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Newsletter of the North American Mycological Association 



VOLUME 53:5 SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 www.namyco.org 


!!! NAM A ARKANSAS FORAY, October 24-27 !!! 


Registration for the 2013 NAMA foray has been increasing in the months following the 
first announcements in The Mycophile and on our NAMA website http:/namvco.org/ 
events/NAMA2013/index 2013.html . Currently most of the deluxe rooms have been taken, 
although there are quite a number of single beds still available. So that means its time to stop 
procrastinating, and to get your registration and waiver forms in before its too late! 

Word on the street and in the fields is that this first ever NAMA foray in the fertile Ozark mountain forests of 
Arkansas is taking on the appearance of becoming a super-charged event and a shindig that you will regret 
missing if you don’t sign up for it quickly, before all the beds are taken. Looking at the line-up of the myco- 
luminaries on the list of participating mycologists, I understand why folks are excited about wanting to be part of 
this historic foray To entice you to join us, we have a stellar faculty to help us identify our finds and to enlighten 
us about their current mycological interests. They include none other than Clark Ovrebo, Alan Bessette, Arleen 
Bessette, Andy Methven, Michael Kuo, Britt Bunyard, Tom Volk, Rosanne Healy, Jean Lodge, Walt Sturgeon and 
David Lewis. 

The potential is great that some new fungal species previously unknown to science will be found at this foray 
The last weekend in October offers an excellent opportunity for more of my fellow mycologists to come to 
Arkansas to see if they can find and collect a new mushroom or fungus that is currently undescribed. I know 
you will enjoy collecting the mushrooms as well as all of the other events that make a NAMA foray an unique 
learning and social experience. 

So y’all come on down or up or sideways, from wherever you abide, and join me in the Natural State for the 
forthcoming fun, fungi and frivolity that will transpire the last weekend in October at the Shepard of the 
Ozarks conference center. 

Jay Justice 


IN THIS ISSUE 


Last Call for NAMA Arkansas Foray.1 

Forays and Events.2 


Glinting Orange Ganoderma .3-6 

Largest Ganoderma in the World.7-8 

Medicinal Mushrooms.9-13 

Pickled Mushrooms.14 


NAM As 2012 Financial Report.15-17 

Book Review: The Kingdom Fungi.18-19 

Henry Pavelek Memorial Sholarship.19 

Newton NM1 Portable Microscope.20-21 

Forest Management and Biodiversity.22-23 

Call for Mclllvania and Mycophile Articles.23 


1 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 





















FORAYS & OTHER EVENTS 

This section of The Mycophile is reserved for publicizing the annual 
forays of NAMA affiliated clubs and other events you may be interested 
in learning about. If you would like us to list your clubs next big event, 
contact us with details you would like displayed here and send to the editor 
dianna.smith@comcast.net . See also http:/namvco.org/events/index.html. 


September 6-8: The New River Valley Mushroom Club in conjunction with the Mycological 
Association of Washington (MAW) has an event at Mountain Lake, VA. 

Eagle Hill Institute: Mycology Workshops in Maine, PO Box 9, 59 Eagle Hill Road, Steuben ME 
04680. ( office@eaglehill.us , www.eaglehill.us ) 

September 8-14: Boletes of North America: A Field Seminar and Workshop with Alan E. 
Bessette and Arleen R. Bessette. 

September 12-15: Wildacres Regional Foray in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. 

September 21: Western Pennsylvaia Mycological Club Gary Lincoff Foray - North Park - 8 am. 
There is still time to register. See Lincoff-Foray@wpamushroomclub.org . 

October 3-6: The Missouri Mycological Society (MOMS) invites you to their Annual Fall 
Foray at Mingo Wildlife Refuge in southeastern Missouri. See www.MoMyco.org for more 
information. 

October 24-27: Arkansas Mycological Society hosts the 2013 NAMA FORAY. Registration 
and waiver forms can be found at http://www.namyco.org/events/NAMA 2013/index2013.html . 
(Note: Membership in NAMA is required to attend NAMA forays. To become a member, please 
see http://www.namyco.org/join/index.html). 

January 24-26, 2014: The fifth biannual All California Club Foray (ACCF) will be held in 
January 2014 in Albion, California. Chief mycologist, Dr. Terry Henkel, and grad students 
from Humboldt State University will assist with taxonomy. This event includes catered meals, 
comfy lodging, and mushroom hunts in the bountiful Jackson Demonstration State Forest 
near Mendocino. This foray is open to any current member of a California mushroom club and 
NAMA members. Cost is $175 per person and includes two nights lodging and all meals from 
Friday evening through Sunday breakfast. Pre-registration is required. Registration and detailed 
information can be found at: http://bayareamushrooms.org/forays/accf 2014.html 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


2 














The Glinting Orange Ganoderma 

by William Needham of the Mycological Association of Washington 



The striking colors and varnished appearance of Ganoderma make it an attractive mushroom to 
display at home. (Photo by William Needham) 

Common Name : Varnish shelf, Hemlock polypore, Ling zhi or Ling chi (Chinese), 
Reishi (Japanese). 

The laccate upper surface of the pileus (cap) has the sheen of varnished wood; its 
lateral single point attachment juts from the tree bole like a shelf. 

Scientific Name : Ganoderma tsugae 

The generic name is a combination of the Greek ganos , meaning ‘brightness and 
derma , meaning ‘skin in reference to the glinting surface, or skin, of the fungus. 

The genus of hemlock trees is Tsuga; the fungus is most frequently found on a 
hemlock host. Ganoderma lucidum is essentially identical in appearance and grows 
on deciduous trees; lucidum is Latin for ‘full of light, clear, bright’ - an additional 
reference to the lacquered semi-circular cap, or basidiocarp. 


3 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 









(Ganoderma tsugae by William Needham) 

The iridescent glow of this burnt orange bracket fungus evokes a numinous provenance that 
distinguishes it from its more mundane polypore cousins. It undoubtedly caught the eye of 
the earliest hominids who may have originally used it as an adornment to their environs; it 
is collected to this day for its natural beauty. Its mystical appearance as an excrescence on a 
tree bole prior to the advent of the understanding of the scientific age may also have led to its 
association with local divinities, a sylvan gift from the gods. It is too tough to eat, but it can be 
readily ground up for consumption; it has been in use in China as a medicinal tea for millennia. 
It was listed in Shen Nong Ben Cao Jing , which is one of the earliest Chinese herbal texts, and 
dates to the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 - 220 CE). Paul Stamets in Mycelium Running notes that 
“the earliest mention of ling chi occurred in the era of the first emperor of China, Shih-huang of 
the Ch’in Dynasty (221 - 207 BCE).” 


Ganoderma is “probably the most morphologically complex genus of polypores” according 
to Chang and Miles in Mushrooms: Cultivation , Nutritional Value , Medicinal Effect and 
Environmental Impact. Over 250 separate species have been identified; the taxonomy is based 
on significant variability in both microscopic and macroscopic physical characteristics. The 
proliferation of names is attributable at least in part to the global geographical distribution 
of the fungus and to its extensive use as an herbal medicine. The advent of DNA analyses 
has resulted in a significant reorganization of the original fungal taxonomy of Linnaeus. 

A phylogenetic study of the Ganoderma genus based on mitochondrial DNA published 
in the publication Mycologia in 2004 found that the 250+ species were in actuality only 6 
monophyletic (from a single parent) groups. It is notable that strains of G. tsugae and G. 
lucidum from both North America and Europe were found to be in the same grouping. 
However, strains of G. lucidum from Korea and Japan were identical to each other, but different 
from the strains of G. lucidum from Europe and North America. The study concluded that “G. 
lucidum , the most cosmopolitan member of the Ganoderma , was polyphyletic according to 
geographical origins.” This may have some significant implications for the burgeoning market 
for Ganoderma products. A study conducted by the Taiwanese Biotechnology Research and 
Development Institute in 2002 found that Ganoderma products were the highest volume 
product in their health food market and that the most widely used raw material was 
G. tsugae. The estimated annual production of the more reliable Asian G. lucidum was 4300 
Metric Tons (MT) in 1997 (3000 MT in China alone) with a market value of about $1.6B. 

