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(IJCRSEE) International Journal of Cognitive Research in science, engineering and education 


Vol. 1, No.1, 2013. 


PECULIARITIES OF SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATIVE 
COMPETENCE OF TEENAGERS WITH DIFFERENT 
THINKING STYLES 


Dr. Vyshkvyrkina Maria, assistant in the department psychology of education 
Southern Federal University 
Russia, Rostov-on-Don 
E-mail: muha8 1 @list.ru 


Abstract: This article deals with the studying 
of the peculiarities of social and communicative 
competence in teenage years. The paper provides the 
results of the comparative analysis of the peculiarities 
of social and communicative competence of 
teenagers with different thinking styles. 

Keywords: competence, social and 
communicative competence, teenage years. 


1. Introduction 


A large number of works is devoted 
to studying of various aspects of social and 
communicative competence. So, this issue 
was researched by B. G. Ananyev, G. M. 
Andreeva, A. A. Bodalev, Yu. N. 
Yemelyanov, Yu. M. Zhukov, N. V. 
Kalinina, N. V. Kuzmina, V. N. Kunitsyna, 
A. A. Leontyev, L. A. Petrovskaya, V. V. 
Sokolova, G. S. Trofimova, etc. However, 
there is no single definition of this concept. 
For example, S. E. Anfisova specifies that 
"... social and communicative competence 
acts as readiness of the subject to acquire 
information in dialogue, to present and hold 
his point of view on the basis of 
acknowledgment of the variety of positions 
and respect for the values of other people, to 
carry out productive cooperation with the 
members of the group solving the general 
problem"[1]. 

Particular attention is paid to teenage 
years as the key stage of the social 
competence formation. The issues dealing 
with the development of social and 
communicative competence of teenagers are 
reviewed in the works by G. N. Artemyeva, 
B. G. Ananyev, A. N. Leontyev, B. R. 
Lomov, G. M._ Andreev, S. _ V.-. 
Znamenskaya, S. Z. Yenikeeva, I. P. 
Kravchenko, I V. Kuzmenko, J. P. Allen et 


al., C. L. Hanson et al., MacKinnon-Lewis 
et al. 

Thus, the significance of this 
research is caused by the necessity of 
development of the problem of social and 
communicative competence and __ its 
formation in teenage years. 

In this regard, the objective of our 
research is studying of social and 
communicative competence of teenagers 
with different thinking styles. 

The research subject is social and 
communicative competence of teenagers 
with different thinking styles. 

The research object is pupils of 
teenage years. 

The research hypothesis: social and 
communicative competence of pupils with 
different thinking styles will have its 
peculiarities. 


2. Methods and results 


The research techniques: Technique 
"Thinking Style" (A. K.  Belousova), 
Questionnaire - test "Social and 
Communicative Competence"; Statistical 
data processing methods (descriptive 
statistics, Mann - Whitney U-test). 

The research base: 73 pupils of both 
sexes from the general education schools of 
Rostov Region at the age of 13-14 years old 
took part in the research. 

According to the targets of our 
research, the diagnostics focused on 
detection of the prevailing thinking styles of 
the pupils was carried out.[4] The analysis 
of representation of the thinking styles as a 
whole in the group has revealed the 
following results (Figure 1): 


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(IJCRSEE) International Journal of Cognitive Research in science, engineering and education 


Figure 1. Frequency of occurrence of the 
prevailing thinking styles in the group of 
teenagers. 





ais 
ocrs 





O Mans 


~ 


19.18 






a Prs 








/ @Mixs 





39.73 


Identification marks: InS — initiative style 
(0%), CrS — critical style (26.02%), ManS — 
managerial style (39.73%), PrS — practical style 
(19.18%), MixS — mixed style (15.07%). 


As illustrated in Figure 1, the 
managerial thinking style most often 
prevails in the group of pupils (39.73%). 
Aspiration to coordinate the participants’ 
activity, organizing it, integrating others, 
carrying out the managing influence, is 
typical for them, ie. the activity 
organization and management are preferable 
for them. Modern research of thinking styles 
[2] allows also speaking about some 
personal and individual peculiarities of the 
respondents depending on the prevailing 
thinking style. Thus, the senior pupils 
inclined to domination are distinguished by 
field dependence, externality, demand for 
cognition, creativity, motivation for 
achievement and power, orientation on 
change of themselves, low rigidity. 

