiphon™ (9mm), air gap 12mm 

45 (-1 

-5) 


proprietary intumescent laminated fire-resistant 
technology utilised for Pilkington Pyrostop and 
Pilkington Pyrodur, for example, is enhanced 
acoustic insulation performance, which is a require- 
ment of increasing importance in modern high- 
density occupancies. The special glassy fire-resistant 
interlayer and the composite-layered structure of 
these laminated products together deliver good 
sound insulation; a valued benefit when combined 
with fire-resistance in one product. 

Her Majesty's question 

On a visit to the London School of Economics in 
November 2009, HM Queen Elizabeth II is reported 
to have asked the assembled accomplished 
economic experts why no-one had foreseen the 
financial credit crisis and provided a warning. 

It is a valid question and one that Her Majesty 
might equally ask, given the opportunity, of fire 
safety specialists in the context of fire. Why do we 
still have major property losses in fire that in the UK 
amount to £1.3 billion a year, and are rising? And 
why do we still have tragedies when lives of 
residents and firefighters are unnecessarily lost? 
We know how to build and operate buildings 
with enhanced levels of fire safety; the difficulties 
lie rather in application and operation according to 
principles of good or best practice, which are well 
demonstrated. Enforcement is also part of the prob- 
lem; compliance with clear standard and regulatory 
guidelines. Another major factor is a disturbing ten- 
dency to ignore requirements and apply them down 
to the lowest possible level, too often in the face of 
knowledge, with too close an eye on cost cutting. 

Her Majesty might equally have followed her first 
question with a supplementary for the gurus on 
whether risk-taking practices had perhaps crossed 
over the boundary from prudence to recklessness, 
and if it could possibly be that practitioners had 
been so wrapped up in what they were doing that 
they did not notice that limits had been trans- 
gressed. That question is also one that fire safety 
needs to ask, as fire safety design and engineering is 


increasingly cast adrift from the anchor of prescrip- 
tive guidance in a move towards risk-based tech- 
niques, dependent more and more on unchallenged 
expert judgment. There should be circumspection 
that risk-based techniques do not become adven- 
tures in the land of probability and chance. 

Performance 

Modern buildings and assets are high value, while 
cities and buildings more congested. The risk to 
people in some senses is higher than it was because 
of developments in the built environment. Fitness 
for purpose of designs and, in turn, of building 
elements, products and components is essential if 
the overall objective is fire safety. Because of the 
unpredictability and intensity of fire, attention to 
quality of performance has to become an obses- 
sion. That, in turn, requires recognition and accep- 
tance of personal responsibility, applying to all those 
along the chain from the design to installation, 
including product supply, building operation and 
ownership. That above all is the critical imperative 
needed for advances in fire safety. JE2 

Notes: 

1. Sound insulation data measured in accordance with 
BS EN ISO 140-3. 

2. Correction factors C and Ctr take into account the 
different frequency spectra of residential and traffic 
noises, respectively. 

3. "dgu" refers to a double glazed unit with a 6mm 
float glass pane unless otherwise indicated. 

4. Fire resistance classifications in accordance with 
BS EN 13501-2 

E = integrity; EW = integrity and radiant heat; El = 
fire insulation performance; 0, 60 etc = classification 
test time in minutes. 

5. The Pilkington Pyrodur and Pilkington Pyrostop 
range are also classified for impact safety according 
to BS EN 12600. 

6. It is advisable only to directly compare acoustic 
indices measured and recorded on the same basis. 
Estimates may be used in place of measurement 
and each determination has a natural measurement 
variation. 


Mike Wood is Head of Fire 
Protection (Glass & Glazing) 
at Pilkington UK Limited 
www.pilkington.co.uk/ 
fireresistant 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


55 



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REGULATIONS 




Fire Alarm 
System Design 

Key Changes to nfpa 72: 2010 Edition 

The codes and standards for fire alarm systems provide the minimum installation 
requirements, and do not necessarily reflect all the concerns. Ed Orazine 
explains. 


Consultant for Rolf 
Jensen & Associates 


I ndustry buzzwords such as survivability, intelligi- 
bility, and mass notification are becoming of 
greater importance in the design of fire alarm 
systems. In recent years, commercially available fire 
alarm systems have undergone changes in techno- 
logical design and functionality in both fire and 
non-fire modes of operation. Newer, more com- 
plex fire alarm system head end components are 
virtually small computer networks that perform a 
variety of functions and controls. In 2009, Under- 
writer's Laboratories issued an updated version of 
UL 864 (Standard for Safety Control Units and 
Accessories for Fire Alarm Systems) to increase the 
minimum acceptable performance for response 
time, voice messaging capabilities, software 
performance and other criteria. 

As a distinction, the design and installation of 
fire alarm systems is dictated by model codes and 
standards that can be adopted and amended by a 


jurisdiction. A commonly referenced standard, 
NFPA 72 (National Fire Alarm Code) has itself 
undergone a major revision with guidelines on the 
installation of fire alarm systems to improve perfor- 
mance and increase reliability of control functions, 
such as occupant notification. Three of the most 
scrutinised fire alarm system design considerations 
in recent years are survivability, audibility/intelligibility 
and mass notification. 

Codes and standards 

Most building and fire codes adopt NFPA 72 as a 
reference standard for fire alarm design and instal- 
lation. The standard is applicable in almost all 
federal, state and local jurisdictions throughout 
the United States, and now in many countries 
around the world. The National Fire Protection 
Association has recently released its 2010 Edition 
of NFPA 72, and is already being considered for 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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adoption in many jurisdictions due to much 
enhanced/additional code language such as new 
guidelines on mass notification (or Emergency 
Communication Systems as referred to in NFPA 
72). However, there are also other significant 
changes, of which designers and code officials 
should be aware, as adoption of the 2010 Edition 
of NFPA 72 progresses. As indicated above, key 
code language revisions have been incorporated in 
the areas of survivability, intelligibility, and mass 
notification systems. 

Survivability 

A standard smoke detector may have a listed tem- 
perature range of 32 to 120 degrees F, while a 
standard heat detector may be rated for 135 
degrees F and only listed for temperatures up to 
155 degrees F. The rationale is that the smoke or 
fire will be detected before the device fails due to 
exposure to high ambient temperatures. 

The same considerations must be given to the 
fire alarm control equipment, signalling and 
notification circuits which will fail at elevated tem- 
peratures from fire exposure. With larger buildings 
and more complicated partial evacuation schemes, 
it is critical that the survivability of the system is 
maintained to transmit vitally important messages 
to occupants during an emergency condition. The 
fire alarm system is also responsible for monitoring 
the status of the building and initiating a variety of 
other control functions. These functions include 
control of fans, operation of doors, operation of 
lights and background sounds, smoke control, 
activation of fire suppression systems, monitoring 
automatic sprinklers, generators, fire pumps and 
elevator controls. One of the most important func- 
tions however, remains the alerting of occupants 
to a fire or other emergency. 

Most building and fire codes 
adopt NFPA 72 as a reference 
standard for fire alarm design 
and installation. The standard is 
applicable in almost all federal, 
state and local jurisdictions 
throughout the united States, 
and now in many countries 
around the world. 

Evacuation in a high-rise is typically achieved by 
directing the occupants on the floor of the fire and 
the two adjacent floors to evacuate, while alerting 
the occupants on other floors without directing 
their evacuation. In larger building floor plates, 
evacuation may be achieved horizontally from one 
zone to another. In mixed use occupancies the 
evacuation zoning may be based on the occupan- 
cy. A mixed use building with theatre, retail, and 
residential uses may be configured such that an 
alarm in the residences due to smoke from a 
cooking appliance does not immediately initiate 
evacuation of the theatre. In each of these cases, 
the control functions for the operation of the 


58 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




FIRE ALARM SYSTEM DESIGN 

DEfllll ATIHMC 


l\ t xJ L 1 1 xJ 111 ^ 


emergency equipment may be zoned separately. 
There may be floor exhaust or pressurisation 
systems, automatic door closers, fire shutters, or 
other systems that are required to protect the 
occupants and allow for evacuation. 

Therefore the fire alarm system in accordance 
with NFPA 72 is to be designed to be operational 
in emergency conditions. In the 2007 Edition of 
NFPA 72, 6.9.4 states that: "fire alarm systems in 
partial evacuation buildings must be designed and 
installed such that a fire in one evacuation zone 
(fire floor) does not impair control and operation 
of other evacuation zones (e.g. other floors). This 
can be accommodated by two-hour rated fire 
cable, two-hour rated enclosures (stacked rooms) 
or performance alternatives acceptable to local 
Authority Having Jurisdiction." In a partial building 
evacuation scheme, the emergency voice system 
must be fully functional for the duration of the fire 
event so that occupants remaining in the building 
can receive follow-up voice messages. If the fire is 
not controlled, total building evacuation may 
eventually become necessary. 

The 2010 Edition of NFPA 72 now defines four 
levels of signalling and notification circuit surviv- 
ability. Pathway Survivability Level 2 (two-hour fire 
rated cable or construction) and Level 3 (sprinkler 
protection plus two-hour fire rated cable or 
construction) should be provided for fire alarm 
systems that are configured to initiate partial 
evacuation, or relocation of occupants. 

The 2007 edition of NFPA 72 specifically recog- 
nised sprinkler protection (with circuits in metal 
conduit) as an option for achieving survivability in 
lieu of a two-hour fire resistance rating. The 2010 
edition no longer specifically recognises this option 
such that it would need to be approved as a 
performance alternative by the authority having 
jurisdiction. 

Audibility vs Intelligibility 

For many applications of fire alarm systems, the 
method of occupant notification is a general evac- 
uation signal using a temporal tone or other 
approved pattern. The tone pattern is useful for 
the complete evacuation of a building; however, 
as noted with survivability, the fire alarm system is 
a backbone for the building emergency system, 
and provides a means for one-way communication 
to occupants in the event of an emergency. A 
voice evacuation system provides a flexible means 
of providing a general evacuation tone, messages 
for partial evacuation, or for providing instructions 
in case of an emergency. The voice messages may 
be pre-recorded or live. 

The output of the system to notify occupants 
can vary, and the information on a voice evacua- 
tion system may vary as well. A person pulling a 
manual fire alarm box may be doing so not for a 
fire, but because they have a medical emergency. 
With the incorporation of mass notification code 
language in NFPA 72, the emergency voice system 
is becoming an even more important part of the 
building infrastructure. Therefore, the voice evacu- 
ation system needs to be designed to provide an 
intelligible (understandable) message either live or 
pre-recorded. 

NFPA 72 18.4.10 states for intelligibility, "With- 
in the acoustically distinguishable spaces (ADS) 
where voice intelligibility is required, voice commu- 
nications systems shall reproduce pre-recorded, 


synthesised, or live (e.g., microphone, telephone 
handset, and radio) messages with voice intelligi- 
bility." The ADS (per NFPA 72) is an emergency 
communications system notification zone, or sub- 
division thereof, that might be an enclosed or 
otherwise physically defined space, or that might 
be distinguished from other spaces because of 
different acoustical, environmental, or use charac- 
teristics, such as reverberation time and sound 
pressure level. The ADS should not be confused 
with an occupant notification zone which should 
be separated from other such zones by fire or 
smoke barriers. 

Developing a voice evacuation system that 
meets intelligibility in accordance with the codes 
and standards is becoming a more recognised part 
of the fire alarm design process. The fire alarm 
designer needs to be aware of the sound charac- 
teristics of the space when considering location of 
speakers. The new ADS requirements are intended 


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DEfZIII ATIHMC 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM DESIGN 

l\ 1 13 U LA 1 1 U IM 3 



Ed Orazine is a Consultant 
for Rolf Jensen & Associates, 
Inc., a US-based global leader 
in fire protection, life safety 
and security consulting. 

Based in the Boston area 
office of RJA, Ed can be 
reached at +1 508-620-8900 
or eorazine@rjagroup.com. 



to provide various options to address intelligibility, 
but provide alternative notification such as strobes 
or signage, and voice messages should be intelligi- 
ble within a reasonable distance of the area in 
which intelligibility cannot be achieved. The design 
drawings, per the new NFPA 72 requirements, 
should show the areas of intelligibility, and define 
how occupants are to be notified in case of an 
emergency announcement. 

As part of the design process, the designer will 
need to develop a plan for testing and confirming 
that the system works as designed. Different pre- 
recorded messages may influence the intelligibility 
of the system as much as speaker placement. 
There are several test methods listed in NFPA 72 
that include both qualitative and subjective 
approaches. Additional coordination with the local 
authority may be required as more familiarity with 
the concept of intelligibility is developed within 
the fire protection community. A registered fire 
protection engineer should be consulted if the 
designer is unfamiliar with these concepts. 

Mass notification 

A significant revision to NFPA 72 is to include 
emergency communication systems, also referred 


to as mass notification. An 
emergency communication sys- 
tem may be provided voluntar- 
ily, or mandated from a 
building code, agency, or ordi- 
nance. Whether mandated or 
voluntary, the emergency com- 
munication system should be 
provided in compliance with 
Chapter 24 and Chapter 27 of 
NFPA 72. Part of the NFPA 72 
design process includes an 
emergency plan and a risk 
assessment. It is important for 
the designer(s) to develop a 
system that meets the needs of 
the end users, which may 
include local authorities such 
as police and fire, as well as 
building security. 

A mass communication 
system will not have the same 
performance requirements as a 
standard voice evacuation sys- 
tem due to the way the system 
may be used. The emergency 
communication system may 
include speakers on the exterior 
of the building, or utilise a wide 
array to alert multiple buildings. 
Additionally, technical require- 
ments are provided for both 
one-way and two way commu- 
nication. The available power 
supply and secondary supply to 
the panels may need to be increased beyond a 
customary 24 hour standby and 15 minutes of 
alarm to allow for communication for an extended 
duration. Also, the designer needs to look at 
system interfaces, who is being notified, signal 
priorities, and what messages are sent based on 
relocation of occupants or when alerting multiple 
buildings. 

Summary 

The codes and standards for fire alarm systems 
provide the minimum installation requirements, 
and do not necessarily reflect all the concerns. 
Additionally, more restrictive guidelines for circuit 
protection and intelligibility aim to improve the 
reliability of the system during an emergency. The 
new 2010 Edition of NFPA 72 includes require- 
ments on Emergency Communication Systems, as 
the growing use of mass notification continues, to 
provide minimum installation standards. The 
emergency communication system may require 
additional measures that need to be developed 
through a risk analysis. A professional engineer is 
required for proper application of the codes and 
for engineering a system that meets the needs of 
the occupants and owner. D33 


Developing a voice evacuation system that meets intelligibility in 
accordance with the codes and standards is becoming a more 
recognised part of the fire alarm design process. The fire alarm 
designer needs to be aware of the sound characteristics of the 
space when considering location of speakers. 


60 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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DETECTION 



By Stuart Ball 

System Sensor Europe 


For whom the 



False alarms are a major concern both to the automatic fire detection industry 
and the fire and rescue services. Stuart Ball explains. 


I n a typical year, more than 50 percent of all false 
alarms are attributable to automatic fire systems, 
at an estimated cost of more than £1 billion in 
the UK. The problem is being addressed on several 
fronts. Control panel and detector manufacturers 
have invested heavily in hardware and software 
developments to reduce the incidence of unwanted 
alarms, and the fire services have started to 
implement alarm management procedures in sites 
where there is an established pattern of repeated 
false alarms. So serious is the problem that some 
fire and rescue services have implemented a policy, 
applicable to selected premises with a particularly 
poor history of false alarms, which requires human 
confirmation of a fire before they will attend an 
automatically generated alarm. 


Clearly, the onus is on the automatic detection 
industry to improve its performance. Obviously, 
the greatest potential for improvement lies in the 
fire detector: if it does not generate a false alarm 
in the first place, the control panel will not activate 
the sounders, shut down the air conditioning 
plant, open smoke vents, close the fire doors and 
call the fire service. Enabled by the increased 
power of modern electronics, in recent times 
alarm management at the panel level has become 
increasingly complex, with pre-alarm levels, group 
polling, day/night sensitivity level adjustment, 
phased evacuation and other initiatives that render 
the fire system more responsive to real fire and 
more robust in its rejection of false alarms. How- 
ever, the great majority of the improvements in the 


62 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS 

nCTCTTIHM 


U t 1 t L 1 1 U N 


Bell Tolls 



panel rely upon increasing 
complex signal processing in 
the detector, allowing multiple 
alarm levels to be generated, 
and more sophisticated com- 
munication protocols between 
the detector and the panel that 
provide enhanced communica- 
tions between the two main 
components of the system. 

Dectector types and 
advances 

Given the importance of the 
detector in reducing false 
alarms, it is important not to 
lose site of the primary objec- 
tive of responding to a fire at 
the earliest possible stage in 
its development - namely to 
enable timely evacuation of the occupants and to 
minimise the damage to the building's structure. 
Over the years, detectors have evolved in function- 
ality from simple "yes/no" switches to multi-sensor 
intelligent devices with powerful embedded signal 
processing. 

Increased capability of the detectors has been 
achieved primarily through the use of multi-sensor 
technology, in which different sensors, charac- 
terised to different products of combustion, 
enable the main sensor - the optical smoke detec- 
tor - to be set to a higher level of sensitivity than 
would normally be the case. In simple terms, if the 
smoke detector detects particulate matter in the 
sensing chamber, an alarm state is not signalled to 
the panel until other sensors have been interro- 
gated and have confirmed the alarm as genuine. 
As a very basic example, in a photo-thermal 
detector, dust in the optical chamber may set the 
optical detector into alarm, but without any heat 
rise reported by the thermal elements, the alarm 
condition will be rejected and not communicated 
to the panel. 

The first detector was the ionisation smoke 
detector that was developed in 1 941 , and was the 
foundation of today's multi-billion pound global 
fire detection industry. Without doubt, the ion 
detector is an extremely effective device for the 
rapid detection of fast developing flaming fires, 
and, if it were not for the environmental pressure 
and increasing legislation surrounding the use of 
radioactive material in smoke detectors, it would 
continue to occupy an important place in the 
product portfolio. 

The reality is, of course, that no manufacturer 
has developed a new ion detector for many years; 
they now represent a small and falling percentage 
of the product mix and, in several countries, they 
are banned outright. Legislation and environ- 
mental considerations are weighted heavily in 
favour of optical technology; in most countries, it 
is becoming harder to obtain approval for an 
ionisation detector, and the regulations surround- 
ing the transportation of radioactive materials 


are becoming more stringent and consequently 
more expensive. With increasing emphasis on 
environmental protection, it is sensible that the 
use of products incorporating radioactive sources 
should be discouraged where a true alternative 
exists. 

The optical detector, developed to improve 
response to slow-developing fires, is today's most 
widely used technology, but it is relatively weak at 
responding rapidly to fuel fires. The photo-thermal 
detector was developed to address the inevitable 
balancing act between increasing the sensitivity of 
a detector, so that it responds more quickly to an 
incipient fire and the consequent increase in the 
false alarm rate. Originally crude units, in which 
two independent sensors - an optical and a 
thermal detector - were mounted in a single 
housing, the increased availability of low cost 
embedded microprocessors has enabled true 
composite units to be developed. Signal process- 
ing in the detector head itself resulted in the panel 
being presented with a single composite result 
from the raw data generated by the two sensors, 
improving the effectiveness of the device across 
the fire spectrum. 



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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


63 





nCTCTTin M 

FOR WHOM THE BELL TOLLS 

U 1 1 t L 1 1 U IM 



Fully digital 
communications 
protocol between the 
panel and the detector 


Stuart Ball is Marketing 
Manager at System Sensor 
Europe 

www.systemsensoreurope.com 



Multi-sensor detection 

The multi-sensor detector concept has now been 
extended with the addition of more sensors, each 
one aimed at detecting a specific product of 
combustion. It is well known that every fire has a 
different profile during its development; however 
different the characteristics of the inflammable 
material, all fires have three characteristics in 
common: they all produce carbon monoxide, heat, 
and particulate matter. 

The proportions change from one fire type to 
another, as does the time during which each ele- 
ment is produced, but in every case, to a greater 
or lesser extent, each of these three elements will 
be present. In cases where the fire is burning 
fiercely, it will additionally produce a changing 
light signature as the result of the flame genera- 
tion. Several manufacturers have introduced 
tri-sensor devices, in which the smoke and heat 
detectors are augmented by the addition of an 
infra-red sensor. Again, embedded intelligence in 
the head manages the inputs from the three 
sensors. 

Extending this principle even further, the latest 
multi-sensor detector to be launched is a quad 
sensor device, which combines optical, thermal, 
carbon monoxide and infra-red detectors into a 
single device. For example, the System Sensor 
quad-sensor device, COPTIR, has been subjected 
to an extremely rigorous series of 21 different false 
alarm tests and 29 different fire alarm tests, and in 
all of them, it has outperformed any alternative 
technology from any manufacturer. 

The false alarm tests included: 

• Water mist. 

• Condensation plunge. 

• Ramping aerosol in smoke box. 

• Spray aerosol - small room. 

• Propane buffing of floor - small room. 

• Dust and fan small room. 

• Disco fog - small room. 

• Toast - dried white bread. 

• Deep fat frying potato chips. 

• Water mist with fan on inside container. 

• Oily toast in toaster oven. 

• Oil coated pan - toaster oven. 

COPTIR did not return a false alarm in any of 


these tests, while other single and 
multi-criteria detector technolo- 
gies alarmed. The false alarm 
tests were chosen to reflect the 
typical false alarm scenarios that a 
photoelectric detector would face 
in the field. The fire alarm tests 
included: 

In a small room: 

• Waste basket smouldering to 
flaming. 

• Waste basket flaming. 

• Heptane flaming. 

• Wood smouldering. 

• Cardboard smouldering. 

• Waste basket flaming under a 
desk. 

• Smouldering carpet. 

• Waste basket flaming. 

• Flaming shredded paper. 

• Heptane flaming. 

• Vegetable oil in rag flaming 

• Wires on a hot plate. 

In a standard fire room: 

• EN54 heptane reduced amount. 

• EN54 heptane reduced amount with bright 
halogen lights on (IR test). 

• EN54 cotton reduced amount. 

• EN54 smouldering wood reduced amount. 

• UL268 smouldering wood fire. 

• UL268 flaming wood fire. 

• UL268 paper. 

• UL268 heptane. 

The fire tests selected were biased to the flam- 
ing end of the scale, because it is known that 
these are less favourable to the photoelectric 
smoke detection technology. The test results 
showed conclusively that although the detector is 
highly insensitive to false fire alarms, this does not 
compromise its potential for fire detection; it also 
conclusively demonstrates that it provides the best 
performance available for detection of fires across 
the full spectrum of different fire types. 

Improved effectiveness in the detection of fires 
and the rejection of spurious sources has been 
supported by parallel advances in the communica- 
tions protocols between the detectors and the 
control panel. The latest digital protocol enables 
greater customisation and the implementation of 
advanced features in the fire system. Installation 
costs and total cost of ownership are reduced by 
allowing more devices on each analogue loop 
and giving greater control over maintenance 
intervals. 

Group polling improves system performance 
considerably. There is no limit to the number of 
devices that can be grouped together on the same 
loop, and by implementing group polling, the 
response time for an alarm to be detected is 
reduced to less than 2.5 seconds. Output devices, 
such as sounders and strobes, will be fully control- 
lable from the panel, enabling tone selection and 
output levels to be set from the panel according to 
the status of the alarm; all warning devices on each 
loop will automatically be synchronised. 

In combined sounder-strobe units with a single 
loop address, individual control of each element is 
achieved through the use of sub-addresses, 
enabling, say, a pre-alarm warning to be indicated 
by the use of the strobe only, so that staff can 
investigate the situation. JE2 


64 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





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HISTORIC BUILDINGS 


Karlstejn Castle 


By Graham Collins 


Protecting the 



Historic buildings come in all shapes and sizes; they can be stone, brick or 
timber-built; surrounded by near-impenetrable jungle or alongside a vehicle- 
clogged highway; some are so old they almost defy dating. But they have one 
thing in common . . . they are irreplaceable. IFP editor, Graham Collins argues 
the case for better fire protection. 


T he scale of the problem of protecting historic 
buildings spread across the globe is daunting. 
In England alone there are 400,000 Grade I 
and Grade II listed heritage buildings; worldwide, 
the tally must run into tens of thousands, and a 
very significant proportion are considered to be 
"at risk" in one form or another. Some are threat- 
ened by a chronic lack of care, others by the 
tramping feet of too many visitors; vandalism, war, 
terrorism, climatic change and simply the passage 
of the centuries have also added to the toll. 

In many cases, man's ingenuity, commitment 
and sheer hard work has brought historic buildings 
back from the brink of oblivion. Sadly though, fire 
is a threat from which it is often - particularly with 
highly-combustible buildings - impossible to recre- 
ate anything more than a sterile replica of the 
original. Of course, the technology does exist to 
safeguard these structures from the ravages of 
fire; the same cannot however be said for every 
nation's willingness or ability to devote the neces- 
sary funds to the task. In too many countries 


around the world, fire protection comes down to 
little more than sheer optimism that a fire will not 
occur and the watchful eyes of those working in 
or living near the building. 

While the range of historic buildings is diverse, 
construction methods also vary greatly. By defini- 
tion, the vast majority were constructed before 
any fire safety codes or standards were even con- 
sidered; they frequently feature a labyrinth of 
dead-end corridors and concealed chambers, and 
escape routes were never part of the original 
designer's thinking. Compartmentation is often 
non-existent. 

With the exception of some religious buildings, 
none were designed for the purpose for which 
they are now used. Castles, for example, were 
designed to keep enemies out; they were never 
built to accommodate thousands of transient 
visitors. Take, for example the Kinkaku-ji temple or 
Golden Pavilion in Kyoto. Today it is one of the 
most visited buildings in Japan, but was built for 
the exclusive use of the ruling shogun in the 14th 


66 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





HISTORIC BUILDINGS 


PROTECTING THE PAST 


Past 


century. Ironically, perhaps, it is one of the "fac- 
simile" historic buildings, as the original was burnt 
to the ground in 1950. Even those buildings, such 
as temples, that were designed to be accessible to 
the public, were not conceived to contend with 
the hoards that today regularly stroll though. 

The scope for passive fire protection is obviously 
very limited, as the introduction of conventional 
fire doors and partitions can have a disastrous 
affect on a building's character and historic inter- 
est. The task of protecting the structure itself, 
its contents, staff and visitors is, therefore, best 
tackled by implementing appropriate active fire 
protection measured, coupled with risk assessment 
and the development of a strategic approach to 
fire safety. 

The scope for passive fire 
protection is obviously very 
limited in historic buildings, so 
the task of protecting the 
structure itself, its contents, 
staff and visitors is best 
tackled by implementing 
appropriate active fire 
protection measures, coupled 
with risk assessment and the 
development of a strategic 
approach to fire safety. 

The key word is, of course, "appropriate", as 
conventional detectors and exposed wiring would 
be deemed to be defacing many historic buildings. 
This has led to a fairly widespread use of detection 
and suppression technology that either does not 
add any intrusive visual impact or damage the very 
building - aesthetically or structurally - it has been 
installed to protect. 

