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..J POULTRY YARD, 

HOW TO FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 



FOR THE AMATEUR POULTRY RAISER AND FARMER 

ON THE 

aiANAGEMENT OF POULTRY, 

I, 

^ AND THE MKKITS OF 

'' ^.THS DIFFSHBNT BREEDS. 

PRICE, FIFTY CENTS. 



BY 

AUTHOR OF THE PIGEON LOFT. 



PHILADELPHIA, PA 

1877. 



l&i lilliSil Ipli^iilil 

AND WORKING FARMER. 

Established 1847. Uaited 1875. 

A large double quarto, IG-page illustrated family paper, (Na- 
tional Agriculturist and Bee Journal and Working Farmer 
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The Western Fanciers' 

AND STOCK BREEDERS^ REVIEW, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

The only Organ of Poultry Fanciers in the Western half of 
the United States. 



T. T. BACHELOR, - Editor 



This large, three-column Poultry journal circulates every- 
where, but its special field is the great West, where the interest 
in pure-bred Fowls is increasing very rapidly. A special de- 
partment lor Stock Notes will be well filled in every issue. A 
splendid advertising medium. Rates very low. Subscriptions 
$L25 per year. Sample copies 12 cents. Agents wanted. 
Poultry Cuts and Fanciers' job printing a specialty. Corres- 
podence solicited. 



THE POULTRY YARD, 

HOW TO FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 



A TREATISE FOR THE AMATEUR POULTRY RAISER AND FARMER 



ON TDE 



MANAGEMENT OF POULTRY, 



AND THE MERITS OF 



THE DIFFERENT BREEDS, 



BY 



\\^. ^TLHIE BURPEE. 

AUTHOR OF THE PIGEON LOFT, 



^c>;^ ier^L '_^o^/^ 



P HILAD ELP HI A, PA 

1877. 






Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1876, by 

W. ATLEE BURPEE, 

in the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington, D. C. 



Oo 



^^>-^ 

^f^ 



PREFACE. 



The favorable reception of " The Pigeon Loft ; how to 
Furnish and Manage it;" published May, 1875, and the 
large demand for it,together with numerous inquiries, have 
induced us to prepare the present treatise on Poultry, in 
the same form and at the same price. We lay no claims 
to entire originality in this work. All breeders meet 
with much the same experience, and it has been our aim 
to compile from all reliable sources, a concise treatise, 
at a low price, giving instructions to beginners. We 
have not attempted an elaborate description of the breeds 
of poultry, only endeavoring to state their respective me- 
rits and demerits, and thus enable every amateur to an- 
swer for himself the oft repeated question '' which breed 
pays the best.'' We w^ould express our indebtedness for 
valuable hints especially to Tlie Poultry World, The Foul- 
try Nation, and Wright's Illustrated Book of Poultry. 

W. A. B. 

Philadelphia, March, 1877. 



THE POULTRY YARD: 

HOW TO lUKMSH AND MANAGE IT 

Poultry Houses, 

Wherever practicable it is preferable to allow fowls 
entire liberty. Thereby they have abundant muscular 
exercise, can range at will over wheat stubbles, gathering 
many a worm, and are kept in the highest degree of 
health. When thus kept, as is the universal custom 
of farmers, they must not, however, be allowed to 
*' shift '' for themselves, roosting on the trees or wherever 
they choose. No well-to-do farmer would allow^ his sheep 
or pigs to run at random without proper stabling or pens. 
It is none the less necessary to success in niising fowls 
that the same attention should be paid to them. It 
does not pay to constantly clean up the implements, 
wagons, etc., on which the fowls have passed the night. 
A farmer cannot afford to lose the droppings of his 
fowls, as there is no more valuable manure in the world. 
A thrifty breeder cannot afford the time to hunt over 
hay mows, under pig pens and amongst the shrubbery for 
hens' nests — perhaps only to find the eggs when spoiled 
by incubation. For these and other evident reasons 
poultry should have a house set apart especially for theii- 
wants. They do not require a large or expensive build- 
ing. A building ten or twelve feet square is large 
enough for a flock of twenty fowds. The building should 
be about seven feet in heio-ht and should face the south. 
The roof should be perfectly w^ater proof and the sides free 
from any cracks or crevices to admit draughts of air. The 
front, if in a warm climate, can be made of slats, whan 



8 THE POULTRY YA5D ; HOW TO 

abnndant ventilation will be allowed. If the winters are 
severe it should be entirely closed in front excepting a 
small hole for the entrance and exit of fowls and a suita- 
ble opening for ventilation at the top. This latter can 
be accomplished by simply boring a considerable number 
of augur holes near together, or leaving an opening pro- 
tected by slats arranged after the fashion of Venetian 
blinds. A suitable door must of course be made for the 
entrance of the keeper. The house must be situated upon 
high ground and the floor always dry. Many styles of 
poultry houses are in use, and the reader can easily in- 
vent one to suit his own taste and surroundings. For 
half a dozen fowls a very small house only is necessary. 
Unless protected, the entrance hole for the fowls will 
admit a great deal of cold air. For the following 
simple arrangement we are indebted to the Poultry 

Nation : — 

*'Place a box in front of the outlet, tight up against the 
side of the house, leaving a hole at either end next the 
building. Planting a board from the ground to the top 
of the box in front of the hole, to break the wind in that 
direction, you have a house as near wind-proof as though 
it were entirely closed. If possible, pile manure, straw, 
gravel, or anything you might happen to have handy, 
around the box, , thus keeping the wind out of the cracks 
and making the house warmer." 

The interior of the house should be fitted up with 
roosts and nests. The roosts should all be on the same 
level to prevent fighting for the highest place. They 
should not be more than eighteen inches or two feet from 
the ground for large fowls, and should be sutiiciently 
wide. A good plan is to arrange the nests on the floor 
under the roosts, protected by a boi^rd which will collect 
tke droppings and which can be readily scraped otf. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IF. 9 

When we publisbed the "American Fanciers' Gazette/' 
we received a communication on nesting places from an 
experienced fancier under the 7wm. de plume of "Ama- 
teur," from which we give the following extract: — 

"In almost every plan for the construction of a poultry 
house an elaborate row of boxes is introduced, can- 
ningly devised with a darkened rear passage, favoring, 
the secresy which mistress Biddy, it is well-known, takes 
delight in, and who, once ensconced therein, finds every- 
thing lovely and serene. But there is one fatal objection 
to this symmetrical arrangement, according to my expe- 
rience, which is this — the liability of mistaking the nests 
and the confusion and loss resulting therefrom. 

I have adopted for years the plan of having movable 
boxes placed on brackets, elevated from one to three feet 
from the ground. They should be painted in different 
colors, if possible, so that the hen easily distinguishes her 
own from others, i^othino; could induce me to return to. 
the plan of stationary boxes, as my losses from mistakes 
have been next to nothing since I adopted this plan of 
movable nests. A cover of coarse wire netting placed 
over the sitting hen during the first few days of incuba- 
tion, will prevent any disturbance afterwards almost 
certainly." 