The critical style is on the second 
place according to the frequency of 
occurrence (26.02%), i.e. this group of 
pupils has an expressed ability to notice 
weak points, mistakes, and any defects. 


Vol. 1, No.1, 2013. 
They are distinguished by scepsis, prudence, 
criticality, orientation to business, 
practicality, motivation for achievement, 
internality, severity, field dependence, low 
sensitivity, reality of judgments, rigidity, 
pessimism, and heuristic competence. In 
19.18% of the time the pupils have the 
prevailing practical style of thinking that is 
revealed in their ability to choose the 
possibility of practical use of various ideas. 
They aspire to bring the realization of the 
problem to the logical end and only after 
that they can work over other ideas. 

Among 15.07% of pupils one 
couldn’t succeed to reveal one specific 
prevailing style of thinking that is an 
evidence of domination of two-three 
functions at the same time. 

It is interesting that none of the asked 
pupils has the prevailing initiative style of 
thinking (0%). 

On the basis of the obtained data all 
the sampling of the examined pupils was 
divided into three research groups: 

> the 1" group — the pupils with the 
prevailing managerial style of 
thinking; 

> the 2” group — the pupils with the 
prevailing critical style of thinking; 

> the 3™ group — the pupils with the 
prevailing practical style of thinking. 


The pupils with the prevalence of 
several thinking styles didn't take part in 
further research in connection with small 
number of sampling. 

According to the objectives of our 
research we carried out the analysis of the 
peculiarities of social and communicative 
competence of the pupils with different 
thinking styles (Figure 2). 


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(IJCRSEE) International Journal of Cognitive Research in science, engineering and education 


Vol. 1, No.1, 2013. 


Figure 2. Degree of expressiveness of basic components of social and communicative competence 


of the pupils with different thinking styles 


45 - 
40 - 





35 + 





30 + 


= @ -ManS 
CrS 














—e—PrS 

















15 


SCA AtoC lofA AF 


FT 


Identification marks: SCA — social and communicative adaptability, AtoC — aspiration to consent, IofA — 
intolerance of ambiguity, AF — avoiding of failures, FT — frustration tolerance. 


As illustrated in Figure 2, in the 
group of the pupils with the prevailing 
managerial style of thinking, the social and 
communicative adaptability has the 
expressiveness degree below the average 
(x=29.05, by o=2.96, m=1.05), and the 
intolerance of ambiguity, on the contrary, is 
expressed above the average (x=40.88, by 
o=2.64, m=0.93). All other components of 
social and communicative competence: 
aspiration to consent (x=32.75, by o=5.84, 
m=2.06), avoiding of failures (x=33.37, by 
o=4.92, m=1.74) and frustration tolerance 
(x=34.37, by o=4.59, m=1.62) have the 
average expressiveness degree. 

Thus, we can assume that the pupils 
with the prevalence of managerial style of 
thinking are distinguished by plasticity, 
flexibility in communication, ability to 
interact with the most various people. They 
easily adapt to the changing circumstances, 
easily overestimate the events, and actively 
find themselves, their place in them. 
Aspiration to follow the clear, firm views of 
things, affairs, acts, moral certainty, 
orthodoxy of thinking, unambiguity of 
perception, lack of fear to discrepancy of 
opinions, difference of views, aspiration to 
solve all the problems “through peaceful 


means” are typical for them. In most cases 
they believe in themselves, their abilities, 
they are cheerful, merry, but in some 
situations they can be also dependent, 
mistrustful, and suspicious. They are 
distinguished by emotional stability in most 
cases, the average degree of self-control and 
self-regulation of emotional conditions, self- 
command in emotiogenic situations. 