One of the primary defining taxonomic aspects of the Ganoderma genus is the presence of 
thick double-walled spores called chlamydospores ( chlamys is Greek for mantle - a protective 
cover). These spores are highly protective against environmental extremes and help explain 
the global proliferation of the fungal genus. Ganoderma fungi, once grown from the chlam- 
ydospores, consist of corky, thick fruiting bodies that grow on hardwoods or conifers accord¬ 
ing to the species; they are in all cases a white rot, wood decay saprobe. A saprobe derives its 
nutrition from dead plants - fungi that live on live plants are parasitic or mycorrhizal. This is 
not to say that they are benign, as they can also infect live trees. 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


4 


According to Bryce Kendrick in The Fifth Kingdom “ Ganoderma may not kill trees, but they 
cause serious decays of both standing and structural timber. These rots cost us many millions 
of dollars every year” There are white rot fungi and brown rot fungi; the color distinction refers 
to what they don t consume rather than what they do. In other words, white rot fungi consume 
the brown lignin (and some but not all of the white cellulose) so that the resultant decayed 
mass is white in color. Conversely, brown rot fungi consume only the white cellulose so the end 
result is brown. 

The use of G. lucidum and G. tsugae in China from the dawn of prehistory with purported 
benefits to health, life and longevity has resulted in the attribution of preternatural powers to 
the fungi. The word ding in Chinese translates into something like spiritual, miraculous, and/ 
or divine and conveys a notion of its efficacy and provenance. This has been exaggerated in the 
English rendition to everything from mushroom of immortality 5 to magic fungus. 5 From Chi¬ 
na, the beneficence of Ganoderma spread to the rest of Asia; in Japan, it is called either reishi, 
which means something like auspicious plant 5 or ‘immortality plant, 5 or mannentake, which 
translates to 5 10,000 year mushroom 5 The extensive history of the use of Ganoderma as part of 
a long-term health regimen and the vast body of fervent, though hearsay, testimonials by its 
users establishes at least the likelihood of a modicum of truth to its purported life extending 
properties. 

Assays of G. lucidum and G. tsugae over the past half century have revealed that they contain 
a virtual pharmacological cornucopia of potentially beneficial chemical compounds. Over 
150 triterpenes and 50 polysaccharides have been identified as being uniquely derived from 
this fungal group starting from the first isolation of Ganoderic acids A and B in 1984 (these 
numbers vary according to the source - Stamets lists 119 triterpenes and 100 polysaccharides 
in Mycelium Running). Triterpenes are precursors to steroids in both plants and animals 
and very generally have cytotoxic (cell killing), liver protecting and lipid lowering effects. 
Polysaccharides are much more generic, consisting of long chains of carbohydrate molecules 
such as cellulose and chitin. In the case of the Ganoderma fungi, the polysaccharides are 
found to be carcinostatic; they inhibit the growth of cancerous tumors. Laboratory studies of 
the compounds that can be derived from Ganoderma fungi and their effects on a wide-range 
of medical problems are legion and on-going. Anti-tumor behavior has been demonstrated 
in ganoderic acids T, V, W, X, Y and Z, a property that is attributed to the stimulation of the 
body's own production of lymphocytes as opposed to a direct effect. Ganodermic acid S 
inhibits the aggregation of platelets and could thus be beneficial as an anti-clotting agent to 
prevent embolism-induced strokes. In what may also be related to coagulation, Ganoderma 
acid F acts to lower blood pressure. Several derivatives including Ganoderic acids R and S 
and Ganosporeric acid A have been shown to improve liver function, a finding that supports 
the traditional Chinese use of G. lucidum to treat hepatitis. According to Chang and Miles 
in Mushroom, Ganoderma fungi were used in traditional Chinese medicine “to improve 
intellectual capacity and memory, to promote agility, to lengthen life span, and to relieve 
hepatopathy, nephritis, hyperlipemia, arthritis, asthma, gastric ulcer, arteriosclerosis, leukemia, 
diabetes and anorexia.” The mushroom of immortality 5 may in some ways be true to its 


5 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


(Ganoderma tsugae by William Needham) 

metaphor in promoting longevity lending credence to (mostly Asian) health regimen of daily 
Ganoderma tea to offset the ravages of time and age. While there is certainly nothing inimical to 
this practice, a cautionary note is proffered: there is at this juncture a great deal of uncertainty 
concerning geographic origin and species. In addition, the chemical complexity of the various 
Ganoderma species is daunting and therefore attributing syllogistic relations to a specific disease 
is at this point dubious. An elixir perhaps, but a medicine no. 

This article first appeared in the January 2013 edition of The Potomac Sporophore newsletter of the Mycological 
Association of Washington (MAW). 



THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


6 










THE 


LARGEST 

GANODERMA 
IN THE WORLD 

by Lawrence Millman 

from his newly published book 

Giant Polypores and Stoned Reindeer 



Near Alexander Creek, Alaska, there's a birch tree with a very large Ganoderma applanatum 
growing on it. The size of the fruiting body is not two, three, or even four feet in diameter, but 
approximately a quarter of a mile in diameter. Or so the Susitna Dena'ina who live in Alexander 
Creek will tell you. 

"A quarter of a mile?" I said to a Native man. "You expect me to believe that?" 

"You don't have to believe it, but it's true," he replied. 

Reputedly, the large Ganoderma in question — which the Susitna Dena'ina call k'adatsa (big 
birch fungus) — is gifted with magical powers. If you cut off a piece of it and carry it around with 
you, no harm will come to you. Or if you ignite a piece of it, the smoke will serve not only as a 
mosquito smudge, but also as a smudge against anyone to whom you owe money — they won't 
be able to see you, either. 

But you can't simply cut off a piece of the k'adatsa and walk away. You have to leave some sort 
of gift on its cap, maybe some unspent cartridges, maybe a recent copy of Alaska Sportsman, 
or maybe a few coins. If you don't leave anything, you'll spend the rest of your life wandering 
around aimlessly in the Alaska bush. 

Needless to say, I was very interested in this oversize fungus, so I tried to get someone in the 
village of Alexander Creek (pop. 40) to take me to see it. Everyone seemed either too busy for 
such a lengthy expedition, which included a boat trip as well as an arduous hike, or they thought 
the k'adatsa might be invisible to a White Man. One man agreed to be my guide, but only if I 
paid him $5,000...in advance. 

Finally, I had no choice but to play my trump card. Ganoderma applanatum is thought to be 
medicinal, especially in China, where it's apparently used to cure rheumatic tuberculosis and 

7 THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 





(The Largest Ganoderma by Larry Millman) 

esophageal cancer as well as to inhibit tumors. Indeed, Christopher Hobbs includes a reference 
to the Alexander Creek k'adatsa in his book Medicinal Mushrooms. 

"I'm suffering from gout, incipient madness, tonsilitis, chronic cynicism, and tick-borne 
encephalitis," I told a potential guide. "A cup of tea from your k'adatsa may be my only hope." 

I was directed to the Alaska Native Health Clinic down the street. 


In the end, I had to be satisfied with a two foot Ganoderma 
growing on a stump just outside the village. One evening I 
visited it and, watching a storm of brown spores cascade from its 
underside, I thought: How remarkable! 

