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of 

^TIFICIAL LIMBS 



■■■MaBMaMMMn 



A» A* MARKS 

NEW YORK 



MANUAL 

OF 

Aktificial Limbs 



COPIOUSLY ILLTJSTEATED 



Artificial Toes^ Feet^ Legs, Fingers, Hands, ArmSy 

for Amputations and Deformities, Appliances 

for Excisions, Fractures, and other 

Disabilities of Lower and Upper 

Extremities, Suggestions on 

Amputations, Treatment * 

of Stumps, History^ 

etc.y etc., etc. 



AN EXHAUSTIVE EXPOSITION OF PROTHESIS 



A. A. MARKS 

701 Broadway, New York, N. Y., TJ. S. A. 
1907 



^VCi- 



CoPTRiOHT, 1905, 1907 

BT 

A. A. MABES 



PEEFACB 

Manual of Artificial Limbs is the title given to this book to 
distinguish it from the Treatise and all other publications which it 
succeeds and supplants. It is in no sense a catalogue, although con- 
taining the information usually given in catalogues; but it is a 
true manual of the subject of prothesis and the most exhaustive 
work ever produced on that topic. Prothesis or prosthesis is defined 
by Webster as "The process of adding to the human body some 
artificial part in place of one that may be wanting." 

The Manual thus treats of all losses and impairments of the ex- 
tremities, whether caused by accident, disease or birth, shows what 
they are and clearly describes how they may be repaired by artificial 
methods. 

The Manual is divided into chapters, each devoted to a distinct 
phase of the subject or to a particular part of the leg or arm under 
discussion. 

The illustrations are designated by letters and numbers for con- 
venience of reference. For example, partial foot amputations are 
discussed in Chapter III, and the illustrations in that chapter all 
have the letter C and are numbered in order, 1, 2, 3, etc. Amputa- 
tions of different sections of the legs and arms are similarly divided 
and the illustrations numbei'ed in the same manner. This gives 
deflniteness and avoids confusions with earlier publications. 

The need of the Prothesist becomes more and more urgent every 
day. Losses of limbs by accidents and injuries of every kind are 
constantly multiplying, and the demands made upon the thought- 
ful and skillful maker of artificial limbs and other surgical apparatus 
increase in the same proportion. 

The successful maker cannot confine himself to the narrow 
methods of former times. Specific treatment is now called for in 
almost every case, the peculiarities of each requires closer study, 
separate methods must be devised by which complicated cases can 
be treated more skillfully and reparation more complete. These 
are advanced methods, called for by the progress of the science and 
necessitated by the importance of the work required. The skillful 
maker thus occupies a much more prominent position than can be 
filled by those who persist in clinging to archaic systems. It has 
been said by those most competent to judge that the house of A. A. 
Marks through persistent endeavor, broad enterprise, attentive study 
and a real sense of the importance of the work has earned and occu- 
pies the foremost position in its branch of inaustry. 

3 



4 - Preface 

While the loss of a limb is a serious personal deprivation, it is no 
longer regarded as a grievous or irreparable one. There are many 
thousands of people who walk, work and mingle with other people 
without disclosing their own loss and without sufiFering. The ab- 
sence of a leg or an arm, therefore, is now regarded, and quite 
rightly, as one of the minor misfortunes. Testimonials substantiat- 
ing these statements, and explaining and endorsing the principles 
presented in this Manual for the consti-uction of artificial limbs, will 
be found in copious numbers in Chapter XXXVII. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Preface ........ ^ . 3 

Introduction . . . . . . « , .15 



CHAPTER I 

How We Walk. 

On natural feet . 17 

On artificial feet with ankle-joints 19 

On spring mattress rubber feet without ankle-joints . 19 



CHAPTER II 

Artifical Feet, Their Construction and Relative 
Merits. 

The rubber foot 21 

The spring mattress 21 

Contrasts . . . . ' 24 

The sponge rubber foot 24 

The pneumatic foot ........ 24 

The wood foot . 24 

The ankle-joint rubber foot 25 

The felt foot 25 

Ankle joints when ordered 26 



CHAPTER III 

Partial Feet Amputations. 

Single-toe amputations ....... 27 

Amputations at base of toes 27 

Instep amputations ........ 28 

Ill-advised prothesis . 28 

Objections . . . , 29 

Practical prothesis . , . . . . . = 31 

Retracted heels . , ....,„, 33 

Aluminum sockets . . .,.,.. 35 

5 



Contents. 



CHAPTEK lY 

Ankle-joint Amputations. 
Tibio-tarsal stumps 
End-bearing ..... 
Construction of suitable artificial leg 
Partially end-bearing 
Sensitive ends .... 
Peg legs ..... 



PAGE 



CHAPTEE V 

Below-knee Amputations. 
Long tibial stumps 
Enlarged non-end-bearing 
No pressure at the popliteal space . 
Tapering stumps .... 

Ordinary and short tibial stumps . 
Artificial legs for tibial stumps 
Construction .... 

Socket ...... 

Knee-connection .... 

Steel joints ..... 

Test 

Thigh part ..... 

Lacing methods .... 

Check strap . . . 

Sensitive stumps , . . . 

Non-end-bearing and end-bearing . 

Thighless legs .... 

Dangers ..... 

Slip sockets versus wood sockets 

Slipping of the stump desirable 

An instance 

Waterproof legs 

Bathing legs 

Shortened thigh . 

Eccentric knee joint 

Duplex knee joints 

'Contracted knee joints 

Hypertrophied tibial stump . 

Anchylosed knee tibial stumps extended 

Peg legs ..... 

Peg legs should not be used permamently 

Ferrules for peg legs 

Rubber tip 

Suspenders . 



Contents. 



CHAPTER VI 

PAGE 

Knee-bearing Stumps. 

Definition ......... 73 

Knee-bearing legs ....... 73 

Bolt joint . . .75 

Side joint . . . 76 

Peg legs 77 

Incomplete restoratives . . . . . .77 

Suspenders ........ 78 



CHAPTER Vn 



Disarticulated Knee Stumps. 

End-bearing and non-end-bearing stumps 
Fittings ...... 

Peculiarities of stumps 

Most favorable conditions 

Suitable artificial legs .... 



79 

79 
80 
81 
81 



CHAPTER VIII 



Thigh or Femoral Stumps. 

Definitions .... 

Long or lower-third thigh stumps 

Stumps out of line 

Construction of legs 

Variety of middle-third thigh stumps 

End and non-end-bearing 

Thorough control 

Knee spring 

Helps knee motion when walking 

Spring strength can be regulated 

Knee lock 

Hip joints 

Waterproof and bathing legs 

Legs without knee-joints 

Peg legs 

Suspenders . 

Straight shoulder straps 

Belt attachment 

Vest method 

Suspenders for women . 

Yoke method 

Corset method 



84 
84 
84 
85 
85 
85 
89 
89 
90 
91 
91 
92 
92 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
96 
96 
96 
97 



Contents. 



CHAPTEK IX 


TAOB 


Hip-joint Amputations. 


Kequirement . . . . . . . ,98 


Muscle stump ........ 98 


Leg applied . . 100 


CHAPTEE X 


Both Leg Amputations. 


Ancient methods . . . . . . . .101 


Both feet partly amputated . 






. 102 


Lower instep and leg amputation . 






. 103 


Both feet amputated at the ankles 






. 103 


Ankle-joint and knee amputations 






. 103 


Upper instep and leg amputations 






. 304 


Both leg amputations . 






. 106 


Practical results .... 






. 106 


Below-knee and knee-joint amputations 




. Ill 


Below-knee and above-knee amputations 




. Ill 


Engaging in former pursuits . 




. 112 


Both legs and both arms amputated 




. 113 


Both legs amputated above the knees 




. 113 


CHAPTEK XI 




cisioNs^ Arrested Growth,, Shortened Growth^ etc. 


Short leg 119 


Talipes-equinus 








. 119 


Talipes with lateral weakness 








. 120 


Toe support 








. 120 


Congenital deformity 








. 122 


Talipes-varus ... 








. 123 


Leg deformities . 








. 123 


Infantile paralysis 








. 126 


Obstructed growth 








. 127 


Both legs deformed 








. 129 


Drop foot . . . 








. 134 


Knee joints locked 








. 135 


Limited knee motions . 








. 135 


Ununited fractures 








. 137 


Fractured knee caps, etc. 








. 138 



CHAPTEE XII 

Facts for Consideration. 

Wooden feet substituted by rubber ones 
A way to test the rubber foot 



139 
139 



Contents. 



PAGE 

Fitting — an art 139 

Only one way to fit . . . . . . . 140 

Wlien plaster casts are useless ..... 140 

Machine fitting a failure ...... 140 

When casts are necessary ...... 141 

Wood sockets the hest ....... 141 

Weight 141 

Rubber foot not heavy ....... 141 

Odor 143 

Temperature . . . . . . , .143 

The mass of limb wearers are of small means . . . 143 

How long will a leg last? ...... 144 

Shoes and stockings ....... 144 

How soon after amputation should an artificial leg be 

applied? ........ 144 

Treatment of stump ....... 144 

The gain of applying a leg immediately .... 146 

Dangers in delay ....... 146 

Cork legs 146 



CHAPTER XIII 
Artificial Legs for the Aged 



148 



CHAPTER XIV 

Artificial Legs for Infants and Children. 
The problem considered 
Support from the pelvis more natural 
Alterations for growth . 
Frequency of alterations 
The parents' moral obligation 
Deformities from the use of crutches 
Practical illustrations . 



151 
152 
152 
152 
153 
153 
154 



CHAPTER XV 

Home Measurements. 

Instructions when one leg is amputated 
Diagrams ...... 

Measurements ..... 

Instructions when both legs are amputated 
Plaster casts ..... 



165 
165 
167 
170 

172 



CHAPTER XVI 

Prices, Accessories, Terms of Payment. 
Accessories ..... 
Terms of payment 
Guarantee . . , , . 



177 
177 
177 



10 Contents. 



CHAPTEE XVII 

PAGE 

Hands and Arms, Natural Compared with Artificial. 

History 179 

The demand greater ....... 179 

Simplicity 180 

What an artificial arm must do . . . . , . 180 

The natural hand a marvel ...... 180 

The brain 180 

SeK repairing ........ 181 

Sense of touclt- ........ 181 

Stories misleading ....... 181 

CHAPTEE XVIII. 

Is IT Profitable to Buy an Artifical Arm ? 

Ornamentation ........ 183- 

Hygiene . . . . . . . . . 184 

CHAPTEE XIX 

J Wooden Hands. Eubber Hands. 

Old methods 188 

New methods 188 

Ductile fingers ........ 188 

Pahn locks 189 

Wrist connections . . . . . . .189 

Clamps 189 

Flexion 190 

Spring thumb ........ 191 

Gloves always to be worn ...... 192 

Choice of material for sockets ..... 192 



CHAPTEE XX 

Partial Hand Amputations. 

The loss of one finger . . . . . . . 194 

Materials 195 

The loss of two or more fingers ..... 196 

Individual fingers ....... 197 

Construction ........ 197 



CHAPTEE XXI 

Wrist- joint Amputations. 

Flat ends 200 

Tapering ends ... . . . . . . 201 



Contents. n 



CHAPTER XXII 

Forearm Amputations. ^^^^ 

Leather elbow joints ....... 202 

Steel elbow joints 205 

Short stumps ........ 206 

Arms without hands . . . . • • • 206 

Suspenders ......... 206 

CHAPTER XXIII 

Elbow- JOINT Amputations. 

Short radial stumps ....... 209 

Construction . . . . . . . • 209 

Arms without hands ....... 210 

CHAPTER XXIV 

Above-Elbow Amputations. 

Elbow lock .212 

CHAPTER XXV 
Shoulder-joint Amputations 213 

CHAPTER XXVI 
Double Arm Amputations 216 

CHAPTER XXVII 

Appliances for Deformities^ Excisions, Weakened 

Joints, etc. 220 

CHAPTER XXVIII 

Arm Implements . . . . . . . . 224 

CHAPTER XXIX 
Utility 226 

CHAPTER XXX 

Directions for Taking Measurements for One or a Pair 

OF Artificial Arms. 230 

Arms fitted from measurements ..... 233 

CHAPTER XXXI 

Prices, Accessories. 

Accessories ....,.,,. 236 



12 



Contents. 



CHAPTEE XXXII 

Terms of Payment,, Installment Payments, Guarantee, page 
Advanced payment avoids delay ..... 237 
How to make payments ...... 237 

Our reliability 237 

Success most important to us . . . . . 237 

Advanced payments are in the interest of the wearers . 237 
Artificial limbs on trial, prejudicial to success . . . 238 

Why correctly made limbs are not always pleasant at the 

start .238 

Patient endeavor brings its reward .... 238 

Money deposited in banks not acceptable . . . 239 

Installment payments . . . . . . . 239 

Deferred payments must be guaranteed . . . . 239 

Acceptable guarantors . ...... 239 

Our guarantee ........ 240 



CHAPTER XXXIII 

Pensioners of the United States Army and Navy Furnished 
WITH Artifical Limbs at Government Expense. 

The original law ........ 241 

The amended law ....... 241 

The new law now in force . . . . , . 241 

Transportation free ....... 241 

The bond 241 

Advantages in registering with us .... 242 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

Cheap Artificial Limbs. 

Cheaply made limbs not safe 
Inviting disaster .... 
Confidence necessary to success 
Selection of material ... 



. 243 
. 243 

. 244 
. 244 f 



CHAPTER XXXV 

Do THE Maimed Die Young ? 

A false belief . . . 

What our records disclose 

Amputations revitalize the system 

Illustrations 

Athletes .... 

Compensation 

Gratitude .... 



246 
246 
246 

247 
247 
247 
248 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

Awards . . . . . . 

Foreign Money Equivalents 



249 
256 



Contents 



13 



Testimonials 



CHAPTER XXXVII 



257 



CHAPTER XXXVni 

Hints for Those Visiting New York City. 
Where we are located . 
We meet patrons .... 
Business hours .... 
Distance from arriving points 
Board and lodging 

Map 

Where to have your mail addressed 
Calls made to residences 
Women in attendance . 
Branches ..... 



415 
415 
415 
415 
415 
416 
418 
418 
418 
418 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

Stump Socks for Artificial Limb Wearers 



c 419 



CHAPTER XL 

Miscellany. 

Marks' improved folding knife and fork .... 421 

Press button pocket knife ...... 422 

Crutches 423 

Crutch ferrules and crutch rubbers .... 425 

Invalid reclining and rolling chairs .... 427 
Interior of the largest artificial limb mauTifactory in 

the world 431 



INTKODUCTION 

In reviewing "Manual of Artificial Limbs " and introducing same 
to the reader privilege is taken to advert briefly to the House itself 
and its enviable history. 

The house of A. A. Marks was founded for the purpose of reliev- 
ing and helping the maimed and deformed. Established in the year 
1853 it has had a continuous existence of more than half a century 
and has become the leading house of its kind in the world . 

Its manufacturing plants, the factory and oflB.ce in New York 
City, and the mills in Connecticut, occupy more ground and employ 
more help than any establishment elsewhere in the world devoted 
to the manufacture of artificial legs or artificial arms. The busi- 
ness is a large one, conducted in a large way and by men thor- 
oughly familiar with every detail of artificial limb manufacture; 
men who have brought to it the widest practical knowledge and 
years of the most attentive study and effort. 

Their specialty is the making of artificial legs and arms with rub- 
ber feet and hands, of which they are the inventors and patentees. 
The spring mattress rubber foot and the rubber hand with ductile 
fingers are the most recent improvements. That the house has 
grown from a small shop to a vast manufacturing establishment with 
a hundred thousand correspondents located in all parts of the world 
is due not only to the intelligent way in which its business has been 
conducted, but to the inherent merits of its products. These are 
described at length in the pages which follow and the descriptions 
are supplemented by innumerable letters from grateful clients. 

Modern skill has bi'ought no more useful aid to humanity than 
the artificial limb which transforms a helpless member of society 
into a useful one. 

The firm does not claim that every maimed and crippled person 
can be restored to the full use of his extremities by its apparatus. 
It is reasonable, however, to claim that its skill and facilities enable 
the firm to help the maimed better and more thoroughly than any 
other establishment in the world, and as the house has helped so 
many in the past there is abundant encouragement for the maimed 
of the future. 

This book has been prepared not as an exposition of the firm's 
business, but as a guide and help to those seeking alleviation. 

The firm manufactures limbs for simple amputations as well as 
for the most complicated and diflficult ones. It has developed 
special types of limbs for groups of special cases, many of which are 

15 



16 Introduction 



of utmost complexity ; it has fitted and helped persons with delicate 
and tender stumps, also many with stumps of awkward shape and 
diflficult forms ; it has applied artificial limbs and appliances to per- 
sons with one sound limb as well as to those who have been 
deprived of both, and the volume of testimony it has on view 
received from its clients, filled with gratitude, stimulates it to con- 
tinued endeavors. 

The book is destined to be an authority on the important subject of 
prothesis, a book of interest and concern to the surgeon and phy- 
sician as well as to the maimed. It contains not only a description 
of multifarious devices but much general matter both descriptive 
and critical, and in a way didactic, bearing close relations to the 
work of the surgeon. 

It is a matter of highest gratification and pride that in all the 
exhibitions in which the firm of A. A. Marks has been represented 
it has received forty-two first and highest awards, always in compe- 
tition with others. But the freely profiPered expressions of regard 
and satisfaction from its clients, from the men and women who 
have been helped and whose lives have been aided and bettered 
through the use of its apparatus, are more stimulating, and the very 
highest measure of praise one can hope to receive. Numerous as 
are those that are printed, they constitute but a fragment of the 
kind and grateful words that have been uttered in its favor during 
its career. 

The book will reach many readers. To them let us say one word. 
The firm of A. A. Marks has helped others. It surely can help 
you. 

James Law, M. D. 

New York, August 10, 1905. 




CHAPTER I 
HOW WE WALK 

On Natural Feet. — No two persons walk exactly alike. Every- 
one carries his mannerisms in his steps. The way in which he lands 
on his heel, rolls on the sole, lifts on the ball, throws himself to the 
right or the left, the uniformity and regularity of each joint's 
action, the angle at which the hip is checked, the range of articula- 
tion permitted in the knee and the angular motion of the ankle, — 
all form a part of his individuality and make it possible to dis- 
tinguish a friend frora a stranger long before his features have 
come within the reach of vision. All sorts of forces — heredity, 
early habits, occupation, disease, injuries, and age — influence the 
movements of the leg and foot. A man in good health walks dif- 
ferently from an invalid, a farmer can be distinguished from a 
merchant, a bookkeeper from a railroad conductor, the sprightli- 
ness of youth, the infirmities of age are reflected in every step that 
is taken. Yet there are certain facts connected with walking that 
are common to all and which can be ascertained by observation and 
study. These facts are so universal that they become laws govern- 
ing locomotion; they form a necessary part of the limb-maker's 
education, and unless he is familiar with them and applies them 
thoughtfully to the construction of artificial limbs, he is not com- 
petent to work out the problems that are continually arising. 

As this work is designed as a text-book on artificial limbs, it is 
essential, at the outset, to present the cardinal facts relating to 
natural walking, in order that the application of them to artificial 
aids may be clearly understood and appreciated. 

Kinetoscopic photography affords the most valuable aid to an 
investigation of the actions of the knee and ankle joints when 
performing their functions. It shows that when a man walks 
slowly, say two miles an hour, the knee flexes but slightly and the 
ankle considerably. When walking three miles an hour, the knee 
joint acts through a greater range and the ankle joint through a 
lesser one. When walking moderately fast, say four miles an 
hour, the knee action becomes considerable and the ankle action 
scarcely perceptible. When walking rapidly, say five miles an 
hour, the knee action is increased and the ankle becomes prac- 
tically rigid. When running the knee increases its activity, and 
the ankle reverses its action and throws the man forward by 
the ball of the foot. 

The ratio that exists between the range of motion of the knee 
and that of the ankle is in proportion to the speed with which one 
moves. An impulse is had to walk slowly or japidly, or to change 



18 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



from one gait to another. The proper muscles and tendons 
instantly respond to the mind, and the required speed is attained. 
If the co-operation between the mind and muscles be disrupted 
the person becomes a paralytic and his steps are unreliable. The 
same may be said of a person walking on an artificial leg with 
ankle motion that is not under control. 

Three miles an hour is the ordinary gait of a person occupied in 





Cut A 3. 



Cut A 3. 



Cut A 4. 



commercial life. Suocessive photographs of a man with natural 
legs, walking at this gait, show that there is but very little motion 
in the ankle joint ; and limited as that motion is, it is of a charac- 
ter that cannot be imitated by mechanical means. The walker 
throws his left foot forward, barely touching the heel to the 




Cut A 5. 



Cut A 6. 



Cut A 7. 



Cut A 8. 



ground, as shown in Cut A 1; instantly the right foot under con- 
trol of the tendo- Achilles extends and the heel is raised from the 
ground, throwing the weight of the body on the ball, supplying the 
impetus that urges the body forward. As the body is carried 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 19 

forward, the ball of the left foot reaches the ground at about the 
time the body is vertically over it, as shown in Cut A 2. At this 
point the right foot is in the act of leaving the ground, and, as 
shown in Cut A 3, is passing the left which, still being flat on 
the ground, performs no function, except that of supporting the 
body, as shown in Cut A 4. The right leg is carried a little 
further forward when a slight amount of flexion is admitted in 
the left ankle joint, as shown in Cut A 5. But this is for a very 
brief p6riod, as Cut A 6 shows that the tendo-Achilles instantly 
contracts and the foot extends and the entire body is lifted and 
thrown on the ball, and when the weight of the body is placed on 
the heel of the right foot, there is a slight flexion in the knee joint 
which permits the sole to reach the ground. At this time, the 
knee joint of the left is flexed and the foot of that leg is raised, 
as shown in Cut A 7, and when the weight of the body is prac- 
tically over the right foot the knee is extended, so as to support 
the weight securely, as shown in Cut A 8, 

A study of these successive photographs shows that in making a 
complete step the soles of both feet are not on the ground at the 
same time, and at times when the weight of the body is placed 
equally on each foot, the heel of the advanced foot and the toes 
of the rear foot are only those parts that are on the ground. It 
also shows that propulsion is obtained by rising on the ball of the 
rear foot. 

On Artificial Feet with Ankle Joints. — Similar photographs 
of a man walking with one or a pair of artificial legs with ankle 
joints set to act at a constant range of motion, show that he walks 
fairly well at a slow gait, but at a speed of three or more miles 
an hour his step becomes perceptibly awkward, and the effort re- 
quired to overcome the too liberal motion in the ankle is fati- 
guing. So far as the knee joint is concerned the motions of the 
artificial and natural legs are approximately the same, but the 
motions of the ankles are very different. The sole of the foot is 
flat on the ground for a considerably longer period with the arti- 
ficial ankle joint than with the natural. As the walker advances 
and strikes the heel of the artificial foot on the ground, almost 
immediately the front of the foot drops and the entire sole rests 
on the ground and remains there during the interval through which 
the body is passing over it. 

Having made plain the movements of the natural foot in walk- 
ing, and contrasted them with the movements of the artificial foot 
articulating at the ankle, we now propose to carry the contrast to 
the spring-mattress rubber foot attached rigidly to the leg sockets 

On Spring-Mattress Eubber Feet without Ankle Joints. — As 
the walker advances on the rubber foot he touches the heel to 
the ground. He applies his weight, and the sponge rubber in the 
heel compresses sufficiently to allow him to roll on the bottom of 
the foot; the moment the body is carried a little in advance, he 
rises on the ball very much the same as he does on the natural 
foot. There is no effort required to lift on the ball, as the weight 



20 A. A. IlarJcs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

of the body, being in advance of its center of gravity, overcomes 
that apparent obstruction; not a muscle or tendon is brought into 
play; the vs^eight of the body does the entire work. 

These studies and comparisons of the movements in walking 
bring out very clearly the essential fact that with the artificial 
ankle joint the interval that the plantar surface rests on the 
ground is very much greater than that of the natural foot, while 
with the sponge rubber spring-mattress foot it is approximately 
the same, and, by compelling the walker to rise on the ball, pro- 
duces a very natural action, giving greater assistance in walking 
and dispensing with a vast amount of mechanism. 

It is apparent also that the value of mental force in controlling 
the actions of the natural ankle joint cannot be overestimated. 
When these forces become inert, as they necessarily do in artificial 
joints, the embarrassments that follow are the same as with 
paralytics, locomotor ataxia, etc. The injured are obliged to walk 
cautiously, the affected foot is placed almost entirely by the sense 
of sight, and the step is made with meditation and progress must 
necessarily be slow. 

If an artificial leg with ankle articulation be applied to a person 
who desires to walk at a gait faster than two miles an hour, he 
will find himself not only greatly hindered, but required to put 
more energy into the natural foot and leg in order to overcome the 
influence of the articulating ankle in retarding his progress. The 
rubber foot without ankle joint will assist rather than hinder rapid 
walking, and will not hinder slow walking when desired. 



CHAPTER II 



AETIFICIAL FEET, THEIR CONSTRUCTION AND 
RELATIVE MERITS 

The Rubber Foot. — With an experience of eight years in manu- 
facturing artificial legs with wood feet, articulating at the toes 
and ankles, A. A. Marks in 1861 invented the sponge rubber foot 
hereinafter described, to protect which the United States Govern- 
ment issued letters patent in 1863. Like all great inventions it 
passed through various stages of development. 

The perfected form consists of a wooden core, carved to size and 
to secure the best results. The faint lines in Cut B 1 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y. 



Cut B 1. 



represent the core, which reaches to the ball of the foot, localizing 
the toe movement. The distance from the core to the floor at the 
heel is considerably greater than at any other part; this is done 
to obtain the proper degree of compressibility at the heel; the core 
is entirely surrounded with sponge rubber of great porosity which 
will yield under the weight of the wearer sufficiently to make the 
step realistic. Less rubber is placed at the ball so as to provide 
phalangeal support and make the wearer feel that there is a sup- 
porting medium at the front of the foot; ample, to steady him 
when standing, to keep him from limping, and to act as a lever 
to urge him forward when walking. A spring mattress is floated 
in the foot below the core, covering the entire distance from 
the back of the heel to the tips of the toes ; it is shown by the lines 
running lengthwise in Cut B 1. The spring mattress is formed by 
a series of composition strips embedded in strong sail duck, each 
having a pocket of its own, see Cut B 2; the strips occupy the 
pockets a a a a. 

The Spring Mattress. — Is a device for giving additional 
resiliency for both the toes and heel. Every movement of the foot 

21 



22 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirnhs, Neiv Yorlc City. 

when in action applies pressure to the springs at the heel, ball, or 
on the sides. The counteracting tendency of the strips aids in 
forcing the foot back to its proper shape as soon as pressure is 
removed. 

Cut B 3 represents the rubber foot with the weight applied at 
the ball as it is when the wearer is being urged forward, while walk- 






A. A,M/VRKS. N.V, 



Cut B 2. 



ing. The spring mattress is now forced upwards at the ball and 
the sponge rubber is compressed above and below the mattress. 
This pressure pulls the mattress forward in the foot. These move- 
ments — the yielding of the spring, the compressing of the rubber, 
and the pulling of the spring mattress forward — form a very 
powerful resultant force that brings the foot back to its normal 
lines as soon as the foot is relieved of weight. 

The condition of the foot when under heel pressure, as it is when 
the wearer places the artificial limb forward and applies his weight 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y„ 



Cut B 3. 



upon it, is somewhat the same. The spring mattress is forced 
upward, the sponge rubber is compressed above and below, the heel 
becomes flattened, and the mattress being pulled lengthwise, all 
combine to force the foot to its shape as soon as pressure on the 
heel is removed. The compression of the heel permits ths toes and 
the front part of the foot to reach the ground while the shaft of 
the leg is obliquely back of the vertical line. 

Cut B 4 represents the foot on an inclined surface. On account 
of the yielding quality of the rubber, the up-hill side of the foot 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 



23 



will compress and accommodate itself to the incline and allow the 
foot to remain on its base. This is accomplished without com- 
plicated mechanical lateral articulation. 

The spring mattress not only forces the parts of the foot back to 
their proper shape, but obviates the exertion required to operate 
the antiquated articulated wooden foot. 

The impression that one receives on the new spring-mattress foot 
is both pleasant and agreeable. This is especially the case to one 
who has worn an artificial leg with wooden articulating foot. 

It can readily be seen that any motion in the ankle that cannot 
be controlled by the will must be mechanical in appearance as well 
as in action. The approach to nature is made more positive by 
their omission. 

It is the experienced man, the man who has experimented with 
many kinds of artificial limbs, who is capable of appreciating the 




A. A. MARKS. N. Y,. 



Cut B 4. 



principles involved in the rubber foot. He comprehends the reason 
why the wearers of artificial limbs with rubber feet walk further, 
faster, and with less fatigue, than those walking on ankle-jointed 
wooden feet. 

The contrast between the two kinds is most striking in run- 
ning. With the rubber as with the natural foot the entire plantar 
surface is never on the ground. It is the heel-and-toe touch to the 
ground that distinguishes the walker from the runner. This is 
extremely diificult with the ankle-jointed foot. When standing the 
immovably attached rubber foot furnishes a large ^base on which to 
balance; hence, a man with two artificial legs with immovably 
attached feet can stand restfully and safely without assuming 
awkward and unnatural positions, for he is not required to main- 
tain his equilibrium on a point. 

The rubber foot with spring mattress provides the laborer a 
substantial substitute with which to support and brace himself 
when working at the bench, on the road, on the farm, or at what- 



24 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 

ever occupation he may be engaged. There are no uncertain or 
treacherous movements to hamper him or make his position un- 
certain. 

A painter who wears a Marks rubber foot says he can climb a 
ladder, stand on a scaffold, balance himself at any elevation with 
absolute safety. With an ankle-joint leg he would feel tottlish, 
and, when on his ladder, would have to depend more on the grasp 
of his hands than on his foot; but, with the rubber foot, his base 
is substantial and reliable. 

A farmer who toils in the field can plod along over stony or 
muddy ground on a rubber foot with safety. The accumulation of 
mud on his shoes does not cause his toe to drop and trip him. 
Uneven surfaces will not throw him from his balance or violently 
jar his stump. We have thousands of testimonials on these points. 

Contrasts. — There are two kinds of rubber feet. One is known 
as the sponge rubber foot; and the other as the pneumatic rubber 
foot. We will endeavor to make clear the difference between them. 

When rubber is cured so that it possesses a great number of 
small air cells, the same as a sponge, it is called sponge rubber, and 
a foot made in this way is known as a sponge rubber foot. 

A foot made of a sheet of rubber cast into the shape of a foot, 
possessing one or a limited number of large chambers into which 
air is pumped until sufficient pressure is obtained to maintain 
shape and possess resiliency is called a pneumatic foot. 

The Sponge Eubber Foot. — Is composed of a vast number of 
cells, each charged with air created by the volatilization of a 
chemical while the rubber is being vulcanized. Each cell is sur- 
rounded by a wall of rubber possessing a sustaining power suf- 
ficient to maintain itself should it become deflated. In fact, if all 
the cells become deflated the foot would keep its shape on account 
of the presence of the sustaining walls, therefore the shape and 
resilience of the sponge rubber foot are not dependent upon the 
air in the cells. 

The Pneumatic Foot. — Having but a limited number of large 
air chambers into which compressed air is forced, is wholly de- 
pendent upon the presence and retention of the compressed air 
for its stability. The sponge rubber spring-mattress foot receives 
no injury from puncture. The pneumatic foot will collapse and 
lose its sustaining power the moment the air chamber is pen- 
etrated. A protruding nail or peg in a shoe will puncture a pneu- 
matic foot and put it out of service until the puncture is patched 
and the foot pumped up again with air. 

The sponge rubber spring-mattress foot never has to be re- 
charged with air. 

The Wood Foot.^ — Is now somewhat antiquated. It no longer 
has the merit it was formerly thought to possess — the rubber foot 
has practically supplanted it : The wood foot is articulated at the 
ankle and at the toes. The mechanical methods employed in its 
manufacture are as numerous as the makers who supply them. 
Nearly every maker has a method of his own, yet all are essentially 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



25 



the same. Some admit of a large range of ankle articulation, while 
others limit it so that there is but very slight motion. Some have 
side motion ; others, equally as conscientious, condemn that motion 
and employ only front and back motion. Being convinced by most 
careful study and experimentation that an artificial leg is im- 
proved in proportion to the abridgment of its mechanical move- 
ments, we dissuade all from using the side motion. Some 
manufacturers employ rubber for springs in the ankle and toes; 
others prefer steel. One method has little advantage over the 
other. 

The Ankle-Joint Eubber Foot. — Cut B 5 represents an ankle- 
jointed rubber foot after our preferred plan. Cut B 6 represents 





A. A. MARKS. N. V^' 



Cut B 5. 



Cut B 6. 



the ankle articulation in sectional view. The axis on which the 
foot moves consists of a bolt that passes through the foot at the 
ankle, connected with steel strips riveted to the lower sides of the 
leg. A steel spiral compression spring, one end of which is placed 
in a cylinder and the other, receiving a piston, is placed in the 
ankle in such manner as to act on the rear part of the foot, im- 
pinging against the front interior part of the socket, forcing the 
heel downward and the front of the foot upward. The articulation 
at the ankle is limited by the check cord placed in the rear. It is 
made of the strongest flexible material. This method of articula- 
tion can be used with wooden feet as well as rubber ones. When 
rubber is used it is not necessary to have a mechanical articulation 
at the base of the toes as the rubber itself will furnish that motion. 
Cut B 7 represents the ankle at extension, the foot flat on the 
ground when the leg is thrown forward and weight applied. Cut 
B 8 represents the ankle at flexion and weight applied to the toes. 

The Felt Foot.— Is so seldom used that it is only referred to here 
in order to make our descriptions complete. Its use is to be 
strongly condemned. Felt possesses no stability. It is an absorb- 
ent of moisture and lacks resiliency, and is therefore wanting in 
the most essential qualities that should characterize the material 
used in the construction of an artificial foot. 



26 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limls, New York City. 

Ankle Joints when Ordered. — While many years of observa- 
tion and study have convinced us that the best results are obtained 
from artificial legs with rubber feet rigidly attached, it is neverthe- 
less true that some persons form prejudices that cannot be removed 
even by the most logical arguments. Another class, who may be 
put in the same group, are those who, for a long period, have worn 
artificial limbs with articulating ankles ; and have become so inured 
to them that a change, no matter how beneficial it might ultimately 
prove, would subject them to annoyance. We care not to antago- 
nize those who think and feel this way; we are therefore prepared 





A^AJVIARKS^N^y.. 

Cut B 7. 



Cut B 8. 



to construct artificial legs for them that are similar in construction 
to those they have worn and have become accustomed to. 

We frequently hear of persons who are inclined to patronize us 
on account of the reputability of the house, but who hesitate in 
doing so on account of their doubts as to whether they themselves 
would make a success with artificial legs without anlile articula- 
tions. The idea of the rubber foot is acceptable, but rigidity at the 
ankle is doubtful. The element of doubt hinders their entering 
into any experiment the success of which is entirely at their risk. 

We are disposed to meet any such person on a basis of equity and 
will funish him with an artificial leg with rubber foot rigidly 
attached at the ankle with the understanding that, if after reason- 
able trial he feels that he would prefer the ankle joint, we will 
apply one for him without extra charge. 

As we regard rubber feet rigidly attached at the ankle better for 
general purposes, we make limbs that way unless otherwise in- 
structed. 

Prices are the same whether rubber feet are permanently attached 
or made to articulate, whether feet are of wood, metal, or rubber. 



CHAPTER III 

PAETIAL FEET AMPUTATIONS 

Single-Toe Amputations. — The loss of a single toe, particularly 
if it be the great one, may or may not be the cause of inconvenience 
and discomfort, yet the application of an artificial part is often 
found necessary, both as an aid in walking and as a protection to 
the amputated surface. 

If one or more of the interplaced toes are removed and the 
hiatus has been filled up by the union of the adjacent surfaces, 
there can be no gain whatever in applying artificial ones. If the 
great toe (see Cut C 1) or the small toe be removed, and the am- 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y. 

Cut C 1. Cut C 3. Cut C 3. 

putated surface is tender and painful to the touch, an appliance 
similar to that represented in Cut C 2 can be advantageously 
applied. 

This appliance consists of a duplicate of the removed part, made 
of suitable material and secured to a plate shaped as the sole of 
the foot. It is held to the foot by an incasement of leather, laced 
down the front; when applied it is ready for the shoe, as shown in 
Cut C 3. This simple arrangement protects the amputated sur- 
face, assists in walking, fills the shoe, and prevents unsightly 
wrinkles in the leather. 

Amputations at Base op Toes. — It is necessary to apply an arti- 
ficial part when all the toes have been removed, as shown in Cut 
C 4. It must be so constructed that it can be held in place and 
avoid pressure on the scarred surface. Shoes stuffed with cotton 
or with pieces of cork should never be used ; such expedients, having 
no support on the under sides, will eventually encroach on the 
amputated surfaces and permit the shoe to bend near the ends of 
the stumps. 

An appliance illustrated in Cut C 5 is suitable for such an 
amputation; it is shown applied in Cut C 6. It can be made of 
wood or metal as may be required, and shaped to receive the foot in 
a comfortable manner; tender points are protected by recesses pro- 

27 



28 A. A. Maries, Artificial Liinbs, New York Citif. 

vided for them. Cut C 6 shows this apparatus applied and ready 
for the shoe. Usually the mate to the shoe worn on the natural 
foot can be used without alteration; in cases where more room is 






A. A. MARKS, N. Y. 

Cut C 4. Cut C 5. Cut C 6. 

needed, almost any shoemaker can supply it by ripping off part of 
the upper and substituting a larger piece. 

Instep Amputations. — These are termed tarso-metatarsal and 
medio-tarsal by the surgical profession, and are frequently des- 
ignated by the names of the surgeons who first performed them, 
as Chopart, Lisfranc, Hays, Hancock, and many others. These 
amputations are performed with the object of sacrificing as little 
of the foot as possible, and retaining the heel and a part of the foot 
as a base on which the patient is supposed to be able to walk or 
stand. Although a person with the front part of his foot removed 
may be able to get about with an ordinary shoe, it is not long before 
he discovers that something is lacking and his locomotion impeded 
by the absence of the removed part. He may pack the vacancy in 
his shoe with cotton, cork, or other material, and may re-enforce the 
sole with a steel plate; but he soon finds that only partial relief 
has been obtained, and that there is an imperative demand for a 
substitute for the ball of the foot which will enable him to rise on 
and elevate his heel from the ground. Something is needed having 
great strength and that can be firmly secured to the remaining 
part of foot and leg. 

The construction of artificial feet for this class of amputations 
has taxed the ingenuity of artificial-limb-makers for many years. 
The absence of space between the bottom of the heel and the floor 
presented an obstacle to the construction of a helpful and durable 
appliance until aluminum was employed. It may be useful to re- 
view some of the devices used for such cases. 

Cut C 7 represents a stump resulting from a partial foot amputa- 
tion. 

Ill- Advised Prothesis. — Cut C 8 represents the way in which 
many manufacturers have endeavored to supply the want. The 
appliance consists of a leather shoe inclosing the stump and part of 
the ankle, the front of which is made of wood, rubber, or cork with 
a metal plate at the base, running from heel to toe, calculated to 
make the sole firm and unyielding at the ball. This apparatus 
gives a natural appearance to the amputated member, but fails to 
support the wearer in a helpful or substantial way. The stump 
will soon crowd forward, coming into unpleasant contact with the 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



29 



appliance; the steel plate will bend or break and the shoe will 
yield where the stump terminates, creasing the shoe and making 
it rocker-shaped; consequently it utterly fails in supplying the 
want, because of the lack of firmness with which it is held to the 
remaining part; the heel, moreover, will yield to the constantly 
contracting tendency of the tendo-Achilles and become displaced. 

Cut C 9 represents another ill-advised apparatus. It consists of 
a sheet of metal formed to receive the remaining plantar surface 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y. 





Cut C 7. 



. Jt C 8. 



Late 9. 



of the foot; bent up on either side, hinged at the ankle to steel 
straps thus providing a joint for ankle articulation ; the steel straps 
run up the sides of the leg and are held in position by a leather 
corset, shaped to inclose the leg. The front of the metal sole is 
secured to a part of a foot. The main objection to this device is 
the insecurity of the attachment ; weight applied to the ball of the 
foot will cause the ankle to flex and permit the amputated surface 
of the stump to rub against either the front or the bottom plate, 
causing abrasions; a heel cord placed at the back connecting the 
leg section with the foot plate will not be effective in holding the 
appliance in its proper position at all times and checking the 
action of the ankle articulation at the proper angle. 

Objections. — ^A glance will show that the legs illustrated in Cuts 
C 8 and C 9 must prove inadequate. When weight is applied to 
the ball of the foot the heel of the artificial part will remain on the 
ground, while the heel of the stump will lift away. The wearer 
will walk flat-footed and will press the delicate cicatrized surface 
against the attachment. These conditions will not only cause 
suffering but defeat the object of the artificial foot. 

It might appear that an appliance constructed on the plan shown 
in Cut C 5 could be secured so firmly to the remaining part of a 
Chopart stump as to enable the wearer to rise on the ball. If this 
were possible the method of treatment would be greatly simplified ; 
unfortunately, however, the severity of the compression needful 



30 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 



to hold the appliance in place when weight is thrown on the ball, 
will stop the flow of blood in the heel, causing great pain, endanger- 
ing the health of the entire leg. 




-A^A. MARKS^ N. Y^ 

Cut C 10. 




Cut C 11. 



It is important to emphasize the fact that it is absolutely useless 
to apply any form of foot to a partial foot stump unless the artifi- 
cial part is held so firmly that the wearer may rise on the ball of the 




A A MARKS, N. Y, 

Cut C 12. 




Cut C 13. 



foot, and not only support his weight while in that position but 
carry such additional weight and resist such strains as his habits 
or occupation demand. 

Cut C 10 represents an amputation a little forward of the instep. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limls, New York City. 



31 



The wisdom of the application of apparatus C 5 in this case is 
doubtful. It might prove adequate in the case of a person who 
does little walking- and no lifting, and who places little demand on 
the front part of the foot; but for a laboring man, who has to lift 
and carry articles of weight, it would be a disappointment. It will 
be better considered, therefore, among instep amputations that re- 
quire the placing and distribution of the strain above the ankle 
joint. 

Cuts C 11, C 12, C 13, and C 14 show instep amputations after 
the Lisfranc, Hancock, and Chopart methods. Cut C 15 shows an 





Cut C 14. 



Cut C 15. 



araputation of the instep with all the tarsals removed, a part of 
the astragalus and the entire os-calcis retained and kept in their 
normal relations, a very unusual occurrence. 

The remaining plantar surfaces of each of these amputations 
are of a character to permit the application of the weight of the 
wearer on them. 

Cuts C 16 and C 17 show instep amputations in which the heels 
have retracted slightly, but not so much so as to prohibit the ap- 
plication of weight to the remaining plantar surfaces. 

Practical Prothesis. — The only artificial limb that has ever been 
devised that adequately meets the needs of any of the above instep 
amputations is illustrated in Cut C 18. A half leg, or front, in- 
eluding the core of the foot, is made of aluminum, without articula- 
tion at the ankle. The rear half is made of leather, shaped to 
incase the leg and the aluminum shell and hold the appliance in 
place, as shown in Cut C 19. The sole of the foot, including the 



32 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



toes, is made of rubber with a spring mattress as described in 
Chapter II, Comfortable bearings are provided by proper fittings 





Cut C 16. Cut C 17. 

and suitable linings. The pressure needed to secure firmness is 
distributed over the entire leg from the ankle to the knee ; with this 




Cut C 18. 



Cut C 19. 



leg the wearer can rise on the ball of the foot without endangering 
he amputated surfaces or straining the ankle joint. The shin* 



A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limbs, New York City. 33 



borie is protected by the aluminum shell on the front, and, when 
dressed, presents an appearance very close to nature. When there 
is a tendency for the heel to retract, the leather sheath at the back 
is re-enforced with metal shaped to hold the heel down to its proper 
place. 

This artificial leg can be worn without inconvenience or pain. 
The wearer walks gracefully, striking the heel first, then rolling on 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y» 



Cut C 20. 



Cut C 21. 



the sole until the ball is reached, and then rising on the ball he 
receives assistance in walking. Cut C 20 shows the leg applied and 
the wearer seated. Cut C 21 shows the leg applied with the shoe 
on and the wearer walking with the weight on the ball of the foot, 
similar to the position taken by the natural foot when in the act of 
throwing the body forward. 

The method of meeting instep amputations, as just described, 
possesses many merits aside from those to which attention has been 
called. 

Eetracted Heels. — Cuts C 22, C 23, C 24, show amputations in 
which the heels are retracted so that the amputated surfaces are 
directly under the legs, where the weight must be applied if the 
bearings are to be at the ends. These are unfortunate conditions. 
An artificial leg cannot be applied to a stump under such condi- 
tions that will permit any pressure on the scarred extremity; the 
weight, therefore, must be placed immediately below the knee or 
about the thigh. 



84 



A. A. MarkSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 




A A MARKS, N. Y. 





Cute 



Cut C 23. 



Cut C 24. 



A limb constructed on the plan shown in Cut C 25 is adaptable 
for some stumps with retracted heels; the rear half is made of 




Cut C 25. 



Cut C 26. 



metal, the front of leather, capable of being laced. This permits 
close fittings about the heel and tends to force it back to its proper 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New Yorh City. 



35 



position. If the sides of the leg are sloping, the fitting can be such 
as to apply all the weight on the leg immediately below the knee. 
Cut C 26 shows the leg applied and the wearer seated. 

If the sides of a leg do not slope sufficiently to prevent settling 
into the artificial leg socket, it is necessary to introduce an annular 
top and possibly knee joints and thigh support. The annular top 
can be applied to a leg constructed as described; it then has the 
appearance of Cut C 27. It can also be applied to a leg constructed 




Cut C 27. 



Cut C 38. 



on the plan of C 25. Knee joints and thigh support can likewise 
be applied to a leg constructed on the plan of either C 18 or C 
25. Cut C 28 shows such additions applied to C 18 leg. When the 
annular top is employed the support is calculated to be localized 
immediately below the knee. The leg is opened from the rear and 
the stump inserted; the annular top is laced firmly and the leather 
sheath is pulled over the entire apparatus and laced in front. 
When the knee joint and thigh support are required, as shown in 
Cut C 28, the lower section of the leg is made of aluminum, with 
the rear sheath of leather. The thigh part incases the natural 
thigh and holds it with sufficient firmness to carry the weight above 
the knee and so prevent the leg from slipping in the socket. 

Aluminum Sockets. — The utilization of aluminum in the con- 
struction of artificial legs for instep amputations is especially 
advantageous. It can be worked to a very slight thickness, thus 
adding but little to the diameters of the large stump that it 



36 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

incases. A wood socket would require a thickness of at least half 
an inch on each side, thus making the leg conspicuously bulky 
and objectionable. 

During the past few years we have made many experiments 
looking to the general application of aluminum in the construc- 
tion of artificial limbs for upper amputations, but have met with 
disappointment except in ankle-joint and partial-foot amputations. 
The characteristics of aluminum are low specific gravity and com- 
parative strength. Its weight is the least of all metals (one-quarter 
that of silver). Its strength is comparable with that of copper. It 
will not corrode when exposed to fresh water or to a moist atmos- 
phere. 

We desire to correct the prevalent impression often expressed in 
the remark that aluminum is " lighter than cork and stronger than 
steel." As a matter of fact aluminum will sink in water, whereas 
cork or wood will float; it is therefore heavier and although 
aluminum is strong, it has but a fractional part of the strength of 
straight-grained wood. Its use in artificial le£:s is, therefore, nar- 
rowed down to sockets for long and large stumps, where the 
minimizing of bulk is an important feature. 

We hold United States patents on artificial limbs with alumi- 
num sockets, and if we could make satisfactory use of that metal 
for general purposes we would unhesitatingly do so. 



CHAPTER IV 
ANKLE-JOINT AMPUTATIONS 

Tibio-Tarsal Stumps. — Amputations througli the ankle articula- 
tions with or without the maleoli, flaps formed of heel tissues, 
provide stumps that can be fitted with artificial legs in an ad- 
vantageous way. Surgeons call these amputations tibio-tarsal or 
Symes, and if the os-calcis is retained and secured at the extremity 
of the tibia, it is known as Pirogoffs. 

Usually ankle-joint amputations produce stumps that admit of 
weight being taken on their extremities. If cicatrices are on the 




Cut D 1. 



Cut D 2. 



bearing surfaces or nerve complications are present, they become 
non-end-bearing and artificial limbs must be applied that permit no 
pressure or contact on the tender extremities. 

End-Bearing. — Cuts D 1 to D 6 show end-bearing tibio-tarsal 
stumps, with flaps favorable for the application of pressure and 
with cicatrices well away from the bearing surfaces. Cut D 7 illus- 
trates an artificial leg suitable for any of these types; Cut D 8 
shows it applied with the wearer seated. Cut D 9 shows a PirogofF 
stump with a suitable leg, patterned after style D 7. Cut D 10 
shows the leg applied and the foot covered with stocking and shoe. 
Cut D 11 shows the wearer fully dressed. In walking his step is 

87 



38 A. A. Marls, Artificial LimU, New Yorh City. 




A. A MARKS. N.V. 

Cut D 5. 



Cut D 6. 



graceful, the foot imitates nature, there is no limping, and he is 
amply equipped to engage in any occupation, even the most la- 
borious. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New YorTc City. 



39 




Cut D 9. 



Cut D 10. 



Cut D 11. 



Construction of Siitable Artificial Leg. — The construction of 
D 7 style is simple. The front, which is the resisting part, and the 
core of the foot, are cast in aluminum, the interior surface being 



40 A. A. Marks J Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

formed to receive the anterior surface of the leg from, the knee 
down. It is so fitted that pressure will be distributed over the 
front area, the shin bone and tender parts of the leg being 
protected and not allowed to bear pressure. The rear part is of 
leather, shaped to fit the calf and the back of the leg. It is secured 
at its lower end to the aluminum socket, and when the stump is in 
place it incases the whole apparatus from the knee down, holding 
the leg in place with firmness, the pressure being regulated by- 
lacing. The foot is of sponge rubber, re-enforced with spring mat- 
tress as explained in Chapter II, Weight is taken by the end of 





Cut D 13. 



Cut D 13. 



the stump resting on a surface of proper shape, covered by a suit- 
able pad. The strains resulting from rising on the ball of the foot 
are not permitted to come on the stump; they are distributed over 
the leg, about the sides of the shin from the knee to the ankle. A 
stocking and shoe are drawn over the foot, and the apparatus is a 
counterpart in appearance to the sound leg. 

This style of leg for ankle-joint amputation has received the 
most complimentary comments; it has given great satisfaction to 
' those who have worn it ; and it has been quite generally adopted. 

Occasionally conditions require the construction of a limb in a 
manner reverse to that just described, the stump is admitted from 
the front instead of the rear. In such cases limbs are built on the 
plan illustrated in Cut D 12. The construction is practically the 
same as D 7, except that the metal socket is placed at the back and 
the leather lace in front. The shin bone is protected by a padded 



A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



41 



loose fly-piece over which the lacing passes. Cut D 13 illustrates 
the leg applied. 

If the end of the stump is small and has no prominences on the 
side, the socket and core of the foot, which are integrally one piece, 
are carved from a block of wood the grain of which curves on the 
line of greatest strains. When the end of the stump is large and it 
is desired to incase it in a socket of minimum thickness, aluminum 
must be employed for reasons given. 

Partially End-Bearing. — If only a part of the weight of the 
wearer can be borne on the end of the stump the top of the socket 
must be made annular and fitted so that it will impinge against the 
sloping part of the leg below the knee. Cuts D 14 and D 16 





Cut D 14. 



Cut D 15. 



illustrate suitable legs for the same and Cuts D 15 and D 17 
show them applied. It is obvious that a stump, being inserted 
from the top of the socket of either, will not enter further than the 
top of the socket will permit, and this is just far enough to limit 
pressure on the end or to avoid it altogether. When pressure can 
be taken on the end, it is regulated by the thickness of the pad 
placed in the bottom of the socket on which the end of the stump 
rests. 

A socket that admits the stump from the front, as in Cuts D 12 
and D 14, is objectionable when the end of the stump is very large. 
The material necessary for strength is on the sides of the stump 
and increases the diameter of the ankle. It also affords but little 



42 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



protection to the sharp or sensitive shin bone. Styles D 7 and D 
16 are not open to this objection, but give a smooth, unbroken 




Cut D 16. 



Cut D 17. 



front, which can be neatly dressed; they are lighter and stronger 
than D 12 or D 14, because the strain resulting from rising on the 
ball of the foot is carried forward from the point of contact to a 
point on line with the front of the leg : and as this point is usually 
halfway between the ball and the heel the strain is one-half of that 
applied in D 12, which throws the strain from the ball to the rear 
of the heel. For this reason the material on the sides of the stump 
and on the rear of the leg has to be as thick again as the material 
on the sides and front of the D 7. Hence the difference in weight. 

Sensitive Ends. — There are tibio-tarsal stumps that are so 
sensitive at the • extremities that no pressure whatever can be 
tolerated either on the ends or at the sides of the ends. Notwith- 
standing this condition, artificial limbs can be applied that will be 
helpful and comfortable. Cuts D 18, D 19, and D 20 represent 
stumps of this character. 

If the surfaces immediately below the knee are sufficiently slop- 
ing to' offer resistance, D 14 or D 16 leg can be used, the pressure 
being placed on the sides of the upper lialf of the leg immediately 
below the knee. The stump from calf down hangs in space. 

When a leg and stump are nearly uniform in size, the sides being 
parallel or nearly so, an artificial leg with knee joints and thigh 
piece must be used. Cut D 21 represents a leg suitable for such a 
case. Cut D 22 shows the same with knee flexed and sheath un- 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



43 






Cut D 18. 



Cut D 19. 



Cut D 30. 




Cut D 21. 



Cut D 22. 



laced. The lower section is made of wood or altiiniimin, as the 
conditions of the stump demand. The rubber foot is attached in 
the usual way, and the leather sheath passes from the rear to the 



44 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



front, holding the stump in place. The weight of the wearer is 
supported by side joints connecting the thigh parts with the lower 
portions. 

Cuts D 23 and D 24 illustrate the front and side views of a leg 
constructed in a similar manner. It is fitted to receive the leg and 
stump from the front instead of the rear; it contains no important 
advantage in construction, but is preferred by some persons. 

Side joints and thigh supports are essential when stumps cannot 



1 




CutD 



Cut D 24. 



be supported on the sloping surfaces just below the knees, and when 
they are liable to become sensitive and irritable on account of 
impaired vitality. 

Peg Legs. — Ankle-joint stumps should never use peg legs except 
when they need disciplining or shrinking. Some stumps with 
extremely sensitive ends, on which pressure cannot be immediately 
applied, give promise of improvement in course of time. There are 
also stumps that are (Edematous — made up with soft, flaccid tissue 
which will pass away in a brief period. In such cases, an inex- 
pensive peg leg can be used to advantage. One may stump about 
on a peg leg applied to a stump reaching to the ankle joint, much 
the same as one who uses a peg leg on an upper amputation, but, 
having no foot, its functions are extremely limited. 



CHAPTER V 

BELOW-KNEE AMPUTATIONS 

Long Tibial Stumps. — An amputation at any point above the 
ankle and below the knee produces a tibial stump, so termed by the 
surgical profession, because the tibia or shin bone has partly been 
saved. 

Enlarged Non-End-Bearing. — ^Cut E 1 illustrates a stump reach- 
ing close to the ankle joint. The extremity, as is usual in long 
stumps, is poorly protected and incapable of bearing pressure, and. 




A. A. MARKS. N. V 



Cut E 1. 




Cut E 3. 



on account of a slight enlargment at the end, an artificial leg must 
be made so that the stump can be placed in the socket from the 
front or rear instead of being inserted at the top. Cut E 2 repre- 
sents an artificial leg especially adapted to stumps of this descrip- 
tion; it is shown applied and the wearer seated. It has a socket 
that incases the rear half of the stump, with a front of leather 
that can be laced. The rubber foot with spring mattress is con- 
structed as described in Chapter II, and at the top of the socket 
are steel joints connecting the thigh supporter. The fitting of the 
leg avoids any weight or pressure on the extremity of the stump 
or near the end, and no pressure is applied at any point below the 
junction of the middle and lower thirds. Above this it is graduated 

45 



46 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



to the knee, where the greatest amount of pressure is applied, the 
interior sloping surface below the knee carrying most of the weight. 
The anterior prominences of the shin bone and the exterior 
prominence of the fibula are given ample room, so that no contact 
is applied; the interior sloping surfaces below the knee carry most 
of the weight, the supporter above the knee carrying its share. 

No Pressure at the Popliteal Space. — It is most important to 
avoid pressure at the back of the knee in long stumps. The pop- 
liteal space is the vascular area of the leg, and any undue pressure 
will interfere with the circulation and impoverish or strangulate 
the end of the stump. 

The absence of ankle articulation in a leg for a long tibial stump 
affords an opportunity to give ample space for the end without 




Cut E 3. 



Cut E 4. 



visibly increasing the external dimensions of the ankle. The rub- 
ber foot with spring mattress and yielding heel and toe provides 
every requisite for easy, lifelike, and noiseless walking without 
complicated connections. The absence of such connecting parts 
avoids the necessity of making the leg an inch or two longer than 
the natural one as is often necessary to obtain space for ankle 
mechanism used in other systems. 

Artificial legs with wooden articulating feet for stumps that 
reach to any point in the lower third of the leg are impracticable. 
The ends of long tibial stumps are sensitive, easily irritated, and 
poorly nourished, and the slightest contact will cause abrasion, 
frequently necessitating reamputations,. 

Tapering Stumps. — Cuts E 3, E 4, E 5, and E 6 illustrate long 
tibial stumps. Legs for such ampiitations must be constructed so 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 47 




A. A. MARKS, N.Y. 

CutE5 




Cut E 6. 



there will be ample room for the extremities. In other words, the 
ends are suspended in space. As these stumps are tapering to the 





Cut E 7. 



Cut E 8. 



ends they can be inserted from the tops of the sockets. The socket 
is hollowed out near the bottom of the heel and an abundance of 



48 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



room provided, allowing a wholesome circulation of air ; the exterior 
diameters of the leg are not large enough to be conspicuous. The 





Cut E 9. 



Cut E 10. 



leg socket and foot core are made of a single piece of wood carved 
from a naturally curved stick, the grain of which follows the lines 




A. A. MARKS. N. Y. 

Cut E 11. 




Cut E 12. 



of greatest strains. The rubber foot is attached to the core in a 
substantial way, and the leg is finished so the exudations from the 
extremity of the stump will not cause damage to the wood. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



49 



Cuts E T and E 8 show sectional views of a leg for a long tibial 
stump as described. The lines in the socket and core represent the 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y. 

Cut E 13. 




Cut E 14. 



grains of the wood, which follow the curves of the instep, securing 
great strength with little material. This method of construction 





Cut E 15. Cut E 16. 

admits of excavating the socket well into the foot so as to provide 
ample air space. Substantial legs for such stumps cannot be made 



50 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, Neiv Yorh City. 



with ankle articulations, for cords, springs and bolts require 
space needed by the stumps. As metal becomes corroded by the 
exudations of the stumps, wood is the only material which will 
withstand these destructive agencies. 

Ordinary and Short Tibial Stumps. — No difficulties attend the 
fitting of an artificial leg to a tibial stump reaching to any point 



>a <5 




Cut E 17. 



Cut E 18. 



between the junction of the middle and lower thirds and the knee, 
when the knee joint is mobile to not less than two-thirds of tlie 
normal range. Cuts E 9 to E 16 are typical below-knee stumps of 
a variety of lengths and conditions relative to flaps, cicatrices, etc. 
The location of the cicatrices and the character of the flaps hav^ 
little importance in non-end-bearing stumps. 

Artificial Leg for Tibial Stump. — A leg suitable for a stump of 
two inches or more in length, with the knee articulating through a 
range of 90 degrees or more, is shown in Cut E 17. Cut E 18 shows 
it applied with the wearer standing. Cut E 19 shows it with the 
wearer seated. The action of the knee joint is clearly presented. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 



51 



Construction. — The leg consists of four parts: the foot, the 
leg, which fills the space between the foot and the knee; the knee 
joints, and the thigh piece or that part that incases the natural 
thigh. As the foot has been explained in Chapter II it now re- 
mains to describe in detail the other parts. 

Socket. — The socket that receives the stump is made from willow 
or basswood, which is excavated to accommodate the stump. Bear- 
ings are permitted at places of toleration. No pressure whatever 
is put on the vascular parts of the stump or on sensitive or 
prominent bones. The end of the stump is usually required to hang 




A. A MARKS. N Y. 

Cut E 19. 



Cut E 20. 



free in space. The exterior of the leg is shaped to as near the 
natural form as the stump will admit. It is strongly banded and 
covered with raw hide to obtain strength. The surface is enameled 
with a waterproof preparation having a soft flesh tint. Knee joints 
are of the ginglymoid pattern, and as recently improved have very 
durable wearing surfaces. The thigh piece is made of substantial 
leather shaped to the contours of the thigh. 

Knee Connection. — Cut E 20 represents the upper section of the 
leg and the lower section of the thigh piece, with the knee joints 
disconnected at their articulations ; aa are the screws that hold the 
bolts hh in place; cc are the bushings that work on the bolts and 
receive the wear; A lacing is used to regulate the action of the 
knee. The mechanical parts of the knee joints are completely 
illustrated in Cut E 21. 

Steel Joints. — Side joints, sometimes called hinge or ginglymoid 
joints, are used in legs for amputations below the knees. They are 
more durable and substantial when one of the parts is placed 



52 



A, A. Maries J Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



between the lips of the other and the two connected with bolts and 
screws. 

It is unmechanical and not lasting to place one section of a 
joint by the side of the other, holding them together by a screw, as 
is done by some manufacturers. Such joints wear irregularly side- 
wise and have a wabbling motion after limited service. This would 
not occur if the lateral strains on the upper sections could be kept 
the same at all times; but lateral pressure, causing unequal wear 
at the bearings, is brought about by contracting the thigh by 
lacing, in order to compress an emaciated thigh or distending it to 




Cut E 31. 



Cut E 23. 



Cut E 23. 



accommodate an enlarged one. These difficulties are only avoided 
by having one of the elements of the joints work between the lips 
of the other. 

The greatest wear on any joint is on the bolt that holds the parts 
together, and as the attrition is the greatest when the wearer's 
weight is directly over the knee and becomes less as the knee is 
flexed, the bolt must necessarily wear irregularly. As the wearing 
surface on the bolt was formerly limited to the thickness of the 
section that worked on it, the wear was necessarily very rapid. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 53 

The object of the improved joint is to increase the wearing sur- 
face as much as possible and to make the wearing parts independent 
and removable. They can then be highly tempered and the non- 
wearing parts left untempered, so that the supporting parts will not 
become friable. 

The wearing surfaces are increased more than double. They 
cover the entire surface of the bolt, and the inferior surfaces of the 
holes in the lips of the lower part. Cut E 21 shows the mechanism 
very clearly. AA is the upper part; BB the lower part; C is a 
long bushing which passes through the two lips of the lower part 
and the one of the upper; the lug D holds the bushing immovably 
fixed to the upper part. The bolt B passes through the long bushing 
and becomes immovably fixed to the lower part by means of a stop 
pin, which is fastened to the hub of the lower part, and fits a 
recess made in the head of the bolt. The screw A holds the bolt 
in place and clamps the joint. 

A glance at the section. Cut E 22, will show how these parts work 
together. Every movement of the joint causes the long bushing 
to revolve about the surface of the bolt and in the lips of the lower 
part. This mechanism prevents any wear from taking place on 
either the upper or lower parts, and distributes what does take place 
over the entire area of the bolt. The bushing and bolt are made 
very hard, and can be removed and replaced with new ones at any 
time that may be desirable. Cut E 23 shows a side view of the 
entire joints and ready to be attached to the leg. 

Test. — A pair of these joints, subjected to a practical test equiv- 
alent to that of being worn by a man weighing two hundred pounds, 
walking an average distance of three miles every day for six 
consecutive years, failed to develop sufficient wear to cause noise. 
The joints are made from the most suitable steel, forged from solid 
material faced and slotted with absolute accuracy, drilled, reamed, 
and countersunk in templates, the parts being fitted to a nicety and 
thoroughly tested before being placed on a leg. 

Thigh Part. — The thigh part of the leg is made of durable oak- 
tanned russet leather, formed to the shape of the thigh, and suitably 
lined inside. There are several methods by which it is made to 
compress the thigh ; buckles and straps are sometimes used ; metallic 
clamps are occasionally preferred ; but the greatest number of limb- 
wearers find the lacing method the most satisfactory, as it permits 
uniform adjustments and is neat and durable. 

Lacing Methods. — Cut E 24 shows the double-eyelet method. A 
row of eyelets is placed on each front edge, and a strong buckskin 
lacing passed through them. This method has been in vogue for 
many years and is still preferred by many wearers. 

Cut E 25 shows the lacing system more generally used at the 
present time. A row of hooks is placed on one edge and a row of 
eyelets on the other. On removing the leg the loops of the lacing 
are simply slipped off the hooks, the string remaining in the eyelet 
holes. When the leg is put on, the loops are put over the hooks and 
the cord is tightly drawn. Some wearers wish hooks on each edga 



64 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



the same as on shoes. When this is wanted it should be specified 
in the order. 

Cut E 26 shows a device for rapid application. A row of studs 
is placed on one edge of the thigh piece, and a row of eyelets on 
the other ; a separate piece of leather has also a row of eyelets and a 





Cut E 24. 



Cut E 25. 





Cut E 26. 



Cut E 27. 



row of studs. This is laced to one side of the thigh piece and 
buttoned to the other ; the lacing can be adjusted once for all. On 
removing the leg one side is unbuttoned, and the other remains 
laced, as shown iii Cut E 27. 

Check Strap. — The lacing at the back of the knee checks the 
knee action and is regulated by the wearer. It is a very strong 
leather thong, passing from the thigh piece to the leg part, as in 
Cut E 20. The more the thong is tightened the less becomes the 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 



55 



motion in the knee, and the more weight will be placed on the ball 
of the foot and less at the heel. 

The stump, in all cases, is inserted into the leg socket; the thigh 
piece is drawn around the thigh and laced tight enough to hold the 
leg firmly in place. The stump enters the socket comfortably. 
Bearings are only admitted about the sloping part immediately 
below the knee; the anterior surface of the tibia is always accom- 
modated by a channel; the bony prominence of the fibula is pro- 
vided for by a cavity; and the end of the stump hangs free in 
space, receiving no pressure whatever, either on the sides or at the 
end, except when conditions will permit. 

Sensitive Stumps. — In cases of extreme sensitiveness the weight 
can be carried entirely above the knee, and the stump is only 




Cut E 38. 



permitted to perform the function of moving the lower leg forward 
and backward. 

Non-End-Bearing and End-Bearing. — Weight can rarely be 
applied to the end of a tibial stump, and only when the end is pro- 
tected by bone flap or periosteal flap and well covered with muscle 
tissue. When such favorable conditions exist an end-bearing pad 
is placed in the socket of the leg, the thickness of which is adjus- 
table, so as to increase or decrease the amount of pressure on the 
extremity. The wearer, when dressed either with or without the 
end-bearing pad, is able to walk, run, sit, or lie down. Every 
posture will have the semblance of nature, every movement will be 



66 A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

made with surprising naturalness. The loss of the natural leg is 
absolutely concealed, and the substitution by the artificial restores 
the wearer to his usefulness. 

Thighless Legs. — Artificial legs for tibial stumps are sometimes 
made without knee joints and thigh pieces, dependence being 




, A. MARKS, N. Y.) 

Cut E 29. 




Cut E 30. 



placed upon the socket when supporting the weight of the wearer, 
and resisting such lateral strains as may occasionally be brought 
upon the leg. Such a leg is shown in Cut E 2S. From the knee 
down its construction is much the same as leg E IT. The socket is 
made of wood excavated to receive the stump properly. The foot 
is of sponge rubber with spring mattress, and the leg is covered 
with raw hide and finished in flesh-colored enamel. Straps at- 
tached to the leg in the region of the calf are made to pass around 
the thigh immediat-ely above the knee cap. If these do not hold 
the leg firmly in place auxiliary straps are attached, to pass over 
one or both shoulders. 

Some manufacturers advocate the use of thighless legs whether 
the stumps are long or short, and pay little attention to the 
character of the extremities. They attach more importance to the 
absence of thigh constriction than they do to the danger of abra- 
sions on the stump or injury to the extremity. 

While it is true that, there are many cases in which thighless legs 



A. A. 31 arks. Artificial Limbs, New York Citij. 



57 



are applied and worn with evident satisfaction, it must be clear 
that the absence of a thigh supporter entails a sacrifice of efficiency 
and protection. Metal knee joints and thigh supporters perform 
the very important functions of protecting stumps, avoiding side 
strains, injuries from concussions, and the teariog of cicatrices. 
Cut E 29 shows a thighless leg applied, the wearer standing; Cut 
E 30 the rear view of the same. Cut E 31 the side view, and Cut E 




A. MARKS, N. y. 




Cut E 31. 



Cut E 32. 



32 the wearer seated. These cuts show the operations of the leg 
and the action of the suspenders. 

Dangers. — When the wearer is standing with his weight on an 
artificial leg of the thighless type the stump has to carry all his 
weight. This usually comes upon the sloping parts immediately 
below the knee. If the wearer makes a misstep and recovers him- 
self by his artificial leg the stiunp will receive a strain; if he 
carries a heavy weight his stump must resist a force that tends 
to push it further into the socket; and imless the sides of the 
stump are stiificiently sloping to oppose this there will be danger 
of injury to the flap and cicatrix. 

One of the chief objections to the thighless leg is the difficulty 
that arises when the stump changes in size, as it so often does. If 
the stump becomes emaciated the socket of the artificial leg must 
be filled up to compensate for the loss of flesh, and if the emacia- 



68 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yoi'Jc City. 

tion is not uniform there will be considerable difficulty in padding 
the inner surfaces of the socket so as to avoid pressure on delicate 
parts. 

One should never experiment with the thighless leg unless the 
stump has been accustomed to wearing an artificial leg for a 
considerable length of time, and has become so thoroughly dis- 
ciplined that further changes are not likely to occur. Those who 
insist on wearing thighless artificial legs, who have worn them from 
choice, and who have their stumps sufficiently disciplined will be 
accommodated in their wishes. 

Slip Sockets versus Wood Sockets. — Rival manufacturers have 
said and published much about the slip or sliding socket and con- 
siderable curiosity has been aroused among limb-wearers as to the 
merits of the idea. As the slip socket applies almost exclusively to 
artificial legs for tibial stumps, the subject may be introduced and 
discussed at this time. 

We have given the matter much thought and subjected it to a 
most rigid investigation. We have, moreover, submitted the 
scheme to many tests and have conferred with several hundred 
persons who had worn slip sockets. Our investigations were 
planned to determine whether the scheme had sufficient merit to 
warrant us in adapting it to our work. 

We have long been aware that a well-fitting socket of wood or 
any smooth hard material -will never chafe the stump, even if the 
stump is pen. i ted to move in it. On the other hand we have 
known that au^r socket made of a yielding material like leather 
will, from the cc ant pressure and heat of the stump, change iu 
form and cease to i.e comfortable. Perspiration and other exuda- 
tions from the stump have deteriorating effect on any material 
that permits absorption. All exudations from the stump becomes 
putrid in a very short time and cause offensive odors and bring 
effete matter in contact with the skin. This almost invariably in- 
fects the stump and causes unhealthy conditions. A hard highly 
polished surface is more pleasant for the stump than any form of 
soft yielding cushions. 

The slip-socket idea is somewhat antiquated. In 1866 the United 
States Patent Office issued letters patent No. 55,645 to Daniel 
Gilson, covering the principle of the slip socket, consisting of a 
leather socket molded on a cast of the stump, then placed inside the 
artificial leg, and held in place by springs. Its object was to 
obviate the movement of the stump in the socket and to localize 
all the motion between the stump socket and the socket of the 
artificial leg. It was very soon found that the stump socket, being 
tightly held to the stump at all times, constricted the blood vessels 
and caused much trouble. The inventor, being conscientious, 
abandoned the manufacture of legs on that plan. 

Quite recently, however, the slip-socket feature has been revived, 
and some insignificant modifications made on the original Gilson 
model, mainly in the mode of suspending the inner or slip socket. 
The idea has been extensively advertised and a considerable num- 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 59 

ber put in use. We have records of many of these cases, and we 
feel it a duty to the maimed community to disclose the effects a slip 
socket has had on many stumps. 

It must be remembered that in order to carry out the principle 
of the slip or sliding socket the stump must remain binder constant 
pressure, great enough to avoid any motion or friction between the 
stump and the socket. All the slipping and sliding due to the 
intermittent application of weight, as in walking, takes place 
between the slip socket and the socket of the artificial leg. Few 
stumps can tolerate this constant pressure without the blood vessels 
becoming strangulated; we therefore do all we can to dissuade 
clients from risking such a dangerous experiment. 

Slipping of the Stump Desirable. — There is nothing so pleasant 
to a wearer of an artificial limb, no matter what kind of a leg he 
is wearing, as to be able to lift his stump from its bearings and 
give it a chance to rest and recover, exactly as one does when 
standing on natural legs. He throws his weight on one leg for a 
while and then on the other, and in this way both legs in their turn 
become rested. Every wearer of a wood-socket limb invariably 
does this. It is a source of comfort and relief; but it cannot be 
done with the slip socket, which clings to the stump like a leech. 

The socket that is made to fit the stump so that pressure will be 
uniformly distributed over all its parts, is neither scientific nor 
tolerable. Every stump has parts that will bear pi'essure and parts 
that will not stand any at all. Parts where blood vessels and nerves 
are clustered, where the bones are close to the surface and poorly 
protected by tissu.e, must be prevented from impact. A flexible 
socket has a tendency to assume the shape of the stump and dis- 
tribute the pressure uniformly, bringing as much on the forbidden 
parts as elsewhere. Therefore the flexible socket is a dangerous 
one to wear. 

A socket that fits properly will never chafe the stump, no matter 
how much it may slip, slide, or move in it. This is a fact ascer- 
tained by most careful, thoughtful, and conscientious investigation, 
and cannot be successfully controverted. We know from very 
ample experience and inquiry that there is no socket so pleasant to 
wear, so light, so cool, and so healthful for the stump as the wooden 
one, when properly and scientifically fitted. No material has ever 
given such permanently good results as wood. 

An Instance. — Mr. Erank M. Talbot met with a railroad accident 
in 1890 which crushed his leg. Amputation was made below the 
knee, leaving a stump four inches in length. He obtained an 
artificial leg with wooden socket, which he wore for some time 
with efficiency. His stump, following the usual course, emaciated, 
and instead of having the leg refitted he was prevailed upon to 
order a new leg with a slip socket. He wore the leg for a while, 
but gradually the end of his stump became congested and painful. 
He went to his slip-socket leg-maker for relief, but was told that 
his stump was diseased and nothing but medical or surgical treat- 
ment would help him. The stump grew worse; he called in a 



60 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, New YorJc City. 

physician, who by medication brought it to a healthy condition, 
but put him on his back for a while. Shortly after he resumed 
wearing the slip-socket leg, the trouble recurred. He came to New 
York, and under the impression that his stump was diseased, con- 
sulted several prominent surgeons. All agreed that the stump had 
been strangulated by the artificial leg, and unless the cause was 
removed the bone would soon become infected and re-amputation 
would be necessary. 

Mr. Talbot called upon us, and on examination we found the end 
of the stump swollen and as blue as indigo. An abscess was form- 
ing. We told him that his trouble was due to pressure upon the 
blood vessels, and advised him to abandon the slip socket, and wear 
a wooden one, so fitted that it would not constrict the blood vessels 
nor permit any of the tender parts of the stump to take pressure. 
He yielded to our advice, and we made and applied a leg with 
wooden socket and our patent rubber foot. It was remarkable 
how quickly his stump recovered. As soon as the pressure was 
removed from the vascular parts, circulation was restored and the 
stump became healthy. This was eleven years ago and the stump 
at this writing is in a healthy condition, without the slightest 
indication of a recurrence of his trouble. We can cite hundreds of 
cases similar to this and will gladly furnish additional data to 
those desirous of investigating further. 

Waterproof Legs. — There are some occupations that require 
limb-wearers to stand in damp and wet places, exposing their 
artificial legs to moisture, much to their injury. 

Our method of constructing artificial legs with rubber feet, 
non-articulating at the ankle, enables us to meet every require- 
ment of such cases. The leg and ankle is of natural curved tim- 
ber, with the grains running on lines of the greatest strains. The 
foot is of sponge rubber with spring mattress, and the whole is 
covered with suitable material, coated with a waterproof prepara- 
tion. 

Bridge-builders, oysterman, fishermen, woodsmen, raftsmen, 
trappers, and hunters find the waterproof style of leg especially 
adapted to their wants. 

Bathing Legs. — Persons who indulge in aquatic sports can use 
artificial legs of this kind; with them they can wade, bathe, or 
swim in salt or fresh water exactly as persons in possession of their 
natural limbs and without disclosing the fact that their limbs are 
other than those provided by nature. Cut E 7 is a sectional view 
on which waterproof legs are constructed. It will be seen that there 
are no parts, connected by glue, metal, or rivets that can be affected 
by moisture. The entire lower leg is of one piece, capable of with- 
standing the severest strains and exposures. The natural-crook 
feature is covered by letters patent. 

Shortened Thigh. — Complicated conditions in tibial amputa- 
tions frequently present themselves and require specially designed 
artificial limbs. Cut E 33 illustrates a case in point. The injury 
to the patient, necessitating the amputation of the leg below the 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



61 



knee, fractured the thigh and dislocated the hip. The femur 
became lapped and deflected and its head was permanently dis- 
placed. This occasioned a shortening of the thigh of several 
inches. In the artificial leg the shortening of the thigh was com- 




A. A. MARKS. N. Y« 




Cut E 33. 



Cut E 34. 



pensated for by lengthening below the knee. A leg constructed 
on the plan of E 17 is suitable for cases of this character. Its 
thigh piece is made to extend well up to the body and take in the 
gluteal folds and the entire external surface as far as the crest 
of the ilium, thus giving the necessary support to the fractured 
part. 

Cut E 34 illustrates a case of shortened thigh of the left leg 
while the right was amputated. It resulted from a railroad acci- 
dent which crushed the right foot and ankle and fractured the 
opposite thigh. The right foot was amputated at the junction of 
the lower and middle thirds. Despite every effort to bring about 
the correct union of the fractured femur of the left leg, the bones 
slipped, resulting in a shortening of the thigh by several inches. 
An artificial leg constructed on the plan of E 17 was applied. The 
leg from the knee dovpn was as much shorter than the left as the 
thigh of the left was shorter than the right. 

In both these cases the artificial legs necessarily caused a dis- 
parity in the lengths of the legs from the knees down, but the 
differences were not noticeable, even when the wearers were seated, 



62 A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 



except when closely scrutinized. In other respects there were no 
inconveniences experienced. 

In ordering an artificial leg every peculiarity of the sound leg 
as well as the partly amputated one should be brought to the 
attention of the manufacturer. If there is a shortening in either 
the upper or lower sections of either leg, the manufacturer must be 
fully informed, so as to be able to construct the artificial leg to 
meet such conditions. 

Eccentric Knee Joint. — Occasionally there are circumstances 
that make it difiicult to obtain neat and smooth adjustments of an 
artificial leg about the knee of a tibial stump. When the leg is 
made to adjust smoothly while the stump is at full extension, 
there appears to be a shrinking away of the stump from the socket 
when flexed. This not only limits the range of knee motion but 
produces cramping and pinching of the tissues back of the knee. 
This condition can usually be traced to some peculiarity in the 
anatomical construction of one or both of the knee-articulating 
surfaces. Cut E 35 represents the bones of the natural knee joint 




A. A. MARKS, N, YJ 




Cut E 35. 



Cut E 36. 



at extension; Cut E 36 represents the same at flexion. It will be 
observed that in passing from one to the other the base of the femur 
is required to travel over the bearing surface of the tibia. The 
curvature of the articulating surface of the femur is neither 
elliptical, parabolic, nor follows any geometric curve. The bearing 
surface of the tibia should be flat. Sometimes it is slightly curved. 
When two surfaces roll upon each other there is no point that can 
be located as the center of motion. The nearer the articulating 
surfaces of the tibia approach a plane, and the nearer the articulat- 
ing surfaces of the femur approach an arc of a circle, the more 
imiform will be the motion of the knee. When the articulating 
surfaces of the knee of an amputated leg depart from these condi- 
tions a modification in the mechanism of the artificial knee joint 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limts, New Yorh City. 



63 



is required, in order to make the artificial leg articulate more 
in harmony with the natural knee. The duplex knee joint, which 
admits of flexion and extension in polycentric curves, has been 
designed to meet this condition. 

Duplex Knee Joints. — Cut E 37 represents the conventional 
type of artificial leg for a, tibial stump regardless of eccentricity of 




A. A. MARKS, N. Y, 



Cut E 37. 



Cut E 38. 



the knee motion. The cut shows how the stump, when flexed, is 
pulled away from the front of the socket, and how the tissues are 
folded under the knee and pinched, a condition due entirely to the 
efforts of forcing an eccentric knee to act with a concentric joint. 
Cut E 38 illustrates the E 17 leg with duplex joints applied to a 
stump with eccentric knee. The effect, as can be seen, is that the 
stump is held in its proper place, greater power of genuflection is 
obtained, the cramping at the back of the knee is obviated, and the 
stump is caused to remain close to the socket in front; the tibia is 
pointed directly downward, instead of downward and forward, and 
is prevented from impinging against the interior-anterior surface 
of the socket. 

The duplex joint has two centers, one well up on the thigh and 
the other close to the knee ; an independent strap connects the two 
side bars at the rear ; an elastic band connected with both side bars 
passes over the front of the thigh. These straps give firmness to 
the adjustments, and at the same time admit of sufficient oscillation 
to permit the stump to remain in its bearings. 

Contracted Knee Joints. — Another class of leg stumps are those 
which are sufficiently long to control the knee movements of the 
artificial leg, but being partly contracted, the extension of the knee 
is somewhat limited, so that the use of the ordinary type of E 17 
leg is impossible, while the contraction is not siifficient to make the 
knee joint inoperative in controlling the artificial leg. 



64 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



Knee joints of tibial stumps become contracted either from the 
results of the injuries that occasioned their amputation, or, more 
frequently, from neglect in permitting the stumps to remain in 
semi-flexed positions during the convalescent periods. Cut E 39 




Cut E 39. 




Cut E 40. 



illustrates a partially contracted knee of a tibial stump which is 
capable of full flexion but of limited extension. 

An artificial leg on the plan of E 17 with a slight modification 
of the socket, as shown in Cut E 40, meets the requirements of the 
case. By referring to Cut E 41 it will be seen that the stump is 
received in the socket while in a semi-flexed position. The socket is 
so made as to bring constant and gentle pressure upon the ham- 
strings every time a step is taken. The object of this is to induce 
the breaking up of the contraction and eventually restore full knee 
motion. The artificial leg is provided with a lacing attachment 
that passes over the rear part of the stump. As the stump im- 
proves in extension this lacing strap is tightened and greater pres- 
sure brought upon the stump. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 65 

Although a stump may be contracted to a considerable angle a leg 
of this character can be worn and the wearer enabled to get about 
in an advantageous way, concealing his loss, walking in a graceful 
manner, and dispensing with the use of crutches. 

We know of no more practical method for breaking up the con- 
traction in the hamstrings than wearing an artificial leg of this 
type. The wearer is permitted to engage in his usual occupations 
while the work of restoration of the knee motion progresses. 
When the knee has become corrected- and the stump can be ex- 
tended to a straight line, the socket on the artificial leg can be 
removed and the regular socket, similar to that shown in Cut E 
lY, applied at a very slight expense. 

Cut E 41 shows the leg applied to a contracted stump and the 
wearer walking. Cut E 42 shows it with the wearer seated. The 





Cut E 41. 



Cut E 42. 



contraction of the hamstrings does not interfere with walking, 
standing, or sitting. 

Cut E 43 illustrates a tibial stump with a contraction of the 
hamstrings considerably greater than in the last case, so great as 
to prevent the knee from extending beyond a right angle with the 
thigh. Cut E 44 represents an artificial leg suitable for this case. 

A knee-bearing leg might be considered the more suitable, but 
when the fact is remembered that there is an angular motion in 
the knee, with the possibility of improvement, it is better to apply 
a leg that will keep up the action of the knee and bring a con- 
stantly increasing tension on the hamstrings. A leg constructed 



66 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

on the plan of that represented in Cut E 44 is made for this 
purpose. 

Hypertrophied Tibial Stump. — Amputations through the tibia 
are sometimes necessitated by hypertrophy, with induration of the 
foot and ankle, as in the case of elephantiasis. Such cases usually 




Cut E 43. 



'produce stumps that are much larger at their extremities than 
above, the extremities incapable of bearing pressure, and the sides 
able to tolerate only limited compression. Cut E 45 shows a stump 
of this character. It requires an artificial leg constructed iipon 
the plan of E 46, with the rear open so as to receive the stump, the 
stump and socket are incased by a sheath holding the parts to- 
gether. Cut E 46 represents a side view of an artificial leg suitable 
for such eases. Cut E 47 presents the front view with leg applied. 

In all the complicated cases previously described, the method of 
constructing artificial legs with rubber feet and spring mattress is 
especially advantageous. Great strength is obtained, durability is 
secured with minimum weight and bulk about the enlarged 
extremity. 

Anchylosed Knee Tibial Stumps Extended.— Some tibial 
stumps are rigid when extended. That is, they cannot be flexed, 
owing to anchylosis of the knees resulting from the injuries that 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs,JSfew York City. 



67 




Cut E 45. 



Cut E 46. 



Cut E 47. 





Cut E 48. 



Cut E 49. 



caused the amputations, impairment of the knee tendons, calcareous 
deposits in the articulations, and many other causes. If there is 
an absence of mobility in the knee and the stump is extended, an 



68 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 

artificial leg must be constructed so that the artificial knee articula- 
tion will be independent of the natural knee and operate on the 
sides of the stump approximately at the points where the natural 
articulation takes place. Cuts E 48 and E 49 represent tibial 
stumps extended, with knee joints anchylosed. 

It will be observed that in Cut E 48 the sides of the stump and 
thigh are approximately parallel, or in other words they do not 
slope sufficiently to offer any sustaining surfaces. An artificial leg 




Cut E 50. 



Cut E 51. 



constructed on the plan of Cut E 50 is intended for a stump of 
this character. 

The top part of the thigh piece is annular and permits the stump 
and thigh to enter until the gluteal folds, the ischium, and the 
perineum come in contact with the top border of the socket, where 
the entire weight is applied, the same as if the amputation had 
been made in the middle of the thigh. Cut E 49 represents a 
stump the sides of which are tapering sufficiently to offer some 
opposition, sustaining in part the weight and lessening the amount 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New Yorh City. 69 

of pressure on the top border of the socket. An artificial leg con- 
structed on the plan of E 51 will meet the requirements of this 
case. Both of the above artificial legs are made to articulate at 
the knees. 

The legs from the knees down are constructed practically the 
same as the E 17. The thigh piece is leather and wood; the rear 
of wood and the front of leather arranged for lacing, so that the 
required pressure will be brought upon the thigh to hold it in 
place. Leg E 50 differs from E 51 in the top of the socket, it be- 
ing annular with continuous border. It is held securely to the 
body by the lacing front, assisted by suspenders passing over the 
shoulders. 

The knee joints of these legs are of the hinge style as illustrated 
in Cut E 21. Articulation at the knee is limited by a check cord 





Cut E 52. 



Cut E 53. 



connecting the thigh and calf sections. Cut E 52 shows the leg 
applied, the wearer seated; and Cut E 53 shows it with the wearer 
standing. It will be seen that the knee articulation approximates 
very closely the action of the opposite leg and permits the wearer to 
stand, walk, sit, or kneel. 

Peg Legs. — Peg legs suitable for tibial stumps are of three 
kinds. The simplest and least expensive is shown in Cut E 54. 
It consists of two wooden branches, one running up on the outside 
of the thigh, well up on the body, the other on the inner side reach- 
ing nearly to the crotch. 



10 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

These branches unite below the point of bearing and continue 
to the ground, terminating in a rubber tip. A padded shelf is • 
placed between the branches on which the knee rests when in a 
flexed position. The leg is held in place by leather straps passing 
around the thigh and body. 

Cut E 55 shows a peg leg without knee joint or thigh support 
suitable for a tibial stump. The socket is shaped to receive the 





Cut E 55. 



Cut E 56. 



stump from the knee down in a comfortable way. The base termi- 
nates with a rubber tip, and straps necessary to hold the socket on 
the leg are connected with the leg and passed around the thigh 
immediately above the knee cap. When necessary, suspenders are 
attached to help carry the weight. 

Cut E 56 shows a peg leg suitable for a tibial stump constructed 
practically as E 17, except that there is no rubber foot, a rubber 
tip taking its place. 

Peg Legs Should Not be Used Permanently. — ^Peg legs are 
worn as temporary expedients, for disciplining stumps, or to bridge 
over an impecunious period. We know persons, however, of ample 
means who have reached advanced years, who from childhood have 



A. A. MarJcSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



n 



constantly worn peg legs, and doubtless will continue to do so, as 
long as they live. 

