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ir«.adf»rrfc»<l from the Lltor**f 
of Congress under Sec. 69, 

OepyHtfbt Act of Mch. 4,1 90&J 





J. Dorman Steele, FTi.D., K.G.S., 

A utkor of the Fourteen IVeeks Series in Natural Science , etc., etc. 

New Popular Chemistry. New Descriptive Astronomy. 

New Popular Physics. New Hygienic Physiology. 

New Popular Zoology. Popular Geology. 

An Introduction to Botany. 

The Publishers can supply (to Teachers only) a Manual containing Answers 
to the Questions and Problems in Steele’s entire Series. 




A Brief History of the United States. 

A Brief History of France. 

A Brief History of Ancient Peoples. 

A Brief History of Mediaeval and Modern Peoples. 
A Brief General History. 

A Brief History of Greece. 

A Brief History of Rome. 

A Popular History of the United States. 


Since the publication of the former edition of this Manual, 
Steele’s Physics and Chemistry have been thoroughly revised, 
and the Hygienic Physiology has been published. The present 
issue has been prepared to accompany these later editions, and 
includes complete reference to all the problems and practical 
questions contained in Steele’s Popular Physics, Popular Chemis¬ 
try? Hygienic Physiology, and Hew Descriptive Astronomy. 
Great pains have been taken to revise and compare the prob¬ 
lems, which are fully, and, it is thought, accurately solved. 
The practical questions, as in the former edition of the Manual, 
are often not answered in full, yet sufficiently so to furnish a 
key to the more perfect reply. The use of the text-books is 
presupposed, and the statements merely supplement, or apply 
the theories therein contained and explained. Upon many points 
there may be, and often is, a difference of opinion. On these 
mooted questions only that view which appeared to the author 
to have preponderance of argument has been advanced, leaving 
the subject open for the discussion of other theories. 

The former- edition of the Manual can still be obtained by 
those teachers who continue to use the earlier editions of the 
Sciences, although, with a few exceptions, the problems and 
questions therein answered are incorporated with those which 
have been added in the present issue. 

December, 1888 . 






36— 1. A rifle-ball thrown against a board standing 
on its end will knock it doivn ; the same bullet fired at the 
board will pass through it without disturbing its position . 
Why is this ? 

The ball which is thrown has time to impart its motion to 
the board; the one fired has not. 

2, Why can a boy skate safely over a piece of thin ice 9 
when 9 if he should pause 9 it would break under him di¬ 
rectly ? 

In the former case there is time for the weight of his body 
to be communicated to the ice; in the latter, there is not. 

3 . Why can a cannon-ball be fired through a door 
standing ajar 9 without moving it on its hinges ? 

Because the cannon-ball is moving so quickly that its mo¬ 
tion is not imparted perceptibly to the door. 

4L. Why can we drive on the head of a hammer by sim¬ 
ply striking the end of the handle ? 

This can only be done by a quick, sharp blow, which will 
drive the wooden handle through the socket before the motion 
has time to overcome the inertia of the iron head. A slow, 
steady blow will be imparted to the head, and so fail of the 
desired effect. 



3, Suppose you were on a train of cars moving at the 
rate of 30 miles per hour; with what force would you be 
thrown forward if the train tvere stopped instantly ? 

With the same velocity which the train had, or 44 feet per 
second. Your momentum would he your mass multiplied by 
this velocity. 

6, In what line does a stone fall from the mast-head of 
a vessel in motion ? 

In a slightly curved line, produced by the two forces—grav¬ 
ity and the forward motion of the vessel. 

«r ' .j , . .... „ ^ , * 

7. If a ball be dropped from a high tower it will strike 
the earth a little east of a vertical line. Why is this ? 

In the daily revolution of the earth on its axis, from west 
to east, the top of the tower moves faster than the bottom, be¬ 
cause it passes through a larger circle. When, therefore, the 
ball falls, it retains that swifter easterly motion, and so strikes 
very slightly east of the vertical. 

S, It is stated that a suit was once brought by the driver 
of a light wagon against the owner of a coach for damages 
caused by a collision. The complaint was that the latter 
was driving so fast, that when the two carriages struck the 
driver of the former was thrown forward over the dash¬ 
board, Shoiv how his own testimony proved him to have 
been at fault. 

When the light wagon was suddenly stopped, its driver went 
on with the same speed at which the wagon was moving. That 
this threw him forward over the dash-board, proves his speed 
to have been unusual. 

9, Suppose a train moving at the rate of 30 miles per 
hour ; on the rear platform is a spring-gun aimed parallel 
with the track, and in a direction precisely opposite to the 
motion of the car. Let a ball be discharged with the exact 
speed of the train, where would it fall ? 

In a vertical line to the track. The two equal, opposite mo¬ 
tions would exactly destroy each other. 



10, Suppose a steamer in rapid motion and on its deck 
a man jumping. Can he jump farther by leaping the 
way the boat is moving or in the opposite direction? 

It will make no difference as long as he jumps on the deck. 
Should he jump off the boat, then the effect would be different. 

11, Could a party play ball on the deck of an ocean 
steam-ship when moving along at the rate of 20 miles 
per hour, without making allowance for the motion of 
the ship ? 

They could. The ball would have the motion of the ship, 
and would move with it in whatever direction they might 
throw it. 

37-12, Since “action is equal to reaction,” why is it not 
so dangerous to receive the “kick” of a gun as the force 
of the bullet ? 

The kinetic energy varies as the square of the velocity ; and 
the velocity with which the gun moves backward is as much 
less than that with which the bullet moves forward, as the gun 
is heavier than the bullet. For this reason a heavy gun will 
kick much less than a light one. 

13, If you ivere to jump from a carriage in rapid 
motion, would you leap directly toward the spot on which 
you tvished to alight? 

No ; because as one jumps from the carriage he has its for¬ 
ward motion, and will go just as far ahead, while leaping, as 
he would if he had remained in the carriage. He should, there¬ 
fore, aim a little back of the desired alighting-place. 

11. If you wished to shoot a bird in swift flight, would 
you aim directly at it? 

No. The bird will fly forward while the bullet is going to 
it. One should, therefore, aim a little in advance. 

15, At what parts of the earth is the centrifugal force 
the least? 

The poles. The distance from axis to surface is there re¬ 
duced to zero. 



16. What causes the mad to fly from the wheels of a 
carriage in rapid motion ? 

The centrifugal force (the momentum of the mud). 

17. What proof have we that the earth was once a soft 
mass ? 

It is flattened at the poles. This effect is produced upon a 
ball of soft clay by simply revolving it on a wire axis. 

18. On a curve in a railroad, why is one track always 
higher than the other ? 

The outer track is raised in order that centrifugal force and 
gravity, acting together, may combine to keep the average 
pressure perpendicular to the track. 

19. What is the principle of the sling ? 

The sling is whirled until a strong centrifugal force is gen¬ 
erated ; the string, the centripetal force, is then released, when 
the stone flies off at a tangent. 

20. The mouth of the Mississippi River is about 2\ miles 
farther from the center of the earth than its source . What 
causes its water to thus “ run up hill 99 ? 

The centrifugal force produced by the rotation of the earth 
on its axis tends to drive the water from the poles toward the 
equator. Were the earth to stand still in its daily rotation, the 
G-ulf of Mexico would empty its waters back through the Mis¬ 
sissippi to the northern regions. 

21. Is it action or reaction that breaks an egg when 1 
strike it against the table ? 

The reaction of the table. 

22. Was the man philosophical who said “ it was not 
the falling so far but the stopping so quick that hurt 
him 99 ? 

He was. 

23. If one person runs against another, tvhich receives 
the greater blow ? 

Action is equal to reaction ; hence the momentum given up 
by the one is equal to that received by the other. 



24. Would it vary the effect if the two persons were 
running in opposite directions ? 

The blow would then be the sum of both their momenta. 

If they were running in the same direction ? 

The blow would be equal to the difference of their momenta. 

25. Why can you not fire a rifle-ball around a hill? 

Because a single force always produces motion in a straight 


26. Why does a heavy gun “kick” less than a light 
one ? 

See problem 12. 

27. A man on the deck of a large steamer draws a 
small boat toward him. Can you express the ratio of the 
ship 9 s motion to that of the boat ? 

The ship moves as much less distance than the boat, as the 
boat’s mass is less than that of the ship. 

28. Suppose a string, fastened with a nail at one end, 
will just support a weight of 25 lbs. at the other. Unfasten 
it, and let two persons pull upon it in opposite directions. 
How much can each pull without breaking it ? 

25 lbs. The second person, in the latter case, can pull as 
much as the nail did in the former. The tension in the string 
is 25 lbs., and the action of the one person is just balanced by 
the reaction of the other. 

29. Can a man standing on a platform-scale make 
himself lighter by lifting up on himself? 

He can not; because action and reaction are equal and op¬ 

30. Why can not a man lift himself by pulling up 
on his boot-straps ? 

See last problem. 

31. With what momentum would a, steam-boat weigh¬ 
ing 1,000 tons, and moving with a velocity of 10 feet per 
second, strike against a sunken rock ? 



1,000 tons = 2,000,000 lbs. 2,000,000 x 10 = 20,000,000 units 
of momentum. 

32, With what momentum would a train of cars weigh - 
tng 100 tons, and running 10 miles per hour, strike against 
an obstacle? 

The velocity per second is 14f feet. 100 tons = 200,000 lbs. 
The momentum is 200,000 x 14§ = 2,933,333^ units of momen¬ 

33, What would be the comparative kinetic energy of 
two hammers, one driven with a velocity of 20 feet per 
second, and the other 10 feet ? 

20 2 = 400. 10 2 = 100. 400 : 100 :: 4 : 1. 

Hence the kinetic energy of the first, or its ability to ac¬ 
complish work, will be four times that of the second. This 
principle is of great importance in all cases where percussion is 
concerned. The highest velocity attainable is to be sought. 

34, If a 100 horse-power engine can propel a steamer 
5 miles per hour, ivill one of 200 horse-power double its 
speed ? 

By no means. Resistance is proportional to v 2 . (See Popu¬ 
lar Physics , p. 65.) To double the velocity would require over 
400 horse-power. 

35, Why are ships becalmed at sea sometimes floated 
by strong currents into dangerous localities without the 
knowledge of the crew ? 

As there are no fixed objects with which to compare their 
motion, the officers are not sensible of any movement, and so 
are drifted far out of their course. 

38 30, A man in a wagon holds a 50-lb, weight in his 
hand. Suddenly the wagon falls over a precipice. Will 
he, while dropping, bear the strain of the weight ? 

No., While on solid ground, his hand resisted the tendency, 
of the weight to fall toward the earth’s center of gravity; but 
all are now descending freely under the influence of gravity, 
and he no longer feels the pressure. 



37 • Why are we not sensible of the rapid motion of the 
earth ? 

Because all the objects around us are moving in the same 
direction with the earth, and there is nothing at hand with 
which to compare. 

38. A feather is dropped from a balloon which is im¬ 
mersed in and swept along by a swift current of air. Will 
the feather be blown away, or will it appear to a person in 
the balloon to drop directly down ? 

It will seem to drop directly downward, as if in a dead 
calm. Its fall is vertical, however, only as regards the balloon, 
and not as regards the earth. 

(See Stewart’s Physics, p. 18.) 


39. Suppose a bomb-shell, flying through the air at the 
rate of 500 feet per second, explodes into two parts of equal 
tv eight, driving one half forward in the same direction as 
before, but with double its former velocity. What would 
become of the other half? 

One half will go forward with a double velocity (= 1,000 feet 
per sec.), and the other half will be checked and will fall directly 
to the ground. 

(See Stewart’s Physics , p. 37.) 

40. Which wotild have the greater penetrating power, 
a small cannon-ball with a high velocity, or a large one 
with a low velocity ? 

The former would penetrate, while the latter would have 
the greater momentum. 

41. There is a story told of a man who erected a huge 
pair of bellows in the stern of his pleasure-boat, that he 
m ight always have a fair wind. On trial, the plan failed. 
In which direction should he have turned the bellows ? 

In the manner adopted at first, of turning the nozzle toward 
the sails, the action of the wind against the sails and the reac¬ 
tion of the bellows against the boat just balanced each other. 
If .the man had turned the nozzle backward, he could have saved 
the reaction of the bellows to move the boat. This would, how¬ 
ever, have been a costly and bungling mode of navigation. 



42. If a man and a boy were riding in a wagon, and, 
on coming to the foot of a hill, the man should take up the 
boy in his arms, would that help the horse ? 

No change would be produced in the weight of the entire 
establishment drawn by the horse, as no readjustment of the 
load would modify the attraction of gravity which produces the 
weight. Also, action = reaction ; so the man would press down 
on the wagon an amount equal to the weight of the boy. 

43. If tee whirl a pail of water swiftly around on its 
own axis, why will the water tend to leave the center of 
the pail ? 

The centrifugal force is compounded with the force of grav¬ 
ity, and at each point of the surface the water level is at right 
angles to their resultant. The centrifugal force increases with 
distance from the axis, hence the water surface becomes con¬ 

44. Why will the foam collect at the hollotv in the cen¬ 

The foam, being lighter than the water, has less momen¬ 
tum, in proportion to its volume, and is forced back by the 
heavier particles. 

45. If two cannon-balls, one weighing 8 lbs. and the 
other 2 lbs., be fired with the same velocity, which will go 
the farther ? 

The former has much less surface in proportion to its weight. 
It will therefore go much farther against the resistance of the 

46. Hesolve the force of the wind which turns a com¬ 
mon windmill, and show how one part acts to push the 
ivheel against its support, and one to turn it around. 

This case is exactly like that of the action of the wind 
against the sail of a ship, as shown in the text on p. 29. 

47. When an animal is jumping or falling, can any 
exertion made in mid-air change the motion of its center 
of gravity ? 



The center of gravity falls steadily 16.08 feet, whatever 
other force may act on the body. 

(See Second Law of Motion.) 

48. If one is riding rapidly, in which direction will he 
he thrown when the horse is suddenly stopped ? 

In the same direction in which he is going. He has the 
motion of the carriage, and his momentum carries him for¬ 

49, When standing in a boat, why, as it starts, are we 
thrown backward ? 

Because our bodies tend to remain stationary, while the 
boat carries our feet forward. 

50, When carrying a cup of tea, if ive move or stop 
quickly, why is the liquid liable to spill ? 

The momentum of the tea tends to keep it still or in mo¬ 
tion, as the case may be. If we move the cup quickly, the 
motion is not imparted to the liquid soon enough to overcome 
this momentum. When, therefore, we start, the tea spills out 
backward; or, when we stop, it spills out forward. We under¬ 
stand this if we can tell why a cup of tea is more liable to 
spill than one of sugar. 

51, Why, when closely pursued, can we escape by dodg¬ 

We turn sharply. Our pursuer, ignorant of our design, can 
not overcome his momentum so as to turn as quickly, and 
hence is carried past. 

52, Why is a carriage or sleigh, when sharply turning 
a corner, liable to tip over ? 

Because its momentum tends to carry it directly forward. 

53, Why, if yon place a card on your finger, and on top 
of it a cent, can you snap the card from under the cent 
without knocking the latter off your finger ? 

Because the friction between the card and the cent is so 
slight that, by a quick snap, you can give motion to the former 
without affecting the latter enough to make it fall off. 



54. Why is a “ running jump 99 longer than a “stand¬ 
ing jump 99 ? 

This is an example under the first law of motion. The mo¬ 
mentum of the person when running (mxv) is added to the 
force with which he finally springs from the ground for the 

,7,7. Why, after the sails of a vessel are furled, does it 
still continue to move ? and why, after the sails are spread, 
does it require some time to get it tinder full headway? 

This illustrates the tendency of matter to continue in its 
present state, whether of rest or of motion. For the former 
part of the question, apply the first law of motion, and for the 
latter, the second paragraph on p. 21 of the Physics. If, on 
starting with a heavy load, the horses leap suddenly forward, 
they will break the harness; but, by a steady, constantly-in¬ 
creased draught, they will communicate motion to the mass. 

56. Why can a tallow candle he fired through a hoard ? 

Because of its high velocity. Motion can not be communi¬ 
cated at once to the entire mass of the board, hence this yields 
at the place where pressure is suddenly applied. 


48— 4. Why can we not weld apiece of copper to one of 
iron ? 

Cohesion acts most readily between molecules of the same 

2. Why is a har of iron stronger than one of wood? 

All we can say is that there is more cohesion between its 
molecules. The wood, moreover, is perforated with minute hol¬ 
low tubes, so that its molecules can not be so compactly massed 
together as those of the iron. 

3, Why may a piece of iron, when perfectly welded, he 
stronger than before it was broken ? 

By the hammering, more particles are brought within the 
range of cohesion. 



4. Why do drops of different liquids vary in size ? 

Because they vary in cohesive force. 

5. Why, when you drop medicine, will the last few 
drops contained in the bottle be of a larger size than the 
others ? 

The pressure of the liquid in the bottle is less, and there¬ 
fore they form more slowly. 

(i. Why are drops larger if you drop them slowly ? 

There is more time for the adhesive force of the bottle to 
act on the liquid, and so a larger drop can be gathered. 

7. Why, if you melt scraps of zinc, will they form a 
solid mass when cooled ? 

The heat overcomes, in part, the attraction of cohesion, so 
that the particles flow freely on each other. They now all 
come within the range of cohesion, so that when the metal 
cools they are held by that force in a solid mass. 

8. In ivhat liquids is the force of cohesion greatest? 

Mercury, molasses, etc. 

.9. Name some solids that will volatilize without melt¬ 
ing . 

Arsenic, camphor. 

10. Why can glass be welded ? 

Because, like iron, it becomes viscous before melting. 

11. Name some substances that can not be welded. Why 
not ? 

Wood can not be welded, nor can lead or bismuth. They 
can not be made to assume the viscous condition. 

12. What liquids tvould you select for showing surface 
tension ? 

Solution of soap in water is the most convenient. The dif¬ 
ference in tension between films of different kinds of liquid is 
well shown by carefully dropping oil of coriander or oil of cin¬ 
namon, or minute fragments of clean camphor on the surface 
of perfectly clean water. 




54— 1 . Why does cloth shrink when wet ? 

By adhesion the water is drawn into the pores of the cloth. 
The fibers are thus expanded sidewise and shortened length¬ 
wise. The cloth “ fulls up” or thickens while it shortens and 
narrows ( shrinks) in the process. 

2. Why do sailors at a boat-race wet the sails ? 

The pores being full and expanded make the sails more 
compact. They will, therefore, hold the wind better. 

3 . JVhy does not ivriting-paper blot ? 

Because the pores are filled with sizing. (See Popular Chem¬ 
istry, p. 216.) 

4. Why does paint tend, to prevent wood from shrink¬ 

Because it fills the pores of the wood at its surface. 

o. What is the shape of the surface of a glass of water 
and one of mercury ? 

Ordinarily the former is concave and the latter convex. 

6*. Why can we not dry a towel perfectly by wringing ? 

Because of the strength of the force of adhesion, by which 
the water is held in the pores of the cloth. 

7 . Why will not water run through a fine sieve when 
the wires have been greased ? 

Because of reversed capillarity between oil and water. 

5. Why will camphor dissolve easily in alcohol and not 
in water ? 

Because there is a strong adhesion between the alcohol and 
camphor, and but little between the water and camphor. 

9. Why will mercury rise in zinc tubes as water does in 
glass tubes ? 

Because of the strong adhesion between zinc and mercury. 



10. Why will ink spilled on the edge of a book extend 
farther inside than if spilled on the side of the leaves ? 

Because the sensible pores of the paper are short, being only 
the thickness of a leaf, while the spaces between the leaves are 
longer and continuous. 

11. If you should happen to spill some ink on the edge 
of your book, ought you to press the leaves together ? 

Yes; to make it as nearly solid as possible, until blotting pa¬ 
per can be applied to remove what has not soaked into the book. 

12. Why can you not mix oil and water? 

Because there is little adhesion between them. 

IS. Why tvill water wet your hand while mercury will 
not ? 

Because in the former case there is strong adhesion, in the 
latter but little. 

14. Why is a tub or pail liable to fall to pieces if not 
filled with tvater or kept in the cellar ? 

Because the moisture dries out of the pores, and the wood 
shrinks so as to let the hoops fall off. 

15. Name instances where the attraction of adhesion is 
stronger than that of cohesion. 

Wood fastened by glue will often split before the glue will 
yield. Paper stuck with paste, and bricks with mortar, are also 

16. Why does the water in Fig. 18 stand higher inside 
of the tube than next the glass on the outside ? 

There is the influence of a larger surface of glass in pro¬ 
portion to the quantity of water to be lifted. 

17. Why will clothes-lines tighten and sometimes break 
during a shower ? 

The rope absorbs water, and expands transversely. This 
shortens it with so much force as often to break it. The 
shrinking of new cloth when wet illustrates the same prin¬ 



IS. In casting large cannon, the gun is cooled by a 
stream of cold water. Why ? 

The object of this is to cause the iron to cool more quickly, 
and so not give the molecules time to arrange themselves in 

19. Why does paint adhere to wood? Chalk to the 
blackboard ? 


These are illustrations of the force of adhesion. 

20. Why does a towel dry one’s face after washing ? 

The sensible pores of the cloth absorb the water from the 
face by adhesion. 

21. Why will a greased needle float on water ? 

The grease prevents the needle from being wetted, and the 
toughness of the surface film of water is sufficient to with¬ 
stand the weight of the needle. 

22. Why is the point of a pen slit ? 

So that we may widen at will the surface of contact be¬ 
tween the ink and the paper. The ink is prevented from de¬ 
scending rapidly, when the slit is not open, by the grip of its 
surface film. 

23. If hy is a thin layer of glue stronger than a thick 

The adhesion between the glue and the wood is stronger 
than the cohesion between the particles of glue; hence the 
thinner the layer of glue the fewer the particles acted upon 
only by the latter or weaker force. 


73 !• Tf hen an apple falls to the ground , how much 
does the earth rise to meet it ? 

The earth falls as much less distance than the apple, as its 
mass is greater. 



Will a body weigh 'more in a valley than on a mount¬ 

It will, because the distance to the earth’s center is less. 

3. Will a pound weight fall more slowly than a two- 
pound weight ? 

They will both fall in the same time, except the slight dif¬ 
ference which is caused by the resistance of the air. Galileo 
propounded this view, and proved it, in the presence of wit¬ 
nesses, by letting unequal weights fall from the leaning tower 
of Pisa. 

How deep is a well, if it takes three seconds for a stone 
to fall to the bottom of it ? 

S = 16 x 3 2 = 144 feet. 

5, Is the center of gravity always within a body — as, 
for example, a pair of tongs ? 

No. It may be entirely outside, and is usually so for a pair 
of tongs. 

(*. In a ball of equal density throughout, where is the 
center of gravity ? 


At the center of the ball. 

7. Why does a ball roll down hill ? 

Because the line of direction falls without the small base of 
the ball. 

S. Why is it easier to roll a round body than a square 

Because the base of the ball is so much smaller, and there¬ 
fore the center of gravity need not be raised to bring the line 
of direction without. 

9. Why is it easier to tip over a load of hay than one of 
stone ? 

Because the center of gravity in a load of hay is very high, 
and in a load of stone very low. Therefore the center of grav- 




ity in the former need not be raised much to bring the line of 
direction without the base, while in the latter it must be. 

10. Why is a py ramid the stablest of structures ? 

Because the base is so broad and the center of gravity so 
low. The center of gravity must therefore be lifted very high 
before the line of direction will fall without the base. 

11. When a hammer' is thrown, on which end does it 
most often strike ? 

The heavier end. 

12. Why does a rope-walker carry a heavy balancing - 
pole ? 

Because in this way he can easily shift his center of 

13. What would become of a ball if dropped into a hole 
bored through the center of the earth ? 

If we assume the earth to be at rest, the ball will move 
with diminishing acceleration, but increasing speed, to the cen¬ 
ter. The momentum thus acquired would carry it an equal 
distance beyond, if there be no resistances, and the acceleration 
being now negative, the ball will be brought momentarily to 
rest at the surface on the opposite side. It will then fall back 
past the center, and continue thus oscillating forever. If we 
assume the earth to be rotating, the ball will sink from fast- 
moving toward slow-moving parts, and strike against the side 
of the hole. Friction will soon bring it to rest at the earth’s 

11. Would a clock lose or gain time if carried to the top 
of a mountain ? 

It would lose time, because the force of gravity would be 
lessened. At the North Pole it would gain time, because there 
the force of gravity would be increased. 

15. In the tv inter, would you raise or lower the pendu¬ 
lum-bob of your clock ? 



I would lower it, since the cold of winter shortens the pen¬ 
dulum, and this movement of the hob would counteract that 

16. Why is the pendulum-bob generally made flat ? 

To decrease the friction of the air. 

17. What beats off the time in a watch ? 

The vibration of the balance-wheel. 

18. Is solved in the book. 

19. What should be the length of a pendulum at New 
York to vibrate half-seconds ? 

(1 sec.) 2 : (| sec.) 2 :: 39.1 in. : x — 9.7 +inches. 

To vibrate quarter-seconds ? 

(1 sec.) 2 : (£ sec.) 2 :: 39.1 in. \ x — 2.4 + inches. 

To vibrate hours ? 

(1 sec.) 2 : (3600 sec.) 2 :: 39.1 in. : x = 7997.7 miles.* 

20. What is the proportionate time of vibration of two 
pendulums, 16 and 61 inches long, respectively ? 

According to the 2d law of pendulums, 

Time of vib. of 1st: Time of vib. of 2d :: ^/16 : ^/64 :: 4 : 8 :: 1:2. 

21. Why, when you are standing erect against a wall, 
and a piece of money is placed between your feet, can you 
not stoop forward and pick it up ? 

By leaning forward you bring the center of gravity in front 
of your feet, and, as on account of the wall, you can not 
throw any part of your body back to preserve the balance, you 
fall forward. 

22. If a tower were 198 feet high , tvith what velocity 
would a stone, dropped from the summit, strike the 
ground ? 

v* = 2gh (See p. 64, foot-note.) 

*>• = 64x198 
v = 112.5 feet. 

* Nearly the diameter of the earth. 


23. A body falls in 5 seconds: with what velocity does 
it strike the ground ? 

v = 32 1. v = 32 x 5. v = 160 feet. 

74 —24. How far will a body fall in 10 seconds? 

s = 16 1\ s — 16 x 10 2 = 1600 feet. 

With what velocity will it strike the ground ? 

v - 32 1. v = 32 x 10 = 320 feet. 

25. A body is thrown upward with a velocity of 192 
feet the first second ; to what height will it rise ? 

Equation (1), v = 32 1. 192 = S2t. t = 6 sec. 

“ (2), s = 16£ 2 . s = 16 x 6 3 = 576 feet. 

26. A ball is shot upward with a velocity of 256 feet; 
to what height tvill it rise ? How long will it continue to 
ascend ? 

Using equations (1) and (2), as in the last problem, we have 

t = 8 sec. 
s = 1024 feet. 

28. Are any two plumb-lines parallel ? 

They are not, since they point to the earth’s center of- grav¬ 
ity. No two spokes of a wheel can be parallel. 

29. A stone let fall from a bridge strikes the water in 
three secon ds . What is the height ? 

s = 16£ 2 . s = 16 x 3 2 = 144 feet. 

30. A stone falls from a church steeple in 4= seconds . 
What is the height ? 

s — 16£ 2 . 5 — 16 x 4 2 = 256 feet. 

31. How far would a body fall the first second at a 
height of 12,000 miles above the earth 9 s surface? 

(16,000 mi.) 2 : (4000 mi.) 2 :: 16 feet: x = 1 foot. 

32. A body at the surface of the earth weighs 100 tons; 
what would be its weight 1,000 miles above ? 

(5000 mi.) 2 : (4000 mi.) 2 :: 100 tons : x = 64 tons. 



33, A boy wishing to find the height of a steeple lets fig 
an arrow that just reaches the top, and then falls to the 
ground, Tt is in the air 6 seconds. Required the height. 

s = 16£*. s = 16 x 3 2 = 144 feet. 

34, An object let fall from a balloon reaches the 
ground in 10 seconds. Required the distance. 

s = 16 x 10 2 = 1600 ft. 

35, In what time will a pendulum 40 feet long make a 
vibration ? 

According to the 2d law of pendulums, and taking the 
length of a seconds pendulum as 39 in., we have: 

1 sec. : x :: -y/39 : /y/40 x 12 in. 

x = 3.5 +sec. 

36, Two bodies in space are 12 miles apart. They 
weigh 100 and 200 lbs, respectively. If they should 
fall together by force of their mutual attraction 9 what 
portion of the distance would be passed over by each 

The distance passed over by the two bodies is inversely as 
their mass ; hence one moves 8 miles and the other 4 miles. 

37 , If a body weighs 2,000 lbs, upon the surface of 
the earth, what would it weigh 2,000 miles above ? 

(6000 mi.) 2 : (4000 mi.) 2 :: 2000 lbs. : x = 888f lbs. 

Hoiv much 500 miles above ? 

(4500 mi.) 2 : (4000 mi.) 2 :: 2000 lbs. : cc = 1580 +lbs. 

38, At what distance above the surface of the earth will 
a body fall, the first second, 21\ inches? 

A body falls 16 feet* (192 inches) at the surface of the 
earth. 21£ inches are | of 192 inches. Now, as the attraction 
is inversely as the square of the distance, the distance must be 

* According to the best authorities the distance is more nearly feet. 



-y/9, or 3 times that at the surface. Hence, the body must be 
12,000 miles from the center, or 8,000 miles from the surface 
of the earth. The problem may be solved directly by propor¬ 
tion, thus: 

x 2 : 4000 2 :: 192 inches : 21£ inches. 
x = 12000 miles (distance from the center). 

12000 miles—4000 miles = 8000 miles. 

39, How far will a body fall in 8 seconds ? 1,024 feet. 
—In the 8th second? 240 feet. — In 10 seconds? 1,600 
feet. — In the 30th second ? 944 feet. 

10, How long would it take for a pendulum one mile in 
length to make a vibration ? 

According to the second law of pendulums (Physics, p. 69), 

1 sec. : x : :^/39 :<y/5280 x 12 in. 
x = 40 +sec. 

41, What would be the time of vibration of a pendulum 
04 meters long ? 

(1 sec.) 2 : x 2 :: 1 meter (nearly): 64 meters. 
x = 8 seconds (nearly). 

42, A ball is dropped from a height of 04 feet. At the 
same moment a second ball is thrown upward with suffi¬ 
cient velocity to reach the same point. Where will the two 
balls pass each other ? 

At the end of one second. The first ball would fall 64 feet 
in 2 seconds ; the second would rise for 2 seconds, and they 
would pass in 1 second, 48 feet above the ground. 

43, Explain the following fact: A straight stick loaded 
with lead at one end can be more easily balanced vertically 
on the finger when the loaded end is upward than when 
it is downward, 

"When the loaded end is upward a slighter motion is needed 
to bring the line of direction within the base. The principle is 
similar to that of the balancing-pole of the gymnast. 



44. If a body weighing 1 lb. on the earth were carried 
to the sun, it would weigh 27 lbs. How much would it at¬ 
tract the sun? Ans. 27 lbs. 

75— 45. Why does watery vapor float and rain fall ? 

Perfect vapor, which is quite invisible, is lighter than air, 
and is diffused through it. When condensed into minute drop¬ 
lets forming clouds, these are prevented from falling fast be¬ 
cause of the great amount of surface, in proportion to their 
weight, exposed to the resistance of the air. 

46. If a body weighs 10 kilos, on the surface of the 
earth, what will it weigh 1,000 km. above ? 

x : 10 kilos. :: (6,366 *) 2 : (7.366) 2 
x = 7.5 kilograms. 

47• A body is thrown vertically upward with a velocity 
of 100 meters, lloiv long before it will return to its origi¬ 
nal position ? Ans. 20.4 seconds. 

48. IIow much time will be required for a body to fall 
a distance of 2,000 meters ? 

Equation (6) s = %gt*. 2,000 = 


.\t — 20.2 seconds. 

49. What would be the time of vibration of a pendulum 
39.1 inches long at the surface of the moon, ivhere the ac¬ 
celeration of gravity is only 4.8 ft. ? 


1 1 

t : V :: —— : : -—— (see 3d Law of Pendulum, p. 69). 

V9 V9 

i. t' • • —4_ • _ 

V — 2.58 seconds. 

50. What would be the time of vibration for the 
same pendulum at the surface of the sun, ivhere the accel- 

* The radius, or semi-diameter of the earth, is given hy French as¬ 
tronomers at 6,366 km. 



eration of gravity is 27 times what it is at the earth’s sur¬ 
face ? 

\ ■ t' '' ^ ^ - - 

V 32 * V 27 x 33 

V = .19 +second. 

51. How many vibrations per minute would be made 
at the surface of the moon by a pendulum 40 ft. long ? 

First find the time of a single vibration. 


40 x 12 


t = 9 + seconds. 

Hence, in a minute, the number of vibrations will be not 
quite 7. 

52. A pendulum vibrates 200 times in 15 minutes. 
What is its length ? 

15 x 60 , 

= seconds, the time of a single vibration. 

1 : :: <\/39.1 : \/x 

x = 791.8 inches, or 66 feet nearly. 

53. For a certain cloth in New York the pendulum was 
made 500 lbs. in weight. IVhat teas the object in making 
it so heavy ? 

To secure regularity of motion by means of the large mass, 
so that variations in resistance may be avoided as nearly as 

54. Pendulums are often supported by knife-edges of 
steel resting on plates of agate. Why ? 

Because the friction between steel and agate is less than if 
any other substances are used. It is desirable to avoid friction 
as completely as possible. 

55. The acceleration of gravity at the equator is 32.088 
ft.; at the pole, 32.253ft. If a pendulum vibrates 3,600 
times an hour at the equator, how many times an hour 
will it vibrate at the pole ? 



The number of vibrations per hour varies inversely as the 
time of vibration of the pendulum. For t in the formula, 
therefore, we may substitute the reciprocal of the number of 
vibrations per hour. 

3600 x" -y/32.088 * \/32.253 
x = 3,609.36 times. 


94 - 1. Describe the rudder of a boat as a lever. 

The water is the F, the boat the W, and the hand the P. 
As the W is between the F and the P, it is a lever of the 
second class. By similar reasoning it is easy to analyze the 
remaining cases, a door, a door-latch, etc. 

95— 2, Show the change that occurs from the second to 
the third class of levers, tv hen you take hold of a ladder at 
one end and raise it against a building. 

At first the ground is the F at one end, the hand the P 
at the other, and the ladder the W hanging between ; hence this 
is a lever of the second class. After a little, the F remaining 
the same, the P is applied at one end, near the F, and the 
ladder is the W hanging at the other ; hence this is now a 
lever of the third class. 

3, Why is a pinch from the tongs near the hinge more 
severe than one near the end ? 

Because in the former case the tongs are a lever of the 
first class—in the latter, of the third. In the first class there 
is a gain of power, in the third a loss. 

4, Two persons are carrying a iveight of 250 lbs., 
hanging between them from a pole 10 feet in length. 
Where should it be suspended so that one will lift only 50 
lbs, ? 

One lifts 50 lbs. ; the other 200 lbs. The proportionate 
length of the arms of the lever should be the same as the 
proportionate weights —fie., 1 to 4. ■ 10 + 5 = 2, the unit of 



measure. Hence one arm is 2 feet long and the other 8 feet 
long. Proof.— 50 x 8 = 200 x 2. This is the substance also of 
the equation P x Pd = W xWd. 


5. In a lever of the first class, G feet long, where should 
the F be placed so that a F of 1 lb, will balance a W of 23 
lbs. ? 

6 feet = 72 inches. 72 -f- 24 = 3, the unit of distance. The 
W must be placed 3 in. and the P 69 in. from the P. Proof.— 
23 x 3 = 1 x 69 (Prob. 4). 

G. What P would be required to lift a barrel of pork 
with a windlass whose aocle is one foot in diameter and 
handle 3 ft. long ? 

P : W : rad. of axle :: rad. of wheel. 
x : 200 lbs. :: ^ ft. : 3 ft. 
x = 33^ lbs. 

7. What sized axle, with a wheel 6 feet in diameter, 
would be required to balance a W of 1 ton by a F of 100 
lbs. ? 

P : W :: diameter of axle : diameter of wheel. 

100 lbs. : 2,000 lbs.:: x : 6 ft. 
x = T % ft. = the diameter. 

8. What number of movable pulleys tvould be required 

to lift a W of 200 lbs. with a P of 25 lbs. ? 


W = P x twice the number of movable pulleys ; 


hence -p- = twice the number of movable pulleys. 

200 -^-25 = 8. 8-*-2 = 4 = the number required. 

9. How many lbs. could be lifted with a system of 4 
movable pulleys, and one fixed pulley to change the direc¬ 
tion of the force, by a P of 100 lbs. ? 

W = P x twice the number of movable pulleys. 

100 lbs. x (4 x 2) = 800 lbs. = the W. 



10. What weight could be lifted with a single horse 
power {33,000 lbs. one foot high per minute) acting on a 
system of pulleys shown in Fig. 62 ? 

W = 33,000 x2x2x2x2 = 528,000 lbs. 

11. What distance should there be between the threads 
of a screw, that a F of 25 lbs., acting on a handle 3 ft. 
long, may lift 1 ton weight ? 

P : W :: Interval: Circumference. 

25 lbs. : 2,000 lbs. :: x : 72 in. x 3.1416. 
x = 2.83 — in. 

12. How high could a F of 12 lbs., moving 16 ft. along 
an inclined plane, lift a W of 96 lbs. ? 

P : W :: height: length. 

12 lbs. : 96 lbs. :: x : 16 ft. 
x — 2 ft. 

13. I wish to roll a barrel of flour into a ivagon, the 
booc of ivhich is 4 ft. from the ground. I can lift but 24 
lbs. How long a plank should I get ? 

P : W :: height: length. 

24 lbs. : 196 lbs. :: 4 ft. : x — 32f ft. 

14. What W can be lifted with a F of 100 lbs. acting 
on a screw having threads 1 in. apart , and a handle 4 ft. 

P : W :: Interval: Circumference. 

100 : cc :: 1:4x12x3.1416 
x = 15,079.68. 

15. What is the object of the balls often cast on the ends 
of the handle of the screw used in presses for copying let¬ 
ters ? 

By their momentum they make the motion more uniform 
and continuous. 

16. In a steelyard 2 ft. long, the distance from the 
weight-hook to the fulcrum-hook is 2 in. How heavy a 
body can be weighed with a 1 lb. weight ? 

24 in. - 2 in. = 22 in. 1 lb. x 22 = 22 lbs. = P. 

22 lbs.--*- 2 = 11 lbs. = W. 



17. Describe the change from the 1st to the 3d class of 
levers, in the different ways of using a spade. 

When digging, the ground at the back of the spade is the 
F; the ground lifted is the W ; and the hand at the other end 
is the P. As the W is at one end, P at the other, and the P 
between, this is a lever of the 1st class. When throwing dirt, 
the left hand at one end of the spade is the P; the dirt at the 
other end is the W, and the right hand between the two is the 
P. As the P is between the F and the W, this is a lever of 
the 3d class. 

18. Why are not blacksmiths’ tongs and fire tongs con¬ 
structed on the same principle ? 

The former are of the 1st class, as power is required: the 
latter of the 3d class, as rapidity only is necessary. 

19. In a lever of the 3d class, what W will a F of 50 
lbs. balance, if one arm is 12 ft. and the other 3 ft. long ? 

P : W :: Wd : PcZ. 

50 lbs. : x :: 12 ft. : 3 ft. 
x = 12^ lbs. 

96 — 20. In a lever of the 2d class, what W will a F of 
50 lbs. balance, with a lever 12 feet long and W 3 feet 
from the F ? 

50 lbs. : x :: 3 ft. : 12 ft. 
x = 200 lbs. 

21. In a lever of the 1st class , what W will a F of 50 
lbs. balance, with a lever 12 ft. long and the F 3 ft. from 
the W? 

50 lbs. : x :: 3 ft. : 9 ft, 
x = 150 lbs. _ _ 

22. In a wheel and axle, the F = 40 lbs., W = 360 lbs., 
diameter of axle = 8 in. Required the circumference of 
the wheel. 

P : W :: diameter of axle : diam. of wheel. 

40 lbs. : 360 lbs. :: 8 in. : x = 72 in. = 6 ft., the diameter of wheel. 
6 ft. x 3.1416 = 18.85 ft., the circumference of the wheel. 



23. Suppose in a wheel and axle the P = 20 lbs., the 7V~ 
240 lbs. 9 and the diameter of wheel = 4 ft. Required the 
circumference of the axle. 

20 lbs. : 240 lbs. :: x : 48 in. 
x = 4 in. (diameter of axle). 

4 in. x 3.1416 = 12.56 in. (circumference). 

24. Required 9 in a wheel and axle, the diameter of the 
wheel 9 the diameter of the axle being 10 inches 9 R — 100 
lbs. and IV = 1 ton. 

100 lbs. : 2,000 lbs. :: 10 in. : cc = 200 in. = 16f ft. 

25. Why is the rim of a fly-wheel made so heavy ? 

The largest momentum possible is desired. The velocity of 
a particle is proportional to its radius in rotation. Hence the 
largest part of the mass of the wheel is fixed at the rim. 

26. Describe the hammer 9 when used in drawing a 
nail, as a bent lever, i. e. 9 one in which the bar is not 

If a lever is bent, or if, when it is straight, the bar is not 
at right angles to the lines of action of the P and the W, it is 
necessary to distinguish between the arms of a lever and the 
arms of the P and the W, regarded as forces which have mo¬ 
ments around the F. In the latter sense, the arms are the per¬ 
pendiculars, dropped from the F to the lines of action of the 
P and the W. 

27. Describe the four levers shown in Fig. 46, when 
both the load of hay and the tv eight are considered, re¬ 
spectively, as the TV and the P. 

This is so fully answered in the text that no further expla¬ 
nation seems necessary. The pupil should be required to as¬ 
sume values for the W and for each of the lever arms, and 
compute the weight of the wagon and hay together. Call his 
attention to the fact that half the weight of the wagon and 
hay is transmitted at the point P, and the other half at P'; 
also that the vertical rod at the lift serves only as a connector, 
and not as a lever. 




I 1 9—1. Why can housekeepers test the strength of lye 9 
by trying whether or not an egg will float on it? 

The potash dissolved in the water to form lye increases the 
density of the liquid. When enough has been dissolved to make 
its specific gravity greater than that of-the egg, the egg will 
float. This becomes, therefore, a simple but rough means of 
testing the amount of potash contained in the lye. 

2. How much water will it take to make a gallon of 
strong brine? 

A gallon. The salt does not increase the volume of the 

3. Why ought a fat man to swim more easily than a 
lean one ? 

Because muscles and bones are heavier than fat. The spe¬ 
cific gravity of a fat man is, therefore, less than that of a lean 

6. If ice let bubbles of air pass up through a jar of 
water, why will they become larger as they ascend ? 

The pressure of the water is less as they near the top, and 
so they expand. 

7. What is the pressure on a canal lock-gate 14= feet 
high and 10 feet wide, when the lock is f ull of water ? 

14 x 10 x 7 x 1,000 oz. = 980,000 oz. = 61,250 lbs. 

8. Will a pail of water weigh any more with a live fish 
in it than without ? 

If the pail were full before the fish was put in, then it will 
make no difference, since the fish will displace its own weight 
of water, which will run over. If the pail is only partially 
filled, then, though the fish is upheld by the buoyancy of the 
water, since action is equal to reaction, it adds its own weight 
to that of the water. 



9. If the water filtering down through a rock should 
collect in a crevice an inch square and 250 feet high, open¬ 
ing at the bottom into a closed fissure having 20 square 
feet of surface, what would be the total pressure tending to 
burst the rock? 

Neglecting the diameter of the fissure, the pressure is the 
same on every square inch of the twenty square feet of sur¬ 

250 x 1,000 oz. x 20 x 144 q-iokaaik 
- -——-= 312,500 lbs. 


10. Why can stones in water be moved so much more 
easily than on land? 

Because the water buoys up nearly one half of their 

11. Why is it so difficult to wade in the water where 
there is any current ? 

Because we have to move not only the weight of our own 
bodies, but also the water. The kinetic energy of this is pro¬ 
portional to the mass displaced, and to the square of its velocity. 

120— 12. Why is a mill-dam or a canal embankment 
made small at the top and large at the bottom ? 

Because the pressure of the water increases with the depth. 

13. In digging canals, ought the engineer to take into 
consideration the curvature of the earth ? 

There is no necessity to do so. A water level is in practice 
assumed to be horizontal. In geodetic surveys, like that of the 
coast line of a country, allowance has to be made for the cur¬ 
vature of the earth. Station points twenty miles apart, or 
more, are taken, between which the earth’s curvature is readily 
calculable and perceptible. 

14. Why doesnthe bubble of air in a spirit-level move 
as the instrument is turned ? 

Because the air is lighter than the alcohol, and rises con¬ 
stantly to the highest point. For this reason, also, the tube is 
curved so as to be convex at the center. 



15, Can a sivimmer tread on pieces of glass at the bot¬ 
tom, of the water with less danger than on land ? 

Yes. But he would still find it unadvi sable to try the ex¬ 

16, Will a vessel displace more water in a fresh river 
than in the ocean ? 

In the fresh river, because the specific gravity, and hence 
the buoyancy, of fresh water is less. 

17, Will iron sink in mercury ? 

No. It will float, like a cork on water. 

18, The water in the reservoir in New York is about 80 
feet above the fountain vn the City Hall Park, If hat is 
the pressure on a single inch of the pipe at the latter point ? 

(1,000 oz. X 80) -5- 144 = 34.7 lbs. 

It), Why does cream rise on milk ? 

Because it is lighter than the milk. 

20. There is a story told of a Chinese boy who accident¬ 
ally dropped his ball into a deep hole, where he could not 
reach it. He filled the hole with water, but the ball would 
not quite float. He finally bethought himself of a lucky 
expedient, which was successf ul. Can you guess it ? 

He put salt in the water. 

21. Which has the greater buoyant force, oil or water? 

Water, because its density is greater. 

22. What is the weight of 1 cu. ft. of cork ? 

1,000 oz. = the weight of 1 cu. ft. of water. 

.240 = the spec. grav. of cork.^ 

240 oz. = the weight of 1 cu. ft. of cork. 


960 oz. — the weight of 4 cu. ft. of cork. 
= 60 lbs. 



23. How many oz. of iron will a cubic foot of cork float 
in water ? 

1,000 oz. = weight of a cubic foot of water. 

.240 = spec. grav. of cork. 

240 = weight of a cubic foot of cork. 

1,000 oz. — 240 oz. = 760 oz., the buoyant force of a cubic foot. 

24. What is the specific gravity of a body whose tv eight 
in air is 30 grs. and in water 20 grs. ? 

30 grs. — 20 grs. = 10 grs. 

30 grs. -r- 10 grs. — 3. 

The body is three times as heavy as water. 

25. Which is heavier, a pail of fresh-water or one of 
salt-water ? 

A pail of salt-water is as much heavier than one of fresh¬ 
water as the weight of the salt added to make the brine. 

26. The weights of apiece of syenite-rock in air and in 
water were 3941.8 grs. and 2607.5 grs. Find its spec, 
grav. — Ans. 2.954. 

27. A specimen of green sapphire from Siam weighed 
in air 21.45 grs., and in water 16.33 grs. Required its 
spec. grav. — Ans. 4.189. 

28. A specimen of granite weighs in air 534.8 grs., 
and in water 334.6 grs. What is the spec, grav.? — Ans. 

29. What is the volume of a ton of iron ? 

1,000 oz. = weight of 1 cu. ft. of water 
7.8 = spec. grav. of iron. 

7,800 oz. = weight of a cu. ft. of iron. 

32,000 oz. (a ton of iron) -f- 7,800 (weight of a cu. ft.) = 4^\ cu. ft. 



A ton of gold ? 

1,000 oz. = weight of a cu. ft. of water. 
19.34 = spec. grav. of gold. 

19,340 oz. * = weight of a cu. ft. of gold. 
32,000 oz.* ~ 19,340 oz. = 1.6, the no. of cu. ft. 

A ton of copper ? 

1,000 oz. x 8.9 = 8,900 oz. 

32,000 oz. 8,900 oz. = 3.6 (nearly) the no. of cu. ft. 

30. What is the iveight of a cube of gold 4 feet on each 
side ? 

4 3 = 64, the no. of cu. ft. 

19,340 oz.* (no of oz. in 1 cu. ft.) x 64 — 77,360 lbs. 

31. A cistern is 12 ft. long, 6* ft. wide, and 10 ft. deep. 
When full of water, what is the pressure on each side? 

On one side, 12 x 10 x 5 x 1,000 oz. = 600,000 oz. = 37,500 lbs. 
On one end, 6 x 10 x 5 x 1,000 oz. = 300,000 oz. = 18,750 lbs. 

32. Why does a dead fish always float on its back ? 

It has its swimming-bladder located just under the spine; 
and this is the lightest part of its body, and, of course, comes 
to the top as soon as the fish dies. 

34. A vessel holds 10 lbs. of water; how much mer¬ 
cury would it contain ? 

Mercury is 13.5 times heavier than water. Hence the vessel 
would contain 10 lbs. x 13.5 = 135 lbs. of mercury. 

35. A stone weighs 70 lbs. in air and 50 in water. 
What is its bulk ? 

70 — 50 ='20. 20 x 16 oz. = 320 oz., the weight of water displaced. 

320 oz. is ^ of a cu. ft. 

* In these solutions the student should notice that avoirdupois weight 
is used in weighing the gold. To he exact, 1,000 oz., the weight of a cu. 
ft. of water, should he reduced to Troy weight, and the lb. gold taken as 
12 oz. Troy, when the answer would be about 1.36 cu. ft. 



36. A hollow ball of iron weighs 10 lbs.: ivhat mast be 
its volume to float in water ? 

10 lbs. = 160 oz. As a cubic ft. of water weighs 1,000 oz., 
the ball must displace such a part of a cu. ft. of water as 160 
oz. is of 1,000 oz., or .16 cu. ft. 

37. Suppose that Kiero’s crown was an alloy of silver 
and gold, and weighed 22 oz. in air and 20\ oz. in water. 
What was the proportion of each metal ? 

“Multiply the specific gravity of each ingredient by the 
difference between it and the specific gravity of the compound. 
As the sum of the products is to the respective products, so is 
the specific gravity of the body to the proportions of the in¬ 
gredients. Then, as the specific gravity of the compound is to 
the weight of the compound, so is each of the proportions to 
the weight of its material .”—American Cyclopedia. 

Second method: 

Let A = mass of crown = 22 
“ B = sp. gr. “ = 14.66 

“ x = mass of gold 


and since 

“ x / = sp. gr. “ = 19.26 

“ y = mass of silver 
“ y' = sp. gr. “ = 10.5 

A = x+y; 


vo ume — g p ec j£ c gravity’ 

we have 

a , jl . 

B ~x’ y” 

whence we find (approximately), 

Gold =13.95 
Silver = 8.05 

121 —38. Why will oil, which floats on water, sink in 
alcohol ? 

The specific gravity of absolute alcohol is only .79 ; hence 
even the dilute alcohol of commerce is lighter than most speci¬ 
mens of oil. 



39. A specific-gravity bottle holds 100 gms. of water 
and 180 gms. of sulphuric acid. Required the density of 
the acid. — Ans. 1.8. 

40. What is the density of a body which weighs 58 gms. 
in air and 46 gms. in water? — Ans. 4f. 

41. JVhat is the density of a body which weighs 63 
gins, in air and 35 gms. in a liquid of a density of .85 ?— 
Ans. 1.9125, 


129 — 1. Two faucets, one 8 feet and the other 4 feet be¬ 
low the surface of the ivater in a cistern , are hept open for 
a minute. How many times as much ivater can be drawn 
from the first as the second ? 



^ = A =Vl = V2 = 1.4142. 
y\/2gh' ^h' 

Hence the first delivers rather more than 41% more than 
the second. 

2. How much water will be discharged per second from 
a short pipe having a diameter of 4 inches and a depth 
of 48 feet below the surface of the ivater ? 

The cross section of the pipe is 16x.7854= 12.57 sq. inches, 
= .087 sq. feet. 

v = \f2gh = -y/64 x 48 = 55.4 
55.4 x .087 = 4.8 cu ft. 

3. When we pour molasses from a jug, why is the 
stream so much larger near the nozzle than at some dis¬ 
tance from it ? 

Because, according to the law of falling bodies, the farther 
the molasses falls the faster it falls. The stream, therefore, 
becomes smaller as it moves more swiftly, until, at last, it 
breaks up into drops. 

4. Ought a faucet to extend into a barrel beyond the 
staves ? 



No ; this would cause more friction, and increase the resist¬ 
ance to outflow produced by cross currents. 

3, What ivould be the effect if both openings in one of 
the arms of Barker’s Mill were on the same side ? 

It would cease revolving. The pressure in each direction 
would then be equal, and the arms would balance. 


145— 1. Why must we make two openings in a barrel 
of cider when we tap it ? 

One to let out the cider, and one to admit the air. 

2. What is the tveight of 10 cubic feet of air ? 

100 cu. in. weigh 31 grs.; hence 10 cu. ft. will weigh 31 grs. 
x 172.8 = .7652 lbs. avoirdupois. 

3. What is the pressure of the air on one square rod of 
land ? 

272^ x 144 x 15 lbs. = 588,060 lbs. 

4. What is the pressure on a pair of Magdeburg hem i¬ 
spheres 4 in, in diameter, when the air is entirely ex¬ 
hausted ? 

On each hemisphere the pressure is equal to the area of a 
great circle, multiplied by the pressure on each unit of area. 
Hence on each hemisphere the pressure is 

.7854 x 4 2 x 15 lbs. = 188.5 lbs. nearly. 

The sum of the two opposite pressures is thus not quite 277 lbs. 

5. Hoiv high a column of water can the air sustain 
when the barometric column stands at 28 in. ? 

28 in. x 13£ = 3U feet. 

6. Tf we should add a pressure of two atmospheres, 
what would be the volume of 100 cu, in, of common air ? 

The pressure is trebled, and, according to Mariotte’s law, the 
volume will be reduced in the same proportion; hence it will 
be 100 cu. in. -s- 3 = 33£ cu. in. 


146 - 7 . If, while the water is running through the 
siphon, ive quickly lift the long arm, what will be the effect 
on the ivater in the siphon ? If we lift the entire siphon ? 

The question assumes the siphon to be flexible. If the bot¬ 
tom of the long arm be below that of the short arm, the water 
flows through it toward the lower level. By lifting it the rate 
of flow diminishes until its level is the same as that of the 
short arm. On lifting it still higher, the water contained in the 
siphon flows back through the short arm, and the siphon is 
thus emptied. If, however, the whole siphon is lifted, it is 
emptied through the long arm. 

8, When the mercury stands at 29 \ in, in the barome¬ 
ter, how high above the surface of the ivater can ive place 
the lower pump-valve ? 

In theory, 29^ in. x 13^ = 398^ in.; in practice, the distance 
is much less than this. 

9, Can we raise water to a higher level by means of a 
siphon ? 

There is no power in a siphon ; it is only a way of guiding 
the flow of water to a lower level. 

10, If the air in the chamber of a fire-engine be con¬ 
densed to T V its former bulk, what will be the pressure due 
to the expansive force of the air on every square inch of 
the air-chamber ? — A ns, 240 lbs. 