If the fowls are k3pt in confinement, or have no other 
shelter, they should be furnished with a covered run for 
wet weather. Cleanliness is all important, and it is Foul 
management indeed to allow a stench to arise in the 
fowl house, rendering the very air the fowls breathe 
impure and creating the presence of the chickens' mortal 
enemy— vermin. The roosts should be scraped, the drop- 
pings removed, and a little fresh ashes, gravel or loam 
strewn on the floor every mornino-. Also the nestino^ 
material should be changed whenever occasion requires. 



10 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

Tho interior of the house, the nests and the perches 
should all be thoroughly whitewashed every spring and 
fall. No harbor should be presented for vermin, and the 
air must always be pure. If fowls are confined in a yard 
the ground should also be frequently raked and occasion- 
ally dug or plowed over. 

In constructing the nests, we have already mentioned, 
it will be well to remember that several hens will fre- 
quently lay in the same nest and consequently a smaller 
iiuml)er of nests are necessary. liens should not be set 
in the roosting and lajnng house. Some writers recom- 
mend a separate house for setting hens, and where poultry 
are raised in very large numbers this doubtless is desira- 
ble, but for tbe ordinary farmer is entirely unnecessarj'. 
The hens can be set on the hay mow, in the barn, wagon- 
house, an unused stall or any place where they will be 
quiet and undisturbed. 

In breeding several yards of fancy poultry, the usual 
plan is to make a straight house with 3'ards extending 
out the entire length and separated by slat fences. This 
will answer, but is open to the objection that the cocks 
will occasionally fight through tlie rails unless the fence 
is solid at the base, and if ever one slat should fall otf 
woe to the pure breds ! A very simple plan for a breeder 
of several varieties is to give them each a small, separate 
house and yard situated in different parts of the ground. 
AVhen the yard spa :e allotted is very small a movable 
fence can be useol, and then the fowls can at any time bo 
transferred to fresh pasturage. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. H 



Selection and jVIatinor of Stock. 



In selecting fancy stock of course the standard must 
be followed and only the best and most nearly perfect 
specimens of their idnd retsLined—provuled ilipy are all 
suited to ea'-Ji other. 'No hen should have the same faults 
as the cock. If one is faulty in a certain point, the other 
should be especially good in that particular so as to 
counteract the bad impress upon the offspring. Experi- 
ence with each breed must teach the fancier the best 
birds to retain for breeding. Often a bird that is not up 
to the standard — and sometimes even a disqualified bird 
is desirable in the breeding yard, nay, of the highest 
importance— for instance, in breeding Leghorns a straight 
comb hen is invaluable to raise the finest and most erect 
combs on cockerels. So a spotted breasted Dark Brahma^ 
and Brown Leghorn cock will produce the most beauti-' 
ful pencilled pullets. We remember seeing a communi- 
cation in one of the poultry journals by the late Mr. J. W. 
P. Hovey, in wdiich he stated the case of a friend who 
ordered a trio of Brahraas, at a high price, mated for 
breeding, from a celebrated English breeder, and who was 
disgusted at receiving a poor looking trio of birds whose 
equals in looks could have been purchased anywhere at 
$2.00 a head ! But appearances are deceitful and bload' 
will tell, as was proven by the result. From that trio 
sprung noted prize birds. And so it is, the skillful 
breeder knows how to mate his birds to produce the best 
offspring. Amateurs in starting make a great mistake 
in purchasing exhibition birds (as birds matched for exhi- 
bition are seldom rightly mated for breeding), or in pur- 



VJ THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

cliasinsj low j^riced birds from unknown sources. The 
best plan is to send the price of a pair or trio of breeding 
birds to a responsible breeder who has a reputa- 
tion to maintain, and state plainly that you want 
birds whose progeny will speak their praises. In nine 
cases out of ten you will be satisfied not onl}^ in the birds 
received but in the chicks they breed. In mating fowls 
it is generally believed the hen affecfs mostly the size 
and form, and t'le cock the plumage and markings of the 
chicks. If a choice can be had it is preferred to mate a 
cock (over one year old) with spring pullets. Be sure 
you select a good vigorous coc'v Aw\ the one who is the 
* boss rooster." One cock will readily serve eighteen or 
twenty hens of the large breeds and twenty four to thirty 
hens of the small breeds 

This has been our experience and we first expressed our 
views on this subject in an editorial in the "American 
Fanciers' Gazette." Instead of meeting the opposition we 
might have anticipated from " book fanciers " who had 
followed the laws of four to six hens to one cock as laid 
down by other authors w^e received several Ions: letters 
giving experience strongly confirming our own. A good 
cock with a small number of hens will only worry and 
annoy them, often injuring them. With a large number 
of hens as stated, some of the hens will of course gener- 
ally be sitting. This ratio of hens applies to small flocks 
of fowls ; where the number is multiplied there should be 
rather a less i)roportion of hens, as the majority of the 
work will devolve upon the "cocks of the roost." In 
^electing the hens those of the greatest utility only should 
be used. If layers are desired, prove by actual count 
which individual liens lay the most eo-orsand retain them- 
If size and early maturity, select the fowls most nearly 
perfect in those res;[ccts. Remember that /«/ is preju li" 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. U 

cial to health and success with breeding fowls. It is not 
wtight but a large form — a capacitijio take on flesh that 
makes large chicks. See to it that the fowls do not breed 
large legs and nocks — look to the greatest development of 
the most pahitable parts. Kaise fowls of briijht, yellow 
skin and legs. These latter remarks are especially intended 
for the market poulterer, and we will only add that no 
one can realize the great improvement possible in even 
"dung-hills " by following up the "survival of the fit- 
test.'' We cannot make monkeys into men, life is too 
short for that, but we can vas^-ly improve the condition 
and value of our poultry. One of oar farmers by a source 
of judicious mating and selectingofriiongrel breeding stock 
so well established a strain of large, well-bred fowls, that 
he was able to dispose of his surplus stock to dealers at 
$5.00 a pair. There is no need of the farmar of to day 
wasting tedious years in the improvement of his barnyard 
fowls, wdien for five or ten dollars outlay in the purchase of 
a cock or pair of pure bred fowls he can avail himself of 
the labor of others for many years. Pouhry should not be 
bred in-andin too much, but judicious in-breeding, to a 
certain extent, is necessary to establish a fixed type or 
peculiar strain. For ordinary farm use we would recom- 
mend the introduction of a thorouo^h bred cock of fresh 
blood every second year. Farmers cannot realize what a 
wonderful improvement a thoj-oughbred cock will make 
in a flock of mongrel hens. It will not hurt to make one 
cross of father with daughter, or of son with mother and 
half-sisters. It is best to kill all hens when two and one- 
half years oLl as soon as they begin to moult. After that 
the supply of eggs falls off greatly and it does not pay to 
keep them. They can then lie sold at a fair compensation. 
Do not count your chickens before they are hatched is 
all very true, but none the less will an intelligent breeder 



\i THE POULTHY YARD ; HOW TO 

desire io count his cliickeiis hefnre they die, and to do this 
with profit the breeding stock should be slaughtered for 
market at the age already named. 