(The book is available only from Komatik Press (P.O. Box 381582, 
Cambridge, MA 02238) for $20 postpaid or from Larry Millman at the 
following email address: < Lmilhnan@comcast.net >) 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 

There is a piece of misinformation in Bill Bakaitis’ article which should be corrected, particularly 
for the benefit of NY State mushroomers. He writes “we are likely to see enforcement of the 
existing laws which prohibit the collection of even the ‘fruits’ (e.g. mushrooms) of forest products.” 
Inasmuch as he is a New York resident and alludes to “the public land areas available in the 
Catskills and Adirondacks” he is no doubt referring to the laws of NY State. This information is 
outdated since the DEC conservation laws were altered, with little fanfare, in 2010 and now read 
“ 190.8g. No person shall deface, remove, destroy or otherwise injure in any manner whatsoever 
any tree, flower, shrub, fern, fungi or other plant organisms, moss or other plant, rock, soil, fossil 
or mineral or object of archaeological or paleontological interest found or growing on State land, 
except for personal consumption or under permit from the Commissioner of Environmental 
Conservation and the Commissioner of Education, pursuant to section 233 of the Education 
Law .” (Emphasis mine.) This may be viewed on the DEC website at: http://www.dec.ny.gov/ 
regs/408l.html . Previously, the wording was the same, only the underscored phrase having 
been added. This is clumsily written, but the intent is clear. Collecting mushrooms for “personal 
consumption” is permitted only all NYS DEC lands; although the phrase is vague, the parameters 
of personal consumption have not been quantified, and are therefore open to interpretation, 
which may someday be tested in court if applied too stringently. So far as I am aware, no citations 
have been issued for over-collecting. Whether this change in the law also applies to NYS parks is 
not established, and is a legal question on which I am not qualified to comment. However, in my 
experience, establishing good relations with local authorities of particular parks can go a long way 
to obtaining permission for reasonable collecting practices. (A permit to enter DEC property is 
needed only on Long Island.) 

Joel Horman, LIMC 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


8 










Lesser Lights of the Fungal World: 

A Bioregional Approach to Medicinal Mushrooms 

Robert Dale Rogers, RH (AHG) 


e clinical use of medicinal mushrooms 
by herbalists is increasing each year, due in 
part to an excellent number of good books 
on the subject. Medicinal Mushrooms by 
fellow Guild member Christopher Hobbs 
remains a classic to this day (Hobbs 1995). 
Since that publication, the use of mushrooms 
for health and culinary purposes has sky¬ 
rocketed. Twenty years ago, Agaricus bisporus 
(button mushroom) was the one and only 
choice in supermarkets. Today a wide range 
of organic fruiting bodies are available, 
including variations of the button (crimini and 
portabella), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster), 
Flammulina velutipes (enokitake), and 
Lentinula edodes (shiitake). In natural foods 
stores, the selection can be nothing short of 
amazing. 

Where I live, in northern Canada, the 
summers are short, and my cultivation of 
mushrooms is restricted to one shiitake log 
on the balcony of my condominium. On the 
plus side, however, I live on the edge of the 
boreal forest and within an hour I can slip 
into wilderness where few people have ever 
walked. The mixture of poplar, birch, spruce, 
pine, and tamarack forests yield an abundance 
of medicinal mushrooms that can be collected 
and prepared as medicines for the long winter 
ahead. Here are three of my favorite but less 
well-known mushrooms with considerable 


health benefits. 

Ganoderma applanatum. Artist s Conk 

Ganoderma applanatum (Artists Conk) is a 
cousin of the more famous and well-researched 
G. lucidum (reishi). Artists conk is a large 
polypore growing in northern Alberta on large 
mature Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) 
trees. Throughout North America, artists conk is 
found on a variety of hardwoods. They grow quite 
large and can weigh over 13.6 kg (30 pounds)! 

The record is 52 kg (almost 115 pounds), with a 
circumference of over three meters, found in the 
mountains of Kuiu Island, southeastern Alaska, in 
1951. 

I use tinctures of this polypore whenever reishi 
is indicated for a client. Studies have shown it 
effective as an analgesic, anti-bacterial, anti-in¬ 
flammatory, anti-tumor, anti-viral, blood sugar 
modulator, immune tonic, respiratory tonic, 
and agent for eye health (Rogers 2011). In vitro 
studies suggest gram positive bacteria are more 
sensitive to this mushroom than gram negative 
(Smania 1999). Artist conks protein and sugars 
significantly inhibit tumor growth and increased 
levels of natural killer cell activity (Yong-Tae 
Jeong 2008). 

Dr. Ryan Drum, a noted AHG professional 
member, reported using decoctions of artists 
conk for treating Hashimotos thyroiditis. He 
recommends 12 ounces of cool tea daily for three 



_ 


Robert Dale Rogers is a professional member of AHG. He teaches herbal studies at Grant MacEwan Univer¬ 
sity and the Northern Star College of Mystical Studies in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Robert is an assistant 
clinical professor in family medicine at the University of Alberta, chair of the medicinal mushroom commit¬ 
tee of the North American Mycological Association and serves on the editorial board of The International 
Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. He has authored 14 books on bioregional plants and fungi. His latest is 
The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America (North 
Atlantic Books, 2011). 


9 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 







(Lesser Lights of the Fungal World By Robert Dale Rogers) 


How to Make a Polvpore 

Tincture 

The following instructions are 
for making a tincture from 
polypore mushrooms like 
reishi, artists conk, or amadou. 


1. Finely chop your fresh or dried 
polypore. For fresh, you may do 
this by hand; dried conks will 
probably require a band saw or 
planer. 

2. To one part by weight of 
chopped polypore, add five parts 
by volume of 95% alcohol. 

3. Seal tightly and let macerate for 
two weeks. Shake your mixture 
daily. 

4. Strain and press out the marc*. 
Reserve the liquid. 

5. Weigh the marc, place in a pot, 
and add 20 parts by volume of 
water. Decoct at a low simmer 
until reduced by half. 


6. Strain and press. Discard the 
marc. Combine this decoction 
with the alcoholic extraction you 
completed in step 4. 


7. Bottle and label. 


*The term marc’ refers to the res¬ 
idue that remains after the liquid 
is expressed. 


days; then a break and repeat, 
combining well with Lycopus spp. 
(bugleweed), or Melissa officinalis 
(lemon balm) for the former 
condition, and with Rhodiola rosea 
(rose root) and Fucus vesiculosus 
(bladderwrack) for the latter. 

Like various Ganoderma species 
and a number of medicinal 
mushrooms, artists conk is both 
anti-inflammatory and immune- 
modulating. In the biomedical 
model, anti-inflammatory drugs like 
cortisone and NS AIDS suppress the 
immune system. Such drugs may 
lead, over time, to auto-immune 
conditions, where the body becomes 
confused and attacks its own tissue. 
But medicinal mushrooms, including 
Ganoderma species, not only 
provide relief from inflammation 
and pain, but also inhibit 
interleukin-2 secretion, suggestive 
of immunomodulation. That is, they 
help bring homeostasis to the body. 
Therefore, think of this mushroom 
for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic 
lupus erythematosus, Guillain-Barre 
syndrome, or erythema etiologies. 
Furthermore, artist s conk and 
lemon balm make a great anti-viral 
combination for herpes simplex and 
herpes zoster, taken internally and 
used externally as a wash. Finally, 
my good friend and mushroom 
mentor, Martin Osis, decocts the 
conk as a footbath to relieve the 
pain of gout very quickly. 

I like to gather the very young 
conks during the summer, or the 
soft, juicy new tissue forming an 
annular ring. Although larger 
conks may be just as potent, I 
prefer new growth for making teas 
or tinctures simply because they 
are easier to process. I have made 
tinctures from large specimens, and 


or planer to be a good friend indeed. 

Decoctions are easy. Simply add 3- 
5 g of fresh conk to 500 mL of water. 
Simmer on low heat for up to two 
hours. The addition of Vitamin C 
appears to increase efficacy. I add 1 g 
of dried rosehips to this mixture; our 
local species Rosa acicularis contains 
7.1% ascorbic acid, along with 
bioflavonoids and numerous other 
compounds. Therapeutic dosage is 
150-250 mL, two to three times daily. 