1J • What causes the bubbles to rise to the surface when 
tve put a lump of loaf-sugar in hot tea ? 

The bubbles of air contained in the pores of the sugar rise 
because they are lighter than the water. 

12, When tv ill a balloon stop rising ? What weight can 
it lift? 

It will stop rising when the weight of the balloon and its 
contents is just equal to that of the same volume of rarefied 
air which it displaces. It can lift a weight equal to the dif¬ 
ference between the weight of the hydrogen or coal gas with 
which it is filled and that of the air in which it is immersed, 
minus the weight of the balloon itself. 



14:, When smoke ascends in a straight line, is it a proof 
of the rarity or density of the air ? 

Of its density, because it shows that the smoke is much 
lighter than the air, and so rises immediately. 

lo. Explain the action of the common leather-sucker. 

There is nearly a vacuum between the sucker and the slab, 
which is buoyed up by the pressure of the air beneath. 

16. Did you ever see a bottle really empty ? 

No. No absolute vacuum has ever been produced in a bottle 
or any other vessel by human agency, so far as is known. 

18. How does the variation in the pressure of the air 
affect those who ascend lofty mountains ? Who descend in 
diving bells? 

The outward pressure at a great elevation is partly removed, 
and the inner pressure remaining the same, the blood is often 
forced through the ears, nostrils, etc. When one descends into 
a deep mine the conditions are reversed : the outer pressure be¬ 
comes in excess of the inner ; severe pain is felt in the ear-drum, 
and ringing noises in the head become almost intolerable. These, 
however, disappear after a time, when the equilibrium between 
the internal and external pressure is restored. It is said that 
Humboldt ascended where the mercurial column fell to 14 inches, 
and descended in a diving-bell where it rose to 45 inches—thus 
making a variation of 31 inches, or a difference of 31,000 lbs. 
pressure on the body. 

If). Explain the theory of “ sucking cider 99 through a 

By the action of the muscles of the chest the lungs are 
made to expand. A partial vacuum in them is thus produced, 
and the pressure of the air hence forces liquid through the 
straw up into the mouth. By closing the glottis at the right 
moment this is prevented from going through the windpipe, 
and it is at once swallowed. 

20. Would it make any difference in the action of the 
siphon if the limbs were of unequal diameter ? 



The flow of water through the narrower part of the siphon 
would be faster than through the wider part. 

21, What would be the effect of making a small hole in 
the top of a diving-bell while in use ? 

It would allow the compressed air to be pushed out by the 
pressure of the water below. 

22. The pressure of the atmosphere being 1.03 kg. per 
sq. cm., what is the amount on 10 sq. meters ? 

103,000 kg. 


184 — 1 . Why can not the rear of a long column of 
soldiers keep time to the music ? 

Because it takes time for the sound-wave to pass down the 
column, and hence those in the rear do not hear the music as 
soon as those in front. 

2. Three minutes elapse between the flash and the re¬ 
port of a thunderbolt: how far distant is it ? 

If the air is at the freezing point, the distance is 
1,090 ft, x 60 x 3 = 196,200 ft. 

3. Five seconds expire between the flash and report of 
a gun: what is the distance? 

1,090 ft. x5 = 5,450 ft. 

4. Suppose a speaking-tube should connect two villages 
10 miles apart. How long would it take a sound to jtass 
that distance? 

52,800 ft -T- 1,090 ft. = 48.4 (sec.) 

This is of course a theoretical case. The initial energy 
manifested as sound would be transformed into other modes of 
energy, such as heat, before complete transmission through so 
great a distance in a speaking-tube, unless the sound be more 
intense than that of the human voice usually is. 



5. The report of a pistol-shot was returned to the ear 
from the face of a cliff in 1 seconds. How far was it ? 

1,090 ft. x 2 = 2,180 ft. 

(i. What is the cause of the difference in the voice of 
man and woman ? 

Probably the difference depends largely on the thickness 
and length of the vocal chords. The difference between a bass 
and a tenor, a contralto and a soprano, depends largely also on 
quality, just as the sound of the flute and violin on the same 
note is recognizably different. 

7. What is the number of vibrations per second neces¬ 
sary to produce the fifth tone of the scale of C s ? 

C 3 = 256 vibrations. 

256 xf = 384. 

8. What is the length of each sound-wave in that tone 
when the temperature is zero F. ? 

I, 090 ft.-32 ft. = 1,058 ft. 1,058 384 = 2 ft. 9 in. (the length 

of each wave). 

0. What is the number of vibrations in the fourth tone 
above C 2 ? 

C 8 = 128 vibrations. 

128 xf = 192. 

10. If a meteor were to explode at a height of 60 miles , 
would it be possible for its sound to be heard at sea-level ? 

No. At such a height the atmosphere would be more rare 
than in the best vacuum over produced by human means. The 
explosion would produce a sound far too faint to be audible. 

II. A stone is let fall into a well, and in four seconds is 
heard to strike the bottom ; how deep is the u)ell ? 

Disregarding the minute interval required for the transmis¬ 
sion of the sound, 

8 = \gt* = 16 x 4 2 = 256 feet. 



12, What time would be required for a sound to travel 
five miles in the still ivater of a lake ? 

t = 



= 5.6 seconds. 

IS, Hoes sound travel faster at the foot or at the top of 
a mountain? 

The density and elasticity of the air vary in the same pro¬ 
portion ; hence if the temperature were the same on top of a 
mountain that it is at the foot, the velocity of sound would be 
the same, but as it is always colder, the velocity is less. 

14, Why is an echo weaker than the original sound ? 

Because the intensity of the sound-wave is weakened at each 
reflection. In addition to this, the sound which is perceived as 
an echo has traveled over a much greater distance than that 
which comes directly from the sonorous body. 

15, If hy is it so fatiguing to talk through a speaking- 
trumpet ? 

Because it is unusual, and unusual effort is necessary to se¬ 
cure adaptation to unusual conditions. 

16, Why will the report of a cannon fired in a valley be 
heard on the top of a neighboring mountain better than 
one fired on the top of a mountain will be heard in the 
valley ? 

A sound always has the intensity given it by the density of 
the atmosphere where it originated, and not of that where it is 

(See Tyndall’s Lectures on Sound , p. 40.) 

If, Why do our footsteps in unfurnished dwellings 
sound so startlingly distinct ? 

In furnished rooms, the chairs, carpets, pictures, etc., break 
up the echoes. Then, also, our footsteps are louder on an un¬ 
carpeted floor. 

18, Why do the echoes of an empty church disappear 
when the audience assemble ? 



The audience break up the echoes which interfere with the 
original sound. Wires strung across a lofty room often serve 
the same purpose to a slight extent. 

10. What is the object of the sounding-board of a 
piano ? 

By its vibrations and those of the body of air which it in¬ 
closes, it re-enforces the sound of the wires. 

20. During some experiments, Tyndall found that a 
certain sound would pass through twelve folds of a dry 
silk handkerchief, but would be stopped by a single fold of 
a wet one. Explain. 

(See Tyndall’s Lectures on Light , p. 325, for a series of experiments show¬ 
ing the action of moisture on the propagation of sound-waves.) 

21. What is the cause of the musical murmur often 
heard near telegraph lines? 

It is produced by the vibration of the wires. These are 
thrown into motion by the wind and other causes. 

22. Why will a variation in the quantity of water in 
a goblet, when caused to sound, make a difference in the 
tone ? 

It changes the area of the vibrating portion of the glass. 

23. At what rate (in meters) will sound move through 
air at sea-level, the temperature being 20 ° C. ? 

Sound moves at the rate of 1,090 feet at 0° C. The differ¬ 
ence is nearly 2 feet for each degree C. 

1,090 feet+ 40 feet = 1,130 feet. 


235 — 1. Why is a secondary bow fainter than the pri¬ 

The primary is produced by one reflection and two refrac¬ 
tions ; the secondary, by two reflections and two refractions. 
The additional reflection weakens the ray. 



Why are the colors reversed ? 

We can understand this by looking at Fig. 164. In one 
bow we see that the rays enter the drops at the top, and are 
refracted at the bottom to the eye ; in the other, that the rays 
enter at the bottom, and are refracted at the top to the eye. 

2. Why can we not see around a house or through a 
bent tube ? 

The rays of light move in straight lines. 

3. What color would a painter use if he wished to rep¬ 
resent an opening into a dark cellar ? 


4. Is black a color ? 

No; it is the absence of light, and hence of color. 

Is white ? 

No. It is the result of mixing a multitude of tints, each of 
which loses its individuality as color by union with the rest. 

5. By holding an object nearer a light, will it increase 
or diminish the size of the shadow ? 

It will increase it, because more rays are intercepted. 

7 . Where should we look for a rainbow in the morn¬ 
ing ? 

In the west. 

8. Can two spectators see the same rainbow ? 

They can not, because no two persons can be at the right 
angle to get the same color from a drop. 

9. Why , when the drops of water are falling through 
the air , does the bow appear stationary ? 

Because amid the multitude of drops there are always some 
in the right direction. 

10. Why can a cat see in the night better than a human 
being ? 



Because the pupils of its eyes are larger, and so admit more 

11. Why can not an owl see distinctly in daylight ? 

Its eyes are adapted to faint light. That of bright sunshine 
is therefore too dazzling. 

12. Why are we blinded when we pass quickly from a 
dark into a brilliantly lighted room ? 

The pupils of our eyes admit too much light, but they soon 
contract to the proper dimensions, and we can then see dis¬ 
tinctly. When we pass out from a lighted room into a dark 
room, the conditions are reversed. 

13. If the light on a distant planet is only that 
which ive receive , how does its distance from the sun com¬ 
pare with ours ? 

As the intensity of light is inversely as the square of the 
distance, the distance is -y/ToO = 10 times as great as ours. 

11. If when 1 sit 6 feet from a candle I receive a cer¬ 
tain amount of light 9 how much will I diminish it if I sit 
back 6 feet farther ? 

As my distance from the light is doubled, the brightness is 
inversely as 2 2 , or only £ as great. 

15. Why do drops of rain, in falling, appear like liquid 
threads ? 

The impression the drop makes on the retina remains until 
the drop reaches the ground. 

16. Why does a towel turn darker when wet ? 

More of the light is transmitted, and less reflected. We see 
this illustrated in greasing a bit of paper. It becomes semi¬ 
transparent because more light passes through it, but looks 
darker itself because less light is reflected to the eye. 

17. Does color exist in the object or in the mind of the 
observer ? 



The property of absorbing energy of special wave length, 
and reflecting that of another wave length which we perceive 
as color, is a physical property of the object. The perception 
of this, as of sound, or of temperature, is finally a mental act. 

18. Why is lather opaque, while air and a solution of 
soap are each transparent ? 

By repeated reflections and refractions in passing through 
the mass of lather, no ray can pass through in a straight line. 
Transparency is hence destroyed. 

19. Wh y does it whiten molasses candy to pull it ? 

The viscous mass, by repeated pulling, becomes fibrous. The 
fibers at the surface reflect light more regularly, and hence the 
candy appears more nearly white. 

20. Why does plastering become lighter in color as it 
dries ? 

Because, as the water evaporates, the mortar transmits less 
light, and reflects more light to the eye. 

21. Why does the photographer use a lamp with a 
chimney of red glass in the “ dark room 99 ? 

Because this glass transmits only the longer waves of light, 
while chemical effect is produced chiefly by the shorter waves. 

22. Is the common division of color's into 66 cold 99 and 
“ warm 99 verified in philosophy ? 

Yes ; red contains more heat than violet. 

23. Why is the image on the camera, Fig. 177, in¬ 
verted ? 

The rays cross each other at the focus of the double convex 

24. Why is the second image seen in the mirror, Fig. 
140, brighter than the first ? 

The first is formed by reflection from the glass, and the 
second from the mercury. As the latter is a better reflector, 
the second image will be brighter. Each image after that will 
be weakened by the repeated reflection. 



27. Which will be seen at the greater distance , a yellow 
or a gray body ? 

The yellow, since it is brighter. 

28. When a star is near the horizon, does it seem higher 
or lower than its true place ? 

Higher. The light in passing into our atmosphere, is re¬ 
fracted downward, and the star appears in the direction from 
which the ray enters the observer’s eye. 

29. Why can we not see a rainbow at midday ? 

Because the sun is not in the right position. To produce 
the ordinary rainbow, it must be toward the eastern or western 

30. What conclusion do we draw from the fact, that 
moonlight shows the same dark lines as sunlight ? 

That its light has the same source as that of the sun, and 
is, indeed, reflected sunlight. 

31. Why does the bottom of a boat seen under clear 
water appear flatter than it really is ? 

Because, by refraction, the bottom of the boat is apparently 
elevated above its true place. 

32. Of what shape does a round body appear in 
tvater ? 

It appears to be flattened; and hence a round body looks 
like an oval one. 

33. Why is rough glass translucent while smooth glass 
is transparent ? 

The minute irregularities scatter the rays of light, and do 
not allow them to pass freely to the eye of the observer. 

34. Why can a carpenter looking along the edge of a 
board tell whether it is straight ? 

If the edge is straight, the light will be reflected uniformly 
to his eye from the whole length. Any uneven places will make 
dark and light spots. 



35, Why can we not see out of the window after tee 
have lighted the lamp in the evening ? 

The glass reflects the light of the lamp back to our eyes, 
and they adapt themselves to the increased amount. 

36, TFhy does a ground-glass globe soften the light ? 

It scatters the rays. 

37, Why can we not see through ground-glass or 
painted windoivs ? 

They transmit the light irregularly to the eye, and not uni¬ 
formly, like a transparent body. 

38, Why does the moon’s surface appear flat ? 

Because it is so distant that the eye can not detect the dif¬ 
ference between the distance of the center and the circumfer¬ 

39, Why can we see farther with a telescope than with 
the naked eye ? 

Because it furnishes us more light with which to see a dis¬ 
tant object. 

40, Why is not snow transparent, like ice ? 

Because it is discontinuous, and the rays of light are broken 
by multitudinous reflections and refractions. 

41, Are there rays in the sunbeam which ice can not 

We can not see the heat or the chemical rays. 

42, Why, when we press the finger on one eyeball, do 
we see objects double ? 

Because the rays from the same external object fall on parts 
of the two retinas that do not correspond in position. 

43, Why does a distant light, in the night, seem like a 
star ? 

Because its image on the retina is so small that deception 
becomes easy. 



44. Why does a bright light 9 in the night 9 seem so much 
nearer than it is ? 

We judge of the distance of an object by its magnitude, by 
its distinctness of outline, and by the size, etc., of intervening 
objects with which we compare it. In the night, the brightness 
of a light confuses us by its vividness, seeming to be near at 
hand. Moreover, we can not see the neighboring objects, whose 
distance we know or could estimate in the daylight. Our error 
is therefore one of judgment. 

45. What color predominates in artificial lights ? 


46. Why are we not sensible of darkness when we 
wink ? 

Because the wink does not last so long as the impression of 
the light received just before the wink. 

47. Under what condition do the eyes of a portrait 
seem to follow a spectator to all parts of a room ? 

This is noticed only in a full-face portrait. In that case the 
spectator, when he goes to either side, fails to see the side of 
the eyeballs, and hence the effect is that of looking directly into 
the eye. “A rifleman, portrayed as if taking aim directly in 
front of the picture, appears to every observer to be pointing 
at him specially.” 

48. Why do the two parallel tracks of a railroad ap¬ 
pear to approach in the distance ? 

The visual angle subtended by the distance between two op¬ 
posite points on the tracks becomes less as the distance of the 
observer increases. 

4.9. Why does a fog apparently magnify objects ? 

It is not the refraction of the rays of light, as is commonly 
supposed, which makes an object seem larger when seen through 
a mist. It really appears to us in its proper size. The mist, 
however, dims the color and the outline, giving it the indis¬ 
tinctness belonging to a mile in distance, while it has the mag¬ 
nitude of half a mile. Dr. Wayland relates that, as he was 



sailing through Newport harbor early one morning, in a dense 
fog, he observed on the apparently distant wharf some very tall 
men. While he was remarking upon their extraordinary size, 
he was astonished to see them jumping about like children, and 
otherwise behaving in a most unaccountable manner. Pres¬ 
ently, as the sun dispersed the fog, he found that he was close 
to the wharf, and that the gigantic men were really a party of 
small boys amusing themselves with play. 

The opposite mistake is made when the atmosphere is more 
transparent than that to which we are accustomed. Foreign 
travelers in Switzerland, who have started on foot to visit a 
glacier or a mountain-peak which seemed within easy distance, 
have often been surprised to find, after two or three hours of 
brisk walking, that the object of their desire seemed as far 
away as at first. So in looking across a sheet of water, where 
there are no intervening objects, distance is always underrated. 

When we throw a stone at an object in the water we find 
that our eye has deceived us, and the stone falls far short of 
the mark. For the same reason, objects seen on the shore from 
the water seem much less than their natural size. The fact is, 
they appear of the magnitude which belongs to the distance, 
but we suppose the distance less than it is ; and, associating 
this magnitude with diminished distance, they appear to us less 
than they really are. 

In order to form these judgments correctly, one of these 
elements must be fixed. From this we learn to institute a com¬ 
parison, and thus form an accurate opinion. If we know the 
magnitude of an object, the change in its color and outline will 
teach us its distance. If we know its distance, we can judge of 
its magnitude. Hence, painters, in order to give us a correct 
idea of an object which they represent, always place in its 
vicinity something with whose real magnitude we are familiar. 
Thus, to show the size of a pyramid, an Arab with his camel 
may be drawn at its foot. If the pyramid were represented by 
itself, its intended size might be mistaken ; but every one knows 
the size of a camel, and from this he would judge of the mag¬ 
nitude of a pyramid.— Wayland's Intellectual Philosophy, p. 78, 
et seq. 



50. If you sit where you can not see another person’s 
image , why can not that person see yours ? 

The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection 
under all circumstances. If a ray from the other person is not 
reflected at the right angle to reach your eye, then a ray from 
you is not reflected at the right angle to reach the other per¬ 
son’s eye. 

51. Why can tve see the multiple images in a mirror 
better if we look into it very obliquely ? 

More light is then reflected to the eye. The ratio of the 
light reflected to the light refracted increases with the angle of 

52. Why is an image seen in water inverted ? 

(Examine Fig. 139 in Physics.) 

53. Why is the sun’s light fainter 
midday ? 

(See Physics, p. 191, note.) 

at sunset than at 

51. Why can tve not see the fence-posts when we are 
riding rapidly ? 

Because the images of a succession of objects are formed 
on the retina at intervals less than that of the duration of a 
retinal impression. Hence, they all become confused, and noth¬ 
ing is seen distinctly. 

55. Ought a red flower to be placed in a bouquet by an 
orange one ? A pink or blue with a violet one ? 

(See Physics, p. 217.) 

These are not complementary colors, and hence do not 
strengthen each other by contrast. 

56. Why are the clouds white while the clear sky is 
blue ? 

Prof. Tyndall has shown that the larger particles of vapor 
scatter light of all colors, i.e., white light; while the smallest 
particles, only the blue rays. In accordance with this fact, the 
clouds are white and the sky is blue. If the air were abso¬ 
lutely pure, free from all foreign matter, and highly rarefied, 



it is thought that the azure of the sky would not be seen, and 
the heavens would appear black: the illumination of objects 
would be strong and glaring on one side, and on the opposite 
side the shadows would be deep and unrelieved by the diffused 
light to which we are accustomed. The minute particles of va¬ 
por in the air serve to scatter the direct rays of the sun, and to 
turn them around corners and into places not in the direct line 
of the sunlight. 

(See a full and interesting discussion in Tyndall’s Lecture on Light, p. 
152, et seq.) 

5 7. Wh y does shim - milh look blue and new milk 
white ? 

The fatty globules of the new milk reflect all the colors of 
the spectrum to the eye; but when deprived of the cream the 
milk reflects the blue light in excess of the others. 

58. Why is not the image of the sun in water at mid¬ 
day so bright as near sunset ? 

The angle of incidence being small, most of the light is 
transmitted, and but little is reflected. Near sunset the greater 
part is reflected. 

50. Why is the rainbow always opposite the sun ? 

(See Physics, p. 217.) 

6*0. Hold a card with its edge close in front of your eye 
and look at a distant candle flame in a dark room. You 
will probably perceive either a reddish or a bluish fringe 
on one side. Explain. 

The crystalline lens is not corrected for chromatic aberra¬ 
tion. (See Physics, p. 219.) 


273 —/. Why will one 9 s hand, on a frosty morning, 
f reeze to a metallic door-knob sooner than to one of porce¬ 
lain ? 

Because the metal is a better conductor of heat than the 
porcelain, and hence conducts the heat from the hand faster. 



2 . Why does a piece of bread toasting curl up on the 
side toward the fire ? 

The water being expelled from the pores on that side causes 
the bread to shrink. 

3. Why do double windows protect from the cold ? 

The non-conducting air inclosed between the window-panes 
keeps in the heat and keeps out the cold. 

4. Why do furnace-men wear flannel shirts in summer 
to keep cool, and in ivinter to keep warm ? 

In summer the non-conducting flannel keeps out the fur¬ 
nace-heat, and in the winter keeps in the body-heat. 

3. Why do we blow our hands to make them warm , 
and our soup to make it cool ? 

Our breath is warmer than our hands, but cooler than our 

6. Why does snow protect the grass in winter ? 

The air inclosed between the flakes of snow is a non-con¬ 
ductor. No infant in its cradle is tucked in more tenderly than 
the coverlet of snow about the humble grass that nestles down 
for its winter’s nap on the bosom of Mother Earth. 

7. Why does water “boil away 99 more rapidly on 
some days than on others ? 

Because the atmospheric pressure varies, independently of 
the fact that the source of heat may vary without our noticing it. 

8. What causes the crackling sound in a stove ivhen a 
fire is lighted ? 

The expansion of the iron by the heat. 

9. Why is the tone of a piano higher in a cold room 
than in a warm one ? 

The steel wires lengthen in a warm room, and so lower the 



10, Ought an inkstand to have a lavge ov a small 
mouth ? 

A small mouth, to prevent evaporation. 

11, Why is there a space left between the ends of the 
rails on a railroad track ? 

To allow room for the expansion and contraction of the 
rails with the changes in temperature. 

12, Why is a person liable to take cold when his clothes 
are damp ? 

The water which evaporates from his clothes, in drying, ab¬ 
sorbs heat from his body. 

13, If hat is the theory of corn-popping ? 

The air in the cells of the corn expands by the heat, and 
bursts the outer coating of the corn. 

14, Could vacuum-pans be employed in cooking? 

They could not, because the heat would not be sufficient to 
cook the food. 

15, Why does the air feel so chilly , in the spring, when 
snow and ice are melting ? 

When the ice is passing into the liquid state, it absorbs heat 
from all surrounding objects. 

16, Why, in freezing ice-cream , do ive put the ice in a 
wooden vessel , and the cream in a tin one ? 

The non-conducting wooden vessel prevents the ice from ab¬ 
sorbing heat from the external air, and the conducting tin ves¬ 
sel enables it to absorb the heat from the cream. 

17, Why does the temperature generally moderate 
ivhen the snow falls ? 

The vapor passing into the solid form gives off heat. 

19, Why does sprinkling a floor with water cool the 
air ? 

The water turning to vapor absorbs heat. 



20. How low a degree of temperature can be reached 
with a mercurial thermometer ? 

Nearly to the freezing point of mercury,—39° F. 

21. Tf the temperature be 70° F., what is it C. ? 

70°-32° = 38°. 38 -f-1.8 = 21.1° C. 

If the temperature be 70° €., what is it F. ? 

70° x 1.8 = 126°. 126° + 32° = 158° F. 

22. Will dew form on an iron bridge ? 

Yes, because iron is a good radiator. 

On a plank walk ? 

Not so readily, because wood is a poorer radiator. 

23. Why will not corn pop when very dry ? 

The pores shrink, and the corn becomes compact; only por¬ 
ous, tender-celled corn will pop. 

21. When the interior of the earth is so hot 9 why do we 
get the coldest water from a deep well ? 

The well extends below the influence of the sun, and not 
deep enough to be affected by the internal heat of the earth. 

25. Ought the bottom of a tea-kettle to be polished ? 

No, since a polished surface would reflect the heat. We 
need a black, rough, sooty surface to absorb the heat rapidly. 

26. Which boils the sooner, milk or water ? 

Milk, because it is so adhesive that the bubbles of steam 
which are formed at the bottom of the dish can not easily es¬ 
cape. They therefore pile up on top of each other, and the 
milk boils over readily. 

27. Is it economy to keep our stoves highly polished? 

The stove-blacking used is a good radiator, but the surface 
should not be highly polished, as that hinders radiation. 

28. If a thermometer be held in a running stream , will 
it indicate the same temperature that it would in a pailful 
of the same water ? 



It will. For the same reason that a thermometer, in the 
wind, will indicate the same temperature as in the still air, al¬ 
though the former seems to us much colder. 

29. Which makes the better holder when one wishes to 
protect his hands from a hot dish , woolen or cotton ? 

Woolen, because it is so poor a conductor of heat. 

30. Which will give out the more heat , a plain stove or 
one with ornamental designs ? 

The latter, since it has more radiating surface. 

31. Does dew fall? 

No; it forms directly where it is found. The vapor merely 
collects on the cold surface. 

32. If hat causes the ii sweating 99 of a pitcher ? 

The vapor of the air condenses on the cold pitcher. It is 
often a sign of rain, since it shows that the air is full of vapor 
easily deposited. 

33. Why is evaporation hastened in a vacuum ? 

Because the pressure of the air is removed. 

31. Does stirring the ground around plants aid in the 
deposition of dew ? 

It does, since it facilitates radiation. 

33. Why does the snoiv at the foot of a tree melt sooner 
than that in the open field ? 

The tree absorbs the sun’s heat, and then radiates it out, 
thus serving as a carrier for the snow. 

30. Why is the opening in a chimney made to decrease 
in size from bottom to top ? 

Because as the heated air rises it cools and shrinks. If 
the chimney did not diminish in size correspondingly, currents 
of cold air would set down from the top. 

37* Will tea keep hot longer in a bright or in a dull 
tea-pot ? 



In a bright one, since a polished surface retards radiation. 

38. What causes the snapping of ivood when laid on 
the fire ? 

The expansion of the air in the cells of the wood. 

39. Why is one’s breath visible on a cold day ? 

The vapor in the breath is condensed by the cold air. 

40. What gives the blue color to air? 

The particles floating in it reflect the blue light of the sun¬ 

41. How does the heat at two feet from the fire compare 
with that at four feet ? 

2 2 : 4 2 :: 1 : 4. 

Hence it is four times greater. 

42. Why does the frost remain later in the morning 
upon some objects than upon others ? 

The best radiators are the best absorbers. They become 
warmed by the morning sun more quickly than the poorer 
radiators, and the frost on them is hence more quickly melted. 

43. Is it economy to use green ivood ? 

No. Its sap has to be changed to vapor, thus absorbing a 
large amount of energy at the expense of the combustion. 

44. Why does not green wood snail ? 

The pores are filled with water instead of air. The water 
does not expand rapidly enough to burst off the coverings of 
the cells, and so simply oozes out gradually, and is vaporized. 

45. Why will a piece of metal dropped into a glass or 
porcelain dish of boiling water facilitate the ebullition ? 

The rougher surface of the metal aids in the formation 
and disentanglement of the steam-bubbles. The bubbles cling 
longer to a smooth than to a rough surface. This is one 
cause of that bumping sound often noticed when liquids are 
boiling in glass dishes. 



46. Which can be ignited the more easily with a burn¬ 
ing-glass, black or white paper ? 

Black paper, since it is a much better absorber of heat. 

47. Why does the air feel colder on a windy day ? 

Because fresh portions of cold air are brought constantly in 
contact with our bodies. 

48. Could a burning-lens be made of ice ? 

Burning-lenses have been made of that material. The rays 
have no heating power until the waves of ether are stopped. 
They do not elevate the temperature of the medium through 
which they pass. 

49. IVhy is an iceberg frequently enveloped by a fog ? 

The moisture of the air is condensed upon its cold surface. 

50. Would deiv gather more freely on a rusty stove 
than on a bright kettle ? 

It would, because the rusty iron surface is a good radiator. 

51. Why is a clear night colder than a cloudy one dur¬ 
ing the same season ? 

On a cloudy night the clouds reflect the radiated heat of the 
earth back again, and thus act as a blanket to keep the earth 
warm. On such a night there can be no frost or dew. On a 
clear night, the heat which the earth radiates passes out freely 
into space, and thus the earth cools rapidly. 

52. Why is no dew formed on cloudy nights ? 

See last question. 

53. Why will (i fanning 99 cool the face ? 

It brings in contact with the face a current of fresh and 
generally cooler air. 

54. How are safes made fire-proof? 

By filling the space between the inner and the outer iron 
plates with a non-conducting material, as plaster, etc., the safe 
is rendered nearly fire-proof. 



55. Why can you heat water quicker in a tin than a 
china cup ? 

Because the metal is a better conductor of heat than the 

56. Why will a woolen blanket keep ice from melting ? 

The woolen is a non-conductor of heat. 

57. Does dew form under trees ? 

The trees reflect hack the heat radiated by the earth, grass, 
etc., and so prevent the temperature, in general, from sinking 
to the dew-point. 

58. What is the principle of heating by steam ? 

The steam is condensed in the pipes, and gives out as tem¬ 
perature the energy which had been previously absorbed in 
changing water to steam. 

59. What is the cause of “ cloud-capped 99 mountains ? 

The warm, moist air from the valleys fises against the 
mountain sides. Its vapor, previously invisible, becomes con¬ 
densed by the colder air into a cloud of droplets that float in 
the air. 

60. Show how the glass in a hot-house acts as a trap to 
catch the sunbeam. 

(See Physics , p. 259.) 

61. Does the heat of the sun come in through our win- 
flows ? 

(See Physics , p. 259.) 

62. Does the heat of our stoves pass out in the same 
way ? 

(See Physics , p. 259.) 

63. The top of a mountain is nearer the sun ; why is it 
not warmer ? 

(See Physics , pp. 259 and 260.) 

67. Can we find frost on the windows and on the stone- 
flagging the same morning ? 

It requires a much intenser cold to produce the former ef¬ 
fect than the latter, as glass is a poorer conductor of heat than 



stone. We frequently find, frost on the flagging early in the 
fall, but frost on the window is a sign of very severe winter 

08. Why will not snow “pack” into halls except in 
mild weather ? 

The snow must be very near the melting-point for the press¬ 
ure of the hand to be sufficient to melt enough of it to pro¬ 
duce the phenomena of regelation. {Physics, p. 271, 1st note ; 
also Tait’s Recent Advances in Physical Science, p. 129, and 
Tyndall’s Forms of Water, p. 163.) This principle involves the 
theory of Glaciers. “ The masses of snow can not rest on the 
steep slopes of Alpine summits. The pressure upon the under 
layers is too great to allow them to remain upon their sloping 
beds, and they are forced to descend. This descent is accom¬ 
plished in two forms : that of an avalanche, one of the most 
awful and imposing spectacles to witness; or of a glacier, 
which is really an avalanche of ice of extremely slow motion. 
But the glacier differs from the ordinary avalanche not only in 
that its motion is so slow, but in that it consists of ice, thick, 
firm, and hard. The principles involved in this transition of 
the loose, flaky snow which first falls upon the mountain-top 
into the solid ice of the glacier, are very well illustrated, as 
Helmholtz has remarked, in the manufacture of the school¬ 
boy’s snow-ball or snow-man. Very cold snow is always light 
and flaky, and can not be made by the pressure of the hands 
into a cohesive mass ; in order to succeed in that operation, 
snow is always employed which is already at the melting-point, 
or only so far below this temperature that the warmth of the 
hand suffices to bring it to the required temperature, and then, 
by dint of pressure and molding, an icy ball may be easily 
produced. So with the formation of the glacier ice. A process 
of almost simultaneous melting and freezing goes on among 
the under layers of snow, and under an immense and ever- 
constant pressure from the weight of the snow above ; thus 
solid ice is formed. That this ice conforms itself to the various 
windings, constrictions, and dilatations of its rocky channel 
during its downward march, is a fact not less familiar than 



(if). Why is the sheet of zinc under a stove so apt to be¬ 
come puckered ? 

When zinc cools after expansion it does not return quite to 
its former dimensions, and so becomes “ puckered,” as it is 

70. Why does a mist gather in the receiver of the air- 
pump as the air becomes rarefied ? 

“The remaining air, cooled by rarefaction, absorbs heat 
from the invisible vapor in combination with it, and renders 
the water visible. The mist may be removed by continued ac¬ 
tion of the machine, or by re-admitting the normal quantity of 


(See Amott’s Physics , p. 448.) 

71. Why are the tops of high mountains in the tropics 
covered with perpetual snow ? 

See question 59. 


1. Does a plumb - line point to the earth 9 s center of 
figure or center of gravity ? 

2. In a dark room, let the light of a candle pass through 
a small hole in a card, and the image of the candle on the 
opposite wall will be inverted. Explain. 

3 . How many times heavier is the earth than an equally 
large globe of water ? 

4. Why does a rocket ascend into the air ? 

5. Is the water at the foot of Niagara Falls warmer 
than that in the river above ? 

6. JVhat causes wheel fire-works to rotate ? 

7. A. brass rod covered tightly with thin paper may be 
held some time in a flame without the paper being scorched / 
while, if the rod be of ivood, the paper will scorch at once. 
Why is this difference ? 



8. How would it affect the action of a siphon if it ivere 
carried up a mountain ? 

9. If a vessel of water containing a floating body be 
placed under the receiver of an air-pump, and the air 
gradually exhausted, what will be the effect on the floating 
body ? 

10. IIow will it change the height of the column of 
mercury in a barometer to incline the tube ? 

lu the image of a written page seen in a mirror 9 
why does the writing seem to slope ? 

12. Why does a coin placed in a tumbler look larger 
when the glass is f ull of water than when it is empty ? 

13. Two bodies of different volume weigh the same in 
water ; which will weigh the more in mercury, the larger 
or the smaller ? 

!!• How does the wind drift sand, snow, etc. ? 

15. Why does oil “still troubled ivaters” ? 

16. Why does crouching down at the highest points in 
a swing, and standing up at the lowest point, increase the 
velocity ? 

17 . 1 Vhat difference would it make in the guinea-and- 
feather experiment to force into the tube additional air, 
instead of exhausting it, as ordinarily done? 






[The large figures refer to the page of the Chemistry , and the small 
ones to the number of the questions.] 

26 — 1 . What becomes of the water that “ dries up ” ? 
Of the wood that 66 burns up ” ? Is there any destruction 
of the matter they contain ? 

The water is changed into invisible vapor, and wafted thus 

The wood is oxidized into C0 2 and H 2 0, which mingle with 
the air. The ashes consist of Si0 2 , K 2 C0 3 , and the oxides of 
any other elements present whose compounds with O are not 

There is no destruction of the matter contained. 

2. Where is the higher oxide formed, at the forge or in 
the pantry ? 

There is more complete oxidation at the forge. At low 
temperatures, decomposition results often in complex products. 

*3. Why is the blood red in the arteries, and dark in the 
veins ? 

When specimens of venous and of arterial blood are sub¬ 
jected to chemical examination, the differences presented by 
their solid and fluid constituents are found to be very small and 
inconstant. As a rule, there is rather more water in arterial 
blood, and rather more fatty matter. But the gaseous contents 
of the two kinds of blood differ widely in the proportion which 



the carbonic acid gas bears to the oxygen ; there being a smaller 
quantity of oxygen and a greater quantity of carbonic acid, in 
venous than in arterial blood. And it may be experimentally 
demonstrated that this difference in their gaseous contents is 
the only essential difference between venous and arterial blood. 
For if arterial blood be shaken up with carbonic acid, so as to 
be thoroughly saturated with that gas, it loses oxygen, gains 
carbonic acid, and acquires the hue and properties of venous 
blood ; while, if venous blood be similarly treated with oxygen, 
it gains oxygen, loses carbonic acid, and takes on the color and 
properties of arterial blood. —Huxley’s Lessons in Physiology. 

4. Do ive need more O in winter than in summer ? 

Yes, if we are much exposed to the open air, and forced to 
take abundant exercise in order to keep warm. 

5. Which ivould starve sooner, a fat mail or a lean 

The lean one. A superabundance of flesh, in a time of 
scarcity, is taken up by the absorbents and thrown into the 
circulation, thus supplying the place of food in nourishing the 

(i. How do teamsters warm themselves by slapping 
their hands together ? 

This exercise promotes the circulation of the blood, and its 
oxidation is thus quickened. 

7. Could a person commit suicide by holding his 
breath ? 

Respiration is entirely independent of consciousness, as is 
seen in sleep, coma, etc. It may be interrupted for a few min¬ 
utes, but no effort of the will can enable one to hold his breath 
until life is extinct. The desire for O, the besoin de respirer, or 
the respiratory sense, as it is called, becomes at last so great 
that the strongest resolution yields the struggle. 

8. 7 Vhy do we die tv hen our breath is stopped ? 

“ In asphyxia it is difficult to say which destroys life, the 
absence of oxygen or the presence of carbonic acid.”— Flint. 



There is an absence of oxygen, so essential to every vital 
operation, and also an accumulation of carbonic acid in the 

9. IFhy do ive breathe so sloivly when ive sleep ? 

The circulation is less rapid, and various functions of. the 
body are less active. There is hence less need for rapid oxi¬ 

10. How does a cold-blooded animal differ from a 
tvarm-blooded one ? 

In the imperfection with which the blood is oxygenated. 
The lungs are often of small capacity, and loose texture, and 
are sometimes wanting entirely. In reptiles a portion of the 
blood is not sent to the heart, and hence in the vessels there is 
a mixture of arterial and venous blood. The breathing is there¬ 
fore slow, the motions are languid, and there is little heat. 

11. Why does not the body burn out like a candle ? 

Because it is renewed by the processes of assimilation and 
nutrition as rapidly as it is destroyed by the waste of oxida¬ 
tion. Whenever the former are in excess we gain flesh; when 
the latter, we grow poor. 

12. Do all parts of the body change (dike? 

The rate of change varies with the amount of oxidation, 
and that depends on the use of the organ. The right arm of 
the blacksmith must be transformed much more rapidly than 
the left. 

13. What objects woidd escape combustion if the air 
were undiluted O ? 

Burnt bodies, i.e., those which are already combined with 

14. Why is it difficult to obtain O from the air ? 

Because, although free from combination, it is intimately 

mixed with 1ST. 

15. What weight of O can be obtained from 10 grams 
of HgO ? 



HgO : O : : 10 : x. 

216 : 16 : : 10 : x. 


x = -gl 6 —~ •' 4 + ’ S rams - 

16. How much O can be obtained from 6 grams of 

kcio 3 ? 

KC10 3 : 0 3 : : 6 : x. 

122.5 : 48 :: 6 : x. 

48 x 6 

x — tqcTp = 2.35 + , grams. 


17. How much KC10 3 would be needed to produce 2 
kilograms of O ? 

0 3 : KC10 3 : : 2 : x. 

48 : 122.5 : : 2 : x. 

122.5 x 2 „ . ... 

x — --= 5.1 +, kilograms. 

IS. How much KCl would be formed in 2 >reparing 1 
kilogram of O ? 

KCIO 3 =kci + o 3 . 

Hence, O a : KCl: : 1 : x. 

48 : 74.5 :: 1 : x. 

x = = 1.55 +, kilograms. 

19. Js it probable that all the elements are discovered? 

No. But all new elements lately discovered have proved to 
be chemical rarities. Probably all of the abundant and gener¬ 
ally useful elements have been discovered. 

20. Is heat produced bg oxidation? 

It is a manifestation of chemical change. In this sense it 
may be considered to be caused by it. 

21. What is the difference between kinetic and potential 
energy ? 

Kinetic energy is energy of motion; potential energy is 
that of position. (Consult Steele’s Popular Physics . p. 35.) 

22. Why does running cause panting ? 



One of several causes is the need of more O to supply the in¬ 
creased oxidation in the blood necessitated by unusual exertion. 

23. How does O (jive us strength ? 

Our muscles, as well as the food from which they are 
formed, consist of complex molecules. When they are oxidized, 
potential energy becomes kinetic. 

24. Does the plant produce energy ? 

No ; it only absorbs solar energy, and becomes the medium 
of its transformation. 

25. If we burn an organic body in a stove it gives off 
heat; in the animal body it produces also motion. Ex- 
plain . 

The force set free by the oxidation of the muscles, and of 
the food within the body, is converted into muscular energy. 

26. Why does not blowing cold air on a fire with a bel¬ 
lows extinguish it ? 

It may extinguish it if the blast be strong enough. If not 
strong enough to cool it below its kindling point, the heat of 
oxidation more than balances the cooling from the air. 

27. Why does bloiving on a fire kindle it, and on a 
lighted lamp extinguish it ? 

The answer to the previous question applies to this one also. 

28. Why can ive not ignite hard coal with a match ? 

The heat of the match is not enough to decompose the coal, 
and thus set free gaseous constituents for the production of flame. 

29. Why will an excess of coal put out a fire ? 

The coal is heated at the expense of the fire, and may reduce 
this below the kindling point unless the supply of O is rapid. 

30. Could a light be extinguished by merely lowering 
the temperature ? 

Yes; by contact of a large body that is a good conductor 
of heat. 



31. Why is it beneficial to stir a wood-fire, but not one 
of anthracite coal? 

The gaseous constituents of wood are more easily separated 
than those of coal, but the heat evolved in combustion is less. 
When once well started, the combustion of the coal is hence 
more apt to be self-sustaining. 

32. Why will water put oat a fire ? 

It absorbs more heat in proportion to its weight than any 
other known substance does in changing from liquid to gas. 
The production of steam is hence at the expense of the heat of 
combustion, and the fuel is soon cooled below its kindling point. 

33. What sh ould we do if a person 9 s clothes take fire ? 

Smother the flame by wrapping the person as quickly as 
possible with a rug, coat, blanket, or any thing of this kind that 
may be at hand. If water be near, throw it abundantly on 
the burning garment. 

34. Ought the doors of a burning house to be thrown 
open ? 

No, except for the purpose of getting out of it. The in¬ 
creased supply of air through the opening promotes the com¬ 

35. How much O can be obtained from 100 grains of 

HgO : O :: 100 : x. 

216 : 16 :: 100 : x. 
x = 7.4 +, grams. 

36. What would be the volume of the O of Question 35 
under the standard conditions ? 

7.4-+1.43 = 5.17 liters. 

37• JVhat would be the volume of the O at 12° C. and 
under a pressure of 740 mm. of mercury ? 

285 760 _ , „ 
X ~ 273 X 740 X °’ 1 ^ 

5.42 + , liters. 



38, What would he the volume of the O of Question 10 
at 20 ° C. and 750 mm, ? 

_ 1.55 293 760 _ 
x ~ l!43 X 273 X 750 ~ 

1.35 +, 


39, How much KC10 3 must be employed to make an 
amount of O which shall measure 100 liters at 1S° C, and 
700 mm. ? 

First find how many liters of 0 under standard conditions 
would be expanded to 100 liters at 18° C., the given pressure, 
760 mm., being itself standard. Call the result V. It is 


273 x 100 
291 * 

Each of these liters weighs 1.43 grams; hence, the total 
weight is 

W = 



Let x = the required weight of KC10 3 . 


0 3 : KC10 3 ::W:x. 

48 : 122.5 : 





X ~ 291x48 

x = 342.4 grams. 

37— 1, How could you detect any free O in ajar of N? 

By passing into it some NO (see p. 34). It will combine 
with the free O, forming red fumes of NO a . 

2, How ivould you remove the product of the test ? 

By allowing the mixture to stand over water, which will 
dissolve the NO s . 

3. In the experiment shown in Fig, 9, why is the gas 
red in the flask, hut colorless when it bubbles up into the 
jar ? 



In the flask, one fifth of the atmosphere was free O, which 
produces N0 3 with the NO as soon as this is evolved. In the 
jar there is no free O. 

4. How much JV'U 3 can be obtained from S grams of 
sal-ammoniac ? 

From the reaction, 2NH 4 Cl + CaO = 2NH 3 + H 3 0 + CaCl 2 , we 
see that for every molecule of NH 4 C1 used we obtain one mole¬ 
cule of NH a . Hence, 

NH 4 C1: NH 3 :: 3 : x. 

53.5:17 :: 3 : £r. 

x = .95 +, gram. 

5. What will be the volume of the JVII S at 20° C. and 
770 mm. ? 

Taking II as our standard, the density of NH 3 is half its 

14 + 3 

molecular weight, or —— t = 8.5. The density of O is 16, and 

a liter of it weighs 1.43 grams. Hence, a liter of NH 3 weighs 
8 5 

x 1.43 grams, or almost exactly .76 gram. The volume oc¬ 
cupied by .95 gram of NH 3 under standard conditions is hence 

of a liter, or 1.25 liters. At 20° C. and 770 mm. the re¬ 

quired volume will be 

293 760 , ^ 
co 273 * 770 * 

x = 1.324 liters. 

6. How much II 2 0 will be formed in the process? 

From the reaction we see that one molecule of H 2 0 is 
formed for two molecules of NH 4 C1. Hence, 

2NH 4 C1: H 2 0 :: 3 : x. 

107 : 18 : :3:x. 

x = .5 + , gram. 

7. How much CaO will be needed ? 

From the reaction we see that one molecule of CaO is re¬ 
quired with two molecules of NH 4 C1. Hence, 



2NH 4 C1: CaO :: 3 : x. 

107 : 56 ::3 : x. 
x = 1.57 grams. 

8. How much N 2 O can be made from 1 gram of am¬ 
monium nitrate ? 

The reaction is 

NH 4 N0 3 = 2H 2 0 + N 2 0. 

Hence, NH 4 N0 3 : N 2 0 :: 1 : x. 

80. 44 :: 1 : x. 
x = .55 gram. 

9. Hoiv much nitric acid can be formed from 50 kilos 
of sodium nitrate (NaNOf)? 

The reaction is 

2NaN0 3 + H 2 S0 4 = Na 2 S0 4 + 2HNO a . 

Hence, NaN0 3 : HN0 3 :: 50 : x. 

85 : 63 :: 50 : x. 

x = 37 +, kilograms. 

10. What causes flesh to decompose so much more easily 
than wood ? 

It is partly owing to the greater complexity of its molecule, 
and partly to the presence of the N, which is very unstable in 
its compounds. 

11. If a tuft of hair be heated in a test tube 9 the liquid 
formed will turn red litmus-paper blue. Explain. 

Ammonia is formed by the decomposition of the hair, and 
this acting on the red litmus-paper, turns it blue. 

12. Why should care be used in opening a bottle of 
strong H 3 Nin a warm room? 

The space above the liquid is filled with ammonia gas, 
which had been dissolved in the water at a low temperature. 
Its expansive force is greatly increased when the temperature 
is raised. When the stopper is removed, therefore, a concussion 
may result. 



13. What weight of N is there in 10 grams of HNO z ? 

HN0 8 : N :: 10 : x. 

63 :14 :: 10 : x. 
x — 2.2 grams. 

14. How much sal-ammoniac would he required to 
mahe 20 liters of NH Z measured at 25° C. and 744 mm. ? 

Refer to the answer of Question 5. A liter of NH 3 under 
standard conditions weighs .76 gram. 

First find how many liters of NH 3 at 0° C. and 760 7nm. 
are required to expand to 20 liters at 25° C. and 744 mm. 
Call the result V. Then 

273 744 

V 298 760 U 

Each of these weighs .76 gram. Call the result W. 


NH q : 2NILC1 ::W:x. 

17: 107 

273 x 744 x 20 x.76 

298 x 760 

--: x. 

107 x 273 x 744 x 20 x.76 
37 17x298x760 

x — 85.8 grams. 

15. What is the difference between liquid ammonia and 
liquor amm onice ? 

Liquid ammonia is the result of condensing the gas by cold. 
Liquor ammonise is the commercial name often applied to the 
solution of the gas in water. 

52— 1. Why, in filling the hydrogen gun, do ive use 5 
parts of common air to 2 of H, and only one part of O to 2 
of H? 

Because the air is only \ oxygen, and hence 5 parts of com¬ 
mon air are equivalent to 1 part oxygen. 

2. Why are coal cinders often moistened with H 2 O be¬ 
fore using? 

(See Popular Chemistry , p. 45, note.) 

The H s O being decomposed by the heat of the fire increases 
the combustion. 



3, What injury may be done by throwing a small quan¬ 
tity of II z O on a fire ? 

“No more heat is produced by the action of the H 2 0, but 
it is in a more available form for communicating heat. The 
steam in contact with incandescent charcoal is decomposed—the 
O going to the C to form C0 2 , and the H being set free. If 
the C is abundant, and the heat high, the C0 2 is also decom¬ 
posed, and double its volume of CO formed. The inflammable 
gases, H and CO, mingled with the hydrocarbons always pro¬ 
duced, are ignited, making the billows of flame which sweep 
over a burning building.” —S. P. Sharples. 

4, Why does the hardness of water vary in different 
localities ? 

The hardness of the water will necessarily vary with the 
solubility of the minerals in different localities. 

5, What causes the variety of minerals in the ocean ? 
Is the quantity increasing ? 

The ocean contains the washings of the land. Every min¬ 
eral soluble in water is borne to the sea. The quantity of min¬ 
eral matter in the ocean would therefore seem to be increasing, 
yet there is a compensation in the return to the soil, of guano, 
marine plants, and fish, which are driven on shore by winds 
and waves, or carried by the industry of man. 

Analysis of sea-water (Schweitzer): 


Sodium chloride. . 

Potassium chloride. 

Magnesium chloride. 

Magnesium bromide. 

Magnesium sulphate.. 

Calcium sulphate .. 

Calcium carbonate. . 














6, Is there not a compensation in the sea-plants, fish, 
etc,, which are washed back on the land ? 

(See Answer to Question 5.) 



7. Since “ all the rivers floiv to the seawhy is it not 

Because of the constant evaporation from its surface. 

S. What is the cause of the tonic influence of the sea- 

There are traces of certain minerals which probably give to 
the sea-breeze a bracing influence. The air from the ocean is 
also, doubtless, highly ozonized. It is free from the contamina¬ 
tions that so often make the atmosphere of the cities and parts 
of the country unhealthy. 

9. When fish are taken out of the water , and thus 
brought into a more abundant atmosphere, why do they 

Fish inhale O through the fine, silky filaments of their gills. 
When a fish is drawn out of H 2 0, these dry up, and it is un¬ 
able to breathe, although it is in a more plentiful atmosphere 
than it is accustomed to enjoy. 

10. Do all fish die when brought on land ? 

No. Some fish have an apparatus for moistening their gills. 
They can therefore crawl about in the grass, and even migrate 
from one stream to another. 

11. What weight of water is there in 100 lbs. of sodium 
sulphate (Na*,S0 4 , 10H 2 O), or Glauber 9 s salt? 

10H s O : Na 2 S0 4 , 10H 2 0 :: cc : 100 lbs. 

180 : 322 : : cc : 100 lbs. 

322 x = 18,000 lbs. 

x = 55.9 lbs. (H 2 0). 

12. What weight of water in a ton of alum ( KAl , 
2SO if 12D 2 0)? 

* 12H 2 0 : KAl, 2S0 4 , 12H a O :: cc : 2,000 lbs. 

216: 474.5 :: x : 2,000 lbs. 

474.5 x = 432,000 lbs. 

x = 910.4 lbs. (H 2 0). 

13. Dow does the air purify running water? 



The O contained in the air absorbed by the H 2 0 oxidizes 
the organic substances, which are the most dangerous impuri¬ 

14. JVhat is the action of potassium permanganate as 
a disinfectant ? 

It gives up its O to oxidize the organic impurities. 

15. What weight of II can be obtained from a liter of 
water ? 

The weight of a liter of water under standard conditions is 
1,000 grams. Of this | is H. Hence, the required weight is 
111^ grams. 

16. Hoiv much Zn must be employed to obtain 100 
grams of Hfrom H 2 S0 4 ? 

The reaction is 

Zn + H 3 S0 4 = ZnS0 4 + 2H. 

Hence, 2H : Zn :: 100 : x. 

2:65 : :100 : x. 
x = 3,250 grams. 

17. A liter of II under standard conditions weighs 
0.0SO6 gram. What volume of IIat 10° C. and 738 mm. 
can be obtained from H 2 S0 4 , by the action of 8 kilos of 

Zn + H 2 S0 4 = ZnS0 4 + 2H. 

Zn : 2H : : 8,000 : x in grams. 

65 : 2 :: 8,000 : x. 

x = 246.15 grams. 

The number of liters under standard conditions is 

.0896 ' 

At 10° C. and 738 mm., the volume is 

_ 246.15 283 760 
” .0896 X 273 X 738' 

V = 2932.7 liters. 

18. How much KClO s would be required to evolve suffi¬ 
cient O to burn the H produced by the decomposition of 2 
grams of 1I 2 O ? 



The weight of H from 2 grams of H 2 0 is^ f gram. The 
weight of 0 required to unite with it is 8 x f, or - 1 / gram. 

KC10 3 = KC1 + 30. 

30 : KC10 3 :: V -: x - 
48 : 122.5 :: - 1 / : x. 
x = 4.537 grams. 

10. Sow much O would be required to oxidize the me¬ 
tallic Cu which could be reduced from its oxide by passing 
over it, when white-hot, 20 grams of Hgas? 

The amount required to oxidize the Cu is obviously the 
same as that which would be separated from the CuO by re¬ 
duction. The number of grams of O thus separated must be 8 
times the weight of the H, or 160 grams. 

20. Sotv much O would be required to oxidize the me¬ 
tallic Fe which could be reduced in the same manner by 10 
grams of H gas ? 

To oxidize 10 grams of H would require 80 grams of O. If 
this be withdrawn from the oxide of iron, the same amount 
would be required to oxidize the iron thus reduced. 

21. Why are rose-balloons so buoyant ? 

Because the H which they contain displaces air that is 
more than 14 times as heavy. 

22. Sow much S must be burned to produce a ton of 
water ? 

A ton is 2,000 pounds. The weight of H in a ton of water 
is ^ x 2,000, or 222f pounds. To find the volume of this we re¬ 
member that the weight of 100 cubic inches of air is 31 grains 
(see Popular Physics, p. 131). In every 5 parts of air there are 
4 parts of N, weighing 14 times as much as the same volume 

of H, and 1 part of O, weighing 16 times as much ; — - X — ^ ^ 

= 14.4, nearly. Hence, air is about 14.4 times as heavy as H. 
Therefore 31 grains will be the weight of 100 x 14.4 cubic 

1 440 

inches of H, or of ^ ^ of a cubic foot of H. To reduce the 



given weight, 222f pounds, to grains, we multiply by 7,000, the 

, - . . , 14,000,000 

number of grains m a pound, making —-— - grams. 



14,000,000 1,440 


x in cubic feet. 

9 “1,728 

x = 41,817 cubic feet. 

This would be enough to fill a spherical balloon 43 feet in 


84— 1, Why will pine-wood ignite more easily than 
maple ? 

It is richer in hydrocarbons, that are readily volatile. 

2. Why is fire-damp more dangerous than choke- 
damp ? 

Fire-damp, CH 4 , contains no O. At the appropriate tem¬ 
perature of kindling, when mixed with air, it is a dangerous 
explosive. Choke-damp, C0 2 , is already a stable compound con¬ 
taining the largest proportion of O that can unite with C. It 
is, therefore, not explosive. 