We will conclude our remarks on mating by the fol- 
lowing extract, written by us for the " American Fan- 
ciers' Gazette,'' August, 1875 : — 

Luck in Mating. — So much has been said and written 
about science in hreeding, that we propose, by way of vari- 
ety, to briefly call the attention of our readers to the 
intervention, of times, of lack in mating. We do not 
class ourselves among the believers in mere luck, never- 
theless it must be acknowledged that birds mated on the 
same system (or oftener perhaps lack of system), will and 
to produce diverse results. This, when looked at in one 
light is not luck, but the rational results of nature's own 
laws. However, as far as the breeder is concerned, it is 
bound to prove either a lucky or an unlvcky match. For 
instance, two birds are selected which are as near ap- 
proaches to perfection as the art and skill of the breeder 
has attained unto; they are mated, and in some cases the 
ofl^spring will be satisfactory, in others (and the chances 
are about equal,) they will be most unsatisfactory, the 
products coming worthless as mongrels. ISTow, this can 
be explained in some cases by the assumption (if the birds 
were of different but unknown strains,) that the strains of 
which they are members had been bred lor different 
i*esults, and the one still possessed the fault which had 
just been eradicated from the other but of which a ten- 
dency remained. Then these two birds possessing an 
inherent inclination to like faults, the offspring come 
possessed of those faults to a double degree. Again, the 
strains being bred for diverse purposes, all the breeder's 
pains are crushed to the ground by this sudden union, and 
nature will advocate its power. Xow on the other hand 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. li 

if these birds are differently mated, they may luckily be 
paired to suitable birds, and then become the progenitor! 
of worthy off'sprlng. 

All that we have just now said shows that there is at 
bottom, in such cases, although the breeder may be igno- 
rant thereof, a natural cause for these lucky or unlucky 
results. That such, beyond doubt, is the fact, in nine 
cases out of ten of the varied results of promiscuous 
matings we are ready to acknowledge. But, on the other 
hand, the experienced breeder has, or doubtless will 
come across cases which can be explained upon no such 
ground. Despite all his care and system in breeding and 
mating, results (we do not mean an occasional excep- 
tional bird, but reyularly) contrary to the skilled breed- 
er's expectations, will crop out. And then, when the 
same birds are mated to other birds of the same blood as 
the previous matings, and having like defects and " fine 
points," vastly different will be the results. Not only so, 
but we have known different cases of two birds upon 
being mated together proving entirely sterile and unfer- 
tile, Avhile both of these birds being put to different 
mates were perfectly capable of reproducing sound and 
healthy offspring. AVe could particularize cases which 
might more vividly illustrate the point at issue, but as 
we have already consumed considerable space, we do not 
think it neccssarj^, as we can vouch for the truth of th« 
aV)Ove statements. 



16" THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 



What and How to Feed. 



It is the general habit of Americans to give their poul- 
try corn, corn, corn, morning, noon and night. This 
may answer when the fowls have the unlimited range of 
a farm and can constantly pick up insects, grubs, worms, 
etc., together with scattered grains around the barn 
floor, but even then it is very inadvisable. In confine- 
ment fowls would soon die on this diet. Corn is too 
heating and fattening for breeding purposes. Fowls 
should be fed regularly. They will soon learn the accus- 
tomed hours and will employ the intervening time in 
hunting for worms, dusting and exercising themselves. 
Where they are at liberty or have a large run, two feeds 
a day, morning and evening, are sufficient. It is best to 
make the morning meal of soft food, that being most 
readily assimilated will the sooner appease their empty 
stomachs and break the fast of the night. Boiled potato 
peelings, vegetables and scraps mashed up with slightl}' 
scalded bran or meal with a little salt mixed, is an excel- 
leiit dish for fowls. In winter a little pepper will be 
valuable as a seasoning. 

As a soft food the Poultry World recommends a warm 
compound of two-thirds wheat bran to one-third meal, wet 
with skimmed milk. Tliis food has a good egg producing 
effect. The bran does not tend to fat and the milk is 
even better than meat in the production of eggs. Fowls 
may eat too much meat, but milk they may drink 
ad libit nm, and those who have it cannot put it to a 
more })rofitable use. Fowls should have, like human 
beings, a goodly variety of feed. Scraps from the table 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 



17 



are highly relished. Grain should be fed at iiig-ht as it 
will remain iji their crops longest. Corn is the best 
staple feed for cold weather, as it is very heating and 
keeps the fowls in tine condition, but it should not be 
fed constantly in summer. Barley, buckwheat, oats, 
wheat screenings, cracked corn, rice, etc., are all excel- 
lent for a variety. Sunflower seed is invaluable for 
lioultry and can be grown as cheaply as corn. The 
Mammoth Russian is the best and most prolitic. Single 
heads which we raised this year will measure one foot in 
diameter and are well filled with an immense number of 
large plump seeds. Breeding fowls must not be over fed 
nor stulfed but only kppt in good working order. Eeef 
scraps can be bought cheap, and are highly beneficial, in 
winter especially, also occasionally a boiled sheep's or calf's 
pluck chopped up is recommended In concluding 
our remarks on the feed of fowls we cannot do better 
than append Lewis A\^right's valuable table of the re- 
spective constituents of the various grains, etc., generally 
used for poultry, from which intelligent poulterers can 
draw their own conclusions: — 

TABLE 



There is in 
every 100 parts 
hy weight of 


Flesh- 
form ig 
Materials 
Gluten, 
&c 


Warmth gi\ 
telling M: 


iug and Fat- 
terial. viz 


Bom-miiki g 

Materiils, or 

Mineral 

Snbbtances, 


Husk 

or 
Fibre. 


Water. 


Fat or Oil. 


t^tarch. 


Beans & Peas. 


25 


2 


48 


2 


8 


15 " 


Oatmeal 


18 


G 


63 


o 


2 


9 


Middlings 














Thirds or fine 














bhaips. 


18 


6 


53 


5 


4 


14 


Oats 


15 


6 


47 


2 


20 


10 


Wheat 


12 


3 


70 


2 


1 


12 


Buckwheat 


12 


6 


58 


n 


11 


lU 


Barley 


11 


•> 


60 


2 


14 


iT 


In,dian Corn 


11 


8 


65 


1 


5 


10 


Heinijseed 


lu 


21 


45 


2 


14 


8 


Riee 


7 


A trace. 


80 


A trace. 




13 


Potatoes 


61 


— 


41 


2 




50* 


Milk 


4i 1 


3 


5 


3 

4 ' 


. . . 