There are many theories, or 
opinions, on making a polypore 
tincture. Here is my preferred 
method, based on empirical evidence, 
and lots of trial and error: 

Take one part by weight of finely 
chopped conk and cover with five 
parts by volume of 95% alcohol. For 
example, 100 g of material is covered 
with 500 mL of 198 proof Everclear. 
Let this sit for two weeks, shaking 
daily. Then strain and squeeze, 
preserving the marc. Take this well 
pressed material and make a 1:20 
decoction at a slow simmer. Reduce 
volume by half, squeeze, strain and 
combine this decoction with the 
alcoholic preparation you made 
earlier. Bottle and label. Therapeutic 
dosage is 3-5 mL daily in divided 
doses. 



Ganoderma applanatum 

(Photo Courtesy of Robert Rogers) 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


10 
















Fomesfomentarius, Amadou 

Another favorite polypore of mine is 
Fomes fomentarius (amadou or false 
tinder conk). This perennial conk is 
hoof-shaped and hardened. 

Remnants of this fungi date back 
to Mesolithic camps from 8000 BCE. 
Hippocrates called it mukes and used it 
in a manner similar to moxibustion for 
inflammation and even cauterization. In 
Slavic countries of Europe, the fruiting 
body has long been used for infection 
and inflammation of the gastrointestinal 
tract. It has been used in various incense 
mixtures to banish evil spirits and 
purify the residence of the deceased 
(Saar 1991). The Ainu of northern Japan 
smudged the conk for similar purposes. 

In northern Alberta, the Cree 
powdered the conk, known as 
waskaskwitoy, and applied it to 
frostbitten flesh. They also cut strips and 
burned it on skin, as a counter-irritant 
to restore blood flow to area. They would 
use two of these clam-shaped conks as 
a vehicle for fire embers, which would 
smolder without smoke for many days 
of travel. The inedible polypores were 
possibly thrown into soups and stews 
to prevent spoilage and food poisoning 
(Stamets 2005). I believe valuable 
polysaccharides were released to help 
optimize immune function through the 
long, cold, and often brutal winters. 

Oetzi, the famed Ice Man found on 
the exposed glacial slopes of the Alps 
in 1991, carried amadous dissociated 
context hyphae as a fire starter. The name 
“false tinder conk” refers to this use, and 
this chamois-like material was soaked in 
dung water to make it ready to receive 
a spark. The context fiber is carved 
from the layer just under the surface, 
preferably from large, fresh specimens. 
The material is stretched and teased as it 
is cut, and large pieces can be obtained in 
this manner. This pliable “felt” is used in 
Romania and Hungary to manufacture 
hats, vests and purses, and is prized by fly 


fishermen for its soft, water 
repellent surface. 

In China, the conk was boiled and 
tea taken for digestive stagnation, 
as well as cancers of the stomach, 
uterus and esophagus (Ying et 
al 1987). Traditional Chinese 
Medicine (TCM) uses conk 
decoctions to warm the lungs, 
reduce asthma and edema, and for 
other cold, damp conditions. In 
Japan, it is known as tsuriganetake 
and taken in tea form for colds, flu, 
bronchitis and general debility. 

Alcohol extracts of amadou 
inhibit nitric oxide synthase 
(iNOS) and COX expression via 
down-regulation of NFkappaB, 
suggestive of anti- inflammatory 
and anti-tumor potential (Park 
et al 2004). 

The presence of antibacterial, 
antiviral and antifungal activity in 
amadou has long been recorded 
(Brandt & Pirano 2000). A recent 
study (Seniuk et al 2011) looked 
at the water- soluble melanin- 
glucan complex (MCG) in Fomes 
fomentarius. In vitro, MCG 
completely depressed growth 
of Candida albicans. It showed 
antimicrobial effect on Helicobacter 
pylori identical to erythromycin at 
all concentrations. High anti-HIV-1 
activity, along with weak toxicity 
against blood cells, make it a great 
adjunct therapy for these difficult 
infectious pathologies. Work by 
Suay et al (2000) showed amadous 
inhibition of two opportunistic 
bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 
and Serratia marcescens. The former 
is showing increasing antibiotic 
resistance and is a leading cause of 
hospital-acquired infections in the 
United States and Canada. Serratia 
marcescens causes pulmonary 
disease and septicemia in immune- 
compromised patients. 



Fomes fomentarius 
(Photo by Robert Rogers) 


11 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 









(Lesser Lights of the Fungal World by Robert Dale Rogers) 


Preparation of tincture and 
dosage is similar to Ganoderma 
applanatum above. Individuals 
sensitive to alcohol may put drops 
into hot water and allow it to 
evaporate for five minutes before 
ingestion. My own experience 
suggests that glycerites produce an 
inferior product. 

Hericium spp., Lion’s Mane, 

Coral Mushroom 

My third mushroom selection, easy 
to wildcraft or grow from spawn 
plugs on logs, are Hericium species. 
Known as comb tooth, coral mush¬ 
room or coral hedgehog, these are 
some of the most beautiful, distinc¬ 
tive and tasty mushrooms of our 
forests. Various species grow on 
hardwoods or conifers, and are my 
wife’s favorite edible. 

They are usually insect-free and 
have a satisfying chewy texture. We 
have variations of H. americanum , 
H. coralloides and H. ramosum in 
our area, with exact identification 
somewhat difficult. The Gitksan 
First Nation of British Columbia 
call Hericium abietis , kaedatsots, 
meaning “bird hat.” 

In Japan, H. erinaceus (lion’s mane) 
is known as yamabushitake, mean¬ 
ing “those who sleep in the moun¬ 
tains.” It is said to resemble the 
suzukake, or ornamental garment 
worn by Buddhist monks of the 
Shugendo sect. In China it is known 
as shishigashira, meaning “lion’s 
head.” It is found on oaks in Cali¬ 
fornia and north into British Co¬ 
lumbia, but sometimes on maple or 
beech trees. It is grown on a small 
scale for the high-end restaurant 
trade, and in French bistros it is 
called pom pom du blanc, due to its 
shape and color. 


Lion’s mane is used in TCM to 
improve digestion and for gastric 
ulcers, as well as for its toning 
effect on the nervous system. It 
contains a number of polypeptides 
and polysaccharides that enhance 
the immune system, may help 
restore or rebuild nerves, and 
have been found useful in chronic 
bronchitis (Wasser & Weis 1999). 
Hericenones C-H, found in the 
fruiting bodies, have been found 
to induce the synthesis of nerve 
growth factor (NGF). This helps in 
the development, maintenance and 
enhancement of important sensory 
neurons and may be 
useful in the amelioration 
of Alzheimer’s disease 
and similar chronic 
brain-related disorders 
(Kawagishi et al 1999). 

Erinacines found in 
the mycelium also 
induce NGF production 
(Kawagishi et al 1994). 

Other work suggests that 
erinacines are amongst 
the most powerful 
naturally occurring compounds 
yet identified (Kawagishi et al 
2004). 

In one Japanese study, 50 of 100 
patients in a rehabilitation hospital 
received 5 g of dry, powdered lion’s 
mane mushroom in soup. The 
other 50 patients received placebo 
powder. All patients were elderly 
and suffering from cerebrovascular 
disease, Parkinson’s disease, 
spino-cerebellar degeneration, 
diabetic neuropathy, spinal cord 
injury, and various degenerative 
orthopedic diseases. After six 
months, six of seven patients with 
severe dementia taking the daily 
mushroom dose demonstrated 
improvement in perceptual 



Hericium coralloides 

(Photo by Robert Rogers) 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


12 




improvement in functional independence 
measure. 

A more recent study was conducted with 29 men 
and women aged 50 to 80 years, all suffering mild 
cognitive problems (Mori et al 2008). In 
this double-blind (DB), placebo-controlled (PC) 
trial, significant improvement was shown in the 
mushroom group at eight, 12 and 16 weeks. The 
dosage was just 1 g of dried fruiting body three 
times a day in capsule form. All 14 who received 
the mushroom showed improvement after three 
months compared to placebo, but there was a 
decline four weeks after supplementation 
was discontinued. 