3. Represent the reaction in making C0 2 , showing the 
atomic weights, as in the preparation of O on page 12, 

CaC0 3 + 2HC1 = CaCl 2 + H 2 0 + C0 2 . 

(40 + 12 + 48) + 2 (1 + 35.5) = (40 + 71) + (2 + 16) + (12 + 32). 

100 + 73 = 111 + 18 + 44. 

173 = 173. 

4. Should one take a light into a room where the gas is 
escaping ? 

No. An important constituent of illuminating gas is the 
dreaded fire-damp, CH 4 . Mixed with the air in the room, it 
may be exploded by introducing a lighted match or candle. 

5, Why does it dull a knife to sharpen a pencil ? 

The particles of graphite in the pencil are very hard, and 
the knife edge is worn away by friction. 

6*. Where was the C, now contained in the coal, before 
the Carboniferous age ? 

Probably most of it was combined with O, forming C0 2 in 
a densely charged atmosphere. 



7. Must the air have then contained more plant food? 
Probably it did. 

8. What is the principle of the aquarium ? 

The inter-dependence of animals and plants, whereby each 
supplies the wants of the other. The aquarium is a microcosm 
—a world in miniature.* 

* I have read somewhere a beautiful Persian fable in which a nightin¬ 
gale and a rose are represented as being confined in a cage together, and 
being dependent upon each other for life. The fable is truth symbolized. 
The idea has now become more practical, but not less beautiful. In the 
modern aquarium, or drawing-room fish-pond, we see the world in minia¬ 
ture. It is a self-regulating, self-subsisting establishment, and is con¬ 
structed on the most perfect principles of chemical economy. 

“ Before this truth of compensation between animals and plants was 
discovered, many attempts were made to keep fish in small glass globes. 
As they soon exhausted the oxygen, and impregnated the water with car¬ 
bonic acid, it was necessary to change it daily. Finally, but a few years 
since, it was discovered that plants evolve oxygen and consume carbonic 
acid in the water as well as in the air. Starting out with this idea, about 
the year 1850, a Mr. Warrington, an Englishman, set about breeding fish 
and mollusks in tanks by the aid of marine plants. He succeeded admi¬ 
rably for a few days, but after a time a change came over his little world. 
Without apparent reason, the water became suddenly impure, and the fish 
died. Here was a new agency at work. With the aid of a microscope, Mr. 
Warrington explored his tank for the poison that was evidently latent 
there. He soon discovered that some of his plants had reached maturity, 
and, in obedience to the law of nature, had died. The decaying matter 
was the poison of which he was in search. How was this to be counter¬ 
acted? In nature’s tanks—seas, rivers, and ponds—reflected Mr. Warring¬ 
ton, plants must die and decay, yet this does not destroy animal life. We 
must see how nature remedies the evil. Pie hastened to a pond in tho 
vicinity, and examined its bottom with care. He found, as he had antici¬ 
pated, an abundance of vegetable matter decayed. He likewise found 
swarms of water-snails doing duty as scavengers, and devouring the putre¬ 
fying substances before they had time to taint the water. Here was the 
secret; so beautiful a contrivance that it is said Mr. Warrington burst into 
tears when it flashed upon him like a revelation. 

He, however, quickly dried his eyes, gathered a quantity of snails, 
and threw a handful into his little tank at home. In a single day the 
water was clear and pure again. The fish throve and gamboled, grew and 
multiplied; the plants resumed their bright colors, and the snails not only 
rollicked in an abundance of decaying branches, but laid a profusion of 
eggs, on which the fish dined sumptuously every day.” 



9. What test should be employed before going down in 
an old ivell or cellar ? 

A lighted candle should be lowered. If that is dimmed or 
extinguished, it is not safe for one to descend. 

10. What causes the sparkle of wine and the foam of 
beer ? 

The CO 2 formed in the process of fermentation. 

11. What causes the cork to fly out of a catsup bottle ? 

The CO 2 which is produced when the catsup ferments. 

12. What physical principle does the solidification of 
CO 2 illustrate ? 

That evaporation is a cooling process. A portion of the 
liquid C0 2 turns to vapor, and thus abstracts so much heat 
from the remainder as to freeze it. (See Popular Physics, p. 

13. Why does the division in the chimney shown in 
Fig. 29 produce two currents ? 

For a few moments there is an uncertainty—a condition of 
unstable equilibrium. The heated air is tending to rise, and 
the cold air tending to come in to supply its place. The situ¬ 
ation of the candle in the jar determines the length of time 
before the currents start. If the candle be placed on one side 
of the jar, they will be established almost instantly. 

11. What causes the unpleasant odor of coal-gas? Is 
it useful ? 

Impurities which it contains. Olefiant gas has a faint 
sweetish odor, while carbonic oxide and hydrogen, when pure, 
are inodorous. The disagreeable smell is due in part to acety¬ 
lene (C 2 H 2 ). The unpleasant odor warns us of the presence of 

15. What causes the sparkling often seen in a gas¬ 
light ? 

Particles of solid taken up mechanically in the process of 
purification, or otherwise. 



16, Why does H in burning give out more heat 
than C? 

1 lb. of H burned in 0 emits heat sufficient to melt 315.2 
lbs. of ice; and 12 lbs. of carbon converted into C0 2 enough to 
melt 700 lbs. of ice. (This subject is quite fully treated in 
Miller's Chemical Physics, page 294, et seq.) The cause is not 
as yet fully determined, although it is perhaps safe to say that 
in ordinary combustion the heat depends on the amount of O 
which enters into combination with the fuel. 

17, Why do not stones burn as well as wood ? 

Because they are already burned, i.e., combined with O. 

1S, Why does not hemlock make good coals? 

Because (1) of its lack of C, and (2) its porous structure. 

19. What adaptation of chemical affinities is shown in 
a light ? 

If O had the same affinity for C that it has for H, they 
would be consumed at once, with little light. The fact that 
the H burns first, and thus heats up to the luminous point the 
particles of C as they float outward to the air, causes the illu¬ 
minating power of the hydro-carbons. 

20. Why does snuffing a candle brighten the flame ? 

Because it removes the charred wick, which diminishes the 
heat of the flame by both conduction and radiation. 

21. Why is the flame of a candle red or yellow, and 
that of a kerosene oil-lamp white ? 

(See Popular Physics , p. 243). 

The heat of a candle-flame is much less than that of kero¬ 
sene, and thus the colors characteristic of a lower temperature 
are produced. 

22. Why does a street gas-light burn blue on a windy 
night ? Is the light then as intense ? The heat ? 

O is mingled with the flame in sufficient quantities to burn 
the H and C simultaneously. Thereby the heat is increased, 



but the light diminished. The principle is that of Bunsen’s 

23. Why does not the lime burn in a calcium-light ? 

Lime is a burned body ; its symbol is CaO. 

24. Why is a candle-flame tapering ? 

(See Chemistry , p. 77.) 

The currents of air rushing toward the flame from all sides 
give it the conical form. 

25. Why does a draught of air cause a light to smoke ? 

It lowers the heat of the flame below the point of union 
between C and O, and thus the C is precipitated. 

26. What makes the coal at the end of a candle-wick ? 

The wick at the edge of the flame comes in contact with 
the O of the air, and therefore burns. 

27. Which is the hottest part of a flame ? 

Toward the point of the cone, where the gaseous envelopes 
meet and make a solid flame. 

28. Why does not a candle-wick burn except at the 
edge of the flame ? 

There is no O at the center of the flame. 

29. How does a chimney enable us to burn without 
smoke highly carboniferous substances like oil ? 

It prevents the heated products of combustion from becom¬ 
ing mixed with cold air. These rise, and new air can come in 
only at the bottom. The stronger the heat in the chimney the 
greater is this draught. A flame, in which the combustion is 
imperfect when O is supplied slowly, becomes much brighter 
when O is supplied fast enough to produce perfect combustion 
of the H, and also to oxidize all the C without allowing any to 
pass off as smoke. 

30. How much C0 2 in 200 lbs. of chalk ? 



C0 2 : CaC0 3 :: x : 200 lbs. 

44 : 100 :: x : 200 lbs. 

100 x = 8,800 lbs. 
x — 88 lbs. (C0 2 ). 

31. What weight of C0 2 in a ton of marble ? 

C0 2 : CaC0 3 :: x : 2,000 lbs. 

44 : 100 :: x : 2,000 lbs. 

100 x = 88,000 lbs. 
x = 880 lbs. (C0 2 ). 

32. Why does not a cold saucer held over an alcohol 
flame blacken, as it does over a candle or • gas-light ? 

There is less C in alcohol than in tallow or in coal-gas. 

33. Hoiv much CO., is formed in the combustion of one 
ton of C ? 

C : C0 2 :: 2,000 lbs. : x. 

12 : 44 :: 2,000 lbs. : x. 

12 x — 88,000 lbs. 

x = 7333.33+ lbs. (CO*). 

3d. What weight of C is there in a ton of C0 2 ? 

C : C0 2 : : x : 2,000 lbs. 

12 : 44 :: cc : 2,000 lbs. 

44 x = 24,000 lbs. 
x — 545.45 +lbs. (C). 

35. How much O is consumed in burning a ton of C? 

In any quantity of C0 2 , T 8 T of the compound is O, and r 3 T 
C. If X 3 X = 2,000 lbs. (C0 2 ), then X 8 X = f of 2,000 lbs. = 5333.33 
+ lbs. (O). 

36. What weight of sodium carbonate (Ka 2 CO Sf 10 
H 2 0, “ carbonate of soda") would be required to evolve 12 
grams of C0 2 ? 

C0 2 : Na 2 C0 3 10H S 0 :: 12 gm. : x. 

44 : 286 : : 12 gm. : x. 

44 x — 2,432 gm. 

x = 50.72 gm. (Na 2 CO s , 10H 2 O). 



37• How much C0 2 will be formed in the combustion 
of 30 gm, of CO ? 

CO : C0 2 :: 30 gm. : x. 

28 : 44 : : 30 gm. : x. 

28 x — 1,320 gm. 

x — 47.14 gm. (C0 2 ). 

38, What weight of CaCO s ivould be required to evolve 
12 grams of CO., ? 

CaC0 3 + 2HC1 = CaCl 2 + H 2 0 + C0 2 . 

C0 2 : CaC0 3 :: 12 : x. 

44 : 100 :: 12 : x. 

x = 27 X 3 T grams. 

39, What would be the volume of these 12 grams of 
CO z at 12 ° C, and 711 mm, ? 

The molecular weight of C0 2 [12 + 2(16)], is 44. Its density 
is therefore 22. Under standard conditions 1 liter of H weighs 
.0896 gm.; therefore 1 liter of C0 2 weighs 22 x .0896 gm., or 
1.97 gm. The number of liters that would weigh 12 gm. is 

hence —or 6.09 liters. At 12° C. and 744 mm. this volume 

JL • KJ i 

would be expanded to 

y = 

285 760 
273 X 744 X 


Y = 6.494 liters. 

10, How much C would be necessary to furnish CO s 
enough to fill a gas-holder 10 meters high and 1 meters in 
diameter when the temperature is 25° C., and the barome¬ 
ter stands 731 mm, ? 

First find the capacity of the gas-holder. The volume of a 
cylinder is equal to its length multiplied by the area of its 
cross action. In this case it is 10 x 3.1416 x (2) 2 , or 125.664 
cubic meters. Since in a cubic meter there are 1,000 liters, this 
volume is 125,664 liters, the temperature being 25° C., and the 
pressure 754 mm. Reducing this to standard conditions, we 

V = 125,664 x 

273 754 
298 X 760' 

V = 114,210.5 liters. 




Each of these liters of C0 2 weighs 1.97 gm. (see answer 
to Question 39). Hence the total weight of C0 2 is 114,210.5 x 
1.97 = 224,995 gm. 

C0 2 : C :: 224,995 : x. 

44 : 12 :: 224,995 : x. 
x = 61.362 x 3 t grams. 

Or x — 61.362+ , kilograms. 

4:1. Write in double columns the different'properties of 
carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide ; thus, 

CO 2 is 1, non-inflammable. 

2. Atomic weight—44. 

3. Specific gravity—1.529. 

4. Will not burn. 

5. A negative poison. 

6. Liquefies at 32°, and a press¬ 

ure of 38.5 atmospheres. 

7. Freely soluble in H 2 0. 

8. Forms salts. 

Etc., etc. 

CO is 1, inflammable. 

2. Atomic weight—28. 

3. Specific gravity—.967. 

4. Burns with a blue flame. 

5. A direct poison. 

6. Has never been liquefied. 

7. Sparingly soluble in water. 

Etc., etc. 

I IO— 1. If chlorine water stands in the sunlight for a 
time, it will only redden a litmus-solution . Why does it 
not bleach it ? 

Hydrochloric acid is formed, which reddens the litmus. 

2. Why do tinsmiths moisten with HCl, or sal-ammo¬ 
niac, the surface of metals to be soldered ? 

It dissolves the coating of oxide, and leaves the surface of 
the metal free for the action of the solder. 

3. How much HCl can be made from 25 kilos of com¬ 
mon salt ? 

NaCl: Cl :: 25 : x. 

58.5 : 35.5 :: 25 : x. 
x — 15.17 kilograms. 

4. What weight of NaCl would be required to form 25 
kilos of HCl? 



2NaCl + H 2 S0 4 = Na 2 S0 4 + 2HC1. 

Each molecule of NaCl thus yields one molecule of HC1. - 

HC1: NaCl: : 25 : cc. 

36.5 : 58.5 : : 25 : x. 
x = 40 +, kilograms. 

5. SCI of a specific gravity of 1.2 contains about 40 
per cent, of the gas . This is very strong commercial acid . 
What weight could be formed by the SCI gas produced in 
the reaction named in the preceding problem ? 

25 kilos = .40 x. 

a = 62.5 kilos. 


6. What is the difference between sublimation and dis¬ 
tillation ? 

A body is said to sublime when it rises as vapor and con¬ 
denses in the solid form; when it condenses as a liquid it is 
said to distil. 

7. Why do eggs discolor silver spoons ? 

The sulphur of the egg combines with the Ag, forming 
silver sulphide. 

8. Explain the principle of hair-dyes• 

The two principal chemicals used for dyeing the hair are 
lead and silver nitrate. The S in the hair combining with the 
Ag makes silver sulphide, or with the Pb, lead sulphide, either 
of which stains the hair; the former colors the skin as well as 
the hair, while the latter is absorbed through the skin, causing 
colics and other diseases such as are common among painters. 
The “golden yellow color” lately in fashion is produced by a 
solution of arsenic with the hydrosulphate of ammonia. In or¬ 
der to dye the lighter tints, it is necessary to bleach the hair 
with an alkaline solution. See Fireside Science, page 77. 

9. Is it safe to mix oil of vitriol and water in a glass 
bottle ? 

The heat produced by the combination of the two will be 
liable to break the glass. 



10. What is the color of a sulphuric acid stain on 
cloth ? How would you remove it ? 

It is generally red, especially on black woolen cloth. The 
color may be restored by a few drops of a solution of common 
“soda,” or ammonia. 

11. What causes the milky look when oil of vitriol and 
water are m ixed ? 

Pb from the stills in which the acid is condensed, and which 
is soluble in strong H 2 S0 4 , is precipitated when the acid is di¬ 
luted with H 2 0. 

12. What is the chemical relation between animals and 
plants? Which perform the office of reduction, and which 
of oxidation ? 

The animal lives on organized materials, taking up O and 
evolving C0 2 , and other oxidized products. The plant lives on 
unorganized materials, C0 2 , HO, NH 3 , and salts, organizing 
them and evolving O. The function of the animal is oxidation; 
that of the plant, reduction. The food of the plant serves 
merely to increase its bulk ; that of the animal is employed to 
replace the material worn out by the active operations of life. 
The animal obtains the energy necessary for its existence from 
the oxidation of its own body; the plant obtains the energy 
necessary for the organization of its food directly from the 

13. How many pounds of S are contained in 100 lbs. 
of H 2 SO i ? 

S : H 2 S0 4 :: x : 100 lbs. 

32 : 98 :: x : 100 lbs. 

98 x = 3,200 lbs. 
x = 32ff lbs. (S). 

Id. How much O and H 2 0 are needed to change a ton 
of S0 2 to H 2 SOt ? 

One ton of S0 2 will make lf| tons of H 2 S0 4 : of which -fa 
is H, ft is S, and ff is O. f of this O, or fa, comes from the 



air, and f — from the water. (See process of manufacture, 
Chemistry , p. 106.) Hence, (O) and (H) = of the acid, 
was furnished by the water—^ of Iff tons = ^ ton (H 2 0). 

15. Hoiv much O in a lb. of H 2 SO A ? 

|f of any quantity of sulphuric acid are O; is H; and 
|f are S. Hence, in 1 lb. of H 2 S0 2 there are ff lb. (0). 

16. State the analogy between the compounds of O 
and S. 


h 2 0. 

H 2 0 2 (hydrogen dioxide). 
C0 2 . 


The corresponding compounds possess not only an analo¬ 
gous composition, but also similar chemical properties. 

148 -1. In the experiment with Na.^SO^, on page 154, 
an accurate thermometer will show that in making the so¬ 
lution, the temperature of the liquid will fall, and in its 
solidification, will rise. Explain. 

(See Popular Physics , p. 250.) 

Energy of temperature is absorbed in doing the work of 
overcoming molecular cohesion; hence, the thermometer falls 
while the salt is becoming liquid. In returning to the solid 
state it gives out this energy again as temperature. 

2. If, in making a solution of Na^SO^, we use the salt 
which has effloresced , and so become anhydrous, the tem¬ 
perature will rise instead of falling as before. Explain. 

This is because a solid hydrate is formed before the salt dis¬ 
solves in the H 2 0. The same holds true of other anhydrous 
bodies, as the chlorides of Zn, Fe, and Cu. 

3. Why is KHO z used instead of JVrtN 0 3 for making 
gunpowder ? 

Sodium nitrate is imported from Chili in large quantities, 
and attempts have been made to use it for making gunpowder,* 

* Gunpowder is an intimate mechanical mixture of about 1 part niter, 
1 part sulphur, and 3 parts charcoal. These proportions, however, vary 



but its tendency to attract moisture has frustrated the plan. It 
is now extensively used as a fertilizer, and is said to be the 
cheapest form in which N can be furnished the soil. 

4. Why is a potassium salt preferable to a sodium one 
in glass-making ? 

Sodium salts give a greenish tint to the glass. 

5. What is the glassy slag so plentiful about a fur¬ 
nace ? * 

A silicate of lime or some other base contained in the ore. 

Ordinary Slag from Blast Furnace (Bloxam). 





Oxide of iron. 

Oxide of manganese. 


Sulphide of calcium. 

Phosphoric acid. 

somewhat in different countries, as well as in different sorts of powder. 
More charcoal adds to its power, hut also causes it to attract moisture from 
the air, which of course injures its quality. For blasting rocks, where a 
sustained force, rather than an instantaneous one, is required, the powder 
contains more sulphur, and is even then often mixed with sawdust to re¬ 
tard the explosion. The niter, sulphur, and charcoal, having been ground 
and sifted separately, are thoroughly mixed, and then made into a thick 
paste with water. This is ground for some hours under edge-stones, after 
which it is subjected to immense pressure between gun-metal plates, form¬ 
ing what is known as press-cake. These cakes are then submitted to the 
action of toothed rollers, whereby the granulation of the powder is effected. 
The grains thus formed are sorted into different sizes by means of a series 
of sieves, and thoroughly dried at a steam heat. The last operation, that 
of polishing, is accomplished in revolving barrels, after which the powder 
is ready for market. The heavier the powder, the greater is its explosive 
power. Q-ood powder should resist pressure between the fingers, giving no 
dust when rubbed, and have a slightly glossy aspect.—Y oumans. 

* The slag is commonly employed for road-making in the neighborhood 
of the iron-works. Some attempts have been made to turn the slag to ac¬ 
count by employing it as a manure for soils deficient in potash, of which 













6. State the formulae of niter, saleratus, carbonate and 
bicarbonate of soda, plaster, pear lash, saltpeter, plaster of 
Paris, gypsum, carbonate and bicarbonate of potash, sal- 

soda, and soda. 

Niter, saltpeter.KN0 3 . 

Saleratus, pearlash.'.HKC0 3 . 

Carbonate of soda, sal-soda.Na 2 C0 3 . 

Bicarbonate of soda, “soda”.HlSraC0 3 . 

Plaster, gypsum.CaS0 4 ,2H 2 0. 

Plaster of Paris.CaSO*. 

7. Explain how ammonium carbonate is formed in the 
process of making coal-gas. 

Nitrogen exists in small quantities in coal, and when that 
is distilled at a high temperature, the elements in their nascent 
state combine to form this compound. 

8. Upon what fact depends the formation of stalactites ? 

Water containing carbonic acid in solution will dissolve car¬ 
bonate of lime freely, but when, on exposure to the air, the 
gas escapes, the carbonate is deposited. 

f>. Why is HF kept in gutta-percha bottles ? 

Because it will dissolve silica, and so destroy a glass bottle. 

10. Explain the use of borax in washing. 

It softens “hard” water by uniting with the soluble salts 
of lime or magnesia, and making insoluble ones which settle 
and form a thin sediment in the bottom of pitchers in which it 
is placed. 

11. How are petrifactions formed ? 

Certain springs contain large quantities of some alkaline 
carbonate; their waters, therefore, dissolve silica abundantly. 
If we place a bit of wood in them, as fast as it decays, parti- 

it will be seen that the above slag contains nearly /gth of its weight, in a 
form which would be easily rendered available for plants by the combined 
action of air and moisture. When the slag is run into water, or blown 
into a frothy condition by the blast, it resembles pumice-stone, and is easily 
ground to a powder fit for applying to the soil. 



cles of silica will take its place—atom by atom—and thus pet¬ 
rify the wood. The wood has not been changed to stone, but 
has been replaced by stone. 

12. In what part of the body, and in what forms, is 
phosphorus found ? , 

As a phosphate it is the principal earthy constituent of the 
bones. It is also a never-failing ingredient of the brain and 
nervous system. The susceptibility of phosphorus to oxidation 
especially adapts it to the rapid changes incident to the struct¬ 
ure and offices of the brain.* 

* Phosphorus is an element which can imperceptibly and quickly pass 
from a condition of great chemical activity to one of equal chemical inert¬ 
ness. In virtue of this character, it “ may follow the blood in its changes, 
may oxidize in the one great set of capillaries, and be indifferent to oxygen 
in the other; may occur in the brain, in the vitreous form, changing as 
quickly as the intellect or imagination demands, and literally flaming that 
thoughts may breathe and words may burn; and may be present in the 
bones in its amorphous form, content like an impassive caryatid, to sustain 
upon its unwearied shoulders the mere dead weight of stones of flesh. And 
what is here said of the brain as contrasted with the bones, will apply with 
equal or similar force to many other organs of the body. All throughout 
the living system, we may believe that phosphorus is found at the centers 
of vital action in the active condition, and at its outlying points in the 
passive condition. In the one case it is like the soldier with his loaded 
musket pressed to his shoulder and his finger on the trigger, almost antici¬ 
pating the command to fire ; in the other it is like the same soldier with 
his unloaded weapon at his side standing at ease.” 

“ Further, phosphorus forms with oxygen a powerful acid, capable even 
of abstracting water from sulphuric acid, and yet perfectly unirritating 
to the organic textures. Taking up varying quantities of water, phosphoric 
acid assumes no fewer than three distinct forms, which will unite with 
one, two, or three atoms of alkali respectively, giving an acid, neutral, or 
alkaline reaction. Thus it is available for the most varied uses in the 
body. A child is beginning to walk, and the bones of its limbs must be 
strengthened and hardened; phosphoric acid, accordingly, carries with it 
three units of lime to them, and renders them solid and firm. But the 
bones of its skull must remain comparatively soft and yielding, for it has 
many a fall, and the more elastic these bones are, the less will it suffer 
when its head strikes a hard object; so that in them we may suppose the 
phosphoric acid to retain but two units of lime, and to form a softer, less 
consistent solid. And the cartilages of the ribs must be still more supple 
and elastic, so that in them the phosphoric acid may be supposed to be 



IS. Why are matches poisonous? What is the anti¬ 
dote ? 

Because of the phosphorus in the match. Turpentine has 
been proposed as a remedy, but is not known to be reliable. 

14:. Will the burning phosphorus ignite the wood of the 
match ? 

It does not give off enough heat in its oxidation to raise the 
temperature of the wood to the igniting point. Some substance 
of low kindling point, such as sulphur, or which contains a 
large amount of O, such as KC10 a , is added to produce violent 
oxidation and kindle the wood. 

15. What principle is illustrated in the ignition of a 
match by friction ? 

The conversion of motion into heat. 

16. How much H s O would be required to dissolve a 
pound of KNO a ? 

31 lbs. of cold water, or i lb. of hot water. 

17. What causes the bad odor after the discharge of a 
gun ? 

The potassium sulphide gradually gives up its S to form 
H 2 S. 

combined with but one unit of base. On the other hand, its teeth must 
be harder than its hardest bones, and a new demand is made on the lime- 
phosphates to associate themselves with other lime-salts (especially fluoride 
of calcium), to form the cutting edges and grinding faces of the incisors 
and molars. All the while, also, the blood must be kept alkaline, that oxi¬ 
dation of the tissues may be promoted, and albumen retained in solution; 
and yet it must not be too alkaline, or tissues and albumen will both be 
destroyed, and the carbonic acid developed at the systemic capillaries 
will not be exchanged for oxygen when the blood is exposed to that gas 
at the lungs. So phosphoric acid provides a salt containing two units 
of soda and one of water, which is sufficiently alkaline to promote oxida¬ 
tion, dissolve albumen, and absorb carbonic acid, and yet holds the latter 
so loosely, that it instantly exchanges it for oxygen when it encounters 
that gas in the pulmonary capillaries. Again, the flesh juice must be kept 
acid (perhaps in opposition to the alkaline blood, as affecting the trans¬ 
mission of the electric currents which traverse the tissues), and phosphoric 
acid provides a salt, containing two units of water and one of potash, 
which secures the requisite acidity.”— Dr. G. Wilson, Edinburgh Essays , 1856. 



18. Write in parallel columns the properties of com 
mon and of red phosphorus. 

Amorphous phosphorus. 

Common phosphorus. 

1. Specific gravity—1.83. 

2. Burns at 111°. 

3. Odor of garlic. 

4. Soluble in CS 2 . 

5. Colorless, or straw-yellow. 

6. A deadly poison. 

1. Specific gravity—2.14. 

2. Burns at 500°. 

3. Odorless. 

4. Insoluble in CS 2 . 

5. Brownish red. 

6. Harmless. 


salt ? 

What causes the difference between fine and coarse 

(See Chemisti'y, p. 132.) 

The rapidity of evaporation in the process of manufacture. 

20. Why do the figures in a glass paper-weight look 
larger when seen from the top than from the bottom ? 

The form of the glass acts like a convex lens to magnify 
the apparent size of the figures. 

21. What is the difference between water-slacked and 
air-slacked lime? 

The former is simply calcium hydrate, CaO, H 2 0, while the 
latter has absorbed both H 2 0 and C0 2 from the air. 

22. Why do oyster-shells on the grate of a coal-stove 
prevent the formation of clinkers ? 

The lime of the shells acts as a flux with the iron in the 
coal, thus dissolving the clinkers, if any form. 

23. How is lime-ivater m,ade from oyster-shells ? 

The shells are burned, driving off the C0 2 combined with 
the CaO in the CaC0 3 , and the lime thus formed is slightly 
soluble in water. 

24. Why do newly plastered tvalls remain damp so 
long ? 

The plaster or mortar in drying gives off the water the 
lime took up in slacking. 



25. Will lime lose its beneficial effect upon a soil after 
frequent applications ? 

Lime acts in various ways to improve the fertility of a soil. 
It corrects its acidity, aids in the decomposition of the rocky 
constituents, hastens the decay of the humus, and also makes 
the soil more porous. It does not, however, benefit the grow¬ 
ing plant directly, but works up other materials in the soil. It 
therefore loses its effect after a time. The Belgian farmers 
have a proverb: 

“ Much, lime and no manure, 

Make farm and farmer poorer.” 

26. What causes plaster of Paris to harden again after 
being moistened ? 

(See Chemistry , p. 141.) 

It recombines with water, which was driven off in the 
process of its manufacture. 

27. What is the difference between sulphate arid sul¬ 
phite of lime? 

The former is a compound of sulphuric acid ; the latter of 
sulphurous acid. 

28. What two classes of rays are especially abundant 
in the magnesium light ? 

(See Popular Physics , p. 243.) 

The actinic and the luminous rays. The former are less than 
5 Tj¥TUj °f an inch in length, and produce chemical change. 

29. What rare metals would become useful in the arts 
if the process of manufacture were cheapened ? 

Magnesium, aluminum, sodium, etc. 

30. Why is lime placed in the bottom of a leacli-tub ? 

The potash of the ashes is generally in the form of a car¬ 
bonate, the acid neutralizing in part the strength of the alkali. 
The lime combines with the C0 2 . 

31. Ts saleratus a salt of K or of J\ a ? 

It should be a carbonate of K, but, on account of its 
cheapness, the corresponding salt of Na is often sold instead. 



32. Why ivill JVa burst into a blaze when thrown on 
hot water, or put on wetted blotting paper ? 

The oxidation of the Na produces heat, part of which is 
absorbed by the cold water, over which the pellet moves rap¬ 
idly about, so that the kindling point of H is not quite reached. 
If the water be previously heated, or if the Na is prevented 
from moving abcut, by resting it on wetted blotting paper, the 
H from the H 2 0 is quickly raised to its kindling point. It 
burns by taking O from the air, and its flame is colored yellow 
by volatilizing some of the Na while the rest is taking O from 
the water, and its hydrate is passing into solution. 

33. Why are certain hinds ofbrich white ? 

They contain no iron, this being the substance which by its 
oxidation gives the color to common brick. 

34. Illustrate the power of chemical affinity. 

Half the crust of the earth is made up of oxides, whose 
constituents are held together by chemical affinity. To separate 
the O from these elements, with which it is united, is exceed¬ 
ingly difficult; so much so that the attempt is but rarely ever 

33. Why does not a candle lowered into a jar of Cl go 
on burning indefinitely ? 

The Cl around it becomes mixed with HC1 fumes, which 
stop the action. 

I3i— 1. JPb is softer than Fe; why is it not more 
malleable ? 

The facility with which a mass of metal can be hammered 
or rolled into a thin sheet without being torn, must depend 
partly upon its softness, and partly upon its tenacity. If it 
depended upon softness alone, lead should be the most malleable 
of ordinary metals; but, although it is easy to hammer a 
mass of lead into a flat plate, or to squeeze it between rollers, 
any attempt to reduce it to an extremely thin sheet fails, from 
its want of tenacity, which causes it to be worn into holes by 
percussion or friction. On the other hand, if malleability were 



entirely regulated by tenacity, iron would occupy the first place, 
whereas, on account of its hardness, it is the least malleable of 
metals in ordinary use; while gold, occupying an intermediate 
position with respect to tenacity, is the most malleable, which 
appears surprising to those who are only acquainted with gold 
in its ordinary forms of coin and ornament, in which it is 
hardened and rendered much less malleable by the presence of 
copper and silver. 

I .—Relative Malleability of the Metals. 

1. Gold. 

4. Tin. 

7. Zinc. 

2. Silver. 

5. Platinum. 

8. Iron. 

3. Copper. 

6. Lead. 

II.— Relative Tenacity of the Metals. 


. 1 


... 121 


. U 



. 2 




. m 




. 12 


III.— Relative Ductility of the Metals. 

1. Gold. 5. Copper. 8. Zinc. 

2. Silver. 6. Palladium. 9. Tin. 

3. Platinum. 7. Aluminum. 10. Lead. 

4. Iron. — Bloxam. 

2. What is the cause of the changing color often seen in 
the scum on standing water ? 

(See “ Interference of Light,” Popular Physics, p. 220.) 

The thin pellicles of iron-rust on standing H 2 0 produce a 
beautiful iridescent appearance, the color changing with the 
thickness of the oxide. A soap-bubble exhibits in the same way 
a play of variegated colors according to the thickness of the 
film in different parts. 

3. Hoiv can the spectra of the metals be obtained ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 285.) 

By looking through a prism at a flame containing minute 
portions of the volatilized metal, and no solid particles of C. 

4. Ought cannon , car-axles, etc., to be used until they 
break or wear out ? 



Cannon are condemned and recast after being fired a cer¬ 
tain number of times, even though they show no flaw, as the 
jarring to which they are exposed causes the iron to take on a 
crystalline form, and become less fibrous and tough. A cast- 
iron gun of 10-inch bore or less, ought to stand 1,000 rounds ; 
larger calibers, a smaller number. 

5. Why is 6i chilled iron 99 used for safes ? 

The iron being cooled so instantaneously, the crystals are 
exceedingly small, and the metal is correspondingly harder than 
when cast in the ordinary way. 

6. Does a blacksmith plunge his work into water 
merely to cool it? 

The metal is harder when cooled quickly, and therefore re¬ 
sists wear longer. 

7 . What causes the white coating made when ive spill 
water on zinc ? 

The oxide of zinc which is formed on the surface of the 
metal through the favoring influence of the water. 

8. Is it well to scald pickles 9 make sweetmeats , or fry 
cakes in a brass kettle ? 

(See Chemistry , p. 161.) 

9. What danger is there in the use of lead pipes ? Is a 
lining of Zn or Sn a protection ? 

(See Chemistry, p. 162, and Fireside Science, p. 149.) 

Zinc and tin are corroded by oxygen, though less readily 
than Pb, and, while their salts are poisonous, the lead is soon 
laid bare, and this also oxidizes. 

10. Is water tvhich has stood in a metal-lined ice- 
pitcher health fid ? 

(See Chemistry, p. 159.) 

The dissimilar metals fastened with solder, which corrodes 
in the presence of water, develop a voltaic current which 
hastens the oxidation. The salts thus formed are very dan¬ 



11. If you ask for 66 cobalt 99 at a drugstore 9 what ivill 
you get ? If for <* arsenic 99 ? 

Impure metallic arsenic is sold as “cobalt,” while arsenious 
anhydride is called “arsenic.” 

12. What two elements are fluid at ordinary tempera¬ 
tures ? 

Bromine and mercury. 

13. Should we touch a gold ring to mercury ? 

The mercury will form with the gold an amalgam. 

14. Why does silver blacken if handled ? 

The perspiration of the body contains S, which combining 
with the metal forms silver sulphide, which is black. 

15. Why does silver tarnish rapidly ivhere coal is used 
for fires ? 

S, which is present in coal, forms a silver sulphide. 

16. Why is a solution of coin blue ? 

From the Cu which is contained in silver coin forming Cu 
(N0 3 ) 2 , which is blue. 

17. Why will a solution of silver nitrate curdle brine ? 

A white, curdy precipitate of silver chloride is formed. 

18. Why does writing with indelible ink turn black 
when exposed to the sun, or to a hot iron ? 

By the decomposition of the silver salt contained in the 
ink, and consequent production of Ag 2 0, which stains organic 
matter black. 

19. What alloys resemble gold ? 

Oroide, aluminum-bronze, etc. 

20. Why does a fish-hook “ mist out 99 the line to which 
it is fastened ? 

Ferric oxide and ferric hydrate act as conveyers of O, ab¬ 
sorbing it from the air and giving it up to organic bodies with 
which they are in contact. 



21. Why do the nails in clap-boards loosen ? 

See Question 20. 

22. Shore that the earth 9 s crust is mainly composed of 
burnt, metals. 

(See Cooke’s Religion and Chemistry.) 

It consists largely of potassium, magnesium, calcium, alu¬ 
minum, sodium, etc., in combination with O. These compounds 
are the products of combustion. 

The elements O, Si, Al, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe, C, S, H, Cl, 
and N—13 in all—probably make up of the earth’s crust. 

23. What hind of iron is used for a magnet ? For a 
magnetic needle ? 

Steel for a permanent magnet, and therefore for a magnetic 
needle ; pure soft iron for an electro-magnet. 

21. Why does a 66 tin" pail so quickly rust out when 
once the tin is worn through ? 

These pails are made of sheet iron, which is covered with a 
coating of tin, which causes the popular name for them. If 
this is scratched through, the iron and tin in contact are ex¬ 
posed to the water ; voltaic action is started, and the iron rap¬ 
idly rusts. 

25. Why is the zinc oxide found in Neiv Jersey red, 
when zinc rust is white ? 

The oxide in New Jersey is colored by compounds of iron 
and manganese. 

26. Should we filter a solution of permanganate of 
potash through paper ? 

(See Chemistry, p. 157, note.) 

No. The salt will give up O and corrode the filter. 

27. Why is wood, cordage, etc., sometimes soaked in a 
solution of corrosive sublimate ? 

This salt possesses strong antiseptic properties. 

28. Why does the white paint around a sink turn 
black ? 



H 2 S is set free, which, acting on the paint, forms lead sul¬ 
phide, which is black. 

29. Why is aluminum, rather than platinum, used for 
making the smallest weights ? 

Because of its low specific gravity as compared with that 
of platinum. 

SO. How would you detect the presence of iron particles 
in black sand ? 

By a magnet. 

31. Which metals can be welded ? 

Iron and platinum, most easily ; others also by using a pow¬ 
erful electric current to heat the ends of the pieces of metal. 

32. When the glassy slag from a blast-furnace has a 
dark color, what does it sho w ? 

It might be anticipated that the appearance of the slag 
would convey to the experienced eye some useful information 
with respect to the character of the ore and the general prog¬ 
ress of the smelting operation. A good slag is liquid, nearly 
transparent, of a light-gray color, and has a fracture somewhat 
resembling that of limestone. A dark slag shows that much 
of the oxide of iron is escaping unreduced. Streaks of blue 
are commonly found when ores containing sulphur are being 
smelted, possibly from the presence of a substance similar to 
ultramarine, the constituents of which are all present in the 
slag. Again, the slags obtained in smelting ores containing 
titanium generally present a peculiar blistered appearance.— 

33. In welding iron the surfaces to be joined are some¬ 
times sprinkled with sand. Explain. 

The silica acts as a flux with the oxide upon the surface, 
and lays bare the metal for welding. 

34. What is the difference between an alloy and an 
amalgam ? 

An amalgam is composed of mercury and some other 
metal. An alloy consists of any metals whatever. 



35. Steel articles are blued to protect from rusting, by 
heating in a sand-bath. Kxplain. 

A thin coating of oxide is formed on the surface of the 

36. Give the formulas for copperas and white lead. 

1. FeS0 4 = FeO,S0 3 . 

2. PbC0 3 = PbO,C0 2 . 

37. Why is Hg used for filling thermometers ? 

Because it is fluid at all ordinary temperatures. 

38. What oxides are formed by the combustion of Na , 
K, Zn , S, Fe, Fb , Cu 9 F, etc. ? Which are bases ? Anhy¬ 
drides ? Give the common name of each. 

(1.) Na 2 0 is formed when Na oxidizes in dry air, or oxy¬ 
gen at a low temperature. This takes up water with great 
avidity, forming HNaO (NaHO), sodium hydroxide. Na 2 0 2 is 
made when Na is heated to 200° C. HNaO is the caustic soda 
of commerce, and is an alkaline base. 

(2.) K in a similar manner, depending upon the tempera¬ 
ture, forms KoO, K 2 0 2 , and K 2 0 4 . The first, with water, 
forms the ordinary caustic potash, HKO, of commerce. It is 
an alkaline base. 

(3.) ZnO is the only known oxide of zinc. It forms salts. 

(4.) Seven compounds of S and O are known, but only two 
are of interest—the familiar anhydrides, S0 2 and S0 3 . 

(5.) The oxides of iron are four in number: (1) the mon¬ 
oxide, or ferrous oxide, FeO, from which the green ferrous salts 
are derived ; (2) the sesquioxide, or ferric oxide, Fe 2 O s , yield¬ 
ing the yellow ferric salts; (3) the magnetic or black oxide, 
Fe 3 0 4 , which does not form any definite salts; (4) ferric acid, 
H 2 Fe0 4 , a weak acid, forming colored salts with potassium. 

(6.) Pb forms two oxides, the monoxide and the dioxide. 
The former is the well-known litharge, which is the base of 
the lead salts. 

(7.) Cu has two oxides — the cuprous (Cu 2 0) and cupric 
(CuO), both of which form salts, thus giving rise to two series, 



the cuprous and the cupric salts. The two oxides are com¬ 
monly known as the red and the black. 

(8.) Phosphorus forms two oxides, phosphorous anhydride 
(P 2 0 3 ) and phosphoric anhydride (P 8 0 6 ). 

39. Is charcoal lighter than O ? 

Charcoal appears at first sight to be lighter than water, as 
a piece of it floats on the surface of this liquid; this is, how¬ 
ever, due to the porous nature of the charcoal, for if it be 
finely powdered it sinks to the bottom of the water. Roscoe. 

40. Name the vitriols. 

The compounds of sulphuric acid, commonly called “the 

vitriols,” are as follows: 

1. Sulphate of iron, Green vitriol. 

2. Sulphate of copper, Blue vitriol. 

3. Sulphate of zinc, White vitriol. 

41. Is 3Ig univalent or bivalent ? Zn ? 

Mg belongs to the zinc class of metals which comprises 
magnesium, zinc, cadmium, and indium. These are all bivalent. 

42. Name some dibasic acid . 

Sulphuric acid. 

43. Name a neutral salt. An acid salt. 

Sodium sulphate is neutral (Na 2 S0 4 ). Hydro-sodium sul¬ 
phate is acid (HNaS0 4 ). 

44. Calculate the percentage of water contained in 
crystallized copper sulphate. Sodium sulphate. Calcium 
sulphate. Alum. 

(1.) CuS0 4 , 5H 2 0 = 249.5. 

5H 2 0 = 90. 

Hence, -ffig = .36 = 36 % of copper sulphate is water. 

(2.) Na 2 S0 4 , 10H 2 O = 322. 

10H 2 O = 180. 

Hence, = .55 = 55 % of sodium sulphate is water. 


(3.) CaS0 4 , 2H 2 0 = 172. 

2H 2 0 = 36. 

tt 6 2 = .20 = 20 % of gypsum is water. 

(4.) A1 2 K 2 , 4S0 4 +24H 2 0 = 949. 

24H 2 0 = 432. 

Iff = .45 = 45 % of potash alum is water. 

45. What is the test for Ag ? Cu ? 

Ag can be easily detected when in solution by the precipi¬ 
tation of the white, curdy chloride, insoluble in H 2 0 and 
HN0 3 , and soluble in H 3 N: the metal can be obtained in 
malleable globules before the blowpipe, and is reduced from its 
solutions by Fe, Cu, P, and Hg. Ag is estimated quantita¬ 
tively either as the chloride or as the metal. 

Copper may be tested (1) by the black insoluble sulphide; 
(2) by the blue hydrate turning black on heating; (3) by the 
deep-blue coloration with ammonia; (4) by the deposition of 

red metallic copper upon a bright surface of iron placed in the 




46. What weight of crystallized 66 tin salts" (SnCl 29 
2H Z O) can be prepared from one ton of metallic tin ? 

Sn : SnCl 2 , 2H 2 0 :: 2,000 lbs. : x, 

H8 •' 225 : : 2,000 lbs. : x. 

118 = 450,000 lbs. 

« = 3813.56 lbs. (SnCl 2 , 2H s O). 

47. 100 parts by weight of silver yield 132.87 parts of 
silver chloride. Given the atomic weight of chlorine (35.4) 
required that of silver. 

32.87 : 100 :: 35.4 : x. 
x = 108+ . 

48. What is the composition of slacked lime ? 

(See Chemistry , p. 139.) 

CaO,H 2 0. 

49. How is ferrous sulphate obtained? How many 
tons of crystals can be obtained by the slow oxidation of 



230 tons of iron pyrites containing 37,3 per cent, of 
sulphur ? 

(See Chemistry , p. 158.) 

37f % of 230 = 86.25 tons, the weight of S contained in the 

S : FeS0 4 , 7H 2 0 : : 86.25 : x. 

32 : 278 :: 86.25 : x. 

x = 749.296 tons of FeS0 4 , 7H 2 0. 

50. Required 500 tons of soda crystals; what will be 
the weight of salt and pure sulphuric acid needed ? 

Find (1) how much Na there is in 500 tons of “ soda,” and 
(2) how much NaCl would he needed to furnish that amount of 
the metal in case all were utilized. 

(1.) Na 2 : Na 2 C0 3 , 10H 2 O :: x : 500 tons. 

46 : 286 :: x : 500 tons. 

286 x — 23,000 tons. 

x — 80.42 — tons (Na). 

(2.) fff of any amount of NaCl is Na ; hence, to furnish 
80.42 tons of Na would require fffx 80.42 tons = 204.546 tons 

(3.) By comparing the atomic weights of the substances, it 
will be seen that for 46 parts of Na there must be 98 of pure 
H 2 S0 4 . ff x 204.546 tons = 435.771 tons (H 2 S0 4 ). 

51. Describe the uses of lime in agriculture. 

Lime acts in various ways to improve the fertility of a soil. 
It corrects its acidity, aids in the decomposition of the rocky 
constituents, hastens the decay of the humus, and also makes 
the soil more porous. It does not, however, benefit the grow¬ 
ing plant directly, but works up other materials in the soil. It 
therefore loses its effect after a time. 

52. How many tons of oil of vitriolcontaining 70 per 
cent, of pure acid (H 2 SOf) 9 can be prepared from 250 tons 
of iron pyrites, containing 12 per cent. of sulphur ? 

(1.) (See Question 49.) 250 tons x .42 = 105 tons (S). 

(2.) S : H 2 S0 4 :: 105 tons : x. 

32 : 98 :: 105 tons : x. 

32 x = 10,290 tons. 

x — 321.56 tons (H 2 S0 4 ). 


(3.) If 321.56 tons (H 2 S0 4 ) is 70 % of the given oil of vit¬ 
riol, the entire amount would be 321.56 tons x-y 0 ^-= 459.28 tons 
(oil of vitriol). 

247 -1. How would you prove the presence of tannin 
in tea ? 

By adding a few drops of a solution of ferrous sulphate. 
This would form a dark precipitate of iron tannate. 

2. How would you test for Fe in a solution ? 

(See Miller’s Inorganic Chemistry , p. 525.) 

A solution of nutgalls will give a bluish-black, inky precipi¬ 
tate. The ferrous- or proto-salts are distinguished by their light 
green color, and by their solutions giving (1) a white precipi¬ 
tate, with caustic alkalies; (2) a light blue precipitate, with po¬ 
tassium ferrocyanide, which rapidly becomes dark; while the 
ferric- or per-salts are yellow-colored, and their solutions yield 
(1) a deep reddish-brown precipitate, with the caustic alkalies; 
and (2) a deep-blue precipitate (Prussian blue), with potassium 

3 . Why can we settle coffee with an egg ? 

The albumen of the egg coagulates by heat, and, entan¬ 
gling the particles of coffee, mechanically carries them to the 

4. How ivould you show the presence of starch in a 
potato ? 

A solution of iodine will form the blue iodide of starch. 

5. Why is starch stored in the seed of a plant ? 

For the growth of the young plant. 

(}. Why are unbleached cotton goods darlc-colored ? 

Because of the dirt gathered in the process of manufacture. 
The cotton balls are snowy white. 

7. Why do beans, rice, etc., swell when cooked ? 

On account of the bursting of the starch granules. 

8. Why does decaying wood darken ? 



On account of the formation of humus, which contains car¬ 
bon in excess. 

9. How would you show that C exists in sugar ? 

By heating it until the H and O are all driven off. A mass 
of porous charcoal remains on the plate. 

10. Why do fruits lose their sweetness when over-ripe ? 

(See Miller’s Organic Chemistry , p. 875.) 

The vegetable acid contained in the fruit when green, oxi¬ 
dizes as the ripening process continues, O being absorbed, and 
CO s evolved. If this continues too long, the sugar itself be¬ 
comes oxidized. 

11. Why does maple-sap lose its siveetness when the leaf 
starts ? 

The sugar of the sap is applied to the wants of the grow¬ 
ing tree. 

12. Should yeast-cakes be allowed to freeze? 

A cold of 32° will kill the ferment. 

13. Why will ivine sour if the bottle be not well corked? 

The presence of air will cause the continuation of the oxi¬ 
dizing process into the second or acetic stage. 


14. Why can vinegar be made from sweetened water 
and brown paper ? 

The paper acts as a ferment, while the sugar or molasses is 
oxidized into alcohol, and thence into acetic acid. 

15. Why should the vinegar-barrel be kept in a warm 
place ? 

Fermentation takes place to the best advantage at a special 
temperature, about 70° F. 

16. Why does “scalding” check the “working ” of 
preserves ? 

The ferment which causes the fermentation is killed by the 



17 . Is the oxalic acid in the pie-plant poisonous ? 

It is neutralized by the alkaline base, with which it is com¬ 
bined in the plant. 

18. How may ink-stains be removed ? 

By a solution of oxalic acid, forming an iron oxalate which 
is soluble in water, and hence may be washed out. 

li). Why is leather black on only one side ? 

The solution of copperas, which blackens the leather, is ap¬ 
plied on only one side. 

20. Why do drops of tea stain a knife-blade ? 

The tannic acid of the tea combines with the iron, forming 
an iron tannate.* 

21. Why will not coffee stain it in the same way? 

(See Miller’s Organic Chemistry , p. 549.) 

The modification of tannin contained in coffee, unlike that 
in tea, turns a solution of ferrous sulphate green, and will not 
precipitate one of gelatin. 

22. Why does writing-fluid darken on exposure to the 
air ? 

It absorbs O, the iron changing to ferric oxide. 

23. What causes the disagreeable smell of a smolder¬ 
ing ivick ? 

A volatile substance, termed acrolein, is produced in the de¬ 
composition of the oil. 

21. Why does ink corrode steel pens ? 

The free sulphuric acid of the ink combines with the iron 
of the pen. 

* The tannic acid of the tea tans the albumen of the milk used in 
seasoning the tea, forming flakes of real leather. It has been calculated 
that an average tea-drinker, in this way, makes and drinks enough leather 
each year to make a pair of shoes. The albumen of milk uniting with the 
tannic acid of tea, softens its flavor. This is generally preferred to the 
harsh, clear beverage. 



25. How does a bird obtain the CaCO z for its egg 
shells ? 

. (See chemistry of a hen’s egg in Fireside Science.) 

A common hen’s egg is 95 per cent, carbonate of lime, one 
per cent, phosphate of lime and magnesia, and two per cent, 
animal matter. The shell would weigh over 100 grains, so that 
a hen laying 100 eggs in a season would require nearly 1^ lbs. 
of CaC0 3 . The hen must in part secrete this from her food, 
and in part gather it from the sand, pebbles, etc., she picks up 
amid her incessant scratching and searching. 

26. Why does new soap act on the hands more than 
old ? 

The spent lye, which contains the excess of alkali, gradu¬ 
ally separates from the soap, leaving only the salts in which 
the alkali is neutralized by the fatty acids. Also a more com¬ 
plete combination takes place, whereby some free alkali is 
taken up by the acids, perhaps before uncombined. The for¬ 
mer statement is especially true in the case of soft or home¬ 
made soap. 

27. What is the shiny coat on certain leaves and fruits ? 

A species of wax secreted by the plant. 

28. Why does turpentine burn with so much smoke ? 

Because it contains an excess of carbon. 

29. Why is the nozzle of a turpentine bottle so sticky ? 

The turpentine on exposure to the air oxidizes, turning to 


30. Why does kerosene give more light than alcohol ? 

It contains more carbon, which, when heated in the flame 
of the burning H, gives out a white light. 

31. What is the antidote to oxalic acid ? Why ? 

Magnesia or chalk, forming an insoluble oxalate. 

32. Would you weaken camphor spirits with water ? 



No; since camphor is insoluble in dilute alcohol. The prin¬ 
ciple is the same as that of the precipitation of lead from 
dilute sulphuric acid. 

33. What is the difference between rosin and resin ? 

Rosin is an oxidized resin. Rosin is a species, and resin a 

34=, Why does shim-milk look blue and new milk 
white ? 

The globules of butter contained in new milk reflect the 
light, and so make it look white; but when they are removed, 
by the separation of the cream, more light is transmitted, and 
only the blue is reflected to the eye. 

35, Why does an ink-spot turn yellow after washing 
with soap ? 

The free alkali of the soap combines with the tannic acid 
of the ink, leaving the oxide of iron (ferric oxide), which stains 
the cloth yellow. 






32 a —l. How high is the North Star above your hori¬ 
zon ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 218.) 

It should be remembered that the North Star revolves 
around the true North Pole at a distance of about 1^ , hence 
it marks the exact height of the Pole above the horizon only 
twice in twenty-four hours. 

2, What is the sun’s right ascension at the autumnal 
equinox ? At the vernal equinox ? 

At the vernal equinox, the sun is in Aries, and its P. A.=0. 
At the autumnal equinox, it is in Libra, and its R. A. = 180 . 

3, What was the first discovery made by the telescope ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 20; articles in Appletons’ Cyclopedia on Telescope 
and Galileo; and, also, Routledge’s History of Science , p. 10 1 .) 

Galileo’s telescope was constructed on the principle of an 

4:. How high above the horizon of any place are the 
equinoctial points tvhen they pass the meridian ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 27.) 

The co-latitude of the place. 

3, Jupiter revolves around the sun in 12 of our years . 
Assuming the earth’s distance from the sun to be 93,000,- 
OOO miles, compute Jupiter’s distance by applying Kep¬ 
ler’s third law . 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 19.) 



If we square the period of any planet, expressed in years, 
and extract the cube root of this product, the result will be the 
mean distance from the sun, expressed in astronomical units, 
i.e., in radii of the earth’s orbit. Jupiter’s period of 12 years 
will give a result of 5.2028. 93,000,000 miles x 5.2028 = 483,- 

860,400 miles. 

6. The latitude of Albany is 42° 39' JV. ; what is the 
sun 9 s meridian altitude at that place when it is in the celes¬ 
tial equator ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 27.) 

90°— 42° 39'= 47° 21'. 

7. What is the co-latitude of a place ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 27.) 

The co-latitude is the complement of the latitude. 

S, What is the declination of the zenith of the place in 
which you reside ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 27.) 

It equals the latitude. 

9. Why are the stars generally invisible by day ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 25.) 

The stars would be visible in the day-time if it were not for 
the atmosphere. Compare the description of a lunar sky, on 
page 134 of the Astronomy. 

10. Why is the ecliptic so called ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 58.) 

11. Who first taught that the earth is round ? 

The discovery of the rotundity of the earth has been as¬ 
cribed to Thales; others attribute it to Aristotle. 

12. What is Astrology ? 

A magic art that pretends to foretell events by means of 
the stars. 

13. How can ive distinguish the fixed stars from the 
planets ? 

(See Astronomy , pp. 2 and 203.) 



14. How long ivas the Ptolemaic system accepted? 

It was taught in the schools for about 1400 years, or until 
the time of G-alileo—the 17th century. 

15. In what respect did the Copernican system differ 
from the one now received ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 14.) 

16. For what is Astronomy indebted to Galileo? To 
Newton ? 

Galileo discovered the structure of the moon; the existence 
of Jupiter’s moons and their revolution around their primary; 
the stars of the milky way ; and the rotation of the sun on 
its axis (as proved by the appearance of the spots). Newton 
discovered the law of gravitation, and by means of it explained 
the specific gravity of the planets, the cause of the tides, the 
shape of the earth, the theory of precession of the equinoxes, 
and the paths of the comets. Read Brewster’s Life of Newton; 
also, Buckley’s History of Natural Science. 