861 



^* THK POULTKV VARU, HOW TO 

On iiioat tanijs both fowls and ducks are allowed to 
run together, hence it is sometimes desintble to feed the 
one and not the other„ The "American x\gricnlturist" 
•uggests the following ingenious plan : — 

"The fowls can be readily fed by putting the feed on 
hoards sliglitly elevated from the ground: the ducks 
seldom attempt to % up. To feed ^the ducks and not 
the fowls, a large flat pan should be procured and several 
bricls placed in the middle in order to keep the food 
around the edges. Then a large inverted box or tub 
should be covered over the pan, supported by a brick iu 
each corner. The duel s by the flexibility of their necks 
are enabled to feed, while the fowls can get nothing.^' 

Fowls require a constant supply of pure fresh water. 
It IS well occasionally to add a few drops of sulphate of 
iron to the water. The indestructible stone drinking 
fountains so generally used are well adapted to hold the 
supply. A large one on the same principle can easily be 
made out of any old keg or small barrel. Insert a spicket 
near the bottom and let its mouth rest in a movable tin 
cup— the water will flow out only so fast as it is con- 
sumed in the cup. A cover should be prepared for the 
tin in order to prevent the birds from fouling the water. 
This is best done by an oblong frame to fit over the cup, 
—solid light wood at the sides and slanting top, -the 
Iront being made of perpendicular wires. The water 
should be changed at least once or twice a day on exces- 
sively warm days in summer. In winter, once in three 
or four days is amply sufficient. It mny often l)e desira- 
ble to give the feed in a hopper, when we would recom- 
mend one of the pattern described in 'The Pigeon Loft.'' 
We would here state that buttermilk and curds are hiohly 
relished by the fowls and are very nutritiou-s. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 19 

It now behooves us to mention the condiments requi- 
site to good health in our feathered pets. These are 
neither many nor expensive, but are all important to the 
thrift and well being of fowls. Poultry must have lime 
in some form for the formation of es*": shell. Crushed 
oyster shells are the most desirable. They can be pro- 
cured at a low price, crushed finely by machinery, at any 
dealer's store. Old mortar will also answer. They must 
have access to plenty of gravel containing small stones 
which are a necessary aid to digestion. These are the 
''hen's teeth." Granulated or pure ground bone is invalu- 
able for poultry and it can be fed either in a dish or 
hopper or scattered on the ground like corn. Broken 
charcoal should be supplied. It abundantly stimulates 
digestion and also acts as a purifier in cases of Eoup, etc. 
Fowls in confinement must have plenty of dust in 
which to cleanse themselves. Road dust is the best. 
Coal ashes are also good for this purpose. Customers 
have often asked our opinion as to the value of prepared 
food advertised for poultry. These preparations are as a 
rule tonics which stimulate the production of eggs in 
fowls. From the great demand for the " Imperial Egg 
Food," (at present the leading preparation of its kind), 
we know it is generally satisfactory. There is no doubt 
that the production of eggs is increased thereby, and it 
is a good thing for fowls, especially when kept in 
confinement. But it must always be remembered that 
breeding fowls should be in a natural condition — never 
overfed or too much forced bj; stimulants. 



THE POULTRY YAllD, HOW TO 



Greneral IVIaiiagement. 

Success in any branch of business or industry is 
achieved only by the most diligent and the most eager to 
improve every opportunity. We often receive letters from 
men whose health has failed, very frequently disabled 
ministers, who desire some easy occupation whereby they 
can orain an honest livelihood and who are inclined to 
favor poultry breeding. A man is always safe to keep 
out of a business he knows nothing about. If, however, a 
good opening presents itself, we can safely say the raising 
of tirst-class poultry can be soon learned. We would 
advise new bes-inners to start on a small scale and o-radu- 
ally increase. Poultry costs less to produce than beef, 
and brings a higher average price. Fowls and eggs are 
always in demand. The intelligent poulterer can often 
secure a slight advance on the ordinary market rates by 
invariably selling a superior article to appreciative cus- 
tomers. To succeed in the poultry business, one should 
have a natural love for fowls and should start determined 
to devote to the breeding of fowls the same application 
and study which would be necessary to success in any 
business undertaking. Conducted on business principles, 
poultry breeding is as profitable — considering the small 
amount of capital required — as any of the lines of trade, 
and is not nearly so much overdone. But especially to 
the general farmer is poultry breeding remunerative. 
Fowls pay a speedy return for the money expended, and 
no farm stock yields a larger per centage on the capita- 
invested. In breeding fowls there is one quite impor- 
tant item that is often noiilected. We allude to the value of 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 21 

poultry manure. Wright-states that be found that drop- 
pings from four Brahmas, for one night, weighed, in one 
case, exactly one pound ; and in another more than three- 
quarters, an average of nearly four ounces each bird. 
By drying, this was reduced to IJ ounces. Other breeds 
make less: but allowing only 1 ounce per bird daily, of 
dry dung, fifty fowls will make in their roosting-house 
alone, about 10 cwt. per annum of the best manure in 
the world. Hence, in half a year this number of fowls, 
to say nothing of tbeir offspring, will make more than 
enough manure for an acre of land, 7 cwt. of guano being 
the usual quantity applied per acre, and poultry manure 
being even richer than guano in ammonia and fertilizing 
salts. These figures demand careful attention from the 
large farmer. The manure, before using, should be mixed 
with twice its bulk of earth, and then allowed to stand 
in a heap covered with a few inches of earth, till decom- 
posed throughout, when it makes the very best manure 
that can be had. 

We quote this to show that no "little thinirs," which 
seem but trifling economies, should be neglected, but 
everything possible should be made a source of revenue. 
The droppings must be kept dry, under cover. If fowls 
are slaughtered in large quantities the feathers also will 
be worth saving. The webs of the large feathers should 
be stripped from the quills and the smaller ones left as 
they are. They should be cured by baking four times in 
a cool oven, about half an hour each time, and allowed to 
dry for a couple of days between each baking. In sup- 
plying the market it is very desirable to have winter 
eggs. A little foresight will secure a good supply. Ani- 
mal food iLiust be furnished. 



22 THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 



Dressing and Shipping Poultry. 