The fruiting body may also relieve depression, 
anxiety and insomnia in pre- and post¬ 
menopausal women (Nagano et al 2010). Thirty 
women aged 35 to 46 years were given cookies 
either containing 0.5 g of powdered fruiting 
body or no powder. Four cookies were eaten 
throughout the day. In this randomized, DB, PC 
trial of four weeks, the participants filled out 
daily reports using four outcome measures. These 
were the Kupperman Menopausal Index (KMI), 
Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression 
Scale (CES-D), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index 
(PSQI), and Indefinite Complaints Index (ICI). 
The last was based on KMI but added items such 
as cognitive function, hair, skin, lower back pain, 
bladder and vaginal health measures. No change 
was noted in sleep quality, but both CES-D and 
ICI mean scores were lower in the group taking 
enhanced cookies, compared to placebo. Anxiety 
and depression were lower, as well as comments 
associated with issues of frustration, palpitations, 
and increases in concentration and incentive. 

For gastric ulcers, decoct 30 g of dried fruiting 
body in 500 mL of water for 10 minutes. Divide 
in two doses and take 12 hours apart on an empty 
stomach. Dried powder can be put in 500-750 
g vegetable or gelatin capsules. Or, simply add 
to your daily smoothie or cooked cereal, soup 
or stew. Standardized extracts on the market 
from commercial sources standardize to 0.5% 
hericenones and 6% amyloban. You can tincture 
the fresh fruiting body, and that is my favorite 
method. Use one part by weight to three parts 
volume of 60% alcohol. Dosage is from 5 to 10 ml 
twice daily. 


REFERENCES 

Brandt C R, Pirano F 2000, Mushroom antiviral. Recent Research 
Development Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy. 4:11-26 
Hobbs C 1995, Medicinal Mushrooms: An Exploration of Tradition, 
Healing and Culture. Botanica Press, Santa Cruz, CA 
Jeong Y et al 2008, Ganoderma applanatum : A promising 
mushroom for antitumor and immunomodulating activity. 
Phytotherapy Research. 22 (5): 614-619 
Kawagishi H et al 1991, Hericenones C, D, and E, stimulators of 
nerve growth factor (NGF)-synthesis, from the mushroom Hericium 
erinaceum. Tetrahedron Letters. 32(35): 4561-4564 
Kawagishi H et al 1994, Erinacines A, B and C, strong stimulators of 
nerve growth factor (NGF)-synthesis, from the mycelia of Hericium 
erinaceum. Tetrahedron Letters. 35(10): 1569-1572 
Kawagishi H et al 2004, The anti-dementia effect of lions mane 
mushroom and its clinical application -Hericium erinaceum-lioris 
mane. Townsend Letter for Doctors & Patients. 249: 54-56 
Mori K et al 2008, Nerve growth factor inducing activity of 
Hericium erinaceus in 1323N1 human astrocytoma cells. Biological 
and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 31(9): 1727 
Mayumi N, Shimizu K, Kondo R, Hayashi C, Sato D, Kitagawa K, 

& Ohnuki K 2010, Reduction of depression and anxiety by 4 weeks 
Hericium erinaceus intake. Biomedical Research. 31(4): 231-237 
Park Y et al 2005, Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive 
effects of the methanol extract of Fomes fomentarius. Biological & 
Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 27(10): 1588-1593 
Rogers R 2011, The Fungal Pharmacy: The Complete Guide to 
Medicinal Mushrooms and Lichens of North America. North Atlantic 
Books, Berkeley CA 

Saar et al 1991, Ethnolycological data from Siberia and 
northeast Asia on the effect of Amanita muscaria. Journal of 
Ethnopharmacology. 31(2):157-173 
Seniuk O, Gorovoj L, Beketova G, Savichuk H, Rytik P, Kucherov I, 
Prilutsky A, & Prilutsky A 2011, Anti-infective 
Properties of the Melanin-Glucan Complex Obtained from 
Medicinal Tinder Bracket Mushroom, Fomes fomentarius (L.:Fr.) 

Fr. (Aphyllophoromycetideae). International Journal of Medicinal 
Mushrooms. 13(1): 7-18 

Smania A et al 1999, Antimicrobial activity of steroidal compounds 
isolated from Ganoderma applanatum fruitbody. International 
Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms. 1 (4): 325-330 
Stamets P 2005, Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help 
Save the World. Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA p 224 
Suay et al 2000, Screening of Basidiomycetes for antimicrobial 
activities. Antoine van Leeuwenhoek. 78(2): 129-140 
Wasser S & Weis A 1999, Therapeutic effects of substances 
occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern 
perspective. Critical Reviews in Immunology. 19(1): 65-96 
Ying J et al 1987, leones of Medicinal Fungi from China. 

Translated by X. Yuehan. Science Press, Beijing, China 


Originally published in the Journal of the American Herbalists Guild, 
Vol. 11, Issue 1. www.americanherbalistsguild.com 


13 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 



PAT’S PICKLED MUSHROOMS 

By Patricia Guarino 


Ingredients: 

Wild mushrooms - preferably Hen-of-the-Woods 
1 TBS Hot pepper flakes (to taste) 

Mason jars 

3 cloves Garlic (minced) 

Kosher salt for washing (1/4 cup) & marinating 
mushrooms (1 TBS) 

1/4 cup Apple cider vinegar 
3 TBS Olive Oil 


Clean all the dirt off the mushrooms, and cut into small strips. Then fill a large pot halfway with 
water and let it come to a full boil. 

(To clean: Fill your sink with cold water, put the mushrooms in the sink & pour 1/4 cup kosher 
salt over them. Quickly rub the mushrooms between your hands to get the dirt out then squeeze 
out some of the water. Or use an alternate method). 

Put the mushrooms in the pot of boiling 
water, for about 10 minutes, then drain them 
in a colander. When the mushrooms are 
cooled down enough to handle, take a cotton 
dish towel, put some of the mushrooms 
inside, close the corners, and wring them as 
dry as you can. 

Put these in a clean bowl. Repeat. 

Boil your jars and tops for about 30 minutes 
Combine apple cider, 3 TBS olive oil, and 
spices in a bowl, a bit at a time, to taste. Add 
the mushrooms and let sit and taste for spice 
level. Fill jar and add additional olive oil to 
cover. Allow air bubbles to escape to prevent 
spoilage. Refrigerate. 




(Recipe from the LI Sporeprint , Vol. 20, Number 4, Winter 2012 newsletter of the LIMC). 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


14 













A Look at NAMA’s Finances 

By Herbert Pohl, NAMA Treasurer 

NAMAs fiscal year 2012-2013 ended June 30, 2013.1 would like to give you an overview of 
our finances for the period July 1, 2012 to June 30, 2013, and highlight some of the changes that 
took place during the last year 

To start out, I can report that NAMA is in a stable financial condition. Our cash account 
was $62,667.96 plus a loan of $6,298.50 to the NAMA 2013 foray compared to $66,045.27 in the 
previous year 

At the Trustee Meeting in December 2012 in Scotts Valley California the trustees approved a 
resolution to lower the membership dues; this resulted in a slightly lower intake of dues income, 
($29,743 versus $30,155) 

Carlene Cliver (Skeffington), after many years of faithful service, resigned as the custodian 
of the education rental program. Her Education Bank Account has been closed and the amount 
of $1,085 has been transferred into the NAMA general account. Steve Rock has taken Carlene s 
place and has opened a local bank checking account with a NAMA seed money deposit of $100. 

The Postal Service Account that had been used for mailing of The Mycophile had been 
dormant for some time. The account was closed and the remaining fund of $789 was transferred 
into the NAMA general account. 

The 2012 NAMA foray, that was organized and managed by NAMA, provided a net income 
to NAMA in the amount of $14,272. The foray committee presented a budget that was very 
closely met by the final budget result. 

