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WEEKLY 



2 Saptanitiw 1982 Vol 1 Mo 20 



We test the new 
Commodore 64 



'^Jj^tttOeymaVBO 



« 




'QUI 2X31 plmlh we have ir 

le Spectrum, Tnis slylish ABS clinth raises am 

'" ^r vjewing whilst angling the Spectrum and 

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Sinclair User Issue 2 review) 



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POPULARf 

MnnfoX 

JWEEKLY/; 




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The Team 



Advertisement Executive 

Alastair Macintosh |01-930 3 



Publishing Directors 

Jenny Ireland 
Nick Hampshire 



Popular Computing Weekly, 

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London WC2 

Telephone: 01-S39 6835 

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2 SEPTEMBER 1982 



This Week 



Laserbug rings the changes. 
Lcttera 



Sinclair speaks. 
Under Pressure 



w game tor Spectrum by Simon 



Davkj Kelly reports on SllvBrsolt. 
Benchtest 



ZXCalaxlans. 
Open Forum 



ilf pages of your programs. 



Skelch & draw. 
Sound A vision 



little peace (or Vicao. 
ProgrBmrolrtg 



Upgrade your BBC to 32K. 



YourquBslionBi 
Competition 



Editorial 

The queslion of software copyright Is 
rearing its head again. Atari has 
started a campaign against programs 
which allegedly infringe the copyright 
of its Pac-Man game. 

As part of that campaign, Atari Is 
seekirtg an Injunction against Com- 
modore. Atari Is alleging that Com- 
modore's game Jellymonsters Is an 
Infringement of copyright. 

Other software companies, such a 
Bug-Byte, A and F Software and 
Micropower. have also been 
approached by Atari. 

There could tie severe repercus- 
sions for the software industry, if any 
of these cases come to court. If the 
court decides that copyright suOsists 
in computer programs, and/or in 
Images repnxluced on a iv screen 
{PCW. August 5). then companies will 
be forced to develop more original 
games. Imitations of successful 
arcade games such as Space Invad- 
ers will no longer be acceptable. 

The establishment of a precetteni 
for software copyright can only be 
good tor the industry. Software firms 
and writers alike will finally kn< 
where they stand in regard to the la 



Next Week 



M 



Can you save Beta 
Strigldae trom attack by winged 
reptiles— find out InPteragon.a 
new game for BBC 



Our classifieds 
are faster. 



Do you want to sell your computer and 
buy a bigger and belter one? 

Have you ever thought of trying to 
make some money out of selling tapes of 
your own programs? 

Whatever it is you want to buy or sell 
why not use our classified pages? 

It has to be better than wailing for up to 
nine weeks to get into one of the old 
monthly magazines. 

Not only Ihal, but our rates are very 
reasonable. 

For private individuals it only costs 20p 
per word, with a minimum ol 1 words. 

We can make it so cheap because we 
charge companies using the classified 
columns 40p per word. 



The classified pages can be used for 
semi-display advertising. 

The cost for this is £i per single 
column centimetre, with a minimum 
charge of E30- 

All copy for the classified pages must 
be pre-paid. (You'll find a handy form on 
page 25.) 

Cheques and postal orders should be 
made out to Popular Computing Weekly. 
Your advertisement should arrive at least 
two weeks before the publication date. 

If you have any queries regarding 
Classified or semi-display 
advertising please call 
Alastair Macintosh on 
01-930 3840 



Popular Computing Weelcly. 

The fast one. 



News Des K 



01-930 3271 



in ZXKI 



Spectrum 
software 
converter 

[T is now possible 
software on the ZX Speclr 

The new software conver- 
sion device is called )tie Slow- 
loader and is manufactured by 
East London Robotics. 

The hardware'software 
combination is easy to use and 
allows ZXSl software casset- 
tes to be loaded and correctly 
interpreted by the Speclrum. 

board is plugged into the I/O 
port on the rear of the Spec- 
machine-code routine is then 

the usual manner. The ZX&l 
cassette is then loaded through 
a socket on the Slow loader 

through the normal cassette 

Mark Vellacott of East Lon- 
don Kobotics explained that 
the device converts the ZX81 
coding as the tape ii loading. 

"The Slowloader." he said, 
"handles string arrays intel- 
ligently — converting them to 
Specirum characters — and 
will also successhilly cope with 
ZX81 machine-code programs 
providing they do not alter the 
screen display or define new 

The Slowloader will cost 
about £11] and will be available 
from the beginning of Septem- 
ber, 

Further information from 
East London Robotics, Fin- 
landia House. 14 Darnell 
Close, East Ham, London E6. 
(Tel: 01-471 3308). 



Computer grant 
double boost 



Information Technoloj 
Minister. Kenneth Bake 
annouacing a £13m plan, sa 
thai Che need for such inve 
Under tt 






lemc. up to 
.t of such t 




Laserbug tackles 
its problems 



LASERBUG, i 
South-East BBC microcompu- 
ter user group has appointed 
its first full-lime co-ordina(oi 
Paul Barbour is to be the 

duce the group's monthly 

He will replace Trevor Shar- 
pies who has resigned from 
editorship of the newsletter, 

Trevor Sharpies told Popu- 
lar Computing Weekly that he 

with the group having been 
"forced to give up the club 
because of time considerations 
and personnel difficulties". 

Only two of the monthly 
issues — April and May — 

the group's 2000 members, 
Paul Barbour explained that a 
joint June/July issue was being 
sent out. A joint August/ 
September issue is to follow. 
He said that every member 
would have their subscription 




eilended by two months to 
compensate for the delay, 

operate from its mailing 
address — 4 Station Bridge. 
Woodgrange Road. Forest 
Gate. London E7, There are 
no plans for Laserbug to have 
a telephone installed. 



Sinclair gets going 



SINCLAIR Re' 

financial help to a campaign to 

help create jobs from private 

enterprise. 

The company is contributing 
£lDOa of the £lU,(Xn prize 

of the Daily Star newspaper's 
'Get Going' competition. 

The 'Get Going' winner wiil 
be the individual who comes 
up with (he best idea which 
could lead to the setting up of 
a successful smalt business and 
the creation of job opponuni- 



going', and the n 



ve£20a. 



five-figure prize money in- 
clude British Petroleum, The 
Confederation of British In 
dustry. National Westminstci 
Hank, Plessey. Sainsbury'i 
and the Science and Engmeer 
ing Research Council. 

The competition closed or 
August 31 and the wirmers wil 



The first prize w 



will 



Commodore In 

copyright 

contest 

COMMODORE is to contest 
the Atari claim of infringe- 
ment of the Pae-iWaa copy- 
right. 

The statement from Com- 
modore Business Machines 
(UK) Ltd says: "Thetf 
several grounc^ which are 
troversia! in the Atari claim 
and Commodore is conlesting 
the case." 

In an independent si 
recently conducted on behalf 
of Commodore, the reactions 
of potential purchaser, under 
17 years of age. to the Vic20 
Jellymonsrers and Atari 
Pac-Maa were compared. 

A Commodore spokesman 
said: "Initial results suggest 
that on several parameters, 
including graphics, sound and 
enjoyment, there is an 80 per- 
cent preference amongst con- 
sumers towards Jellyaionsteis. 

"TTiis tends to conflict with 
the claim of Atari Internation- 
al (UK) Inc thai Commodore 
Business Machines (UK) Ltd 
IS in conflict with cons 

Atari is pressing ahead with 
its claim for an injunclion 
against Commodore to stop 
sales of Jellymonslers. 

A spokeswoman for Atari's 
advisers said: "Tliere will be a 
hearing in October, when 
Atari will claim injunctive re- 
lief against Commodore." 



Change In Vic 
software poHcy 

COMMODORE has adopted 
policy of linking its Vic car 
tridge software to well-knowi 
personalities or institutions. 

The first of these avaiJable i 
Mastermind, marketed by 
arrangement with the BBC 
and with questions set by the 
BBC Mastermind co- 
ordinator, Bosweli Taylor. 