17. What is the amount of the obliquity of the ecliptic ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 29.) 

18. Define Zenith. Nadir. Azimuth. Altitude. Equi¬ 
noctial. Right Ascension. Declination. Equinox. Eclip¬ 
tic. Colure. Solstice. Polar * distance. Zenith distance. 
The Zodiac. 

These terms are defined under the various subjects on pp. 
26-30 of the Astronomy. 

19. If the It. A. of the sun be 80 °, state in ivhat sign he 

is then located. 160°. 280°. 

(See Astronomy , table on p. 31.) 

1 sign = 30°. 80° would locate the sun in Gemini; 160°, in 

Virgo ; 280°, in Capricornus. 

20. Why docs the angle which the ecliptic makes with 
the horizon vary ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 29.) 

The angle between the horizon and the celestial equator is 
constant; the ecliptic being oblique to the equator, the angle 
that it makes with the horizon must vary as it revolves. 



21. Why is the angle which the celestial equator makes 
tvith the horizon constant ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 29.) 

The celestial equator is perpendicular to the axis of the 
heavens, and hence all parts of it make the same angle with 
the celestial axis and with the horizon. 

198—1. Would the earth rise and set to a Lunarian ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 134.) 

The earth would not rise or set, as the moon does with us, 
but would merely oscillate to and fro through a few degrees. 
A Lunarian would see the earth constantly in the sky, under¬ 
going all the phases the moon presents to the earth. But when 
it is full moon to us, it is new earth on the moon. During the 
first and last quarters, the changes would occur during the day¬ 
time ; during the second and third, in the night. The rapid 
rotation of the earth, repeated fifteen times during a lunar 
night, must greatly diversify the appearance of the earth.—See 
Olmstead’s Letters on Astronomy, p. 180. 

2. Could there be a transit of Jupiter ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 67.) 

No. Jupiter is a superior planet. 

3. Why does Mars 2 3 * * * * * 9 inner-moon rise in the west ? 

(See Astronomy , ‘note on p. 163.) 

This satellite performs a revolution in its orbit in less than 

half the time that Mars revolves on its axis. In consequence, 

to the inhabitants of Mars, it would seem to rise in the west 

and set in the east. The revolution of the moon around the 

earth and of the earth on its axis, are both from west to east; 
but, the latter revolution being the more rapid, the apparent 
diurnal motion of the moon is from east to west. In the case 
of the inner satellite of Mars, however, this is reversed, and it 
therefore appears to move in the actual direction of its orbital 
motion. The rapidity of its phases is also equally remarkable. 
It is less than two hours from new moon to first quarter.—New¬ 
comb and Holden’s Astronomy , p. 339. 



4. In what part of the shy do you alivays look for the 
planets ? 

Within the limits of the Zodiac. A few of the asteroids 
only pass outside this belt of the heavens. 

5. Show how it was impossible for the darkness that 
occurred at the time of the Crucifixion of Christ to have 
been caused by an eclipse of the sun. 

The Feast of the Passover took place at full moon. “With 
the Jews, a month began when the new moon was seen. Per¬ 
sons were appointed to watch, about the time it was expected, 
on the tops of mountains. As soon as they saw its light, they 
gave notice by sounding trumpets and building fires.”—Nevin’s 
Biblical Antiquities. 

0. Is there any danger of a collision between the earth 
and a comet ? 

(See Astronomy , p 192.) 

A collision between the earth and a comet must be a rare 
occurrence. Babinet computed that one would strike the earth, 
on the average, every 15,000,000 years. There are certainly, 
however, comets whose orbits cross the earth’s path, and if we 
should happen to reach the crossing at the same time with one 
of them, there would be a collision. We should probably never 
know of the event unless we were watching for it. 

7. How are aerolites distinguished ? 

(See Astronomy , pp. 177, 178.) 

Aerolites, when found, generally have an exterior crust of 
fused material, presenting a glossy, pitch-like appearance. An 
analysis of the interior commonly presents a combination of 
elements that is so characteristic as to identify the body as an 
aerolite even when not seen to fall. Large masses have been 
found in Northern Mexico which are thus known to be of me¬ 
teoric origin. 

“ The meteoric stones may be divided into two distinct 
groups —meteoric iron, and meteoric stones proper. 

“1. Meteoric iron is an alloy of iron and nickel, containing 
about 10 per cent, of nickel, and small quantities of cobalt, 



manganese, magnesium, tin, copper, and carbon. This alloy has 
not been found among terrestrial minerals. 

“2. The meteoric stones proper are composed of minerals 
of volcanic origin, and such as are found abundantly in terres¬ 
trial lavas and trap-rocks, viz. : 

Magnetic iron, Olivine, 

Sphene, Anorthite, 

Chrome iron, Labradorite, 

Apatite (?), Augite, 

together with a varying proportion of the meteoric iron-nickel 
alloy.”—Haughton’s Astronomy. 

8 . 

r ise ? 

When do we see the old moon in the west after sun- 
(See Astronomy , p. 127.) 

9. When do ive see the moon high in the eastern sky in 
the afternoon before the sun sets ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 127.) 

During the second quarter, before she comes into opposition. 

10, When is a planet morning, and when evening, 

(See Astronomy , pp. 65, 70.) 

11. Is the sun really hotter in summer than in winter ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 101.) 

12. Wh y is a planet invisible at conjunction ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 65.) 

IS. JYIust an inferior planet always be in the same part 
of the sin/ as the sun ? A superior planet ? 

(See Astronomy, pp. 64 and 67.) 

14. Why, in summer, does the sun, at rising and at set¬ 
ting, shine on the north side of certain houses ? 

Since at the summer solstice the sun rises and sets north of 
the L. and W. points, it will rise and set on the north side of 
a house which stands exactly N. and S. At the winter solstice 
the sun rises and sets S. of the E. and W. points. 

15. What effect does the volume of a planet have upon 
the force of gravity at its surface ? 

(See Astronomy, pp. 40, 80.) 



16. In what part of the heavens do we see the new 
moon ? The old moon ? The crescent moon ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 127 et seq.) 

It is a very interesting experiment to notice how soon after 
conjunction we can observe the new moon. Observers have de¬ 
tected her when twenty-three hours old, and an instance is on 
record of the moon’s thin crescent being seen early one morn¬ 
ing before sunrise, and after sundown the following day. 

17• What is the Golden Number in the almanac? 

(See Astronomy , p. 145.) 

18. Why do we have more lunar than solar eclipses ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 146.) 

Really, solar eclipses occur more frequently than lunar eclipses, 
but the latter are oftener seen at any particular place, because 
they are visible over a larger area of territory on the earth. 

19. In what direction do the horns of the moon turn ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 127.) 

20. Is the “ tidal wave ” a progressive movement of 
the water ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 148.) 

The wind raises the particles of water, and gravity draws 
them back again. They thus vibrate up and down, but do not 
advance. The forward movement of the wave is an illusion. 
The form of the wave progresses, but not the water of which 
it is composed, any more than the thread of the screw which 
we turn in our hand, or the undulations of a rope or carpet 
which is shaken, or the stalks of grain which bend in billows 
as the wind sweeps over them. Near the shore the oscillations 
are shorter, and the waves, unbalanced by the deep water, are 
forced forward till the lower part of each one is checked by the 
friction on the sandy beach, the front becomes well-nigh ver¬ 
tical, and the upper part curls over and falls beyond. 

21. Why does the sun 66 cross the line 99 in some years 
on March 21, and, in others, on March 22 ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 99.) 

Leap-year also throws the dates back one day. 



22. Do ive ever see the sun where it really is ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 114.) 

Both refraction and aberration of light change the apparent 
place of the sun. 

23. i( A t Edinburgh, Scotland, there are times when 
the sun rises at 3% o’clock A.M., and sets at 8% o’clock 
E.M., and the twilight lasts the entire night,” When and 
why is this ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 116.) 

The latitude of Edinburgh is 55° 57'. Any place north of 
48° 33' will have twilight at midnight in midsummer; for 90° 
— 23° 27' (the sun’s declination) — 18° (at which twilight ceases) 
= 48° 33b The hours named in the problem are the times for 
the rising and setting of the sun at Edinburgh at the summer 

24. Which is the longest day of the year ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 99.) 

The summer solstice points out the longest day of the year. 

23, Ts the moon nearer to us when it is at the horizon, 
or at the zenith ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 124.) 

The moon is nearer to us when it is at the zenith than 
when it is at the horizon. 

26, IIow many solar eclipses would happen each year 
if the orbits of the sun and the moon were in the same 
plane ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 138.) 

In that case a solar eclipse would occur every new moon. 

27, Is there any heat in moonlight ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 125.) 

28, Can we see the moon during a total eclipse ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 146.) 

29, Which of the planets are repeating a portion of the 
earth’s history ? 

Spectrum Analysis renders it possible, perhaps probable, 
that Jupiter and Saturn, and, may be, Uranus and Neptune, 



have not yet attained that degree of density which must neces¬ 
sarily precede the formation of a solid surface. They are, 
therefore, now in a geologic age similar to that in which the 
earth existed before its crust had become solidified. (See Sehel- 
len’s Spectrum Analysis, p. 337.) 

30. JEIotv many times does the moon turn on her axis 
each year ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 123.) 

The moon turns on her axis once each month. 

31. Can you explaivi the different signs used in the 
almanac ? 

(See “Astronomical Signs” in the Dictionary.) 

32. Shotv how the moon is a prophecy of the earth’s 

The moon is a worn-out globe, and presents the same ap¬ 
pearance that the earth will probably offer ages hence. 

33. Does the sun really rise and set ? 

(See Astronomy , pp. 14, 87.) 

No. This is only an optical illusion, being an illustration of 
our tendency to transfer motion. 

34. Are the bright portions of the moon mountains or 
plains ? 

The lofty portions, or mountains, of the moon reflect the 
light to the earth most strongly, and hence appear the bright¬ 
est. The deep valleys, lying in shadow, look dark. 

35. Which of the heavenly bodies are self-luminous ? 

(See above, Question 29; also Astronomy , note, p. 163.) 

Jupiter and Saturn probably emit light, at least from the 
brighter spots of their surface. Read Newcomb’s Astronomy, p. 

36. Why is not a solar eclipse visible over the whole 
earth ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 140.) 

37. What is meant by the “mean distance” of a 
planet ? 

The “mean distance” is the average distance. 



38. What keeps the earth in motion around the sun? 

(See Astronomy , p. 22.) 

According to the First Law of Motion, “ Every body con¬ 
tinues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight 
line, except in so far as it may be compelled by impressed 
forces to change that state.” 

39. Do ive ever see the sun after it sets ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 114.) 

The refraction of the atmosphere tends to raise all objects 
toward the zenith, and, at the horizon, this is no less than 35', 
or 3' more than the mean diameter of the sun (32'). 

40. When does the earth move the most rapidly in its 
orbit ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 18.) 

The earth moves most rapidly in perihelion. 

41. Have tve conclusive evidence that any planet is in¬ 
habited ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 61; also note, p. 297.) 

May it not be that the same lavish hand that scatters flow¬ 
ers and seeds in such profusion (not one in a thousand coming 
to the perfection and end of its being), sows space with worlds, 
a few only reaching the full fruition of life ? 

42. lVhen is twilight the longest? The shortest? Why? 

(See Astronomy , p. 116.) 

Twilight is usually reckoned to last until the sun’s depres¬ 
sion below the horizon amounts to 18°; this, however, varies ; 
in the tropics a depression of 16° or 17° is sufficient to put an 
end to the phenomenon, but in England a depression of 17° to 
21° is required. The duration of twilight differs in different 
latitudes ; it varies also in the same latitude at different sea¬ 
sons of the year, and depends, in some measure, on the meteoro¬ 
logical condition of the atmosphere. Strictly speaking, in the 
latitude of Greenwich there is no true night from May 22 to 
July 21, but constant twilight from sunset to sunrise. Twilight 
reaches its minimum three weeks before the vernal equinox, 
and three weeks after the autumnal equinox, when its duration 



is 1 hr. 50 min. At midwinter it is longer by about seven¬ 
teen minutes; but the augmentation is frequently not percepti¬ 
ble, owing to the greater prevalence of clouds and haze at 
that season of the year, which intercept the light, and hinder 
it from reaching the earth. The duration is least at the equa¬ 
tor (1 hr. 12 min.), and increases as we approach the poles ; 
for at the former there are two twilights every twenty-four 
hours, but at the latter only two in a year, each lasting about 
fifty days. At the north pole the sun is below the horizon for 
six months, but from January 29 to the vernal equinox, and 
from the autumnal equinox to November 12, the sun is less 
than 18° below the horizon; so that there is twilight during 
the whole of these intervals, and thus the length of the actual 
night is reduced to 21 months. The length of the day in these 
regions is about six months, during the whole of which time 
the sun is constantly above the horizon. The general rule is, 
that to the inhabitants of an oblique sphere the twilight is longer in 
proportion as the place is nearer the elevated pole, and the sun is 
farther from the equator on the side of the elevated pole. — Cham¬ 
bers' Astronomy. 

When the sun rises or sets most obliquely to the horizon, 
then the least time is required to pass through the necessary 
18°, and, of course, the length of twilight is the least. When 
the sun rises or sets least obliquely, the most time is required 
to pass through 18°, and the length of twilight is greatest. If 
the sun’s path is perpendicular to the horizon, the sun will 
pass over the 18° in 1 hr. 12 min.; for 15°= 1 hr.; and hence 
18°= 1 T \ hr. 

4.3. If hat is a moon ? 

A moon is a secondary body, or satellite, revolving about a 
primary body, or planet. 

44. To a person in the south temperate zone , where 
ivould the sun be at noon ? 

On the meridian north of the observer. 

45. Is it correct to say that the vnoonrevolves about the 
earth, when we hnow that, according to the law of Thys- 



ics, they must both revolve about their common center of 
gravity ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 200.) 

The earth is not stationary as regards the moon, for both 
it and our satellite revolve together about their common center 
of gravity. Again, it is not the earth alone which revolves 
about the sun in the elliptical orbit, but this common center of 
gravity. The sun, also, is not stationary, but it and the planets 
revolve about the common center of gravity of the whole 

46. During a transit of Venus, do we see the body of 
the planet itself on the face of the sun ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 277.) 

During a transit, Yenus appears as “ a perfectly round black 
spot on the disk of the sun.” The planet turns its unillumined 
side toward us, and is, strictly speaking, invisible. 

47, How many real motions has the sun ? Ilow many 
apparent ones ? 

It has two real fnotions: one around its axis, and one with 
the solar system around the Pleiades. It has three apparent 
motions : one along the ecliptic,—its yearly motion ; one through 
the heavens,—its daily motion ; and one north and south. 

4S, How many real motions has the earth ? 

Three. One on its axis ; one around the sun ; and a third,— 
its “wabbling motion,” which causes Precession. 

49, Can an inferior planet have an elongation of 90° ? 

No. Yenus recedes only 48° from the sun. 

HO, Hoiv do we lmow the intensity of the sun’s light on 
the surface of any of the planets ? 

The intensity of the heat and light varies inversely as the 
square of the distance. 

HI, IFhy is the Tropic of Cancer placed where it is ? 

Because it is the farthest place north where the sun is ever 
seen directly overhead. 


52. What planets would float in water ? 

According to Chambers’ Astronomy, the density of Saturn 
is .68 that of water; Uranus, .99 ; Neptune, .96. According to 
Newcomb, Saturn’s density is .75. 

53. How must the moons of Jupiter appear during 
their transit across the disk of that planet ? 

The satellites appear on the disk of their primary as round 
luminous spots, preceded or followed by their shadows, which 
show as round black or blackish spots.— Chambers. 

54. “ The shadow of the satellite precedes the satellite 
itself when Jupiter is passing from conjunction to oppo¬ 
sition, hut follows it between opposition and conjunc¬ 
tion.” Explain. 

When actually in conjunction, the shadow is in a right line 
with the satellite, and the two may be superposed. 

55. What facts point to the conclusion that Mars may, 
perhaps , have passed his planetary prime ? 

The proportion of land and water, and the appearance of 
the seas, all point to a conclusion somewhat similar to the one 
stated in the following quotation : 

“Mars’ orbit being outside the earth’s, ho was probably 
formed earlier. The mass of Mars is not much more than £ 
the earth’s, and the surface about | ; if he possessed the same 
degree of heat as the earth, he would have only £ the amount 
to radiate, and the supply would not last so long. Though 
having only i the surface of the earth, he would still cool off 3 
times as rapidly as the earth. Mars must, therefore, be at 
least three times as far on the way toward planetary decrepi¬ 
tude and death as our earth.”— Proctor's Poetry of Astronomy. 

50. 7Vhy may we conceive that Saturn and Jupiter are 
yet in their planetary youth ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 163.) 

Vast planets, like Saturn and Jupiter, must have required 
for cooling a far longer time than the earth, and thus the va¬ 
rious stages of development would occupy a much greater 



length of time. (Read Proctor’s “When the Sea was Young,” 
in Poetry of Science.) 

57. Show how f if the Nebular Hypothesis be accepted , 
the fashioning of a planet must require an enormous 
length of time . 

(See Astronomy , p. 255.) 

The experiments of Bischof upon basalt show that the earth 
would require 350 millions of years to cool down from 2,000° 
C to 200° C. This enormous period would represent only one 
stage in the process of the earth’s development. (Read Win- 
chell’s World Life.) 

58. Ho we know the cause of gravitation ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 23.) 

233 — 1. In what constellation is Job’s Coffin? The 
Letter Y? The Scalene Triangle? The Hipper? The 
Kids? The Triangles? 

Job’s Coffin is in Delphinus; the Letter Y, in Aquarius; 
the Scalene Triangle, in Aries; -the Big Dipper, in Ursa Major ; 
the Kids, in Auriga; and the Triangles, between Almach and 

2. Name some facts in the solar system for which the 
Nebular Hypothesis fails to account. 

It is very difficult to explain, on the basis of the Nebular 
Hypothesis, why the axes of certain of the planets are so 
greatly inclined, and, especially, why the velocity of the rota¬ 
tion of the inner moon of Mars should so far exceed that of 
Mars itself. 

3. Which is probably hotter , a yelloiv or a red star ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 241.) 

When we heat a piece of iron, it first becomes red-hot, 
then, as the temperature rises, other colors appear, until, 
finally, it becomes dazzling white. (See Physics, p. 183.) 

4. Are any of the stars likely to collide with each other? 

Nothing strikes the astronomer more forcibly than the 
thought of the desolateness of space. A vast gulf, more than 



twenty-five trillions of miles in width, separates Neptune from 
the nearest fixed star. It has been estimated that the average 
distance between two of the sixty millions of fixed stars visible 
to our largest telescopes, is about nine millions of millions of 
miles. With this amount of “elbow-room,” a collision between 
any two such remote neighbors would be almost impossible. 
Yet, Sir Wm. Thomson remarks: “It is as sure that collisions 
must occur between great masses moving through space, unless 
guided in their paths, as it is that ships, steered without intelli¬ 
gence, could not cross and recross the Atlantic for thousands of 
years with immunity from collisions.” 

5 . 

one ? 

Is the real day longer or shorter than the apparent 

(See Astronomy , p. 264.) 

6. Do ive ever' see the stars ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 203.) 

7. What fixed star is nearest the earth ? 

(See Astronomy , pp. 204, 241.) 

8. How often is Polaris on the meridian of a place? 

As Polaris revolves about the true pole in a circle, the 
radius of which is nearly 1|°, it follows that in every twenty- 
four hours it is once on the meridian below the pole, and, also, 
once above it. The diameter of this circle is the length of 
Orion’s Belt, the stars at the right and the left of the central 
one representing the distance the polar star goes to the right 
and left of the pole. 

<). How do tve know that the stars are suns ? 

(See Astronomy , pp. 205, 261.) 

Spectrum analysis proves this to be the fact. 

10. Can a watch keep apparent time? 

(See Astrorwmy , p. 265.) 

11. How could a child be eight years old before a re¬ 
turn of its birthday? 

An infant born on Feb. 29, 1796, did not have a birthday 
proper until Feb. 29, 1804, since the year 1800, not being 



divisible by 400, was not a leap-year. Many other such dates 
may be named. 

12. When will a watch and a sun-dial agree ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 265.) 

13. What star will be the Pole Star 'next after Polaris ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 217.) 

14. Why is the birthday of Washington celebrated on 
Feb. 22, when he was born Feb. 11, 1732 (O. S.) ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 312.) 

15. Poes the tide have any effect on the length of the 
day ? 

(See Astronomy , notes, pp. 89, 303.) 

16. Will the Big Pipper always look as it does now ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 217.) 

The following figure, taken from Proctor’s Easy Star Les¬ 
sons, represents the location of the seven stars comprising the 
Big Dipper, as they will be seen 100,000 years hence : 

< 1 * 

17. How 
every year ? 

many times does the earth turn on its axis 
(See Astronomy , p. 264.) 

18. Poes the spectroscope tell us any thing concerning 
the constitution of the moon, or any of the planets ? 

These bodies shine, in general, by reflected light; therefore, 
the light examined comes from the sun. By comparing this re¬ 
flected light with solar light, the change produced by the planet’s 
atmosphere may be detected. The lunar spectrum exactly 
accords with the solar spectrum. The spectra of Venus, Mars, 
Jupiter, and Saturn contain absorption lines indicating aqueous 
vapor. Read Schellen’s Spectrum Analysis, p. 333. 

10. When the United States bought Alaska from Bus- 
sia, the calendar » used there was found to be one day ahead 
of our reckoning. Why ivas this? 



One going around the world westward will lose a day in 
his reckoning ; one going eastward will gain a day. The Alaska 
calendar was established by those who came from the West to 
this continent, and their Tuesday corresponded to our Monday. 

20. Why do the dates of the solstices and equinoxes 
vary a day in different years ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 99 ) 

Leap-year advances the dates one day. 

21. Why are not forenoon and afternoon of the same 
day, as given in the almanac, of equal length ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 265.) 

Apparent noon marks the middle of the day; but mean 
noon may be either before or after the apparent noon; i.e., 
the time when the real sun is on the meridian. 

22. In what part of the heavens (in our latitude) do 
the stars apparently move from ivest to east? 

The northern circumpolar constellations revolve about the 
North Pole, and, during a part of their paths, they apparently 
move from west to east. 

23. What year was only nine months and six days 

long ? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 312.) 

24. What day will be the last day of the nineteenth 
century ? 

December 31, 1900. 

25. If one should watch the sky, on a winter’s evening, 
from 6 P.M. to 0 A.M., what portion of the celestial 
sphere would he be able to see ? 

All that is ever seen in his latitude. 

20. How do we knoiv that the moon has little, if any, 
atmosphere ? 

Because when the moon occults a star, there is no refrac¬ 
tion of the star’s true place. 



27 • In Greenland , at what part of the year will the 
midnight sun be seen due 'north? 

At all places whose latitude is 66° 30' N., the sun will be 
on the northern horizon at midnight of the summer solstice. 
At all places north of the Arctic Circle the sun will remain 
above the horizon, even at midnight, for a certain portion of 
the summer, the number of days increasing with the latitude. 
Read Ball’s Elements of Astronomy, p. 142. 

28, Can you give any other proof of the rotundity of 
the earth, besides that named in the tevct (p. 85)? 

(See Astronomy , note, p. 299.) 

A sphere is the only body that always presents to us the 
form of a circle, no matter in what direction we view it. At 
sea, the circular form of the horizon is even more evident than 
on land. 

29, Point out the error in the following passage from 
Byron’s 66 Darkness,” where the poet, in describing the 
effect of the sun’s destruction, says: 

“ I had a dream, . . . 

. . . which was not all a dream; 

The bright sun was extinguished, and the stars 
Did wander darkling in the external space 
Dayless and pathless.” 

The fixed stars would be unaffected by the extinction of the 
sun’s light. 

30, Explain the remark of the First Carrier in Scene 
I,, Act II,, King Henry IV,: “An’t be not four by the day, 
I’ll be hanged: Charles’ wain is over the new chimney,” 

(See Astrov&my , note, p. 311.) 

Since the two great stars which mark the summit and the 
foot of the Cross have nearly the same right ascension, it fol¬ 
lows that the constellation is almost perpendicular at the mo¬ 
ment when it passes the meridian. This circumstance is known 
to every nation that lives beyond the tropics or in the Southern 
Hemisphere. It has been observed at what hour of the night, 
in different seasons, the Cross of the south is erect or inclined. 
It is a time-piece that advances very regularly near four min- 



utes a day, and no other group of stars exhibits to the naked 
eye an observation of time so easily made. How often have 
we heard our guides exclaim in the savannas of Venezuela, or 
in the desert extending from Lima to Truxillo, “ Midnight is 
past, the Cross begins to bend ! ” How often those words re¬ 
minded us of that affecting scene, where Paul and Virginia, 
seated near the sources of the river of Lataniers, conversed 
together for the last time, and where the old man, at the sight 
of the Southern Cross, warns them that it is time to separate. 

31. Why does not the earth move with equal velocity in 
all parts of its orbit ? 

Because at perihelion it is nearer the sun than when in 
aphelion, and hence the attraction is stronger. 

32. How many Jovian-years old are you ? 

A Jovian-year equals 11.86 earth-years. 

33. Why is the shy blue ? 

The blue light of the firmament is light reflected by solid 
particles—generally of aqueous vapor—in the air. It is notice¬ 
able that early in the morning and late at night, when the 
sun’s rays fall obliquely upon the atmosphere, they are polar¬ 
ized by reflection. The reflected light is blue; the transmitted 
light of the sky is orange or red. (Read Tyndall’s Light , p. 

34. At what season of the year does Christmas occur in 
Australia ? 

(See Astronomy, Art. vii., p. 98.) 

35. What causes the apparent movement of the sun 
north and south ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 95.) 

It is caused by the fact that the axis of the earth is inclined 
to the plane of the ecliptic, while the earth is revolving about 
the sun. 

36. On what part of the earth is the twilight the long¬ 
est? The shortest? 

(See Astronomy, p. 110; Manual, p. 110.) 



“ Where the air is unusually full of condensed vapor, as 
occurs in polar regions, the twilight is greatly lengthened; 
where the air is unusually dry, as occurs in the tropics, twilight 
is said sometimes to be shortened to fifteen minutes.” 

37 • Name the causes which make our summer longer 
than winter. 

(See Astronomy, p. 102.) 

38. Why is not total darkness produced when a dense 
cloud passes between us and the sun ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 117.) 

39. Why does the time of the tide vary each day ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 148.) 

40. Why is an annular longer than a total eclipse ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 140.) 

41. Why is it colder in winter than in summer ? 

(See Astronomy, pp. 97, 98.) 

42. Do the solar spots affect our weather ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 48.) 

43. Can the moon be eclipsed in the day-time ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 114.) 

44. Why are the sidereal days of uniform length ? 

Because of the almost absolute uniformity of the earth’s 

45. Why are not the solar days of uniform length ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 266.) 

46. What do the moon’s phases prove ? 

The moon’s phases prove that she is spherical, and shines 
by the reflected light of the sun. 

47• JVhy do the sun and moon appear flattened when 
near the horizon ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 115.) 

48. How many stars can we see with the naked eye ? 

No one sees more than 6,000, and few more than 4,000 stars. 



49. Is there ever an annular eclipse of the moon ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 146.) 

50. 66 While the sun rises and sets 365 times , a star 
rises and sets 366 times." Explain. 

(See Astronomy, p. 264.) 

51. How many moons are there in the solar system ? 

Twenty have been discovered. 

52. What causes the twinkling of the stars ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 207.) 

Some attribute the twinkling of the stars to the inequality 
of refraction due to the constant changes in the density of the 
air, produced by the constant changes in the heat. 

53. Name some of the uses of the stars. 

(See Astronomy, pp. 212, 285.) 

54. Describe the methods by which we determine the 
distance of the sun from the earth. 

(See Astronomy, p. 275.) 

55. Why do not the signs and the constellations of the 
Zodiac agree ? 

(See Astronomy, pp. 106, 211.) 

56. When we look at the North Star, how long since the 
light that enters our eye has left that body ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 218.) 

57'• In what direction does a comet’s tail generally 
point ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 306.) 

58. What is the cause of shooting stars ? 

(See Astronomy, p 182.) 

59. Why does the crescent moon appear larger than 
the dark body of the moon ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 123.) 

60. What is the real path of the moon ? 

(See Astronomy, pp. 123, 301.) 

61. What ivould be the result if the axis of the earth 
ivere parallel to the plane of its orbit ? 

(See Astronomy, Article xx., p. 103.) 




year ? 

Do we see the same star's at different seasons of the 
(See Astronomy, pp. 92, 93.) 

63. Why do we not perceive the earth’s motion in 
space ? 

Because all the objects around us partake of its motion. 

64. Did the earth ever shine as a star? Does it now 
shine as a planet ? 

The earth, doubtless, shone as a star while it was yet a 
glowing mass; now, it reflects the sun’s light, like the other 

65. What is the nebular hypothesis ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 255.) 

66. What is the cause of the solar spots ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 54.) 

67. Would it make the new moon “ drier ” or “ wetter ” 
if the moon’s path ran north of, instead of on, the ecliptic 
at the time of new moon ? 

The moon’s latitude varies from 5° N. to 5° S. (exactly 5° 
8' 47" 9). If the new moon were 5° K, this would increase 
the angle of 72|° (note, p. 30) to 771°, and thus make the line 
joining the moon’s cusps more nearly parallel to the horizon. 
It may be easily seen that whenever the plane of the lunar 
orbit lies so as to carry the moon past conjunction above the 
sun, then the crescent is more nearly horizontal; when beloiv, 
then it is more nearly vertical. 

68. Under what conditions are we accustomed to trans¬ 
fer motion ? 

(See Astronomy, pp. 85, 86.) 

69. Why do not the planets twinkle ? 

(See Astronomy, note, p. 207.) 

70. Why is the horizon a circle ? 

(See Manual, p. 124, Question 28.) 

71. What causes are gradually increasing the length of 
the day ? 

(See Astronomy , notes, pp. 89, 303.) 





What distance floes the moon gain in her orbit each 

(See Astronomy , notes, pp. 89, 302.) 

73. State the general argument which renders it prob¬ 
able that other worlds are inhabited. 

(See Astronomy , p. 63; also, note, p. 297.) 

74. Illustrate the uniformity of Nature. What thought 
does this suggest ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 55; also, note, p. 297.) 

So far as we can judge, the laws of Nature, the properties 
of matter, etc., are uniform throughout the universe, and re¬ 
veal the workmanship of one Creator. 

73. At what rate are we traveling through space? 
Hoiv is this determined ? 

The mean orbital velocity of the earth is 18.4 miles per 
second. Knowing the circumference of its yearly path, the rate 
of motion is easily calculated. 

76. Why does the length of a degree of latitude increase 
in going from the equator toward either pole of the earth ? 

Because the form of the earth is not perfectly spherical, but 
is flattened at the poles and bulged at the equator. 








10" N. 












55 - 5 














Tdn cf\ tin rl . 





"Fin &\ an c \. 





”RVan r»,n . . 










Frn.noo . 




"Romo , ,,. 




A morion. 




Tririiq, .. 




Tndia. . . 






0"4 S. 







Cape of G-ood Hope. 






77 • How can you detect the yearly motion of the sun 
among the stars ? 

(See Astronomy , first note, p. 94.) 

78. Have you actually traced the movement of any one 
of the planets, so as to understand its peculiar and irregu¬ 
lar wandering among the stars ? 

Pupils should be encouraged to watch the various move¬ 
ments of the heavenly bodies.—Read a thoughtful and sug¬ 
gestive article upon Astronomy in High Schools, in Popular 
Science Monthly, Yol. xx., p. 300. 

79. Hoiv do you explain the varied aspect of the heav¬ 
ens in the different seasons of the year ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 92.) 

80. How does the spinning of a top illustrate the sub¬ 
ject of “precession? 

(See Astronomy , p. 109.) 

81. Why do solar eclipses come on from the west and 
cross to the east, while lunar eclipses come on from the east 
and cross to the west ? 

The moon is moving from west to east around the earth. 
In a solar eclipse, her shadow first strikes the western edge of 
the sun ; in a lunar eclipse, the eastern edge of the moon first 
strikes the shadow of the earth. 

The monthly motion of the moon from west to east should 
be carefully distinguished from the daily motion caused by the 
earth’s rotation. 

82. Newcomb, in his Astronomy, says that, “ If, ivhen 
the moon is near the meridian, an observer could in a mo¬ 
ment jump from New York to Liverpool, keepitig his eye 
fixed upon that body, he could see her apparently jump in 
the opposite direction about the same distance.” Explain. 

This is an illustration of transferred motion. 

83. When, and by whom, was the basis of the calendar 
we now use fully established ? 

The Roman calendar had become involved in confusion, 



when Julius Caesar, who possessed no little astronomical knowl¬ 
edge, called to his assistance a G-reek astronomer named Sosig¬ 
enes, and adjusted the civil year to the astronomical year. 
By intercalating the extra day of leap year, he introduced 
what is known as the Julian Calendar, which is still in use. 

The Persian Calendar, invented in the eleventh century as 
a correction of the Julian, is remarkable for its accuracy; it 
consists in making every fourth year bissextile seven times in 
succession, and making the change for the eighth time in the 
fifth year instead of the fourth. This is equivalent to reckon¬ 
ing the tropical year as 365g 8 3 days, which exceeds the period 
determined by astronomers only by 0.0001823 of a day, or 
only f of a second, so that it would require a great number of 
centuries to displace sensibly the commencement of the civil 

The Gregorian Calendar usually employed is somewhat less 
exact, but it is more easily reduced to days, years, and centu¬ 
ries, which is one of the most important objects of a calendar. 
It consists in employing a bissextile year every fourth year, 
suppressing three bissextiles in three centuries, and replacing 
one in the fourth. Thus in every 400 years there are reckoned 
only 97 leap years, making the length of the year 365 ¥ y^, 
which exceeds the tropical year by 0.0002581 of a day, or very 
nearly one second. 

If, following the analogy of the Gregorian Calendar, our 
successors shall suppress a bissextile every 4,000 years, so as to 
make 969 instead of 970 leap years in that interval, the length 
of the year would become 365^^ days, or 365.2422500 days, 
instead of 365.242219 days, as determined by observation.— 
Haughton’s Astronomy. 

84, How much is the Russian reckoning of time be¬ 
hind ours ? 

The Russian reckoning is twelve days behind us. 

85, Is there any gain in having the astronomical and 
the calendar year agree ? 

It is difficult to show what practical object is attained by 
such coincidence. It is important that summer and winter, 



seed-time and harvest, shall occur at the same time of the year 
through several successive generations; but it is not of the 
slightest importance that they should occur now at the same 
time that they did 5,000 years ago.—Read Newcomb’s As¬ 
tronomy, p. 50. 

86. What religious festival is fixed each year by the 
motion of the moon ? 

Easter occurs on the Sunday after the first full moon fol¬ 
lowing the spring equinox.—Read article on Easter, in Apple- 
tons’ Cyclopedia. 

87. Why can we, at different times, see both poles of 
the planet Mars ? 

Because the axis of the planet is so much inclined to the 
plane of the ecliptic. 

88. What famous astronomical discovery ivas made 
on the first day of this century ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 155.) 

89. Do the stars rise and set at the poles ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 102.) 

“At one of the poles of the earth, the axis of the earth’s 
rotation would be vertical, and pass through the zenith, and 
consequently all the celestial objects would appear to travel in 
horizontal circles, parallel to the horizon, traversing these hori¬ 
zontal circles once in 23 hours 56 minutes 4 seconds.” 

90. Name and locate the stars of the first magnitude 
which are seen in our shy. 

The twenty brightest stars in the heavens, or first magni¬ 
tude stars, are as follows: they are given in the order of 
brightness.—L ockyer. 


in the constellation 

Canis Major. 


















Vega, in 

the constellation 



< < 

Canis Minor. 


i < 








Beta Centauri, 



Alpha Crucis, 














Piscis Australis. 

Beta Crucis, 







< t 


91. Name three bright stars which lie near the first 

a Andromedae ; y Pegasi; and /3 Cassiopeise. 

92. What events were transpiring in our history a 
Saturnian century ago ? 

A Saturnian-year equals 29.45 Earth-years; a “ Saturnian 
century ago ” was, therefore, 2,945 years since, or about 1060 
b.c. This was about the time of the rise of Tyre, the reign of 
King David, etc.—Read Barnes’ General History, p. 79. 

93. What is the sun’s declination at the winter solstice ? 
At the autumnal equinox ? 

(1.) 231° S. (2.) 0. 

94. Will the width of the terrestrial zones always re¬ 
main exactly as flow ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 111.) 

95. Is it always noon at 12 o’clock? 

(See Manual, p. 123, Question 21.) 

90. When the sun’s declination is 23V Nin what sign 
is he then located, and what is his H. A. ? 

(See Astronomy, p. 31.) 

This is the time of the summer solstice, and the sun is in 
Cancer, the fourth sign. 



97 . What is the apparent diameter of the sun ? 

The mean apparent diameter of the sun is 32'. 

98. How can a sailor find his latitude and longitude at 

sea ? 

(See Astronomy , p. 280.) 

99. How many miles on the solar disk represent a sec¬ 
ond of apparent diameter ? 

1" on the solar disk equals 450.3 miles.— Young. “ The 
spider-line used in a large telescope will cover a portion of the 
sun’s surface \ of a second in breadth, or hide a strip over 100 
miles wide.” 

100. Ativhat latitude will there be twilight during the 
entire midsummer night ? 

(See Manual , p. 114, Question 23.) 

When the sun crosses the meridian at midnight, its distance 
below the horizon is greater than when the sun is at any other 
part of its diurnal path. If, therefore, the depression of the 
sun below the horizon at midnight be not greater than 18°, the 
sun will, during the entire night, be within 18° of the horizon, 
and hence the twilight will be continuous.—It will be noticed in 
solving all the problems connected with twilight (as, for ex¬ 
ample, Question 23, p. 114, and Question 27, p. 124), that the 
result will be slightly changed if the exact amount of the 
obliquity of the ecliptic (23° 27' 15") be used, instead of the 
ordinary statement, 23|°. 



1. Hid Tycho Brahe have a telescope? 

No. Galileo invented the telescope. 

2. Suppose one should watch the sky , on a ivinter’s 
evening, from 6* B.M. to 6 A.M., what portion of the celes¬ 
tial sphere would he see ? 

All that is ever seen in his latitude. 

3. Hotv do we find what proportion of the sun’s heat 
reaches the earth ? 



Calculate the surface of a sphere whose radius is the dis¬ 
tance of the earth from the sun, and then estimate what pro¬ 
portion of that area the earth occupies. 

4 . How do ive know the heat of the sun’s rays at any 
planet ? 

The intensity of the heat and light varies inversely as the 
square of the distance. 

5. Can you give any other proof than that named in 
the book of the rotundity of the earth ? 

Aeronauts, when at a proper height, can distinctly see the 
curving form of the earth’s surface. 

6. In what ivay is the force which acts on a spinning- 
top opposite to that which produces precession ? 

Gravity, acting on the top, tends to draw C P (Fig. 40) 
from the perpendicular. The attraction of the sun, acting on 
the bulging mass of the earth’s equator, tends to draw C P 
toward the perpendicular. 

7 . Why is the Tropic of Cancer so called ? 

When named, the sun was probably in that constellation at 
the time of the summer solstice. Now, owing to the preces¬ 
sion of the equinoxes, the sun is in the constellation Gemini, 
and to be exact, it should be called the Tropic of Gemini. It 
is still, however, the sign Cancer, as before. The same reason¬ 
ing applies to the Tropic of Capricorn, which is now in the 
constellation Sagittarius. 

8. In Greenland , at what part of the year will the 
midnight sun be seen due north ? 

At the summer solstice. 

9. When is the moon seen high in the eastern sky in the 
afternoon 9 long before the sun sets ? 

During the second quarter before it comes into opposition. 

10. Why is the Ecliptic so called ? 

Because eclipses always occur in or near it. 




The author has met with the best success in explaining mir¬ 
rors and lenses to his pupils by using the following method : 

A Concave Mirror .— Holding up before his eye the fore¬ 
finger of each hand, he represents to the pupil how the rays 
of light enter his eye converging ; how he then sees the object 
on diverging rays: thus the visual angle being increased, the 
apparent size of the object is correspondingly increased. By 
crossing his two forefingers before his eye he represents the 
focus, and shows how diverging rays then enter the eye; the 
object is seen on converging rays, the visual angle is decreased, 
and the apparent size of the object correspondingly decreased. 

A Convex Mirror .— Using the fingers in the same way, he 
illustrates how diverging rays enter the eye, the object is seen 
on converging rays, the visual angle is diminished, and the ap¬ 
parent size of the object correspondingly diminished. The rays 
of light are not brought to a focus, hence the second effect of a 
concave mirror can not be seen. 

The same illustration can be used in explaining lenses, re¬ 
membering that the effect of a convex lens is like that of a 
concave mirror, and of a concave lens that of a convex mirror. 

At the close of the explanation and illustration with the 
fingers, the following formula is put on the blackboard, and the 
pupil applies it to each class of mirrors and lenses: 

Converging (diverging) rays enter the eye, the object is 
is increased (decreased), and the image is larger (smaller) 



In schools where there is no telescope, teachers may find 
valuable suggestions for class observations in the articles en¬ 
titled “Astronomy with an Opera-Glass,” by Garrett P. Serviss, 
in the Popular Science Monthly, April, June, August, and No¬ 
vember, 1887, and February, 1888. 




including all that have been discovered to date (Oct., 1887). 







Ceres . 









































































































































































































































* The numerical order is that adopted by the authority of the Berlin 

















































































































































Eorster & Lesser. 




























































Peters & Safford. 





























































* Goldschmidt at first believed it to be Daphne (41), but Schubert find¬ 
ing its period different, called it Pseudo-Daphne. It was not seen from 1857 
to 1861, when Luther rediscovered it, and named it Melete. 











































































































































W atson. 














Camilla... . 
















































































































Prosper Henry. 






Paul Henry. 






Prosper Henry. 



























Vala . 












flyreriR . 










































Si wa. 






T/iimpn . 




Paul Henry. 








A drin . 












A 6 finn n, . 






Till p,i nn, . 






"Prnt.op'p.n pin, . 











Prosper Henry. 







Nu wa . 






A bund anti a. 






A a. 




Paul Henry. 








Berth a.. 




Prosper Henry. 



So ylla. 



















Boron is. 









Paul Henry. 































Tia.nnontin . 



Prosper Henry. 

"Flnipfono . 





"Rva . 




Paul Henry. 

Tionolov . 






Fbodono . 




XJrda . 








Sibylla, . 




^o]in ... 



Prosper Henry. 

Marin, . 





Opb pi i a, . 




"Ran ri a. . 





Tno . 





Phaedra . 





And norm a.p.b R . 





Tdnnna . 









Prosper Henry. 

Bel i anna . 





m vtom n RRtra . 




























. 7 

























Prosper Henry. 


















Pet era 










































































































































































Bianca . 










































Henrietta. .. 
















Paul Henry. 


























De Ball. 


















































































































































Oppavia . 


































































































From this Table, it will be observed that, next to Palisa, of Vienna, 
Austria* the one investigator who has discovered the largest number of 
asteroids is our own Dr. Peters, of Clinton, N. Y. It is probable that all 
the larger asteroids have now been identified. 






23 — J. Why does not a fall hurt a child as much as it 
does a grown person ? 

The bones of a child are largely cartilaginous, and so do not 
transmit a shock, or readily yield to a blow. They are also well 
padded with fat. 

2. Should a young child ever be urged to stand or 
walk ? 

No ; bow-legs are often caused by the premature use of the 
lower limbs in standing or walking. Nature is the best guide 
in such matters. 

3. What is meant by “ breaking one’s neck ” ? 

The dislocation of the vertebrae and consequent injury of 
.the spinal cord. 

4. Should chairs or benches have straight backs ? 

The backs should conform to the natural shape of the spine. 
This tends to prevent curvatures and other distortions of the 
vertebral column. 

5. Should a child’s feet be allowed to dangle from a 
h igh seat ? 

The position is as unnatural and painful for a child as for a 
grown person. 

6. Why can we tell whether a fowl is young by pressing 
on the point of the breast-bone ? 


Because that part of the breast-bone is not ossified in a 
young fowl. 

7 . What is the use of the marrow in the bones ? 

It contains the blood-vessels carrying material for the growth 
of the bone, and also diffuses any shock which the bone may 

S. Why is the shoulder so often put out of joint ? 

Because of the shallowness of the socket in the scapula. 

.9. How can you tie a knot in a bone ? 

By removing the mineral matter, and thus softening a rib- 
bone, a knot can be easily tied in it. 

10. Why are high pillows injurious ? 

They elevate the head, and so give an unnatural position to 
the spine. For the pads between the vertebrae to assume their 
proper shape during the night they should be relieved of all 

11. Is a stooping posture a healthy position ? 

No. Such a posture, made habitual, contracts the chest, 
changes the outline of the spine, and diminishes the vitality 
of the system. 

12. Ought a boot to have a heel-piece ? 

A low and broad heel-piece probably aids in walking; a 
narrow or high one weakens and enlarges the ankle, produces 
bunions, corns, etc., by throwing the weight forward upon the 
toes, and makes the gait exceedingly ungraceful. 

IS. Why should one always sit and walk erect ? 

Because then all the organs are in their natural position. 
An erect carriage is as conducive to health as to beauty. 

14. Why does a young child creep rather than walk ? 

(See Physiology , p. 50.) 

Its bones not yet being fully ossified, nature teaches it not 
to bear its weight upon them. Besides, it has not yet learned 
the difficult art of balancing itself. 



15. What is the natural direction of the big toe ? 

The natural direction of the big toe is in a line with the 
long axis of the foot, but the conventional boot, which insists 
upon an even-sided symmetry, and often upon a narrow tip, 
tends to crowd the extremity of this toe toward the middle line 
of the sole. If well-developed feet are placed side by side and 
heel to heel, the two great toes will be found to be parallel to 
each other, and to touch each other almost to their very ends. 
If the same feet, clad in the shoes of the period, are placed in 
the same position, it will be found that, while the heels are in 
contact, the tips of the two great toes will be considerably 

16. What is the difference between a sprain and a 
fracture ? A dislocation ? 

In a sprain, the ligaments which bind the bones of a joint 
are strained, twisted, or torn from their attachments; in a 
fracture, the bone itself is broken; in a dislocation, the bone is 
displaced from its socket. 

17. Does the general health of the system affect the 
strength of the bones ? 

Certainly. Impoverished blood will not make healthy bone. 

46— 1. What class of lever is the foot when ive lift a 
weight on the toes ? 

The third class. The ankle-joint is the fulcrum, the weight 
is at the toes, and the power is in front of the ankle, where 
the muscle which lifts the toes (the extensor digitorium) is at¬ 
tached to the foot. 

2. Explain the movement of the body backward and 
forward, when resting upon the thigh-bone as a ful¬ 

The weight is at the center of gravity of the head and 
trunk, high above the hip-joints, where the fulcrum is situated. 
The flexor muscles of the thigh are the power, and act close to 
the fulcrum. The weight is sometimes directly over the ful¬ 
crum, and may be on any side of it. This seems to the author 



to be an example of the first or second class of lever.. Huxley 
gives it as an illustration of the third class. 

3. What class of lever do ive use when we lift the foot 
while sitting down ? 

The third class. The fulcrum is the knee-joint; the weight 
is at the center of gravity of the foot and leg, and the power 
is applied by the ligament which passes over the patella. 

4. Explain the swing of the arm from the shoulder, 

(See Physiology , p. 34 ) 

The third class. The fulcrum is the shoulder-joint; the 
weight is at the center of gravity of the arm and hand, and 
the power is applied by the biceps or triceps muscle at its at¬ 
tachment near the elbow. 

5. What class of lever is used in bending our fingers? 

The fulcrum is at the junction of the finger with the palm; 
the weight is at the center of gravity of the finger, and may 
play about the fulcrum as stated in second question. It is the 
third class of lever, especially when force is exerted at the ex¬ 
tremity of the fingers. 

6. What class of lever is our foot when we tap the 
ground with our toes ? 

(See Physiology , Tig. 14, Jc.) 

The first class. The weight is at the toe when the force is 
exerted; the fulcrum is at the ankle; and the power is applied 
by the gastrocnemius muscle at its attachment to the heel. 

7 . IVhat class of lever do we use when we raise our¬ 
selves from a stooping position ? 

The third class. See second question. If we are attempt¬ 
ing to lift a heavy burden, the bones act on the principle of 
the toggle-joint. “When one stoops to take a heavy weight 
upon his back or shoulder, he puts both the knee and the hip- 
joints into the condition that the toggle-joint is when it is bent; 
and then, as he straightens up, the weight is raised by an ac¬ 
tion of the joints precisely similar to that of the toggle-joint in 
machinery. In the case of the knee, the straightening of the 



joints is done by the muscles on the front part of the thigh, 
that draw up the knee-pan with the tendon attached to it. 
This is using the principle of the toggle-joint in pressing up¬ 
ward. It is also sometimes used in pressing downward. In 
crushing any thing with the heel, we give great force to the 
blow on the principle of the toggle-joint, by flexing the knee 
and straightening the limb as we bring down the heel upon the 
thing to be crushed. In pushing any thing before us, we bend 
the elbow as preparatory to the act, and then thrust the arm 
out straight, thus exemplifying the toggle-joint. The horse 
gives great force to his kick in the same way. The great 
power exerted by beasts of draught and burden is to be re¬ 
ferred very much to the principle of the toggle-joint. When a 
horse is to draw a heavy load, he bends all his limbs, especially 
the hinder ones, and then as he straightens them, he starts the 
load. In this case the ground is the fixed block of the mechan¬ 
ism, the body of the horse to which the load is attached is the 
movable one, and his limbs are so many toggle-joints. By this 
application of the principle, we see draught horses move very 
heavy loads.”— Hooker’s Physiology. “So (admitting fable to be 
fact), when the farmer, in answer to his petition for assistance, 
was commanded by Hercules to exert himself to raise his wagon 
from the pit, he placed his shoulder against the wheel, and 
drawing his body up into a crouching attitude, whereby all his 
joints are flexed, and making his feet the fixed points, by a 
powerful muscular effort, he straightened the toggle-joints of 
his limbs, and the wheel was raised from its bed of miry clay. 
His horses at the same moment extending their joints, the 
heavily laden wagon was carried beyond the reach of further 
detention. ”— Griscom. 

S. What class of lever is the foot when we tvalk ? 

In the first stage it is clearly the second class. (See Physi¬ 
ology, Fig. 18.) The fulcrum is the ground on which the toes 
rest; the power is applied by the gastrocnemius muscle (see 
Fig. 14, k) to the heel; the resistance is so much of the weight 
of the body as is borne by the ankle-joint of the foot, which of 
course lies between the heel and the toes. 



9, Why can we raise a heavier weight with our hand 
when lifting with the elbow than from the shoulder? 

Because we bring the fulcrum nearer the power. In the 
former case it is at the elbow; in the latter, at the shoulder. 

10, What class of lever do we employ when we are hop¬ 
ping, the thigh-bone being bent uj) toward the body and 
not used ? 

In this case the fulcrum is at the hip-joint. The power 
(which may be assumed to be furnished by the rectus muscle* 
of the front of the thigh) acts upon the knee-cap; and the po¬ 
sition of the weight is represented by that of the center of 
gravity of the thigh and leg, which will lie somewhere between 
the end of the knee and the hip.— Huxley. 

11, Describe the motions of the bones when we are 
using a gimlet. 

The radius rolls on the ulna at the elbow, while the ulna 
rolls on the radius at the wrist. The two combined produce a 
free, rotary motion. 

12, Why do we tire when we stand erect ? 

(See Physiology, p. 37.) 

Because so large a number of muscles must be in constant 
action to maintain this position. 

13, Why does it rest us to change our work? 

We thereby bring into use a new set of muscles. 

14, Why and when is dancing a beneficial exercise? 

When dancing is performed out-of-doors, or in a well-ven¬ 
tilated room, and at proper hours, it is doubtless a beneficial 
exercise, since it employs the muscles and pleasantly occupies 
the mind. Late at night, in a heated room, with thin clothing 
and exciting surroundings, it is simply a dangerous dissipation, 
ruinous to the health, alike of body and soul. 

* This muscle is attached above to the haunch-bone or ileum , and be¬ 
low to the knee-cap. The latter bone is connected by a strong ligament 
with the tibia. 



15, Why can ive exert greater force with the bach teeth 
than with the front ones ? 

(See Physiology, p. 35.) 

The lower jaw is a lever of the second class. In the former 
case the resistance to be overcome, i.e., the weight, is situated 
much nearer the power. 

16, Why do we lean forward when we wish to rise from 
a chair ? 

(See Popular Physics, p. 57.) 

In order to bring the center of gravity over the feet. 

17, Why does the projection of the heel-bone make 
ivalking easier ? 

(See Frontispiece, and also Fig. 18 in Physiology.) 

It brings the power further from the fulcrum or weight. 

18, Does a horse travel with less fatigue over a flat than 
a hilly country ? 

No. The variety of travel in a hilly country, other things 
being equal, tends to rest the horse, and enable him to better 
endure the fatigue of the journey. 

19, Can you move your upper jaw ? 

All the bones of the face, except the lower jaw, are firmly 
and immovably articulated with one another and with the cra¬ 
nium. —Leidy. 

20, Are people naturally right or left-handed? 

Many persons are naturally either right or left-handed; but 
most can and should learn to use either hand with equal 

21, Why can so few persons move their ears by the 
muscles ? 

Perhaps because of lack of practice ; more probably, how¬ 
ever, the muscles (see Physiology , p. 53 and Fig. 14) are de¬ 
veloped in few persons. 

22, Is the blacksmith’s right arm healthier than the 
left ? 



By no means. Strength is not essential to health. The 
right arm may be stronger, but the functions of the left may 
be as active and well-performed. 

23. Boys often, though foolishly , thrust a pin into the 
flesh just above the knee. Why is it not painful ? 

The muscles of the leg there end in tendons, which are in¬ 

24, Will ten minutes 9 practice in a gymnasium answer 
for a day’s exercise ? 

Spasmodic or violent exercise is not beneficial. It should be 
comparatively quiet, gentle, and continuous to produce the best 
effect. Moreover, the vitalizing influences of the sun and pure 
air demand that we should exercise out-of-doors. 

25. Why would an elastic tendon be unfitted to trans¬ 
mit the motion of a muscle ? 

Force would be lost by its transmission through an elastic 

20, When one is struck violently on the head , why does 
he instantly fall ? 

The body is kept erect only by the constant exercise of 
many muscles. These perform their functions through the un¬ 
conscious action of the brain and spinal cord. A blow para¬ 
lyzes the nervous system, the muscles at once cease to act, and 
the body falls by its weight. 

27. What is the cause of the difference between light 
and dark meat in a fowl ? 


The amount of blood which circulates through different 
parts of the body. The organs of a fowl which are used the 
most become the darkest. 

69-1. If a hair be plucked out 9 ivill another grow in 
its place ? 

Yes. A new hair will always grow out so long as the pa¬ 
pilla at the bottom of the follicle remains uninjured. 



2. What causes the hah• to i6 stand on end 99 when we 
are frightened ? 

(See Physiology , p. 53.) 