It is quite possible to stump around on peg legs and do much 
hard work with them. They are immeasurably better than 
crutches, but they are very far from rendering the services that 
can be obtained from artificial legs with sponge rubber feet. The 
foot is an essential factor in helpful easy walking, and a means of 
opposing strains required in carrying heavy weights, ascending or 
descending stairs or elevations, and in walking long distances. 

We disparage the use of peg legs, as we are keenly alive to the 
fact that they are inadequate to meet the demands that must be 
put upon them. Any form of peg leg that will keep the knee joint 
in a flexed position is liable to weaken the tendons of the knee, 
impair the knee movement, and limit its range of motion. They 
should, therefore, be used only as expedients. 

Ferrules for Peg Legs. — Cut E 5Y represents an aluminum 
peg-leg ferrule and rubber tip. Cut E 58 represents the aluminum 
ferrule separate, and Cut E 59 represents a pure gum rubber tip 





Cut E 59. 



Cut E 61. 



separate, which screws into the ferrule. Cuts represent one-quarter 
size. The ferrule is permanently fastened to the peg leg, and the 
rubber tip screws into it. 

Rubber Tip. — When the rubber tip wears down so that the metal 
ferrule touches the ground, it should be removed and a new one 
put in. The base of the rubber tip is 2 1-2 inches in diameter and 
the threaded shank is 1 1-2 inches in diameter. 

Suspenders. — Suspenders for artificial legs for tibial stumps are 
of many kinds. Most persons with long and healthy stumps do 
not use suspenders at all, and a very small number retain them 
after they have become accustomed to their artificial legs. 

As an aid for the beginner, however, we deem it advisable to put 
suspenders on every leg made for tibial amputation, whether the 
stump is long or short. 

Cut E 60 shows a double suspender for a tibial stump leg. It 



12 A. A. Maries J Artificial LirnbSj New Yorh City. 



consists of two-inch elastic webbing connected with the back of 
the thigh piece and running well up to the shoulder, where two 
non-elastic straps, each 1 1-2 inches wide, are attached which branch 
so as to pass over the shoulder. They are connected with the upper 
part of the thigh piece in front, and adjusted by clamp buckles 
with snaps. 

Cut E 61 presents a simple yoke suspender preferred by women. 
It is made to fit the body immediately above and upon the hips. 




Cut E 60. 



Cut E 62. 



Cut E 63. 



It is seldom necessary to use shoulder straps. Straps running 
down from the belt connected with the upper part of the thigh 
piece are usually ample. 

Cut E 62 shows a yoke suspender similar to the last, but pro- 
vided with shoulder straps. Elastic straps buckled into the attach- 
ments connected with the -thigh piece are used to fasten the yoke 
to the leg. This method is necessary for small hips and in cases 
where entire support from the hips or pressure about the loins or 
over the abdomen cannot be tolerated. 

The corset style is frequently preferred by women. It consists 
of strong elastic straps secured to the lower part of the corset, one 
in front and one at the back as shown in Cut E 63; they are 
buckled into straps secured to the upper part of the thigh piece. 



CHAPTER VI 

KNEE-BEARING STUMPS 

Definition. — When the knee joints of tibial stumps are con- 
tracted at right angles, or when the stumps are so short that they 
are unable to control the artificial knee joint, they are termed knee- 
bearing stumps, and require artificial legs constructed to receive 
them in flexed positions. 

It is sometimes problematical to determine whether a stum.p 
should be placed in this class or in the class requiring legs con- 
structed on the plan of E 17. The conditions to be considered 
in deciding the question are as follows: First, anchylosis or 
immobility of the knee joint when flexed. Second, length of the 
stump projecting back of the thigh when at right angles. If this 
is less than two inches the knee-bearing leg must be selected. 
Third, remediless contraction of the flexors, limiting the angular 





Cut F 1. 



Cut F 3. 



range of motion to one-half the normal range, no matter how long 
the stump may be. Cuts F 1 to F 4 show typical knee-bearing 
stumps. 

Knee-bearing Legs. — Cut F 5 shows a leg suitable for stumps 
of above character. The socket and leg part are made of wood 
covered with rawhide and enameled. The socket is excavated 
to receive the stump and thigh in a comfortable way, and the 

73 



74 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 




Cut F 3. 





Cut F 4. 




Cut F 5. 



Cut F 6. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



15 



part from the knee down is hollowed out to reduce the weight. 
The exterior dimensions are as close to those of the natural leg 
as conditions will admit. The foot is of rubber with spring mat- 
tress as previously described. 

Bolt Joint. — Cut F 6 shows the knee mechanism with the parts 
separated: a is the knee-bolt which holds the leg and thigh sec- 
tions together, forming an axis for the knee. It is flanged on 




Cut F 7. 



Cut F 8. 



one end and threaded on the other. When the bolt is passing 
through the metal ear which is riveted to the lower leg the head 
sinks into its bed and the threaded end screws into the ear riveted 
to the opposite side. The set screw h, placed into the flanged 
end, prevents the bolt from moving and working out; c is the 
check cord screw; d the check cord; g the spring piston; h the 
spiral spring; i the cylinder. The relations and functions of 
these parts can be understood from an examination of Cuts F 7 
and F 8, which show the leg with the knee extended and fully 
flexed. 

The action of the spring holds the leg at flexion when the 
wearer is seated, and urges the leg forward when walking. The 



V6 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

xange of articulation can be regulated by means of pads placed 
between the lower end of the check cord and the bridge under 
which it passes. These pads can be reached through the opening 
in the calf of the leg. The upper loops of the check cord rest in 




Cut F 9, 



Cut F 10. 



their respective channels and through them a steel screw is passed 
and set. 

The mechanism of the knee-bearing leg is very durable, and will 
stand severe use for years. 

Side Joint. — The center of motion being placed below the 
natural knee, causes a disparity in the lengths of the two thighs; 
only noticeable, however, when the wearer is seated and subjected 
to close scrutiny. The durability of the knee-joint mechanism in 
style of leg shown in Cut F 5 fully compensates for excessive 
length of thigh, moreover, this mechanism admits of the minimum 
width of the knee. The choice of style remains with the wearer; 
if he prefers the wide knee to the long thigh, and is willing to 
sacrifice durability, he can have the leg constructed with side 
joints, as represented in Cut F 9, the center of knee motion 
of which is brovight to the sides of the knee by means of hinge 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 11 

joints, of the style shown in Cut E 23, page 52. The knee-check 
cord is practically the same as that represented in Cut F 6. Cut 
F 10 shows the leg applied, wearer seated with knees flexed. 

Peg Legs. — ^Peg legs for knee-bearing stumps are of three kinds ; 
and will be considered in their order : Cut F 11 shows the cheapest 
form of peg leg for a knee-bearing stump; its construction is of 




Cut F 11. 



Cut F 12. 



Cut F 13. 



bent wood with metal ferrule, rubber tips, and leather strappings. 
Cut F 12 shows a peg leg with knee joint suitable for a knee-bearing 
stump. 

Cut F 13 shows a peg leg without knee articulation for knee- 
bearing stump. The upper parts, F 12 and F 13, made of wood 
and leather, fitted to receive the stump, which is held in place 
by lacing. 

The ends of peg legs are terminated by metal ferrules and 
rubber tips as described in Cuts E 57, E 58, and E 59, page 71. 

Incomplete Eestoratives. — For reasons heretofore given, we 
do not advocate peg legs for knee-bearing stumps and only fur- 



Irs A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New Yorh City. 

nish them when they are especially ordered. It is far better 
for a person to procure a complete artificial leg with rubber foot, 
with spring mattress, one that will possess all the elements neces- 
sary for helpful and convenient walking, even if he has to deny 
himself in other ways in order to obtain one. A peg leg is a make- 
shift, and will in all probability weaken or destroy what knee 
motion remains. 

Suspenders. — Suspenders suitable for knee-bearing legs are sub- 
stantially the same as those employed for tibial stump legs. The 
details are given in the preceding chapter. 



CHAPTER yn 

DISARTICULATED KNEE STUMPS 

End-Bearing and Non-End-Bearing Stumps. — Amputations 
through the articulations of the knees call for careful prothetical 
consideration. Stumps resulting from such amputations may be 
end-bearing or not; when they are covered with tissue flaps, free 
from cicatrices and nervous complications, they are end-bearing; 
if they are cicatrized, and sensitive, pressure must be applied else- 
where; if they are tapering to the ends or are broadened at the 





Cut G 1. 



Cut G 2. 



extremities they must be treated accordingly. The presence of 
the patella, securely united in the intercondylar space, will im- 
prove the character of the stump, but if it is not united it is 
doubtful if the end will tolerate any weight whatever. 

Fittings. — ^Artificial legs for knee-joint amputations must ad- 
mit of placing pressure only on parts capable of enduring it. 
Tender, delicate, sensitive, and irritable spots must be guarded, 
and non-end-bearing stumps must be provided with limbs that will 

79 



80 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limls, New York City. 

take the weight at the ischial and perineal regions; if the sides 
of the stumps are sloping a share of the weight can be distributed 
over those parts. Sensitive condyles, bony prominences, and fascia 
raust be properly cared for. 

Peculiarities of Stumps. — Cut G 1 shows a type of stump result- 
ing from knee-joint amputations; the nodulous extremity due to 
the presence of condyles, together with ample coverings, provide 
desirable conditions. An artificial leg suitable for this stump 
is so fitted that the weight is carried on the end, which rests on 
a padded surface at the lower end of the socket, and held securely 
in place by the leather lacing. The shoulder suspension is greatly 
simplified when condyles are present in the stump. Cut G 2 shows 





Cut G 3. 



Cut G 4. 



a side view of a stump favorable for end pressure. Cut G 3 
shows a stump reaching to the knee, patella present and without 
cicatrices, thus admitting of end pressure. 

• Cut G 4 shows a thigh stump reaching to the knee and ex- 
tremely well protected, with cicatrices at the rear and well away 
from the end; bunches of sensitive tissue hanging from the ex- 
tremity prevent the application of weight at that point. Cut G 5 
shows a thigh stump reaching to the knee with an end incapable 
of bearing pressure; the condyles and all the natural coverings 
of the bone were removed in the operation. Bunches of tissue 
and ganglia were gathered at the end back of the stump. The 
muscle tissue puckered considerably and the presence of cicatrices 
on and about the end prevents the application of weight there. 
Cut G 6 shows a stump reaching to the knee, condyles present, 
the extremity covered with integumentary folds, deep fissures and 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



81 



cicatrices, preventing the application of weight upon the ex- 
tremity. 

Most Favorable Conditions. — These examples develop the fol- 
lowing points: Stumps extending to the knee with nodulous ex- 
tremities, capable of bearing weight, are the most favorable of 
all knee-joint stumps. They result from amputations through the 





Cut G 5. 



Cut G 6. 



knee articulations, the condyles remaining untrimmed, or, if 
trimmed, the ends protected by bone and muscle flaps; the natural 
coverings to the bones permitted to remain on the articulating 
surfaces; the patellas, if present, firmly united to the end of the 
femur; flaps well carried to the posterior and the cicatrices some 
distance from the ends. Stumps possessing these favorable con- 
ditions can be efficiently accommodated with artiflcial legs that 
will minimize the pressure about their upper borders and simplify 
the mode of suspension. 

A stump reaching to the knee, with a nodulous extremity and 
incapable of bearing weight on the end, is capable of operating 
an artificial leg, but the means of attachment are necessarily more 
extensive and more severe than when the weight can be borne on 
the ends. 

Inability to bear weight on the extremities of knee-joint stumps 
is not always due to surgery. 

Sloughing, bone degeneration, hypera3sthesia, etc., frequently 
occur despite the most careful precautions of the operator. 

Suitable Artificial Legs. — The foregoing cuts illustrate 
stumps that can be advantageously fitted with artificial legs eon- 



8i2 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

structed upon plans of those shown in Cuts G 7 or G 8, according 
as the stump is tapering or straight, or whether the end can endure 
weight or not. The thigh of either leg is made partly of wood and 
partly of leather. The rear section is of wood, excavated to re- 
ceive the stump in the most comfortable way. The front portion 
is of leather arranged for lacing as shown. If the stump is 
tapering to the end there will be no advantage in having the 
front laced, the entire socket can be better constructed of wood. 

Cut G 7 illustrates a leg made to place a large amount of the 
weight of the wearer directly on the extremity of the stiimp. Cut 



Cut G 7. 



Cut G 8. 



G 8 shows a leg with annular top designed to hold the end of the 
stump away ixova. the bottom of the socket, all the weight being 
distributed over the sides, above the knees and about the top 
borders of the socket. In both these styles every requirement 
for the comfort of the wearer and the efficiency of the leg is con- 
sidered. 

The stump socket of either leg is of proper size and shaped t<? 
receive the stump and carry the weight of the wearer. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial LinibSj New York City. 83 

Both upper and lower sections are made of selected kiln-dried 
wood, carved to the shape of the stump with external proportions 
as near those of the natural leg as the conditions will admit. The 
lower leg is excavated to reduce weight. The foot is of rubber as 
heretofore described, and both leg and thigh are coverd with suit- 
able material properly enameled. The knee mechanism is the 
same as that illustrated in Cuts F 6 and F 7. 

Suspenders for legs for knee-joint amputations are the same 
as those applied to thigh amputations, and are fully treated in 
the following chapter. 

We point with pride to many thousand persons who walk on 
artificial legs of either the above type with efficiency and natural- 
ness and who voluntarily bear witness to the excellence of the 
manner in which they have been fitted out, and their increased 
capabilities to perform their full share of work. 



CHAPTEE VIII 

THIGH OR FEMORAL STUMPS 

Definitions. — Thigh or femoral stumps are those that reach 
to any point above the knee joint; they are designated upper-, 
middle-, or lower-third thigh stumps, according to their lengths, 
in relation to the three divisions of the thigh. 

Long or Lower-Third Thigh Stumps. — When a stump reaches 
to a point in the region of the lower third, it is commonly termed 





Cut H 1. 



Cut H 2. 



a long thigh stump, a few of which are illustrated in Cuts H 1 to 
H 4/ 

Artificial legs suitable for such are illustrated in Cuts H 5 and 
H6. 

In cases of long and flabby stumps the number G 7 leg, see page 
82, can be applied to advantage. 

Stumps out op Line. — Persons walking on crutches for a con- 
siderable length of time permit their stumps to incline forward. 
The flexors in the groin become contracted and the extensors yield 
to the influence, and the stump assuming che position, when hang- 
ing at ease, of that shown in Cut H 1, and occasionally that 

84 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New YorTc City. 



85 



shown in Cut H 3, This condition should not cause anxiety on 
the part of the wearer, as it can be controlled and corrected by a 
suitably attached artificial leg. 

OoNSTRUCTiON OF Legs. — The thigh and leg sections of H 5 are 
constructed of wood of choice character. The socket is hollowed 





Cut H 3. 



Cut H 4. 



out to receive the stump properly, and to receive the weight of the 
wearer where it can be tolerated. 

The outside dimensions both above and below the knee are 
dressed down to the curves and dimensions of the natural leg as 
far as conditions will admit. The lower part excavated to mini- 
mize weight, both sections are covered with rawhide and enam- 
eled, the foot is of sponge rubber with spring mattress as hereto- 
fore described. The manner in which the knee joint is constructed 
is substantially the same as shown in Cut F 6, and described on 
page 74. 

Variety of Middle-Third Thigh Stumps. — Thigh amputations 
through or above the middle thirds produce stumps that admit of 
the simplest form of knee-joint mechanism, called the T joint, 
explained further on. 

Cuts H 7 to H 14 show thigh stumps of a variety of lengths 
with flaps and cicatrices of many characters. 

End and Non-End-Bearing. — As a rule thigh stumps are in- 
capable of taking weight on their extremities, and as there is but 
little advantage in putting pressure on that point, and as the risk 
of doing so is very great, we rarely consent to construct limbs 



86 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limls, New YorTc City. 



Cut H 5. 




Cut H 6. 




Cut H 7. 



Cut H 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



87 



in that way and only do so when we are positive that the ends of 
the stumps will not be injured. Cut H 15 shows the usual type 





Cut H 9. 



Cut H 10. 




Cut H 11. 




Cut H 12. 



of artificial leg for a thigh stump. The thigh and leg sections are 
made of tough, light, bass or willow wood, shaped to the size and 



88 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



contours of the natural leg so far as conditions will permit. The 
thigh is excavated to receive the stump in the best way, permitting 
pressure only at admissable places. The end of the stump, together 
with a few inches of the thigh, are, as a rule, required to hang in 
space, all the weight being applied to the upper borders of the 
thigh socket and along the sides of the stump immediately adjacent 
to the body. When weight can be prudently applied to the end 
a cushion is provided for that purpose. The lower section of the 





Cut H 13. 



Cut H 14. 



leg is excavated to reduce weight. The whole is covered with 
rawhide and elegantly finished with a flesh-tinted enamel. 

A rubber foot with spring mattress as heretofore described, is 
properly attached at the ankle. Cut H 16 represents the rear 
view showing the knee mechanism with parts together, and Cut 
H 17 represents the working parts of the knee separated. Cut 
H 18 shows the T joint, the spring, and their connections; a is the 
T joint which is secured to the knee block located at the lower 
end of the stump socket. The two arms work in journals made in 
the leg section; hh are the cap screws that hold the T joint to its 
place; cc the caps; d the spring piston; e the spiral spring; f the 
cylinder; g spring cover, and parts of the spring together; Hi rep- 
resent the steel screws used to hold the T joint firmly to thigh. 
The joint a has the shape of an inverted T, hence its name, T 
joint. It is made of gun metal forged from one piece, turned, 



A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



89 



drilled, and finished on the lathe. When the leg and thigh sections 
are placed together the arms of the T joint rest in boxes and are 
held by two hardwood caps, cc, which are secured by long steel 
screws, hh, which depend for their security on steel nuts, imbedded 
in the front part of the leg. 

Thorough Control. — The wearer has thorough command over 
this joint; the pressure of the caps on the joints can be regulated 




Cut H 15. 



Cut H 16. 



by the screws, and thus any desired tension on the articulation 
be made. 

Knee Spring. — The small steel lever with ball on the end, pro- 
jecting from the back of the joint, operates in the cavity of the 
hardwood piston d; the piston is inserted in one end of the steel 
spring, e, which has its lower part encased with leather g, and then 
placed in a drawn metal cylinder f. The lower convexed end of 
the cylinder is received on a bridge placed in the interior of the 
leg in the region of the calf. 



90 A. A. MarhSj Artificial LimTjs, New York City. 



Helps Knee Motion When Walking. — The operation of *the 
spring is twofold: it urges the lower leg forward in walking, and 




Cut H 19. 



Cut H 20. 



Cut H 21. 



holds it at full flexion when sitting. This is done in the fol- 
lowing manner : When the leg is extended, the point at which the 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, Neiu York City. 91 

spring pressure is applied is on the end of a steel lever projecting 
an inch back of the center of motion in the knee. This urges 
further extension, as shown in Cut H 19, the lever revolves with 
the joint ; and when the leg is partly flexed, as shovpn in Cut H 20, 
it has been carried to a neutral point where the spring neither 
urges flexion nor extension; but when the knee is further flexed, 
as shown in Cut H 21, the lever has passed forward of the neutral 
line and the spring forces the ball upward, urging greater flexion; 
and when the flexion is at its limit the leg is kept in that position 
by the spring. Thus the objection to the usual spring knee articula- 
tion is removed, that of the tendency of the leg to fly out when the 
wearer is sitting and unguarded. 

Spring Strength Can be Regulated. — The power of the spring 
in the knee can be increased or diminished. If it is desired to 
increase it, a little packing can be tamped in the cylinder, or a 
longer spring can be substituted; and if it is desired to diminish 
it, a coil or two of the spring can be cut off or a shorter one sub- 
stituted. If the wearer does not want the spring he can take it 
out and discard it. When the leg is together and in working 
order, the knee movement is arrested by the striking of the vertical 
shaft of the T joint against a pad placed in the knee, which can be 
increased or diminished by the wearer, and the range of articulation 
in the knee made less or greater, as may be desired. 

The center of motion of this knee is placed considerably back 
of the center of gravity of the leg in order to secure the knee 
against treacherous bending. 

Knee Lock. — The knee lock is a device placed in the knees of 
artificial legs to ]?eep them from flexing, or froro. flexing beyond 
a fixed limit. Wlien the wearer wishes to sit the knee can readily 
be unlocked. It is not very often that knee locks are required, 
therefore they are only placed in artificial limbs when conditions 
demand. 

Cut H 22 shows an artificial leg with knee lock for thigh stump ; 
a is a sliding bar that can be moved upwardly or downwardly. 
When down the leg is incapable of moving at the knee, or is 
permitted to move only through a limited angle, as shown in Cut 
H 23. When the sliding bar is pulled up, the lock is out of action, 
and the knee can be bent at right ankles as represented in Cut 
H 24. 

This device is found to be of value to those who have short, 
weak, or deflected stumps, and is also used to advantage by eques- 
trians. We have a patron, a baptist clergyman, who finds the 
knee lock indispensable when performing the rites of immersion; 
because of the buoyancy of the lower leg the knee without the 
lock would flex the moment he enters the baptismal font. Knee 
locks are used to advantage by persons who are required to walk 
through obstructions, such as underbrush, heavy grass, snow, etc.; 
without the locks these obstructions are likely to flex the knees 
inopportunely. Hip joints and waist belts are occasionally at- 
tached to the thighs of these legs. 



92 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

Hip Joints. — The knee lock, hip joint, and waist belt can be 
combined to advantage in legs applied to stumps that are deflected, 
abducted, or that in any way incline out of the normal lines. The 
knee lock places the knee beyond the influence of the partly flexed 
stump, and the hip joint places the leg beyond the influence of 




CutH 



Cut H 23. 



Cut H 24. 



the abducted stump. As these auxiliary parts complicate the con- 
struction of the leg, add weight, and more or less hamper graceful 
and natural walking, it is not considered desirable to add them 
unless the conditions of the stump or the occupation of the wearer 
demand. 

Waterproof and Bathing Legs. — Persons wearing artificial 
legs on thigh stumps frequently find it desirable to use their arti- 
ficial legs while they are bathing or swimming in salt or fresh 
water. It is embarrassing to those who have but one leg to be 
viewed with curiosity while hopping or walking with crutches or 
hitching on hands and knees on the shore. This embarrassment 
often prevents them from indulging in the exhilarating and health- 
giving river, lake, or ocean bath. 

An artificial leg especially designed for swimming and bathing 
purposes is constructed practically the same as those heretofore 
described, differing only in the fact that they are absolutely water- 
proof, the knee to articulate or not, as the wearer may elect. As 
the wearing parts of waterproof legs are made of composition in- 
stead of steel, they are not as durable as those made for ordi- 
nary purposes; they are therefore only made when especially 
ordered. 

Legs Without Knee Joints. — We have on a number of occasions 
been required to construct artificial legs for thigh stumps without 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



93 



knee joints. Cut H 25 shows an artificial leg of this type. The 
entire structure, including the foot core, is carved from a single 
piece of wood, slightly curved at the knee so as to represent the 
natural leg when partly flexed, for better accommodation when 
sitting. The foot is of rubber with spring mattress as described. 
The leg is covered in the usual way and enameled or water- 
proofed if it is to be used in watery places. 

Peg Legs — Peg legs are occasionally used on thigh stumps. 
They are practically artificial legs without feet. As already stated 
we do not advocate the use of peg legs, as they are of limited effi- 




Cut H 25. 



Cut H 36. 



Cut H 27. 



eiency. The foot is a very important part of an artificial leg. It 
assists in balancing, aids in walking, and restores the appearance. 

Years ago before artificial legs with rubber feet and spring 
mattress were so generally used, the peg leg was more in evidence, 
but lately it is worn more as a means of disciplining the stump or 
as a makeshift to bridge an impecunious period. 

Persons are able to stand, stump about, and perform a limited 
amount of labor on peg legs, which are unquestionably better than 



94 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 



crutches, but their restoration is not complete until they are 
wearing artificial legs with spring mattress rubber feet. Cut H 26 
shows a peg leg for a thigh stump. It is made of suitable wood, 
excavated to receive the stump and reduce weight. The outside 
has the contours of nature as closely as the conditions will admit, 
the end terminating in a metal ferrule and rubber tip, as illus- 
trated on page 71, Cuts E 57-58-59, Cut H 27 shows a peg leg 
with knee joint, for a thigh stump. It is constructed in all parts 
the same as H 15, heretofore described. The absence of the foot 
and the substitution of a rubber tip is the only diiference. 

SusppJNDERS. — Suspenders suitable for legs for thigh amputa- 
tions, as well as for amputations in the knee joint are of various 
kinds to suit the habits and demands of the wearers. The style 
of suspender which is most generally adopted is that illustrated 
in Cut H 28, termed the roller suspender. While it has excellent 






Cut H 28. 



Cut H 29. 



Cut H 30. 



features it has limited application. It can be used to advantage 
on stumps reaching to any point from the middle of the thigh 
to the knee, but for shorter stumps and for hip- joint amputations 
a method that will hold the limb to the body more firmly is neces- 
sary. The roller suspender is the product of many experiments 
and years of experience, assisted by the kindly suggestions of our 
patrons. 

The shoulder straps are usually of two-inch non-elastic webbing. 
A strip of webbing is attached to the right strap, and forms a loop 
through which the left strap passes. A piece of webbing stitched 
to the back of both straps holds them together. The front lower 
ends of the shoulder straps are received into buckles, and the 
back lower ends are terminated by snaps; each hooks into the ends 
of the leather roller cords which pass around rollers attached to 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 



95 



either side of the leg. Any degree of pressure upon the shoulders 
can be obtained by means of the clamp buckles, and when obtained, 
the buckles are clamped and are never disturbed, unless the pressure 
on the shoulders needs further adjustment. Wlien it is desired 
to remove the limb, the suspenders are detached by unsnapping 
both front and back. 

Cut H. 29 shows a front view of a person wearing a pair of 
roller suspenders. 

Cut H 30 gives the back view, and Cuts H 31, H 32, and H 33 
side views. 

These cuts show the relative positions of the rollers, as well as 
the effect of the loops in holding the shoulder straps in place and 




Cut H 31. 



Cut H 32. 



Cut H 38. 



in directing the leg. Elasticity is obtained by two pieces of 
elastic webbing attached to the backs of the shoulder straps a 
little below the shoulder blades. 

The operation of the suspenders is illustrated in Cuts H 29- 
30-31-32-33. All the traveling of the suspenders due to changes 
of position takes place about the rollers on the sides of the thigh, 
instead of on the shoulders of the wearer, whether the person is 
standing, stooping, walking, or sitting. 

Straight Shoulder Straps. — Cut H 34 shows a style of sus- 
pender especially adapted to an artificial leg for a short thigh 
stump. It is the style very generally used before roller suspenders 
were devised. The shoulder straps are of fine elastic webbing, 2 
inches wide. 

The front straps are of two-inch non-elastic webbing; each front 
strap passes through a metal link attached to the lower end of 
the elastic shoulder strap. After passing through the metal link 
the front straps are received into a two-prong buckle. The sus- 



96 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New YorTc City. 



penders are attached to the leg by means of leather tags and metal 
D's screwed to the back and front. The metal D admits of side 
motion, thereby insuring direct pull. 

Belt Attachment. — Cut H 35 represents a belt and suspender 
combined. The shoulder straps and belt are preferably of non- 
elastic webbing. The straps running from the belt to the leg are 





Cut H 34. 



Cut H 35. 



Cut H 36. 



made of elastic webbing, 2 inches wide or less, as the case may 
demand. 

Vest Method. — Cut H 36 illustrates the vest method. It is made 
of strong muslin, fitted to the person and worn under the shirt. 
Elastic straps are attached to the lower border and buckled into 
straps that are secured to the leg. In order to obtain the best 
results, the vest must be made and fitted by a tailor. Persons who 
desire to have their artificial limbs constructed from measure- 
ments, and choose the vest suspender, are required to have vests 
made at home, and if sent to us, we will attach the straps and 
make the proper connections with the leg without additional charge. 

Suspenders for Women. — For obvious reasons the means of sus- 
pending artificial limbs to women differ from those employed with 
men. When shoulder straps are used they must pass over the 
shoulders and not press upon the breasts. Yiokes, girths, or bands 
must pass around the waists so as to place the burden all or in 
part on the hips. 

Yoke Method. — Cut H 37 shows a combination of the roller 
straps with the yoke; rollers or pulleys are secured to the sides of 
the thigh, and leather cords pass around them. The yoke is made 



A. A. Marks^ Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



97 



to fit the loins and hips, adjustable by lacing in front or on the 
sides, as may be preferred; the shoulder and roller straps are also 





Cut H 37. 



Cut H 38. 



adjustable, so as to bring the proportionate weight about the 
shoulders and hips without displacing the yoke. 

Corset Method. — As many women pride themselves on their trim 
waists and neat-fitting garments, it is especially desirable that 
means of leg suspension should be light and neat. Straps securely 
sewed to the corset, extending downward and connected with the 
artificial limb, admit of the neatest adjustment. Cut H 38 shows 
the corset method, which can be easily adjusted by the wearer. 



CHAPTEE IX 
HIP-JOmT AMPUTATIONS 

Requirement. — An amputation at the hip joint or close to 
the body requires an artificial leg identical in construction to 
either of the patterns heretofore described for thigh stumps, with 
the exception that some modifications are introduced in the knee 
and the means of suspension is more complex. 

Muscle Stump. — Cuts I-l and 1-2 illustrate front and side 
views of amputations at the coxo-femoral or hip articulation, 
leaving a stump composed entirely of muscle tissue. A muscle 





Cut I-l. 



Cut 12. 



Cut 1-3. 



stump is capable of performing some functions, although limited, 
in the management of an artificial leg, and may be considered as 
more desirable than no stump at all. Cuts 1-3 and 1-4 represent a 
hip-joint amputation in which there is no protruding stump by 
which the artificial leg can be directed. The amputated surface at 
the base of the pelvis is capable of bearing pressure. 

Leg Applied. — Cuts 1-5 and 1-6 show a leg applied to hip-joint 
amputation having muscle stump. The means by which it is 
suspended consist of a waist belt, shoulder strap, over each 
shoulder, flexion and extension elastic straps, a metal hip joint 

98 



A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 99 






Cut 1-4. 



Cut 1-5. 



Cut 1-6. 




Cut 1-7. 



Cut 1-8. 



Cut 1-9. 



100 A. A. MarJcs, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



substituting the natural hip articulation, and an attachment by 
which the knee can be locked and made immovable, or capable of 
having but limited motion, these features have all been explained 
in the preceding chapter. 

The hip joint is important as it keeps the artificial leg directly 
under the wearer. The waist belt with its elastic straps front and 
rear assists in flexing and extending the leg at the hip. The leg 
is held firmly to the body when standing or walking; it should 
be especially noted, that it is not advisable to allow any knee 
motion while the wearer is learning to control the leg. During 
this period the knee motion is only for sitting convenience. 

Cut 1-7 shows a leg with pelvic socket suitable for a hip-joint 




Cut I-IO. 



Cut 1-11, 



Cut 1-13. 



amputation where there is no protruding stump to control the 
artificial hip motion. 

Cuts 1-8, 1-9, I-IO, I-ll, 1-12, show the leg applied and the 
wearer in many positions. The pelvic socket takes in a part of 
the pelvis and holds the artificial leg firmly to its place no mat- 
ter what positions the wearer may assume. The hip joint is 
controlled by throwing the body forward or backward of the cen- 
ter of gravity of the leg. 

Artificial legs for hip-joint amputations support the amputated 
side in a very comfortable and natural manner. The leg, having 
little or no stump to control it, is thrown forward by means of a 
side motion of the body. Persons with reasonable perseverance 
soon learn to control legs under these conditions in an advan- 
tageous way. 



CHAPTER X 



BOTH-LEa AMPUTATIONS 



The triumphs of artificial limb-making are shown to advantage 
in the restoration to active life of those who have had both of 
their lower extremities removed. When such persons are enabled 
to get about freely, walk gracefully, and engage in such labors as 
their callings in life require, a great and beneficial work has been 
accomplished, and the strongest possible evidence is presented to 
show that the mind of the prothesist has not been passive during 





Cut J 1. 



Cut J 2. 



the past half century. The problems these cases present are pro- 
foundly difficult, thought and effort have never been given to more 
laudable purposes than to their solution. The amelioration of the 
conditions of these unfortunate persons commands the highest tal- 
ent and the most humane impulses. 

Ancient Methods. — But a short time ago the loss of both legs 
was regarded as irreparable. The person who met with that mis- 
fortune was either consigned to a wheel chair, or obliged to hitch 
himself about on his knees or haunches. Cuts J 1 to J 4 show 
some of the various methods employed by those deprived of both 
their limbs. Formerly these methods were the only means for 

101 



102 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

locomotion tiie subject could employ. But at the present time 
the methods are used preliminary to obtaining and wearing arti- 





Cut J 4. 



'^^-^ 




Cut J 5. , 



Cut J 6. 



ficial legs. When these methods are contrasted with those that 
are shown later on, the progress and developments that have been 
made in the adaptation of artificial legs will be in plain view. 
Both Feet Partly Amputated. — Cut J 5 shows a case in which 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Neiv York City. 103 

both feet were removed at the insteps; a pair of artificial legs 
constructed on the plan of Cut C 18, page 32, was applied. 

Lower Instep and Leg Aiiputations. — Cut J 6 shows an ampu- 
tation of the left foot at the instep and of the right leg at the 
junction of the lower and middle third. Artificial legs C 18 and 
E 17 were applied. 

Both Feet Amputated at the Ankles. — Cut J 7 shov/s a 
double ankle-joint amputation with the extremities incapable of 





Cut J 7. 



Cut J 8. 



bearing pressure. A pair of artificial legs, constructed on the 
plan of D 21 and described on page 43, was applied. Cut J 8 
shows the same case with the legs applied and the wearer stand- 
ing. In this particular instance the amputations resulted from 
frostbite, and the extremities of the stumps were very sensitive 
and with impaired circulation. It was therefore necessary to 
avoid interference with circulation and to secure the absolute 
freedom of the extremities from contact. 

Ankle Joint and E[nee Amputations. — Cut J 9 shows an am- 
putation of the left foot at the ankle after the PirogofP method, 
and the right leg at the knee joint after the Gritti operation; 



104 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 





Cut J 9. 



Cut J 10. 




Cut J 11. 



Cut J 13. 



artificial legs D 12 and G 17 were applied. Cut J 10 presents 

the wearer with artificial legs applied and attired as in daily life. 

Upper Instep and Leg Amputations. — Cut J 11 shows an am- 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, Neiv Yorh City. 105 



putation of left foot at the> instep and the right leg at the middle 
third. Artificial legs C 18 and E 17 were applied. Cut J 12 





Cut J 14. 




Cut J 15. Cut J 16. 

shows the wearer with the legs applied, engaging in his occupa- 
tion as oysterman. This person has been employed in that indus- 
try for many years, and finds himself unhampered in his work. 



106 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



Cut J 13 shows an amputation of the right foot at the instep 
and of the left leg immediately below the knee. The right foot 
was poorly nourished, and sensitive at the extremity, so much 
so as to completely prohibit any pressure. Cut J 14 illustrates 
the same case with D 21 and E 17 legs applied. 

Both-Leg Amputations. — Cuts J 15 to J 21 illustrate amputa- 
tions of both legs at various points between the knees and ankles, 
covering many lengths, characteristics of flaps, and situations of 





Cut J 17. 



Cut J 18. 



cicatrices. Artificial legs suitable for any of these amputations, 
as shown in Cut J 21, are constructed on the plan of E 17. Cut 
J 22 shows the legs applied. The freedom with which wearers 
of legs for double amputations can get about, the naturalness 
with which they can sit, lie down, stand, walk, ascend elevations, 
ladders, ride bicycles, skate, and engage in almost any occupation 
are shown in Cuts J 22 to J 32. 

Practical Results. — Persons wearing two artificial legs are 
so thoroughly in control of their means of locomotion that they 
go about much as other people. They readily resume their former 
occupations, no matter how arduous they may have been. Cut 
J 28 illustrates a case of double-leg amputations with artificial 
legs E 17 applied. A short time after obtaining the legs the 
wearer resumed his work of baggage master, lifting heavy trunks, 
carrying them about, and puttiiig them on trains as one would 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 107 





Cut J 19. 



Cut J 20 





Cut J 21. 



Cut J 22. 



108 A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 

do with natural legs. Cut J 29 portrays a railroad man with two 
artificial legs operating a switch. He dismounts, attends to the 




Cut J 23. 

switch, frequently gets aboard while the train is in motion, and 
performs the work of a brakeman. He moves about quickly, steps 
over ties, and appears to be on as firm footing as if he had never 




Cut J 24. 




Cut J 25. 



been deprived of nature's extremities. Cut J 30 shows a young 
man wearing two artificial legs, plan E 17; he is a conductor on 
a railroad, performing his duties in a thoroughly efficient manner. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 109 

He walks through the train when it is running at its greatest 
speed, collects tickets, and punches them. The cars jolt, pitch. 



Cut J 26. 




Cut J 27. 



and sway, but he retains his balance with no perceptible effort 
or awkwardness. 

At stations he alights, watches passengers, gives signals, and 
boards his train. It never occurs to anyone that his lower ex- 




Cut J 28. 



Cut J 29. 



tremities are not real, and his actions never betray that fact. 
With wooden articulating feet it would be extremely difficult for 



110 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 




Cut J 30. 





Cut J 31. 



Cut J 32. 



A. A. liarTcs, Artificial Limbs, Neiu Yorh City. Ill 



him to discharge such duties. He would feel unsafe, tottlish, 
and unsteady, but with rubber feet with spring mattress, rigidly 
attached, he has sound footing, and is capable of the most difficult 
feats of balancing. 

Below-Knee and Knee-Joint Amputations. — Cut J 31 rep- 
resents a case with both legs amputated; the right disjointed at 
the knee, and the left amputated three inches below the knee; 
Nos. E 17 and G 7 legs were applied. This man when in street 





Cut J 33. 



Cut J 34. 



attire presents the appearance of a person with natural extremi- 
ties. He walks naturally, and never consents to use a cane. 
He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, and takes pride in 
parading with his lodge. Cut J 32 shows him in his uniform. 

Below-Knee and Above-Knee Amputations. — Cut J 33 repre- 
sents amputations of both legs, the right below the knee and the 
left above the knee. Cut J 34 represents the same case, with 
E 17 and H 15 legs applied. 

Cut J 35 shows a similar case; the right stump only five 
and one-half inches from the body, and the left one and one-half 
inches below the knee. E 17 was applied to the left side and 
H 15 to the right. The subject was restored to not only a natural 
appearance, but to the ability of walking without the aid of 



112 A. A. Marls, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



canes or crutches, and so naturally that he has associated with 
persons for long- periods without betraying the fact that his lower 
limbs were artificial. This young man has walked half a mile 





Cut J 35. 



Cut J 36. 



in eight minutes without great effort. He works at the bench 
during the day, and the evenings are frequently spent at the 
billiard table. Cut J 36 shows him as he appears on his artificial 
legs, and in street attire. 

Engaging in Former Pursuits. — We have many patrons wearing 
E 17 and H 15 artificial legs for double amputations who exliibit 
remarkable skill in performing feats that require sound footing. 

Cut J 37 shows a person with two artificial legs as above de- 
scribed in a rowboat, illustrating the manner in which he can 
brace himself while pulling a strong oar. 

Cut J 38 shows another similarly equipped at the pool table, 
balancing himself on one foot while making a difficult shot. 

Cut J 39 represents another with thigh and leg amputation, on 
a ladder, at a great distance from the ground; his footing is 
sound, his arms are free; he can hold a paint can in one hand, 
while he applies a brush with the other. 

Cut J 40 represents another riding horseback, securely seated 
in the saddle, and feet in stirrups. The spring mattress rubber 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limhs, Nevj Yorh Cihj. 113 



feet are used in all of these cases, and sound and reliable footing 
are due to the excellent feature obtained by that means. 

Both Legs and Both Arms Amputated. — Cut J 41 represents 
a case in which both legs and both hands were amputated. A 




pair of artificial legs, and a pair of artificial arms were applied. 
The wearer became able to walk about in a very natural way; 
his artificial arms enabled him to feed himself at the table, write', 




Cut J 38 



and perform such work as does not depend upon delicate finger 
movements and the sense of- touch. 

Both Legs Amputated Above the Knees.— No matter how ex- 
tensively a person may be dismembered, prothetic science is ea- 



114 



A. A. Marhsj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



pable of rescuing him from a life of helplessness. Only a brief 
period has elapsed since it was considered rash to apply a pair 
of artificial legs to a person who had both of his natural legs 
amputated above the knees. Attempts to substitute such a large 
portion of the body depending on short thigh stumps for support, 
resulted in failures, and until modern ideas were introduced and 
appropriate means for attachments were devised, failure followed 




Cut J 39. 



Cut J 40. 



every effort. In 1864 the first pair of artificial legs was applied 
to double thigh amputations; the subject was a soldier of the 
Civil War. Although he was able to sit, stand, and walk on his 
artificial legs, the effort was so great that the wearer soon tired 
of them and abandoned their use, and became the occupant of 
a wheel-chair, dependent on his family. 

In 1879 Mr. Marks made his second attempt, and succeeded ad- 
mirably. The subject was a young man with two thigh stumps 
that reached nearly to the knees. This man soon acquired the 
art of balancing, and became so adept that he could walk about 
the house without the aid of canes or crutches, but when in the 
street he found it necessary to use a pair of canes. He has worn 
the pair of legs made in 1879 up to the present time. He is 
engaged in active business pursuits, and has reared and supported 
a large family. 

Since the above date we have applied upwards of a hundred 
pairs of artificial legs to double thigh amputations. The manner 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, Neiv York City. 115 





Cut J 41 



Cut J 42. 




Cut J 43. 




Cut J 44. 



in which these limbs were constructed, the way in which they were 
applied and adjusted, and the methods employed to give better 
control of the movements have varied according to the conditions 



116 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 



of each case. Each double thigh amputation presents problems 
of an individual character, and as there are seldom two alike. 




Cut J 45. 



Cut J 46. 



Cut J 47. 



these problems must be solved by the manufacturer. The solu- 
tion lies in the hanging of the legs, the method of suspension. 





Cut J 48. 



Cut J 49. 



limiting the motion of the knees, and the absolute rigidity of the 
ankles. We cite a few cases. 



A. A. Mar'ks, Artificial Limbs, Neiv Yorh City. 117 

Cut J 42 represents double thigh stumps, produced by ampu- 
tations made to remove deformed parts. A pair of artificial legs 
of suitable construction was applied. The great lengths of these 
stumps gave such control over the artificial limbs that it was not 
necessary to apply hip joints or knee locks. The subject was a 
musician. In a brief time he was able to walk naturally, resum- 
ing his profession, and now has a national reputation as a clari- 
onetist. He walks on the stage, plays the instrument, acknowl- 
edges encores, and retires in the usual stage manner. 

Cut J 43 represents a double knee joint amputation, A pair 
of suitable artificial legs are shown in the same cut. Cut J 44 





Cut J 50. 



Cut J 51. 



shows the artificial legs applied, and the wearer in the act of 
walking. 

Cut J 45 represents a child who had both legs amputated above 
the knees on account of a railroad accident. A pair of artificial 
legs with knee locks was applied to advantage. The child has, 
for a number of years, walked on the artificial legs very satis- 
factorily. He has been enabled to walk to school and indulge in 
childish pastimes. The manner in which the artificial legs were 
held in place is shown in Cut J 46, front view, and Cut J 47, 
rear view. 



118 A. A. Maries^ Artificial Linibs, New York City. 

Cut J 48 represents a double thigh amputation, the result of a 
railroad accident. Cut J 49 shows the application of a pair of 
artificial legs with the wearer seated. Cut J 50 represents the 
same person standing, and in Cut J 51 he is attired as he ap- 
pears when walking. This case is one of the most remarkable on 
record. The stumps only extended to about the middle of the 
thighs, but through the energy of the wearer and the efficiency 
of the artificial legs, he was able, in a brief time, to walk about 
in a very natural way, and go up and down stairs; he uses no 
canes about the house. The artificial legs H 15 were applied with 
hip joints and automatic knee locks, but after a brief time the 
wearer dispensed with the locks and found that he could control 
the artificial knee joints without danger of treacherous flexing. 
Under earlier systems this case would have been considered hope- 
less, and the thought of applying artificial limbs would never 
have been entertained. 



CHAPTER XI 

AETIFICIAL FEET AND LEGS FOR DEFORMITIES, 
PARALYSIS, EXCISIONS, ARRESTED GROWTH, 
SHORTENED LEGS, ETC. 

Deformities of the feet or legs may be due to causes congenital, 
traumatic, or pathological. Appliances for such cases frequently 
partake of the character of artificial legs and call for the skill 
of the prothetician. 

No matter how greatly distorted, deformed, or weakened one or 
both legs may be, there is reasonable hope that some appliance 
can be used that will aid locomotion, hide the affected parts, and 
restore a fair degree of symmetry to the person. 

Short LEG.^The most frequent leg abnormity is that of short- 
ening, due to hip- joint troubles in infancy, or to paralysis. 






Cut K 1. 



Cut K 3. 



Cut K 3. 



Cut K 1 represents a case of shortened leg caused by hip dislo- 
cation. The front of the foot is dropped downwardly to enable 
the subject to walk on the ball of his foot. 

Talipes-equinus. — Cut K 2 represents a case of talipes-equinus, 
leg shortened from one to three or more inches, due to paralysis. 
The ankle joints in K 1 and K 2 were normally strong and the 
knees and hips under thorough control. Cut K 3 shows an appli- 
ance suitable for either of the above cases. It is termed an 
extension foot, and is constructed from a wooden block, the upper 
surface shaped to receive the sole of the affected foot, with the 
front part dropped to a convenient angle (see dotted line). The 

119 



120 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



under surface of the block is connected with the lower part of 
a rubber foot. The entire structure is covered with suitable 
leather, the upper of which runs well up on the leg, incasing 
the entire foot and ankle. Cut K 4 is a shoe, to be drawn over 
the foot and appliance. It is usually a part of the mate of the 





Cut K 4. 



Cut K 5. 



Cut K 6. 



shoe worn on the opposite foot, the quarter having been removed 
and a larger one put on having the shape and dimensions required 
to fit properly. This alteration in the shoe is easily made, and 
can be done by any shoemaker at slight expense. The extension, 
when complete and covered by a shoe, is shown in cut K 5. Cut 
K 6 shows it covered with the trousers. Persons with these appli- 
ances walk much better than they do with the old style, thick 
sole and high-heel shoe. They present a better appearance and 
are far more comfortable. 

Talipes with Lateral Weakness. — Cut K 7 represents a short- 
ened leg with talipes and loss of control over the ankle joint, there 
being a strong tendency for the ankle to give way sidewise. A 
suitable appliance is shown in the same cut. It is constructed 
of wood, carved from a block with naturally curved grains, or 
made of aluminum, as conditions require. It receives the leg and 
foot in a comfortable way and holds them firmly in place. The 
heel and toes are of rubber. Cut K 8 represents the case with 
appliance in place and wearer walking. In cases of atrophy of the 
calf, which frequently accompanies these cases, the leg structure 
can be carved to approximate the contours and dimensions of 
the sound leg. There will scarcely be an appreciable increase in 
weight. 

Toe Support. — An appliance of above type is helpful in holding 
the foot in correct, position, and on account of the rigidity of 
the ankle the wearer obtains toe support that enables him to rise 
on the ball of the foot when walking. This produces a natural 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limls, New York City. 121 

step, avoids limping, and enables the wearer to go up and down 
stairs and alight on elevations. It also aids him in balancing, 
and, as the point of resistance at the ball of the foot is in advance 
of the knee joint, the tendency of the knee to flex is counter- 
acted; this adds materially to the efficiency of the apparatus, 
giving the wearer a feeling of confidence and security. A person 





Cut K 7. 



Cut K 8. 



with a paralyzed leg, tising ordinary braces, usually finds it neces- 
sary to press his hand against his knee joint when his weight 
is on the affected leg. He does this to keep the knee from flexing 
and precipitating a fall, but with the appliance just described 
firmness of the knee joint is obtained by phalangeal support in 
the foot, and the wearer is not dependent on pressure placed in 
his knee joint, or on attachments going above the knee. 

Cut K 9 shows a shortened leg with hip and knee joints under 
control; the ankle suffered a loss of strength and required sup- 
porting. 

Cut K 10 represents a leg shortened by hip- joint trouble in 
youth, producing a deficiency in length of about ten inches; the 
knee and hip joints are under control and the bottom of the foot 
is capable of bearing weight. Cut K 11 represents a leg, designed 
for each of the above cases, the natural foot is dropped to the 
greatest angle that can be tolerated and made to rest on an 



122 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



inclined surface at the required distance from the floor. The leg 
is incased by a socket made of wood and leather. Cut K 12 





Cut K 9. 



Cut K 10. 



Cut K 11. 



represents the appliance in place, and Cut K 13 shows the patient 
properly and i ratly attired. 

Congenital Ij^formity. — Cuts K 14 and 15 illustrate the front 
and side viewt, f a case of congenital deformity. The foot 




K-:S?) 




Cut K 13. 



Cut K 13. 



appears to be attached to the external side of the tibia immedi- 
ately under the fibula. Weight can be borne on the sole only 
when the foot is held, in position. Cut K 16 gives a side view of 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 123 

a suitable appliance constructed substantially the same as K 11. 
The displaced foot is held firmly in correct position and the 
wearer wallvs helpfully and quite naturally. 

Talipes-varus. — Cut K 17 represents a case of talipes varus, 
resulting from paralysis — the knee joint being involved. A suit- 






Cut K 14. 



Cut K 15. 



Cut K IG. 



able appliance is shown in the same cut. Cut K 18 shows appli- 
ance in place and the wearer seated; with this appliance the 
wearer is enabled to walk acceptably. 

Leg Deformities. — Cut K 19 represents a deformed right leg. 
From the knee down, the leg is diminutive, terminating in a 




Cut K 17. 



Cut K 18. 



miniature foot, inclined inwardly and backwardly; the shortening 
due to arrested development amounts to eight inches. Cut K 20 
shows a suitable leg. The deformed leg, from the knee down, is 



l-'4 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, New YorTc City. 

received into the socket of the artificial leg and held there com- 
fortably. A rubber foot, with spring mattress placed at the 
required distance to restore length, fully equipped the child with 
means of locomotion. 




Cut K 19. 




Cut K 21, 



Cut K 22. 




Cut K 20. 




Cut K 23. 



Cut K 21 represents a right-leg deformity; hip, thigh, and knee 
under normal conditions; the leg from the knee down undevel- 
oped, foot very small, terminating in a great toe growing from 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 125 

tlie internal side. Cut K 22 shows an artificial leg devised for 
the case. The deformed leg is received in the socket and laced. 
The toe is provided with a protecting pocket, the weight is taken 
partly on the plantar surface of the rainiature foot and partly 
about the leg below the knee and about the thigh. Wlien first 
applied the leg only reached to the knee, but it was fotind that 
there was a weakness in the knee, with a tendency to abduct; knee 
joints and thigh support were added, which prevented yielding to 
lateral weakness. Cut K 23 shows the leg applied and the child 
standing. Since the application of the appliance the child has 





Cut K 24. 



Cut K 25. 



Cut K 26. 



Cut K 27. 



grown rapidly in stature and weight, well developed, strong and 
healthy. 

Cut K 24 represents a congenital deformity of the right leg, 
consisting of a malformed foot, miniature leg, and abnormal rela- 
tions of tibia and fibula. The tibia extends to the ankle, without 
connecting with the foot. The fibula connects with the foot but 
not with the leg, the two bones held in position by cartilage. 
When standing on the right foot the bones would slide by each 
other over an inch; there was also lateral weakness, rendering 
walking impossible without assistance. Cut K 25 represents an 
appliance constructed for the case, made of aluminum formed 
to receive the foot and leg in a comfortable way, terminating with 
a rubber foot. The weight, when standing or walking, waa 
placed on the internal sloping surface of the tibia, immediately 
below the knee. The socket held the tibia and fibula in position. 
This appliance has been used for many years, enabling the 
wearer to engage in arduous labors, and capable of walking great 
distances without fatigue. 

Cut K 26 represents a shortened and malformed \eg. The 
shortening appears to have been located wholly in the leg between 



126 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 

the knee and ankle. Cut K 27 represents a suitable leg. It is 
constructed to receive and hold the deformed member firmly in 
place. A rubber foot, placed under the foot-rest, gives the 
required length. The motion in the ankle made it possible to 
drop the toe to a concealable angle. Although the apparatus had 
the appearance of a double foot, there was no difficulty in con- 
cealing the deformity by the trousers. 

Cut K 28 illustrates a deformity of the right leg. The hip and 
thigh are normal and an undersized foot appears to have grown 





Cut K 38. 



Cut K 29. 






Cut K 30. 



Cut K 31. 



immediately from the knee. The patient was able to flex and 
extend the foot the same as a leg, or, in other words, he had an 
articulation at the junction of the thigh and the foot, the tibial 
section being absent. Cut K 29 represents an artificial leg devised 
for the case. It is similar in its general construction to that 
represented in Cut E 17. The socket of the leg is excavated to 
receive the foot, the knee joints and thigh supporter give the foot 
control over the artificial part. 

Cut K 30 represents a deformed left leg. From the knee down 
it was misshapen, contracted, and distorted. Cut K 31 represents 
a suitable artificial leg applied. The deformed parts were placed 
well up and out of the way, concealed by the dress. 

Cut K 32 represents a deformed lower right leg, very similar to 
the one just described. The knee, however, admitted of more 
flexion, and the artificial leg was made to receive the thigh and 
deformed part in one socket and was held in place by means of a 
leather sheath passing from the rear and lacing to the front line 
of the thigh, as shown in Cut K 33, 

Infantile Paralysis. — Cut K 34 represents an undeveloped left 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 127 

leg, the entire limb considerably atrophied and the joints weak, 
caused by infantile paralysis. Cut K 35 represents an artificial 
leg especially designed for the case. The deformed leg is received 
in the socket and laced in place and the foot dropped to the 
greatest angle of toleration. The thigh piece incases the thigh. 




Cut K 32 



Cut K 33. 



and the joints support the knee; a rubber foot is placed at the 
extremity. Cut K 36 presents a side view of a similar appliance 
with a knee lock, which is necessary in cases of loss of control 
in the joints. 

Cut K 37 represents a deformity of the right leg; the hip, thigh, 
and knee normal and healthy, but the leg and foot diminutive in 
size, with foot rotated outwardly. Cut K 38 represents an arti- 
ficial limb especially devised for the case. The undeveloped leg 
is received into the socket, the foot protrudes through an aperture 
on the external side, the knee joints and thigh piece, placed above 
the knee, give support and strength about the thigh. A rubber 
foot, with spring mattress at the lower extremity, completes the 
apparatus and gives the required support. 

Obstructed Growth. — Cuts K 39 and K 40 represent cases of 
obstructed growth, the hip joints normal, the thighs possessing 
nearly the proper lengths, terminating in short and misshapen 
legs. Cut K 41 represents a leg suitable for either case. Both 
these persons were enabled to walk nearly as well as if normal 
conditions existed. A slight enlargement of the trousers a little 
above the knee (necessary to accommodate the deformed leg) is 
the only noticeable difference in the two sides, and that differ- 
ence so slight as to be observed only by the critical eye. 



128 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 




Cut K 35. 



Cut K 36. 



Cut K 37. 



Cut K 39. 



Cut K 40. 



Cut K 38. 




Cut K 41. 



Cut K 42 represents a deformity consisting of an undeveloped 
femur and partially developed leg, the knee joint located very 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linihs, New Yorh City. 129 

close to the hip, A suitable artificial leg is shown in same cut. 
The wearer walks so perfectly with this leg that his deformity is 
absolutely concealed. 

Both Legs Deformed. — Cut K 43 represents a deformity, both 
legs atrophied, talipes-varus, feet abnormally large. Ampu- 
tation of both feet at the ankle joint after the Symes method 
was advised. This was done and the patient obtained a pair of 
legs, on which he walks and performs labor acceptably. Cuts 
K 44 and K 45 represent front and side views of a deformity of 





Cut K 42. 



Cut K 43. 



both feet. From the hips to a little below the calves normal 
conditions were present; at about the calves there were false joints 
supplementary to the knee and ankle articulations. These false 
joints were under poor control, not sufficient to hold the feet in 
proper position. We advised the amputation of both limbs 
through the false joints. This was done, and the child had two 
excellent tibial stumps on which artificial legs, style E 17, were 
applied and worn with comfort and efficiency. 

Cut K 46 represents a case of amputation of right leg and 
talipes-varus in the left. A suitable artificial leg for the right 
side and a helpful appliance for the left are shown in the same cut ; 
Cut K 47 shows the limbs applied and the wearer standing erect. 
The disposition of ihe leg to rotate inwardly was controlled 



130 A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

by the appliance and the leg was compelled to operate in the line 
of progress. 

Cuts K 48 and K 49 represent front and side views of a case 




Cut K 44. 



Cut K 45. 



of congenital deformity of both legs, rendering walking very diffi- 
cult and more largely dependent upon crutches than on feet. We 
advised the amputation of both legs at the calves. The subject 




Cut K 46. 



Cut K 47. 



submitted to the amputation of the right leg, but decided to retain 
his left, which appeared to have more sustaining power. Cut K 
50 represents the case after, the amputation of the right leg, and 



A. A. MarTtS, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 131 



Cub K 51 represents him with the artificial leg applied, while Cut 
K 52 shows him dressed. The condition of the wearer was greatly- 
improved by the removal of the right leg and the application of 




Cut K 48. 



Cut K 49. 



an artificial one. The improvement would have been carried 
further if he had submitted to a similar operation on the left 
side, thereby obviating the outward curve of the lower leg, which 




Cut K 50. 



Cut K 51. 



Cut K 52. 



is conspicuous even when covered with trousers. Cut K 53 rep- 
resents a case of paralysis of the right leg, knee slightly flexed. 
Cut K 54 represents the same with one of our instruments 



132 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 

applied; wearer seated. It was constructed with knee joint, pro- 
vided with automatic lock, preventing flexing with the weight 
directly over the leg, permitting flexion when the wearer is seated. 
The foot is held in proper position for standing and prevented 
from flexing treacherously when walking. 

Cut K 55 represents congenital deformities of both legs; 
branches grew from the inner surfaces of both femurs. That on 
the right thigh was ten inches in length, on the left not more than 
two. The knee joints were on the inner surfaces of the ends of 




Cut K 53. 



Cut K 54. 



the femurs, feet everted and badly formed. In boyhood, loco- 
motion was obtained by moving about on his haunches; later he 
walked with the aid of crutches, bearing on the ends of his femurs 
and dragging the deformed legs. For twenty-five years he sub- 
mitted to these awkward and unsightly means for getting about. 
His attention was finally called to artificial limbs, and upon con- 
sulting well-informed persons he found that he could improve his 
condition by having the useless parts of the legs removed and 
artificial ones applied. We indicated points at which amputa- 
tions could be performed to advantage. After the operations his 
stumps presented the appearances shown in Cut K 56, We 
applied a pair of artificial legs, constructed on the plan of those 
represented in Cut G 8. When dressed, this man had the appear- 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limls, New York City. 133 

ance of a person with natural and well-formed legs. Cut K 57 
is taken from a photograph, showing him as he appears in ordi- 
nary life. 

Cut K 58 represents a case of arrested development. The child 
was well formed from the knees up, but from the knees down his 
deformity was pronounced and of a character to render walking 




Cut K 55. 



Cut K 56. 



Cut K 57. 



impossible. The child managed to get about rather awkwardly 
with crutches, permitting but little weight to come on his feet. 
As the joints in the ankles and knees were flexible, and as the feet 
were small, we found that we could incase the entire legs, provide 
knee motion, and place rubber feet at suitable distances below 
the deformed ones. This was done, and the lad was brought to 
his proper height, making a presentable appearance and walking 
in a very acceptable way, without the aid of crvitches. He con- 
trolled the artificial knee joints by m.eans of his feet and had 
little or no difficulty in balancing, walking, sitting, rising, ascend- 
ing or descending steps. Attention was given to ornamentation, 
and when dressed his deformity was entirely concealed, as shown 
in Cut K 59. 



134 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New Yorh City. 



Drop Foot. — The drop foot, resulting from paralysis or arrested 
development, is a frequent infirmity. Usually the leg is of normal 
length, the knee joints contracted and weak, with loss of control 
at the ankles and lateral weakness or a tendency for the foot to 
bend sidewise, either varus or valgus. The only practical manner 
in which a leg of this sort can be rendered useful is by fi:xing 
the ankle joint artificially, thus providing a resistance at the ball 
of the foot, the concomitant for balancing, maintaining height 
when walking and serving as a lever for propulsion, and as a 
counteracting influence to the tendency of the knee to flex. Cut 
K 60 represents a case of this kind. Cut K 61 represents the 




Cut K 58. 



Cut K 59. 



Cut K 60. 



Cut K 61. 



appliance we have devised for such. It is practically a form of 
splint, cast of aluminum to the shape of the leg and foot. The 
metal is carried under the entire foot, holding it at a proper angle 
for walking. The front is provided with leather, arranged for 
lacing. This appliance holds the ankle joint firmly and provides 
support at the ball of the foot, which is so far in advance of the 
center of motion of the knee that it prevents the knee from flexing 
when the weight of the wearer is directly over the foot. Persons 
with these appliances walk rapidly and quite naturally, seldom 
requiring any attachments above the knees. 

In connection with appliances of this type for paralyzed lower 
extremities we may quote from the Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic of 
October 9, 1897. A prominent physician read a paper before 
the academy regarding the treatment of his own paralyzed leg: 

"An illustrated catalogue fell into my hands, in which was 
pictured, among artificial legs, etc., an apparatus made of alumi- 
num, splint-like in character, with a rubber cushion under the 
foot to compensate for shortening. It was made for a case of 
congenital dislocation of the ankle. The more I studied it, the 



A. A. Maries^ Artificial LimbSj I(ew York City. 135 

more it appealed to me that such an apparatus could be made for 
my own comfort. 1 had reached a period when I was considering 
amputation and the substitution of an artificial leg for my para- 
lyzed one. Impressed with the illustration of this apparatus, I 
consulted a friend upon the subject. He was as much impressed 
with it as I was, but advised ime to obtain the opinion of our 
surgical friends. They were likewise impressed with it and 
advised that I try the conservative measure first before I resort 
to the radical one. I went to New York and consulted the 
maker. After studying my deformity for a few minutes, he stated 
that an apparatus could be constructed that would materially 
improve my condition. The appliance was made and worn for 
four years. But those four years! How can I describe them? 
!Pen and words fail me. It was like a beautiful oasis in a dreary 
desert of years of suffering. In connection with my deformity 
there was a weakness of the abductor muscles, which permits of 
a rotation outwardly of the thigh. This has been overcome by 
rubber abductor muscles. The one fastened to the outer side of 
the apparatus crossed the front part of the right thigh, crossing 
to the left side of the trunk, and is inserted into the harness. 
The one attached to the inner side of apparatus is inserted over 
the right posterior part of the harness, which is suspended from 
the left shoulder. 

" Wlio are my benefactors ? Wlio are those who have given to 
me the comfort of four years' duration, with a bright future of 
many more? And, within such a short period, free from pain, 
caused the twenty odd years of suffering to disappear in the dim 
and misty past? 

" Oh, for a trumpet of such power to herald to the world their 
name, that those who are needy may seek them! But instead, in 
gratitude do I raise my feeble voice and wish the cup brimful of 
happiness for the firm of A. A. Marks, New York City. 

" ' By thy deeds shalt thou be known ! ' " 

Knee Joints Locked. — Shortened and paralyzed legs are fre- 
quently accompanied with total loss of the power of extension and 
flexion in the knee joints. In such cases the mechanism of the 
artificial knee joints is provided with locks that hold the knees 
rigid when standing or walking. The joints are capable of being 
unlocked to admit of flexion when sitting. 

Cut K 62 represents a shortened, atrophied, paralyzed leg. Cuts 
K 63 and K 64 show the same case, with apparatus in place. The 
apparatus consists of a socket that incases the leg, knee joints 
with locks that support the knee, thigh piece that takes the sup- 
port about the thigh, and a rubber foot placed imder the deformed 
natural foot in order to obtain the proper length. 

Limited Knee Motions. — Cut K 65 represents a shortened leg 
with limited motion in the knee, the knee capable of flexion, but 
incapable of extension beyond the angle represented in the cut ; the 
hip normal and the bottom of the foot capable of enduring pressure. 
Cut K 66 represents an airtificial leg suitable for the case. It is 



136 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Litnbs, New York City. 



made with a wooden socket, fitted to receive the leg. A comfortable 
shelf is provided for the foot to rest upon. Knee joints with pawl and 




Cut K 62. 



Cut K 63. 



Cut K 64. 



rack and thigh piece incasing the thigh are provided. The pawls 
at the knee joints are operated by levers which pass up the rear of 




Cut K 65. 



Cut K 66. 



Cut K 67. 



the thigh. Wlaen standing or walking, the leg is brought to the 
point of greatest extension, the pawls automatically drop into the 
rack and make the leg immovable at the knee. The moment the 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New YorTc City. 137 

wearer is seated, the lever will rest on the chair and force the 
pawls out of their racks, allowing the knee to flex (see Cut K 67). 
By this means the wearer is able to walk safely with rigid knee 




*.A.MARKS,N.V.'; 




• 


'm 




• 


M 


n 


• 


1 


■w 1 


• 


f 


11 1 # 1 


■\m % 


f 


Ma. % • 


; 


^|. 


;■' 


JRA 


B^f^^^^'^X-,' . J 



CutK 



Cut K 69. 



and bend the knee when sitting. The apparatus has a rubber foot 
with spring mattress placed at the proper distance below the 
paralyzed one. 

Ununited Fractures. — Cut K 68 represents an ununited fracture 
of the tibia and fibula at a point a little above the ankle joint. 
Usually, in cases of this kind, it is deemed advisable to amputate, 
the wisdom of which we do not question. Occasionally, however, 
and partictilarly in the case here illustrated, the horror of the knife 
kept the patient from submitting to that alternative, and he came 
to us for help with a dangling foot, under no control whatever. He 
was young and in good health, and cherished the hope that if the 
fractured parts were held firmly in juxtaposition, nature might 
eventually, in her mysterious way, bring about a union. We 
constructed an aluminum socket, incasing the leg from the knee 
down and the entire foot, fijxing the ankle. This appliance, shown 
in Cut K 69, was fitted when the tibia and fibula were in apposi- 
tion. Weight was communicated from the bottom of the appli- 
ance to the leg immediately below the knee. No weight what- 
ever was brought on the foot and no strains permitted to cause 
the bones to move out of the places in which they were held. The 
appliance has been worn advantageously for a number of years. 
The manner in which the wearer gets about, walks, and attends 
to his vocation is exceedingly gratifying. 

Cut K 70 represents an ununited fracture of the right tibia, due 
to gunshot wound. All efforts to bring about a union failed. The 
fibula was not injured, but in consequence of failure of union in 



138 A. A. Maries, Artificial^ Limbs, New Yorh City. 

the tibia it was obliged to do the work of both bones. Being 
overtaxed, it gradually yielded and became curved, as shown in 
the cut. The dark spot immediately below the patella represents 
a deeply indented scar at the point of fracture. Cut K 71 repre- 






Cut K 70. 



Cut K 71. 



Cut K 72. 1 



sents a suitable brace for the case, made of wood and leather. A 
block of wood is excavated to receive the fractured member in its 
most comfortable position. The leg, when placed in this splint- 
like appliance, is held firmly by means of lacing. As the injury 
shortened the leg about one inch, a block of suitable thickness 
was hinged to the lower extremity of the splint on which the 
foot rested. Owing to the proximity of the fracture to the knee 
articulation, it was impossible to construct the brace that would 
admit of knee motion. The appliance has done its work for a 
great many years with great satisfaction to the wearer. 

Fractured Knee Caps, etc. — Eqsections of knee joints, frac- 
tures of knee caps, weakening of the patella ligaments, in fact any 
ailment that lessens or destroys control over the knee articulation 
is greatly benefited by appliances similar to that represented in 
Cut K 72. The socket below the joint is made of wood, with a 
leather front capable of being laced. The upper socket is made 
entirely of leather. The knee joints are made with stops, so that 
extension cannot be made beyond the proper limit. In cases of 
partly flexed knees, due to knee-joint disease, this appliance can 
be used to advantage, requiring knee locks in addition. 



CHAPTEE XII 
FACTS FOR CONSIDERATION 

Wooden Feet Substituted by Rubber Ones. — Artificial legs, 
manufactured with wooden articulating feet, are more or less 
troublesome and expensive to keep in order, and are deficient in 
supplying the requisite propulsive power in walking, it is there- 
fore often deemed advisable to remove them and substitute rubber 
ones. We have devised methods by which this can be done, 
whether the legs be constructed of wood, leather, or metal. Our 
charge is $20.00 in each case. We guarantee the attachment to 
be strong and lasting. A foot of any size or shape to meet the 
wishes of the wearer can be put on, and the leg can be made 
longer or shorter, as may be desired. 

A Way to Test the Rubber Foot. — The attachment of a rubber 
foot to an old artificial leg is often done to test its merits. It 
gives an admirable opportunity for the wearer to try the rubber 
foot and ascertain for himself the advantages it has over those he 
has worn. 

An experiment of this sort can only be successful when the 
socket of the old artificial leg fits correctly; if it does not, the 
leg cannot be worn comfortably and satisfactorily, no matter what 
kind of a foot it may have. 

A cabinet maker, carpenter, or other mechanic, be his skill in 
his own line what it may, should not be expected to connect a 
rubber foot to an artificial leg with assurance of satisfactory 
results. The alignment, the set of the foot, the angle at which it 
should be placed relative to the shaft, are important factors and 
must be thoroughly understood and their relations to each other 
oomprehended, or the results will be disappointing. This knowl- 
edge can only come from experience; we therefore dissuade per- 
sons from buying rubber feet and having them put on their arti- 
ficial legs by home mechanics. We therefore insist that artificial 
legs be sent to us for such work, and for which we make no extra 
charge. 

Ease and comfort in wearing an artificial leg depend almost 
entirely upon the manner in which the socket receives the stump. 
No matter how correctly the leg may be constructed, or with what 
nicety the parts operate, it is worthless if it causes pain, abrades 
the stump, or interferes with the circulation. 

Fitting — an Art. — The fitting of an artificial leg is an art, only 
acquired by thought and the experience of years. A thorough 
knowledge of the anatomy of the stump, the effects of pressure 

139 



140 A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 

on various points, the manner in which interference with the cir- 
culation or the displacement of tissues on the stump can be 
obviated must be understood, or the fitter is not qualified to be 
intrusted with such work. 

There are a great many artificial limb manufacturers in the 
world, but there are a very few fitters. 

Only One Way to Fit. — There is but one way in which a leg 
can be made to fit correctly, and that is to excavate a block of 
wood until it has the proper size and shape to receive the stump, 
so that pressure will be placed where it can be endured, there 
must be absolute freedom from contact on the blood vessels and 
exposed nerve areas. 

A leg that puts pressure uniformly on the stump is not a com- 
fortable one to wear, for there are many places on every stump 
that cannot bear any pressure whatever. There are other places 
that can endure any amount of pressure; a socket to be comfort- 
able must, therefore, be made so as to apply pressure only where 
it can be endured. 

When Plaster Casts are Useless. — A plaster cast of a stump 
and a plaster cast of the inside of a socket that fits the stump 
correctly are no more alike than the last on which the shoe is 
built is like the foot on which the shoe is worn. It is absurd to 
assume that a serviceable, comfortable socket can be made by 
molding a plastic material, such as leather, felt, or wax, on the 
cast of a stump or by molding it on the stump itself. Sockets 
so made are always irritating and cause pain and suffering. It 
is likewise an error to assume that a block of wood can be cut 
out to the contours of a plaster cast of a stump and fit the stump 
comfortably. If it were so, the fitting of an artificial leg would 
be reduced to a mechanical operation which could be conducted by 
inexperienced and inexpensive persons. If the work could be 
done in this way, the cost of an artificial leg might be considerably 
lessened. 

Machine Fitting a Failure. — The irregular form turning lathe, 
with which all mechanics are familiar, carves a stick of wood 
to the exact shape of the model. Axe handles, gun stocks, 
shoe lasts, and many other articles are made in this way. A 
machine of this kind has been modified so as to excavate a block 
of wood so it will have the exact shape of a plaster mold of a 
stump. A socket for an artificial leg made in this way must be 
greatly modified by hand before it can be worn with comfort. 

When we are reminded that the stump is bone covered with 
muscles, fat, blood vessels, nerves, tendons, and skin; that these 
coverings are not of uniform thickness: that they are soft, yield- 
ing, and easily displaced : that more pressure can be applied on the 
least sensitive parts, and that where the nerves and blood vessels 
are the most numerous less pressure can be endured, we will readily 
see that a socket, to fit properly and not injiire the stump, ruust 
be fitted by persons skilled in the work, who know the location of 
the large blood vessels, the character and disposition of the nerves. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 141 

and who are keenly alive to the necessity of avoiding pressure on 
the vascular parts. The skilled fitter does not always need the 
presence of the person who is to wear the leg he is fitting. Cir- 
cumferences and diagrams of the stump will guide him in doing 
more accurate work than is possible for an incompetent fitter, 
though he be supplied with plaster casts, or fits directly to the 
stump. 

When Casts are Necessary. — Plaster casts are desirable in 
some cases. They convey contours, locate irregularities, promi- 
nences, and tender spots on abnormal stumps, or on those that 
reach to the knees, ankle joints or insteps, and in such cases are 
quite necessary, but, generally speaking, stumps that extend to 
any point between the articulations do not require to be repro- 
duced in plaster. 

Wood Sockets the Best. — The advantages of wood sockets are 
many. Wood is light and firm, retaining the shape it receives 
from the skillful fitter. No matter what conditions may exist — the 
tender spots of a stump are always protected, weight is applied 
where it can be endured, and when the socket is highly polished 
there is absolutely no friction. A stump may move, slip, and 
slide without becoming blistered or abraded. 

Weight. — The weight of an artificial leg varies from one to 
seven pounds, according to the size and the severity of the labor 
it is to perform. We have made artificial legs for infants that 
weighed less than a pound, and we have been obliged . to make 
them seven or eight pounds in weight in order to be strong enough 
for active, three-hundred-pound persons. The only way to obtain 
strength is by the employment and proper disposition of suitable 
material. A small leg is not as heavy as a large one, and a strong 
leg must be heavier than a frail one. 

EuBBER Foot not Heavy. — A leg with a rubber foot can be 
made from six to sixteen ounces lighter than the ordinary arti- 
ficial leg with articulating ankle. The lessening of weight is 
chiefly caused by the absence of the metallic ankle connection. 

The notions of those wearing artificial legs are varied, there- 
fore they caanot be used as guides. One man says, make my leg 
as light as you can, even at the sacrifice of strength; I would 
rather have a light leg and renev/ it more frequently than to carry 
a heavy one. Another will say, do not make my leg too light; I 
have worn light and heavy ones, and I find that I can walk more 
steadily and step more naturally with a leg of moderate weight. 
The leg should act as a pendulum; the moment it is lifted from 
the ground it should swing forward of its own weight and not 
depend upon energy imparted by the stump. Still another will 
say, I do not care what the leg weighs so long as it is made 
strong: strength is the desideratum. If it weighs a pound or 
two more I will not object to it, as I can soon get used to that, 
but it must be strong and last a long time. I cannot afford to 
take chances on the leg breaking. The utmost diversity of 
opinion, therefore, exists on this subject. 



142 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

The greatest demand, however, is for the lightest leg, consistent 
with strength. 

For light, delicate women, weighing less than a hundred pounds, 
a full-length leg weighing three pounds without attachments is as 
light as it is prudent to produce. So light a leg with ample sus- 
taining strength is almost a marvel. We know of nothing calcu- 
lated to withstand equivalent strains that weighs so little. A 
leg weighing six pounds for a large, heavy person, who is likely 
to subject it to severe use, is not excessive, and should not be 
objected to. 

Let us think, for a moment, of the weight of other instruments 
that are made to stand similar strains. The weight of the bicy- 
cle has been reduced from sixty to nineteen pounds, and it is 
generally conceded that a nineteen-pound bicycle is as light as 
prudence will allow. Persons marvel at a bicycle weighing so 
little, yet the nineteen-pound bicycle has no more work to perform 
and is not subjected to any more strains than an artificial leg 
weighing from three to six pounds. The bicycle, like the leg, 
has only to support the weight of the rider and resist such strains 
as may occasionally be brought upon it. 

In constructing a leg it is essential to make it strong enough 
to sustain the weight of the wearer and not break under such 
sudden strains as it is likely to receive at times. If one slips 
and recovers himself with his artificial leg, some part receives a 
strain that is much greater than the weight of the wearer. In 
ascending or descending stairs the strains on the leg are greater 
than in walking. A leg should be made strong enough to meet 
these demands, and, in addition, must have a margin of strength 
that will enable the wearer to carry such articles and lift such 
weights as his vocation requires. No matter how crippled one may 
be, or what his station in life is, nor how delicate, there will be 
times when he will thoughtlessly lift, carry, push, or pull some 
weighty object. Should the leg break under any of these condi- 
tions, the maker would unquestionably be severely censured. 

It is not wise to build an artificial leg so close to the danger 
line, especially for delicate persons, that when those persons 
become healthier, stronger, and heavier the leg will break. Condi- 
tions do not remain the same. " The weak of to-day are the 
strong of to-morrow." The light person frequently becomes heavy, 
and the careful limb maker, if he guards his reputation, will keep 
well on the side of safety. 

The average weight of a substantial artificial leg, suitable for 
a thigh amputation, worn by a man weighing one hundred and 
fifty pounds, engaged in an ordinary occupation, may be placed 
at five pounds, less for a below-knee or foot amputation. 

It is possible to localize the weight of a leg weighing six 
pounds so that it will feel lighter than one weighing half as 
much, improperly adjusted. Inadequate means of attaching the 
leg to the body will make it feel heavy. A heavy lower part, 
with a light thigh piece, produces an apparently heavy leg, because 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 143 

the weight is distant from the stump and the frail thigh piece 
does not hold it in place securely. On the other hand, a strong, 
substantial thigh piece, which properly holds the leg in place, will 
lessen the apparent weight considerably. 

Odor. — The contention that rubber emits a disagreeable odor is 
untrue. Sponge rubber has no more odor than wood; moreover, 
the rubber foot is incased with an air-tight material. Even if the 
rubber had a disagreeable odor — which it has not — it would not 
be possible for it to escape. On the other hand, the ankle joints 
of articulating feet have to be oiled very frequently, and the oil 
in time becomes rancid. No refined person can possibly tolerate 
such an odor. 

Temperature, — The rubber foot will not alter its consistency 
on account of changes in temperature, !^-operly vulcanized 
rubber, such as is used in the manufacture of oiir rubber feet, 
will not lose its elasticity in any temperature the human body is 
capable of enduring. It requires 280 degrees of heat (Fahrenheit) 
to produce a change in rubber, and as there is no habitable place 
on the earth with a temperature half of that, the rubber foot is 
never in danger from heat; no human being could live in a tem- 
perature intense enough to harden pure rubber. 

The Mass of Limb Wearers are of Small Means. — The greater 
number of wearers of artificial limbs are in limited circumstances. 
It is exceptional to find a wealthy person in need of one. The 
wage-earner, the laborer, the man who works in the mill, the engi- 
neer, fireman, brakeman, or the miner, the private in the army, those 
whose occupations place them in jeopardy and who are exposed 
to the dangers that destroy life or mutilate the body, these make 
the greatest number of limb wearers. This being so, it is the more 
important that artificial limbs should be durable and as inexpen- 
sive to wear as possible. The first cost, the purchase of the limb, 
should be the only important item to be provided for. An arti- 
ficial leg constructed with delicate machinery, or parts subject to 
friction, may be attractive to look at, but is ill-suited to the 
wants of the man who has to support himself and his family by 
daily toil. The loss of time in having repairs made, the cost of 
repairs, and the danger of breaking down at critical times, are 
serious matters, and the careful man will take them into con- 
sideration before making his selection. 

We do not know an artificial leg with an ankle joint that is now 
made, that has ever been made, or, perhaps, ever will be made, 
that will not cost from five to twenty-five dollars a year to keep 
in repair. The delicacy with which an ankle joint must be con- 
structed in order to be light and small enough for its narrow 
limits, and the immense strain that it must resist at times, are 
conditions incompatible with durable mechanism. 

The fact that persons walk, run, and perform all kinds of labor 
on artificial legs with rubber feet without ankle motion is evi- 
dence that the ankle mechanism is unnecessary. Men, women, 
and children with rubber feet run, wallc, skate, and dance. Work,, 



144 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New York City. 

regarded not many years ago as impossible, is now being daily 
performed with facility. The farmer follows his plow on a 
rubber foot, the blacksmith works at his forge, the sailor climbs 
his rigging, the builder erects houses, and persons of every voca- 
tion attend to their aifairs with as little concern and hindrance, 
operating on one or a pair of our rubber feet, accomplishing as 
much as their associates who are in possession of all their natural 
limbs. 

How Long Will a Leg Last? — The question is frequently 
asked, " How long will an artificial leg last ? " There is but one 
reply : it depends upon the care the leg receives. We have patrons 
who are still wearing artificial legs that were made for them 
twenty-five years ago, and the legs still appear to be in fair con- 
dition. These are exceptional cases and should not be referred 
to, any more than should the experiences of those who, through 
abuse and carelessness, destroy their artificial limbs in an unex- 
pectedly short time. An average made of the frequency with 
which our patrons renew their substitutes, fixes the period at 
about eight years. This does not imply that a leg will not last 
longer. Necessity by no means occasions all renewals; wearers 
want new legs much the same as they want new coats, before the 
old ones are completely gone. Wearers become as proud of their 
artificial limbs as they do of articles of apparel; those financially 
able frequently supply themselves with several, so as to have a 
reserve for emergencies. Accidents are as likely to occur to the 
substitute as to the real ones. Men have been run over by vehicles 
and have had their artificial legs crushed instead of their natural 
ones. When accidents of this kind occur, the limbs must be sent 
to the manufacturer for repairs. The wearer who is fortunate 
enough to have a duplicate which he can put on is at a great 
advantage. Taking all these facts into consideration, and fixing 
the average life of an artificial leg at eight years is certainly 
estimating on a fair basis. 

Shoes and Stockings. — ^AU artificial feet should be dressed with 
stockings and shoes, as are natural ones. The wear and tear on 
shoes and stockings, when the feet articulate at the ankles, are 
enormous and have been a source of complaint. This annoyance 
is removed by the use of rubber feet, for shoes on rubber feet look 
and wear like those worn on the natural, as the wrinkling at the 
toes and other parts is nearly identical in both. We have heard 
patrons say that in five years their rubber feet have saved 
them in the cost of stockings and shoes enough to buy a new 
leg. 

How Soon after Amputation Should an Artificial Leg be 
Applied? — As soon as the stump is thoroughly healed and the 
patient has regained sufficient strength to go about on crutches, it 
is time for him to consider the matter of procuring an artificial 
leg. Before procuring one some attention should be given to the 
preparation of the stump. 

TreatxMent of Stumps, — Tight bandages should be worn froxa 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, Neiv York City. 



145 



the moment the stTim.p is healed until the artificial leg is applied. 
Bandages are inexpensive and can be frequently renewed. A very 
good and perhaps more convenient substitute is the stump corset; 
this is made as follows: A piece of substantial leather is molded 
upon a form made to the dimensions and contours of the stump, 
it is lined with suitable material, strengthened in the lower sec- 
tion with rawhide; after being applied it is laced as tightly as 
it can be endured. In addition to compressing the stump and 
bringing about a reduction, it becomes a means of protection, 
for, should the wearer fall and land on the amputated side, he 
would strike on the end of the corset and not on the end of his 
stump. These corsets are suitable for amputations at any point. 





Cut L 1. 



Cut L 2. 



Cut L 1 represents one with suitable straps for leg amputation 
and Cut L 2 represents one for a thigh stump. 

The knee and hip joints should be moved very frequently, and 
the stump rubbed vigorously in order to maintain mobility. 

No matter what means are employed to reduce a stump before 
an artificial leg is applied, it is doubtful if all the changes can 
be brought about. As a rule stumps become smaller from wearing 
artificial legs. The pressure received from the socket has a tend- 
ency to force absorption and solidify the tissues. The extent of 
this emaciation cannot be conjectured. Some stumps do not 
change even when artificial legs are worn for years. On the 
other hand, we know many cases where the stumps have grown 
larger. The matter is governed by the disposition of the wearer, 
his occupation and his activities. 

If a stump reduces after an artificial leg is worn, some compen- 
sative adjustment must be employed, lining the socket with thick 
material as leather, felt, or cloth, or by wearing a number of socks 
on the stump, one drawn over the other is the most convenient 
way, but in case of great shrinkage, so much so that such fillings 
are objectionable, it will be necessary to remove the socket from 
the leg and substitute a new and smaller one. We do this work 



146 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

for our customers at small expense, but new measurements and 
diagrams are required and the entire leg must be sent to us. 

If the stump is one that will yield to pressure it will not only 
become smaller under the influence of the bandage or corset, but 
must grow still less by the use of the artificial leg. Under such 
circumstances, it is an important economical question to deter- 
mine whether it may not be wiser to immediately apply a leg and 
change the socket, should it become necessary, than waste time 
in bandages or shrinking corsets. 

The Gain in Applying a Leg Immediately. — The immediate 
use of an artificial leg enables the wearer to dispense with 
crutches at the earliest possible moment, to gain the freedom of 
his arms, attend to his vocation, and take healthy and vigorous 
exercise. The cost of a new socket to fit a reduced stump is in- 
significant when the advantages of wearing an artificial leg dur- 
ing the interval the stump is changing are taken into account. 

Walking on crutches is dangerous, a slip or fall may seriously 
injure a stump. An artificial leg is the best protective device for 
the stump. 

The single exception to the wisdom of early applications is in 
amputations which result from malignant diseases. 

Dangers in Delay. — If a stump is permitted to go for six 
months without performing its share of work, it- will become weak, 
nervous, and disordered, and circulation will become sluggish. It 
is much more difficult to use an artificial leg on a stump that has 
been permitted to get into this condition than if applied imme- 
diately after it has healed. 

We have applied artificial legs within a month after amputa- 
tion with good results, although this time is exceptionally brief. 
It is impossible to indicate the exact length of time that should 
elapse between the amputation and the application; it is safe, 
however, to say that a limb can be judiciously applied as soon 
as the wound is healed, even if there be tenderness on the ampu- 
tated surface. It is well to remember, in this connection, that 
with rare exceptions the end of the stump bears no pressure what- 
ever. 

It is a common error to assume that a stump will become hard 
and tough in time. Nothing can harden or toughen it except 
use, and there is no better way to toughen a stump than to use 
a leg. The hands of a laborer are strong and hard because he 
uses them in performing his work. Those of a person not accus- 
tomed to manual labor are soft, tender, and delicate, and become 
easily blistered because they have not been disciplined. Exactly 
the same principle is applicable to stumps. 

Surgeons are at variance in their views on this topic. Some 
advise an early application, others insist on their patients waiting 
an unreasonable length of time. The surgeon who has studied the 
subject in all its bearings invariably agrees with the advice given 
above. 

Cork Legs. — The term " cork leg " has long and frequently been 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neiv Yorlc City. 147 

■used to designate an artificial leg. The prevailing impression is 
that there is or has been an artificial leg made principally of 
cork. This is an error and should be corrected. Cork is known 
to every mechanic as a very friable substance, on account of 
which it has not strength enough to form any part of the support- 
ing structure of an artificial leg. 

The origin of the term " cork leg " is not known. It has, how- 
ever, been said by credible authority, that the term originated 
from the fact that years ago very good artificial legs were made 
in Cork, Ireland, which were called Cork legs, the same as legs 
made in London are called London legs, those made in New York 
are called New York legs, etc. 

There have been many doggerels written in which the word cork 
is used to designate an artificial leg. 

Thomas Hood, in his Golden Legend, " Miss Kilmansegg and 
Her Precious J^eg," speaks of cork and wooden legs, neither of 
which was good enough for the fastidious Countess: 

" She couldn't, she shouldn't, she wouldn't have wood, 
Nor a leg of cork if she never stood ! 
And she swore an oath, or something as good. 
The proxy leg should be golden ! " 

It is evident that at the time the above was written, many years 
ago, the term " cork leg " was misunderstood the same^as it is novsr. 



CHAPTER XIII 
ARTIFICIAL LEGS FOR THE AGED 

To be deprived of a natural leg after having passed the allotted 
span of life is indeed a calamity, and the thought of wearing an 
artificial one is entertained with forebodings. Will not the in- 
firmities of age come fast and heavy? Has not the shock sapped 
the vital reserve so that early decline will make the purchase an 
unprofitable one? Is the prospect of living a few years promising 
enough to justify the attempt? These are questions of gravity 
that come with force especially to those in moderate circumstances. 

As is shown in another part of this book, the loss of a leg, no 
matter how old or enfeebled the patient may be, instead of hasten- 
ing the fatal day, has a tendency to give a new lease of life. The 
removal of a diseased leg serves as a tonic to the entire system. 
If the finger of death has been laid upon the foot, as in senile 
gangrene, remove the foot and the decay will cease. 