Next month will see a cook- 
ery package from Robert Car- 
rier and a personality testing 
program from Professor 

sion of Ask the Family, again 
by arrangement with the BBC, 
and a link-up to produce edu- 
cational software in conjunc- 
tion with the publishers. Hod- 



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POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



Letters 



write to Letters, Popular Computing Weekly, HobhouM Court, 19 Whitcomb Street, London WC2 



Wash a matter 
with you baby? 



ihe BBC micro and the ZX 
Spectrum . He implies that the 

Some people may piefcr the 



ideas being "re-hashed" and 
submitted. In thai very issue 
there is a mastermind prt)g- 
tam. Now. if there is a ZX81 
owner in the world who has 
not already seen 20 master- 
mind programs i 



pie who consider il wonhwh 
paymg more for the BBC mic- 
ro's adaptability and extra 

I had not thought of controll- 
ing a washing machine by my 
BBC, but Michael Vale has 
just given me a good idea, 

RLober 

Rivendell 

13 Pwll-Y-min Crescent 

/Vrertf iin-.vuper- Elv 

Cardiff CF5 6L'R 

Mown down 
by moans? 

I am wnting with a moan or 
two about the Screen S func- 
tion on the Spectrum. 

This function is not satisfac- 
torily explained in the manual. 
When used, it will yield a null 
string for any graphic symbol, 
including user defined ones. 

bols in games almost poinlles.s. 
There is also a bug with the 
fallowing program : 



nswer. But, if you change line 



your editorial. Docs the per- 






your magazine'? The poinis 
raised are \ety interesting a 
I agree with many of them. 1 
you do not follow your o 

In PCM' July :« your edi 
Z SEPTEMBER 1962 



Id tike tc 



On page 19 of thai issue 
there is a maths quiz program. 
Again, this is a (yawn) well 
tried program. On page 15 
there is a program to define 
Spectrum graphics. An almost 
identical program appeared in 

In your defence, you have 
published some excellent 
routines for the Spectrum (eg 
the 3D graphics in issue 12) 
but 1 feel you do tend lo 



PS. 



would I 



t for 



other PCW. Twice they have 



which your magazine had 
already reviewed ie Spectrum 
and now the Dragon, 

Stephen Kelly 

SO Hialon Cieiceni 

Appleton 

Warnngmn WA4JDF 

Yon are quile right, we da doI 

pie. but we da try. In (he case 
of Open Forum pn^rams we 
have been encourBglng readers 



few of these types of garner 
together with as many new and 
interesting pn^rams as possi- 



Or ]u8t a white 
elephant at lar^e? 

T ike many microcomputer 

aware that both the ceefax and 
oracle services broadcast telc- 
saftwace. Unfortunately, it is 
limited to that overpriced 
never delivered BBC compu- 



tributed (a fact verified by the 
computer newsletter published 
on page 705 of ceefax). Surely 
such a piffiing amount is not 
enough to ensure a monopoly 
in the telcsoftware output. 

pies of pages i ' 






The general public's re- 
sponse to our ne* computer 
has far ejiceeded our expecta- 

'swamped' with orders. This, 
and some small initial produc- 

considerable delays in deliv- 



n the 



widely used languague 
home computing world. After 
all, half a million ZX81 com- 
puters and more than ^U.OUO 
Sped rums have been sold 
already in this country. 

1 am quite sure the BBC will 
say that they do not have 
enough pages on their teletext 
service to cater for any other 
software. The real reason 
being that they are unable to 
admit Ihat their computer is 
rapidly becoming a while 
elephant in the light of the 

ters being produced, and 
under development. 

Could you not ask your 
readers to pester the BBC with 
a vie* to getting such prog- 
rams broadcast. After all, we 
are missing out on a fantasti- 
cally useful service. The prog- 
rams which I have painstak- 
ingly transposed to Sinclair 
Basic seem to be of very high 

NigeJ Cummings 
4S6 High Sireel 
Wesi Bromwich 

If vou read PCW Jul) 29 you 
will see thai Sinclair are de- 
veloping a Prestd adaptor for 
the Spectrum. It will cost loss 

able in the first half of next 
ye»r. Consequently, there will 
also be a range of Spectrum 
telesaftware available next 

SoRware manufacturers can 
sell their programs through 
Prestel by cunlacllng British 
Telecom on Fmphone 2(R), 

Log Jam brills 
cash rewards 

In response to the many 
queries which, I understand, 
your Diagazine has received, 1 
would like personally to ex- 



lo 12 weeks, from our receipt 
of their order, for delivery of 
their Spectrum, We are writ- 
ing to them all to apologise for 
the inconvenience and lo offer 
them the chance of im immedi- 

For those customers who 
continue lo wait, we shall be 
sending out with each Spec- 
trum, in compensation for the 
delay, a £10 voucher, which 
can be used in part-paymenl 
for a ZX Printer or to buy a 
complete pack of five rolls of 
printer paper. 

We are also providing cus- 




Finally, 1 would like to 
assure you and all oui custom- 
ers that the initial problems 
with the Spectrum have now 

Producfion is running smooth- 
ly at 5,000 units pet week and 
will rise sharply over the com- 
ing months. We ate conBdenl 
that our present backlog will 
be cleared by the end of 
September and hope that you 
will see current delays in the 
context of our successful deliv- 
ery of more than 500000 com- 
puters in the last two years. 

Clive Siadaii 

Sinclair Research Lid 

2} Moicomb Sireel 

London SWIX SLB 



Popular Computing Wceklv. 
Hobfiouse Courr. 19 Whh- 
comb Street. London WC2. 



J5SS0 



f*^ Underpressure 






Y Itie Yoshima oil rig ir 

main lask is Id carry □' 
inspection and maintenance of Ihe pic 
lines carrying the oil from the rig lo 
refinery in Scotland. 

It the main pipe line has sprung 
»ul 1000 melres away from If 
.i^ni,..a rig. YoL are despatched in 
propeHer-driven Oiving bell lo mvesttgat 



tie pipe line, looking 
VIS OS that denote a 
e ol 



Cruising just at 



,. you suddenly Iwcome 
strong smell of smoke. Turning round you 
t your engine has caught tire. 
Grabbing the chemical tire extinguisher 
from under your seat, you douse the 
engine in a mass of loam. 

ut, the immediate danger 

ngine is a hwsted heap of 
bumt-DLit wire and meial. You are trapped 

Fortunalaiy, the diving bell is equipped 
with an aqualung and a wel-suit. However, 
as you are putting on the aqualung you 
notice thai the air cylinder seems slrar)gely 
light. On checliing the cylirrfer's gauge. 
,. . . ..._. .. Is virtually empty. 

ie diving bell starling 












Entering thi 

attempt to swim lo the surface before your 
is out. But, if you rise too fast you will 
sutler from "the bends" and die from 
decompression. 

When you have loaded arid run the 
program, a man inawel-suilwill appear on 
lefi. Two dials will also appear on 
of Ihe display, indicating your depth 



Type'( 



' 10 use your flippers. This uses 

jt doubles your speed. 

it watch out lor shoals of fish 

and clumps ol seaweed on your way up. 

Hitting either ol them will delay your 

ihing square appears beside the 
oxygen dial when your air supply is almost 
exhausted. The key to the game is to keep 
rising slightly faster than your air supply 
diminishes. 









e compute I 



a percentage 5< 

and your remaining air My 

far is 63 percent. Can you bi 






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COMPUTING 



ALWAYS AHEAD WITH ZX8II SPECTRUM SOFTWARE 



396 JAMES RECKITT AVENUE, 
HULL. N. HUMBERSIDE. HU8 OJA 




POPULAR COMPUTING ' 















s 


treetLif 


e 


' 




Born in a pub 




pany can easily spend more than E1500 
per month on, say, six hall-page ads. To 
recoup that cost, you woukl r>eed lo sell 


J 


\ 




i 






brewed in 




1 


"Then there are hidden costs like rent, 
rates, eledrictty and telephone. Finally 






a kitchen 




1 


there is kit. We have hvo ZX81s, two 






David Kelly talks to David 


Jl'^'^^l 


I 


reconaers. We bum them up Ifke they're 
going out of fashion — you have got to 






Paterson, a founding 




■ 








partner of Silversoft. 




I 


"So far we haven't begun to consJder 






David Paterson is a voluble Glaswegian 




profit. 






wtm a wrisl walch Ihal plays Scotland the 




"At any lime we have a considerable 






Brave. Ha is also one ol the partnerB in the 




investment in tapes and, in a market that 






sotlwarB company, Silversoft. 




changes aS quickly as this one, it Is quite 






After leaving the University ol Strath- 




easy to burn your fingers. When the 






dyde t\e worked firsi lor a shipyard and 




Spednim came out all our ZX81 atock 










died.- 






The Silversoft venture began as a hob- 




Drop-out 






by, "A buddy and 1 ware sitting in a pub." 