On tills subject wo quote the following as given hy a 
large commission house ; 

'" In preparing poultry for market, do not feed for at 
least twenty -four hours before killing, as food in the crop 
injures the appearance, is liable to sour, and purchasers 
obj.ect to pajang for this worse than useless weight. 
Opening the veins of the neck is the best mode of killing, 
and let it bleed freely, as poultry not properly bled will 
not have a bright healthy appearance. The intestines or 
the crop shoukl not be ''drawn.'' For scalding poultry, 
the water should be as near to the boiling point as possi- 
ble, without actually boiling; the bird being held by the 
head and legs, should be immersed and lifted up and 
down in the water three times — this makes picking 
easy. When the head is immersed it turns the color of 
the comb, and gives the eyes a shrunken appearance, 
which often leads buyers to think the fowl has been sick. 
The feathers should then hd at once removed, pin fea- 
thers and all, very cleanly, and without breaking the 
skin. It should next be " plumped," by being dipped 
about ten seconds into water, nearly or quite boiling hot, 
and then once into cold water about the same length of 
time. Most of the dressed poultry sold here is wet- 
picked, and such is generally preferred; but very fat, 
handsome turkeys, dry-picked, sell well at Thanksgiving 
and Christmas. Great care should be taken to avoid 
cutting or bruising the flesh or breaking the bones. It 
should be entirely cold, but not frozen before being 
packed. This is a matter of importance; for if packed 
with the animal heat in it, it will be almost sure to spoil. 
If it reaches market sound, without freezing, it will sell 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 23 

all the better. In packing, when practicable, use hand- 
threshed dry straw; be sure that it is clean, free from 
dust of any kind, and entirely dry. Place a layer of 
straw at the bottom, then alternate layers of poultry and 
straw, taking care to stow snugly, backs upward, legs not 
doubled up under the body, but straightened out, and 
fill the package so that the cover will draw down very 
snugly upon the contents, to prevent shifLing or shucVing 
on the way. Boxes are the best packages, and should 
contain from 100 to 200 pounds. Larger boxe^ are in- 
convenient, and more apt to get injured- The objection 
to barrels is, that the poultry is apt to be ranch bent and 
twisted out of shape; they answer better for chickens 
and ducks than for turkeys and geese; but when packed 
in barrels, should be packed on the side, keeping the 
legs out straight. Straw should be between the poul- 
try and sides of package to keep from freezing, though in 
very cold weather this cannot always be avoided. In 
packing large lots, avoid putting more than one kind in 
a package and mark the kind on the cover. 

In preparing frozen poultry for the late market, dry 

pick the poultry, as it will keep longer, hold its color 

better, and command better prices; the head should be 

left on, and the manner of packing much the same as in 

the general directions, except no straw or packing of any 

kind should be used. Boxes of the following dimensions 

are preferable — say four feet long by two feet wide and 

fifteen inches deep (outside measurement.) Use new inch 

I lumber, well seasoned, and smoothly planed for the inside 

i of the package; they will pack two layers of turkeys or 

I three of fowl. Larger sized packages are inconvenient 

to handle, and do not meet with as ready a sale; pack a 

'layer of poultry in as many boxes as will be required to 

mkae one layer for each day's work; when frozen suffi- 



24 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

ciontlj, the second layer may be packed in like manner J 
when full, the covers should be placed on and snugly 
nailed, and the boxes placed together and well covered 
with straw — say two or three feet in depth, or should the 
w^eather moisten and thaw when the boxes are but partly 
tilled, they should be protected in the same way, in 
wdiich manner the poultry can be held and forwarded 
with entire safety. The packing should be done in a 
cold, dry room, separate from the slaughter-house, and 
not in the open air, as the wind is apt to turn the poul- 
try dark. Mark plainly on each package tlie gross 
weight and tare, and the kind it contains." 



Eaas & CHICKS, 



Eggs should be regularly collected every da3^ The 
wide-awake fancier can often learn to distinguish the 
eggs of individual hens, and when this is possible it is 
very desirable. Thereby, when it is desired to set a hen, 
the eggs can be retained only from the finest hens or 
those that are the best layers. Hens of the laying breed 
will lay 150 to 250 eggs per annum — common hens aver- 
age about 100 eggs per head. Every nest must always 
have a nest egg (white china is the best,) as it prevents 
the hens from laying away. Hard shell eggs are always 
preferable, and hence it must be seen to that the hens 
have constant access to shell-formino; material. It is not 
best to ofive them this in the form of broken es-o-shells, as 
they may from that acquire the unprofitable habit of 
eating their own eggs. The cure recommended, if the 
habit is detected early, is to place in the nest an eggshell 
filled with the strono-est mustard mixed rather thick. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IV. 25 

"We often have inquiries as to whether eggs for hatching 
can be sent safely by express for long distances. We 
answer unhesitatingly, Yes ! We have sent eggs hundre Is 
of miles by express and had 11 and 13 to hatch out of a 
clutch (13.) And again, we have sent eggs equally as 
far and had none to Jvitch. Then the purchaser, if he is a 
novice, is apt to think himself swindled and write a very 
ungentlemanly letter. There is of course always some 
risk in transportation, but there are many other reasons 
why the eggs will sometimes fail to hatch whether sent 
by express or set at home. Our plan for shipping eggs 
for hatching is to take a good sized box and make a 
" cushion" on the bottom inside with hay one or two 
inches deep, then spread a layer of bran, on which pack 
the eggs, each nearly one inch apart and the same dis- 
tance from the sides of the box. Cover with bran and 
then fill up with a good layer of hay. In cold weather 
each Qgg should be neatly wrapped in a piece of paper. 
The lid of the box should be gently screwed on. The box 
should have a handle of a piece of leather or the rim of a 
barrel. When eggs are ordered from a distance a sitting 
hen should be in readiness to receive them as soon as they 
arrive. If none of the hens are ready a broody hen can 
always be bought at a low figure from some neighboring 
farmer or " swapped" for a laying hen. To make the 
hen take to her new nest she should be changed at night, 
and it should be as nearly as possible like her old nest. 
She should first be given some china eggs until she settles 
down quietly to incubation. The period of incubation. is 
twenty -one days. Right here we might say that to pre- 
serve eggs for family use the best plan recommended in 
"Wright's Book of Poultry," is to pack them closely 
together and keep tightly covered up in a mixture pre- 
pared as follows : — 



26 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

" To four gallons of boiling water, half a peck of new 
lime, stirring it some little time, A\^hen cold, remove 
any hard lumps by a coarse sieve, add ten ounces of salt 
and three ounces of cream of tartar and mix the whole 
strongly. The mixture is then to be let stand to temper 
for a fortnight before use. Thus treated, if put in when 
newly laid, at nine months after they will eat quite as 
good as though only laid six days, though, of course, not 
quite like new laid.'' 