Video detection for 14th century Czech 
chapel 

One such example is the Chapel of the Holy Cross 
situated inside the world-famous Karlstejn Castle 
in the Czech Republic, which was founded in 
1348 by the Bohemian King and Holy Roman 
Emperor. It is one of the most famous and most 
frequently visited castles in the Czech Republic. 
The installation of an advanced FireVu CCTV 
camera-based video smoke detection system from 
D-Tec is protecting the Chapel, where magnificent 
panel paintings make it a structure of major 
international importance. 

The installation is designed to deliver a swift, 
around-the-clock, response to any fire related inci- 
dents without impacting negatively on the unique 


aesthetics of the Chapel. In this particular 
instance, the authorities at Karlstejn Castle ruled 
out the option of installing an aspirated system, as 
it would involve extensive tubing to draw in air. 
After surveying the Chapel, it was decided what 
was required was a single FireVu black-and-white, 
day/night CCTV camera. To minimise any visual 
impact this was positioned at the entrance 
window of the Chapel, where a climate control 
unit was already positioned. The result was no 
additional unsightly cabling, and the FireVu 
networked Digital Video Recorder was fitted 
elsewhere, out of sight of visitors to the Chapel. 

FireVu has the potential to offer 24-hour 
remote monitoring of fire incidents, with alarm 


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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


67 




HISTORIC BUILDINGS 


Grafschafter Castle 



and associated video images distributed to an 
unlimited number of locations for review. In 
addition, as all alarm events are recorded on the 
system's Digital Video Recorder, they can be readily 
accessed for pre and post-event analysis. Testing 
and diagnosis of the installation can also be 
carried out remotely. 

Early warning at China's forbidden 
cities 

Two projects where the decision was taken to opt 
for aspirating solutions were at the world- 
renowned Forbidden City in Beijing and at the 
identically named Forbidden City in Shenyang, 
capital of north-eastern China's Liaoning Province, 
where VESDA technology is now providing early 
warning smoke detection to avoid the potential 
destruction of irreplaceable treasures of China's 
cultural heritage. Today, only a handful of original 
palaces remain, and both Forbidden Cities have 
been ravaged by fire several times in the past few 
centuries. 


Constructed predominantly from wood that has 
dried for centuries, these buildings are an extremely 
high fire risk. Their construction is often intricate 
and highly detailed, with timber beams supporting 
the heavy tiled roof. This forms an enclosed envi- 
ronment where it is difficult for smoke and heat to 
escape, and where a fire has the potential to cause 
the building to collapse and be totally lost to 
future generations. This can all happen in a very 
short period of time, making it essential that fires 
are detected early. 

The contents of the buildings are also frequently 
highly combustible, with wooden furniture, 
curtains and drapes, and painted screens. Old 
electrical wiring, degraded insulation, inappro- 
priate use of electrical appliances and burning 
candles all increase the risk of a fire. 

The VESDA systems were installed with the 
detection points concealed within the buildings - 
positioned in pockets in the ceiling or below ceiling 
level in buildings with very high ceilings. Even if 
smoke is diluted by a draught blowing through the 


68 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


HISTORIC BUILDINGS 


PROTECTING THE PAST 



buildings, it will be detected and 
an alarm raised. Adjustable 
alarm levels allow the elimina- 
tion of nuisance alarms, which is 
particularly important in these 
public areas to prevent unneces- 
sary panic among visitors. In 
total, 26 VESDA units were 
installed in Shenyang Forbidden 
City, while 23 are safeguarding 
the Forbidden City in Beijing. A 
further 108 units will be 
installed in the Beijing palace in 
several phases by 2014. 

The pipe network that takes 
air samples to the detector is 
installed on top of the ceiling 
beams. Unobtrusive capillary 
tubes are then attached to draw 
air samples into the pipes and 
back to the detector that, along 
with the associated electronics is hidden from 
public view in a control room. 

watermist protection for German castle 

Grafschafter Castle in Moers, Germany, is a major 
tourist attraction. Built in 1200, it now houses the 
Museum Grafschafter, which focuses on the 
cultural history of the Lower Rhine. It contains 
many pieces of priceless original furniture. It has 
recently undergone a complete refurbishment of 
the electrical installation and the installation of a 
fire detection and fire fighting system. Due to the 
wooden floors and the value and scarcity of 


exhibits, conventional sprinkler technology was 
considered not to be an option. 

Instead, a Fogtec automatic high pressure water- 
mist system has been installed. In addition to limit- 
ing the water damage in the event of system 
activation, other considerations in favour of the 
Fogtec solution included the very restricted space for 
pipe, pump and water storage. The pump water 
break tank was installed in a small ten-square-metre 
room, and a total of 160 glass-bulb nozzles protect 
the castle's six floors. The lightness of the small-bore 
pipes limited the weight imposed on the ceilings 
and walls that vary greatly in their stability. [Q3 


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Supreme Harmony 





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69 











FIA COMMENT 


Toast, Smoke 
Detectors and the 
Healthcare Sector 





Graham Ellicott 

Chief Executive Officer 
of the FIA 


Graham Ellicott is Chief 
Executive Officer of the Fire 
Industry Association (FIA) 
www.fia.uk.com 


My daughter is a student and, in order to keep up her calorific uptake, she often 
resorts to that tried-and-trusted student's friend, the toaster. Now, having been 
bored to tears by my banging on about the fire industry, she knows better than to 
insert a slice of her favourite loaf into the toaster if it is near a smoke detector. 


O f course, most students do not understand 
the possible consequences of this type of 
action; the smoke detector goes off, the 
fire and rescue guys come running, and a lot of 
time and money is wasted. One thing to point out 
here is that the smoke detector has done its job. I 
mention this as many people attribute false alarms 
to equipment malfunctions when in reality a lot of 
them are about premises management. But it is 
not only students that burn the toast, cooking in 
general causes around 45 percent of false alarms 
in the National Health Service. And a lot of these 
are also down to toasters! 

But help is at hand via the revised Chief Fire 
Officers Association/FIA False Alarms Policy that 
attempts to clarify the relationship between those 
responsible for the protected premises, the fire 
alarm service provider, the ARC (Alarm Receiving 
Centres) and the FRS (Fire and Rescue Service). The 
policy sets out a distinction between what happens 
at the premises, as it is at this point the alarm 
signal can be considered a false alarm if it's not 
caused by a fire. Once the signal leaves the premis- 
es and reaches the fire brigade it becomes an 
unwanted fire signal - unwanted because the FRS 
want to respond only to real fires. The policy looks 
at this "fire" signal and how it can be dealt with at 
the various stages before it reaches the FRS. 

So, back to the burnt toast. The smoke alarm 
goes off but, under the new policy, when the FRS 
arrives it turns out to be a false alarm, the premises 
will receive a letter from them asking them to regis- 
ter to the policy. Part of the registration will involve 
the FRS, the premises and the maintenance provider 
discussing the best way of managing the problem. 
This can involve system changes, if appropriate, or 
in most cases, a change in the management of the 
system. So in future, if there is a fire signal from the 
system, there should be a management system in 
place to investigate the signal before it is transmit- 
ted to the ARC or the FRS. 

If it is a confirmed fire, the signal is passed to 
the FRS and they arrive with the appropriate level 
of response as dictated in their Integrated Risk 
Management Plan. It is not envisaged that the 
premises are expected to do a full search of the 
premises; the fire panel should give them the 
location of the signal and they should be able to 
check "safely" if there is a fire or it is a false alarm. 

If at a later date another false signal occurs and 
no management plan is in place, and the false 
alarm reaches the FRS as an unwanted false alarm, 
then the FRS can instigate the changes in response 



level given in the plan, but will still work with the 
premises to improve the system. If nothing is done 
and false alarms from the premises continue to still 
reach the FRS, they will look to take action against 
the premises under the Regulatory Reform (Fire 
Safety) Order. 

The policy recognises that, in many cases, an 
alarm at a protected premises never reaches the 
FRS as it is handled by the management systems; 
either it was proved to be a false alarm and the 
call was cancelled, or it was a fire but was dealt 
with by the "first aid" firefighting equipment. 

For signals from Alarm Receiving Centres, the 
policy presupposes that the on-site checks have 
been already carried out as part of the contract 
between the premises and the ARC; so the FRS 
will arrive as if it's a fire. If it turns out it isn't the 
same action as above begins. 

The policy also treats social alarm providers 
separately, but they still have to confirm that there 
is a fire either by call back or their management 
plan. It also deals with the 999 call to the brigade. 
The policy is clear that competent persons have a 
big role to play and that third-party certification is 
the best method of providing proof of com- 
petence with regard to fire alarms. 

So if you know any students or healthcare people 
who like to toast bread, please make them aware of 
the possible consequences of their actions! D33 



Fire Industry Association 


70 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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automatic sprinkler systems, and encompasses 
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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




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BRITISH STANDARD 


At Draka we work hard to develop cable 
products that meet and often exceed the British 
Standards set for our industry. We are totally 
focused on providing a superior customer 
experience through the delivery of high guality 
products and exceptional service. That's why 
our customers regard us as the world's most 
trusted cable brand. 

Draka 

The world’s most trusted cable brand 

Draka UK Limited, P.O. Box 6500, 

Alfreton Road, Derby, DE21 4ZH, UK 
Tel: +44 (0)1332 345431 Fax: +44 (0)1332 331237 
email: cableuk@draka.com www.drakauk.com 



Which BS 
are you buying? 



Sadly not all cable is the same, as you can see 
here. It's a fact that poor guality and often 
dangerous cable like this is available in today's 
market. The manufacturers pay scant regard to 
industry standards, resulting in products that 
under perform and in certain cases are 
downright lethal. It can on occasions be difficult 
to tell the difference. However, there's one sure 
way to be certain you are using the highest 
guality products, always specify Draka. 


IFP/Rogue2/1110 







November 2010 
issue 44 



Front cover picture courtesy of 
Apollo Fire Detectors Limited 


Publishers 

Mark Seton & David Staddon 


Group Editor 

Graham Collins 


Editorial Contributors 

Rick Love, Jon Ben, lain Cox, 

Leigh Hill, Wesley Kent, James Lane, 
Peter Massingberd-Mundy, Niall 
Rowan, David Spicer, Mark Thomson, 
Pedro Valcarcel, Kurt Werner, 

Ian Buchanan 


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Page design by Dorchester 
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Contents 



27-30 


4-19 News, Upcoming 

Events, Standards 
Round-Up & Profiles 

20-24 Fire Alarm 

Panel Buyers' Guide 

27-30 The Growing 

Role Of voice in Fire 
Safety 

32-33 water mist 

Systems Boost Traveller 
Safety 



61-62 




44-45 


34-35 Clouds in The 

Forecast 

36 Deluge Protection 
For Spain's Vielha Tunnel 

38-40 Smoke 

Screen: The Real Impact 
Of Smoke 

42-43 The Business 

Case For Fire Sprinkler 
Protection 

44-45 Portable 

Score 9 Out Of 10 

46-50 Getting The 

Best From Beam 
Detection 


53-55 EN54-20: 

Smoke Detection's 
Essential Building Block 

56-58 EN54-23: 
Rising To The Challenge 

61-62 Protecting 
High-Risk Plant 



65-68 



71-74 



65-68 Buying 

Valuable Time 

71-74 The Changing 

Face Of Fire Safety 
Design 

76-77 Deaf To The 

Warnings 

78-79 Non-approved 

products - why take the 
risk? 

80 Advertisers' Index 



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FROM THE EDITOR 



Knowledge 

Empowers 

Air travel, we are told, is among the safest means of transport. Interestingly, it is 
the one that relies least on intuition and self help when it comes to evacuation 
and safety. Step aboard any flight and you will be treated to a detailed safety 
and evacuation presentation. 


S o, are we missing a point here? Across the 
globe, millions are spent on fire detection and 
alarm installations and fire suppression in 
buildings, but are we doing enough for those 
caught up in an emergency to give them the best 
possible information on what to do - or what not 
to do - and when to do it? Clearly, it is impractical 
to give every visitor to a shopping mall, leisure 
centre, theatre or hospital the "flight attendant" 
treatment, but any measures that make people 
more aware of what is the most appropriate thing 
to do in an emergency are surely to be encouraged. 

The faster the detection and alarm equipment 
responds to a fire, the more time people are likely 
to have to make rational evacuation decisions. 
Important though that is, it is only part of the 
story. After all, communication is not the message 
that is transmitted; it is what the listeners perceive 
that message to mean. For example, an alarm 
sounder is intended to transmit an alert, but in 
some circumstances what it can possibly be com- 
municating is panic. If you doubt this, watch the 
reaction of a stressed young mother with toddlers 
in tow, ladened down with shopping, when an 
alarm bell is activated in an unfamiliar crowded 
shopping mall. 

The evacuation challenge is further compounded 
by the fact that we do not all have the benefit of 
perfect hearing, and a recent solution to aid 
people with this disability, one that harnesses 
cellphone technology, is described in this edition. 

Of course, panic is not induced solely by fear of 
the unknown or confusion. There is the potential 


for it to ensue even with the most sophisticated 
voice alarm systems, because what we see can be 
equally as important as what we hear - and in a 
panic-ridden environment may possibly rank as 
more believable or reliable. You only have to 
watch the behaviour of people subjected to 
billowing smoke to appreciate the significance of 
that argument. So, in this edition of the magazine 
we have also included an article on smoke 
ventilation from Hilson Moran, one of the world's 
premier fire engineering consultancies. 

Elsewhere in this edition we have included the 
annual fire alarm panel buyers' guide, looked at 
flame detection, and delved into important parts 
of EN54. There are also articles on third-party 
testing and certification, fire-rated paint and beam 
detection. 

Also, following the introduction in the previous 
edition of International Fire Protection of a codes 
and standards update section, where the latest 
NFPA standards and codes were reviewed, this 
time we have included a brief overview of the 
latest British Standards. Alongside this we have 
introduced another new section on upcoming 
industry events - fire safety exhibitions and 
conferences around the world. 

Finally, returning to the subject of transport fire 
safety, the watermist feature in this edition looks 
at the latest systems designed specifically for 
tunnels and trains. We also look at the practical 
application of this technology with an article on 
the system installed in what was once regarded as 
one of Spain's most dangerous tunnels. D33 


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NEWS 


Beam Me Up Fireray 

A full range of installation accessories for use in its Fireray optical 
beam smoke detectors has been introduced by FIRE FIGHTING 
ENTERPRISES LTD. 

This new line-up includes various mounting plates and brackets 
for the reflector prisms that are said to allow easy fixing and 
positioning of either a single-prism or four-prism array to surfaces 
at almost any angle. Protective cages for the Fireray 5000 detector 
head and controller units are also available, as are those for the 
Fireray 50/1 00R and Fireray 2000 models. 

The prism plate for either one or four-prism array is suitable for 
where the wall facing the detector head is perpendicular to the 
angle of the beam. Where this is not the case, the prism plate can 
be attached to a universal bracket that fixes to the wall, allowing 
the angle of the prisms to be adjusted to reflect the beam correctly. 

A reinforced surface mount plate is another option, providing a 
particularly rigid and secure fixing. 

The protective cages are made from plastic-coated galvanised 
steel and will protect detector heads and controller units from 
accidental knocks or flying objects. 

For more information go to www.ffeuk.com 



Outstation Boost 
For Disabled Refuge 
System 

C-TEC has launched four new outstations for its SigTEL disabled refuge system/ 
emergency voice communication system. 

The new surface-mounted EVC302GS disabled refuge outstation is reckoned 
to be easy-to-clean and ten percent cheaper than its stainless steel counterpart. 

A flush mount version is also available, and both models enable two-way 
emergency communication between disabled refuges and building control. In 
keeping with C -TEC's other Type B outstations, the new EVC302G can also be 
connected to an induction loop system/CCTV camera or interfaced to a disabled 
persons' toilet alarm system. 

C-TEC has also unveiled the EVC301 RPO fire telephone outstation that 
includes a telephone handset in a red, push-to-open steel cabinet. A version with 
a "lift key" locking mechanism is also available. Both can be surface or semi-flush 
mounted. 


For more information go to www.c-tec.co.uk 



Polish Buses Get 
Dedicated Fire 
Protection 



More than 500 buses in Poland are now being protected 
by FIRETRACE INTERNATIONAL'S FIRETRACE® automatic 
fire detection and suppression system. 450 systems are 
being installed in buses operated by MZA- Miejskie 
Zaklady Autobusowe Sp z.o.o - in the capital, Warsaw, 
while a further 75 are being installed in buses in the city 
of Poznan. The systems are being fitted to protect the 
engine compartments of the cities' existing buses, and 
it is the largest single order ever won by Firetrace 
International's UK-based EMEA operation. 

The bulk of the order - 380 FIRETRACE systems - is 
being installed in the 12-metre Solaris Urbino 12-metre 
and the 18-metre articulated Solaris Urbino 18 buses. The 
order was won in the face of stiff international competition 
and the decision is said to have been influenced by the fact 
that the system is already being used to protect over 5,000 
vehicles. Firetrace International was also able to show that 
there has not been a single reported instance where a 
FIRETRACE system has either false alarmed or failed to 
detect and suppress a genuine fire. 

For more information go to www.firetrace.com 


4 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




NEWS 


Sound investment 



COOPER FULLEON'S continuous improvement initiative has invested in numerous projects 
since the beginning of 2010. The end result, the company says, is a slicker, more effective 
operation that ensures the delivery of superior service and support to customers. 

Lean Manufacturing continues to be employed on site and this year has seen a major 
change to the way production operatives work. Conventional bench-seated stations 
have been replaced by standing work stations, reducing down time and defects as well 
as benefiting operatives' posture. Jan Westacott, production operative says: "I feel less 
tired than when I used to be sitting down and the process flows much better." 

The building and commissioning of an anechoic chamber has also been completed on 
site. This is capable of achieving up to 100 percent sound attenuation, improving the 
accuracy and integrity of sound level measurement during product testing. It has a 
suspended floor and its walls, ceiling and floor are covered with over 500 acoustic foam 
tiles that are critical to reduce the reflection of reverberation when measuring the sound 
output of products. 

Cooper Fulleon's new Customer 1st programme includes the introduction of an online 
customer centre, Cooper Customer Centre (C3), which allows customers to track orders 
and price and check availability of products quickly with ease. The introduction of a new 
telephone system to streamline call handling ensures all calls are answered efficiently. 

These initiatives represent the commitment to delivering value and supporting 
customers every step of the way. Cooper Fulleon will continue to invest in improvement 
measures and the final months of 2010 will see the launch of a new improved quick 
delivery service. The 'Xpress Service' catalogue features the most frequently requested 
products with a reduced lead time. 


Beam 

Detector is 
Auto-Aligned 



A conventional auto-aligning beam detector 
with laser alignment has been added to APOLLO 
FIRE DETECTORS' range of fire detection 
products. Specifically designed to detect smoke 
in large, open areas such as warehouses, 
hangars, theatres, churches and sports centres, 
it has a range of eight metres to 1 00 metres. 

During installation, a visible laser is used for 
initial alignment of the beam. An automatic, 
motorised auto-alignment feature then ensures 
that the beam remains on target, counteracting 
the effects of building movement. Automatic 
optimisation technology also compensates for 
dust build-up on the lens, ensuring that false 
alarms are avoided and the system continues to 
work effectively over time. Up to four detectors 
can operate from one single low-level controller, 
minimising installation costs and allowing full 
control of the detector heads without the need 
for expensive lifting gear. 

The product has worldwide approvals 
including EN54:12 and can be loop-powered 
using a switch monitor or mini switch monitor, 
enabling it to be added on as an extension to 
existing Apollo analogue addressable systems. 


For more information go to www.cooperfulleon.com 


For more information go to 
www.apollo-fire.co.uk 


ASD System Gives Airport Safety A Lift 


The XTRALIS ICAM aspirating smoke detection (ASD) system is being used to 
provide early warning fire detection in lift shafts throughout London Gatwick 
Airport. It is the UK's second largest airport and the busiest single-runway 
airport in the world, serving more than 200 destinations in 90 countries with 
around 33 million short- and long-haul passengers a year. 

The installation works by actively drawing air through sampling holes in a 
network of pipes that are installed along each elevator shaft and in the 
elevator machine room. However, while the sampling pipes are installed 
within each lift shaft, the actual ASD technology remains outside. Air samples 
are then analysed by the ICAM unit that is placed within the machine room, 
ensuring ease of access for testing and maintenance requirements. 

Lifts are a critical component of building infrastructure, particularly in busy 
passenger terminals, and the ICAM solution was chosen because of its ability 
to identify the location of the earliest presence of smoke. 

For more information go to www.xtralis.com/lifts 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


5 




NEWS 


Gas Detection & Environmental 
Monitoring Added To vesda Systems 


XTRALIS™ has expanded its VESDA aspirating 
smoke detection [ASD] system with the inclusion 
of gas detection and environmental monitoring. 
VESDA ECO™ by Xtralis uses new or existing 
VESDA pipe networks to reliably detect smoke in 
addition to hazardous/combustible gases to 
ensure air quality. It integrates easily with other 
building management systems for real-time 
situation awareness and intelligent emergency 
response, including the activation of demand- 
controlled ventilation. 

VESDA ECO is already being used in a power 
plant in South America, car parks in Europe, and 
a data centre, national laboratory, wireless 
telecom facility and historical display in the 
USA, providing very early warning fire 
detection, protecting against hazardous gas 
leaks, monitoring air quality to ensure safe 
working environments, and help reduce energy 
consumption and costs. 



With an ECO detector installed on a VESDA 
pipe network, air can be conditioned or filtered 
to remove moisture, dirt and other particulates 
that, Xtralis says can cause traditional gas- 
detection systems to false alarm or become 
contaminated. As with fire detection, early 
warning of gas leaks or build-up enables 
counter-measures to be taken to protect 
personnel, property and business operations. 

In its initial release, the solution can be 
configured to detect ammonia, carbon monoxide, 
hydrogen, hydrogen sulphide, methane, nitrogen 
dioxide, oxygen, propane and sulphur dioxide. 
The systems integrate easily with fire alarm 
control panels, programmable logic controllers, 
heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, 
and building management systems. 

For more information go to 
www.xtralis.com 


New Panel Mount 
Sounder is 
intrinsically Safe 


Remote Monitoring 
Option For Fire Pump 
Systems 


E2S has added a new 
product to its 
intrinsically safe range 
of sounders and 
beacons, the IS-pAI 
panel mount sounder, 
which is certified II 1 G 
Ex ia MB T4/5/6 for use 
in Zones 0, 1 and 2. The 
IS sounder is said to be 
ideal for use as fault 
indication or process 
alarm in control panels 
located in intrinsically 
safe environments. It 
produces a 1 0OdB (A) at 
one-metre continuous 
600Hz tone that can be 
pulsed externally to 
produce different 
signals. 

To reinforce the 
audible warning signal, 
E2S also offers the intrinsically safe IS-pBI panel lights. The high 
efficiency LEDs, which are mounted behind red, amber, green, 
blue or clear lenses, have a typical operating life in excess of ten 
years. Powered via Zener barriers or galvanic isolators, the panel 
mount sounder and lights produce reliable and cost-effective 
status indications with minimum power consumption. 

The E2S IS range also includes the IS-mini sounder, beacon and 
combined units, as well as the IS-L1 01 L LED beacon and the IS- 
A105N sounder, which are approved to ATEX, lECEx and FM. 


Continuous remote monitoring of 
fire pump systems' status from 
anywhere in the world is the 
promise behind SPP's new 
FireEye, which was developed 
specifically for the fixed fire 
protection market. Utilising 
General Packet Radio Service 
(GPRS) and SMS text alarm 
module technology, up to four 
devices can be monitored, plus 
there is provision for monitoring 
additional pump room alarms, 
such as intrusion alarms and 
valves. 

FireEye is compatible with SPP 
fire pump packages and other 
manufacturers' equipment, and 
can be integrated into existing 
and new fire pump installations 
where a combination of electric starters and diesel fire pump controllers are 
used. Data can be logged, accessed and monitored remotely via the 
Internet and, as standard, FireEye communicates a system status that is 
logged to the web server every hour, although it can be easily set more or 
less frequently to suit individual requirements. Additional notification of 
system alarms via email to pre-determined accounts is also simple to 
enable. Each site, its system status, and even individual device history is 
recorded and logged on a database for future accessing. 

SMS information is sent to up to five pre-determined and prioritised 
contacts. If the receipt of alarms via text is not confirmed by the first 
allocated contact, the message is relayed to the other nominated numbers. 
Global Positioning System (GPS) technology provides continuous 
information to aid locating a site and reduce travel time to it. 


iUttW* 5 




For more information go to www.e2s.com 


For more information go to www.sppfireeye.com 


6 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




the standard in safety 




Underwriters 

Laboratories 


There’s a reason 
we’ve been a leader 
in product safety 
testing & certification 
for over 100 years. 

Trust. 





1WI 


Trust... 


Trust... 



that UL has unmatched technical expertise in product safety testing and certification. 

that the UL mark is backed not by a piece of paper, but by the integrity, quality, 
experience, commitment and consistency that stands behind it. 

Remember, UL has been testing and certifying fire resistance, 
life safety and security products for over a century. 


To learn more about Underwriters Laboratories and how you can leverage our global 
expertise in the fire resistance, life safety and security industries on a local basis: 

T:: +44 (0) 1 483.402.032 / E:: Fire&SecuritySales. EULA@uk.ul.com / W:: ul.com 



Copyright © 2009 Underwriters Laboratories Inc. ® BDi091029-IFP10 




NEWS 


Industry Gets Compact 
Smoke Detector 

Manufacturer of conventional and 
addressable fire detection products, 

NITTAN, has launched a conventional 
smoke detector for industrial use where 
space is at a premium. 

The 0KB3 works on the principle of 
scattering light detection, measures just 
40mm by 40mm by 45mm, weighs 55g, 
and is aimed at applications such as 
transport containers, aircraft toilets and 
computer racking systems. It is said to 
be extremely rugged and capable of 
coping with the most demanding of 
environments, providing reliable fire 
detection with a high degree of 
protection against unwanted false 
alarms, plus it automatically adjusts its detection sensitivity against dirt. 

It can be used with Nittan's CPC-3 Control Panel, and up to 20 0KB3 smoke 
detectors can be used with a single CPC-3 Control Panel. 

For more information go to www.nittan.co.uk 



UL & FM Endorsed 
USD Detection 


FIKE VID has received UL Listing on its SigniFire video smoke 
detection system. Approved to the new UL 268B 
standard for video smoke 


detection, it is the only 
system to have both the 
UL listing and FM 
approval. 

Offered as a 
turnkey solution for 
video smoke, flame 
and intrusion detection, 

SigniFire is a camera-based 
detection system that visually detects the presence of smoke or fire at its source, 
independent of airflow. It provides early warning fire detection, identifying and reacting to 
fire situations in their earliest stages, and is used in applications where traditional smoke 
detection technologies may not be practical or efficient, including fossil fuel power plants, 
nuclear facilities, industrial facilities, cultural properties, warehouses and tunnels. 



Dual 

wavelength 

Detector 



A fire detector that is said to reduce false alarms 
by accurately differentiating smoke particles from 
other types of gas, steam and dust has been 
launched by EUROTECH FIRE SYSTEMS. 

The newly patented dual wavelength optical 
detector offers a "flat response" to detect all types 
of fires, and is being promoted as an ideal solution 
for large public buildings, such as hotels, schools 
and healthcare facilities, where false alarms can 
have a significant impact on daily activity. 