Like cutting the dying limbs from an old tree, the vital forces 
will be more generously distributed among the remaining parts 
and the tree will take on new life. 

It is no greater task to learn to walk on an artificial leg than 
to learn to use crutches, and as a matter of fact an artificial leg 
is much safer. To put an aged person in a rolling chair and de- 
prive him of the health-giving walks is to invite disaster. The 
aged as well as young will rust out sooner than they will wear out, 

Age must not be taken into consideration ; as soon as the stump 
is healed an artificial leg should be obtained; in a very brief 
time the wearer will be able to get about without depending upon 
others. Walks in the open air and healthful exercise will be in- 
dulged in, and gratifying results will follow. 

A few cases bearing on this matter may be cited: 

The Rev. Edward Beecher, of Brooklyn, N. Y., brother of the 
famous Henry Ward Beecher, lost a leg by accident in his eighty- 
fourth year. For several years prior to that time there were evi- 
dences of senility, and when he met with his accident it was not 
supposed he had vitality enough to survive it. Amputation, how- 
ever, was proceeded with. Mr. Beecher recovered from the shock, 
and in a very short time was convalescent. He was soon able to 
take short walks on crutches, but the fear of falling made the task 
difficult and exhaiisting. 

The writer well remembers when he was summoned to this dis- 
tinguished clergyman's house. He was seated in a chair, looking 
very tired. He had just returned from a walk on crutches. 
" I am a very old man," he said, " and I do not think I have long 

148 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Liinbs, New York City. 149 

to live. The idea of buying an artificial leg appears to me a 
piece of folly; but my friend, Mr. Sage, is insistent that I 
should get one and try it. Whether I succeed or not, it will make 
no difference to you, but considerable with me. If I ever learn 
to walli on the leg I know I shall feel better, and I am going to 

The leg was made and applied, and in a very brief time he 
acquired the art of walking on an artificial leg. He moved cau- 
tiously at first, but soon got so that he could put entire confidence 
in the limb. He took long walks daily, and attended to his 
church and parish work with renewed vigor. The leg was much 
easier for him to walk on than crutches, and gave him a feeling 
of security. He wore it for eight years, when he died at the age 
of ninety-two. Is it reasonable to assume that, if Mr. Beecher had 
not applied an artificial leg, but had resigned himself to the cot 
or rolling chair, he would have lived to that ripe age? Did not 
the walking that he was able to do, and the open air exercise, con- 
tribute to his health, and add to his life? The denial of an arti- 
ficial leg would certainly have been a severe punishment to this 
good man for having lost his leg in old age. 

Charles Van Brunt, of Long Branch, N. J., had his foot ampu- 
tated on account of senile gangrene when he was seventy years 
old. An artificial leg was applied as soon after the amputation 
as prudence admitted, and he lived for fifteen years and wore the 
leg constantly. He died at the age of eighty-six. During much 
of the time he performed the duties of school janitor. 

George Hinman, New Haven, Conn., had his leg amputated 
when he was eighty years old. He obtained an artificial one and 
wore it continiiously for four years, during which he was active 
on his feet and walked long distances. 

Mrs. Susanna Brown had her leg amputated above the knee when 
she was seventy-three years of age, a result of an accident. An 
artificial leg was applied four months after the amputation'. She 
wore it three years and was active in domestic work. Dr. A. L. 
Britten, of Athens, 111., writes abovit this case as follows: 

" Mrs. Susanna Brown, of Cantrall, 111., for whom you manufac- 
tured an artificial leg after she had passed her seventy-third birth- 
day, found it eminently satisfactory. She was helpless in no 
sense. She could, and did, ascend and descend stairs without 
assistance, and without fear of falling." 

David Penfield lost his leg on account of gangrene when he 
was seventy-two years of age. Dr. White, of Franklin, N. Y., in 
one of the letters says of the case : " The facts in regard to 
David Penfield are briefly told as follows: He was in the seventies 
when I first saw him, and had had two attacks of cerebral apoplexy, 
which left one arm and one leg paralyzed to such an extent as to 
make walking and use of arm impossible. Gangrene presented 
itself and I amputated the foot of the affected leg. He recovered, 
and I obtained an artificial leg from you for him. He very soon 
learned to use it, and was able to walk about fully as well as before 



150 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirnbs, New Yorh City. 

his trouble. He lived a considerable time after he obtained the leg, 
and found it a source of great comfort. His family and I regard 
the wearing of the limb as having added to his comfort and 
health." 

Nelson Stevenson, Salem, Ind., had his leg amputated above the 
knee when sixty-seven years of age. An artificial leg was applied 
a few months later, which he wore for over three years. 

Frederick Triebold, St. Paul, Minn., had his leg amputated 
above the knee when seventy-four years of age (in 1894). An 
artificial leg was applied eight months after the amputation 
which he is still wearing (1905). Dr. A. H. Steen, in writing 
of the case, says, " Frederick Triebold considers the artificial leg 
made for him indispensable, his health is good, and he wears the 
leg at all times." 

Eussell Perkins lost his leg in 1894, when he was sixty-nine 
years of age. An artificial leg was applied within eight months. 
Dr. William R. Lough, of Edmeston, N. Y., says, " Mr. Perkins 
gets along well with his artificial leg. He does his chores around 
the farm, and frequently comes to town. He does not use a cane 
and gets along very well." 

James R. Bugbee lost a leg when he was seventy-six years of 
age on account of a fall. He had an artificial leg applied, 
which he is still wearing with great comfort. In one of his let- 
ters he says, " I am now seventy-nine years old. I am able to do 
my work around the house and garden, which I positively could 
not do with crutches." 

William P. Hiller, of Nantucket, Mass., lost a leg in the Civil 
War. He is still living, and has worn an artificial leg continu- 
ously since. He is now eighty-two years of age. 

Mr. Bradford Beal had his leg amputated in 1894 at the age 
of eighty-three. The leg was applied the following February, 
and he wore it with comfort and relief for over five years. We 
quote from a letter : " I am wearing the artificial leg constantly. 
I go about the house without cane or crutch. I have walked a 
mile from home and back a number of times without fatigue." 

Equally encouraging reports can be given of hundreds of similar 
cases. 



CHAPTER XIV 

AKTIFICIAL LEGS FOE INFANTS AND CHILDKEN 

The Problem Considered. — It is a serious problem that con- 
fronts the parents of a child who has had one or both legs ampu- 
tated. The parent, in happy possession of all his limbs, realizes 
more keenly than the child the misfortune that has happened. 
An artificial leg is, no doubt, the immediate and only remedy 
that can be suggested, but even this presents thoughts of expense 
for remodeling, and the question is often asked if the benefits will 
justify the costs incurred, and whether it may not be better to 
wait until the child has obtained his growth, before equipping 
him with the needed limbs. 

A child, however young, is as greatly disabled by the loss of 
a leg as an adult. If one leg is lost he becomes dependent on 
crutches; if both legs are lost, he has to be carried in the arms 
or pushed about in a rolling chair, or is obliged to hitch himself 
about on his haunches as best he may. Such methods are at once 
unnatural and objectionable; they have a hurtful effect on the 
physique of a growing child, as well as harming the limbs, stumps, 
and joints. Walking on a pair of crutches for any length of 
time pushes the shoulders forward, settles the neck in the chest, 
and the spine fails to develop the sustaining strength demanded 
in later life. 

Walking on one crutch, as most children do, cants the body side- 
wise, elevates one shoulder above the other, tilts the pelvis, and 
produces an over-development of one side of the body at the ex- 
pense of the other. If the use of crutches is continued through- 
out the growing period, the disproportions resulting from unequal 
development will bring troubles that will last through life and 
imperil health. The stump, being -pendent from the body and 
performing no functions, will become poorly adapted to the use 
of an artificial leg. The muscles will become atrophied, the 
joints enervated, and the range of motion lessened. It will be 
troublesome to wear an artificial leg under these conditions, and 
the task of disciplining the stump will be more difficult. It is 
doubtful if the harm thus done can ever be righted. 

We can cite many cases where the neglect to apply an artifical 
leg to a growing child has been the cause of physical weaknesses 
that have been impossible to correct. Contracted hips and knees, 
weakened spines, deflected and rotated stumps, are a few of the 
many ills that have been traced to this neglect. 

Failure to apply artificial legs in double amputations is 

151 



152 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, New YorTc City. 

attended with more serious consequences. The stumps are held 
in flexed positions and subjected to such unnatural influences 
that the wearing of a pair of artificial legs, when undertaken 
later on, is greatly hampered. The art of balancing is forgotten 
and has to be learned again. The hip joints, having been in 
flexed positions during the greater part of the development period, 
have become more or less set, and extension is difficult and pain- 
ful when the erect position is attempted. 

Support from the Pelvis More Natural. — An artificial leg 
applied to a child, no matter how young, supplies a support to 
the amputated side that is the nearest approach to nature. It 
gives freedom to the arms, the joints and muscles are kept in ac- 
tivity. Being propped from the pelvis instead of from the shoul- 
ders, the spine, chest, and shoulders are not distorted, but are as 
free to perform their functions as if the child had never lost a 
limb. All the parts of the body maintain their proper relations 
and develop symmetrically. 

The child invariably becomes expert in the use of one or a pair 
of artificial limbs, if applied soon after amputation; he mingles 
with other children, and engages in the same sports and exercises, 
the variety, which makes him strong mentally and physically, 
keeps him healthy, and prepares the foundation for the vigorous 
manhood and active life before him. 

Alterations for Growth. — A child will outgrow his artificial 
leg, but this does not entail a serious loss; the leg can be 
altered in length and size to accommodate his growth and devel- 
opment. The exp nse attending such changes is not large, no 
greater than that of changing or renewing crutches, or repairing 
rolling chairs. 

The only growth of the child that affects the length of the arti- 
ficial leg is that which takes place in the sound leg from the 
knee to the floor. A child may, in the course of two years, grow 
four inches in his entire height, but the growth in the sound 
leg, from the knee to the floor, will be less than an inch. It is, 
therefore, evident that a child growing four inches in height will 
not require his artificial leg to be lengthened over an inch. 

Frequency of Alterations. — The frequency with which an 
artificial leg worn by a child is lengthened, is about once in two 
years, oftener if the growth is more than usually rapid, and the 
expense attending each lengthening is not over $5.00. In fam- 
ilies where economy has to be exercised to an extreme degree, 
the lengthening of the leg can be deferred, if necessary, by in- 
creasing tbe thickness of the sole and the heel on the shoe worn 
on the artificial foot as soon as growth requires. The size of the 
leg can be increased, and the foot can be enlarged, and in this 
way the leg can be made to last from five to ten years. It will 
thus be seen that in extreme cases a child can be supplied with 
an artificial leg, and the leg can be kept in proper length, at an 
expense of about $2.50 a year. We can hardly conceive of a 
parent who is so poor that he cannot meet this expense, or who 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, Neiv YorTc City. 153 

is so heartless that he would see his offspring hobbling about on 
crutches during his youth merely to save so small an expenditure. 

The Parents' Moral Obligation. — Duty is the most impor- 
tant matter to be considered. All parents are bound by the 
laws of nature, as well as by those of the State, to perform 
those services that will protect the health and comfort of their 
offspring, to care for them in sickness, to lessen their afflic- 
tions, and alleviate their sufferings. It seems a flagrant violation 
of these laws for a parent to require his child to go on crutches, 
subjecting him or her to the dangers of impaired health and 
arrested development, when an artificial leg can be easily ob- 
tained and cheaply maintained, a leg that will perform such im- 
portant work in ameliorating the child's condition. An artificial 
leg should be regarded as indispensable, more important than fine 
clothing, and next to the food that is required to sustain life. 
No conscientious parent, in viewing all the facts connected with 
this important subject, can hesitate in deciding on what course 
to pursue. If financial resources are limited, there should be no 
disgrace felt in calling upon friends for assistance; the urgency 
is too great to be neglected through scruples. The child must be 
.rescued from a life of torture and embarrassment, and the parents 
must act to save themselves the censure and rebuke that neglect 
of this kind will bring in later years. 

Deformities from the Use of Crutches. — Look at the child 
who is required to go about on a pair of crutches (Cut M 1). 






Cut M 1. 



Cut M 2. 



Cut M 3. 



See how the shoulders are pushed upward, how the head leans 
forward, the chest sunken, and how generally disfigured he ap- 
pears. Look at the child who hobbles about on one crutch (Cut 
M 2), see how one shoulder is raised higher than the other; how 



154 A. A. MarJcSj Artificial Limbs, Neiv York City. 

the body is thrown to one side, the sound leg deflected, the neek 
crooked. Now, look at the child who has been cared for hu- 
manely (Cut M 3), who has been given an artificial leg and 
propped in a natural way on the amputated side. 

He is the picture of symmetiy, his health is robust. No 
one would suspect that anything unusual had occurred to him, 
his artificial leg performs the functions of the lost one. He has 
forgotten his loss, and never admits his disability. He does every- 
thing his companions do; he is in the ball game with them, he 
rides the bicycle, skates, dances, and is not denied a single privi- 
lege belonging to those in possession of their natural extremi- 
ties.. " To clinch the nail of theory with a few blows from the 
hammer of experience" we cite a few cases that have come 
under our observation. 

Practical Illustrations. — Cuts M 4 and M 5 portray Mabel 
T., who, when less than nine months old, had her left leg ampu- 





Cut M 4. 



Cut M 5. 



tated very close to the knee. After recovering from the operation, 
it was discovered that the tendons of the knee were contracting 
and the stump being drawn into a flexed position. The mother 
became alarmed and consulted her physician. It was feared that 
if the child was permitted to continue as she was, she would, 
in a short time, lose the use of the knee joint. She had not be- 
gun to creep. It was evident that if an artificial leg were ap- 
plied, the stump would be forced into such activity that the 
knee mobility would be preserved, and one was obtained. The 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 155 

socket was made to fit the stump snugly, the joints were placed 
on the sides to harmonize with the natural knee joint; a thigh 
piece incased the thigh. The leg would swing when the child 
was carried, and forced the stump to move at the knee. 

In a few months the child began to creep. The mother was 
surprised one morning to find her standing by the chair, put- 
ting some of her weight on the leg. It was not long before she 
began to walk, then to run and play. The leg was lengthened 
quite frequently, and enlarged several times. During her child- 
hood she ran and romped about as other children, went to school, 
and was as happy as any of her companions; she is now a young 
lady of twenty-two. Although her parents were in moderate 
circumstances, they always felt that their daughter's health and 
perfect development were important, and they denied themselves 
many things, but considered themselves amply compensated for 
the care they had given to the needs of their daughter. 

Carrie K., when seven years of age, was run over by a carriage 
and lost her left leg. An artificial one was applied as soon as 
the stump had healed. The distinguished Dr. James Knight, 
the founder of the Children's Hospital in New York City, took 
the case in hand, and realizing the importance of putting the 
child on a leg instead of keeping her on crutches, interceded in 
her behalf. A leg was applied and she grew up with it; she de- 
veloped gracefully and now is a woman of forty-three years. Cut 
M 6 represents her as she appeared when brought to us in 1869. 
Cut M 7 represents her with artificial leg applied, and Cut M. 
8 gives her as she appears to-day, a thankful wife and a happy 
mother. 

Thomas Kehr, when eight years of age, was run over by the cars, 
both of his legs were crushed, the right was amputated four inches 
below the body, and the left two inches below the knee. As 
soon as the child recovered from the operation Dr. Samuel J. 
Brady, of Brooklyn, advised that he be provided with a pair of 
artificial legs with rubber feet. They were obtained and ap- 
plied, and the manner in which the young man got along is 
clearly stated in Dr. Brady's letter of 1876, from which we make 
the following extract: "I have thoroughly examined the case of 
the boy Thomas Kehr, who has been wearing a pair of artificial 
legs for six months. About a year and a half ago he was run 
over and both of his lower limbs were so crushed that I ampu- 
tated them, the one well above the knee, the other an inch and 
a half below. At the time of the operation many expressed the 
wish that death would occur, as the lad being very poor, it was 
thought that his future would not only be a burden to himself, 
but that his support, should he reach man's estate, would de- 
pend upon the charity of the public, as it was considered an 
impossibility for him to serviceably use artificial limbs. 

" I am thankful that I can say that Marks' artificial legs have 
made his future worth the living. 

"I saw him two weeks after he had put the legs on for the 



156 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York. City. 

first time, and it astonished me greatly to see the remarkable 
use he had so soon acquired; since then I have seen him many- 
times, and quite recently I saw him walking without the use of 
canes. He has, much to my astonishment, been fully and abso- 
lutely restored. 

" I attribute the wonderful success in this boy's case mainly 
to the superior results achieved by your inventions, and to the 




Cut M 6. 



Cut MY. 



Cut M 8. 



fact that the legs were put on so soon after the amputations that 
the stumps had not had a chance to forget their functions." 

Mr. Kehr is now a man of forty years. He is an active, cap- 
able, energetic workman, in perfect health, earning his livelihood 
and maintaining a family. If this man had been neglected in 
his childhood, he would be to-day a helpless object of pity, instead 
of a self-supporting member of the community, 

Annie L, Eeckwith lost her leg below the knee in 188Y, when 
she was seven years of age. An artificial leg was immediately 
applied. It has been lengthened several times since. She is now 
a woman of good proportions, strong and healthy. Cuts M 9 
and M 10 represents her as she appears without and with her 
artificial leg. 

Manuel^Parraga, of San Salvador, Central America, had his leg 
amputated above the knee in 1876, when eleven years of age. 
An artificial leg was applied immediately. His weight at the 
time was seventy-five pounds. The lad has developed into a full- 



A. A. MarJcSj Aiiijicial Linibs, New York City, 1^1 

grown man, weigliing two hundred pounds. He is strong, healthy, 
and has a model stump, and waUis about in the most natural 
way. In a letter recently addressed to us he says : " For a long 
time I have been desirous of writing to you and expressing my 
continued satisfaction in the work that you have done for me. 
Since I have returned to Central America I find it necessary to 
make long journeys on horseback. The artificial leg assists me 
very much. I pride myself on my easy and graceful movements, 
and the facility with which I mount and dismount. The India- 





Cut M 9. 



Cut M 10. 



rubber foot on the artificial leg is a most excellent invention; 
Vfithout it I question my ability to walk with safety in this 
country, where the streets are so rough and stony," 

John Jerome Booth, son of Dr. J. P. Booth, had his leg ampu- 
tated when seven years of age; railroad accident. An artificial 
leg was applied when he was eight years old. He then weighed 
fifty-seven pounds. The young man has grown and developed 
symmetrically and is now twenty-four years of age. He refers 
to the early application of his artificial leg as an exliibition of 
good judgment on the part of his father, for which he feels 
greatly indebted. He says that if he had been neglected when he 
was young, he would not be in possession of his present strength 
and proportion. 

George G. Griswold had the left leg amputated below the 
knee when twelve years of age. An artificial leg was applied 



158 



A. A. Mai-ks, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 



within a year after amputation. We quote from a letter writ- 
ten by his father. " The leg was applied to my son when he was 
less than thirteen years old, fitted from measurements without 
requiring his presence, has been in constant use. I hardly know 
of anything that he cannot do that other boys of his age can with 
sound limbs. He walks, skates, plays ball (Cut M 11), and 




Cut M 11. 



climbs trees. When he was sixteen years of age we moved to 
another town, and for about a year scarcely a single schoolmate 
or neighbor ever suspected that he wore an artificial leg. ,1 do 
not think it is possible to find an artificial leg equal to that which 
you construct for young and growing children. I have never re- 
gretted having applied an artificial leg to my son on account of 
his tender age." 

William T. Wilson, when fifteen years of age, was run over by 
a railroad car and had his leg mangled so greatly that amputa- 
tion was necessary. A few months after an artificial leg was 
applied. He weighed one hundred and ten pounds, and was at 
the period of life when growth and development promised to be 
rapid. The artificial leg was lengthened twice in four years. 

James Good, at the age of thirteen, was run over by the cars 
and the left leg amputated below the knee. Seven months after 
amputation an artificial leg was applied; age fourteen, weight 
eighty pounds. The boy has grown to a man of large proportions, 
and at this writing is a locomotive engineer. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 159 

George W. Sheridan, son of General George A. Sheridan, 
was thrown from a carriage by a runaway horse, when he was ten 
years old. One leg was crushed and had to be amputated below 
the knee. Nine months later his mother, becoming solicitous 
about the child's development, insisted on an artificial leg being 
obtained, this in opposition to the advice of her husband and 
family medical adviser. The mother gained her point, and a leg 
was applied, and the child used it immediately, and the effect 
upon his health was surprising. We quote from the General's 
letter : " My son is now fifteen years of age. He has worn a leg 
of your make for the last five years, always with comfort and 
satisfaction. When visiting him at his school a while since, I 
found he was out for a day's fishing. When he returned and 
stated where he had been, the teacher remarked that he had walked 
at least ten miles. George skates on steel or roller skates, rides a 
bicycle, and in short enjoys to the full the usual sports of boys 
of his own age. I now realize that it would have been a mistake, 
almost a crime, to have made the boy wait until he had stopped 
growing before supplying him with your artificial leg." 

Hattie L. Moore had her leg amputated at the age of thirteen. 
Six months after the operation an artificial foot was applied. 
She wore it five years without lengthening. The growth of the 
natural foot, from the ankle down, was not great enough to re- 
quire any alteration in the artificial foot. We quote from her 
letter : " My foot was amputated when but a child of thirteen, 
and as soon as the stump had healed, I had one of your admi- 
rable rubber feet supplied, made and fitted from measurements. 
It fitted me as if I had gone to New York and had had the foot fit- 
ted by your own hand. I have used the foot four years now, to the 
untold satisfaction of myself, and the utmost gratification of my 
friends, who often tell me that they would never notice anything 
peculiar about my walk. I have lived with people nine months 
without their discovering that I was lame. 

" I am at present doing a daughter's part of housework, stand- 
ing on my feet the greater part of the time." 

William E. Shaw, leg amputated for injury to the knee. An 
artificial one was applied when nine years of age. To quote from 
his father's letter : " My boy has had great success with the arti- 
ficial leg that you made for him. He can walk and get about 
excellently. He would not be without it for anything. It is un- 
questionably the best thing for a child, when he has lost one of 
his legs, to get an artificial one without delay." 

John Kershaw, leg amputated above the knee, railroad accident. 
Artificial leg applied when ten years of age, immediately after 
the healing of his stump. 

Dr. A. C. Dedrick writes: "I passed John Kershaw in the 
street three months ago. From the success in his case I certainly 
advise the application of an artificial leg to a young and growing 
lad as soon as the stump has healed. John Kershaw has been 
able, thanks to the artificial leg, to enjoy his early life equally 



160 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

with others not so unfortunate. He plays football, baseball, 
and all other sports. I think he would have lost all power of 
stump if the leg had not been employed. The stump is only 
about six inches long, and would in all probability have become 
flexed if he had grown older without a leg to keep the hip joint 
in condition." 

Flossie Lee, leg amputated below the knee. Artificial leg ap- 
plied when four years of age. Dr. G. A. Harris, of Chepachet, 
R. I., writes, " Flossie Lee has worn an artificial leg, which you 
fitted her five years ago, continuously since that time, except 
when sent to you for lengthening. It is needless to say that her 
health, in both mind and body, is different from what it would 
have been had she been confined to the house all these years. 
She has been to school, and runs about like other children, 
which means everything to a growing child. ISTo change has 
been made in the leg all these years, except the increase in 
length." 

Thomas McAleer, leg amputated above the knee on account 
of accident. Artificial leg applied when seven years of age. Dr. 
D. K. Dickinson writes : " McAleer, whom you so nicely fitted 
with an artificial limb for amputation above the knee joint, 
has received great satisfaction. I recommend the application of 
a limb by all means in similar cases." 

Ettie Stangl, leg amputated below the knee in 1889. David 
Jones, of Richardson County, Neb., writes in regard to the case: 
" Ettie Stangl, to whom you applied an artificial leg when she 
was very young, has worn it continually. She does not appear 
like a cripple, she moves about so naturally. I can say that the 
artificial leg was a source of comfort to her, and I think provid- 
ing her with the limb when she was so young was the best thing 
that could be done for her health and comfort." 

Mary Wiley, both feet amputated in 1891; cause, railroad acci- 
dent. Artificial feet were applied several months later. She was 
then eight years of age. This little girl is a forcible example of 
the wisdom of applying artificial limbs to children, especially 
when both are amputated. 

Clarence Wintersgill, both legs amputated; right, six inches be- 
low, and left, three inches above the knee; cause, railroad accident. 
Artificial legs applied within a few months. Age, seven. Dr. 
R. F. Wintersgill writes as follows : '' In regard to my son's case, 
the application of a pair of artificial limbs has been a wonderful 
success. He was but seven years of age when you made his 
limbs, but learned rapidly how to use them. He now skates, rides 
a horse, goes to school, and walks several miles without resting. 
I was advised not to get Clarence any limbs until he had ceased 
growing and had almost made up my mind to wait, but to look at 
my little child sitting out in the yard helplessly, and to think that 
he must do so until he had finished growing, made me almost 
frantic. In the meantime, one of my neighbors provided me with 
one of your books, and I studied it day and night until I came to 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 161 

the conclusion to try a pair of your legs, with the results men- 
tioned above. 

" You will remember, Clarence's left leg is off above the knee 
and the right below the knee. He was wearing his artificial 
limbs one year after amputation, and if I had to do it over again 
he would wear them in one month." 

John E. Palmer, leg amputated below the knee. Artificial leg 
applied within six months; age, nine years. His father, Bradford 
Palmer, writes : " I am glad to let you know what success my boy 
has had in using his artificial leg. He was only nine years old 
when he commenced wearing it. I can say that it has afforded 
him the greatest satisfaction, and he could in no way be induced 
to do without it. He is growing fast and has the best of health.'' 

Anton Gaub, leg amputated in 1884. Artificial leg applied 
within a few months after amputation; age, four. Gaub is now 
(1905) twenty-five years of age, full grown and well developed. 
He has always used the leg and never cared for crutches. He is 
strong, in good health, and walks great distances without becom- 
ing fatigued. He is actively engaged in business. His parents 
refer with pride to their decision in putting him on an artificial 
leg when he was so young. 

Eoscoe E. Bosworth, leg amputated below the knee in 1890; age, 
nine years. His father, Levi Bosworth, of Worcester County, 
Mass., writes : " I consider that it was a very wise thing on my 
part to have supplied my boy with an artificial leg when he was 
so young. He now has full use of his knee and hip joints, which 
I think would have become greatly impaired if he had not used 
the leg. He is now in good health, well developed. Crutches, 
which he used for a short time, always made him sick. 

" Eoscoe has skated, ridden a bicycle, and done almost every- 
thing other boys do. If I had a child only two years of age and 
he needed an artificial leg I would put one on immediately." 

Roy V. Bryant, leg amputated above the knee when seven years 
of age; artificial leg applied immediately. His father writes aa 
follows : " My son has worn his artificial leg constantly, with the 
exception of times when it has been at your factory for lengthen- 
ing. He is now twenty years of age. He has grown straight, 
strong, muscular, well developed. I am thoroughly convinced, 
from the experience in my own son's case, that an artificial leg 
cannot be applied when a child is too young." 

Carl T. W. Banks, leg amputated above the knee; railroad 
accident; artificial leg applied within six months after amputa- 
tion. His mother writes : " The question of applying an artificial 
leg 'to a young child was one of great thought to me. Many of 
my friends thought it unwise to do so, but I could not bear to 
see my son Carl going on crutches, so I got a leg and had it put 
on when he was only seven years old. He has been wearing it 
since, and he is now well developed, strong and healthy. During 
his childhood days he played with other boys, in all kinds of 
weather and at all kinds of games." 



162 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

Emma Zern, leg amputated above the knee. Dr, J. William 
Trabert, of Annville, Pa., writes : " Emma Zern's leg was ampu- 
tated in the lower third of the thigh in 1890, when nine years of 
age. She received an artificial leg from you within six months. 
She has been wearing the same constantly. In the following 
spring she grew 2% inches. The leg had to be lengthened, but 
it did not cost very much to do it. 

" At first I was doubtful that a child of her age should have 
an artificial limb, but am now convinced that a child cannot be 
too young, as this case has shown." 

Nelhe Cartwright, at the age of eleven, met with an injury to 
her leg that necessitated an amputation below the knee. Six 
months after an artificial limb was applied. Her father writes: 
" I purchased an artificial leg from you for my daughter in 1893. 
She was then eleven years old. She has used the leg constantly. 
I am delighted with the results and prepared to say that I rec- 
ommend the use of artificial limbs to children of any age, and 
the sooner the child has a leg applied after losing a natural one 
the better it will be for that child. There are two reasons that 
should induce a parent to act promptly: First, an artificial leg 
enables a child to walk naturally, promoting good health and 
symmetrical growth. Second, a child becomes accustomed to the 
use of the limb while young and active and will ever afterwards 
use it with better results than it could if the use was delayed until 
maturity." 

Clara Giere, leg amputated below the knee ; age, eight. An arti- 
ficial leg was applied immediately. Dr. E. Alonzo Giere, of Hay- 
field, Minn,, writes : " The artificial leg which I obtained for Clara 
has given good satisfaction. The child has grown and the leg 
has had to be lengthened. She is still using it with comfort." 

Dr. A. E. Eaton, of Elizabeth, N. J., under date of March 31, 
1904, writes : " The facts of my case are as follows : In March, 
1891, I had my left leg so badly crushed as to require a supra- 
condylar thigh amputation (Gritti-Stokes type). In May of the 
same year I applied one of your artificial legs and wore it for a 
considerable length of time. Since I have attained my growth 
I have had another one made. The leg was a blessing to me from 
the start. As a matter of fact, I would have been lost without it 
at any time. I walk easily long distances, sometimes ride a bicy- 
cle, other times ride a horse; I play tennis, golf, etc. In fact, do 
with ease and facility almost all ordinary things. 

" My observation leads me to believe that this excellence of 
locomotion is only possible with the Marks leg, for I see cases 
similar to my own using ankle-joint legs who are able to enjoy 
only ordinary usefulness. 

" In regard to thie application of artificial legs to young and 
growing children, I can say that my own case is an example. The 
artificial leg was applied when I was thirteen years old. I am 
now fully grown and am a physician engaged in active prac- 
tice. My; professional knowledge tells me that it is a most advis- 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New YorTc City. 163 

able procedure, for the use of a leg strengthens the stump, pre- 
vents atrophy of joint structures and soft parts, and trains a child 
in the use of a leg, and when he reaches adult life he will have 
perfect control over it, and he will becorae strong and healthy." 

Charlie Moore, at the age of eight, had his leg crushed by a 
wagon. Amputation was above the knee. His mother writes: 
" My little son, Charlie Moore, when eight years of age, met with 
an accident that resulted in the amputation of his right leg. He 
went on crutches two years. He was pale and sickly and grew but 
little. The doctor said he was sure that the constant use of 
crutches would induce spinal disease or lung trouble. I there- 
fore resolved to get an artificial leg for him. I did so, and 
as a result he now has good health, is well grown and thoroughly 
developed. I advise buying your make of artificial limbs for 
young and growing children. They are light and strong in con- 
struction and easily lengthened." 



CHAPTER XV 

HOME MEASUEEMENTS 

Our system, devised and inaugurated years ago, by which 
measurements and diagrams for artificial limbs can be taken at 
home by the family physician or the subject himself, assisted by 
some member of his family, and our method of fitting and con- 
structing artificial limbs from such data, have proved so satisfac- 
tory that we encourage those desirous of saving long, tedious, and 
expensive journeys to have their limbs made from measurements 
while they remain at home. 

This feature has placed our facilities and skill within reach 
of those who are in need of artificial limbs, no matter how distant 
they may reside from us; it affords an opportunity to obtain the 
best at the least possible expense and trouble. 

So successful have been the results obtained from this method 
that expressions of gratitude and commendation have come from 
the most distant parts of the world. Men of prominence, as well 
as those not so frequently in public mind, have benefited by the 
plan. 

We have customers living within a few miles of New York 
City who are so actively engaged that they prefer to have their 
limbs fitted from measurements under the guarantees we give, 
rather than absent themselves from their homes. 

To encourage persons to have their limbs made in this way, we 
agree to make all changes or reconstructions without charge, 
whether such are required on account of errors in measurements 
or changes in stumps, or any other cause whatever. 

If anyone desires to be present at the fitting, we will not dis- 
suade him from his intentions, and will give him immediate 
attention on his arrival. 

As soon as measurements and diagrams are received, we subject 
them to the closest scrutiny, and if errors or omissions are dis- 
covered, they are returned for corrections, and if there are any 
indications that successful fittings from measurements are doubt- 
ful we do not hesitate in notifying the party to that effect. As 
soon as we accept the data we assume all risks, we make the leg 
accordingly and forward it to the client with full instructions for 
its application. Should it fail to fit properly, it can be returned 
with particulars, and we will alter or reconstruct it without 
charge. 



164 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



165 



INSTEUCTIONS WHEN ONE LEG IS AMPUTATED 

Diagrams. — First, make a diagram of both the sound and ampu- 
tated legs. This is done by removing the clothing and sitting 





Cut N i. 



Cut N 3. 



on a large sheet of paper, with both the sound leg and the stump 
extended and slightly spread apart, the foot pointed directly 




Cut N 3. 



Cut N 4. 



upward. Beginning at the body, draw a pencil down the outside 
of the sound leg from the hip, around the heel and up the inner 




Cut N 5. 



Cut N 6. 



side to the body. Then carry the pencil down the inner surface 
of the stump and around the outer side to the hip. Cuts N 1 and 
N 2 show the manner in which tliis is done if the amputation is 



166 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

below the knee; Cuts N 3 and N 4 show the same if the amputa- 
tion is in or above the knee. For side diagrams, it is necessary 
for the patient to lie on one side with the knee bent at right 
angles and then pass the pencil around the leg, as shown in Cut 




Cut N 7. 



Cut N 8. 



N 5. If the amputation is below the knee, turn on the amputated 
side, resting the exterior surface of the stump and thigh on the 
paper, and mark around it, as shown in Cut N 6. Then, without 
changing the position of the body, flex the knee to about right 
angles, and mark around the thigh and stump, as illustrated in 





Cut N 9. 



Cut N 10. 



Cut N Y. These diagrams will show the amputated leg in two 
positions, one with the stump fully extended, and the other flexed 
at right angles. If there is a limited motion in the knee joint, 
special care must be taken that the limits of extension and flexion 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New YorJc City. 167 

are sho^n in the diagrams. Then place the foot on the paper and 
draw a Hne around it, as shown in Cut N 8. 

Measurements. — After the diagrams come dimensions. Meas- 
uring should be done in the morning when the stump is not 





Cut N 11. 



Cut N 12. 



swollen; a tape line should be used. Begin with measuring the 
distance from the crotch, or perineum, to the floor — the end of 
the tape line must be put close to the body between the legs and 
carried vertically down to the floor (see Cut N 9) ; in the same 





Cut N 13. 



Cut N 14. 



way measure the distance from the crotch to the end of the 
stump (see Cuts N 10 and N 11). Measure from the end of the 
stump to the floor, as shown in Cut N 12 or Cut N 13. 

While still standing take the circumferences of the sound thigh. 



168 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

beginning close to the body, as shown in Cut N 14, repeat at 
points two inches apart, until the knee is reached, then take the 
circumference of the knee around the knee-cap, then the following 





Cut N 15. 



Cut N 16. 



circumferences; the leg immediately below the knee-cap, the calf, 
smallest part of the ankle, just above the joint, the heel and 
instep, the instep, the foot at the base of the toes; then measure 
the length of the foot. 

If the amputation is below the knee, take the circumference of 
the thigh close to the body (see Cut N 15) and repeat these cir- 





Cut N 17. 



Cut N 18. 



Cut N 19. 



Cut N 20. 



cumferences at points two inches apart until the entire thigh is 
measured; then take the circumference of the knee around the 
knee-cap; then take the circumferences of the stump, beginning 
immediately below the knee-cap, and repeating at points two 
inches apart until the entire stump is measured. If the amputa- 
tion is in or above the knee, take the circumference close to the 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 169 

body and repeat at points two inches apart until the entire stump 
is measured. 

After the circumferences have been taken, measure the distance 





Cut K 21. 



Cut N 22. 



Cut N 23. 



Cut N 24. 



from the top of the knee of the sound leg to the floor when seated 
in a chair, with the leg bent at right angles (see Cut N 16). 




Cut N 25. 



Cut N 26. 



Write all these lengths and circumferences on the diagrams in 
their respective places. 



170 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

If correctly made, the diagrams of an amputation below the 
knee will resemble those figured in Cuts N lY to N 20; for ampu- 
tation in or above the knee they will resemble Cuts N 21 to N 24. 

Other required measurements include the height of the person 
when standing erect on the sound leg. This can be taken by 
standing against a wall and the height marked by a book or car- 
penter's square (see Cut N 25) ; the distance from that point to 
the floor should then be carefully measured; then sit on the bare 
floor, with the back against the wall, and note the height from 
the top of the head to the floor, as shown in Cut N 26. 

These heights are wanted to verify the length given of the leg. 
The height from the head to the floor when sitting subtracted from 
the height when standing is equal to the length of the leg. 

INSTEUCTIONS WHEN BOTH LEGS AEE AMPUTATED 

If both legs are amputated, either above or below the knees, or 
if one is amputated below and the other above, it is necessary to 
make diagrams of each stump and thigh, presenting both front 
and side views, with knee joint extended and flexed to as near 
right angles as possible. These can be taken by disrobing and 




Cut N 27. 



Cut N 38. 



sitting on a piece of paper with the stumps extended and marking 
around them from body to the ends with a pencil held perpendicu- 
larly (see Cut N 27). Then turn to one side so that the exterior 
surface of the thigh and stump will rest on the paper; the stump 
extended, mark around the thigh and stump, then bend the knee 
to about right angles and mark around thigh and stump (see Cut 
N 28). A similar diagram must be made of the other thigh and 
stump (see Cut N 29). After these diagrams have been made, 
circumferences should be taken by passing a tape line around 
each thigh, close to the body, and repeating at points of about 
two inches apart until the thighs and stumps have been measured. 
Care should be given to take the measurements when the sturaps 
are not swollen and to draw the tape line moderately tight, as 
shown in Cuts N 30 and N 31. Write all the measurements in 
plain figures in thear respective places on the diagrams. Sit on 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limls, New YorTc City. 171 

the floor, with back against the wall, and mark, by book or square, 
the distance from the top of the head to the floor, as illustrated in 
Cut N 32. Send this measurement, together with former height. 





^i-i^ 



Cut N 29. 



Cut N 30. 



that is, the height before amputation. If the full former height 
is to be restored that fact should be noted. 

Stumps that reach to the ankle joints or knee joints should be 
reproduced in plaster. 

The following questions should be answered in every case: 
Name of patient? Post-office address? Occupation? Age? 





Cut N 31. 



Cut N 33. 



Weight? Cause of amputation? When was the amputation per- 
formed ? Which leg amputated ? Has an artificial leg been worn ? 
For how long ? Name of the party ordering the leg ? His address ? 
Is the leg to be made and fitted from measurements in the 
absence of the patient? 



172 



A. A. Marks, Artificial LimbSj New York City. 



If it is proposed to take weight on the end of the stump, that 
fact should be noted. 

If the amputation is in the ankle joint or in the foot, the 
diagrams and measurements are the same as are required in 
amputations above the ankles. 

Plastee Casts. — Plaster casts are only required of stumps that 
reach to the articulations (knee or ankle joints) or in the feet, 
and of deformed limbs, and of amputations that have resulted 
from deformities. 

The method of making a plaster cast depends upon the condi- 
tion of the stump. Por tapering stumps, the following is the 
simplest: Remove the clothing, shave all hair from the stump 
or fasten it down with paste, or thick soap, as otherwise it will 




Cut N 33. 



Cut N 34. 



cling to the plaster. Then take two quarts of thick, quick-drying 
plaster of Paris, such as used by dentists, put a quart of water 
in a bowl and sprinkle the dry plaster in it, mix thoroughly. It 
should be made about as stiff as " pancake dough ; " then spread 
it over all sides of the stump to the thickness of at least half 
an inch. The stump must be held perfectly still until the plaster 
has become hard, which will be about ten minutes. Then draw 
it from the stump and the inside will be a counterpart of the 
stump. 

If the stump is larger at the end than immediately above, as in 
the case of partial foot, ankle-joint, or knee-joint amputations, 
the plaster must be broken off in large pieces and put together 
after the stump is removed, or the string m^ethod can be used, as 
follows: A piece of strong, thin cord is passed loosely up each 
side of the limb (see Cut N 33), to which it is made to adhere 



A. A. Marks, AHificial Limbs, New York City. 173 

by thick plaster (see Cut N 34). Work quickly, using about four 
quarts of slacked plaster and cover the entire limb to a thickness 
of not less than half an inch. As the leg must be held vertically. 




Cut N 35. 



Cut N 36. 



the plaster must be quite thick, otherwise it will flow down. Every 
part, the back, sides, front, and end, must be liberally covered. 
As soon as the plaster has become a little set, the string can be 




Cut N 37. 



Cut N 38. 



pulled gently downward (see Cut N 35), cutting the mold into 
longitudinal parts. It must now be left alone, so as to thoroughly 
harden, which will take about ten minutes; the mold can then be 



174 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New YorTc City. 

separated on the line cut by the string and the two parts 
removed (see Cut N 36). These parts can then be greased or 
oiled on the inside and put together and bound with a string; the 
inside can then be filled with thin plaster of Paris (see Cut N 37). 
When the mold is filled, it should be laid aside for several hours, 
when it will have become so hard that the shell will yield to slight 
pressure and break off, uncovering a facsimile of the stump. 




Cut N 39. 



Cut N 40. 



The plaster bandage method is an excellent way of taking a 
cast of a flabby and tapering stump. A sheet of old muslin or 
cheesecloth is cut into strips about two inches wide and sewed 
into lengths of about twelve feet long. Three such strips are 
usually needed. Dry plaster should be spread on the strips which 
are then rolled up very tightly (see Cut N 38). No more plaster 




Cut N 41. 



should be put on than will fill the meshes. The stump should be 
prepared by removing the hair or fastening it down with paste or 
thick soap. The plaster bandage roll must be immersed in water 
and allowed to remain until the bubbles cease to come to the 
surface (see Cut IST 39). It is then taken from the water and 
wrapped around the stump while being unrolled, beginning at 
the end of the stump and continuing to a little above the knee 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New YorJc City. 1V5 

(see Cut N 40), then work down and up again, covering the 
stump with three or more layers or until all the bandages have 
been used. Allow the bandage to remain on the stump until it 
becomes hard, when the stump can be withdrawn (see Cut N 41). 
The plaster bandage will form a mold of the stump, which can be 
sent to us as it is, or it can be greased and filled with slacked 
plaster, and a true cast made, as previously described. 

Casts and molds should be sent packed in sawdust to prevent 
breakage. If shells are sent, they must be filled with sawdust, to 
prevent collapse in transit. 



CHAPTER XVI 

PKICES—ACCESSOEIES— TEEMS OE PAYMENT— 
GUAEANTEE 



Artificial Feet for Partial Feet Amputations, 
described on pages 27 to 36 



Artificial Feet for Ankle-joint Amputations, 
described on pages 37 to 44 



Artificial Legs for Below-Knee Amputations, 
described on pages 45 to 69 



Peg Legs for Below-Knee Amputations, de- 
scribed on pages 67 to 71 



Ferrules and Rubber Tips for Peg Legs, de- 
scribed on pages 71 and 73 . . . 



Suspenders, described on pages 71 and 72 



Straps attached to corsets .... 
Or, $0.75 for each strap, corsets to be fur- 
nished by wearer. 

Artificial Legs for Knee-Bearing Stumps, de- 
scribed on pages 73 to 77 

Peg Legs for Knee-Bearing Stumps, described 
on pages 77 and 78 



Artificial Legs for Disarticulated Knee 
Stumps, described on pages 79 to 83 

Artificial Legs for Thigh or Femoral Stumps, 
described on pages 84 to 93 



176 



Cut C 2 


each $ 30.00 


Cut C 5 


50.00 


Cut C 18 


60.00 


Cut C 25 


60.00 


Cut C 27 


60.00 


Cut C 28 


100.00 


Cut D 7 


60.00 


Cut D 12 


60.00 


Cut D 14 


60.00 


Cut D 16 


60.00 


Cut D 21 


100.00 


Cut D 23 


100 00 


Cut E 2 


100.00 


Cut E 7 


100 00 


Cut E 17 


100 00 


Cut E 28 


65.00 


Cut E 40 


100.00 


Cut E 44 


100.00 


Cut E 46 


100.00 


Cut E 50 


100,00 


Cut E 51 


100.00 


Cut E 54 


15 00 


Cut E 55 


30 00 


Cut E 56 


75.00 


Cut E 57 


complete 2.00 


Cut E 58 


each 1.25 


Cut E 59 


.75 


Cut E 60 


set 3.00 


Cut E 61 


3.00 


Cut E 63 


5.00 


Cut E 63 


1.50 


Cut F 5 


each 100.00 


Cut F 9 


100.00 


Cut F 11 


15.00 


Cut F 12 


75.00 


Cut F 13 


50.00 


Cut G 7 


100.00 


Cut Q 8 


100.00 


Cut H 5 


100.00 


Cut H 15 


100.00 


Cut H 25 


75.00 



A. A. Marks^ Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 1V7 

Peg Legs for Thigh Stumps .... 
Suspenders, described on pages 94 to 97 

Straps attached to Vests 

Or, $0.75 for each strap, Vest to be fur- 
nished by wearer. 

Straps attached to Corsets .... 
Or, $0.75 for each strap, Corset to be fur- 
nished by wearer. 

Artificial Legs for Hip-Joint Amputations, 
described on. pages 98 to 100 . 

Artificial Feet and Legs for Deformities, etc., Cut K 



Cut H26 


each 


$50.00 


Cut H 27 


" 


75.00 


Cut H 28 


set 


4.00 


Cut H 34 


" 


3.00 


Cut H 35 


" 


5.00 


Cut H 36 


" 


3.00 


Cut H 37 


t< 


6.00 


Cut H 38 




3.00 


Cut I 5 


each 


100 00 


Cut I 7 


" 


150.00 


,CutK 3 


" 


30.00 


Cut K 7 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 11 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 16 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 17 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 20 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 22 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 25 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 27 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 29 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 21 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 33 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 35 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 36 


"■ 


125 00 


Cut K 38 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 41 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 42 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 46 


both 


150 00 


Cut K 51 


each 


100.00 


Cut K 54 


" 


100.00 


Cut K 57 


both 


200,00 


Cut K 59 


" 


200.00 


Cut K 61 


each 


60 00 


Cut K 63 


" 


125.00 


Cut K 66 


" 


125.00 


Cut K 69 


" 


60.00 


Cut K 71 


" 


75.00 


Cut K 72 


" 


75.00 



Accessories. — Needful supplies, as indicated below, are fur- 
nished without extra charge. 

Artificial Foot for partial foot and ankle-joint amputation. A 
suitable sock for the stump, an extra lacing. 

Artificial Leg for below-knee amputation. A suitable suspender, 
one long and one short stump sock, pocket oil can, screwdriver, and 
extra lacing. 

Artificial Leg for all other amputations. A suitable suspender 
one sock for stump, lubricant for the knee-joint, screwdriver, extra 
spring, etc. 

Terms of Payment. — Payment is required in advance with every 
order. If preferred, one-half can be advanced and the balance paid 
on delivery. This is the plan on which payments are reasonably 
and properly required on all articles that are made to order. 

Guarantees. — A guarantee for a period of five years covering 
material and construction is given with each leg. 



CHAPTER XVII 

HANDS AND AKMS, NATUEAL COMPAKED WITH 
ARTIFICIAL 

History. — Artificial hand and arm construction has advanced 
with that of artificial legs. The modern arm is calculated for 
general purposes, the ancient had only one object in its design. 
M. Sergius (167 B. C), referred to by Pliny, wore an artificial 
arm, with which he held his shield while in battle, and released 
Cremona from siege. The artificial arm made for a celebrated 
tenor of the sixteenth century was used successfully in his his- 
trionic gesticulations; the arm of the celebrated Surgeon Pare* 
as well as the productions of Lorrain, Sebastian, Bailiff, Verduin, 
Serre, Wilson, and De Graef, and all the early makers, had but 
few functions to perform. 

There is a strong inclination to the belief that artificial arm 
construction has retrograded, and that those of modern times 
are not as useful as those of the early masters. Visitors to 
European museums, where many of the archaic substitutes are 
exhibited, are impressed by the profuse and extravagant labels 
and catalogues, ascribing to the wearers miraculous deeds of 
valor, performed in battle. 

We are in position to state that historic substitutes were useless 
beyond the specific purposes for which they were designed, and 
were greatly inferior to those of modern construction. The 
ancient arm weighed from twenty to thirty pounds, was made 
of steel, copper and leather, and could be worn only on a long 
and powerful stump. The modern arm weighs from one to two 
and a half pounds, is made of rubber, wood, rawhide, leather, 
and metal, and can be worn on short, enervated, and nervous 
stumps to advantage. They have a range of utility infinitely 
greater than those used by warriors centuries ago. 

The need for artificial arms has never been as great as now. 
The incentive to invent and improve is always responsive to 
demand. Want begets supply, and competition is the stimulus 
that carries improvements close to the goal of perfection. 

The Demand Greater. — The demand has increased in direct 
proportion to the utilization of machinery in the industries and 
to the expansion of methods for rapid transportation. As the 
mileage of railroads increases, the mutilation of the human body 
is more frequent. The electric trolley has maimed more than 
the horse-cars of a decade ago. The mowing machine and the 
reaper have cut off more limbs than the scythe or cradle, dynamite 
has mutilated the human body more than the black powder of 

179 



180 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

former days. These agencies, necessary for quick results, are 
dreadful implements of death and mutilation. 

Simplicity. — In recent years the tendency of the arm manu- 
facturer has been to simplify construction; the earlier devices 
were complicated, burdensome to carry, expensive to maintain, 
and unreliable. No one will now tolerate a clumsy, heavy, noisy, 
complicated, and unwieldly arm; iieat adaptation to the stump, 
lightness and naturalness of appearance, durability and utility, 
are the only essentials that will satisfy. 

What an Artificial Arm Must Do. — The artificial arm must 
conceal the loss, protect the stump, restore a natural appearance 
to the dismembered side, provide a medium that will foree the 
stump into healthful activity, and, in the way of utility, it 
must assist the opposite hand, carry articles of moderate weight, 
and, if the stump is powerful, the hand must be capable of cutting 
food on the plate and carrying the morsels to the mouth. The 
modern arm is capable of all this, and still more. A pen can be 
placed between the finger and thumb, and, after a little practice, 
the wearer will learn to write quickly and legibly. Implements 
capable of specific functions can be held in the hand or in the 
socket. A ring will help the farmer in guiding the handles of 
his farming tools; it will assist the blacksmith in wielding the 
sledge. A pair of pincers is capable of holding the work of a 
jeweler, a claw hook, a clevis, a hand vise; in fact, a great variety 
of implements have their distinct uses. While these attachments 
are capable of a large range of adaptation, there is a limit beyond 
which art and science cannot go. These operations of the natural 
hand that depend on the brain for their functions cannot possibly 
be performed by mechanical devices. 

The Natural Hand a Marvel. — The intelligence with which 
the natural arm is endowed is the result of the system by which 
mental force is carried from the brain to the distant fingers. The 
human hand and arm are marvels of mechanism, their combina- 
tions of motions are almost limitless, . their functions vast, their 
capabilities beyond comprehension. The motion of the shoulder is 
circumrotary ; those of the elbow, flexion and extension; those of 
the wrist, rotary, circumrotary, flexion, and extension, and the 
fingers are capable of a range of accommodation almost limitless. 
Every joint is connected by powerful sinews, tendons, muscles, 
nerves, and blood vessels, which perform their work in conveying 
the commands of the mind to the most distant parts, and in com- 
pelling an instantaneous obedience. The hand that is capable of 
placing the delicate works of a watch is capable of placing the 
stones of a cathedral. And yet the human arm is but a machine, 
useless by itself. ' 

The Brain. — The brain is the vis-viva that renders it capable 
of its wonderful work. If the medium that conveys the wishes 
of the mind to the arm be destroyed, if the co-ordination be 
impaired, the natural arm ceases to bo any more valuable than 
an artificial one of the crudest type. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New York City. 181 

An artificial arm, no matter how ingeniously it may be con- 
structed, pales into insignificance when its functions are com- 
pared with those of the healthy arm nature has given us. Never- 
theless, it is far more useful than the natural arm that has become 
palsied. 

Self-Repairing. — The natural arm has other endowments, aside 
from its responsiveness to the will. The power of repairing itself 
is one of its mysterious attributes. The bearing surfaces of the 
bones would grind away, the tendons would stretch and become 
inert if this process were not in constant operation. If a muscle 
becomes lacerated, or a tendon detached, or a bone broken, the 
work of reparation soon restores the injured part to its normal 
relations. Every drop of blood that flows through the arteries 
carries new material to replace the waste, and every drop of blood 
that flows through the veins carries away the particles that have 
become diseased and detached. In old age, when the human repair 
shop becomes disorganized, the entire physical mechanism breaks 
down, and the end soon follows. 

Sense of Touch. — Another great and important endowment of 
the natural hand is the sense of touch. This sense is susceptible 
of cultivation. The contact of the fingers will convey the infor- 
mation that the substance is soft or hard, liquid or solid, dry or 
wet. The blind man is capable of reading by the tips of his 
fingers. When we place our hands in our pockets, we know by 
this sense whether we take hold of a key or a jackknife, a hand- 
kerchief or a lead pencil. The moment we touch the object we 
know what motions the fingers are to make and the strength 
required to put that object within our grasp. 

An artificial hand is absolutely devoid of sensation. Wlien we 
call to mind the fact that an artificial arm, made with joints, 
springs, and cords cannot be endowed with mental sympathy or 
with the power of repairing itself, or with the sensation of touch, 
we must become reconciled to the fact that it is necessarily of 
limited capacity. 

Stories Misleading. — We are frequently amused by reading 
newspaper articles on artificial arms, made by forgotten mechanics, 
"that are fully as good as natural arms." We frequently have 
to listen to the narration of some magical performances of men 
who wear artificial arms. We recall an article that appeared in a 
Canadian newspaper, of a woman who had a pair of arms adjusted 
to her person, supplementary to her natural ones. She became 
so dexterous in manipulating them that when in a public con- 
veyance she would hold a book in her artificial hands, and, while 
apparently reading, would, with her natural hands, pick the 
pockets of those who sat next to her. 

We have also read the story of a politician who lost his arm in 
the Civil War, and who had an ingenious artificial one applied 
that enabled him to shuffle a deck of cards, pick up a glass of beer 
and carry it in his mouth; and, on one occasion, when in a bar- 
room brawl, he liberated a spring, and the arm immediately began 



182 A. A Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

its pugilistic movements, with more vigor and more deadly results 
than possible for the natural arm. Quite recently a New York 
paper gave a page to the description of an artificial arm, made 
by a German prothesist, that incases the undeveloped arm of the 
Emperor of Germany; the description of the arm and the func- 
tions it was capable of performing were extremely absurd and 
amusing to those acquainted with prothesis, but to laymen unac- 
quainted with the subject, there was a strain of plausibility that 
must have made some persons believe that at last a mechanic is 
on the earth who is as skillful as Divinity Himself. 



CHAPTER XVIII 

IS IT PROFITABLE TO BUY AN ARTIFICIAL ARM? 

If I procure an artificial arm, will I make any practical use of 
it? If I do not, can it in any way contribute to my physical or 
mental comfort? Is the risk worth taking? 

These are the questions that have to be answered. They weigh 
heavily upon the minds of those who find it necessary to exercise 
economy in their purchases. 

Whether male or female, rich or poor, the feasibility of substi- 
tuting a member that has been lost must be thoughtfully con- 
sidered. 

Let us first take up the question of ornamentation. 

Ornamentation. — That a person will make a better appearance 
with an artificial arm properly dressed than with an empty sleeve. 



is obvious. To conceal any physical defect is a natural aim. 
There is nothing so distressing, especially to a sensitive person, 
as the exhibition of any imperfection in his anatomy. 

The glass eye is worn for no other purpose than ornament. 
It fills a sightless socket and conveys the impression that the 
natural eye is there; it does not restore vision nor fulfill the 
optical functions, yet thousands of them are worn with a feeling 
that they are indispensable. They certainly look well, and are 
to be preferred to the cloth patch frequently seen. The man with 
a hunched back pays his tailor very dearly for the skillful adjust- 
ment of pads in his coat, so as to minimize the visibility of his 
deformity. 

Any deficiency of the body that becomes conspicuous will attract 
attention and invite conunent and sympathy. No person who 
maintains his self-respect, no matter what his disability may be, 
cares to be constantly reminded ofl it, and the commiseration of 
others, above all things, is the most abhorrent. To be frequently 
asked : " How did it happen ? " " Did you lose your arm in the 
war ? " " Were you in a railroad collision ? " or to have such 
utterances as : " Poor, unfortunate man ! " " How he must have 

183 



184 



A. A. Marks, Artificial LimbSj, New York City. 



suffered ! " " What a terrible loss ! " whispered within your hear- 
ing, may, for a while, be accepted in good part, but their repeti- 
tion soon becomes annoying and odious. 

An artificial arm will conceal the loss, restore a natural appear- 
ance to the person, avoid observation and comment, and after it 
has been worn a short time will becom.e companionable and neces- 
sary to the wearer's mental comfort. 

The Russian prince, Galitzin, obtained an artificial arm of us 
to cover a deformed and undeveloped member, the conspicuousness 
of which had given him much solicitude. He was elated over the 
results and pronounced the purchase a most satisfactory one, 
fully paying him for his long journey from Moscow to New York. 

Miss Julia Shay Lindsay, of Polk County, Minn., struggled 
with this subject for some time, and finally ordered an artificial 





hand. The results that followed are clearly set forth in a letter 
recently addressed to us : " It is over five months since I received 
the artificial hand which my doctor ordered for me. I am very 
much pleased with it. No one can tell the artificial hand from 
the natural one. In this, it is a source of great comfort." 

A. T. Basden, of Hamilton, Bermuda, who had both of his 
arms amputated between the elbows and wrists, wrote recently, as 
follows : " The artificial arms you sent me fit acceptably. They 
meet with my expectations. I find them helpful and especially 
valuable, as they hide my misfortune. Prior to the application 
of the arms, I suffered considerably with my stumps, but since 
wearing them the pain has entirely ceased." 

Hygiene. — This part of the subject, considering the importance 
it bears to the general health and welfare of the individual, has 
not been sufficiently emphasized. With much pleasure we quote 



A. A. MarhSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 185 

from Dr. Schenck, of Cincinnati, Ohio : " Pain is the cry of a 
hungry nerve for food. 

" When a part of the body becomes inactive, as is the case with 
the stump of an amputated arm, the inability to receive the 
necessary activity on account of the abbreviation of its length, 
permits the stump and muscles to fall into a qu-iescent condition; 
in consequence there occurs a stagnation in the venous system, 
which depends entirely upon muscular activity for the return of 
the venous blood to the lungs for aeration, from whence it is again 
pumped by the heart to the diijerent parts of the body, in order to 
carry nourishment and oxygen to the tissues so that the normal 
metabolism can occur, and thus produce the physiological tone 
required for a healthy individual. 

" As such, an abbreviated member, unassisted, cannot contribute 
the necessary energy for its welfare; because of the above-ex- 
plained pathological condition, it must suffer and lose its normal 
tone and indirectly, as in diseased organs of the body, affect the 
general economy in a more or less degree, depending upon the 
temperament of the individual. 

" So that, from the hygienic view, an artificial arm will cause 
the defective part to functionate, causing activity of the remain- 
ing muscles, and thus stimulate its circulation, giving to the 
part the required nourishment and preventing the accumulation 
of effete material and dismissing a conspicuous deformity, which, 
no matter how indifferent the unfortunate assumes to be, has 
some influence upon his nervous system, all of which, being 
improved, is conducive to promote a healthy tone to the whole 
body." 

It is not an infrequent occurrence for a person to complain of 
peculiar, dull aches, or nerve twitchings, or sharp, stinging darts 
of pain in his stump. Investigation will disclose the fact that 
these are nervous disturbances, due to muscular inactivity, and, as 
soon as stumps are forced to do something, the distress will almost 
invariably disappear. 

Dr. Cook, United States Examining Surgeon, puts this phase 
of the subject in an interesting and unique light: 

" When a limb has been amputated, the stump, or remaining 
portion, takes on queer antics and assumes conditions that are 
in accordance with well-known physiological and psychological 
laws. 

^' For instance, it is no uncommon occurrence for a man who 
has lost a part of his leg by amputation to have a severe pain in 
the heel, foot, or toe of the lost member, or for those who have 
lost parts of their arms to have excruciating pains in the wrists, 
hands, or fingers of the amputated parts. To those unaccustomed 
to these nerve complications this may appear absurd, but they 
are facts well known to neurologists. 

"It would seem that the stump, or part remaining after ampu- 
tation, either resented the indignity that it had been subjected to, 
or else made its sorrow for its loss manifested by these means. 



186 A. A. MarhSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

" The man who allows an amputated arm to hang indolently by 
his side makes a mistake. The muscles above the stump shrink 
and waste away for a lack of nourishment, and the nerves become 
irritable and neuralgic. An undisputed physiological law is that 
* action increases strength,' and the reverse is just as true, that 
inaction produces weakness. 

" Place an artificial arm on the idle stump and it at once begins 
to get a better circulation of the blood, the muscles begin to 
develop, and the nerves have something to think about besides 
their terminals." 

Dr. L. G. Armstrong, of Boscobel, Wis., in emphasizing the 
importance to persons who have had legs or arms amputated, to 
procure artificial ones, presents in a forcible way the penalty that 
must be paid if a stump is permitted to become indolent: 

" Artificial limbs have added much to afiiicted humanity in the 
way of happiness and comfort. 

" Physiology teaches plainly that the want of use of any part 
begets weakness. Atrophy of the muscles is sure to follow, which 
is the legitimate consequence of the neglect. To prevent this, 
begin using the stump as soon as it is thoroughly healed, when 
the adhesions are perfect, save atrophy, and put the muscles to 
their new use. Neuralgia of the stump is always sure to follow, 
or it may even antedate the withering away of the muscles for 
the want of proper use. Get a well-made, perfectly fitting limb, 
and you have at once removed the cause of nervous disturbances 
and the mental shock. You have added much to the person's 
ability to earn a livelihood. My experience is that artificial 
limbs are soon accepted, and soon used to advantage, and so much 
so that money would not induce the wearers to do without them. 
My advice is to get an artificial limb at the first practical moment, 
after the stump is perfectly healed." 

Dr. T. P. Smith, of Tacoma, Wash., says : " During the last 
fourteen years you have fitted a great ntimber of my patients 
with artificial limbs, and they have all given entire satisfaction. 
The proposition that a limb, whether a stump or whole, needs 
and is benefited by motion, is so self-evident as not to call for 
discussion; a stump becomes useless without it. 

" I am in the habit of using motion in all cases of fracture, 
as well as in all cases of amputation, to prevent atrophy of the 
muscles, and stiffening of the joints, and as soon as a stump, 
after amputation, is healed, I insist on applying an artificial 
limb. Until the limb comes, I insist on the patient doing the 
best he can toward exercising and using his stump. After the 
limb is adjusted he will naturally use it, and that will prevent the 
stump from becoming flabby and fat. 

" In conclusion, I will say that I know of no way to retain the 
use of a leg or arm, except it be early fitted with an artificial 
limb, and the sooner it is done the better. In spite of bandaging, 
and such motion and exercise as patients can give their stumps, 
they become large and flabby." 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 187 

Dr. Geo, E. Powell, La Crosse, Wis., writes : " We have liad your 
artificial limbs for twenty years and consider tliem the best made. 
We have never applied one that did not give satisfaction. Many 
arm stumps that were soft and doughy to the feel, became strik- 
ingly firm and vigorous with the use of artificial arms." 

Dr. Chas. F. Noe, of Amana, la., states : " I wish to say that in 
my experience a well-fitting artificial arm exercises a beneficial 
influence on the stump, due to the stimulus given to circulation 
and nutrition, and thus preventing stagnation from disuse." 

Dr. J. H. Sieling, of York, Pa., says : " The arm that you sent 
me recently has done more work than my fondest hopes expected; 
it has not only had a helping influence on my patient's stump, 
but adds greatly to his appearance. He is able to execute some 
very helpful acts with the elegant equipment; he eats, by its help, 
very artistically indeed. I am only too glad to add a word of 
commendation whenever opportunity offers." 

Carl M. Person, of Webster County, Neb., states : " I will write 
to you and let you know that my arm is all right. I have worn 
it every day since I got it, and have never been chafed or ex- 
perienced any inconvenience. The arra is useful as well as orna- 
mental. I find that the exercise my stump receives from it 
prevents those dull pains that I suffered from for so long a time, 
and I value it for this reason far more than the money it cost." 

William F. Starner, of Carroll County, Md., writes : " I have 
been wearing one of your artificial arms for about three years, and 
am well pleased with it. I can do most any kind of work. The 
arm exercises my stump, and keeps it in a more pleasant condi- 
tion." 

The utility to be derived from an artificial arm depends very 
largely upon the length of the stump, the strength of the 
muscles, and the aptitude of the wearer. The stump must be 
long in order to provide a lever with which to control the hand 
and forearm in lifting such articles as may be placed in the hand. 
Although the artificial arm is very light, the power to elevate it 
must come from the muscles in the arm and shoulder, and when 
the stump is very short, and the muscles weak, the utility of an 
artificial arm is lessened. But, notwithstanding these conditions, 
the artificial arm should be worn on the shortest of stumps. There 
are persons who have more aptitude than others, and perform feats 
under adverse conditions that are marvelous; some with short 
stumps do more than others with long ones. It is safe to say, how- 
ever, that any person, no matter how short a stump he may have, 
may, with patience and application, learn to operate an artificial 
arm, and derive a reasonable compensation from it. Ambition, 
application, and thoughtful effort will overcome many difficulties. 
If one person can learn to write quickly and legibly with an arti- 
ficial hand, why should not another? If one person can handle 
a farming implement, such as a hoe, rake, ax, or wheelbarrow, or 
a carpenter can drive his plane, hold a nail or carry tools, there 
is no reason why others should fail. 



CHAPTEE XIX 
WOODEN HANDS. EUBBER HANDS 

Old Methods. — ^During the first decade of our prothetical 
career (from 1853 to 1863), we manufactured mechanical hands, 
they were carved from wood with fingers jointed at the knuckles, 
controlled by straps operated by the shoulder. By a forward 
motion of the opposite arm, the strap would apply a pulling 
force to the artificial hand and force it to open. By relaxing, the 
strain on the strap would be released and the hand would close. It 
would seem as though a hand of this character would be useful and 
valuable, but when the invariableness of the spring tension, 
the oppressive harness to be worn, and the exertion required to 
operate the straps were considered, it was doubtful that the results 
obtained justified the means employed. 

New Methods. — In 1863 our attention was attracted to the 
utilization of rubber, the resilient nature of which appealed to us 
as being better adapted to the purposes of an artificial hand than 
harsh, unyielding wood or metal. The rubber hand was there- 
upon invented. It was cast in a mold made from the model of a 
natural hand, and it was attached to the end of the artificial fore- 
arm by means of a spindle. The fingers were flexible and would 
yield vinder pressure, having sufiicient elasticity and adhesion 
to hold light articles. It presented a natural appearance and was 
pleasant to the touch. It was far more durable than the wooden 
hand. It might fall or strike a hard object and would not 
break. It could be slipped from the socket and a hook, knife, 
fork, brush, ring or other implement put in its place. For a 
number of years this hand found many purchasers, and was 





Cut O 2. 



greatly admired. Improvements were suggested from time to 
time. 

Ductile Fingers. — A fortunate thought was that of changing 
the fingers from flexibility to ductility. Flexible fingers would 
move under pressure, but as soon as that pressure was released 

188 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 189 



they would return to the positions in which they were cast. The 
ductile fingers admit of change of position. The wearer can, by 
the opposite hand, or by pressing the fingers against some resist- 
ant object, change their positions from full extension to clinched. 
The hand with fingers partly closed is sufficiently firm to carry 
a valise or package. Cut O 1 represents the rubber hand partly 
closed. The dotted lines indicate the positions of extension and 
flexion in which the fingers can be bent. 

Palm Locks. — A lock embedded in the palm, shown in Cut O 2, 
receives and holds implements with firnmess. A hand brush, a 
knife and fork (as shown in Cut 3) can be thus placed and 
have the appearance of being grasped by the fingers. When it is 
required to carry articles of considerable weight for a great length 
of time a steel hook is slipped in the palm socket, and, concealed 
by the hand, it is held with sufficient strength to carry an article 
of one hundred pounds in weight. A knife or fork can be put in 
the same socket; the latter will hold a piece of meat while it is 
being cut with the opposite hand, and will convey food to the 
mouth. A brush placed in the palm lock can be used in washing 
the opposite hand. When it is desired to remove an implement 
a little pressure is applied to the button and the implement is 
released, and can easily be taken from the socket. 

Wrist Connections. — Rubber hands are attached to forearms 
by various methods. 

Cut O 3 represents the spindle method. A steel spindle is 
attached to the base of the hand, and made to fit a locking plate 
secured to the base of the forearm socket. The hand when so 
placed will rotate at the wrist if the wearer wishes. When it is 




fe-n;;Av;;-?:-:v.r;.;;^v.i!S| 



Cut O 3. 

desired to remove the hand a little pressure applied to a button 
will release the hold, it can then be taken from its place. When 
it is desired to prevent the hand from rotating a set screw is 
turned inwardly, and the hand is clamped firmly in one position. 
A variety of implements are illustrated in, the cuts O 4 to O 7, 
each can be placed in the forearm substituting the hand. 

Clamps. — ^Cut O 8 represents a new device for a wrist-joint con- 
nection, it is intended for a person who works at the bench. The 



190 A. A. Mar7cSj Artificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 



end of tlie forearm is made of aluminum, and provided with a 
sliding jaw operating as a vise. A cold chisel can be held firmly 
at any convenient angle, shown in Cut O 9 ; a saw-file can be used 
to advantage, as shown in Cut O 10. A jeweler's hammer, or in 
fact any implement with a handle not greater than % of an inch 
in diameter can thus be held in a thoroughly practical way. 
Flexion. — The mortise and tenon wrist connection is preferable 





Cut O 4. Cut O 5. 



Cut O 6. 



Cut O 7. 



Cut O 8. 



to any wrist mechanism that admits of flexion and extension. 
Cut O 11 represents this method. The mechanism consists of 
a series of interlaying strips, held together by a bolt, which forms 
the axis of motion. Rotation of the arm is obtained, when de- 




Cut O 9. 



Cut O 10. 



sired, by means of a bolt connection introduced immediately 
above the wrist joint. 

Cut O 12 represents the mortise and tenon connection, the hand 
flexed holding hook. Cut O 13 shows the hand extended, with 
fork held by the palm lock, the knife and other implements are 
held in the same way. 

For laborers who wish to obtain the greatest variety of prac- 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 191 



tical uses from artificial arms, the spindle connection at the wrist 
(Cut O 3) is preferable. This device admits of greater strength 
and enables the wearer to press the artificial hand against any 
object desired to be held in place. The mortise and tenon wrist 





Cut O 11. 



Cut 12. 



Cut 13. 



connection, illustrated in Cut O 11, is chosen by persons seeking 
ornament more than utility. 

When lightness is a paramount consideration it is advisable to 
have the hand permanently attached at the wrist. 

This method obviates any metal connection, and thereby lessens 
the weight. 

Spring Thumb. — We have a mechanical device by which the 
thumb can be made to move at its base, away from or toward the 
fingers. Cuts O 14 and O 15 represent the hand with the thumb ab- 




Cut O 14. 



ducted; this is effected by tension applied to a cord passing from 
the under side of the base of the hand upwardly to the elbow. Cut 
O 16 represents the hand with thumb pressed against the finger. 
As soon as the tension of the abductor cord is released, the thumb 
will be forced by a strong spring to press against the index and 
middle fingers. When the abductor cord is connected with the 



109 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



artificial arm above the elbow, the thumb will press against tho 
forefinger when the elbow is flexed, and will draw away from it 
when the elbow is extended, as shown in Cut O 16. The abductor 
cord may be carried up the arm, over the back, around the 
opposite shoulder, by which it will be controlled. When thus 




Cut O 15. 



Cut O 16. 



connected it is independent of elbow motion and is operatedl 
by a movement of the shoulder or contraction of the chest. 

As considerable mechanism is required in the spring thumb, 
the construction is more or less complicated, and we do not ad- 
vis© its selection except in special cases. In double amputations, 
when all dependence must be placed upon artificial means, spring 
thumbs are advantageous; but in single amputations they prove 
to be quite useless; the remaining natural hand becomes so 
adept that it performs about all the work that prior to the ampu- 
tation was performed by both hands. 

Gloves Always to Be Worn. — ^Artificial hands and parts of 
hands must be gloved at all times. This is necessary in order to 
conceal the fact that they are not real. Artificial hands, whether 
made of wood, rubber, or other material, may be modeled to the 
shape of nature, and have all the graceful lines, creases, and 
folds that are found in the natural hand.. 

They may be painted and tinted with artistic nicety, yet it is 
not possible to impart to them the characteristics which dis- 
tinguish nature from art. The natural hand has a different 
tint in the forenoon than it has in the afternoon; when the fingers 
are extended there are more creases in the skin than when they 
are flexed; when the hand is at labor it is broader and the 
muscles and blood vessels show with more prominence than when 
at repose. An artificial hand, no matter of what material it may 
be constructed, cannot possess this metamorphic power. It, 
therefore, must be concealed by a glove, otherwise it will be con- 
spicuous. 

Choice of Material for Sockets. — Sockets for artificial arms 
may be made of wood, leather, or aluminum, to suit the wishes of 
the purchaser. Makers of experience aife united on this point, 
and advocate the use of tough, light wood. Wood is capable of 
being worked into convenient shapes, which it will retain indefi,- 
nitely. It is lighter than any other material that can be used. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 193 

and when strengthened with rawhide is sufficiently strong for 
most purposes. It is also a non-conductor of heat, and when 
varnished does not absorb perspiration. The objection to leather 
is its flexibleness. While this may appear to be desirable, it is 
actually the cause of trouble. A socket that is flexible cannot 
be comfortable to wear, as it does not place the pressure at points 
of toleration; instead, it distributes it uniformly over the entire 
surface, causing pressure to come as much on sensitive parts as 
elsewhere. Leather absorbs perspiration, becomes foul and offen- 
sive, and imless extraordinary methods are used to keep it clean 
it will become hard and dead, it will crack and fall to pieces. 

Leather sockets are sometimes unavoidable; they will be spoken 
of in due course. 

Metal sockets are objectionable on account of their weight, 
liability to corrode from perspiration, and their disposition to 
hold heat. When arms are to be made for persons who work 
in water, such as dyers, laundrymen, fishermen, oystermen, etc., 
it will be necessary to use metal, such as aluminum, which re- 
ceives no injury from exposure to moisture free from salt. 

A rubber hand permanently attached to an aluminum socket will 
provide a useful, resistant, and durable arm, and when frequently 
cleaned and coated on the inside with sweat-proof enamel or paint- 
will last a, great many years. 



CHAPTER XX 

PARTIAL HAND AMPUTATIONS 

The loss of a finger may be lamentable, but it cannot be con- 
sidered a serious impairment. The remaining fingers as a rule 
are competent to perform all the labors that are usually demanded 
of the complete hand. Yet there are times when the substitution 




Cut PI. 



Cut P 3. 



Cut P 3. 



Cut P 4. 



of a lost finger is essential, either for cosmetic effect or to equip 
the hand for some special purpose; for example, playing the 
piano, or other musical instrument. 

The Loss op One Finger. — Cuts P 1 to P 6 represent hands 
from which one finger has been removed. An artificial finger 




Cut P 5. 



Cut P 6. 



Cut P 7. 



Cut P 8. 



similar in appearance to that illustrated in Cut P 9 meets the 
needs of each case. The loss of the thumb, far more than of a 
finger, impairs the usefulness of the hand. It is, therefore, more 
important to substitute that loss. Cuts P Y and P 8 represent 

194 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirnbs, New York City. 195 

hands from which the thumb has been removed. An artificial 
thumb similar to that shown in Cut P 10 is suitable for such 
cases. 

Materials. — Artificial fingers and thumbs are made of rubber, 




Cut P 9. 



Cut P 10. 



aluminum, or silver. Rubber is preferable, if flexibility is desired; 
aluminum is better, if lightness is the most important feature; 




Cut P 11. 



Cut P 13. 



Cut P 13. 



Cut P 14. 



silver has the greatest durability. The price is the same for each. 
When ordering send a plaster cast of both the mutilated and op- 




Cut P 15. 



Cut P 16. 



Cut P 17. 



Cut P 18. 



posite hand, one is required for fitting, and the other as a guide 
in shaping the outside to correspond with its mate on the opposite 
hand. If the stump, either finger or thumb, is very short, it will be 
necessary to hold th© substitute in place by straps passing around 



196 A. A. MarJcSj, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



the base of the hand, or by a glove. If the stump is long, the 
substitute will remain in place without additional support. 

It is important that the artificial part should be covered at all 
times by a glove, as it is not possible to give it the characteristics 
of nature closely enough to defy detection. 

The Loss of Two or More Fingers. — Cuts P 11 to P 22 repre- 
sent hands from which two or more fingers have been removed. 






Cut P 19. 



Cut P 20. 



Cut P 21. 



Cut P 22. 



An artificial part for any of these cases consists of rubber fingers 
attached to a socket that incases the remaining part of the natural 
hand. This is essential in order to hold the fingers together and 
provide means for securing them to the stump. 

Cut P 23 represents an artificial hand devised to supply the 
amputation of index and small fingers. Cut P 24 represents 







Cut P 23. 



Cut P 24. 



Cut P 25. 



Cut P 26. 



an artificial hand suitable for use when the index, middle, 
and small fingers are amputated. Cut P 25 shows an ar- 
tificial part to substitute the loss of middle and ring fingers. 
Cut P 26 represents an artificial hand, suitable for a palm 
amputation, in which the natural thumb remains. The fingers 
in all the above hands are made ductile, rigid, or flexible, 
according to the choice of the wearer. For those who do little 
yvork and wish to combine ornament with utility, the ductile 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 197 



fingers should be chosen. For a laboring person, who "wishes to 
lift heavy weights and do hard work, the rigid fingers are better. 
And for those who wear artificial fingers and parts of hands for 
ornamental purposes only, the flexible fingers give the greatest 
satisfaction. 

Individual Fingers. — ^Where the amputation of one or more 
fingers has been made at the first or second joint, it will not be 



k- 4 





Cut P 27. 



Cut P 28. 



Cut P 29. 



Cut P 30. 



necessary to have the artificial fingers connected at their base; 
separate fingers, as represented in Cut P 9, can be used. 

Amputations that have been made in the palms of hands are 
capable of prothetic treatment, giving natural appearances to the 
mutilated members as closely as conditions will admit. If the 
remaining part of the hand provides a stump that will control 
the artificial part, a considerable amount of utility can be looked 





Cut P 31. 



Cut P 32. 



Cut P 33. 



Cut P 34. 



for; but if the stump is of such a character as to offer little or no 
leverage by which the artificial parts can be controlled, scarcely 
anything beyond ornament can be assured. 

Construction. — The hand below the fingers is made of rubber, 
combined with canvas and leather, providing a socket for the 
remaining part of the amputated member; this is laced on line 
with the palm. If the remaining thumb is greatly abducted, as 
shown in Cuts P 19 and P 20, caused by the weakening of the 
flexor muscles, it will be difficult to apply an artificial part that 



198 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



will possess more than an approximate approach to nature in 
appearance. It will, nevertheless, materially improve the hand 
and add to its utility. 

When amputations remove the thumb, as well as the fingers, as 
shown in Cuts P 27 to P 37, the artificial hand required will re- 
semble that shown in Cut P 38. This hand is similar in construc- 
tion to that previously described. 

It must be noted that on account of the stump occupying the 






Cut P 35. 



Cut P 36. 



Cut P 37. 



Cut P 38. 



interior of the artificial palm, there can be no mechanism in the 
hand. When it is desired to have an appliance connected with the 
artificial part that will hold implements of utility, rings passing 
over the fingers, or plates riveted to the palms, must be used. 
These are only furnished when they are especially requested at the 
time the order is placed. 



CHAPTER XXI 

WEIST-JOINT AMPUTATIONS 
When a hand is amputated at the wrist articulation, the uhiar 






Cut Q 1. Cut Q 2. Cut Q 3. 

and radial (or styloid) processes are sometimes trimmed off, and 






CutQ4. CutQ5. CutQ6. Cut Q 7. 

sometimes left as they are, as these prominences form means by 
which the artificial part can be held firmly to the stump. 

199 



200 A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



Flat Ends. — Cuts Q 1 to Q 7 represent amputations in the 
wrist, in which the styloid prominences of the uhia and radius 




Cut Q 8. 



Cut Q 9. 



Cut Q 10. 



Cut Q 11. 



are present. These stumps require artificial arms constructed on 
the plan shown in Cut Q 8. The hand is of rubber, with ductile 
fingers, a locking arrangement is imbedded in the palm, as 



-,-f 




Cut Q 12. 



Cut Q 13. 



Cut Q 14. 



Cut Q 15. 



described. The hand is permanently secured to a leather socket, 
which is formed on a cast of the stump. The arm thus con- 
structed is then placed on the stump and laced down the frontal 
line. Implements for the table, working, and for washing, etc., 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 201 



can be placed in the palm, where they will be held firmly. Cuts 
Q 9, Q 10, and Q 11 show the various implements in place. 

Tapering Ends. — When the styloid prominences have been 
removed and the stump becomes a tapering one, as shown in Cuts 
Q 12 to Q 15, an artificial arm constructed on the plan of that 




Cut Q 16. 

represented in Cut Q 16 must be used. This arm is practically 
the same as that shown in Cut Q 8, with the exception that it is 
supplied with attachments that go above the elbow and connect 
with suspenders resting on the shoulders and passing around the 
body. These are essential to keep the arm from slipping off the 
tapering stump. Useful implements can be held in the hand, as 
shown in Cuts Q 9, Q 10, Q 11. 



CHAPTER XXII 

FOEEAEM AMPUTATIONS 

When an amputation has been performed at any point bt^-jreen 
the elbow and wrist, the stump that remains is called a lorearm, 
or radial stump. Cuts E. 1 to E, 6 represent forearm stumps of a 
variety of lengths and conditions. The most suitable artificial 
arm for an amputation of any of the above is illustrated in Cut 
E 7. The socket is of wood, leather, or metal, as may be welected, 
shaped interiorly to receive the stump in the most accomrhodating 




Cut R 1. 



Cut R 2. 



way. The outside is given the contours of the natural arm as 
closely as conditions will admit, it is then covered with rawhide 
and enameled a natural tint. 

Leather Elbow Joints. — The arm being intended for a long 
radial stump, the connection with the upper arm piece (incasing 
the muscle part) is of flexible leather, so as to permit a great 
range of motion ; being adjustable, it can be tightened or loosened, 
as required; it is absolutely noiseless and very strong; being 
flexible, it admits of rotation of the forearm. The hand is of 

202 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 203 





Cut R 3. 



Cut R 4. 




Cut R 5. 




rubber, with ductile fingers, as heretofore described. The con- 
nection at the wrist is by the spindle or the mortise and tenon 
method, or the hand can be permanently attached. 



204 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

The part incasing the arm above the elbow is made of leather, 
with suitable straps for regulating pressure. Shoulder straps and 




Cut R 7. 




'^■^-' ) 



Cut R 8. 




Cut R 9. 




Cut R 10. 



suspenders are attached to the upper part of this section. 

Arms of this construction are thoroughly available for stumps 
below the elbow five or more inches in length. 



A. A. MarJcs, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 205 

It is sometimes desirable in long radial stumps to secure the 
arms by a narrow strap above the elbow instead of by the long 




Cut R 13. 



leather muscle part. Cut R 8 represents an arm of this character. 
This method of attachment is adequate when the artificial arm is 




Cut R 13. 

not used for carrying heavy articles or in performing laborious 
work. 

Steel Elbow Joints. — ^Radial stumps that are shorter than five 
inches, as shown in Cuts E 9 to R 12, require a firmer method of 
securing the stump socket to the upper-arm part than the leather 



206 A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 

joint above described. Cut E 13 represents an artificial arm 
constructed practically the same as R 7, differing in tbe elbow 
joint. Steel hinge joints are used instead of leather. While 
there is less freedom in the elbow movement, the steel joints place 
the arm under firmer control of the stump. 

Short Stumps. — This arm is, as a rule, made with hand perma- 
nently attached, in order to minimize weight. When an amputa- 
tion below the elbow leaves a stump so short that when flexed the 




Cut R 14. 

projection beyond the line of the upper arm is insufficient to 
control the movements of the elbow, it must be treated the same 
as an amputation in the elbow joint, as described in the follow- 
ing chapter. 

Arms without Hands. — Peg arms for radial stumps are of 
several kinds, made of wood, leather, or aluminum; they are 
practically artificial arms without hands. Cut R 14 represents a 
peg arm without long muscle part or suspenders. Cut R 15 shows 
a peg arm with long muscle part and suspenders; both the 




Cut R 15. 



above peg arms are constructed in the same manner as those here- 
tofore described, the absence of the hand is the only difference. 
Farming, shop, and other implements can be devised for specific 
purposes and held in the ends of the forearms. 

Suspenders. — Cut E 16 represents a suspender suitable for an 
arm for a radial amputation. Suspenders must be renewed occa- 
sionally, according to the demands that are made upon them by 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 207 

the wearer. If the arm is used by a laboring person and he per- 
spires very freely, a new suspender will be required more fre- 
quently than if less destructive conditions prevail. The suspender 
can be procured independent of other parts. It consists of a 




Cut R 16. 



plate of leather shaped to rest on top of the shoulder and fit close 
to the neck. A webbing strap passes around the body under the 
opposite arm and buckles to the suspender in front. 



CHAPTEE XXIII 

ELBOW-JOINT AMPUTATIONS 
Amputations in or immediately below the elbow joints, leaving 




stumps so short they cannot be availed of in controlling the arti- 




Cut S 2. 

ficial elbow joint, require artificial arms of special construction. 

208 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 209 



The presence of the condyles, or bony prominences, affords an 
opportunity for fitting that will secure firmness without employing 
shoulder straps, or, if not dispensing with them entirely, simplify- 
ing them very materially. 

Short Radial Stumps. — Cut S 1 represents an amputation a 
little below the elbow joint, but very close to it, leaving a stump 
so short that it cannot be utilized. A suitable arra is illustrated 
in Cuts S 2 and S 3. This arm is especially designed for an 
amputation through the elbow joint. 

Construction. — The forearm is made of wood, shaped to the 
contours and dimensions of the natural arm, excavated to receive 





Cut S 3. 



Cut S 4. 



Cut S 5. 



the stump properly and to reduce weight, covered with rawhide 
to obtain strength, and finished in enamel. The hand is of 
rubber, attached to the forearm by either of the methods hereto- 
fore described. The palm is provided with a locking arrange- 
ment that will hold implements of utility. The elbow joint is of 
the ginglymoid pattern and is operated by a flexion strap under 
control of the opposite shoulder. The elbow joint is provided with 
a locking arrangement that will hold the arm in flexed position 
when desired. The socket receives the stump, which, on account 



210 A. A. Marks J Artificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 

of its enlarged extremity, is inserted from the front and held by- 
lacing. Cut S 3 represents an artificial arm practically the same 
as an S 2, except that the stump is placed in the socket from the 
rear instead of the front. Cut S 4 represents the same with the 
hand slipped off and a hook inserted in the end of the forearm. 
This can only be done when the arm is so constructed that the 
hand is connected with the forearm by the spindle attachment. 
In style S 3 the upper section is made entirely of leather, formed 
on a cast of the stump, modified as the conditions require. 

Arms without Hands. — ^Peg arms for elbow-joint amputations 
are found useful for laboring purposes. Cut S 5 gives the 
simplest form. It is without articulation at the elbow. It 
receives the stump from the front and is held in place by lacing; 
it may be made of wood, leather, or aluminum. When made of 
wood it is strengthened with rawhide and enameled. The end of 
the socket is provided with a wrist plate for holding useful imple- 
ments. When the conditions of the stump require, a suspender 
is provided which rests on top of the shoulder and held in place 
by a strap passing around the body under the opposite arm. The 
arm, as shown in the cut, is usually made slightly bent at the 
elbow and approximately the length of the opposite arm. When 
elbow-joint motion is required it becomes the same as S 4, with- 
out a hand. 

Suspenders are the same as those used on arms for above-elbow 
stumps. 



CHAPTER XXIV 



ABOVE-ELBOW AMPUTATIONS 



An amputation at any point between the shoulder and elbow 
produces what is known by surgeons as a humeral stump. Cuts 
T 1 and T 2 are fair examples. 




Cut T 1. 




Artificial arms suitable for humeral stumps are usually provided 
with artificial elbow articulations, which are flexed and extended 
by a swing of the body or by the contraction of the shoulders. 




Cut T 3. 



Cut T 3 represents such an arm extended at the elbow, and Cut 
T 4 represents it with the elbow joint flexed. 