In keeping fowls for eggs it is not necessary or even 
desirable to have a cock with the hens. Virgin eggs are 
preferred by epicures and will sometimes bring a slight 
advance in price on that account. To raise fowls in large 
numbers they should be colonized in separate families. 
Twenty five or thirty breeding fowls are plenty in one 
flock. An experienced poulterer once remarked to us 
that he could raise more young chicks and make more 
money from a flock of twenty-five fowls on his farm than 
he could from fifty — and we believe him. If it is desired 
to raise poultry in large numbers they snould have sepa- 
rate yards, with plenty of room. When this plan is 
adopted and at the same time eggs are the desired pro- 
duct, one pen of the finest fowls can be mated to replenish 
the sto^k and in the others no cocks will be necessary. In 
breeding fowls in separate enclosures in this manner it will 
be well to allow each flock on difierent days in rotation the 
range of the farm. When fancy fowls are bred it is 
always well to keep a sufiicient number of common hens 
as sitters. Do not confine your fowls in too close quar- 
ters. AVe constantly see the bad ettects of this misman- 
agement. The fowls become enfeebled, lose their vital 
powers and, as a consequence, the eggs are often worth- 
less. AVhcnever it is practicable, we advocate unlimited 
range. When fowls are bred in confinement their wants 



t^URNISti AND MANAGE IT. 27 

niust be constantly kept in view and a plentiful supply 
of some greens, scraps, worms, etc. given. Some large 
breeders of tboroughbred poultry now adopt tbe plan of 
^'farming out" their breeding stock. This has always 
been our plan, and it has worked very well. We now 
employ about thirty different farms in raising pure-bred 
poultry for us. We furnish the breeding-stock (to re- 
sponsible parties only, in the neighborhood,) and pay 
a specified price per dozen for eggs and per pair for the 
chicks that are fit to sell. The inferior chicks are mar- 
keted and the farmer pockets the proceeds. Every year 
we mate our breeding stock ourselves for the season. In 
putting our fowls out this way we are careful to give each 
farmer a breed he fancies. We make it to his best inter- 
ests to serve us well, by paying him better than he could 
do with his own poultry. 

Hens should be set in the evening and should be fur- 
nished with comfortable nests in a darkened and unmo- 
lested spot. The nest should be made fiat, (when very 
concave the eggs do no not lay so well), and is best 
made out of an inverted sod, or three layers of dry 
earth or ashes with straw, hay, or forest leaves 
placed thereon. Thirteen eggs are the best number cov- 
ered by average hens. But in cold weather eleven or 
even nine or seven — according to the size of the hens 
and eggs — are amply sufficient. A larger number would 
only become chilled. The hen should be taken off the 
nest, (if she does not go off of her own accord) every day 
for feed, water, brief exercise and a good dusting. Do 
not, as a rule, remove the young chickens until twenty- 
four hours after all are hatched. Occasionally one may 
need some assistance to 2:et from the shell. This should 
be given cautiously, and only in extreme cases, by gently 
indenting the finger into the shell (without touching the 



28 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

inside membrane,) in a circle from where it is clipped, 
When the chicks are hatched the mother should be 
placed in a coop about two or three feet square, placed on 
the ground and with slats in the front, through which 
tlie chicks can run out to exercise and receive feed 
Young chicks should always be kept dry and where tliey 
can get plenty of sunlight. It must be remembered that 
fowls attain their growth in from four to eio^ht months, 
and can never make up for any "back setts" in that 
period. Feed regularly and often until five or six weeks 
old, at first with cooked meal and hard boiled egs^s 
mixed. Give tine chopped green feed and let them have 
the benefit of a grass run. The floor of the chicken coop 
should always be kept clean and free from vermin b}^ a 
fresh su[>ply of dry dirt. Chicks should always be kept 
groAving while young. If intended for marketing they 
should be forced and marketed early — Spring chickens 
pay the l)est b\^ all odds. For breeders, however, it is 
not necessary to hatch the chicks too early, as those 
hatched in milder weather require less care, grow belter, 
and are fully as profitable. Asiatics, however, intended 
for for fall shows, should be hatched by the first of 
March. April, May and June, however, are t.ie best 
months for hatching fowls intended for breeders. After 
the first few days a small bit of meat can be chopped 
with the feed once a day. Soft feed should be fed fresh very 
often —only so much given each time as is entirely con- 
sumed. A little bone meal should be added to the feed. 
After the chicks are two or three weeks old, the evening 
meal can consist of cracked corn and wheat or good 
screenings. Chicks should always have a grass run ; if 
deprived of this, green feed must be furnished to them 
dail\'. Chopped cabbage leaves are highly relished by 
them. A plentiful supply of pure fresh water must be 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 29 

constantly at hand. In winter the chicks require more 
stimulating food than in summer. Beef scraps can be 
boiled and mixed with the soft feed. If the chicks have 
been liberally fed they will be in prime condition for the 
table without any extra fattening. Growing chicks 
must always have plenty of exercise and should not be 
crowded together in too close quarters. In raising fowls 
for market, as a rule, the chicks should be killed as soon 
as ready. Certainly as soon as they have attained full 
size, as then better prices are generally procured than 
later in the season. The feed afterwards fed is therefore 
worse than wasted. Besides this there is considerable 
risk from disease in holding a large lot of poultry. In 
breeding fancy fowls the young chicks that turn out in- 
ferior " culls" or '-' scrubs"' as commonly called (and alas 1 
even the best strains will sometimes throw these despised 
and ought-to-be rejected specimens), should be marketed 
as soon as distinguishable at from three to six months 
old. Don't be afraid to kill your poor chicks — it is the 
only way to ultimate success. If all are killed this year 
they will be fewer next year. 

DISEASES. 



We do not much believe in doctoring fowds. In fact 
we have had very little disease amongst onr fowls and 
when it did appear we generally resorted to the hatchet. 
If we can't cure we can at least kill and thereby prevent 
the spread of the disease. Prevention is always better 
than cure. Vermin are a very frequent cause of disease 
in fowls. Every precaution should be taken to prevent 
their appearance. Don't crowd the fowls, or— as the 



30 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

Poultry World tersely remarks — you will breed thousands 
of vermin and precious few chicks. The poultry house 
should be thoroughly whitewashed inside and out, in the 
nests and every crevice, three or four times a year. Mix 
2 oz. of carbolic acid to a bucketfull of hot whitewash. 
The house should occasionally be fumigated with sulphur. 
The nests should be strewn wnth tobacco dust and sulphur. 
The ground powder of the leaves of an imported 
plant known in commerce as Persian Powder^ and 
various other names, is the most powerful exterminator 
of insects. The odor kills them. The feathers of the 
hens should be thoroughly rubbed with the powder. 
Gapes will seldom appear in young chicks if the hen and 
nests are thoroughly rid of all insects. 

Roup, including colds, canker, diphtheria, etc., is best 
prevented and often cured by the use of the celebrated 
Douglass mixture. This consists of 
J pound Sulphate of Iron ; 

1 oz. Sulphuric Acid ; 

2 Gallons Water. 

This is to be added to the drinking water in the propor- 
tion of a tablespoonful to a pint. Fowls affected by the 
Roup should be separated and put in dry warm quarters. 
The head and nostrils should be well washed with warm 
water and also with warm alum water. Give daily half a 
grain Cayenne pepper with half a grain allspice in a bolus 
of meal. Gapes, if treated early, a small pill of camphor ' 
daily, and also a little camphor in the drinking water, is| 
recommended. When fully developed the worms should 
be removed from the windpipe by inserting a loop otl 
horse hair into the organ and withdrawing it while turn-l 
ing it arouud. Repeat the operation until all the wormsf 
are removed. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 31 

For General Debility, bad moulting, etc., use stimu- 
lating food, with sulphate of iron or Douglass mixture in 
the water. If the fowls are in general aiFected with 
disease, especially in the case of Catarrh and Eoup, it is 
an excellent plan to thoroughly fumigate the poultry 
house with sulphur. To do this, close the doors and 
windows and burn a small quantity on a shovel. In 
many such cases the following prescription will be found 
valuable. It was given to us by a doctor fancier some 
two years ago, who recommends it as very successful in 
most cases of disease among the chickens: — • 

Pulv. Capsicum, ) ^ .^ . 
Do. Allspice, / -l^a. 50 grains. 