The new optical detector is one of a range of 
fire detection products being made available under 
Eurotech's new Making Every System Happen 
(MESH) protocol. This offers both "closed" and 
"open" fire detection protocols to fire detection 
and alarm installers worldwide, ensuring that 
installers are not tied to the one manufacturer for 
all system components or long-term maintenance 
contracts. 


For more information go to www.fike.com 


For more information go to www.eurotechfire.com 


Cleated-up 

A range of fireproof cable restraint cleats 
designed for the installation of fire-rated 
cables has been introduced by ELLIS 
PATENTS. The Phoenix range is manufactured 
from corrosion-resistant 316L stainless steel, 
is available in 1 1 sizes, ranging from 10mm 
to 65mm, and features a single bolt fixing. 

In order for FP rated cables to continue 
working in an emergency they need to 
remain not just intact, but in place - 
something that simply cannot be 
guaranteed without the use of restraints 



that have the same fire resistant properties 
as the cables they are restraining," said Ellis 
Patents' Managing Director, Richard Shaw. 

The new cleat was developed in 
conjunction with Exova Warringtonfire, 

BRE and ETS Cable Components. The 
companies developing a testing process 
that most realistically reflects the conditions 
the cleat might experience in service, and 
to ensure that they achieved fire protection 
to the same level as the cables they are 
installed to support. These tests included 
exposure to fire, impact and water spray. 

For more information go to 
www.ellispatents.co.uk 


8 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




EVENTS 


Upcoming Events 


Firex India 2010 


23rd - 25th November 2010 

Bombay Exhibition Centre, Goregaon, Mumbai, India 

www.firexindia.com 


International Firex 2011 
© info4fire.com 

The dfhnltw* resource for hr* safety 

16th - 19th May 2011 

Hall 3, National Exhibition Centre, Birmingham, B40 1NT 

www. i nf o4f i re.com 


O 


INDIA 



Middle East Fire, Safety 
and Security Exhibition 




4th - 7th December 2010 

Cairo International Convention Center, Cairo, Eqypt 

www.mefsec-middleeast.com 


international Fire, Rescue 
& Emergency Expo 2010 

sliFREE 

esw **"" 4 

HI. «— m* 

8th - 10th December 2010 

Jakarta International Expo, Jakarta, Indonesia 

www. ifreexpo.com 


intersec 2011 



16th - 18th January 2011 

Dubai International Convention and Exhibition Centre, 
Dubai, United Arab Emirates 

www.intersecexpo.com 


FDIC 2011 



21st - 26th March 2011 

Indiana Convention Center & Lucas Oils Stadium, 
Indianapolis, IN, USA 

www.fdic.com 


uc & Emergency €-*j 


NFPA Conference & 
Expo 2011 



June 12th - 15th 2011 

Boston Convention Center, Boston, MA, USA 

www.nfpa.org 



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RAGING FIRE 
WHO TURNS OFF 
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ESSEX WATCHDOG® 


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9 











REGULATIONS 


Standards 

Round-up 

Watermist systems, fire detection and alarm systems 
and fireguards focus in the latest batch of Drafts for 
Development, Codes of Practice, and Standards 
published by BSI. 


DD 8458-1:2010 

Fixed fire protection systems. 

Residential and domestic watermist 
systems. 

Code of practice for design and 
installation 

DD 8458-1 :201 0 is a Draft for Development giving 
recommendations for the design, installation, 
water supplies, commissioning, maintenance and 
testing of watermist systems with automatic 
nozzles installed in residential occupancies not 
exceeding 20 metres in height and domestic 
occupancies. It primarily covers watermist systems 
used for life safety, but might also provide 
property protection. It does not cover watermist 
systems in industrial and commercial buildings. 

Watermist fire suppression system maintenance 
although not complex, is essential. It is important 
that owners and occupiers pay particular attention 
to precautions issued by the watermist system 
supplier, such as the avoidance of obstructions to 
the watermist nozzle, or the painting of the 
watermist nozzle or its mounting. 

The advent of watermist nozzles that operate at 
an earlier stage in the development of a fire, 
together with the recognition that the largest 
numbers of deaths from fire occur in the home, 
have led to the introduction of watermist fire 
suppression systems specifically designed for 
residential and domestic occupancies. Watermist 
fire suppression systems have demonstrated their 
value in assisting the protection of life and 
property in industrial and commercial applications 
for many years. 


More information on these 
and the other recently 
published British Standards 
can be found at 
shop.bsigroup.com 


BS 5839-9:2010 

Fire detection and fire alarm systems 
for buildings. 

Part 9: code of practice 

This part of BS 5839 has been prepared to give 
guidance to those who specify, design, manufac- 
ture, install, commission, service and use such 
emergency voice communication systems. It also 
ensures that high standards of reliability, safety 
and security are achieved, together with accept- 
able standards of performance. 

Emergency voice communication systems, as 
defined in BS 5839-9, are used in connection 
with life safety and need, therefore, to be subject 
to high standards of design, manufacture, 


installation and servicing, similar to those covering 
fire detection and alarm systems and voice alarm 
systems. 

This standard primarily relates to the use of 
emergency voice communication (EVC) in assisting 
both firefighters and those responsible for 
evacuating buildings or sports stadiums in fire 
emergency situations, including evacuation of dis- 
abled people. Use, other than in fire emergency 
situations, by disabled persons and others, 
although not precluded, is not addressed in detail. 

BS 5839-9 covers systems with components 
linked by wires, wirelessly, or a combination of 
both and emergency voice communication sys- 
tems. This standard does not recommend whether 
or not an emergency voice communication system 
should be installed in a given premises. 

BS 8423:2010 

Fireguards for fires and heating 
appliances for domestic use. 
Specification 

BS 8423 specifies the requirements and test 
methods of fireguards intended for use with heat- 
ing appliances utilising organic fuel or electricity, 
and which can be situated in an open area or 
against or on a wall, or within a recess. 

The fireguards specified are intended to protect 
people from falling into a fire, prevent burns and 
reduce the risk of injury, particularly to young 
children and the infirm. In addition it is intended 
to reduce the risk of fire resulting from clothing 
and/or other flammable materials coming into 
contact with, or in proximity to, burning fuel 
and/or hot surfaces. 

This is a full revision of the standard, and 
introduces new requirements for fixings, require- 
ments regarding small parts, and increasing the 
aperture of mesh, while the requirements 
regarding shearing and crushing have been 
deleted. BS 8423 supersedes BS 8423:2002, which 
is withdrawn. 



10 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




intelligent control 

equipment * 
for life * M 
safety I 


The Mx-5000 ^ 

range is the next c ^ ' 

generation of analogue addressable fire alarm control panels 
that are fully approved to EN54 part 2,4 & 13 (VDS & BSI) and 
CE marked under the Construction Products Directive (CPD). 
The full range, from one to four loops, has been approved for 
use with the AV intelligent range of devices. 


The Ax series of UL864 approved fire 
control panels, fire sensors and field 
devices now incorporate the all new 
AVISA Voice Evacuation range for 
intelligent audio distribution. 
Developed for UL markets 
world wide, the Ax-Series has 
been designed to satisfy the 
most demanding of fire 
detection applications. 


The Ex-3000 series is one of the first extinguishant release 

control panels in Europe to be approved to EN54 part 2 & 4 and 

EN 12094-1. Optional accessories 

include networked Remote Status 

Indicator Panels, Hold & Abort push 

buttons and active EOL units - 

making it one of the most 

advanced solutions available. ! 


Global Compliance 
Multiple Languages 
Fully Networkable 
3 Year Warranty 


advanced 

protection 


UK Head Office and 
Manufacturing Facility 
Cramlington, UK 
Tel: +44 (0)1670 707 111 


‘Centre of Excellence’ 

Barnsley, UK 

Tel: +44 (0)1670 707 111 


Middle East Office 

Dubai, UAE 

Tel: +971 50 640 1320 


London Office 
Chertsey, UK 
Tel: +44 (0)1932 564 567 


US Head Office and 
Manufacturing Facility 
Boston, MA 

Tel: +1 (0)508 453 9995 


■ Barnsley ■ Boston ■ Cramlington ■Dubai ■ London 


www.advel.co.uk 

www.advelexport.com 

www.afsi.us.com 





PROFILE 


Flat and 
Flattering Fire 
Detection From 
Apollo 


Fire detection is a life critical requirement in all types of building, but sometimes 
it can cause conflict. 


For more information go to 
www.apollo-fire.co.uk 


A rchitects who have worked hard to create a 
/ \ prestige office building or a sleek retail 
/ \ experience can find that their design vision 

is compromised by the need to install standard fire 
detectors, which protrude from the ceiling. Even a 
low-profile detector can interrupt the clean lines of 
many modern interiors. 

Heritage buildings are another environment in 
which the need to preserve aesthetics and the 
need for fire detection can collide. Between 
January 2002 and June 2006, an average of seven 
heritage buildings a month were lost or damaged 
as a result of fire in the UK. Fire detection in 
heritage buildings is therefore imperative, but it 
can be very difficult to incorporate modern fire 
detectors into heritage interiors without interfer- 
ing with the original decor. 

This conflict between style and function is 
being addressed in the latest generation of fire 
detection products. Apollo Fire Detectors Limited 
has developed Plateau; a new smoke detector that 
can meet stringent design demands without 
compromising on reliability. Plateau is flush- 
mounted to the ceiling so only a discreet white 
plastic cover plate is visible. This greatly reduces 
the device's aesthetic impact and means that 
ceiling lines are virtually uninterrupted. 

The signature flat profile is possible due to the 
fact that Plateau detectors do not have an internal 
smoke chamber - instead, smoke particles are 
detected outside the device itself. Plateau operates 
as an optical detector, but the light beam is trans- 
mitted through the cover plate and reflected by 
any smoke close to it. The light that is reflected is 
registered by a receiver in the detector, which will 
change to the alarm state if the presence of smoke 
is confirmed. 

Plateau's aesthetic credentials are not limited to 
the fact that it sits flush-mounted to the ceiling; 
the appearance of the detector also helps it fit the 
design brief. The simple plastic cover is minimalis- 
tic with no lines or moulding and is pure white, 
with no logos or other branding visible. So when 
discretion is required, Plateau is able to provide 
reliable and accurate fire detection with minimal 
visual intrusion. 

In order to aid reliability and accuracy, Plateau 
has a number of inbuilt features. The device 
permanently checks for contamination on the 



cover plate by means of additional light-emitting 
and sensing components. It gauges the degree of 
contamination present and adjusts its alarm 
threshold accordingly. The device will raise a fault 
condition if contamination is excessive. 

Plateau's discreet presence is also finding favour 
in security applications. Apollo has created a 
special vandal-resistant version that comes 
equipped with a 100mm square, 4mm thick 
stainless-steel plate instead of the standard plastic 
cover. This version has been developed for use in 
environments such as secure units in a hospital, 
detention centres, prisons or police holding cells 
where standard fire detectors could be easily 
vandalised. 

In summary, often a vast amount of time and 
money has been spent on building design, so it is 
understandable that developers and architects 
want to ensure that their vision is not compromised 
by utilitarian equipment. However, the fact remains 
that any public access building must have adequate 
fire protection. 

The evolution of Plateau makes it possible for 
the demands of style and function to be met 
in both modern and heritage environments. In 
addition, the security version of this device means 
that some of the most vulnerable people in our 
society cannot use a product intended for their 
protection to do any harm to themselves or to 
others. D33 


12 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



The level-headed detector 




Effective detection with 
minimum intrusion 

PLATEAU from Apollo is a major 
advance in fire detector design, providing 
effective detection with minimum intrusion. 


Plateau detects smoke without needing an internal smoke 
chamber hence requiring only a stylish disc to be visible on 
the ceiling. The disc has two small windows for the infra-red 
transmitter and receiver. Plateau is flush mounted so that all the 



Prestige offices 
Listed buildings 
Designer boutiques 
High-class hotels 



To find out more: 

www.apo I lo-fi re. co. uk/p lateau 

call us on: +44 (0)23 9249 2412 
email us at: marketing@apollo-fire.co.uk 



PLATEAU 



PROFILE 


steelguard 

intumescent 

Coatings 


PPG Protective & Marine Coatings has extensive and varied experience in the 
domestic, commercial and industrial cellulosic fire protection markets, with 
systems designed to meet the needs of almost every kind of environment. 


For more information go to 
www.ppgpmc.com 



P PG Protective & Marine Coatings 
global network of project specialists 
are available to ensure that the correct 
fire protection systems are specified for 
each individual project, working closely 
with architects, main contractors and 
engineers. This world-class customer ser- 
vice and commitment to manufacturing 
consistently the highest quality products 
underpins PPG's position as a world leader 
in the fire protection industry. 

Steelguard thin-film solution for 
nuclear sector 

The UK nuclear market is an area in which 
PPG has provided an alternative solution to 
the more traditionally-accepted thick-film 
intumescent coatings. 

Previously, even where hydrocarbon fire 
protection was not a requirement, engi- 
neers looked to specify the more durable 
epoxy thick-film intumescent coating. This 
was down to several contributing factors, 
such as the harsh corrosive environments and 
coastal conditions to which the steelwork would 
be exposed during the erection period, and the 
certification and approvals required in the oil, gas 
and petrochemical markets. 

There are, however several drawbacks to using 
this type of fire protection when compared with 
the thin-film intumescent alternative: 

1 The application of a thick-film epoxy intumes- 
cent coating requires specialist equipment. 

2 Expert training must be give to applicators 
wishing to apply thick-film fire protection. 

3 Mesh re-enforcement is often needed for larger 
steel section profiles. 

4 The higher costs involved with thick-film fire 
protection. 

Sellafield Ltd has undergone an extensive con- 
struction programme with several new facilities 
being constructed; more might be built over the 
next few years. So, any proposed system had to 
not only be durable enough to satisfy the corrosive 
environment the steelwork would be exposed to 
during the initial construction phase, but more 
importantly it required a suitable topcoat with the 
necessary decontamination approval to satisfy 
Sellafield Ltd. 

In this instance, the solution put forward by the 
PPG Cellulosic PFP team was to devise a cost 
effective alternative to thick-film that called for an 


off-site-applied thin-film intumescent fire protec- 
tion system. A system was put forward that 
included zinc rich primer, Steelguard solvent-borne 
thin-film intumescent coating for the required fire 
resistance, over-coated with a suitable epoxy tie 
coat with PSX 700 applied as the final protection 
to the steelwork. 

PSX 700 is a patented engineered siloxane 
coating that embodies the properties of both a 
high-performance epoxy and polyurethane in 
one coat. The coating offers "breakthrough" 
weather resistance and corrosion control. It also 
has the required decontamination properties and 
approvals. As a result of the innovative specifica- 
tion put forward by PPG, Steelguard intumescent 
coatings are now a well established in the UK 
nuclear construction market. 

Steelguard - working in partnership 
with architects and engineers 

Steelguard thin-film intumescent coatings are 
being specified by architects and specifiers across 
the globe as part of complete fire protection 
systems. PPG Protective & Marine Coatings' 
engineers have the essential expert knowledge to 
devise fire protection specifications to meet 
precisely the specific needs of clients, guarantee- 
ing the longevity and performance expected from 
the system. D33 


14 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




LG UARD 


Proven fire protection for civil building 


• Up to 120 minutes fire protection 

• National ancUirfternational certification 


• On-site ancWFf-site applicatiol 

• Engineerin^upport I 




/ 


3 PPG Protective & Marine Coatings 


www.ppgpmc.com 


PROFILE 


Chemguard 
Concentrates, 
Hardware & 
Support 


For more information go to 
www.chemguard.com 


A full-service ISO 9001 :2008 certified manufacturer of UL and FM approved fire 
suppression foams, equipment, and systems, Chemguard serves the fire suppression 
and specialty chemicals fields worldwide through innovative research and 
development, advanced engineering and design, precision manufacturing, and 
prompt service and delivery. 


B ased in Mansfield, Texas, Chemguard has 
been listed among the 100 fastest growing 
private companies in the Dallas, Texas, region 
for the past two years. 

Overview 

The comprehensive operation of the Chemguard 
Foam Fire Suppression Division includes foam con- 
centrate development and production, firefighting 
foam equipment engineering and manufacturing, 
and foam systems design. Our efficient and environ- 
mentally friendly UL-listed and FM-approved foam 
products are used worldwide in challenging industrial, 
military, municipal, offshore, petrochemical, energy, 
transportation, freight and airport applications. 

Chemguard designs and manufactures an extensive 
line of firefighting foam hardware, including nozzles, 
monitors, and foam trailers. We also offer on-site 
product fabrication, including ASME bladder tank and 
custom foam skid fabrication. Our intensive quality 
control procedures ensure that equipment shipped 
from Chemguard reflects our reputation for excel- 
lence and is delivered on-time at competitive prices. 

In addition, Chemguard manufactures advanced 
positive-displacement foam concentrate pumps 
for fire-protection systems and fire apparatus. 
Chemguard's balanced vertical integration allows us 
to ensure the integrity of our foam fire-fighting 
equipment by controlling the manufacturing 
process - from raw materials through quality assur- 
ance testing and final delivery. 

Chemguard's systems engineers provide fire sup- 
pression systems design and applications assistance 
- reviewing specifications, providing value-added 
engineering alternatives, and supporting systems 
start-up. Working side-by-side with customers, we 
apply years of experience designing systems for 
petrochemical facilities, hangars, flammable-liquid 
storage tanks, warehouses, marine applications, and 
other challenging installations to maximise perfor- 
mance, efficiency, and effectiveness. 

The company performs topside and sprinkler fire 
tests for a wide variety of test standards at our on-site 
fire test facility, obtaining international approvals for 
Chemguard foam concentrates, including IMO, 
LASTFIRE, DNV, and EN 1568. We are committed to 
continuous innovation to meet customer require- 
ments and market demands. In recent years Chem- 
guard has expanded its laboratory facility and 
invested in additional state-of-the-art equipment. 
Our research staff collaborates with customers to 
address specific application requirements. 



Chemguard designed-and-built bulk foam 
storage/transport trailer 


Chemguard's research-based Specialty Chemicals 
Division produces environmentally responsible 
fluorochemical surfactants (a major ingredient in 
fire-suppression foam concentrates) for Chemguard 
as well as other firefighting foam manufacturers 
worldwide. 

We are committed to protecting the environment 
while supplying products that will effectively protect 
people and structures, equipment, and other property. 
Because of Chemguard's successful synthesis of 
fluorochemical surfactants from telomer-based 
fluorocarbons, our fire-fighting foam concentrates 
do not contain perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or 
perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOS) ingredients. 

Williams acquisition 

During summer 2010, Chemguard acquired 
Williams Fire & Hazard Control as a wholly owned 
subsidiary, combining Chemguard's extensive R&D, 
manufacturing, and systems engineering experience 
with Williams' unmatched expertise in flammable- 
liquid firefighting - effectively integrating surfactant 
research, foam pump design, systems development, 
and firefighting technical expertise. 

Chemguard and Williams - also based in Texas - 
enjoy a history of collaboration. In late 2009, they 
introduced an advanced alcohol-resistant aqueous 
film-forming foam (AR-AFFF). Developed in 
Chemguard's R&D laboratory to Williams' rigorous 
specifications, this "next-evolution" concentrate 
exhibits significant improvements in effectiveness 
and efficiency and exceeds the highest performance 
standards in the industry. 

Chemguard and Williams are committed to 
continued development of foam concentrates, fire- 
fighting equipment, fire-fighting systems, and 
emergency services. un 


16 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



Introducing 

EN 12845 


Patterson Pump Ireland 
Ltd. specialises in the 
production of world class 
fire protection equipment 
around Europe. 


FIRE PUMP LINE 


From enquiry stage, right through design, 
manufacturing, installation and after sales 
service, Patterson Pump Ireland strives to 
provide a quality, reliable fire protection 
system, at the most competitive price. 



EN 12845 provides a pan-European standard 
for the design, installation and maintenance of 
automatic sprinkler systems, and encompasses 
the basic requirements set forth by local rules 
into one European Standard. 

The new Patterson Pump End Suction product 
line is the latest addition to the Patterson 
Sentinel™ range. Cost effective and efficient, 
these will be used in fire pump packages 
specifically designed and built to comply with 
the regulations of European standard EN1 2845, 
along with other local rules. 





PATTERSON PUMP IRELAND LIMITED 

A Subsidiary of Patterson Pump Company U.S.A. 

Unit 14, Mullingar Business Park* Mullingar, Co. Westmeath, Ireland 
Tel.: 353 44 934 7078 • FAX: 353 44 934 7896 
E-mail: info@ie.pattersonpumps.com 

www.ie.pattersonpumps.com 




CNBOP 


VdS 


Member of 


'Hydraulic 



PROFILE 


Bosch Dual Ray Te 
Provides Paster Pi 


New additions to Bosch's Fire Detector 420 Series provide even faster fire 
detection than was previously possible, along with reduced rate of false alarms, 
ensuring that the series offers maximum reliability in all conditions and 
environments. 


For more information go to 
www.boschsecurity.com 


A lthough no two fires are the same, they all 
have certain obvious characteristics in 
L common, including the generation 
of heat, smoke and combustion gases. 

Detecting any one of these can 
give early warning of a fire, but 
can also lead to false alarms 
due to other particulate mater- 
ial being mistaken for smoke. 

That is why multi-sensor detec- 
tors were developed by com- 
panies such as Bosch Security 
Systems with products such as its 
ground-breaking FAP-OTC 420 
optical, thermal, chemical multi- 
sensor introduced 2001. Where 
Bosch's Fire Detector 420 Series 
really scores, however, is in the 
leading-edge algorithm embodied 
in the company's Intelligent Signal Pro- 
cessing (ISP) technology, which enables the 420 
Series to achieve the highest level of intelligent fire 
detection. 





ISP enhances multi-sensor performance 

In general, the more sensors a fire detector has, 
the earlier it can detect a fire and the fewer false 
alarms are generated. This is particularly true of 
the multi-sensors in Bosch's Fire Detector 420 
Series. They feature the company's unique and 
powerful ISP technology, through which all sensor 
signals are pre-processed continually by dedicated 
internal evaluation electronics, analysed and linked 
with each other via a built-in microprocessor. 

The sensor signals are processed by a powerful 
algorithm developed using data from fire tests 
and tests with known disturbance values. The 
algorithm itself is based on rules derived from the 
experience of 5000 fire patterns. An alarm is trig- 


gered automatically only if the signal combination 
of the sensors corresponds to the specific pattern 
for a real fire. In addition, the multi-sensor 
algorithm parameters are adapted to application 
type to further optimise early fire detection and 
false-alarm immunity. They also enhance immunity 
from ambient influences such as dust, humidity 
and temperature variations. This ensures best-in- 
class differentiation between real fires and 
disturbances. 

Not content to rest on past successes, the com- 
pany has recently introduced three new variants to 
the 420 Series embodying innovative Dual Ray 
technology that, in combination with ISP, offers 
ultimate precision in smoke detection. 

Earliest detection of even the 
smallest smoke particles 

Bosch formerly offered four sensor vari- 
ants in the 420 Series: the FAH-T 420 
(heat detector), the FAP-0 420 (optical 
smoke detector), the FAP-OT 420 (multi- 
sensor detector optical, thermal) and the 
FAP-OTC 420 (multi-sensor detector 
optical, thermal, chemical). With the 
exception of the FAH-T 420, all feature a 
single optical smoke detector. The series 
has now been extended with new 
detector variants featuring a dual-optical 
smoke sensor based on the company's 
Dual Ray technology. 



18 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





PROFILE 


chnology 
re Detection 


It is commonly known that dis- 
tinguishing between steam, dust 
particles and smoke particles can 
be a challenge for some detectors. 

They also find it challenging to 
detect very light smoke with small 
particles produced by some open 
wood fires, particularly what are 
known as open cellulosic (wood) 
fire defined in practical tests as TF1 
fires. In the past, smoke from such 
fires could only be reliably detected 
using multi-criteria sensors or 
ionization detectors, the latter 
incorporating a small amount of 
radioactive material that detects any invisible 
smoke particles floating in the air and sets off an 
alarm. 

Some manufacturers have attempted to address 
this challenge using a combination of thermal 
sensor and dual-optical sensor based on forward 
and backward scattering of light from two LED 
sources of the same wavelength. First described by 
Gustav Mie in 1908, the Mie theory describes the 
scattering of light by particles larger than a wave- 
length. It is responsible for the white light in mist 
and fog and the white glare around street lamps. 
Mie scattering is strongly dependent on particle 
size - the larger the particles, the stronger the 
intensity of scattered light in the direction of the 
incident light. 

Bosch adopted quite a different dual-optical 
approach in its new precision Dual Ray technology. 
Although this is also based on the Mie scattering 
effect, Dual Ray technology takes advantage of 
the effect to determine smoke density and particle 
size from the ratio between the intensity of scat- 
tered light from two LED sources of differing 
wavelength (one infrared LED and one blue LED). 
The smoke density and particle size are used by 





Ultimate precision with Dual Ray Technology 

the detector's powerful fire-detection algorithm to 
provide even more reliable differentiation between 
smoke particles and other particles caused, for 
example, by disturbances such as dust and steam. 
This leads to earlier, more reliable fire detection 
and fewer false alarms. 

Three new variants featuring Bosch's new dual- 
optical sensor are being added to the FAP-420 
Series - the FAP-DO 420 (dual-optical smoke 
detector), the FAP-DOT 420 (multi-sensor detector 
dual-optical, thermal) and the FAP-DOTC 420 
(multi-sensor detector dual-optical, thermal, 
chemical). Their addition, which brings the total 
number of detectors in the series to seven, means 
that the 420 Series now provides optimal choice of 
detector variants meeting all likely application 
requirements. 

A unique combination 

As with the original members of the series, the 
new variants also feature Bosch's ISP technology, 
providing a unique combination of precision Dual 
Ray technology and the company's powerful 
fire-detection algorithm. They are all capable of 
detecting challenging TF1 test fires - even the 
FAP-DO 420, which embodies only the dual- 
optical sensor - and are the first 
detectors attested by VdS to TF1 
and TF8, in addition to the 
required test fires of EN54-7. 

Moreover, the dual-optical 
FAP-DO 420 offers a signifi- 
cant cost advantage over 
some competitor systems 
that require a multi-sensor 
detector (optical and thermal or 
dual-optical and thermal sensors) to pro- 
vide reliable detection of TF1 fires. The dual- 
optical detector can also make full use of the 
surveillance area at all times, in contrast to 
multi-sensor detectors in which 
the surveillance area may 
be reduced in certain oper- 
ating modes, for example, 
thermal only. D33 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


19 


FIRE ALARM PANEL BUYERS' GUIDE 


New voice Alarm command centres 


ADVANCED FIRE SYSTEMS has 
launched the AVISA Voice Alarm Com- 
mand Centres to complement and 
extend its AX Series fire panels and 
provide distributed digital audio, fire- 
fighters' telephone and multiple com- 
mand centre controls capabilities. 
Applications include high-rise and cam- 
pus style, wide-area network applica- 
tions that demand the most stringent 
engineering specifications. 