This arm is usually constructed of wood, shaped to the con- 

211 



212 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

tours and dimensions of the opposite arm, excavated to reduce 
weight, covered with rawhide to add strength, and enameled a 
flesh-like tint. The hand is of rubber, attached to the forearm by 
either of the methods heretofore described. The palm is pro- 
vided with a locking arrangement for holding laboring, eating, 
and other useful implements. The joints at the elbow are of a 




Cut T 4. 

substantial character, combined with an attachment that will hold 
the forearm at one or more desired angles. 

Elbow Lock. — The locking arrangement is released by pressure 
applied to button protruding from the under side of the forearm. 
Suitable suspender is represented in Cut T 5. This can be 
renewed, as occasion may require. By an ingenious attachment 
rotation of the elbow is obtained when length of stump will 
permit. 

Peg arms for upper-arm amputations are of several kinds. Cut 
T 6 represents the least expensive. It is usually made of wood, 
excavated to receive the stump properly and to reduce weight, and 




Cut T 6. 



shaped on the outside to have the form and dimensions of the 
opposite arm. The end of the socket is provided with a catch 
that will hold implements of utility. This arm is partly flexed 
and immovable at the elbow, as it is found to be more convenient 
that way. If a peg arra with elbow-joint motion is wanted, it 
becomes the same as T 4 without a hand. 



CHAPTER XXV 

SHOULDEE-JOINT AMPUTATIONS 

Amputations that are made in the shoulder joints leave short 
muscle stumps or no stumps at all. They require artificial arms 
the same as when amputations are between the elbow and shoul- 
der joints. 

Cut U 1 represents a shoulder- joint amputation, leaving a 
muscle stump. Cut U 2 shows a shoulder-joint amputation with 





Cut U 1. 



A.A, MARKS. N.:V. 



Cut U 2. 



no stump, and Cut U 3 represents a congenital malformation, the 
clavicle turned upward at its extremity, affording a knob, or 
prominence, on which an artificial arm can be securely adjusted. 

An artificial arm constructed on the plan of that represented in 
Cut U 5 is suitable for any of the above cases. The manner in 
which it is applied and held by body strap is shown in Cut U 4. 

Artificial arms are quite necessary in shoulder amputations or 

213 



214 A. A. MarJcSj Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



malformations; they keep the shoulders in position, restore sym- 
metry to the body, and provide a raeans for assisting the other 




Cut U 3. 




Cut U 4. 



arm. By a shrug of the shoulder, the artificial arm is thrown 
forward, the flexion strap is contracted, and the elbow bends. 

Young persons become very dexterous in manipulating arms 
under these conditions; they have been known to operate them 
so skillfully that few persons ever suspect the arms to be artificial. 




Cut U 5. 



Artificial arms for shoulder-joint amputations are constructed 
essentially the same as those for amputations between the elbows 
and shoulders. In addition to the usual stump socket there is a 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 215 

pad that runs well above the top and over the shoulder, resting 
on the shoulder close to the neck. The stump is held in position 
by a strap passing around the body under the opposite arm. The 
elbow joint admits of flexion and extension, and is provided with 




Cut U 6. 

a locking arrangement that will hold it at right angles. The 
attachment can be released by pressure applied to a press-button 
immediately under the forearm. Cuts U 6 and U 7 represent the 
arm flexed at right and oblique angles. 




Cut U 7. 



Peg arms for shoulder-joint amputations are practically the 
same as those for above-elbow amputations, and are described 
in previous chapter. 



CHAPTER XXVI 

DOUBLE AKM AMPUTATIONS 

The amputation of both arms is a deplorable loss and presents 
the strongest appeal to the artificial limb maker. The subject is 
absolutely dependent upon others unless artificial arms are applied. 
He is neither able to feed himself, prepare his food, dress himself, 
or perform labor of any kind. Something must be done to better 
his unfortunate condition. If not, he is obliged to remain depend- 
ent upon some kindly disposed friend or relative. Anything that 





Cut V 1. 



Cut V 2. 



will help him in his condition, no matter how little, will be a 
benefit and will materially lessen the burden on others. 

Cut V 1 represents the amputation of both forearms, leaving 
stumps that are long and powerful. Cut V 2 represents double 
forearm amputations, stumps short. Cut V 3 shows artificial 
arms applied. Artificial arms, under control of long and power- 
ful stumps, will enable the wearer to prepare his food at the 
table, convey it to his mouth, perform labor of a great variety, 
carry articles of considerable weight, write a legible hand, open 
and close a door, and attend to the adjustment of his own attire 

316 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 217 




Cut V 5. 



Cut V 6. 



to a reasonable degree. Wlien the stumps are short, the range of 
utility is correspondingly lessened. 



218 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



The use of spring thumbs is always desirable in double arm 
amputations, and unless otherwise instructed, we assume that 
they are wanted and construct the hands accordingly. 

Cut V 4 represents double arm amputations, one immediately 
above the wrist, and the other above the elbow. Cut V 5 repre- 
sents similar cases, with artificial arms applied. 

Cut V 6 represents amputations of the right hand at the wrist 
and the left arm at the shoulder. A pair of artificial arms were 
applied to this case with gratifying results. 

The right artificial arm was under control of the natural elbow. 
The left was secured to the stump by straps with a locking attach- 
ment at the elbow and clamp at the wrist. Considerable labor 





Cut V 7. 



Cut V 8. 



was capable of being performed by the right, the left arm depend- 
ing upon a strap passing around the body for flexion and exten- 
sion of the elbow. 

Cut V 7 represents a young man with both arms amputated 
above the elbows, the result of a railroad accident. Cut V 8 
shows him with a pair of artificial arms applied. As may be 
surmised, the arms were of very limited use, but, nevertheless, 
they mitigated his affliction to a compensating degree. By the 
working of his right shoulder, he was able to bring the artificial 
forearm to right angles. In this position it would remain, pro- 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 219 

viding a means by which articles could be laid on the forearm 
and carried. His left arm could be flexed by means of the stump, 
which was long and powerful. When at extension, a pail, basket, 
or valise could be carried, and other services performed. The 
arms rescued him from a life of absolute idleness. 

Cut V 9 represents a man who, while attending his duties on a 
railroad, was overtaken by a severe storm, and before he could 
reach shelter, both feet and hands were frozen. It was necessary 
to amputate the right hand between the thumb and wrist and the 
left at the base of the fingers and thumb. The great toe was 
removed from the right foot, and left leg amputated a little above 




Cut V 9. 



Cut V 10. 



the ankle. The same cut shows a pair of artificial hands and an 
artificial left leg suitable for the case. Cut V 10 represents the 
limbs applied. Each hand had moving thumbs, which were con- 
nected with levers, operated by the forearm. When the stumps 
were flexed the levers would force the thumbs against the index 
and middle fingers. When the stumps were extended this pressure 
was released, and the thumb was permitted to withdraw. An 
artificial leg was applied to the left side. By these appliances 
this person was rendered capable of earning his livelihood. 



CHAPTER XXVII 

APPLIANCES POE DEFOEMITIES, EXCISIONS, 
WEAKENED JOINTS, ETC. 



In cases of ununited fractures of either bone of the forearm or 
of the elbow joint or upper arm, it is necessary to apply a brace 
constructed upon durable lines and capable of being removed and 
readjusted as conditions require. Cut W 1 shows an apparatus 
for an ununited fracture. The forearm and muscle parts are con- 




Cut W 1. 

structed of material sufficiently firm to serve the purpose. They 
are connected by articulating joints that work in harmony with 
the elbow, or supply the elbow motion; the parts are adjustable by 
lacing, they hold the bones in place and give strength and firmness 




Cut W 2. 

to the fractured member. Cut W 2 represents an apparatus for 
elbow-joint resection or for dislocated shoulder joint. The forearm 
and muscle parts are made of suitable material and are connected 
by steel joints. The muscle part is provided with a hood, which 




Cut W 3. 



Cut W4. 



Cut W 5. 



rests comfortably upon the shoulder. When necessary, a strap 
connected with the hood is passed around the body, holding the 
appliance firmly in place. 

220 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 221 

Cut W 3 represents a hand mutilation, the subject being a 
sailor, requiring an appliance that would enable him to hold a 
rope, tie a knot, climb the shrouds, and carry articles about a 
vessel. Cut W 4 represents a socket composed of canvas, rubber. 






Cut W 6. 



Cut W 7. 



Cut W 8. 



and leather, formed to fit the mutilated hand, with apertures to 
admit the passage of the remaining fingers; a steel, flattened hook 
was riveted between the apertures. Cut W 5 represents the 
apparatus applied, which proved to be useful and satisfactory. 









Cut W 9. 



Cut W 10, Cut W 11. 



Cut W 12. 



There are many cases of deformities, resections, etc., of the 
upper extremities that can be treated practically the same as 
amputations. They require artificial parts that incase the weak- 
ened members and strengthen them. 



222 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New YorJc City. 

Hands and parts of hands are attached to malformed members 
so as to correct the deformity and supply the want to a degree 
sufficient to make the remaining parts useful. Cut W 6 represents 
a deformity of the forearm, the elbow joint possessing normal 
conditions. This deformity case was treated as an amputation 
below the elbow, adjustments to meet the peculiarities of the 






Cut W 13. 



Cut W 14. 



Cut W 15. 



Cut W 16. 



stump. Cut W 7 represents a deformity of elbow joint and fore- 
arm, a very slight movement remaining in the elbow, the forearm 
terminating in an enlargement. An artificial arm, constructed 
similar to one for wrist-joint amputation, was made and applied. 

Cuts W 8 to W 20 represent congenital deformities of the 
hands. 

In these cases, the conditions being somewhat similar to ampu- 






Cut W 17. 



Cut W 18. 



Cut W 19. 



Cut W 20. 



tations, artificial hands for partial hand amputations, as illus- 
trated and described in Chapter XX., were applied. 

Cut W 21 represents a European prince of distinguished line- 
age. When an infant, he fell from his nurse's arms, paralysis of 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Liinbs, New York City. 223 

the right arm followed. As he grew to manhood, the affected 
member grew in length, but failed to develop in size. It was lirap 
and useless. In 1893 he came to us, and, upon examination, we 
found that the entire right side of the thorax was undeveloped, 
and that an artificial arm could be applied without producing 
noticeable disproportion. The case was treated the same as a 
shoulder- joint amputation, and an arm constructed accordingly 
was attached outside the withered member. The supporting part 
covered a great area of the shoulder, chest, and back; this held 




Cut W 21. 



Cut W 32. 



Cut W 23. 



the artificial arm in place, as shown in Cut W 22. In dressing, 
the withered arm was (as had always been the custom) permitted 
to rest close to the body, the clothing^was placed between the 
artificial and the withered arm, and, when dressed, the prince 
presented an appearance that was beyond criticism, as shown in 
Cut W 23. 



CHAPTER XXVIII 
AKM IMPLEMENTS 

Implements for artificial arms are of endless variety: hooks, 
knives, forks, clevises, claw-hooks, pincers, clamp rings, are a 
few of the many devices that have been made for persons whose 
occupations demand something aside from the usual line. Each 
arm we make is supplied with a hook, knife, fork, and brush. 
These are included in the cost. Additional implements are fur- 
nished when desired, and if a customer desires one made to order 
for any r.-pecial purpose, we will gladly make it for him. Our 
charges for the same will be moderate. 

Cut X 1 represents a table knife. Cut X 2 a table fork. Cut 
X 3 a hand or nail brush; these are fitted to slip in the palm of 




XI. X 2. X 3. 




hand or in the end of the forearm. They are of great assistance 
at the table and in washing the opposite hand. 

Cuts X 4 and X 5 are hooks to be carried in the palm of the 
hand or in the end of the forearm. They are made with straight 
shanks, so that they can be received in the palm, are of two sizes, 
large and small, as shown in the illustrations. 

Cut X 6 is a round hook, to be used in the end of the forearm. 
The curved back prevents it being placed in the pahn of the hand. 
Cut X 7 is a claw hook, to be used in the end of the forearm. 
One part is made with two prongs and the other with one; it can 

224 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 225 

be opened, closed, and set. This device enables a mechanic to 
clasp a tool with firmness. 

Cuts X 8 and X 9 show rings which can be placed in the end 
of the forearm. One is immovably attached to the shank, and the 
other is loose; either is serviceable for mechanics and farmers. 
Through the ring the handle of a tool, or farm implement, can 
slide, while the tool is directed by the opposite hand. 

Cut, X 10 shows a clevis to be used for holding shop or farm- 
ing implements. A quarter-inch hole must first be bored through 
the handle of the tool to be held, then the pivot pin unscrewed 
and the clevis placed over the handle, the pivot pin passed through 
one tine of the clevis, through the hole in the handle, and then 




Cut X 8. 



Cut X 9. 



Cut X 10. 



Cut X 11. 



Cut X 12. 



screwed into the other tine. This will hold the tool in an accom- 
modating way, and permit it to swivel. 

Cut X 11 shows a light laboring implement, somewhat on the 
order of pinchers, to be used in the end of the forearm. The jaws 
are opened by a leather strap running up the arm, connecting 
with the opposite shoulder. When the artificial arm is extended 
the strap is pulled upon, and the jaws of the pinchers open. 
When the arm is flexed the pull on the strap is released, and the 
spring in the handle of the pinchers forces the jaws together, 
holding whatever may be placed between them. 

Cut X 12 shows a similar implement combined with a hook. 



CHAPTER XXIX 
UTILITY 

Although claim is not made that an artificial arm possesses 
functions comparable to those of the natural, it is contended that 
a reasonable and a compensating amount of utility is assured. 

The wholesome effect an arm has on the stump, that of keeping 
it in a healthy and vigorous condition, protecting it from injuries, 
forcing it into healthful activity, together with its ornamental 
aspect, are sufficient reasons for wearing one, even if utility is 
totally ignored. 

As before stated, there are persons who have more aptitude than 



ftfs^rTsa 




Cut Y 1. 



others. Some with very short stumps do more than others with 
long ones. 

Notwithstanding how short a stump may be, there is always a 
possibility of its controlling an artificial arm to advantage. If 
one person can use an arm on a short and difficult stump, there 
is hope that every person can do likewise, no matter what length 
or kind of stump he may have. 

A few cases are presented, to give some idea of the scope of 
the value of artificial arms from the utility point of view. 

226 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 227 







One of our lady patrons is an amanuensis. While she is holding 
and guiding a pen with her rubber hand, she is keeping the paper 
from sliding on the desk with her natural hand. She writes 




Cut Y 4. 



quickly and legibly and earns her livelihood by that employment. 
Cut Y 1 represents her at the desk. 

One ol oui patrons, a physician, who is engaged in general 
country practice, wearing an artificial arm for amputation below 



228 A. A. MarTcSj Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

the elbow, finds his rubber hand convenient and valuable in hold- 
ing the reins of his horse while driving. (See Cut Y 2.) 

Mr. Woolley, of Ohio, is a ticket agent at a railroad station. 




Cut Y 5. 



He has held the position for a number of years to the satisfaction 
of the company. He holds tickets in his natural hand while he 
operates the stamp and dating machine with the rubber one. 
(See Cut Y 3.) 




Cut Y 6. 



Cut Y 7. 



W. G. Bray, of Dunklin County, Mo., lost his arm below the 
elbow some years ago. He has worn an artificial one since. He 
is a clerk in a store and has to handle all kinds of heavy mer- 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 229 

chandise. He handles a wheelbarrow to advantage. (See Cut 
Y 4.) 

Cut Y 5 represents a customer who uses his rubber hand in row- 
ing a boat; he is a fai'mer, located on the banks of a river, and 
finds it necessary to cross the stream frequently. 

l^^'Eljr, of Windham County, Conn,, has no difficulty in work- 
ing WT^tii;. -^her laborers and earning laborer's wages, although he 
has to^'^ a great amount of work with the pickax. His right 
arm is artificial. (See Cut Y 6.) 

A physician in Michigan writes that his patient, for whom he 
bought an artificial arm, has learned to operate the key of his 




Cut Y 8. 



Cut Y 9. 



telegraph apparatus very skillfully with his rubber hand. (See 
Cut Y 7.) 

The accompanying Cut Y 8 portrays a railroad conductor who 
wears an artificial arm and holds the ticket in his rubber hand 
while he operates the punch with the other. 

A patron, residing in Providence, wears an artificial arm on a 
short shoulder stump; he could not be induced to do without it; 
it exercises his shoulder, improves his appearance. He finds the 
rubber hand a great convenience in holding cards while playing 
whist, a game he is greatly attached to. (See Cut Y 9.) 



CHAPTER XXX 

DIKECTIONS FOE TAKING MEASUEEMENTS FOE ONE 
OE A PAIE OF AETIFICIAL AEMS. 

Place a sheet of paper (about twenty or thirty inches) on a 
smooth table, remove all clothing from the upper part of the 
body, and place both arm and stump on this paper at full length. 
Be sure that the edge of the paper presses closely against the 
chest. Pass a long pencil down the inside of the arm (Cut Z 1), 
around the fingers, and up the outside to the shoulder. Then pass 
the pencil around the amputated side, from body around end of 
stump, and up to the shoulder (Cut Z 2). Bend the elbow of the 
sound arm to about right angles, mark from the shoulder around 
the elbow, down the forearm, around the hand, up the inside 




Cut Z 1. 



Cut Z 2. 



to the shoulder (Cut Z 3). Bend the elbow of the amputated arm 
to right angles and mark around it, from the shoulder to the end 
of the stump (Cut Z 4). If these diagrams are correctly made, 
they will resemble Cuts Z 5, Z 6, Z 7, and Z 8. 

With a tape line- measure the distance from the point of 
shoulder to the point of elbow of the sound arm, also the distance 
from the armpit to the bend of elbow (indicated by dotted lines 
in Cut Z 7). Measure the distance from the point of the shoulder 
to the point of the elbow of amputated arm, also the distance 
from the armpit to the bend of elbow. Give the circumference of 
each arm at points two inches apart, beginning close to the body. 
These circumferences are represented by dotted lines A, B, C, D, 

230 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 231 

E, and F of sound arm, and the dotted lines A, B, C, D, E, F, 
G, and H in the diagram of the stump (Cut Z 5). Then give the 
circumference of the hand at the base of the thumb, the circum- 
ference of the pahn at the base of the fingers, the circumference 





Cut Z 3. 



Cut Z 4. 



of the thumb at the first joint, represented by dotted lines G, H, 
and I (Cut Z 5). 

If one arm is amputated in or above the elbow, the diagrams 




Cut Z 5. 



Cut Z 8. 



and measurements of the sound arm called for by Cuts Z 5 and 
Z 6 are required, and only one diagram of the stump, together 
with circumferences at places two inches apart, the distance from 



232 



'A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 



point of the shoulder to the point of the stump and from arm- 
pit to the point of the stump are also required. 

If both arms are amputated above the elbow, diagrams of each 
stump, and the distances from the point of each shoulder to the 
point of each stump, and from armpit to the point of each stump 
are required, also the circumferences of each taken at points two 
inches apart. 

If both arms are amputated below the elbows, the diagrams and 
measurements may be taken as suggested by Cuts Z 6 and Z 8. 

All amputations in the shoulders, elbows, or wrists, or in the 
hands, leave extremities that are bony, more or less sensitive, 
requiring very exact fitting. Such stumps should be reproduced 
in plaster. 

Answers to the following questions should be attached to the 
blank and forwarded with every order: Name of patient? Post- 
office address ? Occupation ? Age ? Cause of amputation ? When 
was amputation performed? Which arm amputated? Has the 
patient worn an artificial arm? If so, whose make? Name of 




llssi 



Cut Z 10. 



party ordering? His address? Is the arm to be made and fitted 
from measurements in the absence of the wearer? To what ad- 
dress shall it be shipped? 

Plaster casts of arm stumps are only required in amputations in 
the wrists, elbows, shoulders, and in the hands, and in other cases 
when there are peculiarities that cannot be clearly indicated by 
the diagrams. A dentist, wax flower maker, or plaster statuette 
maker is familiar with the manipulation of plaster, and if one is 
available he should be employed for the purpose. The operation, 
however, of taking a plaster cast is not difficult, and can be done 
by almost any person. 

The simplest method is as follows: Remove all clothing, shave 
aw^y all hair, or stick it down with glue, paste, thick plaster, or 
thick soap. Theil place about two quarts of plaster of Paris 
in a basin containing one quart of water, stir it up thoroughly, 
so that the plaster will become pasty. Then spread it upon the 
stump, until it is entirely covered with at least one-half an inch 
in thickness. The stump should be kept very quiet until the 



'A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirnbs, New York City. 233 

plaster has become hard, at which time it can be withdrawn, and 
the plaster will form a mold of the stump. This can be sent to us, 
or, if preferred, the inside can be greased and filled up with 
slaked plaster of Paris, which, when hard, can be taken from 
the mold. 

If the end of the stump is large, or if there are prominences on 
the stump, it will be necessary to make the mold in two parts, so 
that they can be separated when hard, and the stump removed. 
The simplest way is to spread a little slaked plaster on the 
table, lay the stump upon it, pressing it down until it sinks half 
way into the plaster (see Cut Z 9). Then lay pieces of thin, wet 
paper all over the exposed surfaces of the plaster. Then pour and 




Cut Z 11. 



Cut Z 13. 



spread plaster on the top of the stump (Cut Z 10). Let the plaster 
run down the sides on the paper. The stump should be covered 
with at least one-half inch in thickness. When it has become thor- 
oughly hard, the piece of paper will permit the plaster to separate 
and the stump can be withdrawn. The mold thus produced can 
be sent to us, or, if preferred, a plaster facsimile of stump can 
be made from it, by first speading oil or grease in the mold, then 
placing the two parts together, tying them by a string; then mix 
plaster of Paris to about the thickness of cream and pour it 
inside the mold. When this has become hard, the mold can be 
separated and the cast withdrawn. 



ahms fitted from measurements 

Artificial arms can, as a rule, be fitted from measurements and 
diagrams, while the wearers remain at home. The same reasons 
that are given for fitting artificial legs from measurements apply 
to arms. The guarantees that we give protect the ordering party 
in the strongest possible way. Should an arm fail to fit acceptably, 
when made from measurements, it may be assumed that the stump 
has changed, or that there are peculiarities about the stump which 
have not been made known. No matter what conditions may be 



234 'A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

responsible for such misfit, the arm can be returned, with particu- 
lars, and all the needed alterations or reconstructions will be made 
by us without charge, or, if the wearer desires, he can at that time 
call upon us and have the arm refitted and readjusted directly to 
his stump. It will thus be seen that the conditions under which 
fittings are made from measurements are entirely in the interest 
of the wearer. As a rule, fitting from measurements results in 
saving the party expense, annoyance, and loss of time in traveling. 



CHAPTER XXXI 

PKICES, ACCESSOEIES 



Artificial Fingers for Partial Hand Amputa- 
tions, described ou pages 194 to 197 



Artificial Hands for Partial Hand Amputa- 
tions, described on pages 197 to 198 

Artificial Arms for Wrist-Joint Amputations, 
described on pages 199 to 201 



Artificial Arms for Forearm Amputations, 
described on pages 202 to 206 



Peg Arms for Forearm Amputations 

Suspenders for Forearm Amputations . 
Artificial Arms for Elbow-Joint Amputations, 
described on pages 208 to 210 

Peg Arms for Elbow-Joint Amputations 

Artificial Arms for Above-Elbow Amputa- 
tions, described on pages 211 and 212 

Suspenders for Above-Elbow Amputations 
Peg Arms for Above Elbow Amputations 
Artificial Arms for Shoulder-Joint Amputa- 
tions, described on pages 213 to 215 



Appliances for Deformities, Excisions, Weak- 
ened Joints, etc. , described on pages 220 to 
223 



Arm Implements 



Cut P 


9 each $30.00 


Cut P 


10 


30.00 


Cut P 23 


50 00 


Cut P 24 


50 00 


Cut P 25 


50.00 


Cut P 26 


50.00 


Cut P 38 


50.00 


Cut Q 


8 


35.00 


Cut Q 


9 


35.00 


Cut Q 


10 


35.00 


Cut Q 


11 


35.00 


Cut Q 


16 


50 00 


Cut R 


7 


50 CO 


Cut R 


8 


40.00 


Cut R 13 


50 00 


Cut R 14 


30 00 


Cut R 15 


40.00 


Cut R 16 


2.00 


Cut S 


2 


75.00 


Cut S 


3 


75 00 


Cut S 


4 


65.00 


Cut S 


5 


50.00 


Cut T 


3 


75.00 


Cut T 


4 


75 00 


Cut T 


5 


2.00 


Cut T 


6 


50.00 


Cut U 


5 


75.00 


Cut U 


6 


75.00 


Cut U 


7 


75.00 


Cut W 


1 


50.00 


Cut W 


2 


50 00 


Cut W 


4 


25.00 


Cut W 22 


75.00 


Cut X 


1 


.75 


Cut X 


2 


.75 


Cut X 


3 


1.25 


Cut X 


4 


1.25 


Cut X 


5 


1.25 


Cut X 


6 


1.25 


Cut X 


7 


5.00 


Cut X 


8 


2 00 


Cut X 


9 


2.50 


Cut X 10 


3.00 



235 



236 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

Cut X 11 " 8 00 

Cut X 13 " 9.00 



Accessories. — Artificial arms for wrist-joint, forearm, elbow- 
joint, above-elbow and shoulder- joint amputations will be ac- 
companied, free of charge, with necessary suspenders, sock for the 
stump, knife, fork, hook, brush, pair of kid gloves, etc. 

Peg arms for the above amputations will be accompanied with all 
the above-mentioned articles except gloves. 



CHAPTER XXXII 

TEEMS OF PAYMENT, INSTALLMENT PAYMENTS, 
GUAEANTEE 

Advance Payment Avoids Delay. — An article so important as 
an artificial leg or arm, which has to be made expressly to order 
for the person who is to wear it, should be paid for in advance. 
Time and expense are saved by doing so. If, however, objection 
is made to paying the full amount in advance, one-half the value 
can be forwarded with the order and the balance paid on delivery. 

How TO Make Payments. — Eemittances can be made by bank 
draft on New York, by postal money order, by express money order, 
or by money package by express. All drafts should be made pay- 
able to the order of A. A. Marks. 

Our Eeliability. — Every assurance is given that the interests 
and the welfare of the wearer will be subserved in every detail. 
Our reliability and business and financial standing can be ascer- 
tained by consulting any mercantile agency. 

Success Most Important to Us. — It is of the greatest impor- 
tance to us that every client shall be satisfied, not only with the 
fitting and construction of his artificial limb, but that he shall 
become clever, skillful, and dexterous in its use. He must do this 
in order to reflect credit on our skill. We take as much pride in 
the successful results of our work as do our clients. 

As manufacturers, we cannot afford to neglect, or hastily dismiss 
a case, or show a lack of interest, or the legist hesitancy in doing 
everything that is possible for the relief and comfort of our patrons. 
Wisdom compels the strictest integrity in the discharge of every 
obligation. Trouble and expense are not to be considered when 
disappointment and displeasure can be averted. No establishment 
can exist long that becomes careless, or allows its conduct to be 
criticised or impugned. 

Advanced Payments Are in the Interest of the Wearers.— 
Payments in advance may be looked upon by some as arbitrary and 
unreasonable, but by the man of business they are viewed in the 
proper light, and not objected to. As a matter of fact, the best 
and most skillful services are always paid for in advance. If you 
wish to send a letter, you must attach a stamp to the envelope, and 
the stamp must be paid for when purchased, before the letter is 
delivered. This may appear to be a small matter, but to publishers 
and business men who have large correspondence, it amounts to 
hundreds of dollars every day. If you wish to send a telegram, 
you must pay for it in advance. If you want a telephone in your 

237 



238 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

house, you must pay a month's fee in advance. If you wish to 
travel by land or sea, you must buy your ticket before you start; 
not after you have finished your journey. If you want a Lorenz 
to perform a surgical operation, you must pay him before he leaves 
his home. If you want a Makart to paint your portrait, you must 
pay him before he will entertain your order. And so it goes, the 
world over. The best talent and the most skillful services are only 
obtainable by paying in advance for them. The richest men — the 
most reputable merchants — ^have always to yield to these terms 
when they seek the best. 

The same can be said of artificial limbs. The best can only be 
obtained by meeting the maker's terms. The poorest, those made 
by the inexperiencd, can be obtained upon any terms that the pur- 
chaser may wish to make. 

The question then resolves itself into whether the applicant 
prefers to get the best limb, and pay for it in advance, or whether 
he is willing to put up with the product of an unskilled maker, 
merely to have his notion indulged regarding payment. 

Artificial Limbs on Trial^ Prejudicial to Success. — It has 
been said that " things that are not paid for are good for nothing," 
and, as a matter of fact, articles that are constructed and sold 
under the consideration that they can be accepted or rejected, are, 
as a rule, rejected. It is safe to estimate that at least seventy-five 
per cent, of the artificial limbs that are made and delivered by 
small, inexperienced, and eager manufacturers, with the under- 
standing that they can be tried for a reasonable length of time, 
and if not satisfactory, can be returned, are thrown back on the 
hands of the maker, and as these terms are only allowed by the 
maker of small means, he cannot afford to lose the time and ma- 
terial expended in the rejected limb. He, therefore, makes some 
slight alterations in the limb, and passes it to the next victim. 
There is, therefore, a strong probability, when placing an order 
with a manufacturer who permits his work to be returned, of 
getting a limb that was originally made for some other person. 

Why Correctly Made Limbs are not Always Pleasant at 
THE Start. — An artificial limb, no matter how scientifically it may 
be made and correctly fitted, is not a very comfortable article to 
wear during the period required to get accustomed to it. During 
this time there are many moments of discouragement. The stump, 
being weak, soon tires and fails to control the limb, and because 
of this weakness, the wearer gets discouraged and either concludes 
that the limb has not been properly made and fitted, or that his 
stump is of a character that will never control one. If the leg is 
not paid for, it will in all probability be rejected and returned to 
the maker during one of these periods when the wearer is in a 
discouraged frame of mind. 

Patient Endeavor Brings Its Eeward. — If, on the other hand, 
the limb is paid for, the effort to wear it will be repeated again 
and again, until finally the task is accomplished, and the services 
derived will prove to be valuable beyond calculation. Viewing the 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Neiu YorJc City. 239 

^— — ■ ' 

subject in this aspect, it will be seen that the fact that the limb 
is paid for has a stimulating effect on the wearer, impelling him to 
put forth further effort. 

Money Deposited in Banks Not Acceptable. — The proposition 
to place money for the payment of the limb on deposit with some 
bank, to be paid to us as soon as the limb is received and found 
satisfactory, is often made. We invariably decline to accept such 
terms, as money deposited is subject to such conditions that the 
feature of security is removed. The money cannot be drawn, 
unless the party ordering the limb gives his consent. If he de- 
clines to accept the limb from caprice, or hasty judgment, he can 
demand his money, and we have no redress. 

Installment Payments. — ^We are willing to accept payments on 
the installment plan to accommodate those in indigent circum- 
stances, provided such obligations are imposed as will make the 
payments absolutely sure from the legal point of view. On an 
order for an artificial leg the first payment must be at least one- 
third its value, and for an artificial arm, one-half its value; and 
this amount must accompany the order. The balance can be paid 
im. large or small amounts — weekly, monthly, or at other periods — 
as may be desired. Deferred payments must be secured by the 
indorsement of a reliable business person who has an acceptable 
mercantile rating. 

Deferred Payments Must Be Guaranteed. — The deferred pay- 
ments can be made by promissory notes, one note for each pay- 
ment, signed by the party ordering the limb, and also by the party 
offering himself as security, or they can be secured by a letter 
written by the party guaranteeing the payments. The following 
is an example that will be acceptable : 

Place Date 

A. A. Marks, New York : 

Dear Sir — Mr desires to procure from 

you an artificial leg, and wishes to pay for the same in the following 

manner : dollars will be advanced with the order 

and dollars will be paid at the rate of ten dollars 

per month, beginning one month after the delivery of the leg. 

In case of failure to meet the payments as agreed, or in case of 
default due to any cause whatsoever, you may hold me respon- 
sible, and upon demand I will pay the same to you. 

Signed 

Post-office address, Occupation, 

Acceptable Guarantors. — We know no mercantile agency that 
quotes the financial standing or business liability of professional 
men, such as ministers, lawyers, doctors, farmers, retired men, em- 
ployees, or agents. Mercantile agencies only give the standing of 
credit of those who are actually engaged in commercial or manu- 
facturing industries. For this reason, we require the signature of 
a person engaged in business. 



240 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

We believe there are but few dishonest persons ; those whose mo- 
tives and impulses are entirely void of integrity. Promises are 
made in good faith, but because of inability to keep them, they fre- 
quently go by default. A man without means, and being in need of 
an artificial leg, will assume almost any obligation, in order to pro- 
cure one. He has the promise of a situation as soon as he can go 
without crutches. The future is promising and bright. He will 
go to his minister, or to his doctor, or his legal adviser, and as a 
rule, he will receive his favor. The clergyman or the doctor will 
promise to go security for him. The limb is obtained; the man 
wears it; he gets the situation, and earns fair wages; he becomes 
a little careless in his expenditures, or some relative or friend be- 
comes afflicted and requires some financial help from him. The 
time arrives for payment to be made, and the young man has no 
money. The minister, or the doctor, who has guaranteed the 
payments, feels that it is unjust to be called upon to make pay- 
ments. He writes a pitiful letter, and time is extended. This 
is repeated until patience becomes exhausted, and drastic meas- 
ures have to be resorted to. It suddenly dawns upon the manufac- 
turer that it would be poor policy to force payment out of the min- 
ister, or to make enemies with the doctor, and the matter is dropped, 
the manufacturer suffering the loss. 

This is an old, old story, so often enacted in life that the manu- 
facturer has been forced to accept no guarantors, except men en- 
gaged in business who have acceptable mercantile standings, and 
are prepared to meet losses, should the party default. 

Our Guarantee. — Every artificial leg or arm delivered by us is 
accompanied by a guarantee giving the assurance to the wearer that 
the artificial limb is constructed of the best material, and in a 
thoroughly workmanlike manner, and if any defects present them- 
selves, we obligate ourselves to remove them without charge, pro- 
vided the limb is delivered to us as soon as the defects have be- 
come known, and before the limb has become further damaged on 
account of being worn when out of order. The guarantee covers a 
period of five years from date of delivery. 

It is well to note that the guarantee does not obligate us to keep 
the limb in repair for five years, irrespective of accidents, improper 
treatment, or extraordinary wear. 



CHAPTEE XXXIII 

PENSIONERS OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY AND 

NAVY FURNISHED WITH ARTIFICIAL LIMBS 

AT GOVERNMENT EXPENSE 

The Original Law. — It has been the purpose of the United 
•States Government, since the early part of the Civil War (1862), 
to furnish artificial limbs to those who lost their natural ones from 
injuries received while in service. The first law, passed in 1862, 
gave one limb for each amputation, and to soldiers and sailors only. 
It was soon amended so as to include officers. 

The Amended Law. — In 1870, a new law was passed, which in- 
creased the number of those entitled to artificial limbs, and re- 
peated the issue every five years. This law was in force for twenty 
years. 

The New Law Now in Force. — In the early part of 1891 Con- 
gress enacted additional pension laws, and added to the list hun- 
dreds of thousands of soldiers who had never before received 
pensions, and who had never dreamed of receiving any. The same 
Congress adopted measures by which additional benefits were given 
to the beneficiaries of the artificial limb laws. The old law was 
amended so that the issue was changed from five to three years. 
This was done not because soldiers required new limbs so fre- 
quently, but as an additional gratuity to the maimed. The law, 
as amended, reads as follows: 

" Every officer, enlisted or hired man, who has lost a limb or the 
use of a limb in the military or naval service of the United States 
is entitled to receive, once every three years, an artificial limb or 
apparatus. The period of three years is reckoned from the last 
maturity subsequent to March 3, 1888." 

Transportation Free. — " Necessary transportation to the manu- 
factory and return, by the most usual and direct route, will be fur- 
nished to those desiring to be fitted personally. Sleeping car 
accommodations will be given on request." 

Those whose maturity under the old law occurred between March 
3, 1886, and March 3, 1888, were given a new date : namely, March 
3, 1891 (the day the bill became a law). 

The Bond. — As manufacturers to the United States Govern- 
ment, we have met the requirements of furnishing bonds with two 
sureties, of five thousand dollars each, for the faithful perform- 
ance of our work. 

The favor with which our methods of constructing artificial legs 
and arms is esteemed by the soldiers is exceedingly complimentary^ 
aad we feel under obligations to them. 

2il 



242 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

A blanl?: application for an artificial limb and transportation 
will be sent upon request. The same can be filled out, signed, and 
mailed to us. As soon as we receive it, we will ascertain the date 
that the applicant will be entitled to a new limb, and at the proper 
time will pass the application to the proper officials. 

Those who reside at a great distance, and do not care to travel, 
can remain at home and have their limbs constructed and fitted 
from measurements. We extend to them every protection, every 
assurance, every guarantee, and assume every risk, exactly as we 
do to civilians. 

We have on file the measurements, diagrams, records, and dimen- 
sions of all the artificial limbs made by us since the founding of 
our house, and can duplicate any limb at any time. 

If a soldier wishes to have a limb duplicated, he will not be re- 
quired to send any additional measurements. 

We advise pensioners to procure artificial limbs under the laws, 
and apply for them promptly upon the maturity of their claims, 
and lose no time. 

Wlien Congress makes changes in any law, the law in force up 
to that time becomes null and void. No one can predict what Con- 
gress will do, any more than he can predict what public sentiment 
will be on any issue. Should a party clamoring for extreme econ- 
omy in the administration of public affairs become dominant, there 
is no telling what would be done in cutting down allowances. 

Advantages in Registering with Us. — As pensioners seldom 
keep records concerning themselves, we make it a point to notify 
them a little prior to the date of their maturity. Any change, or 
threatened change, in the law affecting the issue of artificial limbs 
is watched by us and communicated immediately to those on our 
records whom the law may affect. It is, therefore, to the advantage 
of the pensioner to keep within touch of us; to inform us of his 
change of address, and to see that our records are complete, so far 
as rank, company, regiment, number of pension certificate, etc., 
are concerned. 



CHAPTER XXXIV 

CHEAP AKTIFICIAL LIMBS 

From the International Journal of Surgery 

Cheaply Made Limbs Not Safe. — From time to time the news- 
papers chronicle severe accidents happening to the wearers of ar- 
tificial limbs as the result of faulty construction. Here is an in- 
stance taken from the Cincinnati Enquirer of December 19, 1901 : 

"Fred Rentz was severely injured last evening, about five 
o'clock, by falling on the street at Central Avenue and Liberty 
Street. His fall was due to a cork leg breaking. The unfortunate 
man was taken to a hospital by Patrol No. 5." 

Inviting Disaster. — There is material in this brief item for 
profound thought on the part of every man who has occasion to 
require an artificial leg. There is material, too for a sermon on 
the iniquity of dealers who sell artificial limbs of inferior or 
defective workmanship. That there are many persons who com- 
m.it the folly of risking their bodies, and possibly their lives, upon 
poorly made limbs for the sake of the few dollars saved thereby, 
and that there are dealers who are willing to encourage them in 
this folly, may be proved to the satisfaction of anyone who will 
read the daily papers carefully. Every few days cases are re- 
ported similar to the above, and in almost every case the disaster 
may be traced to the same cause — ^poor material or inefficient work- 
manship. 

Mr. Rentz undoubtedly wore a cheap leg — cheap in construction, 
but very costly in the price he ultimately paid for it in money, 
suffering, and lost time. Some weakness in the wood or leather or 
steel (there is no cork in any artificial limb) was revealed by an 
accidental slip which brought an unusual strain upon it, and caused 
it to give way just when he had most need to rely upon it. The 
saying that " no chain is stronger than its weakest link " applies 
with the fullest possible force to an artificial leg. Every part may 
be perfect except one, and yet that one is certain to precipitate a 
fall of serious if not fatal results. 

The adage that " the best is the cheapest " applies to almost 
everything that one may require. It applies without exception 
to the purchase of artificial limbs. The steeplejack will not make 
use of a cable unless he knows that it has been tested and proved 
to be capable of sustaining the weight that he will bring to bear 
upon it. The caisson worker will not descend below the bed of a 
river unless he is assured that the air-pumps are in perfect working 
order. No more should the wearer of an artificial limb trust him- 

243 



244 A. A. MarJcSj Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 

self upon it unless proved material, skill, and honesty have entered 
into its construction. 

Confidence Necessary to Success. — The essence of success in 
walking with an artificial leg is confidence. To learn to manipu- 
late the limb is a very simple matter, but unless the wearer knows 
that he can rely upon it as thoroughly as he would upon his natural 
legs he will never be able to walk well or to move about with a sense 
of perfect freedom. There are thousands of persons walking about 
to-day on Marks' artificial legs whose intimate friends are not 
aware that they have lost any of their natural members. They do 
not limp or hobble, and they do not find the slightest difficulty in 
moving about as freely as their most active neighbors — all because 
they have confidence; they know that every bit of material that 
enters into the leg is carefully tested and proved before it is used, 
and that, therefore, it cannot possibly give way under ordinary use 
or at some critical moment when they most need its support. 

A vast amount of care and trained ability enters into the con- 
struction of a thoroughly reliable artificial leg, foot, or arm. It 
will not be sufiicient to use ordinary material, or even the best 
material that can be bought through the ordinary channels of trade. 

Selection of Material. — Ks the first step in the manufacture of 
the artificial leg, an expert visits the woods and selects the tree 
from which the material is to be cut. To do this is no easy 
matter, and requires long experience. The tree must be neither 
too young nor too old. It must be free from knots and must have 
a firm, even grain that it will be equally strong in every part. 

When the tree has been felled it must be cut into lengths and 
carefully split into sections, use being made only of the main body 
of the tree trunk in which the grain is firm and even. Only a sniall 
portion of the ordinary tree is available for this purpose. 

When the wood has been thus carefully selected, it is by no 
taaeans ready for use. It must then be kiln-dried, so as to be 
thoroughly shrunk before it can be utilized. About four years is 
required in this process before the stick of timber can be manu- 
factured into an artificial leg. 

It is not the wood alone that is selected with such careful atten- 
tion to its strength and wearing qualities. The steel which goes 
to form the braces and joints of the leg is first carefully tested to 
detect the existence of any flaws or defects and to prove that it is 
capable of carrying a larger weight than it will be called upon to 
support. 

The leather for the jacket which forms the upper part of the 
leg is selected with equal care. Only the strongest and most 
valuable parts can be used; the rest must be thrown away or used 
for some other purpose. The buckskin lacings are also a matter of 
solicitude, and are subjected to thorough tests to determine the 
weight they will sustain. 

Even a more delicate matter is the proper vulcanizing of the 
rubber foot which plays an important part in every successful 
artificial leg. The elasticity of the foot depends upon the exact 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 245 

degree of heat applied to the rubber. Thus, at every step in the 
selection of material, the greatest care and judgment must be 
exercised. 

The need of practical experience and expert judgment does not 
end with the selection of materials. Equal skill is needed to 
assemble them properly. An artificial leg, to be a source of com- 
fort and usefulness to its wearer, must fit perfectly, and no two 
persons can be fitted by exactly similar legs. The highest skill of 
the artisan is required to meet and make allowances for all the 
little peculiarities of each individual wearer. It is ridiculous to 
assume that it is possible to fit all comers with artificial legs simply 
by carrying a few sizes in stock. 

The worst mistake that the prospective purchaser of an artificial 
limb can make is to patronize one of the cheap establishments 
which are continually being started by disgruntled apprentices or 
discharged workmen. It seems incredible that a man who will not 
permit his horse to be shod by an incapable blacksmith, or his 
beard to be trimmed by a man of no experience as a barber, will 
nevertheless trust the delicate and vital task of supplying an 
artificial limb for himself or a member of his family to a crude 
bungler or a cheap mechanic. Yet such cases come to notice 
frequently. Too late, when permanent injury has been done to 
some delicate blood vessel or tender nerve center, or when a bad 
fall and broken bones have taught the lesson that better counsel 
might have imparted in the beginning, he turns to the firm that 
has a long-established reputation for efiiciency, reliability, and 
honest dealing. 

How much better — ^yes, how much cheaper — it would be to in- 
trust one's self in the beginning to a firm the members of which 
have gained a thorough knowledge of the subject through a business 
experience of years, which spares no expense to secure the most 
perfect materials for its artificial limbs, which employs the most 
carefully trained and thorough workmen, which owns the most 
important and successful patents for artificial limb appliances, 
and the name of which is a guarantee of good faith, good work- 
manship, and satisfaction to its customers ! 



CHAPTER XXXV 
DO THE MAIMED DIE YOUNG? 

A False Belief. — There appears to be a belief, shared by the 
medical profession as well as the laity, that the amputation of one 
or more of the limbs frora the human body necessarily curtails the 
allotted years of man, that there is a law that establishes a ratio 
between the length of the life of the normally equipped man and 
that of the dismembered one. That the ratio is according to the 
extent of the dismemberment. If a man is born to live three 
score and ten years, provided he retains all his limbs, the loss of 
one limb will take, say, ten years from that allotment; and if he 
loses two limbs the lopping off of a few more years will be the 
consequence. 

What Our Eecords Disclose. — ^During our career as protheti- 
cians we have had opportunities to investigate. An examination 
of our records, which comprise the histories of many thousands of 
maimed persons, has led us to the conclusion that the dismembering 
of the human body plays no part whatever in shortening life. Our 
records date back to 1863, and it is a fact that, of the entire num- 
ber of our patrons, less than twenty-five per cent, have died, and 
most of those have died from old age or accident, and in no case 
can we learn of a death that can be directly ascribed to the loss of 
a limb. We know of very few persons wearing artificial limbs who 
have suffered or died from pulmonary or cardiac diseases, and those 
who have fallen under those diseases were affected before their 
limbs were amputated. It is not an uncommon occurrence for 
octogenarians who have been our patrons for years to order new 
limbs, expecting to live long enough to wear them out. 

Amputations Revitalize the System. — As we investigate this 
subject more thoroughly we are persuaded that amputations re- 
vitalize the entire person, and render it not only possible but 
probable, that, on account of amputations, the lives of the subjects 
will be prolonged, comparatively immune to disease. 

It is obvious that diseased and mangled limbs that cannot be 
cured will cause death if they are not removed ; but this is not the 
phase of the question we are discussing. Will the length of life 
of the person who has had his limb removed on account of disease 
or injury be less than it would had his limb never been diseased, 
injured, and amputated ? While it is absolutely impossible to give 
a direct reply to this question we believe, and we say it with all 
sincerity, that the compensation for the loss of a limb lies in 
assured good health and prolonged life. Numerous instances sup- 
port this belief and many of them are of national reputation. 

248 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neiu York City. 241 

Illustrations. — Eev. Edward Beecher reached the age of eighty- 
four. Evidences of senihty were apparent. By making a false 
step he fell from a railroad train and had one of his legs so badly 
crushed that it had to be amputated. He recovered from the opera- 
tion and had an artificial leg applied. He lived for eight years and 
enjoyed excellent health and remarkable physical strength and 
mental energy. It was his custom to take long walks every day, 
to preach sermons on Sundays, lead prayer meeting during the 
week, and in fact, perform all the duties expected of a clergyman. 
From the moment he recovered from the accident that deprived him 
of his leg, new life and renewed energy came to him. He was a 
stronger, healthier, and more sprightly man after the accident than 
he had been for a number of years prior to it. 

Governor Wade Hampton lived to be an octogenarian. He had a 
leg amputated a number of years before and wore an artificial one 
up to the time of his death. He was up to the last moment mentally 
and physically strong. 

John Pearson lived to be eighty-five years of age. He lost a leg 
when seventy, recovered quickly, obtained an artificial leg, enjoyed 
vigorous health, giving his time to his railroad interests almost up 
to the moment of his death. General Butler, General Wager 
Swayne, and scores of others have more than fulfilled the biblical 
allotment and enjoyed many years of active life after having been 
deprived of one of their limbs. 

It is a remarkable fact that there are very few maimed persons 
in insane asylums. Records of suicides are almost free of the 
crippled. The mental as well as the vital forces appear to become 
stimulated by the dismemberment. 

Athletes. — Dare, Melrose, Conway, Leland, and Eitzpatrick are 
one-legged acrobats whose muscular developments are the envy of 
the world. Few possessed of natural limbs can vie with them in 
athletic activities. 

It is a noticeable fact that persons who lose their legs become 
powerful in their arms, large in chest and girth, and persons who 
lose their arms become powerful in their legs and large in girth. 
The loss of one part of the body stimulates the growth of the re- 
maining parts. 

Compensation. — A reasonable explanation may be found in the 
hypothesis that the removal of a part of the body lessens the de- 
mand on the vital forces and permits the supplying reservoirs to 
contribute more abundantly to the remaining members. If it over- 
taxes the heart to force the blood through all the avenues of the 
body, will not its labors be lessened if some are cut off? And 
will not the remaining avenues receive a larger share of the life- 
giving essences ? If the nervous system is taxed to its limit, will 
not the tax be lessened if a part of the nerve organization be re- j 
moved ? If a tree is permitted to grow unpruned, it will sap itself j 
by many choking branches and the trimming up of the limbs 
always gives vigor. The tree will grow larger, stronger, and will 
live longer. 



248 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

It has been said that a maimed person takes care of himself, does 
not expose himself to the elements, or to the dangers that beset other 
human beings; that on account of being crippled, he is compelled 
to be more cautious than others ; he cannot indulge in the riotous, 
inebriate course which wrecks so many lives. In this connection 
we will say, and we speak from knowledge, that a person who is 
deprived of one or more of his limbs is not necessarily a convert 
to a life of virtue. He is not always the sober man, the epitome 
of morality that some persons think he is. He goes through life 
in the same careless manner as other healthy mortals, doing what 
he ought to do, and many times what he ought not to do. He 
sometimes observes propriety, but oftentimes is as reckless as his 
companions. There are, however, many maimed persons who are 
sober, industrious, thoughtful, and prudent. The same habits, 
indulgences, and discretions that are found among those in posses- 
sion of their natural limbs are found in about the same proportion 
among those who have been amputated. 

Gratitude. — It is also an error to suppose that the loss of a 
limb induces despondency. There will not be found a class of 
people who are less lugubrious and who lament their losses as little 
as that class of humanity having abbreviated extremities. We 
recall the visit of a man some years ago who had both of his legs 
and one arm amputated. After reciting a harrowing tale of a 
railroad collision and fire, weeks of suffering at the hospital, and 
his recovery to health with only one of his four limbs remaining, 
he closed his narrative with the ejaculation: "Thank God, it was 
no worse ! " This illustrates fairly well a crippled man's disposi- 
tion. He is more thankful that he has not lost more, than he is 
regretful for having lost so much. He is constantly meeting with 
persons who, in his mind^ have met with greater hardships than 
himself. It is an ordinary occurrence for a one-legged man to 
meet a one-armed man, and for each to say to the other, " I prefer 
to be as 1 am rather than as you are." 

A cripple is neither a cynic nor a pessimist. His misfortunes 
have driven from him whatever there may have been of the choleric. 
Being always in good health, he is a happier and a more contented 
man than the dyspeptic, the rheumatic, or the gouty man, who is in 
possession of all his limbs. It is a common occurrence for a man 
wearing two rubber feet to take consolation from the fact that he 
can never be troubled with corns, gout, or suffer the torture of hav- 
ing some ponderous lout tread on his feet. 

Nature, with her usual generosity, compensates for every mis- 
fortune. We look about us and see conditions that are appalling, 
and are impelled to pour out our commiseration ; but we little think 
how useless, how unsolicited, and often uncharitable it is for us 
to do so. Those that are the most afflicted need our commiseration 
the least. Their minds and dispositions have already been prepared 
by Nature to bear their misfortunes, and they dislike to have others 
notice or mention them, much less to shed tears over that which 
they so little regret themselves. 



CHAPTER XXXVI 

AWARDS 

1858. The first Exposition at which A. A. Marks exhibited artifi- 
cial limbs was at the Crystal Palace at New York in 1858. As 
that exhibition was destroyed by fire no awards were given, 

1859. American Institute, New York City. — The silver medal 
was awarded to A. A. Marks for his superior artificial limbs. 

1865. American Institute^ New York. — After a careful and 
extended examination, and practical tests of the various kinds of 
artificial limbs, the First Premium Gold Medal was awarded to A. 
A. Marks. 

1867. American Institute^ New York^ First Premium. — Marks' 
Patent Artificial Limbs have frequently been before the Institute 
and continue to sustain their former reputation. The First 
Premium awarded. 

1869. American Institute, New York. — A. A. Marks Best. 
This limb is constructed with an india-rubber foot, which from 
its elasticity does away with the necessity of motion at the ankle, 
and also obviates entirely that heavy, thumping sound when the foot 
strikes the ground in walking. The control which the wearer has 
over it and its movements, so closely resembling those of the 
natural limb, entitles it to the highest commendation. First 
Premium awarded. 

1870. American Institute, New York. — The especial point of 
excellence appears to be the rubber foot, by the use of which all 
complications in the construction of an ankle joint are avoided. 
First Premium awarded. 

1871. American Institute, New York. — The artificial limbs with 
rubber feet and rubber hands are especially recommended for their 
simplicity, durability, and easy movements. First Premium 
awarded. 

1872. American Institute, New York. — The artificial limbs 
manufactured by A. A. Marks continue to merit approval, and are 
entitled to all the confidence the public have reposed in them. 
First Premium awarded. 

1873. American Institute, New York. — After full and impartial 
examination of the articles above described, the undersigned Judges 
make report that they find the artificial limbs on exhibition by 
A. A. Marks worthy of the confidence heretofore reposed in them. 
We cheerfully indorse all that has been said of them by former 
examiners, their simple construction, easy movements, dura- 
hility, etc. First Premium awarded. 

1874. American Institute, New York. — We consider the arti- 
ficial limbs of A. A. Marks of great value. A great improvement 

349 



250 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

— better than any known to us; and entitled to the highest award. 
First Premium awarded. 

18.75. American Institute^ New York. — ^We regard the artificial 
limbs presented by Mr. Marks superior to all others in practical 
efficiency and simplicity. First Premium awarded. 

1876. Centennial Exhibition^ Philadelphia^ Pa. — The Judges 
having examined Marks' artificial limbs respectfully recommend 
the same to the United States Centennial Commission for the 
highest award, for the following*reasons, viz : Utility, Workman- 
ship, and Adaptation to Purposes Intended. Highest award given. 

1876. American Institute,, New York. — The judges consider 
the limbs made by A. A. Marks remarkable for simplicity of con- 
struction, durability, efficiency, and comfort to the wearers. 
Special Gold Medal awarded. 

1877. American Institute^ New York. — After a full and im- 
partial examination of Marks' artificial limbs, the Judges report 
that they consider the exhibit of great value and entitled to highest 
award. Medal for Superiority awarded. 

1878. American Institute, New York. — Having received the 
Medal of Superiority in 1877, The Diploma for Maintained 
Superiority is awarded at the Exhibition of 1878. 

1881. International Cotton Exposition^ Atlanta^ Ga. — First 
Premium, Gold Medal, awarded for the following reasons : 

First. Simplicity in the mechanism of the knee joint and its 
excellent movement. Second. Durability. Third. Rubber Foot, 
possessing many excellent qualities and compensating for the 
absence of the motion in the ankle joint. The highest award was 
declared in favor of A. A. Marks. 

1885. The World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial Exhibi- 
tion, New Orleans, La. — The Jurors having carefully examined 
the exhibits of artificial limbs concur in recommending the award 
of the First Class Medal to A. A. Marks, New York. Gold Medal 
awarded. 

1889. The John Scott Legacy Premium and Medal. — John 
Scott, late of Edinburgh, by his will made in the year 1816, be- 
queathed a sum of money to the Corporation of the City of Phila- 
delphia, directing that the interest and dividends received there- 
from shall be laid out in premiums, to be distributed among in- 
genious men and women who make useful inventions, and that 
therewith shall be given a medal with this inscription: 

" To The Most Deserving." 

The great improvements in artificial limb construction consist 
in the substitution of rubber for wood in both the foot and hand. 

The rubber foot consists of a wooden block rigidly secured or 
formed with the leg and extending downwardly to within about two- 
fifths of the distance from the ankle to the sole, and forward to 
nearly the first articulation of the metatarsus and toes ; this block is 
covered with india-rubber. 

The action of such an artificial foot is that of an elastic segment 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 251 

of a wheel. The shock of placing the weight upon the heel at each 
step is avoided by the elastic cushion of rubber forming the heel, 
and as the weight is progressively transmitted to the forward part 
of the foot, by the combined effect of muscular exertion in the re- 
maining part of the natural limb, and the momentum previously 
acquired, an easy flexure of the toes takes place, which, reacting 
elastically as the weight is transferred to the other limb, giving an 
easy and naturally appearing movement. Such artificial feet are, 
upon trial, found to be easier to use, lighter, and more comfortable. 

The desire to adapt the india-rubber hands to changes of flexure, 
for purposes of better and more natural appearance and to grasp 
light objects, led Mr. Marks to improve them by making a light 
wooden core in the palm or metacarpal portion of the hand and 
inserting ductile metallic wires in such core, which extended 
centrally through the fingers. By bending the fingers they retain 
the form in which they are set. 

The latest improvement in artificial limbs consists in forming 
the leg and foot part of a single piece of wood, having the grain 
curved naturally in its growth, such pieces being procured from the 
parts of the trunk contiguous to the roots and branches of trees; 
limbs made in this way are stronger with the same araount of wood 
remaining in them than when made of parts glued together, and are 
made waterproof, which is a valuable feature when the occupation 
of the wearer exposes it to constant dampness, or to water itself, 
as in fishing, mining, dredging, etc. 

The above report was presented to the committee appointed by the 
City of Philadelphia, under the auspices of the Franklin Institute, 
and it was unanimously decided that the John Scott Legacy Medal 
and Premium be awarded to A. A. Marks. 

1891. Augusta Exposition, Augusta, Ga. — Seven Gold Medals 
and Awai'ds for distinct and separate features of excellence. 

First. For Improved Artificial Legs with Rubber Feet. 

Second. For Improved Artificial Arms with Rubber Hands. 

Third. For Superior Methods of Suspenders for Artificial Legs 
and Arms. 

Fourth. For Superior Crutches and other Auxiliaries for 
Cripples. 

Fifth. For a Combined Knife and Fork for the use of one-armed 
men. 

Sixth. For Improved Waterproof Artificial Legs, carved from 
natural crook timber. 

Seventh. For Improved Artificial Legs and Arms with Alu- 
minum Sockets. 

1893. The Elliott Cressons Gold Medal, awarded to A. A. 
Marks for aluminum socket artificial legs and arms, as stated in 
the following report : 

At the stated meeting of the committee on Science and the Arts 
of the Franklin Institute, held February 1, 1893, the following re- 
port was adopted and ordered to be issued : 

This invention consists of an improved method of making arti- 



252 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

ficial limbs, adapted to amputations in the ankle, or below, in the 
tarsus or metatarsus, in which the former modes of construction, 
with articulated ankle joints of wood as the material, were im- 
practicable and unsatisfactory. The new method of construction 
involves the use of aluminum as the material to form the shell 
socket or sustaining frame, as it might be called, the aluminum 
shell supporting the body, and forming the attachment for the 
elastic rubber foot, which acts as a rolling elastic segment simulat- 
ing the functions of the natural foot in walking, and acting as an 
elastic cushion in relieving the wearer from the jar or shock of 
resting the weight upon the limb. 

Your committee has examined the limbs in the course of manu- 
facture, and as completed and as in use by wearers. When clothed, 
they give no indication in walking that they are not natural feet. 

It is clearly apparent that the invention is one affording much- 
needed relief to persons heretofore greatly embarrassed, and 
further that the surgeons may save much more of the patient's body 
from mutilation than heretofore, and yet render comfortable and 
satisfactory artificial limbs practicable. 

In view of these points of excellence and well-attested evidence 
thereof the committee awards the Elliott Cresson Medal to Mr. 
Marks, of New York. 

1893. World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago. — The judges ap- 
pointed to investigate artificial limbs decided in favor of Marks' 
artificial limbs and recommended to highest award on the following 
points of excellence. 

First. EuBBER Foot, (a) Its close approximation to the mo- 
tions and actions of the natural foot. 

(6) Its durability and lightness; the yielding and elastic quali- 
ties of rubber supply requisite motion without necessitating mech- 
anism. 

(c) Phalangeal assistance. The methods of construction and 
connection with the body of the leg in each case are such as to 
provide assistance in walking from the anterior portion of the foot, 
a^ the same time maintaining the height of the wearer when walk- 
ing, same as is obtained from the natural foot; the feature of 
phalangeal assistance avoids limping, and removes the fear of top- 
pling forward when standing. 

{d) The elasticity of rubber affords a yielding medium to alight 
upon, thus avoiding jars and concussions to the stmnps. 

Second. — Knee Joints, (a) The construction of knee joints is 
such as to render them capable of adjustment, thus obviating the 
noise that follows attrition. 

(&) The disposition of the knee spring, which assists extension 
of the lower leg, is such as to become neutralized when the leg is 
flexed to a given angle ; this avoids " kicking out " of the lower leg 
when the wearer is sitting and unguarded. 

(c) Safety lock. This attachment is combined with the knee 
mechanism, and provides against treacherous flexing of the knee, 
thus avoiding dangerous falls. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, Netv York City. 253 

Third. The production of waterproof legs from natural crook 
timber with rubber feet attached. 

Fourth. Aluminum sockets, especially designed for stumps that 
extend to the ankle and in the body of foot. 

The advantages obtained by the utilization of this metal are as 
follows : 

(a) The production of a socket that can be closely fitted to the 
stump, without touching or allowing painful contact with any of 
the tender spots on the stump, at the same time possessing suf- 
ficient strength to properly support the wearer. 

(&) The construction of a socket that will possess the requisite 
strength without conspicuously enlarging the ankle. 

Fifth. Roller Suspenders. The object of this method of suspend- 
ing an artificial leg to the wearer is to avoid the moving and rub- 
bing of the shoulder straps on the shoulders. 

First. The Rubber Hand, (a) Being composed of rubber, is 
pleasant and natural to the touch and durable in construction. 

(h) The fingers, being ductile, can be placed into accommodating 
positions. 

(c) The palm of the hand, being provided with a locking socket, 
is capable of holding implements of utility with firrriness. 

Second. The ability to detach the hand at the wrist for laboring 
purposes. 

Third. Rotation of hand at wrist. 

Fourth. The elbow joint, with lock for holding the arm in a 
flexed position. 

Fifth. Fingers and parts of hands made of rubber. 

Sixth. Rotation of upper arm socket. 

In conformity with the Judges' report, the highest award (medal 
and diploma) was declared in favor of A. A. Marks, New York 
City. 

Two additional diplomas were awarded by the Board of Lady 
Managers, one for Design, and the other for Invention. 

1895. Cotton States and International Exposition, Atlanta, 
Ga. — This certifies that the appropriate jury has awarded to A. A. 
Marks of New York City the Gold Medal " For the most complete 
exhibition of ingenious mechanics for the relief of physical defects 
and deformities, namely: Artificial Legs, Rubber Feet, Artificial 
Knee Joints, Self-Adjusting Suspenders, Artificial Arms, Rubber 
Hands, Duplex Elbow Joints, and Aluminum Socket Legs ; also for 
Imitating the Movements of Knee, Elbow, Wrist, and Finger 
Joints." 

1896. American Institute, New York. — After a full and im- 
partial examination the Judges made report : 

That the exhibit of A, A. Marks of artificial limbs, deserves the 
highest award for the following reasons. 

First. To the rubber foot with imbedded metallic mattress spring. 

Second. To the flexible fingers on artificial hand, and their great 
adaptability to everyday use. 

Third. The use of aluminum in place of wood for climatic varia- 



254 A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 

tions seems to be of practical use for those engaged in certain em- 
ployments. 

Finally, the ingenious combination Knife and Fork for the one- 
armed is Highly commended. The medal of superiority was accord- 
ingly awarded. 

1897. Tennessee Centennial and International Exposition, 
Nashville, Tenn. 

The highest and only award for artificial limbs was given to A. 
A. Marks of New York. 

The merits that received especial recognition were: Artificial 
Legs with Rubber Feet, Adjustable Ejiee Joints, Artificial Arms 
with Eubber Hands, and a Combination Knife and Fork for one- 
armed persons. 

1898. Trans-Mississippi and International Exposition, Omaha, 
Neb. Diploma and Gold Medal awarded to A. A. Marks, New 
York. 

Marks' Artificial Legs with Rubber Feet and Artificial Arms 
with Rubber Hands are superior to all others in the following 
points : 

Excellence of mechanical construction. 

Minimum weight, maxiraiim durability. 

Noiselessness. 

Motions that simulate nature. 

Knee joints, adjustable and noiseless. 

Suspenders, of variety adaptable to every condition. 

Knee lock for short and enervated stumps. 

Fittings that permit pressure at points of toleration, avoiding 
impact on the vascular parts, thereby preventing choking of blood 
vessels. 

Rubber hands with ductile fingers, most accommodating and 
possessing the greatest range of utility. 

1900. Exposition TJniverselle de Paris, France. 

A. A. Marks, New York. 

Dear Sir: — I am instructed by Commissioner General Peck to 
inform you that you have been awarded the 

(GRAND PRIX) Grand Prize 

for your exhibit in Class 16 at the International Exposition, Paris, 
1900. 

Respectfully yours, 

J. H. Gore, Juror-in-Chief. 

In competition with nearly fifty manufacturers from all parts 
of the world, A. A. Marks won over 20 POINTS OF MERIT, 
thereby earning the ONLY GRAND PRIZE FOR ARTIFICIAL 
LIMBS. 

1901. Pan-American Exposition, Buffalo, N. Y. The points 
of merit and claims for superiority presented to the Board of 
Jurors, as follows : 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Lhiibs, New York City. 255 

First. The rubber foot with spring mattress. 

Second. Knee joint with adjustable bearings and removable 
bushings. 

Third. Hip joint for hip-joint amputations. 

Fourth. Knee lock for short and enervated stumps. 

Fifth. Suspenders arranged to minimize the burden and tax 
on the shoulders. 

8ixth. Aluminum sockets for ankle-joint and partial foot ampu- 
tations. 

Seventh. Rubber hand with ductile fingers and palm attachment 
for holding implements. 

Eighth. Wrist joint admitting of rotation, displacement of the 
hand and substitution of laboring implements. 

Ninth. Elbow lock, holding arm in flexed and other positions. 

Tenth. Humeral rotation, admitting the arm to rotate above the 
elbow joint, so that when flexed it can be brought closer to the 
person. 

Eleventh. Artiflcial hand for partial hand amputation. 

Twelfth. Artificial legs for bathing purposes that are absolutely 
waterproof. 

Thirteenth. Artificial arms that are absolutely waterproof. 

Fourteenth. Combination knife and fork designed for persons 
who are temporarily or permanently disabled in one hand. 

Upon these points of merit the Gold Medal and Diploma were 
awarded to A. A. Marks, 

1902. South Carolina Inter-State and West Indlan Exposi- 
tion, Charleston, S. C. Gold Medal awarded to A. A. Marks, 
of New York, for artificial legs and arms of superior construction. 

1904. The Louisiana Purchase Exposition (World's Fair), 
St. Louis, awarded to A. A. Marks, of New York, the only GRAND 
PRIZE for ARTIFICIAL LIMBS, the highest award given to any 
exhibit in any department. 

The Grand Prize at St. Louis following the Grand Prix at Paris. 
1900, prove beyond controversy the superiority of Marks' artificial 
legs, feet, arms, and hands, and the maintenance of their excellence 
not only in America, but throughout the entire world. 

1905. The Lewis and Clark Centennial Exposition, Portland, 
Oregon, awarded two Gold Medals (highest awards) to A. A. 
Marks, New York, manufacturers of the celebrated artificial limbs 
with rubber feet and hands. 

1907. New Zealand Intern ^lTional Exhibition, Christchurch, 
New Zealand, November, 1906, to April, 1907. The highest award 
of merit, Gold Medal, to A. A. Marks, New York, U, S. A., Arti- 
ficial Limbs. 



256 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



FOREIGN MONEY EQUIVALENTS. 

The prices given in this book are in United States money. Parties ordering 
artificial limbs or supplies can make remittances in their own national money or 
any money that may be most available. The following table has been computed 
according to the rates of exchange August ist, 1905. 



UNITED STATES. 


BRITISH. 


FRENCH. 


GERMAN. 


MEXI 

00 


CAN, 


00 


00 

s 


8 


1 


5i 


s 


1 


-§■ 
§ 


s 


00 

1 
S 


f^ 


6 


fi^ 


^ 


^ 


.^ 


6 


!^ 


fi;^ 


(^ 


?S 


100 


00 


20 


11 


6 


518 


15 


420 


20- 


220 


00 


75 


00 


15 


8 


n 


388 


62 


815 


15 


165 


00 


65 


00 


13 


7 


6 


336 


81 


273 


13 


143 


00 


60 


00 


12 


6 


11 


310 


■ 89 


252 


12 


132 


00 


50 


00 


10 


5 


9 


259 


08 


210 


10 


110 


00 


40 


00 


8 


4 


71 


207 


26 


168 


08 


88 


00 


35 


00 


7 


4 


0+ 


181 


36 


147 


07 


77 


00 


30 


00 


6 


3 


5+ 


155 


46 


126 


06 


66 


00 


25 


00 


5 


2 


10+ 


129 


54 


105 


05 


55 


00 


20 


00 


4 


2 


4 


103 


63 


84 


04 


44 


00 


15 


00 


3 


1 


9 


77 


73 


63 


03 


33 


00 


10 


00 


2 


1 


2 


51 


82 


42 


02 


22 


00 


5 


00 


1 





7 


25 


91 


21 


01 


11 


00 


2 


00 




8 


4 


10 


36 


8 


48 


4 


40 


1 


00 




4 


2 


5 


18 


4 


24 


2 


20 




50 




2 


1 


2 


59 


2 


12 


1 


10 




25 




1 


0* 


1 


30 


1 


06 




55 




10 






5 




53 




42 




22 




5 






2i 




26 




21 




11 



CHAPTER XXXVII 

TESTIMONIALS 

This chapter contains about eight hundred testimonials, all re- 
ceived during the few months in which the book was being 
compiled. 

It has been necessary to cut out all irrelevant matter in order 
to give each writer his share of the space allotted to the chapter. 

Most of the letters, as will be seen, were written by persons of 
wide experience; those who have worn artificial limbs of a variety 
of manufacturers. These we consider the most competent to 
judge. 

Nearly every kind of leg amputation, as well as deformity, is 
shown; nearly every industry, and practically every part of the 
world, represented. 

It will be noticed that most of the writers were supplied with- 
out leaving their homes. They had their measurements taken, and 
sent to us, and had artificial limbs constructed by them. Chap- 
ters XV to XXX enlarge on this feature. 

*ALL TESTIMONIALS MARKED WITH AN ASTERISK (*) AEE 
FROM PERSONS WHO WERE FITTED FROM MEASUREMENTS. 

It was customary in former times to give with each testimonial 
the full post-office address of the writer; but the frequency of 
complaints by the writers as well as the readers, has induced us 
to locate by counties and states only and furnish complete ad- 
dresses when asked for. Artificial limb wearers move about the 
same as other persons. Among eight hundred, a large proportion 
change their locations every year and cannot be reached by the 
old addresses. For this reason it is better to give up-to-date ad- 
dresses as they are needed and called for. Any person desirous of 
communicating or conferring with testimonial writers can make 
a list from this chapter and send it to us. Immediately upon its 
receipt we will send addresses that have been corrected to date. 

* FRANK ADAMS — Farmer, Amherst Co., Va. Below elbow. 
About two years ago I got an artificial arm from you as I had 

lost my right arm just below the elbow, leaving a very short stump. 
I use your arm in the most advantageous way. I have to do all 
kinds of farm work. I would not be without it for double the 
money I paid for it. May 9, 1904. 

* GEO. ABBOTT— Accountant, Newfoundland. Below knee. 

Am pleased with my foot. I know it will last a long while yet. 
It was made from, measurements taken at home and sent to you. 

* ANTONIO ALARCON— Mexico. Below knee. 

When I gave my order I never imagined that an artificial leg 
could form so perfect a substitute for the natural one in walking, 
riding on horseback, and even dancing; I supposed it would merely 
serve to hide the defect. Experience has demonstrated to me the 
superiority of the artificial legs with the rubber foot. They com- 
bine simplicity of construction with stability and ease in walking. 
—Translated from Spanish. 

*WM. E. ALBEE— Stoker, Franklin Co., Mass. Below knee. 

I have used the leg you made for me about eighteen months. 
My work is firing stationary boilers; it is hot and heavy. I believe 

257 



258 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, JSl'eio YorTc City. 



that I could not have done the work that I had to do last winter 
with any other artificial leg I ever had. June 11, 1904. 

*MES. IDA ALBUEY— Housewife, Bahamas, W. I. Below knee. 

Last September I had an artificial limb made by you and it 
fitted wrell. I have a family of six and I do all the work myself, 
I don't know any woman in the town that can do harder work 
than I. May 25, 1904. 

* D. A. ALLEN^ — Station Agent, Franklin Co., Ark. Knee amputat'n. 
The four artificial legs furnished by you at different times have 

given entire satisfaction in every respect and have all been perfect, 
although made from measurements taken by myself. I am em- 
ployed as agent and operator for I. M. & S. K'y. and attend to all 
the various duties connected with the position. May 30, 1904. 

* FELICANO ALMANZA— Ranchman, Union Co., N. M. Below knee. 
In regard to my artificial leg, I am getting along nearly as good 

as if I had my own leg and not an artificial one. I work at any 
kind of work and ride a horse, for which I am proud and thank 
you for the handling. — Translated from Spanish. May 14, 1904. 

* MES. E. E. ABEL — Housewife, Ontario. Knee amputation. 

I am very thankful for the leg- made me from measurements last 




October. I do all my housework and a lot of walking and I have 
never used a cane or anything, and I can walk without any trouble. 

April 25, 1904. 

LEONAED D. ALPAIJGH— Brakeman, Morris Co., N. J. Below knee. 
On July 29th last I lost my left leg three inches below the knee, 
and soon after purchased an artificial one from you, which has given 
me entire satisfaction. The leg is a good strong one, and can be 
depended upon in performing all the work I have occasion to put 
upon it. May 11, 1904. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 259 

* CHAS. C. ANDEES — Brakeman, Northampton Co., Pa. Below knee. 
I am wearing the leg you made me since the day I got it, with- 
out having it off except to sleep; I have walked as far as twelve 
miles in one day. I work hard with the leg, and my stump is 
always well. May 5, 1904. 

* EDW. ANDEESON— Student, Douglas Co., Wis. Below knee. 
Having walked on crutches for a period of seven years, I at last 

decided to have my leg amputated, three inches below the knee. 
As soon as I was able to get around I interviewed several artificial 
limb makers, with little encouragement. Having heard of your 
remarkable successes, and following the advice of our leading doc- 
tor, I ordered of you. I have worn the leg for two years with no 
grounds for complaint. I am a student, on my feet most of the 
day. I ride a bicycle as well as anyone. May 6, 1904. 

-:* JOHN ANDEESON— Lamp-lighter, Bibb Co., Ga. Above knee. 

The artificial limb you made for me in June, 1902, has been in 
use ever since. I am well pleased with it, and am able to go about 
as well as ever. May 17, 1904. 

THOMAS APPLEBY— Farmer, Ontario. Below knee. 

It is with pleasure I inform you that the artificial leg you made 
for me, nearly a year ago, is being used satisfactorily and advan- 
tageously. I cannot give too much praise for your work, and 
doubt very much that the limb can be improved upon. I wear it 
constantly without the least discomfort. April 27, 1904. 

W. L. APPLEY, M. D.— Sullivan Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I have worn Marks' patent leg for years. I am well pleased with 
it. It has not required the least repairs. I can walk better with 
it than any other leg I ever used except the natural one. I con- 
sider Marks' India-rubber foot a valuable improvement to Artificial 
Legs. 

MISS JOSEPHINE AEEY— Penobscot Co., Me. Shortened leg. 

I wish to express my continiied gratitude for the apparatus 
made by you five months ago. At that time I could not get about 
the house without the assistance of a crutch. I walk now without 
the assistance of a cane. It seems as though I were living in a 
new world. It has done more for me than I ever dared hope for. 
I only wish all who are thus afflicted might be able to call on 
A. A. Marks, who will add much happiness to their lives and benefit 
them as much as he has me. May 5, 1901. 

LAUDELINO AEIAS— Teacher, Cuba. Leg paralyzed and short'n'd. 
It is now a. year since I began to use the apparatus which you 
constructed in New York, and I am well satisfied with it. Ever 
since the first day I put it on I abandoned the crutches, and 
shortly afterwards the cane which I had been using for thirty 
years. I am at present walking without any fatigue, although I 
walk a great deal. Your product is so perfect it conceals my 
deformity. Thanks to the apparatus I am able to continue in the 
discharge of the duties of a professor of public school, as the 
laws of Cuba do not allow those persons who have to use crutches 
or canes as a means of locomotion, to be licensed as public-school 
teachers. I am so grateful for the good you have done me that 
I have recommendecl your house to all those in this locality who 
may require apparatus, or artificial legs and arms. — Translated 
from Spanish. ' April 24, 1904. 

A. J. AEMSTEONG— Train Dispatcher, Erie Co., N. Y. Below knee. 
In 1891 I suffered the amputation of my right leg. After trying 
two different makes — one with cords anJ ankle joint and the other 
with hard rubber — I purchased one of your legs with sponge 
rubber foot in 1895, I wore it until last November with perfect 



260 'A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 

satisfaction, and without one cent cost for repairs. In my occu- 
pation as train dispatcher for the Kew York Central E. K., I do 
not have to be on my feet as much as others, but my home is two 
miles from the ofBce, and I walk both ways in winter and ride my 
wheel in summer. In fact I do the same as I would if I were on 
mj' own foot. The one I purchased from you last fall gives the 
same perfect satisfaction. I think eight years of constant wear 
without a cent for repairs, must appeal with force to wearers of 
artificial feet with cords and ankle joints. May 6, 1901. 

* WILLIAM J. ANGIER— Engineer, Wake Co., N. C. Below knee. 

I have no trouble with my artificial limb. It is the third of 

your legs that I have worn, and I am proud to say that I would 




not have any other. My amputation is six inches above the ankle, 
left foot. I am running a locomotive every day, hauling passenger 
trains, and I am never inconvenienced in any way. May 9, 1904. 

* MRS. J. W. ARMSTRONG— Bexar Co., Tex., son Freddie, aged 9. 
I cannot estimate the comfort my little son has in the limb 

you made for him seven years ago, when he was only two years 
old. It enables him to take part in all boyish pastimes, and he 
goes from morning until night, running, walking, and playing 
the same as other boys, and without fatigue. June 28, 1904. 

* S. C- ARNUP — Ontario. Wrist joint amputation. 

I use the artificial hand which yoii made for me, for writing, 
which I am at present doing quite a bit of. I find it fully as satis- 
factory as could be expected. April 19, 1904. 

* SYLVESTER R. ASH— Clerk, Philadelphia, Pa. Below elbow. 

I have been using one of your arms for nearly two years, and 
would not be without it. I am a clerk in a large store and can do 
a great deal more work than I could without it. May 9, 1904. 

* TIMOTHY ARSENAULT— Farmer, Bristol Co., Mass. 

My new artificial foot fits all right. I find it even better than 
the other one. I find it a necessity, for without it I don't knoAV 
what I should do= May 5, 1904, 

* JOSE A. ARRIGHI— x\rg. Rep. Above knee. 

I have the pleasure to inform you that the leg procured for me 
by Mr. Jose Anto. Orfila, over two years ago, has proved excel- 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 261 

lent, and the fit is perfect, even in the heat of this season of the 
year, and when the weather is temperate, I cannot tell that I am 
wearing it. I walk three miles a day, sometimes much naore, 
with the greatest ease and comfort. — Translated from Spanish. 

* JUDGE ASHFOED— Drayman, Lauderdale Co., Miss. Above knee. 
I lost my leg on the railroad, very close to my body. Twenty- 
one months after I purchased an artificial leg from A. A. Marks 
and I commenced wearing it. It is all right, I have no trouble 
with it at all. My occupation is a drayman in this city, and I get 
around all right and do my work well. May 8, 1904. 

* lEA E. ATKINSON, M. D.— Dodge Co., Neb. 

The artificial leg procured from you in 1893, for Antone Pojar, 
has given entire satisfaction. 

* A. J. AUSTIN, M. D.— Mexico. 

Mr. Andres Cantu, for whom you made an artificial leg some 
time ago under my order, desires me to inform you that he is 
well pleased with it. His business requires him to travel horse- 
back at any time, day or night. He walks well without a cane, 
all of which is really remarkable, owiug to the shortness of the 
stump, which is 2i/j inches from the body. 

* H. E. AUSTIN— E. E. Clerk, Dupage Co., 111. Above knee. 
About a year ago I received from you the fourth one of your 

make of artificial legs that I had worn in the past forty years. 
My amputation is above the knee. All of my legs have been made 
from self-measurements, and every one has been an improvement 
on the previous one. I walked a young man half my age and 
weight (I am 52 years, weigh 240 pounds) to a standstill both 
in speed and distance. May 17, 1904. 

* WALTEE P. BAGLEY— Lumber, New Brunswick. Below elbow. 
Two years ago I had the misfortune to have my left hand and 

part of my arm so badly mashed that amputation became neces- 
sary, four inches below the elbow. Three days after my friend, 
Mr. Cote Shields, who met with a like misfortune himself, and who 
is wearing one of your artificial hands with perfect satisfaction, 
came to see me, and in the course of conversation he asked me 
if I intended to get an artificial hand. I acknowledged my inten- 
tion to do so just as soon as my stump was healed, and as a matter 
of course he advised me to place my order with you, stating that 
it was impossible for me to get an artificial limb to compare with 
A. A. Marks' in construction and durability. His statements were 
so convincing that four weeks later I sent to you for an arm. Two 
weeks after I received it. It was a perfect fit, and has been very 
satisfactory in every respect. I have worn it now for two years, 
and I consider it would be simply impossible for me to accomplish 
the work in my profession without its aid. My vocation is at 
present lumber surveying. April 20, 1904. 

COL. JONATHAN BAKEE— Elizabeth Co., Va. Below knee. 

I am living at the National Soldiers' Home in Virginia. My leg 
w^as amputated below the knee fifteen years ago. Since that time 
my experience with the Marks' manufactured legs is entirely sat- 
isfactory. I can walk eight miles a day with ease and do laboring 
work. May 18, 1904. 

* NOEMAN COLE-BAKEE— New Zealand. Above knee. 

T have worn one of your legs since 1889, and have hardly had it 
off in all that time for a single day, and the last four years I have 
been living back in a new settlement where everything is very 
rough. T have oflten been fourteen hours on horseback at a time, 
either stock riding or packing-, and during the winter do my 
share of bush felling. The rubber foot acts splendidly. 



262 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 



* LUTHER BAEBEE— Laborer, Beaufort Co., N. C. Below knee. 

I am getting- along well with the artificial limb you furnished 
me. I am highly pleased with it, it is not giving me any trouble. 
I recommend your limb to anyone in need. May 11, 1904. 

* ALFEEDA BAEEETT— Seamstress, Newfoundland. Above knee. 
I wouldn't part with my artificial leg for thousands of dollars 

if I could not get another. The leg is a perfect fit, and I have 
never had any trouble. April 23, 1904. 

J. F. BALDEIDGE— Carpenter, Wyandotte Co., Kan. Above knee. 

I still wear the leg you made me years ago. I am able to walk 

much better than before amputation. Having been a cripple since 




the Civil War. I have built a house each year, two of which were 
two stories high, doing most of the work myself on every part 
of the building, and without the suffering I endured before am- 
putation. May 2, 1904. 

GEO. HY. BAESTOW— Salesman, England. Above knee. 

Years ago you supplied me with one of your legs with rubber 
foot. The leg has been to me everything that you represented, 
and even more, and I could not say too much in its favor; some- 
times I almost forget my loss, and that is saying a great deal. 
Being a commercial traveler, I am constantly on my feet. I cover 
the whole of Great Britain, with an occasional visit to Holland 
and Belgium. 

A. E. BAETEAM— Fairfield Co., Conn. Below knee. 

I have been wearing your patent artificial leg for the past 
thirty-four years; I had previously worn others, but they were not 
satisfactory. In my opinion, your leg is far superior to any other 
artificial leg made, because of its simplicity, elasticity of the foot, 
and its noiselessness; these are obtained by the use of the rubber 
foot, and I think it is the only sensible thing. December 10, 1904, 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 263 



* EDWAED BASSETT— Age 79, New Zealand. Knee imputation. 
The artificial leg I got from you I am well pleased with. One 

of the doctors told me it was folly of me getting one, a man of my 
age. I was 76 when I got it. Kow I can walk and do a lot of 
things about the house and yard, which keeps me in good health. 

June 9, 1904. 

* L. A. BASTIDAS— Eep. Colombia. Below knee. 

My right leg was amputated a little below the knee in 1887. 
As soon as the stump was healed I was advised to order an artificial 




leg from you. I received one in 1889. The leg fitted correctly, and 
I handled it with extreme facility. Although it was only guaran- 
teed for five years, it lasted me until the end of 1902, iand was 
then in good condition. I, however, replaced it with another from 
your establishment, and in it I noted important improvements. 
My occupation is that of a merchant and farmer. I take trips 
on horseback over very rough roads of 36 to 60 leagues. I walk 
with ease and comfort. — Translated from Spanish. July 10, 1904. 

* JOSEPH H. BAT Y— Ship Caulker, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

In 1865 I had the misfortune to lose my right foot and part of 
the left on the Harlem Eailroad, and when it was healed I called 
on you to furnish me with a substitute for the lost member. I 
have been wearing one constantly for the last thirty-nine years, 
and can truthfully say that I am more than satisfied with it, not 
l<nowing what I would do without it, as my work is very heavy 
at times and keeps me either on my feet or moving about. My 
trade, as you know, is ship caulker. May 30, 1904. 

* WALDEMAR H. BAUMEISTER— Printer, Warwick Co., Va. 
The arm made for me twg years ago is all right every way 



and thoroughly satisfactory. 



May 30, 1901. 



264 A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 

* CHARLES H. BECKER— Farmer, Columbia Co. Below elbow, 

I am wearing- one of your artificial arms purchased about three 
years ago fitted from measurements, amputation below the elbow 
joint, it pleased me much better than 1 expected, it enables me 
to do all kinds of work on the farm. May 12, 1904. 

* JUAN BECKER— Uruguay, S. A. Below knee. 

I received the artificial leg with rubber foot which you made for 
me and I have been wearing it constantly ever since and can walk 
perfectly and do all kinds of work. I am compelled to be on foot, 
walking about from morning till night, and my stump never feels 
fatigued. I therefore tender you my most sincere thanks for send- 
ing me such a perfect apparatus. 

W. C. BEDFORD, M. D.— Cochise Co., Ariz. 

Marks' rubber hand has been especially satisfactory. 

* ALBERT W. BEEBE— Molder, New London Co., Conn. Both legs. 
I was hurt at Groton while trying to board a moving train. Had 

left leg taken off six inches below the knee and the right at the 
instep. I am no^v wearing your legs, right foot on one side, and 
a full leg on the other. Can go upstairs and walk long distances. 
I am a molder by occupation. May 5, 1904. 

* J. ARTHUR BEGIN— Quebec. Below elbow. 

In June, 1898, I bought of jou an artificial hand for amputation 
at the wrist joint. I have worn it constantly since that time, never 
took it ofE but for changing my underwear. Many times people 
who did not meet me for a little while have said to me, " I thought 
I heard about you having lost one hand." August 8, 1904. 

* THOMAS BELDEN— Watchman, Coffee Co., Ga. Below knee. 

I take pleasure in assuring you that the artificial leg I lately 
purchased of you is affording me entire comfort, it almost takes 
the- place of Nature's leg in my present employment. I am night 
watchman and sweeper at the mill and am constantly on my feet 
and in a position to judge. 

* 'FRANK D. BELL— New Zealand. Above knee. 

You may be pleased to hear that Mr. Trapski is stTCcessfully 
using the leg- you made for him and can w^alk easily and quickly. 
He has every reason to be grateful to you, and will, I am sure, 
readily recommend your firm to anyone suffering from a like 
misfortune. In this recommendation I gladly join. 

J. FINLEY BELL, M. D.— Bergen Co., N. J. 

I ordered a Marks artificial hand and arm for a patient, and it 
has given g-ood satisfaction. 

CHARLES BENTLEY— Weigher, Lawrence Co., S. D. Below elbow. 

I have been wearing an arm of your make for about a year and 

have found it very satisfactory. I am working in an assay office 

and could not hold my present position without it. May 5, 1904. 

* V. BERNTER— Laborer, Quebec. Shoulder. 

I feel quite satisfied with my new arm and everything goes all 
right. May 5, 1904. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 265 



MONS. F, J. BERNIEK— Montreal. Below knee. 

It affords me great pleasure to add my testimonial to the long 
list you already have. I am a professional prestidigitateur. When 
I lost my leg, 1 realized the importance of getting an artificial one 
that would imitate nature in shape and action as well as possible. 
I traveled a great deal and examined the works of most of the 
manufacturers, and finally concluded that I could get the best 
results by Avearing- one of your legs with rubber foot. I have 
worn the leg over five years. When I appear on the stage my steps 
are elastic and never betray the fact that I wear an artificial leg. 
After having worn your leg about six weeks, I invited the surgeon 




who amputated my limb to witness my performance; he invited 
in turn his medical class. When I was called upon to show my 
artificial limb, you should have seen the expression on those 
student's faces — they could hardly believe it. 