Diluted Carbolic Acid, 2 scruples ; 
To form into a mass, add Syrup and Flour or powdered 
Gum Arabic. 

To form into pills 100 of J gr. each. 

One pill three times a day, or alternate with boluses, as 
below: 

Pulv. Charcoal and Yeast, 200 grs. 

Flor Sulphur, 150 grs. 

Syrup of flour, 2 scruples. 
To form into mass, which make into 100 boluses of 5 J 
grs. each. 

One 3 times a day. 

With Eoup give also 8 or 4 drops diluted Carbolic 
Acid, washing out nostrils with Castile water, and inject 
some of the acid into the nose. 

Crop Bound. The following is recommended : — 

Warm water should be forced down the throat and 
the crop gently kneaded or worked for an hour, if neces- 
sary, until it becomes soft, holding the bill open and the 
head down ; then give a tablespoonful of castor oil and 
foed sparingly for a day or two to prevent permanent dis^ 



32 THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

tention. If this is not effective an incision about an inch 
long should be made at the top of the crop, first remo-; 
ving some of the feathers, and care being taken not to 
cut any of the large blood vessels. The contents of the 
crop should then be removed and the outlet examined to 
see that it is not stopped up. The incision may be 
closed by making three or four stitches with horse hair 
or silk in the inner skin and the same in the outer. Be 
careful not to sew the two skins together, as it is almost 
certainly fatal. Feed on sopped bread, and allow no 
water for twenty-four hours after the operation. 

Strained Hip Joint. — A customer of ours, and for 
many years a practical breeder, has called our attention 
to a common ailment in fowls which we believe has 
never before been noticed by any writer on poultry. 
Especially in the large breeds where the rooster is heavy, 
good laying hens after two years old often become so 
strained and weak in the hip joints that they slide out 
of position, letting the body fall very near the ground 
and making the hen walk like a duck. The rooster 
seeing the hen in this position naturally thinks she is 
courting his attentions, and the weakened hen is thus 
very much injured. The remedy is simple and the cure 
nearly always complete. Tie the two legs together by a 
string around each at the hip) joints — a little nearer than 
they would be when the bird was standing naturally. 
They must be tied back of the breastbone, so that they 
cannot slip out of position. The hen will soon learn to 
walk, although not so rapidly, using her hock joints, and 
in a few weeks she will have recovered the full and per- 
fect use of her limbs. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 38 



How to Raise Good Turkeys. 



Xo ftirm stock pays higher or surer return for the cap- 
ital and time invested than turkeys, yet they are often 
very poorly managed and the profits are consequently 
meagre. We are convinced this neglect is frequently 
due to want of a proper knowledge of how to breed and 
j manage them, and hence we shall give full and ex- 
I plicit directions on this subject. Turkey hens attain ma. 
i turity much earlier than the gobblers. At two years old 
,the hens will be full grown ; they very seldom become 
(larger after that time; whilst gobblers are not nearly 
! matured at that age, but continue to grow until four or 
i five years old. They are, however, in t'lieir prime breed- 
ling condition at three years old. Gobblers of this age 
I mated to hens two years old will produce the finest, lar'g- 
jest and earliest matured young turkeys. The only objec- 
tion to gobblers of this age is, that on account of their 
I heavy size they will sometimes injure the hens. For 
j this reason the gobblers although of large frame should 
I not be allowed to lay on fat and become heavy durino- 
j the breeding season. * 

I As a necessary preventive of injury to the hens the 
spurs and toe nails of the gobbler should be cut off. 
I After the operation the best and most speedy way to 
istop the bleeding is to saturate a rag with MoiiseWs 
Liquid Solution of Iron, (which can be procured from any 
I druggist,) and tie over the bleeding parts for a day or 
itwo. It will immediately stop the blood. A yearling 



34 THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

gobbler of large size mated to two year old hens will also 
produce fine and large offspring. Great care must always 
be taken in the selection of the breeding birds. It is 
very "penny wise and pound foolish" to slaughter and mar- 
ket the largest young turkej^s because they will bring a 
few more cents in market. Those that grow the fastest 
and largest and are of the most perfect form should not 
be sold at any price but should be retained for breeders. 
In a few years the increase in the average size and value 
of the flock will be so apparent as to convince the farmer 
that this is beyond all doubt the only right way and by 
far the most profitable. We cannot too strongly urge 
this upon our readers. Turkeys are as sure of being im- 
proved or degenerated by the manner in which they are 
bred and selected as are pigs. It will pay every one who 
raises turkeys to pay eight or ten dollars for a good thor- 
oughbred gobbler to breed from. The gobbler should 
not be akin to the hens. In selecting birds for breeding, 
care must be taken that they possess no deformities. 
Crooked breast, which means what meat there is, all 
developed on one side of the breast or bone, is often 
caused by narrow roosting perches. A rail solit in half 
makes an excellent roost. The roosts should not be too hii>;h 
if in a house, as the turkeys not h living room to take a 
long fly in descending are often seriously hurt. The 
roosts need not be all on the same level, but can slant in 
the form of gradually ascending steps. The largest and 
heaviest old gobblers will often prefer the lowest roost. 
It is useless to attempt to keep turkeys in the same house 
with hens. While they will generally thrive well roost- 
ing out in the trees, &c., yet, for evident reasons, it is 
always best to have a special house for them. This need 
only be a shed facing the south and open in front : roof 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 35 

sloping from about nine to seven feet. Turkeys must 

have liberty and freedom to range at will. They 

will then pick up much of their feed, but should always 

be fed regularly every morning and evening. They 

will then always roost around home and will be kept 

constantly in fine growing condition. Mr. Thos. Y. 

England informs us that by actual experiment he has 

found that if the soft feed (such as meal, etc.) be mixed 

with milk instead of water, the turkeys when killed will 

be much more delicate and the flesh of a far superior 

quality to those fed on a mixture made with water. 

Cottage cheese is an excellent mess for them. Among 

other valuable hints he also calls attention to the fact that 

turkey hens after three years old are unprofitable as 

breeders, often laying soft shelled eggs. The same thing 

will happen if the turkey hens have not been set during 

the season. A turkey will lay eighteen or twenty eggs. 