The games that Silversoft now pnjduce 






he explained, "thinking we musi get a 










compirter and trying to work out how lo pay 










for H. So we thought we'd write some 
programs for the ZX81 ' 
TTiis was in the summer of 1 9B1 . "Some 




sell — people always go for the devil Ihey 
know. "We had a great game called 
Drop-ou(. " said David, "and it did just that 






3flvW PalB'son 






o( the sotlware at that time was abysmal 










and we thought we might be able to do 


have all got the same problems. Our single 


Now Ihal Atan are beginning to take 






better, ■■ 


biggest worry is piracy. There is not a lo 


action over alleged copyright inlringo- 






The Hrst game they wrote was a 16K 


you can do about it either — apart from 


ments. sotlware companies may be forced 






version of Slar Trek. "The big day came 


keeping your eyes open. It is particularly 


to produce more material based on th«r 






We made the tapes, placed the adverts 


annoying to look in the classified ads and 


own original ideas. "If that happens," says 






and sat back biting our nails, waiting lo see 


see the program you spent six weel<s 


David, "marketing will become the big 






what would happen. 


wnling being sold under a new name a 


problem. 






"And then the money started rolling in 


half the price. 


"The law in this area is very contused. 






— WB were staggered by the response ' 


■Recently we have been noticing the 


We even had one guy who said we 






They recovered the cost of their advertis- 


effect ol software libraries. They buy ou 


ripped'Off his program by using Ihe com- 






ing in the first week. 


apes and then rent them out. All perfectly 


mands Back. Forward, Left and Right. 






"At first we recorded all the tapes in my 


egal, but, in the end, the user loses out 


What are we supposed to use — Retreat, 






kitchen at home. 1 was working all through 


What is the point in trying lo write a good 


Advance, Port and Starboard? 






Ihe night knocking the things out and then 


program only to have it bought by the 


"Vou have to accept that the copyrighl 






doing s ful[-lime job in the daytime. We 


brartes and loaned out? " 








soon realised that the tapes would have to 


Another major concern at the moment Is 


Ihal It is OK providing the program is not 






be manufactured professionally. 1 was 


he prolileralion of machines. "All the main 


an exact copy — it is the nature ol the 






down to six and a half stone and couldn't 


electronics companies are jumping on the 


industry. 






goon." 




"There are lots ol different versions ol 






Slversoft had 500 tapes made. The 


often with no software back-up. A machine 








tapes sold quicldy and the business has 










never looked back 


^Dst software companies will not have Ihe 


ours are some of the superior progranw." 






The company specialises in games 


esources to cope with all these new 








tapes lor the home consumer. David does 


micros. 








not think that there is a business market for 
Ihe ZX machines and thinks most utility 


■■Everyone thinks there are big profits to 
be made in software — one magazine 


What's happening 






programs are a waste of lime. "Theydont 










do anything you couldn't do Quicker on a 


costs 22p to produce a tape. This just isn' 


Thaitiei Valley ZX81 and Spectrum 






piece of paper. That's why we make 




User Group is being formed 10 cover 






games — besides, it is fun." 


■■Suppose the pnce of the cassette is CS 


Slough, Reading. Windsor and Bracknell, 






Davkl reckons there are three types of 


Post and packing — about 40p — and VAT 


Those inie rested should contact Richard 








— 7Sp — coma ofl first The tape probably 


Shepherd, 22 Green Leys, Maidenhead, 








costs 60p to produce, including the cost o 


Berkshire [Tel. 0628 21 107) 






amateurs out lo spread Ihe word about 


he insert and Inslmctions. And one can 








computers, and egotislic technocrats who 


expect to pay 20-25 percent royalties — 








think it Is tiasny. 


say El .35. 








"I'll let you guess which 1 think 1 am." he 


"That only leaves £2. From that comes 


Contact Mrs K Bacon, 26 Mays Road, 






grinned. 


handling charges and advertising. A com 


Wokingham. Berks (Tel: 0734 792569), 






SSEPTEMBERIiBa 






11 





Reviews 



Peter Qerrard takes a 
comprehensive look at ttie 
Commodore 64. 

■ n appearance ihe Commodore 64 is very 

sHohtly layered keyboard seen on the new 

Vice. The lour funclion keys are also there. 

Similarly, Ihe by-now familiar and ofl- 

Imitated Pel graphics symbols are all 

Most micros thai have been announced 
over Iha last lew months, and there have 
been many newcomers on the scene 
lately, have been remarkably similar in 
perJormance and price. No new outstand- 
ing features have emerged in any ot them. 
Even the Speclrum. subject o( sjch furore 
around the Induslry when It first appeared. 
has now lost some of rts Initial glamour. 

The Commodore 64 has a number of 
capabilities that maKe it stand out. but In 
the long njn the deciding factor will be the 
price. The reason why the ZX81 did so well 
was its extremely low cost. 

Commodore will be pncing the 64 at 
around £299 plus VAT, maKirig a total 
ol E350. This compares with a pnce of 
£199 plus VAT for Commodore's Vic20, 

No computer, other than the BBC micro, 
has atlerrpted to come to grips with 
musical synthesis on a big scale. Even on 
the BBC machine, envelope shaping is not 
the easiest of tasks. Admittedly you could 
pay £15000 and acquire an amazing 
purpose-built machine, but the home mar- 
ket has been lacking such features, until 

The VIC20 started the trend, with three 
voices and a white noise generator. Clive 
Sinclair look a step backward with the 
Spectrum's Be^, but the Commodore 64 
redresses the balance. 

Inside the 64 is a chip known affec- 
tionately as Sid (Sound Ir^terface Device?). 
It is this chip that controls all sound output 

able powers. Basically, you have control 
over three independer^t voices, each of 
wtiich has the following capabilities: 

1) A nine octave range from 0.059Hz to 
3.9Hz, in steps ot 0.059Hz. 

2) Four different wavefonns (sawtooth, 
triangle, variable pulse and noise). 

3) Amplitude modulation and ring moOula- 

4) Programmable addressable envelope 
getierator. 

5) Oscillator synchronisation. 

There is a programmable filter, indi- 
vidually selectable for each voice, and. as 
on the Vic20, volume control from within 
the software! 



Will you sti 
me now I'm 



looks very good, control ot the sound is 
guile easy. Certainly tnje synthesis is not 
at all difficult You will soon have Ihe 
living-room reverberating to the Branden- 
burg Concerto, or Goody-Goody Two 
Shoes for mat matter. 

You can achieve very close api 
tion to the timbre of a whole 

be played at once, I suspect that I 
be too long before Commodore, or some- 
one else, comes out with a superb piece i 
software to facilitate the production i 
musical pieces. Our News Clesk will keep 
you informed of any developments 
Most micros coming on to the 
make great play aCiout their graphit 



from wllhin a Basic 



I, both ir 






add-on packages to enhance existing fea- 

counts. The Commodore 64 has an im- 
pressive performance in this lield. 

Full resolution Is 320 by 200 pixels, 
using a 40 column by 25 row screen. Thus 
teletext is now at your command, providing 
someone brings out the appropnate inter- 



aid of data St 

program. Y 

matrii gnd ot 24 by 2i pixels. The charac- 

On any given horizontal line you can 
have up to eight sprites displayed. But. by 
careful use of the interrupt capabilities of 
trie video controller, you can have as many 
as 256 spntes displayed simultaneously 

Quite superb graphical displays can be 
produced. To list just some of the capabili- 
ties of the video controller. positionir>g of a 
sprite is done by specifying an X — Y 
regester, there are routines for expanding 
sprites and filling in the background. 
routines for collision detection, and so on 
No longer need Tempest be restricted to 



can be displayed per B x 8 pixel 
I half resolution |160 x 200), you 

per 8 X 4 pixel area. 

it was impossible lo 




Comnrotforo Co/rrputw S}jow, June 3-5 
POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



Reviews 



II love 
64? 

pul the 64 through lis full paces. Cut we did 
discover thai it can support a large number 
of peripheral devlceB. With cassetfe inter- 
face, serial Interface and B-bil parallel user 
ports on board, this is hardly surprising. In 
addition, if has merrKiry expansion and 
cartridge ports, and is capable of support- 
ing two joysticlis and four paddles. It can 
also handle any of the existing Vic 
peripherals. 

Even n^ore exciting, the 64 can run any 
software written for any other 40 column 
Commodore rruchine. This is done quite 
Ingeniously, By allering the memo/y map- 
ping system. 