The NAMA Endowment Fund received donations from members in the amount of $2,025 
and $1,086 from the Silent Auction at both the NAMA and Wildacres Regional foray. The value 
of the Endowment Fund as of June 30, 2013 was $66,776 with an average current yield of 3.45% 
or an estimated annual income of $2,066. The original goal of the Endowment Fund was to have 
it grow to $100,000 before tapping into it to fund any programs. 

To clear up any misconception, the yearly donation of $2,000 given to the Mycological 
Society of America (MSA) for the Fellowship Award has not come out of the Endowment Fund 
but is still paid out of NAMAs general fund. 

In January 2013 NAMA provided a non-interest loan to the Arkansas Mycological Society in the 
amount of $6,298.50 as seed money for the NAMA 2013 Foray. 

Previous Year Comparison 

June 30, 2013 June 30, 2012 


Checking/Savings 


Education Comm Check Acct 

90.78 

0.00 

Education Comm Bank Acct 

0.00 

1,038.45 

TD Bank Check Account 

62,577.11 

64,217.78 

US Bank 

0.07 

0.07 

Postal Service Account 

0.00 

788.97 

Loan Receivable 



NAMA Foray 2013 

6,298.50 

0.00 


15 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


NAMA 

Profit & Loss Previous Year Comparison 



Jul 12 - Jun 13 

Jul 11 - Jun 12 

$ Change 

% Change 

Ordinary Income Expense 

Income 

Donations Received 

476.00 

0.00 

476.00 

100.0% 

Dues Income 

29,743.44 

30,155.24 

-411.80 

-1.4% 

Education Committee 

397.65 

253.20 

144.45 

57.1% 

Interest Income 

0.21 

2.68 

-2.47 

-92.2% 

Mailing List & Label 

0.00 

125.00 

-125.00 

-100.0% 

Photo Contest Fees 

44.00 

44.00 

0.00 

0.0% 

Silent Auction Proceeds 

893.00 

0.00 

893.00 

100.0% 

Total Income 

31,554.30 

30,580.12 

974.18 

3.2% 

Expense 

ACH Deposit 

0.00 

-0.23 

0.23 

100.0% 

Administration Services 

Comp. Foray Registration 

2,765.00 

0.00 

2,765.00 

100.0% 

Executive Sec Expenses 

827.05 

494.65 

332.40 

67.2% 

Executive Sec Stipend 

5,000.00 

5,833.00 

-833.00 

-14.3% 

Menbership Sec Expen.. 

607.16 

839.43 

-232.27 

-27.7% 

President’s Expenses 

210.03 

393.28 

-183.25 

-46.6% 

Treasurers Expenses 

128.33 

217.52 

-89.19 

-41.0% 

Total Administrative Setrvic.. 

9,537.57 

7,777.88 

1,759.69 

22.6% 

Bank Charges 

6.18 

-56.15 

63.33 

111.0% 

Dues Expenses 

342.89 

0.00 

342.89 

100.0% 

PayPal Fee 

304.63 

82.91 

221.72 

267.4% 

Program Service 

Awards 

0.00 

200.00 

-200.00 

-100.0% 

Cultivation 

96.30 

92.17 

4.13 

4.5% 

Education 

162.92 

246.29 

-83.37 

-33.9% 

Forays 

0.00 

5.00 

-5.00 

-100.0% 

Knighton Award 

305.00 

0.00 

305.00 

100.0% 

Mycophagy 

146.69 

128.57 

18.12 

14.1% 

Mycophile 

2,724.88 

2,477.66 

247.22 

10.0% 

NAMA Brochure Expens.. 

0.00 

578.16 

-578.16 

-100.0% 

Photography 

470.73 

450.00 

20.7 

4.6% 

Scholarships 

2,000.00 

2,000.00 

0.00 

0.0% 

Vouchering Expenses 

4,715.20 

6,060.00 

-1344.80 

-22.2% 

Web Committee 

79.00 

596.40 

-517.40 

86.8% 

Total Program Services 

10.700.72 

12,834.25 

-2,133.53 

-16.6% 

Uncategorized Expenses 

0.00 

200.00 

-200.00 

-100.0% 

Total Expenses 

20,891.99 

20,838.66 

53.33 

0.3% 

Net Ordinary Income 

10,662.31 

9,741.46 

920.85 

9.5% 

Other Income/Expense 

Other Income 

Endowment Fund Donatio.. 

2,025.00 

5,152.75 

-3.127.75 

-60.7% 

National Foray 

73,598.50 

7,542.73 

66,055.77 

875.8% 

Regional Forays 

9,075.00 

3,319.00 

5,756.00 

173.4% 

Total Other Income 

84,698.50 

16,014.48 

68,684.02 

428.9% 

Other Expense 

Memorial Expenses 

200.00 

0.00 

200.00 

100.0% 

National Foray Expenses 

59,326.12 

2,340.00 

56,986.12 

2,435.3% 

Regional Foray Expenses 

8,481.00 

3,262.00 

5,219.00 

160.0% 

Total Other Expenses 

68,007.12 

5,602.00 

62,405.12 

1,114.0% 

Net Other Income 

16,619.38 

10,412.48 

6,278.90 

60.3% 

Net Income 

27,353.69 

20,153.94 

7,199.75 

35.7% 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


16 


NAM A 2012 Foray Budget 

Mission Springs - Dec 2012 
Foray Costs & Profit 


Budget 

Assumed 

Actual 

Registrants 

205 

247 

Faculty 

20 

27 

Bus $1027 per bus x 2 busses x 2 days 

$4,108 

$4,260.00 

15 passenger van $150 x 4 

$ 600 

$ 374.33 

Gas for vans $50 x 4 

$ 200 

$ 78.18 

Program (printing) 

$ 350 

$ 393.37 

Souvenir - pin 

$ 750 

$ 0.00 

T-Shirts (300) 

$ 0 

$1,937.98 

Souvenir - Mushroom Inf. 

$1,500 

$ 0.00 

Supplies/printing/ copies/mailing 

$ 550 

$ 456.75 

Display/collecting expenses 

$ 0 

$ 120.52 

Cooking Demonstration 

$ 0 

$ 82.01 

Socials @ $5 

$1,125 

$1,179.59 

Permits 

$ 0 

$ 203.00 

Insurance 

$2,000 

$ 0.00 


$11,183 

$9,085.73 

Stipends 

$1,500 

$1,500.00 

Dye Workshop 

Fees 


$1,495.00 

Expenses 


$ 658.14 

Profit 


$ 836.86 

Foray Balance 

Total collected 


$69,413.50 

Paid to Mission Springs 


$43,897.25 

Foray Expenses 


$ 9,085.73 

Faculty Stipends 


$ 1,500.00 

Dye Workshop Expenses 


$ 658.14 

Income minus Expenses 


$14,272.38 


Three page analysis by Herb Pohl, NAM A Treasurer 


17 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 





he 

KINGDOM 

FUNGI 


■■■■■ 

;¥ / The Biology of Myshrooms, 
' i .Molds, and Lichens 




STEVEN L. STEPHENSON 


The Kingdom Fungi: The Biology of Mushrooms, Molds, and 
Lichens 

Steven L. Stephenson 

2010 / ISBN 978-0-88192-891-4 / 272 pp. + 56 pp color photos 
Timber Press (http://www.timberpress.com) 

$34.95 (hardcover) 


At first glance, I assumed this would be another book along the lines of Nik Moneys Mr. Bloomfield s Orchard , 
R.T. and F.W. Rolfe’s The Romance of the Fungus World , Elio Schaechter’s In the Company of Mushrooms: A 
Biologists Tale , and George Hudler’s Magical Mushrooms, Mischievous Molds. However, once I began reading, it 
didn’t take long to realize that the subtitle is accurate and that the focus is more on the biology of fungi and less 
on humans and their interactions with fungi than those other titles. Indeed, the stated purpose of The Kingdom 
Fungi is “to introduce the reader to the biology, general structure, and morphological diversity of the ‘true’ 
fungi as well as other funguslike (slime molds and water molds) and not-just-fungi (that is, lichens) organisms 
traditionally considered by the scientists (mycologists) who study fungi.” 