* BRUNO BERNIER— Carpenter, Quebec. Above knee. 

I have worn a leg from your firm nearly a year. I certify that 
I am greatly satisfied with it. I recommend those that have had 
the same misfortune as I, to go to you and obtain something good 
and reliable. — Translated from French. April 25, 1904. 

* MRS. A. R. BERST— Greene Co., Mo. Son Titus, Schoolboy. 

In regard to the artificial leg you made for my boy in 1902, I 
can say it has given satisfaction. Titus gets around fine. His limb 
is amputated 21/3 inches below the knee. He has never walked with 
a crutch or cane from the first time he put it on. June 27, 1904. 

MISS MARY E. BEYER— Monmouth Co., N. J. Below knee. 

I must say the artificial leg you made for -me gives me and all 
my friends great satisfaction. I can walk better and with more 
ease than before. I can ride a wheel as well as my friends v^^ith 
two limbs. If anyone wishes to know about my leg I will give all 



266 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



the information they want. My leg- was taken off on the 18th of 
August and in three months 1 was wearing your leg with stiff 
ankle in the most satisfactory way. May 10, 1904. 

CHAELES BINGENHEIMEE— Farmer, Plymouth Co., Iowa. 

The artificial leg you made for me in September, 1902, I have been 
wearing ever since and I have no trouble. I am satisfied with it. 
I will recommend your make whenever I can. It is the best 
artificial leg I ever had. May 6, 1904. 

* MES. JANE BIED— Worcester Co., Mass. Below knee. 

I take pleasiire in recommending your artificial limbs. I had 
the misfortune to have mine amputated half way between the knee 
and ankle, the future looked dark until you furnished me with a 
limb fourteen years ago. I wore it continually until you made 
a new one a few months ago. It is just an excellent fit. I have 
a large family and do all my housework with ease. June 28, 1904. 

* DAVIS H. BISHOP— Miner, Indiana Co., Pa. Below knee. 

I have used one of your limbs one year to-day. The rubber 
foot I am Avell pleased with, and I am satisfied with the fitting. 




My leg is off three inches below the knee. I am a coal-digger, and 
am working every day. I can walk one mile in twenty minutes. 
Your spring mattress rubber foot is the best out. May 15, 1904. 

* EDWAED T. BIETLES— Saddler, New Zealand. Below knee. 

I have had the artificial leg I received from you in use about 
a year. I am well satisfied with it and find it far more satisfactory 
than any I have previously used. It is very light and comfortable 
to wear and so far is wearing well. The foot retains its shape 
perfectly. June 6, 1904. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Lirribs, New Yorh City. 267 



* HENEY J. BISHOP — Teacher, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

My leg- was amputated two inches above the knee in June, 
1897. I obtained a substitute from you in July, 1898. I stand and 
walk about for hours at a time without feeling the least fatigue. 
I have on several occasions walked eight or ten miles in a day with 
it. It scarcely ever occurs to strangers that I am wearing an 
artificial limb. Hardly any expense for repairs of any kind have 
been needed during the six years I have used it. A few months 
ago, however, I ordered and duly received a second limb whose 
service would be invaluable if my old friend No. 1 should meet 
with an accident. April 29, 1904. 

J. ANDEEW BLAKEE— Teacher, Augusta Co., Va. Shortened leg. 
I have been wearing an appliance of your make for about two 
years. My leg" is six inches short and the ankle is very weak, but 
with the extension I can walk with ease. My occupation is that of 
a teacher, and as such, I must stand and walk a good deal. I can 
ride a Avheel, skate, and in fact do anything that I could do with 
two natural limbs. May 26, 1904. 

CLEOPHAS BOLDUC — Baggageman, Quebec. Below knee. 

It is with great pleasure I take the opportunity of thanking you 
for the excellent manner in which my artificial leg is giving satis- 




faction. My occupation is train baggageman on the Canadian 
Pacific Ey. About ten years ago in an accident on the road my 
left leg was amputated. Shortly afterwards I purchased an arti- 
ficial one from your firm and it has been in constant use up to 
about two months ago. My run on the road is 172 miles which 
occupies seven hours daily, and I have no difficulty in doing 
my work and have never lost any time and have had no soreness 
in my stump. The artificial leg recently purchased has the appear- 
ance of giving the same good service as the old one. April 23, 1904. 



268 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limls, New Yorh City. 

* O. F. BLEVINS— Eegistrar, Wilkes Co., N. C. Below knee. 

I have been wearing- one of your artificial legs for about two 
years and can say that it has given entire satisfaction. I live two 
miles from our court house and I walk to and from the court 
house every day. My occupation is registrar of deeds for Wilkes 
County, N. C. My ieg is amputated just below the knee. I take 
great pleasure in recommending your make of limbs. May 12, 1904. 

JAMES G. BEADY— Lackawanna Co., Pa. Both below elbows. 

I am writing you a few lines to let you know that I can handle 
a pen with my artificial right hand. I am at present working for 
the Lackawanna Iron and Steel company, and am doing satisfactory 
work. I am. a car»didate for alderman in our ward and expect to 





be elected. I am now registrar of voters and do all my own writing, 
thanks to you and the useful artificial hands you furnished me. 
If I succeed in being elected it will secure a position for me that 
will last at least five years. It will make bigger demands upon 
my artificial arms, but I have no doubt that they will be equal 
to the work. The people in our ward say your artificial hands 
are wonderful when they see me writing. 

* JAMES P. BOOTH, M. D.— San Bernardino Co., Cal. Below knee. 
My son, John Jerome Booth, aged eighteen years, who had the 

misfortune to lose a foot about thirteen years ago, has used one 
of your artificial limbs for the past twelve years with complete 
satisfaction. Soon after procuring the Marks' limb I concluded 

to try , and for that purpose ordered one with lateral motion. 

Here, then, I had a fair opportunity for competitive trial. As a 
result, the leg was returned for repairs in six months, while the 
Marks' was never returned except for lengthening. My son runs, 
jumps, climbs, and skates as well as any of his companions, and 
the closest observers, when informed of his misfortune, are at a 
loss to determine which is the real and which the artificial limb. 

* L. BOUTINON— France. Below knee. 

I have been wearing the artificial leg you made for me con- 
stantly, and it is with the greatest pleasure that I can certify I 
never felt as comfortable before while I wore other patents. The 
main objection I made against your system was the absence of 
the ankle joint, but now I can say, this is the chief merit of your 



■ 'A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 269 

limbs. I am now able to walk much, longer distances thaiv ever 
before. 

* ALLEN T. BOWIE— Court Clerk, Adams Co., Miss. Knee bearing. 
In 1883 my leg was amputated below the knee. Have used several 

makes of artificial limbs and now wear A. A. Marks' knee-bearing 
one with, the most satisfaction. May 7, 1904. 

* HAROLD BKADY— Farmer, Cass Co., Mich. Above knee. 

In January, 1903, I had the misfortune to lose my left leg, as I 
was troubled with, necrosis of the bone and had to have my leg 
amputated about six and one-half inches from my body. I got 
3'^our leg in July, 1903, and have worn it with great satisfaction. I 
can ride a bicycle and get around with ease. I am fifteen years old 
and thank you very much for the service and comfort your leg has 
given me. May 8, 1904. 

SAMUEL J. BEADY, M. D.— Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Your plain and simple mode of construction of artificial legs 
is, to my mind, unquestionably the best, and when asked by leg- 
less persons as to whose make of artificial limbs would prove the 
best to secure comfort and utility I most decidedly say, without 
any hesitation, Marks'. 

* ELMER G. BREWER— Farmer, Des Moines Co., Iowa. 

The artificial arm and rubber hand purchased of you has given 
good satisfaction. I am a farmer by occupation and the arm has 
been in constant use without repairs. The stump of my arm is 
btit six inches long, and the arm fits well, .and is all one could 
expect. May 26, 1904. 

C. H. BREWSTER— Truckman, New York City. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your rubber foot limbs for about fifteen years 
with entire satisfaction. My occupation is truckman for the New 




York Belting and Packing Company. I help in loading my own 
truck and frequently lift bales of se-veral hundredweight. The 
limb has been in constant use. 
W. J. BREWSTER— Telegraph Operator. Montgomery Co., N. Y. 

I have been afflicted with a shortened leg twenty years and have 
tried tAvo instruments of difPerent firms which did not prove satis- 
factory, one made by you has proved to be the best by far. I am 
employed by the railroad as a telegraph operator, and walk five 
miles every day, year round. It is a great help to me, it makes 
me sure and safe and no danger turning over as is easily done 
with the o+her makes. May 18, 1904. 



S70 A. A. MarlcSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



A. BKIDGEMAN — Mill Inspector, New Haven Co., Conn. 

My leg is amputated below the knee leaving a stump of about 
six inches, I have worn artificial legs for over twenty -nine years. 
I have worn two different legs Avith ankle and toe movements, 
also three legs of your manufacture, and it gives me great pleasure 
to state that I have always found your style of leg capable and 
able to do all that I require of it. My vocation compels me to 
do considerable walking- and am on my feet almost continuously 
twelve out of twenty-four hours. The last leg you furnished me 
is giving as good satisfaction as those of the past, and I can express 
nniyself no better than by saying that I know your raake of leg to 
be the best substitute for nature in the world. May 11, 1904. 

* C. ELLWOOD BllIGIIT— Farmer, Caroline Co., Md. Above knee. 
I have a leg of your make, and I like it very much, have been 

•using it five years. I have an eight-inch stump from the hip 
joint, the leg works all O. K. I am farming and trucking, and I do 
my own w^ork. I have plowed new ground. I believe the Marks' 
rubber foot cannot be beat. May 19, 1904. 

* J. W. BROCK — Traveling Salesman, Boone Co., Ind. Below elbow. 
The arm I bought of you about six months ago is a perfect fit 

in every way. It gives me a great amount of service, such as 
using a knife, or fork, or brush, holding my paper when writing, 




driving a horse, holding my newspaper while reading. When 
traveling I carry two valises, and the heaviest one in the artificial 
hand. It is a great help to me in walking, it balances my whole 
body and helps my looks, and by its use my stump has become 
stronger. ' Feb. 2, 1904. 

A. J. BEOWN— Station Agent, Franklin Co., Vt. Both below knees. 
There are quite a number of different makes of legs in and 
around this place, but none that have stood the wear and usage 
that yours has. It will be nine years the 30th of this month since 
I received your legs, and have vs^orn them all the time since, and 
they are still in fair shape, better than some which have been worn 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New YorJc City. 271 



less tlian lialf as long- and cost as much, and anyone knowing what 
a station agent's duties are will know to what they have been sub- 
ject to. There are none like Marks' for me. May 16, 1905. 

* F. M. BEOWN— Iron Worker, Valencia Co., N. M. Above elbow. 

I lost my arm last June by falling from a car, and I have only 
four inches of a stump left. I was told that I could not wear an 
artificial ai-m to any advantage, but the arm you made for me is 
as much good in looks as the left arm, and very useful. May 5, 1904. 
J. E. BEOWN — Lawyer, Jackson Co., Ala. Above knee. 

I wish to say to you, and to the inquiring public who may desire 
artificial limbs, that I have been wearing the limb made by you 
for the last fifteen years, and I find it very satisfactory. I have 
used several other patents, and believe yours is the best leg 
made. May 24, 1904. 

* J. H. BEOWN— Steamboat Pilot, Ohio Co., Ky. Below knee. 

I am pleased to say that I find great satisfaction in wearing your 
leg. I am a steamboat pilot, and sometimes stand on my feet 




for 18 to 20 hours, walking a bridge or climbing a ladder just the 
same as I ever did. I would not be without one for ten times the 
cost of a leg, and I am ready and willing to give any information 
I can to anyone in need. May 6, 1904. 

J. L. BEOWN, M. D.— Saline Co., Neb. 

In behalf of Mrs. Dora Schweer, I wish to thank you for the 
elegant fit and workmanship of the artificial limb we got from, 
you. She does her housework, comes to town, and crosses the 
streets as easily as she could before the accident. There is not 
money enough in the country to buy that limb if she could not get 
another. 
* J. W. BEOWN— Harness Maker, Jones Co., la. Instep amputation. 

On or about July 1st, 1903, I purchased an artificial foot for 



272 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



Chopart amputation of you. Have worn the foot every day since 
receiving it, and it is giving good satisfaction. I am a harness 
maker, and on my feet much of the time, but that foot is always 
ready for business. May 2, 1904. 

* JEAN BAPTISTS BEUTsT— Merchant, France. Above knee. 

It is with pleasure that I acknowledge that your artificial leg 
is excellent. I am no longer a young man, am seventy years of 
age, and quite heavy. I am well pleased with the leg, and get 
around satisfactorily. — Translated from French. May 14, 1904. 

HENEY BEUNITs'^G — Farmer, Passaic Co., N. J, Knee amputation. 

I wear a knee-bearing leg with every comfort auyone can wish 
for, work on a farm, carry from one hundred to one hundred and 
fifty pounds on my shoulders, and use my leg very rough at times, 
and do a great deal of heavy trucking. I have worked on a moving 
van, and in a piano factory, also in a lumber sawmill, in a machine 
shop, as janitor in a big school, and had a bicycle business of my 
own. I have had seven other makes of legs in nine years, but the 
Marks' leg is the " only one." May 9, 1904. 

* JOHN BUEKLEY— Dancing Teacher, Hamilton Co., O. 

I have worn your artificial arm now for five years, using it at 
the factory for three years. I worked around the factory like 




any ordinary man. Since I left the factory I have given my atten- 
tion to teaching dancing. My artificial arm is so natural that the 
dancing people do not know which is the artificial one until I tell 
them — which I don't do very often, 
JOHN D. BUEHANS— Truckman, Ulster Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your artificial limbs for seven months, and 
am well pleased with it, do heavy work with it. June 5, 1904. 

F. W. BUEKE — Brakenian, Quebec. Left at ankle, right below knee. 

I am satisfied with the artificial legs you furnished to me nearly 
two years ago. My limbs were amputated the 30th of May, 1903, 
and I got my artificials from you December the same year. My 



A. A. Maries, J^rtificial Limhs, New York City. 2'?3 

artificial limbs are all right. I have every faith in the superiority 
of your work; your limbs are unquestionably the best that money 
can buy, and the best made in the world. April 19, 1904. 

JAMES BUETON— Weaver, Oneida Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

The last leg" I got of you is all right. My right leg is amputated 
four inches below the knee. I am a cotton weaver, and I run eight 
looms, and it keeps me on my feet all the time, but when my day's 
vi^ork is over I change my clothes for the evening and walk about 
the village. I can walk three or four miles at a time and am not 
tired, aud my stump never g-ets sore. I would not change Marks' 
leg for any other, it gives perfect ease and comfort. May 15, 1904. 
* JOHN BYENE— New London Co., Conn. Below elbow. 

We all know an artificial arm can't be expected to do the same 
amount of work as the natural one. When I first put your arm 
on it felt heavy, but now it feels fine, it balances my shoulders 




so that lots of people whom I have spoken to since I got your arm 
hardly know me, they say it looks so real, my friends many times 
ask me which is the real one. I am in the grocery business for 
mj'self. I can do up bundles with the aid of the rubber hand. 
My arm has been amputated since July 7th, 1897, my stump healed 
in good shape, it feels much better with the arm. April 28, 1904. 

LOUIS BUEWELL— Grocery Clerk, Edgecomb Co., N. C. Above knee. 
I have a nine-inch stump and wear your artificial leg. No 
money could buy this limb if I could not get another. My friends 
all say that anyone not knowing me could not tell that I am 
wearing- an artificial leg. I am a clerk in a grocery store. Your 
leg gives perfect satisfaction. May 8, 1904. 

* EPIFANIO BUSTAMANTE— Barber, Mexico. Below knee. 

I am very much pleased and thankful to you for the last leg you 
sent me. I always recommend you, stating that your make is the 
best in the world, and whenever I see anyone in need of a limb I 



2V4 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Linibs, New York Ciiy. 



always advise Ihem to apply to you. Words fail to state my thanks 
for the construction of this last leg. I was always suited with the 
first one, but 1 am very much better pleased with this. The 
reputation of your manufactory is known all over the world. If 
I were in good circumstances I would not hesitate to take the 
journey solely for the pleasure of knowing my benefactors, and to 
give them an embrace as a proof of my gratitude. — Translated from 
Spanish. May 14, 1904. 

* JAMES BUTLEE— Fisherman, Newfoundland. Elbow joint. 
With much pleasure I send these fevv^ lines to you to tell you 

that I am greatly pleased with the artificial arm you sent me. I 
am deriving good satisfaction from it. It is a great help in my 
daily labor, it has been very serviceable, and I hope and believe 
it will be so as long as I live. May 15, 1904. 

* JOHN BUTSON— Farmer, New Zealand. Above knee. 

In September, 1899, I was so unfortunate as to lose my right leg 
above the knee, leaving about six inches of a stump. I was ad- 
A'ised to get one of your patent artificial limbs with rubber foot. 
I have now used it for eighteen months. My occupation is a 
farmer. I can use it much better than I expected. I think anyone 
in need of a limb could not do better than use one of your 
make. June 3, 1904. 

* A. H. CAMEEON— Teacher, Alberta, Canada. Above elbow. 

I am grateful to you for manufacturing and supplying me with, 
an arm which I wear v^ith comfort, pleasure, and satisfaction. 
The amputation is above the elbow. I would not be without it, 
it establishes an equilibrium of the body, it has developed my 
shoulder, by giving it exercise. For these reasons, coupled vs^ith 
the excellence of Avorkmanship, naturalness of form, and superior 
quality of material in your limbs, I recommend them to all who 
may need such. May 26, 1904. 

* D. CAMPBELL^ — Horse-dealer, Eansom Co., N. D. Above knee. 
In regard to your leg, must say it has given me good satisfaction. 

I have only about an eight-inch stump. I am a farmer and horse- 
dealer, and find it necessary to be on my legs from twelve to six- 
teen hours a day. Have not run across anyone wearing an arti- 
ficial limb that could be on it more hours a day than I. May 2, 1904. 

* FEENAN130 CAMPOS— Brakeman, El Paso, Co., Tex. 

I have pleasure to certify that the artificial leg which you had 
the kindness to send me in February, 1903, is giving me entire 
satisfaction. I cheerfully and conscientiously recommend your 
work to others. ' May 3, 1904. 

* B. L. CANTEELL — Driver, Marion Co., Ala. Below knee. 
About two years ago I had my left foot amputated just above the 

ankle joint, and procured from you an artificial leg, which I have 
been wearing for more than a year with good results. I drive a 
mail wagon, and could not ask for anything better in line of an 
artificial leg than the one you sent me. May 23, 1904. 

* C. G. CAED — Carpenter, Somerset Co., Me. Below knee. 

My artificial leg is perfect. I am much pleased vs^ith it. I put 
the limb on two months after amputation, and have worn it ever 
since. I am a carpenter by trade, and do the work of carpentry in 
all its branches. I would advise anyone in need of an artificial 
limb to select yours in preference to all other kinds. They are 
light, strong, and reliable. July 17, 1904, 



A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limhs^ New York City. 2,5 



W. L. CANFIELD— Towerman, Orange Co., N. Y. Instep amputat'n. 
The artificial foot you made for me February 1st, 1903, is giving- 
good satisfaction, and I would wear no other make. Have been 
wearing artificial limbs for the past ten years, and find your 
patent to be far the best for ease and comfort, and to work on, 




can do ray work as good as though I had my own foot. I work in 
a tower throwing twenty levers for tv/elve hours a day, and am on 
my feet all the time. My foot is amputated in the instep. Can- 
not recommend your patent too highly. I have worn other makes, 
but could get no comfort out of them, and one caused another 
amputation. May 16, 1901. 

* MES. FEED. CAEDHSTAL— St. Lawrence Co., N. Y. Below knees. 
I have worn a pair of artificial legs since December 5, 1903. 
I have never used a cane or crutch since I got them. My husband 
runs a big farm. I milk eight cows nights and mornings. I am 
on my feet front six o'clock in the morning until eight and nine 
at night, and am not any more tired than I would be if I had 
natural legs. I do all my housework, have three children, a hired 
man, and my husband, that makes six in the family. I do my own 
sewing on a sewing machine and can run the machine as well as 
any woman with her own feet. I do a good deal of work in the 
garden. I had my limbs taken off aboiit fifteen years ago by the 
cars, one is seven and a half inches below the knee, and the other 
four and a half inches below the knee. May 16, 1901. 



* JOHN HENEY CAEDWELL— Lumberman, Eainy Eiver, Ont. 

The \e^ with rubber foot received from you for knee joint ampu- 
tation I have worn every day. I had it just two weeks when I 
started for the bush for my winter's work. This is my second 
winter in the woods, and have every comfort with the leg. I can 
pick a hundred pounds up and carry it easy. I don't think there 
is a limb made that gives the satisfaction your rubber foot gives. 
It is light and comfortable. " May 11, 1901. 



276 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



JOHNNY CAEEY 

On the evening of June 7, 1888, stole into the yards of the railroad 
depot at Utica, N. Y., with an armful of papers. It was his inten- 
tion to board an express train which was about due. The train 
was late. Johnny sat upon the platform step and fell asleep. 
When the express came it ran over his leg and mangled it in a 
frightful manner. Johnny's first thought was that the yard- 




master had got hold of him and that he had better get out of 
the way. In his efforts to get up he was brought to realize the 
fact that he had been run over. The depot men picked him up 
and took him to a neighboring hospital where the surgeons ampu- 
tated the mangled leg. Johnny made a quick recovery, and soon 
got about on crutches. A few sympathizing friends contributed 
enough money to buy one of Marks' artificial legs. Johnny soon 
learned to walk, and resumed his newspaper traffic. Ever since 
then he has been going about so naturally and comfortably that 
nobody suspects that he is the same Johnny Carey who met with 
the frightful accident in 1888; he is able to run, walk, jump on 
and off cars just as well as other boys, and he manages to sell as 
many papers as any of his fellow-newsboys. 

* JAMES CAELING— Miner, New Zealand. Below knee. 

The artificial leg you made for vae has given every satisfaction. 
It has enabled me to follow my occupation as a miner with the least 
possible inconvenience. I gladly recommend your work. June, 1904. 

* SAMUEL E. CAELISLE— Coach Driver, Penobscot Co., Me. 

I have worn one of your artificial legs for nearly six years, and 
have found it to be just what you claim. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 277 



* J. D. CARPENTER, M. D.— Phelps Co., Mo. 

I take great pleasure in reeommending- your artificial limbs, 
especially t'or their durability and superiority of the rubber foot 
over all others. My left limb is amputated just above the knee 
joint. I have worn one of your limbs since April, 1884, and it has 
not cost me one cent for repairs to this date; I walk easily without 
a cane, and have no difficulty in following my profession. 

LAWRENCE CARRUSTGTON— Drug Clerk, Marshall Co., Miss. 

The artificial leg Dr. Hayes ordered for me for which he took 
measurements and sent thera to you has been in use for a month. 
I put it on the same day I received it, and have been wearing it 
coTitinuously since and have had no trouble whatever. My stump is 
only eight inches long from the body. February 18, 1905. 

* L. A. CARROLL — Barber, Monroe Co., Miss. Below knee. 

I suppose you are aware of the fact that I have been wearing* one 
of your artificial legs for over four years. I think myself the best 




one-legged man in Misissippi, from the simple fact that I am 
wearing one of your artificial limbs. I am a barber by trade, I 
stand at my chair fourteen to sixteen hours each day, and work 
hard. I have won two races on my bicj^cle; I can ride as far as 
anj'^ man in town, and just a little faster. This is my first oppor- 
tunity to tell you what I think of your limb. 

* THOMAS CARROLL— Cook Co., 111. Ankle amputation. 

In regard to the artificial limb which I purchased of you, I 
wish to say that I cannot praise it too highly. As my work re- 
quires me to be on my feet all daj^ the leg gives me no trouble, 
but is easy and comfortable. May 14, 1904. 

W. H. CARRUTHERS- Clerk, Ontario. Below knee. 

The leg made for me in August, 1902, has been in use every day. 
M}- amputation is six inches below knee joint. I was run over by 
an engine on the Grand Trunk Ry., November, 1877, when I v/as six- 
teen years old, I have worn leather legs with wooden feet and 



278 A. A. Ma7''kSj, Artificial Limhs, Neiv Yorh City. 

ankle joints, and have never found myself satisfied till I got one 
of yours. My stunij) was always sore with the leather leg, espe- 
cially in warm weather, but since I got one of yours with rubber 
foot, I have no such trouble. There is nothing like the rubber foot, 
it feels just like walking on your bare foot, and I dont have any 
trouble with rattling joints, and thumping the side walks as I did 
with wooden feet. 

* JACOB CASE— Mason Co., Ky. Below knee. 

I bought an artificial leg from you for my boy in the year 1902. 
I sent you measurements and had it constructed by them, as soon 
as the leg was received I had it applied, and the young man walked 
on it, and has never been without it one day since. He went to 
work the Monday after he received it, those that saw him before the 
leg was applied did not know him when he walked around on two 
legs. He can run, skate, and walk as well as any boy. May 22, 1904. 

MllS. MAEY CASSIDY— Housewife, Brooklyn, N. Y. Below knee. 

I take pleasure in informing you that my artificial limb is a great 
success. It has given me j)erfect satisfaction in every way. I am 
able now to attend to all my household duties without the slightest 
inconvenience. May 9, 1904. 

* GEOEGE CASTLETOIST— New Zealand. Above knee. 

I am now working for the same firm I woi-ked for when I met 
with the accident, engineering and engine driving. I walk very 
well, indeed. I think the rubber foot is a great thing, as it does 
not jar, and the leg is so strong- that it is not easily broken. I 
give it severe tests at my work. 

SERAFIN CAULA— Clerk. Above knee. 

It will soon be a year since I was at your establishment in 
search of relief, my deplorable condition was caused by an ampu- 
tation in the upper part of the right thigh, leaving a stump only 
four inches in length. I had a leg made by another manufacturer, 
but was unable to walk on it, in spite of having practiced assid- 
Tiously for more than six months. Completely disheartened I be- 
lieved that I should never walk, I resolved, however, to go to your 
manufactory as a last resort. In ten days you furnished me with a 
limb so perfectly adjusted that I have used it constantly with ease 
and comfort. Although my occupation as a Government employee 
obliges me to sit most of the time, I take plenty of exercise and 
walk perfectly. — Translated from Spanish. April 30, 1904. 

EOBIN CELLS— Eockland Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

The leg you made for me two years ago is as sound as when I 
got it, although it has had several hard knocks. My leg is ampu- 
tated above the knee, leaving a stump of 7% inches, I get around 
very good, and think nothing- of walking two or three miles. I 
find the socket very comfortable, it never chafes the stump. 

May 20, 1904, 
FEANK L. CHAFFEE- Farmer, Bedford Co., Pa. Below knee. 

The foot I bought of you is giving good satisfaction. I have 
now had it two years. I am farming-, and can plow, drag, and do 
all kinds of work with it. The foot I had before this, made by 
another firm, always caused me a great deal of trouble. I am well 
pleased with your work. May 2, 1904. 

E. M. CHAMBLISS— Banker, Haywood Co., Tenn. Below knee. 

It gives me great pleasure to say that the limb you made for me 
in March, just six months after I lost my leg by falling under a 
moving train, has given me perfect satisfaction, and I believe will 
continue to do so. I have worn it every day since getting it, and 
have suffered no pain or had any sores of any kind on my stump. 

- June 7, 1904. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, Neio York City. 279 



* E. S. CHAELOTTE— Painter, Craven Co., N. C. Below knee. 

The artificial leg I got of you in May, 1897, is still in use. It 
has required no repairs. I work all day on a long ladder, I am a 
painter by trade. Have walked five miles in the summer time 
without any trouble. I advise anyone in want of a limb to get 
one of your make. June 3, 1904. 

* DOLPH CHEEK— Salesman, Alamance Co., N. C. Below elbow. 
It gives me great pleasure to say that the artificial hand made 

aud fitted from measurements is perfect in every respect. People 
do not suspect me to be a one-armed man, as the " artificial hand " 




looks so natural. I can hold a book or paper in my rubber hand. 
With the hook and ring attachments I can do most any kind of 
work, people are svirprised to see how well I get along. I can write 
with mv hand, hold a knife to trim the finger nails on my left 
hand. " Dec. 19, 1904. 

* W. E. CHEVES— Supt. Sawmill, Berrien Co., Ga. 

I lost four fingers and the palm of my right hand in 1896, about 
a year afterwards I bought from you an artificial hand. This hand 
has never given me any pain by reason of contact with the stump, 
besides being' of considerable service, it hides the evidence of 
maimedness. I would advise anyone in need of an artificial limb 
to go to you. May 16, 1904. 

CAEEOL CHILDES— Davidson Co., Tenn. Below knee. 

I am glad to say that the limbs you have manufactured for me 
from time to time have been very satisfactory, I can recommend 
your work as superior to any other that I have seen, and I am 
acquainted with pretty nearly all. Your name is enough to make 
your limbs travel everywhere. April 38, 1904. 

* JOSE TEMISTOCLES CHIEINO— Soldier, Venezuela. Above knee. 
The duty which my gratitude imposes upon me, compels me to 

make the following statement. 

I was wounded in the leg in one of the battles of the last war 
by a Mauser bullet. The projectile smashed the bone in such a 
naanner that I at once became crippled. Lack of means and med- 
ical attention occasioned many connplications, and after six months 
of great sntfeinng, I came to this city where they performed the 
operation, as the only means of quieting the pain. Shortly after- 
wai'ds my physician, Dr. Pedro Leon, A., advised me to write to 



280 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

you for the purpose of procuring an artificial limb wMcli would re- 
place the one I lost. In truth you sent it, and it has greatly ex- 
ceeded my expectations. I have only used it a very short time, and 
I walk without any trouble and am again engaged in my usual 
occupation. It is not heavy, neither does it tire me, nor pain my 
stump and does not inconvenience me in any way. — Translated from 
Spanish. May 7, 1904. 

GEORGE L. CHILDS— Chaufeeur, Essex Co., N. J. Below knee. 
I have been wearing one of your legs for over a year, and have 




found it the best in the world. I have been chauffeur for nearly 
two years, and have been driving the Peerless motor car with good 
results. I can recommend your limb to anyone in the world, and 
I will be glad to do so. May 7, 1904. 

* CHAELES W. CHEISLEY— Farmer, Pulaski Co., Va. Below knee. 
I am well pleased with my artificial leg. I can walk fine. I 

never thought that I would be restored to my usefulness as I am. 
I could not have made a better choice than I did when I purchased 
of you. The leg fits perfectly. March 14, 1905. 

* E. H. CLARK — Engineer, Middlesex Co., Mass. Shortened leg. 

I have worn one of your extensions for about twenty years, and 
am perfectly satisfied with it, and would have no other. I am 
an engineer, and it gets pretty hard usage. May 20, 1904. 

J. HI:NRY CLARK, M. D.— Essex Co., N. J. 

I cheerfully and fully indorse the Marks' rubber hands and feet. 
I have several patients iising them, and with perfect satisfaction. 

* V. B. CLARK— Jones Co., Ga. Below knee. 

I lost my foot in the battle of Spotsylvania, May 10th, 1864, and 
have been wearing A. A. Marks' artificial limbs for some twenty 
years, tried other kinds, none suited me half so well as yours, for 
comfort and durabilitv; I do not believe there is any made on 
earth to equal Marks' limbs. My new foot has given me no trouble 
from the day I received it, hav^ worn it constantly. May 19, 1904, 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 281 



* HAEEY T. CLAKK— Farmer, Belmont Co., O. Below elbow. 

In regard to the artificial hand I got of you, I received it the 
first of April, 1902, and have worn it constantly, and find it of 
great use in the different works that I have to do. I work on the 




farm until the fall of the year, then I have a steam hay press 
with which I travel around the country baling hay for the farmers. 
The first year I received the hand I pitched wheat for three wagons. 
To make a long story short, I get along with the hand nearly as 
well as I did when I had both of my own hands. May 10, 1904. 

* W. A. CLARK — Lumberman, Choctaw Nation, Ind. Ty. Above knee. 
The leg I bought of you some twelve years ago is now laid aside for 

the new one just received. I was formerly in the lumber business; 
handled lumber, rode horseback, and a great many people making 
my acquaintance never knew that I used an artificial limb. The 
new one bids fair to be as good. The fit is excellent. May 23, 1904. 

* PERCY T. CLARKE— Student, Hancock Co., Me. Below elbow. 
My artificial arm was received about four years ago, and has 

given me untold help and comfort. The looks alone are worth 
more than the price. May 31, 1904. 

* T. P. CLARKE— Farmer, Russell Co., Kans. Below knee. 

My limb is amputated about two inches below the knee; has 
been oflp for tM'enly years. I have Avorn two of your limbs, and can 
recommend them highly, especially for strength and durability. 
Mine has had hard wear on a Kansas farm. April 30, 1904. 

-» MRS. ANNIE CLEMENTS— Saginaw Co., Mich. Below knee. 

I have been wearing the Marks' artificial leg twelve years, the 
first one I ordered I used constantly ten years without having any 
repairs made, then I concluded I had better order another so as 
to have un extra one, in case of need, I used the artificial leg with 



282 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, Neiv YorTc City. 



ankle movement for eighteen years before I got the one from A. 
A. Marks without ankle movement. I have no further use for ankle 
movements. After the first year they are not reliable, and they 
malce so much noise. I have alv^^ays cared for and done all the 
housework for a family of seven. May 11, 1904. 

EEV. I. N. CLEMENTS— Madison Co., N. Y. Knee-bearing. 

I have worn an artificial Jimb of your make for about twenty- 
three years. Previously I had worn one of a diiferent manufacture, 
but I did not like it. Since wearing your make I have walked more 
easily, and with no noise. 

* FEED CLOWES— School Teacher, Australia. Both below knees. 
I have much pleasure in recommending yovir artificial limbs to 

all who are afflicted as I am. Your legs have made such an im- 
provement in my appearance, that strangers cannot tell that I have 
lost both of my natural ones until some person tells them. The 
legs felt a little awkward the first fortnight, during which time 
I was forced to iise two sticks, but before long I could walk without 
the aid of them. This may be considered very good progress see- 
ing that I never used my knee joints until I got your artificial 
legs. June 7, 1904. 

* J. D. CLUCK— Farmer, Cherokee, Ind. Ty. Above knee. 

Tn July, 1884, I accidentally split my right knee-joint with an 
ax, which limb, three days later, was amputated four inches above 
knee-joint, leaving r.n eight-inch stump. In January, 1886, I 
purchased my artificial leg of you by sending- measurements taken 




b3'' one of my neighbors and myself. I am now compelled to say 
that, after about ten years of constant use, I feel confident I made 
no mistake in taking your patent. I often walk to church, over a 
mile, in company with others. My chief occupation is farming, 
I often saw wood all day, or I can pick a hundred pounds of cotton 
in a day, and that is about the amount I picked before my leg 
was amT)utated. 
JAMES COLE— Farmer, Crawford Co., Pa. Below knee. 

The leg you made for me is the best artificial leg that I ever 
wore, and T can't speak too much in praise of it. I think the rubber 
foot is a great improvement over any other make. T shall get 
your make of limbs hereafter. I lost my leg in the war. May 13, 1904. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New YorJc City. 283 

* ALLEN COLEMAN— Watchman, Hale Co., ALi. Below elbow. 

I boug'ht from you in July, 1903, an artificial arm and hand for 
amputation five inches below elbow. I have worn the arm every 
day, and have not had one moment's trouble with it. I have charge 
of two tanks on the Southern Ey. and I fire my furnace. The 
other day I went on top of one of my tanks, which is about twenty- 
five feet high, and spent about four hours calking the top of the 
tank, carrying a bucket of white lead and a fourteen-foot ladder 
around the top of the tank. The arm was made from measure- 
ments, and the fit could not have been better if I had been at 
your factory. May 1, 1904. 

* JOHN COLIGHAN— Barber, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Below knee. 

In rej^ard to your rubber foot, would say that I am well iileased 
with it. It gives me better satisfaction and more comfort than 
any other that I have worn. I am a barber, and the leg is giving 
the best of satisfaction. I am wearing your artificial leg- for nine 
years, and your foot is the only one I can wear at my trade with 
comfort. May 11, 1904. 

* ISAAC COLLINS— Fisherman, Newfoundland. Below knee. 

I am thankful for my artificial leg. I am able to walk three 
miles over ice, and do my work the same as when I had both 
natural legs. I am able to take my gun as usual and go shooting. 
I am able to go in my boat as I did before. This artificial leg 
with rubber foot can't be excelled unless you get the blood circulat- 
ing in it. April 30, 1904. 

* CLODOMIEO CONCHA— Clerk, Chile. Below knee. 

I am pleased, now to communicate the following, viz.: I had 
scarcely worn the artificial leg with rubber foot, which you made 
for me, two months, when I resumed my former position in the 
firm of Williamson, Balfour & Co. The fulfillment of this position 
demands constant work at all hours of the day and a portion of the 
night. In spite of this, and the constant exercise on foot and on 
horseback, I am completely comfortable. Fatigue and pains are 
unknown to me, although I am as active as in my best days. Those 
who are ignorant of my misfortune are astonished, and refuse to 
believe that I wear an artificial leg-, the perfection of the appa- 
ratus is so great. — Translated from Spanish. 

STEPHEN J. CONDIN— Worcester Co., Mass. Below knee. 

Having worn one of your limbs for two years I can truthfully 
recommend them. May 10, 1904. 

E. V. CONLEY— Eailroad, Providence Co., E. I.— Below knee. 

There is as much difference in artificial limbs as there is in 
folks, and sometimes more. I wish to thank you for the kindness 
shown me during my stay at your place of business. I must say 
it is really a pleasure for a man in my condition to be measured 
and have a limb made by your firm. My limb is one good success. 
It is impossible for me to say too many good things about your 
work. April 22, 1904. 

* JOHN CONNEE— Miner, Clearfield Co.. Pa. Below knee. 

I take great pleasure in recommending your legs to any person 
working in or around the coal mines. I wear one of your feet for 
below knee amputation, and can walk as well as before I lost my 
limb. I have to push heavy cars, which I handle with as much ease 
as ever. I have worked with people a long- time before they knew 
I wore an artificial foot. May 23, 1904. 



284 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limits, New Yorh City. 

* WM. P. COONKOD— Teamster, Erie Co., N. Y. Below elbow. 

The artificial arm you made for me about eighteen months ago 
is all right. My occupation is teamster, and T can handle a team, 
with it. I use the hook while at work. I use the hand for brush- 
ing my coat, and get along all right. May 24, 1904. 

« Jx\MES W. COPELAND— Musician, New Brunswick. Below knee. 

Your artificial limb has given the very best of satisfaction, and 

it is impossible to tell that I wear one at all. I am a musician, and 

leader of a band, and sometimes have to walk long distances, as at 




parades, a person has to be pretty well supplied with limbs to stand 
that, the routes of parades being about fi^ve or six miles, and some- 
times more. Well, the Marks' leg just suits me, and my artifi.cial 
limb is just as good as the natural for that purpose. Apr. 30, 1904. 

G. A. COEBETT— Sheboygan Co., Wis. Above knee. 

I consider it my duty, and everyone else that wears an artificial 
limb, to tell the public, especially those that have to wear them, 
their candid opinions of the legs they are wearing. I have worn no 
less than five different makes, and give yours the preference. The 
action of the knee joint is far preferable to me than any other that 
I have worn, and I know the very best material is used. No one 
can help but feel at home as he goes into your building, everything 
reasonable they ask will be granted to them. April 25, 1905. 

* FKANCOIS COEEIVEAU— Farmer, Bellechase Co., Que. 

I have worn the artificial leg you made for me last September 
and am highly satisfied. I am a farmer, and do my work the same 
as my neighbors who have their natural legs. I thank you for 
the interest you have taken in the case, and take pleasure in en- 
couraging everybody in need of an artificial limb to address you. — 
Translated from French. May 21, 1904, 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 285 



W. T. COEEY— Eutland Co., Vt, Above knee. 

For about t^vo years I suffered from diseased bone in my knee- 
joint. On the loth of May, 1903, my surgeon found it necessary 
to amputate above the knee, leaving- an eight-inch stump, and on 
the 15th of July I came to your factory and purchased an artificial 
limb with rubber foot, which I am wearing- now. I began work on 
the 27th of August, and since then have not missed wearing it a 




./ //■■ / / 



day. My work is in a milk skimming station and grocery store 
combined, where I have heavy barrels, boxes, and milk cans to 
handle daily. It was some time before people here knew I wore 
an artificial limb. May 10, 1904. 

* JAMES COSTELLO— Fisherman, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

Its fitting is good, I can get about all right on it. I had to throw 
away the old imitation leg altogether. I can walk now without the 
aid of a stick. June 3, 1904. 

W. A. COTTEIiILL— Conductor, New York City. Above knee. 

I have had such excellent service from the artificial leg you made 
for me in 1887 I am willing to say anything commendatory of your 
work. The leg has b^en in constant use for fourteen years and is 
in excellent condition now. I shall probably wear it a great many 
years longer. The rubber foot is helpful and never gives me any 
anxiety as 1o its durability. June 13, 1904. 

JOSEPH COUTURE— Quebec. Both legs amputated. 

It is two years ago to-day that I began wearing your artificial 
legs. I have one artificial leg below the knee and the other above. 
I am well pleased and get about my business with the help of a 
cane without the least difficulty. I feel well satisfied and recom- 
mend the A. A. Marks' artificial limbs. April 25, 1904. 
JAMES A. CRANDALL— Clerk, Philadelphia Co., Pa. Below knee. 

I have been wearing your patent artificial leg for some years 
and in my opinion your leg is far superior to any other made, 
because of its ease, elasticity, and stillness. These are obtained by 
the iise of the rubber foot. Also because of the durability. I have 
no trouble in the least to get around. I can ride a bike, play ball, 



286 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



in fact I go in for all out-of-door sports, 
your legs to all needing them. 



I cheerfully recommend 
May 5, 1904, 



* W. L. COEGAN— General Store, St. Louis Co., Mo. 

I have worn a pair of Marks' legs for about eleven years. My 
left leg is off about five inches above the knee, and the right is 
off five and one-half inches below the knee. My legs were 
made from measurements taken one thousand miles from New 
York by myself, assisted by a friend. I have never seen New York 
or IMarks' factory, and they have never seen me. In ten years I 
don't think I have spent ten dollars for repairs. I have seen lots 




of Avearers of other legs, and have yet to see any in my condition 
that could walk with me. 1 am in the general store business, and 
v\'ork in all the departments, not now and then, but every day in 
the year from early until late. My first pair of legs lasted a little 
over nine years. Am now wearing my second pair. Therefore, 
brothers, don't be discouraged if you get a leg or two cut off, for 
if you are the right kind of stuff, there is lots of fun here for you 
yet. I belong to the Improved Order of Eed Men, am on the 
degree team and help do the work, and also an Odd Fellow. 

April 26, 1904. 

* JOHN CEAWFOED— Miner, Athens Co., Ohio. Below knee. 

This is the second artificial leg I have bought of you and can say 
that both have given *he best of satisfaction. I have worn four 
artificial limbs. The first I got was worth about ten cents. The 
next was nearly as good. The third one was from you and it gave 
such good satisfaction that had it not been fora fire in which my 
leg and nearly myself were burned up, I dare say I should have 
been usinc it yet. My occupation, that of a miner, requires an 
artificial li^nb that is nearly indestructible. Yours comes nearer 
that, besides giving greater comfort than any I have heard of. The 
persons wearing your artificial limbs around here have nothing but 
praise for them. May 16, 1904. 



A. A. Marksj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 287 



* ENEIQUE P. CORTEZ— Sonora, Mexico. Both legs. 

I am pleased to inform 3'^ou that I have used the artificial leg and 
part of foot you made for me. They enable m^e to mentally lay 
aside the sad fact that I am a cripple. I am a captain in the 
Federal Army of the Mexican Eepublic. My right foot and toes of 
the left was frozen and became gangrened in 1893, when I was 
caught in a severe snow storm in an expedition to the Sierra Madre. 
You made a right leg for me in 1893 and with slight repairs made 
in 1903 I find the leg in a condition as good as new promising at 
least to last ten years longer. For this I am very grateful to you. 
My right leg was amputated at the ankle joint. The end sloughed 
and I have no flap or cushion on the end of the bone. Therefore, I 
do not or cannot bear any weight or pressure on the end, but the 
leg which you constructed applied weight and pressure some dis- 
tance above the end, and inconvenience is not felt in the least. I 
walk perfectly over rough ground, ride well on horseback, and in 




,-!lJBlll^S!',"^'^ili'«Sl"""" 



short, although I have lost one leg and part of the other foot I am 
enabled to continue in the service of my country. I certainly feel 
very grateful to you for the good work you have done in the way of 
repairing me. — Translated from Spanish. April 28, 1904. 

* S. S. CROCKETT— Machinist, Carter Co., Tenn. Below elbow. 
The artificial arm and rubber hand I ordered of you in December, 

1902, gives perfect satisfaction. I do not think there could be any- 
thing gotten up to equal it, in fact, hardly anyone notices that T 
am wearing an artificial arm. Being a machinist and an engineer, 
it enabled me to follow my profession. I also handle a steam log- 
loader and have to handle the lever that swings the loader from 
right to left with my artificial hand. I can file and hold a chisel, 
in fact, it is surprising to know what can be done with an artificial 
hand. April 30, 1904. 

* JAMES P. CROSBY— Worcester Co., Mass. Below knee. 
Having worn an artificial leg procured from you I can say that 

after an experience of over twenty years with dilTerent makes, 
yours with the rubber foot is the most comfortable I have ever 
worn, and as it was fitted from measures, and without any alter- 



288 A. A. Marks, /artificial Limls, Neio York City. 

ations whatever, I thought it phenomenal. I have not expended a 
cent for repairs, and it is as good as tlie first day I put it on. I am 
on my feet most of the time. May 12, 190 i. 

JOHN CEOWE— Truck Driver, Washington, D. C. Below knee. 

Permit me to extend to you my congratulations on attaining such 
a high state of perfection in artitieial limb making. I lost my left leg 
about three inches below the knee by reason of a gunshot wound 
in the Civil War. 1 resorted to the use of an artificial leg and 
though J wore several other makes, none pleased me till I had a 
trial of yours which far surpasses all others, and the rubber foot 
imj)roveiTient I consider ideal, not only on account of its noiseless- 
ness but also for its elasticity and safety. I have worn several of 
your make all to my entire satisfaction and though I do some heavy 
work, in all eases they sustain the strain which many times is very 
severe. Weigh over 180 pounds, get about quite actively and attend 
to my daily duties with ease and comfort. May 10, 1904. 

* EEV. H. L. CEUMLEY— Fulton Co., Ga. In charge of an orphan 
asylum, in behalf of an inmate he wrote: 

We have found the artificial limb you made for " Leona Miller," a 
snaall girl in our Orphans' Home, durable, serviceable, and with the 
occasional lengthening very satisfactory. She is now nearly grown 
and finds the leg indispensable. June 22, 1904. 

* A CEYSLEE— Barber, Montcalm Co., Mich. Below knee. 

I have worn your make of artificial limb for thirteen years and 
have always found it satisfactory in every way. I think the rubber 
foot is the best foot made. April 27, 1904. 

* MISS MAEY E. CUEEY— Worcester Co., Mass. Hip amputation. 
My right leg was amputated at the hip joint in 1901. I received 

the artificial leg in April, 1902, and began to use it immediately. I 
found no difiiculty in learning its use and after a few weeks was 
able to walk anywhere without assistance and with very little limp. 
I can get on and off cars, climb stairs, in fact do most anything 
with it. May 10, 1904. 

* HENEY CUETAIJST— Canvasser, New Zealand. Below knee. 

Five years ago while loading wheat on my cart at Auckland wharf 
a full sack fell on my leg. After suffering sometime it was dis- 
covered that gangrene had set in, and as a result my leg had to be 
amputated just below the knee. I obtained an artificial leg with 
patent rubber foot from you and after giving this four years' hard 
and satisfactory wear I decided to obtain another. My object in so 
doing was to make sure that I should not be left without, were 
your firm to retire from business. I have been wearing both legs 
alternately for the past twelve months without discomfort. My 
present occupation, which I have followed since my recovery, is that 
of a tea canvasser. This vocation necessitates a v^^ell-fitting leg 
and one that can be relied on. I have already recommended your 
firm to unfortunate felloAV sufferers, and will continue to do so in 
future. January 10, 1905. 

B. CYE — Tailor, New Brunswick, Hip joint amputation. 

I must say that I am perfectly satisfied Avith my artificial leg. 
As you know, it is a hip joint amputation. I can v\'alk in the house 
without a cane. Of course on the street I use one. April 23, 1904. 

« HAEMON DAILY— Clerk and Farmer, Essex Co., N. Y. 

In the fall of 1891 I lost both of my feet by slipping between two 
coal cars on the D. & H. E. E., my right leg was cut off one and a 
half inches below the knee and my left about four inches below the 
knee, after the stumps g"ot healed, my doctor recommended to me 
A. A. Marks as the best limb manufacturer in the country. I pur- 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 289 



chased a pair of legs from him and put them on the same day. My 
occupation is that of clerli and farmer. I have to be on my feet 
sixteen hours out of every twenty-four. I can follow a plow or hoe 
and can do almost anything that I did before I lost my legs. I can 
climb a ladder no matter how tall and "W'hen I get to the top I feel 
as safe as I would be on the ground, for there is no ankle joint in 
the Marks' leg to get out of order. The limbs I am now wearing 
I got over thirteen years ago and they will last me sometime yet. 
A year ago I purchased another pair of the Marks' legs with some 
improvement over the old ones, made from my own measurements 
and are very satisfactory. May 20, 1904. 

WM. T. DALBY, M. D.— Apache Co., Ariz. 

I have had various opportunities of testing the merits of the 
Marks' artificial limbs with rubber feet and hands and can cheer- 
fully recommend them to be superior in every respect to any other 
which has come under my observation. 

EEV. C. H. DALEYMPLE— Butler Co., Neb. Above knee. 

After v/earing a limb for eighteen years I know how to appreciate 
one. Your foot movement is so noiseless and easy that I'd not think 
of going back to my old style. At first I thought I never could use 
it, but in a very little while I found I could. It has grown better 
and better right along and is now comfortable and works naturally. 

* Z. T. DANIEL, M. D. — Physician, Pine Eidge Agency, S. D. 

In September, 1899, T performed the operation of amputation of 
the left leg on Ceca Yammi (Peter Three Thighs), a Sioux Indian 




»<tached to this agency. He was suffering from necrosis of the 
tarsus, and a complete invalid, absolutely unable to stand. I did 
not succeed in getting his consent to operate until I told him about 



290 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh Ciiy. 

your excellent limbs, how he would be enabled to walk, run, ride, 
work, etc. In due time the stump healed, and I sent you measure- 
ments for his leg. It came by express, and I immediately adjusted 
it. To my surprise it fitted him perfectly, and at this writing he 
is going about among the Indians with as much ease and comfort 
as couldjpe desired. Inclosed is a photograph in war costume which 
he sends you with his compliments, with a hope that it will be 
interesting to his i ice, and an example of what the " White Medicine 
Man " can do for his people. 

EDWIN D. DAVIS— Locomotive Engineer, Potter Co., Pa. 

My arm was amputated five inches below the elbov/ a little over 
two years ago. I secured one of your artificial arms. It fits per- 
fectly. I have worn it every day since I received it. I have been 
employed in the railroad company's general store and could not get 
along- without the artificial arm. April 30, 1904. 

* V. P. DAVIS — Stenographer, Henrico Co., Va. Knee amputation.. 
Referring to the limb which I bought of you some time ago will 

state that I can, with much pleasure, testify to the beautiful piece 
of workmanship you gave me. I am a stenographer and from time 
to time have long distances to walk, and can say that I have had no 
reason to complain of the least bit of discomfort wearing your limb. 
The rubber foot is the greatest inv "tion in artificial leg construc- 
tion. May 17, 1904. 

WILLIAM B. DAVIS, M. D.— Weschester Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I had the misfortune to lose my right leg when I was six years 
old. At the age of eight I tried my first artificial limb. My profes- 
sion compels me to be on my feet the greater part of the time. I 
feel no fatigue whatever. I can say this, that having used one of 
Marks' artificial limbs I feel I can never get along without one, 

«• MISS FLOEENCE DAWSON— School Teacher, Buchanan Co., Mo. 
I am delighted to tell you that my new limb arrived a few days 
ago and is a perfect fit. I adjusted it the same day I received it 
and have been wearing it ever since. It is very satisfactory. Am 
simply "tickled to death" with it. Can never praise your firm 
enough. Without you there would be so much less happiness in 
the world. May 2, 1904. 

* HAEEY S. DAY— New Zealand. Below knee. 

I have used one of your artificial legs for the last four years and 
a half and I have found it most satisfactory. I consider that the 
state of perfection that you have reached with artificial limbs is 
\vonderful. I can work and do almost all the things I could do 
before my accident. I work principally in my butter factory, but 
also ride a great deal and use many farm implements. I have 
much pleasure in recommending your ai'tificial limbs to anyone. 

* PETEE M. DEANS— Signalman, Ontario. Below elbow. 

I am pleased to state that the artificial arm you sold me about 
fifteen months ago, which was fitted from measurements, I have 
Avorn it day and night without pain, ache or mark on the stump. 
I have seen a number of other patents but I do not think they can 
be compared with your rubber hand in any respect. I am employed 
as signalman and can attend to my duties without the least 
trouble. , April 26, 1904. 

A. C. DEDEICK, M. D.— Bristol Co., Mass. 

I certainly advise the application of artificial legs to growing chil- 
dren as soon as their stumps are properly healed. John Kershaw, a 
young growing lad, has worn one of your legs for some time. He 
plays football, baseball, and indulges in all other sports. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neio Yorlc City. 291 



* DAVID DAY— Millard Co., Utah. Above knee. 

Two years ago I put on one of your artificial limbs. I can truth- 
fully say it has been a great help to me, and I am confident that 
there are none better. I get along without any other assistance, 




and am able to attend to an acre and one-half of garden. In fact, 
to make a long story short, everything is as you said it would be, 
and I am satisfied. 

C. J. DINEEN— Glass Cutter, Steuben Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

In July, 1902, you constructed an artificial leg for me, my leg 
having been amputated above the ankle joint in 1883 on account of 
railroad accident. I am jjleased to' state that your leg has proved 
Serviceable and satisfactory. I use it constantly and do anything 
that I want to. I cannot help but speak well of your work as the 
leg has always given me good satisfaction. April 21, 1904. 

MES. J. W. DeEEVEEE— Wyoming Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I have worn yoiir make of artificial leg for a little more than 
nine years, and I cannot speak too highly of the rubber foot. Al- 
though my work is not laborious I walk a great deal. I would 
recommend your make in preference to any other. 

* BEENAED DETEES— Farmer, Clinton Co., 111. Above knee. 

I am wearing one of your artificial legs, and am getting along 
fine. I wear it every day and do alm.ost any kind of work on the 
farm. Last winter 1 went to school and one morning was obliged 
to walk through fourteen inches of snow. I also walked the same 
distance on sleet-ice and did not feel tired. I was at the World's 
Fair and saw other makes but they seemed only a shadow of yours. 
I would not give mine for any other make. July 15, 1904, 

DAVID D. DEUTSCH— Mechanic, New York City, N. Y. Ankle. 

My foot is amputated at the ankle joint. I have worn several 
makes of limbs, but after I wore your make I found it far superior 
in every respect to any other. I am satisfied with it. I am a 
mechanic, am a good deal on my feet and think nothing of a ten 
mile walk. May 18, 1904. 



292 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New YorTc City. 

PACIFICO DIAZ, M. D.— Argentine Eepublie, South America. 

I am extremely pleased to salute you, and to enclose with these 
lines the order made by my friend, Mr. Kaul Cordeiro, for an arti- 
ficial leg to replace the one he has lost. I have taken the measure- 
ments for him, and hope that your tirm will make a leg for him as 
perfect and as useful as those made for others whom I have sent 
your firm in the same manner. Those I am wearing myself con- 
tinue to give excellent service. 

* JOHN A. DICKSON— Telegraph Operator, Assiniboia, Can. 

It is almost two years since I lost my arm. I was railroading at 
that time and got caught in a coupling, causing amputation above 
the elbow, leaving a stump six inches long. I decided to get one 
of your arms, and had my measurements taken. When I received 
the arm I put it on, it proved to be a splendid fit, and I have found 
that it is no bother to wear, and does not hiirt in any way. I ad- 
vise anyone who has lost an arm to purchase one of yours, and am 
sure that he will never regret it. I am now working for the Can- 
adian Pacific Eailway Co., as assistant agent in one of their offices, 
and have not the least trouble to do my work. April 30, 190-1. 

* C. C. DIDIEK— Grocer, Cook Co., 111. Below knee. 

Fifteen years ago I lost my foot in an accident with a mower. 
I then purchased a limb, thinking that it was the best in the 
market, but it did not give satisfaction. I then heard of A. A. 
Marks' limbs with rubber feet, I purchased one, and in all the years 
that I have worn it, I must say that it is the best on earth. I have 
a grocery store, and do as much work in walking and lifting as 
anyone, I am on my feet all day, and I could not do it with any 
other limb than yours with rubber foot. May 17, 1904. 

WILLIAM DIETZE— JNIachinist, New York City. Below knee. 

I lost my leg belovv the knee from gunshot wound received in the 
late war. As soon as ray stump healed the LTnited States Govern- 
ment presented me with one of 's legs with an ankle joint. 




I wore it for a short time, and thought I liked it, but when I had 
one of your rubber feet applied to it I at once discovered that I 
had bettered my condition. I have worn your rubber foot now 
about twenty-eight years, am a machinist, and work at the lathe 
and forge. For ten years I worked on a foot lathe, doing the 
treading with my rubber foot. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, Neio YorTc City. 293 



* THOS, DILLON— Newfoundland. Below elbow. 

It affords me unqualified pleasure to state that, having worn one 
of your artificial arms, results having shown that with ordinary- 
care in measurement, and following j^our instructions, one can be 
positively assured of a perfect fit. The rubber hand is something 
to be proud of. With gloves on both hands it is almost impossible 
for a stranger to distinguish the difference. 

* JAMES DIMMICK— Plasterer, Woodward Co., Okla. Below knee. 
I have used artificial legs for over twenty-nine j^ears, and I think 

I ought to be a good judge. I can walk easier with your leg and 
rubber foot attachment than with any other leg I have ever tried, 




and I have tried four different kinds. I am a plasterer by trade, 
and work on the scaffold every day now. It fits me better than 
any leg I have ever tried, and it was made from measurements. 

* J. H. DINGMAN— Oil Producer, Crawford Co., Pa. Below elbow. 
For the past five years I have worn two of A. A. Marks' artificial 

hands, one for dress, the other for working. They both have given 
me the best of satisfaction. I am an oil producer, and do a great 
deal of work about my wells. Can do nearlj^ as much as any of 
my m.en. My left hand was amputated about three inches below 
the elbow. April 20, 1904. 

* W. A. DIXON— Tailor, New Zealand. Above knee. 

Twelve months ago I received an artificial leg from you to re- 
place the left one, which I lost by being caught in machinery in 
Victoria. I had previously used a Colonial made leg, which gave 
me much pain, and chafed the stump if I walked any distance, but 
since I have used your manufacture I have had ease and comfort, 



294 A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 

and I can walk long distances without any inconvenience. It has 
far surpassed my expectations. The leg- was made by you from 
measurement, and could not be more perfect in any way. In my 
travels I have met many other makes, but have always heard yours 
sj)oken of as the best, and I only regret that I had not got you to 
make me one years previously. June 6, 1904. 

* JEEEY DONOHUE— Chenango Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I wish to say something in praise for the comfort I take in 
wearing your leg. It is all right in every Avay. I have now worn 
your artificial leg nine years. No one can tell by my walking that 
I have an artificial leg. It is light, and can be handled with per- 
fect ease in any kind of work. * ]\fey 23, 1904. 

JAMES DOUGHERTY— Eailroading, Alleghany Co., Pa. 

I am working and doing better on my artificial limb than I ex- 
pected to, and it is giving- me much better satisfaction than I 
thought possible in so short a time. My business as foreman on 
steam shovel work compels me to walk over very rough ground, 
but I have experienced very little difficulty in doing so. I am 
certainly well pleased and satisfied. May 27, 1904. 

* BETTY DOUGHTY— Vocalist, England. Below knee. 

I have much pleasure in stating that I consider the artificial 
Jimbs with rubber feet, made by you, to be second to no other make 




on either side of the world. My left leg was amputated when I 
was four years old, from which time till about four years ago I 
had various limbs fitted as I grew. Since wearing your limb I am 
able to not only go about easily and naturally, but also to apj)ear 
on the stage in opera, playing Erminie, the Countess in Olivette, 
Dolores in Florodora, and other parts necessitating quick movement 
and short dress, Avhieh I wear without anyone being able to detect 
that I am at all lame. I shall be pleased to communicate with 
anyone who would like further information. April 28, 1904. 



'A. A. Marks, Artificial Linibs, Neiv YorTc City. 295 

MRS. ALICE DOUGLASS— Essex Co., N. J. Below knee. 

Two years ag-o I lost my lower limb, having- it amputated below 
the knee, and procured one of your artificial limbs, which has given 
me the greatest satisfaction in every particular. Am more than 
pleased with it, and cheerfully recommend it to anj^one desiring- 
a limb. May 16, 1904. 

* WM. DOUGLASS— Stearns Co., Minn. Below knee. 

After wearing one of your artificial legs since the fall of 1893, I 
will state that your leg' gives me more satisfaction than any other 
I have worn since 18G5. No more ankle joints, heel cords, or instep 
springs for me. Your artificial leg has not cost five cents for 
repairs since the fall of 1893. 1 believe your artificial limbs are the 
best manufactured in the United States or any other country. I 
have worn six diiferent kinds. March 3, 1905. 

* JOHN DOWNEY— Engineer, Gogebic Co., Mich. Ankle amputat'n. 
I am using the thii-d artificial foot received from you. It is 

perfectly satisfactoi-y in every respect. April 29, 1904. 

* GEORGE DOYLE— Barber, Lewis & Clark Co., Mont. Above knee. 
I wish to state the limb I received of your firm is satisfactory 

in all respects. As you know I have but a ten-inch stump, but there 
are very fe^v people who know I have a limb oif. I have seen 
several people here wearing limbs, but I can walk better than any. 
I have recommended your limb to many. April 29, 1904. 

A. S. DRAPER — Commissioner Dep't. of Education, Albany, N. Y. 

Two years ago I was so unfortunate as to lose my right leg at 
the knee, and since then you have made two artificial legs for me 
(the second is reserved in case of emergency that I might not be 
without a limb) which are giving very good satisfaction. The 
mechanism is ingenious, and I am able to get about with consider- 
able facility and very comfortably, for which I am obliged to 
you. May 5, 1904. 

* D. DRUMMOND — Farmer, Ontario. Ankle joint amputation. 
Artificial limb received and fitting satisfactory, although the 

measurements were taken ten years ago, this one fits as well as the 
old one. My leg was amputated at the ankle joint in 1879, used 
three wooden artificial limbs with ankle-joints, but when visiting 
Columbian Exposition, in 1893, was naeasured and procured one of 
yours, and have no hesitation in saying that it has lasted nearly 
as long as the other three and given better satisfaction. I am a 
farmer by occupation, and can perform all the work of a farm, 
in fact have won prizes at plowing- matches since I have had it. 

May 25, 1905. 

AUGUST DUDENHAUSER— Real Estate, Jefferson Co., Wash. 

In regard to the artificial leg which you made for me about 
one and one-half years ago, I take great pleasure in saying that 
I prefer it to all the previous makes that I have used. I lost my 
leg in battle in 1864. I have worn many different kinds since, and 
yours is equal to the best of the others in every respect except one, 
and in that it is superior, I mean as to its always being ready for 
use without that trouble and annoyance of adjusting, oiling, regu- 
lating the ankle joint. May 12, 1904. 

* THOS. DUFFETT— Newfoundland. Above knee. 

In reference to the artificial \Qg, I am well satisfied with it. It 
is a great improvement over the leg I had been wearing. My 
occupation is in a boot and shoe factory. I sometimes have to 
carry considerable loads of shoe uppers, and I find no difficulty in 
walking. June, 1905. 



296 A. A. Marks, Artificial Liiribs, New York City. 

M. A. DUMOND, M. D.— Ithaca, N. Y. 

You can rest assured that I shall do all I can for your artificial 
limbs, as I consider them the best in the market. May, 1905. 

W. DUNCAN, M. D.— Chatham Co., Ga. 

I endorse Marks' artificial limbs with pleasure. My associate, 
Dr. T. I. Charlton, who rendered me very valuable assistance in 
taking- the measurements for the last two legs ordered from A. A. 
Marks, also endorses them. No complaint has been made to me 
by any person for whom I have procured the Marks' artificial 
limbs, and they seem fully adapted for all that is required of 
them. June, 1905. 

HAEEY L. DUNN— E. E. Clerk, Chemung- Co., N. Y. Below elbow. 
In March, 1893, I met with an accident which caused my left 
arm to be amputated about one inch below the elbow. In June, 
same year, you fitted and made me an artificial arm, and since 
then I have worn the arm every day. It has always been- satis- 
factory, and I find no discomfort. If I go without it only a few 
hours I feel out of place and miss it nearly as much as I did the 
original. May 18, 1903. 

* WM. H. DUEHAM— Bookkeeper, Windsor Co., Vt. Below knee. 
Somewhat over three years ago I got, through Dr. Woodward, 

one of your artificial legs, and have been wearing- it constantly 
ever since, and without one cent spent for repairs or alterations. 

Feb. 25, 1905. 

* JAMES EAEL — Laborer, New Zealand. Above knee. 

To say that the artificial leg you made for me pleases me would 
but inadequately express my gratitude. I am a sailor by profession, 
and although I do not follow that occupation now, still I am able 
to move about freely, and do a lot of odd jobs whereby I earn an 
independent living. When your readers understand that my leg 
was amputated close to the hip, they must acknowledge the perfec- 
tion of the artificial limb, which enables me to accomplish so much. 
I could get about naturally with it after a trial of three days. I 
cannot bestow too much praise on the limb and the ingenuity dis- 
played in its construction. I hope you will long be • spared to 
alleviate the distress and suffering of unfortunate humanity. 

June 15, 1904. 

* AAEON ECKEE— Farmer, Carroll Co., Md. Below elbow. 

I would not take double the cost for- the arm you made for me, 
I have loaded farm wagon, plowed, and laid off corn ground. I 
even tie my shoes with the hook and my other hand. May 31, 1904. 

BENJAMIN EDDY— Paper Machinist, Franklin Co., Mass. 

I lost my left hand two inches above the wrist in August, 1890, 
"while at work on a paper machine. I commenced wearing one of 
your arms in October of the same year, which I wore and used 
to good advantage until October, 1903, when it became necessary 
for me to secure a new one, Avhich, like the former one, is perfectly 
satisfactory. I consider A. A. Marks the only manufacturer of 
artificial limbs, so far as good results are concerned. The hook, 
which I attach to the fore-arm, enables me to do anything, and most 
everything in a quick and perfect manner. I have been employed 
in a paper mill ever since my accident. May 7, 1904. 

WILLIAM P. EDDY— Manufacturer, Brooklyn, N. Y. Partial foot. 
I wish to say that the appliance you made for me four j'^ears ago 
is in good condition, which proves the durability of your applica- 
tion to Chopart amputation. It is superior to that made by anyone 
else, or even made by yourself heretofore. May 31, 1904. 



A. MarkSj Artificial Limls, New YorJc City. 297 



W. E. EDGERLY— Brooklyn, N. Y 

In October, 1897, I met with a 
railroad accident that deprived 
me of both my limbs. Isly right 
leg" was amputated a few inches 
below the knee and my left in 
the knee joint. In two months 
after the amputation I ordered 
of you a pair of artificial legs. 
You fitted me neatly, and in a 
short time I was able to get 
about and mingle among my 
friends, go to my club, and en- 
gage in business. I am part 
owner of the bark Obed Baxter, 
and as I am very fond of the 
sea, I occasionally take long 
cruises, and have but recently 
returned from a cruise cover- 
ing two years, which carried 
me around the world. I am 
sending you a picture of my- 





self at the wheel, a position 
1 frequently occupy. I also 
send you a picture of my- 
self in the shrouds, taken 
off the coast of Japan, 
'i although I do not make a 
Ml practice of going aloft, I 
\\! \ have done so on a number 
of occasions, and have found 
very little difficulty on ac- 
count of my artificial legs. 
I also send you a photo- 
graph of myself on horse- 
back while in the Hawaiian 
Islands, near the city of 
Honolulu. 
The artificial limbs of 



your manufacture are 
marvels. They are light, 
simple in construction, 
and thoroughly efficient. 
I have not had occasion 
to send my limbs for 
repairs since they were 
made, and from all ap- 
pearances it will be a 
long time before any 
repairs will be required. 
If this letter pleases 
you you can publish it 
among your testimo- 
nials when occasion 
arises. 




298 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

■"• MISS MILDRED E. EDMONSOX— School Girl, Australia. Instep. 
About twelve months ago I got one of your aluminum legs for 
an instep amputation. It has given me every satisfaction. I can 
walk any distance, and get about as quickly as ever I did v/ithout 
any discomfort. June 22, 1904. 

* T. S. EDWAEDS— Ireland. Above knee. 

The leg you made from the measurements I recently sent you 
fits admirably, and leaves nothing to be desired. From the first 
I was able to walk with comfort. The chief feature to be admired 
about your limb and one which, if there were no other, should be 
sufficient to commend the ieg to all artificial limb wearers, is the 
noiselessness of its motions. I feel myself a new man, and the limb 
has turned out to my expectations, nay, far beyond. The rubber 
foot is a great improvement over the old articulating ankle joint. 

ADAM E. EHRLIN— Car Repairer, Erie Co., O. Below knee. 

I wish to inform you that I received the artificial limb you made 
for me in good condition, and wish to state that I consider it a 
fine piece of workmanship, and am well pleased with it, and am 
in doubt no more in regard to the ankle being a success. It ex- 
ceeds my expectation, I can walk better, straighter, and have^gotten 
rid of that squeak at last. After wearing- an ordinary ankle joint 
limb for eighteen years, I can truthfully say yours is the best, and 
the fit is perfect. I feel like a new man when I walk; everylhing is 
different with your limb, and I am thankful that I went to A. A. 
Marks. Refer any doubtful person to me. May 29, 1904. 

* REV. S. H. EISENBERG— Centre Co., Pa. Above elbow. 

I have used an artificial arm made by you for fifteen years. 
There was no difficulty in obtaining correct size from your system 
of measurements. My arm is ofi! half-way between elbow and 
shoulder. 

STEPHEN G. ELDRED— Clerk, Oneida Co., N. Y. Below elbow. 

The arm I bought of you gives very satisfactory results. It is 
light, "and fits so well that it can be worn with ease at all times. 
I find it of great value in my business. June 15, 1905. 

* DR. H. E. ELDSIDGE— Santa Rosa Co., Fla. Below elbow. 

I will say that I am now wearing my second arm of your make. 
I lost my arm in 1890. It was amputated one and one-half inches 
below elbow, and you realize an arm to be of any service to me 
has got to fit. The first arm I used was of another make, and was 
very unsatisfactory. I am a physician in active practice. I drive 
a double team, dress and undress myself, and attend to all my 
duties as Avell as a man with two natural arms. My patients 
and friends are always complimenting- me in the way I do my work. 
I discharge all the duties of a general practitioner, and often per- 
form surgical operations that fev/ men would attempt even with 
two hands. I will also add the fact that I have fitted several un- 
fortunates with your limbs, all g-ive satisfaction. April 28, 1904. 

* JAMES W. ELDRIDGE— Farmer, James Co., Tenn. Above knee. 
I have been wearing one of your legs for nine years, and am 

now wearing my second leg, and I must say without your leg I am 
perfectly helpless. It enables me to do anything. I ride bucking 
broncos, and do most anything that I want to. My leg is off above 
the knee. I will alwkj's be ready to speak a word of praise for 
" Marks' " legs. Sept. 9, 1901. 

* REBECCA C. EMENHEISER— York Co., Pa. Below knee. 

I am more than pleased with your artificial leg with rubber 
foot attached. I can walk so well that people cannot tell that I 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limhs, Neiv Yorh City. 299 

wear an artificial leg. I have worn several with ankle joints, but 
would not v>'ear them now if g-iven to me free of cost. Aug. 11, 1904. 

CONEAD EMEICH— Sexton, Borough of Queens, N. Y. Below knee. 
Having used for four years an artificial leg from a well-known 
firm, previous to coming- in contact with your firm, I can conscien- 
tiously state that your make is in every way better suited to me. 
^Vith the aid of the Marks' leg I can walk and perform my ordinary 
work much better. I climb stairs, and ladders, dig in the 
garden, and do heavy lifting, and do not fear a fall or the dis- 
arrangement of the mechanism of the leg as formerly. May 13, 1904. 

* H. HURLOCK EVAjSIS— Queen Anne Co., Md. Above knee. 

I take great pleasure in recommending- your artificial limbs, 
especially for their durability and superiority, and of the excellence 
of the rubber foot, over all others. I only had a six-inch stump 
and can walk easily without a cane or crutch. Can sail my boat 
as well as ever. May 2, 1904. 

C. EWER— Asst. Surgeon, U. S. A., Fort Sidney, Neb. 

I have purchased Marks' artificial limbs for patients, and they 
invariably have given entire satisfaction. 

* THOS. EZELL— Salesman, Jasper Co., Ga. Below knee. 

I have used your artificial foot and leg continuouslj'^ for eleven 
years, and it gives perfect satisfaction. The fit by measurements 




V^' 



was perfect. I had no repairs done, although I was In active busi- 
ness, such as a salesman in retail dry goods and grocery store, 
and have walked the old field, bird-hunting, for one-half day at a 
time. The rubber foot seems as good to-day as when first bought. 



SOO A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 

* MES. ELIZA A. FAIRFIELD— Housewife, Missisquoi Co., Que. 

I received an artificial hand from you about one year ago. My 
hand was taken off two and one-half inches above the wrist; 
unfortunately it was my right hand that I lost. Your hand was 
fitted from measurements at home. I am satisfied with it. I would 
not like to be without it. May 23, 1905. 

* MES. W. A. FAIEWEATHEE— New Brunswick. Son Asa, age 8. 
My son, Asa, had his leg amputated on account of typhoid fever. 

The amputation took place on the 18th day of April, 1901. The lad 
was then five years old. He walked on a crutch for about one year, 
at the end of which time we procured from you an artificial leg. 
We put the leg on immediately, and a few weeks after he walked 




./C.A.MARKS, N.V, 



/y/M'**'^ 



about without the aid of a cane or crutch. In September, 1902, he 
began his schooling, and has continued it to the present time. 

He walks, runs, swings, jumps, plays ball, and enjoys himself 
as well as other boys. We were advised by many not to procure 
an artificial leg, as it was not supposed that he could use one, but 
we were afraid that the child might receive some injury from 
using crutches, and therefore determined to get the leg. We do not 
regret having done so. The results attending the case make me feel 
it a duty to recommend every person who has a child, no matter 
how young he may be, who has lost a lim.b, to provide the child 
with an artificial one of your make as soon as possible. May 23, 1904. 

J. W. FARILL, M. D.— Cherokee Co., Ala. 

I have experienced the worth of the A. A. Marks' artificial arm, 
and would say it is a perfect Godsend, and worth its weight in 
gold. 

* J. C. FARLOW— Prison Guard, Randolph Co., N. C. 

I have worn one of, your lirribs with aluminum socket for the 
past seven years. Think they are the best for partial foot amputa- 
tion. I can get around so well that many of my acquaintances do 
not know that I wear an artificial limb. Although my heel was 
allowed to drop backwards while healing, the aluminum socket 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 301 



holds it in place. I rode a bicycle seventy-five miles over rough 
country roads in one day. My occupation at present is prison guard 
on the public roads, which compels me to stand on my feet from 
twelve to fourteen houi-s every day. I have worked at house paint- 
ing since I have been crippled, and I have no trouble in climbing 
ladders. May 23, 190i. 

FKANK FAUST— Fireman, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Below knee. 

I wish you to know how many days the leg you made for me worked 
during the year 1899. You see that it exceeds more working days 
of ten hours each than there are working days in the year. If you 
know of anybody, with an artificial leg, who has turned out more 
days' work than 1 have firing a big coal engine, remembering that I 
have to walk two miles to work and two miles from work, making 
four miles every day in addition to my work, let me know who he 




is, that I may compare time with him. During the month of 
January I worked 407 hours; February, 292;March, 358; April, 325; 
May, 280; June, 316; July, 337; August, 376; September, 337; Octo- 
ber^ 391; November, 375; December, 337. ... If you will add up 
the number of hours, you will find that it amounts to 4131, or more 
than 413 days for the year, and you know there are 313 working 
days in the year, so I have worked a year and one hundred days in 
the year 1899, wearing your artificial leg every hour of that time, 
and it has not cost me one cent for repairs. It is as good now as 
it ever v/as. The engine that I am firing is one of those big ones 
that haul coal from the mines to Pottsville, No. 148. I inclose a 
photograph of my engine, where you will see me at my post of duty. 
I get all over her with the same ease that I ever did. Sometimes 
I climb on top of the boiler while in motion. I can tell you more 
about what I am doing with my leg if you want it. The hard use 
I am giving your leg and the excellent wear it is giving prove it to 
be the best in the world. Feb. 1, 1905. 

S. Y. FEEGUSON— Yardmasi er. Albany Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I was acting as night yarumaster when my leg was amputated. 
T thought, as everybody else did, that I would never be able to per- 
form the duties of yardmaster again. I secured a Marks' leg and 
resumed my old position. This requires a great deal of walking, 
and getting on and ofl: engines and freight ears. For nine years 
I have climbed on top of box ears, got on and oif cars while in 
motion, and covered very frequently eight or nine miles in one 
night walkin?:;- over the yard. I have worn my new leg ever since 
you sent it, and it is as comfortable as an old shoe. May 17, 1905. 



302 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

THOS. FEENEY— SigBalman, Quebec. Below knee. 

I take great pleasure in recommending- your artificial limbs, 
especially for their durability. My leg is amputated six inches 




below the knee joint. I have worn one of your limbs since 1888. 
I am employed as signalman, and attend to my duties without the 
least trouble. 

MOEEIS FELDBEEG— Sewing Machine Operator, New York City. 

Your artificial limb gives me much satisfaction, and I wear it 
with ease and comfort. I will gladly recommend its merits to al] 
who desire any information on this matter. May 19, 1904. 

* CHAELES A. FILLMAN— Teleg'ph Operator, Montgomery Co., Pa. 
On Nov. 7, 1902, I accidentally shot off four fingers of my right 

hand. I have worn one of your artificial hands ever since, and find 
it very satisfactory. I would not be without it. I am a telegraph 
operator, and find no difficulty in continuing my occupation with 
the aid of your hand. Aug. 16, 1904. 

* T. F. FIPPS — Farmer, Montgomery Co., Mo. Above knee. 

In July, 1903, I had my leg amputated above the knee. Being 
fifty years old and stiff I could not go on crutches. Three months 
after ampiitation I received a leg from you, and now I can get about 
very well. I could not do without it. May 2, 1904. 

* EAEL FISHEE— Mobile Co., Ala. Below knee. 

My right leg was amputated nine inches below the knee on June 
25, 1903. As soon as I was able I purchased one of your artificial 
limbs and began wearing it. It fits perfectly. I am often asked 
by my most intimate friends which leg is ofF. I can do most any- 
thing I ever could. Your foot is simply perfect. Oct. 28, 1904. 

CHAS. W. FISHEE— Sangamon Co., 111. BeloAv knee. 

Two years ago I had you put one of your rubber feet on an 
artificial leg made for me by another firm, which had an ankle 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Netu Yorh City. 303 

and toe joint. Both joints bothered me a great deal, they were 
all the while getting- out of order. As soon as the joints would 
w^ear, they -would rattle and thumxD. This annoyance has all dis- 
appeared since 1 had you apjjly a rubber foot to the leg. The 
rubber foot does not cat out the socks, as did the old style wooden 
foot. I also notice I do not slip so badly in winter weather as 
with the ankle joint foot. My limb is amputated about half way 
between knee and ankle, and have been using an artificial limb since 
1873. I weigh 230 pounds and move about freely. April 28, 1904. 

* NEWFOUNDLAND FISHERMEN remember well the cold storm 
that set in about the first of April, 1888. It was then that Edward 
and Peter Fleming, brothers and fishermen, of Forbay, met with a 
thrilling experience that deprived them of their legs, and nearly 
cost them their lives. 

They were fishing oil: the coast of Newfoundland, when a storm 
drove them from their location. Twelve days they drifted about 
at the mercy of the cold, wind, and ocean — famished, athirst, and 
frozen; nothing* to eat, nothing to drink, no succor, no hope. 
When despair and suffering had nearly exhausted them, a bark 
bound for Quebec picked them up, and cared for them the best 
they could; but their sufferings were not alleviated until they 
were placed in the Quebec Hospital, where it was found necessary to 
amputate both legs of each. In course of time Peter and Edward 
sent their measurements to A. A. ]\Iarks, of New York, for two 
pairs of artificial legs. The letter printed below tells the results. 
To A. A. Marks, New York: 

Dear Sir:- — In regard to the artificial limbs you made for my 
brother Peter and myself in 1888, they are wearing well yet. They 
never cost me one cent for repairs since I got them. I was speaking 
to several men on crutches, and I told them that I had two of 
your limbs. They were surprised, and wished they could get the 
like of them. I do a great deal of walking around the ground in 
summer time. I cannot praise your limbs too highly, for they are 
a great comfort. My brother Peter is meeting with the same suc- 
cess. 

H. J. FOLLWEILER— Bookkeeper, Lehigh Co., Pa. Below knee. 

I purchased my artificial leg from you last December for an am- 
putation below the knee. It is giving perfect satisfaction, in fact 
I could not do without it, it is light, strong, and well made. 

I am a bookkeeper by jjrofession, but spend much of my time 
on the farm, where I have to walk much. 

There is very little wear and tear of your legs, and I heartily 
recommend them to all who are contemplating purchasing. The 
rubber foot and non-articulating joint give me a firm, natural, and 
graceful walk. May 27, 1904. 

* HERBERT C. FOOTE— Fisherman, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

I received the limb on the 13th of July, 1903. I am getting along 
well with it. I can go about anywhere almost as well as I could 
with my own limb. I wish you every success. May 28, 1904. 

* MISS AGNES FORD— Stanislaus Co., Cal. Above knee. 

I have worn your make of artificial legs for over thirteen years, 
and am well pleased in every respect. I purchased my first limb of 
you when I was only twelve years of age, and wore it twelve 
years, it was a great comfort to me, as it enabled me to be with my 
friends on the plaj^ground at school. The new limb I purchased 
from you a year and a half ago is doing crood service. Your limbs 
are far superior to any other make, and I highly recommend them 
to any in need. July 26, 1904. 



S04 



A. A. Marl's^ ArtificM Limhs, Kew Torh City. 



* JOS. M. FOED— Stone Cutter, Baltimore Co., JId. Below knee. 

I take great pleasure in recommending your leg- as the best I 
ever wore. treAious to wearing yours I had worn four ankle joint 
legs made in different parts of the country. But I never had the 
comfort and feeling of securitj- I have had since wearing your 
rigid ankle, spring mattress, sponge rubber foot. I am a stone 
cutter, and ray business requires me to stand among broken stone 
much of the time; while wearing ankle joint legs either ankle 
joints or toe joints were aiwajs getting out of order. All this has 
been done away with since wearing the rubber foot and stiit 
ankle. The leg- I am now wearing is the second you have made me, 
and neither one has been any expense to me. Aside from comfort, 
I v.alk better, travel farther, and am in every v,-ay better satisfied 
than I ever was with any other make. 

There are many that are now wearing ankle joint legs, if they 
only knew the comfort of the stiff ankle and rubber foot, would 
discard their old legs and try the rubber foot. It took me a long 
time to make up my mind to try it, but I never regret that I did, 
and never expect to wear any other kind. May 3, 1904. 

* W. H. FOEREST— Builder, South Africa. Below knee. 

I am much pleased with your artificial leg. It is a perfect fit. 
I have made up my mind never to wear an ankle joint foot again. 
I was eighteen months a member of the Town Guard, during the 
Boer TVar, and was never off duty, when the Guard T\-as in active 
service, and to this day the commanding officer is not aware that I 
walk on an artificial leg. The doctor who has assisted me in 
measuring, is so pleased with your work that he is turning all 
his work your v,-ay. April 12, 1904. 

* T. F. FOESTEE— Blacksmith, Lake Co., Colo. Above knee. 

I am one of those who have to resort to artificial legs, I ana 
thankful to say that I am well pleased with your make. Aly ampu- 




tation is seven and a half inches from my body; applied leg March 
28, 1903, and have worn it every day since. My labor is sawmill 
and blacksmith work. I had seventeen other firms to choose from 
I don't believe I could better my condition. The rubber foot is 
all right. May 1, 1904. 



A. A. Marks, Arti/iciai Linihs, Keiu Torh City. 305 

THEKOX C. FOWLEE— Farmer, Xew Haven Co., Conn 

I hare Avorn one of your artificial arms for the past twelve years 
and could not do without it. 1 find it of great help in riding a 
bicycle, which I use in my business. I have ridden on an average 



0(1 







over 3,000 miles per year for the past five years. I sinaply place 
the hand on the handle-bar the same as the natural one. 

April 13, 1904. 

* FEED FOX— Farmer, Crawford Co., 111. Below elbow. 

I am a farmer, and am at work most of the time. I find the 
hook and ring you supplied with my artificial arm very useful in 
■working around the farm. I lost my arm, three inches above the 
Txrist, a year ago last winter in a corn shredder. May 22, 1904. 

* HEXEY FEAXK— Chenango Co., X. Y. Daughter Helen, age 9. 
^ly child, Helen, lost her leg when she "was but two years old, 

■we obtained her first artificial leg from you when she was a little 
over Ihree j^ears old, which she wore for a long time. We have 
since bought a new leg, which she is now ■wearing satisfactorily. 
We are well pleased with what you have done for her. The girl 
attends school, plays with other children, jumps, swings, dances, 
in fact, there is hardly any enjoyment that her companions engage 
in that she is not with them. It is hardly possible for anyone to 
detect that she ■^vears an artificial leg. everybody is very much sur- 
prised at the way she gets about. I am congratulated on all sides 
for having- provided for her in such a way when she was so 
young. June 13, 1904. 

* J. HUGH FEEEMAX— Casket Trimmer, Davidson Co., Tenn. 

I am very much pleased with the artificial limb purchased from 
you. I follo^w my occupation (casket trimmer) without difiiculty. 
!My limb was amputated at lower part of thigh and the limb you 
sent replaces to a great extent the one I lost. Your artificial 
limbs are a great boon to unfortunates like myself, April 30, 1904, 



306 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

* MKS. EOSELLA FOX— Both arms below elbows. Written with 
a rubber hand. 

jt-iTUi'i^et tn-e^fpt. irt^ ^z^yi-i^it^ '^^i-»-7*,«*< i^^f't'^^ Ofvfn*^ 
J •i*'-**^^ /p^z^u^ utZ^ ^yyut^ ,^«5-*^^^t'5i^-tvc '^-*?-?-/-«^ 









* W. S. FEEEMAN, M. D.— Nova Scotia. Above knee. 

I am happy to inform you that the artificial leg you made for me 
works splendidly. I feel like a new man on it. This feeling is 
encouraged by the kindly comments of my friends. I regard the 
rubber foot as a great improvement. 

CHAELES A. FULLEE— Lawyer, Chenango Co., N. Y. Above knee. 
My leg was amputated within eight inches of the body at Gettys- 
burg. For many years I wore a leg with an ankle joint which gave 
me no little vexation. Whenever the spring that kept it in place 
weakened, the foot ' would drop and the leg trip, and I would 
lose my natural sweetness of temper. I have worn the Marks' leg 
for the past fourteen years, and have had no such trouble with the 
rubbei' foot. I am now wearing my second leg, and it looks as if 
it might do good work for the next dozen years. 



'A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 307 

I. C. GABLE, M. D.— York Co., Pa. 

I have recommended the A. A. Marks' very valuable patent arti- 
ficial limbs to a number of my patients, who are wearing them with 
perfect satisfaction, and I have no hesitancy in saying- in my 
judgment they fulfill their purpose better than any others that 
have come under my observation. 

MISS GEACE GALE— Belknap Co., N. H. Shortened leg. 

I procured an appliance similar to that ilhistrated in Cut K 11 
of your manual. I have worn the same now for nearly a year, and 
it has given me a great amount of comfort and relief. I walk 
much better, and have never used a crutch since wearing it, and it 
keeps my ankle firm. I recommend your work. June 2, 1904. 

* MISS MARY A. GALLAGHER— Tuscaloosa Co., Ala. Below knee. 
I am wearing the second artificial supplied by you. I get along 

without any assistance; lost limb six or seven inches below the knee 
in 1886, bought one of your manufacture in 1887, have used con- 
stantly ever since, and at the present I am wearing the second, 
bought in 1903. I would never be without one. It is the talk of all 
my friends how active I am with it. May 14, 1904. 

J. B. GAMBLE, M. D.— McDonough Co., 111. 

The endorsement of patent articles, of whatsoever kind and de- 
scription, is something I very seldom do, but the Marks' artificial 
limbs with rubber hands and feet meet my unqualified approval, as 
being the hest I have ever had occasion to recommend to those de- 
siring artificial limbs. 