The combined AX 
Series and AVISA prod- 
uct range, comprising 
1-loop, 2-loop, and 
4-loop integrated sys- 
tems, shares a full range 
of advanced intelligent 
detection devices as 
well as system 
peripherals includ- 
ing remote LCD and LED annunciators, 



graphics controllers, BMS inter- 
faces, in-built panel printers, 
power supplies, audio boosters 
and firefighters' telephones. 

The products utilise the latest in 
surface-mount and flash-based 
microprocessor technology, and 
standard features include integral 
intelligent voltage and ammeters 
that aid installation and trouble- 
shooting. The IP Gateway™ 
provides a low cost solution for 
remote monitoring via email and 
alert text messages of alarm 
and/or fault conditions, while 
Windows-based programming tools 
offer simple select-and-click pro- 
gramming with built-in logic and 
error checking diagnostics. 


For more information go to 
www.afsi.us.com 


VDS 

Fire 


and BSl Approved 
Panels 


Big Solution for 
Small installations 



ADVANCED ELECTRONICS has launched phase one of the Mx-5000 series 
of analogue addressable fire control panels making it, the company says, 
the first UK-manufactured panel to be approved to EN54 part 2, 4 and 
part 13 by VDS and BSL 

New features include improved diagnostics showing a visual oscillo- 
scope, fire database management system, up to 2000 network zones and 
up to 200 control panels on a fault-tolerant network system. The product 
range, comprising a single-loop, dedicated 2 and 4-loop control panel 
series also includes a number of remote terminals and dedicated peripher- 
als and uses the latest in flash-based micro-processor technology combined 
with high intensity, fully programmable LCD Displays. . 

In addition to this, the product line includes a common PC-NET software 
programming package and PC-NET graphical control software, as well as 
remote diagnostics via ipGateway™ Internet portal. The Mx-5000 is fully 
backward-compatible with the Mx-4000 series and supports all of the 
latest analogue addressable field devices. 

For more information go to www.advel.co.uk 


BOSCH SECURITY SYSTEMS' Fire Panel 1200 Series for 
smaller installations offers fire protection in the one and 
two-loop segments, and is said to combine flexibility 
and ease-of-use with the reliability of the company's 
Modular Fire Panel Series. 

The 1200 Series panel is operated via an easy-to-use 
touch screen featuring a large LCD display and an 
intuitive user interface with a clear menu structure. In 



20 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





FIRE ALARM PANEL BUYERS' GUIDE 


addition, the panel offers various functions including the dis- 
play of extensive diagnostic information. Based on the LSN 
(Local Security Network) bus system, it offers a high level of 
system stability, and supports the full range of proven LSN 
peripheral components. It also provides synergies with the 
existing Modular Fire Panel family in relation to specification, 
configuration, maintenance and logistics. 

The 1200 Series also offers an extensive choice of rugged, 
encapsulated modules that can be hot swapped, which means 
that it is possible to replace modules in a running system. The 
standard deployment of the 1200 Series panel is one loop, 
although it can be easily extended to two loops with an addi- 
tional module. Up to three remote keypads can be connected 
to the 1200 Series panel, plus it is also possible to connect the 
panel to a fire monitoring or building management system. 

For more information go to www.boschsecurity.com 


Large Project 
Panel Enhanced 



The latest version of the Modular Fire Panel 5000 Series from BOSCH 
SECURITY SYSTEMS includes enhanced features that are aimed at 
greatly simplifying operation of the system, as well as making 
installation and networking much easier. 

The Modular Fire Panel 5000 Series panel now operates with a 
new serial interface for directly connecting the Bosch Plena Public 
Address and Voice Alarm system without any additional contact inter- 
faces. This reduces installation and hardware costs, particularly for 
projects with numerous evacuation zones. Fire panel networks can be 
easily tied together with the EVAC system that enables intelligent 
operation of the voice evacuation system via the fire panel. 

The modules are extremely rugged, with components protected by 
encapsulated housings to avoid damage from touching or static 
discharge. Regardless of the size of a building or site, only a few 
standard modules are required from which the customer can easily 
construct a tailor-made system. The system can be extended from one 
loop to up to 32 loops with more than 4,000 elements. A "hot plug" 
feature allows modules to be plugged in or removed for expansions or 
modifications while the panel is in operation. 

For more information go to www.boschsecurity.com 


Networkable 
Fire Panels 



>. 


All six of C-TEC's XFP networkable one and two-loop analogue 
addressable fire alarm panels have been tested for functionality and 
performance, comply with EN54 Parts 2 and 4 and are third-party 
approved by LPCB (Loss Prevention Certification Board). 

The XFP range is targeted at office blocks, shopping complexes 
and big industrial sites as well as smaller, stand-alone applications 
and, the company says, offers high performance at a very com- 
petitive price. It is available as a single-loop 16-zone panel in a 
plastic enclosure, or a robust one or two-loop 32-zone metal panel, 
offering full compatibility with Hochiki's ESP and Apollo's XP95, 
Discovery and Xplorer protocols. Features include two independently 
programmable conventional sounder circuits and the ability to 
interconnect up to eight XFP main panels onto a two-wire RS485 
network. The XFP is also fully compatible with C-TEC's new Hush 
Button fire alarm solution for Houses of Multiple Occupation. 

For more information go to www.c-tec.co.uk 

Conventional Panel 
Offering 

Three distinct ranges of con- 
ventional fire alarm panel 7 ., Hj 

are currently available from 
C-TEC: the CFP two to eight- 
zone EN54-2/4 fire panel; the 
MFP four to 28-zone BS5839- 
4 fire panel; and the FP one to CFP panel 

14-zone BS5839-4 fire panel. 

The CFP EN54 panel comes in three versions - standard, economy 
and LPCB-approved and is supplied in a flush or surface-mountable 
plastic enclosure. All come with two, four of eight detection circuits 
and feature four conventional sounder circuits, two inputs (class 
change and alert) and four outputs (fire one, fire two, fault and 
reset). Depending on the model purchased, an array of engineering 
functions is available including: selectable zone delays; coincidence; 
non-latching zones; and comprehensive fault diagnostics facilities. 
The CFP is fully compliant with EN54 parts 2 & 4, the European 
standard for fire alarm control and indicating equipment. 

The MFP four to 28-zone fire panel was designed to fill what C-Tec 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


21 



FIRE ALARM PANEL BUYERS' GUIDE 



MFP panel 


perceived as the gap between low cost, 
low specification fire panels and higher 
priced, higher specification equipment. 
Expandable from four to 28 zones in four 
zone steps, the MFP's four sounder cir- 
cuits, head-out fault indication and two 
on-board fire relays, plus its compatibility 


with a wide range of expansion boards 
makes it one of the most sophisticated 
BS5839-4 compliant fire panels available. 
It offers a wide range of engineer func- 
tions including: one-man detector test; 
sounder walk test; sounder isolate; 
sounder delay; and auxiliary isolate. 

The FP one to 14-zone panel has been 
protecting people and property for almost 
two decades. Like the MFP, it is supplied in 
a robust metal enclosure with a lift-off lid 
and heavy-duty base connections to help 
promote an easy first fix and straight- 
forward maintenance. The FP's broad 
compatibility with virtually all known con- 
ventional smoke and heat detector ranges 
and its ability to interpret a short circuit in 
any zone or zones as a fire or fault make it 
particularly useful for retro-installations. 
Optional head out monitoring units are 



FP panel 

also available for systems requiring compli- 
ance with BS5839-1 (1988). 

For more information go to 
www.c-tec.co.uk 

Upgrade 

Improves 

Commissioning 

Process 



Nano is the latest fire detection control panel 
from GENT BY HONEYWELL This single-loop 
analogue addressable panel is aimed at small 
sites that require improved fire sensing and 
evacuation options, and offers a simple cause- 
and-effect, which can be configured by a simple 
and easy to use PC commissioning tool. 

Incorporating an intuitive user interface, Nano 
manages up to 127 devices on the loop and offers 
end users a smaller system that benefits from the 
support of Vigilon's loop technology that supports 
a range of devices: S-Quad sensors; interfaces; 
beams; manual call points; and S-Cubed sounders. 

Gent by Honeywell launched a system 
upgrade in April 2010. An improved commis- 
sioning process allows changes or the addition 
of devices to be managed easily and quickly, 
while offline commissioning enables the system 
to be configured before the commissioning 
engineer attends the site. 

For more information go to 
www.gent.co.uk 



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22 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 







FIRE ALARM PANEL BUYERS' GUIDE 


Mid-range Panel is 
EN54 Compliant 

Vigilon Compact is a one to two-loop panel 
designed for small-to-medium systems and 
uses VIGILON technology, offering the 
capability of networking with other Com- 
pact or Vigilon panels on the same centrally 
managed system. 

Sixty percent smaller than a standard Vig- 
ilon panel, Compact incorporates an intuitive 
user interface allowing the user to determine 
quickly the position and nature of an emer- 
gency. This can be enhanced by the use of 
the WINMAG PC-based graphical manage- 
ment application or a loop-based mimic 
panel. Repeat panels relay all information 
provided from the main control panel and provide main control functions. 

The Gent by Honeywell analogue addressable panel fully complies with 
EN54: Parts 2 & 4 and can accommodate up to 200 devices on a loop, 
supporting a range of devices: S-Quad sensors; interfaces; beams; manual 
call points; and S-Cubed sounders. 

A recent addition to the Vigilon range is a newly enhanced mains 
powered interface, designed to comply with BS 7273, a standard concern- 
ing the critical signal path between fire detection and alarm systems and 
release mechanisms for fire doors. Controlled by the panel, the new loop- 
based interface will maintain the integrity of fire compartments, even with 
a fault on the system. 



Panel Offers Ease 
of Programming 


The VIGILON analogue address- 
able fire detection and alarm 
system from Gent by Honeywell 
is targeted at medium-to-large 
buildings and is promoted as 
being simple to install, configure 
and use. It offers a range of con- 
trol panels that can be installed 
either as four or six-loop stand 
alone panels, or as part of a 
multi-panel network, easily pro- 
grammable as one system. This 
seamless network can contain 
up to 200 panels, with the capa- 
bility to add new buildings or extensions after installation. 

In common with Nano and Vigilon Compact, the Vigilon's 
loop supports a range of devices, and each loop is capable of 
supporting up to 200 devices with a maximum of 512 detection 
devices on each panel. 

Available with 24 or 72-hour standby facilities, its flexible 
loop architecture makes it suitable for any type of building. The 
Vigilon architecture offers soft addressing that can minimise 
installation time and remove potential for manual addressing 
errors. A specifiable option is SAFE (Soft Addressed Fireware 
Encoded) that makes management simpler post installation and 
commissioning. 


For more information go to www.gent.co.uk 


For more information go to www.gent.co.uk 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


23 









FIRE ALARM PANEL BUYERS' GUIDE 


Conventional Panel 
Offers Eight-zone 
Coverage 


HBI 


The option from Gent 
by Honeywell for 
small building premises 
requiring coverage for 
up to eight zones is 
the Xenex panel that is 
compliant with EN54 
part 2 & 4 and con- 
tains integral power 
supply and battery 
support to drive up to 
eight alarm sounder circuits, two auxiliary relay contacts, a zone 
disablement facility and a one-man test and commissioning 
feature. 

Designed to achieve ease to installation, use and main- 
tenance, the system supports up to eight sounder circuits, allow- 
ing fire detection and sounder circuits to be connected in one 
four-core cable. Its compatibility with a range of low current 
devices also means the system can support greater numbers 
added to the loop if required. The Xenex panel has a 72 hour 
standby provision, guaranteeing a functioning system for up to 
72 hours following a mains power fault. 


Analogue and 
Conventional Options 

The Syncro AS single or 
two-loop analogue 
addressable fire control 
panel from KENTEC 
supports open protocol 
communications, includ- 
ing Apollo, Argus Vega 
and Hochiki, and uses 
microprocessor-based 
electronics to provide 
what the company 
describes as a flexible 
control system with 
high reliability and 
integrity. It is aimed at 
small to medium sized 
fire detection systems. 

Utilising the two- 
wire technology of Apollo's AlarmSense®, Kentec's new fast-setup 
Sigma CP-A two, four and eight-zone fire alarm control and indi- 
cating panels permit rapid system configuration of compatible 
devices. These include smoke and heat detectors, call points, base 
sounders, base sounder/beacons and relay units, which can be 
wired to the same pair of cables, for common, zonal or two-stage 
alarm using simple menu options on the panel. 



For more information go to www.gent.co.uk 


For more information go to www.kentec.co.uk 


Panels for all Building Types 



DX Range 





; r.»xu> aU3a ’“ 







"•cun 



Z X Range 



The open protocol fire alarm control 
panels from MORLEY-IAS support five 
industry-leading detection device proto- 
cols. The current offering includes Horizon, 
Dimension and ZX panels. 

The Horizon non-addressable control 
panel is designed for small shop or ware- 
house units, nursery schools and doctors' 
surgeries, while the Dimension analogue 
addressable control panels provide what is 
described as an "out of the box, onto the 
wall" solution for such applications as 
larger shops, offices and banks. 



The Morley-IAS ZX range of one, two 
and five-loop modular, intelligent fire 
alarm control panels is suitable for protect- 
ing all types of property. The panels' 
power and flexibility is said to make them 
capable of even the most complex installa- 
tion or multi-site network. With up to 99 
panels on a single network, and a choice 
of networking configurations, the ZX 
Series is suited to a broad range of appli- 
cations, from schools and universities to 
shopping centres, cinemas, hospitals and 
airports. 

For more information go to 
www.morleyias.com 


24 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



When asset protection matters most. 
DuPont™ FM-200® 


DuPont™ FM-200® clean agent can reach extinguishing levels 
in 10 seconds or less, stopping ordinary combustible, 
electrical, and flammable liquid fires before they cause 
significant damage. When fire is extinguished that quickly, 
it means less damage, lower repair costs, and an extra margin 
of safety for employees and valuable assets— making it easier 
to keep your business running smoothly. 

Make sure your business is protected with the most 
widely specified clean agent in the world. Get maximum 
protection with DuPont™ FM-200® 


1.800.473.7790 

cleanagents.dupont.com 


'JFM-200 


DuPont Fire Extinguishants. The Science of Protection.™ 


dan® 


The miracles of science 


Copyright © 2010 DuPont. The DuPont Oval Logo, DuPont ™, The miracles of science™, 
The Science of Protection™, and FM-200® are trademarks or registered trademarks 
of Ed. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 


i 








Fulleon 









World Class 

Leaders in audible & visual alarm systems 

■ Variety of markets catered for including: 

■ Fire 

■ Industrial 

■ Security 

■ Hazardous Areas 

■ Product for indoor and outdoor use 

■ Diverse range of applications 

■ High efficiency, low current designs 

■ Compliant with a wide range 

of standards 


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26 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 







By Rick Love 

Notifier by Honeywell 


The Crowing 
Role Of voice in 
Fire Safety 


Research shows that more people respond to spoken message alarms than either 
alarm bells or text messages. 


S ome years ago, a survey found that, in the 
event of a fire, only 13 percent of people 
responded to a bell warning: by contrast, 45 
percent reacted to a written text message display 
and some 75 percent to a spoken message. 

The results of this earlier study may not perhaps 
be very surprising. However, as the latest research 
undertaken on behalf of Notifier has confirmed, 
the overwhelming majority of the general public 
and industry specialists alike believe that over the 
past five years the world around us has since 
become even noisier. 

And this is especially worrying, as the new 
research also identified that fewer than ten per- 
cent of the general public always think about how 
to get out of a building, whether or not they use it 
regularly. In the event of a fire alarm, a common 
response is first to assume that it is a false alarm 
and then "follow other people around me" rather 
than adhere to the safety instructions. 


Bells and sounders can only provide a warning 
that there is some kind of emergency, but it is not 
always obvious what kind of emergency it is. By 
contrast, a clear spoken message and a VA/PA 
system provide the information needed to direct the 
public or employees away from danger and out of 
the building in the most efficient way possible. 

Fighting to be heard 

The recent surveys, which enabled a comparison 
of the views of fire safety professionals attending a 
Construction CPD seminar with those of the 
general public, found some interesting similarities 
in how each group would react in an emergency 
situation. The overwhelming majority of the public 
(86 percent) and industry specialists (74 percent) 
believe that the world is a noisier place than five 
years ago. 

Yet this is taking some time to feed through to 
expectations regarding the provision of appropriate 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


27 


A | A D M C 

THE GROWING ROLE OF VOICE IN FIRE SAFETY 

ALAKIVI j 




fire safety messaging. In the event of a fire alarm, 
89 percent of the public, and 77 percent of indus- 
try experts expect to hear a bell or other audible 
sounder, with only 12 percent and 20 percent 
respectively anticipating a standard or more 
detailed kind of loudspeaker announcement. Yet 
well over half (57 percent) of the public are already 
certain that they would respond more quickly to a 
voice alarm in evacuating a building, with a further 
32 percent as yet not sure how they would react. 

This lack of directional information is critical, as 
only six percent of the public always think about 
how to get out a building in an emergency in 
which they are regular occupants and only three 
percent in those buildings where they are occa- 
sional visitors. Equally worryingly, two-thirds rarely, 
if at all, think about evacuation procedures as reg- 
ular occupants. This rises to almost 90 percent in 
buildings they use infrequently. 

Although professionally more aware of the 
risks, more than 40 per cent of industry experts 
also rarely or never think about how to get out 
of any building, whether or not they use such 
facilities regularly. 

In the event of a fire alarm, 40 percent of the 
public (and 26 percent of industry experts) would 
instinctively follow the people around them and 
only 29 percent would use the nearest exit. In the 
case of both the public and industry experts, more 
than one quarter (26 percent) would assume it is a 
false alarm until advised otherwise. 

As a result, it has become more important than 
ever to ensure that staff, residents and visitors 
alike are able to respond quickly and correctly to a 




fire warning. In response, sophisticated and intu- 
itive voice alarm systems have evolved to form a 
key part of comprehensive fire detection and 
alarm systems, designed for complex environments 
in which individuals will respond to warnings in 
different ways. 

These integrated solutions benefit both building 
users and firefighters called to deal with the emer- 
gency, as they are able easily to take over the 
Voice Alarm/Public Address (VA/PA) system to 
broadcast individualised messages, in order to 
ensure a rapid yet controlled evacuation from any 
part of the premises at risk. 

An integrated response 

In the 1980s, early voice alarm systems in the UK 
and Europe were typically message generators 
bolted onto an existing PA system, with a simple 
trigger mechanism from the fire alarm to play a 
pre-set message over the loudspeakers. 

However, over the past two decades its capabil- 
ity has been extended, replacing earlier sounder 
circuits with the development of an integrated and 
monitored VA/PA approach. This enables messag- 
ing such as paging, information announcements, 
advertisements and the provision of background 
music in public access areas such as shopping cen- 
tres, railway stations and sports stadia. It maximis- 
es the value of their investment and provides 
customers and visitors with a more comprehensive 
service and in the safest possible environment. 

Technical developments, especially in the area 
of digital signal processing, have made it much 
easier to manage VA/PA systems. PC-controlled 
site-configurable routing and set-ups have 
replaced the costly and high-maintenance hard 
wiring and relays previously required and the 
resulting audio quality is also much improved. 

Today's advanced VA/PA solutions are much 
more cost-effective in that they require fewer 
amplifiers. They are much easier for operators to 
use, as the microphone stations use the latest 
LCD-type screen technology to direct and control 
announcements. For larger implementations, the 
best network systems can carry up to 32 audio 
channels on a fibre channel interface up to two 
kilometres between stations. This means that a 
single integrated VA/PA system managing multiple 
channels of music, general announcements and 
fire safety information makes it easy to manage 
large multi-purpose premises and public arenas. 

Continuous development 

With the emergence of voice over IP (VoIP) 
networks, work is also underway to enhance the 


28 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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A 1 A D M C 

THE GROWING ROLE OF VOICE IN FIRE SAFETY 

ALAKIVI j 




ability to link multiple buildings together across 
large sites in an integrated, cost effective and 
easy-to-use VA/PA solution. This forms part of a 
broader drive towards greater networkability, 
designed to improve system implementation and 
maintenance and ensure greater security in linking 
locations with a single integrated solution. 

However, an area of historic concern that is 
receiving much attention is that of intelligibility, as 
there is no point in having a VA/PA system in 
which messages being transmitted cannot be 
understood. The reason for this problem is that 
the sound that is sent from a traditional speaker is 
essentially undirected. As a result, it bounces off 
the floor, walls and is reflected off other surfaces, 
each of which reaches the ear at slightly different 
times, so leading to aural confusion. 


anticipated to come into effect in the next two to 
three years. As with the UK's Equality Act, October 
2010, the driver here is to protect those who 
cannot hear a sounder or alarm or who work in 
areas where there are significant ambient noise 
levels such as workshops or manufacturing 
environments. 

In line with the current US standards - which, 
for example, require lights in a hotel environment 
to be bright enough to wake people from a light 
sleep - the impending regulation will determine 
how bright visual devices should be. This presents a 
major technical challenge in getting sufficient 
power to the device and may promote a change of 
thinking. Instead of looking simply at improve- 
ments to the light or sound-based warning device, 
with improvements in wireless technology, an 
alternative may lie in the direction of personal 
alarm devices such as pager or vibrator solutions. 

Other compliance demands 

Though awareness as to the importance of voice is 
growing, the uptake of such products is still rela- 
tively slow. VA/PA solutions are principally used 
only as directed by the fire authority, or where the 
provision of a PA system to meet other needs 
makes the incremental cost significantly lower 
than where a simple upgrade from sounders is 
being considered. 

Having said that, though budgets may be under 
extreme pressure, compliance demands have 
increased in requiring safe and environmentally- 
friendly public venues. As a result, almost without 
exception today in buildings requiring phased 
evacuation, any fire safety solution is likely to 
include an element of voice as part of a compre- 
hensive detection and response strategy. 

And, as the Notifier survey confirmed, most of 
the public are certain that they would respond 
more quickly to a voice alarm in evacuating a 


With the emergence of voice over IP (VoIP) networks, work is 
also underway to enhance the ability to link multiple buildings 
together across large sites in an integrated, cost effective 
and easy-to-use va/pa solution. 


Rick Love is Senior Product 
Manager, Notifier by 
Honeywell 


For more information go to 
www.notifier.com 


Speaker technology has remained essentially 
unchanged for many decades. However, "intelli- 
gent" speakers are now available to meet 
specialist applications such as large facilities with 
acoustic problems, including noisy railway stations 
or swimming pools. The intelligent line array 
speaker, for example, is a tall column which splits 
the sound beam in three different lobes. From a 
single speaker therefore, it has become possible to 
direct the sound where required with real 
precision. Such solutions are also cost-effective. 
For though an individual line array speaker is more 
expensive, fewer are required within an installation 
due to their more targeted performance. This also 
impacts positively on the cost of installation and 
on-going maintenance. 

Regulatory changes 

One area of fire safety regulation likely to be 
subject to change in the near future is that of 
visual alarm devices under EN54 Part 23, 


building, so endorsing the effectiveness of this 
approach to enabling faster, safer evacuation. 

On a day-to-day basis, the latest VA/PA 
solutions operate just like an advanced PA system. 
Individual microphones with touch screen displays 
allow the broadcasting of background music and 
announcements. However, in an emergency the 
system will react, delivering spoken messages 
appropriate to the event and the occupants of 
each location within the premises. For situations 
that demand more specific responses, an emer- 
gency microphone can be controlled simply and 
easily. 

The life safety industry continues to place a high 
development priority on the addition of voice to its 
armoury of fire detection and response solutions. 
As a result, from a technology viewpoint this is no 
longer a mysterious "dark art", as cost-effective 
VA/PA solutions are now available which enhance 
the user experience, in providing a wide range of 
safety and other information messages. D33 


30 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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WATERMIST 


HI-FOG pop-out 
sprinkler 



By Graham Collins 


For more information go to 
www.marioff.com or 
www.aquasys.at 


Watermist Systems B 



Watermist installations are growing apace. However, when we talk about 
land-based system we inevitably refer to systems that are protecting buildings. 
So here we look at two other land-based applications - rail rolling stock and 
tunnels, for which at least two of the leading suppliers have recently introduced 
new solutions. 


R ail safety is attracting considerable attention, 
as is tunnel safety. Both seem to be the sub- 
ject of a number of recent conferences and 
seminars. So perhaps now is a good time to take a 
closer look at the latest offerings from the leading 
watermist specialists in these particular sectors. 

As far as rail safety is concerned, there are two 
fire risks that need to be addressed. The first is the 
protection of engines, motors, generators, control 
systems and under-carriage areas; the other is the 
protection of passenger carriages that, due to the 
number of passengers being carried, represents 
the greater life threatening challenge. Both make 
considerable demands in terms of the fire, emer- 
gency response and evacuation strategies, having 
to take into account the frequent lack of access to 
the location of the emergency, the escape chal- 
lenges faced by passengers, and the possible time 
delay before the emergency services can intervene 
to prevent a major catastrophe. 

Rail protection systems 

Two of the leading watermist companies have 
recently devised solutions specifically for these 
applications - Finnish company, Marrioff and 
Austrian watermist specialist, Aquasys Technik. 


At the recent Innotrans exhibition in Berlin, 
Marioff launched and demonstrated its new 
HI-FOG® high-pressure water mist system pop-out 
sprinklers for rolling stock. They feature horizontal 
heat bulbs that minimise the height of the 
sprinkler, making them easy to install and unobtru- 
sive. Additionally, the sprinkler is concealed under 
a protective plate that cuts the risk of vandalism. 

After the new Marioff system is activated, heat- 
sensitive sprinklers are designed to react only near 
the actual fire, which helps reduce the discharge 
area and increase pressure on the sprinklers, 
improving the firefighting performance. This smaller 
discharge area also results in better visibility and 
less water damage, and space and weight 
demands are minimised because less water is 
required. 

According to Marioff, one of the key drivers 
behind this development is the Italian legislation 
Decreto Gallerie, which requires active fire protec- 
tion for all new rolling stock after April 2011. 
Existing rolling stock must be retro-fitted to com- 
ply with the legislation by April 2019. Marioff's 
Italy-based Key Account Manager, Rolling Stock, 
Francesco Capuzzi, believes that the call for water- 
mist fire protection in rolling stock is growing 


32 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



WATERMIST SYSTEMS BOOST TRAVELLER SAFETY 

Ifll ATE D M 1 CT 


VVAI tKIVII J 1 


oost Traveller safety 



Rome station 


steadily and he expects current demand to double 
within the next five years. 

The Aquasys railway fire protection system sets 
out to fulfil a number of key objectives alongside 
those of predictable reliability, speed and efficiency. 
These are to provide a solution that is completely 
harmless to rolling stock passengers and fire- 
fighters, and have the lowest possible weight 
while taking up the minimum amount of space. 
The low water demand of these systems means 
that they can be easily installed undercarriage, on 
the roof and even in the intermediate ceilings of 
passenger compartments. 

Tunnel safety solution 

Aquasys has also developed an effective watermist 
system for firefighting in tunnels. Upon detection 
of a fire, watermist is produced in the affected 
section of the tunnel. The small water droplets 
evaporate, which creates an enormous cooling 
effect. Additionally, the watermist acts like a 
countless number of reflectors that drastically 
minimise heat flux radiation. As it uses pure 
water, it is harmless for tunnel occupants and 
firefighters alike and the environment, so can be 
activated throughout the evacuation stage of the 
emergency. 