The pupils with the prevailing 
practical style of thinking have the 
components — the degree of social and 
communicative adaptability (x=30.66, by 
o=4.93, m=2.84) and avoiding of failures 
(x=29.66, by o=2.88, m=1.66) below the 
average, at the same time, the degree of 
frustration tolerance is expressed above the 
average (x=41.33, by o=8.14, m=4.70). The 


components - aspiration to consent 
(x=33.00, by o=3.00, m=1.73) and 
intolerance of ambiguity (x=36.33, by 


o=1.52, m=0.88) have the average degree of 
expressiveness. 

So, we can assume that the pupils 
with the practical style of thinking are 
distinguished by flexibility in 
communication, ability to interact with 
people, to adapt to the changing 
circumstances easily, love of life, self- 


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confidence, belief in their own abilities, 
cheerfulness and enthusiasm, but at the same 
time, the instinct of self-preservation can be 
absent, the reasonable risk level is exceeded. 
Low self-control, extravagance, excitability, 
unwillingness "to stay in control", verbal, 
speech intemperance, aspiration to have the 
point of view on each matter and to defend 
it, are typical for them, but, if necessary, 
they can make a compromise; moral 
certainty, orthodoxy of thinking, in 
combination with respect of conversation 
partner’s opinion. 

In the group of the pupils with 
critical thinking style the underestimated 
degree of expressiveness of intolerance of 
ambiguity (x=30.50, by o=2.58, m=1.05) 
and the overestimated degree of frustration 
tolerance (x=43.66, by o=6.97, m=2.84) are 
revealed. The level of social and 
communicative adaptability (x=34.16, by 
o=3.92, m=1.60), aspiration to consent 
(x=33.16, by o=5.11, m=2.08) and avoiding 


Vol. 1, No.1, 2013. 
of failures (x=35.66, by o=4.27, m=1.74) 
has the average degree of expressiveness. 

So, we can assume that for the pupils 
with critical style of thinking aspiration to 
follow the clear, firm views of things, 
affairs, acts, moral certainty, orthodoxy of 
thinking, unambiguity of perception, fear of 
uncertainty, surprises, inability to wait 
which leads to rash and premature actions, is 
typical. On the one hand, sociability and 
openness are typical of them, but, on the 
other hand, they can demonstrate some 
shyness, modesty, lack of self-confidence. 
They are distinguished by absence of fear to 
discrepancy of opinions, difference of 
views; aspiration to have the point of view 
on each matter, in combination with the 
aspiration to solve all the problems “through 
peaceful means”, to come to agreement. 

For checking of the made 
assumptions we carried out the statistical 
analysis of the obtained data with the help of 
Kruskal—Wallis test (Table 1). 


Table 1. Significance indicators of distinctions of expressiveness degree of the 
components of social and communicative competence of teenagers with different thinking styles 














SCA AtoG IofA AF FT 
11.470 059 +12.667. 10.666 11.039 
DOF 2 2 2 2 2 
Asympt. signif. 9 ggg: 0.006%" 0.044" — 0,035* 





Identification marks: * - significance at the level of 0.05, ** - significance at the level of 0.01 


As shown in Table 1, the definitely 
significant distinctions are revealed in the 
expressiveness degree of social and 
communicative adaptability (H=11.470, 
p=0.009) and irreconcilability of ambiguity 
(H=12.667, p=0.004). The significance 
indicators of distinctions in _ the 
expressiveness degree of avoiding of 
failures (H=10.666, p=0.044) and frustration 
tolerance (H=11.039, p=0.035), being the 
evidence of availability of distinctions, but 
not proving their significance, entered into 
the so-called "ambiguity area". The 
distinctions in the expressiveness degree of 
aspiration to consent are not significant. 


3. Discussion and conclusion 


Thus, we can tell that the average 
expressed aspiration to consent, shown in 
absence of fear to discrepancy of opinions, 
in aspiration to solve the problems without 
conflicts, is common for all pupils. 