REV. RUFUS P. GARDNER— Merrimack Co., N. H. Below knee. 

It gives great pleasure to assure you that the apparatus made 
by you in 1876 has answered my expectations, enabling me to walk 
in a natural manner and leave the crutch. 

I\fy parish work calls for a great deal of walking, which I can 
do with great ease. Hoping- many others may find, as I have, the 
value of your great work. 

H. R. GARNER, M. D.— Lewis Co., Wash. 

I am pleased to add that the leg I procured from A. A. Marks 
for my patient works to perfection. He does anything that is to 
be done on a farm, and has lately learned to dance. 

* C. H. GASQUE— Telegraph Operator, Hampton Co., S. C. 

In 1891 I bought a leg- from you and wore it every day for ten 
years. Then I purchased another, and liked it even better than the 
first. The last one I got has been in daily use for more than two 
years. I am greatly pleased with your raake of limb. May 8, 1904. 

E. A. GAULT — Locomotive Engineer, Otsego Co., N. Y. Below knee. 
September 28, 1897, my right leg M'as amputated at the middle 
third, below the knee. I am a locomotive engineer, and in just six 
months from that day I was back on the road at work. I have 
worn your artificial limb for over six years, and have never had a 
spot as large as the head of a pin on my limb caused by chafing. 
I have stood on the engine beside the boiler with the heat at one 
himdred ten, and it did not affect the leg at all. I have tested it 
in every way. I can climb around the engine as well as I could 
with my own limb, can run and jump, and my weight is two 
hundred and twenty-five pounds. May 16, 1904. 

HENRY P. GEIB, M. D.— Fairfield Co., Conn. 

The persons to whom Marks has furnished artificial appliances 
for amputations of the feet (one Symes' and the other Pirogoif's 
operations) express themselves as being perfectly satisfied. 

The appliances are light, easily applied, "and do not produce ex- 
coriation or tenderness at the end of the stump. 



303 A. A. Marls^ Aiiificial Limits, Xew Tori- City. 

I consider that Marlis' appliances fulfill all the indications called 
for in providing artificial support after amputations. 

HAEEY GEITXEK— Lancaster Co., Pa. Above knee. 

I find the artificial leg "svhich you furnished me entirely satis- 
factory. Although I have not had it a very great length of time, 
it is ail that I could expect. I am going to school, and walk there 
twice a dav, it is a distance of a good mile from my home. 

May IS, 1S94. 
A. H. GIBBS— Clerk, Washington, D. C. Above knee. 

The artificial leg you made for me has given me great satisfaction, 
especially the rubber foot. You gave me a perfect fit, and I have 
experienced no difliculty in wearing the leg from the first day I 
received it. can walk quite a distance with ease and this I consider 
doing well as my amputation leaves only four inches of stump from 
'the hip. My leg was amputated in 1S5S as the result of a gunshot 
■wound received at Antietam in 1S62. I attempted to wear a leg of 
another make but Avas unable to do so and after about one and a 
half years abandoned it and returned to crutches, which I used until 
I got the leg you made. I would not change back to crutches under 
any consideration. June 3, 190-1. 

* JAMES T. GIBSOX, M. D.— Highland Co., Ohio. 

On the fifteenth day of October I took the measurements for B, F. 
Puckett. Jr., for an artificial hand and part forearm. He has sub- 
mitted it to-day for my inspection. The fit is perfect. Could not 
have been better had you had him at your place of business to 
fit personally. 

* E. W. GILBEET— Clerk. Hamilton Co., Tenn. Partial foot. 
Since December, 1902, to the present I have been -wearing the 

artificial foot which you fitted from measurements and cast, with 
flattering success and I now have no tiring feeling whatever. I 
hope this may influence others. June 27, 1904. 

* PATEICK J. GILLOX— Laborer, Eensselaer Co., X. Y. Below knee. 
I am getting along first rate with my artificial leg and am v^alk- 

ing several miles a day without trouble or fatigue. May 17, 1901. 

* GEOEGE H. GIPE— Valley Co., Xeb. Above knee. 

I received my leg about one year ago and have been wearing it 
ever since. I could not ask for a better fit. it has not hurt me from 
the first. The A. A. Marks' leg is as close to the natural leg as 
possible. May 17, 1904. 

C. H. GLIDDEX, M. D.— Herkimer Co., X. Y'. 

The arm you made for Mr. Lambert, under my order, has been 
received. To say that the arm is a greal. invention is to express it 
very mildly. It is worth its Tveight in gold to any man in such 
affliction. 

THEODOEE GOBLE— Signalman. Suffolk Co., Mass. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your artificial legs with rubber foot for over 
three years, and it has given complete satisfaction. I would not 
exchange it for any other make. I have worn it constantly since 
I got it. INly work is in a railroad signal tower throwing levers. 
I work twelve hours a day. May 26, 1904. 

* CARLOS GOMEZ— Havana, Cuba. Above knee. 

On the 12th iust. I received a package containing the artificial 
leg I ordered from you, for which I sent measurements taken at 
m.y home. I was agreeably surprised to find that the leg fitted 
perfectly, and can suggest no alterations that could possibly im- 
prove it. The rubber foot is perfection. I doubt very much that 
there can be anvthing better. — Translated from Spanish. 

May 16, 1905. 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 



309 



* HEISTIY GOMPEETZ— xVgent, Holland. Below knee. 

The leg you made for me in November, 1895, is now in good use. 
It has scarcely required any repairs during the last nine years. 
I walk every daj- a couple of hours. A couple of years ago I was 
nearly drowned, the leg stood the water test perfectly, save a 
little rust to the metal parts, the wood was not injured by its 
long bath. May 2, 1904. 

* JAS. W. GOOCH— Farmer, Hamilton Co., Tex. Partial foot. 
Last May, while engaged as a locomotive fireman on the G. C. & 

S. F. B.'y., I met with the misfortune of getting the front of my 
left foot badly crushed. I wore a shoe stuffed with cotton for 
some two or three months, this was very uncomfortable, as well 
as awkward. In the meantime I came in contact with a doctor who 
was well acquainted with your limbs, and from the satisfaction he 
had in dealing with them, I concluded to order one, and did so at 
once. I have been wearing the limb for several months, and am 
well pleased with it. It fits perfectly, is not conspicuous, and is 
very much more comfortable than a shoe stuffed with cotton. With 
the aid of this limb I can do any kind of work I wish to. I am 
at present a farmer, and I walk and follow a plow nearly as well 
as I ever did. A person not knowing I had lost part of my foot 
would not detect it in my walk. 

If, when a foot or a leg has been amputated, and it can be re- 
placed by one not made by nature, and do the work nature intended 
it should do, I say it is perfect, and no more can be done or ex- 
pected of it. May 16, 1904. 

* Yv^LLIA:\r grant— En^-ineer, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory. 
I am well pleased ^\ith the leg I got from you. I am working 




every day as I am an engineer by occupation. I am standing on it 
steadj' from eight to ten hours, and most of the time firing. My 
stump is about five and a half inches long. .\pril 27, 1901. 



310 A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New YorJc City. 

* JOHN GOEDINE— Carman, New Zealand. Above elbow. 

I am perfectly satisfied with the artificial left arm that you 
made for me, and suri^rised that you made such a useful limb. 
Yon have never seen me, or the small portion of my arm left close 
to the shoulder. When the arm ai^rived, I put it on, and have been 
working with it ever since, and found it extremely useful and com- 
fortable in my work as carman and storeman, and I can haul 
bales of wool, sacks of coal, potatoes, etc., about as well as if I 
was not minus my natural arm. I have now worn it nearly 
twelve months. 

THO^IAS GOEMAN— Clerk, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

I am pleased to tell you that my artificial legs are perfect in 
every respect, and a great success. I walk about, go on cars, 
work in the store all day, wait on customers, tie up packages, and 
all the work required of an able-bodied man. I cheerfully recom- 
mend your rubber loot. I do not in any way consider myself in- 
capacitated on account of the loss of my legs. May 17, 1904. 

* HAEEY GOUKEE— Frederick Co., Md. Above knee. 

I am well pleased with my artificial limb. In the short time 
I am wearing it I am perfectly satisfied with it. I would not part 
with it. My amputation is above the knee-joint, and I can get 
around as fast as my fellow boys. May 18, 1904. 

CKAELES W. GOULD— Lock Tender, Albany Co., N. Y. 

I write you these few lines to let you know that I am very much 
pleased Avith the leg'. My occupation is lock-tending on the Erie 
Canal, and I get around just as good as anyone that has two good 
legs. I have been wearing your leg about seven years. May 16, 1904. 

G. W. GEAHAM— Soldier, Sanborn Co., S. Dak. Knee bearing. 

I lost my right leg by gunshot wound received in the battle of 
Nashville, Tenn., in 1864. I was then 22 years of age. The leg was 
so badly shattered that it had to be amputated very close to the 
knee-joint, which left me a stump that I could bend and take 
weight on the knee. Immediately after my injury the U. S. Gov- 
ernment furnished me with an artificial leg, made with a wooden 
foot moving at the ankle. I wore the leg but a short time. 

In 3871 my attention was called to your improveraents, particu- 
larly the rubber foot. I obtained one immediately, it served me 
a great length of time, and was very satisfactory. I have since 
obtained renewals from you. The last I procured was on Dec. 12, 
1902. I have worn it since, and can assure you it is the best leg I 
ever had. I cannot imagine that any other improvenaents can be 
made. I walk great distances, and get fatigued no sooner on my 
amputated side than on the other. No inducement could get me 
to try any other kind than your leg'. April 24, 1904. 

MES. JOHN F. GEAHAM— Worcester Co., Mass. Below knee. 

I find pleasure in sending you this testimonial. My foot is ampu- 
tated four inches above the ankle. I went on crutches for two 
years, then I purchased one of your artificial limbs. I do my own 
housework, and walk from five to six miles every Sunday through 
the country. I danced at a lawn party given by my friends six 
months after receiving your limb, two y<ears ago. June 19, 1904. 

* JOHN N. GEAHAM— Mechanic, Grand Traverse Co., Mich. 

The artificial leg I got of you is giving good satisfaction. I have 
never gone a day "without the leg since I got it, and am doing 
work around a sawmill all the time. May 23, 1904. 

E. B. GEANGEE, M. D.— New York. 

I know of no artificial appliance that so nearly sinaulates nature 
as those of your maniifacture. 



'A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 311 



» THOMAS GRANT— Telephone Operator, New Zealand. Wrist. 

I can manage all the work in the post and telephone office. I 
manage very well in tying up the mail bags, I hold the receiver of 
the telephone in the rubber hand and take off messages with the 
other. June 7, 1904. 

* J. D. GEAY— Saw Filer, Hillsboro Co., N. H. Below elbow. 

I have worn a hand of your make for more than ten years, and 
could not get along without it. I am a saw filer, and work every 




day. My hand is amputated about half "way between the elbow 
and wrist. May 7, 1904. 

* C. E. GEAVES— Clinton Co., Ind. Partial hand. 

I am employed as a life insurance solicitor and collector. The 
four fingers of my right hand were amputated, leaving the thumb 
with very little support. However I find that I am able to handle 
books and papers to a much greater extent by the aid of the arti- 
ficial hand than I could without it. It restores the hand to almost 
its natural appearance, which is a great advantage in dealing with 
the public. I have had two of these artificial hands made. While 
no artificial attachment can be made equal to nature's, yet the 
hand I have is a great assistance, and could not well be dispensed 
with. May 16, 1904. 

BELLE T. GEAY— Bristol Co., Mass. Shortened leg. 

I have worn the foot steadily for over eight years, and don't 
think it can be improved. I feel very grateful that you and your 
workmen have been gifted with the spirit of wisdom to know what 
would suit me so v\'ell. 

* MRS. EMMA C. W. GEAY— Eiehmond Co., Ga. Daughter, age 13. 
I am very well pleased with the limb made for my little girl. The 

girl used crutches before getting the limb. She now walks like 
other persons, goes all about, and suffers no inconvenience what- 
ever. June 15, 1904, 



312 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, New Yorh City. 

PETER GEEELEY— Eanchman, Holt Co., Neb. Below knee. 

I have worn artificial legs of your manufacture continuously 
since the summer of 1888, I lost my limb at Peach Tree Creek, Ga., 
in 1864. Before trying- your make I wore limbs of various kinds, 
with all of Avhich I had more or less trouble with the ankle-joint, 
but your leg having no ankle-joint, but a rubber foot, has 
given me no trouble whatever. Being the proprietor of a ranch, 
most of my working hours are spent on my feet or on horseback, 
thus submitting my limb to a severe test. I shoot quail and prairie 
chickens with the boys, and usually secure a fair share of the birds. 
In brief, I consider your artificial leg the easiest, and most durable 
of any I know anything about. May 12, 1901. 

DAVID GREEN— Driver, Suffolk Co., N. Y. Knee bearing. 

My left leg was amputated just below the knee on September 14, 
1903, and on March 25, 1904, I was fitted by you personally with an 
artificial leg", which has given me splendid satisfaction, and I am 
now able to walk without crutch or cane. May 10, 1904. 

* CAPT. T. M. GRIFFIN— Farmer, Hinds Co., Miss. Below knee. 
About one year ago I had my left leg amputated four inches 

above the ankle, four months after I applied for an artificial leg 
with rubber foot of your construction. I have been wearing the 
leg ever since. I would not be without it for any consideration. 
I am a farmer, and can do nearly everything a man of my age (79) 
ought to be expected to do. May 7, 1904. 

WILLIAM GRIFFIN— Washington, D. C. Above knee. 

With reference to the artificial leg you furnished me two years 
ago, I take great pleasure in saying that of all the limbs that I 
have worn during the last forty years, it is the best and most 
satisfactory in every way. Every limb I have gotten from, you is 
better than the previous one, this shows that you are progressing. 
The former leg- made by you -was worn uninterruptedly for twenty- 
two years. As you know I am employed by the Government, and 
my home is about a half mile frora my place of occupation. But 
I walk to and from the latter all the year round with entire 
ease and comfort. I have repeatedly walked out in the suburbs 
of the city for miles, sometimes up and down hills without any diffi- 
culty. May 9, 1904, 

* CLAUDE GRIMIT— Farmer, Cullman Co., Ala. Knee bearing. 

I am 81 years old. I walk three miles at a time. This is pretty 
good for a man of my years using a knee bearing leg. I have had 
no occasion to have it repaired yet, it is now three years since it 
Avas made. I would not give my artificial leg for a cart load of 
crutches or peg legs either. There is nothing on the face of the 
earth naore valuable than A. A. Marks' artificial legs. My life was 
a misery before I got one. May 17, 1904. 

* CHARLES H. GROVES— Harness Maker, Columbia Co., N, Y. 

I shall wear your legs as long as I can get them, as the legs have 
always fitted and worn well. I lost my leg in the Civil War, and 
have worn your make since 1870. May 6, 1904. 

ENRIQUE GUASP DE PERIS— Mexico. Above knee. 

I can assure you to-day that in this world nobody could con- 
struct an apparatus such as yours, which is so useful, so easy to 
wear, and so perfect that it bears a great resemblance to the 
natural ones. Consequently I do not feel surprised to hear that 
they have alwaj^s obtained the first prizes when presented in the 
exhibitions, as they only reveal justice and veneration to the 
acknowledged merit of your limbs. Therefore, I heartily con- 
gratulate you, and remain once more your faithful friend — Trans- 
lated from Spanish. 



A, A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 313 



JAMES E. HADLEY— Carpenter, Norfolk Co., Mass. Below knee. 

My leg was amputated April 16, 1902. I returned to my work 
just eleven weeks after the amputation, I walk without a crutch 
or cane. I am employed by the N. Y., N. H., H. R. K., as a wood 
machinist. I can get about as well as any man in the shop, and 
do as much work as ever I could. I would recommend your leg to 
anyone needing the same. May 10, 1901. 

* ALEX HAGEMAN— Blacksmith, Watauga Co., TsL c. Below knee. 
On the 11th day of August, 1879, I had the misfortune to lose my 

left leg below the knee. I went on crutches eighteen months, 
then I made, with my own hands, a wooden leg, and wore it about 
twenty-two years with much pain and difficulty. In 1890 I pro- 
cured one of A. A. Marks' manufacture, on which I have been walk- 
ing' with comfort. I would not do without it for twice what it 
cost. My occupation is blacksmithing. I also do some farm labor 
and get about with ease. J^Iay 25, 1901. 

* L. H. HARKEY— Stock Farmer, Choctaw Nation, I. T. Wrist. 
About four years ago I lost uxj right hand at the wrist joint. In 

about three months I ordered an artificial hand from you, which 
I have been Avearing ever since. It has given me the best of 
satisfaction. Has never hurt me. I could not get along without 




it. I do most of my writing with it. I am a stock farmer, I hold 
my coil in my artificial hand and throw the loop of my rope with 
my natural one. Could not praise my artificial hand too highly. 
This letter was written with it. May 3, 1904. 

* JAMES HALL— Colfax Co., Nev. Above knee. 

The limb I got of you last year is quite satisfactory. I have 
worn six different makes of limbs, and yours has given me the best 
satisfaction of all. May 21, 1904. 

JOSHUA HALL— Railroad, IMonmouth Co., N. J. Below knee. 

I am working every day at the round house, taking care of the 
railroad engines, and my work is the same as other men's, and 



314 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs j, Neiu York City. 

you can judge from that how I am getting- along. I had the mis- 
fortune of losing my leg in 1901, below the knee, and in 1902 
commenced to wear one of your make. I can recommend your leg 
to anyone. May 7, 1904. 

* W. E. HALL— Grocery, Shelby Co., Tenn. Below knee. 

I am well pleased with my new leg, it fits all 0. K. I have worn 
your make of artificial limbs since 1892, and in all my rounds 
have never seen anybody get along as well as I do. I can do 
anything, go as far as anybody. Am in the retail grocery business. 
I stand all day without sitting- down, and it takes a good walker to 
keep up with me. May 12, 1904. 

* EAEL 0. HANDY — Engineer, Montgomery Co., N. Y. Above knee. 
My leg works all right. I learned to walk on it in two weeks. 

Would not go on crutches under any consideration. May 9, 1904. 

* J. W. HAN KINS — Stenographer, Jones Co., Miss. Below knee. 
You will probably remember that this is the second limb you 

have made for me, and the fact that I have placed a second order 
with your concern is proof that I am well pleased with the limb 
you are placing in the market. Notwithstanding the fact that my 
stump is only 8% inches long, I walk rapidly, more so than many 
people with natural limbs, and most of the time without the 
aid of a cane. The new limb, as well as the old, is a perfect fit, 
and you will note, by referring to my orders, that measurements for 
both limbs were taken here. May 31, 1904. 

JOHN HAEMON— Coremaker, Cayuga Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I got my second Marks' leg April, 1903. I had been wearing one 
for seven years. Never had any trouble with it. My limb is ofE 
below the knee. When I received my second leg, I laid the old one 
aside, put on 1>.e new one, and have never taken it off except at 
night. 1 have looked up all other manufacturers of artificial limbs, 
and I can safely : ry that the Marks' leg is the only one that can be 
worn with solid comfort. It is hard to tell a Marks' leg, going 
along the street, from the natural. May 11, 1904. 

* JAMES HAEEAP— Draper, New Zealand. Knee amputation. 
Between four and five years ago you made an artificial leg 

from measurements sent to you. It has given me every satisfac- 
tion, in fact I have worn it ever since, and could not wish for 
anything better. ' April 29, 1904. 

* JOHN HAEEIS— Messenger, Norfolk Co., Va. Below knee. 

It affords me much pleasure to let you know that the leg I bought 
■from you I am getting along very well with. I am wearing it 
every day, and can walk very well with it. May 5, 1904. 

* O. GEO. HAEVEY— South Africa. Ankle joint. 

During the latter months of 1898 I ordered of you an artificial 
foot to fit a Symes' operation. The limb has given me the greatest 
satisfaction, so much so that I have determined to have another 
in case of accident to the first. The artificial leg was perfect, and 
in my case has done away -with the pain caused by a misfitting, 
cumbersome one of the other make. Jan. 12, 1905. 

* HERMAN S. HASTINGS— Clerk, Worcester Co., Mass. Above knee. 
When a boy of sixteen years I measured myself at home and 

bought one of Marks' artificial legs with rubber foot, amputation 
41/0 inches from the hip. I wore that leg for fifteen years continu- 
ously. The repairs, including the expense of lengthening, was a 
matter of only a few dollars. The leg, in my younger days, was 
given very hard usage in teaming, lugging, lifting, etc. Still having 
confidence in Marks' limbs, I bought another, with improvements, 
in 1903. My position now being a clerical one I am not so hard 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New YorTc City. 315 



on my limb, and expect it to last as long as the former one. I 
desire to say further, that from the fact of having- the artificial limb 
I obtained several prominent positions, which otherwise would 
have never been opened to me. May 7, 1904. 

* JOSEPH A. HATCHER— Miner, Newton Co., Mo. Below knee. 

I am wearing- one of your artificial legs, and it has proved satis- 
factory. I got it the 8th of March, 1903. My leg is oft" three inches 
below the knee. I walk without a cane, and I have never had to lay 
it aside on account of my stump being- chafed. May 16, 1904. 

* GEO. W. HART— Farmer, La Grange Co., Ind. Below knee. 

I can recommend your artificial leg as the easiest of any that 
are made. 1 lost my leg in tlie Civil War, in 1863, and have worn a 
great many different kinds since then, but yours, with rubber foot. 




Jtk 



gives me the greatest comfort and best results. I am a farmer, 
and have a great deal of walking-, heavy work, lifting-, to do, and I 
do it all without any difficulty. April 27, 1904. 

LOUIS HAUCK, JR.— Butcher, New York City. Partial foot. 

I wish to express the extreme satisfaction I've had in wearing 
one of yoiir artificial limbs. I've worn it now for the last ten 
years, and through The hardest kind of work. I am in the butcher 
business, and must be on my feet all day, and sometimes carry 
heavy weights. 1 enjoy dancing- very much. Among my friends 
there are but few who know I wear an artificial leg. This is the 
highest tribute that can be paid to the highly satisfactory article 
you turn out. May 18, 1904. 

* ANDREW HAUGHN — Farmer, Lunenberg Co., Nova Scotia. 

In 1899 I had the misfortune of having my right foot amputated 
at the instep. I am well pleased with your artificial foot. It fits 
perfect, my walk is natiiral. My occupation is farming. I can get 
around the same as before. May 10, 1904, 



316 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



* G. L. HA CJBEET— Engineer, Juniata Co., Pa. Below elbow. 

I have worn one of your artificial arms for over two years, and 
I have never had any trouble whatever with it. I run a steam 




thresher, and can get along almost as well as before. I can say to 
anyone in need of an artificial limb, that he will find A. A. Marks 
a comfort giver. May 5, 1904. 

E. M. HAUGHNEY— Storekeeper, Northumberland Co., Pa. 

My leg was amputated three and one-half inches below the knee 
thirty years ago. I am a proprietor of a shoe store, and work from 
seven o'clock in the morning until ten in the evening. I have worn 
many different kinds of legs in those thirty years, but none suit 
me as well as the A. A. Marks' rigid ankle leg. June 7, 1904. 

W. C. HAWKINS— Snohomish Co., Wash. Below knee. 

Your patent foot has made me a sound man. I have had six 
legs with wooden feet, in the past twenty-three years, and often 
tell my wife that I was crazy, wearing them so long. I could not 
lift nor run on thez?3, sines I have yours I can plow, and take a hand 
at almost anything. The wooden foot made lots of noiso, but your 
leg is quiet. The man that made my old wooden foot told me (to 
keep from buying your leg') that it did not give any satisfaction, 
and would make the stump sore, which I found to be untrue. I 
believe, and in fact I know, your leg* to be the best on the market. 
I would not have any other kind as a gift. May 13, 1904. 

* MES. STANLEY HEATH— Housework, Aroostook Co., Me. 

I am wearing- one of your artificial legs with much comfort, I 
would not, or could not, get "along without it. I have not had to 
use my crutches or cane since I got the limb. I thank you very 
much for your interest in me. May 12, 1904. 

* G. HEINEMAN— Denmark. Above knee. 

When thirteen years old I lost my right leg-, and used a common 
wooden leg- till I reached forty-four years. By this time my atten- 



A. A. Moj'hs, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 317 

tion was called to your artificial legs with rubber feet. I sent 
you my measure, and got a leg from you, which I have used ever 
since, now for alDOut six years. I am very well satisfied with it. 
It fits me admirably, and has required no repairs worth mention- 
ing. The new suspenders are a real improvement. The stump, 
though only one and seven-eighths inches, has never been sore. 

* F. HEITZ— Germany. Above knee. 

Your leg satisfies me as well as an artificial limb can possibly 
do. It is very much lighter than the legs which I used formerly, 
and surpasses them also in carefulness and simplicity of construc- 
tion. I thank you for the comfort which your ingenuity has pro- 
cured for me. I beg you to accept my sincere salutations. — Trans- 
lated from German. 

The Hon. D. B. Henderson, Speaker of the House of Eepresen- 
tatives, after having had his leg re-amputated at the knee joint, 
investigated in the most thorough manner the methods of the 
limb manufacturers in all the large cities, and found that there was 
but orie that could satisfy his needs. 

Eead the following letter addressed to a Western correspondent: 






^B\iw^n,^ . (IT. 



To H. M., Esq., Nov. 10, 1900. 

Mr Deae Sir: — The leg I Avear was made by A. A. Marks. Am- 
putations at or above the knee need better care in the matter of 
legs than those amputated below the knee. It takes more wisdom 
and experience to make legs for the former than the latter. For 
years I had a stump running down to within eight inches of the 
ankle, but about three years ago I had to have it amputated at the 
knee. I tried many leg-makers and found none who could make a 
leg' for me without taking a part of the weight on the end of the 
stump. Chicago utterly failed me in that direction. The moment 
I exhibited ray stump to Mr. Marks, he told me that weight could 
not be taken on the end of the stump, and this before I told him of 
m^r experience in Chicago. I gave him an order at once, and his 
work has given me splendid satisfaction. I think they have better 
facilities for treating all kinds of amputations than any other 
leg-maker in the country. 

Very respectfully, 




318 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Npav Yorlc City. 



I. L. HELM, M. D.— Fayette Co., Ky. 

I have ordered several of your artificial legs, 
satisfaction. 



They have all given 



N. M. HEMENWAY — Farmer, Kennebec Co., Me. Belovs^ knee. 

It is about two years since I received this second artificial leg 
from you. I have to say I am fully as well pleased with this as 
I was with the first one. I have worn legs made by four other 
makers, but as I told you at your ofiice, I could not wear any of 
them, and any unfortunate cripple that once tries one with rubber 
foot will never wear any other. Your method of fitting stumps 
cannot be beat, I find all parts of the leg are substantially made, 
these make good reasons why I must, at every opportunity, recom- 
mend the Marks' leg. May 14, 1904. 

* JAMES HENDKEN— Fireman, New Zealand. Below knee. 

I am getting on first class with the leg you made for me. In 
fact, I never think of it. I treat it the same as a natural one. I 
am firing on a locomotive, and I have passed my examination for 
driving. The longer I wear the leg the better I like it. I can ride 
a horse, or bicycle, as well as ever I could. May 30, 1904. 

* TYSON HENDRICKS— Farmer, Bucks Co., Pa. Below elbow. 

It affords me great pleasure to add my testimonial to the great 
number you already have. When I lost my arm I felt the im- 
portance of getting an artificial one and wearing it. After careful 
investigation, I decided that your raake was the most practical, and 
I placed my order with you. I have since been convinced that I 
made no mistake. Your arm has served me satisfactorily for many 
years, and I recommend your work most heartily. May 4, 1904. 

* PAUL A. HENSEL— Sawmill, Prince Edward Co., Va. 

A little over eighteen years ago I was run over by a horse car, 
and lost my right leg alaove the knee, which left me a stump of 




about six inches. At the time of the accident I was a boy, six 
years old, and for the first four years I had to wear a peg leg. 
After that I got a leg from you. I have been working at a sawmill, 
and can do most anything in that line, I can haul logs from the 



A. A. Mai'Tcs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 319 



woods, load and unload them, I can ride horseback as good as, any- 
one, and when hunting season commences, I go and walk around 
through woods and over fields. The new leg I got from you a few 
months ago is all 0. K., and does not give me any trouble at all. 
I can go anywhere I want to with it, and wear it from early in the 
morning till late at night. May 19, 1904. 

* FEANCIS HEECKENEATH— Holland. Above knee. 

I take much pleasure in certifying that the two legs you furn- 
ished me from measurements, give me great satisfaction in every 
respect. I have never seen legs of better construction, and I do 
not believe that any other kind would need less repair. The 
rubber foot, and the knee-joint, are far superior to all others I 
ever saw; hence, I can strongly recommend your highly respectable 
firm to all others. I lost my left leg in the year 1872. 

* WILH. HEELTH— iSIanufacturer, Germany. Above knee. 

I wish to inform you that the artificial limbs furnished by you, 
up to the present, have turned oiit to my greatest satisfaction. I 
have previously also ordered limbs from several first class firms, 
the execution of which, however, left something to be desired. I 
can therefore recommend your manufactory very highly. — Trans- 
lated from German. Dec. 12, 1904. 

* WILLIAM HEEMANN— Farmer, Bates Co., Mo. Below elbow. 

I will try to write you a few lines to let you know that I am 
well pleased with the hand and tools. I am a farmer, and can 




/j-iAr-^ ! •■..•■■.:•■.;:■■•.„"■..„'•-.;,•• 



y 









do m.ost any work with my artificial hand. I could not do without 
the artificial arm at all. I have worn it two years. I am writing 
this letter with the rubber hand. April 26, 1904. 

* DOLOEES HEEjSTANDEZ de LAUEEIEO— Cuba. Knee joint. 

I thought after my amputation that I should not be able to walk 
except with the aid of crutches, which would make it impossible 
to attend to my household work. Thanks to your invention it has 
been so, as to-day I can do all my work and attend to my children. 
I walk well with the artificial leg. Persons who do not know 
anything about my misfortune are astonished when told that my 
right leg is artificial. — Translated fi'om Spanish. June 1, 1904, 



820 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, Kew Yorlc Clhj. 

JACOB F. HERTZOG— Farmer, Berks Co., Pa. 

I hav'e a resection of the right arm, caused by a wound. I 
have thus far used five of your apparatus for the same, and each 
one gave ease and comfort, and entire satisfaction. I had tvv^o 
apparatus from different parties before I used yours, but they 
were not as easy nor as comfortable. I am a farmer by occupation, 
and with the use of your apparatus I am able to do all kinds of 
ordinary farm work. May 9, 1904. 

* AIES. MAGGIE HESEMAN— Housewife, Marion Co., Ore. 

The artificial limb which I purchased of you some time ago, is 
very satisfactory, it is the second one I have bought of your firm. 
My foot is amputated below the knee, and I was fitted out with a 
comfortable, durable, and neat looking artificial limb, which made 
me happier than I ever expected to be. I am a farmer's wife now, 
have two children, do all my own housework, raise poultry, and 
walk, ride horseback, or do anything that a sound bodied person 
can do. May 5, 1904. 

E. B. HIGGINBOTHAM— Tax Collector, Elbert Co., Ga. 

I think that a few words from me are due you. The pair of arti- 
ficial legs you sent me in 1893 have done me good service up to the 
present time, and bid fair to wear well for two or three years 
longer. All repairs have not cost me $5.00. May 19, 1905. 

THOS. HIGHAM— Oneida Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

The foot I got of you six weeks ago is giving the best of satis- 
faction. I have worn it steady, and it don't make my leg the 
least sore. I surprise everybody the way I walk. I don't think I 
could have got as good a fit anywhere else. Oct. 6, 1904. 

* CAPT. A. V. HILL— Barbados. Below knee. 

I am wearing the leg you made for me constantly, and it is com- 
fortable for all purposes. It is the third leg T have had, and it bids 
fair to be the most durable, and the mechanism is the simplest of 
the three. I think it is Avonderful that you can make so well a 
fitting leg without personal fittings. May 20, 1904. 

* JOSEPH HINKS— Engineer, Schuylkill Co., Pa Below knee. 
The leg I purchased of you over seventeen years ago continues 

to give entire satisfaction. It is almost as good to-day as when I 
bought it. The change of the old style of rubber foot for a fiber 
spring mattress foot, is a decided improvement. I am wearing it 
BOW, and am delighted with it. It is very easy to walk on, and I 
believe my walking is better, as there seems to be more strength 
and support in the spring from the toes. April 20, 1904. 

* L. HINMAN — Farmer, Gage Co., Neb. Below knee. 

I always recommend your limbs, and have told a great many 
persons that your i-ubber foot is Ijetter than any other kind. I 
would be an expense on the public if it were not for the leg that 
you made for me. When five years of age my foot was cut off with 
a mowing machine. At sixteen I was supplied with an artificial 
leg, and have been Avearing one ever since. I am now forty-two, 
and do farming for a living. I started with eighty acres, I now 
have another eighty, I have bought this by my own and my wife's 
work. I certainly could not have done it withoiit a good artificial 
limb. I consider the rubber foot the onlj'^ foot for constant and 
hard use. I have no use for the slip-socket leg, it choked my stump 
when I wore one, and caused me much trouble. May 1?, 1904. 

* 0. K. HINTON— Furnace Man, Colbert Co., Ala. Below knee. 

I received one of your artificial legs in May, 1898, and wore it with 
ease for five years. In 1903 had my measurements taken after my 
stump had assumed a permanent size, and ordered a second leg, 
which is giving me entire satisfaction. I work at a blast iron 
furnace, and take charge of a pumping station. April 12, 1904, 



A. A. Maris, Artificial Lirnbs, New Yorh City.. §21 



MES. J. K. HOBBIE— Housewife, Delaware Co., N. Y. Below knee. 
Words cannot express the gratitude I feel to you for what you 
have done for me and other cripples. You have made us all forget 
our afflictions. I have been wearing one of your artificial legs 
one and a half years. I can do my housework, and get around 
nearly as well as I ever could before my leg* was amputated. I 
have a stump three inches below the knee. The artificial leg is 
perfect. May 14, 1904. 

•^ JOHN T. HOFFMAN— Farmer, Jackson Co., la. Partial hand. 

The artificial hand you sent me about two years ago is giving me 
good satisfaction. I would not do without it. May 14, 1904. 

* EOY HOLT— Clerk, Creek Nation, I. T. Ankle joint. 

In regard to the leg I purchased from you, I must say that I 
Am very well pleased with it, I put it on the day I received it, 




and have worn it eonstantl3' ever since. I cannot say enough in 
praise of it, I run, jump, climb trees, and participate in all the 
sports of the season, and am at no inconvenience. May 4, 1904. 

* T. E. HOLDEN— Farmer, Buffalo Co., Wis. Below knee. 

I have worn artificial legs for sixteen years, my limb is ampu- 
tated six inches below the knee. 

The first leg I got had an ankle joint, I will not have another of 
thiat kind unless I want an artificial leg- and music box combined, 
the ankle joint breaks down so often that you have to watch 
every step you take. 

The first leg I got of you was in 1893. It is still in good con- 
dition. I am hard on artificial legs, as I am a hard worker on 
the farm. 

I ordered another leg of you in Decem.ber, 1903, and I received it 
five months ago. It is giving me great satisfaction in every re- 
spect. I believe your make of artificial legs is far superior to any 
other, because of the ease, elasticity, durability, and noiselessness. 
These are obtained by the use of the rubber foot. May 11, 1904, 



822 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

* GEO. A. HOLLAND — Bookkeeper, Quebec. Above knee. 

In reg-ard to your artificial limb, I wish to say that after 25 
years experience, I believe yours to be the most desirable and the 
nearest approach to the natural limb. 

During- the long time I have worn artificial limbs I have had a 
good opportunity to learn just what was required. About seven 
or eight years ago I was looking around for some means of discard- 
ing the articulating ankle, when I learned of your rubber feet, and 
it at once appealed to me as filling a long felt want, and seven 
years ago I procured one, and have used it nearly all the time 
since, with perfect satisfaction. 

Your limb has not cost a cent for repairs during all these years, 
whereas the other ones were constantly needing repairs, it has 
proved to be the most economical in the end, to say nothing of its 
greater comfort and security. Jan. 29, 1905. 

* E. H. HOLLAND— Logger, Somers Co., Va. Below knee. 

I can say that the artificial leg you made for me a year ago has 
given entire satisfaction. I wear it at least fifteen hours every day, 
and have been logging most of the timCc Anyone that ever was in 
the timber country knows how hard that work must be on the 
legs. I recommend your legs for strength, good fit, and general 
relief. Aug. 20, 1904. 

* T. H. C. HOMEKSHAM— Engineer, England. Below knee. 

I have very great pleasure in saying that the two artificial legs 
with which you have supplied me, have been in every respect most 
satisfactory. As you know, with these legs, I find myself only 
very slightly handicapped, and I attribute this in a very large 
measure to the excellence of the limbs with which you have sup- 
plied me, and especially to the simple, and sensible, flexible rubber 
foot which obviates the necessity of an extra and troublesome 
articulating" joint at the ankle. May 19, 1904. 

C. E. HORTON— Trader, Wyoming Co., Pa. Above knee. 

Your limb is a dandy. I can use it like a dandy. My stump is 
only four inches from the body. I walk without a cane better 
than I could with the stiff knee I had before my leg was ampu- 
tated. May 28, 1904, 

H. E. HOSFOED— Farmer, Columbia Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I am a farmer, which has always been my principal business. 
For the past thirty-three years, or more, I have worn the rubber 
foot constantly. The elasticity of the rubber foot no doubt added 
much to its durability, and at the same time gave a more natural 
movement in walking, obviating the disagreeable thumping that 
attended the other foot I had used, and at the same time the jar to 
the natural limb, making it more comfortable and easy. 

Dec. 5, 1904. 

* C. HOUEIG AN— Hotel, Australia. Below knee. 

I received the artificial leg and everything attached to it. I would 
have Avritten before now, only I was waiting to see how it worked. 
I have now great pleasure to inform you that it is a perfect fit, 
and that it is in every way satisfactory, which I am sure you will 
be glad to hear. 

* H. A. HO WAED— Farmer, Caswell Co., N. C. Below elbow. 

I have been intending to write to you for some time. I am 
pleased to report that the arm fits nicely, and surpasses my ex- 
pectations as to usefulness. I can plow, and use a hoe far better 
than I had any idea that I would be able to. The ring and hook 
are very useful in loading and unloading wood, in carrying any- 
thing that cannot be carried with the "hand. The fork and brush 
do their part with satisfaction. 



A. A. MarTis, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 323 

The rubber hand is very useful in nailing, as I can hold the nail 
between the fing-er and thumb; without the rubber hand I could 
not nail at all. 




My stump is six inches long, and since using the arm it has 
improved very much, and does not pain as it did before. 

* ED. HOWELL— Telegraph Operator, Cumberland Co., Tenn. 

At the age of eleven I suffered the amputation of my left leg 
about one inch above ankle-joint. Two years later purchased an 
artificial leg from St. Louis. The limb was the ankle-joint style, 
after thirteen months' usage the joint became so worn that the 
foot was allowed to turn over, all attempts to repair substantially 
were useless. November 7, 1892, I piirchased a limb from you, 
wearing it continually until September 21, 1903, when a double 
barrel hammerless shotgun fell, discharging both barrels through 
my artificial leg and stump, four inches above the ankle-joint, 
necessitating re-amputation. I was so near the gun that both shot 
and wads passed through, making a clean opening one and one- 
half inches in diameter entirelj^ through the leg. After recovering 
I again brought the old leg into use, with the expectation that it 
would be so weakened as to render it useless, but to my surprise 
it has served me for another year, with no signs of breaking down. 

During the thirteen years just elapsed I have walked a great deal, 
and over very rough country, often carrying loads of considerable 
weight. "' March 11, 1905. 

LEWIS P. HUBBAED— Brass Worker, Nev/ Haven Co., Conn. 

In 1896 I had a double amputation at the ankle joints. I procured 
a pair of artificial legs with ankle joints, which gave me a great 
deal of trouble. My stumps would get sore. In April, 1902, I re- 
ceived one of your artificial legs with a rubber foot, which has 
given entire satisfaction. In March of the present year I received 
the mate to the one I got two years ago. Both legs are giving 
entire satisfaction. My occupation is bench work in a brass manu- 
factory, sitting or standing. I consider that I have as good a pair 
of artificial limbs as is made. May 9, 1904. 



324 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, Neiu Yorlc City. 

C. C. HUCKINS, M. D.— Butler Co., Iowa. 

'My bias is very stongly in favor of the " Rubber Feet and Hand 
Limbs " manufactured by A. A. Marks, on the grounds of, first and 
foremost, durability; in the case of the foot, solidity and firmness of 
footing, with sufficient pliability and no side motion, and in the cas3 
of the hands pliability. I have yet to find the person wearing either 
who finds any fault, which I cannot say in regard to many rattle- 
traps. 

* JAMES K. HUDSON— Glassblower, Vigo Co., Ind. Below elbow. 
I take pleasure in saying that the arm you made for me is a per- 
fect piece of work. I am very proud of it. There is none made to 
compete with it to-day. Every one of my friends think it is a 
fine piece of work. May 3, 1904. 

JOHN M. HUGHES— Hotel-keeper, Queens Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I am wearing one of your legs for the last twenty-five years and 
find it more than satisfactory. I have been working as a bartender 
being on my feet from early morning until late at night. For the 
last six years I have been opening and closing my own place being 
on my feet from sixteen to eighteen hours a day. May 6, 1904. 

* CAEL E. HULTING— Janitor, Cook Co., Hlinois. Above elbow. 
About two years ago you made me an artificial arm and I consider 

it a part of my duty to let you know hovv^ I am getting along with 
it. I take great pleasure in saying the arm has proved a God's 
blessing to me, as it enables me to make my own living. I am 
now working as janitor and meet no difficulty in doing my work. 
My right arm was amputated four inches below the shoulder. I 
have been wearing the limb every day since I received it, and could 
not do without it under any circumstances. May 23, 1904. 

* G. L. HUME, M. D.— Quebec. Below knee. 

The artificial leg sent by you to Geo. Beausoleil eighteen months 
ago, made from measiirements sent you by me, 1 am pleased to state 
has given entire satisfaction. My patient can now walk without 
aid of cane or crutch, and very few people are able to detect any 
dilierence or to tell which leg is artificial and which natural. The 
amputation is six inches below the knee. 

* G. F. HUNTEE— Australia. Below knee. 

Allows me to convey you my most sincere thanks for your prompt 
attention to my requirements. My artificial leg made from measure- 
ments, which I have had now in constant use for over two years, 
has given the greatest satisfaction. I have the greatest confidence 
in recommending yoiir make as the best in the world. Having had 
twenty-five years' experience, I should be some practical authority 
on the matter. 

* VEENON V. HUNTER— Bookkeeper, Broome Co., N. Y. 

On the 15th of January, 1903, I received an injury which caused 
the amputation of my left forearm about five inches from elbow. 
I purchased an artificial arm of you. It was ordered by mail and 
I received it about the middle of October and have been wearing' it 
with much satisfaction ever since. I find it very useful for many 
things, such as writing, eating, washing the other hand, and carry- 
ing articles. May 23, 1901. 

F. C. HUNTLEY— Builder, New York City, N. Y. Above knee. 

In 3892 I had my left leg amputated a little above the knee on 
account of gangrene following an injury that I received in my 
knee. In the following July I applied to you for an artificial leg. 
I superintend the laying of artificial stone in new buildings. This 
compels me to go up and down half completed stairways without 
balustrades and very frequently up and down ladders. I never use 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 325 



a cane or crutch and walk so well that very few persons suspect 
that I have a wooden leg-. I weigh 200 pounds and am enjoying the 
best of health and never miss a day from my work. 

I consider your rubber foot the most valuable invention in arti- 
ficial limb construction that has ever been made. June 4, 1901. 

C. P. HUTCHINSON— Dauphin Co., Pa. Instep. 

I am glad to testify that your appliance for my foot, a Chopart's 
amputation, is the finest article in the market. I am a fireman on 
the P. E. Eoad and do nay work thoroughly. 
W. H. IRVINE, M. D.— New Brunswick, Canada. 

Mr. INIcLeod got his leg two months ago, and it w^orks satis- 
factorily. 
G. L. ISBISTER— Farmer, Columbia Co., New York. Below knee. 

My limb was amputated when I was a boy of eight years, leaving 
me a stump of five and one-half inches below the knee. For over 
twelve years I continually wore an artificial leg- of your make which 
has given perfect satisfaction. My occupation is a farmer, requir- 
ing me to do all kinds of labor, plowing, hoeing, etc. I also ride a 
wheel. May 16, 1904. 

D. E. ISHAM — Carpenter, Chautauqua Co., New York. Ankle. 
For fit, lightness and strength, your metal socket leg for ankle 

joint amputation is far ahead of any other leg I have Vv'orn. I know 
the requirements of an artificial leg having worn one for forty 
years. May 8, 1904. 

CHARLES HUNT— Private Policeman, New York City, N. Y. Wrist. 
Before I placed an order with you, I visited other firms and came 
to the conclusion that you made the best and most practical hand; 




the results have justified me in my decision. I am a policeman and 
have been for the last eight years. I have on several occasions been 
obliged to use violence in order to hold my man, and instead of the 
club I have used the rubber hand. One man told me he thought 
he was hit wfth a cannon ball. February 2, 1905. 



826 



A. A. 31 arks. Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



PEOF. F. E. JACOBY— New Haven Co., Conn. Below knee. 

When I met with the misfortune of losing my right leg, I felt 
that all the sunshine had passed from my life. Fortunately I came 
in possession of a copy of one of your books, and as I perused its 
pages, I received much encouragement. Some tried to dissuade me 
from entertaining the hope of obtaining an artificial leg inside of 
four or five months, but I was so determined to get about on two 
legs again I procured an artificial leg from you in exactly nine 
weeks after my natural leg was amputated. Five days after I re- 
ceived the leg my doctor observed me skating on the canal. He 
stopped and watched me; he was amazed; he told me that I beat 
anything he had ever seen. 

I was a professional tight rope walker and aeronaut before I lost 
my leg, and I did not propose to allow the loss of a leg to compel 
me to seek another occupation. I can walk a tight rope nearly as 
well as ever I could. The rubber foot enables me to balance with 




safety. The absence of an ankle joint removes the risk of falling 
to a large degree. I can walk a tight rope while it is fifty feet 
above the ground, and when I am dressed, without exiDosing my 
limbs, no one would suspect that one of my legs was artificial. 

While walking on the ground I never feel the necessity of looking 
for uneven or bad places. I feel safe and sure on my rubber foot, 
no matter where I j)lace it. I consider your invention of the rubber 
foot the most valuable and important, to persons who have lost 
their natural limbs, of any invention that has been made. 

Note. — The above cut has been made from an instantaneous 
photograph taken of Professor Jacoby while performing on a tight 
rope. In the cut he is balancing entirely on his artificial leg; his 
natural foot is ofH the rope and is in the act of passing forward to 
take the next step. 

MRS. ELLA B. JAEGEE— Passaic Co., N. J. Leg short, iindevelop'd. 
I have solid comfort and am more than pleased with my exten- 
sion. I have never before been so long without pain. I vs^alk so 
much better, scarcely limp at all. I cannot say too much in praise 
of my foot. April 22, 1904. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, Neio Yorlc City. 327 

* LUCY JAMES— Cook, Madison Co., Va. Below knee. 

I received tlie leg you shipped to me in due time and in g-ood 
order. I began wearing it as soon as I received it. I now attend to 
my household duties without the least inconvenience. I must say 
that it is a God-send, for I never expected to get around again with 
as much ease and comfort as I do now. May 23, 1904. 

F. W. JAEDINE— Clerk, Philadelphia, Pa. Above knee. 

Last September a j^ear ago I received one of your artificial limbs 
and find it satisfactory in every detail. I have only a seven-inch 
stump and find it very easy to attend to my work, as clerk in a 
Trust Company. May 10, 1904. 

* MES. N. L. JENNINGS— Wellington, New Zealand. Son Gardner. 
With regard to the artificial leg supplied by you to my son 

Gardner Jennings, I may say it has been and is a great comfort to 
him. During the last cricket season my son was one of the school 
team which played for and won the Junior Cup, competed for by 
the Hawks Bay school. The lad is fifteen years of age and is grow- 
ing very rapidly. The changes that have been necessary on account 
of growth were made at home without difiiculty. July 20, 1904. 

MICHAEL JOBEEY— Laborer, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Above knee. 

I can Avalk on the artificial leg you made for me very well indeed. 
I never thought that I would be able to do so well. Nobody can tell 
whether I have an artificial leg or not. I go to school, during 
vacation time I work in the coal breakers and the leg serves me 
well. May 17, 1904. 

* P. JOHNS— Hotel-keeper, Salt Lake City Co., Utah. Knee. 

I am glad to say that the leg you made me I have been doing 
well with. I have not come across a man that could outwalk me 
that wore an artificial limb, no matter what make the limb was. 
I have not lost a day since I commenced work with the leg. I cut 
lawn, sprinkle and wash buggies and do it as quickly as anybody 
else. I will have no other but a Marks' leg. May 9, 1904. 

* WILLUS JOHNS— Coal Miner, William Co., Illinois. Below knee. 
I walk one and a half miles to my work and that makes three 

miles in all. My occupation is digging coal, I load from ten to 
fifteen tons of coal a day. I am enjoying life in wearing Marks' 
leg. May 4, 1904. 

* AETHUE JOHNSON— Farmer, Bibb Co., Georgia. Below knee. 

I received the artificial leg you made for me January 9th and 
found it to be all right. I can plow, cut wood, and do all my own 
work such as shoeing horses, mules, and general repairing. 

May 18, 1904. 

C. C. JOHNSON, M. D.— Columbia Co., S. C. 

I have ordered several of your artificial limbs for difl'erent persons 
in this State. All of them are now being used with utmost satis- 
faction. The leg recently secured for a young patient of mine, is 
so natural and useful that the acquaintances of the gentleman can- 
not realise that he has been maimed and is wearing an artificial 
leg. He and at least two others of the wearers of Marks' legs in 
this section are expert bicycle riders, having learned to ride since 
procuring your legs. I am highly pleased with your work. 

* DANIEL W. JOHNSON— Mineral Water Mfr., Coffee Co., Ga. 

I bought my limb of you in September, 1902, and have been wear- 
ing it ever since. It has given me good service. I am in the 
bottling business and able to do my part of the work, I lost my 
leg in January, 1898. May 19, 1904. 



328 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Neiv York City. 

MISS FLOEENCE JOHNSON— Domestic, Orange Co., N. Y. 

My foot was amputated above the ankle when I was twelve years 
old. A little over a year ago Mr. Marks iitted an artificial foot to 
my stnmp. I learned soon to walk with it and my crutch became a 
thing of the past. 

There is very little work in the household, in which I serve as a 
domestic, that I cannot do about as well as one with two natural 
feet. I walk a miile or more with ease. May 17, 1904. 

JAS. JOHjSSTON, M. D.— Chippewa Co., Mich. 

I have no idea of ever recommending an ankle jointed limb again. 
Marks' rubber foot fully meets the wants. 

* GEORGE W. JOLLOTA— Carpenter, Nova Scotia. Above knees. 

The artificial limbs purchased from you two years ago have given 
entire satisfaction. I lost both my limbs from tuberculosis of the 
knee joints. My left leg was amputated in November, 1900, leaving 
a stump of only two inches, my right was amputated in February, 
1901, leaving a stump of eleven inches. In August of the same year 
I received and ap^Dlied a pair of your artificial limbs with rubber 
feet, which were made from measurements taken by my own physi- 
cian. In the two years I have been wearing those limbs I have 
never felt the slightest discomfort. In first learning to walk I used 
two crutches, in a short time I was using two canes, at the present 
time I use but one cane. I can get in and out of a carriage with 
ease. I do a lot of rowing and handle my own boat in all sorts of 
weather. I have never tried to see how far I could walk, but I can 
walk half a mile with ease. May 13, 1904. 

ELI W. JONES — Farmer, Marion Co., Illinois. Above knee. 

I lost my leg March 16, 1865, in the army, thigh amputation. 
Have been wearing artificial legs since with more or less trouble, 
until eleven years ago when I got one of yours with the rubber 
foot. Wore it with great comfort for nine years. Two years ago 
you made me a new one which is as near perfect as an artificial 
leg can be. I walk with perfect ease. The main objection I made 
against your systein was the absence of the ankle joint. I now find 
that to be the chief merit of your limbs. November 10, 1904. 

JOHN L. JONES— Farmer, Eutland Co., Vt. Below knee. 

In February, 1889, I had the misfortune of losing one of my legs 
below the knee. 

After trying an artificial limb of a different make without good 
results I purchased a Marks' limb and have been wearing it since. I 
am thoroughly satisfied with the limb and highly recommend it. 
I am a farmer by occupation and do my farm work. May 23, 1904. 

* EEV. J. H. JONES— St. Louis Co., Mo. Above knee. 

The limb you sent me for thigh amputation three years ago is 
giving perfect satisfaction. The prime and essential features cona- 
bined in your limbs are: simplicity, durability, comfort and ease 
to the wearer. From the very first day I put on my new limb (two 
months after ampiitation), I wore it continuously and never had 
occasion to be without it a moment. I put it on as I do my shoes 
in the morning. It is the very acme of perfection. June 1, 1904. 

W. E. JONES— Clearfield Co., Pa. Above knee. 

The rubber foot is a grand success. I am much swifter on this 
limb than the one I have been wearing from another firm. I 
heartily recommend your work. May 13, 1904. 

* MATTHIAS KANE— Farmer, Kingsbury Co., S. Dak. Below elbow. 
I have been using your artificial hand for nearly five years with 

the best results. 

I can pitch hay, play ball or run a wheel-barrow. It is a perfect 
fit, it has never hurt me in the least since I wore it. May 7, 1901, 



A. A. MarTis, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 329 

* F. H. KAPPA — Machinist^ Jefferson Co., Kentucky. Above knee. 
The first artificial leg- ordered from measurements at Pensacola, 

Fla., October, 1884, has given me great satisfaction and good ser- 
vice until May, 1902, when I ordered the second, which is superior 
in construction, especially the spring- mattress rubber foot, is an 
improvement which I cannot praise enough. 

I am a machinist by trade and experience no difficulty in follow- 
ing- my occupation, and only experienced people can tell that I am 
wearing an artificial leg. May 18, 1904. 

* HIS EXCELLENCY THE COUNT OKUMA OF JAPAN— Waseda, 

Tokio, Japan. Above knee. 
I am desired by His Excellency Count Okuma to inform you that 
the artificial leg which you made for him reached here some time 
ago in good condition. The Count is exceedingly gratified with 
the admirable workmanship of the leg, and has already made con- 
siderable progress in walking with its assistance. 

T. Kato. 



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§30 A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New YorTc City. 



THADDEUS S. KAUTZ— Conductor, Dauphin Co., Pa. Partial foot. 
Having made a study of three makes of artificial feet, I came to 
the conclusion that the Marks' foot is the most practical of all. I 
have made a thorough test using the foot in the capacity of a brake- 
man for one year, and for two years in the P. & K. Ey. yards which, 
has proved it the best foot known. May 17, 1904. 

« SYLVANUS J. KEITH— Tailor, Nova Scotia. Both below knees. 

Twenty-three years ago I had both of my legs amputated below 
knees and had been wearing artificial limbs with ankle joints for 
twenty years with much trouble And dissatisfaction. One year and 
a half ago I purchased a pair of your artificial limbs with rubber 
feet attached and since then the trouble so conamon to me for so 
long has disappeared. I am engaged in the tailoring business and 
do all the cutting, which means that I am on my feet most of the 
time. I go about the store up and downstairs and out for short 




■walks without the use of a cane and without the unpleasant squeak- 
ing and rattling of joints which used to annoy me so much. The 
rubber foot does not produce that wooden leg sound so often noticed 
from less modern appliances and I have no hesitation in recom- 
mending your artificial legs with rubber feet as being the very best 
on the market. April 25, 1904. 

JOHN J. KELDER— Machinist, Lackawanna Co., Pa. Wrist. 

My hand was amputated at the wrist and with the use of the 
hand I got from you I sometimes forget that I lost my natural 
hand. I have met persons that had arms of other makes but after 
examining my hand (A. A. Marks'), they acknowledged it was 
decidedly the best. I have run a dynamo and fired boilers. 

I am now running and firing a small mine locomotive for the 
Erie E. E. May 5, 1904. 

* JOHN KELLY — Teacher, Newfoundland. Below knee. 

About twelve years ago I met with an accident which caused me 
to lose my foot three inches above the ankle. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirribs, New YorTc City. 331 



For eight years I wore an artiiicial leg- with, movable ankle joint 
and it was always a source of annoyance. 

On one occasion when about thirty miles from home in a crowded 
city, T was going- along very nicely, priding myself that within an 
hour I would be homeward bound, when to my chagrin the foot 
left the boot entirely, having parted at the ankle, and there I was 
left on a lee shore with one of my spars gone. My embarrassment 
can be better imagined than described. Spectators on all sides, one 
" wag " remarking that I " Had turned my wooden leg inside out." 
I hailed a passing team, got towed to port (my boarding house), 
where I had to remain three days until repairs were effected. I 
would not wear one of the ankle joint legs again if I got it for 
nothing". The foot I am wearing now was purchased of you and I 
am wearing it two years to my entire satisfaction. 

I cannot speak too highly of your patent foot with rigid ankle 
joint. When one is walking the step can be made with confidence 
be the street rough or smooth. My leg was fitted from measure- 
ments and I am surprised that it is so comfortable. In the winter 
season I often indulge in the pleasing pastime of skating, and can 
use the skates very well. Strangers cannot believe on being told 
that I wear an artificial foot, and my friends are surprised at the 
great change in my gait. April 26, 1904. 

SAMUEL P. KEMP— Farmer, Lawrence Co., Pa. Above knee. 

My artificial limb is working fine, I have had more comfort in 
the year I have been wearing A. A. Marks' leg, than I have had in 
all the time before, about twenty-eight years. 

My stump is just eight-inches long and I can walk good without 




a cane and I can do almost any kind of work on a farm. I can 
plow, plant corn, dig and shovel clay or pitch hay and chop wood 
and other kinds of labor as well as any other man. May 9, 1904. 



332 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

* LINSON KELLY— Farmer, Crenshaw Co., Ala. Below knee. 

I ordered an artificial limb from you about fifteen years ago. I 
had it made from measurements while I remained at home. I have 
worn it every day since with the best of satisfaction. I am now 
seventy-two years old. May 22, 1904. 

STEPHEN T. KELSEY— Litchfield Co., Conn. Above knee. 

I have received my new leg- and thank you for it. This is the 
fourth leg you have made for rae and they have all been satis- 
factory. I commend the mechanism and workmanship of your 
legs. May 30, 1904. 

DR. E. J. KEMPF— Dubois Co., Ind. 

The arm and hand of Joseph Goetz were received, and Goetz is 
well pleased, and even more than that, he is tickled. He can 
write his name and do any kind of lig'ht work. 

* JOHN KEMPEE— Grayson Co., Texas. Instep. 

I have been v/earing your artificial foot for instep amputation for 
■C'le past ten years, and it has given me perfect satisfaction at all 
times. I can cheerfully recommend the same as the best made. 

May 11, 1905. 

JAMES J. KENNELLY— Produce Clerk, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

On the 15th of November, 1893, I began to wear one of your 
artificial feet. I had my leg amputated six inches belo. ^""e knee 
as the result of a railroad accident. I was then twelve years old. 
I continued my studies and graduated from the High School of 
Commerce of this city without any of my fellow students knowing 
that I wore an artificial foot. I am at present employed in the 
produce business and have worn your foot for days v\fithout re- 
moving it, and have never felt any bad effects. 

I am^ a member of the Eoyal Arcanum and there are not three 
members of my lodge know that I wear an artificial foot. 

May 5, 1904. 

* CHEISTIAN KEPPLEE— Steel mills, Lorain Co., Ohio. 

I am more than pleased with the artificial leg I bought from you 
some time ago. I am working in the Lorain Steel Mills and do any 
kind of work with it, 1 have never lost work since I have had it, 
in fact I do not realize that I have an arti£.cial leg. May 15, 1904. 

* GEOEGE OSCAE KINAED— Packer, Bibb Co., Ga. Belov/ elbow. 
The arm I got from you was the cause of my securing a better 

position than I have ever had. I have be.en in the company of 
strangers for r everal hours at a time and they did not discover 
that I had but one natural arm. I am getting along with it first 
rate, and would not do without it. May 12, 1904. 

* W. F. KLECKNEE— Car Checker, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Below knee. 
The artificial leg you made for me has given so much satis- 
faction that I would not part with it for any consideration. I 
have been traveling with friends that did not know I had my leg 
off until they were told. This goes to show that I walk very well. 
My leg is off one and one-half-inch above the ankle. My occupa- 
tion is car checking for the P. E. E. I walk to and from work 
two miles each day, the walking does not bother me at all. I shall 
recommend your make of legs at all times. May 7, 1904. 

EEV. J. W. KNAPPENBEEGEE, A. M.— -President, Allentown Col- 
lege for Women, Lehigh Co., Pa. Above knee. 
I have been wearing A. A. Marks' artificial limb since 1890. I have 
found it satisfactory in every particular and I consider it the best 
in the market. It is comfortable, easy to manage, wears well, and 
protects from injury. May 5, 1901. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial LimbSj New York City. 333 

GEO. D. KEKNS— Jefferson Co., Mont. Knee bearing. 

In regard to my experience in using an artificial leg will say 
that I have worn one thirty-one years. 

The first rubber foot I Avore for twelve years, and the second to 
date. The rubber foot cannot be any more and be artificial. It 
gives a soft, safe step. I am a stone mason and builder. My 
work is on rough ground, with spall, fragments, and rubbish as 




usually seen about stone buildings while under construction. This 
is the place to test an artificial leg. No other leg ever did so much 
good. It has a. stiff ankle joint which is really its charm. 

I can stand on the heel or toe at will; this gives me great advan- 
tage in turning about and getting around lively. 

If on a sidehill, roof, or ladder the ankle-joint foot is not safe, 
but the rubber foot is always safe. 

* WILLIAM KNEIPP— Cattleman, Australia. Below elbow. 

The hand I got from you gives every satisfaction. I can use the 
knife to cut my food quite well, and I hold the reins in the artificial 
hand when driving and riding. It is wurth double the money for 
looks only. It makes a man look as if he had nothing the matter 
with him. June 18, 1904. 

E. B. KNIGHT, M. D.— Mohave Co., Ariz. 

The leg I ordered for Mr. Sorrensen three years ago was all that 
could be desired. ^^<^^^' 

G. FEED KOHLEE, JE.— Bergen Co., N. J. Below knee. 

I have been wearing one of your rubber feet now since March 9, 
1904, and have not had any chafing of the^stump or any other 
difficulty. I do not limp at all. Considering tl^t I had one foot 
mashed at the time I was run over, which is not healed yet, I know 
I do remarkably well. IMost people ask me which foot is the 
artificial. '■- ^ N^ov. 3, 1904. 



HENRY KUEHN— Designer, Hudson Co., N. J 
I used a cane for about two weeks at the j 
my leg. I 'have a ten-inch stump and never 
I got it, except to retire at night. 



J Above knee; 

^t when I reciif^ed 

laditny leg (jflPsince 

,.M^ 10 




S34 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirnbs, New Yorh City. 

* J. VICTOR KULP— Fireman, Berks Co., Pa. Above knee. 

It is now a year since I purchased my leg from you and I feel it 
is my duty to let you know just how I ana getting- along. I lost 
my leg while firing on a locomotive for the Phila. & Eeading R. R. 
It was amputated about six inches above the knee. I am working 
every day on the P. & R. R. R., twelve hours a day, doing operating 
and throwing switches, so you see I don't have much time to my- 
self. If I were not so active on my feet I could never hold this 
position. 

The leg is working to perfection and I am glad I took your advice 
and got a leg without an ankle joint, as I have seen legs made with 
cords and they were regular rattle boxes. I know a man who wears 
a cord foot and he tells me that he keeps an extra set with him all 
the time in case he breaks down. I can walk almost as natural as 
I could before I lost my leg. One not knowing of my loss could not 
tell the difference. June 18, 1904. 

GEO. W. KUTCH— Boatman, Schuylkill Co., Pa. Below knee. 

I am w^earing your make of artificial limbs since 1886. I am w^hat 
is commonly called a waterman, and work upon a barge. Your leg 
gives entire satisfaction. It gets damp, occasionally wet, but no ill 
effects result. I can perform my work as well as those who have 
their two natural legs. In winter time the barges are often covered 
with ice, which makes ■walking very uncertain, but I can get around 
as well as most who have their natural legs. May 17, 1904. 

* PETER KUTCHERA— Marathon Co., Wis. Below elbow. 

The artificial arm I got from you some time ago has far surpassed 
my expectations. The rubber hand is certainly a good invention. 
1 can carry a grip or bundle with it, I can also close &nd open my 
latch door. My right arm being amputated two inches below the 
elbow. I had no idea that I would have any control of the arti- 
ficial arm. May 16, 1904. 

* WALTER LACY— England. Above knee. 

I have now worn your leg for thirteen years, and am very glad to 
say I am quite satisfied with it. I was fitted from measurements. 
The point of amputation is about two inches above the left knee. 

I am glad to be able to say the cost of repairing the limbs made 
by you is so little that I could not attempt to reckon it up. 

* E. L. LAIRD — Crawford Co., Kan. Daughter age 6. Above knee. 
It is with pleasiire I inform you that the limb purchased for my 

daughter is giving the best of satisfaction, far better than I sup- 
posed it were possible considering the location of the anaputation, 
her stiimp is a very short one above the knee. I heartily recom- 
mend your work. June 23, 1904. 

* HARRY M. LAIRD— Drug Clerk, Monmouth Co., N. J. 

I have given the limb you sent me a thorough trial. I can say 
that I am well pleased with it. It seems to be what I want. Last 
week I walked half a mile and was no worse for it. I want to 
thank you for the satisfaction you gave me. You may use my name 
as reference. ' November 1, 1904. 

* RODOLFO LAMBE A— Farmer, Cuba. Below knee. 

I am well pleased with the artificial limb you sent me. I am 
working on a farm and use your artificial leg to great advantage. 
I thank you for what you have done for me. — Translated from 
Spanish. , May 10, 1904. 

* THOMAS LANGTON— Herbalist, England. Above knee. 

I have received the leg you made for me and having now w^orn 
it for the last three weeks, I have much pleasure and satisfaction 
in testifying to its qualities, which are in every particular as good 



A. A, Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 335 



as one could wish. It is comfortable, light, strong- and safe, the 
finish and mechanism are a great improvement on those I have 
previously worn. I desire also to express my gratitude to you for 
your patience, persistence, and unfailing- courtesy in bringing about 
this most gratifying- result. Shall recommend your firm whenever 
possible. Aug. 8, 1904. 

* E. M. LANIEE— Tax Collector, Ware Co., Ga. Below knee. 
About twenty years since I lost my right leg just below the 

knee, and since that time I have used three of your artificial limbs, 
only recently having purchased a new one. I have always found 
them to be comfortable and durable in my work. I am Tax Col- 
lector of Ware County, Ga., which occupation carries with it con- 
siderable walking-, and I get around with all ease and corafort. I 
don't think your class of work is surpassed by any. May 4, 1904. 

* MRS. MARY LAND— Todd Co., Minn. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your artificial limbs for the last nine years, 
the first one I had worn seven j^ears, the second I got two years ago, 
J)oth made from measurements. I am well pleased with them. I 
am sixty-one years old, and can do all my housework. May 14, 1904. 

«- EDWARD W. LASLEY— Laborer, Antrim Co., Mich. Below elbow. 

I lost my arm below the elbow last October. I had one of your 

artificial hands made by measurements, and have worn it every 

day since, I am greatly pleased with it. It fits perfectly, and with 




the glove on one could not tell it from the natural hand. I do 
most anything with it. I can punch the bag-, play pool, and box 
with it. I find it very useful, and I wouldn't be without the hand 
for anything. May 30, 1904. 

* DR. MARIUS LAURITZEN— Physician, Denmark. Above knee. 

I am much obliged for the leg you sent me. I am wearing it now 
for two months, and it fits very well, and I can walk well with it, 
and without any trouble. — Translated from German. Jan. 8, 1905, 



336 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorl City. ~ ~ 

ALLEN EOBEET LAW, M. D.— Dane Co., Wis. 

The pair of artificial legs I ordered of A. A. Marks about ten 
years ago for Jno. Nodolf are wearing well and give perfect satis- 
faction. 

* BAPTISTE LEBOIX— Driver, France. Above knee. 

After wearing your artificial leg with rubber foot for two years, 
I am pleased to recognize all the merits your make deserves. The 
leg is comfortable, and construction is simple. I have as yet had 
no need for repairs, and have subjected it to hard tests every day. — 
Translated from French. Nov. 23, 1904. 

JOSE MARIA LEBEON— Porto Eico. Knee-bearing. 

I see no reason why my name should not appear in your new 
treatise, since from 1882 until to-day I have used the same artificial 
leg without having sustained any deterioration in that time. Ex- 
pressing to you my most sincere thanks for the good service that 
limb has given me, by which I work and earn my daily bread. 

* MISS FLOEENCE M. LEE— School Girl, Washington Co., E. I. 
It is two years this month that you made for me the leg, and I 

am doing nicely with it; the former leg made by you was applied 
when I was four years old, and I wore it eight years. I work and 
walk every day. I have no trouble whatever with it, and have worn 
it all the time since you made it for me. May 14, 1904. 

* PATEICK W. LEE— Trooper, New Zealand. Above knee. 

I was a member of one of the New Zealand Contingents, in active 
service during the Boer War, and lost my right leg as a result of 
injuries received in the Western Transvaal. The amputation is 
about five inches above the knee. Acting on the advice of a clergy- 
man, who is himself v\'earing one of your limbs, I obtained one, 
and have worn it every day since. 

It is a wonderfully good substitute, and to a great extent removes 
the disability imposed by the loss of the natural limb. I am not 
engaged in any particular vocation at present, but do a lot of 
walking, and can get about with but little inconvenience. 

May 14, 1904. 

WILLIAM LEES, M. D., C. S., L. S. A.— Chester, England. 

The arm for Williamson has arrived safely and fits him perfectly. 
I am highly pleased with it, and intend to show this patient and his 
arm, and also Mr. Howson and his leg, at our Chester Medical 
Society. I consider them triumphs of mechanical art. 

* AECH. LEITCH— Farmer, Ontario. Below elbow. 

I have found the artificial arm you made for me of great assist- 
ance, and would not be without it for considerable money. I am 
enabled to do almost all kinds of farm work, and engage in most 
all the sports at college. Dec. 11, 1904. 

* H. E. LEWIS— Grocer, Washington Co., E. I. Below knee. 

I have been using the artificial leg you made for me some years 
ago continuously, and am up and down a step-ladder a great deal, 
and feel perfectly safe. My weight, at the present time, is 214 
pounds. I never use a cane, as I can walk better without it. 

Aug. 17, 1904. 

CHAS. LIBENAU, M. D.— New York. Below knee. 

After an experience o° over twenty-two years in the use of your 
patent artificial leg with rubber foot, I desire to say that it has 
given me first-rate satisfaction. About eighteen years ago I was in- 
duced to purchase a leg of Mr. 's make, with his wooden foot 

and ankle joint. After using- it for nearly two years, with constant 
jepairs, I abandoned it, and am now using yours again. That trial 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, N'eiv York City. 337 



"was enough for me; I want no more ankle-jointed wooden feet for 
me on an artificial leg-, so long* as yours are to be had, as my own 
experience proves their superiority. 
LEWIS M. LINES— Railroad, Miffin Co., Pa. Partial foot. 

I received my foot all right, and it suits me very well. Good-by. 
I am well pleased with your work, and also with you. May 17, 1904. 
PETER L. LEE— Watchman, Worcester Co., Mass. Below knee. 

Your leg is all that you claim for it, in fact, it is much more. 
I am night watchman in a large worsted and carpet mill, which 
requires my walking- up several flight of stairs every night. I am 




twenty-five minutes on the go winding clocks. I also have two 
large boilers to take care of, and have to wheel fourteen to sixteen 
large wheelbarrows of clinkers and ashes everj- night up an incline 
two and a half feet in ten, which I do without trouble. 

The artificial leg that I wore before I got yours gave me much 
trouble, and kept my stump sore and irritated nearly all the time. 
It compelled me to undergo a second amputation. May 3, 1904. 
J. S. LINDLEY, M. D.— Indian Agency, L T. 

I deem it due to j^ou to say that the artificial leg you furnished 
the Indian Department for Joe Chilchuana, the Apache Indian, gives 
the utmost satisfaction in every respect. The young man wears it 
with the greatest ease, satisfaction, and comfort, and is delighted 
with it. One who does not know that he is wearing an artificial 
limb would not detect it in his walk. You are to be congratulated 
upon the satisfaction your work gives. 

* C. L. LINVILLE— Sawmill, Bridgeport, W. Va. Ankle. 

I received my new artificial foot, it is all right. I have been 
Avorking on a sawmill for four years. July 23, 1901. " 

* BERTRAM LITTLE— Clerk, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

When I was nine years of age I had the misfortune to lose the use 
of my right leg. I ordered a leg- of your make. Words cannot ex- 
press the satisfaction it has given me. 

I have Avorn it for tAvo years continuously, and to-day I can walk 
fiA'e miles, Avhich is Avonderful, considering my leg is off above the 
knee joint, leaving me a stump of about six inches. May 8, 1904. 



838 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 



ENOS LINCOLN — Saline Co., Kansas. Above knee. 

After having- worn your artificial leg- with rubber foot for more 
than thirty years, I have no hesitation in saying it is the best leg" 
in use; it is simply the most durable of any of the many I have seen. 
The rubber foot with stiff ankle is unquestionably the best and 
softest leg" made; it never drags at the toe from weight of mud. 
It is so simple a child can adjust it. I have worn artificial legs 




•'-•;ff=^ 



since 1862, and do all kinds of work. I am a blacksmith, and shoe 
horses. I have dug wells, and quarried stone, and other heavy 
work. I can walk farther in a given time than any man on any 
other kind of a leg, with the same length of stump as mine; it is 
only three inches from center of hip joint. 

* ARCHIE LIVINGSTONE— Laborer, Cassia Co., Idaho. 

I got my legs amputated in December, 1901, and received artificial 
ones from A. A. Marks, June, 1902. I have been wearing them ever 
since; they were made from measurements, and fit right. They 
have not bothered me at all. I am a rider, and can get on a horse 
quicker than many that have not lost their limbs. May 23, 1904. 
•lULIO LLUBEEES — Conductor, Santo Domingo. Above knee. 

A month after anaputation I had an artificial leg applied at your 
establishment, and upon my arrival here I filled the position of 
conductor of a passenger and freight train for three months, and for 
the past year I have discharged the duties of the Station Agent at 
Bajabonico, 18 kilometers from Puerto Plata, both of which I 
have performed satisfactorily. I can put the leg on in two minutes. 
I walk a great deal, both for work and pleasure. I have got on 
the train when the locomotive was under very rapid headway. I 
can assure you that I am well satisfied with the leg, and believe 
it the best in the vvorld. — Translated from Spanish. Oct. 12, 1904. 

* FEANK LOCKE— Audrain Co., Mo. Below knee. 

I get around on my artificial leg fine. I can go any place now. 
Thanking you very much for your excellent work. May 8, 1904, 



A. A. MarlcSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 339 

* GIEOLAMO LOKENZONI— Lawyer, Italy. Above knee. 

In September, 1895, after thirty years ot suffering, I had my right 
leg amputated, above the knee, leaving a very short stump. I ob- 
tained an artificial leg made in Padua. I walked very badly with 
it, and was in despair, when fortunately one of my friends made 
me acquainted with your firm. In 1897 you furnished me with a 
magnificent artificial limb, which I have worn ever since. I am 
most contented with your system, especially the construction of 
the foot, which is unimprovable in every respect. — -Translated from 
Italian. Feb. 2, 1905. 

* MISS EMMA C. LOTT— Laundry, Goliad Co., Tex. Below knee. 

I am Avell pleased with the artificial limb I purchased of you. 
It is apparently as good as when I first put it on. My occupation 
is washing and ironing. I find it durable, easy, soft, and comfort- 
able to wear. May 10, 1904, 

* EBEN P. LOW— Hawaii. Below elbow. 

I cannot give enough praise for the best material that you used 
in making my artificial hand, for it has stood the test well. I am 
a cattle rancher. My natural hand was badly lacerated by being 
fouled with a lariat while lassoing wild cattle on the mountains 
here. The loss of my arm does not in any way deter me in my 
business. 

* J. A. LUKE — Terrebonne Co., La. Below elbow. 

On March 5, 1904, I bought of you an artificial hand, for ampu- 
tation below the elbow. Have worn it constantly since. On many 
occasions it has been mistaken for a natural hand. I am perfectly 
satisfied with it. Fits perfectly. May 9, 1904. 

* THOMAS F. LUSH— School Teacher, Lycoming Co., Pa. 

I am now wearing my second artificial leg, both made by you, 
and I can truly say that they have both been satisfactory in every 
respect. Your artificial limbs are a combination of lightness, dura- 
bility, and strength, which makes them superior to any other arti- 
ficial limb that I have ever seen. I wear a knee-bearing leg. 
The last one that I purchased from you I took my own measure- 
ments, which almost anyone can do by j'our system. May 4, 1901. 

*-I. N. McCALLISTEE— Stock Raiser, Greenwood Co., Kan. Ankle. 
I have used one of your artificial legs for thirteen years, and am 
ptill using it. It has given me good service, and satisfaction, and 
I have done almost every kind of work, such as farming, handling 
stallions, jacks, and doing other rough work. The new limb is all 
right. I can cheerfully recommend your work. May 3, 1901. 

* C. B. McCREEEY— New London Co., Conn. Partial hand. 

For two years I have worn an artificial hand made by your firm, 
and have been told by others with but one hand they wished theirs 
looked as good as mine, and I have been asked which was the 
artificial as I carry packages in both. May 5, 1904. 

* J. IN'. McCUTCHEON— Court Clerk, Hamilton Co., Tenn. 

I have been wearing one of your artificial limbs for about fifteen 
years. My leg was amputated about three inches above the knee. 
Your limb has given me perfect satisfaction. I am County Court 
Clerk for Hamilton Co.. Tenn., and have a great deal of walking to 
do, I have no trouble in keeping up with anyone with two natural 
limbs. May 3, 1904. 

* All testimonials marked with the asterisk * were written by 
persons whose artificial limbs were made and fitted from measure 
ments while they remained at home. 



340 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

* ALEX. McDonald — Engineer, Nova Scotia. Below knee. 

I am happy to say that 1 have v^oru one of your legs for the 
last four years, I feel convinced that no better can be made. I have 
frequently been in the company of people who never suspected 




'^^^^/li // 



that I v\'as wearing an artificial leg. I attend my work every day, 
which is engine driving. I had my leg taken off five inches above 
the ankle joint. April 25, 1904. 

* A. W. ISIcEWAN — Secretary, South Africa. Above knee. 

The artificial limb you so skillfully made for me, to accommodate 
an amijutated thigh 21/3 inches from the crotch, has arrived here in 
good order, and after a fortnight's wear, I am enabled to use the 
limb with the greatest of ease and comfort. I consider it a wonder- 
ful arrangement in every particular, especially noting the easy, 
noiseless, and reliable knee mechanism, and the delightful natural 
suppleness of the rubber foot, which gives one a great amount of 
impetus in walking. 

I'revious to getting your limb, I had been wearing one with 
articulating' joint at the ankle. I was forced to use two canes to 
assist me in walking; now I am able to walk with the greatest 
ease and comfort vi^ithout canes. Sept. 6, 1904. 

J. H. McFADZEN — Lawyer, New Brunswick, Canada. Above elbow. 

The artificial arm I purchased from you while in New York, last 
May, has proved satisfactory. I find it of great assistance, very 
comfortable, and it has developed the miiscles of my arm and side, 
got them back into their normal and healthy condition, and besides 
it is of great benefit to my appearance. I have very much pleasure 
indeed in recommending same, my only regret now is, that I had 
not purchased it sooner. 

My amputation took place fifteen years ago, above the elbow. My 
profession is that of a bai'rister. On account of the mechanism of 
the rubber hand, I find no difticulty in holding papers, books, etc. 
I also find it A'ery useful in driving a horse, carrying a valise, and 
in fact, v/ere it not for the wearing of a glove, it would often be 
hard to detect the artificial from the real. As I am a bit of a 
sport, I often engage in lawn tennis, billiards, etc. April 26, 1904. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neiv Yorh City. S41 



* LEO McFAELAND — Eepublic Co., Kas. Knee-bearing-. 

I have had my leg since last August, aud must say that it is, and 
has been, giving entire satisfaction. 

Vlj leg- is cut off about one inch below the knee, and for about 
two years I wore a slifJ socket leg, which did not do very well. I 
am now wearing your knee-bearing leg, and it is giving me no 
trouble whatever. 

I will recommend your limb Avhenever I get a chance, and take 
pleasure in doing so. May 16, 1904. 

DE. W. M. McGALLIAEC— Ascension Co., La. Below knee. 

The ai'tiiicial leg made by you in 1C02 has given perfect satis- 
faction for nearly two years, being lighter and simpler in construc- 
tion than any other. April 29, 190i. 
JAMES A. McDonald— Westchester Co., N. Y. Both below knee. 

Over twenty years ago I met with the misfortune of having both 
my legs crushed by the railroad cars, which necessitated ampu- 
tation below the knees. I was then a mere lad, and did not fully 
realize the gravity of my misfortune. 

By the advice of my surgeons and others, I placed myself under 




your care for restoration. Your reputation as the one most compe- 
tent in the Hnd had so impressed me that, from the first, I felt that 
1 was soon to realize the most that skill and ingenuity could pos- 
sibly do for me. In this I have not been disappoiiited, for your 
labors have restored me to jny feet, and I am, for all practical pur- 
poses, myself again. I well remember how proud I waa when 
your genius placed me in a position in which I could indulge in 
youthful sports, how I availed myself of every advantage, playing 
ball, boating, fishing, and hunting in summer, and skating in winter. 
I even went so far as to swing- my partner, on several occasions, at 
rural dances. I have always felt that j^our artificial legs were 
wonders, and ought to be known throughout the land. 

My latest fad is that of riding a bicycle. I found the task diffi- 
cult at first, but I succeeded after repeated attempts, to ride well 
and to enjoy it. 



342 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 

* SAMUEL McKEE— Belfast, Ireland. Below knee. 

The leg arrived some time about the latter end of June, 1875, and 
I have been wearing it ever since. I v/ould like to get another just 
like it. The limb I have has a rubber foot for amputation below 
the knee. It is a pity you have not an agent here, for there is only 
one party in this city who makes artificial legs, and they are not 
to be compared with yours for durability, neatness and comfort. 

* S. B. McKEE — Lawyer, Alameda Co., Cal. Both below knee. 

I take great pleasure in testifying to the merits of your artificial 
limbs. I have used them for about eleven years. 

They were fitted from measurements. I have worn them con- 
stantly v/ithout any trouble. I am by profession a lawyer. 

Your legs are the best made. 

* E. A. H. MacKEEN, M. D.— Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. 

I am happy to say that having worn one of your legs for the last 
fourteen years, I feel convinced that no better can be made. I have 
been for quite a while in the company of people who never sus- 
pected that I was dependent on a " cork leg" " (as they will call it) 
for support. The limb you furnished the boy, Daniel McLean, from 
measurements taken by me, has given good satisfaction, and he 
runs around with his playmates almost as if he had never met with 
a misfortune. 

* NEIL A. McKENZIE— Miner, Nova Scotia. Below knee. 

I had my foot amputated above the ankle when I was but four 
years old. Some years afterward I had a leg manufactured by 
you, from measurements. It fitted so well in every respect that 
when it became necessary to order another, I did not hesitate in 
ordering from you the second one. I am wearing the third leg now, 
and have worked in every capacity in a coal mine, from trapper 
boy to mine overman. I have also worked in the lunaber woods, 
and as a sailor, my shipmates not knowing that I was minus a 
foot. Oct. 12, 1904. 

* J. A. McKINZIE— Farmer, Comanche Co., Tex. Below knee. 

In September, 1894, my left leg was amputated six inches below 
the knee. I was then thirteen years old, and am now twenty-three. 
I am still wearing- your make, and would not have any other, for 
the reason your legs wear better, and are more comfortable 
to the wearer than any other. I am a farrner by occupation, can 
walk all day, plowing, or any other kind of work. May 1, 1904. 

E. W. McLATCHY— Collector, Westchester Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I lost my leg when but a child. I have only six inches of a 
stump, and thought I coiild never use an artificial leg. I went 
around on crutches for some years, but that got tiresome, and I 
bought a leg from a firm out in Canada, which proved a failure. 
I could not walk without a cane. About eight years ago I tried 
one of your legs, which was a great success. I am walking without 
a stick. In fact, I never use a cane, and walk at least ten miles 
a day. I am a collector, and that requires a lot of walking. I 
cannot say too much of your leg. It is strong, durable, and easy 
to walk on. ' May 10, 1904. 

* FEANK McLATIGHLIN— Eailway Employee, Australia. Ankle. 
Your artificial leg, supplied through your Australian agents, Den- 

yer Bros., came duly to hand. My amputation is at the ankle 
joint. I am employed by the Queensland Government in their Eail- 
way Department., In their service I lost my foot. After the stump 
had thoi'oughly healed, I procured an artificial one of the articu- 
lating ankle-joint type, which I wore for a short time, and soon 
discovered that it was utterly useless. I am a ticket checker, 
which means a lot of walking through the trains. I was advised by 



A. A. MarJcSj Artificial Limhs, New York City. 343 

a surgeon here to try your make, which I find is much lighter than 
the first one I procured, and enables me to get about my 
duty to perfection. In fact, many people, that are not aware of my 
misfortune, cannot discern that I have lost my foot. In conclusion, 
I must thank you for conferring' such a blessing upon suf^lering 
humanity like myself. June 9, 1904. 

EDWAED A. MACKESEY— Weaver, Albany Co., N. Y. Instep. 

I am very much pleased with my foot, and get along very good. 
I can walk without a lame step, and intend to get another in a 
very short time, so as to have -a duplicate. Dec. 12, 1904. 

* J. MADDEN— IS^ew Zealand. Below knee. 

My leg was amputated below the knee on August 2, 1887. 
In the following March I got my first artificial leg with ankle 
joint, which I wore until April, 1891, when I got one of your cele- 
brated artificial legs with rubber foot, which I am still Avearing, 
now almost eleven years, on an average of sixteen hours a day. 
Five years in Auckland as watchman of the Customs building-, and 
the remainder here on the Queen's Wharf Customs Dept. During 
that time its expenses were nil, except a little for bushing the knee- 
bolts, whereas with the ankle-joint leg I was continually putting 
my hand in my pocket. 

It would be only foolishness for me to try and explain or de- 
scribe the benefits I have received, especially from the rubber foot. 

No matter what you may hear regarding other makers, write to 
Mr. Marks for measurements and diagrams. Have them taken ac- 
cordingly. Send for one of his celebrated artificial limbs. He earn 
fit you just as well as if you were in his shop 

* A. E. MAGOFFIN— Druggist, Eice Co., Kas. ' Below knee. 

I was a soldier of the Civil War when I was crippled in 1863, re- 
sulting in amputation of left leg below the knee. I immediatelj'' 




ordered a Marks' leg, and have worn no other since. I get around 
very well, and have attended to my drug business for forty-eight 
years. The legs have given full satisfaction, and I have no desire 
to change for any other make. April 28, 1904, 



344 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 



* CHAELES MA DDOX— Sawyer, Stoddard Co., Mo. Below knee. 

I have been wearing an artificial leg from your company for some 
time. My occupation is sawing in a stave mill. I get along very 
well. I have not lost a day on account of my leg. May 30, 1904. 
DANIEL MAHONEY— Brakeman, New York City, N. Y. Instep. 

I have used one of your artificial legs for the last ten years, and 
found it all right. My foot was taken off at the instep. In my 




position as a brakeman I can do my work without any trouble 
whatever. 

From my experience in using your leg, I verify all you claim for 
it. May 7, 1904. 

EEV. E. L. MAINES— Clergyman, Wayne Co., N. Y. Below elbow. 

A little more than a year ago I had my left arm amputated about 
five inches below the elbow. Two months and a half later I went 
to A. A. Marks' establishment, in New York, to investigate their 
artificial limbs. I had been advised to get an all-willow hand, but 
thinking of the advantages of rubber over willow, I decided to per- 
sonally investigate the matter, so made a special trip to the city. 
I am glad to say that so far I have found much comfort in wearing 
the Marks' Kubber Hand. At first the stump and body were sensi- 
tive to the touch of the arm and strap, but I now wear it constantly 
with ease, and would do without it under no conditions. I am at 
present serving a country appointment in the Central N. Y. Con- 
ference of the M. E. Church, and I find the hand of great value in 
utility and appearance. May 4, 1905. 

S. L. MANHART— Engineer, Rice Co., Minn. Wrist. 

I am wearing one of your hands, and have been wearing it for 
three years, and hardly know how I could get along without it. 
Anyone wishing to purchase one can be referred to me. May 6, 1904. 
WILLIAM MANN — Gardener, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

I thought I would write and tell you how I am making out with 
my ai'tificial arms. I can get along very nicely. I can eat all right, 
and can dig garden pretty well, and >%'rite this letter with the right 
rubber hand, May 9, 1904, 



A. A. Marks, Ai'tificial Linibs, Neiv York City. 345 



EDWAED MARSHALL— New York City. Left leg below knee. 