The 64 has 20K of Rom on board, 
including BK Basic and 6K Kemal as in the 
Vic, and 64K of Ram, Of this Ram, 40K <s 
directly useable from Basic, with the lop 
24K being accessed from within the 
machine code. Even if you know no1hli>g 
about machine code, 40K ts sufficient 

However, the 64 does have one major 
failing. Why. oh why, does it still have 
Basic 2.0 on txiard? 

Basic 4 has been around tor quite some 
time now, and Basic 5 has been nimoured 
tor almost as long. So why on eahh stck to 
an old, outdated version of the language? 
Admittedly, it is ivot going to make any 
difference for a lot of applications, but I 
thought we had said goodbye to gartoage 
collection long ago. Oh well, we must 
assume Commodore has its reasons. 

Summary 

The 6502 has been and gone. We are left 
with its offspring to provide us with a quite 
superb machine. Despite my one major 
grievance over Basic 2, I have no real 




An outstanding feature of the 64 is that it 
can accept a second processor (eg a ZBO), 
which allows you lo run CP'M-bas»d soff- 



SoTtware advantage 

There IS a vast array ot programs tor 
Pet wntien in Basic. Now that we can 
gain access to CP/m software as well 
number of packages already in exisi 
lor the Commodore 64 is enormous, 
will give it significant advantages 

2 SePTEtilBER 19B2 



extras you gel more than make up for Ihls. 
The 64 already has a rich gnsund-base 
of software. It is easy to use for anyone 
remotely familiar with Commodore's own 
implementation of Basic, and the new 
facilities are all straightforward enough. 
The documwilation is adequate, and may 



We were onginally told to expect a 
delivery dale of January 1963, but it looks 
like Commodore is mateng great efforts to 
bring this forward C)y a few rnonths. 



ZX-6alaxlain 



Artie Computing, 396 Jt 
Avenue. Hull. 
ZX81. 4K. cassene. 



minutes and njns automatically. 

After the title and copyright message 
appear, there follows a description of th" 

It starts after pressing any Key, upt 
which an a^ay of four rows of eig 
Galaxians appear, along with your bas 
The Galaxians each score 10 points in D 
convoy, and 20 when Ihey dive. Unlike If 
arcade version there is only one type of 
Galaxian, represented by the letter V v 
in convoy, or by three pixels when diving. 
Your base is formed fmm several pixels, it 
is moved by pressing 5 and 6 and fires. 

The graphics are adequate but crude 
and there appears to be no relalionship 
between your score and the speed a 
treouency of the diving aliens. The 'cc 
Ilnuous status report' refen^d to on t 
cassette inlay is jusi a Oox displaying tlie 
score, hi-score, base count and Instruc- 
tions. This takes up most of the righl-hi 
quarter of the screen and would be be 
dispensed with and replaced by m 
iniaginative graphics. 

Each player is given throe bases. When 
hit by a Galaxian missile, the base disinte- 
grates in a suitably graphic explosion, 

Ttio lop scorer can input six letters oi 
numbers of his choice, enabling him tc 
satisfy his desire for temporary immortality. 

The game is also available from W K 
Smith, paired with a program called Sword 
ot Peace, pnce E4.9S. 

Sword of Peace is a lext-only adve 
game, written in Basic and is extremely 
slow, even in the Fasf mode. 



which you can destroy evil monsters, 
time you cast a spell, or a spell- is 
against you, a certain amount of enei 
lost. If your energy decreases below 

Summary 

ZJtGalaxians is smooth-running and diffi- 
cult, despite faults. One would be '""""' 
pressed lo describe it as imaginative, 
though. 

Sword of Peace is interesting for five or 
six garrws but, with its lack of speed arKi 

although it has novelty value. 

The decision whether to buy one game 

for E3.95 or two games for C4.9S is yours. 

AE 



Open Forum 

Open Forum is for you to publish your programs and ideas. 

It is important that your programs are bug free before you send them in. We cannot test alt of them. 

Contributions should be sent to: Popular Computing Weekly, Hobhouse Court, 

19 Whitcomb Street, London WC2H 7HF. 



How to conMbute 



Binary 



ie edilor goes through ill 
IB thai you »«nd to Open 
lertoflnd the Program ot 
the Week, 
The author of that program will quaitfy 
for DOUBLE the uaual tM wa pay for 
pubilahed programa, 
{The uaual fee is £10.) 
Presentation hlnt» 
Programa which are moat likely to be ^„ 
considered lor the Program of ttie Week 2d key 



on Spectnam 
For ZXai and Spedrum use's tnis prog- 
ram, which gives the binary and hexade- 

should be useful for both giapliics and m.'c 

In the Spectrum mar^ual, chapter 14 
holds a program for ir putting your own 
graphics, requiring a Bin input. " 
though, enter the decimal equivalent, ini 
keystrokes per entry, a total 
es per use' character. 



Putting 
and delating the input on line 30 wi 
look up table. The resulting error o 
screen full, may bo answered *ilh Conf 



will be computer printed and 
accompanied by a cassette. 

The program will t>e weil documents 
the documentation being typed with 
double spacing between each line, 
Ttw documentation should start with a Alternatively replacing the Pi 
general description of the program and with Lpnrirwilt give the complete 

then give some detail of how the 

program haa been constructed and c' 

its special features. 

LIstlnga taken from a ZX Printer shoul 

be cut Into convenient lengths and 

carefully stuck down on to white paps 

avoiding any creasing. 

Please enclose a stamped, 

self-add reaaed envelope. 




Design of program: 
1 '5 Sets up variables 
10 Gosubs 300 to set up coli 

80-200 Checks and acts If an 
being pressed. 

210-227 Checks more keys ai 
change tti 



Vanabies used: 



on Spectrum 
This program enables the ZX Spectrum 
to be able to draw a picture of his own 
design on the 256-1 75 pixels available lo 

le controls are as follows 
S: Clears the whole screen. 
OWE 

screen In direction Z C of key being 
pressed In relation to the S key 
I* Pressing this key makes the computer 
jsk you for the radius of a circle around 1He 

U This key when pressed allows you to 
ige the colours of Border. Paper. Ir\k 
while still mnning the program. 
O: Allows you to move the purser around 
without leaving a trail. 
I: This key returns the cursei to normal 



a trail. 




COMPUnNO WEEKLY 





,r- 








upen f oruin 

When this is run, a set ol concentric do not affect Ihe scroll right routine. 










Fine Scrolls 


circles are drawn, which then scroll lo the Compare these routines with the usual 
right and off the screen. Replacing the Usr scrolling on the Speclrum. It is obvious at a 
call by 2379B will make them scroll to the glance Ihal these are more elegant: what 






on Speclrum 






The Fine scrolls program is really a pair ol 


eft. may not be so obvious is that tliey provide 






machine code roulines Ihal can be used to 
great etfeci m a Sas« program. Thay will 


11 is possible to scroll one third ol the 
screen at a lime. Here is a table ol Ihe 


more power over your screen. 










each scroll the whole, or part, ot Ihe screen 




'■"I'yS^.=....... = = .z^.iz = ^,» = 






lo either led or right. 




■=ii'?5&S.«V« TO ^,^7= SE«D 






To scroll to the nght. Randomize usr 




; aS°f|«^i;»?i^Tg S3B«. «EBI> 






23760 Is used, and Ihis will move the 


urnoiilaia loea IDOI zaoa 2002 








whole screen lo tHe right by one high 
resolution pixel. Randomize usr 23796 will 


mBecftanged. lismS IMm 1 lieinS lUime 
icfoll 100 Ihira. 64 7! S4 7! 


ill! SS ii,!tl!ii*i§=a^i»" 






do the same, bgl moving it ail to the lelt. 


sciDHiTvidaie third. 7? 9) 72 aa 


IP SS" "'"^'^'^''-"^ 




1 


When entering the program, make sure 


ScroH io»e. third an 8fl 80 Ba 


i%\l |K SCRO^ L=FT 




t' 


there are 32 characters after each Hem in 


i^lii^ir^c'w'nK Km"" 


ISSI s;s is-,?^6nsi's§-.??4"i" 




\ 


tines 1 and 2. Run the program, then 




jifl ^sil.;Pii*l^ia?siS'"" 






delete lines 10 to 5004. Add these lines as 


You can arrange this so thai the two 






a demonstration: 


outines work on different parts ol the 


l||l I rlNC >^ROLLS 






:|gz;zz^;r 


screen, as Ihe two data changes in lines 


'^" " Fine ScKrflB 






1000 and 1002 do not affecl the scroll left 
loutlno, and Ihe changes in 2000 and 2002 


by Bill Longley 










Road Raco 


h tll°Hitr 








5 BBND 




on ZX81 






This is a game lor the ZX81 with at least 
SK of memory. The game incorporates 

graphics. The listing is given in two parts 
— the Sasic and the machine code. 