The system sets out to achieve three key 
objectives: prevent the fire from spreading to other 
vehicles; enable the fire and rescue service to 
safely access the scene of the fire; and protect the 
tunnel structure. 

The structure of a tunnel leads to a rapid 
increase in temperature and the production of 
large volumes of smoke that cannot escape. These 


challenges can be difficult to overcome using con- 
ventional methods; increasing the risk to travellers 
trapped in the tunnel, and increasing the threat to 
vehicles and the very structure of the tunnel itself. 
These challenges have to be quickly overcome. 

The Aquasys solution is what the company calls 
Rapid Fire Control (RFC), whereby specially formu- 
lated water forms a mist that contains the fire by 
extracting energy and displacing oxygen in the 
shortest possible time. Cleansing of the smoke 
gases aids in the preservation of the oxygen con- 
tent in the tunnel. 

The first road tunnel with an Aquasys system 
was the 800-metre Mona Lisa Tunnel in Austria; a 
two-lane road tunnel with bi-directional traffic. 
Other tunnel project to use the system included 
the 5300-metre Felbertauerntunnel in the Alps. 
This bi-directional tunnel is constructed with an 
intermediate ceiling above the traffic lanes that 
accommodates exhaust and fresh air ducts. The 
fresh air duct is also used as an escape route in 
case of an incident. 

In the Netherlands, two new road tunnels have 
been recently equipped with Aquasys watermist 
firefighting systems. Both, the 2000-metre Roer- 
tunnel in Roermond - currently the longest land 
tunnel for road traffic in the Netherlands - and the 
400-metre Swalmen tunnel are constructed with 
two bores, each having two lanes, operating 
uni-directional traffic. In both of these projects a 
particular focus was placed on protecting the 
building structure, so aqueous foam forming addi- 
tives (AFFA) were added to the water to enhance 
the watermist system's effectiveness suppressing 
incidents that involve combustible liquids. D33 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


33 


SUPPRESSION 



By Kurt Werner 

Environmental Affairs 
Manager, 3M 


Clouds in The Fore 



For users of HFC-based fire protection systems, the future is anything but clear. 


T here is a lot of confusion within the fire 
protection industry about the ultimate impact 
of global policy, legislative and regulatory 
initiatives on HFCs [hydrofluorocarbons]. Although 
it is quite clear there will be restrictions on, or 
added costs for, the continued use of HFCs in fire 
protection, the exact nature of the restrictions or 
the magnitude of the cost increases are difficult to 
predict. 

Compared with the phase-out of ozone-deplet- 
ing substances in the 1990s under the Montreal 
Protocol, predicting the fate of HFCs is proving 
to be more complex. For one thing, it appears 
that not all HFC markets will be affected in the 
same way. Substantial applications within the air 
conditioning, refrigeration and foam blowing 
sectors have no viable alternatives at this time, 
while others, such as fire protection, do. Either 
through market dynamics governed by the 
proposed HFC phase-down under the Montreal 
Protocol, in the US via Congress, or through direct 
regulatory measures, the fate of HFCs in fire 
protection is unclear. This is creating an entirely 
uncertain timetable for the designers, manufac- 
turers, installers and owners of fire protection 
systems. 

If you are using a suppression agent such as 
3M™ Novec™ 1230 Fire Protection Fluid in your 
fixed system, you have already made a sustainable 
choice, and the phase-down of HFCs will not 
directly affect you. If not, let us take a look at 


some of the issues likely to impact the fire protec- 
tion industry in the years to come. 

Environmental concerns are at the heart of the 
matter, just like they were 16 years ago when 
HFCs were accepted as an alternative to halons 
and other ozone-depleting substances. Today, the 
widespread and growing use of HFCs as ozone 
depleting substance replacements, coupled with 
their high global warming potentials, has them 
targeted as a potentially significant future contrib- 
utor to global warming and climate change. HFC 
emissions in 2050 are projected to be between 
nine and 19 percent of projected global C0 2 
emissions in business-as-usual scenarios. 

Concerns are also growing about the future 
impact of emissions from banked HFCs stored in 
equipment such as fire protection systems. It is 
important to note that the HFCs used as fire 
suppressants have higher global warming 
potentials than the HFCs used in other industries. 

The impact of proposed climate- protection legis- 
lation on the fire protection industry is a topic of 
much debate. The U.S. House of Representatives 
last year passed the American Clean Energy and 
Security Act of 2009. This legislation included HFC 
provisions that would, through allocation and 
auction, phase-down the production and import 
of HFCs by 85 percent between 2010 and 2032. A 
concurrent proposal by the US, Canada, and 
Mexico would add HFCs to the Montreal Protocol 
and phase-down their production internationally 


34 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




CLOUDS IN THE FORECAST 

CIIDDDCCCinM 


jUrrKtjjIUN 


cast 



by 85 percent by 2033 in developed countries and 
by 2043 in developing nations. 

This phase-down will, over time, lead to sub- 
stantially higher costs for HFCs. One concern is 
that the mechanisms through which HFC pro- 
duction allowances would be auctioned may be 
disproportionately unfavourable to HFCs sold into 
fire protection. As already noted, these HFCs 
have higher global worming potentials than HFCs 
sold into other sectors, and ultra-low global 
warming potential replacements are already 
available - unlike in many other HFC sectors. In 
effect, this disparity would add a higher tax at the 
national level on the production of HFCs for fire 
protection. 


It is also likely that HFC auction costs will be 
driven far off the legislated minimums before the 
large commodity markets move to the substitutes. 
And, as the market is intended to encourage the 
most effective reductions to occur first, it is possible 
that the fire protection market, where substitution 
costs are far more modest, may be the first to 
move. It is important to consider the possibility that 
the HFC phase-down supported by HFC producers 
may turn their commodity HFC markets back into 
specialty markets, but this may not be favourable 
for HFCs sold into fire protection. 

Another potential path to HFC regulation was 
revealed in May, 2010 when the US's Environmental 
Protection Agency received a petition to selectively 


The widespread and growing use of HFCs as ozone depleting 
substance replacements, coupled with their high global warming 
potentials, has them targeted as a potentially significant future 
contributor to global warming and climate change. 


Not everyone agrees, however. Some suggest 
that market mechanisms might work in favour of 
HFCs produced for fire protection. They argue that 
low global worming potential materials will enter 
the commodity markets and replace hydrofluoro- 
carbon refrigerants, which may free up lower cost 
production allowances for producing HFC fire 
suppressants. 

But, arguably, the most important considera- 
tions remain the availability of HFC substitutes 
in large commodity sectors - relative to the 
proposed phase-down schedule - and their costs. 
Substitutes in fire protection come at a very 
modest premium to HFCs and already have a 
substantial market share. Alternatives currently 
being developed for other HFC sectors are likely to 
enter the market at costs measured in multiples 
rather than percentages. 


remove an HFC from the list of acceptable substi- 
tutes under its Significant New Alternatives Policy 
Program (SNAP), based on the availability of low 
global worming potential substitutes. This perhaps 
is a more expedient route to the regulation of 
HFCs, and may have a dramatic impact on HFCs 
sold into the fire protection sector where alterna- 
tives are also readily available for the vast majority 
of applications. 

As the old saying goes, the only certainty is 
uncertainty, especially given that today's fire 
protection systems are intended to last well into a 
most uncertain future. The good news is that 
available alternatives to HFCs, such as Novec 
1230, offer a favourable environmental profile and 
much greater sustainability. And choosing a 
sustainable alternative today could help make your 
future a lot less cloudy. D33 


Kurt Werner is 3M 
Environmental Affairs 
Manager. 


For further information go to 
www.3m.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


35 



TUNNEL SAFETY 


Deluge Protection 
For Spain's lfielha 
Tunnel 


The Vielha Tunnel was once identified by the European Commission as one of 
Europe's most unsafe tunnels. Today, it is the first tunnel in Spain to be protected 
by a deluge fire protection system. 



By Pedro Valcarcel 

Fire Protection Market 
Manager, Victaulic 


Pedro Valcarcel is Fire 
Protection Market Manager 
for Victaulic in Spain 


For more information go to 
www.victaulic.com 


T he five-kilometre Vielha Tunnel in the munici- 
pality of Vielha e Mijaran links France to 
Catalonia and was once identified by the 
European Commission as one of Europe's most 
unsafe tunnels. In 2002 the Spanish Government 
decided to make a major investment in safety with 
the roll-out of a €300 million improvement plan; a 
project that involved the creation of a totally new 
tunnel close to the original site and the implemen- 
tation of a new deluge fire safety system - the first 
of its kind in Spain. 

The main advantages of deluge systems are 
their ability to rapidly lower temperatures, to cut 
the advance of fires, and to protect structures 
against potential collapse. So they are used 
principally in locations where the spread of fire can 
be very rapid, or where the consequences of fires 
can be devastating. This includes airport hangars, 
refineries, chemical plants and armaments fac- 
tories ... and tunnels. 

In Japan, deluge systems have been used for 
the past four decades, while in the United States 
there are six tunnels equipped with such systems. 
European installations include the Mona Lisa 
Tunnel in Austria - a deluge system using water- 
mist -while in Germany, France and Italy feasibility 
studies are being undertaken. 

Safety first 

Since the completion of the installation of the 
deluge system, the Vielha tunnel received a 
EuroTAP ++ rating (excellent) and has been 
assessed as being an example of how a deluge 
system installation should be carried out. 

Now one of the safest tunnels in the world, it 
features evacuation galleries every 400 metres, 
safety recesses every 200 metres, semi-transversal 
ventilation, and a fire prevention network for 
water along the tunnel, with hydrants and a 
deluge system with spray nozzles. Emergency 
beacons, Closed Circuit Television (CCTV), smoke 
detection and automatic incident detection were 
also implemented. During construction, to min- 
imise the use of welding, and reduce associated 
risks from toxic fumes and fire hazards, a grooved 
mechanical piping system was used. 

The high altitude tunnel posed a number of 
unusual challenges - not least of which was its 
corrosive environment. Damage was reduced by 
using stainless steel for exposed piping and the 
burying of ductile iron pipe. 

The Victaulic FireLock® fire protection system 
was selected because it delivered a reduction in 
installation time of over 70 percent. Victaulic stain- 



less steel rigid and flexible couplings were used for 
sections exposed to the fierce elements, and all 
sprinkler system joints used Victaulic grooved 
mechanical couplings that were made in accor- 
dance with the NFPA 13. 

Deluge in action 

The Vielha fire extinguishing system feeds nozzles 
that are over 100 metres from the municipal 
reservoirs. There are three pumps - two electrical 
and one diesel - each capable of supplying 50 
percent of the total requirement, and pressure 
maintenance is ensured through a jockey pump. 

There is a height difference of more than 200 
metres between the north and south entrances so, 
to prevent pressure exceeding 16 bars, there are a 
series of pressure reduction stations. Deluge valves 
also function as pressure reducing turn valves, 
adjusted to around five bars, while hydrants and fire 
hose cabinets also act as valve pressure regulators. 

The Vielha system is equipped with a detection 
line and an extinction line. This uses nozzles and 
is kept empty; deluge valves are opened only by 
manual activation. When the deluge valves are 
opened, the water discharges from all of the 
nozzles. Systems can be activated locally at a manual 
pull station, or from the control centre. An electrically- 
activated deluge valve with a pressure control is 
used, and there is a deluge station positioned every 
50 metres so, in total, the project called for the 
installation of more than 100 independent systems. 

A range of triple-nozzles is fitted every five 
metres in the tunnel to protect against fire, and the 
pressure is maintained at five bars. The ventilation 
system is semi-transversal with vents on the ceil- 
ing, the main objectives being to maintain air 
quality and guarantee control of smoke in the 
event of a fire. m 


36 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





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system on floating roof tanks. Experience 
and developments for over 40 years on this 
application is incorporated in the current 
CFI-system: 

^ Fully integrated early detection and fast acting 
automatic extinguishing gaseous system 
^ Environmental friendly CFI-gas leaving no residue 
Far better extinguishing capability than Halon 
^ Complete roof-mounted modular design 
^ Simple installation and easy maintenance 
^ Optional wireless monitoring to control room 
^ Installed on over 3000 tanks in 120 different 
countries 

^ Vds system approval 

Saval B.V. 

P.O. Box 3499 
4800 DL Breda 
The Netherlands 
Tel: +31 76 5487000 
Fax: +31 76 5417922 
Web: www.saval.nl 
E-mail: systems@saval.nl 


VdS 


RIM SEAL FIRE DETECTION & EXTINGUISHMENT 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


37 



The 


VENTILATION 


Smoke Screen: 
Smoke 



By James Lane 


Principal Fire 
Consultant, Hilson 
Moran 


Fire safety and compliance with statutory regulations have a major influence 
on building form and design. Although the subject is universally referred to 
as fire safety, should it really be considered as fire and smoke safety? 


F or millennia, the human race has used the 
controlled production of smoke from the 
combustion of known fuels to its advantage; 
from a rudimentary signalling system to a means 
of preserving food or even fumigating our living 
space. 

But when the production of smoke is accidental 
and the amount and composition is not controlled, 
smoke very quickly becomes one of the greatest 
hazards in the built environment. We have 
probably all experienced an unfavourable wind 
direction blowing bonfire smoke at us; a cough or 
two and maybe some streaming eyes. So when 
we hear about a casualty suffering from smoke 
inhalation it never strikes us as particularly serious. 
In the open air, our bonfire smoke will be relatively 
cool. Smoke that is produced by an intense fire 
within a building could be extremely hot and 
contain toxic gases causing burns to the skin and 
possibly to the pulmonary system. According to 
the 2007 fire statistic for the UK: 

• 64 percent of all fire fatalities involved some 
contribution from the effects of smoke. 

• 44 percent of all fire fatalities were attributed 
to the effects of smoke alone. 


The statistics on fire deaths and injuries indicate 
that it is the presence of smoke that will herald the 
onset of untenable conditions. So how might we 
avoid exposure to fire smoke and extend the ASET 
value beyond the RSET? 

Know your enemy 

Before we can effectively manage smoke, we 
should understand first what it is and what governs 
its behaviour. Smoke is produced by the chemical 
breakdown of a fuel. Pyrolysis releases chemicals 
into the flame where rapid oxidation liberates: 

• Waste gases (often toxic and noxious, causing 
irritation to the skin, eyes, nose and throat 
and containing cyanide and oxides of carbon 
inducing asphyxiation). 

• Solid particles (in the form of soot, which is 
mainly unburned fuel and pyrolised carbon that 
has not been fully oxidised). 

• Liquids (significantly water, but may include 
condensed forms of the gases above). 

And, of course, potentially large quantities of 
heat. In fact, approximately two-thirds of the heat 
produced in a fire is transferred by convection into 
the smoke plume. 


in 2007 in the UK, 64 percent of all fire fatalities involved 
some contribution from the effects of smoke, while 
44 percent of all fire fatalities were attributed to the 
effects of smoke alone. 


• 29 percent of non-fatal fire injuries were from 
the effects of smoke. 

• 16 percent of non-fatal fire injuries were from 
burns (which include combined smoke and 
burns injuries). 

If we consider that 44 percent of non-fatal 
injuries were for people admitted to hospital for a 
check-up but with no serious injury, then it 
becomes apparent that smoke is responsible for a 
majority of deaths and injuries in fires, more than 
the direct effects of burns from the fire itself. 

The underlying concept for fire engineering is to 
design the means of escape so that occupants will 
be able to escape to a place of safety before 
untenable conditions are reached. This can be 
expressed as RSET<ASET, where: 

RSET = Required Safe Egress Time (time taken 
to reach a safe place). 

ASET = Available Safe Egress Time (time taken 
for conditions to become untenable). 


The heat contained in the smoke gives the 
plume buoyancy over the surrounding air, which is 
the driving force behind the spread of smoke 
around the building. As the smoke plume rises, 
cooler air is entrained, which leads to a dilution of 
the smoke, an increase in the volume produced 
and a decrease in temperature and buoyancy. If 
the smoke encounters a feature that increases 
this mixing then the effects of the dilution 
are increased. The most significant of these is 
generally when a flowing layer of smoke meets a 
void edge (a balcony or interface with an atrium) 
where the surface area of the plume is increased 
and a very general rule-of-thumb is that the rate 
of air entrainment will be approximately doubled. 

There are various tools used to understand, or 
better still predict, the behaviour of smoke and its 
properties. A relatively simple method is the 
application of zone model equations. Empirical 
formulae, developed from plume theory, which 
give a reasonable approximation of the smoke 


38 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


SMOKE SCREEN: THE REAL IMPACT OF SMOKE 

i/CMTII ATiniVI 


V t N II LA 1 1 U IM 


Real impact Of 


Rate of Heat 
Release from 
the Fire 


Geometry of 
the Space 






Rate of 
Smoke Mass 
Production 


T> 

=T> 


Plume 

Temperature 


T> 




v 

Size of 
Natural Vent 


Volume of 
Smoke 


\ 

/ 

Mechanical 
Extract Rate 


Figure 1 


layer properties and separating the space under 
investigation into two zones: the smoke layer and 
the clear layer. 

Related to the size of the fire, plume and smoke 
layer temperature, smoke density (visibility) and 
the volume of smoke produced can be calculated 
for varying heights. But, where a more accurate 
vision of the likely conditions is required a more 
sophisticated approach is needed. This may be the 
case where a complex arrangement is being 
considered or where greater detail is called for at 
various time steps throughout the scenario being 
modelled. For this we might enter the world of 
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). 

This technique takes the zone model above and 
divides the volume of the space into a series of 
discrete parcels or cells. Each of the cells is given a 
set of conditions that relate to various environ- 
mental aspects and the relationship of changes in 
these conditions. Equations that govern the related 
effects of all these conditions and how each is 
influenced by the other are then applied to every 
cell and minute changes recorded over small time 
steps. This gives a high resolution to the output 
and detailed images of the predicted flow of heat 
and smoke density throughout the compartment. 

Taming the dragon 

The need to deal with smoke will depend upon 
what is being achieved. In the UK, where a build- 
ing is designed in accordance with the guidance, 
there will generally be no requirement to provide a 
fully engineered smoke control system. The time 
to reach a place of safety is assumed to be within 
acceptable limits. 

In which case smoke ventilation may be neces- 
sary for basements, car parks, fire fighting shafts, 
certain atria or tall buildings (especially in London). 
However, this will be governed by standard 
provisions as a minimum vent area or air change 
rate using mechanical extract, and are largely 
related to firefighting operations. 

Where the design of means of escape or some 
other aspect of the fire strategy involves departure 
from the standard guidance, a fire engineered 
solution is required. This may involve a more 
detailed consideration of the movement and 
effects of smoke. Diversion of the plume from its 
natural course or exploitation of its natural 


properties to achieve a particular aim is smoke 
control. 

The equations that have been developed to 
estimate the required features of a smoke control 
system may initially look complex and the iterations 
of calculations needed to resolve the interrelated 
properties are at times dizzying. But we should 
remember that the coefficients and universal con- 
stants are all subtle adjustments to a reasonably 
simple process that could be represented by the 
model shown in figure 1 . 

The initiating features that govern the principal 
characteristics of the smoke plume are the size of 
the fire and the geometry of the space. Fire size is 
quoted as the rate at which heat is released during 
combustion. This can be calculated by assuming a 
fire load density (amount of fuel distributed over 
unit floor area - kg/m 2 - converted into energy - 
kJ/m 2 ) and a fire duration, which gives a burn rate 
in kJ/s; or kW. 

There is data from survey information on typical 
(70th, 80th and 90th fractile) fire load densities 
according to building use. Alternatively unit heat 
release rates may be adopted such as those given 
in the CIBSE Guide E: 


Occupancy 

Unit heat release rate (kW/m 2 ) 

Offices 

290 

Shops 

550 

Industrial 

260 

Hotel rooms 

249 


Where the building is sprinkler protected it is 
commonly assumed that the fire will increase in heat 
release rate up until the point when the sprinklers 
operate, at which point the fire size remains con- 
stant. A standard fire size often quoted for sprinkler 
controlled fires is 5MW or 2.5MW (convective) 
where fast response heads are installed. However, 
this relates specifically to retail fires and, while most 
smoke control system designs will be approved on 
this basis, the fire design consultant should consider 
whether this is appropriate or if there are any special 
circumstances that would result in a higher or, of 
course, lower heat release rate. 

Geometry refers to the physical constraints 
that shape the smoke plume. Two fundamental 
parameters are whether it will be an axisymmetric 
(conical) or spill plume. Conical plumes tend to 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


39 



i/CMTII ATIAM 

SMOKE SCREEN: THE REAL IMPACT OF SMOKE 

V t IM 1 1 LA 1 1 U N 



James Lane is Principal Fire 
Consultant at Hilson Moran 


For more information go to 
www.hilsonmoran.com 


produce less smoke volume, but much higher 
temperature. Whereas a smoke plume that 
spreads beneath a horizontal surface before 
"spilling" into the larger void, such as might be 
the case in an atrium or shopping mall, will pro- 
duce a higher volume of smoke (approximately 
twice as much) but at a lower temperature. 

The other governing factor is at what height 
the base of the design smoke layer will be. This is 
commonly set as a minimum height to achieve the 
purpose of the smoke control system (e.g. 2.5 
metres above escape balcony height or maybe 
equivalent to the smoke screen downstands). 


Axisymmetric Plume 


Spill Plume 




Avoiding the pitfalls 

Once the volume and temperature of the smoke 
plume have been determined it is straightforward 
to specify the area of the vents required to allow 
the smoke to escape, or the fan extract rate to 
remove sufficient volume. 

But beware; it is important to bear the follow- 
ing in mind when specifying the requirements to 
the client: 

• The calculated vent area will likely be the "aero- 
dynamic area" required to vent sufficient smoke. 
Vent design will incorporate a coefficient of dis- 
charge (a kind of efficiency rating) that could be 
as low as 0.6. In other words the actual vent size 
could be almost twice the calculated area. 



• There is a maximum critical flow rate for a single 
mechanical extract point. The value will depend 
upon the depth of the smoke layer below the 
extract point. If the critical rate is exceeded this 
could lead to "plug-holing", which reduces the 
efficiency of the system. To remedy this more 
extract points can be introduced. 



As mentioned previously, natural smoke venting 
relies on the buoyancy of the hot gases in the 
plume to provide a driving force. With increasing 
height, the smoke plume temperature falls. In an 
atrium hot air may accumulate beneath the roof at 
high level. If smoke is vented into this atrium a 
phenomenon called temperature inversion (where 
the accumulated air is hotter than the rising 
smoke plume) could lead to stratification of the 
smoke and the vent system will not work. It is 
common to specify that the temperature of the 
smoke should be at least 10°C higher than the 
estimated ambient temperature to overcome this 
effect. 



The air is hotter and 
therefore more buoyant 
than the smoke 



Conclusion 

The impact of smoke from fires is often underesti- 
mated when assessing risk, and the scientific 
investigations and derived equations are complex 
and may therefore not be fully employed. 

But we should make the effort to treat smoke 
with the respect it deserves and design our smoke 
control systems to operate in a robust manner 
accounting for the various influencing factors. In 
doing so we can reduce the overwhelming contri- 
bution that smoke makes to fatalities and injuries 
in fire statistics. m 


40 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 








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OPINION 

The Business Case 
Protection 



By lain Cox 

Chairman, Business 
Sprinkler Alliance 


Despite a reduction in the number of fires in the UK, losses to 
businesses incurred by fire are on the increase. If this trend 
continues, it is anticipated that by 2020 the UK could lose as 
much as £10 billion to commercial and industrial fires. The UK 
would be better placed to mitigate the impact of future losses 
through the increased acceptance of fire sprinklers in 
commercial and industrial premises. 


A ccording to recent data from the Association 
/ \ of British Insurers (ABI), losses in Britain from 
/ \ commercial and industrial property fire 

reached a record £865 million in 2008 - a 15 per- 
cent increase from 2007. In an era when business 
is already suffering the aftershock of the worst 
recession in living memory, these mounting and 
completely unnecessary losses are unjustified and 
wholly preventable. 

Fire losses are felt across the real economy. They 
impact production downtime in a challenging and 
competitive commercial environment. They force 
closures of UK manufacturing sites and encourage 
the relocation of these facilities to countries where 
costs are likely to be cheaper. Fires also cost jobs. 
Estimates of job losses in the UK as a result of 
commercial and industrial fires have run into the 
thousands over the past decade. 

Fires affect wider stakeholder groups - the local 
businesses feeding into and from a major facility 
and the local communities that rely on a manu- 
facturing plant to sustain the immediate economy. 
Fire causes incalculable damage to both the 
broader and local environment and these losses 
are rarely factored into official statistics. Further- 
more, and tragically, the human cost as measured 
by lives lost and injuries from fires is on the rise too. 


Unless a step change in the adoption of fire 
suppression technology, such as sprinklers, is 
encouraged, these rising costs to business, society 
and the environment are predicted to continue, 
with increasingly devastating results. Yet, despite 
these mounting losses, at the moment less than 
one percent of commercial and industrial premises 
in England and Wales are covered by government 
regulations making fire sprinkler installation 
mandatory. 

At present, in England and Wales, warehouses 
with a floor surface area over 20,000 square 
metres must have fire sprinkler protection. This 
means only around 800 out of over 204,000 
commercial premises classified as warehouses in 
England and Wales might be, depending on where 
and when constructed, protected against fire. 

In Scotland, warehouses with a floor surface 
area greater than 14,000 square metres must 
have fire sprinkler protection. This figure is still 
way too high, and neither code includes factories 
in this requirement, which means that only a 
fraction of the UK's entire commercial building 
stock is protected. 

However, the situation in Europe is completely 
different. Many other European countries have 
adopted and implemented a much more pro- 


Many European countries have adopted and 
implemented a much more pro-active and robust 
approach to fire safety than the UK. in Germany, it is 
mandatory for fire sprinklers to be installed in 
commercial properties of 1,200 square metres and 
over. This has resulted in losses of under £400 million 
in 2008; less than half that of the UK’s losses of 
£865 million in the same period. 


42 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


THE BUSINESS CASE FOR FIRE SPRINKLER PROTECTION 

For Fire sprinkler 


OPINION 


active and robust approach to fire safety. In the 
majority of the largest EU countries, fire sprinklers 
must be installed in commercial and industrial 
premises with an average floor space of 2,300 
square metres. 

These proactive regulations mean countries in 
Europe suffer fewer business losses compared with 
the UK. For example, in Germany, a nation with a 
population some 50 percent greater and with a 
broader industrial base, where it is mandatory for 
fire sprinklers to be installed in commercial proper- 
ties of 1,200 square metres and over, these regula- 
tions have resulted in losses of under £400 million 
in 2008; less than half that of the UK's losses of 
£865 million in the same period. 


such as alcohol, without any discernable 
difference to the measures taken to prevent a 
disaster. 

• There is a growing risk-averse culture where 
firefighters are restricted in their activities by an 
increased emphasis placed on safety-at-work 
regulations. Whether real or perceived, this is 
inevitably leading incident commanders to 
become increasingly reluctant to commit to 
entering and fighting fires in industrial and 
commercial premises. This means larger 
facilities are more likely to be left to burn. 