Many of the unstriated muscular fibers from the true skin 
pass obliquely down from the surface of the dermis to the 
under side of the slanting hair-follicles. The contraction of 
these fibers erects the hairs, and by drawing the follicles to the 
surface and drawing in a little point of the skin, produces that 
roughness of the integument called “goose-skin,” or Cutis Anser- 
ina. The standing on end of the hair of the head, as the re¬ 
sult of extreme fright, may be partly due to the contraction of 
such fibers, as well as to the action of the occipito-frontalis 
muscle. —Cutter. 

3. Why is the skin roughened by riding in the cold ? 

(See Physiology , p. 53; also Answer to Q uestion 2.) 

4. Why is the back of a washer-woman 9 s hand less 
water-soaked than the palm ? 

The difference depends upon the relative abundance of the 
oil-glands in different parts of the body. 

5. What would be the length of the perspiratory tubes 
h\ a single square inch of the palm , if placed end to end ? 

(See Physiology , p. 61.) 

The length of the perspiratory tubes differs not only in dif¬ 
ferent persons but in different parts of the same body. Some 
authorities estimate the average length at £ of an inch, while 
others—and, generally, later authorities—give only of an inch. 
If we assume the former measurement, we have : 2,800 x ^ in. 
-moo i n . = 58 ft. 4 in. If the latter, we have 2,800x T ^ in. 
= in. = 14 ft. 7 in. 

6\ IFliat colored clothing is best adapted to all seasons ? 

(See Physiology , p. 67 ; Popular Physics , p. 260.) 

Light-colored clothing is cooler in summer and warmer in 

7. What is the effect of paint and powder on the skin ? 

(See Physiology , p. 62.) 



They fill the pores of the skin, and thus prevent the pas¬ 
sage of the perspiration. Moreover, they often contain sub¬ 
stances which are poisonous, and being carried in by the absorb¬ 
ents cause disease. 

S. Is water-proof clothing healthful for constant wear ? 

No. It retains the insensible perspiration by which waste 
matter is being constantly thrown off from the system. 

9. Why are rubbers cold to the feet ? 

They retain the insensible perspiration. The moisture which 
gathers absorbs the heat of the feet, and readily conducts it 
from the body. 

1 (). Why does the heat seem oppressive when the air is 
moist ? 

In the moisture-laden atmosphere, the evaporation of the 
insensible perspiration from the surface of the body goes on 
slowly. The heat, which would otherwise pass off through the 
pores, is retained in the system. 

11. Why is friction of the skin invigorating after a 
cold bath ? 

(See Physiology , p. 64, 65.) 

The friction produces heat, expands the veins, etc., on the 
surface, and, calling the blood in that direction, produces a 
vigorous circulation. In other words, it causes a reaction.* 

* Strength in the living body is maintained by the full hut natural 
exercise of each organ; and, as we have seen, the actions of these por¬ 
tions of the nervous system is made dependent upon influences conveyed 
to them by the sensitive nerves distributed over the various parts of the 
body. And among these the nerves passing to the skin are the chief. The 
full access of all healthful stimuli to the surface, and its freedom from all 
that irritates or impedes its functions, are the first external conditions of 
the normal vigor of this nervous circle. Among these stimuli, fresh air 
and pure water hold the first place. Sufficient warmth is second. The 
great and even wonderful advantages of cleanliness are partly referable to 
the direct influence of a skin healthily active, open to all the natural 
stimuli, and free from morbid irritation, upon the nerve-centers of which 
it is the appointed excitant. This influence is altogether distinct from 
those cleansing functions which the healthy skin performs for the blood; 
and in any just estimate of its value is far too important to be over¬ 
looked.—H inton. 



12. Why does the hair of domestic animals become 
roughened in winter ? 

(See Question 2.) 

It is a wise provision of Nature, since more air—a non-con¬ 
ductor of heat—is retained by the hair, and thus the rough 
winter-coat of an animal is warmer than its smooth summer- 

13. Why do fowls spread their feathers before they 
perch for the night ? 

(See Question 12.) 

This is the same wise provision of Nature to protect the 
fowl against the chilliness of the night. More air is confined 
by the roughened feathers, and thus the internal heat of the 
bird is prevented from radiating. 

14. How can an extensive burn cause death by conges¬ 
tion of the lungs ? 

(See Physiology , p. 63.) 

The insensible perspiration is stopped upon the burned sur¬ 
face, and the excretions are sent to the lungs, which are over¬ 
worked and overloaded by the excess. 

15. Why do we perspire so profusely after fir inking cold 
water ? 

The vital organs being chilled for an instant, the blood is 
sent to the surface, a reaction is produced, the skin acts more 
vigorously as an excretory organ, and the insensible perspira¬ 
tion is thrown off more rapidly. 

16. What are the best means of preventing skin dis¬ 
eases, colds, and rheumatism ? 

The skin should be kept in a healthy state by bathing, rub¬ 
bing, etc. Exposure to sudden changes of temperature should 
be avoided as far as possible. Flannel worn next the skin, in 
all seasons of the year, is an excellent precaution against un¬ 
avoidable exposure. 

17. What causes the difference between the hard hand 
of a blacksmith and the soft hand of a ivoman ? 

(See Physiology , p. 50.) 

The varying thickness of the cuticle. 


18. Why should a painter avoid getting paint on the 
palm of his hand ? 

(See Physiology , p. 62.) 

19. Why should we not use the soap or the soiled towel 
at a hotel ? 

Because of the danger of contracting disease through the 
absorbents of the skin. (See Physiology, p. 62.) There is a 
similar danger in using a hair-brush or a comb at a barber 

20. Which teeth cut like a pair of scissors ? 

The “back teeth,” as we commonly call them, when moved 
laterally, cut somewhat in this way. In chewing the food, all 
the “ front teeth ” act like scissors, as may be readily seen by 
noticing their movements. 

21. Which teeth cut like a chisel ? 

The incisors, or four front teeth of each jaw, have knife 
edges; the canine teeth have wedge-shaped edges; the bicus¬ 
pids and molars have broader crowns. We can work the jaws 
so as to make the front teeth either pierce like wedges or cut 
like scissors. 

22. Which should be clothed the warmer , a merchant 
or a farmer ? 

The merchant is liable to more sudden and violent changes 
of temperature, and his body is less likely to be hardened by 
exposure and habit to resist them. 

23. Why should tve not crack nuts with our teeth ? 

The brittle enamel is very liable to crack, and once broken 
can never be restored. 

24. Do the edges of the upper and lower teeth meet ? 

(See Question 21.) 

25. When fatigued , should you take a cold bath ? 

Certainly not. The system is not vigorous enough to pro¬ 
duce a reaction, and the effect might be dangerous. 


26. Why is the outer surface of a kid glove finer than 
the inner ? 

This illustrates the difference in texture between the cutis 
and cuticle; the dermis and epidermis. 

27. Why will a brunette endure the sun’s rays better 
than a blonde ? 

(See Physiology , p 51.) 

The skin is perhaps of a coarser texture, and not so sensi¬ 
tive to heat. May it not be also that the black pigment ab¬ 
sorbs the heat and radiates it again rather than transmits it 
directly to the internal organs? It has also been suggested that 
there is an increased flow of blood in the darker skin, and 
hence increased perspiration. 

28. Does patent-leather form a healthful covering for 
the feet ? 

No. The pores of the leather are partly filled, and hence 
the insensible perspiration is largely restrained. 

29. Why are men more frequently bald than women ? 

This is to some extent the effect of the close, unventilated 
head-covering commonly worn by men. 

SO. On what part of the head does baldness commonly 
occur ? 

On that part most fully covered by the hat or cap. 

31. What does the combination in our teeth of canines 
and grinders suggest as to the character of our food ? 

That we are to eat a mixed diet of vegetable and animal 

* The question of the use of animal or vegetable food may well be re¬ 
mitted to the arbitrament of nature, as expressed in the desires; by which 
it would be victoriously decided, in all such climates as ours, in favor of 
the flesh-eater. But the sufficiency of vegetable food, if widely varied, to 
maintain health and even strength, is not to be questioned, for those who 
like it. When we hear that the ancient Persians lived a good deal on 
water-cress, we naturally connect in our minds their physical inferiority 



32. Is a staid, formal promenade suitable exercise ? 

No. There is an intimate relation between the brain and 
the muscles. The mind should be pleasantly employed to ob¬ 
tain the full effect of any exercise.* The sports of children are 
often the very perfection of healthful gymnastic exercises. 

33. Is there any danger in changing the warm clothing 
of our daily wear for the thin one of a party ? 

Very great. The body is not so well protected as usual 
against a sudden change of temperature, as in going from a 
heated room to the carriage, and a cold is often the conse¬ 
quence. This may lay the foundation of fatal disease. 

34. Should we retain our overcoat, shawl, or furs, when 
ive come into a warm room ? 

No. The body will become over-heated, the pores be opened, 
and the skin be rendered susceptible to the change of tempera¬ 
ture when we return into the open air. 

with the poverty of their diet; hut finding, on the other hand, that the 
Romans, in the best period of the Republic, largely sustained themselves 
on turnips, and that degeneracy came in as turnips went out, we are com¬ 
pelled to reconsider our opinion. In brief, an exclusively vegetable food 
may be best suited to those by whom it really is preferred. Children in 
this respect exhibit the greatest difference; some, with manifest advan¬ 
tage, eat meat in large quantity—others can hardly be prevailed on to taste 
it, and yet retain perfect vigor. Similar differences, in all probability, exist 
among adults; but a vegetarianism self-imposed against the promptings 
of desire, would tend, as a vigorous writer says, to make us “ not the chil¬ 
dren, but the abortions of Paradise.”— Hinton. 

* The mental operations, like all others, are connected with changes in 
the material of the body. In all our consciousness the chemical tenden¬ 
cies of the substance of the brain come into play, and thus a chain of 
action is set up which extends throughout the system. The influence of 
these brain-changes is felt wherever a nerve travels, and modifies, invigor¬ 
ates, or depraves the action of every part. Experience gives ample proof 
of this fact to every one, as in the sudden loss of appetite a piece of bad 
news will cause, or in the watering of the mouth excited by the thought 
of food. And the history of disease abounds in evidence of a similar kind: 
hair becoming gray in a single night from sorrow, milk poisoning an infant 
from an attack of passion in the nurse, permanent discoloration of the 
skin from terror, are among the instances on record. Hinton. 



35. Which should bathe the oftener, students or out¬ 
door laborers? 

This depends entirely on circumstances—the amount of ex¬ 
ercise, the individual freedom and character of perspiration, the 
state of the system, etc. Each case must be decided by itself. 

36. Is abundant perspiration injurious ? 

No. It removes impure matter from the system, and hence 
may be beneficial. It may, however, weaken the body, and 
frequent hot baths should therefore be taken only on suitable 
medical advice. 

37. How often should the ablution of the entire body be 
performed ? 

For the preservation of perfect health there should be daily 
morning ablution in cold or cool water, using soap sparingly. 
A warm or tepid bath, with a free application of soap, may 
advantageously be taken once a week, followed by a dash of 
cool water. It is well for children and delicate persons to 
stand in warm water, having the cold water in an extra tub or 
basin. They can then, with a large sponge, dash the cold 
water freely over their bodies, and get the full tonic effect of 
the cold bath without the coldness or discomfort which might 
otherwise ensue. A cold bath should always be quickly per¬ 
formed, accompanied by vigorous rubbing to insure the reac¬ 
tion. Children especially should be thoroughly rubbed and com¬ 
pletely dried. Above all, let the daily wash be a delight, and 
not a dread, to the little ones. A reluctant bath, with a hasty 
dismissal, leaving the skin wet, the blood chilled, and the spirits 
depressed, not only inflicts upon the helpless and unhappy 
child a needless misery, but will be likely to result in chapped 
skin and chronic catarrh, if in nothing worse. 

38. Why is cold water better than warm for our daily 
ablution ? 

(See Physiology , p. 64.) 

The daily repetition of the cold bath renders the system 
less sensitive to changes in atmospheric temperature, the re¬ 
verse being the case with the warm bath. Still, it should be 
said that not every one is able to endure the cold bath. If the 



skin remains cold and blue in spite of friction, it shows that 
the reaction has not taken place, in which case the bath is an 
injury. Or, if for some time after the bath the bather feels 
languid and weary, it indicates that the reaction is too much 
for his nervous system. But, in most cases, if the habit is 
formed by beginning first with tepid water, decreasing the tem¬ 
perature gradually, morning by morning, until the bather in¬ 
ures himself to the coldest water, the shock and the reaction 
will be a luxury he will not willingly abandon. In this con¬ 
nection it may be said that, as water is a better conductor of 
heat than air, water at a temperature of 75° or 80° will seem 
cold to most persons (the normal temperature of the body being 
about 98° Fahr.), though an atmosphere of that degree would 
seem warm. The temperature of the room should always be 
higher than that of the water. 

39. Jfhy should our clothing always fit loosely ? 

(See Physiology , pp. 14, 67, 96.) 

Any thing that impedes circulation is injurious. Loose un¬ 
der-clothing is warmer in winter than tight under-clothing, on 
account of the stratum of air between the body and the gar¬ 
ment. (See Question 12.) The effects of tight-lacing are well 
known.* Too close-fitting sleeves interfere with the venous cir¬ 
culation of the arm, and tend to make the fingers cold and 
blue ; while the pressure upon the nerves, which lie not far 

* The evil effects of tight-lacing are not all nor always in the future. 
Signs of distress are often quickly apparent; the nose purples, the upper 
bowels emit croaking sounds, while the lower become unnaturally protu¬ 
berant; the womb falls, and the breathing and the circulation of blood 
are so hindered as often to bring on palpitations of the heart and faint¬ 
ing ; especially after a full meal or in a close and sultry atmosphere. The 
long-continued and tight pressure of corsets also wastes and impairs the 
natural strength of the muscles of the back; so that without the usual 
lacing there is a most uncomfortable feeling of weakness. The circulation 
of the blood in the lower part of the lungs, from the severe compression 
imposed upon them, becomes in an almost stagnant condition, producing 
languor and a painful sense of lassitude. Continue this constraint, and 
the cell-life of the lungs, liver, and stomach becomes permanently im¬ 
paired, laying a sure foundation for disease in these parts whenever the 
constitutional strength and vigor begin to fail .—The Ten Laws of Health , J. 
B. Black. 



below the skin, induce neuralgia and numbness in the fingers. 
A rigid constriction about the arm-pit will frequently result in 
a swollen hand. Tight elastics should never be worn upon the 
lower limbs. Aside from all the discomforts and maladies at¬ 
tendant upon the wearing of tight garments, the natural ease 
and grace of bodily movement are always more or less ob¬ 

40. Why should we take special pains to avoid clothing 
that is colored by poisonous dye-stuffs ? 

(See Physiology , p. 62.) 

Because the particles of the poisonous coloring are liable to 
be absorbed by the skin, and thus taken into the system. The 
dangerous agent is usually arsenic, which is employed in dyeing 
bright reds, magentas, aniline reds, and certain greens. Par¬ 
ticular care should be taken in the selection of hose. Unfortu- 


nately, the pure white stocking has gone out of style, though 
hygienically it is greatly preferable to the highly (often poison- 
ously) dyed one that has succeeded to fashionable favor. 

41. What general principles should guide us as to the 
length and f requency of baths in salt or fresh water ? 

(See Physiology , pp. 66, 291.) 

Sea or river baths should never be prolonged to the extent 
of sensible fatigue, and consequent inability of reaction. A 
daily swim taken before breakfast, and limited to twenty min¬ 
utes at the outside, is to most people the best of tonics. Per¬ 
sons with pale skins (technically termed anaemic, or bloodless), 
or those who are suffering from heart disease, should not at¬ 
tempt sea or river bathing, or, indeed, any cold bath, except 
under medical advice. 

42. What is the beneficial effect of exercise upon the 
functions of the skin ? 

(See Physiology , p. 62; also note, p. 42.) 

Increased muscular action calls for an extra supply of blood. 
The heart responds by more rapid beating, the lungs take in 
more oxygen, and the bodily heat is heightened. To dispose of 
this superfluous warmth, the oil and perspiratory glands are 
stimulated to greater activity, the impurities which naturally 



escape from the body by this avenue are hastened in their exit, 
and the skin itself becomes soft and moist. 

43 , Hoiv can ive best slioiv our admiration and respect 
for the human body ? 

By conscientiously observing all the laws of physical hy¬ 
giene, as well as moral purity. 

44 . Why is the scar of a severe wound upon a negro 
sometimes white ? 

Because the cells containing the pigment or coloring matter 
were destroyed by the severity of the wound, and have not 
been restored. 

99— 1 . What is the philosophy of the “change of 
voice 99 in a boy ? 

Up to the age of fourteen or fifteen, there is little or no 
difference in point of size between the larynx of a boy and 
that of a girl; but subsequently the former grows proportion¬ 
ately larger, so that at last, in the adult male, the vibrating 
parts or vocal cords are necessarily longer than in the female. 
They are also undoubtedly thicker, perhaps even coarser in 
structure. From all these circumstances the adult male voice 
is stronger, louder, and of lower pitch than the weaker and 
higher vocal range accomplished by the female larynx. 

The cause of the difference in quality of the voice, known 
as its timbre , is not well known ; but it must undoubtedly be 
dependent on physical, that is to say, structural peculiarities in 
some part of the laryngeal apparatus. 

The production of the different notes within the compass of 
any one individual depends upon alterations in the length and 
state of tension of the vocal cords, and on their degree of prox¬ 
imity or separation from one another. The higher notes require 
the vocal cords to be comparatively shorter, tighter, and more 
closely approximated together; while the lower notes demand 
opposite conditions. A high note, furthermore, implies greater 
rapidity in the movement of the air through the glottis; but 
the quantity of air passing is larger during the production of a 
low note. 



The volume or loudness of the voice depends mainly on the 
combination of quantity of air with greater force of expulsion. 
Loudness, with clearness, also demands a peculiar resonance 
up in the nasal cavities and sinuses. Lastly, the unnatural or 
falsetto voice seems also to be produced by some tensive change 
effected in the upper part of the pharynx at the back of the 
nose: hence it is called by singers the head voice , in contradis¬ 
tinction to the ordinary, or chest voice. — Marshall. 

2. Why can we see our breath on a f rosty morning ? 

The vapor of the breath is condensed by the cold air. 

3. When a law of health and a law of fashion conflict 9 
which should we obey ? 

It depends, of course, whether we prefer to be fashionable 
or to be healthy, to obey man or God. With too many people 
the former is of far greater importance, and in selecting an 
article of dress, few ask or think about the latter. The conse¬ 
quence is seen in the weakened frame, the prevalence of dis¬ 
ease, and the shortened life. God’s laws written in our bodies 
can not be violated with impunity. 

4. If we use a “ bunk 99 bed 9 should we pack away the 
clothes when we first rise in the morning ? 

No. They should first be thoroughly aired. 

5. IFhy should a clothes-press be well ventilated ? 

The clothes naturally contain the products of the insensible 
perspiration, which passing off, pollute the air of the closet. 

6 . Should the weight of our clothing hang from the 
ivaist or the shoulder ? 

From the shoulder, so as to avoid the constriction of the 
compressible organs in the abdomen. 

7. Describe the effects of living in an overheated 

(1) The body becomes more sensitive to change, and the 
susceptibility to colds is greatly increased; (2) the dry, heated 
air abstracts the moisture from the skin, rendering it dry, hard, 
and incapable of performing its normal functions. 



8 . What habits impair the po wer of the lungs ? 

Above all others, those of a leaning posture, tight-lacing, 

and ill-ventilation. 

9. For full, easy breathing in singing, should we use 
the diaphragm and lower • ribs or the upper ribs alone ? 

Nearly all the inspirations are effected by the movements 
of the diaphragm and the inferior ribs only. From time to 
time a deeper and more complete inspiration causes the thorax 
to rise, not simultaneously, but successively at the base, then 
at the apex. In the first case the respiration is diaphragmatic; 
when the lower and middle ribs are raised, it is termed lateral; 
and, lastly, when the first rib and clavicle take part in the 
movement, it is costo-superior or clavicular. In diaphragmatic 
respiration, as M. Mandl has observed, the larynx is immov¬ 
able, the inspiration is easy, without effort, and permits exer¬ 
tion in singing or in gymnastics for a long time and without 
fatigue. On the contrary, persons who respire principally by 
the upper ribs are easily fatigued, and very soon out of breath. 
This is seen in women when the corset compresses the base of 
the chest, and in singers who adopt, on erroneous principles, 
the bad habit of clavicular respiration. In this last method of 
inspiration the larynx is drawn down by the contraction of the 
external muscles, and its action becomes painful. The effort of 
the inspiratory muscles rapidly induces fatigue, and the inspi¬ 
ration, always incomplete, becomes also more frequent. Dia¬ 
phragmatic respiration is practiced by mountaineers, gymnasts, 
and skillful singers—a habit induced either by instinct, or a 
well-directed education.— Wonders of the Human Body. 

10. Why is it better to breathe through the nose than 
the m outh ? 

The air passing through the nostrils becomes filtered of its 
coarse impurities, and the chill is taken off before it strikes 
against the tender, mucous surfaces of the larynx. 

11 . Why should not a speaker talk while returning 
home on a cold night after a lecture ? 

The cold air will strike against the vocal apparatus when 
inflamed and peculiarly sensitive. 



12. What part of the body needs the loosest clothing ? 

The abdomen; because of the delicate organs within, un¬ 
protected by a bony covering. 

13. What part needs the warmest ? 

The feet, because they are furthest from the center of heat 
and motion, and most exposed to cold and wet: and the neck 
and shoulders, since here are located the delicate organs of 
voice and respiration. 

14:. Why is a 66 spare bed” generally unhealthful ? 

Because it is apt to be damp and unventilated. 

15. Is there any good in sighing ? 

(See Physiology, p. 82.) 

It probably brings up the “arrears” of respiration. 

16. Should a hat be thoroughly ventilated? How? 

1. Certainly, as the heated, foul air is injurious. 2. Several 
openings should be made on the sides near the band. A 
single hole at the top is quite insufficient for ventilation. 

17 . Why do the lungs of people who live in cities become 
of a gray color ? 

Probably because of the deposition of carbonaceous particles 
which penetrate the substance of the tissues. The coloring is 
permanent, like tattooing, where India-ink is pricked beneath 
the skin. 

18. Hoiv ivould you convince a person that a bedroom 
should be aired ? 

Take him from the fresh, pure, invigorating out-door at¬ 
mosphere into the close, depressing air of the bedroom, when 
first vacated in the morning, and his sense of smell will satisfy 
him of the need of ventilation. 

19. What persons are most liable to catarrh, consump¬ 
tion, etc. ? 

(See Physiology, p. 85.) 

The victims of lung-starvation. 



20. If a person is plunged under tvater 9 will any enter 
his lungs ? 

No. The epiglottis will close involuntarily, and prevent the 
admission of water. 

21. Are bed-curtains healthful ? 

No. They prevent the free circulation of the air, and con¬ 
fine the waste products thrown off from the body. 

22. Why do some persons take “ shor t breaths 99 after a 
meal ? 

The distention of the stomach prevents the free action of 
the lungs. If such persons are not given to gluttony, the lungs 
are small or the other organs misplaced. 

23. What is the special value of public parks ? 

They bring fresh air, sunshine, green grass and trees 
within the reach of all. They are truly the “ breathing-holes 
of a city.” They are thus of incalculable benefit both on ac¬ 
count of their sanitary and moral influence. 

21. Can a person become used to bad air, so that it will 
not injure him ? 

The system may come to endure without complaint, but, 
sooner or later, it never fails to inflict full punishment for the 
infraction of nature’s laws. 

25. Why do we gape when we are sleepy ? 

(See Question 15.) 

The stretching of the nerves may perhaps serve to restore 
the equilibrium of the nervous influence, disturbed by the at¬ 
tention being fixed during the day upon some absorbing occu¬ 

20. Is a fashionable waist a model of art in sculpture 
or painting ? 

The Venus of Milo, in the Louvre at Paris, is the beau- 
ideal of symmetry and beauty, yet the form indicates not a 
“ wasp-waist,” but the full, free, flowing outlines of nature. 
The sculptor and painter in copying the human figure can 
make no improvement on its Divine Maker. 



27 . Should a fire-place be closed ? 

(See Physiology , p. 99.) 

No. It is a most efficient means of ventilation. 

28. Why does embarrassment or fright cause a stam¬ 
merer to stutter still more painfully ? 

Stuttering is mainly a nervous disorder, and hence any ex¬ 
citement tends to increase the impediment of the speech. 

29. In the organs of voice, what parts have somewhat 
the same office as the case of a violin and the sounding- 
board of a piano ? 

(See Popular Physics, p. 186.) 

The pharynx, the mouth, and the nasal passages all act by 
resonance to modify the voice. 

30. Why should we be careful not to “ take the breath 99 
of a sick person ? 

Because, in this manner, special disease germs may be di¬ 
rectly transferred from the lungs of the sick person into our 
own. It is well never to “take the breath” of any person, 
sick or well, since impurities are constantly passing off from 
every human system through the avenue of the lungs. 

31. What special care should be taken tvith regard to 
keeping a cellar clean ? 

The walls and floor should be free from moisture, and any ac¬ 
cumulation whatever of dust or refuse. There should be not only 
some means of constant ventilation, but the windows ought fre¬ 
quently to be opened to full currents of air from without. 
Vegetables should never be allowed to decay in the cellar. In these 
days of furnaces, when, in addition to the ordinary upward 
travel of cellar odors, the sides of the registers in the rooms 
above afford a direct means of ascent for all the foul or stag¬ 
nant air that may lurk below, the basement should be the 
sweetest and most immaculate portion of the house. 

32. Hoiv is the air strained as it passes into the lungs ? 

The constant motion of the cilia, which line the air-pas- 
sages, produces an outward current, which arrests and expels 



intrusive particles that, swept inward by the breath, would 
otherwise pass into the lungs. 

33. Can one really 66 draw the air into his lungs 99 ? 

(See Physiology , p. 80.) 

Strictly speaking, no. In the act of inspiration we so con¬ 
tract the muscles as to enlarge the cavity of the chest, thus re¬ 
ducing the pressure upon the lungs, upon which the external 
atmosphere, in seeking an equilibrium, rushes in to fill the 

34. Hoiv often do we breathe ? 

Ordinarily about eighteen times a minute. 

35. Describe some approved method of ventilation. 

(See Physiology , p. 92.) 

36. What is at once the floor » of the chest and the roof 
of the abdomen ? 

The diaphragm. 

37. What would you do in case of apparent death by 
drowning or by coal-gas ? 

(See Physiology , p. 264.) 

38. What would you do in case of croup, while the 
doctor ivas coming ? 

(See Physiology, p. 260.) 

39. How ivould you treat a severe burn ? 

(See Physiology , p. 257.) 

40. Describe the various ways in which the water in a 
well is liable to become unwholesome. 

In towns and cities organic matter, solid or in solution, 
permeates the soil to the depth of several feet, and shallow 
wells are therefore quite certain to be polluted, as any earth 
used constantly as a filter will, in the course of years, lose its 
purifying properties. Wells, too, are often placed in dangerous 
proximity to cemeteries, cess-pools, barn-yards, vaults, etc., and 
in many cases receive direct drainage from these pestilential 
sources. Impurities will collect in wells that are not periodic- 



silly cleaned, especially if the water in them is not freely ex¬ 
posed to the oxygen of the air. If one must depend upon well- 
water, the safest reliance is upon a deep-driven well. 

I47 —1, Why does a dry, cold atmosphere favorably 
affect catarrh ? 

It tends to diminish inflammation in the mucous membrane 
lining the nose and nasal passages. 

2. Why should we put on extra covering when we lie 
down to sleep ? 

The respiration and the circulation are then less active. 
The fire in our corporeal stoves being low, we need extra cov¬ 
ering to preserve the warmth of the body. 

3. Is it well to throw off our coats or shawls when we 
come in heated from a long walk ? 

No. We need, instead, to put on extra clothing at such times 
to keep the body from cooling too rapidly. The best hygienic 
teachers commend the throwing of a shawl about the shoulders 
whenever we sit down to rest after fatiguing labor. 

4, Why are close-fitting collars or neck-ties injurious? 

They impede both respiration and circulation. 

5, Which side of the heart is the more liable to inflam¬ 
mation ? 

The left; because that contains the red blood just oxygenated 
in the lungs. 

6*. What gives the toper his red nose ? 

(See Physiology, p. 126.) 

The congested state of the capillaries. 

7. Why does not the arm die when the surgeon ties the 
principal artery leading to it ? 

The anastomoses of the arteries enable a collateral circula ¬ 
tion to be established, whereby blood is supplied to the arm. 

8, When a fowl is angry . why does its comb redden ? 



Because an extra quantity of blood is thrown into that part 
of the body. 

9. Why does a fat man endure cold better than a lean 
one ? 

Fat is a good non-conductor of heat, and helps to preserve 
the uniform temperature of the body. 

10. Why does one become thin during a long sickness ? 

By absorption, the fat of the body is taken up and used to 
supply the wants of the system. The old flesh being renewed 
with new, vigorous material, a person often has better health 
after such a wasting sickness than previous to it. 

11. What would you do if you should come home (i wet 
to the skin 99 ? 

One should (1) go into a warm room ; (2) remove all wet 
garments; (3) if chilled, take a hot, full or foot bath, and by 
gentle friction restore the circulation ; (4) put on dry clothing. 

12. When the cold air strikes the face, why does it first 
blanch and then flush ? 

The muscles and blood-vessels of the surface are contracted 
by the cold, and the blood is driven back toward the heart. 
The reaction which ensues forces the blood again toward the 
skin, and this flushes with the incoming tide. The face is 
therefore first whitened and then reddened. 

13. What must be the effect of tight lacing upon the 
circulation of the blood ? 

It must, by contracting the blood-vessels, impede the flow 
of the blood, and by decreasing the quantity furnished the 
various organs, injure their action. Thus, finally, it will im¬ 
pair the quality of the blood. 

11. Ho you know the position of the large arteries in 
the limbs, so that in case of accident you could stop the 
flow of blood ? 

These can be located by examining the cut in Physiology, 
page 104, or any good chart of the circulation. 



15. lVhen a parson is said to be 66 good-liearted," is it 
a physical truth ? 

The expressions, large-hearted, good-hearted, etc., are re¬ 
mains of the old idea that the affections are located in the 
heart rather than in the brain—the seat of the mind and all its 

16. Why does a hot foot-bath often relieve the head¬ 
ache ? 

(See Physiology, p. 126.) 

It withdraws blood from the head, and so relieves the con¬ 
gested state of that organ. 

17. Why does the body of a drowned or strangled per¬ 
son turn blue 7 

* In connection with this subject, the following from a recent article 
by Dr. Wm. A. Hammond, will be found of interest: “In the very earliest 
times of which we have any record, and even at the present day among 
barbarous nations, the idea existed that the brain was not the only organ 
concerned in the production of mind. . . . Doubtless, its origin was due to 
the fact that, under the influence of certain emotions, there are disturb¬ 
ances in the organs with which they are associated. Thus, love quickens 
the action of the heart; mental depression or anger deranges the liver; 
and pity produces what is sometimes called 1 a sinking feeling ’ at the pit 
of the stomach. It has been customary with modem writers to regard 
these disturbances as being the effects of emotions that originated in the 
brain, and not as indicating that the organs in which they are felt have 
any thing to do with the evolution of love, or anger, or fear, or compassion, 
or any other passion or feeling. . . . The idea has become so widely spread 
among educated persons that the brain is the only organ of the body that 
has any direct relation as a generator with the mind, that it seems like a 
tremendous blow at the system of existing facts to attempt to take from it 
any of its power. But it is only recently that physiologists and patholo¬ 
gists are beginning to make a thorough investigation into that great divis¬ 
ion of the nervous system consisting of the sympathetic nerves and their 

ganglia.Now, it is not unreasonable to suppose that these 

masses of the tissue in question, that are placed around the heart, the 
liver, the spine, and other organs, and in vast number in their substance, 
have some influence in causing the production of those emotions that 
make themselves felt in the parts of the body with which former univer¬ 
sal beliefs, and our present forms of speech, have associated them. We 
find, too, as an additional fact in support of this view, that in certain 
mental affections, characterized by great emotional disturbances, these 
ganglia are in various parts of the body the seats of disease.” 



The blood is not purified in the lungs, and so blue or ve¬ 
nous blood fills the vessels. 

18. What are the little ii hernels" in the arm-pits ? 

(See Physiology , p. 125.) 

They are the lymphatic glands, which sometimes become 

19. When we are excessively warm, would the ther¬ 
mometer show any rise of temperature in the body ? 

(See Physiology , p. 120, note.) 

Probably not. In health, the average temperature of the 
body does not vary more than two degrees. 

20. What forces besides that of the heart aid in 'pro¬ 
pelling the blood ? 

(See Flint’s Physiology —The Circulation; Cutlek’s Analytic Anatomy , etc . 
p. 166, et seq.) 

The elasticity of the arteries and the veins, the force of 
capillary attraction in the capillaries, etc. 

21. Why can the pulse be best felt in the ivrist ? 

It is, in general, a mere matter of convenience. We can 
feel it not only in the radial artery at the wrist, but in the 
carotid of the neck, the temporal of the forehead, the popliteal * 
in the inner side of the knee, etc. 

22. Why are starving people exceedingly sensitive to 

The marrow of the bones is absorbed, and hence the shock 
of a jar is unbroken. The nervous system is also weakened by 
the general prostration. 

23. Why will friction , an application of horse-radish 
leaves, or a blister relieve internal congestion ? 

They bring the blood to the surface of the body, and so re¬ 
lieve the internal organ. 

* If the hollow of the knee of one leg he allowed to rest upon the knee 
of the other one, it may he remarked that the point of the suspended foot 
moves visibly up and down at each heat of the pulse. 



24. Why are students very liable to cold feet ? 

Because the tendency of the blood is toward the head, to 
supply the waste in that part of the body. 

25. Is the proverb that “ blood is thicker than water ” 
literally true ? 

(See Draper’s Human Physiology , p. 112.) 

The specific gravity of the blood varies from 1.050 to 1.059. 

26. What is the effect upon the circulation of “holding 
the breath ” ? 

The blood is not oxygenated, the products of waste accumu¬ 
late in the system, the circulation is impeded, the blood-vessels 
become distended, and are liable to burst, while all the delicate 
organs, especially the brain, are oppressed by congestion. 

27. Which side of the heart is the stronger ? 

The left, which drives the blood to the extremities. 

28. How is the heart itself nourished? 

The coronary arteries springing from the aorta just after 
its origin, carry blood to the muscular walls of the heart: the 
venous blood comes back through the coronary veins, and 
empties directly into the right auricle. 

29. Does any venous blood reach the heart without 
coming through the vence cavce ? 

(See Question 28.) 

30. What would you do, in the absence of a surgeon, in 
the case of a severe wound ? 

(See Physiology , pp. 128, 258.) 

31. What would you do in case of a fever ? 

(See Physiology , p. 263.) 

32. What is the most injurious effect of alcohol upon 
the blood ? 

(See Physiology , p. 144.) 

Its action upon the red corpuscles. 

33. Are our bodies the same from day to day ? 

No, they are constantly changing. 


34, Shoiv liow life comes by death . 

(See Physiology , p. 122.) 

35, Is not the truth just stated as applicable to moral 
and intellectual as to physical life ? 

Yes. We increase our moral and intellectual strength in 
proportion as we use those powers. 

36, What vein begins and ends with capillaries ? 

(See Physiology , p. 161.) 

The portal vein, which begins with capillaries in the digestive 
organs, and ends with the same kind of vessels in the liver. 

37, By what process is alcohol always formed ? Does 
it exist in nature ? 

By the process of fermentation. It has been generally be¬ 
lieved not to exist in nature, but recent experiments have seemed 
to indicate that it does so exist, though in extremely minute 
quantities. “Professor Muntz, of the National Agronomic In¬ 
stitute, in Paris, has, by refined chemical tests, discovered evi¬ 
dences of alcohol in cultivated soils, in rain water, in sea and 
river water, and in the atmosphere. ... It appears probable 
that the alcohol originates in the soil, from the fermentation of 
the organic matters in it, and is thence diffused as vapor in the 
atmosphere.”—W. O. Atwater, Century Magazine , May, 1888. 

38, What percentage of alcohol is contained in the dif¬ 
ferent hinds of liquor ? 

Ale and porter contain from six to eightf per cent. ; wine, 
from seven to seventeen per cent. ; brandy and whiskey, from 
forty to fifty per cent. 

39, Does cider possess the same intoxicating principle 
as brandy? 

Yes, because cider that has begun to ferment contains alco¬ 
hol, which is the intoxicating principle in all spirituous drinks. 

40, Describe the general properties of alcohol. 

It is volatile, antiseptic, a solvent. It burns without smoke, 
and with great heat, and has a remarkable affinity for water. 
It boils at 172° Fahr. 



41. Slioiv that alcohol is a narcotic poison. 

(See answer to Question 42.) 

42. If alcohol is not a stimulant, how does it cause the 
heart to overwork ? 

Recently, physiological research has served to explain the 
reason why, under alcohol, the heart at first beats so quickly, 
why the pulses rise, and why the minute blood-vessels become 
so strongly injected. 

At one time it was imagined that alcohol acts immediately 
upon the heart, by stimulating it to increased motion ; and 
from this idea—false idea, I should say—of the primary action 
of alcohol, many erroneous conclusions have been drawn. We 
have now learned that there exist many chemical bodies which 
act in the same manner as alcohol, and that their effect is not to 
stimulate the heart, but to weaken the contractile force of the 
extreme and minute vessels which the heart fills with blood at 
each of its strokes. These bodies produce, in fact, a paralysis 
of the organic nervous supply of the vessels which constitute 
the minute vascular structures. The minute vessels when para¬ 
lyzed offer inefficient resistance to the force of the heart, and the 
pulsating organ thus liberated, like the main-spring of a clock 
from which the resistance has been removed, quickens in action, 
dilating the feebly-resistant vessels, and giving evidence really 
not of increased, but of wasted power.—B. W. Richardson. 

43. Why is the skin of a drunkard always red and 
blotched ? 

It is the effect of alcoholic action on the vascular structure. 

44. What danger is thei'e in occasionally using alco¬ 
holic drinks ? 

Aside from injurious temporary effects, there is always the 
supreme danger of forming a habit which will become uncon¬ 

45. What is meant by a fatty degeneration of the 
heart ? 

(See Physiology , p. 143.) 

In this disease, fat is substituted for true muscular tissue. 



46. What keeps the blood in circulation between the 
beats of the heart ? 

The blood starts with a rush from the heart by the force 
of its action ; the expansion and contraction of the arteries, 
into which it is thus powerfully propelled, impart a steady on¬ 
ward pressure, which sends it to the capillaries ; there the proc¬ 
esses of oxidation, nutrition, and secretion draw the current on¬ 
ward, and push it out toward the veins ; thence it is forced back 
to the heart by the power originated in the capillaries. (See 
Draper’s Human Physiology, large edition, p. 145.) 

47. What is the office of the capillaries ? 

(See Physiology , p. 373, note.) 

48. Does alcohol interfere with this function ? 

(See Physiology , p. 117, note.) 

Alcohol sometimes causes the red corpuscles to adhere in 
masses, which obstruct their passage through the tiny capillary 

49. How does alcohol interfere tvith the regular office 
of the membranes ? 

(See Physiology , p. 143.) 

It absorbs their moisture, and causes them to become dry, 
hard, and thick. 

50. How does it check the process of oxidation ? 

(See Physiology , pp. 145, 146.) 

By its effect upon the red blood-corpuscles, destroying their 
efficiency as oxygen-carriers. 

187—Jh How do clothing and shelter economize food ? 

The force which would be converted into heat to preserve 
the temperature of the body, is saved. The food needed to 
supply this amount of force may be reserved or changed into 
flesh, or into other forms of force. 

2. Is it well to take a long walk before breakfast ? 

(See Physiology , p. 41.) 

A vigorous person in good health and in a healthy region 



may do so, but one in ill health, or in a malarious district, 
needs to be braced with food before taking any except very light 

3. Why is warm food easier to digest than cold ? 

Heat favors the chemical change whereby the food is pre¬ 
pared for assimilation. 

4:. Why is salt beef less nutritious than fresh ? 

(See Physiology, p. 187, note.) 

The salts and juices of the meat are extracted by the brine. 

5. What should be the food of a man recovering from a 
fever ? 

It should be that which is nutritious, easily digested, and 
not over-stimulating. Beef-tea or essence* is generally com¬ 
mended. As soon as the patient will bear it, beefsteak, tender, 
broiled, and not overdone, is most beneficial. 

6. Is a cup of black coffee a healthful close to a hearty 
dinner ? 

The tannic acid contained in tea and coffee is neutralized 
by the milk generally used with these beverages. In cafe noir , 
black or clear coffee, the tannic acid acts unfavorably on the 
mucous membrane lining the stomach. Besides, the coffee, like 
a dessert, is superfluous, the appetite being already satisfied. 
It therefore tends, both actively and negatively, to delay the 
digestion of the meal. The glass of wine sometimes taken to 
aid digestion merely deadens the sensibility of the stomach, so 
that the food is hurried, half-digested, out into the intestines .\ 

* Dr. Martindale gives the following recipe for making this essence: 
Cut a quantity of lean beef into small pieces, put it into a strong bottle, 
without water, cork it loosely, so that the steam can escape, and immerse 
the bottle to its neck in a vessel of cold water. Place on the fire, and boil 
for two hours; then pour off the essence. 

t Mix some bread and meat with gastric juice; place them in a vial, 
and keep that vial in a sand-bath at the slow heat of 98 degrees, occasion* 
ally shaking briskly the contents, to imitate the motion of the stomach; 
you will find, after six or eight hours, the whole contents blended into one 


7, Should iced water • be used at a meal ? 

Only a person in robust health can endure the shock of 
drinking iced water at a meal. Indeed, drinking of iced water 
under any circumstances is dangerous and hurtful. If used at 
all, it should be carefully and slowly sipped , a little at a time. 

8, Why is strong tea or coffee injurious ? 

The tannic acid acts unfavorably on the coatings of the 
stomach.* The nervous system is over-stimulated, and, when 
the reaction occurs, becomes correspondingly depressed and 
weakened. The constant decay of the body, so essential to its 
highest activity, is greatly retarded. Wakefulness is often in¬ 
duced, and thus the organs are deprived of that rest which is 
absolutely necessary for perfect health. 

9, Should food or drink be taken hot ? 

The pepsin of the gastric juice, in order to produce its 
effect, must have a moderately warm temperature, neither too 
hot nor too cold. The gastric juice will not act upon the food 
when near the freezing point of water, neither will it have any 
effect if raised to the neighborhood of a boiling temperature. 
It must be intermediate between the two; and its greatest ac¬ 
tivity is about 100 degrees Fahrenheit, which is exactly the 
temperature of the interior of the living stomach.— Dalton’s 
Physiology, p. 103. 

10, Are fruit-cakes, rich pastry, and puddings whole¬ 
some ? 

(bee Black’s Ten Laws of Health , p. 83, et seq.) 

They are too concentrated. They are not easily penetrated 
by the juices of the system, and hence are not quickly digested. 
They stimulate the appetite, and so lead to gluttony. They 
supply the system with an over-abundance of nutrition, for 

pultaceous mass. If to another vial of food and gastric juice, treated in 
the same way, you add a glass of pale ale or a quantity of alcohol, at the 
end of seven or eight hours, or even some days, the food is scarcely acted 
upon at all. 

* Tea contains from 14 to 16 per cent, of this astringent substance, 
and coffee not over 6 per cent.—Y oumans. 



which the blood has no use, and so lead to biliousness and other 
diseases of the blood and digestive organs. 

11. Why are ivarm biscuit and bread hard of diges¬ 
tion ? 

They form a pasty mass, which the juices of the digestive 
organs penetrate very slowly. 

12. Should any stimulants be used in youth ? 

No. The system is then vigorous, and all its functions 
promptly performed. If stimulants are ever used, it should be 
when the body needs forcing, as when recovering from disease, 
or languid with the decay of the natural powers in old age. 

13. Why should bread be made spongy ? 

(See Question 11.) 

14. Which should remain longer in the month , bread 
or meat ? 

Bread, since the pepsin is essential to the conversion of 
starch into sugar. 

15. Why should cold ivater be used in making soup , 
and hot in boiling meat ? 

In the former case, we desire to extract the juices of the 
meat; in the latter, to retain them by quickly coagulating the 
albumen on the surface of the meat. 

16. Name the injurious effects of over-eating. 

(See Physiology , p. 176.) 

17. Why do not buckwheat cakes , with syrup and 
butter 9 taste as well in July as iu Junitary ? 

In tne winter, the system craves highly carbonaceous food; 
in the summer, it relishes cooling, acid drinks, and an unstimu¬ 
lating diet. 

18. Why is a late supper injurious ? 

The system is wearied with the day’s labor, and the stom- 
acn is unfitted to undertake the task of digesting a meal as 



much as the body is to begin a new day’s task unrefreshed by 

* Being allowed for once to speak, I would take the opportunity to 
set forth how ill, in all respects, we stomachs are used. From the begin¬ 
ning to the end of life, we are either afflicted with too little or too much, 
or not the right thing, or things which are horribly disagreeable to us; or 
are otherwise thrown into a state of discomfort. I do not think it proper 
to take up a moment in bewailing the Too little, for that is an evil which 
is never the fault of our masters, but rather the result of their misfor¬ 
tunes ; and, indeed, we would sometimes feel as if it were a relief from 
other kinds of distress if we were put upon short allowance for a few 
days. But we conceive ourselves to have matter for serious complaint 
against mankind in respect of the Too Much, which is always an evil vol¬ 
untarily incurred. VV hat a pity that in the progress of discovery we can 
not establish some means of a good understanding between mankind and 
their stomachs; for really the effects of their non-acquaintance are most 
vexatious. Human beings seem to be, to this day, completely in the dark 
as to what they ought to take at any time, and err almost as often from 
ignorance as from depraved appetite. Sometimes, for instance, when we 
of the inner house are rather weakly, they will send us down an article 
that we could deal with when only in a state of robust health. Some¬ 
times, when we would require a mild vegetable diet, they will persist in 
the most stimulating and irritating of viands. 

What sputtering we poor stomachs have when mistakes of that kind 
occur I What remarks we indulge in regarding our masters ! “ What’s this, 
now?” win one of us say; “ah, detestable stuff! What a ridiculous fellow 
that man is! Will he never learn? Just the very thing I did not want. 
If he would only send down a bowl of fresh leek soup or barley broth, 
there would be some sense in it”; and so on. If we had only been allowed 
to give the slightest hint now and then, like faithful servants as we are, 
from how many miseries might we have saved both our masters and our¬ 
selves ! 

I have been a stomach for about forty years, during all of which 
time I have endeavored to do my duty faithfully and punctually. My mas¬ 
ter, however, is so reckless, that I would defy any stomach of ordinary 
ability and capacity to get along pleasantly with him. The fact is, like 
almost all other men, he, in his eating and drinking, considers his own 
pleasure only, and never once reflects on the poor wretch who has to be 
responsible for the disposal of every thing down-stairs. Scarcely on any 
day does he fail to exceed the strict rule of temperance; nay, there is 
scarcely a single meal which is altogether what it ought to be. My life is 
therefore one of continual worry and fret; I am never allowed to rest 
from morning till night, and have not a moment in the four-and-twenty 
hours that I can safely call my own. My greatest trial takes place in the 
evening, when my master has dined. If you only saw what a mess this 



19. What makes a man “ bilious 99 ? 

(See Hall’s Health by Good Living , p. Ill, et seq) 

The liver strains the bile out of the blood. This waste mat¬ 
ter is not withdrawn when the liver is inactive, and hence the 
face and eyes become yellow—the color of bile, and the func¬ 
tions all become torpid. 

said dinner is—soup, fish, flesh, fowl, ham, rice, potatoes, table-beer, sherry, 
tart, pudding, cheese, bread, all mixed up together. I am accustomed to 
the thing, so don’t feel much shocked; but my master himself would faint 
at the sight. The slave of duty in all circumstances, I call in my friend 
Q-astric Juice, and we set to work with as much good-will as if we had the 
most agreeable task in the world before us. But, unluckily, my master has 
an impression very firmly fixed upon him that our business is apt to be 
vastly promoted by an hour or two’s drinking; so he continues at table 
among his friends, and pours down some bottle and a half of wine, per¬ 
haps of various sorts, that bothers Q-astric Juice and mo to a degree which 
no one can have any idea of. In fact, this wine undoes our work almost 
as fast as we do it, besides blinding and poisoning us poor servants into 
the bargain. On many occasions I am obliged to give up my task for the 
time altogether; for while this vinous shower is going on I would defy the 
most vigorous stomach in the world to make any advance in its business 
worth speaking of. Sometimes things go to a much greater length than at 
others: and my master will paralyze us in this manner for hours, not 
always, indeed, with wine, but occasionally with punch, one ingredient of 
which—the lemon—is particularly odious to us. All this time I can hear 
him jollifying away at a great rate, drinking health to his neighbors, and 
ruining his own. 

I am a lover of early hours, as are my brethren generally. To this 
we are very much disposed by the extremely hard work which we usually 
undergo during the day. About ten o’clock, having, perhaps, at that time 
got all our labors past, and feeling fatigued and exhausted, we like to sink 
into repose, not to be again disturbed till next morning at breakfast-time. 
"Well, how it may be with others T can’t tell; but so it is, that my master 
never scruples to rouse me up from my first sleep, and give me charge of 
an entirely new meal, after I thought I was to be my own master for the 
night. This is a hardship of the most grievous kind. Only imagine me, 
after having gathered in my coal, drawn on my night-cap, and gone to 
bed, called up and made to take charge of a quantity of stuff which I 
know I shall not be able to get off my hands all night! Such, O mankind, 
are the woes which befall our tribe in consequence of your occasionally 
yielding to the temptations of “ a little supper.” I see turkey and tongue 
in grief and terror. Macaroni fills me with frantic alarm. I behold jelly 
and trifle follow in mute despair. O that I had the power of standing be¬ 
side my master, and holding his unreflecting hand, as he thus prepares for 



20. What is the best remedy ? 

Diet to give the organs rest, and active exercise to arouse 
the secretions and the circulation. 

21. What is the practical use of hunger ? 

To prompt us to furnish the body with sufficient food. 

22. How can jugglers drink when standing on their 
heads ? 

Because water does not fall into the stomach by its own 
weight, but is conveyed thither from the mouth by the con¬ 
traction of the muscular bands of the oesophagus. 

23. Why do we relish butter on bread ? 

Butter supplies the carbonaceous element in which bread is 

my torment and his own 1 Here, too, the old mistaken notion about the 
need of something stimulating besets him, and down comes a deluge of 
hot spirits and water, that causes me to writhe in agony, and almost sends 
G-astric Juice off in the sulks to bed. “Nor does the infatuated man rest 
here. If the company be agreeable, one glass follows another, while I am 
kept standing, as it were, with my sleeves tucked up, ready to begin, but 
unable to perform a single stroke of work. 

I feel that the strength which I ought to have at my present time of 
life has passed from me. I am getting weak, and peevish, and evil-disposed. 
A comparatively small trouble sits long and sore upon me. Bile, from being 
my servant, is becoming my master; and a bad one he makes, as all good 
servants ever do. I see nothing before me but a premature old age of 
pains and groans, and gripes and grumblings, which will, of course, not 
last over long; and thus I shall be cut short in my career, when I should 
have been enjoying life’s tranquil evening, without a single vexation of 
any kind to trouble me. Were I of a revengeful temper, it might be a 
consolation to think that my master—the cause of all my woes—must suffer 
find sink with me; but I don’t see how this can mend my own case; and, 
from old acquaintance, I am rather disposed to feel sorry for him, as one 
who has been more ignorant and imprudent than ill-meaning. In the same 
spirit let me hope that this true and unaffected account of my case may 
prove a warning to other persons how they use their stomachs ; for, they 
may depend upon it, whatever injustice they do to us, in their days of 
health and pride, wall be repaid to themselves in the long-run—our friend 
Madame Nature being a remarkably accurate accountant, who makes no 
allowance for ignorance or mistakes. —Chambers’ Memoir of a Stomach. 



24. What would you do if you had taken arsenic by 
mistake ? 

(See Physiology, p. 265.) 

25. Why should ham and sausage be thoroughly 
cooked ? 

The trichina, which frequents pork, is only destroyed at a 
high temperature. 

26. Why do we wish butter on fish, eggs with tapioca, 
oil on salad, and milk with rice ? 

To supply the elements of food lacking in the composition 
of fish, tapioca, etc. 

27. Explain the relation of food to exercise. 

Their relation is exceedingly intimate. If we eat much we 
should take more exercise, and if, on the contrary, we labor 
more, we desire additional food. Violent exercise, directly after 
a hearty meal, is injurious ; but a gentle, quiet half-hour’s 
saunter will greatly benefit the digestion. 

28. How do you explain the difference in the manner 
of eating between carnivorous and herbivorous animals ? 

Meat requires less saliva to aid in its digestion, and hence 
it is mainly digested in the stomach; while vegetable food 
needs to be thoroughly masticated and incorporated with the 
salivary mucus. 

29. Why is a child’s face plump and an old man’s 
wrinkled ? 

In the child the processes of nutrition are more active than 
those of waste. The reverse is the case in old age. 

50. Show how life depends on repair and waste. 

(See Popular Chemistry, p. 19, et seq. ; and Physiology, p. 122.) 

51. What is the difference between the decay of the 
teeth and the constant decay of the body ? 

The particles of the teeth lost by decay are not renewed, 
while in the body they are replaced as fast as worn out. The 



soundness of teeth is often affected by the general health. It 
has been said that a man who can preserve his teeth till he is 
fifty years old may count on keeping them through life. 

32. Should biscuit and cake containing yellow spots of 
soda be eaten ? 

Certainly not. The alkali neutralizes the acids of the ali¬ 
mentary juices, and thus impairs their functions, while it cor¬ 
rodes and irritates the delicate mucous lining of the digestive 

33. Tell how the body is composed of organs, how or¬ 
gans are made up of tissues, and how tissues consist of 

(See Physiology , p. 175, note.) 

34. Why do ive not need to drink three pints of water 
per day ? 

(See Physiology , p. 151.) 

The amount of water one needs depends upon the charac¬ 
ter of his food, the nature of his labor, and the activity of the 
three eliminating organs—the skin, the kidneys, and the lungs. 
One perspiring freely, or eating dry food, needs more drink 
than one whose skin is inactive, or whose food consists, in 
part, of soups or watery vegetables. 

35. Why, during a pestilence, are those who use liquors 
as a beverage the first, and often the only victims ? 

The nervous system has become impaired, the digestion weak¬ 
ened, and the blood impoverished; hence, the functions of the 
body being disturbed, its ability to resist disease is greatly less¬ 

36. What two secretions seem to have the same general 
use ? 

The saliva and the pancreatic juice both change starch into 
sugar. They have other important uses, however, in the pro¬ 
cess of digestion. The former softens the food and aids in the 
work of mastication, while the latter emulsifies the fats. 

37. Hoiv may the digestive organs be strengthened ? 

The digestive organs, like the other organs, are strength- 



ened by judicious labor. The stomach is a muscle, and, like 
muscle generally, grows strong by use and weak by disuse. 
The same laws should govern one in his daily exercise of every 
organ-brain, hand, and stomach. 