6 CL5 
H POKE 1641S,B 




^^^^^^^^^^^^Hi^g^i^ 










To enter the m.c first type in line 1 as a 
Rem statement oi 49 'Xs. Then type as a 
direct command Poke 16510, 0. This 


13 POKE I&AIB.S 


















makes the Rem line 0. Now enter the rrvc 


y^uuuuuouuuL"juuOwu";nT r,ii;-M| 






loading program given and enter the code. 


4.B NEXT I 






Delete lines 9000 onwards and enter the 


5B PRINT AT a , B ; "uuvyyuu-jw WW 






BasK program. 


uvy yuuuuuuuuuuwuuw" 






This IS a road-race type game, you are 
Onving Ihe S on the track and can control 


J iP.sl??; 






its movement left or right with keys 5 and 










a si's''^ ii':i::-T^' 














must avoid. It you hit another car or go oti 
the track you crash very spectacularly. 


'^t 3i?.S!!':x,'^!!5e'?SIS*IS?S'!l 






Your score and the high score is display- 
ed. The display uses all 24 lines and is 


li fellNj'iT'iJ.X;--,-- 






totally tlickerlree. 


~ • •i^:z ™'" "" " '•" 






Tine program uses two machine code 






routines. The first, from 16514 to 16543, is 


P LET G=INT IRHDtB*3! 






a very simple routine which scrolls Itie 


a LET 0=1 






whde display down one line. This is used 


i fqr'-f" TO^G "^^ ""^ 






lo create the moving MoOt. The second. 


2 LET B=USR 16514- 






Irom 16544 to 1 6562, inverts the video and 


1 „i41°!j-i;*r:..»-^ 






Is used to create the spectacular crash. 






Parts ot the Basic program are re- 
peated, once lor straights, and once lor 


'isi IF PEEK 'Pffgg^|g|^*iil5'^fi 






comers. 1 decided lo use this method 










55S LET TI=TI*1 , 






tended lo slow down the speed ol the 


IIS s?=g!;o?i.'?Ag(, i»..^ -T i,» 






game. 


"Ki-h(,;?v . 






PngrHinolu: 


see GOTO lea , „ .. ■ ■• ■ ftT ii 






UneD: Machine (oOe. 


leeo pRit^ n^ le. -•-•-, . , . h. 








iSasVoRV^iJojl^^ 






IJHB 1 w D««e whether a oirw 










till hl^T^F^^ 






Urn 141 ChecHoi crash 

Una 170: PsOds whgihar u Mplay cppoiiBntB an 


MSmM^^^^'^" 






(INV S). 














Une SIO. DBtMa diracOon ol qjivb 


ii1% iF^'iNKkvi^::^,. ^'i^i;^ s^jg ^ 








-?' i^T^"^'--' wn-xiw 














Z SEPTEMBER IBM 




IS 





-Open Fonun- 




Block Graph 



ip low ot the keyboard . 



C: nurrljer o( columns. 
0(C): siores tne heiglil ol eai 
T:For-ftte«variablB, counisl 
CCfT): stores the colour ot ei 



Renumlwr 

on ZX81 
lavejusllyped a great program inloyourcomc 
1 Id send il off to a magazine. You type Uisi 
<r the line numbers go in odd jumps and steps. 
_ w you have no need to wo^ — just add lines 9000 to 901 
to your program, type Run 9000. key In the step and start for th 
imbering, wait a bit, and your program will be renumljered. 

IS 






5 P0KE36879,S:pRINT'*h.T 

18 PRINT"!(BLOCK Gt- PH PROGRRfli 

2e .^RINT")(NO. OF COLUMNS " 

30 INPUT C 

40 DIMHCtC) 

58 PRINT'-UHflT 130 VOU WANT TO " 

60 PRINT"CfiLL IT" 

70 INPUT m* 

75 DIM0<C3 F0RT=1 TO C 

88 PRINT'THOi'i fIBNV BLOCKS HIGH" 

90 PRINT"DO VOU WRNT THE "JT.: "COLUfIN 

TO BE. " 
100 INPUT QCT> 
110 NEXT T 
120 DIMCC(C) 
130 FORT-1 i } C 

14t PRINT":UHRT COLOUR DO VOU " 
150 PRINT"WHNT THE M; "COLUMN" 
160 PRINT"TO BE" 

170 IHPUT cca; 

175 CC<T)-CC(TJ-1 

160 NEXT T 

990 PRINT"W;NI1« 

1000 FOR R ■ 1 TO 18 

1010 POKE 7681+FW22,106 

1820 POKE 38401+F)«22.1 

1030 NEXT fl 

1040 FOR fi - 1 TO 18 

1050 POKE SeSS-' .115 

106fc =OKE 39819+0.1 

1078 NEXT fl 

1075 N-N*l 

10B0 FOR V«0TOO<N) 

1090 POKE 8079+<H-l)-<VM2J,16a 

1100 POKE 38798+<N-l)-CV«22>,CC(H) 

1110 NEXT V 

1120 IF "^^C THENie?^^^^^^ 

23456709111111111" 

1140 PRIiJ ''inBDfliniBIWmilWCTIM^^ 
mniMiD 12345675" 

1150 FORR-1TO15000:NEXT 

1160 pRiNT": i rti i rr in nnNT tc m 

ANOTHER ?" 
1170 GJTR*;IFB«-""THEN1170 
11S0 IFfl*-"V"THEN RUN 
1198 PRI!JT"GOODBVE." 



■■STEP'?, ST nf 



» LET l.=L*S 
L ODTO 900* 



by Chris Callander 



POPUU^R COMPUTING WEEKLY 



Open Fonun 



Equations 



TMe progra 


n will filinlolK quite ea 




machine code call lo 


scroll loutine. 


s part of 3 punt slalemer 


good wtiole sc 


reen display is achieved 



Potypen 



on Vic-SO 

This is a poiyphonic slylophone progr 
using the Vic iigW pen. Poirl the pen i 
posllion along one of Ihe ' 
lines. Touching Ihe sensors iimidms mo 
tone, ttiowing the pen hori/ontaliy changes 



HR* (U5R S + U5R S) , ■■SOLUTIONS TO 
piX**2tBX+C UHERe-;CHR( (U5R 5 + U£. 

R s);TRB pitPi; ■•R = ■■; 

30 INPUT R 

4.0 PRINT fliCMRt (USR 5*UBn 5J j 
TAB PIsPI; ^'B = "; 
SO I^4PUT B 

6G> PRINT B;CMR* (U5R S+USR SJ , 
TRB PI*PIi "C = ■'; 
70 INPUT C 

30 PRINT C, CHRt ( U5R S +-U5R 53 J 
30 LET X=BftB-d.*R*0 
100 IF X<0 THEN GOTO 130^ ,_„_ 
lia PRINT ■■ORE; X = '■ ; ( -B* (SOR 
X> ) ^ OtR) ; CMR« <U5R 5+USR S),^^OF 
X = ■■;(-B-(50R X)l/(H*nJ 
120 GOTO 20 

130 PRINT "ORE NOT RERL . " 
14.0 GOTO E0 _ 

150 5ByE ■■CURDRRTICS- 
160 RUN 



SOLUTIONS TO fl: 
R = 1 



:*f2+BX+C UHERE 



RRE, 
OR. 