• Government now wants green buildings. How- 
ever, the consequences of "going green", such 
as the increased fire risk associated with greater 


To put things into perspective, if England and Wales were 
to adopt a more European approach, approximately only 
ten percent of the industrial and commercial building 
stock would be affected. Yet imagine the benefits to the 
UK were it to look more in line with the rest of the 
continent with regards to fire sprinklers. 


To put things into perspective, if England and 
Wales were to adopt a more European approach, 
approximately only ten percent of the industrial 
and commercial building stock would be affected. 
Yet imagine the benefits to the UK were it to look 
more in line with the rest of the continent with 
regards to fire sprinklers. 

The Business Sprinkler Alliance (BSA) believes a 
new set of factors have emerged in recent years 
that have a material impact on the UK and prove 
the need for urgent action. These are: 

• Commercial and industrial fire losses are get- 
ting worse - while overall the number of fires is 
declining, the losses are mounting. Recent data 
from the ABI showed a 1 5 percent year-on-year 
increase in commercial fire damage in 2008. If 
this trend were to continue UK, business could 
stand to lose approximately £10 billion by 2020. 

• Post-recessionary times mean we must do the 
most we can to secure the value of the UK. 
Further unnecessary losses to the UK economy 
brought on by fire damage will inhibit 
economic growth and further set-back the UK's 
emergence from the worst recession in living 
memory. 

• The UK no longer accurately tracks what is 
stored in its buildings. All goods stored, 
regardless of their flammability/combustibility 
or hazard level, are subject to the same 
"loose" risk management requirements. For 
instance, a container full of harmless fruits and 
vegetables could be stored next to a container 
full of highly flammable and costly materials 


use of wood and synthetic thermal insulation, 
will require an even more measured approach 
to maintaining the longevity and sustainability 
of these structures. 

• The polluter now pays. Picking up the tab for 
the environmental damage caused by a fire will 
have a significant impact on a company's ability 
to remain competitive. Companies are now 
being held liable and they will have to pay 
heavily for the damage they incur to the 
environment and pay for the losses incurred to 
the immediate communities. 

• Sprinkler technology does not stand still - fire 
sprinkler technology continues to innovate 
and improve. Although the concept is over a 
hundred years old, innovation is happening 
today faster than ever before, bringing costs 
down while systems become even more 
effective in fighting fires - they use less piping, 
less water and fewer sprinkler heads. These 
efficiencies translate directly into cost savings 
both in the installation of a fire sprinkler system 
(when compared to previous systems) as well as 
helping minimise the loss incurred, should a fire 
break out. 

The UK simply cannot afford to wait any longer. 
There are valid reasons that call for immediate 
action and I would encourage us all to ask our- 
selves: can we afford to lose more firefighters? 
Can UK businesses afford to lose £10 billion to 
commercial fire damage? Can we all afford to 
waste valuable resources and let our environment 
suffer? D33 


lain Cox is chairman of the 
Business Sprinkler Alliance 


For more information go to 

www.business-sprinkler- 

alliance.org/ 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


43 


PORTABLES 



By Graham Collins 


Portable Score 9 



The debate as to whether portable extinguishers should be used or not is sure to 
continue, but a recent report from the FIA came down firmly in their favour. 


A recent survey by the Fire Industry Association 
(FIA) has possibly added fuel to the have-or- 
L not-have debate about portable extinguish- 
ers that goes on, particularly in the UK. The report 
highlights that rather than declining in impor- 
tance, portable fire extinguishers have an even 
more vital role to play as a first aid response to 
fire, with 88 percent of fires that are tackled with 
portables actually being extinguished. 

According to the report, this is an increase on 
the figure from a similar survey conducted back in 
2003 that came to the conclusion that in 80 
percent of fires where extinguishers were 
employed, the fires were successfully put out. 

On publishing the report, the FIA stated: "There 
has been much discussion over the past couple of 
years regarding the role of fire extinguishers. In a 
world where political correctness and health and 
safety excesses sometimes override the application 
of common sense, some quarters have suggested 
that extinguishers should not be used under any 
circumstance." 

Apparently against this background, the FIA 
decided to conduct the new survey to see how 


the role of extinguishers in 2010 compared 
with the position in 2003. The data collected in 
the new survey, although a smaller sample than 
in 2003, showed the same percentage - 75 per- 
cent of fires - were extinguished by a portable 
without the fire and rescue services being called. 
In terms of the total incidents, there was an 
eight percent increase in the number of fires 
successfully extinguished by portables - 88 percent 
in the 2010 survey compared with 80 percent in 
2003. 

Extrapolation of the figures from the 2003 
report equated this to a cost saving by employing 
extinguishers of over £500 million to the UK 
economy and £5.1 million in terms of fire service 
resource savings. In life safety terms, they were 
estimated to have prevented the loss of 24 lives 
and some 1,629 injuries. 

Martin Duggan, FIA General Manager, com- 
mented: "We have seen cases recently where 
portable extinguishers have been removed or 
people are encouraged to ignore them completely 
and evacuate a building immediately, irrespective 
of the size of the fire. We work closely with 


44 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


PORTABLE SCORE 9 OUT OF 10 

DHDTA DICC 


r UK IAdLC j 


out of 10 



the fire and rescue services on many initiatives, so 
are only too aware of the dangers of fire, but 
it cannot make any sense to walk past a small 
fire that could be easily put out with an 
extinguisher to let it grow into one that can cause 
significant damage or even the complete loss of a 
building." 


danger, people should be encouraged to extin- 
guish the fire before it spreads." His conclusion? 
"If there is no extinguisher available because some 
over-zealous official has decreed they should be 
removed, then that opportunity is lost. The 
new survey clearly shows how fire extinguishers 
continue to be an important line of defence in 
reducing fire losses." 

A full copy of the 2010 report is available on 
the FIA website at www.fia.uk.com. 

The main point of contention appears to be the 
size of the fire that can be safely tackled, along 
with the need for appropriate training. Regarding 
the first point, although not clearly defined, 
convention says that extinguishers should be used 
on fires "not larger than a waste paper bin size". 
However, the test fires used to certify the fire 
ratings on extinguishers are very significant - 
certainly much larger than a typical waste paper 
bin size - to ensure a considerable safety margin in 
calculating the rating. 

It is important, says the FIA, to recognise that 
those conducting fire ratings tests are, quite natu- 
rally, skilled in extinguishing the fires, which leads 
us onto the second point. Training is important, 
and the lack of it is a reason cited by those who 
argue against the use of portable extinguishers. 
However, people certainly do not need to be 
trained to the level of those whose job is to 
extinguish fires as part of the fire rating process. 
Lack of training is a poor excuse since it is readily 
available and relatively simple. 

In the UK, for example, the Fire Safety 
Order states that: "Where necessary in order to 
safeguard the safety of relevant persons, the 
responsible person must ensure that the premises 
are equipped with appropriate fire-fighting equip- 
ment that is simple to use and indicated by signs. 
The responsible person must take measures for 
fire-fighting in the premises and nominate com- 
petent persons to implement those measures and 
ensure that the number of such persons, their 
training and the equipment available to them are 
adequate." 


It is important, says the FIA, to recognise that those 
conducting fire ratings tests are, quite naturally, skilled in 
extinguishing the fires, which leads us onto the second 
point. Training is important, and the lack of it is a 
reason cited by those who argue against the use 
of portable extinguishers. 


He continued: "Of course, life safety must come 
first, but the analogy I would draw is that if you 
drop a lit match onto a carpet, you calmly tread on 
it to extinguish the flame. You certainly do not 
immediately evacuate the building. Common 
sense has to be applied, but if it is a small fire that 
can be readily tackled without putting yourself in 


Through schemes such as the SP1 01/ST 1 04 
from BAFE (British Approvals for Fire Equipment), 
third-party assurance is given that registered 
companies are competent to supply the correct 
extinguisher for a given application, in the right 
place and with the right - and easy to understand 
- operating instructions and signage. D33 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


45 


DETECTION 


Beam Smoke Detectors 
are available for 
Hazardous Areas 



By Jon Ben 


Fire Fighting Enterprises 
Ltd. 


Getting The Best Fr 



Large, expansive indoor areas can present a challenge to traditional fire safety 
systems where, in order to effectively detect smoke, complex networks of 
multiple overlapping sensors are required. Optical beam smoke detectors, on 
the other hand, are designed exactly for such situations. 


A single optical beam detector installed on a 
/ Y wall can detect smoke over an area of up to 
#1 1500 square metres, resulting in fewer 
detectors, faster installation reduced installation 
and wiring cost, and less aesthetic intrusion. 
Mounting on the wall - as opposed to the ceiling 
- can allow more convenient access for mainte- 
nance, and a low-level controller further speeds 
and eases the process. A space that might need as 
many as 15 point detectors could, therefore, be 
maintained from one single low-level controller, 
as opposed to organising height access to 15 
different detector locations. 

There is already a lively debate about the 
relative merits and drawbacks of different detec- 
tion systems, with a common theme being that 
beam detection may not be as reliable or trouble- 
free as other methods. However, this is almost 
always due to incorrect installation and beams, 
in fact, can be much more suitable for some 
situations than other detection systems. 

How beam detection works 

An optical beam smoke detector works on the 
principle of smoke particles interfering with the 
transmission and reception of a beam of infra-red 
(IR) light. A transmitter sends out a beam of IR 
light, and a receiver a set distance away measures 
the amount of IR light received. When smoke 
enters the beam's path, the intensity of IR received 


is reduced; when this reduction reaches a 
pre-defined limit the alarm signal is triggered 
and sent to a fire control panel. 

Most beam detector systems consist of a trans- 
mitter, receiver and control unit. The transmitter 
projects the beam; the receiver at the "end" of 
the beam measures its intensity with a photosensi- 
tive sensor; and the control unit analyses and 
interprets the signal before communicating the 
detector's status to a fire control panel. These 
three elements can either be entirely separate 
or completely integrated, depending on the 
system chosen. When the transmitter and receiver 
are in the same unit, a prismatic panel is fitted 
to the opposite wall where the receiver would 
normally be positioned, reflecting the beam 
back to the source - further reducing wiring 
requirements. 

A good visual analogy is a torch beam of visible 
light, where the beam expands outwards in a 
cone, its intensity dropping with distance from the 
central axis. Beam detectors essentially detect how 
much "darker" the end of the beam has become 
due to smoke interference. In a torch light, as with 
IR, beams can cross without scattering, which is 
what allows reflective beam systems to function. 
IR light is used, as it is significantly affected by 
both smoke particles and the heat haze of a fire, 
and is invisible to the human eye - somewhat less 
intrusive than an actual torch beam. 


46 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


GETTING THE BEST FROM BEAM DETECTION 

ncTcrTin m 


U t 1 t L 1 1 U IM 


om Beam Detection 



Overcoming common 
problems 

A minor, gradual increase in 
obscuration is not typical of 
smoke interference, but might 
well be due to dust and dirt 
build-up on the active surfaces. 

Software in more advanced beam 
detectors can detect this slow 
change, and increase the gain (a 
form of signal amplification) to 
automatically compensate for 
this. By contrast, sudden and very 
high beam obscuration is almost 
certainly a solid object in the 
beam's path, and will trigger a 
"Fault" status, so the path can be 
cleared. In this way, "intelligent" 
beam detector systems are 
able to perform accurately and 
effectively over a long period of 
time and with minimal manual 
maintenance. 

Detector types 

There are two fundamental types 
of beam detectors. End-to-end 
systems have the transmitter and 
receiver on opposite sides of the area to be pro- 
tected. They can be up to 100 metres apart, and 
the receiver can be connected to a control unit 
installed at ground level for easy maintenance. 
Reflective systems have the beam transmitter and 
receiver in the same housing (a transceiver), with a 
reflective plate on the opposite wall. This can still 
be up to 100 metres away, and the plate is 
prismatic so it will reflect the beam straight back, 
even if it is not mounted perpendicular to the 
transmission path. 

End-to-end systems are relatively unaffected by 
stray reflections from surrounding surfaces and 
obstructions near the beam path. A reflective 
system, although potentially susceptible to objects 
near its line of sight, is easier to install and requires 
less wiring as power is only needed by the single 
transceiver unit. Essentially, end-to-end beam 
detectors can operate effectively through narrower 
"gaps", and will often be more suitable in more 
confined areas or those with numerous obstruc- 
tions such as cluttered roof spaces. In spaces 
where this is not an issue, reflective systems will 
usually be more convenient. 

Very recently, technology was also developed 
that allows the use of multiple transceiver heads 
running on one single controller. This delivers cost- 
effective protection for larger areas, and improved 
coverage options for unorthodox indoor spaces. 

Motorised and manual adjustment 

New developments in beam detection technology 
have led to a choice between inexpensive simplicity 
and intelligent automation. 

Traditionally, adjusting the beam's power and 
direction had to be performed manually at the 
time of installation, and then maintained over time 


to compensate for dust build-up and "building 
shift". This is where building elements can gradu- 
ally move in very slight increments, affecting the 
beam's aim and effectiveness. Recently, the option 
has become available to choose automated, 
motorised beam adjustment. This technology uses 
data from the unit over time to automatically 
adjust its direction and sensitivity to keep the 
beam accurately aligned and the signal at an 
optimum level. This is fast, reliable, and eases 
installation, as well as reducing both the need and 
time taken for continued maintenance. 

As already mentioned, by their nature beam 
detectors cover a huge area, and so require fewer 
units and wiring than other detector types; but 
there are other things to consider as well. Beams 
are less affected than other types of detector by 
high ceilings, harsh environments and airflow 
blowing smoke away. As a smoke plume rises it 
becomes less dense, which leads to a maximum 
operating height for point detectors since the par- 
ticle density can fall below the alarm threshold. 
Since a beam operates over a linear path, the 
density of the plume has no effect - only the total 
number of smoke particles in the beam path. As 
the plume widens, it involves more of the 
beam, making beam detectors more effective as 
height increases compared with other detectors. 

Blowing smoke 

Similarly, airflows that might blow smoke away 
from point detectors' tiny sensor chambers are 
going to have less effect on the long, wide 
detection pattern of a beam system. Dust and dirt 
build-up is taken care of by automatic beam signal 
strength compensation, and extreme temperatures 
have relatively little effect on the technology - 


Prismatic reflectors are 
installed on the opposite 
wall when the beam 
transmitter and receiver 
are in the same unit 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


47 


nCTCTTin M 

GETTING THE BEST FROM BEAM DETECTION 

U 1 1 t L 1 1 U IM 



there are even beam detectors suitable for use in 
explosive atmospheres. 

A related, but separate, problem can occur 
when a rising smoke plume draws in surrounding 
air and cools rapidly as it rises, sometimes actually 
becoming colder than the air above it. In this situa- 
tion, most commonly seen in high-ceilinged spaces, 
the smoke spreads out below the layer of warm air, 
as though trapped under an "invisible ceiling" of 
its own. This is known as stratification, and it can 
render ceiling-mounted detectors ineffective due to 
the lack of smoke particles reaching them. A typical 
solution to this problem involves installing supple- 
mentary detection at lower levels to detect the 
stratified layer or even the plume itself. Beam 
detectors are wall-mounted, typically up to 600mm 
below ceiling level, thereby giving them a significant 
advantage in detecting stratification layers. 

Breathe easy 

High Sensitivity Smoke Detection (HSSD) or aspi- 
rating systems are another option for large indoor 
spaces, however they suffer from their complexity 
and installation requirements. A network of end- 
caps, sampling pipes, brackets, elbows and labels 
must be designed, fitted and maintained, which 
can be costly and inconvenient. The aspirating 
pipe itself can also be quite obtrusive, and hiding 
it requires yet further cost and complexity due to 
the need to install capillary tubes and drilling into 
the ceiling. 

Getting the best out of beams 

As with almost all technology, an optical beam 
detector will work much better if it is properly 
installed and maintained. Most reported and 
"common knowledge" problems with beam 
detection actually stem from improper installation 
and usage, but can be easily avoided by following 
some basic rules coupled with common sense. 

A stable base 

Beam detector elements must be mounted on 
rigid, stable surfaces to limit the risk of misalign- 
ment; as with a torch, a tiny change in the trans- 
mitter's angle will cause a large movement at the 
other end of the beam. 

Common problems come from mounting 
beams on potentially flexible building surfaces 
such as cladded walls or on free-hanging assem- 



A good stable fixing surface 


blies. Even building purlins can move as they are 
particularly subject to ambient temperature 
changes causing contractions and expansions, so 
are not recommended as stable fixing points. So, 
if direct mounting onto brick or block walls is 
not possible, it is recommended that beam 
components be installed onto secure, rigid metal 
frame assemblies suspended from rigid steel joists. 

Reflection perfection 

Reflective optical beam detectors can be affected 
by objects or surfaces close to the line-of-sight 
between the beam and reflector. Obstructions will 
not only interfere with the received signal, cutting 



Obstructions can impair reflective beam 
systems 


the IR intensity, but could leave areas hidden by 
their "shadow". If an obstructive surface was 
mistakenly used for alignment during initial instal- 
lation, it would leave the area behind it completely 
unprotected. Confirming correct alignment is 
therefore vital, with cover-up tests of the reflector 
a sound method for ensuring that the whole area 
is properly protected. 

IR interference 

Beam receivers should always be positioned to 
avoid other sources of IR light. In the first instance, 
where multiple beam detectors are in effect, each 
receiver should only have its associated transmit- 
ter's beam falling on it. If it is within the beam of 



Correct ' back-to-back ' transmitter placement 


48 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


FIRE 


Optical Beam Smoke Detectors 

Low cost, field-proven fire protection 
for large open areas 





When it comes to optical beam smoke 
detectors no other company has the experience, or 
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INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


49 



nCTCTTin M 

GETTING THE BEST FROM BEAM DETECTION 

U 1 1 t L 1 1 U IM 



Multi-head transceivers 
can operate from a 
single controller 



another detector system, "crosstalk" can occur 
producing false "Fire" and "Fault" conditions. If 
two systems must be daisy-chained to cover a long 
distance, the transmitters should be mounted 
back-to-back rather than the reflectors or 
receivers, to minimise interference. Other strong IR 
light sources, such as direct sunlight, can cause IR 
saturation whereby - much as with the human eye 
- it will be too "bright" to function properly. 
Normal fluorescent lights emit very little IR light, 
though incandescent bulbs, sodium lamps and 


Creatures of the night 

One last, occasional concern is that various "crea- 
tures of the night" - usually bats and owls - might 
set off false alarms by flying along the apex of a 
gabled or pitched roof. Although this could 
conceivably be a problem, some beam detection 
systems can have a delay timing set. This would 
then send a fault or fire signal only after that con- 
dition had been registered for a certain time - 
long enough for any flying trespassers to flit away 
again. 


Beam detectors are an excellent option for 
wide-area smoke detection, covering much larger areas 
than point-type smoke detectors and with minimal 
wiring requirements when compared with smoke 
aspirating systems. 


Jon Ben is Technical Director 
at Fire Fighting Enterprises 
Ltd. 


For more information go to 
www.ffeuk.com 


camera flashes emit more and beams should be 
positioned to avoid such stray light falling directly 
onto the receiver. 

Spacing 

Standards such as EN54-12 dictate the design 
and construction of optical beam smoke detectors. 
It is important to note, however, that beam 
installation is governed by the relevant national 
Code of Practice. Codes can vary by territory in 
their definition of the accepted width of coverage 
of a beam, and its allowable height from the 
ceiling. The operating range (linear distance) for a 
beam is dictated by the manufacturer's design and 
the approval gained for each beam detector 
product. 


Conclusion 

In short, beam detectors are an excellent option 
for wide-area smoke detection, covering much 
larger areas than point-type smoke detectors and 
with minimal wiring requirements when compared 
with smoke aspirating systems. Different beam 
systems are available to suit different projects, 
depending on issues of cost, wiring and space. 
Possibly the most important point though is that, 
even the best technology in the world, it is worth 
nothing if it is not used correctly. So, following the 
golden rules for installation is vital for safety and 
success. Bearing this information in mind, optical 
beam smoke detection can - and should - be con- 
sidered a leading light in fire protection systems 
for large indoor areas. D33 


50 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





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By Peter 

Massingberd-Mundy 


Technology and Expert 
Practices Manager, 
Xtralis 


CODES 


EN54-20: Smoke 

Detection's 
Essential 
Building Block 


Following the introduction EN54 Part 20, since June 2009 all Aspirating Smoke 
Detection (ASD) systems installed in Europe need to be designed using products 
which comply with this harmonised product standard. 


As a foundation, EN54 Part 20 - the European 
/ \ product standard for aspirating smoke 
/ V detection (ASD) systems - provides an 
essential springboard for specifying, designing and 
installing reliable and truly effective smoke 
detection systems. 

The standard, first published in June 2006, 
defines the performance capability of an ASD 
system in terms of both sensitivity and "fitness for 
purpose". It introduced three classes of sensitivity; 
Class A being very high, Class B enhanced and 
Class C normal sensitivity. ASD systems in the 
Class C category provide the hole equivalent to 
traditional point detection. As the standard 
encompasses the core fire performance tests for 
EN54-7 for point detectors, ASD systems must be 
capable of detecting smoke from the standard test 
fires while set up in a "worst case" configuration. 
Essentially, when smoke from the standard test 
fires in EN54-7 enters a single hole, the ASD 
system must signal an alarm. 

A class above 

Meanwhile, Class A and Class B systems offer 
better sensitivity for earlier and more reliable 
detection. ASD systems in these classes provide 
much earlier smoke detection for more critical and 
demanding applications, with EN54-20 going 
beyond EN54-7 with the introduction of additional 
fire tests in these two classes. 

A Class B system must detect a series of fires 
that produce significantly less smoke than the 
EN54-7 standard fires. In fact, for smouldering 
fires of wood block and cotton wick, the smoke 
concentration is 13 times less. Class A systems 
must detect a series of test fires that produce even 
less smoke - about 40 times less smoke in the 
case of the smouldering fires. As with Class C 
systems, this relates to the sensitivity of a single 
hole. 

The classes allow designers and installers to clearly 
specify the sensitivity they require for a particular 
application. Indeed, it is often the case that a Class 
A and/or Class B alarm signal is specified in con- 
junction with a Class C alarm - all from the same 
ASD system. The intention being that the Class A 
and/or Class B signals are used to trigger a very 
early warning or pre-alarm condition (respectively) 


and a full evacuation "fire" alarm is not signalled 
until a Class C threshold is exceeded. 

In other cases, a Class B "enhanced" system is 
specified to provide confidence that smoke will be 
detected in areas where it is likely to become 
diluted, for example in areas with ceilings over 
eight metres or in voids or shafts where airflows 
are present, or where the protected area contains 
artefacts that would be particularly susceptible to 
smoke damage. Examples include heritage build- 
ings, museums and document banks. 

Guidelines for the design, installation, commis- 
sioning and maintenance of ASD Systems are set 
out in the Fire Industry Association's (FIA) Code of 
Practice that incorporates the EN54-20 sensitivity 
classes and provides recommendations not only as 
to where to use each class and how to install the 
system, but moreover how to test them using a set 
of standard field-based test fires. 


Class A - very high sensitivity 

An ASD system with very high sensitivity that is 
capable of providing very early warning of a 
potential fire condition. Such systems are 
particularly relevant for high-risk areas where 
staged responses to the multi-stage alarm 
conditions are justified to ensure minimum 
down time of the protected area that may 
result from any fire related incident. 

Class B - enhanced sensitivity 

An ASD system with enhanced sensitivity for 
applications where an additional degree of 
confidence is required for the protection of a 
particular risk. The enhanced capability of such 
systems is often required to compensate for 
other risk factors in the protected area, such as 
unusually high ceilings or significant air flows. 

Class C - normal sensitivity 

An ASD system designed to give equivalent 
performance to standard point detection 
systems meeting the requirements of EN54-7. 

Source: Fire Industry Association Code of Practice for 
Design, Installation, Commissioning & Maintenance of 
Aspirating Smoke Detector (ASD) Systems. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


53 



CODES 


Photo courtesy of BRE 



Across Europe installation rules are beginning to 
emerge with reference to ASD class, and most 
recently it was adopted as an international 
standard, ISO 7240-20, also leading to a tightening 
up of ASD labelling. 

The cumulative effect 

While the principle of ASD is simple - smoke 
samples are drawn into a central detector through 
sampling pipes and holes - by their very nature 
ASD systems have a natural advantage when 
compared with point-type detectors as they are 
sampling from many different points in a space. 

The conservative approach to ensuring that an 
ASD system matches the detection performance of 
a standard EN54-7 point detector means that (as 
stated previously) when smoke from standard test 
fires in EN54-7 enters a single hole, the ASD must 
signal an alarm. Imagine a system with 20 holes, if 


smoke enters only one hole then it is mixed with 
clean samples from the other 19 holes before it 
reaches the detector. As such, the detector in a 
multi-hole ASD must be many times more sensitive 
than a standard point detector in order to detect 
the standard test fires required by EN54-7. 

While this "dilution effect" does not need to be 
considered for point type detectors, it has a 
distinct advantage in practice. In any real fire 
scenario, it is highly unlikely the smoke will only 
enter one hole. ASD systems therefore have a 
natural ability to detect "diluted" smoke in the 
space. As smoke naturally disperses and diffuses in 
volumes, the more sampling holes it enters, the 
higher the effective sensitivity of the ASD becomes. 

This cumulative effect, where smoke enters more 
than one ASD sampling hole simultaneously, is par- 
ticularly useful in high-airflow environments or areas 
where high levels of smoke dilution is anticipated. 


54 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


EN54-20: SMOKE DETECTION'S ESSENTIAL BUILDING BLOCK 


CODES 


ASD applications 

Traditionally ASD systems have been used for 
applications where early warning of fire is needed, 
and protection of property assets is key; for 
instance business-critical computer server or 
telecoms installations, where it is crucial that a fire 
is identified before it can cause disruption and 
jeopardise business continuity. Of course, early 
warning also allows additional time for safe 
evacuation. 

The FIA highlights three key reasons for using 
ASD; very early warning, enhanced smoke sensitiv- 
ity and as an alternative to point or beam type 
smoke detectors. Common motivators include 
extreme environments, restricted/difficult access, 
exceptional ceiling heights and heat barriers, 
aesthetics, risk of mechanical damage, anti-vandal 
systems and hazardous environments. 

Class B applications, including large, open 
spaces such as warehouses, cold-storage facilities, 
manufacturing environments, and cable tunnels all 
benefit from the inherently higher sensitivity at 
each sampling hole and from the cumulative 
effect. Thus ASD provides a double advantage to 
provide reliable very early warning fire detection 
in situations that would present a challenge to 
conventional detection methods. 

The FIA highlights three key 
reasons for using ASD; very 
early warning, enhanced 
smoke sensitivity and as an 
alternative to point or beam 
type smoke detectors. 

At this juncture, we must address a common 
misconception that ASD systems are prone to false 
alarms. This is strictly not true. Ignorance of the 
nature of ASD's cumulative effect underlies many 
misconceptions about false or unwanted alarms 
from high sensitivity systems. Our field experience 
with extremely stable, fixed calibration VESDA 
technology shows that ever more environments 
tolerate stable Class B detection, with filters to 
reduce nuisance alarms. In fact, early warning 
technology avoids false alarms and unnecessary 
evacuations, though by its very nature if a fire is 
detected early it is not really a "fire" - and unfor- 
tunately there are no statistics collected on "near 
misses" in the fire industry. 