The Spanish-American War Avas remarkable less for its loss in 
killed and wounded than for its loss from disease in camp, etc. Yet 
a number of most astonishing wounds have been placed to its 
credit or debit in medical histories and reviews. For instance, in 
one case, a soldier — one of the Rough Eiders — was shot in the 
middle of the outside of the left thigh. The wound of exit was in 
the middle of the right thigh. The natural supposition of the 
doctors was that the ball had penetrated both legs. An examin- 
ation showed them, however, that this was not the case. The bal) 
had entered the left thigh about midway between the knee and 
the hip. It had gone upward, and then across, through the lower 
abdomen, and finally downward to a point in the right thigh, 
almost exactly opposite to the point where it entered the left thigh, 




and passed out. Just what influenced the ball to take this course 
is one of those mysteries that puzzle the doctors. 

The Spanish-American War was the first conflict in w^hich small 
caliber bullets of great velocity were used by both sides. In the 
Civil War a wound in the lung from a Minie ball was almost certain 
to prove fatal. In the Spanish-American War with their new 
small caliber, high velocity Mauser and Krag-Jorgensen bullets, 
scarcely a single fatalitj^ came from a wound in the lungs. 

Perhaps as remarkable a case as occurred during the entire war 
was that of Ed^^'ard JSiarshall. ^Marshall was not a soldier, but a 
newspaper correspondent; yet, the story of his misfortune and suf- 
fering is probably as widely known as that of any soldier in the 
arraj^ 

He was one of the only two correspondents present at the battle 
of Las Guasimas, the first important land fight in which the army 



S46 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, Neiu YorTc City. 



took part. It will be remembered tha't only the marines — the 
military branch of the navy — were engaged at Guantanamo. 
Marshall had landed at Daiquiri with the troops the day before 
the march to the front began, and learned that the Kough Eiders 
were likely to be engaged in battle on the twenty-fourth of June. 
He marched the nineteen and a half miles through the jungle to 
Siboney with the famous regiment which is so closely identified 
with the name of President Theodore Eoosevelt, reaching that 
strange little collection of Cuban shanties late at night. The next 
morning at four o'clock he started to the battlefield with the regi- 
ment with which he had cast his lot. It was a fearful climb over 
the precipitous hills and along the narrow jungle trails. How 
cleverly the Spaniards had gauged the route over which the men 
must go, and what a baptism of blood awaited them at the end of 
that last trail, are now matters of history — history whose punctua- 




iion marks are more than thirty graves in the National Cemetery at 
Arlington. 

When Marshall started out on that march he was as strong a 
man physically as ever had toiled along under a broiling tropical 
sun. While many trained soldiers fell by the way, Marshall, a 
newspaper man, carrying a burden of equipment, cameras, etc., 
probably much heavier than the kit borne by any soldier, stood 
the heat almost without discomfort. Because of his business of 
news-gathering he had many times to visit other regiments march- 
ing in the same direction, and to continually doiible back and forth 
among the Eougli Eiders. So he probably covered at least a fourth 
more ground that afternoon and night and the following morning 
than any unmounted soldier in the army. When the regiment 
reached Las Guasimas he was not the least fatigued. After the 
regiment had reached the field of battle and he had been for an 
hour at work along the firing line and among the dead and wounded 
scattered about the field, he still felt no need of rest. But his 
activity ceased just before the battle ended. In the advance on the 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 347 



old Spanish distillery which was the temporary headquarters of 
the Spanish army, a Mauser bullet hit him in the spine. He fell 
instantly to the ground. In describing- the censation of being- shot, 
and his later sufferings, we will use Marshall's own words: 

" There was no j)ain as the bullet entered my body. I knew that 
T had been hit, because I had fallen, and because I had no power 
to move any part cf my body. Legs, arms, fingers, toes — every 
member was wholly without the possibility of voluntary motion, 
except my eyes. I was completely paralyzed. The actual sensation 
of being hit was not a very different one from the sensation that I 
many times knew as a boy, when in a game I was struck by a base- 
ball. 

" I am told that while four regulars were carrying me off the 
battlefield many hours later, convulsions seized me from time to 



y --. 




time, but I have no memory of any pain whatever until after they 
had placed me on the hospital ship Olivette. Then I suffered, and 
suffered severely. The bullet had hit me in the fifth lumbar ver- 
tebra, which is near the base of the spine. If I had been marked 
for a target the Spaniard who shot me could not have had a chance 
of striking a more important nerve-center than the one which his 
bullet found. I have no idea, however, that the man ever saw me, 
much less took aim at me; for if the bullet had come from close 
range it would undoubtedly have passed completely through my 
body and killed me then and there. As it was, it struck this ver- 
tebra, and shattered it, passing upward (having been deflected by 
the bone) and then struck me again between the shoulders. Here 
again the bone changed its course and the bullet turned downward, 
finally lodging in the right kidney, where it remains to-day." 

After a marvelous operation by the much-maligned army sur- 
geons on board the Olivette, Marshall was taken to New York four 
or five weeks later. That he reached there alive was the marvel of 
physicians and surgeons in all sections of the United States and 
Europe, and was the topic of many articles in medical journals. 



S48 A. A. Maries, Artificial Lirnbs, New York City. 



For seven months he lay jn St. Luke's Hospital, New York, com- 
pletely paralyzed below the knees and partially atfected above. 
Gradually, however, all signs of paralysis left him above the knees. 
Still, his doctors held out no hope that he would ever be able to 
walk. When he finally left the hospital it was necessary for him 
to be carried by two attendants. This state of almost complete 
helplessness lasted for a long time. His right leg regained some 
of its strength, but the nerves controlling the front muscles of 
the lower left leg (the tibialis anticus) were completely dead. 
Their support of vitality had been completely cut off by the bullet 
which came so near ending Marshall's life. This made it impossible 
for him to keep his foot from drooping or falling down. His right 
leg finally i-ecovered sufficiently so that he could essay a few steps 
on crutches, but the dragging of the left foot made it impossible 
for him to do more than a few steps at a time. 

Among the artists who contributed pictures to Mr. Marshall's 
book on the Spanish-American War was W. Frazee Strunz, well 




known as an illustrator. Mr. Strunz and Mr. Marshall had been 
associated in their professions for many years. Mr. Marshall, how- 
ever did not know that his friend and co-worker had ever met with 
an accident. He spoke to Strunz one night about the possibility 
of having that troublesome left foot amputated. 

" If you do that," said Strunz, " we shall be in the same class." 

" What do you mean by that? " inquired Marshall, who knew that 
Strunz had been celebrated as a baseball player and sprinter among 
the athletic set in the Qunrtier Latin, in Paris, when he was there 
as an art student, and who was familiar with the man's intense 
physical activity in New York. This activity went so far as climb- 
ing scene jjainters' scaffoldings, when he was engaged in scenic 
work, a dozen times a day; in running up and downstairs to a 
studio located on the fifth floor of a building without an elevator, 
in long walks and in sprinting races. 

" Why, didn't yau know I had a wooden leg? " Strunz asked. 

Marshall scarcely believed him until he proved his stateraent by 
showing- the artificial limb. Strunz had had his limb cut off in a 
railway accident Avhen he was a child of eight. The conversation 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limls, New York City. 349 



ended in Marshall's decision to see the people who had succ.eeded 
in giving- his friend so perfect a substitiite for a lost leg, on vvhicli 
he could walk without limi:>ing, run, and climb stairs and ladders 
with ease. 

The firm which had supplied Strunz with his artificial leg was A. 
A. Marks, of 701 Broadway, New York, whose place of business was 




not very far from where Marshall lived. A telephone message 
brought Mr. Marks himself around to Mr. Marshall's house the 
next morning. Upon examination, Mr. Marks found that there was 
no immediate necessity for amputation. Marshall's only anxiety 
for an amputation was that he was impeded in walking- on account 
of the foot drooping so inconveniently. After a moment's thought 
Mr. Marks said he believed he could devise a scheme that would 
enable Mr. Marshall to walk, even if he could not properly hold up 
his toes. 

" I shall put your foot in a sling," he said. 

He did so. 

lie made an ingenious contrivance of straps and loops which 
were put on in such a way as to hold the front of the foot at the 
proper angle. 

From that moment it became possible for Mr. Marshall to resume 
newspaper work. The fact that his legs were paralyzed of course 
made it necessary for him to use crutches, but still — he got around 
very conveniently. How well this contrivance served him is shown 
by the fact that he was enabled by it to travel with no other com- 
panions than his secretary, whom he would have taken with him 
in any event. He d;&.penped with the services of the strong valet 
whom his drooping foot had for months ruade necessary. He went 



350 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 



nearly all over the United States on a lecturing tour and in the 
pursuit of his professional duties, and, in May, less than a year 
after he had been so terriblj'^ wounded, this broken-backed journalist 
sailed across the ocean and acted as the representative of the S. S. 
McClure Literary Syndicate at the Hague Peace Conference. His 
physical capacity to get around in this manner he vpas always will- 




ing to acknowledge was due to Mr. Marks' happy thought of " put- 
ting his foot in a sling." 

After Mr. Marshall's return to America the condition of his left 
leg became steadily worse, and finally, after gangrene had set in 
and had done its deadly work, amputation of the leg at about 
the calf was performed. The tissues of the stump were, of course, 
paralyzed, and the doctors said they did not believe Mr. Marshall 
■would be able to wear an artificial leg in less than a year. Indeed, 
it was predicted that he would be in the hospital for at least three 
months as the result of the complication. The same vitality which 
had enabled him to live through his terrible Cuban experience, 
pulled him through again, and he returned to his desk at the offices 
of the S. S. McClure Company within three weeks. Not more than 
six weeks later Mr. Marshall stopped in to see Mr. Marks, the man 
M'ho had " put his foot in a sling\" Mr. Marks thoroughly under- 
stood the fact that to put an artificial leg on a paralyzed stump is a 
ticklish thing to do, for the paralyzed tissues, being without sen- 
sation, give no warning to their owner if injury occurred to the 
stump. He volunteered the belief, however, that he could make an 
artificial limb which should be so carefully adjusted and fitting so 
perfectly that there could be no possibility of injury. After con- 
sultation. Dr. Cyrus Edson, who was Mr. Marshall's physician, 
advised a trial. 

It took Mr. Marks exactly one week to complete the artificial 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, Neiv Yorh Citij. S5l 



limb. Marshall tried it and found it to fit perfectly. Again he 
was able to go about. Again he was able to get along without 
the arms of an attendant always at his shoulders. It must be 
understood that the partially paralyzed condition of his other, or 
right leg, had made it impossible for him to walk with two crutches 
after the amputation. He had used a crutch on his left side, but 
he had to be supported by an attendant on his right side. 

Since the day that Mr. Marshall put on his artificial leg, no man 
has been more actively engaged in journalistic work — and certainly 
no field of human endeavor requires greater physical activity. He 
became Sunday editor of the New York Herald in a few weeks, and 




has, since leaving that post, engaged in many enterprises involving 
much traveling and physical activity. 

Following is a letter which he wrote Mr. Marks not long ago with- 
out solicitation: 
My Dear Mr. Maries : 

I am going away for a time and shall need some supplies. I can- 
not tell you what a comfort that artificial limb has been to me. 
You know that my right leg is still paralj^zed from the knee down, 
and that it is still somewhat beyond my control. Such is not the 
case, however, with the leg made by j^ou. I can handle it almost as 
well as I handle the one God made for me, and I am afraid that I 
make it do far more than its fair share of work. Sometimes I 
almost wish that it may be necessary to amputate the right leg, as 
I can certainly handle the left one much better than I can the one 
which is still flesh and blood Very sincerely yours, 

EDWARD MARSHALL. 

The difficulties that were present in Mr. Marshall's case were the 
partial paralysis of the motor nerves and th'2 total paralysis of the 



362 A. A. Maries, Artificiai tAmhs, Neiv York City. 



sensory nerves, resulting- in the absence of sensation in the stump 
and a complication of infirmities in the opposite leg. 

The artificial leg- made for him was constructed upon the model 
of cut E 17, illustrated above. This model has a rubber foot and 
is suitable for short and long- stumps, as well as those of medium 
length, as shown in the accompanying cuts. 

* CALVIN MAESHALL— Carpenter, Lamar Co., Tex. Below elbow. 

I take pleasure in testifying to the satisfaction I have derived 




from your artificial arm v>ith rubber hand, my arm being ampu- 
tated about midway between the wrist and elbow. 

I am a carpenter, and can do as much work as ever. Can use my 
planes and drawing' knife to perfection. Feb. 1, 1902. 

C. S. MARSHALL, M. D.— Nova Scotia, Canada. 

I thoroughly believe the Marks' make of limbs with rubber hands 
and feet is superior to any other make. 

The leg purchased by me for Miss Aggie Holland is giving good 
satisfaction. I can heartily recommend the Marks' make of arti- 
ficial limbs. 

J. W. MAESHALL— Office Work, Lauderdale Co., Miss. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your artificial legs nearly five years and find 
it gives satisfaction in every particular. I lost my leg in May, 1899, 
amputation six inches below the knee which left my limb very 
sensitive in front but this sensitive place is fully protected by 
your leg. I would not wear any other leg. My position is that 
of check clerk and this keeps me on mv feet from morning till 
night. " May 4, 1904. 

* E. T. MAETIN— Chile, S. A. Below knee. 

The fit is perfect and my son is able to use the leg with the 
greatest comfort. 

My son begs me to tender you his most earnest and heartfelt 
thanks for the blessing that you have been the means of rendering 
to him. 



'A. 'A. Marks, 'ArUfjcial TAmhs, New York City. 353 



* ELEAS W. MAETIN— Harness Maker, Lancaster Co., Pa. 
rhave been wearing an artificial leg- for the past six years. First 

I used a cheap one. That was not very satisfactory and people 
would hear me coming a mile away. I then bought from two other 
houses but both were unsatisfactory. In 1903 I got a leg from you 
and must say that I like this one better than all the rest together. 
I am a sound boy again, and a harness maker by trade. May, 1904. 

H. E. MAETIN — Attorney, Wayne Co., Mich. Above elbow. 

The artificial arm you made for me last November has given 
entire satisfaction. I have worn it every day since I received it, 
and it has caused me no discomfort whatever. The mental comfort 
and satisfaction which I feel in wearing it, amply justifies me in 
advising others to procure an artificial arm without delay from 
A. A. Marks. May 21, 1904, 

* JESSE MAETIN— Farmer, Age 72, Eichland Co., Ohio. 

I am now wearing" my second artificial limb of your make, it 
gives perfect satisfaction for strength, durability, action and utility, 
the same as the first one. Maj^ 3, 1904. 

J. S. MAETIN, M. D.— Union Co., N. J. Both below knees. 

Having for the last eleven years used in my practice Marks' 
Patent Artificial Limbs, with India-rubber attachments, I feel it 
my privilege as well as duty to acknowledge my favorable apprecia- 
tion of them. 

Several of the cases have been under my daily observation, while 
in pursuance of their various avocations, the majority being em- 
ployees of the Central Eaiiroad of New Jersey, with which I have 
been a long time connected as surgeon. I will only mention a 
single case, that of Patrick Liddy, of this place, who was supplied 
with a pair of legs, and he does a considerable amount of walking, 
and usually without cane, regarding it as an incumbrance. 

I may, if desired, by consent of the parties, refer to others having 
lost one leg who succeed in their natural desire to escape observa- 
tion; another remark is due, that the India-rubber foot does not 
produce that wooden-leg sound so often noticed on the street from 
less modern appliances. I have not yet heard a patient express 
dissatisfaction, and feel well sustained by experience in giving this 
approval. 

* JOSE DE LA LUZ MAEIN— Tailor, ISIexico. Below knee. 

The artificial leg you made for me has been very successful, as 
I walk with almost the same security as I did with the natural 
one. 

I am a tailor by occupation and take the measureraents of per- 
sons Avhose clothes I make with every ease and no discomfort what- 
ever, as I make all the movements necessary with the artificial leg. 
I am very much pleased with it and recommend everyone who, like 
myself, has had the misfortune to be crippled to procure the limbs 
they require of you. — Translated from Spanish. 

FEANK I. MASON— Traveling-man, Polk Co., Iowa. Below knee. 

I have been wearing one of your artificial limbs for two years, 
and it has given entire satisfaction. My amputation is six inches 
below knee and my stump is in good condition. May 16, 1904. 

CAMPO E. MATEUS— Student, Hampden Co., Mass. Above knee. 

Having had the misfortune to lose a leg during the last civil 
war in Colombia, S. A., I have been using one of your artificial 
legs for one year. Indeed I will tell you that I am very miich. 
pleased Avith it. I am studying in Mr. Pitkin's school of languages, 
Springfield, Mass., and I walk aud play with the boys the same as 
before I lost the leg. I walk without cane because I don't need it. 
I have written to some of my friends who have lost legs in the 
same war, recommending your house as the best. May 6, 1904. 



354 A. A. Marks, Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 

L. J. MATSON — Livery, Sumner Co., Kansas. Above knee. 

My leg is amputated above the knee. In 1896 I went to your office 
and got one of your legs and vs^as well satisfied with it. 

I wore it six years, and in the fall of 1902 1 went to your office 
and got another leg and am more than pleased with it, it is better 
if possible than the first. I am in the livery and feed business 
and get around and handle horses all right. Your limbs can't 
be praised too highly. May 20, 1904, 

* ME. L. MAUEE — Judge, Germany. Above knee. 

While at the University from 1870-1872, I suffered the amputation 
of my left thigh, the nerves and end of bone were insufficiently 
covered. Until 1894 I used the product of a local firm, which was 
made of leather and steel, weighing some six kilograms, with knee 
and ankle joints. The weight and clumsiness of this machine made 
it a heavy burden. This annoyance was ended by your leg. I 
received two from 1894-1896, which I hope to use for many years. 
I have never seen a better limb. The simplicity and durability of 
its construction recommend your limb and I repeat my sincere 
thanks to you. — Translated from German. May 3, 1904. 

* MISS GEACE MAYNAED— Worcester Co., Mass. Ankle joint. 
The leg I got from you is all right. I have used it since 1896. 

Mine is an ankle-joint amputation, my "work is on a farm raising 
vegetables which requires me to be on my feet all the time. I can 
get around as well as those that have their own feet and without 
walking lame. People that don't know of my accident won't believe 
I wear an artificial limb. May 7, 1904. 

* JOSEPH MAYO— Well Digger, Goochland Co., Va. Above knee. 
The artificial leg I bought of A. A. Marks is and has been very 

satisfactory, and I feel that I could not do without it. I would 
not take a thousand dollars for the leg if I could not get another 
of your make. June 12, 1904. 

EDMUND MAZUEEK— Coal Dealer, Queens Co., N. Y. Below knee. 
My leg" was amputated below the knee. I got my leg in 1897 of 
you, and I feel very well satisfied. I work every day on the wagon. 
The new one is better than the old one, and the old one was as 
good as anyone ought to ask for. May 19, 1904 

* JOHN MEIGS— Coal Miner, Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory. 
The artificial limb you furnished me sometime ago I am well 

pleased with, it has given perfect satisfaction, it hasn't caused 
me any trouble whatever. My right arm was amputated in May, 
1902, about eight inches below the elbow. My occupation is a 
coal miner. I don't know what in the world T could do if I didn't 
have this artificial arm. I have done work that I never thought 
I could do. I dig coal Avith men who have both hands and I draw 
as much as they do. I find that it is a help to me in all my under- 
takings. May 5, 1904. 

* TONY MELETALLO— Chautauqua Co., N. Y. Above elbow. 

I am well pleased with artificial arm. It fits nicely, works easily, 
and I can use it to advantage. May 10, 1904. 

* M. G. MELL— Grain Dealer, Woods Co., Okla. Ankle joint. 

I don't know how to express my gratitude to you for the good 
you have done me in making my artificial foot. A foot without 
fault. 

I am in the grain, and live stock business and can get around 
and do anything that a person can do who has both feet. 

I have lived in this town over two years and very few knoTV that 
I wear an artificial foot. My testimonial cannot be too strong in 
reeommendins;' the A. A. Marks' artificial feet. May 5, 1904. 



A. A. Mar'ks, Ai-tificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 355 



* U. E. MAST — Druggist, Lagrange Co., Indiana. Below knee. 

I purchased my first artificial leg" frcmi you about thirteen years 
ago and wore it every day for twelve years. My only expense in 
that time time for repairs was $1.88. In January, 1903, I purchased 
my second limb of you which I have worn every day since without 




%,..,' ^Z 



one cent of repairs or expense. My business is druggist and 
jeweler and I do a great deal of walking. I can easily carry two 
large pails of water up or downstairs, spade my garden, split 
wood, climb a ladder, carrying fifty pounds on my shoulder. In 
fact I can do nearly any kind of work. The Marks' limb is the 
best I have ever seen. May 18, 1904. 

J. W. MEESHOJi — Undertaker, Lackawanna Co., Pa. Below knee. 

The leg 1 got of you eighten months ago is all right. I never 
have any trouble with it. I have worn your legs for thirty-five 
years and always with comfort and satisfaction. I wore one ten 
years with no repairs to speak of. I have worked ten hours a day 
for years making furniture and undertaking. Marks' leg is the 
best in the world. May 14, 1904. 

J. W. METCALF, M. D.— Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Eefer to me as to the merits of the Marks' limbs. 
MRS. F. J. MTCHAUD— Quebec. Shortened leg. 

My daughter, when a child, was afflicted with hip-joint disease 
which left one leg shorter than the other. 

The shoe which you arranged for her has made walking much 
easier and less tiresome. She walks with scarcely a perceptible 
limp. 
A. MICHEL SON— Contractor. New York, N. Y. Below knee. 

The limb you made for me answers in a very satisfactory man- 
ner. My business as contracting' yacht and steamship painter 
necessitates my doing considerable running- about, and climbing 
aboard vessels of various heights, also in and out, and up and down 
drydocks, marine railways, and pontoons, which are usually covered 
with slime, making it very slippery. 

My customers, which, largely consist of the wealthy merchants, 



856 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 

bankers, and prominent men, often comment on how I use the 
limb to advantage. May 5, 1904. 

B. J. MILAM, M. D.— Macon Co., Mo. 

The artificial leg you made for Mrs. Geiselman in June, 1894, has 
done her good service. She wears the leg every day, and does all 
her own housework. She says she would not take $1,000 and do 
without it. She is well pleased in every respect. 

* N. MILDENSTEIN— Lubeck, Germany. Below elbow. 

In regard to the artificial hand I got of you nine years ago, I 
can say it exceeds my expectations. 

If I were compelled to work for my living the rubber hand would 
be of great use in any occupation. I recommend the rubber limbs 
to anyone who has had the misfortune to become crippled. 

A. MILLER — Machinist, Oneida, Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

Several years ago my foot was amputated just above the ankle. 
I tried different limbs with ankle movement, and found them un- 
satisfactory. Have worn one of your artificial limbs for eight 
years, and am still wearing it with comfort and satisfaction. My 
occupation is one in which I am obliged to do a great deal of 
walking. June 3, 1904. 

* FEANK MILLEE— Driver, Cook Co., 111. Above knee. 

I had my leg- amputated in 1883 on account of disease. In Sep- 
tember, 1891, I ordered an artificial leg from you, you made it from 
measurement I had made at home and sent to you. The leg was 
received promptly, and fitted acceptably, I wore it continuously for 
twelve years, during which time it did a great amount of hard 
work, and I walked long distances. I was so well pleased with the 
leg that in April, 1903, I ordered another of you, which I am now 
wearing in the most satisfactory way. June 4, 1904. 

* LON MILLEE— Ohio Co., Ky. Son Guy, age 12. Below knee. 
My son has been wearing an artificial foot of your make since 

August, 1901. It has given perfect satisfaction, and a great many 
people can't tell he has an artificial foot. He wears short pants 
yet. We are glad we got one of your make. July 17, 1904. 

LOUIS MINET— New York City, N. y. Ankle. 

I am very well pleased with the foot I got from you for my son, 
Willie, when six years old, and find it very complete and satis- 
factory. The boy enjoys play with it like the rest of the boys. 

* PEEOSHAW B. E. MODY— Manager, India. Below elbow. 

It affords me great pleasure to add my testimonial to the long 
list you already have. 

In June, 1902, I had the misfortune to lose my left arm three 
inches below the elbow, on account of blood poisoning. Shortly 
after I forwarded to you the measurements for one of your artificial 
arms, which ari'ived in due lime, and which I am wearing regularly 
since, and am glad to say has given me great comfort and satis- 
faction. 

My occupation is that of manager of a joint stock company, and 
I find the arm a great help in my duties. Oct. 12, 1904. 

GEOEGE MOEIHN— Plumber, Brooklyn, N. Y. Above knee. 

In the year 1901 I fractured my leg, and had it amputated. I 
have two friends with Maries' legs who surprised me b.y their good 
walking. This caused me to have Marks make me one, five weeks 
after the amputation. I am satisfied that I could not have done 
better. My stunij) is only six inches long, and my friends are sur- 
prised when they see me walking along the streets. May 5, 1904. 

* LOUIS MOHLFELDT— Farmer, Lewis Co., Mo. Above knee. 

1 desire to state that your artificial limbs are what they are rep- 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New YorTc City. 357 



resented. Have had two of them, and consider them the best. 
Would recommend anyone wishing- a limb to use yours. May 17, 1904. 
* LAWEENCE A. MOLTANE— Bookkeeper, El Paso Co., Tex. Ankle. 

My artificial limb is giving every satisfaction that could possibly 
be obtained from an artificial limb. I am taking dancing lessons, 
and my teacher thinks I am making- great progress. May 24, 1905. 
*EIGOBEETO A. MONDACA— Chile. Below knee. 

I have used your leg, and it gives me great pleasure to inform 
you that it was a great success frora the first moment. I have bsen 
able to walk, run, and mount ^ horse with the greatest ease. I 
therefore tender you my thanks for the great success in my case. 
Your artificial leg- enables me to transact all my business without 
feeling the loss of my natural limb. 
JOHN MATTHEWS— Street Sweeper, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

I bought an artificial leg' of you in 1866, I wore the same until 
1888, then I obtained a new one which I am now wearing. Two 
artificial limbs in forty years with practically no repairs, certainly 




reflects credit to the work that you do. I have always been a 
general utility man, have scraped the streets, shoveled, used a pick- 
ax, blasted rock, and carried articles of heavy weight, m fact have 
always been occupied with a kind of work that would put the 
artificial limb to the severest tests. You are at liberty to refer 
to me. April 11, 1905. 

* AETHUE MOOEE— Tinsmith, Ts^ew Zealand. Below knee. 

The leg I received from you is giving me great satisfaction. It 
is amputated below the knee. I find I can get about well, I walk 
two miles every morning and return at night. I go out at night 
without feeling the least exhaustion. I am a tinsmith by trade, 
and work without trouble. June 8, 1904. 

* FEANCIS M. MOOEE— Farmer, Ford Co., Kas. Above knee. 

On the ISth of last September I received the artificial leg that I 
ordered from measurements, to take the place of the limb I lost 



358 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

on account of varicose veins in 1889, you v^ill thus see that four- 
teen years elapsed since the amputation and the application of an 
artificial leg'. I get around very well, my only regret is that I did 
not get the leg long before. Going about so many years on crutches 
got me into habits, and a peculiar way of carrying my stump that 
has occasioned me some little trouble, which, however, is disappear- 
ing gradually. If I had obtained my leg six months after the am- 
putation I am sure I would to-day be walking as well as any person 
in possession of their natural legs. As it is, I would not take any- 
thing for the artificial leg, it is a source of great comfort, relief, 
and help to me. May 17, 1904. 

GLENN DE LLOYD MOOEE— Eailroad, Montgomery Co., Pa. 

I suffered the loss of my leg on Nov. 13, 1900, while employed 
on the Pennsylvania E. E., and after recovering I obtained an 
artificial leg with movable ankle joint. 

The great trouble with it was the necessity of constantly having 
the spring renewed and joint oiled, and frequently taken apart and 
overhauled. There is also a constant jar and metallic clash, sound- 
ing something like a locomotive running with the side connections 
loose, this was very unpleasant to say the least. In your leg this 
is entirely obviated. 

I frequently ride on engines and freight cars, at times assisting 
in firing, and I have no hesitation in geiting on and off while the 
trains are moving. 

With your leg- I have no difficulty in walking over unknown 
ground at night. With the movable wooden foot a person has not 
this confidence, as there exists a condition approaching that of 
locomotor ataxia, namely, the lack of control of the foot by the 
power of the will, which is not felt in the leg possessing the rubber 
foot. ^ May 20, 1904. 

* HUGH MOEAN — Locomotive Engineer, Chester Co., Pa. Instep. 
The artificial foot you made for me one year ago has given perfect 

satisfaction, and also the one you made previous, which I wore ten 
years. My occupation is a locomotive engineer, I work from ten to 
fifteen hours a day, and am on my feet all that time, and think 
nothing of walking several miles after my day's work. I have been 
out walking with young men with sound limbs, and they would tell 
me not to walk so fast. I have worked with men for months who 
never knew there was anything wrong- with my foot. I think the 
Marks' limb one of the greatest boons to unfortunate humanity 
that exists. May 17, 1904. 

* FEANCISCO SOLEENO MOEEIEA— Soldier, Brazil. Below knee. 
In 1897, as ensign of the 39th battalion of infantry of the Invin- 
cible Brazilian Army, composed of heroes and giants, I received a 
bullet wound in the joint of my right foot in battle, which neces- 
sitated the amputation of the leg a little below the knee. I had no 
thought or hope of a further military career. I graduated from 
the military school at Ocara, with every promise of a successful and 
brilliant career, but alas, the injury I received in the battle shat- 
tered my hopes, and left me almost without ambition. In my most 
bitter moments of depression, I chanced to get possession of your 
descriptive catalogue. After looking it over very carefully, I pro- 
cured from you an artificial leg. I have had it now five years. I 
walk with such perfection that only my most intimate friends, those 
who are acquainted with my affliction, know that one of my limbs 
is artificial. My good friend and illustrious benefactor of sutfering 
humanity, accept my thanks for the perfection of the apparatus you 
have given me, which has permitted me to resume the railitary 
duties which I so love. Of the various limbs which I have sean, 
French, German, and English, those of your make are the most 
perfect. — Translated from Portuguese. July 10, 1904, 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New York City. 



359 



THE AEMENIAN MASSACKE— An artificial leg sold into captivity. 
It seems to be the strange orderxof things that, periodically the 
world is to witness scenes of exceptional horror. Christians are fed 
to lions in the Colosseum; or in shirts of tar, burned like candles 
to illuminate the gardens of a Konaan Emperor. A French Kevolu- 




•A.A. MARKS. N.y, 

tion "with its guillotine and " days of terror " deluges a land in 
blood; and, in our own day, in the full blaze of the nineteenth 
century, the most shocking of all appears in the Armenian mas- 
sacres. 

For six hundred years the Armenians were the most submissive 
servants of the Ottoman Empire, and the most prosperous of the 




non-Mohanamedan races. Christians and Jews, who paid tribute as 
a penalty for not accepting Islam. 

The accession of the present Sultan marked a change in their con- 
dition. He had not been long on the throne before a constantly 
increasing series of opj)reaBions were begun. 



360 A. A. MarkSj Artificial Lirribs, New York City. 



The reason for this course of action is not hard to seek. 

Sultan Abdul Hamid lost Bulgaria, a valuable part of Ms dominion, 
because of its prosperity and spread of European ideas of liberty, 
and European civilization among" the people. Fearing he would 
lose Armenia also, if it became as enlightened as Bulgaria; and, 
giving " fear of rebellion " as an excuse, he entered on that course 
of persecution beginning with a merciless taxation, and ending" 
with the slaughter of more than 30,000 persons, under circumstances 
of incredible horror. 

Among those who, while escaping with life, " suffered the loss 
of all things," is a native missionary, the Eev. Kevork Muncherian. 




'\V':'.'"'*'(\\\'>^^*'%"^ 



Having lost his right leg by reason of a snake bite, he managed to 
get about on a peg leg of local manufacture for a number of years, 
when through the kindness of a brother missionary, he procured 
an artificial leg from A. A. Marks, of New York, which he used 
with great comfort and assistance in his missionary labors. 

Mr. Muncherian writes: 

" The leg which I got from you nine years ago was very satis- 
factory, and I wore it with comfort for seven years, but during the 
massacre two years ago my house was burned, and all my posses- 
sions carried off by the Turkish soldiers. 

" Among other things, they took my artificial leg, and sold it 
into captivity. Since that time, after having been saved from death 
in a wonderful way, I have been oblig-ed to use my old wooden peg 
leg. 

" Although I am a native of Marash, Turkey, for ten years I had 
been living- and engaged in business in the small town of Anderin, 
preaching the Christian gospel in a little church on Sundays, and 
occupying my spare moments in the interest of the Christian faith. 
At the tinme of the massacre my wife and children were in Marash, 
while I Avas in Anderin. The greater niimber of the inhabitants of 
Anderin are Moslems. At the time of the massacre I had 50 liras 



A. A. Mai'ks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 361 



($220) worth of goods in my shop, and 100 liras ($440) worth of 
wheat, barley, corn, and other grains. All of these were carried ofE 
by Moslem robbers in the course of a few days; on several occasions 
I barely escaped death. Suddenly one day without any warning a 
company of Armenians from Zeitoon, having tired of Turkish op- 




pression anl tyranny, made an attack on the town, and after a short 
but sharp contest took possession, and proceeded to plunder the 
houses of the Moslems, and to kill all the Turks they could lay 
their hands on. 

" In that terrible scene, the way in which I was saved was wonder- 




ful; when I came out from m_) place of hiding those that caught 
sight of me mistook me for a Moslem and attempted to kill me, 
and I escaped only by crying out, ' I am a Christian, I am a Chris- 
tian,' at the same time making the sign of the cross. 

-' I was in greatest danger when spied by a Gregorian monk- I 



362 A. A. Marks, /artificial Limbs, Neiv Yorh City. 



made the sign of the cross just in time to escape being pierced by 
a bullet which he was about to fire at me. 

" The goods and grain I have already mentioned, and also the 
artificial leg I got from you, had been stolen by the Moslems. 

" Having lost everything, saving only my life, I joined the Ar- 
menians when they were leaving the place, and that night, hungry, 
and destitute, I traveled a large part of the way on foot and peg leg 
to the village Geben, five hours distant. The third day after my 
arrival I happened to see my artificial leg; which the Armenians 
had brought with them. The Turks had throv>'n it away as a thing 
of no possible use, and so it had been picked up and brought to 
Geben by the Armenians. Just at this time the Osmanli army at- 
tacked Geben, and I was forced to flee to Zeitoon; my journey 
lasted fifteen hours, and was through a wild, mountainous country. 
I had to walk most of the way on ray antiquated peg leg; the 




journey would not have been half as arduous if I had had my arti- 
ficial leg instead of this crude peg affair. 

" According to investigations I made afterwards, the leg I left in 
Geben was captured by the Osmanli soldiers, and sent as a prisoner 
to the headquarters of the army corjDS, and there sold and held 
into captivity. 

" A few days after my arrival in Zeitoon, the Turkish army made 
an attack on the town. On the third day of the conflict I climbed 
up a steep mountain and hid in a cave, sheltered by a great rock. 
1 stayed in this cave without food or water for three days and nights, 
after which I went back to Zeitoon. There I got on a horse with 
the intention of riding up to the Turkish lines to see if I could get 
through to Marash, to my home and family; but no sooner had I 
set out from the town (two miles from the Turkish lines) than the 
Turkish soldiers began to rain bullets on me. I succeeded in reach- 
ing the outworks of the defences of Zeitoon, but could go no 
further, so I turned back to re-enter Zeitoon, still under a mur- 
derous fire, but praise God not one of the bullets hit me. I was 
obliged to remain about three months in besieged Zeitoon, in the 
midst of a terrible and continuous batle — without a cent, hungry, 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 363 



and in great sorrow and fear. Finally, through the mediation of 
the great powers the war ceased, Zeitoon was saved, and I returned 
to my native city, Marash. As soon as I reached the site of my 
home I found that during my absence one of my little girls had 
been killed, all my household furniture was stolen, and my house 
burned down. 

" Since those terrible times I have been working in this and sur- 
rounding villages, under the direction of missionaries of the Ameri- 




I.. V. {Ilu . 4.'. -i-' ■■ -£l 

can Board, as a relief agent and preacher, at a salary of $5.28 a 
month, while my wife is engaged in Marash at a salary of $3.52; 
you will thus see that we have to live in a most economical and 
exceedingly uncomfortable way. I hope to receive my new leg, 
w^hen I will be in better shape to work and travel. 
" Yours sincerely, 

" Kevork Munchekian, 

" Armenian Missionary." 
* F. MOEGADO — Machinist, Vera Cruz, Mexico. Below knee. 

It is with pleasure I inform you that the artificial leg I 
ordered of you last May for Alberto Paredes, amputation below the 
knee, for which I took and sent you measurements and diagrams, 
has been received and V'/orn with perfect satisfaction. The limb is 
so perfect and well finished that in less than ten days after putting 
it on Mr. Paredes returned to his work, the same that he was en- 
gaged in before amputation. The work is very hard, as he is fore- 
man of the loading of steamers in the bay. Every tirae Paredes 
meets me he repeats his gratitude for having told him about your 
house. He says that the only way he could be improved is to 
have his natural leg back again. The leg you made and sent to 
him fits perfectly. 

In regard to the artificial leg you made for me two years ago, I 
take pleasure in saying that I use it constantly. I am also engaged 
in hard work, I am a machinist. The leg will undoubtedly last 
many years longer. In regard to j)erfection and workmanship, I 
sent a voluntary testimonial some months ago, and the thought ex- 
pressed in the same is repeated now. — Translated from Spanish. 

August 5, 1904. 



S64 A. A. -Marhs, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 

*J. H. MOEGAN— Laborer, Columbia Co., Ga. Below knee. 

I am now using- my second artificial limb purchased from you. 

I was working in the E. E yard at Waycross, Ga., when the 
accident happened Avhich necessitated the amputation of my left 
foot, about midway between knee and ankle. I commenced using- 
my first artificial limb in December, 1SS6, using it continuously 
until February, 1904. I am now using my second limb with entire 
satisfaction, it fits perfectly, even better than the first. I can see 
no room for improvement. June 13, 1904. 

* EDWAED MOEEIS— Oneida Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I have worn your leg ever since I received it, and am getting on 
very fine. Eesults most gratifying. May 24, 1904. 

* H. C. MOEEIS— St. Johns, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

I will appreciate the favor of your permission to grant me space 
in the new book you are about to publish, to contribute nay testi- 
monial to the superiority of the artificial limbs manufactured by 
your firm. 

For almost thirty years I have worn artificial legs constructed 
by you; during that period they have been subject to repairs and 
alterations, but these were made because of changes in my stump. 
In my earlier days I used a leg made by a London firm, also one 
made by an Edinburg- manufacturer. My personal experience, and 
that of scores of patients, belonging to Newfoundland, both male 
and female, for whom I have taken measurements for arms, legs, 
and appliances, is that for durability, comfort, and gracefulness of 
miovement, nothing can come uxJ to the standard of superiority 
reached by the limbs constructed by you. May 2, 1904. 

[N. B. — Mr. Morris is comjDetent to, take measurements and attend 
to the details of ordering-, receiving, and adjusting artificial limbs; 
any person in need can place himself under his attention with the 
assurance of receiving proper care. — A. A. M.] 

S. A. MOEEOW— Eailroad, Blair Co., Pa. Two fractured kneecaps. 
I am wearing- your braces for two fractured kneecaps, and they 
are giving- entire satisfaction. Can get along without crutches or 
cane. My occupation is a car oil man, or inspector, I can go to the 
top of a pair of step ladders quite easy, which I could not do with- 
out the braces. May 19, 1904. 

* E. D. MOTHEESILL— Carpenter, Jamaica, W. I. Below knee. 

I have worn one of Marks' artificial legs Mdth rubber foot for 
eleven years, and must accord to him. all the merits in the line of 
the manufacturing of artificial limbs, its durability, its ease, and 
simplicity. 

I take my usual pleasure in sporting-, going over hills and dales 
without the sign of fatigue or inconvenience. 

I am a carpenter, and do a large amount of walking, and my arti- 
ficial leg has a great deal of wear and tear. 

CHAELES M. MOTT— Driver, Queens Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I am driving- a wagon every day, and I wear the leg sometimes 
forty-eight hours. I have no difficulty in walking or getting about. 
This is the third artificial leg you have made for me. The first 
was bought when I was a boy. You have greatly improved in your 
work in the last number of years, as each leg has been better than 
the former one. I can recommend your limb to anyone that needs 
one, and believe your legs cannot be beat. May 24, 1904. 

* FEED. MOWBEAY— Schoolboy, New Zealand. Above knee. 
About twelve months ago I met with an accident which necessi- 
tated my right leg being- amputated above the knee. It is now 
about five months since I used your artificial limb, and can get 
about with great ease, in fact, after the first fortnight I could 
•walk without the aid of a stick. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Neiv YorTc City. 365 

I still go to school, and can mix in many of the games, such as 
cricket and marbles. 

I was in Divnedin a short time ago, and found no difficulty in get- 
ting on and off the electric cars, climb a ladder, go up and down 
stairs, in fact, there is very little that I cannot do. July 1, 1904. 

PEKLEY N. MUDGETT— Farmer, Lamoille Co., Vt. Above knee. 

My artificial leg works nicely. It enables m,e to get about my 
farm, and do considerable work. It is much better than the one I 
had with an ankle joint, it is easier for the stump and more com- 
fortable in walking. June 29, 1901. 

JOAQUIN KICALO MUGUEECIA— Cuba. Knee bearing. 

Gratitude is one of the noblest sentiments of the human heart. 
My duty is not only to express my gratitude to you, but to pay a 
tribute of justice to merit. 

Every day I am more thankful for the leg of your manufacture 
which I am using. — Translated from Spanish. 

* MKS. MUIES— Fremont Co., Colo. Daughter. Below knee. 

The artificial leg you made for my daughter, Lizzie, last Septem- 
ber, fits fine, and gives her no trouble. It was only the other day 
that her teacher found out she wore an artificial limb. She goes to 
school every day, and joins in all outdoor exercises the same as 
other pupils. May 1, 1904. 

JOHN MULLEN— Tanner, Lycoming Co., Pa. Knee. 

I have worn one of your artificial legs for nine years. It has 
given perfect satisfaction. My stump is an end bearing one. I 
get around with ease. I can Avalk almost as well as ever. I think 
the rubber foot a complete success. My occupation is tannery 
man. It is hard work for anyone to stand, eight hours every day, 
but I have in five years never lost a day's work on account of being 
a cripple. June 4, 1904. 

* DUNCAN MUNEOE— Clerk. New Zealand. Above elbow. 

On August 1, 1902, I met with a railway accident, resulting in 
the loss of my left arm, just below the shoulder joint. In the fol- 
lowing August I was wearing one of your artificial arms, which I 
have been wearing every day. I don't think the arm could have 
fitted better if I had been on your premises. I feel it my duty to 
congratulate you on the able manner in which you have done the 
work from the Eev. Cox's measurements. At the time of the acci- 
dent I was a locomotive fireman, and being disabled I took up 
clerical work, which I am at at the present time, and I manage it 
without the slightest diificulty. 

I find my arm of great service in a great many ways, and the 
longer I wear it the more useful it gets. 1 do not hesitate in recom- 
mending your artificial limbs. May 26, 1904. 

* WILLIAM MUEDOCK— New Zealand. Above knee. 

Seventeen years ago mj^ leg was amputated above the knee, and 
I got an artificial leg. It did not turn out suitable, so ten years 
ago I forwarded measurements to you for one of your legs. I am 
glad to say this has proved in every way satisfactory. The rubber 
foot with spring mattress in particular being very comfortable — • 
there not being the slightest jar when w-alking. I am a tobacco- 
nist and newspaper vender. The latter occupation necessitates my 
walking a three-hour round every day, besides being on my feet 
the remainder of the da3^ 

* J. H. MUEPHY— Barber, Taylor Co., W. Va. Above knee. 

Your leg has given me the best of satisfaction in all particiilars. 
It is complete in every respect. Better satisfaction could not be 
found. I am a barber, and work from foux'teen to eighteen hours 
daily, June 12, 1904. 



366 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 

* A. W. MYEES— Teacher, Lee Co., Va. Below knee. 

With pleasure I endorse your rubber foot. My leg- is amputated 
below the knee, and I have worn one of your artificial limbs over a 
year. 

I was fitted from measurements, and I find the leg- to be in every 
particular what you represented. I am a teacher, and am on my 
feet a great deal. I can run, jump, and skip almost ks if I had two 
natural feet. 

I have walked as high as ten miles in a day. I have not had to 
pay out one cent for repairs. May 11, 1904. 

FIRM MYEES— Druggist, Williamson Co., Ohio. Leg shortened. 

I would like to write a few lines in regard to the extension shoe 
which you made for me. I have been wearing it for about eighteen 
months, and it has given good satisfaction. I am a drug clerk, and 
find no difficulty in performing my duties. My advice to anyone 
having a short limb would be to get one of your make. 

May 17, 1904. 

JNO. D. MYERS, M. D.— Cabell Co., W. Va. 

I have used the " Marks' Artificial Legs " with rubber feet, and 
they give more complete satisfaction than any other I have ever 
seen. Have one case of double amputation (thigh and leg) ; the 
man walks with ease and comfort simply with a cane. 

* W. H. MYERS— Teacher, Daviess Co., Ind. Above elbow. 

I met with an accident in Oct., 1898, which caused the amputa- 
tion of my right arm above the elbow. Life became a burden until 
Oct., 1902, when I received an artificial arm from A. A. Marks, 
which has relieved me of much embarrassment. June 6, 1904. 

* ISMAEL NAVARRO- Republic of Colombia, S. A. Above knee. 

I have for some time desired to write to you for the express pur- 
pose of informing- you of my great satisfaction with the artificial 
leg you made for me, and now that the opportunity presents itself, 
I do so without delay. I have used it for three years without 
finding any defect. I shall always remain grateful to the estimable 
inventor. 

* HENRY NAYLOR— Laborer, Lake Co., Cal. Below elbow. 

1 am the party that Dr. Fenn got the artificial arm and hand for. 

The arm is so much help to me I would not take double what it 
cost. In a very short time I will be as active as before amputation. 
I have only five inches of stump below the elbow. Dec. 21, 1904. 

* J. G. NEELY— Age 16, Schoolboy, Davidson Co., Tenn. 

I bought the leg I am now wearing of you about two years ago. 
I like it very much. I can get about very well on it. Can do almost 
anything I could before I lost my leg. May 12, 1904. 

E. A. NELLIS— Sheriff, Litchfield Co., Conn. Below knee. 

In 1864 I lost my leg by amputation below the knee. In 1865 I 
procured, as I supposed, one of the best artificial legs in use, the 
wearing of which gave me much pain, and I was often obliged to 
go back on crutches until the irritated and swollen stump was 
again in condition to wear the leg. It also annoyed me very much 
by frequent rattling at the ankle joint. Repair bills were from $6 
to $8 a year. I was obliged to use a cane when walking. I wore 
this leg about two years. I met a great m^any wearing artificial 
legs made by various firms, all of whom were laboring under diffi- 
culties similar to my own. I think it was in 1867 or 1868, while in 
Watertown, N. Y., I met a gentleman wearing one of your artificial 
legs with rubber foot. I was surprised to see this man go up and 
downstairs actually on a run. He also moved about among the 
guests at the hotel noiselessly and quietly, with the grace and ease 
of natural motion; he advised me to get one of your artificial legs 



A. A. Maries^ Artificial Limhs, New York City. '^&1 



with rubber foot. I at once wrote to you, requesting" you to send 
me instructions and blanks for taking measurements. 

I received a prompt reply, and ordei'ed a leg. I have worn your 
legs constantly from the time I first received one, never having 
lost an hour's time from its use. 

I go up and downstairs, up and downhill, through the brush, 
hunting and fishing. In fact, I go when and where I please with 
ease and comfort. 

* NELS NELSON— Blacksmith, St. Croix Co., Wis. Above knee. 
Having for the past eleven years worn one of your artificial limbs, 

and before that worn two others, I can say that Marks' is the best 
of them all. I would not wear a leg with ankle joint of any other 
make. Marks' rubber foot beats them all. I am a blacksmith by 
trade, and shoe horses. May 2, 1904. 

* J. M. NICHOLSON— Teacher, Union Co., Ga. Above knee. 

I lost my leg in the fall of 1900, and walked on crutches until July 
of last year. My stump was very tender, and for that reason I 
dreaded to have a limb adjusted. My doctor recommended your 
limbs to me, and said that although my stump was very tender, 
and easily irritated, 1 could use a Marks' artificial limb without pain 
or danger. Through his influence, and the persuasion of my 
friends, I placed my order for a leg with you. 

When the leg" came I adjusted it that evening and kept it on until 




eight or nine o'clock. I put it on again next morning, and wore it 
the whole day, riding horseback seven or eight miles. 

I again put it on and have not left it off from necessity an hour 
since. In six weeks I was going where I pleased without a stafE. 

I have walked seven miles over a rough north Georgia road in. 
four and a half hours. 

I am a teacher bj'^ profession, and suffer very little, if any, incon- 
venience in doing school room work. I spent the past five months 
in college and my classmates did not suspect that I was wearing 
an artificial limb. My limb is in fine condition, and I have not been 
out a cent for repairs. May 14, 1904, 



568 A. A. Harks, Artificial Lirnbs, New Yorh City. 

lEA DEXTEE NEVINS— Farmer, HampcTen Co., Mass. Above knee. 
I have worn your limb since 189(5, and it has given me perfect 
satisfaction. I plow, harro\\-, and do all kinds of farm work 
with comparatively little trouble. Having had two of your limbs I 
recommend them as the best. May 18, 1904. 

EGBERT IN EWBEEEY— Cooper, Brooklyn, ]V. Y. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your artificial legs for two years with the 
greatest of satisfaction. I am 64 years old, a cooper by trade. I 
go about all the time, jump in and out of cars. It would surprise 
anyone to see me. May 22, 1904. 

* GEO. M. NEWELL— Teacher, Middlesex Co., Conn. 

About a j^ear ago I obtained my second artificial leg* from you. 
] thought the first was about as perfect a fit as possible, but this 
last is even more comfortable, and gives me no pain at all, it is 
eminently satisfactory in every way. I had a Symes' amputation, 
and a resection of the knee, so the leg- reaches nearly to the hip. 
I expect to go to China next fall as a teacher for a five-year term, 
and do not hesitate at all on account of the leg. May 16, 1904. 

* GEOEGE NEWMAN— Barber, Chase Co., Kas. Ankle. 

I was hurt some eight years ago, run over by railroad cars, 
which caused amputation at ankle joint of right leg. Have worn 
your artificial limb ever since, and am doing well. I don't think 
there is any other that can beat it. I have worn it with comfort, 
and strangers can't tell the difference, or which foot is off. I am 
a barber by trade, and have to be on my feet frequently half a 
night around my chair, and walk a mile every day from shop to 
home, besides that I ride horseback every day. Couldn't get along 
-without your rubber foot. May 18, 1904. 

E. J. NIDDEIE, M. D.— Ontario, Canada. 

The artificial limb you sent for my patient, John Kiernan, works 
like a charm. We cannot say too much in its praise. 

* ALEXANDEE NOSEWOETHY— Fisherman, Newfoundland. 

I had my leg amputated in February, 1902, and was; getting about 
with great difficulty until I purchased one of your artificial legs, 
since then I get around with ease and comfort and' I never use a 
stick and have never stumbled. I find the rubber foot and knee 
joint to work perfectl.y. I am a fisherman and can get about in a 
boat with very little difficulty. June 8, 1904. 

* JOSE GEETEUDIS NUNEZ— Carpenter, Dominican Eep. 

I have the pleasure of expressing my complete satisfaction with 
the artificial leg .you made and sent to me in 1902. You will remem- 
ber that I took the measurements myself with the assistance of a 
member of my family and sent thenn to you and you constructed 
the leg from them. 

I recently made a trip to the City of San Domingo, to compare 
my artificial leg with those of other manufactures. I met several 
persons, when we compared notes, I assure you they felt much 
sadder than I, they saw in me an agile person oj)erating on an 
artificial leg, while they were only able to get about in a very 
clumsy way. T took pleasure in acquainting them with your loca- 
tion and the work that you were able to do for their relief. I have 
no doubt that you will hear from them. I distributed all the books 
and cards that I had of your establishment, and regret that I did not 
have more. 

My occupation is that of a carpenter, and T do work in all depart- 
ments of that trade. 

After leaving the capital I arrived at Port Azua, disembarked, 
not seeing any conveyance I immediately left on foot, the distance 
to the town Is about two leagues. I think I arrived at the town ia 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. S60 

less than an hour -without stopping the whole way. In four days 
I boarded a locomotive arriving at the plantation of Bichine suc- 
cessors. I returned on foot; it rained the whole way, but my limb 
received no damage. — Translated from Spanish. June 1, 1904. 

W. C. NUSS— Clerk, Bradford Co., Pa. Below knee. 

At the age of twelve I had the misfortune of losing my right leg, 
amputation below the knee; when twenty-one years old I purchased 
an artificial leg" with rubber foot from you and wore it continuously 
for sixteen years with the best of satisfaction. 

About two years ago I purchased another from you which is giv- 
ing satisfaction in every respect. I am employed as clerk in the 
L. V. R. K. Co's. store department and have no difficulty whatever 
in performing my duties. I play a horn with the band of this 
place and have been on some long parades and always come out 
right side up. May 2, 1904. 

T. J. O'CONNELL— Bartender, Washington, D. C. Below knee. 

I have been using your legs since 1871, they have never given me 
any trouble. I have been attending bar all those years and have 
done as well as my partner with his natural legs. May 10, 1904. 

* W. W. O'NEAL — Farmer, Eapides Co., Louisiana. Below knee. 

I am perfectly satislied with the service rendered me by the leg 
as I do as much work and walking as I ever did. June 10, 1904. 

PATSY GATES— Machinist, Stevens Co., Wash. Ankle joint. 

My new foot is all right. My amputation is in the ankle joint 
and I bear my whole weight upon the end of the stump. I run all 
kinds of quarry machines and do other kinds of work at the 
quarry. The Stone Cutter Co., of Eutland, Vt., send me all over 
the country to set up machinery. If I were not able to do the 
work they certainly would not send me three thousand miles froin 
home. I am working with men who do not know I have an artifi- 
cial foot. I want to come in contact with someone who wears a foot 
of some other make and does as well as I do. May 2, 1904. 

* A. OGLESBEE — Screven Co., Georgia. Eight arm above elbow. 
It gives me great pleasure to add my testimonial to the long list 

of those who are iising your artificial limbs. Two years ago I 
had the misfortune to have my right arm cut ofi: above the elbow 
in a cotton gin. When I sent for an arm I had very little faith in 
my ability to use it. However, since I have worn your arm I find 
myself able to perform nearly all the work that is necessary to 
be done on the farm. I can drive, plow, or hoe, with very little 
inconvenience, and 1 certainly consider that in my case your limb 
has been a God-send. ' May 13, 1904. 

HAEEY P. OSBOETs'— Stenographer, Essex Co., N. J. Below knee. 

I have been wearing legs made by you for over twelve years and 
would wear no other as no other leg would give satisfaction. 

Both of my feet were deformed from birth. At the age of eight 
years it became necessar^r to amputate my right foot about six 
inches above the ankle. A few months later I received one of your 
legs and have never missed a day wearing it from early morning 
until late at night. 

I am in no way handicapped by my affliction. I am employed in 
New York as stenographer and walk a distance of over two miles 
to the office each day. I often take a five nolle walk for pleasure. 

June 2, 1904. 

MILDA OSBOEN— Passaic Co., N. J. Below knee. 

I purchased my artificial liinb from you nine years ago. It has 
done good service and only been repaired once in that time. 

May 28, 1904. 



S'70 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh Ciiy. 

V. C. OVEETON, M. D.— Jefferson Co., Tex. 

I received the artificial limb belonging- to Fred Bailey, and de- 
livered it to him. He just simply vv^alked out of my office and down 
the stairs, a new man and more than satisfied. He joins me in 
extending- you thanks for your skillful and accurate work. 

* H. PACKEE — Laborer and Farmer, New Zealand. Below knee. 
I received the leg and am very well satisfied with it. I can get 

about splendidly. I do almost the same sort of work I used to do. 
When I lost my leg I never thought I would be able to get about 
very Avell again, but I find that I can get about as well as ever I 
could. All my friends tell me that I have gotten on wonderfully 
well. I have had every satisfaction and I think I have given it a 
good trial as I have had it for two years and have done some very 
rough work in a very rough country. I build fences, cut firewood, 
and work in the gravel pit, and also shear sheep. June 14, 1904. 

* B. F. PAGE, M. D.— Grafton Co., N. H. 

The legs bought of A. A. Marks for my patients were entirely 
satisfactory. 

* WALTEE PAINTEE— Montgomery Co., Pa. Eight below knee. 
I hereby express my continued satisfaction with the artificial 

leg you made for me. I walk very well without a cane or any 
other support and without your patent rubber foot my life would 
be miserable. I could not walk on crutches very well, but now 
nobody can detect that I am wearing an artificial leg. As soon as 
I received the leg, I put it on and have worn it ever since. It gives 
so much satisfaction that I would not part with it for any con- 
sideration. May 9, 1904, 

* LESLIE PALMEE— Clerk, Franklin Co., Me. Above knee. 

In Deceniber, 1902, I received the artificial leg you made for me, 
it was just seven weeks after the amputation. I applied the leg 




the day it arrived, and it has not been off my stump since except 
at night. I am able to dance, which I enjoy very much. I do 
pot use a cane, and have walked five miles on one stretch. The 



A. A. Marls, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 371 

limb has been perfectly saiisfactory, and I am able to stand the 
strain of an athletic life in Maine with great enjoyment, such as 
hunting-, brook fishing, and mountain climbing. May 9, 1904. 

* EICHARD M. PALMER— Coal, Knox Co., Tenn. Above elbow. 

1 have worn one of your artificial arms, for sixteen months, 
which cost me $75, and I v^'ould not take three times what I paid 
for it. It has given me so much comfort that I would not part 
with it. I can use the reins in the hand, and carry my fifty pound 
grip easily. I find it satisfactory in every way. October, 1904. 

* A. F. PANKNIN, M. D.— Charleston Co., S. C. 

The pair of artificial legs you made for Mr. Grooms some years ago 
have suited him admirably. He paid me a visit about a month ago, 
walking all the distance (about a mile) with only the aid of a cane. 
I don't think he could have had a more satisfactory fit. Yon made 
the legs from measurements that I sent you, and Grooms did not 
leave his home. 

* WILBUE PAEKS— Broome Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I will say that j-our artificial feet are all right. I have not 
undertaken to do a thing that I have not made a success of. I am 
a farmer, and can plow, harrow, and do all kinds of farm labor, 
and can ride a bicycle as well. My foot was amputated above the 
ankle, and was never of the best, but with the aid of your artificial 
foot I am getting along practically the same as before it was am- 
putated. May 18, 1904. 

* MRS. MILDRED M. PARLTN— Kennebec Co., Me. Knee joint. 

I have worn an artificial leg of your make since last June; 
thigh amputation. I have been doing the greater part of the house- 
work on a farm for my family of five. May 23, 1904. 

MANUEL A. PAERAGA— San Salvador, Central America. 

It is nineteen years since I obtained an artificial leg from you. 
During this period I have not had an opportunity to find the 
least fault with it. I walk very much, and without a cane or sup- 
port. I suffer no pain or uneasiness. 

Since I have returned to Central America I find it necessary to 
make long journeys on horseback. In this the leg has assisted m© 
very much. I pride myself on my easy and graceful movements, 
and the facility with which I mount and dismount. 

The India-rubber foot is a most excellent invention; without it 
I question my ability to walk with safety in this country, the 
streets are so very rough and stony. 

* G. E. PARSONS— Time Keeper, Shannon Co., Mo. Wrist. 

The artificial hand purchased from you eight months ago is in 
perfect repair, and has given all the satisfaction promised by you. 

I find it especially helpful in my office work, in telegraphing, 
handling books, papers, etc. May 23, 1904. 

D. J. PATTERSON— Worcester Co., Mass. Below elbow. 

The artificial arm that I received from you some time ago is all 
that I expected. I have worn it every day, and find it a great 
help. July 11, 1904. 

* FRITZ HEDWIG PAUL— Dentist, Germany. Ankle. 

I am very well satisfied with the artificial foot you made in 1897, 
and fully as well satisfied with the one you recently made for me 
in June, 1901. I bought the second one so as to have a duplicate. 

Your happy combination of aluminum with sponge rubber is, for 
such cases as mine (amputation through the ankle joint), an ideal 
one. — Translated from German. 



372 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

* VV. E. PAWSON— Wellington, New Zealand. 

As the result of an accident I lost my right leg in the knee joint. 
I have had four years' experience of wearing one of your artificial 
limbs, and have no hesitation in saying that they are unsurpassed. 
I may state that I could not have been better fitted had I been 
measured and fitted in New York personally. I have not once had 
occasion to leave the limb olf on account of soreness of any kind 
whatever, and consequently do not feel the loss of my own limb 
to the extent I at first thought. 

The rubber foot is the invention of the age, being every bit as 
flexible as the human foot. In ascending hills it affords every 
facility. In fact, my friends express surprise at the easy manner 
with which I negotiate this task; but the rubber foot does it all. 
I am quite satisfied. I have recommended several to you for limbs, 
and have no hesitation in doing so, as I feel sure I am doing the 
right thing in their best interests. 

HENTiY PEAECE, M. D.— Office of Dr. Henry Pearce & Co., Drug- 
gists, Dutchess Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I have worn artificial legs for about twenty-eight years, and one 
of Marks' patent for about twenty-three years. 

I regard yours far preferable to any other I have ever seen. 

My amputation is above the knee. 

Your leg is so simple and durable that there is no chance for any- 
thing to give out. 

EEV. E. B. PEET— Eector, Santa Clara Co., Cal. Above knee. 

Larger experience has only served to make me more satisfied with 
the work that you have done for me. The special points that have 
given me satisfaction are three — viz.: the leg fits well, it makes no 
noise, and needs no repairs. 

* ADOLFO PEEEZ— Zacualtipan, Mexico. Above knee. 

I beg to say the leg made me is much more satisfactory 
than the one I used before. I can walk perfectly with it, although 
the ground is very uneven here. I feel very grateful to you, as all 
should be who have been relieved by you as I have been, after so 
much suffering. — Translated from Spanish. 

* JOAQUIN PEEEZ— Eailroad Employee, Uruguay. Above knee. 
Eecognizing the value of the artificial limbs invented by you, 

especially the leg you sent me, I am pleased to state that I 
wear it every day without any difficulty, although the stump is 
only three inches in length below the body. T feel grateful to you 
for having enabled me to walk naturally again. — Translated from 
Spanish. 

* CHAELES PEEINE— Talledega Co., Ala. Below knee. 

I am glad to say that my artificial limb is giving satisfaction. 
I put it on the 26th of March, 1903, and it has not given me any 
trouble. I sometimes fire the locomotive. It seems as if I had 
both my own limbs instead of one artificial one, I can catch a loco- 
motive almost as good as I could before my foot was cut off. I 
believe yours are the best limbs that are made. May 1, 1904. 

* HEEBEET E. PEEKINS— Truckman, Oxford Co., Me. Below knee. 
I am a truckman. Have worn artificial limbs for twelve years. 

I consider your artificial limbs superior to others. I find I can 
walk as fast as anyone who has two good feet. May 18, 1904. 

L. G. PEEEINE— Conductor, Monmouth Co., N. J. Instep. 

My foot is partly amputated, the heel is all that remains, for 
fifteen years I stumped about on my heel, making painful attempts 
at w^alking'. I did not believe anything could be done for a partial 
foot amputation. Since getting your aluminum socket leg I am 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 873 



able to walk without limping, and without the least pain or dis- 
fomfort. I wouldn't jjart with it for ten times its cost if I couldn't 
get another one like it. My friends say I don't limp a bit, and I 
will challenge any man with two good feet, in the State of New 
Jersey to straight walking without limping. I am a conductor on 
the C. E. E. of N. J. May 17, 1901. 

* A. E. PEEEY — Farmer, Franklin Co., Vt. Below elbow. 

I applied your artificial arm three months after amputation, and 
have worn it almost continually ever since, and now can do most of 
the farm work as well as I used to. I shouldn't know how to gel 
along without the arm. June 1, 190 k 

EGBERT H. PEEEY— Hudson Co., N. J. Above knee. 

I am still wearing the leg you furnished fourteen years ago. I 
have worn it comfortably with less than six dollars cost for re- 




pairs. My occupation (house painter) gives it a good test. I can 
and do work on scaffolds, ladders — in fact, anywhere. I have but 
a three-inch stump. 1 am well satisfied. 

* EDWAED PETERSON— Cabinet Maker, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. 

I would not be without my artificial arm as it seems nearly as 
good as the natural one. May 23, 1904. 

* EDWAED PA TEESON— Cabinet Maker, Chautauqua Co., N. Y. 
The arm which I received from you a few months ago gives 

satisfaction. I am able to get along quite well in my work, which 
is that of a finisher in a furniture shop. May 31, 1901. 



374 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neiv York City. 



* ALICE PFOHL— South Africa. Below knee. 

You may think me ungratet'iil for not acknowledging" the re- 
ceipt of the leg', and letting you know how I am getting on with 
it. I received the leg a few days before Christmas, and have been 
wearing- it ever since, and am glad to say it gives me every satis- 
faction, both in comfort and efiiciency. 

E. F. PHILLIPS, M. D.— Schuylkill Co., Pa. 

Allow me to congratulate you on the perfect fit you have made 
for Mr. Jacob Ball, whose measurements and diagrams I took and 
sent you for an artificial leg. The people here who do not know 
that he lost a limb have not detected it in his walking. Mr. Ball is 
certainly a walking advertiseraent for you. 

* LAURENT POISSANT— Schoolboy, Quebec. Above knee. 

I walk like a man. At first I had some difficulty, but now I am 
accustomed to it, I do not use a cane. I am going to school. — Trans- 
lated from French. May 5, 1904. 

* EARL PORTER— Farmer, Ellis Co., Kas. Below knee. 

The artificial leg I obtained from you a year ago last April is 
giving excellent satisfaction. 1 have a stump reaching to a short 
distance above the ankle, and I walk very naturally and helpfully. 
1 am on my feet from seven o'clock in the morning until eight 
o'clock in the evening. Many of my friends tell me that they would 
not suspect that I was wearing an artificial leg. I can skate and 
ride a bicycle. May 23, 1904. 

HOMER F. PORTER— New Haven Co., Conn. Above knee. 

I have been employed by the N. Y., H. R. R. as a hoisting 
engineer for the past year. 

I have to work two brakes, one with my artificial limb and one 
with my natural, and also two levers with my hands. I have to 




climb a sixty-foot pole every morning, 
all the work about the engine room. 



I do my own firing and 
May 15, 1904. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, Neiv YorJc City. 375 



* P. POWERS— Laborer, Cook Co., 111. Below knee. 

I have been doing hard work for eleven years since I got your 
leg. I was then 23 years old, now I ara 34, and 1 must say there 
isn't a man ot my age that can beat me. I do any kind of hard 
work. I carry heavy sacks a long distance on my back, nobody can 
tell I wear an artificial leg. My friends, who know I have one, 
often ask which is the artificial. May 28, 1904. 

* CECIL PEATT— Farmer, Belmont Co., Ohio. Below elbow. 

The arm you made for me fits perfectly, and is very useful. I 
have had my arm about ten months. May 5, 1904. 

* MISS MARION BLANCHE PRINCE— Teacher, Newfoundland. • 
Nearly five years ago I had to have my left arm amputated owing 

to disease. It aifords me great pleasure to state that having of 
late obtained one of your artificial hands, I am more than pleased 
with the results. 

The rubber hand is indeed something" to be proud of, and en- 
ables me, as a school teacher, to handle all the work with ease. 

I would not be without it for anything. April 29, 1904. 

* JAMES W. PRITCHETT— Saw Filer, Gibson Co., Ind. 

I have to say that the artificial leg" you made me from measure- 
ments fits as perfectly as possible. 

If I had come to the shop and you had taken the measurements 
yourself, I doubt that results would have been better. 

I have worn it for about eight j^ears. I put it on the next day 
after I got it, and have worn it every day since, from early in the 
morning until late at rtight. My occupation is circular and band 




saw filer; I keep up all the saws for a large circular and band saw- 
mill. I have to be on my feet most all day. I get around almost 
anywhere without a stick. As to the rubber foot, I think it is the 
finest thing out. It does not jar me when I make a misstep. I 
only have six inches of a stump, and I get around better than 
others I see that have worn other makes of legs. 



876 A. A. MarlhSj Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 

WILLIAM POETER— Hotel Clerk, Hudson Co., N. J. Below knee. 

On Dec. 6, 1887, I had the misfortune of losing one of my limbs 
about six inches below the knee, and since that time I have worn 
two different makes. The first lasted me less than three years, 
then I tried yours, and it has proved just the thing-. I am able to 
ride a bicycle, dance, or do most anything a person with two 
natural limbs can do. May 20, 1904. 

* EEIC A. A. POTTEE— Hairdresser, Ncav Zealand. Above knee. 

I received the artificial leg you made for me about eight months 
ago, and have had no trouble in walking about with ease and 
comfort. 

I have seen several makes of artificial legs, and I consider the 
" Marks' " with the patent riibber foot the best. I take much 
pleasure in recommending the " Marks." June 9, 1904. 

J. DENSMOEE POTTEE, M. D.— Onondaga Co., N. Y. 

Mrs. K. E. Gardner's leg works to a charm. She can get about 
without even a walking-cane, on the Marks' leg. She does her 
housework without any difficulty. 

PHILOEUM POULIN— Brakeman, Quebec. Below knee, 

I am pleased to give you information about my artificial leg. 
I am well satisfied. I dance, and walk five or six miles without 
being fatigued, and I do all sorts of work. My position is assistant 
at a telegraph station. — Translated from French. Oct. 9, 1904. 

C. W. POWELL — Bookkeeper, Missoula Co., Mont. Above knee. 

I would say that I have worn an artificial leg made by your firm 
for about three years. My leg was amputated above the knee, and 
since wearing your limb 1 have experienced no difficulty in getting 
about and attending to business. Wearing the leg- is attended with 
no discomfort, and I would be pleased to recommend your house 
to persons so afflicted as to need your services. April 29, 1904. 

* J. D. POWELL — Farmer, Lauderdale Co., Miss. Below knee. 

I take pleasure in speaking a word of praise for your artificial 
limbs. I am now using the second one. The first I bought from 
you lasted seventeen years. I did all kinds of farm work, such as 
plowing- and hoeing, in fact any kind of work a farmer has to do. 
I am a farmer and know how to appreciate the use of a good leg. 
I am highly pleased with the second one, it has some improve'ments 
over the first that I much like. May 10, 1904. 

* CAEL PEOHL— New Zealand. Ankle. 

I had my foot taken off at the ankle joint when I was seven 
years of age, when I reached the age of nineteen I had an artificial 
foot made by you. Ever since then I have had every satisfaction 
with it. I can ride on a bike, and have done some very heavy work 
with it. I let everyone know about the merits of your artificial 
limbs, and hope that I have Induced others to patronize you. 

June 29, 1904. 

JOSEPH PUGMIEE— Button Machinist, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

I have been wearing the new leg for a year and a half without 
any fault to find. It is all right. I am working at Hodgman's 
rulaber factory, Avorking button machines of all kinds for ten hours 
a day, and it never troubles me any. There are plenty working 
there that don't know that I have a wooden leg. Can walk as good 
as any of them. ■ My leg is off below the knee six inches. I have 
had four of your legs since 1867, and when I have to have another 
it will still be one of yours. May 18, 1904. 

* All testimonials m.arked * were written by persons whose arti- 
ficial limbs were made and fitted from measurements. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New York City. S11 



> GEOEGE H. PURCHASE— Douglas Co., Wis. Below elbow. 

T think my arm in every particular is a grand success, and I 
will always be pleased to speak in its praise to my fellow-unfor- 
xunates. No doubt you will be greatly surprised to know that 1 




wrote this entire letter and addressed envelope with my artificial 
hand. I think if you will compare this with former letters of mine 
you will pronounce this the best writing. 

* GEOEGE W. PUEUY— Sailor, Bristol Co., Mass. Shoulder. 

The arm I ordered of you two years ago gives perfect satisfac- 
tion. The rubber hand is immense. I do not think that there is 
anything to be had to equal it. It looks perfectly natural, in fact, 
some of my friends did not know that I had lost an arm. Being 
a sailor, it enables me to do many things which I could not do 
without it. I can go aloft, take my turn at the wheel, cut meat, 
and hold my fork. I have seen several kinds of artificial arms, but 
none to equal yours with the rubber hand. The hook attachment 
is very valuable. June 19, 1904. 

* E. M. PYEE— Bookkeeper, Grafton Co., N. H. Instep. 

I bought an artificial foot from you two years ago, and it gives 
me great satisfaction. I run a machine in a shoe shop, and I go 
hunting and fishing, and frequently attend dances. Dec. 6, 1904. 
SAMUEL EAPP, M. D.— New York City. Below elbow. 

I well know that Edward Wiley, who is now absent, is satisfied 
with his hand; he is able to drive a team of horses, and do other 
farm work. 

* A. M. EEDDING— Salt Lake Co., Utah. Below knee. 

The leg I purchased from you in December, 1898, has proved 
entirely satisfactory, it is in good condition, and I've never had 
one cent expense with it. I was only sixteen years old when I 
began wearing your leg, and ha'-'ing grown considerably since the 
leg has been lengthened to meet this growth. June 1, 1904. 

* MISS EMMA EEEVE— Newfoundland. Above knee. 

I am more than pleased with mj ai'tificial leg with rubber foot. 
I have been wearing it for ^ little over a j^ear; it has proved satis- 
factory in every respect. I have worn the old style of leg, but your 
limb has proven far superior. I am able to do my work both in- 
doors and out. It is a perfect fit, and I would not be without it 
for anything. May 5, 1904. 



378 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 



*MES. CLEMENT QUINN— Wright Co., Quebec. Above knee. 

Having- worn one of your artificial legs, with a rubber foot, for 
the past thirteen months, I take pleasure in letting you know hov*/- 
well I am getting along. My stump is a little over six inches trom 




the body. (Amputation caused by tuberculosis in the knee joint.) 
I can walk without the aid of a cane, and do all my housework. 

April 20, 1904. 

* AUGUST EEICHENBACH— Farmer, Arkansas Co., Ark. 

I am well satisfied with the leg. Having worn an ankle-joint leg, 
I had enough trouble and lost time to keep it in repair, more 
than enough to pay for one of your legs. I can walk faster, though 
I have only a nine inch stump. My occupation is farming. I can 
get around anywhere with the leg, do not use cane or crutch. I 
put up a lot of hay every year, and do more work, and get around 
as well as lots of men that have two good legs. Can recommend 
your make to anyone in need. May 14, 1904. 

JOSEPH P. EEICHEET— Towerman, Union Co., N. J. Above elbow. 

I have been wearing one of your artificial arms for the past year 
and a half, and will say that it has given me full satisfaction, 
would not be without it under any consideration, have done with 
it everything that you claim for it. May 7, 1904. 

* THOMAS WAED EEID— Age 18, Nova Scotia. 

I have used a pair of your artificial legs for six years, and can 
walk one mile in eleven minutes. Your patents are the best I 
know, and I always speak well of your work. Dec. 7, 1904. 

F. E. EEINWALD— Farmer, Tioga Co., Pa. Shortened leg. 

Having worn an axapliance for a deformed limb since last fall, I 
can positively assure all my unfortunate friends that they do not 
comprehend the advantages of an artificial limb until they have 
used one of yours. 

Since I have worn the appliance I can get around much better 
and do more work, and meet the demands of my vocation miich 
better than before. " May 9, 1904, 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Liinbs, New York City. 379 



* J. C. EEVELL— Farmer (age 77), Obion Co., Tenn. Below knee. 

Having worn a leg, made by another firm, with much suffering 
and little help, I was hard to persuade to buy yours. My doctor, 
however, got me to make another attempt, on a sponge rubber 
foot. I am seventy-seven years of age, and have worn the leg' with 
ease and comfort for more than two years. I look after my farm- 
ing interests, and can walk a mile any day. The limb you made 
for me is giving satisfaction, and I cheerfully commend you to any- 
one who needs a first-class artificial limb. May 31, 1904. 
» H. D. EINEHAET— Fireman, Lewis Co., W. Va. Below elbow. 

I received my artificial arm in good condition, and am much 
pleased, with the rubber hand. My arm is amputated 31/3 inches 




below^ the elbow. I am a fireman stationed in the mill. I can per- 
form my work all right. I would not do without my arm. 

Jan 29, 1903. 
*JOSE MONGE EEYES— Lawyer, Costa Eica. Above elbow. 

I have the pleasure of stating that immediately after having sent 
you the measurements for my left arm, amx^utated two inches 
below the shoulder, I received from you in the month of January, 
an artificial one, which fits me perfectly well, and serves me up 
till now without any repairs at all. By reason of my occupation 
necessitating iny frequent appearance in public places, I can fully 
appreciate what a boon your work is doing to humanity. 
* DANIEL ERODES— Driver, San Miguel Co., N. M. Below knee. 

In regard to the limb yoii made for me, I cannot find enough 
words to give proper praise. I had worn two before I got yours. 
One made in New York, and the other in Kansas City, but they 
would not last. I got one of your limbs, have worn it eleven years 
hard usage as a hack driver. Although I have a dislocation of my 
stump, I can dance, ride horseback, do most anything I could 
before T lost my leg. Have got the second limb, as a reserve in 
case of an accident. They just can't be beat. It is the best artificial 
linab that ever came over the pike. May 9, 1904. 



380 A. A. Marls, Artificial Limhs, Neiv Yorh City. 

* A. ¥7. KHOEER— Bell Co., Kentucky. Above knee. 

I have been wearing' j-oiir leg for six years and have found It 
highly satisfactory in every particular. Although my amputation is 
above the knee, nevei'theless I walk without the least inconvenience 
and except to the close observer, no defect is noticed in my walking. 
I am at present in college, and indulge in most of the sports that 
the other boys do. 

I most heartily recommend A. A. Marks' limbs as being the 
easiest walking-, most durable I have ever seen. May 2, 1904. 

A. E. RTCHARDSON— Mechanic, Tolland Co., Conn. Instep. 

I take great comfort in wearing the foot you made me. I coiild 
not be without it a day. I can walk any distance without the 
least discomfort. May 4, 1904. 

* CYEUS EIDENOUE— Shoemaker, Washington Co., Md. 

T am wearing your artificial leg every day, and I get along very 
well. I don't think there is any other leg made as good as the 
rubber foot leg. I am a shoemaker by trade, but can do all kinds 
of laboring. I can ploAV, dig, and saw and cut wood, and in fact 
everything that is to be done on a country farm. May 16, 1904. 

* N. C. EIDGE— Farmer, Eandolph Co., N. C. Below knee. 

It has been two years last April since I ordered my artificial leg 
from you. I have been wearing it since that time. My neighbors 
are sui-prised to see me get about so well. My occupation is farm- 
ing. I use a reaper, and cart all of my wheat myself, haul logs and 
lumber same as ever. May 23, 1904. 

* JOHN EIDOUT— Miner. Newfoundland. Below knee. 

Just a line to let you know how my leg- is. I can walk very well, 
in fact, I can v,'alk so that one can barely detect I have an artificial 
leg. I can walk in snow shoes. There is no chafing, or any un- 
pleasant trouble with the stump. June 9, 1904. 

* CHAELES EILEY— Telegraph Operator, Hall Co., Neb. Knee. 
The artificial leg gives good satisfaction. I would have no other. 

I am a telegraph operator, and have to climb poles 25 feet high, 
night and morning, to put up and take down signal lamp. This I 
do easily and with safety. April 30, 1904. 

* THOMAS F. EILEY— Bennington Co., Vt. Shortened leg. 

I must say that the extension shoe made by your firm has given 
me great satisfaction, it is far superior to anything that I have 
worn, or have ever seen worn by others. It enables me to get about 
with ease, and in a natural manner. May 9, 1904. 

* C. H. EIST— Farmer, Erath Co., Tex. Above knee. 

About four years ago, I got one of your artificial limbs, and 
have been wearing it all that time. It fits just splendid, and is 
so easy to wear I can't praise your limbs too highly. I recommend 
them to all who are in need of them. They are the best artificial 
limbs in the market. That I might have a reserve leg in case of 
an accident, I got a new one about a year ago, and have worn it 
enough to know that it cannot be beat. It fits perfectly in every 
way, and is very easy to wear. . May 7, 1904. 

* LUMAN EOBINSON— Eanchman, William Co., N. D. Below elbow. 
The artificial arm and hand that I bought of you two years ago 

is all right, it is a nice fit, and helps me to da many things that 
I could not do before. I am sixty years old, I handle horses, I hitch 
up and drive v,^ild and unbroken ranch horses. April 29, 1904. 

* W. A. EOCK— Engineer, Oil Co., Miss. Below elbow. 

Six j^ears ago I lost a part of my right hand, one month later I 
ptirchnsed of you an artificial hand, which I have worn constantly 
for four 3'ears. The work performed by this hand is of the most 



A. A. Marlxs, Artificial Limhs, Nciv Yorh City. 381 



severe kind, being an engineer in charge of an oil mill, doing all 
kinds of repairing, etc. The hand is valuable far beyond any esti- 
mate I could put on it. May 23, 1901. 

* LUDWIG EOGEK— Carpenter, Danish West Indies.. Jielow knee. 

I take great pleasure to inform you that I am very well 
satisfied v\'ith the "Artificial Leg" you made for me in June, 1903, 
as also the prompt manner in which the order was executed. I 
use constantly at my occupation, which frequently takes me on 
board ships, and I always feel perfectly safe. May 26, 1904. 

* GEOEGE EISDON— Beadle Co., S. Dak. Both insteps. 

I am A'ery much pleased with my feet; I walk first rate with 
them. Last week I walked from Huron out to my farm, a distance 




of thirteen miles, and my feet never felt easier than when I got to 
the end of my journey. (Partial amputation of both feet.) 

VENCESLAO EOMEKO— Farmer, Valencia Co., N. M. Below elbow. 
I will state that since I bought the artificial hand from you last 
year, I have been well pleased, for it did not trouble me even on 
the first day I wore it, and now it is so useful to me in farm Avork, 
in which I am employed. — Translated from Spanish. April 27, 1901. 

JOHN S. EOSEWAENE— Mill Engineer, Morris Co., N. J. 

Two years last April I met with an accident in which I had to 
have my left leg- amputated about seven inches below the knee. 
The 21st of May I got an artificial leg from you, and have been 
wearing it every day since with the greatest satisfaction. 

I am an engineer by occupation. Am glad to say I can run, 
jump, play ball, ride a bicycle, and climb. 

We have a smokestack 112 feet high in our town, which I can 
climb without the least trouble. May 5, 1904. 

JOHN EOSSBACK— Coachman, Essex Co., N. J. Ankle. 

I wish to state that I am wearing your artificial limb for ankle- 
joint amputation for the past five years, and I can recommend it to 
be a perfect success. 

My present occupation is coachman, my previous occupation was 



382 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Liinbs, New York City. 

driving coal wagons, and I can guarantee to run one hundred yards 
in sixteen seconds. May 16, 190 i. 

LEON EOTTE— Captain,. France. Above knee. 

I am pleased to have the opportunity to state publicly that you 
have constructed an artificial leg for me, with which I walk with 
comfort and perfect facility, without any fatigue, and almost as 
-well as with any natural leg, which was amputated fifteen centi- 
meters (six inches) above the knee. I do not limp. I am perfectly 
comfortable, and able to undertake long sea voyages, and journeys 
by railroad. I go down into the engine rooms of the steamers, and 
into the store rooms and holds without difficulty. Before I wore 
a Marks' leg I could not do these things. 

There is no better apparatus than your leg, that is so clean, 
strong', simple, healthy, and absolutely comfortable. The rubber 
foot gives me the sensation of walking on my natural foot. — Trans- 
lated from French. ~ June 20, 1904. 

* MISS EUPHEMIE EOY— Housework, New Brunswick. 

I am a farmer's daughter, in my sixteenth year. It is not very 
long since I got your artificial limb. I am really more than satis- 
fied with it. My occupation is farmwork, and a stranger would 
never notice that I wore an artificial limb. I am very comfortable 
with it. May 14, 1904. 

J. H. EOY — Bookkeeper, Sherbrooke Co., Quebec. Above knee. 

In the year 1902 I had the misfortune to lose my right leg. The 
.amputation was caused by a fracture, which afterwards caused 
the decay of the femur. ]\ly stump is very short; was a long time 
healing. In the month of September my doctors declared my case 
hopeless, unless I underwent another operation, but this I would 
not do. I left my town for New York on October 21, 1902, just 
seven months after the last amputation, feeling blue, as my friends 
all told me of the uselessness of an artificial leg for so short a 
stump, only three inches from the body. 

I went to the works of A. A. Marks, and there found my leg 
ready to try on, my measurements having been taken by my father 
and sent ahead of me by five days. I was in the city of New York 
eight days when my leg was ready to wear. On receiving it I 
started to walk, and have walked ever since. I used the crutch nine 
days, and the cane only a month. April 19, 1904. 

* WILLIAM EOYLE — Typewriter, Newfoundland, Shortened leg. 
For four years I have been wearing an appliance for a shortened 

leg. Through hip disease my right leg became six and a half 
inches shorter than the left. Mr. IT. C. Morris took the required 
measurements and diagrams, and you furnished me with an ex- 
tension that has given entire satisfaction. For fourteen years pre- 
vious to being supplied with your extensions, I used two crutches, 
which injured nay health. But thanks to your invention I am 
to-day in perfect health, can walk almost any distance Avithout 
feeling the least fatigue. April 27, 1904. 

* BEETIE EUBLE— Stenographer, Tazewell Co., Va. Below knee. 

I received my artificial limb on the 19th of March, in good con- 
dition, and have worn it every day since with perfect satisfaction 
and comfort. I have never had occasion to use a cane, except the 
first day that I attempted to walk. I am more than pleased the 
way I get about, my own foot, before it was amputated, was a 
burden to me, ancl now to think I can vs^alk like other people. I am 
a stenographer and bookkeeper, and can get around nicely at my 
work. May 10, 1904. 

* All testimonials marked * were written by persons whose arti- 
ficial limbs were made and fitted from measurements. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New York City. S83 



J. C. EUSSELL, M. D.— Franklin Co., N. Y. 

The artificial leg- that A. A. Marks made for a patient of mine, a 
boy ten years of age, is perfect in every particular, and the ease 
and grace with which he runs about and uses it is remarkable. 

Amputation was performed October 25. November 29 the boy was 
sliding- on the ice with his playmates. January 10 the boy was 
skating-, with jDractically no inconvenience whatsoever. I think the 
Marks' limb one of the greatest boons to unfortunate humanity 
that exists. 
P. A. EUSSELL— Brooklyn, N. Y. Below knee. 

I am pleased with the excellent qualities of material and work- 
manship displayed in the mechanical construction of my artificial 
leg, also the careful and painstaking treatment I received during- 
its making- and adjustment. 

My amputation so involves the knee-joint as to render my case 
an extremely difficult one. I am able to get about upon my new 
Marks' leg with a degree of comfort and satisfaction unknown be- 
fore. May 26, 1904. 
C. A. EYDEE, M. D.— Clarke Co., Ga. 

If you want an indorsement of your leg I can give you a good 
one, for I am wearing my second leg from you, and I could have 
nothing better, save my natural leg-. 
* E. N. EYEE— Sewing Machine Operator, Grafton Co., N. H. 

I bought an artificial leg from your firm two years ago, and it 
gives me great satisfaction. I run a machine in a shoe shop, and 
I go hunting and fishing, and for the past six months I have 
averaged going to two dances a week. Dec. 6, 1904. 

JOHN SCHAEPF— Newsboy, Westchester Co., N. Y. Ankle. 

I sell morning papers on the E. E. trains, get on and off while the 
train is in motion, and wear one of your rubber feet; very few of 




my friends know of the fact, and those who do regard me as the 
possessor of a remarkable foot. I experience no inconvenience; I 
heartily recommend your leg as the best made. 

VALENTINE SCHICK— Farmer, Sullivan Co., N. Y. Knee. 

I am wearing one of your knee-bearing legs with comfort and 
satisfaction. I can do all farm work. Last December I lost my 
house by fire, and this spring- I have built a new one. I climbed 
all over the scaffold and a forty foot ladder. Am going to paint 
the house myself, which is quite a job. I will recommend your 
limbs to anyone that is in need of them. May 19, 1905. 



§84 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limhs, Neto York Oiiy. 



* WM. SACHEEY — Miner, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

I received from your firm an artificial leg- in October, 1902, and 
am greatly pleased with it. I used to go to my work with a crutch, 
and found it both difficult and wearisome. Hearing of the benefit 
accruing- to one in my condition by the use of an artificial leg", I 
wrote your firm, and the leg duly arrived. Mr. Morris acted for 
me, took my measurements and negotiated the sale. I can walk 
a distance with comparative ease, and without suffering; the leg 
is indeed a boon to me. May 19. 1904. 

* W. A. SADLEE— England. Below knee. 