38. Is the old rule, “ after dinner sit awhile 9 " a good 
one ? 

Yes; a certain period of rest, after a hearty meal, assists 
the process of digestion. 

39. What would you do if you had taken laudanum 
by mistake ? Paris green ? Sugar of lead ? Oxalic acid ? 
Phosphorus from matches? Ammonia? Corrosive sub¬ 
limate ? 

(See Physiology , p. 266.) 

40. What is the simplest way to produce vomiting 9 so 
essential in ease of accidental poisoning ? 

If mustard is at hand, mix a little thoroughly with warm 
water, and drink immediately; if mustard is not convenient, 
warm soap-suds will do; if neither is within reach, the finger 
thrust gently down the throat may serve the purpose till other 
means can be procured, or medical aid arrives. 

41. In tv hat way does alcohol interfere with the diges¬ 
tion ? 

“ Alcohol in certain quantities will harden meat, and there¬ 
by interfere with its digestion; it will further precipitate pep¬ 
sin and peptones ; and in large quantities it will also stop the 
secretion of gastric juice, increase the secretion of mucus, and 
even lead to vomiting.” 

42. Is alcohol assimilated ? 


(See Physiology, p. 178.) 

43. W r hat is the effect of alcohol on the albuminous sub¬ 
stances ? 

Pure brandy held in the mouth a short time will cause a 
burning sensation, and the inside of the cheek will become 
slightly whitened and corrugated. This effect is due to the 



albuminous substances in the mucous membrane being partly 
coagulated by the alcohol, and it illustrates the action of this 
agent upon the tissues. 

44. Is there any nourishment in beer ? 

The following table will show at a glance the materials 
required for, and the result of, brewing: 


Chief Compounds in Beer. 




Yeast from a pre¬ 
vious brewing. 

^Alcohol, or spirits of wine, from 3 to 8 per cent. 
Dextrine, about 4.5 per cent. 

Albuminoids, 0.5 “ 

- Sugar, 0.5 “ 

Acetic and succinic acids, 0.3 per cent. 

Carbonic acid, 0.15 per cent. 

. Mineral matter, 0.3 “ 

Here it is seen that the nutriment of the malt has been 
converted into the stimulant—alcohol. Whatever nourishment 
there may be is of a saccharine nature, the dextrine when in 
the stomach becoming converted into sugar. Of the two neces¬ 
sary nourishing elements—the nitrogenous and the carbonaceous 
—the former is practically wanting; and of the latter there is 
not enough to justify the use of malt liquor for the sake of it. 
The chief difference between porters or stouts, and ales, con¬ 
sists in the malt from which the former is made, having been 
more highly dried .—London Medical Temperance Journal. 

45. Show how the excessive use of alcohol may first in¬ 
crease and afterward decrease the size of the liver. 

In the case of cirrhosis (sometimes called gin - drinker’s 
liver), the liver first becomes enlarged from exudation into the 
connective tissue. After a time, this becomes organized into 
fibrous tissues, and these fibrous bands contract and press to¬ 
gether the blood-vessels and cells of the liver, until both be¬ 
come atrophied and ultimately destroyed. In this way the 
organ becomes much smaller in size, and greatly reduced in 

46. Will liquor help one to endure cold and exposure ? 

(See Physiology , p. 383.) 



No. Experiments with Arctic voyagers have abundantly 
proved this, while the certainty that alcohol, in its secondary 
effect, lowers the temperature of the body, places the fact be¬ 
yond dispute. 

47* What is a fatty degeneration of the kidneys ? 

(See Physiology, p. 181.) 

48, Contrast the action of alcohol and water in the 

(See Physiology, p. 178, note.) 

49. Is alcohol 9 in any proper sense of the term, a food ? 

This is a mooted point between the defenders and the op- 
posers of alcoholic drinks. The author of this Manual consid¬ 
ers that the weight of argument and the preponderance of emi¬ 
nent authorities justify a decided “No” to this question. 

50. Does liquor strengthen the muscles of a working¬ 
man ? 

(See Physiology, p. 183.) 

On the contrary, the strength of muscle is directly im¬ 
paired. Dr. Parkes, an eminent English physician, tested this 
in a practical way. Taking a certain number of working-men 
of similar age, equal health, and provided with the same 
amount of food, he divided them into two gangs, agreeing to 
pay them wages in proportion to work performed. The first 
gang he supplied with a daily ration of drink, but withheld it 
from the second. During the first hour or two the “alcoholic 
gang ” went decidedly ahead of the other. Then they began to 
flag, while the “non-alcoholics” went steadily on, and before 
the day was done had far outstripped the drinkers. He then 
reversed the experiment, giving the second gang an alcoholic 
ration, and withholding it from the first. The result was the 
same—the non-drinkers always coming out ahead. So decided 
was the result of the experiment, and so deeply did it impress 
the men who were engaged in it, though they were not aware 
of its full significance, that the alcohol men begged to be put 
upon the non-alcohol gang, in order, as they expressed it, that 
they “ might make a little more money.” 

51. Is liquor a wholesome i( tonic 99 ? 


Certainly not a “wholesome” tonic, nor a true “tonic” in 
any sense, for the reasons elaborated in the answers to the pre¬ 
vious questions. A real tonic builds up the system, and puts it 
upon a permanent basis of healthy function. The effect of 
alcohol is to impair, not to build up. 

52, Is it a good plan to take a glass of liquor before 
dinner ? 

Alcohol is peculiarly injurious when taken upon an empty 
stomach, and furnishes a sorry preparation for the proper di¬ 
gestion of food. 

(See answers to Questions 42, 43.) 

224— 1, JVhy is the pain of incipient hip-disease fre¬ 
quently felt in the knee ? 

The sensation of pain is located by the mind, at the part 
of the body where the injured nerve takes its rise. 

2, Why does a child require more sleep than an aged 

person ? m 

The processes of nutrition are going on rapidly, and, in 
youth, much rest is required to repair the losses of each day; 
in age, waste predominates, and the repairs made are of a 
temporary character. The building is soon to be torn down, 
and little effort is taken to beautify or strengthen that which 
is to be used for so short a time. 

3. When you put your finger in the palm of a sleeping 
child , why will he grasp it? 

The unconscious action of the near nervous centers pro¬ 
duces a contraction of the muscles. 

I, How may we strengthen the brain ? 

By judicious, habitual, but not exhaustive employment. 
The life of the brain is in change. Monotony is stagnation, 
and stagnation is decay. 

5, What is the object of pain ? 

Pain is monitory in its character. It guards against danger 
and warns us of the presence of disease, i.e., the want of ease. 
Were it not for this, we should lose the use of the more deli- 



cate organs. A child might gaze at the sun until its eyesight 
was ruined. The author knew of a man who had lost the 
sense of feeling in one leg because of the sensory nerve being 
severed. He was constantly bruising and burning that limb 
until he ruined it entirely. 

6\ Why will a blow on the stomach sometimes stop the 

By sympathy. The pneumogastric or tenth pair of nerves 
supply the stomach and the heart. 

7 . How long will it take for the brain of a man siac feet 
high to receive news of an injury to his foot , and to reply ? 

The nervous force has been estimated to travel at the rate 
of one hundred feet per second, although authorities vary much. 
Taking this figure, it would require about one eighth of a 

8. How can we grow beautiful ? 

If one is penurious, selfish, or hard-hearted, his face will 
betray the fact to every passer-by. Purity of thought and no¬ 
bleness of soul, the simple habit of cherishing high and gener¬ 
ous purposes, refine and spiritualize the countenance, making, 
at last, the homeliest features to glow with a beauty that will 
be a true “joy forever.” 

9. Why do intestinal worms sometimes affect a child’s 
sight ? 

Through the action of the sympathetic system of nerves. 

10. Is there any indication of character in physi¬ 
ognomy ? 

(See Question 8; also Physiology , p. 205.) 

11. When one’s finger is burned 9 where is the ache ? 

All pain is in the brain. It is located, however, by the 

mind, at the place of the injury. 

* A barefooted boy steps on a tborn. If he had to wait for news of 
the injury to be sent to his brain, and an order to be telegraphed back 
to remove the foot, much time would be lost. As it is, with the first prick 
the nearer nerve-centers act and order the foot off almost before the brain 
has heard of the accident. 



12. Is a seldom-opened parlor likely to be a healthy 
room ? 

No. It is generally ill-ventilated, and, to preserve the fur¬ 
niture, kept dark, and hence damp. 

13. Why can an idle scholar * read his lesson and at the 
same time count the marbles in his pocket ? 

(See Physiology , p. 204, note.) 

The duality of the brain may, perhaps, account for this. 

14. In amputating a limb, what part, when divided, 
will cause the keenest pain? 

When a surgical operation is performed, the most painful 
part of it is the incision through the skin; the muscles, carti¬ 
lage, and bone being comparatively without sensation. Hence, 
if we could benumb the surface, certain of the lesser operations 
might be undergone without great inconvenience. This is, in 
fact, very successfully accomplished by means of the cold pro¬ 
duced by throwing a spray of ether, or of some other rapidly 
evaporating liquid, upon the part to be cut. 

15. What is the effect of bad air on nervous people ? 

The nerves connect all the organs of the body. They are 
therefore especially sensitive to a derangement in the function 
of any organ. Bad air causes impure blood, deranged nutri¬ 
tion, and hence a disturbance of the entire economy. 

16. Is there any truth in the proverb that 66 he ivho 
sleeps, dines 99 ? 

The proverb expresses the fact that the nourishment of the 
brain and other parts goes on actively during sleep, they being 
controlled by the sympathetic nerves. 

17. What does a high, wide forehead indicate? 

It suggests a large brain and a high intellectual power. 

IS. Hoiv does indigestion frequently cause a headache? 

Through the action of the sympathetic system. 



19, What is the cause of one 9 s foot being “ asleep 99 ? 

(See Physiology , p. 225, note.) 

20, When an injury to the nose has been remedied by 
transplanting skin from the forehead, why is a touch to 
the former felt in the latter ? 

The mind refers the sensation to the place where the nerve 
naturally had its origin— i.e., the part over which its tiny fibers 
were originally distributed. 

21, Are closely-curtained windows healthf ul ? 

No. They keep out the sun and the fresh air. 

22, Why, in falling from a height, do the limbs in¬ 
stinctively take a position to defend the important organs ? 

The reflex action of the spinal cord moves the limbs into a 
position of defense, the brain having no time to act. 

23, What causes the pylorus to open and close at the 
right time ? 

The reflex action of the nerves which preside over that 
organ. In a similar way, a tickling in the throat excites 

24, Why is pleasant exercise most beneficial ? 

A chief condition of keeping the brain healthy is to keep 
the unconscious nervous functions in full vigor, and in natural 
alternations of activity and repose. Thus it is that (besides its 
effect in increasing the breathing and the general vigor of the 
vital processes) muscular exercise has so manifest a beneficial 
influence on a depressed or irritable state of mind. The bodily 
movement, by affording an outlet to the activity of the spinal 
cord, withdraws a source of irritation from the brain; or it 
may relieve excitement of that organ by carrying off its energy 
into a safe channel.— Hinton. 

25, Why does grief cause one to lose his appetite? 

Through the action of the sympathetic system. 

26, Why should we never study directly after dinner ? 



The blood then sets toward the stomach, and the whole 
strength of the system is needed to properly digest the food. 

27, What produces the peristaltic movement of the 
stomach ? 

The presence of the food which, through the sympathetic 
system, acting involuntarily, sets in motion the complicated 
apparatus of digestion. 

28, Why is a healthy child so restless and full of mis¬ 

Nature prompts it to exercise all the muscles in its body in 
order to their proper development. 

29, Why is a slight blow on the bach of a rabbit 9 s neck 
fatal ? 

The medulla oblongata is not defended with thick muscles 
as in man. 

50, Why can one walk and carry on a conversation at 
the same time ? 

(See Question 13.) 

51, What are the dangers of over-study ? 

(See Hinton’s Health and its Conditions , p. 193, et seg., and Cutler’s Ana¬ 
lytical Anatomy , p. 248; also, Physiology, p. 331.) 

Exhaustive mental labor overstrains the delicate nerve-cells 
of the brain, and the condition of the blood-vessels of the en¬ 
tire body, especially of the vital organs, is regulated, moment 
by moment, by its changing moods. Even the supply furnished 
the brain is subject to the same influence. Hence results de¬ 
ranged nutrition, impaired circulation, and weakened brain and 
body. Whenever we consume vital energy faster than it can 
be replaced, we encroach upon the capital, and thus cause an 
irreparable injury. 

52, What is the influence of idleness upon the brain ? 

If we would have healthy bodies we must have active 
brains, that the streams of force may flow into every organ 
from a full, fresh, energizing source. “The perfect health of a 
man is not that of an ox or a horse.” The proper exercise of 
the brain is an essential element of real life. 



33. State the close relation which exists between phys¬ 
ical and mental health and disease. 

A partial cultivation of the mental faculties is incompatible 
not only with the highest order of thought, but with the high¬ 
est degree of health and efficiency. The result of professional 
experience fairly warrants the statement that in persons of a 
high grade of intellectual endowment and cultivation, other 
things being equal, the force of moral shocks is more easily 
broken, tedious and harassing exercise of particular powers 
more safely borne, than in those of an opposite description, 
and disease, when it comes, is more readily controlled and 
cured. The kind of management which consists in awakening 
a new order of emotion, in exciting new trains of thought, in 
turning attention to some new matter of study or speculation, 
must be far less efficacious, because less applicable, in one 
whose mind has always had a limited range than in one of 
larger resources and capacities. In endeavoring to restore the 
disordered mind of the clod-hopper who has scarcely an idea 
beyond that of his manual employment, the great difficulty is 
to find some available point from which conservative influences 
may be projected. He dislikes reading, he never learned amuse¬ 
ments, he feels no interest in the affairs of the world; and, 
unless the circumstances allow of some kind of bodily labor, 
his mind must remain in a state of solitary isolation, brooding 
over its morbid fancies, and utterly incompetent to initiate any 
recuperative movement.—Dr. Ray. 

34. In what consists the value of the power of habit? 

It saves the “wear and tear” of our principles. We can 

perform an act a few times, though with difficulty, and then 
ever after it becomes a habit. We resist evil once, and thence¬ 
forth it is easier to resist. We can become accustomed to do 
good, so that the chances will all be in favor of our well-being 
in any emergency. By so much as the power of habit is thus 
pregnant with good, by so much is it susceptible of terrible 

35. How many pairs of nerves supply the eye ? 

(See Physiology , p. 199.) 

Three; the motores oculi. 



36. Describe the reflex actions in reading aloud. 

The body is kept erect, the hand holds the hook, the eyes 
are directed to the page, the vocal organs pronounce the words, 
the features express the sentiments, and the other hand makes 
corresponding gestures—yet all the time the mind is intent only 
upon the thought conveyed. 

37. Tinder what circumstances does paralysis occur ? 

When the nerve leading to any part of the body is injured 
or fails to keep up communications between that portion and 
the mind. 

38. If the eyelids of a profound sleeper ivere raised, 
and a candle brought near, would the iris contract? 

It would, by reflex action. 

39. How does one cough in his sleep ? 

By the reflex action of the near nervous centers. A tick¬ 
ling in the throat, or some other cause, acts as the stimulus to 
excite their action. 

10. Give illustration of the unconscious action of the 

(See Physiology , p. 225. Read also the article “ The Antechamber of 
Consciousness,” in Popular Science Monthly , March, 1888.) 

11. Is chewing tobacco more injurious than smoking? 

It is not only more filthy, but also more detrimental to 
the health, as a chewer is in danger of swallowing more of 
the poisonous constituents of tobacco, from the constant and 
profuse excitation of saliva, which must either be swallowed or 
conspicuously ejected. As a rule, however, modesty in respect 
to the disposal of his “tobacco juice” does not hinder the 
veteran chewer from bestowing his peculiar favors generously 
and openly, and to the least conscious injury to himself. On 
the other hand, a smoker, especially a cigarette smoker, is liable 
to dangerous throat diseases, incurred by the heated smoke in¬ 
haled from the cigarette. 

42. Ought a man to retire from business while his fac¬ 
ulties are still unimpaired? 



No. It is always a mistake for a man who has led an ac¬ 
tive life to withdraw, at once, from all occupation and to resign 
himself to idleness. A proper degree of functional exercise is 
as necessary to the perfect health of the mind and the brain as 
to that of the body. 

43, Which is the more exhaustive to the brain, worry 
or severe mental application ? 

(See Physiology , p. 331.) 

Worry is far more exhaustive of the vital forces than the 
severest mental labor, pursued calmly and dispassionately. 

41- Is it a blessing to be beyond the necessity for work ? 

By no means. On the contrary, the “middle-class people,” 
those who do not suffer from actual bodily want, but who are 
obliged to work in order to procure luxuries, or even comforts, 
are proverbially happier than those who are born to riches, 
and who have no incentive to systematic exertion. 

45, Shoiv how anger , hate, and the other' degrading 
passions are destructive to the brain. 

The effect of anger upon the brain is to produce first a 
paralysis, and, afterward, during reaction, a congestion of the 
vessels of that organ. Passionate people often die suddenly of 
faintness in the moment of white rage, when the cerebral ves¬ 
sels and the heart are paralyzed. Or they may outlive this first 
stage, only to succumb to the second, when reactive congestion 
has led to engorgement of the vessels of the brain, and apo¬ 
plexy ensues. Intensified hatred acts in a similar manner, but 
more slowly. The effect on the brain of extreme fear is also 
akin to that of rage, and may result in sudden death from 

The more common and permanent effect of fear, however, 
is an intense irritability, followed by doubt, suspicion, and dis¬ 
trust, leading toward or to insanity. From a sudden terror 
deeply felt, the young mind rarely recovers; never, I believe, 
if hereditary tendency to insanity be a part of its nature. 

Of these three- passions, anger stands first as most detri¬ 
mental to life. He is a man very rich indeed in physical 


power who can afford to be angry. The richest can not afford 
it many times without insuring the penalty, a penalty that is 
always severe. What is still worse of this passion is, that the 
very disease it engenders feeds it, so that if the impulse go 
many times unchecked it becomes the master of the man.—B. 
W. Richardson. 

46. Are not amusements, to repair the waste of the 
nervous energy, especially needed by persons whose life is 
one of care and toil ? 

Yes, cheerful recreation is necessary in proportion to the 
severity of toil and care. Nothing will replenish heavily-as¬ 
sessed brain capital like occasional rollicking merriment. 

47. Is not severe mental labor incompatible with a 
rapidly-growing body ? 

Decidedly. A rapidly-growing child should never be over¬ 
burdened with mental labor. Youthful prodigies seldom develop 
into solid, “level-headed” adults. Every extra demand upon 
the youthful brain, beyond its normal power of healthy endur¬ 
ance, is subtracted with usury from its future reserve stock. 

48. How shall we induce the system to perform all its 
f unctions regularly ? 

By uniformly obeying all the laws of Hygiene. 

49. How does alcohol interfere with the action of the 
nerves ? 

(See Physiology , p. 208.) 

Alcohol has the same effect upon the nerve-cells that 
water or ashes has upon a coal fire. Apply water in small 
quantity, and your fire will burn more slowly ; apply a large 
enough bucketful, and it will cease to exist. When the cook 
rakes up the ashes and covers her fire before going to bed, she 
performs the same physical experiment as her master who 
soothes his nerves with alcohol before retiring at night. But 
the cook would be very late with breakfast if she trusted to 
such a fire to cook the bacon, and the work accomplished by a 
brain affected by alcohol is both small in quantity and inferior 



in quality. It is as difficult to send proper messages along a 
nerve under the influence of alcohol, as it is to fire a train of 
damp gunpowder.—J. M. Howie. 


acter ? 

What is the general effect of alcohol upon the char - 

(See Physiology, p. 212.) 

Alcohol exalts and excites the animal centers; it lets loose 
the passions, and gives them more or less of unlicensed domi¬ 
nation over the whole man. “ From the beginning to the end 
of its influence it subdues reason and sets free passion. The 
analogies, physical and mental, are perfect. That which loosens 
the tension of the vessels which feed the body with due order 
of precision, and thereby lets loose the heart to violent excess 
of unbridled motion, loosens also the reason and lets loose the 
passions. In both instances, heart and head are for a time out 
of harmony—their balance is broken. The destructive effects of 
alcohol on the human mind present the saddest picture of its 
influence. Memory irretrievably lost; words and very elements 
of speech forgotten, or words displaced to have no meaning in 
them; rage and anger persistent and mischievous, or remittent 
and impotent; fear at every corner of life ; distrust on every 
side; grief merged into blank despair, and hopelessness into 
permanent melancholy. . As I have moved among those who 
are physically stricken with alcohol, and have detected under 
the various disguises of name the fatal diseases, the pains and 
penalties it imposes on the body, the picture has been suffi¬ 
ciently cruel. But even that picture pales as I conjure up, 
without any stretch of imagination, the devastations which the 
same agent inflicts on the mind.”— Richardson. 

51. Does alcohol tend to produce clearness and vigor of 
thought ? 

(See Physiology , p. 212.) 

Quite the reverse. Its effect upon the brain and nervous 
system is strikingly opposed to clearness of judgment and log¬ 
ical reasoning. See answer to preceding Question. 

52. What is the general effect of alcohol on the mus¬ 
cles ? 



They lose their nervous control, because of the enfeebling of 
the nervous stimulus. The muscles of the lower lip usually 
fail first; then the muscles of the lower limbs, the extensor 
muscles giving way earlier than the flexors. As they come 
still more under the depressing influence of the paralyzing 
agent, their structure becomes temporarily deranged, and their 
contractile power reduced. 

33. Does alcohol have any effect on the bones ? The 
skin ? 

As the bones are nourished by the blood, whatever materi¬ 
ally impoverishes the blood must affect the bones. 

The oft-repeated temporary relaxations of the vessels of the 
skin, resulting from alcoholic potations, ultimately become 
chronic, and certain parts, such as the nose and cheek, assume 
a distinctive appearance of confirmed vascular relaxation. From 
this deficient tonicity of the skin-vessels, the cutaneous secre¬ 
tion becomes irregular; perspiration becomes abnormally pro¬ 
fuse, and sometimes is extremely acid; and, finally, swollen 
eruptions and scaly blotches ensue. 

34. What is the cause of the alcoholic chill ? 

(See Physiology , p. 210.) 

33. Show how alcohol tends to develop man’s lower 
rather than his higher nature. 

(See answer to Question 50.) 

30. When we wish really to strengthen the brain, should 
we use alcohol ? 

(See Physiology, p. 210; also, answer to Question 50.) 


37. Why is alcohol used to preserve anatomical speci¬ 
mens ? 

Because of its antiseptic properties. These were well known 
in ancient times, and palm wine was used by the Egyptians in 
their most costly processes of embalming the dead. 



58, What is meant by an inherited taste for liquor ? 

(See Physiology , p. 185.) 

59, Ought a person to be punished for a crime com¬ 
mitted during intoxication ? 

Yes; because he knows in taking the alcoholic poison into 
his system what the logical effect will be upon his actions. 
At the same time, the rum-seller ought in justice also to re¬ 
ceive punishment for the criminal offense of aiding and abet¬ 
ting such a state of moral perversion. 

6 * 0 . Should a boy ever smoke? 

Never. Tobacco, in addition to its other evil effects, notably 
stunts healthy growth. 

51, To what extent are we responsible for the health of 
our body? 

To the extent of our neglect of known hygienic rules, or 
even, in this age of easily-acquired information, to the extent of 
our lack of knowledge of these rules. 

52, 'Why does alcohol tend to collect in the brain ? 

(See Physiology , p. 210.) 

One cause is the great affinity of alcohol for water and the 
peculiar moisture which attaches to the brain. 

63, Does the use of alcohol tend to increase crime and 
poverty ? 

Even its most strenuous advocates will not deny this fact, 
of which both statistics and common observation furnish abun¬ 
dant proofs. It has been estimated that four fifths of the pau¬ 
perism and crime in our country result directly from strong 

238 — 1. Why does a laundress test the temperature of 
her flat-iron by holding it near her cheek ? 

The sense of warmth is very keen in the palms of the 
hand, the cheek, etc. This sensation is much less delicate in 
the lips and the back of the hand. 



2. When we are cold, why do we spread the palms of 
our hands before the fire ? 

(See Question 1.) 

S. What is meant by a 6i f urred tongue 99 ? 

In health, the tongue has hardly a discernible lining, but in 
disease, the epithelium, or scarfskin, accumulates, and gives a 
white, coated appearance. This covering is likely to be of a 
yellowish shade when the liver is disturbed, and brown or dark 
in blood-diseases. One’s occupation often colors it. Thus it is 
said the tongue of a tea-taster has a curious orange-tint. 

4. Why has sand or sulphur no taste ? 

They are insoluble in the saliva. 

5. What was the origin of the ivord palatable ? 

The mistaken notion that the palate, or roof of the mouth, 
is the seat of the taste. 

(i. Why does a cold in the head injure the flavor of our 
coffee ? 

Because the sense of taste is so dependent on that of smell. 

7 . Name some so-called flavors which are really sensa¬ 
tions of touch. 

(See Physiology, p. 348.) 

Taste is not a simple sense. Certain other sensations, as 
those of touch, temperature, smell, and pain, are blended with 
it; and certain so-called tastes are really sensations of another 
kind. Thus an astringent taste, like that of alum, is more 
properly an astringent feeling, and results from an impression 
made upon the nerves of touch, that ramify in the tongue. 
In like manner, the qualities known as smooth, oily, watery, 
and mealy tastes, are dependent upon these same nerves of 
touch. A burning or pungent taste is a sensation of pain, hav¬ 
ing its seat in the tongue and throat. A cooling taste, like 
that of mint, pertains to that modification of touch called the 
sense of temperature.— Hutchison’s Physiology, pp. 190, 191. 

8. What is the object of the hairs in the nostrils ? 



They prevent the entrance of dust and other impurities. 
They are also exceedingly delicate in all sensations of touch. 

9. What use does the nose subserve in the process of res¬ 
piration ? 

It warns us of noxious gases, sifts out impurities, and 
tempers the air before it enters the delicate respiratory organs. 

10. Why do we sometimes hold the nose when we take 
unpleasant medicine ? 

(See Question 6.) 

11. Why is the nose placed over the mouth ? 

As a sentinel at the gate-way to the stomach and the lungs. 

12. Describe how the hand is adapted to be the instru¬ 
ment of touch. 

Its isolation at the extremity of the movable arm, the mo¬ 
bility of its different parts, and the delicacy of the sensation 
at the tips of the fingers, exquisitely adapt the hand to be the 
instrument of touch. 

IS. Besides being the organ of taste, what use does the 
' tongue subserve ? 

It aids in the mastication of the food and in speech. 

11. Why is not the act of tasting complete until we 
swallow ? 

Because the organ of taste is located especially in the back 
part of the tongue and the soft palate. 

15. Why do all things have the same flavor when one’s 
tongue is 66 furred 99 by fever ? 

They are really tasteless. The tongue is then dry, and 
there is no saliva to dissolve and carry particles of the food 
into the cells covering the nerves of taste. 

16. IVhich sense is the more useful, hearing or sight ? 

(See Wonders of the Human Body , p. SOI.) 

‘ ‘ The sight speaks more directly to the intelligence; it en¬ 
larges the field of thought, it gives birth to precise notions of 
light, of form, of extent; and it permits the communication 



of thought by conventional signs. Hearing is a necessary con¬ 
dition of articulate language; without it man lives alone, affec¬ 
tion and confidence lose their most precious forms of expression, 
and friendship can not exist. Auditory sensations act upon the 
nervous system with more force than visual sensations. We 
are carried away by rhythm, or it adapts itself to our ideas 
and our passions ; music plunges us into an ideal world, and 
holds us by an indefinable charm; in a word, if sight speaks 
more especially to the intellect, hearing addresses itself to the 
affections. Sight is certainly more necessary to man than hear¬ 
ing, but still the blind are generally gay and communicative, 
while the deaf seem inclined to melancholy. As to the relative 
influence of these two senses on the development of the intel¬ 
lect, we know that the education of the deaf is slow, but may 
be complete, while that of the blind is, on the contrary, rather 
rapid, but is almost always very limited; many ideas can not 
be acquired by them, and, as has been remarked by M. Longet, 
their minds rarely attain maturity.” 

17. Which coat is the white of the eye ? 

The sclerotic. 

IS. What makes the difference in the color of eyes ? 

The varying shade of the pigment deposited in the iris of 
the eye. 

19. Why do we snuff the air when we wish to obtain a 
distinct smell ? 

As muscular actions are called into play to aid the sense of 
taste, as in smacking the tongue and lips, so the act of “sniff¬ 
ing,” which is a mixed respiratory and nasal muscular effort, 
is used to bring odorous substances more surely and extensively 
into contact with the upper and proper olfactory region of the 
nose, besides causing a larger amount of them to pass over the 
mucous surface in a given time.— Marshall. 

20. Why do red-hot iron and frozen mercury (— 40 °) 
produce the same sensation ? 

The sensation in both cases is that of pain, not that of 



21. Why can an elderly person drink tea which to a 
child would be unbearably hot ? 

The sensation of touch has become impaired, and is much 
less delicate. 

22. Why does an old man hold his paper so far from 
his eyes ? 

“Far sight” is common among elderly people, and is reme¬ 
died by convex glasses. In old age the power of adjusting the 
crystalline lens is lost. 

23. Would you rather be punished on the tips of your 
fingers than on the palm of your hand ? 

The sense of touch is much keener in the tips of the fingers 
than in the palm of the hand. 

21. What is the object of the eyebrows ? Are the hairs 
straight ? 

They serve to prevent the perspiration of the forehead from 
running down into the eye. They act, in a measure, with the 
eyelashes, also to screen the eye from the dust and glaring 
light. The hairs of the eyebrows overlap each other, and are 
set obliquely outward. 

25. What is the use of winking ? 

It serves to wash the eyeballs, and thus keep the “windows 
of the soul” clean. The necessity for winking is shown by the 
great effort required to restrain it even for a short time. First 
discomfort, then congestion of the mucous membrane, and then 
a profuse watering of the eye follow any attempt at stop¬ 
ping this necessary act. It is an obscure sense of discomfort, 
not usually noticed by the consciousness, that excites this move¬ 
ment, the objects of which are periodically to cleanse the ex¬ 
posed part of the eyeball, to moisten and lubricate it with the 
secretions from the neighboring glands, and probably in this 
way to aid in the preservation of the polish and translucency 
of the epithelial layer on the transparent portion of the globe. 
At the same time it carries toward the inner corner all for¬ 
eign bodies, and directs the residual secretions toward the 



lachrymal ducts. Finally, it allows a brief but periodical rest 
to the levator muscle of the upper eyelid.— Marshall. 

2(i. When you wink 9 do the eyelids touch at once along 
their whole length ? Why ? 

In winking, both lids move, but the upper one much the 
more extensively. Moreover, they do not come in contact all 
along their margins at the same instant of time, but meet first 
at the outer corner, and then rapidly inward as far as the 
lachrymal papillae, on which the lachrymal ducts are situated. 
By this sweeping movement, all foreign bodies are carried to 
the lachrymal lake.— Marshall. 

27. How many rows of hairs are there in the eye¬ 
lashes ? 

The eyelashes, or cilia, consist of two, and opposite the 
middle of the eyelid, of three rows of finely-curved hairs— 
those of the upper lid being more numerous, thicker, and 
longer than those of the lower lid. “Those of the upper lid 
are curved upward, those of the lower lid are curved down¬ 
ward ; and when the lids are brought near together, these two 
ranges of hairs stand like so many crossed sabers, or a kind of 
chevaux-de-frise, guarding the entrance to the eye.”— Dalton’s 
Physiology, p. 330. 

28. Do all nations have eyes of the same shape ? 

No. Witness the almond-shaped eyes of the Chinese. 
“ The greater or less extent of the opening of the lids makes 
the eye appear larger or smaller; the conformation of the pal¬ 
pebral muscles and the tarsal cartilages gives to the eye an 
elongated and languishing form, as in the East, or round and 
bold, as among the Occidentals; but the dimensions and form 
of the globe are the same in all. countries and in all individu¬ 
als.”— Wonders of the Human Body. 

29. Why does snuff-taking cause a flow of tears ? 

Because of the action of the sympathetic system. 



30. Why does a fall cause one to “ see stars ” ? * 

Whenever a nerve is excited in any way, it gives rise to the 
sensation peculiar to the organ with which it communicates. 
Thus, an electric shock sent through the eye gives rise to the 
appearance of a flash of light; and pressure on any part of 
the retina produces a luminous image, which lasts as long as 
the pressure, and is called a phosphene. If the point of the 
finger be pressed upon the outer side of the ball of the eye, a 
luminous image—which, in my own case, is dark in the center, 
with a bright ring at the circumference (or, as Newton de¬ 
scribed it, 'like the “ eye ” in a peacock’s tail)—is seen ; and this 
image lasts as long as the pressure is continued.— Huxley. 

31. Why can we not see with the nose 9 or smell with the 
eyes ? 

Each set of nerves is adapted to transmit to the brain a 
peculiar class of sensations alone. 

32. What causes the roughness of a cat’s tongue ? 

The sharpness and strength of the papillae upon its tongue. 
This is a peculiarity of the lion tribe. 

33. Is the cuticle essential to touch ? 

Yes. If the cuticle be removed, as in case of a blister, 
contact with the exposed surface produces pain rather than a 
sense of touch. 

34. Can one tickle himself? 

It is said not; but the author has found persons who 
averred that they could produce this sensation upon themselves. 
The sense, it is noticeable, is present only in those parts where 
that of touch is feeble. 

* On the occasion of a remarkable trial in Germany, it was claimed by 
a person who bad been severely assaulted on a very dark night, that the 
flashes of light caused by repeated blows upon the head enabled him to 
see with sufficient distinctness to recognize his assailant. But the evi¬ 
dence of scientific men entirely refuted this claim, by pronouncing that 
the eye, under the circumstances named, was incapacitated for vision.— 


35, Jf7ty does a bitter taste often produce vomiting? 

The fifth pair of nerves, which supplies the lip and sides of 
the tongue, and perceives especially sweet and sour substances, 
ramifies over the face, and hence an acid will “pucker” the 
features; while the ninth pair, at the base of the tongue, which 
is sensitive to salt and bitter tastes, is distributed also to the 
throat, and is in sympathy with the internal organs, since it 
seems to be “a common nerve of feeling for the mucous mem¬ 
brane generally.” 

36, Is there any danger of looking “cross-eyed” for 
fun ? 

The muscles used thus in sport may become permanently 

37, Should school-room desks face a window ? 

No. The light should be admitted so as to fall over the 
shoulder upon the book. Many school-rooms are arranged to 
accommodate the teacher only, while a blinding flood of light 
pours directly into the faces of the pupils. 

38, Why do we look at a person to whom we are listen¬ 
ing attentively ? 

One sense instinctively aids another. 

39, JDo ive really feel with our fingers ? 

No. All sensation is in the mind. 

10, Is the eye a perfect sphere ? 

No. The front projects somewhat, while, at the back, the 
optic nerve is attached like the stem to a fruit. 

11, How often do we ivink? 

Five or six times a minute. 

12, Why is the interior of a telescope or microscope 
often painted black ? 

To absorb the scattered rays of light which would confuse 
the vision. For the same reason, the posterior surface of 



the iris, the ciliary processes, and the choroid, are covered with 
a layer of dark pigment. 

43. What is 66 the apple of the eye 99 ? 

The pupil. 

44. If hat form of glasses do old people require ? 

(See Question 22.) 

45. Should ive ever wash our ears with cold water ? 

Rarely, if ever, lest we chill this sensitive organ. 

43. TVhat is the object of the winding passages in the 
nose ? 

To furnish additional surface on which to expand the olfac¬ 
tory nerve. 

47 . Can a smoker tell in the dark , whether or not his 
cigar is lighted ? 

Sight often seems to be essential to perfect what we call a 
sensation of taste. 

48. Will a nerve re-unite after it has been cut ? 

Nerve-fiber seems to re-unite as readily as muscle-fiber. 

49. Will the sight give us an idea of solidity ? 

(See Physiology , p. 247, note.) 

50. Why can a skillful surgeon determine the condi¬ 
tion of the brain and other internal organs by examining 
the interior of the eye ? 

(See Physiology, p. 248, note.) 

51. Is there any truth in the idea that the image of the 
murderer can be seen in the eye of the dead victim ? 

When the flame of*a taper is held near and a little on one 
side of a person’s eye, any one looking into the eye from a 
proper point of view will see three images of the flame, two 
upright and one inverted. One upright figure is reflected from 
the front of the cornea, which acts as a convex mirror. The 



second proceeds from the front of the crystalline lens, which 
has the same effect; while the inverted image proceeds from 
the posterior face of the lens, which, being convex backward, 
is, of course, concave forward, and acts as a concave mir¬ 
ror.— Huxley. The images formed upon the retina are as 
fleeting as light itself, from the nature of the case, and dis¬ 
appear as soon as the object is removed. 



Wilder and Gage’s Anatomical Technology. 


Steele’s New Astronomy. | Peck’s Popular Astronomy. 

Business Course. 

Ward’s Business Blanks and I Eames’s Light-Line Phonog- 
Letter Writing. | raphy. 


Barnes’s Popular Folding Charts. 


Jenkins’s Vest-Pocket Lexi- I Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, 
con. I 


Barnes’s Elementary Geogra- I Monteith’s New Physical Ge* 

phy. I ography. 

Barnes’s Complete Geography. 


Barnes’s New Grammar and Language Lessons. 


Graded Primary U.S. 
Barnes’s Brief U.S. (New Ed.) 
Barnes’s Brief World. 


Searing’s Eclogues, Bucolics, 
and JBneid. 

Barnes’s Brief Med. and Mod, 

Barnes’s Brief Home. 

Johnson’s Tacitus. 
Johnson’s Perseus. 


Van Amringe’s Davies’s Sur¬ 
veying and Levelling. 


Shepard’s Systematic Mineral Record. 

Moral and Mental Philosophy. 

Van Amringe’s Davies’s 
gendre’s Geometry. 


Janet’s Elements of Morals. 


Barnes’s New National System. 


Child’s Health Primer, 

Hygiene for Young People. ! 

Reading Circles. 

Payne’s Page’s Theory and I 
Practice Teaching. ; 


Bardeen’s Shorter Rhetoric. I 

Bardeen’s Complete Rhetoric 

School and Church Music. 

Fellow’s Watts on the Mind. 

Steele’s Abridged Physiology, 
Steele’s Hygienic Physiology. 

Fellow’s Watts on the Mind. 
Barnes’s General History. 

Bardeen’s Sentence-Making. 

Carmina Sanctorum. 

Hymns and Songs of Praise. 
Hymns and Songs for Social 


Watson’s Graphic Speller. 

Holbrook’s Part Songs. 
Temperance Hymnal. 
Ryan’s Vocalist. 






No. 1. 


96 pages. 




No. 2. 


176 pages. 




No. 3. 


24 Q pages. 




No. 4. 


384 pages. 




No. 5. 


502 pages. 

This new series of School Readers is prepared after a most careful and exhaustive exami¬ 
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In point of mechanical execution, printing, binding, &c., the series stands unexcelled. 
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James Monteith, author of Monteith’s Geographies, has here presented a Supple* 
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poetry from standard authors, with blackboard drawing and written exercises. It 
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moral and mental depravity, as is too often done in juvenile books. The book is elabo¬ 
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The Standard Supplementary Readers (formerly Swinton's Supplementary Readers ), 
edited by William Swinton and George R. Cathcart, have been received with marked 
favor in representative quarters from Maine to California. They comprise a series of 
carefully graduated reading books, designed to connect with any series of school Readers. 
They are attractive in appearance, are bound in cloth, and the first four books are 
profusely illustrated by Fredericks, White, Dielman, Church, and others. The six books, 
which are closely co-ordinated with the several Readers of any regular series, are: — 

1. Easy Steps for Little Feet. Supplementary to First Reader. 

In this book the attractive is the chief aim, and the pieces have been written and 
chosen with special reference to the feelings and fancies of early childhood. 128 pages, 
bound ir. cloth and profusely illustrated. 

2. Golden Book of Choice Beading. Supplementary to Second 


This book represents a great variety of pleasing and instructive reading, consisting of 
child-lore and poetry, noble examples and attractive object-reading, written specially for it. 
192 pages, cloth, with numerous illustrations 

3 Book of Tales. Being School Readings Imaginative and Emotional. 

Supplementary to Third Reader. 

In this book the youthful taste for imaginative and emotional is fed with pure and noble 
creations drawn from the literature of all nations. 272 pages, cloth. Fully illustrated. 

4. Headings in Nature’s Book. Supplementary to Fourth Reader. 

This book contains a varied collection of charming readings in natural history and 

botany, drawn from the works of the great modern naturalists and travellers. 352 pages, 
<loth. Fully illustrated. 

5. Seven American Classics. 

6. Seven British Classics. 

The “ Classics ” are suitable for reading in advanced grades, and aim to instil a 
taste for the higher literature, by the presentation of gems of British and American 
authorship. 220 pages each, cloth. 




Smith’s Series. 

Smith’s Series supplies a Speller for every class in graded schools, and comprise* 
the most complete and excellent treatise on English Orthography and its companion 
branches extant. 

1. Smith’s Little Speller. 

First round in the ladder of learning. 

2. Smith’s Juvenile Definer. 

Lessons composed of familiar words grouped with reference to similar signifies, 
tion or use, and correctly spelled, accented, and defined. 

3. Smith’s Grammar-School Speller. 

Familiar words, grouped with reference to the sameness of sound of syllables dif 
ferently spelled. Also definitions, complete rules for spelling and formation of deriva¬ 
tives, and exercises in false orthography. 

4. Smith’s Speller and Definer’s Manual. 

A complete School Dictionary, containing 14,000 wor^', with various other useful 
matter in the way of rules and exercises. 

5. Smith’s Etymolog;y — Small and Complete Editions. 

The first and only Etymology to recognize the Anglo-Saxon our mother tongue; 
containing also full lists of derivatives from the Latin, Greek, Gaelic, Swedish, Norman, 
&c., Ac. ; being, in fact, a complete etymology of the language for schools. 

Northend’s Dictation Exercises. 

Embracing valuable information on a thousand topics, communicated in such a 
manner as at once to relieve the exercise of spelling of its usual tedium, and combine 
it with instruction of a general character calculated to profit and amuse. 

Phillip’s Independent Writing Speller*- 

1. Primary. 2. Intermediate. 3. Advanced. 

Unquestionably the best results can be attained in writing spelling exercises. This 
series combines with wu-itten exercise a thorough and practical instruction in penman, 
ship. Copies in capitals and small letters are set on every page. Spaces for twenty 
words and definitions and errors are given in each lesson. In the ad'-rnced book there 
is additional space for sentences. In practical life we spell only when we write. 

Brown’s Pencil Tablet for Written Spelling. 

The cheapest prepared pad of ruled blanks, with stiff board back, sufficient foi 
64 lessons of 25 words. 

Pooler’s Test Speller. 

The best collection of “ hard words ” yet made. The more uncommon ones are fully 
defined, and the whole are arranged alphabetically for convenient reference. The book 
is designed for Teachers’ Institutes and “ Spelling Schools,’’ and is prepared by an 
experienced and well-known conductor of Institutes. 

Wright’s Analytical Orthography. 

This standard work is popular, because it teaches the elementary sounds in a 
plain and philosophical manner, and presents orthography and orthoepy in an easy, 
uniform system of analysis or parsing. 



ORTHOGRAPHY — Continued. 

Barber’s Complete Writing Speller. 

“The Student’s Own Hand-Book of Ortnograpliy, Definitions, anct Sentences, con. 
sisting of Written Exercises in the Proper Spelling, Meaning, and Use of Words.” 
(Published 1873.) This differs from Sherwood’s and other writing spellers in its more 
comprehensive character. Its blanks are adapted to writing whole sentences instead 
of detached words, with the proper divisions for numbering, corrections, &c. Such 
aids as this, like Watson’s Child’s Speller and Phillip’s Writing Speller, find their 
raison d’etre in the postulate that the art of correct spelling is dependent upon written, 
and not upon spoken language, for its utility, if not for its very existence. Hence 
the indirectness of purely oral instruction. 


Smith’s Complete Etymology. 

Smith’s Condensed Etymology. 

Containing the Anglo-Saxon, French, Dutch, German, Welsh, Danish, Gothic, Swedish, 
Gaelic, Italian, Latin, and Greek roots, 
accurately spelled, accented, and defined. 

From Hon. Jno. G. McMynn, late State 
Superintendent of Wisconsin. 

(i I wish every teacher in the country 
had a copy of this work.” 

From Ppof. C. H. Verrill, Pa. State 
Normal School. 

'‘The Etymology (Smith’s) which we 
procured of you we like much. It is the 
best work for the class-room we have 

the English words derived therefrom 

From Prin. Wm. F. Phelps, Minn. State 

“The book is superb—just what is 
needed in the department of etymology 
and spelling.” 

From Hon. Edward Ballard, Supt. oj 
Common Schools, State of Maine. 

,c The author has furnished a manual of 
singular utility for its purpose.” 


Williams’s Dictionary of Synonyms ; 

Or, Topical Lexicon. This work is a School Dictionary, an Etymology, a compilation 
of Synonyms, and a manual of General Information. It differs from the ordinary lexicon 
in being arranged by topics, instead of the letters of the alphabet, thus realizing thfl 
apparent paradox of a “ Readable Dictionary.” An unusually valuable school-book. 

Kwong’s Dictionary of English Phrases. 

With Illustrative Sentences, collections of English and Chinese Proverbs, transla¬ 
tions of Latin and French Phrases, historical sketch of the Chinese Empire, a chrono¬ 
logical list of the Chinese Dynasties, brief biographical sketches of Confucius and 
of°Jesus, and complete index. By Kwong Ki Chiu, late Member of the Chinese Edu¬ 
cational Mission in the United States, and formerly principal teacher of English in the 
Government School at Shanghai, China. 9f 0 pages. 8vo. Cloth. 

From the Hartford Courant: “ The volume is one of the most curious and interest¬ 
ing of linguistic works.” 

From the New York Nation : “ It will amaze the sand-lot gentry to be informed that 
this remarkable work will supplement our English dictionaries even for native Americans " 



DICTIONARIES — Continued. 

Jenkins’s Handy Lexicon. 

Jenkins’s Vest-Pocket Lexicon. • 

A dictionary of all except familiar words, including the principal scientific and tech¬ 
nical terms, and foreign moneys, weights, and measures. It omits grammatical and. 
terminal variations, since words varying as narrate, narrative, narratively, etc., would 
all he understood by becoming acquainted with any one of them. 

Obsolete and local words are generally omitted. 

Latin and French phrases of two or three words, and names of classical mythology 
can be found in their alphabetical places. Also foreign moneys, weights, and measures. 

By omitting words which every one knows, there is room for nearly all that any one 
requires to know. 

Anglo-Saxon Dictionary. 

A handy Anglo-Saxon dictionary, adapted from Grein’s Library of Anglo-Saxon 
poetry. By Dr. Fr. Groschopp. Translated into English, revised and corrected, with 
outline of Anglo-Saxon grammar and a list of irregular verbs, by William Malone 
Baskerville, Ph. D. (Lips.), Professor of English Language and Literature, Vanderbilt 
University, and James Albert Harrison, Professor of English and Modern Languages, 
Washington and Lee University. 


Cobbett’s English Grammar. 

With notes, by Robert Waters, Principal of West Hoboken High School. Author of 
“ Life and Language of Cobbett.’’ 

This book consists of a series of twenty-one letters, written by William Cobbett. 
They are intended for schools and young persons, but more especially for sailors, 
apprentices, soldiers, and plough-boys. 

In addition to these letters there are six lessons intended to prevent statesmen from 
using false grammar and from writing in an awkward manner. 

This is the only grammar that can profitably be used without a teacher. 

The notes are written in an easy style, and are simple and plain. 

Some Topics in English Grammar. 

By Arthur Hinds. 142 pages. 16mo. Cloth. > 

Teachers are almost unanimous in condemning grammars as untruthful, or inconsist¬ 
ent, or complicated, or as combining these faults. The distinctive features of this 
work, which is the J. G. Scott, or Westfield Normal School system, are : the natural 
method of presenting the subjects, the cutting loose from what is mere tradition, the 
conciseness with which the matter is treated. The book should be read by every pupil 
and teacher of grammar. 

Johnson’s Elements of English Grammar. Part I. 

106 pages. 12mo. Half-bound. 

To learn the rudiments of English Grammar, there is no little bonk more clear and 
simple than this beginner’s book, by Mr. H. F. Johnson, of Brookhaven, Miss. It is 
based upon the plan of questions and answers, and is adapted to the comprehension of 
the youngest learners of language. 

R. G. White’s Grammar of the “ Grammarless 

If English can be released from rigid formulas derived from its analogies with other 
tongues^ and taught as a distinct science, subject only to the laws of reason, we shall 
have “ Grammar/’ as taught by the Fathers, fully reconciled with the modern race for 
“ Language Lessons,” and the'happy middle ground of the future established. To real¬ 
ize this, see Professor Sill’s new book. 




Practical Lessons in English. 

A brief course in Grammar and Composition. By J. M. B. Sill. This beautiful 
book, by a distinguished and experienced teacher, at once adopted for exclusive use 
in the State of Oregon and the city of Detroit, simply releases English Grammar 
from bondage to Latin and Greek formulas. Our language is worthy of being taught 
as a distinct and independent science. It is almost destitute of inflections and yet 
capable of being systematized, and its study may certainly be simplified if treated by 
itself and for itself alone. Superintendent Sill has cut the Gordian knot and leads 
the van of a new school of grammarians. 


Clark’s Easy Lessons in Language 

Contains illustrated object-lessons of the most attractive character, and is couched 
in language freed as much as possible from the dry technicalities of the science. 

Clark’s Brief English Grammar. 

Part I. is adapted to youngest learners, and the whole forms a complete “ bref 
course ” in one volume, adequate to the wants of the common school. There is no¬ 
where published a superior text-book for learning the English tongue than this. 

Clark’s Normal Grammar. 

Designed to occupy the same grade as the author’s veteran “ Practical ” Grammar, 
though the latter is still furnished upon order. The Normal is an entirely new treatise. 
It is a full exposition of the system as described below, with all the most recent im¬ 
provements. Some of its peculiarities are,—a happy blending of Syntheses with 
Analyses ; thorough criticisms of common errors in the use of our language ; and 
important improvements in the syntax of sentences and of phrases. 

Clark’s Key to the Diagrams. 

Clark’s Analysis of the English Language. 

Clark’s Grammatical Chart. 

The theo-y and practice of teaching grammar in American schools is meeting with a 
thorough revolution from the use of this system. While the old methods offer profi¬ 
ciency to the pupil only after much weary plodding and dull memorizing, this affords 
from the inception the advantage of practical Object Teaching, addressing the eye by 
means of illustrative figures; furnishes association to the memory, its most powerful 
aid, and diverts the pupil by taxing his ingenuity. Teachers who are using Clark’s 
Grammar uniformly testify that they and their pupils find it the most interesting study 
of the school course. 

Like all great and radical improvements, the system naturally met at first with much 
unreasonable opposition. It has not only outlived the greater part of this opposition, 
but finds many of its warmest admirers among those who could not at first tolerate so 
radical an innovation. All it wants is an impartial trial to convince the most scep¬ 
tical of its merit. No one who has fairly and intelligently tested it in the school-room 
has ever been known to go back to the old method. A great success is already 
established, and it is easy to prophesy that the day is not far distant when it will he 
the only system or teaching English Grammar. As the System is copyrighted, no otnei 
text-books can appropriate this obvious and great improvement. 

Welch’s Analysis of the English Sentence. 

Remarkable for its new and simple classification, its method of treating connectives. 
Its explanations of the idioms and constructive laws of the language, &c. 






Monteith’s Elementary Geography. 

Monteith s s Comprehensive Geography (103 maps). 

► These volumes are not revisions of old works, not an addition to any series, 

butare entirely new productions, — each by itself complete, independent, comprehen¬ 
sive yet simple, brief, cheap, and popular ; or, taken together, the most admirable 
“ series ” ever ottered for a common-school course. They present the following features, 
skilfully interwoven, the student learning all about one country at a time. Always 

revised to date of printing. , „ , . ,, 

LOCAL GEOGRAPHY. — Or, the Use of Maps. Important features of the maps 
are the coloring of States as objects, and the ingenious system for laying down a much 
larger number of names for reference than are lound on any other maps ol same size, 

and without crowding. , _ , 

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. — Or, the Natural Features of the Earth ; illus¬ 
trated by the original and striking relief maps, being bird’s-eye views or photographic 

pictures of the earth’s surface. . ... 

DESCRIPTIVE GEOGRAPHY. — Including the Physical; with some account 

of Governments and Races, Animals, &c. ... . , _ 

HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHY. —Or, a brief summary of the salient points of 
history, explaining the present distribution of nations, origin of geographical 

^MATHEMATICAL GEOGRAPHY. —Including Astronomical, which describes 
the Earth’s position and character among planets ; also the Zones, Parallels, &c. 

COMPARATIVE GEOGRAPHY. —Or, a system of analogy, connecting new 
lessons with the previous ones. Comparative sizes and latitudes are shown on the 
margin of each map, and all countries are measured in the “ frame of Kansas. ” 
TOPICAL GEOGRAPHY. — Consisting of questions for review, and testing 
the student’s general and specific knowledge of the subject, with suggestions for 

geographical compositions. , ,, . ... ... •„ 

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. —A section devoted to this subject, with maps, will 
be appreciated by teachers. It is seldom taught in our common schools, because it 
has heretofore required the purchase of a separate book. 

GRAPHIC GEOGRAPHY, or Map-Drawing by Allen s Unit of Measure- 
nent” system (now almost universally recognized as without a rival), is introduced 
;hroughout the lessons, and not as an appendix. . , , . , 

CONSTRUCTIVE GEOGRAPHY. —Or, Globe-Making. With each book a set 
of map segments is furnished, with which each student may make his own globe by 
lollowing the directions given. 

RAILROAD GEOGRAPHY. — With a grand commercial map of the United 
States, illustrating steamer and railroad routes of travel in the United States, submarine 
telegraph lines, &c. Also a “ Practical Tour in Europe.” 



Monteith’s First Lessons in Geography. 

Monteith’s New Manual of Geography. 

McNally’s System of Geography. 

The new edition of McNally’s Geography is now ready, rewritten throughout by 
James Monteith and S. C. Frost. In its new dress, printed from new type, and lllus- 
trated with 100 new engravings, it is the latest, most attractive, as well as the most 
thoroughly practical book on geography extant. 



GEOGRAPHY — Continued. 


Monteith’s Introduction to Geography. 

Monteith’s Physical and Political Geography. 

1. PRACTICAL OBJECT-TEACHING. — The infant scholar is first introduced 

to a picture whence he may derive notions of the shape of the earth, the phenomena of 
day and night, the dis ribution of land and water, and the great natural divisions, 
which mere words would fail entirely to convey to the untutored mind. Other pictures 
follow on the same plan, and the child’s mind is called upon to grasp no idea without 
the aid of a pictorial illustration. Carried on to the higher books, this system culmi¬ 
nates in Physical Geography, where such matters as climates, ocean currents, the 
winds, peculiarities of the earth’s crust, clouds and rain, are pictorially explained and 
rendered apparent to the most obtuse. The illustrations used for this purpose belong 
to the highest grade of art. 