BRE is soon to publish research on the perfor- 
mance of detectors in high ceilings, where 
ASDs were tested alongside beam detectors in a 
43.5m high warehouse We eagerly await publica- 
tion of the findings as they provide important 
evidence that will influence changes to several 
European Installation codes (including BS5839-1) 
which currently give very conservative ceiling 
height limitations for ASD systems. The findings 
also provide further guidance for the detection 
capabilities of beam detectors in high ceiling 
spaces 

Other applications where ASD is commonly 
used include where building aesthetics are of 
concern or where the environment presents 


challenges with respect to maintenance access 
or harshness, or areas where high airflows are 
present. 

While Class A and Class B sensitivity and the 
cumulative effect are trade marks for the advan- 
tages of the ASD technique, there are some 
applications where normal sensitivity Class C 
detection - using only one or a few holes and 
a normal sensitivity (EN54-7) point detector - 
has advantages. Such "point in a box" type 
systems invariably demonstrate improved perfor- 
mance when compared with the un-aspirated 
point detector, because the smoke entry character- 
istic is improved significantly by using forced 
aspiration as opposed to passive diffusion or local 
"drafts" to transport smoke into the detection 
chamber. 

There is therefore space in the ASD marketplace 
for Class C products, notably those that use a 
point-type detector with a nominally normal 
sensitivity detector, in those areas where there is 
not the cumulative effect. Most importantly, the 
consequence of a Class C approval to EN54-20 is a 
confidence that the particular system is at least as 
reactive to fire as any EN54-7 point detector. And 
the advantages of ASD technique still apply; 
aesthetic or concealed detection, ease of access 
for maintenance, plus the opportunity for sample 
conditioning or filtering for challenging or dirty 
environments. 

The impact of EN54-20 

Looking at the ASD sector today, it is clear that 
the establishment of EN54-20 has improved the 
quality of products in the marketplace. Tighter 
flow monitoring requirements have led to 
improvements and, where necessary, the 
withdrawal of non-conforming products from the 
market. 

As a result of EN54-20 becoming the mandatory 
standard, people are specifying ASD, but still not 
as much as they might. There is still plenty of room 
for enlightenment among specifiers and installers 
as to the many advantages of ASD, as well as 
dispelling some of the misconceptions that stem 
from the unrivalled sensitivity that can be provided 
by ASD. 

In the UK, ASD is a well-accepted method of 
smoke detection and fire prevention, and accounts 
for approximately 13 percent of smoke detection 
spend. Elsewhere in Europe, ASD counts for 
approximately seven percent, but as a result of a 
harmonised European standard it is becoming 
more widely accepted, so we can expect this 
percentage to rise. 

When first introduced over 20 years ago, ASD 
systems were frequently specified alongside point 
detection systems. Under approvals to ad-hoc 
product standards (prior to EN54-20) it became 
increasingly recognised that ASD systems are 
reliable and can provide "equivalence" to point 
detection - thereby negating the need for point 
detectors. 

With the publication of EN54-20 in 2006, the 
clear definition of three sensitivity Classes made it 
clear that ASD systems are able to detector lower 
concentrations of smoke than a normal point 
detector. In 2010, a year after EN54-20 became 
mandatory across most of Europe, the benefits of 
correctly specified ASD are being exploited in more 
and more applications. D33 


Peter Massingberd-Mundy 

is Technology and Expert 
Practices Manager at Xtralis 


For more information go to 
www.xtralis.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


55 


VISUAL ALARMS 



By Mark Thomson 

KAC Alarm Company 


EN54-23: Rising To 



Regulations and legislation such as the UK's Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 
make service providers and employers responsible for ensuring that disabled 
people do not receive less favourable treatment than the able bodied. The fire 
alarm industry has responded by providing detection systems that generate both 
audible and visual warnings when a fire is detected. 


N ormally, a visual alarm is only used in a fire 
alarm system to reinforce a warning from 
the primary audible warning device such as 
a bell, siren or voice alarm, but it is never the 
primary method of raising the alarm. However, in 
a building in which deaf and hard of hearing 
people are present, a risk assessment may indicate 
that a visual alarm will have to become as impor- 
tant as the normal audible alarm in attracting 
their attention. In such cases, the strobe units or 
beacons must produce a sufficiently high light 
output to achieve the objective. By definition, as a 
life safety industry, anything that improves the 
effectiveness of an automatic fire system is an 
advance to be welcomed, particularly if it provides 
enhanced protection for all occupants of the 
protected building. Until now, however, there 
has been no product standard specifying the per- 
formance requirements of visual alarm devices. 

BS EN54-23 

The product standard BS EN54-23:2010 (Fire 
detection and fire alarm systems. Fire alarm 
devices. Visual alarm devices) defines the perfor- 
mance requirement of visual alarm devices and 
was published by BSI in June 2010. Typically, for 
fire detection and alarm product standards pro- 
duced to satisfy the EU Construction Products 
Directive (Harmonised Standards), there is a 


36-month transition period from the time the 
standard becomes available to national standards 
bodies. At the end of this transition period, pro- 
ducts that do not satisfy the harmonised standard 
(indicated by a CE Mark), will no longer be able to 
be put on the European market. In the case of 
EN54-23 the date by which national conflicting 
standards must be withdrawn is March 2013. 

The standard specifies the requirements, test 
methods and performance criteria for visual alarm 
devices in a fixed installation, intended to signal a 
visual warning of a fire initiated by the fire detec- 
tion and alarm system. It covers only those devices 
that derive their operating power by means of a 
physical electrical connection to an external 
source, such as a fire alarm system, and it applies 
only to pulsing or flashing visual alarm devices - 
for example Xenon or rotating beacons and 
devices that rely on software for their operation. 

The introduction of a mandated harmonised 
standard sets a base level for product perfor- 
mance. Fire system engineers can therefore be 
reassured that when approved strobes are installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's recommen- 
dations, they will provide the defined level of 
illumination in the protected premises. Under the 
specification, manufacturers have to classify their 
products as C, ceiling mounted, W, wall mounted, 
or 0, open class devices. In a fire system, both 


56 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


EN54-23: RISING TO THE CHALLENGE 

\l 1 C 1 1 A 1 A 1 A D M C 


VISUAL ALAI r; 3 


The Challenge 


Stanton) Smoke Detector Spacing 



C and W devices will be the primary types used, 
with some specialised applications having type 0 
devices as well. The C class units often take the 
form of a detector base sounder-strobe, fitted 
between a multi-sensor, smoke or heat detector 
and its base. W class devices will be either stand- 
alone strobes or combined sounder-strobes. The 
key performance indicators are that the output of 
the device must be greater than two candela (cd) 
and less than 500cd, and the flash rate must be 
between 0.5 and 2.0Hz. 

The critical requirement from a manufacturer's 
point of view is that each model must be tested to 
demonstrate compliance with the Standard's 
requirements. For ceiling-mounted devices, the 
manufacturer must define the maximum height at 
which it can be installed, set at a standard three 
metres, six metres or nine metres. A wall-mounted 
device must be installed at a minimum of 2.4 
metres from the floor. The coverage volume, 
defined by the manufacturer, in which the output 


meets the minimum required illumination of 0.4 
lumens/m 2 (lux) on a surface perpendicular to the 
direction of the light emitted from the device is 
the key performance measure. 

Further relevant documents are BS 8300:2009+ 
A1 :201 0 (Design of buildings and their approaches 
to meet the needs of disabled people. Code of 
practice) and LPS1652 ( Code of Practice for Visual 
Alarm Devices used for Fire Warning) currently 
at Draft 1.0 status and published by LPCB Loss 
Prevention Certification Board). 

Implications for the fire detection 
industry 

Clearly the industry welcomes a new product 
standard that will ensure that alarm signals are as 
consistent and effective as possible throughout 
the areas in which they are installed. However, it 
is apparent that almost no visual alarm device on 
the market today will meet the requirements 
of EN54-23 in a manner that will allow the 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


57 




\l 1 C 1 1 A 1 A 1 A D M C 

EN54-23: RISING TO THE CHALLENGE 

VISUAL ALAKIVI j 




Mark Thomson is Marketing 
Manager at KAC Alarm 
Company 


For more information go to 
www.kac.co.uk 


established custom and practice on spacing of 
devices within protected premises to be main- 
tained. The issue arises because current products, 
designed to reinforce an audible warning, are 
often not bright enough to attract attention by 
themselves at any meaningful distance, unless 
they are in the direct line of sight. 

It would appear to be a relatively simple problem 
to design and manufacture higher output visual 
alarm devices. However, there is considerable 
concern as to whether existing technology - par- 
ticularly in respect of loop-powered addressable 
beacons - is able to meet the performance 
requirements. The limitations arise as the result of 
the zone current available from the control panel, 
the inefficiencies converting the incident electrical 
energy into light, and lenses and reflectors that are 
not necessarily designed to maximise the light 
transmission generated by the source. When the 
use of coloured lenses is added into the equation, 
the problem is exacerbated 

The issue that these deficiencies raise is quite 
simple: fire system engineers and installers will 
want to maintain existing spacing when fitting 
compliant strobes in order to keep cost and com- 
plexity under control. However, initial experiments 
suggest that using existing technology and 
designs, the alarm current for a loop-powered 
strobe is likely to have to rise from the typical 
value of 2 to 3mA to 30-40mA, the non-linear 
increase resulting from efficiency reductions in 
converting the incident electrical energy into light 
rather than heat. With a loop typically able to 
provide around 400mA, this will severely restrict 
the number of devices, leading to significant 
system design issues. 

Alternative approaches 

Accordingly, there are two possible alternative 
options. Conventional visual alarm devices, inter- 
facing with the loop via modules, could be used. 
The strobes could be powered from separate 
power supplies to overcome the current limitation 


issues, and there are many high output conven- 
tional strobes already available that would give 
the required levels of illumination at a realistic 
distance. Of course, there are drawbacks. Individual 
control and management of any particular strobe 
is lost and installation and equipments costs will 
increase with the need for interface modules for 
each bank of strobes. 

The second option is to take the introduction of 
the new standard as a challenge, and develop 
addressable strobes that will generate sufficient 
output to enable the established customs and 
practices in system design to be preserved. The 
size of this task should not be underestimated; it is 
one that the industry has to overcome in order to 
improve the protection given to building occu- 
pants, particularly those who suffer from total or 
partial deafness. They should not be placed in 
greater danger in the event of fire purely because 
of potential technological difficulties; it is the job 
of the industry leaders to harness the resources 
available to provide a workable solution. 

In order to improve the conversion efficiency, 
the new generation of addressable strobes will 
almost certainly have to use either a Xenon strobe 
or high output LEDs. Both have potential problems 
in terms of current draw and heat generation, but 
they are the most likely contenders in the quest to 
produce a light output at least an order of magni- 
tude greater than current devices. New designs of 
reflectors and lenses will be needed to ensure that 
as much as possible of the generated light is 
concentrated where it is needed - forwards and 
down in the case of a wall-mounted device. 
Almost certainly, white light strobes will become 
the norm because the greater range of frequencies 
enables more light energy to be produced. 

Time is short. It will not be very long until 
approval to EN54-23 will become mandatory 
under the CPD in March 2013, and KAC, for 
one, is well on the road to meeting this new 
challenge to benefit the industry and the people it 
protects. D33 


58 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



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60 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 





DETECTION 



Protecting 
High-Risk 
Plant 


The protection of high-risk, 
high-value assets and personnel has 
never been more vital. Such installations 
include onshore and offshore oil and gas 
plant, petrochemical plant and hazardous 
material handling and storage. 



European Manager at 
Spectrex Inc. 


Figure 1 


I n many situations, high-risk plant is classified as 
hazardous due to the presence of potentially 
flammable or combustible materials and require 
that all potential sources of ignition be protected 
by suitably designed and approved housings, for 
example flameproof Exd, to standards such as 
lECEx, ATEX, FM and CSA. Many installations also 
require to be assessed against IEC 61508 for 
functional safety integrity (SIL). 

A key element is the fire detection and protec- 
tion systems that include a wide variety of detector 
types and controls to rapidly identify a fire hazard 
and prevent or extinguish the fire before it 
becomes a danger to plant and personnel. 

For high-risk areas and outdoors, optical flame 
detectors, like that shown in fig 1, are the 
favoured solution for this critical role, as smoke 
and heat detectors are not effective outdoors. 
Unlike smoke and heat detectors, the fire and 
products of fire - smoke and heat - do not have 
to reach the optical detector to be recognised, as 
it "sees" the radiation from the flames from a 
distance of up to 65 metres over a 100 degree 
cone of vision in all directions. 

Optical flame detectors provide the fastest 
detection of a fuel fire in the early ignition stage. 
Their fast response capability, adjustable field of 
view and programmability make them extremely 
well suited for this role. Flame detection, with high 
sensitivity and immunity to false alarms, is an 
essential determining factor when designing 
systems for this application. 

They operate by sensing one or more wave 




being burned (the 


lengths of electromag- 
netic radiation emitted 
by the fuel flames. The 
precise wavelengths vary 
depending on the fuel 
chemical reactions that generate energy in the 
form of electromagnetic radiation), the oxygen 
supply to the flames, and environmental condi- 
tions that affect the radiation transmission in the 
atmosphere. 

Many combustible materials include hydro- 
carbons that typically generate hot carbon dioxide 
(see figure 2). In the presence of an actual fire, the 
radiation intensity in the carbon dioxide peak 
band is usually high, while little or no radiation is 
received in the side bands. Thus, high radiation 
intensity in the peak band, as compared with that 
in the non-peak side bands, is used to determine 
whether a flame is present. 

In addition to the two major fire products (C0 2 
and H 2 0), other intermediate radicals and ions and 
by-products created in the fire process (such as 
CO, CHOH, COOH, CH 3 and OH) emit electro- 
magnetic radiation that can be detected either in 
the UV solar blind spectrum or in the wide IR 
bands. 


Developing technology 

Flame detection has come a long way from the 
early days when a simple UV sensor was used. 
Whilst the UV method was a very good and fast 
fire detector, it was also a good detector for all 
sorts of other radiation sources that were not fires, 
for example, the sun and arc welding. These false 
alarms led to a lowering in confidence in such 
detectors. They also had a limited detection 
distance - usually 1 5 metres at best. 

Over the years, other types and combinations 
of sensor types were invented, including single 
infrared (IR), combined double IR, combined UV/IR. 
All were tried and found deficient in one way or 
another, mainly due to false alarms and/or low 
sensitivity due to short range detection. 

Today, the most respected and widely used 
method is Triple Infrared (IR3) technology using 
three different IR wavelengths. This type of 
spectral analysis ensures no false alarm to any 
continuous, modulated or pulsating radiation 
sources other than fire (including sources like black 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


61 


ncTcrTin m 

PROTECTING HIGH-RISK PLANT 

U t 1 t L 1 1 U IM 



Figure 2 


For more information go to 
www.spectrex-inc.com 



Wavelenght 

Detection of the flame s characteristic CO? emission doe 
by the use of three wavelenght bands 


or gray body radiation). The high sensitivity of the 
Triple IR technology coupled with its inherent 
immunity to false alarms enables substantially 
longer detection ranges than previously obtained 
with standard detectors. 

This detection approach offers: 

• Fast response - less than five seconds. 

• Long range detection - up to 65 metres from 

fire. 

• High sensitivity to small fires. 

• Highest immunity to false alarms. 

• High reliability and availability (IEC 61 508-SIL2 

TUV approved). 

Latest solutions 

These benefits are combined in the Spectrex 
40/401 IR3 flame detector with additional features 
to ensure unattended, reliable operation such as 
automatic integral self-test (every 15 minutes); 
heated optics to ensure continued operation in 
extreme weather conditions; a wide variety of 
interfaces (relays, milliamp, ModBus, HART); a 
long warranty period of five years; along with 
independent third-party performance approvals 
(EN54-10, FM 3260 etc). 

These types of detector are used to detect fire 
from hydrocarbon fuels, gases and materials, 
mainly focusing on the resultant carbon dioxide 
(C0 2 ) produced from such fires. However, until 
now, "invisible" hydrogen fires were detected by 
UV type detectors, as the products of the hydro- 
gen fire were different (no C0 2 product from the 
fire) thus detection distance was very limited. Now, 
the Spectrex 40/40M Multi IR flame detector, 
incorporating four IR sensors, allows simultaneous 
detection of hydrogen flames at distances of 30 
metres as well as detecting hydrocarbon fires up 
to 65 metres distant. 

The Triple/Multi IR detection technology over- 
comes the long-time problem of false alarms. One 
of the problems in detecting small fires in the 
high-risk oil and gas industries, particularly at long 
ranges, was the potential for a high false alarm 
rate. False alarms could be generated by other 
electromagnetic radiation sources that are either 
termed as "friendly fires"( like flares in the petro- 
chemical industry) or by spurious radiation sources, 
such as direct and reflected sunlight, artificial light, 
welding, electrical heaters, ovens, and other 
sources of "noise". 

A false alarm could result in a costly discharge 


of the fire extinguishant, and 
if the fire extinguishant is of 
the type requiring replace- 
ment before reuse, the false 
alarm may disable the fire 
suppression system until it 
has been replaced or 
recharged and cause facility 
shut-down. 

Several generations of 
optical flame detectors have 
been developed to address 
the various fire and explosion 
hazards, particularly in mod- 
ern oil and gas exploration, 
processing storage, loading 
and shipping facilities. The 
Spectrex 40/40 Series is the 
most durable and weather 
resistant range of flame 
detectors currently on the market. Its features 
include a heated window, to eliminate condensa- 
tion and icing; HART capabilities for digital com- 
munications; lower power requirements and a 
compact, lightweight design. 

These detectors are fully tested to withstand 
harsh environmental conditions, including strong 
vibration, elevated temperatures in excess of 85°C, 
as well as deep freezing conditions of -55°C, high 
density fog, rain, snow and other extreme environ- 
mental conditions. This makes them ideal for 
installation in isolated and often difficult to reach 
industrial facilities located in Alaska, Siberia or on 
offshore oil rigs. 

Due to the detectors' increased reliability and 
durability, the SharpEye 40/40 Series warranty 
period has been extended to five years and 
approved by TUV to SIL2. Performance approvals 
(EN54-10, FM3260, DNV) and Ex approvals (ATEX, 
lECEx, FM, CSA, GOST-R) are also essential require- 
ments to prove, via third-party testing, that 
manufacturers' claims are justified. 

It is also important to mention the testing 
of flame detectors. The internal self-test will 
check the sensors but, necessarily, will not check 
the outputs. Therefore, the Spectrex range of 
flame simulators provide an in-situ means to 
fully end-to-end loop test flame detector, including 
the wiring connections and control system 
reaction. The main advantages are that the 
simulators can be used in Ex hazardous areas 
and can test the detector from up to nine metres 
away. This avoids the high cost of scaffolding and 
other access equipment and encourages testing 
when it may otherwise have been deemed too 
difficult. 

Summary 

Flame detection technologies have come a long 
way since the first phototube (UV) detected the 
photons emitted by flames. This has been driven 
primarily by the ever growing requirements of 
today's industries that demand high reliability and 
availability combined with cost effectiveness in 
their detection equipment for its expensive high- 
risk facilities and processes. Smaller in size, larger 
in brains with their miniature microprocessors, 
modern optical flame detectors provide industry 
with enhanced flame detection capability and 
reliability, with much longer detection ranges and 
minimal or no false alarms. m3 


62 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



40/40 Series Flame Detectors 

The new SharpEye 40/40 Series Flame Detectors are designed for long-term, reliable operation in severe, 
high-risk environments. All 40/40 Series detectors offer enhanced reliability and durability with a full 5-year warranty. 
A heated window, fully SIL2 [TUV] certified and EN54-10, FM3260 and DNV performance approved, along with Ex 
hazardous area approvals [ATEX, IECEx, FM, CSA] ensure your peace of mind. Interfacing is also easy - we provide a 
choice of relay contacts, analogue mA, RS485 Modbus and HART. All of this combined in a compact, lightweight but 
rugged package makes the 40/40 Flame Detector the one to choose! 

The 40/40 Series includes well-known and proven technologies such as triple IR (IR3) and UV/IR, and even a new Multi 
IR that allows simultaneous detection of hydrocarbon and hydrogen fires at long distances. 


5 YEAR WARRAN'I’Y 


Headquarters NJ (USA): +1 (973) 239-8398 
Houston Office: +1 (281) 463-6772 
Europe: +44 (141) 578-0693 
E-mail: spectrex@spectrex-inc.com 
Web: www.spectrex-inc.com 


it 

SPECTRE X INC. 





CONTROL LOGIC 
Spark 
detector 

designed for 
dust collectio 
systems 
to protect 

ri . 

of fire. 


201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 5410 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 


he 


The 


Sparks fly 
at high speed* 

They travel at a hundred kilometres 
per hour along the ducts of the dust 
collection system and reach the silo 
in less than three seconds 

CONTROL LOGIC 
SPARK DETECTOR 

is faster than 
the sparks themselves. 
It detects them with its highly 
sensitive infrared sensor, 
intercepts and extinguishes 
them in a flash, 
no periodic inspection. 

CONTROL LOGIC system 

is designed for "total supervision". 
It verifies that sparks have been 
extinguished, gives prompt warning of 
any malfunction and, if needed, 
cuts off the duct and stops the fan. 


SO 9001 


CONTROL LOGIC 



BETTER TO KNOW IT BEFORE 


Eye is faster than nose. 

In the event of live fire 
the IR FLAME DETECTOR 
responds immediately 


IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/FA 
EXPL0SI0NPR00F 
ENCLOSURE 


CONTROL LOGIC 

IR FLAME DETECTOR 

the fastest and most effective fire alarm device 
for industrial applications 

■j -t ^ 



IR FLAME DETECTOR 
RIV-601/F 
WATERTIGHT 
IP 65 ENCLOSURE 


For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where is a risk of explosion 
and where the explosionproof 
protection is required. 

One detector can monitor a vast area 
and responds immediately 
to the fire, yet of small size. 


Also for 

RS485 two-wire serial line 


For industrial applications indoors 
or outdoors where fire can spread 
out rapidly due to the presence of 
highly inflammable materials, 
and where vast premises need an optical 
detector with a great sensitivity 
and large field of view. 


201 37 Milano - Via Ennio, 25 - Italy 

Tel.: + 39 02 541 0 081 8 - Fax + 39 02 541 0 0764 

E-mail: controllogic@controllogic.it - Web: www.controllogic.it 






By David Spicer 

Crown Paints 


COATINGS 



Buying valuable 
Time 

Flame retardant coatings buy valuable time to evacuate a building if fire 
breaks out. 


E vacuating people from a burning building as 
quickly and efficiently as possible is a serious 
business and anything that can be done to 
slow down the spread of flame will, in effect, buy 
time for the building occupants. 

According to independent fire testing establish- 
ment, Exova warringtonfire, the approach to 
flammability testing for internal building lining 
materials differs around the world. There has been 
harmonisation in Europe with the introduction of 
EN 13501-1 and the associated test standards. 
However, a global supplier is still likely to have to 
conduct several tests in order to comply with 
various national regulations. 

Crown Paints has focused its testing for the UK, 
where a new fire scenario was introduced in 2006, 
whereby all employers owners or managers of 
buildings (other than single occupancy private 


dwellings) have a duty of care to achieve and 
maintain conditions in buildings that reduce 
the risk of injury, risk to life and damage to 
property. 

The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order (Eng- 
land and Wales) and the Fire (Scotland) Act require 
the identification of a "responsible person" - such 
as an owner, property manager or an employee - 
who has a duty to ensure that a fire risk assess- 
ment of the building as a whole is undertaken. 
The EnglishAA/elsh and Scottish governments have 
made available a series of advisory guides relating 
to different industry sectors that provide details of 
what to look for and how to carry out such a risk 
assessment. Each of these guides refers to the 
potential hazards of flame spread over painted 
walls and ceilings and the need to achieve a Class 
0 fire rating in circulation areas and escape routes. 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


65 




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BUYING VALUABLE TIME 

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Crown Trade Ti monox is 
a range of flame 
retardant coatings 



Paints - even water-based emulsions - contain 
resins or binders that may be flammable. Although 
a single coat of emulsion on a bare plasterboard 
surface is unlikely to form a hazard, over many 
years a build up of multiple layers of conventional 
paint over any surface can become a significant 
fire risk, particularly in corridors, stairwells and 
other areas forming part of a fire escape route. 

In the UK, wall and ceiling lining materials are 
classified from Class 0 to Class 4 according to their 
level of resistance to flame spread and heat 
release, with Class 0 being the best performing 


0 rating on plasterboard may give a Class 3 rating 
when applied to wood - so our fire performance 
claims cover the paint and substrate in combina- 
tion. Studies have shown that the Class 0 surface 
of plasterboard, even when painted for the first 
time, can be downgraded to Class 2 or worse as 
subsequent layers of conventional paint are 
applied. 

This is a serious concern for organisations such 
as local authorities and housing associations, 
which have a duty of care to minimise fire risk and 
guard against potential loss of life, injury and 


Over many years a build up of multiple layers of conventional 
paint over any surface can become a significant fire risk, 
particularly in corridors, stairwells and other areas forming 
part of a fire escape route. 


material and Class 4 the worst. In many situations, 
UK fire regulations demand Class 0 wall and 
ceiling linings although Class 0 is not a term 
defined in specific British Standards, but is defined 
in Appendices to Approved Document B to the 
Building Regulations or equivalent in Scotland. 

A Class 0 performance is generally specified 
where it is necessary to restrict the use of products 
that ignite easily and that have a high rate of heat 
release and could therefore reduce the time to 
flashover. 

It is not possible to test the performance of 
paint in isolation - a system able to provide a Class 


property damage. Furthermore, paint build up in 
communal areas within office blocks, flats, 
hospitals and old people's homes - in fact most 
types of buildings - is of particular concern, 
creating a significant risk of fire spreading 
throughout a building. 

The following example illustrates the potential 
consequences of failing to maintain a Class 0 fire 
protection rating. 

An outbreak of fire in an English hospital saw a 
50-metre corridor engulfed in flames within three 
minutes following a bed being set on fire by a 
patient. On hearing the fire alarm, a nurse located 


66 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




For over 90 years, The Reliable Automatic Sprinkler Co., Inc. 
has manufactured fire sprinklers, valves, and fire protection 
accessories. They are also a major distributor of sprinkler sys- 
tem components. Reliable produces a full line of both solder 
element and frangible glass bulb sprinklers for virtually every 
type of protection requirements. Reliable has a complete line 
of fire protection valves for controlling water flow and providing 
alarm signaling to include check, alarm, dry, deluge, and pre- 
action valves. 


Reliable Fire Sprinkler Ltd. 

Manufacturer & Distributor of Fire Protection Equipment 

www.reliablesprinkler.com 


Western Europe: Berny Holden - bholden@reliablesprinkler.com 

Germany: Hartmut Winkler - hwinkler@reliablesprinkler.com 


UK Office: +44.1342316800 

ucHMoncr.tnutr.itn tt Germany Office: +49.62176212223 


Reliable 


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the fire and evacuated the ward, closing the fire 
doors before making for the fire exit. However, 
before the nurse could reach the end of the 
corridor, an explosion of hot air blew open the fire 
doors, allowing the fire to spread rapidly down the 
corridor. Fortunately, in this case, all the occupants 
of the building escaped without injury, although 
this incident could easily have resulted in loss of 
life. 