So, the pupils with different thinking 
styles differ from each other by different 
degree of expressiveness of social and 
communicative adaptability and intolerance 
of ambiguity. So, one can say that the 
teenagers with the prevailing managerial 
style of thinking are distinguished by 
aspiration to follow the clear, firm views of 
things, affairs, acts, moral certainty, 
orthodoxy of thinking, unambiguity of 
perception, without half tones, fear of 


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uncertainty, surprises. Plasticity, flexibility 
in communication, ability to interact with 
the most various people, easy adaptability to 
the changing circumstances, fast revaluation 
of the events and adaptation to them are 
typical for them. 

The teenagers with domination of the 
practical style of thinking are distinguished 
most of all by love of life, self-confidence, 
belief in their own abilities, cheerfulness and 
enthusiasm, but at the same time, the instinct 
of self-preservation can be absent, in 
combination with exceeding of the 
reasonable risk level. Low _ self-control, 
extravagance, excitability, unwillingness "to 
stay in control", verbal, speech intemperance 
are typical for them. Thus, they are rather 
flexible in communication, easily cooperate 
with the surrounding people, easily adapt to 
the dynamically changing conditions and 
circumstances. 

The teenagers with the prevailing 
critical style of thinking are characterized by 
tolerance revealed in the ability to take the 
opinion, the character of other people 
without irritation and hostility, but when 
meeting a barrier, with impossibility to get 
the desirable thing they become 
irrestrainable, excitable, in combination with 
demonstration of verbal aggression. Thus, as 
a whole, they are rather open and sociable, 
however, in certain situations they are shy, 
avoidant, unsure of themselves as in the 
interlocutor, show some _ constraint in 
communication. 

Thus, the hypothesis of our research 
was completely confirmed. 

The problem of communication is 
one of the most important and difficult in 
psychology. Communication is considered 
as process, condition of implementation of 
different forms of human activity, as means 
of achievement of different objectives and 
satisfaction of different needs, as 
independent activity. Social and 
communicative competence is defined by 
G.S. Trofimova, as ".... the integrative 
ability based on humanistic qualities of the 
personality and directed on ensuring the 
productivity of the communicative activity, 
caused by the experience of interpersonal 


Vol. 1, No.1, 2013. 
communication of the personality, the level 
of his proficiency, manner and personal 
growth"[3]. 

In our work the problem of thinking 
styles was also touched; it is actively studied 
by A. A. Alexeev, L. A. Gromov, R. J. 
Sternberg, A. K. Belousova, G. A. Berulava, 
L. Ya. Dorfmann, K. Korostelina, A. V. 
Libin, V. I. Morasanova, I. G. Skotnikova, I. 
N. Trofimova, M. A. Kholodnaya, I. P. 
Shkuratova, etc. The analysis of the reading 
matter on the studied problem showed that 
in domestic and foreign literature there are 
practically no works on studying of the 
peculiarities of thinking style of the senior 
teenagers, and researches devoted to 
studying of social and communicative 
competence of the teenagers with different 
thinking styles are not presented at all. 

At the same time, the teenage years 
are the sensitive period for formation of 
social and communicative competence 
which is one of the key elements of 
successful self-realization. 

As a result of our research the 
general and the specific peculiarities of 
social and communicative competence of 
teenagers with various thinking styles were 
revealed. These results can be used by 
developing of therapeutic and intervention 
programs directed on increasing of both 
communicative, and social and 
communicative competence. 


Reference 


1. Anfisova S.E. (2009): Peculiarities of 
Competence-Based Approach in Education of 
Preschool Age Children, News of the RSPU named 
after A.I. Herzen, No. 116, P. 99-105. 

2. Belousova A.K., Pishchik V.I. (2011): 
Thinking Style, Rostov-on-Don: Publishing House of 
the SFU, P. 167. 

3. Trofimova G.S. (2000): Didactic Basics of 
Formation of Communicative Competence of 
Students. Thesis Work. Ed. D., St. Petersburg, P. 362. 

4. Vyshkvyrkina M.A., Nikolayenko S.V. 
(2012): Peculiarities of Thinking Style of the Senior 
Pupils, "Youth in Science": Materials of Reports of 
the Student's Scientific Conference Devoted to the 
Science Week at the SFU. - Rostov-on-Don: 
Publishing house “MART”, P. 45-50. 


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