.236063 



SOLUTIONS TO RX**2+BX+C UHERE 



5 REN POLVPEN BV ft.BFiRTON. 

10 DEFFHXCX)=INTC(PEEK(36870)-43)/d) 

20 PRIHT-T 

38 Sl3368?4 ■■ S2-36875 ■ S3-36876 ■ S4=36£; 

50 PR INT "■WBMMMP ITCHES" 

€0 PRINT"mM I ! II II I II II I II I M M" 

62 PRINT"«»^ICES. 

63 PRINT'-f«aMaTBi-Sl 

64 PRINT "fliaaTa-S2 ' 

65 PRIMT"aBMa't*-S3 

66 PRINT "iwnaiai-S'i ■ 

67 PRINT"iaat»Wi"rt'«*A'rfV.^rt'fWi'W.' 

63 PRINT "nWTMKILL TONE UITH FEN 

RND R KEV IN THIS TAB" 
70 P0KEW,4 

75 uniT37137,16 

76 lFFNV<V>=iaTHENP=31 

77 IFFNVCy)=13THENP'=S2 
7a IFFN'V<V) = ISTHENP='33 
79 IFFNV<V)=>ISTHENP=>34 

31 IFFNXCX>»3THENP0KEP- 133 

32 IFFNX(X)=4THEWP0KEP.-147 
S4 IFFNKCX3=5THajP0KEP,159 



iieFFNV(V) = INT(CPeEKi.3687i;-32)-'4> 

■7 -7=36373 

36 IFFNX<X)=6THENP0KEP,163 

38 IFFNX<>.)-7THENP0KEP.175 

■" 30 IFFNXC)O-8THeNP0KES1.193 

92 IFFNX':X)=STHENP0KEP.13I 
94 IFFN>«X)=ieiTHENP0^:eP,135 
96 IFFN>^'■X)=^ThENPOKEP..^01 

93 IFFW^:;Xi=12THENPCKEP.207 
lae IFFh'XfX)=13TriENPOKEP.209 
192 IFFNX«)=14THENP0KEP,215 
194 IFFWX«)=15THENP0KEPj219 
136 IFFNX';X; = 16THENPCKE?-223 
103 IF"NX'CX)=17THENP0KEP-225 
lie IFFNX(X)-13THENP0KEP.228 
112 IFFNX<X)siSTHENP0KcP..231 
203 QETS«'IF3»-""THEN75 

228 POKE3L0-PQKES2,6:POKE33.. 

0- POKES*- 0;QOTO7S 
RERDV. 



-Open Forum 



Sound Explorer 






on BBC Micro 
With all the sopriistication of 
and Envelope commands on the BBC 
Micro, it is no easy task to find the exact 
pBrametera which give the sound you 

This program lets you instantly hear the 
arlad of ctianging any Sound or Envelope 



1 HEK COPYKIGHT (C) JULY 19H2 by D. GUEST 

10 NODE? 

20 0^=5 

30 PROCMEhU 

40 ON EKKOE GOTO 680 

50 DATA PUch, Duration, Time-Base, fREQ-VAR l.FREQ-VAK 2, 

FUElj-VAW 3.FRE0-TIME 1 
52 DATA FRE(j-TlhE 2..FUE0-TIME 3 .Attack , Decay , Sustain . 

Keleaae.AniD-Level i 
54 DATA Atnp-Level 2 

5y HEM ** A SELECTION OF INITIAL VALUES FOR ENVELOPE 
60 DATA 100,50,4,4.-8.-4.16,16,32,64,64,64,64,128,0 
70 DU ESC14),E5(14) 



80 FOU 12-0 TO 14:SEAD ESCIZ):NEXT 

'JO FO(t n-0 TO 14:READ ESCli):NEXT 

95 E^iAXi=255:EKIPi^— 127 

100 PrtOCTEXT 

110 *fXll.lO 

120 *FX!2,5 

130 »FX4.I 

140 FOR C2-0 TO 14:PR0CPVAL:NEXT 

150 PIUNT TA6C23,0h 

160 Cl=0 

170 REM 

180 REPEAT 

190 KV^FALSE 

200 GS=GET 

210 IF G3;-32 THEN PROCPLAV 

22U IF GS-139 THLrt PBOCUP 

230 IF G%'13B THEN PROCOOWti 

240 IF G2=137 TttEN PROCINC 

250 IF GS=136 then PUOCUEC 

260 IF NV-THUE THEN PROCPVAL 

270 UNTIL Gi-81 

279 REM ** TYPING '(}' WILL END PROGRAM 

280 *rai2.o 
290 *ra4,o 

300 CLS 

310 END 

320 REM 

330 DEFPROCOP 

340 IF C% > THEN Cl-CJ-l : VOOll 

350 E. 

360 DEFFHOCDOWN 

370 IF C% < 14 THEN CS1=CK+1:VDU10 

3B0 E. 

390 DEFPROCINC 



400 IF £2{Cl)<EMAXl THEN 

£l{CJ)=E%(CS) + l:NV-'TRi)E 
410 E. 

420 DEFPiiOCDEC 
430 IF E2(C%)>Emi'JX TilEN 

E%(C%)-EK(Ci)-l:NV=TRUE 
440 E. 

450 DEFPROCPLAY 

460 EKV. l.E%(2).EI(3),E!:(4),EK(5),E%(6), 
EK(7).El(8),E3,X9).E%{10).Ei(in,E2(12), 
ES<13),E%(14) 

470 SOtINO S%.1.EJ;C0),E2(1) 
479 KEM ** ONE SECOND DELAY BEFORE 

FURTHER KEYSTKOKES ARE ACCEPTED 
4SU TIME-0:KEPEAT UNTIL TIME=100 
490 *FX15,1 
500 E. 

510 DEFPROCPVAL 
520 PRI.IT TABC28.CS)Eft(CS); 

:PRINT TAB(2a,C2}; 
530 E. 

540 DEFPHOCTEXT 
550 CLS 

560 FOR 1=0 TO 1;PRINT CHR$131; 

"SOUHD": NEXT 
570 FOR 1=2 TO 14:P«IKT CHttS129; 

"EKV.": NEXT 
580 FOR 1=0 TO 14:PRINT 

MH(25-LEN(ES(I),I);ES(I): NEXT 
590 PRINT TAB(0.16);ChKS131 ;'''SOUMD "; 

CHANS;",!, Pitch, Duration" 
600 PRIi'JT TAB(0,17);CHRS12g; 

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610 PKIiST TA6{10,18);CHRS129;"A,D.S,H,L1,LZ" 




620 PK1.\T IAB(0,20);" Use ciirsor keys - up S daun to select,' 






630 PHINT TAB(0.21);" side to side to vary values." 






640 PKICT TA6(0.24);CllR5684;CHKSi,9D; 






650 PRINT TAB(5,24):CHR¥ia7;"PREaB SPACE bAK TO HEAR SOUW 






660 E. 






670 REM EKKOH ROUTINE 






680 '*ra4.U 






690 ^FXIZ.Q 






700 CLi 






710 Hi;PORT:PRINT " at line ";KKL 






72C Em 






730 REM 






740 DEPPROCHENU 






750 PRIOT "SOlIhU EXPLORER 






760 PRINT "This program allows you Co explore" 






770 PfilOT "the SOUWD and ENVELOPE commands."' 






780 PRINT "All current parameters are displayed" 






790 PRINT "on the screen and any parameter can be" 






800 PRINT "selected and varied up or dowm. " 






810 PRIi^T "The current sound can be played at any" 






320 PHIifT "time by pressing the space bar." 






630 PRINT ""Select SOUND CHANNEL or i" 






640 REPEAT :GK"GET: UNTIL G%-48 OR G^=49 






3^9 REM ** BYTE 2 OF CHANNEL PAKAMETER IS SET TO 






PLUSH PREVIOUS SOUND 






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Spectrum 



V alot various contributors eJtplqre dlffarant ■■pacta ot the ZX Spectrum. 



Patterns to 
swim before 
your eyes 

John Scriven reveals a 
hidden generator 
for moir^ patterns. 



finding your eiact screen location. Prog- 
ram 3 stiows one way of achieving reason- 
able results. The controls are as toHows: 



The Scisen saving re 



lu choose. 16384 
3n ol the start and 
rajmber of bytes 
imply Save "x" 



baHles you. Iry Program A. This fills 



the hidden pallem generator shown in the 
following program (Program 1 ) Due to the 
way the Draw and Plot routines ooerate, 
moirfi patterns are produced on pressing 
the cursor Keys. The effects are similar to 
me Interference patterns you see on nal 
cudalns. 

It Is possible to fill the screen cornpletely 
but Program 2 will do that for you. The 
pleasing thing for Sinclair owners Is that 
the program can t>e squashed irto one line 
— I recently saw a similar program on an 
Apple II that was nearly SO lines long. 

If you have experience ot a ZX31 . then 
you must have come across many 
'Sketchpad' programs. On a Spectrum, the 
results ace much betlsr though, with 
45,056 put positions, it can be ditficull 



(Av^ 







-:zO 



POPUlJlR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



Sound & vision 




Who will compare the show? 



This progiam plays ihe song A IMe 
Peace, winner nt Ihls year's Eumvislon 
Song Contest, on the VicH>. The ptogram 
uses two pan harmony and consists 
almost entirely ot data statements. 

Line 10 sets the volume lo five. You cen 
adjust the vniume to suit your own tastes. 
Line 20 simply atUws thetuneiobeplayed 



wise, or more often ft you wish. 