2 . CLEAR, BEAUTIFUL, AND CORRECT MAPS. — In the lower num¬ 
bers the maps avoid unnecessary detail, while respectively progressive and affording 
the pupil new matter for acquisition each time he approaches in the constantly en¬ 
larging circle the point of coincidence with previous lessons in the more elementary 
books. In the Physical and Political Geography the maps embrace many new and 
striking features. One of the most effective of these is the new plan for displaying on 
each map the relative sizes of countries not represented, thus obviating much confu¬ 
sion which has arisen from the necessity of presenting maps in the same atlas drawn 
on different scales. The maps of “McNally” have long been celebrated for their 
superior beauty and completeness. This is the only school-book in which the attempt 
to make a complete atlas also clear and distinct, has been successful. The map coloring 
throughout the series is also noticeable. Delicate and subdued tints take the place of 
the startling glare of inharmonious colors which too frequently in such treatises dazzle 
the eyes, distract the attention, and serve to overwhelm the names of towns and the 
natural features of the landscape 

3 . THE VARIETY OF MAP-EXERCISE. — Starting each time from a dif¬ 
ferent basis, the pupil in many instances approaches the same fact 110 less than six 
times, thus indelibly impressing it upon his memory. At the same time, this system is 
not allowed to become wearisome, the extent of exercise on each subject being grad' 
uated by its relative importance or difficulty of acquisition. 

TIVE TEXT. — The cream of the science has been carefully culled, unimportant 
matter rejected, elaboration avoided, and a brief and concise manner of presentation 
cultivated. The orderly consideration of topics has contributed greatly to simplicity 
Due attention is paid to the facts in history and astronomy which are inseparably con¬ 
nected with and important to the proper understanding of geography, and suck only 
are admitted on any terms. In a word, the National System teaches geography as a 
science, pure, simple, and exhaustive. 

5 . ALWAYS UP TO THE TIMES. — The authors of these books, editorially 
speaking, never sleep. No change occurs in the boundaries of countries or of counties, 
no new discovery is made, or railroad built, that is not at once noted and recorded, and 
the next edition of each volume carries to everv school-room the new order of things. 

— The maps and text are no longer unnaturally divorced in accordance with the time- 
honored practice of making text-books on this subject as inconvenient and expensive as 
possible. On the contrary, all map questions are to be found on the page opposite the 
map itself, and each book is complete in one volume. The mechanical execution is 
unrivalled. Paper, printing, and binding are everything that could be desired. 

7 . MAP-DRAWING. — In 1869 the system of map-drawing devised by Frofessor 
Jerome Allen was secured exclusively for this series. It derives its claim to original¬ 
ly and usefulness from the introduction of a fixed unit of measurement applicable to 
every map. The principles being so few, simple, and comprehensive, the subject of 
map-drawing is relieved of all practical difficulty. (In Nos. 2 , 2 *, and 3, and published 

8 . ANALOGOUS OUTLINES.—At the same time with map-drawing was also 
Introduced (in No. 2 ) a new and ingenious variety of Object Lessons, consisting of a 
tomparison of the outlines of countries with familiar objects pictorially represented. 



Barnes’s Elementary Geography. Sm. 4to. Cloth. 96 pp. 
Barnes’s Complete Geography. Quarto. Cloth. 140 
pages. 320 maps and illustrations. 

The object in view, while making this series of books, was not so much cheapness ns 
perfection, which is after all the truest economy. 

They give all the instruction in geography which it is necessary to teach. From an 
artistic point of view they are marvellously beautiful books, and furnish the rising gem 
eration with instruments of education far in advance of anything hitherto produced. 

The Elementary Geography is based upon the principle of teaching by observa¬ 
tion, and is adapted to primary grades. 

The Complete Geography is adapted to the intermediate and higher gradc-s. It 
contains physical, descriptive, commercial, and industrial descriptions of the earth’s 

From the New England Journal of 

“ These two books form a series of un¬ 
equalled beauty and perfection in the style 
and artistic execution of the numerous 
illustrations, maps, and also in the typo¬ 
graphical work. It is like looking through 
a portfolio of art sketches to examine and 
note the variety, beauty, and appropriate¬ 
ness of the illustrations of these two 
books. We fail to find one illustration 
that does not teach its proper lesson-in its 
connection with the descriptive text of 
the books. Too high praise can hardly be 
given to these geographies in the depart¬ 
ment of design and execution of the maps 
and illustrations. Fortunate is the edu¬ 
cational author wdio has such artistic 
talent at his command, and special credit 
is due to the art department of the pub¬ 
lishers of these books. But we are aware 
that perfection in the mere mechanical 
preparation of books is not the highest 
test of their merit and practical usefulness 
as school text-books. 

“ Turning to examine the methods of 
instruction adopted in this series of geog¬ 
raphy, we find a recognition, not only of 
the best pedagogical principles of teaching, 
but an application of the correct laws of 
culture in methods that give these books 
their true position in the front rank of 
practical school books. In the elementary 
book Mr. Monieith leads the young learner 
to look at things around him and learn of 
them, to observe, examine, discover, in¬ 
quire. Beginning at the school grounds 
the pupils are led to study for themselves 
their own town, city, county, state, coun¬ 
try, continent, and the world. The ad¬ 
mirably graded lessons are presented in a 
natural, easy, conversational style, calcu¬ 
lated to develop the reasoning powers, as 
well as to stimulate the individual efforts 
of pupils to help themselves. We espe¬ 
cially commend to the attention of teach¬ 
ers of primary schools the foot-notes, the 

writing exercises with language lessons, 
teaching by means of journeys and 
voyages, etc., which are found in the 
Elementary Booh. 

“ In the Complete Book we find the ac¬ 
complished author has continued the ob¬ 
servational and deductive methods, begin¬ 
ning with facts, which are used wisely as 
stepping-stones to advanced knowledge. 
The physical features are attractively 
presented in their relation to the industries 
of the world. The illuminated pictures 
of the hemispheres, showing the earth as 
in a painting or on a relief globe ; the races 
of men in colors, showing features, com¬ 
plexions, costumes, etc. ; the trans-conti¬ 
nental views, — panoramas of the conti¬ 
nents from ocean to ocean, — teaching, at 
a glance, the physical features; and the 
admirable maps, with the names of 
principal places engraved in boldfaced 
letters ; comparative area, comparative 
latitude and extent, comparative tempera¬ 
ture, comparative time of day throughout 
the world, is shown by means of clock 
dials, — also the standard time : elevations 
of surface are shown by sectional views 
under the maps and the small physical 
charts, showing the products, seaports, 
highlands, lowlands, etc-, of the earth. 
These are matures of the Complete Book 
worthy of special mention and commen¬ 
dation. The language lessons and written 
exercises furnish valuable and interesting 
topical reviews. 

“ In examining these books, it seems to 
us that both author and publishers have 
vied with each other to make this two- 
book series of geography as near perfect as 
a study of correct principles and method* 
of teaching, the use of artistic skill in illus¬ 
trations and maps, the style and arrange¬ 
ment of type, and good paper and tastetul 
binding could secure. The books are a 
credit to American skill and taste. W e 
commend them to school officers and 
teachers for examination and use.” 



GEOGRAPHY — Continued. 

Monteith’s Boys’ and Girls’ Atlas of the World. 

Showing all the political divisions of the world, with map-drawing and written exer¬ 
cises, or imaginary voyages, commercial routes, principal products, comparative areas 
and populations, height of mountains, length of rivers, highlands, and lowlands. 16 
full-page, finely colored maps. 40 pages. Small quarto. 

The maps show all that is needful for the study of geography, besides the courses of 
rivers and oceanic currents, comparative time by clock faces, standard time, profile 
maps, comparative latitude and extent, comparative area, comparative temperature, 
highlands and lowlands, principal products, rate of speed on rail or steamship. Parties 
ularly valuable as a text-book where oral teaching is attempted. 

Monteith’s Old Physical Geography. 

The cry of “ Too much of Text-Books,” so frequently heard, is most happily answered 
by this exceedingly valuable little work, entitled “Monteith’s Physical Geography.” 
Within a convenient-sized volume (54 pp. quarto) the author here presents all of Physi¬ 
cal Geography that the majority of classes can possibly find time to pursue. 

The kindred sciences hitherto unnecessarily combined with this branch of study — 
adding far more to the size and price of the textbooks than to their value — are in this 
work either very materially cut down or wholly eliminated. The book is admirably 
illustrated, coutaining over sixty very practical cuts, and a sufficient number of finely 
colored Maps. Its arrangement is excellent, paper, type, binding, etc., fully in keeping 
with its other advantages, and its price so moderate that it is brought within the reach 
of all grades of schools. 

Monteith’s New Physical Geography. 

Owing to the great progress made in physical science during the past few years, the 
publishers of Monteith’s Physical Geography liaA r e deemed it necessary to prepare a 
new volume which shall embrace the more recent results of modern research in this field. 
The great popularity enjoyed by Monteith’s Physical Geography during the past twenty- 
five years warrants the assertion that the volume now presented will prove a most 
valuable addition to the geographical works of Professor Monteitli, which have since 
their publication been recognized as standards. 

In presenting Monteith’s New Physical Geography, the publishers desire to call the 
attention of educators and school boards to the following points : — 

It embraces all of the recent discoveries in Physiography, Hydrography, Meteorology, 
Terrestrial Magnetism, and Vulcanology. 

In the mechanical execution of its pages it is unsurpassed by any text-book of the 
kind ever published. 

The maps and charts have been compiled from original sources, and therefore com¬ 
prise the latest discoveries pertaining to geographical science. 

While the easy style, graphic description, and the topical arrangement of subjects 
adapt it especially for use in grammar schools, it will be found equally adapted for use 
in high and normal schools. Concluding each chapter is a brief resume of the main facts 
presented therein, a feature that will commend itself to every live teacher and pupil. 

Many of the chapters contain much new matter that has never before appeared in any 
text-book. As examples of this may be mentioned the subject of Terrestrial Magnetism, 
in the preparation of which the author has had access to the records of the U.'S. Mag¬ 
netic Observatory, through the courtesy of Professor Marcus Baker,U.S C. & G.S. 

The subject of Volcanoes lias been compiled from the observations of Professor Judd, 
who is the recognized leading authority on this subject. 

The chapters on River and Ocean Hydrography embrace many new and interesting 
facts brought to light, by the new surveys of the U.S. Engineer Corps, and by Commander 
Bartlett, U.S.N. Those pertaining to Ocean Currents are especially important. 

The subject of Meteorology contains much new information. The Law of Storms is 
the most complete exposition of the subject that has ever been jubiished in a 

Not the least instructive feature of the volume is the Record of Recent Geographical 
Discoveries , which contains a brief account of the explorations of De Long, Nordenskjold, 
Schwatka, Greely, and Shufeldt. 

It contains 144 pages, 125 illustrations, and 15 colored maps. 






Davies’ Primary Arithmetic. 

Davies’ Intellectual Arithmetic. 

Davies’ Elements of Written Arithmetic. 

Davies’ Practical Arithmetic. 

Davies’ University Arithmetic. 


First Book in Arithmetic, Primary and Mental. 
Complete Arithmetic. 


Davies’ New Elementary Algebra. 

Davies’ University Algebra. 

Davies’ New Bourdon’s Algebra. 


Davies’ Elementary Geometry and Trigonometry. 
Davies’ Legendre’s Geometry. 

Davies’ Analytical Geometry and Calculus. 
Davies’ Descriptive Geometry. 

Davies’ New Calculus. 


Davies’ Practical Mathematics and Mensuration. 
Davies’ Elements of Surveying. 

Davies’ Shades, Shadows, and Perspective. 


Davies’ Grammar of Arithmetic. 

Davies’ Outlines of Mathematical Science. 
Davies’ Nature and Utility of Mathematics. 
Davies’ Metric System. 

Davies & Peck’s Dictionary of Mathematics. 



DAVIES’ SERIES — CoTiti/Tiucd. 


Van Amringe’s Davies’ Surveying. 

By Charles Davies, LL.D., author of a Full Course of Mathematics. Revised by J, 
Howard Van Amringe, A.m’, Fh.D., Professor of Mathematics in Columbia College 
566 pages. 8vo. Full sheep. 

Davies’ Surveying originally appeared as a text-book for the use of the United States 
Military Academy at West Point. It proved acceptable to a much wider held, and 
underwent changes and improvements, until the author’s final revision, and has remained 
the standard work on the subject for many yeai’s. 

In the present edition, 1883, while the admirable features which have hitherto com¬ 
mended the work so highly to institutions of learning and to practical surveyors have 
been retained, some of the topics have been abridged in treatment, and some enlarged. 
Others have been added, and the whole has been arranged in the order of progressive 
development. A change which must prove particularly acceptable is the transformation 
of the article on mining-surveying into a complete treatise, in which the location of 
claims on the surface, the latest and best methods of underground traversing, &c., the 
calculation of ore-reserves, and all that pertains to the work of the mining-surveyor, 
are fully explained and illustrated by practical examples. Immediately on the publica¬ 
tion of this edition it was loudly welcomed in all quarters. A letter received as we 
write, from Prof. R. C. Carpenter, of the Michigan State Agricultural College, says: 
“ I am delighted with it. I do not know of a more complete work on the subject, and 
I am pleased to state that it is filled with examples of the best methods of modern 
practice. We shall introduce it as a text-book in the college course.” This is a fair 
specimen of the general reception. 

Mathematical Almanac and Annual 
says :— 

“ Davies is a deservedly popular author, 
and his mathematical works are text¬ 
books in many of the leading schools and 

Van Nostrand's Eclectic Engineering Maga¬ 
zine says :— 

“We find in this new work all that can 
be asked for in a text-book. If there is a 
better work than this on Surveying, either 
for students or surveyors, our attention 
has not been called to it.” 


Van Amringe's Davies’ Legendre. 

Elements of Geometry and Trigonometry. By Charles Davies, LL.D. Revised (18851 
by Prof. J. H. Van Amringe of Columbia College. New pages. 8vo. Full leather. 

The present edition of the Legendre is the result of a careful re-examination of the 
work, into which have been incorporated such emendations in the way of greater clear¬ 
ness of expression or of proof as could be made without altering it in form or substance. 
Practical exercises are placed at the end of the several books, and comprise additional 
theorems, problems, and numerical exercises upon the principles of the Book or Books 
preceding. They will be found of great service in accustoming students, early in and 
throughout their course, to make for themselves practical application of geometric 
principles, and constitute, in addition, a large and excellent body of review and test 
questions for the convenience of teachers. The Trigonometry and mensuration have 
been carefully revised throughout ; the deduction of principles and rules has been sim¬ 
plified ; the discussion of the several cases which arise in the solution of ti’iangles, 
plane and spherical, has been made more full and clear ; and the whole has, in definition, 
demonstration, illustration, &c., been made to conform to the latest and best methods. 

It is believed that in clearness and precision of definition, in general simplicity and 
rigor of demonstration, in the judicious arrangement of practical exercises, in orderly 
and logical development of the subject, and in compactness of form, Davies’ Legendre 
is superior to any work of its grade for the general training of the logical powers ol 
pupils, and for their instruction in the gi’eat body of elementary geometric truth. 

The work has been printed from entirely new plates, and no care has been spared to 
ikake it a model of typographical excellence. 





In claiming for this series the first place among American text-books, of whatever 
class, the publishers appeal to the magnificent record which its volumes have earned 
during the thirty-five years of Dr. Charles Davies’s mathematical labors. The unremit¬ 
ting exertions of a life-time have placed the modern series on the same proud eminence 
among competitors that each of its predecessors had successively enjoyed in a course of 
constantly improved editions, now rounded to their perfect fruition,—for it seems 
almost that this science is susceptible of no further demonstration. 

During the period alluded to, many authors and editors in this department have 
started into public notice, and, by borrowing ideas and processes original with Dr. Davies, 
have enjoyed a brief popularity, but are now almost unknown. Many of the series of 
to-day, built upon a similar basis, and described as “ modern books,” are destined to a 
similar fate; while the most far-seeing eye will find it difficult to fix the time, on the 
basis of any data afforded by their past history, when these books will cease to increase 
and prosper, and fix a still firmer hold on the affection of every educated American. 

One cause of this unparalleled popularity is found in the fact that the enterprise of the 
author did not cease with the original completion of his books. Always a practical 
teacher, he has incorporated in his text-books from time to time the advantages of every 
improvement in methods of teaching, and every advance in science. During all the 
years in which he has been laboring he constantly submitted liis own theories and those 
of others to the practical test of the class-room, approving, rejecting/or modifying 
them as the experience thus obtained might suggest. In this way he has been able 
to produce an almost perfect series of class-books, in which every department of 
mathematics has received minute and exhaustive attention. 

Upon the death of Dr. Davies, which took place in 1876, his work was immediately 
taken up by his former pupil and mathematical associate of many years. Prof. W. G. 
Peck, LL.D., of Columbia College. By him, with Prof. J. H. Van AmrInge, of Columbia 
College, the original series is kept carefully revised and up to the times. 

Davies’s System is the acknowledged National Standard for the United 
States, for the following reasons : — 

1 st. It is the basis of instruction in the great national schools at West Point and 

2d. It has received the quasi indorsement of the National Congress. 

3d. It is exclusively used in the public schools of the National Capital. 

4th. The officials of the Government use it as authority in all cases involving mathe¬ 
matical questions. 

5th. Our great soldiers and sailors commanding the national armies and navies were ' 
educated in this system. So have been a majority of eminent scientists in this country 
All these refer to “Davies ” as authority. 

6 th. A larger number of American citizens have received their education from this 
than from any other series. 

7th. The series has a larger circulation throughout the whole country than any othei; 
being extensively used in every State in the Union. 





The best thoughts of these two illustrious mathematicians are combined in the 
following beautiful works, which are the natural successors of Davies’s Arithmetics, 
sumptuously printed, and bound in crimson, green, and gold: — 

Davies and Peck’s Brief Arithmetic. 

Also called the “ Elementary Arithmetic.” It is the shortest presentation of the sub¬ 
ject, and is adequate for all grades in common schools, being a thorough introduction to 
practical life, except for the specialist. 

At first the authors play with the little learner for a few lessons, by object-teaching 
and kindred allurements ; but he soon begins to realize that study is earnest, as he 
becomes familiar with the simpler operations, and is delighted to find himself master of 
important results. 

The second part reviews the Fundamental Operations on a scale proportioned to 
the enlarged intelligence of the learner. It establishes the General Principles and 
Properties of Numbers, and then proceeds to Fractions. Currency and the Metric 
System are fully treated in connection with Decimals. Compound Numbers and Re¬ 
duction follow, and finally Percentage with all its varied applications. 

An Index of words and principles concludes the book, for which every scholar and 
most teachers will be grateful. How much time has been spent in searching for a half- 
forgotten definition or principle in a former lesson ! 

Davies and Peck’s Complete Arithmetic. 

This work certainly deserves its name in the best sense. Though complete, it is not, 
like most others which bear the same title, cmnbersume. These authors excel in clear, 
lucid demonstrations, teaching the science pure and simple, yet not ignoring convenient 
methods and practical applications. 

For turning out a thorough business man no other work is so well adapted. He will 
have a clear comprehension of the science as a whole, and a working acquaintance 
with details which must serve him well in al 1 emergencies. Distinguishing features of 
the book are the logical progression of the subjects and the great variety of practical 
problems, not puzzles, which are beneath the dignity of educational science. A clear- 
minded critic has said o' Dr. Peck’s work that it is free from that juggling with 
numbers which some authors falsely call “ Analysis.” A series of Tables for converting 
ordinary weights and measures into the Metric System appear in the later editions. 


Peck’s First Lessons in Numbers. 

This book begins with pictorial illustrations, and unfolds gradually the science of 
numbers. It noticeably simplifies the subject by developing the principles of addition 
and subtraction simultaneously ; as it does, also, those of multiplication and division. 

Peck’s Manual of Arithmetic. 

This book is designed especially 1 or those who seek sufficient instruction to carry 
them successfully through practical life, but have not time for extended study. 

Peck’s Complete Arithmetic. 

This comjdetes the series but is a much briefer book than most of the complete 
arithmetics, and is recommended not only for what it contains, but also for what is 

It may be said of Dr. Peck’s books more truly than of any other series published, that 
they are clear and simple in definition and rule, and that superfluous matter of every 
kind has been faithfully eliminated, thus magnifying the working value of the book 
and saving unnecessary expense of time and labor. 




In this series Joseph Ficklin, Ph. D., Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy 
in the University of Missouri, lias combined all the best and latest results of practical 
and experimental teaching of arithmetic with the assistance of many distinguished 
mathematical authors. , 

___ 4 


Barnes’s Elementary Arithmetic. 

Barnes’s National Arithmetic. 

These two works constitute a complete arithmetical course in tvjo books. 

They meet the demand for text-books that will help students to acquire the greatest 
amount of useful and practical knowledge of Arithmetic by the smallest expenditure of 
time, labor, and money. Nearly every topic in Written Arithmetic is introduced, and its 
principles illustrated, by exercises in Oral Arithmetic. The free use of Equations ; the 
concise method of combining and treating Properties of Numbers; the treatment of 
Multiplication and Division of Fractions in two cases, and then reduced to one; Can¬ 
cellation by the use of the vertical line, especially in Fractions, Interest, and Proportion; 
the brief, simple, and greatly superior method of working Partial Payments by the 
“ Time Table ” and Cancellation ; the substitution of formulas to r. great extent for 
rules; the full and practical treatment of the Metric System, &c., indicate their com¬ 
pleteness. A variety of methods and processes for the same topic, which deprive the 
pupil of the great benefit of doing a part of the thinking and labor for himself, have 
been discarded. The statement of principles, definitions, rules, &c., is brief and simple. 
The illustrations and methods are explicit, direct, and practical. The great number 
and variety of Examples embody the actual business of the day. The very large 
amount of matter condensed in so small a compass has been accomplished by econo¬ 
mizing every line of space, by rejecting superfluous matter and obsolete terms, and by 
avoiding the repetition of analyses, explanations, and operations in the advanced topics 
which have been used in the more elementary parts of these books. 


For use in district schools, and for supplying a text-book in advanced work for 
classes having finished the course as given in the ordinary Practical Arithmetics, the 
National Arithmetic has been divided and bound separately, as follows : — 

Barnes’s Practical Arithmetic. 

Barnes’s Advanced Arithmetic. 

In many schools there are classes that for various reasons never reach beyond 
Percentage. It is just such cases where Barnes's Practical Arithmetic will answer a 
good purpose, at a price to the pupil much less than to buy the complete book. On the 
other hand, classes having finished the ordinary Practical Arithmetic can proceed 
with the higher course by using Barnes's Advanced Arithmetic. 

For primary schools requiring simply a table book, and the earliest rudiments 
forcibly presented through object-teaching and copious illustrations, we have 

Barnes’s First Lessons in Arithmetic, 

which begins with the most elementary notions of numbers, and proceeds, by simpls 
steps, to develop all the fundamental principles of Arithmetic. 

Barnes’s Elements of Algebra. 

, This work, as its title indicates, is elementary in its character and suitable for us^ 
v) in such public schools as give instruction in the Elements of Algebra ; (2) in institu¬ 
tions of learning whose courses of study do not include Higher Algebra ; (3) in schools 
whose object is to prepare students for entrance into our colleges and universities. 
This book will also meet the wants of students of Physics who require some knowledge of 



Algebra. The student’s progress in Algebra depends very largely upon the proper treat- 
nieut of the four Fundamental Operations. The terms Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, 
and Division in Algebra have a wider meaning than in Arithmetic, and these operations 
have been so defined as to include their arithmetical meaning ; so that the beginner 
is sir*ply called upon to enlarge his views of those fundamental operations. Much 
attention has been given to the explanation of the negative sign, in order to remove the 
well-known difficulties in the use and interpretation of that sign. Special attention is 
here called to “ A Short Method of Removing Symbols of Aggregation,” Art. 76. On 
account of their importance, the subjects of Factoring, Greatest Common Divisor, and 
Least Common Multiple have been treated at greater length than is usual in elementary 
works. In the treatment of Fractions , a method is used which is quite simple, and, 
at the same time, more general than that usually employed. In connection with Radical 
Quantities the roots are expressed by fractional exponents, for the principles and rules 
applicable to integral exponents may then be used without modification. The Equation 
is made the chief subject of thought in this work. It is defined near the beginning, 
and used extensively in every chapter. In addition to this, four chapters are devoted 
exclusively to the subject of Equations. All Proportions are equations, and in their 
treatment as such all the difficulty commonly connected with the subject of Proportion 
disappears. The chapter on Logarithms will doubtless be acceptable to many teachers 
who do not require the student to master Higher Algebra before entering upon the 
study of Trigonometry. 


Peck’s Manual of Algebra. 

Bringing the methods of Bourdon within the range of the Academic Course. 

Peck’s Manual of Geometry. 

By a method purely practical, and unembarrassed by the details which rather confuse 
than simplify science. 

Peck’s Practical Calculus. 

Peck’s Analytical Geometry. 

Peck’s Elementary Mechanics. 

Peck’s Mechanics, with Calculus. 

The briefest treatises on these subjects now published. Adopted by the great Univer¬ 
sities : Yale, Harvard, Columbia, Princeton, Cornell, &c. 

Macnie’s Algebraical Equations. 

Serving as a complement to the more advanced treatises on Algebra, giving special 
attention to the analysis and solution of equations with numerical coefficients. 

Church’s Elements of Calculus. 

Church’s Analytical Geometry. 

Church’s Descriptive Geometry. With plates. 2 vois. 

These vohnnes constitute the “ West Point Course ” in their several departments 
Prof. Church was long the eminent professor of mathematics at West Point Military 
Academy, and his works are standard in all the leading colleges. 

Courtenay’s Elements of Calculus. 

A standard work of the very' highest grade, presenting the most elaborate attainable 
survey of the subject. 

Hackley’s Trigonometry. 

With applications to Navigation and Surveying, Nautical and Practical Geometry, 
and Geodesy. 



GEOGRAPHY — Continued. 

From Supt. J. C. Gilson, Oakland, Cal. 

“I am pleased,delighted, charmed with 
it. It is an ideal work.” 

From Prof. J. W. Ferrel, Bloomsburg, 

“ It is a charming work. Beautifully 

illustrated and embracing all the depart, 
ments that ought to be treated.” 

From C. B. Metcalf, Worcester, Mass. 

“ Beautiful outside and inside. Typog« 
rapliy unsurpassed. The text the best 
feature. Synopsis at the end of each 
chapter a striking point of excellence.” 


Monteith’s Map-Drawing Made Easy. 

A neat little book of outlines and instructions, giving the “corners of States” in 
suitable blanks, so that maps can be drawn by unskilful hands from any atlas ; with 
instructions for written exercises or compositions on geographical subjects, and com¬ 
parative geography". 

Monteith’s Manual of Map-Drawing (Allen’s System). 

The only consistent plan, by which all maps are drawn on one scale. By its use 
much time may be saved, and much interest and accurate knowledge gained. 

Monteith’s Map-Drawing and Object Lessons. 

The last-named treatise, bound with Mr. Monteith’s ingenious system for commit¬ 
ting outlines to memory by means of pictures of living creatures and familiar objects. 
Thus, South America resembles a dog’s head ; Cuba, a lizard; Italy, a boot; France, a 
coffee-pot; Turkey, a turkey, &c., &c. 

Monteith’s Colored Blanks for Map-Drawing. 

A new aid in teaching geography, which will be found especially useful in recitations, 
reviews, and examinations. The series comprises any section of the world required. 

Monteith’s Map-Drawing Scale. 

A ruler of wood, graduated to the “Allen fixed unit of measurement.” 


Monteith’s Pictorial Chart of Geography. 

The original drawing for this beautiful and instructive chart was greatly admired in 
the publisher’s “ exhibit ” at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. It is a picture of the 
earth’s surface with every natural feature displayed, teaching also physical geography, 
and especially the mutations of water. The uses to which man puts the earth and its 
treasures and forces, as Agriculture, Mining, Manufacturing, Commerce, and Transpor¬ 
tation, are also graphically portayed, so that the young learner gets a realistic idea of 
“ the world we live in,” which weeks of book study might fail to convey. 

Monteith’s School Maps, 8 Numbers. 

The “School Series” includes the Hemispheres (2 maps), United States, North 
America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa. Price, $2.50 each. 

Each map is 28 x 34 inches, beautifully colored, has the names all laid down, and is 
substantially mounted on canvas with rollers. 

Monteith’s Grand Maps, 8 Numbers. 

The “Grand Series” includes the Hemispheres (1 map), North America, United 
States, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, the World on Mercator’s Projection, and 
Physical Map of the World. Price, $5.00 each. Size, 42 x 52 inches, names laid down, 
colored, mounted, &c. 

Monteith’s Sunday-School Maps. 

Including a map of Paul’s gravels ($5.00), one of Ancient Canaan ($3.00^, and Mod¬ 
ern Palestine ($3.00), or Palestine and Canaan together ($5.00). 



Brief History of 

the United 

This is probably the most original school-book pub 
lished for many years, in any department. A few of it? 
claims are the following : — 

1. Brevity. — The text is complete for grammar school 
or intermediate classes, in 290 12mo pages, large type. 
It may readily be completed, if desired, in one term o( 

2 . Comprehensiveness. — Though so brief, this book 
contains the pith of all the wearying contents of the larger 
manuals, and a great deal more than the memory usually 
retains from the latter. 

3. Interest has been a prime consideration. Small 
books have heretofore been bare, full oi dry statistics, unattractive. This one is 
charmingly written, replete with anecdote, and brilliant with illustration. 

4 Proportion of Events. — It is remarkable for the discrimination with which 
the different portions of our history are presented according to their importance. Thus 
the older works, being already large books when the Civil W ar took place, give it less 

space than that accorded to the Revolution. „ ... , 

e Arrangement. — In six epochs, entitled respectively, Discovery and Settlement, 
the Colonies, the Revolution, Growth of States, the Civil War, and Current Events. 

6. Catch Words. — Each paragraph is preceded by its leading thought in promi¬ 
nent tvpe, standing in the student’s mind for the whole paragraph. 

7. Key Notes. — Analogous with this is the idea of grouping battles, &c., about 
some central event, which relieves the sameness so common in such descriptions, and 
renders each distinct by some striking peculiarity of its own. 

8 . Foot-Notes. —These are crowded with interesting matter that is not strictly a 
part of history proper. They may be learned or not, at pleasure. They are ceitain 

in any event to be read. . . „ ,, . „ 

9/ Biographies of all the leading characters are given in full in foot-notes. 

10. Maps. — Elegant and distinct maps from engravings on copper-plate, and beauti¬ 
fully colored, precede each epoch, and contain all the places named. 

11 . Questions are at the back of the book, to compel a more independent use of the 
text. Both text and questions are so worded that the pupil must give intelligent 
answers in his own words. “ Yes” and “ No ” will not do. 




HISTORY — Continued. 

12. Historical Recreations.— These are additional questions to test the student’s 
knowledge, in review, as: “What trees are celebrated in our history?” “When 
did a fog save our army?” “What Presidents died in office?” “When was the 
Mississippi our western boundary?” “Who said, ‘I would rather be right than 
President ’ ? ” &c. 

13. The Illustrations, about seventy in number, are the work of our best artists 
id engravers, produced at great expense. They are vivid and interesting, and mostly 

upon subjects never before illustrated in a school-book. 

14. Dates —Only the leading dates are given in the text, and these are so associated 
as to assist the memory, but at the head of each page is the date of the event first 
mentioned, and at the close of each epoch a summary of events and dates. 

13 . The Philosophy of History is studiously exhibited, the causes and effects 
of events being distinctly traced and their inter-connection shown. 

16. Impartiality. — All sectional, partisan, or denominational views are avoided. 
Facts are stated after a careful comparison of all authorities without the least prejudice 
or favor. 

17. Index. — A verbal index at the close of the book perfects it as a work of reference. 
It will be observed that the above are all particulars in which School Histories have 

been signally defective, or altogether wanting. Many other claims to favor it shares in 
common with its predecessors. 


From Prof. Wm. F. Allen, State Uni¬ 
versity of Wisconsin. 

“Two features that I like very much 
are the anecdotes at the foot of the page 
and the 1 Historical Recreations’ in the 
Appendix. The latter, I think, is quite 
a new feature, and the other is very well 

From Hon. Newton Bateman, Superin¬ 
tendent Public Instruction , Illinois. 

“ Barnes’s One-Term History of the 
United States is an exceedingly attrac¬ 
tive and spirited little book, its claim 
to several new and valuable features seems 
well founded. Under the form of six well- 
defined epochs, the history of the United 
States is traced tersely, yet pithily, from 
the earliest times to the present day. A 
good map precedes each epoch, whereby 
the history and geography of the period 
may be studied together, ns thy always 
should be. The syllabus of each paragraph 
is made to stand in such bold relief, by 
the use of large, heavy type, as to be of 
much mnemonic value to the student. The 
book is written in a sprightly and pi¬ 
quant style, the interest never flagging 
from beginning to end, — a rare and diffi¬ 
cult achievement in works of this kind.” 

From Hon. Abner J. Phipps, Superin¬ 
tendent Schools, Lewiston, Maine. 

“Barnes’s History of the United States 

has been used for several years in the 
Lewiston schools, and has proved a very 
satisfactory work. I have examined the 
new edition of it.” 

From Hon. R. K. Buchell, City Superin¬ 
tendent Schools, Lancaster , Pa. 

“ It is the best history of the kind I have 
ever seen.” 

From T. J. Charlton, Superintendent 
Public Schools, Vincennes, Ind. 

“We have used it here for six years, 
and it has given almost perfect satisfac¬ 
tion. . . . The notes in fine print at the 
bottom of the pages are of especial value.” 

From Prof. Wm. A. Mowrv, E. C 
School, Providence, R. /. 

“ Permit me to express my high appre¬ 
ciation of your book. I wish all text¬ 
books for the young had equal merit.” 

From Hon. A. M. Keiley, City Attorney, 
Late Mayor, and President of the School 
Board, City of Richmond , Va. 

“ I do not hesitate to Amlunteer to you 
the opinion that Barnes’s History is en¬ 
titled to the preference in almost every 
respect that distinguishes a good school¬ 
book. . . . The narrative generally exhibits 
the temper of the judge; rarely, if ever, 
of the advocate.” 



Primary History of the United States. 

For Intermediate Classes. 12mo 225 pages. Beautifully illustrated. A fitting 
introduction to Barnes’s Historical Series. 

From Prof. C. W. Richards, High 
School, Oswego, N Y. 

I think it an admirable book ” 

From, D. Beach, :f Gibbons & B ach, 20 
West 09th Street, N.Y. City. 

“The little History is to me a very 
attractive book.” 

From Prof. C. D. Larkins, Fayette¬ 
ville, A. Y. 

“ It is the only Primary History that I 
ever saw that I liked.” 

From Prot. L R. Hopkins, Weedsport, 

“ I think Barnes’s Primary History by 
far the best I ever saw.” 

From Prof. Richard H. Lewis, Kingston 
College, N.C. 

“ The subject matter is very good, and 
shows remarkable condensing power in 
the author.” 

From Prof. Edward Smith, Supt. of 
Schools, Syracuse, N. Y. 

“ It is a very interesting and pretty 
book. I should like it very much for 
supplementary reading. ” 

From General Horatio C. Kino, 
Brooklyn, N Y. 

“I am especially pleased with the new 
Frimary History, which is remarkably 
concise and interesting and free from 
partisan bias.” 

From Prof S. G. Harris, Dryclen, N.Y. 

“ Having a few days’ vacation I found 
time to carefully examine the Primary 
History you sent me and am highly de¬ 
lighted with it. It will satisfy a iong- 
felt want.” 

From the New England Jour¬ 
nal of Education. 

“The book is printed in 
the best type, or. the finest 
paper, and is illustrated in 
the most superb, even sump¬ 
tuous manner. Any child 
who studies this exceptional¬ 
ly beautiful little book will 
unavoidably have a higher 
regard for his country on 
account of the superior and 
charming character of the 

From Mr. H. H. Smith, Brest. Board of 
Education, Vineyard Haven, Mass. 

“ I should think you would feel proud 
of the work. ” 

From Dr Eugene Bouton, Albany, N. Y. 

“ I must congratulate every one on the 
publication of this beautiful History.” 

From Prof. H. C. Talmadge, ICood- 
bury, Ct. 

“ It is the book that I have been look¬ 
ing for quite a long time.” 

From Prof. L C. Foster. Supt. of 
Schools, Ithaca, N. Y. 

“ It is indeed a very beautiful book, 
and it seems to me well adapted for use 
in the lower grammar grades.” 

From Prof. F. H. Hall, Sinclairville, 

“This History is the best thing of the 
kind I have ever seen How it could be 
improved I do not see ” 

From Prof. J. C Cruikshank, Supt. oj 
Education, rassaic Co., N.J. 

“ It is the book needed, and will fill the 
gap of early historical instruction in the 

From Prof. S. R Morse, Supt. of Educa¬ 
tion, Ailant.c Co , N.J. 

“ I have examined Barnes’s Primary 
History of the United States and find it 
just what we have wanted in our schools. ” 

From H. E. Perkins, School Commissioner, 
Livingston Co., N.Y. 

“I ‘liiuk it the best Primary United 
States History that I ever examined, and 
will recommend it to my teachers.” 

From The Indiana School 

“ This book, comprised in 
225 pages, is what its title 
indicates, primary in matter 
and manner of treatment, and 
not simply an abbreviation 
of a large book. By not at¬ 
tempting everything there is 
space for a fuller discussion 
of the more important points. 
The author has clearly dis¬ 
criminated between simplicity 
of style and simple thought” 


A Brief History of An¬ 
cient Peoples. 

With an account of their monuments, 
literature, and manners. 340 pages 
12 mo. Profusely illustrated. 

In this work the political history, 
which occupies nearly, if not all, 
the ordinary school text, is condensed 
to the salient and essential facts, in 
order to give room for a clear outline 
of the literature, religion, architecture, 
character, habits, &c., of each nation. 
Surely it is as important to know some¬ 
thing about Tlato as all about Csesar, 
and to learn how the ancients wrote 
their books as how they fought their 

The chapters on Manners and Cus¬ 
toms and the Scenes in Real Life repre¬ 
sent. the people of history as men and 
women subject to the same wants, hopes 
and fears as ourselves, and so bring the distant past near to us. The Scenes, which are 
intended only for reading, are the result of a careful study of the unequalled collections of 
monuments in the London and Berlin Museums, of the ruins in Rome and Pompeii, and 
of the latest authorities on the domestic life of ancient peoples. Though intentionally 
written in a semi-romantic style, they are accurate pictures of what might have occurred, 
and some of them are simple transcriptions of the details sculptured in Assyrian 
alabaster or painted on Egyptian walls. 



HISTORY — Continued. 

The extracts made from the sacred books of the East are not specimens of their style 
and teachings, but only gems selected often from a mass of matter, much of which would 
be absurd, meaningless, and even revolting. It has not seemed best to cumber a book 
like this with selections conveying no moral lesson. 

The numerous cross-references, the abundant dates in parenthesis,the pronunciation 
of the names in the Index, the choice reading references at the close of each general 
subject, and the novel Historical Recreations in the Appendix, will be of service to 
teacher and pupil alike. 

Though designed primarily for a text-book, a large class of persons —general readers, 
who desire to know something about the progress of historic criticism and die recent 
discoveries made among the resurrected monuments of the East, but have no leisure to 
read the ponderous volumes of Brugsch, Layard, Grote, Mommsen, and lime — w r ili find 
this volume just what they need. 

From Homer B. Sprague, Ileal Master 
Girls’ High School, West Newton St., Hos¬ 
tel, Mass. 

“ I beg to recommend in strong terms 
the adoption of Barnes’s ‘History of 

Ancient Peoples ’ as a text-book. It is 
about as nearly perfect as could be 
hoped for. The adoption would give 
great relish to the study of Ancient 

HE Brief History of France. 

S > By the author of the “ Briaf United States,” 
_ with ah the attractive features of that popu- 
(lar work (which see) and new ones of its own. 

It is believed that the History of France 
has never before been presented in such 
-A brief compass, and this is effected without 
sacrificing one particle of interest. The book 
reads like a romance, and, while drawing the 
student by an irresistible fascination to his 

task, impresses the great outlines indelibly upon the memory. 



HISTORY — Continued. 

Barnes’s Brief History of Mediaeval and Modern 

The success of the History of Ancient Peoples was immediate and great. A History 
of Mediaeval and Modern History, upon the same plan, was the natural sequence. 
Those teachers who used the former will be glad to know that the latter book is now 
ready, and classes can go right on without changing authors. 

The New York School Journal says : — 

“ The tine-print notes . . . work a field 
not widely developed until Green’s His¬ 

tory of English People appeared, relating 
to the description of real, every-day life 
of the people.” 

This work distinguishes between the period of the world’s history from the Fall of 
Rome (a.d. 4761 to the Capture of Constantinople (a.d. 1453), — about one thousand 
years, called “Middle Ages,” — and the period from the end of the fifteenth century to 
the present time. It covers the entire time chronologically and by the order of events, 
giving one hundred and twenty-two fine illustrations and sixteen elaborate maps. 

[Illustration from Barnes’s Brief - History 

The subject has never before been so in¬ 
terestingly treated in brief compass. The Po¬ 
litical History of each nation is first givni, 
then the Manners and Customs of the. People. 
A better idea of the growth of civilization and 
the changes in the condition of mankind can¬ 
not be found elsewhere. The book is fitted 
for private reading, as well as schools. 


HISTORY — Continued. 

Barnes’s Brief General History. 

Comprising Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern Peoples. 

The special features of this book are as follows: — 

The General Hist ary contains 600 pages. Of this amount, 350 pages are devoted to 
the political history, and 250 pages to the civilization, manners, and customs, etc. The 
latter are in separate chapters, and if the time of the teacher is limited, may be omitted. 
The class can thus take only the political portion when desired. The teacher will have, 
however, the satisfaction of knowing that, such is the fascinating treatment of the 
civilization, literature, etc., those chapters will be carefully read by the pupils ; and, on 
the principle that knowledge acquired from love alone is the most vivid, will probably 
be the best-remembered part of the book. This portion of the book is therefore all 
clear gain. 

The Black-board Analysis. See p. 314 as an example of this marked feature. 

The exquisite Illustrations, unrivalled by any text-book. See pp. 9,457, and 582, as 
samples of the 240 cuts contained in this beautiful work. 

The peculiar Summaries, and valuable lists of Reading References. See p. 417 . 

The numerous and excellent colored Maps. These are so lull as to answer for an 
extensive course of collateral reading, and are consequently useful for reference outside 
of class-work. See pp. 299 and 317- 

The Scenes in Real Life, which are the result of a careful study of the collections 
and monuments in the London, Paris, and Berlin museums, and the latest authorities 
upon the domestic life of the people of former times. See pp. 3S-39. This scene — 
a Lord of the IVth Dynasty — is mainly a transcription of details to be found painted 
on the walls of Egyptian tombs. 

The chapters on Civilization tint attempt to give some idea of the Monuments, Arts, 
Literature, Education, and Manners and Customs of the different nations. See pp 171, 
180, 276, 279, 472, and 514. 

The admirable Genealogical Tables interspersed throughout the text. See pp. 340 
and 494. 

The Foot-Notes that are packed full of anecdotes, biographies, pleasant information, 
and suggestive comments. As an illustration of these, take the description of the 
famous sieges of Haarlem and Leyden, during the Dutch War of Independence, pp. 446 
and 448. 

The peculiar method of treating Early Roman History, by putting in the text the 
facts as accepted by critics, and, in the notes below, the legends. See pp. 205-6. 

The exceedingly useful plan of running collateral history in parallel columns, as for 
example on p. 361, taken fr mi the Hundred Years’ War. 

The Historical Recreations, so valuable in arousing the interest of a class. See 
p. xi from the Appendix. 

The striking opening of Modern History on pp. 423-4. 

The interesting Style, that sweeps the reader along as by the fascination of a novel. 
The pupil insensibly acquires a taste for historical reading, and forcets the tediousness 
of the ordinary lesson in perusing the thrilling story of the past. Hoc pn. 25 1 -2. 

Special attention is called to the chapter entitled Rise of Modern Nations, —- 
England, France, and Germany. The characteristic feature in the mediaeval history of 
each of these nations is made prominent. (%.) After the Four Conquests of England, 
the central idea in the growth of that people was the Development of Constitutional 
Liberty, (h.) l'lie feature of French history was the conquest of the great vassals by 
the king, the triumph of royalty over feudalism, and the final consolidation of the 
scattered fiefs into one grand monarchy, (c.) The characteristic of German history was 
disunion, emphasized by the lack of a central capital ci-y. and by an elective rather than 
an hereditary monarchy. The struggle of the Crown with its powerful vassals was the 
same as in France, bur developed no national sentiment, and ended in the establishment 
of semi-independent dukedoms. 

These three thoughts furnish the beginner with as many threads on which to string 
the otherwise isolated facts of this bewildering period. 



HISTORY — Continued. 

Barnes’s Brief History of Greece. 

204 pages. 12nio. Clotli. Illustrated. 

This book was primarily prepared for Ihe Chafauqua Course in History, but is we’i 
adapted to the wants or all students. It consists of the chapters on the Political History 
and Civilization of Greece, in Barnes’s “Brief Hisiorv of Ancient Peoples,” and a number 
of appropriate selections from the works of such historians as Curtins, Grote, Thirlwall, 
Smith, Fyffe, Cox, Schmitz, Rawlinson, and others. By the study of this little book the 
reader will gain a very substantial idea of the history of Greece, in whose career the rest of 
tin* world is so largely concerned. 


With a synopsis of terms and chemical reactions used in describing minerals T re- 
pared for instructors and students in mineralogy. Adapted to any text-book. 24 pages 
of descriptive and explanatory text, and 75 blank pages for record 


Kummer’s Epitome of English History. 

With Questions for Examination. By S. Agnes Kummer, revised by A. M. Chandler of 
the Edgeworth School, Baltimore, Md. 150 pages. l2mo. Clotli. 

The success of the first edition of this book m several schools leads to its reproduction 
with additions. It is not design.' d to supersede the study of more comprehensive text-books 
ot history, but merely to act as a. handmaiden to them, by presenting in a condensed form 
the principal facts and dates. 

[Specimen Illustration from Barnes’s Brief-History Senes.] 



Monteith’s Youth’s History of the United Stales. 

A History of the United States for beginners. It is arranged upon the catechetical plan, 
with illustrative maps and engravings, review questions, dates in parentheses (that their 
study may be optional with the younger class of learners), and interesting biographical 
sketches of all persons who have been prominently identified with the history of our 

Willard’s United States. School and University Editions. 

The plan of this standard work is chronologically exhibited in front ol the title page. 
The maps and sketches are found useful assistants to the memory ; and dates, usually 
so difficult to remember, are so systematically arranged as in a great degree to obviate 
the difficulty. Candor, impartiality, and accuracy are the distinguishing features of 
the narrative portion. 

Willard’s Universal History. New Edition. 

The most valuable features of the “ United States ” are reproduced in this. The 
peculiarities of the work are its great conciseness and the prominence given to the 
chronological order of events. The margin marks each successive era with great dis. 
tinctness, so that the pupil retains not only the event but its time, and thus fixes the 
order of history firmly and usefully in his mind. Mrs. Willard’s books are constantly 
revised, and at all times written up to embrace important historical events of recent 
date. Professor Arthur Gilman has edited the last twenty-five years to 1S82. 

Lancaster’s English History. 

By the Master of the Stoughton Grammar School, Boston. The most practical of the 
“brief books.” Though short, it is not a bare and uninteresting outline, but contains 
enough of explanation and detail to make intelligible the cause and effrct of events. 
Their relations to the history and development of the American people is made specially 

Willis’s Historical Reader. 

Being Collier’s Great Events of History adapted to American schools. This rare 
epitome of general history, remarkable for its charming style and judicious selection of 
events on which the destinies of nations have turned, has been skilfully manipulated 
by Professor Willis, with as few changes as would bring the United States into its proper 
position in the historical perspective. As reader or text-book it has few equals and no 

Berard’s History of England. 

By an authoress well known for the success of her History of the United States. 
The social life of the English people is felicitously interwoven, as in fact, with the civil 
and military transactions of the realm. 

Ricord’s History of Rome. 

Possesses the charm of an attractive romance. The fables with which this history 
abounds are introduced in such a way as not to deceive the inexperienced, while adding 
materially to the value of the work as a reliable index to the charactei and institutions, 
as well as the historv of the Roman people. 



HISTORY — Continued. 

Hanna’s Bible History. 

The only compendium of Bible narrative which affords a connected and chronological 
view of the important events there recorded, divested of all superfluous detail. 

Summary of History; American, French, and English. 

A well-proportioned outline of leading events, condensing the substance of the more 
extensive text-books in common use into a series of statements so brief, that every 
word may be committed to memory, and yet so comprehensive that it presents an 
accurate though general view of the whole continuous life of nations. 

Marsh’s Ecclesiastical Historv, 

Affording the History of the Church in all ages, with accounts of the pagan world 
during the biblical periods, and the character, rise, and progress of all religions, as well 
as the various sects of the worshippers of Christ. The work is entirely non-sectarian, 
though strictly catholic. A separate volume contains carefully prepared questions for 
class use. 

Mill’s History of the Ancient Hebrews. 

With valuable Chronological Charts, prepared by Professor Edwards of N. Y. This 
is a succinct account of the chosen people of God to the time of the destruction of 
Jerusalem. Complete in one volume. 

Topical History Chart Book. 

By Miss Ida P. Whitcomb. To be used in connection with any History , Ancient or 
Modern, instead of the ordinary blank book for summary. It embodies the names of 
contemporary rulers from the earliest to the present time, with blanks under each, in 
which the pupil may write the summary of the life of the ruier. 

Gilman’s First Steps in General History. 

A “suggestive outline” of rare compactness. Each country is treated by itself, and 
the United States receive special attention. Frequent maps, contemporary events in 
tables, references to standard works for fuller details, and a minute Index constitute 
the “ Illustrative Apparatus.” From no other work that we know of can so succinct a 
view of the world’s history be obtained. Considering the necessary limitation of space, 
the style is surprisingly vivid, and at times even ornate. In all respects a charming, 
though not the less practical, text-book. 

Baker’s Brief History of Texas. 

Dimitry’s History of Louisana. 

Alison’s Napoleon First. 

The history of Europe from 17S8 to 1815. By Archibald Alison. Abridged by Edward 
S. Gould. One vol., 8vo, with appendix, questions, and maps. 550 pages. 

Lord’s Points of History, 

The salient points in the history of the world arranged catechetically for class use or 
for review and examination of teacher or pupil. By John Lord, LL.D. 12mo, 300 

Carrington’s Battle Maps and Charts of the American 

Topographical Maps and Chronological Charts of every battle, with 3 steel portraits 
of Washington. 8vo, cloth. 

Condit’s History of the English Bible. 

For theological and historical students this book has an intrinsic value. It gives the 
history of all the English translations down to the present time, together with a careful 
review of their influence upon English literature and language. 





Based upon the experience of the most successful teachers of drawing in the United 

The Primary Course, consisting of a manual, ten cards, and three primary 
drawing hooks, A, B, and <J. 

Intermediate Course. Four numbers and a manual. 

Advanced Course. Four numbers and a manual. 

Instrumental Course. Four numbers and a manual. 

'Hie Intermediate, Advanced, and Instrumental Courses are furnished either in book 
or card form at the same prices. The books contain the usual blanks, with the unusual 
advantage of opening from the pupil,— placing the copy directly in front and above 
the blank, thus occupying but little desk-room. The cards are in the end more econom¬ 
ical than the books, if used in connection with the patent blank folios that accompany 
this series. 

The cards are arranged to be bound (or tied) in the folios and removed at pleasure. 
The pupil at the end of each number has a complete book, containing only his own 
work, while the copies are preserved and inserted in another folio ready for use in the 
next class. 

Patent Blank Folios. No. 1. Adapted to Intermediate Course. No. 2. Adapted 
to Advanced anu Instrumental Courses. 


The Plan and Arrangement. — The examples are so arranged that teachers and 
pupils can see, at a glance, how they are to be treated and where they are to be copied. 
In this system, copying and designing do not receive all the attention. The plan is 
broader in its aims, dealing with drawing as a branch of common-school instruction, 
awd giving it a wide educational value. 

Correct Methods. — In this system the pupil is led to rely upon himself, and not 
upon delusive mechanical aids, as printed guide-marks, &c. 

One of the principal objects of any good course in freehand drawing is to educate the 
eye to estimate location, form, and size. A system which weakens the motive or re¬ 
moves the necessity of thinking is false in theory and ruinous in practice. The object 
should be to educate, not cram ; to develop the intelligence, not teach tricks. 

Artistic Effect- — The beauty of the examples is not destroyed by crowding the 
pages with useless and badly printed text. The Manuals contain all necessary 

Stages of Development.—Many of the examples are accompanied by diagrams, 
showing the different stages of development. 

Lithographed Examples. — The examples are printed in imitation of pencil 
drawing (,not in hard, black lines) that the pupil’s work may resemble them. 

One Term’s Work. — Each book contains what can be accomplished in an average 
term, and no more. Thus a pupil finishes one book before beginning another. 

Quality — not Quantity. — Success in drawing depends upon the amount of thought 
exercised by the pupil, and not upon the large number of examples drawn. 

Designing. — Elementary design is more skilfully taught in this system than by 
any other. In addition to the instruction given in the books, the pupil will find printed 
on the insides of the covers a variety of beautiful patterns. 

Enlargement and Reduction. — The pi’actice of enlarging and reducing from 
copies is not commenced until the pupil is well advanced in the course and therefore 
better able to cope with this difficult feature in drawing. 

Natural Forms. — This is the only course that gives at convenient intervals easy 
and progressive exercises in the drawing of natural forms. 

Economy. — By the patent binding described above, the copies need not be thrown 
aside when a book is filled out, but are preserved in perfect condition for future use. 
The blank books, only, will have to be purchased after the first introduction, thus effect¬ 
ing a saving of more than half in the usual cost of drawing-books. 

Manuals for Teachers. —The Manuals accompanying this series contain practical 
instructions for conducting drawing in the class-room, with definite directions for draw¬ 
ing each of the examples in the books, instructions for designing, model and object 
drawing, drawing from natural forms, &c. 



DRAWING — Continued. 

Chapman’s American Drawing-Book. 

The standard American text-book and authority in all branches of art. A compilation 
of art principles. A manual for the amateur, and basis of study for the professional 
artist. Adapted for schools and private instruction. 

Contents. — “ Any one who can Learn to Write can Learn to Draw.” — Primary In¬ 
struction in Drawing. — Rudiments of Drawing the Human ’ Head. — Rudiments in 
Drawing the Human Figure. — Rudiments of Drawing. — The Elements of Geometry. 
Perspective. —Of Studying and Sketching from Nature. —Of Painting. —Etching and 
Engraving. — Of Modelling. — Of Composition. — Advice to the American Art-Studenc. 
The work is of course magnificently illustrated with all the original designs. 

Chapman’s Elementary Drawing-Book. 

A progressive course of practical exercises, or a text-book for the training of the 
eye and hand. It contains the elements from the larger work, and a copy should be in 
‘ the hands of every pupil ; while a copy of the “ American Drawing-Book,” named above, 
should be at hand for reference by the class. 

Clark’s Elements of Drawing. 

A complete course in this graceful art, from the first rudiments of outline to the 
finished sketches of landscape and scenery. 

Allen’s Map-Drawing and Scale. 