A subsequent investigation into the spread of 
the fire at the hospital showed that there was a 
build up of more than 18 layers of paint on the 
walls, which resulted in the hospital's original Class 
0 fire protection rating being reduced to Class 4 
spread of flame, despite all the products that had 
been used having had a Class 0 rating on bare 
plasterboard. 

Commercial flame retardant surface coatings 
such as Crown Trade Timonox are designed to 
improve fire performance rating. They are capable 
of improving a rating from Class 4 to Class 0 and, 
while they are unable to prevent a fire from 
starting, as paint is not normally the first thing to 
be ignited, may provide valuable additional time 
for a building to be safely evacuated. 


with a wall where multiple layers of old paint had 
been covered with the flame retardant coating. 

The test, commonly known as the "Warrington- 
fire Blue Board Test", features a multi-layer 
cocktail of ten coats of conventional paint - as 
might be found on the walls of a building of, say, 
30 years of age - applied to a plasterboard 
substrate which is then tested to BS 476: Part 7. 
This involves mounting a specimen of specific size 
of the surface to be tested, at right angles to a 
high intensity radiant panel. For the first minute of 
the test a small pilot flame is applied to the 
surface of the specimen in the hotter region. The 
test is conducted for a total of ten minutes and 
the flame spread over the surface is recorded 
throughout the period. 

The test rated this Blue Board surface as Class 
4, yet, when it was later treated with the flame 
retardant paint system, the classification improved 
to Class 1 . A similar panel, subject to BS 476: Part 
6 produces heat release indices well in excess of 
the 6 & 12 required by UK legislation when a Class 
0 rating is required. The same Timonox systems 
then limited the heat release indices below the 
limits, and hence, combing the two results, met 


The spread of the fire at the hospital showed that there was a 
build up of more than 18 layers of paint on the walls, which 
resulted in the hospital's original Class 0 fire protection 
rating being reduced to Class 4 spread of flame, despite all 
the products that had been used having had a Class 0 rating 

on bare plasterboard. 


David Spicer, Specialist 
Products Manager at Crown 
Paints 


For more information go to 
www.crowntrade.co.uk 


During investigation, samples of painted 
plasterboard walls, identical to those damaged in 
the fire, were taken from the hospital. When test- 
ed, the panels achieved a Class 4 rating. When 
subsequently over-coated with Timonox Eggshell 
the result was a much improved Class 1 fire rating. 

The importance of using flame retardant coat- 
ings is further illustrated in the case of a fire in a 
tower block, again in England, which caused 
extensive damage to the flat in which it started. 
However, in this case, a flame retardant coating 
had been applied to all communal areas of the 
tower block as part of the local authority's planned 
maintenance programme and, although heat in 
the corridor outside the flat was enough to melt 
the light fittings, there was no evidence of flame 
spread beyond the affected apartment. 

Generally, flame retardant coatings work by 
limiting the oxygen around the flames through the 
release of non-combustible gases, and by using a 
formulation that provides a barrier to the flam- 
mable paint layers beneath. In some cases, an 
intumescent layer may be used, which produces a 
foamed insulating carbon char on burning, 
restricting heat rise in the surface beneath. 

Tests carried out by Crown Paints at Exova 
warringtonfire, showed a marked difference 
between the spread of flame on a surface 
intended to demonstrate a worst case scenario of 
a painted wall or ceiling surface when compared 


the requirements for a Class 0 rating. 

An independent report, produced by 
Warringtonfire some years ago confirmed that 
multiple layers of paint in communal areas can 
represent a significant fire hazard. The report 
determined that it was not generally necessary to 
remove previous layers of paint - this was only 
needed when the original coatings had poor 
adhesion. 

It is recommended that property owners or 
managers wishing to specify application of flame 
retardant coatings should call on the services of 
the paint manufacturer that should first make an 
assessment of the age and condition of the 
existing painted surfaces. The specialist may want 
to take a sample of the existing paint covering 
away for analysis, as this will show what coating 
system needs to be applied to offer the optimum 
protection. 

Those using flame retardant coatings need not 
compromise the aesthetic appearance of their 
interior decoration. Paint-based systems are often 
available in a wide range of colours and finishes 
including matt and silk vinyl and acrylic eggshell, 
with the option of anti-graffiti protection. A 
conventional application of two coats of a flame 
retardant finish over several layers of paint may be 
sufficient to restore the required Class 0 rating, or 
a higher performing system can be specified if the 
existing risk is greater. D33 


68 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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Firetrace® is a registered trademark of Firetrace USA, LLC / Firetrace Ltd. All unauthorized uses of the Firetrace trademark 
shall be prosecuted to the fullest extent permitted by the law. 

t Listings and Approvals vary by system and agent. 





omzec 


Fire Fighting Foams & Equipment 


Dafo FomtecAB P.O Box 683 SE-135 26Tyreso Sweden 
Phone: +46 8 506 405 66 Fax: +46 8 506 405 29 
E-mail: info@fomtec.com Web: www.fomtec.com 


“The independent alternative” 


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Niall Rowan 

Association for 
Specialist Fire Protection 



The Changing 
Face Of Fire 
Safety Design 

The move away from prescriptive regulations and the adoption of fire 
engineering techniques is not without its challenges, particularly when it 
comes to passive fire protection. 

T raditionally, fire safety design for buildings 
has been based on compliance with a set of 
regulations, prescriptive design guides or 
codes of practice. However, it has become increas- 
ingly recognised that these do not always provide 
owners and developers with the most cost- 
effective solutions, particularly for innovative 
developments involving more complex structures, 
unusual spaces, or new building materials. The 
safety codes depend on assumptions and over- 
simplifications, resulting in buildings that are often 
over-engineered in some areas and misunderstood 
in others. 

Changes have been occurring over the last few 
years to reflect this. In the UK, Approved 
Document B was often referred to as "the Building 


Regulations" as if that was all there was when, in 
fact, it is only guidance to support and comply 
with the building regulations - you do not have to 
follow it. Consequently, the use of fire safety 
engineering is increasing as trends in buildings 
change. Architects want iconic buildings and these 
often do not fit within the framework of con- 
ventional codes and regulations, which might 
require the installation of fire protection measures 
that do not fit well with the building's design or its 
function. 

The role of fire-designed buildings 

Most fire safety practitioners realise the value of 
and the role that fire safety engineering has to 
play. I always give the example of building a bridge 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


71 



FIRE ENGINEERING 


across a river. The bridge designer is told the load 
the bridge has to take, the width of the river, the 
soil conditions, etc and he or she designs a bridge. 
The designer is not told, for example, that the 
bridge must be constructed using brick arches 
with a maximum ten metre span. 

Yet that is exactly what prescriptive legislation 
for fire safety does. It restricts the designer's free- 
dom and, if our bridge analogy is used, would 
lead to several identical bridges across a river 
instead of the wide variety we see today. The 
freedom to design a bridge using engineering 
principles allows the designer to choose from 
many different kinds of bridge. The same argu- 
ment can be used for fire protection. The fire 
safety designer can use a range of constructional 
practices and fire protection techniques to ensure 
the basics, namely that the building stays up long 
enough for the occupants to escape and for the 
fire service to intervene appropriately. 


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Increase in fire-designed buildings 

Consequently, we have seen an increase in the use 
of a more flexible approach to designing fire safety 
into buildings. Such an approach is embodied 
in BS 9999 (Code of practice for fire safety in 
the design, management and use of buildings). 
BS 9999 is a kind of "half way house" between 
Approved Document B and fire safety engineering 
using BS 7974. It is a prescriptive code of practice 
for fire safety design beyond the limits of 
Approved Document B. It is not a fire engineering 
guide, although it uses fire engineering principles 
to formulate the guidance provided. It replaces 
most of the BS 5588 codes of practice for fire 
safety design of buildings. 

BS 9999 provides the designer with guidance 
on how to design a building taking into account 
many factors including: 

• Risk profiles (building risk category, fire load 
density, and fire growth potential). 

• Designing means of escape (travel distance, 
occupant number, etc). 

• Access and facilities for fire fighting. 

• Designing the building structure (load bearing 
and non load bearing elements, effects of 
ventilation, fire suppression systems, etc). 

• Protection of special risks. 

• Managing occupied buildings. 

There are concerns that in the 
rush to take advantages of 
the freedom that fire- 
designed buildings give us, 
we are not taking into 
account the problems of 
existing buildings and how 
those problems, if transferred 
to the fire-designed 
buildings, may lead to 
an unacceptable risk. 

But, on the other hand, there are concerns that 
in the rush to take advantages of all the freedoms 
that fire-designed buildings give us, we are not 
taking into account the problems of existing build- 
ings and how those problems, if transferred - as 
they will be - to the fire-designed buildings, may 
lead to an unacceptable risk. Existing buildings 
may be over engineered, but they have pitfalls and 
problems that compensate for this. 

Problems with existing buildings include: 

• Badly specified fire protection (wrong type and 
or number of products, use of products where 
performance has not been adequately verified 
by test, assessment or preferably third-party 
product certification). 

• Improperly installed fire protection (missing or 
wrongly installed products and systems, use of 
unskilled labour, installations not checked by 
Building Control, etc). 


72 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



THE CHANGING FACE OF FIRE SAFETY DESIGN 


FIRE ENGINEERING 


• Actions taken by occupants to disable or 
render ineffective any fire protection measures 
(fire alarms switched off, fire doors wedged 
open, vandalism and subsequent installation 
of services through compartment walls or 
floors without reinstating the fire resisting 
construction). 

So some existing buildings might be over engi- 
neered, but the robustness of the regulations 
copes, or counteracts, many of the problems listed 
above. What we are doing now is removing the 
over engineering (or the robustness, if you like) 
and not replacing it with anything. So the fire 
engineered building may well be a problem if 
much of the reduced fire protection that was 
specified is not functioning, or is not installed 
properly, or has been vandalised. 

Is there evidence to support such fears? In the 
absence of a significant number of fires in fire- 
designed buildings, because they are still relatively 
new and there are not enough of them, there 
cannot be much evidence. However, recent events 
have shown us the tragic effects of reduced fire 
protection in traditional buildings. To have a 
reduction of designed-in fire protection must give 
rise for concern unless mitigating actions are put 
in place. 

Best practice guide 

The publication of the Association for Specialist 
Fire Protection (ASFP) best practice document was 
preceded by a detailed three-year government- 
funded project, where independent research on 
fire safety provisions was collected on a wide 
variety of buildings. The research repeatedly 
showed that the misplaced reliability on fire 
compartment walls and barriers is a real problem. 
In some complex buildings, detailed drawings 
were missing and occupants had no knowledge of 
the location of essential defences, such as 
compartment walls. A high percentage of 
compartment walls were either defective through 
poorly installed fire stopping of penetrating 
service systems, or invalidated by incompetent 
maintenance. 

Lakanal House 

Last year, the UK government's chief fire and 
rescue adviser, Sir Ken Knight, published his initial 
report on the emerging issues arising from the 
fatal fire at Lakanal House, Camberwell in London. 
The report reminds us of the fundamental 
principles intended for the construction of larger 
buildings stating: "There is a long established 
principle that the design and construction of 
high-rise buildings enable the occupants adjacent 
to the immediate fire area to make their way to a 
place of safety, while other occupants can remain 
safely in their homes. These principles do require 
that a satisfactory level of passive and active fire 
safety systems are installed and maintained." It 
went on to state: "The protection incorporated 
into the design and fabric of the building is the 
fundamental basis for reducing the spread of fire 
and loss of life...." "In undertaking major changes 
and refurbishment work in such buildings, the 
significance of the passive fire protection is 
required to be clearly specified and understood by 
the main contractor for the work, as well as those 
installing or altering the protection." 

So it is quite clear that designers are responsible 


for making safe designs of buildings and those 
buildings must be maintained properly - including 
the installation or refurbishment of active and 
passive fire protection measures - by suitably com- 
petent people who recognise the significance of 
the work they are doing. However, the best prac- 
tice guide research has shown us that this is simply 
not occurring, and the response of architects, 
building designers and some fire safety consultants 
is to further water down fire safety measures. 

Am I missing something here? How about 
doing what is supposed to be done properly first, 
then engineer out the fire protection in the 
knowledge that it will be properly installed, 
inspected and maintained? 

Regulatory reform (fire safety) order 

2005 

There is a clear duty under the UK's Regulatory 
Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 that a fire risk 



INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


73 


FIRE ENGINEERING 


THE CHANGING FACE OF FIRE SAFETY DESIGN 



assessment must be made by a "responsible 
person", normally the building owner, landlord or 
person operating the business on the premises. 

Investigations made by the BBC in the wake of 
the Lakanal House fire, however, revealed that 
hundreds of tower blocks had not been assessed 
for fire safety and that the local authority, which 
seemed to be the worst offender, had only carried 
out risk assessments on two of its 112 tower 
blocks. The situation is much better now, but only 
because of the adverse publicity surrounding the 
fire. 

Subsequently, the fire risk assessment at Lakanal 
House was acknowledged to be deficient. Perhaps 
this is because there are no qualifications or 
requirements to be a fire risk assessor. We know 
from fire risk assessments that are carried out that 
many of the assessors (referred to in the Fire 
Safety Order as the "competent persons") are not 
sufficiently knowledgeable on passive fire 
protection measures. The ASFP is in the process of 
drafting guidance for fire risk assessors to ensure 
that they thoroughly, but realistically, evaluate the 
passive fire protection measures when undertaking 
fire risk assessments. 


Niall Rowan is Technical 
Officer at the Association for 
Specialist Fire Protection. 


For more information go to 
www.asfp.org.uk 


What needs to be done? 

Fire-designed buildings, whether fully engineered 
using BS 7974 or BS 9999, are not going to go 
away and it is not for the ASFP to advocate that 
position. The benefits of fire-designed buildings 
are recognised for what they are. However, the 
increasing use of such building design techniques, 
which will lead to a reduction of designed-in 
passive fire protection, is of concern unless 


suitable mitigating or compensatory measures are 
taken. 

These should include: 

• The mandatory use of third-party certificated 
products installed by third-party certificated 
installers, or . . . 

• The mandatory inspection of all installed 
passive fire protection. 

• No introduction of a so called "competent 
persons" schemes for installers of passive fire 
protection, unless such schemes are either 
personnel certification schemes with individuals 
certificated against EN 17024 or company 
schemes certificated against EN 45011. In 
either case, any schemes should be accredited 
by UKAS. 

• A register of fire risk assessors that includes 
evaluation of their competence in the area of 
installed passive fire protection. 

• Fire risk assessors to be members of either 
personnel certification schemes with individuals 
certificated against EN 17024, or company 
schemes certificated against EN 45011. In 
either case, any schemes should be accredited 
by UKAS 

The number of fire-designed buildings is 
increasing across the world, but those taking over 
such buildings often have very little knowledge in 
this area. It is imperative that if we are to increas- 
ingly use engineering techniques to provide fire 
safety, we must have total confidence that the 
passive fire protection measures specified are 
installed and maintained correctly. Changing 
approaches to fire safety design should not mean 
lowering fire safety. IlMil 


74 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




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DEAF MESSAGING 


Deaf To The warni 




Imagine being caught up in a fire, yet being completely unaware that an alarm 
has been raised. For the deaf or hearing challenged it is risk they face every time 
they enter a public building. 


Fireco Ltd. 


T ry putting yourself in the shoes of a pro- 
foundly deaf young woman whose ordeal 
while out shopping was recently reported in 
the news media. "I was in the changing room of a 
clothes store," she explains. "After 15 minutes I 
came out and found the whole shop completely 
deserted. I put down the clothes and walked out, 
to be met by embarrassed shop assistants explain- 
ing the fire alarm had gone off and they had 
assumed everyone had heard it because they had 
not realised I was deaf." 

This frightening experience highlights the 
vulnerability of the deaf, particularly in public 
places, who everyday live with the threat of a 
fire alarm sounding an emergency warning they 
cannot hear. 

Deaf demographics 

Deafness is often regarded as a "hidden disability" 
because it is frequently not immediately obvious 
that someone is deaf. This false assumption can 
lead to an acceptance by management that a deaf 
person is somehow capable of coping unaided - a 
dangerous misconception when you consider that 
worldwide deaf demographics show the problem 
of hearing loss is growing at a surprising rate. 

It is estimated that the number of hearing- 
impaired people in the developed world alone will 


reach 215 million by 2015. Of these, some 90 
million will be Europeans, where about 71 million 
adults aged between 18 and 80 years have a hear- 
ing loss greater than 25 dB (the definition of 
hearing impairment). Reportedly, one in six adult 
Europeans suffers from hearing loss great enough 
to adversely affect their daily life. 

In North America, more than 25 million people 
are estimated to be hearing impaired, while in the 
UK, the number of people with severe hearing loss 
is predicted to rise to a million within the next 
twenty years. Worldwide, more than 900 million 
people will suffer from hearing loss of more than 
25 dB by 2025. 

With such growing numbers of sufferers, then, 
more and more people are destined to be isolated 
from the hearing population and, in consequence, 
threatened by shortcomings in fire safety pre- 
cautions designed for the "audible world". 

Potential deaf trap 

Recent behavioural studies of fire evacuations 
demonstrate just how especially vulnerable deaf 
people are in fire evacuations from public buildings, 
revealing that two-thirds of the public occasionally 
or never think about evacuation procedures from 
buildings they regularly occupy; a figure that rises 
to 89 percent in buildings they use infrequently. 


76 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 




DEAF MESSAGING 


DEAF TO THE WARNINGS 


ngs 



Even more worrying, in the 
event of a fire alarm sounding, 40 
percent of the public would instinc- 
tively follow people in their vicinity 
- even into danger. And only 29 
percent would use the nearest exit. 

Clearly, these behavioural respons- 
es represent a herd mentality and 
have serious implications for deaf 
and hard of hearing people. 

As the deaf young woman says, 
when recalling her own experience 
of fire safety failures: 'If a fire alarm 
goes off in a big supermarket how 
is the deaf person supposed to 
know? True, if the store is busy, 
then obviously everyone else run- 
ning for the exit would prompt 
them. But, if it is quiet, they might 
not be aware until it is too late." 

Even visual alarms can go unno- 
ticed. "Ironically, it is easy for a 
deaf person to have blind spot. A 
deaf person has to have eyes in the 
back of their head to compensate 
for their ears not functioning as 
they should. A profoundly deaf 
person's neck hurts from constantly looking 
around to make sure they are out of harm's way." 

There are however new products becoming 
available that use text messaging (SMS) to auto- 
matically inform a deaf person when the fire alarm 
sounds in a public place such as a supermarket or 
shopping centre, giving deaf and hard of hearing 
people the freedom to move around buildings 

Worldwide, more than 900 
million people will suffer 
from hearing loss of more 
than 25 dB by 2025. 

without the worry of missing an emergency situa- 
tion. Significantly, these are obligations to deaf 
building occupants that are enshrined in national 
policies and legislation to prevent disability 
discrimination. These require compliance, such as 
the provision of auxiliary aids or services to 
improve communication for people with sensory 
impairments, including those affecting hearing. 

A quiet revolution 

The dramatic growth of mobile phone technology 
has profoundly changed the lives of millions of 
deaf people. For the first time, a generation of 
deaf people can communicate with the world on 
the same terms as the hearing population, using 
mobile phones, of which there are now some five 
billion worldwide. 

For this new generation of deaf people, mobile 
texting has provided a lifeline that helps bridge the 
gap between the hearing-impaired communities 
and the hearing world. "I do not have to depend 


on hearing people," is a typical comment by a 
deaf user. "It makes me so much more indepen- 
dent. And text messaging is less work. I can com- 
municate any time I want to. Texting is very fast 
and very efficient." 

Take note of the deaf consumer 

In response to these trends, international 
supermarket chains are recognising that one in 
every six people is a lot of spending power that 
their businesses should not ignore. By removing 
communication barriers, forward-looking com- 
panies are aware that the secret to better 
bottom-line performance is to empower con- 
sumers and make the purchase of products a 
trouble-free experience, and this empowerment 
should embrace their deaf customers. Business 
strategists also know that consumers respond 
positively to the added value of services that cater 
to special needs. 

As one deaf consumer confirms: "Deaf people 
are active members of society, with jobs, families 
and disposable incomes to spend. So it is only 
right that businesses should provide for all their 
special needs, particularly by ensuring that they 
are safe and secure against fire while on their 
premises. Deaf messaging technology is obviously 
attractive because texting is the medium the deaf 
community uses all the time." 

This readily available technology has now been 
harnessed by Fireco, a designer and manufacturer 
of Deaf Message Service (DMS), a new product 
that uses text messaging to automatically inform a 
deaf person when the fire alarm sounds in a public 
place. It puts the deaf and hard of hearing on the 
same level of those without the disability and pro- 
vides them with the freedom to move around 
buildings without the worry of falling prey to what 
to them is a silent enemy - fire. D33 


Wesley Kent is Sales 
Director Fireco Ltd. 


For more information go to 
www.deafmessageservice.com 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


77 



TESTING 


Non-approved product 




The increasing volume of non-approved, low quality products being imported 
into some markets only highlights the benefits to be gained from third-party 
testing and certification by independent accredited bodies. 


Warrington Certification, 
part of the Exova group 


T he issue at the core of this growing dilemma 
is quite simple. How can we say with convic- 
tion that any product - whether mechanical, 
electrical or other - will do what it says it will do, 
and is fit for purpose? The proliferation of non- 
approved, low quality products being imported 
into some countries places a further responsibility 
on the supply chain, whether you are a specifier, 
distributor or installer. How can you be sure that a 
product assures performance? 

The questions around the quality and safety of 
passive fire protection products and systems 
comes at a time of increasing pressure on manu- 
facturers and the whole supply chain in terms of 
legislation and compliance. 

For manufacturers looking for market differen- 
tial, the real value of product certification is that it 
is issued by an accredited third party. This means 
there is genuine independent endorsement, and 
that experts have tested and verified that the par- 
ticular product in question performs to the quality 
and safety levels required or beyond. In the event 
of a failure, the fact that you can demonstrate that 


you have made all reasonable efforts to ensure the 
quality of a certificated product or system - and 
that there is a certificate that says so - will help to 
mitigate any accusation of possible negligence. 

Even CE marking is no guarantee of perfor- 
mance or origin, but is merely a declaration by the 
manufacturer that this product meets the minimum 
requirements of the applicable European Directive. 
Credible third-party schemes have to go far beyond 
the requirements of CE marking, typically involving 
in-depth inspection and surveillance regimes to 
monitor the manufacturer's quality management 
system and factory production control systems. 
They will also cover initial type-testing on indepen- 
dently sampled production, design appraisal 
against a technical schedule, assessment of a 
defined application and ongoing audit testing. 

The product must be fit-for-purpose and, in 
addition to the fire performance and quality 
aspects, the third-party also assesses all other 
relevant essential performance characteristics, 
for example, durability, thermal and acoustic 
performance. 


78 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 



UNDERSTANDING FIRE STOPPING 

TCCTI M fl 


1 1 3 1 1 IM 13 


s - why take the risk? 


If everyone involved in a project takes respon- 
sibility for their duty-of-care, there will be no com- 
promise on specifying and installing third-party 
certificated products and systems from the start. 
Ideally, this should start with the architect or 
designer, who can build-in the requirement for 
certified products into the specification. For many 
manufacturers, whether it is fire doors, fire- 
stopping systems or cabling, the testing of a 
product or system should be important for safety 
reasons to make sure it meets the relevant British 
Standard (BS) or European standard (EN). The 
further rigorous inspection of the manufacturer's 
processes and systems that lead to certification 
provides transparent evidence of a product's 
quality. 

The contractor is responsible for a professional 
installation using the specified products for the 
project. He should be checking that the specified 
products are delivered to site by the distributor 
and fully installed in accordance with the manu- 
facturer's instructions. For the end user, it is also 
recommended to check that what has been 
specified by the architect has been installed by the 
contractor. 

The real value of product 
certification is that it is 
issued by an accredited third 
party. This means there is 
genuine independent 
endorsement, and that 
experts have tested and 
verified that the particular 
product in question 
performs to the quality and 
safety levels required. 

Indeed, there is no legal obligation on manufac- 
turers to test to levels of certification, but the 
benefits - especially with the increasing volumes 
of non-approved products on the market and sub- 
sequent legal action - speak for themselves. If 
something goes wrong with a fire performance 
system there is usually life and property at stake. In 
the UK, this can result in legal action against the 
architect, specifier, main contractor or building 
owner as the "responsible person" under the 
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005. 

According to figures from Britain's Department 
for Communities and Local Government (DCLG), 
there were 61,000 building fires in England during 
the 12 months from March 2009 to April 2010, 



including 22,000 fires in commercial premises. Of 
the 328 deaths from fires, a third occurred in 
commercial buildings. The cost of these fires to 
business runs into millions of pounds and cannot 
be accurately counted, as many insurance claims 
and legal proceedings are still running. 

In England, Wales and Northern Ireland, the Fire 
Safety Order applies to you if you are responsible 
for business premises, an employer or self- 
employed with business premises, responsible for 
a part of a dwelling where that part is solely used 
for business purposes, a charity or voluntary 
organisation, a contractor with a degree of control 
over any premises or providing accommodation for 
paying guests. Under the legislation, the respon- 
sible person must maintain a current fire safety risk 
assessment and implement and maintain a fire 
management plan. 

This should consider some key issues including 
identifying fire hazards, considering the people 
who may be at risk, evaluating and reducing any 
risks, recording what is in the plan and reviewing 
your risk assessment to ensure it remains up to 
date and reflects any changes that may have 
occurred. If there is any doubt about fire risk 
assessment or third-party certification, advice 
should be sought from recognised certification 
bodies. 

So, why take the risk? 

With the expert rigour and testing associated 
with a third-party certification scheme the archi- 
tect - and the others in the supply chain - can say 
truly that they have specified a product that is fit- 
for-purpose when installed correctly. They can also 
have peace of mind that they have fulfilled their 
own duty of care. tS2 


Leigh Hill is business 
development manager at 
Warrington Certification, part 
of the Exova group providing 
laboratory testing, advising 
and assuring services to 
companies worldwide 


For more information go to 
www.warringtonfire.net 


INTERNATIONAL FIRE PROTECTION 


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When asset protection matters most. 
DuPont™ FM-200® 


DuPont™ FM-200® clean agent can reach extinguishing levels 
in 10 seconds or less, stopping ordinary combustible, 
electrical, and flammable liquid fires before they cause 
significant damage. When fire is extinguished that quickly, 
it means less damage, lower repair costs, and an extra margin 
of safety for employees and valuable assets— making it easier 
to keep your business running smoothly. 

Make sure your business is protected with the most 
widely specified clean agent in the world. Get maximum 
protection with DuPont™ FM-200® 


1.800.473.7790 

cleanagents.dupont.com 


'JFM-200 


DuPont Fire Extinguishants. The Science of Protection.™ 


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The miracles of science 


Copyright © 2010 DuPont. The DuPont Oval Logo, DuPont ™, The miracles of science™, 
The Science of Protection™, and FM-200® are trademarks or registered trademarks 
of Ed. du Pont de Nemours and Company or its affiliates. All rights reserved. 


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