The content is well described by the 12 chapter titles: What are fungi? Fungi that live in water; The most 
ubiquitous of all fungi (principally the yeasts and molds); A diversity of form and function (within the 
ascomycetes); Morels, truffles, cup fungi, and flask fungi; Mushrooms and other larger (basidiomycete) fungi; 
Lichens—more than just fungi; Slime molds; The role of fungi in nature; Interactions of fungi and animals; Fungi 
and humans; and Fossil fungi. A glossary, list of references, and index complete things. 

The book reads rather like a textbook and the writing is generally clear and accessible. However, it lacks 
the abundant supporting diagrams, charts, illustrations, and tables that would be integrated throughout a 
typical textbook. Instead, it includes 124 color photographs, mostly of mushrooms and microscopic fungi or 
microscopic features of larger ones, grouped into two glossy-paper sections (a cost-saving, but convenience- 
reducing, move). While the photos are of good to quite excellent quality and admirably are reproduced at 
generous size, they don’t provide the level of assistance that many readers will need to fully understand portions 
of the text. For instance, it is nearly impossible to comprehend how a clamp connection forms without an 
accompanying step-by-step diagram. Another hindrance for many readers will be that a basic knowledge of 
general biology, such as an understanding of the concepts haploid, diploid , mitosis, and meiosis , is assumed. 
Although a glossary is included, many of the entries will be of little help and one probably would need to turn to 
a biology textbook or online biological glossary for assistance. 

Overall, the information is sound and I noticed no major errors. However, Stephenson is a world expert on 
slime molds and works far less with mushrooms and other “real” fungi, so perhaps it is not surprising that bits 
of missing or misleading information have crept into a book that covers such a wide range of subject matter. For 
instance, he gives an inaccurate characterization of the ericoid type of mycorrhiza. In one instance, he refers to 
chytrids as plants. “Loss of the expertise needed to collect and cultivate truffles” seems unlikely to be a major 
factor in the decline of their abundance in European markets. I find it hard to believe, given the incredibly high 
prices fetched by the Perigord and Italian white truffles, that modern trufflers no longer know how 
THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 i o 





to find them or promote their growth in tended orchards. Far more likely is increased urbanization and all 
that goes along with that (which is mentioned as a key factor), such as loss of potential habitat and increased 
deposition of nitrogen, the latter of which appears to be the biggest factor in the historic declines in many 
species of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms elsewhere in Europe. Scutellinia scutellata is said to be very abundant and 
easy to identify, mainly because of its color and the eyelash-like hairs that adorn the edges of the cup. Actually 
there are a large number of similar-colored eyelash-bearing scutellinias that can be rather difficult to identify 
and many collections labeled “ Scutellinia scutellata ” on foray tables and lists aren’t that at all. Only a very small 
number of species of Cladonia (those placed in the genus Cladina by some lichenologists) comprise the bushy, 
much-branched types called ‘reindeer’ lichens, not all cladonias. Not all carbohydrates can be categorized 
as “simple” molecules, and cellulose is an example. In addition, there are quite a few places where editing to 
remove redundancy or to improve the flow of information would have made the text easier to understand. And, 
surprisingly in a book written by a professional mycologist, there are several instances where the plural ‘fungi’ is 
used when the singular ‘fungus’ should have been. 

Admittedly, these are mostly subtle points that could be considered nits, and many would not even be noticed 
by most readers. But that is the point. I think it is important for the information in books such as this to be as 
accurate as possible, because the intended audience is largely folks who do not have specialized expertise in the 
subject and are not likely to question details of the presentation. 

Despite these issues, The Kingdom Fungi could make a good introduction to the fascinating biology of the fungi 
for those who know little about it. However, if you already have a basic understanding and have other books such 
as Bryce Kendrick’s The Fifth Kingdom , then I’m not sure there is enough new ground covered here to make this 
a necessary addition to your library. 

Steve Trudell 


The 2013 Henry Pavelek Sr. Memorial Scholarship from the 
North American Truffling Society 

Henry Pavelek Sr. joined NATS in 1982 and soon was elected President. His energy and enthusiasm 
for truffles and truffling provided much of the driving force that established NATS as a sustainable 
organization. A scholarship fund has been established in his memory. Applicants should be graduate 
students or outstanding undergraduates conducting research on physiology, taxonomy, phylogeny, 
ecology, animal interactions, commercial harvest, or culinary attributes and uses of hypogeous fungi. 
The scholarship for 2013 is for $1500. The recipient will be announced at the NATS December 7 
meeting 8c potluck in Corvallis. The application form can be accessed by clicking on its link at www. 
natruffling.org . The application deadline has been extended to Oct. 31. 


Editor: I encourage mycologists and clubs to send your articles, recipes, puzzles, etc. for 
possible inclusion in The Mycophile to dianna.smith^comcast.net . Deadline for the next 
issue is November 1st. 

Guidelines for submitting manuscripts to Dr. Michael Beugfor Mcllvainea can be found at 
http://namyco.org/publications/mcilvainea/mcil instructions.html . 


19 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 






The Newton NM1 
a portable microscope 
with 

great potential for 
mycologists 

Geoffrey Kibby 

Two years ago fellow mycologist 
Don McNeil told me of a new portable 
microscope which was in development 
by the Millenium Health Microscope 
Foundation. It was going to be called the 
Newton and was being designed for use in 
the study of tropical diseases in countries 
where full-sized microscopes were too 
expensive or required mains electricity 
which was not always available in the field. 

I expressed an interest and started to 
monitor their website. Two years went by 



moveable 

light 


Figure 1. The Newton NM1 Portable Microscope 


and still it said “In development.. ” Finally, 

this year the microscope was released after extensive and very successful field trials and Don soon 
acquired units for both of us. What follows is my experience and thoughts after using the microscope 
for some weeks. 


HISTORY 

The Newton design team were inspired by, and based many of their ideas on, the old and sadly no 
longer manufactured McArthur portable microscope, which many mycologists may be familiar with. 
That microscope, although of an extremely high standard was too expensive for widespread use in 
countries such as Africa, India etc and production had in any case ceased after its designer Dr John 
McArthur died in 1996. 

The Newton teams aim was to produce a microscope of comparable high quality and ease of use, that 
could be powered by standard batteries and would be in a price range government institutions could 
afford. 

Following investment and funding by a number of agencies the research and development plus field 
trials have finally been completed. For a more complete history of the design and development see www. 
millenium-microscope.org. 

DESIGN 

The biggest challenge with any portable microscope is of course to reduce the size of the instrument 
and this is achieved in this case by bouncing the light path backwards and forwards using a series of 
highly reflective mirrors. Cambridge Optronics, one of the distributors of the microscope have an 
excellent visual of this on their website www.cambridgeoptronics.com . 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


20 










By this method the entire microscope was squeezed into a unit a mere 154mm long, 122mm wide 
and 66mm high (Fig. 1.) and weighing just 480 g in its basic form! The body is made of what feels like 
strong, polycarbonate plastic and the whole unit has a very high quality, precision feel about it. Three 
objective lenses may be fitted from a choice of xlO, x40, x60 and xlOO, the latter being an oil-immersion 
lens. The lenses are switched in operation by turning a wheel on the underside of the unit. Different 
eyepieces from xlO to xl6 are available including the option of a 100 division measuring graticule. 

RESULTS 

Light is provided by a tiny LED light on a movable arm (arrowed in the figure above) and this is 
fadeable by turning a wheel. In practice the lowest power was sufficient for most uses. Power is provided 
by 3 AAA batteries or by plugging it into a computer or other USB power source using the cable 
provided. The LED is very efficient and stated figures suggest a battery life of 300 hours at full power - 
remarkable if true! 

The whole kit comes in a very nice case with a shock-absorbing foam interior and this allows the user 
to cut out extra slots to add additional items such as slides, droppers etc. 