Una 40 Is a time deley lor the besic note 
'alue. Lines 50 and 60 rJetennme whethar 
he tune is being played lor the Ural or 



R LITTLE PEACE 



f? REM 

t? PCKE35S7S..5.PRINT"n" 
15 P!>IHTTflB(4V»M>MraHraR LITTLE PEACE" 
18 PRIHT"»(EIH BISSCHEN FPIEDENV 
28 FORR^ITOZ: RESTORE 
38 REHBB, H ^ P0KE36875 , B ' PnKE36376 . H 
4a FOPT=lTO20e:NEXT 
58 IFB=1THEHNEXT:G0T039 
m IFB-2THENENI) 
78 GCT039 

118 BflTfil?lr8.. 191 .0r8.0.195..8..281..0 

128 I!RTn28I.223,581..223,9,223..281,223,2B7,223,2Ell,2I9.212.219 
138 liaTR212.. 225, 212, 225, 8,225, 212.. 225, 212, 223, 212, 225, 215, 212, S19, 212 
148 DRTP219, 219, 8, 219, 219, 219, 215, 219, 212, 219, 212, 219, 287, 281, 287, 201 
158 CRTog, 215, 28}, 215, 201, 215, 191, 9,8, a, 191, 8, 195, 0,281, 8 
168 ?RTR281, 223, 281, 223, 0,223, 201, 223, 287, 223, 297, 223, 281, 219, 212, 219 
178 ilRTR212, 225,212, 225, 0,225, 212, 225,8, 225, 212, 225, 215,212, 219, 212 
188 BRTfl219, 219, 8,219,219. 219, 215, 219,223,219,223, 219, 219,201, 215,201 
190 I3flTfl215, 215, 215, 215, 215,215, 8,215, 3, 213.0,9, 0,0 
208 BBTfle, 281, 175, 281, 8, 281, 175, 215, 201, 215, 201, 215, 201, 0,201, 215 
^ir npTFlll7 212 147 21-> a 2ia 147.201,183,201,183,201,183,291,183,9 
201 a 281 14-. 219, 183, 219, 183, 219, 183, 9,183, 219 
^10 223 175.201,201,201,201,281,201,291,291,0 
^a 1 ^Bl I'". 223, 281, 223, 281, 223, 281, 8. 201, 223 
"" 13-. 287, 175, 297, 17!;207, 175, 8, 175, 287 
<• 47,223,183,223,183,223,183,219,183,219 
1= ' 1'5,215, 175,8, 175, 9, 147,9, !35,9 

IP 8 1 8 

1-5 8 9 191 17' 9' 193,281,191 

-* ioTfl-)91 1°! 9 281 191 -^ - 191,8,9,215.191,219,195,223,281 

9 TiQTqo T ^81 8 9 '^v^ 01 923 297,223,207,223.201,223,201 

'8 ?PTB228 '"3 228 723 "'8 "3 228,223,228,223,2,8 



3 SEPTEMBER 198a 



-ip pR.'O 4 
^"8 DflTP17 

■• 8 BP'^R - 



t-fll 147 i 



HRTRl 

^ IRTriio 

It? T'oTPi ai 



Programming 



From little 
Acorns grow 
mighty . . . 

Paul Howard explains how to 
add 16K Ram to the BBC 
model A. 

Th& BBC microcompuler has proved to De 
very popular and, although besel by daliv- 
efy problems, many people are now estab- 
llBhed users of mis machine. Bui, Ihe 
various difficulties encountered in the eariy 
manufactufB and dislribulion oT the com- 
puter has meant that the majonty of the 
machines in use are model As This has 
led many users lo think about the possi- 
Dilily of a "do-it-yourself" upgrade. 

One ot the major drffarences between 
trie two models is the extra 16K of random 
access memory available on ine model 8. 
TTie model B, with 32K. not only provides 
space fof larger programs but also has 
tour extra modes available. Only with the 
full 32K can all the features of the graphics 
be exploited, to give higher resolution and 
more colour fad lilies. 

The upgrading ot a model A to 32K is a 
relatively easy task. Only eight extra inte- 
grated circuits are needed and no solder- 
ing IS required. Anyone wishing lo pedorm 
the upgrade themselves should have no 
difficiilly. provided thai a tew simple ir- 
slructlons are followed and the computer 
and components are handled carelully. 
However, il should be remembered that 
undertaking a "do-it-yourself" upgrade 
may invalidate the six monlfi guarantee 
provided by Acorn. 

The components requi'ed are eight 
48ieA dynamic Ram chips, available by 
mail-order from many ol the larger electro- 
nic component retailers {eg, Watford Elec- 
ttontes, Technomalic Ltd) at a cost ol 
approximately £2-£3 each. 

These particular integrated circuits are 
susceptible to the eltects ot sialic electri- 
city. The pins should not be touched as this 
could damage them permanently. The 
worl< surface should be clean and dry, as 
should your hands. It is also a good idea lo 
leave the memory chips in Iheir protective 
packaging until Ihey are required, and then 



cover to the base. Two screws are located 


The cover can now be replaced, making 




sure Ihat the three LEDs are located 


at the front — they are all labelled ■'Fix . 


properly in their respective holes in Ihe 


The top cover can now be litted away, but 




be careful with the three red LED indica- 


Reconnect the lead to Ihe TV and plug the 


tors. These simply push through holes in 


computer into the mains supply. When you 


the plastic near the keyboard opening and 


switch on the screen should display 


could easily be broken if forced 




The eight sockets for Ihe extra memory 




are located in the front right hand corner of 




Ihe main printed circuit board. These 




sockets can be identified by the legend 


M you do not get this response then 


pnnted alongside each one and are num- 


there is a problem somewhere. Check Ihat 


bered IC6t , IC62, etc, up to and including 


the new memory chips are pushed wel 


icee. Simply insert the eight memory chips 


into their sockets and that all the pins are 


into these sockets, making sure that the 


making good contact Try removing them 


small D-shaped indentation in the end of 


carelully and examining the pins — if they 


each chip is facing towards the tear ot the 


are bent then carefully straightei] and 


computer (le pin number 1 to the rear). 


re -insert them into the sockets, ensuring 


similar to the ones already fixed in place. 


that they are the correcl way round Also 


Be very careful when pushing the chips in. 


check Ihat the S25 connecting plug is 


as the pins can easily bend, or miss the 


making good contact between the centre 


holes in the sockets. 


and rear pins of the connector. If you stil 


The only other alteration concerns a 


have no joy when switching on then the 


connecting link labelled "S2E". It is located 




about tOcm from the rear of the computer. 


aiould be returned to the retailer. 


on the right hand side ol the pnnled circuit 


If everything has worked successlully 


board to the left of IC4S, Pull the blacK 


you now have 32K of Ram available 


plastk: plug from the connector and you 


giving all the software features ol a mode 


will see three pins in a line. Reconnect the 


6. Any programs written tor a model B 




which do not use any ol Ihe extra input 


connector — it was previously across Ihe 


output hardware, will now run in this 


centre and front pins. 


upgraded version ol a model A. 



Prior to starting the upgrade, make 




absolutely sure that the computer is dis- 




connected Irom the mains supply — unplug 




it. Also remove the TV and cassette leads 












unfastening the four screws secunng the 


bbC 




POPUU\H COMPUTING WEEKLY 



Peek & poke 

Peak your problems to our address. Ian Beardsmors will poke back an answer. 



HELP ME TO THE 
RIGHT ADDHESS 



Ql hKve hMl my 7.X8I for 
about nine monllG. but 
(Ound Ihil il wb Iud limiled 
for mj purpom. Re«nll\. 1 
|ht a VklD. Bui, nunv oT 
pn^nuns I HriW for Ihf 
ZXBI have a \a\ at Perk and 
Pake slatementi. 



lale. The screen localion of 
7787 can be Poked on an 
unexpanded Vic with no prob- 
lem. On a ZX8I thai address is 
pan of Ihe dollai sign charac- 
lei. As this is pan of the 
ZXHl's Rom. il certainly can- 
be accessed by a Poke 



ncludc Ihe smidl n 



a IM nr 
1 »Bnl lo change 

Mill Hnd U vcr> 

Ah is very difficult, il not 
impossible, to list Ihe 
compatible addresses belween 
the ZX81 and [he Vic or the 
Pel, The Vie can access up to 
.. givmg a potent ial max- 
m of 6553S addreraes. all 
ofwhichcanbePEe/led- 

^ thorougb breakdown of 



of Nick 



Han 



the ^ 
page 

book The Vic Revealed. If you 
'ant a memory map of the 
'et. then look at Besi of Ihe 
VK Commodore Pel news- 
impilalion of volumes 
two. edited by Dave 
Middleton. which has 27 pages 
of Pel memory maps a< the 
It. This Is available for 
iO from CommmJoi 






SOMEBODY GIVE 
ME A SIGH 



ZXSItohelpm 



niLogy. whkh in- 



volves many cnlculBtion.'i. 