This method introduces a new era in map-drawing, for the following reasons : 1. It 
is a system. This is its greatest merit. — 2 . It is easily understood and taught. — 
3. The eye is trained to exact measurement by the use of a scale. — 4. By no special 
effort of the memory, distance and comparative size are fixed in the mind. — 5. It dis¬ 
cards useless construction of lines.— 6 . It can be taught by any teacher, even though 
there may have been no previous practice in map-drawing.—7. Any pupil old enough 
to study geography can learn by this system, in a short time, to draw accurate maps. 
— 8 . The system is not the result of theory, but comes directly from the school-room. 
It has been thoroughly and successfully tested there, with all grades of.pupils. —9. It 
is economical, as it requires no mapping plates. It gives the pupil the ability of rapidly 
drawing accurate maps. 


Hamerton’s Art Essays (Atlas Series) : — 

No. 1. The Practical Work of Painting. 

With portrait of Rubens. 8 vo. Paper covers. 

No. 2. Modern Schools of Art- 

Including American, English, and Continental Painting. 8 vo. Paper covers. 

Huntington’s Manual of the Fine Arts. 

A careful manual of instruction in the history of art, up to the present time. 

Boyd’s Karnes’ Elements of Criticism. 

The best edition of the best work on art and literary criticism ever produced It 

Benedict’s Tour Through Europe. 

A valuable companion for any one wishing to visit the galleries and sights of tbe 
continent of Europe, as well as a charming book of travels. 

Dwight’s Mythology. 

A knowledge of mythology is necessary to an appreciation of ancient art. 

Walker’s World’s Fair. 

The industrial and artistic display at the Centennial Exhibition. 




Powers’s Practical Book-keeping. 

Powers’s Blanks to Practical Book-keeping. 

A Treatise on Book-keeping, for Public Schools and Academies. By Millard R. 
Powers, M. A. This work is designed to impart instruction upon the science of accounts, 
as applied to mercantile business, and it is believed that more knowledge, and that, too, 
of a more practical nature, can be gained by the plan introduced in this work, than by 
any other published. 

Folsom’s Logical Book-keeping. 

Folsom’s Blanks to Book-keeping. 

This treatise embraces the interesting and important discoveries of Professor Folsom (of 
the Albany “ Bryant & Stratton College ”), the partial enunciation of which in lectures 
and otherwise has attracted so much attention in circles interested in commercial 

After studying business phenomena for many years, he has arrived at the positive 
laws and principles that underlie the whole subject of accounts ; finds that the science 
is based in value as a generic term : that value divides into two classes with varied 
species ; that all the exchanges of values are reducible to nine equations ; and that all 
the results of all these exchanges are limited to thirteen in number. 

As accounts have been universally taught hitherto, without setting out from a radical 
analysis or definition of values, the science has been kept in great obscurity, and been 
made as difficult to impart as to acquire. On the new theory, however, these obstacles 
are chiefly removed. In reading over the first part of it, in which the governing laws 
and principles are discussed, a person with ordinary intelligence will obtain a fair con¬ 
ception of the double-entry process of accounts. But when he comes to study thoroughly 
these laws and principles as there enunciated, and works out the examples and memo¬ 
randa which elucidate the thirteen results of business, the student will neither fail in 
readily acquiring the science as it is, nor in becoming able intelligently to apply it in 
the interpretation of business. 

Smith and Martin’s Book-keeping. 

Smith and Martin’s Blanks. 

Tli is work is by a practical teacher and a practical book-keeper. It is of a thoroughly 
popular class, and will be welcomed by every one who loves to see theory and practice 
combined in an easy, concise, and methodical form. 

The single-entry portion is well adapted to supply a want felt in nearly all other 
treatises, which seem to be prepared mainly for the use of wholesale merchants ; 
leaving retailers, mechanics, farmers, &c., who transact the greater portion of the 
business of the country, without a guide. The work is "also commended, on this 
account, for general use in young ladies’ seminaries, where a thorough grounding 
in the simpler form of accounts will be invaluable to the future housekeepers of the 

The treatise on double-entry book-keeping combines all the advantages of the 
most recent methods with the utmost simplicity of application, thus affording the 
pupil all the advantages of actual experience in the counting-house, and giving a 
clear comprehension of the entire subject through a judicious course of mercantile 


Stone’s Post-Office Account Book. 

By Mio.ah H. Stone. For record of Box Rents and Postages. Three si".es always in 
stock. 64, 10S, and 204 pages. 


Brooks’s Circular Interest Tables. 

To calculate simple and compound interest for any amount, from 1 cent to $1,000, at 
current rates from 1 day to 7 years. 




Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Chemistry. 

Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Astronomy. 

Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Physics. 

Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Geology. 

Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Physiology. 

Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Zoology. 

Steele’s 14-Weeks Course in Botany. 

Our text-books in these studies are, as a general thing, dull and uninteresting. 
They contain from 400 to COO pages of dry facts and unconnected details. They abound 
in that which the student cannot learn, much less remember. The pupil commences 
the study, is confused by the tine print and coarse print, and neither knowing exactly 
what to learn nor what to hasten over, is crowded through the single term generally 
assigned to each branch, and frequently comes to the close without a definite and exact 
idea of a single scientific principle. 

Steele’s “ Fourteen-Weeks Courses ” contain only that which every well-informed per¬ 
son should know, while all that which concerns only the professional scientist Is omitted. 
The language, is clear, simple, and interesting, and the illustrations bring the subject 
within the range of home life and daily experience. They give such of the general 
principles and the prominent facts as a pupil can make familiar as household words 
within a single term. The type is large and open ; there is no fine print to annoy; 
the cuts are copies of genuine experiments or natural phenomena, and are of fine 

In fine, by a system of condensation peculiarly his own, the author reduces each 
branch to the limits of a single term of study, while sacrificing nothing that is essential, 
and nothing that is usually retained from the study of the larger manuals in common 
use. Thus the student has rare opportunity to economize his time, or rather to employ 
that which he has to the best advantage. 

A notable feature is the author’s charming “ style,” fortified by an enthusiasm over 
his subject in which the student will not fail to partake. Believing that Natural 
Science is full of fascination, he has moulded it into a form that attracts the attention 
and kindles the enthusiasm of the pupil. 

The recent editions contain the author’s “Practical Questions” on a plan never 
before attempted in scientific text-books. These are questions as to the nature and 
cause of common phenomena, and are not directly answered in the text, the design 
being to test and promote an intelligent use of the student’s knowledge of the foregoing 

Steele’s Key to all His Works. 

. This work is mainly composed of answers to the Practical Questions, and solutions of the 
problems, in the author’s celebrated “ Fourteen-Weeks Courses ” in the several sciences, 
with many hints to teachers, minor tables, &c. Should be on every teacher’s desk. 

Prof. J. Dorman Steele is an indefatigable student, as well as author, and his books 
have reached a fabulous circulation. It is safe to say of his books that they have 
accomplished more tangible and better results in the class-room than any other ever 
offered to American schools, and have been translated into more languages for foreign 
schools. They are even produced in raised type for the blind. 




Steele’s Abridged Physiology, for Common Schools. 
Steele’s Hygienic Physiology, for High Schools. 

With especial reference to alcoholic drinks and narcotics. Adapted from “ Fourteen 
Weeks’ Course in Human Physiology.” By J. Borman Steele, Ph.D. Edited and 
endorsed for the use of schools (in accordance with the recent legislation upon this 
subject) by the Department of Temperance Instruction of the W. C. T. U. of the Uuited 
States, under the direction of Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, superintendent. 

This new work contains all the excellent and popular features that have given Dr. 
Steele’s Physiology so wide a circulation. Among these, are the following: 

1. Colored Lithographs to illustrate the general facts in Physiology. 

2. Black-board Analysis at the beginning of eacli chapter. These have been 
found of great service in class-work, especially in review and examination. 

3. The Practical Questions at the close of each chapter. These are now too well 
known to require any explanation. 

4 The carefully prepared sections upon the Physiological Action of Alcohol, 
Tobacco, Opium, etc. These are scattered through the book as each organ is treated. 

I his subject is examined from a purely scientific stand-point, and represents the latest 
teachings at home and abroad. While there is no attempt to incorporate a temperance 
lecture in a school-book, yet the terrible effects of these “ Stimulants and Narcotics,” 
especially upon the young, are set forth all the more impressively, since the lesson is 
taught merely by the presentation of facts that lean toward no one’s prejudices and 
admit of no answer or escape. 

5. Throughout the book, there are given, in text and foot-note, experiments that can 
be peiformed by teacher and pupil, and which, it is hoped, will induce some easy dis- 
sections to be made in every class, and lead to that constant reference of all subjects to 
Nature herself, which is so invaluable in scientific study. 

notes' 6 co ^ ec ^ on recen t discoveries, interesting facts, etc., in numerous foot- 

7. The unusual space given to the subject of Ventilation, which is now attracting 
so much attention throughout the country. ° 

. ^ lie , tex ti s brou S llfc U P to the level of the new Physiological views. The division 
into short, Pithy paragraphs; the bold paragraph headings ; the clear, large type • the 
simple presentation of each subject; the interesting style that begets in every child a 
love of the study, and the beautiful cuts, each having a full scientific description and 
nomenclature, so as to present the thing before the pupil without cumbering the text 
with the dry details, — all these indicate the work of the practical teacher, and will be 
appreciated m every school-room. 

Child’s Health Primer. 

For the youngest scholars. 12mo, cloth, illustrated. 

Hygiene for Young People. 

Prepared under the supervision of Mrs. Mary H. Hunt, Superintendent of th« 
Department of Scientific Instruction of the “ Women’s National Christian Temperanc* 
Union.” Examined and approved by A. B. Palmer, M.D., University of Michigan. 

Jarvis’s Elements of Physiology. 

Jarvis’s Physiology and Laws of Health. 

The only books extant which approach this subject with a proper view of the true 
object of teaching Physiology in schools, viz., that scholars may know how to take care 
of their own health. In bold contrast with the abstract Anatomies, which children 
learn as they would Greek or Latin (and forget as soon), to discipline the mind, are these 
text-books, using the science as a secondary consideration, and only so far as is neces¬ 
sary for the comprehension of the lavas of health. 



Introductory Course of Natural Philosophy. 

This book was originally edited from Ganot’s “ Popular Physics,” by William G. 
Peck, LL.D., Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy, Columbia College, and of 
Mechanics iu the School of Mines. It has recently been i-evised by Levi S. Bur¬ 
bank, A. M., late Principal of Warren Academy, Woburn, Mass., and James 1. Hanson, 
A.M., Principal of the High School, Woburn, Mass. 

Of elementary works those of M. Ganot stand pre-eminent, not only as popular 
treatises, but as thoroughly scientific expositions of the principles of Physics. His 
“ Traite de Physique ” has not only met with unprecedented success in France, but has 
been extensively used in the preparation of the best works on Physics that have been 
issued from the American press. 

In addition to the “Traite de Physique,” which is intended for the use of colleges 
and higher institutions of learning, M. Ganot published this more elementary work, 
adapted to the use of schools and academies, in which he faithfully preserved the 
prominent features and all the scientific accuracy of the larger work. It is charcter- 
ized by a well-balanced distribution of subjects, a logical development of scientific 
principles, and a remarkable clearness of definition and explanation. In addition, it is 
profusely illustrated with beautifully executed engravings, admirably calculated to 
convey to the mind of the student a clear conception of the principles unfolded. Their 
completeness and accuracy are such as to enable the teacher to dispense with much of 
the apparatus usually employed in teaching the elements of Physical Science. 

After several years of great popularity the American publishers have brought this 
important book thoroughly up to the times. The death of the accomplished educator, 
Professor Burbank, took place before he had completed his work, and it was then 
taken in hand by his friend, Professor Hanson, who was familiar with his plans, and 
iias ably and satisfactorily brought the work to completion. 

The essential characteristics and general plan of the book have, so far as possible, 
been retained, but at the same time many parts have been entirely rewritten, much 
new matter added, a large number of new cuts introduced, and the whole treatise 
thoroughly revised and brought into harmony with the present advanced stage of sci¬ 
entific discovery. 

Among the new features designed to aid in teaching the subject-matter are the 
summaries of topics, which, it is thought, will be found very convenient in short 


As many teachers prefer to prepare their own questions on the text, and many do not 
have time to spend in the solution of problems, it has been deemed expedient to insert 
both the review questions and problems at the end of the volume, to be used or not at 

the discretion of the instructor. 

From the Churchman. 

“ No department of science has under¬ 
gone so many improvements and changes 
in the last quarter of a century as that of 
natural philosophy. So many and so im¬ 
portant have been the discoveries and 
inventions in every branch of it that 
everything seems changed but its funda¬ 
mental principles. Ganot has chapter 
upon chapter upon subjects that were not 
so much as known by name to Olmsted ; 
and here we have Ganot, first edited by 
Professor Peck, and afterward revised by 
the late Mr. Burbank and Mr. Hanson. No 
elementary works upon philosophy have 
been superior to those of Ganot, either as 
popular treatises or as scientific exposi¬ 
tions of the principles of physics, and 
his ‘ Traite de Physique’has not only had . 
a great success in France, but has been 
freely used in this country in the prepa¬ 
ration of American books upon the sub¬ 

jects of which it treats. That work was 
intended for higher institutions of learn¬ 
ing, and. Mr. Ganot preparer’ a more 
elementary work for schools .and acade¬ 
mies. It is as scientifically accurate as 
the larger work, and is characterized by 
a logical development of scientific princi¬ 
ples, by clearness of definition and expla¬ 
nation, by a proper distribution of sub¬ 
jects, and by its admirable engravings. 
We here have Ganot’s work enhanced in 
value by the labors of Professor Peck and of 
Messrs. Burbank and Hanson, and brought 
up to our own times. The essential char¬ 
acteristics of Ganot’s work have been re¬ 
tained, but much of the book has been 
rewritten, and many new cuts have been 
introduced, made necessary by the prog¬ 
ress of scientific discovery. The short 
reviews, the questions on the text, and 
the problems given for solution are desir¬ 
able additions to a work of this kind, and 
will give the book increased popularity. ,J 




Norton & Porter’s First Book of Science. 

Sets forth the principles of Natural Philosophy, Astronomy, Chemistry, Physiology, 
and Geology, on the catechetical plan for primary classes an 1 beginners. 

Chambers’s Treasury of Knowledge. 

Progressive lessons upon —first, common things which lie most immediately around 
us, and first attract the attention of the young mind; second, common objects from tlitj 
mineral, animal, and vegetable kingdoms, manufactured articles, and miscellaneous 
substances ; third, a systematic view of nature under the various sciences. May be 
used as a reader or text-book. 

Monteith’s Easy Lessons in Popular Science. 

This book combines within its covers more attractive features for the study of science 
by children than any other book published. It is a reading book, spelling‘book, com¬ 
position book, drawing book, geography, history, book on botany, zoology, agricul¬ 
ture, manufactures, commerce, and natural philosophy. All these subjects are presented 
in a simple and effective style, such as would be adopted by a good teacher on an 
excursion with a class. The class are supposed to be taking excursions, with the help 
of a large pictorial chart of geography, which can be suspended before them in the 
school-room. A key of the chart is inserted in every copy of the book. With thia 
book the science of common or familiar things can be taught to beginners. 


Norton’s First Book in Natural Philosophy. 

Peck’s Elements of Mechanics. 

A suitable introduction to Bartlett’s higher treatises on Mechanical Philosophy, and 
adequate in itself for a complete academical course. 

Bartlett’s Analytical Mechanics. 

Bartlett’s Acoustics and Optics. 

A complete system of Collegiate Philosophy, by Prof. W. H. C. Bartlett, of West 
Point Military Academy. 

Steele’s Physics. 

Peck’s Ganot. 


Page’s Elements of Geology. 

A volume of Chambers’s Educational Course. Practical, simple, and eminently 
calculated to make the study interesting. 

Steele’s Geology. 


Porter’s First Book of Chemistry. 

Porter’s Principles of Chemistry. 

The above are widely known as the productions of one of the most eminent scientific 
men of America. The extreme simplicity in the method of presenting the science, while 
exhaustively treated, has excited universal commendation. 

Gregory’s Chemistry (Organic and Inorganic). 2 vols. 

The science exhaustively treated. For colleges and medical students. 

Steele’s Chemistry. 





Wood’s Object-Lessons in Botany. 

Wood’s American Botanist and Florist. 

Wood’s New Class-Book of Botany. 

The standard text-books of the United States in this department. In style they are 
simple, popular, and lively ; in arrangement, easy and natural; in description, graphic 
and scientific. The Tables for Analysis are reduced to a perfect system. They include 
the flora of the whole Unibid States east of the Rocky Mountains, and are well adapted 
to the regions west. 

Wood’s Descriptive Botany. 

A complete flora of all plants growing east of the Mississippi River. 

Wood’s Illustrated Plant Record. 

A simple form of blanks for recording observations in the field. 

Wood’s Botanical Apparatus. 

A portable trunk, containing drying prefls, knife, trowel, microscope, and tweezers, 
and a copy of Wood’s “ Plant Record,” — the collector’s complete outfit. 

Willis’s Flora of New Jersey. 

The most useful book of reference e<er published for collectors in all parts of the 
country. It contains also a Botanical Directory, with addresses of living American 

Young’s Familiar Lessons in Botany. 

Combining simplicity of diction with some degree of technical and scientific knowl¬ 
edge, for intermediate classes. Specially adapted for the Southwest. 

Wood & Steele’s Botany. 


Pendleton’s Scientific Agriculture. 

A text-book for colleges and schools ; treats of the following topics: Anatomy and 
Physiology of Plants ; Agricultural Meteorology ; Soils as related to Physics ; Chemistry 
of the Atmosphere ; of Plants ; of Soils ; Fertilizers and Natural Manures ; Animal Nu¬ 
trition, &c. By E. M. Pendleton, M. D., Professor of Agriculture in the University of 

From President A. D. White, Cornell 

“ Dear Sir: I have examined your 
* Text-book of Agricultural Science,’ and it 
seems to me excellent in view of the pur¬ 
pose it is intended to serve. Many of 
your chapters interested me especially, 
and all parts of the work seem to combine 
scientific instruction with practical infor¬ 
mation in proportions dictated by sound 
common sense.” 

From President Robinson, of Brown 

“ It is scientific in method as well as in 
matter, comprehensive in plan, natural 
and logical in order, compact and lucid in 
its statements, and must be useful both as 
a text-book in agricultural colleges, and 
as a hand-book for intelligent planters and 





Peck’s Popular Astronomy. 

By Win. G. Peck, Ph.D., LL.D., Professor of Mathematics, Mechanics, and Astron* 
omy in Columbia College. 12mo. Cloth. 330 pages. 

Professor Peck has here produced a scientific work in brief form for colleges, acade¬ 
mies, and high schools. Teachers who do not want an elementary work — like Steele’s 
Astronomy, for instance — will find what they want in this book. Its discussion of the 
Stars, Solar System, Earth, Moon, Sun and Planets, Eclipses, Tides, Calendars, Planets 
and Satellites, Comets and Meteors, &c., is full and satisfactory. The illustrations are 
numerous and very carefully engraved, so the student can gain an accurate comprehen¬ 
sion of the things represented. Professor Peck is wonderfully clear and concise in his 
style of writing, and there is nothing redundant or obscure in this work. It is intended 
for popular as well as class use, and accordingly avoids too great attention to mathe¬ 
matical processes, which are introduced in smaller type than the regular text. For 
higher schools this astronomy is undoubtedly the best text-book yet published. 

Willard’s School Astronomy. 

By means of clear and attractive illustrations, addressing the eye in many cases by 
analogies, careful definitions of all necessary technical terms, a careful avoidance of 
verbiage and unimportant matter, particular attention to analysis, and a general adop¬ 
tion of the simplest methods, Mrs. Willard has made the best and most attractive 
elementary Astronomy extant. 

McIntyre’s Astronomy and the Globes. 

A complete treatise for intermediate classes. Highly approved. 

Bartlett’s Spherical Astronomy. 

The West Point Course, for advanced classes, with applications to the current wants 
of Navigation, Geography, and Chronology. 


Carll’s Child’s Book of Natural History. 

Illustrating the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms, with application to the 
arts. For be’ginners. Beautifully and copiously illustrated. 

Anatomical Technology. Wilder & Gage. 

As applied to the domestic cat- For the use of students of medicine. 


Chambers’s Elements of Zoology. 

A complete and comprehensive system of Zoology, adapted for academic instruction, 
presenting a systematic view of the animal kingdom as a portion of external nature. 


Gillespie’s Roads and Railroads. 

Tenth Edition. Edited by Cady Staley, A.M., C.E. 464 pages. 12mo. Cloth. 

This book has long been and still is the standard manual of the principles and prac¬ 
tice of Road-making, comprising the location, construction, and improvement of roads 
(common, macadam, paved, plank, &c.) and railroads. It was compiled by W» 
Gillespie, LL.D., C.E., of Union College. 




Eames’s Light-Line Short-Hand. 

This book presents a practical phonetic system, without shading. It is prepared t« 
meet the requirements of business, corresponding, and verbatim reporting. It is 
especially adapted to the use of schools and colleges. It gives a vocabulary of more 
than 4,500 words and phrases. The illustrations are very numerous, and both in 
variety and quantity are unprecedented. There are 58 pages of engraved short-hand 
matter for practice-copies. The book is highly endorsed, and the system is the best 
and shortest known. 


Brookfield’s First Book in Composition. 

Making the cultivation of this important art feasible for the smallest child. By a 
new method, to induce and stimulate thought. 

Boyd’s Composition and Rhetoric. 

This work furnishes all the aid that is needful or can be desired in the various 
departments and styles of composition, both in prose and verse. 

Day’s Art of Rhetoric. 

Noted for exactness of definition, clear limitation, and philosophical development of 
subject; the large share of attention given to invention, as a branch of rhetoric, and 
the unequalled analysis of style. 

Bardeen’s Sentence-Making. 

Bardeen’s Shorter Rhetoric. 

Bardeen’s Complete Rhetoric. 

The plan of this treatise is wholly novel, and is its most characteristic feature. 

The author begins with Sentence-Making, which is to rhetoric what carpentry or 
masonry is to architecture, — not properly a part of it, but to be absolutely mastered, 
so that the architect’s ideas may be carried out with promptness and precision. 

This “handicraft,” so to speak, having been acquired, the student is ready to apply 
it according to the rules of the art. Where first? He is required to converse almost 
constantly, and he has already learned that it is sometimes difficult to converse well. 
Let him see that the rules of rhetoric apply primarily to the every-day talk in which 
he is engaged, and rhetoric becomes a real thing. Accordingly, the author follows with 
& full and familiar treatment of Conversation. 

As all must talk, so nearly all must write letters of one kind or another ; and the 
second part of the book is devoted to Letter-Writing. In itself this subject is 
treated with incisive directness and practical force, business letters receiving special 

With the Essay arises a new necessity, —of formal invention. The author clearly 
shows that a distinct part of what is often called “ inspiration ” in writing comes from 
hard labor under fixed rules here laid down; that this labor is indispensable even to 
respectable writing, and that without this labor no production is worthy to be called 
an essay. 

The Oration introduces anew feature, — the oral delivery to an audience, with all 
the principles of articulation, emphasis, gesture, and other principles usually referred 
to elocution as a distinct subject. The discussion of extempore speaking is remarkably 
terse and helpful. 

Finally comes the Poem, more briefly treated, with the most important directions 
&3 to Rhythm and Rhyme. 

nere vve have then six distinct parts, — Sentence-Making, Conversation, Letter- 
Writing, the Essay, the Oration, and the Poem. 

When all this is taken into consideration, the book seems small instead of largey 
and we must wonder how so much was got into so little space. 




Gilman’s First Steps in English Literature. 

The character and plan of this exquisite little text-book may be best understooo m,m 
an analysis of its contents : Introduction. Historical Period of Immatni-p 'Fnrriic.i 
with Chart; Definition of Terms; Languages of Europe Su ttS ’ 

English, with Chart; a Chart of Bible to GeS 

Reading:. and other aids t,o t.hp s+.nri«n+ * ° F J wume WVj enerai 

Cleveland’s Compendiums. 3 vols. 12mo. 

English Literature. American Literature. 

. tv , English Literature op the XIXth Century. 

In thesevolumes are gathered the cream of the literature of the English-speaking 

Eenerai reader - Ti,eir —>■><■ — * 

Boyd’s English Classics. 6 vols. Cloth. 12mo. 

Milton’s Paradise Lost. Thomson’s Seasons 

® N ^ GHT U IOUGH ^ s - Pollok’s Course of Time. 

Cowper s Task, Table Ialk, &c. Lord Bacon’s Essays. 

to the study 

Pope’s Essay on Man. IGmo. Paper. 

Pope’s Homer’s Iliad.. 32mo. Roan. 

the Nature and t Stat1 a of°Ml gr A e , at P °f °l anti ^ u j t y« and the matchless “ Essay on 
and parsing." 1 Man, by Alexander Pope, afford superior exercise in literature 


Champlin’s Lessons on Political Economy. 

esseStiaT : rtwlw Previous treatises, being shorter, yet containing everything 
found ’ th ** recent < l uestlons ln finance, &c„ which is not elsewhere 




Huntington’s Manual of the Fine Arts 0 

A view of the rise and progress of art in different countries, n brief account of the 
most eminent masters of art, and an analysis of the principles ol art. It is complete 
in itself, or may precede to advantage the critical work of Lord Karnes. 

Boyd’s Karnes’s Elements of Criticism. 

The best edition of this standard Avork; Avithout the study of which none may be 
considered proficient in the science of the perceptions. No other study can be pursued 
with so marked an effect upon the taste and refinement of the pupil. 


Watson’s Practical Elocution. 

A scientific presentment of accepted principles of elocutionary drill, with black¬ 
board diagrams and full collection of examples for class drill. Cloth. 90 pages, 12mo. 

Taverner Graham’s Reasonable Elocution. 

Based upon the belief that true elocution is the right interpretation of thought, 
and guiding the student to an intelligent appreciation, instead of a merely mechanical 
knowledge, of its rules. 

Zachos’s Analytic Elocution. 

All departments of elocution — such as the analysis of the voice and the sentence, 
phonology, rhythm, expression, gesture, &c.—are here arranged for instruction in 
classes, illustrated by copious examples. 


Northend’s Little Orator. 

Northend’s Child’s Speaker. 

Two little works of the same grade but different selections, containing simple and 
attractive pieces for children under twelve years of age. 

Northend’s Young Declaimer. 

Northend’s National Orator. 

Two A’olumes of prose, poetry, and dialogue, adapted to intermediate and grammar 
classes respectively. 

Northend’s Entertaining Dialogues. 

Extracts eminently adapted to cultivate the dramatic faculties, aa well as entertain. 

Oakey’s Dialogues and Conversations. 

For school exercises and exhibitions, combining useful instruction. 

James’s Southern Selections, for Reading and Oratory 

Embracing exclusively Southern literature. 

Swett’s Common School Speaker. 

Raymond’s Patriotic Speaker. 

A superb compilation of modern eloquence and poetry, with original dramatic 
exerciaea. Nearly every eminent modem orator is represented. 




Mahan’s Intellectual Philosophy. 

The subject exhaustively considered. The author lias evinced learning, candor, and 
independent thinking. 

Mahan’s Science of Logic. 

A profound analysis of the laws of thought. The system possesses the merit of being 
intelligible and self-consistent. In addition to the author’s carefully elaborated views, 
it embraces results attained by the ablest minds of Great Britain, Germany, and France, 
in this department. 

Boyd’s Elements of Logic. 

A systematic and philosophic, condensation of the subject, fortified with additions 
from Watts, Abercrombie, Whately, &c. 

Watts on the Mind. Edited by Stephen N. Fellows. 

The “ Improvement of the Mind,” by Isaac Watts, is designed as a guide fer the 
attainment of useful knowledge. As a text-book it is unparalleled ; and the discipline 
it affords cannot be too highly esteemed by the educator. 


Peabody’s Moral Philosophy. 

A short course, by the Professor of Christian Morals, Harvard University, for the 
Freshman class and for high schools. 

Butler’s Analogy. Hobart’s Analysis. 

Edited by Prof. Charles E. West, of Brooklyn Heights Seminary. 228 pages. 16mo. 

Alden’s Text-Book of Ethics. 

For young pupils. To aid in systematizing the ethical teachings of the Bible, and 
point out the coincidences between the instructions of the sacred volume and the sound 
conclusions of reason. 

Smith’s Elements of Moral Philosophy. 

140 pages. 12mo. Cloth. By Wm. Austin Smith, A.M., Ph.lX, Professor of Moral 
Philosophy in the Columbia (Tenn.) Athengeum. 

This is an excellent book for the use of academies and schools. It is prepared to 
meet the wants of a much larger public than has heretofore been reached by works of 
this class. The subject is presented in clear and simple language, and will be found 
adapted to the comprehension of young pupils, at a time when they particularly need 
an insight into the laws which govern the moral world. 

Janet’s Elements of Morals. 

By Paul Janet. Translated by Mrs. Prof. Corson, of Cornell University. 

The Elements of Morals is one of a series of works chiefly devoted to Ethics, and 
treats of practical, rather than theoretical morality. 

Mr. Janet is too well known that it be necessary to call attention to his excellence 
as a moral writer, and it will be sufficient to say that what particularly recommends 
the Elements of Morals to educators and students in general is the admirable adap¬ 
tation of the book to college and school purposes. 

Besides the systematic and scholarly arrangement of its parts, it contains series of 
examples and illustrations — anecdotic, historical — gathered with rare impartiality 
from both ancient and modern writers, and which impart a peculiar life and interest to 
the subject. 

Another feature of the work is its sound religious basis. Mr. Janet is above all 
a religious moralist 



Young’s Lessons in Civil Government. 

A'comprehensive view of- Government, and abstract of the laws showing the rights, 
duties, and responsibilities of citizens. 

Mansfield’s Political Manual. 

This is a complete view of the theory and practice of the General and State Govern¬ 
ments, designed as a text-book. The author is an esteemed and able professor of con¬ 
stitutional law, widely known for his sagacious utterances in the public press. 

Martin’s Civil Government. 

From, Prof. Geo. B. Emerson, Boston. 

“ It is clear and well arranged, and very comprehensive. Whoever reads [it atten¬ 
tively will understand more fully and satisfactorily than he could have done without 
it the history of his own country, and any other. Every young man should study it 
before he comes to vote, and it should therefore be a text-book in every High School 
and Academy, and a part of the library of every lover of his country.” 

From F. P. Conn, Co. Supt. of Schools, Vanderburgh Co., Ind. 

“It embraces the essential knowledge of the science, and its arrangement affords 
ready references to a contents easily acquired. Am satisfied that no more useful book 
could be adopted, especially in the ungraded schools of the country, where libraries 
and newspapers are rare.” 

Antebellum Constitutions. 

A complete collection of State and Federal Constitutions as they stood before the 
Civil War of 1861. With an essay on changes made during the reconstruction period, 
by Wilmot L. Warren. 


Cocker’s Handbook of Punctuation. 

With instructions for capitalization, letter-writing, and proof-reading. Most works 
on this subject are so abstruse and technical that the unprofessional reader finds them 
difficult of comprehension ; but this little treatise is so simple and comprehensive that 
persons of very ordinary intelligence can readily understand and apply its principles. 


Anatomical Technology as Applied to theDomestic Cat. 

An introduction to human, veterinary, and comparative anatomy. A practical work 
for students and teachers. 600 pages. 130 figures, and four lithograph plates. By 
Burt G. Wilder and Simon H. Gage, Professors in Cornell University. 

“ Instructions in the best method of 
dissection and study of each organ and 
region. ” — American Veterinary Review. 

“ A valuable manual, at once author¬ 
itative in statement and admirable in 
method.” — American Journal of Medical 

“ Well adapted to the purpose for whicn 
it ha3 been written. ” — Nature. 

“The student who will carefully dissect 
a few cats according to the rules given in 
this book will have a great advantage over 
the one who begins his work with the 
human body ; and. if he will master the in¬ 
structions for the various methods of 
preparation, he will know more than most 
graduates in medicine.” — The Boston 
Medical and Surgical Journal 




By James H. Worman, A.M., Professor of Modern Languages. 

Worman’s First German Book. 

Worman’s Second German Book. 

Worman’s Elementary German Grammar. 
Worman’s Complete German Grammar. 

These volumes are designed for intermediate and advanced classes respectively 
Though following the same general method with “ Otto ” (that of “ Gaspev ”) our 
author differs essentially in its application. He is more practical, more systematic 
more accurate, and besides introduces a number of invaluable features which have 
never before been combined in a German grammar. 

Among other things, it may be claimed for Professor Worman that he has been tht 
first to introduce, in an American text-book for learning German, a system of analog and 
comparison with other languages. Our best teachers are also enthusiastic about his 
methods of inculcating the art of speaking, of understanding the spoken language of 
correct, pronunciation ; the sensible and convenient original classification of nouns’fin 
four declensions), and of irregular verbs, also deserves much praise. We also note the 
use of heavy type to indicate etymological changes in the paradigms and. in the exer¬ 
cises, the parts which specially illustrate preceding rules. 

Worman’s Elementary German Reader. 

Worman’s Collegiate German Reader. 

The finest and most judicious compilation of classical and standard German literature 
Tnese works embrace, progressively arranged, selections from the masterpieces of 
Goethe, Schiller, Korner, Seume, Uhland, Freiligratli, Heine, Sclilegel, Holty, Lenau 
Wieland Herder Lessing, Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Winkelmann, Humboldt Ranke’ 
Kaumer, Menzel, Gervinus, &c., and contain complete Goethe’s “Iphmenie ” Schiller’s 
“Jungfrau;” also, for instruction in modern conversational German’ Benedix’s 

“ Eigensinn 

- —- 

There are, besides, biographical sketches of each author contributing notes explan¬ 
atory and philological (after the text), grammatical references to all leading grammars 
as well as the editor’s own, md an adequate Vocabulary. * 

Worman’s German Echo. 

Worman’s German Copy-Books, 3 Numbers. 

On the same plan as the most approved systems for English penmanship, with 
progressive copies. 


First and Second Books in German. 

By the natural or Pestalozzian System, for teaching the language without the help 
of the Learner’s Vernacular. By James H. Worman, A. M. 

These books belong to the new Chautauqua German Language Series, and are in¬ 
tended for beginners learning to speak German. The iieculiar features of its method 
are: — 

It teaches the language by direct appeal to illustrations of the objects 
^ e I e ^ re< ^ to, and does not allow the student to guess what is said, lie speaks from the 
first hour understandinglv and accurately. Therefore, 

2. Grammar is taught both analytically and synthetically throughout tht 
course, ihe beginning is made with the auxiliaries of tense and mood, because their 
Kinship with the English makes them easily intelligible ; then follow the declensions of 
nouns, articles, and other parts of speech, always systematically arranged. It is easy 
to confuse the pupil by giving him one person or one case at a time. This pernicious 
P ra <;tiee is discarded. Books that beget unsystematic habits of thought are worse than 
w ortr i6»s. 



3. The rules are introduced after the examples; the purpose being to employ 
first the lower or sense faculty or' the mind. 

4. Everything- is taught by contrast and association, to avoid overtaxing the 

memory at the expense of tne reason. 

5. The lessons convey much practical varied information, and engage the ob¬ 
serving as well as the thinking faculties of the learner’s mind. 

In short, this brief series contains within its few pages all the essentials of German/ 
Grammar so presented that their mastery is easy, and the student prepared upon its 
completion to enter upon the study of the more recondite, complicated, and irregular 
principles of the language. 

From Prof. Schele de Vere, author of a 
French Grammar, Studies in English, &c., 
&c., University of Virginia, Va. 

Prof. James H. Worman. 

My dear Sir,— Your very liberal pub¬ 
lishers (Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co.) have 
done me the honor to send me a copy of 
your excellent works, The First French and 
the Second German Book. It needed 
no introduction in the shajje of compli¬ 
mentary notices sans nombres to call my 
attention to the eminent merits of these 
valuable publications. But I was sin¬ 
cerely glad that the public at large, as 
well as me, confreres litteraires dans ce 
departement de la Linguistique, have at 
length discerned the great advantages of 
your method, and enabled you and your 
publishers to bring out your works in a 
style so truly in sympathy with the in¬ 
trinsic value of the different volumes. 

Most unfortunately — for how I should 
delight to wield such exquisitely shaped 
and sharpened instruments to make my 
way into thick crania and dense brains ! 
— our university way of teaching does 
not admit of the admirable method pre¬ 
scribed in your volumes. The laws of 
the Medes are as Irreversible here as the 
Decrees of Mr. Jefferson, and when I fan¬ 
cied I had obtained the victory, I found 
myself faced by a stern decree. All I can 
do, therefore, is to recommend your works 
most earnestly and most urgently, in the 
point of economy, to my young graduates, 
hundreds of whom leave us every harvest 
time, to scatter their seeds broadcast over 
the vast fields of the South, and to profess 
boldly their adherence to the confessions 
of their teachers. 

Wishing you heartily the best success, 
and hoping that I shall be able hereafter 
also modestly to assist you, I remain, very 
sincerely yours, Schele De Vere. 

From Head Master, Boston (Mass.) Normal 

Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co.,— I want to 
thank you for the copies of those beautiful 

little books for beginners in German and 
French prepared by Professor Worman. 
The Professor is taking his pupils 
along the right road rapidly and delight¬ 

Whatever may be said of the tedious¬ 
ness of learning the grammar of a new 
language, I think all will agree that the 
great labor is mastering the vocabulary. 
And it is just at this point that 1 think 
these books are of great use. The exercises 
are so developed out of pictured objects and 
actions, and are so weil graduated that 
almost from the very outset they go alone. 
A beginner would have little use for 
a dictionary in reading the “ First French 
Book;” and yet the words are so introduced 
and so often used, that the meaning is 
kept constantly before the mind, without 
the intervention of a translation. By this 
means the pupil soon makes them his 
permanent possession. 

A dozen volumes as well graduated as 
these would do much to give the student 
an extended vocabulary. I trust Professor 
Worman will continue his good work. 

Yours very truly. 

L. Dunton. 

From Mr. R. T. Taylor, of Beaver, Pa. 

Messrs. A. S. Barnes & Co. 

Dear Sirs, — Your kindness in sending 
books appreciated. I have examined Pro¬ 
fessor Worman’s “ First French Book ” and 
I think it the best thing of the kind I have 
ever seen. There is just enough of the 
grammar combined to make the natural 
method practicable. I shall introduce 
the work into my school this fall. We have 
been using Proiessor Worman’s German 
books and are very much pleased with 
them. The “Echo,” in particular, de¬ 
lights pupils. They make more advance¬ 
ment in one year by this method than in 
two by the old manner of teaching. 

Wishing you success in your business { 
I am 

Yours very truly, 

R. T. Taylor, 




Worman’s First French Book. 

On same plan as the German and Spanish. The scholar reads and speaks from the 
first hour understandingly and accurately. 83 pages. 

Worman’s Second French Book. 

Continues the work of the First Book, and is a valuable Elementary French Reader. 
96 pages. 

Worman’s Le Questionnaire. 

Exercises on the First French Book. 98 pages. Cloth. 

Worman’s Grammaire Frangaise. 

Written in simple French, but based on English analogy. It therefore dwells upon the 
Essentials, especially those which point out the variations of the French from the 
student’s vernacular. 184 pp. 

Worman’s Teacher’s Hand-Book. 

Or Key to the Grammaire Francaise. 

Worman’s French Echo. 

This is not a mass of meaningless and parrot-like phrases thrown together for 
a tourist’s use, to bewilder him when in the presence of a Frenchman. 

The “ Echo de Paris ” is a strictly progressive conversational hook, beginning with sim¬ 
ple phrases and leading by frequent repetition to a mastery of the idioms and of the 
every-day language used in business, on travel, at a hotel, in the chit-chat of 

It presupposes an elementary knowledge of the language, such as may be acquired 
from the First French Book by Professor Worman, and furnishes a running French 
text, allowing the learner of course to find the meaning of the words (in the appended 
Vocabulary), and forcing him, by the absence of English in the text, to think in 

Cher Monsieur Worman, — Vous me 
demandez mon opinion sur votre “ Echo de 
Paris” et quel usage j’en fais. Je ne 
saurais mieux vous repondre qu’en repro- 
duisant une lettre que j’ecrivais derniere- 
ment A un collegue qui etait, me disait-il, 
“bien fatigue de ces insipides livres de 

“ Vous ne ronnaissez done pas,” lui 
disais-je, “ ‘l’Echo de Paris,’ edite par le 
Professor Worman? C’est un veritable 
tresor, merveilleusement adapte au devel- 
oppement de la conversation familiere et 
pratique, telle qu’on la veut aujourd’hui. 
Cet excellent livre met successivement en 
scene, d’une maniere vive et interessante, 

loutes les circonstances possibles de la vie 
ordinaire. Voyez l’immense avantage 
il vous transporte en France ; du premier 
mot, je m’imagine, et mes eleves avec moi, 
que nous sommes a Paris, dans la rue, sur 
une place, dans une gare, dans un salon, 
dans une chambre, voire meine a la cui¬ 
sine ; je parle com me avec des Frangais ; 
les eleves ne songent pas a traduire de 
1’anglais pour me repondre ; ils pensent 
en frangais ; ils sont Frangais pour le 
moment par les yeux, par l’oreille, par la 
pensee Quel autre livre pourrait produire 
cette illusion? ...” 

Votre tout aevoue, 

A. de Rougemont, 

Illustrated Language Primers 

French and English. German and English. 

Spanish and English. 

The names of common objects properly illustrated and arranged in easy lessons. 

Pujol’s Complete French Class-Book. 

Offers in one volume, methodically arranged, a complete French course — usually 
embraced in series of from five to twelve books, including the bulky and expensive 
lexicon. Here are grammar, conversation, and choice literature, selected from the 
best French authors. Each branch is thoroughly handled ; and the student, having 
diligently completed the course as prescribed, may consider himself, without further 
application, au fait in the most polite and elegant language of modern times. 




Pujol’s French Grammar, Exercises, Reader. 3 vols. 

These volumes contain Part I., Parts II. and III., and Part IV. 01 the Complete Class* 
Book respectively, for the convenience of scholars and teachers. The Lexicon is bound 
with each part. 

Maurice-Poitevin’s Grammaire Frangaise. 

American schools are at last supplied with an American edition of this famous text¬ 
book. Many of our best institutions have for years been procuring it from abroad 
rather than forego the advantages it offers. The policy of putting students who have 
acquired some proficiency from the ordinary text-books, into a Grammar written in the 
vernacular, cannot be too highly commended. It affords an opportunity for finish and 
review at once, while embodying abundant practice of its own rules. 


Woman’s First Spanish Book. 

On same plan as Worman’s first German and French Books. Teaches by direct ap¬ 
peal to illustrations, and by contrast, association, and natural inference. 9G pp. 

These little books work marvels in the school-room. The exercises are so developed 
out of pictured objects and actions, and are so well graduated, that almost from the 
very outset they go alone. A beginner would have little use for a dictionary in reading. 
Tl*3 words are so introduced, and so often used, that the meaning is kept constantly 
before the mind, without the intervention of a translation. 

Other Spanish Books to follow. 



Searing’s Virgil’s .ffineid, Georgies, and Bucolics. 

1. It contains the first six books of the jEueid and the entire Bucolics and Georgies. 
2. A very carefully constructed Dictionary. 3. Sufficiently copious notes. 4. Gram¬ 
matical references to four leading Grammars. 5. Numerous illustrations of the highest 
order. 6. A superb map of the Mediterranean and adjacent countries. 7. Dr. S. H. 
Taylor’s “Questions on the Aineich” 8. A Metrical Index, and an essay on the 
Poetical Style. 9. A photographic facsimile of an early Latin MS. 10. The text is 
according to Jahn, but paragraphed according to Ladewig. 11. Superior mechanical 

“ My attention was called to Searing’s 
Virgil by the fact of its containing a vo¬ 
cabulary which would obviate the neces¬ 
sity of procuring a lexicon. But use in 
the class-room has impressed me most 
favorably with the accuracy and just pro¬ 
portion of its notes, and the general ex¬ 
cellence of its grammatical suggestions. 

The general character of the book, in its 

Johnson’s Persius. 

The Satires of Aulus Persius Flaccus, edited, with English notes, principally from 
Conington. By Henry Clark Johnson, A. M., LL.B., Professor of Latin in the Lehigh 


paper, its typography, and its engravings, 
is highly commendable, and the jacsimile 
manuscript is a valuable feature. I take 
great pleasure in commending the book to 
all who do not wish a comidete edition of 
Virgil. It suits our short school courses 
admirably.” Henry L. Boltwood, Mas¬ 
ter Princeton High School, III. 




Scarborough’s First Lessons in Greek. 

A new two-term text-book, with copious notes and references to the Grammars of 
Goodwin and Hadley, and an adequate Vocabulary. Designed as an Elementary Drill- 
book on the inflections and syntax of the Greek language. 

I. These Lessons embrace all the essential points of the Greek etymology and syn¬ 
tax. and are sufficient to introduce the learner to Goodwin’s Greek Reader, Xenophon’s 
Anabasis, or similar Greek. 

II. The notes and references are full enough in every particular to give the 
student a thorough knowledge of the rudimentary forms, inflections, and principles of 
the Greek language. 

III. The verb is introduced early, so that the inflections of nouns and verbs 
are given side by side, and the pupil is at once made acquainted with complete 

IV- As the student advances, the principles of Greek syntax are graduallv developed 
so that he is led step by step from the simple to the more complex. 

•Yu T lie , book is divided into two parts. The first consists of seventv-eight lessons, 
with Greek and English lessons alternating. The second, of selections from the 
Anabasis (parts of the 1st and 6th chapters, Bk. I.) and the Memorabilia (the Choice of 
Hercules, Bk. II., chapter 1). 

VI. The book is sufficient for all purposes in rudimentary instruction. 

From The Religious Herald, Hartford, Ct. 

“We are highly pleased with this ele¬ 
mentary work. The eiglity-five lessons of 
part first may well be taken in fifteen to 
twenty weeks, and part second may be 
pursued to advantage, or the scholar may 
go directly from the first part to the Ana¬ 
basis. The arrangement of lessons is 
good, which the teacher will employ at 
his discretion so as to secure the most 
efficient work of his classes.” 

“ I have examined Professor Scarbo¬ 
rough’s ‘ First Lessons in Greek ’ with 
some care, and am much interested in 

the book. It is clear and accurate, de- 
velopes the subject naturally and easily 
and is handsomely printed. The methods 
of a practical teacher are everywhere 
seen.” Wm. G. Frost, 

Professor of Greek, Oberlin College , Ohio. 

“I have examined Professor Scarbo¬ 
rough’s ‘First Lessons in Greek’ with 
much care. I am exceedingly well pleased 
with the work and think it in every way 
well adapted to the uses for which it is 
intended. ” 

Wm H. Tibball, 
Principal of Poland (0.), Seminary. 




Ryan’s Vocalist. 

A new singing book for Graded Schools, Seminaries and social assemblies. 232 pages, 
long 8vo, cloth. 

The National School Singer. 

Bright, new music for the day school, embracing Song Lessons, Exercise Songs, Songs 
of Study, Order, Promptness, and Obedience, of Industry and Nature, Patriotic and 
Temperance Songs, Opening and Closing Songs ; in fact, everything needed in the 
school-room. By an eminent musician and composer. 

Jepson’s Music Readers. 3 vols. 

These are not books from which children simply learn songs, parrot-like, but teach 
the subject progressively, the scholar learning to read music by methods similar to 
those employed in teaching him to read printed language. Any teacher, however igno¬ 
rant of music, provided he can, upon trial, simply sound the scale, may teach it without 
assistance, and will end by being a good singer himself. The “ Elementary Music 
Reader,” or first volume, fuily develops the system. The two companion volumes carry 
the same method into the higher grades, but their use is not essential. 

The First Reader is also published in three parts, at thirty cents each, for those who 
prefer them in that form. 

Nash and Bristow’s Cantara. 

The first volume is a complete musical text-book for schools of every grade. No. 2 is 
a choice selection of solos and part songs. The authors are Directors of Music 
in the public schools of New York City, in which these books are the standard of 

The Polytechnic. 

Collection of Part Songs for High and Normal Schools and Clubs. This work con¬ 
tains a quantity of exceedingly valuable material, heretofore accessible only in sheet 
form or scattered in numerous and costly works. The collection of “ College Songs ” 
is a very attractive feature. 

Curtis’s Little Singer: — School Vocalist. — Kings¬ 
ley’s School-Room Choir. — Young Ladies’ 
Harp. — Hager’s Echo (A Cantata). 


Brooks’s School Manual of Devotion. 

This volume contains daily devotional exercises, consisting of a hymn, selections of 
Scripture for alternate reading by teacher and pupils, and a prayer. Its value for open¬ 
ing and closing school is apparent. 

Brooks’s School Harmonist. 

Contains appropriate tunes for each hymn in the “ Manual of Devotion” described 

Bartley’s Songs for the School. 

A selection of appropriate hymns of an unsectarian character, carefully classified 
and set to popular and “ singable. ” tunes, for opening and closing exercises. The Secu¬ 
lar Department is full of bright and well-selected music. 





Baade’s Reading Case. 

This remarkable piece of school-room furniture is a receptacle containing a number 
of primary cards. By an arrangement of slides on the front, one sentence at. a time is 
shown to the class. Twenty-eight thousand transpositions may be made, affording a 
)variety of progressive exercises which no other piece of apparatus offers. One of its 
"best features is, that it is so exceedingly simple as not to get out of order, while it may 
fbe operated with one linger. 

/Clark’s Grammatical Chart. 

Exhibits the whole science of language in one comprehensive diagram. 

Davies’s Mathematical Chart. 

Elementary mathematics clearly taught to a full class at a glance. 

De Rupert’s Philological and Historical Chart. 

This very comprehensive chart shows the birth, development, and progress of the 
literatures of the world ; their importance, their influence on each other, and the cen¬ 
tury in which such influence was experienced ; with a list for each country of standard 
authors and their best works. Illustrating also the division of languages into classes, 
families, and groups. Giving date of settlement, discovery, or conquest of all countries, 
with their government, religion, area, population, and the percentage of enrolment for 
1872, in the primary schools of Europe and America. 

Eastman’s Chirographic Chart. Family Record. 
Giffins’s Number Chart. 

Teaches addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Size, 23x31 inches. 

Marcy’s Eureka Tablet. 

A new system for the alphabet, by which it may be taught without fail in nine lessons. 

McKenzie’s Elocutionary Chart. 

Monteith’s Pictorial Chart of Geography. 

A crayon picture illustrating all the divisions of the earth’s surface commonly 
taught in geography. 

Wm. L. Dickinson, Superintendent of 
Schools , Jersey City, says. 

“It is an admirable amplification of the 
system of pictorial illustration adopted 

Monteith’s Reference Maps. School and Grand Series. 

Names all laid down in small type so that to the pupil at a short distance they are 
outline maps, while they serve as their own key to the teacher. 

Page’s Normal Chart. 

The whole science of elementary sounds tabulated. 

Scofield’s School Tablets. 

On five cards, exhibiting ten surfaces. These tablets teach orthography, reading, 
object-lessons, color, form, &c. 

Watson’s Phonetic Tablets. 

in all good geographies. I think the 
chart would be a great help in any pri¬ 
mary department.” 

Four cards and eight surfaces ; teaching pronunciation and elocution phonetically. 
F'»r class exercises. 

Whitcomb’s Historical Chart. 

A student’s topical historical chart, from the creation to the present time, including 
results of the latest chronological research. Arranged with spaces for summary, that 
pupils may prepare and review their own chart in connection with any text-book. 

Willard’s Chronographers. 

Historical. Four numbers : Ancient chronographer, English chronographer, Ameri¬ 
can chronographer, temple of time (general). Dates and events represented to the eye. 



CHARTS, &c. — Continued. 

Popular Folding Reading Charts. 

In two parts. Price $5.00 each. These fifty-three charts are the outgrowth of prac¬ 
tical reading lessons, all of which have been tried with classes of little children, first 
as black-board lessons, and afterward as printed manuscripts. By this method all the 
lessons were adapted to the capacity of the children. The words have been carefully 
selected and graded from the child’s own spoken vocabulary. 


The new words of the first part are taught 
by the word and sentence method, the object- 
words being illustrated by engravings. 

All the lessons sparkle with real childlike 
expressions. The language is the language 
of childhood, and thus to the pupil becomes 
doubly interesting while at the same time 

The Clock Face, with Movable Hands, is 
an important and attractive feature. The au¬ 
thors know from experience that very happy 
results can be had by its use. Teaching chil¬ 
dren to tell the time lias always been expected 
of the teacher, though seldom, if ever, has an 
opportunity been afforded him to do so. 

All the letters of the alphabet are taught by 
a series of writing lessons in the order of 
their development, and are finally grouped to¬ 
gether in a script alphabet. 


takes up the development of the elementary 
sounds of the language, from the words already 
learned in Part I., in such a way as to enable 
the child to see for himself how words are made, 
and giving the key by which he can make out 
for himself new words. 

A series of language lessons is the feature 
of this part, by which children are gradually 
taught the use of words by composing brief 
sentences and original stories. 

The Color Chart is the most unique feature 
ever offered to the public, enabling the teacher 
to teach the primary and secondary colors from 

Many review lessons are given in order that 
the children may learn to read by reading. 

No easel or framework of any kind is re¬ 
quired with the chart. The publishers have 
secured the exclusive right to use Shepard’s 
Patent Chart Binding, the use of which 
gives it a decided advantage over any other 
reading chart yet made. It is in this respect 

A little girl. 

Ct little aMl. 

Here is a girl. 
Here is alittle girl. 

/CO /C& /C/s 




Bock’s Physiological Apparatus. 

A collection of twenty-seven anatomical models. 

Harrington’s Fractional Blocks. 

Harrington’s Geometrical Blocks. 

These patent blocks are hinged, so that each form can be dissected. 

Kendall’s Lunar Telluric Globe. 

Moon, globe, and tellurian combined. 

Steele’s Chemical Apparatus. 

Steele’s Geological Cabinet. 

Steele’s Philosophical Apparatus. 

Wood’s Botanical Apparatus. 


Cole’s Self-Reporting Class Book. 

For saving the teacher’s labor in averaging. At each opening are a full set of tables 
showing any scholar’s standing at a glance, and entirely obviating the necessity of 

Tracy’s School Record. {pockefSn.} 

For keeping a simple but exact record of attendance, deportment, and scholarship. 
The larger edition contains also a calendar, an extensive list of topics for compositions 
and colloquies, themes for short lectures, suggestions to young teachers, &c. 

Benet’s Individual Records. 

Brooks’s Teacher’s Register. 

Presents at one view a record of attendance, recitations, and deportment for the 
whole term. 

Carter’s Record and Roll-Book. 

This is the most complete and convenient record offered to the public. Besides the 
usual spaces for general scholarship, deportment, attendance, &c., for each name and 
day, there is a space in red lines enclosing six minor spaces in blue for recordiug 

National School Diary. 

A little book of blank forms for weekly report of the standing of each scholar, from 
teacher to parent. A great convenience. 


National School Currency. 

A little box containing certificates in the form of money. The most entertaining and 
stimulating system of school rewards. The scholar is paid for his merits and fined for 
his short-comings. Of course the most faithful are the most successful in business. 
In this way the use and value of money and the method of keeping accounts are also 
taught. One box of currency will supply a school of fifty pupils. 





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