Other available options include an adapter to attach a mobile phone to act both as a screen and as 
a camera. You can also fit a USB-powered video camera which replaces the eyepiece and enables live 
images to be shown on a laptop computer. Fig. 2 shows 
some Cortinarius spores taken via my iPhone - pretty 
impressive. 

The microscope is easily used hand-held or can be 
mounted on a small tripod for longer use. The focusing 
wheel is rather small and difficult to control under high 
power and an additional, larger clip-on wheel is available 
and should definitely be purchased. 

As the microscope uses an inverted system with the 
objectives below the slide, the slide and cover slip must 
be inserted upside down also. This is tricky but gets easier 
with practice. When using the xlOO oil-immersion lens 
I find it easier to put the oil on the lens and then raise 
it up to touch the cover-slip having first positioned the 
mechanical stage into the correct position. 

I find the microscope easy to use, giving very high 
quality images for such small lenses. The click stops for 
the three objectives could be made more obvious and secure - it is sometimes difficult to be sure the lens 
is positioned correctly and this is something the manufacturer should address. 

The light source is very bright indeed and often it is best raised slightly to reduce the light or you can 
tape a piece of tissue over it to reduce the power even more. 

The price of the basic NM1-400 unit is about £400, and for the NM1-1000 with the mechanical 
stage and high power lenses around £600. For prices of the optional extras see the websites of either 
Cambridge Optronics or GX Optical ( www.gxoptical.com ). 

For a powerful, well-made microscope at a great price, to easily carry to forays etc or even use in 
the field you need look no further than this amazing unit. I wish the company every success with this 
remarkable product. 



Figure 2. Cortinarius spores using the 
Newton NM1 and an iPhone. 


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THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 









Traditional Forest Managment 
Reduces Fungal Diversity 


In the beech groves of Navarre a team from the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has analysed the 
influence exerted by forestry management on the fungi populations that decompose wood. There is a shortage 
of dead wood in forests because fallen branches and trees tend to be cleared away. This wood, if available, ought 
to be decomposing, as it is the habitat of many living beings like lignicolous fungi. These fungi are capable of 
decomposing dead wood and turning it into organic and inorganic matter. So clearing away the dead wood from 
the forests is ecologically harmful for the fungi. Nerea Abrego-Antia and Isabel Salcedo-Larralde, biologists in 
the Department of Plant Biology and Ecology of the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country, have recently 
quantified this effect on fungi populations that live off dead wood in various beech groves in Navarre. The main 
conclusion of the study is that forestry and classical forest management are harming the community of saproxylic 
fungi. What is more, the researchers have discovered that in the forests being exploited various fungi species are 
disappearing and in some cases even whole families are affected. 

The conclusion of the research is crystal clear: the clearing away of remains of dead wood is harming the 
populations of lignicolous or saproxylic fungi. Nevertheless, Isabel Salcedo, director of the research, has qualified 
this: “You see everything very clearly, but you don’t accept it that easily. The pre-hypothesis could be that as the 
basic matter is lost, the environment will be directly affected. But the aim of our work is to prove it. In forestry 
only recently did they start to notice this phenomenon, while in Europe it began to be proven scientifically about 
ten years ago.” The work of the UPV/EHU researchers has focussed on the traditional exploitation of various 
beech groves, and the result has been published in the specialised journal Forest Ecology and Management. 

“It is a journal of great quality,” pointed out Salcedo. “In the field of mycology, the journals that publish the 
description of species and systematics papers tend to have little impact; yet this one devotes attention to the 
ecological approach and has a more universal influence. The works that analyse the ecological aspect have a 
greater impact, and as far as we are concerned, it is usually quite difficult to get them published. But in this piece 
of work we paid great attention to the statistical and ecological aspect, which has enabled us to get the paper 
published in such an important journal.” 

The analysis was carried out on samples from sixteen zones, of which eight are exploited and the other eight are 
not. After the samples had been gathered, they were classified in accordance with a standard criterion that is used 
by mycologists in this field so that the research can be repeated. “The first main variable to do the classifications 
was the size of the wood remains in the debris. They are classified according to three sizes, from the largest to the 
smallest,” explained Salcedo. “Normally the smallest debris in this classification is not analysed. Yet many fungi 
have to be identified under the microscope, although there are known species that are very large, like the tinder 
fungus Fomes fomentarius. But it is more difficult to gather samples of the rest and identify them, and it takes 
longer.” 

After the classification of the wood in terms of size, the next criterion is the level of decomposition. For each size 
three levels of decomposition were established: the recently fallen, the ones that have begun to decompose and 
the ones that are fully decomposed. “A more precise classification could have been made, but we found that the 
levels of decomposition fitted well into the three groups.” The debris analysed was classified into nine groups. 
After classifying the debris, the fungal species existing in each were identified, in other words, the community of 
fungi existing in each twig. As far as possible, the “quantity” of each species is also established, even though this 
is no easy task. As Salcedo pointed out, this last parameter is difficult to apply 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


22 


The other European studies have concentrated on large-sized woody debris, which is why importance 
has been attached to the volume of dead wood in the forests when it comes to preserving them. 
However, according to the research by Salcedo and Abrego, the factor that exerts the most influence on 
the diversity of saproxylic fungi is the diversity of the woody debris, not the volume of wood, in other 
words, that the nine groups classified should appear the maximum possible number of times. “This 
conclusion is a result very much to be taken into consideration in forest management,” stressed Salcedo. 
At the same time the influence exerted by forest fragmentation on the presence of fungi is also being 
analysed. Based on this research, the growth of the edge or intervening matrix which happens as a result 
of forest fragmentation also has a negative effect on their diversity. 

The main conclusion of the study is that forestry and classical forest management are harming the 
community of saproxylic fungi, at least in the zones studied. The work of these UPV/EHU biologists 
specifies the levels of this damage. 

(From Science Daily ; July 26, 2013 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/07/130726092358.htm) 


Mcllvainea: Journal of American Amateur Mycology 

- request for articles 

Mcllvainea is an open-access, refereed journal for the amateur and professional 
mycological community. It is published by the North American Mycological Association as a 
rolling publication. Articles are published as soon as they have been refereed and approved. 
Instructions for authors appear on the NAM A website www.namyco.org/publications/ 
mcilvainea/mcil_instructions.html. 

NAMA plans to develop Mcllvainea as a tool to educate citizen scientists who can 
assist with establishing a North American mycoflora. Mcllvainea will be a home for more 
technical papers than those that appear in Fungi Magazine and Mushroom: The Journal and more 
directed at the lay public than articles that may appear in Mycologia. Articles that review recent 
developments in fungal taxonomy of Macromycetes would be particularly welcome. It could also 
become a home for outstanding senior student research papers that may not yet be quite ready 
for Mycologia. We encourage all NAMA members to be thinking about how they can contribute 
to the North American mycoflora project and encourage you all to write up your research in 
Mcllvainea. 

Feel free to contact me about ideas that you may have for a paper. 

Michael W. Beug 
Editor, Mcllvainea 
Professor Emeritus 
The Evergreen State College 
beugm@evergreen.edu 


23 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 




North American 
Mycological Association 

c/o Ann Bornstein 
61 Devon Court 
Watsonville, CA 95076 Change 

Service Requested 


THE 


MYC@PHILE 



Auriscalpium vulgare 

The Conifer Cone Spine or Ear Pick Fungus 
Photo and text by Tim Wheeler 

This is a very beautiful little fungus and is easily overlooked. Its short 
stature, dark colors, and caps barely the size of a nickel, make for a 
boring intro. However, up close and viewed from below these little 
fungi start to shine. The upper surface is kidney shaped, usually some 
shade of brown, but often appearing whitish due to the dense covering 
of hairs. The lower surface is pale, covered in short spines or teeth. 
Spore print white. The stem is thin, off-centered and also hairy. This 
odd toothed fungus, alongside just a handful of other species, are 
important in recycling all those spent conifer cones. 


THE MYCOPHILE, SEPTEMBER-OCTOBER 2013 


24