Although I only sent my measure to you, my leg fits very 
well indeed. Last Sunday I got on splendid. After being used to 
the ankle-joint patent, I can say that with the India-rubber foot, 
the ankle joint is not necessary at all. I find it is nicer to walk 
with, and much better for uneven places, and for g'oing up hill, and 
fis I live on a hill, I appreciate the difference. I find that it is 
much better at night, as I am not afraid to step w^ith it, and don't 
require to feel my way so much. I am complimented on my walk- 
- ing", and it is much lighter than my other inake. 

SAMUEL P.. SADTLEE— Philadelphia, Pa. Instep. 

My right foot was crushed in an accident on the railroad in 1863, 
■when I was sixteen years old, and although it healed well, I have 
always walked with a limp. The legs I used prior to visiting- you 
Vi'^ere heavy, and the limp in walking- was quite noticeable. You 
fitted me comfortably with a light and strong leg, which I can 
slip in and oiit of as an ordinary shoe. I have no hesitation in com- 
mending your work to anyone who may be in need of sinailar help. 

May 17, 1904. 

* E. B. SATNSBUEY— Student, Newfoundland. Above knee. 

A year ago your firm supplied me with an artificial leg. I have 
worn it continually since I have had it, and have found it very 
useful and comfortable. 

Although not engaged in an occupation which requires constant 
use of the limb, yet I can walk a distance of two miles at a time 
without feeling- any wearing efteets, though the amputation is some 
five inches above the knee, April 10, 1904. 

* BEET SALES— Eange Eider, Cook Co., Wyo. Above knee. 

In regard to my leg% I am well satisfied, for I am a range rider 
and it seems to stand the test. I am out all day, and part of every 
night, on guard of a herd of cattle, and I get around in the dark 
with very little difficulty. I put the leg on the day I g-ot it, and 
wore it steady until now, very near two years, and it has never hurt 
or chafed the stump. June 10, 1904. 

* F. E. SANGEE, M. D,— Grafton Co., N. H. 

The leg bought of A. A. Marks is perfectly satisfactory''. 

«• LOUIS F. SAPIEE— Nova Scotia. Below knee. 

I am getting along very well with the artificial leg- I boug-ht from 
you in November, 1899. I am working-, and make two or three 
shifts at a time without taking my leg off. When I am in need of 
an artificial leg I will buy it of you, as I do not believe there is a 
better one. I want the next to be as near like the one I novi^ wear 
as possible, as it supplies my every want. June 3, 1904. 

* F. C. SAYL— New Zealand. Below elbow. 

It is with pleasure I inform you I received the artificial arm 
you made for me last February. I have been wearing- it ever since, 
I am now quite used to it, and find that I could not do without it. 
Previously I was engaged at farm and laboring- work. I get along- 
wonderfully well with the assistance of the artificial arm. I use 
a knife at the table very well. June 15, 1904,. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, 'New Fori' City. BBS 



K. SAIGO — Japanese Legation, Washington, D. C. 













^ 



^ ^" 5 ffl ' -I 



^ 



f6 









Translated from Japanese. 

T have worn an artificial leg with rubber foot made by you for 
the past five years, and assure you it has given me the best of satis- 
faction. I heartily recommend your work. I shall gladly speak 
well of it to all my countrymen afflicted as I am when I return to 
Japan. — Translated from Japanese. 

LEWIS A. SAYEE, M. D.— Ncav York. 

I have had frequent occasion to apply A. A. Marks' most valuable 
Patent Artificial Leg, in cases where I have \infortunately been com- 
pelled to mutilate my patients by amputation, and the admirable 
imitation which that substitute has given of the original limb, and 
the perfect satisfaction to the wearer, is the highest possible com- 
mendation that I can give it. 



386 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limls, New York City. 

* A. B. SCOTT — Eailroading-, New Brunswick. Below elbow. 

I purchased an artificial arm from you about two years ago, and 
up to the present time it has proved a perfect success. It is a help 
to me in many ways. If I had not had it, I could not have done 
near as much work on the farm as I have, and feel greatly obliged 
to you for the prompt attention that you have given to me, and 




will always work in your interest. I take pleasure in recommend- 
ing your work to others, and hope that if you publish this letter 
it will have some effect in influencing persons in need of artificial 
limbs to patronize you. April 22, 1904. 

* A. J. SCOTT— Farmer, Caddo Co., La. Below elbow. 

I am very well pleased with your hand. It is a great deal of 
help to me. I use a fork to advantage in eating. Feb. 5, 1904. 

* THOS. A. SCOTT, M. D.— Cherokee Nation, I. T. Below knee. 

In 1892 I ordered an artificial limb from you for amputation of 
left leg below the knee. Measurements were taken at home, by the 
family physician, and I secured a perfect fit. I have been wearing 
this limb ever since, and would not be 'without it. I can do many 
things that I thought I couldn't before I purchased a limb from 
you. I am a general practitioner, which necessitates a great deal 
of horseback riding, which I can do with ease. June 6, 1904. 

JOHN M. SEBASTIAN— Lawyer, Owsley Co., Ky. Knee. 

I have been wearing your artificial leg, for amputation at the 
knee-joint, for more than a year and a half, and have been wearing 
other makes since 1864. I am more pleased with your make than 
any other kind. It is a decided improvement on all other makes. 
There are no tendons and springs in the ankle-joint to break and 
get out of order, causing the front of the foot to drop down, ren- 
dering the leg almost useless until repaired. May 14, 1904. 

* FEED. H. SEEL— Student, Hamilton Co., 111. Below knee. 

I had my foot amputated above the ankle Sept. 16, 1902. The 
next spring I ordered an artificial limb from A. A. Marks, and it 
has given me satisfaction. I would not take four times the money 
I paid for my limb and do without it. I can get on a horse from 
the ground, and do almost anything that I did before I lost my leg. 

May 11, 1904. 

* W. D. SELLECK— Painter, Pueblo Co., Colo. Instep. 

In the year 1S98 you made me an artificial foot for Chopart am- 
putation, which I have worn constantly ever since. I woi'k at the 
painter's trade, and do a great deal of climbing, in fact, go anywhere 
A man w5th good limbs will go, even to painting roofs. I am also 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neiv YorJc City. 38T 



a musician, and play with a military band, I take some very long" 
marches. I .went to work for a firm here three years ago, and had 
been working arnong twenty men for three months before they 
knew I was crippled at all." Sept. 19, i90i. 

* EUGENIO SELVAGGIO— Argentine Eepublic. Above knee. 

I sent to you for an artificial leg in 1897, it turned out so well 
that I walk, ride horseback, and do my work without any inconveni- 
ence whatever. — Translated from Spanish. 

* E. B. SCULL— Store, Arapahoe Co., Col. Both below knee. 

I received my limbs July 31, and put them on at once. Wore them 
that evening and all the following day, working in the store from 




six o'clock m the morning until ten o'clock at night. I must say 
that I am well pleased Avith them. The fittings are as good as could 
be made under any circumstances. My limbs are lighter than I 
expected, as I wrote you in ordering them that I wanted them extra 
strong, as my work was heavy. They seem to have the requisite 
strength. 

* GILES SIIANDS— Porter, Warren Co., Miss. Below knee. 

In the 3^ear 1891 I lost my leg on the railroad, and I have been 
using the artificial leg" I got of you since my stump healed, and it 
has given entire satisfaction. It has enabled me to go about with- 
out any other support. May 25, 1904. 
P. L. SHANNON— Farmer, Spottsylvania Co., Va. Knee. 

Have received one of your artificial limbs and have worn it con- 
stantly. It gives entire satisfaction in every particular. I can do 
any kind of work connected with the farm. I have not used cane 
or crutch since I began wearing it. May 15, 1904. 

* JAISIES W. SHvVW— Teacher, Ozark Co., Mo. Above knee. ' 

I am thinking that you would like to know my opinion of your 
ability as a manufacturer of artificial limbs, and my appreciation of 
the leg purchased of you in 1900. I have worn the leg ever since I 
received it. I walk well, and without a stick or crutch. I am 
highly pleased with the leg, and expect to purchase another from 
you when necessary. The leg seems to be solid, and full of vim 
yet, which makes me think that it will last for years. Apr. 19, 1904. 



388 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limls, New YorTc City. 

* EOBEKT SHELDON— Butcher, Lehigh Co., Pa. Below elbow. 
My rubber hand is very satisfactory. I work every day, and fre- 
quently drive fast horses, and ride my bicycle. May 17, 1904. 

* GEORGE T. SHEEMAN— Mail Carrier, Pueblo Co., Col. 

I am very much pleased with my leg. My amputation is six 
inches above the knee, and I get around so well that lots of 
friends don't know that I have lost a leg. I am on my feet a good 
deal of my time, as I am a mail carrier. I also belong to Co. 2, 
Second Kegt., W. O. W. degree team, and march with them, and 
no one knows or thinks I am a cripple. I cannot say enough in 
praise of the Marks' limb, and would recommend it to anyone in 
need. May 17, 1904. 

* JOHN SHIELDvS— Wire AVeaver, Australia. Below knee. 

The artificial limb you supplied for me is giving every satisfac- 
tion. With other makes I used to have blisters on my stump, caus- 
ing much pain, as well as inconvenience, especially in hot weather. 
It is a great comfort. I wish you every success in the completion ' 
of patched up humanity, as v/e say here. 

* J. G. SHIEK — -Laborer, Dickinson Co., Kas. Below knee. 

The limb fits me all right. I have been wearing it ever since 1870, 
am getting old, but get along good. Do all kinds of farm work. 
Would recommend them to anyone in need of limbs. May 20, 1904. 

* DAVID C. SIIOEMAKEE— Mill Hand, Columbia Co., Pa. 

The artificial hand you made for me is a perfect fit, and I would 
not know hov;' to get along without it, it has exceeded my expecta- 
tions. I can turn and do all kinds of bench work the same as I 
did before. May 16, 1904. 

MILTON SHOEEY— Farmer, Aroostook Co., Maine. Below knee. 

It is a pleasure for me to inform you that the leg you made for 
me over a year ago has given complete satisfaction. I am on my 
feet all day. My business requires heavy lifting, and real hard 
work, but I have experienced no diiSculty whatsoever v.'ith the 
artificial leg', and I wish to express my sincere gratitude for the 
excellent substitute you made me. Aug'. 5, 1904. 

* MES. JOHN SHULTZ— Baltimore Co., Md. Below knee. 

I am wearing one of your artificial limbs with rubber foot, made 
from measurements, and find it entirely satisfactory. May 6, 1904. 

* J. H. SIDDONS— Singapore. Above knee. 

The first trial on your artificial leg T found to be a bit awkward, 
as I had been accustomed to those that had ankle joints, but after 
using it a while, I find that I can walk better and faster with your 
make. The knee joint is very safe in walking, as it does not bend 
suddenly when least expected, and the roller suspenders are far 
more comfortable to wear than the old style. May 4, 1904, 

MISS DOEA SIEGEL— Bookkeeper, Brooklyn, N. Y. Shoulder. 

I have used one of jomv artificial arms for the pa'st two years, 
and it has given me great comfort and much satisfaction. It can 
hardly be discerned from the sound arm, and has helped me a 
great deal in carrying a satchel and a parasol. May 7, 1904. 

*GEEGOIEE SIMMELIDY— Manufacturer, Egypt. Below knee. 

I wear the leg with great ease. I walk with a rapid gait, just as 
though I had my natural leg. Everybody is astonished. The per- 
fection of the apparatus replaces my natural limb. Thanks to your 
rubber foot, T do not feel the loss of my leg, and I very nauch 
regret that I was heretofore ignorant of the existence of your 
esteemed manufactory, which is highly honored by the perfection 
pf its products. 



A. A. Marl-s, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 389 

* BENJAMIN SIMMONDS— Accountant, Newfoundland. 

I have now worn one of your legs for some time, and I am very 
glad to say that I am quite satisfied with it. I was fitted from 
measurements taken by Mr. H. C. Morris. The amputation is four 
inches above the right knee. I do a lot of walking, and last winter 
I had to go through snow over three feet deep, and I walked it 
with no trouble. 

It is quite common to listen to people asking which leg is off. I 
went to a party the other night, and there was a dance. Many who 
saw me dancing did not know that I wore an artificial leg", and 
would not believe it when told. April 29, 1904. 

GEOEGIO SHAFER— Farmer, Bergen Co., N. J. Below knee. 

My left leg was amputated about six inches below the knee. Your 
leg- suits me very well. 

I can do most anything a farmer is required to do, plow, cul- 
tivate, and help in a feed store, carrying anything that comes in 




bags, and store away a carload of hay in one day, bales weighing 
from 130 to 160 pounds, and pile them up six feet high. There is 
a great improvement in the last foot. May 12, 1904. 

* LODI SIMON— Bookkeeper, Noble Co., Ind. Ankle. 

The artificial leg I received in 1902 has been in constant use since, 
and it has given full satisfaction in every ^vay. My amputation is 
just in front of the heel, with part of the ankle bone taken away. 
I never hesitate to do any kind of work, and often walk three and 
four miles, and can ride a bicycle fifteen miles an hour. 

My present occupation is bookkeeper and clerking, and I am on 
my feet two-thirds of the time, and it never tires my stump or 



S90 A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, Neiv Yorh City. 



chafes it in any way. I am also fond of hunting, and often take 
long- strolls over uneven prairie, and climb hills without fatigue. 

If it were impossible for me to purchase another of Mr. Marks' 
artificial limbs, money could not buy mine. Nobody but my most 
Intimate friends know that I am an artificial limb wearer, as my 
walk is so natural with your patent rubber foot. May 9, 1904. 

T. C. SINGUEFIELD— Clerk, Covington Co., Ala. Knee. 

The limb I ordered of you, two years ago, has given complete 
satisfaction, it has worked so satisfactorily that I have worn it con- 
tinuously since first putting it on. Used my crutch only one day. 
I am clerking in a department store, where it is trying to a man 
with two natural limbs, yet I am standing it all right, and but few 
people know that I am using an artificial limb. May 11, 1904. 

* ANTONIO SIEACUSA— Age 10, Atlantic Co., N. J. Above knee. 

I had the misfortune of losing my right limb two inches above 
the knee. It happened on April 15, 1900, when I was six years old. 




^'''^■^'THfc 



About a year after I got one of your artificial limbs. I cannot 
praise your artificial legs enough. I would not want to be without 
mine for anything. I do a great deal of walking, and running, play 
football without any trouble, and just as good as many other boys 
that have their natural legs. May 21, 1904. 

* P. D. SLOAN— Cigars, Hocking Co., Ohio. Knee. 

I have worn your artificial Wrah about six years; can do any kind 
of work, ride a horse as good as anyone. I run a stogie factory, 
do all my own selling, and travel through five different counties. I 
\\\e in a very hilly country, go hunting right along with other 
hunters in season, and travel over the roughest ground. There is 
nothing like your rubber foot. I have tried several other makes, 
and they were all failures. May 16, 1904. 

^ CLAY SMITH— Porter, Franklin Co., Tenn. Below knee. 

I haven't lost a day from work. I walk about two miles every day 
putting out switch lights, those that do not know that I have lost 
a foot cannot tell it in my v^^alking. My depot agent is as well 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Linibs, New Yorh City. 391 

pleased with my limb as I am myself. I have been his porter for 
five years, and am still able to do the same work. My doctor says 
it is remarkable the way I carry heavy articles. Sept. 29, 1904. 

* MISS ELLA C. SMITH— Coffey Co., Kas. Wrist. 

About eight months ago I purchased an artificial hand of A. A. 
Marks. I have worn it ever since, and think it is fine. I would not 
be without it now for anything. I am a j^oung housekeeper, and 
find my hand a great aid in helping me with my work. I can write 
with my hand and can carry many small things. .May 23, 1904. 

FEANK H. SMITH— Hampshire Co., Mass. Above knee, 

I have mailed you to-day a photograph of myself on a wheel. I 
have worn a Marks' leg for a great many years, and can do most 
anything with it. I ride from fifteen to twenty miles almost every 




*^J.^>-ft-»rtrtWI»..-..-. - V 



day on the wheel, and have ridden forty. I have walked thirteen 
miles with hardly a stop. Have used a leg with an ankle-joint, but 
find the Marks' leg the best. 

* H. E. SMITH— Gallatin Co., Ky. Above knee. 

When a boy, about fourteen years of age, and residing at Beaver- 
lick, Ky., I was accidentally shot in the right knee. This resulted 
in the amputation of my leg in the middle of the thigh. It happened 
in May, 1897. I never used an artificial leg until I got one of you 
in 1902, which was made from measurements taken and sent to you. 
It was a perfect fit, and has proved to be a strong and satisfactory 
one. There is one thing about Mr. Marks' limbs in which they 
excel all others, that is the rubber foot. June 10, 1904. 

* H. W. SMITH — Locomotive Fireman, Cambria Co., Pa. Instep. 

I must say that your artificial limbs are good. I have been wear- 
ing one for about five years, and I would not have any other. I am 
a railroad man. May 25, 1904. 

J. J. SMITH— Steuben Co., N. Y. Both below knees. 

After nearly a year's wear I have to report that the legs you made 
for me are giving excellent satisfaction. In that time I have not 
been obliged to lay them aside on account of any sore or incon- 
venience. Jan. 30, 1905. 

* MAEK A. SMITH— Machinist, Fairfield Co., Conn. Ankle. 

I have worn an artificial foot of your make since 1891. The point 
of amputation is at the ankle, imjointed, with a portion of the heel 
remaining. The thirteen years' experience I have had with your 
artificial limbs has been most satisfactory in every respect. I am 
a machinist, and stand at the lathe and bench all day with perfect 
ease and ccmfort. I suffer none by its rise, and the riibber foot, 
I am afraid I cannot say enough to do it justice. I have never seen 
or heard of anyihing to equal it. May 18, 1904. 



392 A. A. Marls, Artificial Lhnbs, New York City. 



* EUSSIILL E. SMITH— Mill HancL Bristol Co., Mass. Ankle. 

I am wealing- one of your artificial limbs for over four years. I 
work in a grain mill all day with ease and comfort. I can ride a 
wheel, and play ball as well as if I had my own two feet. 

May 6, 1904. 

THEO. G. SMITH— Deputy, Chemung Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I desire to say in the fewest words possible that, after wearing 
three different legs, 1 am pi'epared to certify that for ease, comfort, 
and durability your legs with rubber feet are, and ought to be 
placed at the head of the list. I have worn your leg over seventeen 
years. 

* GEOEGE WILLIAM SMYTH— Manager, So. Africa. Above knee. 
I have miich pleasure in certifying- that your make of artificial 

limbs is the best. 

In March, 1898, I was occupied on the Cape Government Eailway 
as foreman shunter at Alicedale, Cape Colony, when I met with an 
accident, being run over by a shunting train, which necessitated my 
right leg being amputated about four inches above the knee joint, 
and in June of the following year, I was supplied with an artificial 
limb which was not satisfactory, but in July, 1902, I obtained one of 
your limbs, which I have had constantly in use ever since and it has 
given me every satisfaction. Now I am doing work and am able to 
do all that my daily vocation demands of me. Going up and down 
hills quite easily. 

I strongly recommend the rubber foot, as it is much safer than 
the old-fashioned ankle-joint. 

MES. G. P. SPALDING— Suffolk Co., Mass. Below knee. 

I take great pleasure in stating that the leg- is satisfactory in 
every particular. I experienced very little difficulty in becoming 
accustomed to wearing- it and am able to walk with scarcely any 
limp. June 1, 1904. 

* FEED SPAEKS— Mail Carrier, Union Co., Ohio. Below knee. 
The limb I got of you is a wonder. Although I have not had it a 

year, you or anybody else couldn't perceive that I have an artificial 
limb. Even my nearest friends didn't know it till I made it known 
and then you oughi; to see therri. I wouldn't take $25,000 and do 
without it, that is saying a good deal. It is a great boon to man- 
kind. I am a United States mail carrier and perform my duties 
with the greatest ease. May 16, 1901. 

* W. E. STAGE — Station Agent, Henry Co., Indiana. Above knee. 

I have been weai'ing one of j^our legs for about one year and 
take great pleasure in stating I believe it as near perfection as it is 
possible to make a leg. 1 have a seven and a half -inch stump and 
weigh 240 pounds. I am a station agent and get around well. Have 
experienced no chafing or unpleasantness. May 16, 1904. 

JOHN STAEKEY— Carriage Trimmer, Monmouth Co., N. J. 

I am thirty-nine years old, had my leg- amputated four and a half 
inches below the knee when I was ten years old. Started to wear 
an artificial leg when I was fifteen years old, unforttmately, I got a 
leg with an anlde joint, it did not last long. I have been wearing a 
Marks' leg now for fourteen years, and it fills the bill exactly. My 
occupation is carriage trimmer and anybody will allow that it is 
hard work. May 20, 1904. 

* J. M. STEPHENSON— School Teacher, Waller Co., Texas. 

The leg you made for me gives perfect satisfaction. I can do my 
work with much ease. It adds to my comfort and appearance. 
Walking half a mile to my school every morning is no task for me. 

May 16, 1904. 



A. A. MarJcs, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 393 



LUCIUS J. STEVENS— Sea Captain, Middlesex Co., Conn. 

On August 29, 1884, I lost my right foot. I made a careful study 
of artificial limbs of different makes, and with advice of my doctor 
selected yours. I applied it on the 1st of December, thirteen weeks 
after amputation, and in a short time I was able to walk so well 
that hardly anyone knew I had lost my foot. 

I go to sea and take long voyages and my leg never gives me any 
anxiety. I know and feel that it is strongly made and will last. 
* W. G. STEVENSON— Ontario, Canada. Below elbow. 

The hand you sent me is perfectly satisfactory in every respect, 
and I would advise those that are in need of artificial limbs to 
consiilt with j^our firm. I thank you for the nice hand you sent 
me and the perfect fit. May 17, 1904. 

WILLIAM WALLACE STEWART— Druggist, Passaic Co., N. J. 

Shortly after graduating, while visiting some relatives, I had the 
misfortune to be struck on the knee-cap by a rock, which resulted 
in the loss of my left leg above the knee. I despaired of ever being 
able to engage in my chosen profession, that of a druggist. I was 
told by my physician that my case was by no means desperate, 




and that I should be able to walk almost as well as ever if I tried 
one of A. A. Marks' legs. As soon as my stump healed, I went to 
see ISIr. IMai-ks, who provided me with the leg I have worn for two 
years, and with which I can walk easily and comfortably, attend 
to my duties as prescription and sales clerk in a busy pharmacy. 
ISFr. ]\Iarks deserves unceasing thanks for his skill, care and atten- 
tion to my case. June 16, 1905. 
* S. G. STEWAET, M. D.— Shawnee Co., Kan. Ankle. 

I have worn an artificial foot since 1879. The point of amputation 
is at the ankle, with a portion of the heel remaining. It is a modi- 
fication of Symes' operation. 

I had great ditficulty in getting an appliance, and I found it a 
point very difficult to supply with a comfortable and useful foot. I 
made many unsuccessful trials and about despaired ever being able 
to walk without the aid of a crutch. A friend advised me to apply 
to you, as he had some knowledge of the rubber hands and feet. 1 
did so and received directions from you how to take measurements 
for the appliance. I sent on the measurements and soon received by 
express the limb and rubber foot. It was a perfect fit and was 



894 X "A. Maries, 'Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

comfortable. I could walk with ease and with scarcely a percep- 
tible limp. 

I have worn this appliance since September, 1882, and without 
repairing it. 

I am more than pleased with it, and know from experience that 
you are the only manufacturer of a comfortable and useful limb 
for the amputations known as Symes' or Chopart's. I am a physi- 
cian, and see quite a number of people wearing- artificial limbs, 
and am well satisfied that the limbs manufactured with the rubber 
hands and feet are far superior to any other. 

* AKTHUR V. STOUGHTON, M. D.— Uinta Co., Wyo. Below knee. 
The artificial leg you made from measurements for J. W. Neilson 

some time ago is giving excellent satisfaction. 

* GEOEGE W. STEAUCH— Telegraph Operator, Schuylkill Co., Pa. 
The new leg I recently purchased of you is giving the best of 

satisfaction, indeed, I often wonder if I have it on. A glove on the 
hand is not more comfortable. I wear it on an average of eighteen 
hours out of every twenty-four. As a railroad operator it is meet- 
ing every requirement in addition to the work of a large garden. 

It is twenty-five years since I purchased my first leg of you, 
and wore the leg continuously and gave it hard usage at the cost 
of repairs for all that time $8.00. I could have worn it much 
longer, but it got too small owing to my increasing weight. Last 
December, 1903, I purchased the second leg. May 9, 1904. 

JOHN STEOTHEE— Farmer, Dutchess Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I take more comfort in wearing your leg than I did in wearing 
the peg. I can do any kind of work that any other man can on 
the farm and do it with ease. I can climb a ladder as well as I 
ever did. People who don't know me can't tell but that I have 
both good limbs. May 20, 1904. 

EDWAED SULLIVAN— Laborer, Philadelphia, Pa. Below knee. 

I am wearing j^our artificial leg for the last eighteen months 
and get along first-class. Doubt that I shall want any better. I 
have used others, but got no satisfaction from them. April 28, 1904. 
JAMES G. SULLIVAN— Ship Fitter, Brooklyn, N. Y. Ankle. 

After I received the foot I went right back to my work carrying 
heavy iron beams and girders. I am working in the ship-fitting 
trade, which is considered heavy work. I have found the foot 
perfectly satisfactory in every way and it answers as well as my 
own natural one did. July 9, 1904. 

J. D. SULLIVAN, M. D.— Brooklyn, N. Y. Knee. 

About four years ago my left foot was amputated just above the 
ankle. The stump was so diseased that about one year later a 
subsequent amputation at the knee-joint was performed. During 
the first two years following the first amputation I had three dif- 
ferent artificial limbs made by as many different makers. They 
all were so unsatisfactory that in July, 1902, I had one made by 
you, which I am pleased to say has surprised my most ardent ex- 
pectations. Since I have begun to wear your raake of artificial 
limb, I have been able to attend to a large raedical and surgical 
practice, working seven days in every week and doing the same 
kind of work that I did previously for thirty years. I am fully con- 
scioiis that it is a great misfortune for any person to lose a limb 
and I realize hov^^ much that affiiction is mitigated by you in 
making limbs to such a high degree of perfection as you have 
attained in that line. 

I have devoted -much study to the alleged merits of the various 
kinds of artificial limbs in the market and come to the conclusion 
that I shall wear the limb made by you with a rubber foot during 
the remainder of my life. Kindly accept my compliments on the 
progress you have made and my grateful appreciation of your 
kindness to me. April 30, 1904. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limhs, Neio YarTc City. 395 



* E. L. SUMMEESGILL— Stone Cutter, Greene Co., Pa. Below knee. 

Eeceived artificial limb from you about two years ago and it is 
g'iving very good satisfaction. My leg is amputated about ten 
inches below the knee. Wear your limb every day. 

I am a stone cutter, handle marble and granite monuments, flag 
stone, etc., so you see my work is very hard on any person with 




two good feet. Will add I don't suppose there is any person gets 
around much better than I do. April 30, 1904. 

"• W. B. SUMNEE — Farmer, Lawrence Co., Mo. Below knee. 

The artificial leg I got from you is a nice fit and is all right. I 
lost my leg December 24, 1902, and in three months got the leg. I 
am well pleased with it. I plowed and attended to ten acres of corn 
the first year, and last fall plowed and sowed twenty acres of wheat, 
so you see the leg is very helpful. May 23, 1904. 

* GEOEGE P. SWAN— Laborer, Hartford Co., Conn. Above knee. 
I have worn the leg you sent me for nearly two years regularly, 

it has given entire satisfaction. I can walk much easier and with 
more convenience than any artificial leg I have ever used. I have 
the greatest confidence in recommending your make as the best in 
the world. May 14, 1904. 

* J. H. SWAETZEL— Merchant, Augusta Co., Va. Below elbow. 

I received the last hand you made for me in 1903. I have been 
wearing it every day since I got it with perfect satisfaction. I am 
in the general mercantile business and it is a great help to me. In 
fact I can't see how I could get along without it. May 23, 1904. 

JOSEPH H. SYLVESTEE— Boston, Mass. Below knee. 

I am happy to state that I still wear the leg you made for me 
in 1880, and it is in good order. I am using it every day. 

I have only paid seven dollars in repairs in all. I have worn legs 
made by other manufacturers, with wooden feet, and ankle joints, 
but in all my years of experience I never found myself satisfied 
until I procured one of your artificial legs with the rubber foot. 
I walk more naturally and more comfortably than I ever did on 
the other legs. My work is very laborious, as I have to stand on 
my feet sixteen hours a day, lifting barrels, and climbing up and 
down stairs constantly every day. I have walked a mile inside of 
ten minutes. 



396 A. A. Maries, Artificial Litnbs, New York City. 

'■' W. E. SWIjSTK — Laborer, Marion Co., Ore. Above knee. 

I have been for a long- time desirous of writing jom and express- 
ing- my continued satisfaction with the artificial leg- you made for 
me, and now avail myself of the opportiinity. It is five months 




since I obtained it. I walk very much and without a cane or sup- 
port. I sufl'er no pain or uneasiness from it. My artificial leg- is 
my best friend; without it my life would be miserable. 

* DE. E. F. TAGGAET— Dentist, Hillsborough Co., Florida. 

I have worn A. A. Marks' make of artificial legs since May, 1868. 
The first one I wore continually for thirty years. The one I am 
now using I have had one year, stump only five inches long. I 
have practiced dentistry for the last tv/enty years. I walk with 
ease. May 16, 1904. 

F. M. TALBOT — Contractor, Hennepin Co., Minn. Below knee. 

In the Fall of 1890 I met with a railroad accident which crushed 
my leg and amputation was made below the knee, leaving a stump 
three inches in length. Mj^ first experience with an artificial limb 
was with a Wood Socket, after wearing it for eighteen months I 
had one made with Slip Socket in preference to having the old one 
refitted, as my stump had changed considerably and I thought that 
the trouble was caused from the ill-fit. After wearing the second 
one for over a year, my stump got in such a condition that my 
life was in danger and it was impossible for me to attend to my 
duties. I think it was in 1894 that I called on you and after you 
had examined my stump, you pronounced it a case of strangulation, 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limits, New YorJc City. 397 

and you said you could make me a limib that would relieve me of 
that trouble. I ordered the leg of you and have been wearing it 
for eleven years with perfect comfort and ease. As you will recall 
I called on you a few weeks since and had you fit a new limb with 
the improved I'ubber-foot, which is j)roving very satisfactory^ 
I am in the contracting- business, principally constructing large 
elevators and foundation work and attend to the outside work, 
which keeps me on my feet constantly, this I do with as much 
ease and comfort as any man could that is obliged to wear an 
artificial limb. Your new rubber foot is a great improvement on 
the old one. May 17, 1904. 

AETHUB G. TAYLOK— Pedestrian, Warwickshire, England. 

When a lad sixteen years old, I had both of my legs cut off in a 
shuttle train accident, and my life v/as despaired of, but my robust 
constitution carried me through. Six months after, the company 
procured a pair of legs for me made by a local leg-maker, but bad 




fitting and construction rendered them of little use. My old fel- 
low workers took up a subscription and bought me a pair of 
American legs, Marks' patent, with which I can do almost anything. 
I am now twenty-six years old and engage in all kinds of sports. 
Eecently I walked a match against time and made a mile in twenty 
minutes. My stumps are hard as nails. All of which I have to 
thank Marks' patent artificiallegs for. June 12, 1905. 

F, V. TAPLEY — Aroostook Co., Maine. Wrist joint. 

The artificial hand I purchased from you has proved satisfactory 
in every way. I don't think a stranger would ever know I was 
wearing an artificial limb, it is so natural, and I would not be 
without it for twice the amount paid for same. May 2, 1904. 

"'^ COLIN M. TAYLOR— Clerk, New Zealand. Below knee. 

I have worn your rubber feet for nine years, the one I am now 
wearing being fi.tted with the " Spring Mattress," which I find a 
great improvement. It gives more spring to the walk, enables me 
to stand on a sloping surface, such as the deck of a ship at sea, 



398 'A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorTc City. 

and almost entirely does away with the thumping sound which 
always accompanies artificial feet. 

My occupation at present is that of a bank clerk, but I was three 
years on a farm and did all the usual rough wc k attached to that 
industry without suffering any inconvenience. I can run and jump 
and play tennis. I go in for rovv'ing, and find the foot in no way 
interferes with the sliding seat. I also ride a bicycle as well as 
if I were quite sound. In fact I never miss my own foot in any- 
thing I attempt to do. 

To close with, I can thoroughly recommend your artificial feet 
for simplicity, durability, and comfort to anyone who has the 
misfortune to need them. 

* EOBEET E. TAYLOE— Clerk, New Zealand. Above elbow. 

The arm you made for me in 1902 has given excellent satisfaction. 
A little over three years ago I had the misfortune to lose my arm 
owing to blood poisoning. I was recommended to procure an 
artificial one from your firm. I did so and have never had cause 
to regret, it is not only ornamental but a protection to the stump, 
and is very useful. May 26, 1904. 

W. H. TAYLOE, M. D.— Jefferson Co., Tenn. 

In matter of finish, durability, simplicity of construction, com- 
pleteness of action, and perfect adaptation to stump, the Marks' 
artificial limbs are far superior to anything I have ever seen, 

* NEWTON TENNEY— Photographer, Eandolph Co., West Va. 
Having received one of your artificial limbs some time ago, I 

can say that it has been working first-class. I wouldn't take ten 
times its cost and do without it. My left foot is amputated four 
inches above the ankle. My occupation is photographer. 

May 10, 1904. 

EDWAED C. TEEEY— Engineer, Hudson Co., N. J. Part of hand. 
The artificial part of hand you made for me in January last 
has been worn constantly and is of great help and benefit to me. 
I am in the electrical line, I splice wire, use a file, hack-saw and 
hold a cold-chisel and find the article indispensable. J dislike to 
remove it at night when I retire. April 9, 1904. 

* EEANK THOMPSON— Light Work, Union Co., S. Dak. 

On the 8ih of September, 1902, I had an accident and lost my 
right hand while working at my trade as an engineer, in about 
two months after, I was wearing one of your artificial limbs. I 
do not see how it could be made better and would not be with- 
out it. May 16, 1904. 

* JOHN TEACY— Laborer, Morgan Co., Ohio. Knee-joint. 

The artificial leg made for me gives perfect satisfaction. I work 
very hard with it all the time. I can cheerfully recommend your 
skill. May 16, 1904. 

* WALTEE TEACY— Independence Co., Ark. Below knee. 

My leg was amputated- February 9, 1903, just above the ankle- 
joint. I have been wearing one of your artificial limbs since 
December 20th. Am well satisfied with it. I am only a schoolboy, 
but I can do most anything I try. May 6, 1904. 

CHAELES I. TEA VIS— Farming, Westchester Co., N. Y. 

My leg was ardputated below the knee, cause, gunshot wound in 
Civil War. My occupation is farming. I have worn one of your 
legs for six years and have got along all right with it without any 
repairing. I am an old soldier about sixty years old. My weight 
is 210 pounds. May 2, 1904. 



A. A. MarTcs, Artificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 399 



FEANK TRIACCA— Schoolboy, Fairfield Co., Conn. Below knees. 

I am g'oing" to school every day and walk both ways. My artificial 

legs give the best of satisfaction in every way and have proved a 




1^^ "!:''."« 
' **\^?' 



great benefit to me. I walk, run, and play as well as most boys. 
When I tell persons that both of my legs are artificial, they will 
not believe me until they examine them. June 10, 1904. 

E. TEICKETT— Marion Co., W. Va. Above knee. 

The leg you made for me gives the best of satisfaction. I wore 
it every day for fourteen years without a dollar's expense in repairs 
and it is in good repair yet. I lost my leg in the Civil War in 1863 
and have tried many kinds. Anyone wanting a limb can't do any 
better than get a Marks' leg. May 10, 1904, 

* ALBERT TRITCH— Core Maker in Foundry, Muskingum Co., 0. 
My limbs are doing well. There are no legs made that can beat 

yours. I lost both of my legs in a railroad accident about fourteen 
years ago. I received a pair of legs from you and I have never 
seen any man with one leg ofl: that can beat rhe walking. I am 
a core maker by trade and am worki-ng for the Zanesville Malleable 
Iron Works. May 2, 1904. 

SAMUEL TRUESDALE— Late Pension Agent, New York City. 

I have been wearing one of your artificial legs with patent 
rubber foot (amputated below the knee) twenty-eight years. I 
can say from observation and inquiry with those who are wearing 
artificial legs, and I know many, that the one I wear (your patent) 
is in every respect superior, more durable, less liable to get out 
of order, than any artificial leg I have seen or have any knowl- 
edge of. 

* W. H. TUCKER— Newfoundland. Below knee. 

I have had every satisfaction with the artificial leg you made 
for me in 1898. I can use it almost as well as the natural foot. 
There are no sports that I cannot indulge in, I skate, dance, ride 
a bicycle, kick football, do any mortal thing. My work here is 
clerk and telegraph operator. March 20, 1905, 



400 A. A. MarTcs, Artificial Lirnbs, Neiv Yorh City. 

THOMAS TUENBULL— Machinist, Quebec. Above knee. 

I wish to inform you that the artificial leg you made for me 
in December, 1902, has given entire satisfaction. My amputation 
is above the knee, leaving only a five-inch stump. My occupation 
■was fireman, but since my loss I am working in the machine shop. 
Your leg enables me each day to perform my duties, causing no 
soreness whatever to the stump. I will always recommend your 
artificial limbs to my fellow workman. April 25, 1904. 

* T. W. TUKNEE— Farmer, Umatilla Co., Ore. Below knee. 

I am now wearing- the second limb made by you. The limbs 
you made for me fit well and have given the best of satisfaction. 
Have worn it every day without any inconvenience whatever. I 
do all kinds of work on the farm. I can highly recommend your 
limbs as first-class in every respect. May 6, 1904. 

CHAELES E. UBEE— Salesman, Lawrence Co., Pa. Instep. 

I desire to say that 1 would not wear any other limb than yours 
w^hen I want comfort. Sometime ago I thought that your limbs 
were high in price, and I tried one frora another firm which I 
have worn only two or three times in three years. May 14, 1904. 

* HENEY VAUCK— School Teacher, Fillmore Co., Neb. 

On the 22d day of May, 1886, at the age of ten years, I had my 
left foot an^putated above the ankle-joint. After walking on 
crutches and peg legs until I hurt the stump so badly that the bone 
protruded, I got an artificial leg from you and began to wear it 
in November, 1892. In three weeks I walked without aid. 

Having been raised on a farm I had to do all kinds of manual 
labor, and have always been able to do as much as the average able- 
bodied man, even at shocking grain, which is considered hard 
labor. 

I am a school teacher, and have been in some districts through 
the term without anj^one siispecting I had an artificial leg. Am 
able to ride a bicycle and have beaten able-bodied men in a foot- 
race. May 23, 1904. 

* ANGEL VIDAL — Mechanic, Argentine Eepublic. Below elbow. 
Five years ago I had the misfortune to have my right hand 

mangled by a planing machine, so badly, that Dr. Calasco of the 
City Hospital amputated it two inches above the wrist. When cured 
and weary of being short of a hand, I decided to write to you and 
send the measurements. A month later I put the new hand on 
and it satisfied my wants completely. I am very pleased, as I can 
eat and do other things with it and therefore I give you my most 
sincere thanks for the important service which you have rendered 
me. June 6, 1904. 

* EEV. ALEXANDEO VILLA— Missionary, Mexico. Wrist. 

Three months ago I received my artificial hand, which is such a 
blessing that I am unable to express in this letter how satisfied 
I am. 

As I am a well-known person throughout the state of Sonora, 
Mexico, and having lost my left hand, I was very much observed 
by the people. I endured the loss for twelve years deprived of the 
privileges of which I am now master. I received a catalogxie of 
your firm, saw the advertiseraents, but I did not believe that they 
"were exactly as represented until I decided to have a hand made by 
yoxi. It is useful in eating, in holding many things, especially my 
Bible, which I hold with my left hand, and turn the leaves with 
the right, and as I am so well known in the villages, where I preach 
the Holy Gospel, "many ig'norant persons who have seen me gestic- 
ulate thought that it was supernatural. Formerly I lacked the 
movement of my arm, now, I move it naturally.— Translated from 
Spanish. May 15, 1904. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 401 

* J. W. VAUGHAN— Bartow Co., Georgia. Partial hand. 

My right hand was mangled and amputated September, 1889, 
and in March following you made nae one of your patent rubber 
hands, since that time I have had the second one made, and be- 
tween the two wear and use them constantly. I can use mine 
almost as well as the natural hand. I can drive, use knife at table. 




write rapidly, as I am now doing, measure goods by the yard, or 
most any other work. I was fortunate. in having my hand ampu- 
tated helow the wrist, leaving thumb and wrist bones, which en- 
ables me to secure the artificial hand around the wrist like a 
glove. May 15, 1904. 

* HAREY GEO. VOIGHT— Stock Eaiser, Elko Co., Nev. Above knee. 
A little over four years ago I had my right limb amputated above 

the knee. The following summer I obtained one of jour artificial 
limbs, and a year later got another to have on hand in case of 
accident. Have Avorn them since with perfect satisfaction. 

Am able to do almost every kind of ranch work, riding horse- 
back, etc. Am pleased to recommend Marks' goods to any who 
are in need. May 4, 1904. 

* MISS E. M. VOSS— New Zealand. Below knee. 

The leg ordered for me came to hand about eighteen months ago. 
I have worn it continuously ever since. I am very well pleased 
with it. I had my leg amputated when I was eleven years old, I 
used my crutches for about two years then I got an artificial leg 
from Wellington. I got on fairly well with it, but I did not g-et 
about with as much ease as I do with the one you made. I am 
engaged in household duties and can get through them without 
any trouble. I can walk up and down stairs with ease, ride a bicycle 
and find that the leg does not interfere with anything that I wish 
to do. The rubber foot gives great assistance when walking. 

Aug. 10, 1904, 



402 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limos, Neiv Yorlc City. 

MICHAEL VAUGHN— Lawyer, Eensselaer Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

I got my first leg in 1863 and wore it every day for thirty-three 
years and it didn't cost me thirty dollars to keep it in repair during 
that long time. I got my second leg- about nine or ten years ago 
and I am wearing it every day since, and it has not cost tv/o dollars 
for repairs and is to-day about as good as ever. I am a very heavy 
man, weighing two hundred and thirty-five pounds. May 9, 190 ±. 
JOHN VEILLEUX— Shoemaker, Quebec. Above knee. 

The artificial leg you constructed for me gives complete satis- 
faction. I am a shoemaker by trade and ever since I have my 
artificial leg I have not lost an hour's work. Previously I could 
only work 6 or 7 months in the year. I have walked three miles 




and a half and have not suffered any pain in my stump, which is 
or;iy four inches long on the outside of the thigh and three inches 
on the inside. I now walk as easily as before my amptitation as 
well as going uj) and down stairs. I am well satisfied and am 
very happy to have the opportunity to express my gratitude. — 
Translated from French. July 12, 1901. 

* G. C. WABY— Farmer, New Zealand. Knee. 

I beg to say that the leg I received from you made and fitted 
by measurements, is very satisfactory. I have worn it about eight- 
een ntionths. I am a retired farmer, in my seventy-first year, and 
I find the leg invaluable as it enables me to take sufficient exercise 
to keep in health. 

The value of your artificial limbs is enhanced in that they are 
simple in construction, easily adjusted, durable, and thoroughly 
well finished. June 2, i90i. 

SIDNEY WACHTEE^Salesman, New York City, N. Y. Below knee. 

My leg was amputated about eight years ago; I was eight years 
old then. I commenced wearing artificial legs six months after the 
amputation and will say that your artificial leg comes as near to 
the natural as it is iiossible for a substitute. I have been playing 
baseball nearly every day in summer and could cover almost any 
position and now- I have a position where I am constantly on my 
feet in the store or walking to different parts of the city selling 
goods. I can run or do anything which an ordinary person with 
his natural limbs can do. May 15, 1901. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Litnbs, New Yorh City. 403 

* J. T. WADE — Engineer, Gibson Co., Tenn. Below knee. 

I had the misfortune to lose my right foot about twenty-one 
years ago, and have worn one of your artificial feet for fifteen years. 
It has given perfect satisfaction and I am wearing the second one, 
which is as satisfactory as the first. I am an engineer and I can 
get about to do my work without any difficulty. May 9, 1904. 

THEEESA WAGENBLAST— Domestic, New York, N. Y. 

I have obtained my second artificial limb from you and ami very 
grateful to you, also to my God for your skillful invention. I am 
very satisfied and hardly Icnow that I have an artificial leg on. I 
am just like other housekeepers, on my feet from "morning till 
night. I have spent my life as a servant. 1 am now fifty-six years 
of age, and if it were necessary, I could run four miles. I do all 
the housework without any help. I am willing to give my name 
and address to any person who desires to interview me upon the 
subject. May 9, 1904. 

J. B. WAGNER — Tailor, New Brunswick. Above knee. 

It is with great pleasure that I write you to-day about my arti- 
ficial leg which I purchased from you in January, 1902. After 
having used and practiced with ankle articulation and with stiff 
ankle and rubber foot, I can recommend your artificial leg with 
rubber foot and stifi: ankle as the best, and I will never be with- 
out one so long as I have the means and if I ever need to buy 
another, it will be yours. April 25, 1904. 

WM. WALLACE^-Awning Hanger, Brooklyn, N. Y. Below knee. 

Your leg is an excellent piece of ^vork. I've been hanging awnings 
for one of the largest firms in the State. I get around just as good 
and better than the majority of awning men. I can also ride a 
wheel, something- I could not do when I had both of my legs. I 
can get off my wheel with two hundred pounds on my shoulder, as 
I often had to do at Long Branch, where the firm has a branch. 

Aug. 8, 1904. 

* THOMAS WAED — Engine Driver, New Zealand. Above knee. 

I am very much pleased to be able to say that the leg I received 
from you is giving every satisfaction. As you are aware, my leg was 
amputated above the knee, leaving only seven inches of a stump. 
I drive a log hauling engine in the bush, and can get about with- 
out the aid of a stick, arid can ride on horseback with ease, in fact, 
I can get about almost as well as I could before I had my leg am- 
putated. June 2, 1904. 

* JAMES A. WATERMAN, M. D.— Caldwell Co., Mo. 

Dyke Hornback, for whom I took the measurements and diagrams 
and sent you the order for a pair of artificial legs, received them 
three weeks ago to-day. He now walks everywhere, rides horseback, 
and, in fact, does everything he wishes to. They are a perfect fit, 
and very satisfactory in every particular. He and I are both very 
glad he got a Marks' leg. 

* JOHN WATSON— New Zealand. Above elbow. 

I can safely say that the artificial arm you supplied me with is 
unsurpassed in the colony, people when they meet me do not know 
my arm is off. I can drive a horse with it, and steer a bicycle with 
the rubber hand, and put the other in my pocket, and can do 
many other things which make it very useful. June 2, 1904. 

WILLIAM WATSON— Traveling Salesman, Alexandria Co., Va. 

Since I got your artificial leg I have walked very well with it, 
and go about everywhere, traveling all over the country. There 
is but a slight limp in my walking, this is probably due to the 
shortness of my stump. It has amused me very much to have 
patent medicine men ask me to try their remedies for rheumatism. 



404 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



I have met many of their patients who would be better off if their 
legs were amputated, and they were to wear yours. May 4, 1904. 

* JAMES M. WEAVEE— Clerk, Montgomery Co., Va. Above knee. 
I received the new leg you made for me, and am wearing it with- 
out any trouble. It fits nicely, and I am pleased with it. You made 
the leg in 1901, and it has served me well. Dec. 6, 1904. 

* CHAELES E. WEBB— Farmer, Chenango Co., N. Y. Above knee. 
I have worn one of your artificial legs for nearly thirteen years, 

and am exceedingly well pleased with it. 

The rubber foot is a grand invention, no squeaking or getting 
out of order. It can be depended upon, and the knee-joint is the 




strongest and best I ever saw. I am farming, and do all of my 
work, such as plowing, sowing, cradling, and everything that a 
farmer has to do. 

* MES. GAEL WEGENEE— Linn Co., Ore. Below knee. 

I lost my foot in a runaway last June. Amputation four inches 
above the ankle. I got one of your artificial limbs, and am very 
much pleased with it; it was fitted from measurements. I am 
able to do anything with it. May 13, 1904. 

JOHN T. WESTCOTT— Watchman, Ulster Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I have been wearing one of your legs since 1895 (over nine 
years), and my work calls me to be on my feet constantly as night 
watchman for the Consolidated Cement Co. I am on the move 
from hour to hour, and that requires a man to have good limbs. 
Your work is satisfactory, and I recommend the same to every- 
one. " May 6, 1904. 

E. J. WESTEEN— Herkimer Co., N. Y. Above knee. 

I have been wearing your leg for the last ten months, and find 
it very comfortable. It gives me good satisfaction. May 9, 1904. 

* C. W. WHITE— Beaver Co., Okla. Above knee. 

I can proudly and honestly say that having w^orn one of your 
limbs for about two years, I find it is the best I ever saw, and I 
have seen many different kinds. My leg is taken off eight inches 
from the body, and I can go anywhere I want to. I have worked 
in a store ever since I began wearing my leg. I come in contact 
with many people that can't tell I have an artificial limb. It is 
a terrible affliction to lose a limb, but the terror is removed when 
one can get a limb ot your construction to replace it. May 5, 1904, 



A. A. 'Maries, Artificial Limhs, Neiv YorJc City. 405 



* FEANCES WHITE— Tailoress, New Zealand. Above knee. 

I beg to inform you that 1 am wearing the leg constantly you 
made tor me. I appreciate it, and speak highly for the merits of 
your improvement. 

I have had two, one from Melbourne, and one from Dunedin, and 
neither was a success. Therefore I can fully recommend anyone 
who has had the misfortune to lose a limb, to your firm, for I am 
sure they will get every satisfaction. My amputation is above the 
knee. Aug. 30, 1904. 

* J. SAMUEL .WHITE— Bookkeeper, Brown Co., Ohio. Knee. 

It is a great pleasure to say that the leg you made for me almost 
two years ago has, and is still, giving full satisfaction. I had 
no trouble in learning to use it, and have not lost a day from 
work in the past two years. My occupation, bookkeeping in a 
bank, compels me to stand all the time on a marble floor, and the 
artificial leg stands the test as well as the sound one. My ampu- 
tation is through the knee, and I wear one of your end-bearing 
legs. May 16, 1904. 

* MRS. R. D. WHITE— Housewife, Montgomery Co., N. Y. 

I have been wearing Marks' artificial limb for the past nine years, 
my amputation being above the knee. I can do any kind of house- 
work. It is very satisfactory. I do all my work, and do not know 
how I could get along without it. May 8, 1904. 

S. J. WHITE, JE., M. D.— Delaware Co., N. Y. 

The artificial leg I obtained for David Penfield was a pronounced 
success. 

* E. T. WHITEMAN— Bartender, Alleghany Co., Md. Below elbow. 
I lost my arm on Dec. 14, 1902, and six months later purchased 

one of your limbs, which hag indeed given me great satisfaction. 
I have worn the hand every day since I received it, and find it very 
comfortable. Am so accustomed to wearing it I will not go on the 
street without having it on. I have a position bar tending in a 
saloon, and I could not do without the hand, and with it I get 
along as well as a man with two hands. May 16, 1904. 

* MISS CALLIE WHITFORD— Age 15, Schoolgirl, Stewart Co., Tenn. 
Six years ago I had my leg amputated just above the ankle, and 

in the January following I got an artificial leg, double slip socket, 
at first I was well pleased with it, but after a few months it began 
to give me trouble, and from then I never wore it with any com- 
fort. It only lasted a short time, and then I got yours, which I 
have been Avearing over a year. I live one mile from town, and I 
can walk there and back as fast as anybody. I can. keep up with 
papa, and he is a fast walker. I would not exchange the rubber 
foot for any other. June 1, 1904. 

W. WHITMAN— Machinist, Albany Co., N. Y. Below knee. 

Your leg is O. Iv. I work in the D. & H. machine shops every 
day, and it don't bother me at all. May 9, 1904. 

* J. L. WlUaJSrS— Machinist, New Hanover Co., N. C. Below elbow. 
The artificial limb which I bought of you April, 1902, has given 

perfect satisfaction in every respect. 

My occupation is that of a machinist. I am engineer now v^dth 
ihe Angola Lumber Co., of this city, and can attend to my work as 
well as the general run of engineers. May 4, 1904- 



406 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, Neiv YorJc City. 



* J. H. WILLAED— Farmer, Buckingham Co., Va. Below knee. 

Have worn your leg for fifteen years with great comfort. My 
occupation is a farmer. I can do most any work a farmer is called 







to do, such as plowing, harrowing, etc. My leg is amputated four 
inches beloAv the knee. I am highly pleased with my leg; it was 
fitted from naeasurements. June 6, 1904. 

* JOHN WILLIAMS— Clerk, Ireland. Below If nee. 

Seventeen years ago my right leg was amputated below the knee 
in Providence Hospital, I was then on the ship George TJiompson, of 
Sydney, N. S. W. When able, I was sent to Sydney, where I pur- 
chased an artificial leg with ankle joint; it cost me 26 pounds and 
5 shillings. 

I was never able to wear it constantly, as it hurt me very much 
and the springs v^^ere always breaking, leaving me almost helpless 
on the street. 

When I came to my home in Ireland my friends hearing about a 
man named McKee, Avho was wearing one of your make with rubber 
foot, advised me to try one. I sent you measurements, from which 
you made raj leg, and I never regretted having done so. The 
change was marvelous. 

This leg cannot be beaten for ease and comfort. I am a clerk 
and timekeeper in a' large foundry, and have a great deal of walk- 
ing from one department to another, but I find no difficulty what- 
ever in going about. 

A young man here, who had his leg amputated above the knee, 
got one from you lately through my recommendation, and can go 
to dances and otherwise enjoy himself as well as ever he could be- 
fore losing his leg. May, 1904, 

* JOHN B. WILLIAMS— Floyd Co., Ga. Above knee. 

On April 12th I received one of your artificial limbs. The finest 
piece of work I ever saw. I have been on my crutches for ten years. 
I am about 24 years old. Lost my leg in falling from a wagon, my 
leg was amputated three and one-half inches from hip. I never 
dream.ed of ever walking without a crutch. After seeing your 
book on artificial limbs, and guarantee, I decided to buy a limb 
made from measurements, as per your directions. When I got the 
limb it was a perfect fit. The second day I threw away my crutches, 
and am now going about and doing mj^ work well. I am a rural 
mail carrier. Can harness my horse, roll buggy in and out of 



A. A. MarJcs^ Artificial Limbs, New Yorlc City. 40'? 

stable. Can truck corn and carry a load. If this limb was the only- 
one, money could not buy it. May 17, 1904. 

*• PHILIP WILLIAMS— Washington Co., Miss. Below knee. 

I desire to let you know of the comfort I have had in wearing* 
the artificial leg made for me in August, 1902. I would not be with- 
out the leg for anything. It not only enables me to walk naturally, 
but enables me to perform my work. It is thoroughly comfortable 
to wear. May 17, 1904. 

SAM T.' WILLIAMS— Fireman E. E., Sussex Co., Va. Below knee. 

The leg you expressed May 25, 1904, is all O. K. If I could not get 
another like this one I would not take one thousand dollars for 
it. I am so glad I came to your house to get my fit. I can fire 
an engine as well as others. June 23, 1904. 

* S. P. WILLIAMS— Sawmill, Alexander Co., N. C. Above knee. 

I lost my leg May, 1891, and applied one of your artificial limbs 
the first of September following, and have been wearing it ever 
since until recently, I sent a new measure and had another of 
the same kind made. It is all right, and fits all right. I was 
running a sawmill. I have walked over some very rough mountains. 
My leg is amputated three inches above the knee. I do not use a 
staff, unless I am going to walk a long distance and over rough 
roads. The one I wore for twelve years cost me very little for 
repairs. May 19, 1904. 

* WALTEE A. WILLIAMS— Montgomery Co., Pa. Below knee. 
The leg I received from you proved very satisfactory. I have 

been Avearing it every day since I received it. I shall recommend 
your leg every chance I get. May 21, 1904. 

* EOBEET ALFEED WILLIAMSON— Bicyclist, New Zealand. 
The leg j-ou made -from the measurements I recently sent you 

fits admirably, and from the very first I was able to walk with 




comfort, and with no rattling of joints. I think the rubber foot 
is a great improvement over the ankle joint. 

I work at the bicycle trade, and find the leg a great help to me 
in every respect, and never have to leave it off on account of 
soreness. I can thoroughly recommend your leg to all who are 
afflicted to be the next best to nature's. May 30, 1904. 



408 A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

TRED WILLIE— Farmer, Fulton Co., I^T. Y. Below knee. 

I used an artificial leg of your make for eleven years, and was 
■well pleased with it, and the new one I got of you last fall gives 
good satisfaction, and I am well pleased with that. My work is 
heavy, being on a farm and work every day. May 28, 1904. 

A. L. WILSON— Real Estate, Osage Co., Kas. Above knee. 

In giving a statement of my experience with artificial legs, I 
have to state that I have, during the past thirty-eight years, used 
five different makes, and have found the Marks' leg best of all, 
it being the most simple, most natural, and the most durable. For 
the last eighteen years I have used only the Marks. 

For the past thirteen years I have been engaged in banking; and 
prior to that nay occupation was superintending farming. 

During all these years I have done a great deal of walking, driv- 
ing, aud riding in the saddle, and standing at the counter and 
sitting at the desk. Must say that I have derived a great deal of 
comfort and satisfaction in the use of the Marks' artificial leg. 

July 19, 1904. 

DAVID C. WILSON— Foreman in Foundry, Jersey City, N. J. 

On the first of Se^jtember, 1902, I suffered the loss of my right 
foot above the ankle. I was measured and fitted with an artificial 
by you nine weeks and a half after the accident, and received the 
foot at my home in the middle of the eleventh week, and I have 
M^orn it right along since then. I am foreman of Messrs. Hitchings 
& Co.'s Foundry, in Jersey City, and I am as competent, with the 
aid of my rubber foot, to fill my position as I was previous to the 
accident. Am on my feet from six o'clock in the morning until 
late at night, and find no difficulty in getting along. 

I take great pleasure in recommending your rubber feet to any 
who may need them. May 19, 1904. 

* MISS E. W. WILSON— Teacher, England. Above knee. 

I have been wearing one of your limbs for the past six years, for 
above knee amputation, and find it most comfortable in every way. 
I shall be only too pleased to recommend your limb to anyone. 
I cannot speak too highly of your work. May 9, 1904. 

JOHN J. WILSON— Inspector, New York City. Below knee. 

Have worn your patent artificial legs for nearly fourteen years, 
and will make application for a new one from the Government 
just as soon as the time comes. I have only about three inches 
below the knee. I am on my leg twelve hours every day. 

* HAEEY WITT— Bookkeeper, Henry Co., Mo. Above knee. 

In the spring of 1897 I met with a railroad accident, which neces- 
sitated the amputation of my left leg just above the knee. In the 
fall of the same year I purchased one of jomt limbs. I was but 
thirteen years old, and consequently it was necessary to have my 
artificial limb lengthened from time to time. This you did for me. 
I am pleased to say that the leg was satisfactory in every respect. 

Until recently I was a high school and business college student, 
and now am a bookkeeper and stenographer. I get about nicely, 
and am pleased to recommend the Marks' limb to all. May 21, 1904. 

* B. F. WOOD— Mail Carrier, Platte Co., Mo. Above knee. 

I can cheerfully recommend your artificial legs. I bought one 
from you March, 1887, for thigh amputation, a six-inch stump, 
and have Avorn it for seventeen years, until a few months ago, 
when I bought another from you. I have taught school, was in 
the insurance line for nine years, and am now working for the U. 
S. Government as E. F. D. Carrier. I can go most anywhere, and 
get around well. I think your limbs are the best in the world. 

May 17, 1904. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 409 

JOHN J. WINN, Signal Quartermaster, U. S. S. Oneida. 

I write you this simply to say that my experience with your 
Artificial Limbs, together with considerable experience with other 
kinds, induces me to prefer yours by all odds. The special point I 




desire to mention is the simplicity of construction in your leg, 
whereby I can take it apart, lubricate and adjust with my one 
(natural) hand, and put together again without any help. My 
good, solid weight of 240 pounds gives the leg a good trial, and yet 
I feel a confidence in it that I never had in any other kind. 

EDWIN T. WOOD— Student, Suffolk Co., Mass. Below knee. 

I have worn one of your legs, made for an amputation just above 
the ankle, for seven years, with the utmost comfort and satisfac- 
tion. I get about as well as a man with his natural limbs, and 
many of my friends do not know that I have an artificial one. I 
can safely say, that in my opinion, your leg is the best made, both 
in principle and construction. May 19, 1904. 

JAMES E. WOOD, M. D.— New York. 

I have carefully examined Marks' Artificial Limbs, and believe, 
because of their simplicity and strength, that they will be sought 
for by those who may be so unfortunate as to require them. 

* R. B. WOODS — Engineer, Logan Co., Ky. Below knee. 

Have been wearing artificial legs for thirty years. Have tried 
diiferent kinds; yours is the best that I ever wore. The one I g'ot 
from you twelve years ago I am wearing yet. Ara on my feet all 
day. At one time I went for six years without losing a day's work. 
Kubber foot is much better than ankle-joint one. May 19, 1904. 



410 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 



* MES. MAEY WOOLAED— Housekeeper, Heckman Co., Tenn. 
The artificial hand I ordered from you last Jane has proven to 

be a great help to me. The longer I wear it the better I like it. 
1 do not see how I could get along without it now. I wish you 
great success with your artificial limbs. May 16, 190i. 

GEOEGE WOEMULD— Groom, New York City, N. Y. Above knee. 

Six months ago you supplied me with one of your artificial 
legs, for an amputation above the knee, and I have been wearing 
it ever since. I am pleased to say that it has given every satis- 
faction. I am now walking on it without the aid of even a cane, 
and I am pleased to say it has enabled me to continue in my 
employment. June 25, 1904, 

* HEEBEET WEIGHT— New Zealand. Below knee. 

I take pleasure in testifjdng to the satisfaction I have derived 
from the use of your artificial limb. It is nearly seven years ago 




since I received it from you. I am a farmer, and have done all 
kinds of rough farm work successfully. At times I have severely 
tested the rubber foot in lifting heavy weights, and it has stood 
the work remarkably well. I shall always remain grateful, and 
I would say to all who unfortunately need an artificial limb, " by 
all means secure one from A. A. Marks." 

FEED G. WYMAN— Telegraph Operator, Broome Co., N. Y. 

Eight years ago I bought one of your artificial limbs, and have 
worn it continuously ever since, not having the least trouble. It 
never gets out of order, and is always very comfortable. My am- 
putation is about two inches below the knee. I am on it from 
morning until night, and there is not one of my acquaintances 
who would ever suspect that I wore an artificial leg from my walk, 
even my intimate friends, when I tell them, they say, "I v^oi-ld 
never have believed it." May 16, 1901. 



A. A. Marhs, Artificial Limbs^ New YorJc City. 411 



* MISS HAEEIET YATES— Muscogee Co., Ga. Below knee. 

My artificial leg lias given perfect satisfaction, and I walk on it 
every day, and as my occuxJation is dressmaking I am obliged to 
be on it a great deal. I have never felt the least inconvenience, 
and am proud to say it has given me a great deal of comfort. 

May 13, 1904. 

* ABSOLOiSr M. YGLESIAS— Lima, Peru, South America. 

I take great pleasure in assuring you that the artificial leg which 
I ordered of you to replace the one I lost in the engagement of 
August 27, 1884, has proved to my entire satisfaction. It is just 
that I should recommend your work, since I have been enabled to 
avail myself of it to such advantage. 

ALVAH YOUNG— Wireman, Boston, Mass. Below knee. 

Alvah Young, employed by The Edison General Electric Co., New 
Eng-land Division, 38 Pearl Street, Boston, Mass., as a lineman, is a 
living example of the remarkable degree to which rubber feet 




restore lost members. He lost one of his legs some years ago in 
a railroad accident. He had a Marks' rubber foot and artificial 
leg applied, and since then has engaged in active manual labor, 
earning his livelihood. He will climb a pole as dexterously as any 
of his associates, hold himself on the cross-bar with his artificial, 
and place the wires in a thorough workraanlike way. 

* HENEY G. YOtJNG— Teamster, Eockingham Co., N. H. 

The artificial arm I purchased of you five months ago has given 
good satisfaction. I am a teamster by occupation, and the hook 
is a great help, I remove the hand at the wrist and use the hook 
in my work. My arm is made so strong that I can take heavy 
lifts with it and do my other work well. It has given me excellent 
service. May 18, 1904. 



JOHN YOUNG— Flagman, Middlesex Co., N. J. Above knee. 

I have been wearing an artificial leg for the last twenty-one 
years. My leg is amputated above the knee. I am employed by 
the Pennsylvania E. E. Co. as flagman a-.d have been for the last 
twenty-two years. I am wearing- the leg with satisfaction. 

May 21, 1904. 



412 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New Yorh City. 

* JUSTO YSUSQUIZA— Farmer, Mexico. Above knee. 

I have been wearing- one of your artificial legs for three years 
and I am satisfied with it. The rubber foot is an admirable in- 
vention, noiseless and almost natural. My profession is agriculture 
and my occupation is in the saddle all day. I mount and dismount 
with ease and without any assistance. My amputation is four 
inches above the right knee, but I can say that I have not lost 
anything-, with the assistance of the artificial leg- constructed in 
your factory, the merits of which are strength and ease in walk- 
ing, I know no better. To everybody in need of an artificial limb 
I recommend him to apply to your factory. — Translated from 
Spanish. July 10, 1904. 

* ALVA J. ZABEISKIE— Beaver Co., Utah. Knee. 

I am wearing- the leg I ordered from you sometime ag-o satis- 
factorily,, and think the Marks' leg- all right. I advise everyone 
that needs one to buy of you. You can beat the world on artificial 
limbs. April 29, 1904. 

* ANGEL ZEVALA Y MADEEO— Mexico. Below knee. 

I have the pleasure to state that the artificial leg- constructed by 
you for me, for amputation below the knee, is so natural that 
persons who were not aware of the operation wjiich I underwent 
scarcely believe I am lame. 1 have returned to my former em- 
ployment and I only experience natural fatigue. — Translated 
from Spanish. April 23, 1901. 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 

HINTS FOR THOSE VISITING NEW YORK CITY 

We have endeavored to empliasize the fact that personal fittings 
for simple amputations are, as a rule, unnecessary and that we do 
not advise anyone to go to the expense and annoyance incident 
to visiting the manufacturer without first making the attempt 
by measurements, and in order to place the attempt on a basis 
of safety to the wearer, we obligate ourselves to make all altera- 
tions and refittings that are necessary without extra charge. 

It is also emphatically stated that amputations leaving stumps 
with abnormal conditions, incapable of being explained either de- 
scriptively, diagrammatically or by casts, and all deformity cases, 
are exceptions and must be fitted personally. Those who decide to 
come to us for personal attention will be welcomed and promptly 
attended to on their arrival. 

Where we are located. — We are located at 701 Broadway, one 
door above Fourth Street. This, as vv'ill be seen by consulting the 
map on following pages, is central to and accessible by electric, 
surface, elevated and subway cars. A person arriving at any point 
can take a car to Broadway and be transferred to a car that will 
convey him to our door. The system of transfers in New York is 
very complete and accommodating. One fare (five cents) includes 
transfer. 

We meet patrons. — We will meet any person on arrival if we 
are made acquainted with particulars a day or two in advance. 
The day, the time of arrival, and the point (station, ferry or pier), 
must be clearly given. If the arrival occurs after business hours 
it will be well to go to some reputable hotel near by and remain 
oven night, we suggest the Broadvv-ay Central Hotel, (571 Broadway, 
which is within three hundred feet of our establishment. We'can 
be reached by telephone from any point. 

Business hours. — Our establishment is open from seven in the 
morning until five in the afternoon, except Saturdays, when we 
close at three o'clock. We are not open Sundays and Holidays. 

Distance from arriving points. — For the information of those 
who choose to be conveyed in a carriage, we will state that the 
city ordinance permits the driver of a one horse hack to charge 
one dollar for conveying one or two passengers a distance not 
exceeding two miles, and one dollar and a half for two miles, not 
exceeding three. As we are located within two miles of every rail- 
road and steainboat terminal, it will be seen that one dollar or 
one dollar and a half is the most that legally can be charged. 
When a two horse vehicle is engaged, or when more than two per- 
sons are to be conveyed, the charge will be greater. It is always 
best to make a bargain with the driver before entering his vehicle. 
No person need consider it necessary to be conveyed by a carriage; 
elevated, surface, and subway cars will, for five cents, convey him 
to or very close to our store. Those conveyances run at close 
intervals day and night. Policemen can always be found at 
stations, ferries, and piers. Their duties are not only to protect 
persons and property biit to give such directions and information 
as may be needed. 

Board and lodging. — Accommodations can be obtained at reason- 

415 



n- i 1 I 1 L__J L__JJU:Jii33^pi-3 cri3 ^wm r,inln 




418 A. A, Maries, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 

able rates, furnished rooms in private houses can be rented from 
two to five dollars per week, according to location. Table board 
can be had at from three to five dollars per week. Eooms in hotels 
without board, vary from fifty cents to two dollars per night, 
according to hotel and location of room, with board from two to 
five dollars per day. A person coming to New York expecting to 
remain a week or mgre, and wishing to keep his expenses down, 
can engage a furnished room and eat in restaurants, his living ex- 
penses while here can thus be kept within narrow limits. The Mills 
House, located at 164 Bleecker Street, is within half a mile of us. 
This is one of a system of hotels conducted for the accommodation 
of respectable men of small means. A room can be had for twenty 
cents per night, meals at fifteen cents each. 

Where to have your mail addressed. — Upon leaving home, 
instructions should be given that letters and telegrams should be 
addressed in the care of A. A. Marks, 701 Broadway, New York 
City. 

Our patrons are welcome to the accommodation of a fireproof 
safe in which valuables can be deposited. They have the liberty of 
our premises while in New York, and if they are shopping they can 
have their goods delivered at our store. They can make engage- 
ments to meet parties here and have the exclusive use of private 
rooms for private interviews. 

Calls made to residences. — Persons will be attended to at their 
residences, no matter where they may reside, if expenses and extra 
time are paid for. 

Women in attendance. — ^Women who prefer to be waited upon 
by one of their own sex will find women in our office for their 
accommodation. 

Branches. — We have no manufacturing branches. Our factory 
is located in Nevs^ York City and in no other place. Our profession 
is like that of a surg'eon. Our skill and judgment cannot be rele- 
gated to one in charge of a branch establishment. If we were to 
establish branches "we would have to place them under the manage- 
ment of others and would, more or less, jeopardize the welfare of 
our patrons. As substitutes for branches our system of fitting 
from measurements has been devised and has been found adequate. 

If the reader desires to order a limb and does not care to take 
measurements himself, he can call upon his physician or druggist, 
or upon one whom we will designate. 



CHAPTER XXXIX 

STUMP SOCKS. FOR ARTIFICIAL LIMB WEARERS 

COTTON, WOOL, AND SILKATEEN 

A stump bears the same relation to an artificial leg- that a natural 
foot does to a shoe. Comfort and cleanliness demand that a sock 
should be worn on the stump, the same as on the foot. 

A sock in either case provides a medium for collecting and absorb- 
ing the particles of waste and moisture that are thrown off from 
the skin, and by removing the socks, airing, and frequently wash- 
ing them, the stump will be kept in a more healthy condition, and 
the socket of the leg will be better cared for. 

There are persons who do not use socks, but wear their artificial 
limbs directly to their stumps, and permit the sockets to collect and 
absorb the excretions of the skin, and v>?hen the sockets become 
foul with the collection of effete matter, they are scraped out and 





No. 1245. No. 1246. 




No. 1247. 

revarnished. This method cannot be condemned too strongly. 
The stump, as well as the artificial leg, suffers from such treat- 
ment. 

Every wearer of an artificial limb should be provided with an 
ample supply of socks, so that frequent changes can be made. The 
same regard should be given to the stump as is given to the natural 
foot. If a stump perspires excessively, changes should be made 
more frequently. 

We manufacture our own socks, and keep a large stock on hand 
and are able to fill orders promptly. 

Our socks are ma^ i of cotton, wool, and silkateen. 

Cotton socks are knit of choice staple, they are durable and pleas- 
ant to wear; they are preferred by those who cannot endure wool. 

Woolen socks are knit from yarn especially prepared for the pur- 
pose; the yarn is the best and softest that can be procured, with 
only enough twist to make it wear well. It is absolutely free from, 
cotton or any foreign fiber. 

Silkateen socks are made from exceptionally fine thread, they are 
knit on a machine constructed for the purpose; meshes are sraall, 
sixteen stitches to the inch, much finer than socks made from cotton 

419 



420 



A. A. MarTcs, Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



or -wool. These socks are especially suitable for tender and delicate 
stumps. Silkateen is a comparatively new thread; it is strong and 
will stand the effects of wear a great length of time. It has a 
luster resembling silk; it is very smooth and soft to the touch. 

Cotton and woolen socks are made in two colors, white or brown, 
silkateen socks are of a natural grayish tint. 

Our stock consists of eleven different sizes, ranging from ten to 
thirty-six inches in length, and in width to fit any ordinary limb. 

In ordering socks the following measurements should be given: 

Length of Sock. Circumference at top of Stump, 4 inches 
from top, 8 inches from top, 12 inches from top, 16 inches from top, 
20 inches from top, 34 inches from top, 28 inches from top. 

Some persons use a long sock to cover the stump to the body, 
and a shorter one to cover the stump to the joint (knee or elbow). 

When a short one is needed, give only the length and circumfer- 
ences of that part of the limb that is to be covered. 

The following schedule will enable anyone to deterraine the sizes 
and the prices of the socks required. 



Sizes in inches. 


Colton. 


Woolen. 


Silkateen. 


No. 


Length of 
sock. 


Circumference 

at largest 
part of stump. 


Price 
each. 


Price 

per 

dozen. 


Price 
each. 


Price 

per 

dozen. 


Price 
each. 


Plica 

per 

dozen. 


0. 
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 


1 to 10 
10 to 15 
10 to 15 
15 to 20 
15 to 20 
20 to 25 
20 to 25 
25 to 30 
25 to 30 
30 to 35 
30 to 35 


Under 15 
" 15 

Over 15 
Under 15 

Over 15 
Under 35 

Over 15 
Under 35 

Over 15 
Under 15 

Over ]5- 


$0.20 
.30 
.40 
.40 
.50 
.50 
.60 
.60 
.70 : 
.70 
.80 


$2.00 
3.00 
4.00 
4.00 
5.00 
5.00 
6.00 
6.00 
7.00 
7.00 
8.00 


$0.40 
.50 
.60 
.60 
.70 
.70 
.80 
.80 
.90 
.90 
1.00 


$4.00 
5.00 
6 00 
6.00 
7.00 
7.00 
8.00 
8.00 
9.00 
9. CO 

10.00 


$0.60 

.70 

.80 

.80 

.90 

.90 

1.00 

1.00 

1.10 

1.10 

1.20 


$6.00 
7.00 
8.00 
8.00 
9 00 
9.00 
10.00 
10.00 
11.00 
11.00 
12.00 



One-quarter or one-half dozen of the same kind ai.deize sold at dozen rates. 

When a short sock in addition to a full-length one to come only to the knee-joint is 
desired Nog. 0, 1, or 3 will bo suitable. 

In determining the number of size, five inches should be added to the length of the 
stump to allow for turning over the top of leg and the shortening caused by the stretch in 
drawing on the stump. 

Elastic Webbings, 2 inches wide, 60c. per yard ; IJ^ inch wide, 50c per yard ; 1 inch 
wide, 40c. per yard. 

Non-Elastic Webbings, 2 inches wide, 30c. per yard ; V/^ inch wide, 25c. per yard ; 1 
inch wide, 20c. per yard. 

Clamp Buckles with Snap, IJ^ and 2 inches, 25c. each ; Snaps, 1'^ and 2 inches, 15c. 
each. 



Socks and Supplies will be sent postpaid if remittance accompanies the 
order. 

Remittance can be made by postage stamps, money order, regis- 
tered letter, express, or draft on New York. No goods will he sent 
C. O. D. unless one-half the price is enclosed with the order. 

Address: A. A. MAEKS, 701 Broadway, New York City„ 



CHAPTER XL 

MISCELLANY 
MAEKS' IMPROVED FOLDING KNIFE AND FOEK 
Operated by a press button. Press the button and the blade flies 

open. CUT REPBESENTS THEEE-QUAETEE SIZE. 

The combination knife and fork illustrated here is designed for 
the convenience of those who are temporarily or permanently dis- 
abled in one hand, either right or left. A lock and spring are im- 
bedded in the knife, which operate on the blade. No. 1263 
represents the closed knife with thumb applied to the press button. 




The moment a little pressure is applied to this button the blade will 
fly open and become locked, as shown in No. 1264. When opened, a 
piece of meat can be cut on the plate by a rolling motion given to 
the knife, as represented in No. 1265; the knife can be inverted by 
twisting the hand (see No. 1266), and food conveyed to the mouth 
by means of the fork. The blade cannot close when pressure is 




applied to the fork. Butter can be spread upon bread, potatoes 
mashed, and other services performed. Pressiire applied to the 
press button will release the lock, and the knife can be closed and 
locked and carried in the pocket. The blade is made of steel, and 
the handle of aluminum. It is very strong and durable. Price 
$2.00, postpaid. 

431 



422 A. A. MarTcSj Artificial Limbs, New York City. 



PEESS-BUTTON POCKET KNIVES.— HANDY FOE ANYONE- 
ONE HAND DOES IT ALL 

The press-button feature, as described on the preceding- page, is 
here combined with an ordinary pocket knife. Many persons have 
broken their nails and made their thumbs sore by pulling open 
blades of the ordinary pocket knife. The feature of locking the 
blade when open, as well as when closed, is another valuable im- 
provement. Probably every person who has used a penknife to 
any considerable degree can recall the experience of having the 
blade close upon their fingers unexpectedly. The press-button fea- 
ture removes this danger. The knife cannot be opened, and when 
opened cannot be closed, unless pressure be applied to the press 
button. The moment pressure is applied, the blade opens and 
becomes locked. We have a variety of shapes and sizes that we are 
offering to the public, especially to these who have lost one hand. 
The blades are made of the finest Sheffield steel. 



CUTS KEPKESENT THREE-QUAETEK SIZE. 




Style E, Blade and Button Hook, Price $1.00, postpaid. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 423 



CRUTCHES 

The crutches offered here are of exceptionally good quality; they 
are neat in design, strong, reliable, and elegantly finished, especial 
care being given to their construction and the selection of material. 
Eock maple is found to be the most desirable wood, and is used 
more extensively than any other. Eosewood is also used; it is a 
dark-colored v^ood, and when highly finished makes crutches that 
are rich and elegant in appearance. 

The hand rests are secured to the side bars by coppered Bessemer 
steel rods passing through them and riveted to each side bar. 







No.1270 



No.i27l 



This is an improvement upon the older method, viz., placing the 
hand-rests between the side bars and securing them by screws. 
Many crutches have broken and let their wearers fall, simply be- 
cause the hand-rests were not properly secured. 

Awarded a Diploma of Honorable Mention by the Paris Exposi- 
tion, 1900. 

No. 1268. Whittemore pattern. Side bars of straight-grain timber, 
steamed and bent, arm-rest of genuine pebble goat with strong 
duck lining stuffed with curled hair, and firmly secured to each 
side bar; the soft top, yielding under the weight of the wearer, 
makes a delightful rest for the arm; patent clamp ferrule No. 1277 
is used. All trimmings nickel-plated. The crutch is elegantly 
■polished. Price, per pair — rosewood, $8.50; rock maple, $6.50. Sin- 
gle crutch, rosewood, $5.00; rock maple, $4.00. 

No. 1269. Arm-rest is carved to the shape of a cow's horn and 
highly polished. It is therefore called the cow-horn criitch; some 
experienced crutch-wearers say that a hardwood arm-rest, highly 
polished, is more pleasant than the padded soft one, as it does not 



424 A. A. Marks, Artificial Liinbs, New York City. 

wear the clothing- or cramp the shoulder; patent clamp ferrule 
No. 1277 is used; nickel-plate trimmings. Price, per pair, rose- 
wood, with rosewood arm and hand-rests, $8.50. Price, per pair, 
rock maple, with cherry arm- and hand-rests, $4.25. Single crutch, 
rosewood, $5.00; rock maple, $2.50. 

JSTo. 1270, same as No. 12G9, rock maple, except that ferrule No. 
1388 is used on bottom, nickel-plate trimmings. Price, per pair, 
i-oek maple, $3.25; single crutch. $2.00. 

No. 1271, same as No. 1269, except that brass trimmings are used. 
Price, per pair, $2.50. Single crutch, $1.50. 

No. 1272. Side bars rock maple, cherry hand-rest, arm-rest up- 



No.1272 



N0.IE73 



NoJ274 



No.1275 



holstered with hair covered -with enameled leather; ferrule No. 
1288 is used, nickel-plate trimmings. Price, per pair, rock maple, 
stained black or ebonized, $4.50. Price, per pair, rock maple, 
natural color, $3.50. Single crutch, ebonized, $2.50; natural color, 
$2.00. 

No. 1273, same as 1272, excepting that brass trimmings are used. 
Price, per pair, rock maple, $2.75. Single crutch, $1.50. 

No. 1274. Side bars rock maple, cherry hand- and arm-rests, not 
upholstered; brass ferrule on bottom. Price, per pair, rock maple, 
$2.00. Single crutch, $1.25. 

No. 1275. Side bars rock maple, cherry hand- and arra-rests; side 
bars are one piece, split from the top to nearly the bottom, where 
they are riveted; the bottom is without ferrule. Price, per pair, 
$1.50. Single crutch, $1.00. 

Tn ordering, indicate the style you want by the number and price. 
Give the length from the arm-pit to the floor when the arm is 
hanging- by the side and the person standing erect, with shoe on 
foot. Address, A. A. Marks, 701 Broadway, New York City. 



A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New Yorh City. 425 



CEUTCH FEKEULES AND CEUTCH RUBBERS 

CUTS BEPEESENT ONE-HALF SIZE 




No.1276 





No.U&O 



No.1281 



No.l28^ 



No. 1276. Patent clamp ferrule, heavy brass, nickel-plated, will 
screw on the end of a crutch one inch in diameter. 

Price, per pair, including No. 1280 tips, . . . $2.50 
No. 1277. Patent clamp ferrule, heavy brass, niekle-plated; will 
screw on the end of a crutch three-quarters of an inch in diameter. 
Price, per pair, including- No. 1281 tips, . . . $2.00 
No. 1278. Patent clamp ferrule, heavy brass, nickel-plated; will 
screw on the end of a crutch or cane one-half inch in diameter. 
Price, per pair, including- No. 1282 tips, . . $1.75 
No. 1279 merely illustrates the patent clamp ferrule with jaws 
distended; by unscrewing- the jaws they can be opened, when a 
rubber tip can be placed between them; by screwing- them up 
tightly they close and hold the tip securely. 

No. 1280. Rubber tip, with base one and one-quarter inch in 
diameter (fit No. 1276 ferrule). Price, per pair, . . $0.30 
No. 1281. Rubber tip, with base one inch in diameter (fit No. 

1277 ferrule). Price, per pair, $0.15 

No. 1282. Rubber tip, with base three-quarters inch in diameter 
(fit No. 1278 ferrule). Price, per pair, .... $0.10 

No. 1287. Heavy brass ferrule, nickel-plated; will screw on the 
end of a crutch one inch in diameter. 

Price, per pair, including- No. 1290 tips, . . . $1.25 
No. 1288. Heavy brass ferrule, nickel-plated; will screw on the 
end of a crutch three-quarters of an inch in diameter. 

Price, per pair, including- No. 1291 tips, . . . $1.00 
No. 1289. Heavy brass ferrule, nickel-plated; will screw on the 
end of a crutch or cane ore-half inch in diameter. 

Price, per pair, including No. 1292 tips, . . $0.75 



426 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New York City. 




No.lSSO 



Plo.1291 



No.igsa 



No. 1290, Eubber screw tip, base one and one-half inch in diam- 
eter; will screw in the end of No. 1287 ferrule. 

Price, per pair, $0.40 

No. 1291. Eubber screw tip, base one and one-quarter inch in 
diameter; will screw in the end of No. 1288 ferrule. 

Price, per pair, $0.20 

No. 1292. Eubber screw tip, base one inch in diameter; will 
screw in the end of No. 1289 ferrule. Price, per pair, . $0.15 

No. 1300. Eubber ferrules are made in several sizes to fit the 
ends of crutches and canes; they slip on the ends of crutches and 
take the place of brass ferrules; they provide a soft medium be- 
tween the end of the crutch and the ground; they prevent slipping 
and obviate noise and marring the floors; they are not as durable 
as any of the rubber tips previously described. 

Prices as follows: 
1300 — 15. Diameter of hole, H in., base, 34 in 



V2 



1300—16. 

1300—17. 

1300—18. " " M 

1300—19. " " 7A 

1300—20. " " 1 

1300—21. " " IM? 

1300 — 39. Diameter of hole, li/g in., base, 21/3 in., each, 

(Suitable for peg legs.) 
1300 — 44. Diamv-ter of hole, 1% in., base 3 in., each, 

(Suitable for peg legs.) 



7/8 
IK 
IK 



per pair. 



$0.20 
.20 
.20 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.25 
1.00 

1.50 



A. A. Maries, ArUficial Limbs, Neiv York City. 427 



INVALID EECLINING AND KOLLING CHAIES— FOE. SALE OE 

TO EENT 




No. 1351. 

No. 1351. Invalid Eolling Chair, not reclining. 

Height of back from seat '. 21% 

Width of seat 18 

Depth of seat from front to back 17 

Height of seat from floor 20 

Height of seat from foot-board 17 

Height of wheels 30 

Price, oak, $16.00; hand rims, $2.00 extra. Eental, $1.00 per week 




No. 1352. 

No. 1352. Invalid Eeclining Eolling Chair. 
Easily adjusted to any position, from upright to recumbent. 

Height of back from seat 34 in. 

Height of seat from floor 20 in. 

Height of seat from foot-board 17 in. 

Depth of seat, front to back 19 in. 

Height of wheels 30 in. 

"Width of seat 19 in. 

Price, oak, $25.00; hand rims, $2.00 extra. Eental, $1.50 per week. 



428 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limbs, New YorJc City. 




No. 1354. ^ 

No. 1354. Invalid Rolling- Chair, seat resting" on springs, for 
street use, pushed by an attendant; the front wheels can be lifted 
from the ground in passing over obstructions. 

Height of back from seat 26 in. 

Height of back wheels 28 in. 

Height of f ron t wheels 14 in. 

Height of seat from tioor 23 in. 

Height of seat from foot-board 15 in. 

Width of seat 18 in. 

Price, $31.00. Eci.tal, $2.00 per week. 




1355. 



Nos. 1355 & 1356. Invalid Eeclining Eolling Chair. Any position 
can be obtained by the occupant, from upright to recumbent (Cut 
1356); a handle fastens the chair in any desired position; wheels 
have hand rims for street use. 



A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New YorJc City. 429 




No. 1356. 

Height of back from seat 34 in. 

Width of seat 19 in. 

Depth of seat from front to back 19 in. 

Height of seat from floor 20 in. 

Height of seat from foot-board 17 in. 

Height of arms above seat 10 in. 

Height of wheels 30 in. 

Price, oak, $34.00; black walnut, $37.00. Eental, $2.00 per week. 




No. 1357. 

No. 1357. Invalid Reclining Eolling Chair, with Elliptical Springs 
placed under the seat, thus j)reventing the jar caused by rolling 
over uneven ground. Adjustable by the occupant to any angles 
from reclining to recumbent. 

Height of back from seat 34 in. 

Height of wheels 30 in. 

Height of arms above seat 10 in. 

Height of seat from floor 23 in. 

Height of seat from foot-board 17 in. 

Width of seat 19 in. 

Depth of seat 19 in. 

Price, oak, $37.00; black walnut, $40.00. Eental, $2.00 per week. 



430 A. A. Maries, Artificial Limhs, New YorTc City. 




A. MAHKS,N._V> 



No. 1358. 



No. 1358. Invalid Eeelining Roiling- Chair, with divided extension 
foot-rests, peculiarly suitable for persons who desire to have the 
foot-rests adjustable and independent of each other. The occupant 
can control the operations of either leg-rest as v/ell as the back. 
The foot-rests are not only capable of being- placed at different 
angles, but can be lengiihened to accommodate any leg-. 

Dimensions same as No. 1355 and No. 1356. 

Price, oak, $39.00; black walnut, $42.00. 

Rental, $2.50 per week. 

All the preceding chairs have seats and backs caned. They are 
strong, light, and neat, capable of passing through 28-inch doorway. 

Chairs for children and persons weighing over 200 pounds are 
made to order. 

Address: A. A. MARKS, 701 Broadway, New York City. 



INTERIOR OF THE LARGEST ARTIFICIAL LIMB MANU- 
FACTORY IN THE WORLD, 

(Seven Floors of 25x100 feet each.) 




** The capacity repfeseats an output larger tlian the 
aggregate of any other ten Artificial Limb Factories in the 
World."— SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN. 



A. A. MARKS, 70J Broadway, NEW YORK CITY.