I wrole to Roger Elliot of 
Star Life and got a very helpful 
letter back. Unforlunately, I 
do nol feel (hat my knowledge 
of computing Is gnnd enough. 
Is (here anylhing yi 



bdp. 
could 1 






^ 1 feel thai you, bes, 
develop your ZXNl 






is of yc 



Irological 
typical program could include 
(1) Sidereal time, GMT; (2) ST. 
GMT + Eastetu lime zones: 
(3) ST. GMT -I- Western t 



; (*) F 



f Mer- 



. 19 



Whitcomb Slreel, London 
WC2, 

The ZX manual gives quite 
a good breakctown of Ihe ac- 



comparativelv sinlple. For ej- 
ample. Membol is 1M77 on a 
ZX8] and 6543(5 on a Vic, But, 
Ihe two dialecH of Basic aie 
very often difGcult to trans- 

2 SEPTEMBER 1962 



m RETURN 

Lines 2U lo 45 input and 
print the lime of birth. Lines 
SO and 60 make the first pan of 



have a ZX81 wllh 16K 
>m. I am working my 
ough Ihe book 30 hour 
Id am doing quite well. 



vith a Goto 160 which will 
irintoul the results. 
This program assumes you 



e I 



signs after line 110 which be- 
comes LET S3-S1-S2. 

1 have used Louis Mac- 
Neice's book Astrology as a 



son of calculation on a ZX81. 
or a Spectrum, do not forget 
that il works in radians, not 

one who can help you. Have 
you cotisidered looking for a 
local computer club? Alterna- 
tively, you tnight find a visit to 
your local library or an 



with tl 

ZX spectrum? 

A Whatever your reason? 
for learning machine 
code, it is a useful laitgu^e Ic 
know. The Zaks book is consi- 
dered by many to be the bible 
of Z80 programming, though 
you should note that both the 
Spectrum and the ZXSl u 
the Z80a chip which is a mod- 
ified version of the Z80. 



micros, as will the mnemc 
What does change is the way 
all the signals into and oi ' ' 
the chip are inlerpreled. 

A signal going into a chip al 
point A will produce a re- 
sponse at point B. It will al- 
ways be the same response al 
the same point. However, 
where one micro might inler- 

Refresh the Bam, another 
computer might see it as part 
of a Print command. 

One note about the Rodney 
Zaks book is that it is 
expensive, Il might he adviv 
able to go on youi library's i 
doubt long wailing list for the 
book. As an alternative, you 
might try and get hold of a 
copy of Nat Wordswonh^s Z80 
Innniaian Handhaok which is 
published by Scelbi. 



BUT* STAR 
M«PISO» 






ends. 



aiocBl 



n HUT BE 
IMCOBE 



Ql^ 



have been wailing for 



more about machine code. 

If a microeompuler uses a 
280 processor will It have Ihe 
same mnemonics and heiadc- 



I have s 



a program to 



use in astrology. Do you I 
of any limilar. Bask f 
rams, for the ZX817 

A The only iwo prc^rams I 
know of that might be of 
any use are astronomy pro- 
grams. One by Hclta-S' ' 
Software, of Fe.rys 
Tookey Road. New Romney. 
Kent, deals with planetary 
palhs. The other, by Bug- 
Byte. 9H/lD0The Albany. Old 
Hali Street, Liverpool L3. i 
called Constellation and wil 
'draw a map of Ihe night sky fo 
anywhere on the earth, for any 
lime since ITOH. 



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PROGRAM (XHERATORS 



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POPULAR COMPUTING WEEKLY 



POPULARr 
JWEEKLY/' 




BACK 
NUMBERS 

MAKE SURE OF A 

REAL COLLECTORS' ITEM — 

THE FULL SET OF PCW 

We will mail any of the numbers you're missing 

from Issue 1 to tfie latest — lor just 50p an 

issue, including p & p. 

(We have no more copies of Issue 2) 

Send cheques' Postal Orders to: 

Back Numbers 

Popular Computing Weekly 

Hobhouse Court 

19 Whitcomb Street 

London 

WC2 7HF 



HE SAID 

YOU COULDN'T DO IT 

WEDIDIT 

A revolution in teaching programming techniques. 

Appreciate tfie real value of your computer. 

READ ZXei HORIZON (with tape). 

Learn to link COPY, MOVE and (WERGE. 

No programmer should be without this book. 

Contents: 

Daiaciive File text 

Billiards Ariimaled cyclist 

Machine code orogrammet Load and Save 
Call-bacK routine 

Price £12 

Cheques payable to J. tMNamsra'ZXBl . 

Wb can acCBpS no responsiOilily for any illegal use at Ifiese 



To urrGEVEBW WOLFKAMP 

POSTBUS 7D2M 
<l007Ka| AMSTERDAM — NETHERLANDS 
TELEPHONE: AMSTERDAM 020278931 



CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING RATES: 



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Pua» a>nm» on a »p.rBl« s»»< ol pap« | 



2 SEPTEMBER 1982 



Competitions 



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An exciting new Commodore 
- peripheral 




Own or use a Pet or a Vic? 

Fed up with being ignored by all the 
traditional monlhlv magaiines? 

Fed up with listings, which are too simple 
or simply do network? 

You need Commodore Computing, the nev 
monthly maga?ine. Commodore Computing 
is published by Nick Hampshire, author of 
The Pet Revealed, Pet Graphics. A Library of 
Subroutines and The Vic Revealed. 

Each issue is packed with advanced 



advice on how to make the most of your 
computer, whether you use a Pet or a Vic. 

Each issue covers a host of application 
-software, hardware, machine code, game 
business use -whatever it is you'll find ilir 
Cornmodore Computing. 

H you want to learn more about your 
computer, take out a subscription to 
Commodore Computing. 

That's the only way to get it, and get it 
straight. 



Send £12.50 for 1 year's subscription (10 iss 



»s)t( 



Commodore Computing. 
Magsub, Oakfield House, Perrymount Road, Haywards Heath, Sussex RH16 3DH 



New From Fuller 
FD Syitem Sor the 

ZX SPECTRUM 




£39.95 

- £2.50 p & p. 



Professional Keyboard & Case — 



ToughA BS. Plastic 
the Power Supply 
Our own Power = 



jrKeyboi 



theSpectru 



ailable>9 voiis DC 
ir 2'40v AC at £5.95 + 80p. p & p 
The Keyboard has 43 keys with all the spectrum functions printed on 
key switches have gold plated contacts and a guaranteed iile of U 
INSTALLATION - Simply unscrew the ZX printed circuit board frorr 
Into the FD case, plug in the keyboard and that's it No technical kn 
required, ttie built unit is tested and comes with a money back gu; 
Spectrum Keyboard and Case Kit £33.95 

Our Mother Board tor the spectrum has 2 slots at £15.95 or 3 slots at 
fixes inside the case p & p 80p 

SPECTRUM SOUND AMPLIFIER £5.95+ SOp p & p. 
Complete with leads, volume control and loud 
speaker in tough ABS Plastic case measuring 
5" X 3" K 1 " just plugs into your spectrum MIC 
input 
SPECTRUM PLUG PLANNER - £18.95 • £1.00 p & p 



ithem.lhefuiltrawe 





GUARANTEED 14 I 



S DELIVERY Fl 



Complete with 3 metres o1 cable, three 13 

amp sockets for TV, Tape etc AND 9 voll 

at 2 amp power supply with power jack to 

f(l Spectrum or ZXBl 

The ever popular FD42 Keyboard and case 

for ZX81 £39.93 including VAT 4 Post 

FDd2 as a kit £33.95 including VAT A Post 

FD42 Built only £24.95 including VAT & Post 

FD42 Keyboard Kit £18.95 including VAT S Post 



U RECEIPT OF ORDER. OR CALLTOTHEZX CENTRE. 



Mail to FULLER MICRO SYSTEMS, 

The ZX Centre, Sweeting Street. Liverpool a. England. U.K. 
Please Supply:- 

Address 



I 

H 

Q 
to 

s