The eggs of the first laying can be given to hens and the 

second laying will then be had earlier, when she should 

be allowed to sit herself, but should be given only so 

many eggs as she will cover satisfactorily. They begin 

to lay about April, and unless closely watched will make 

their nest in the field or among the shrubbery where 

their eggs may be lost. If a hen is discovered in some 

such place after she has begun to set it v/ill be well to 

afford all the protection possible by placing a cover or 

inverted box, with one side out, over the nest. The 

period of incubation is twenty-eight days. 

It is an undoubted fact that one impregnation of the 
I gobbler fecundates the entire laying of the turkey hen, 
and yet it is advisable to keep the gobbler constantly 
with the hens. 

Turkey hens are persistent sitters ; they frequently 
have to be compelled to leave the nest for food and water 



86 THE POULTRY YARt), HOW 1*0 

The French, who are always such studious economists, 
avail themselves of this propensity to a very good profit 
in the hatching of chicks. A turkey hen will sit steadily 
for three months. By giving a little brandy the hen 
will sit still longer. One great merit is, that they will 
during all this while keep in such good condition, that 
they can easily be fattened and killed when their ser- 
vices are no longer needed. Turkeys are very tender 
when young — until they finish "shooting the red." When 
the eggs are all hatched the hen turkeys should be con- 
fined in a small coop placed in an enclosure of about six 
feet square, surrounded by a board twelve or fifteen 
inches high. After awhile the hen can be allowed her 
freedom. She will guard her chicks carefully and will 
stay in the enclosure with them or near by. The young 
Turkeys must not be subjected to dampness nor allowed 
to run in wet grass. When about three weeks old they 
can be allowed their liberty with tha hen on fine days. 
They must be fed "little and often" and allowed to get 
no ''back sets." At first feed bread thoroughly soaked in 
milk and give new milk to drink. Give hard boiled eggs 
mashed up and mixed with the bread and milk. Feed 
at least four or five times a day, giving each time just so 
much as they eat up clean. A fter a week or two give them 
curds and continue until five or six weeks old. At this 
age feed scalded Indian meal mixed with curd: also at 
another time in the day give scalded Indian, wheat mid- 
lings and bran mixed, the mixture to be f bran. Turkeys 
must be liberally fed and after they are safe through the 
critical period of their lives will gain in size very rapidly. 
They should be fed on stimulating food during moulting 
season on account of the great rapidity of shedding and 
the wonderful change they then undergo. From being stark 
naked they will be entirely feathered in a few weeks. 



f UkNIStt AND MANAGE It. 87 

Thej are at this time, of course, lighter in weight. A 
curious fact and one worthy of notice, is that the hens 
will not moult until they are through sitting. Hence if 
from any cause they are set very late the moulting is cor- 
respondingly later. We have known a hen to be entirely 
bare at Christmas. This must by all means be avoided, 
or the hens will likely not be able to withstand the try- 
ing ordeal. It has been observed that turkeys show a 
great fondness for dandelion leaves, in preference to all 
other greens. From the well-known medicinal properties 
of this plant, it will be well to sow a few seeds in some 
waste spot near the turkey house, so that they can have 
a constant supply. 

Varieties of Turkeys, are the Mammoth Bronze, 
White Holland, Black,*^ Blue and Buff Turkeys. The 
Bronze Turkeys are generally considered the largest. 
Adult gobblers w^ill weigh 40 and 45 pounds each, hens 15 
to 20, Young Turkey Gobblers at eight months old,, 
will weigh from twenty-two to twenty-five pounds each 
and hens from thirteen to fifteen pounds. These are fair 
average weights. They will gain about one pound in 
two weeks. But occasionally, and also when birds are 
especially well fed, they will exceed these weights. For 
breeding stock, however, it is not well to force them too 
much. Further north where the snow is on the ground for 
a longer period and where consequently the Turkeys are 
fed more corn, they will weigh heavier. The new Ameri- 
can standard only recognizes the light tipped turkeys, 
while the dark bronze are really the more beautiful and 
by many breeders preferred. Both colors can be bred 
from the same flock if they are so mated, but some of 
this offspring will be of a mixed bronze plumage. The 
silver tips, however, are generally purer bred. The 



38 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 



1 



dark bronze will often throw buff or cinnamon birds^ 
showing that they have been crossed with that va- 
riety to secure the desired color. Pure bronze turkeys 
are believed to have originated from a cross of the wild 
turkey and the grey Narragansetts. 

The AVhite Holland Turkeys are a very handsome 
and showy variety. The rich red beads and the intense 
glossy black beard of the male contrasting beautifully 
with a plumage of snowy whiteness. For a lawn a finer 
or more aristocratic ornament could not be desired. 
They are not onl}^ "a thing of beauty/' but are also a 
very valuable breed. They are very much larger than 
the common w^hite turkey, and also, unlike them, are 
very hardy. Their flesh is much esteemed as of a supe- 
rior delicacy. They are especially valued on account of 
their superior laying qualities and early mating. "While 
their eggs are not quite as large as tbe bronze, they fur- 
nish more of them. 

Black Turkeys are distinguished by an intense deep 
black color throughout, and are of large size. 

Blue Turkeys, sometimes called slate turkeys, should 
be of an even slaty color throughout. The best stock of 
this breed was imported from France. They are much 
esteemed on account of their prolificacy, early maturity 
and large size, being in many cases fully equal in size to 
the Bronze. This breed is well worthy of more general 
cultivation. 

Buff Turkeys are as their name indicates, of a pure 



buff color throughout. They are comparatively but little 
bred. In no stock is the importance of a good male so 
fully evinced, and every farmer should each year or two, 
as already hinted, procure a good thorouuhbred gobbler 
of either the Bronze, White, Holland, or Blue varieties. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 39 



R^isiNa aEEsE. 



Ko land or water fowls can be so easily and cheaply 
raised as Geese. They will thrive well on pasture alone. 
It is of the first importance to breed from large matured 
specimens, and when once mated, the same birds can be 
retained as breeders for very many years. The gander, 
however, is apt to get cross with age, and hence has to 
be changed. Two or three geese (or sometimes four) can 
be mated to one gander. The goose will lay 13 to 15 
eggs. "When ready for setting, she should have only 13 
eggs. She is a splendid sitter, and should not be dis- 
turbed. When leaving the nest to feed she covers her 
eggs like the duck, although not so well. The period of 
incubation is thirty days. They usually commence laying 
in February. Large common hens. Cochins or Brahmas 
can be used as sitters, giving each hen three or four eggs. 
Turkeys will also hatch the eggs well. On account of 
the thick shells of the eggs and the long period of incu- 
bation, it is recommended to make the nest on the ground 
or moist earth, and during the last ten days or two weeks 
to sprinkle the eggs with tepid water. The gander will 
frequently assist his favorite mate in the labors of incu- 
bation, and after the goslings are hatched is very vigilant 
in his care of them. At first the goslings should be kept 
warm and fed " little and often,'' with hard boiled eggs, 
bread crumbs or scalded meal, not neglecting a plentiful 
supply of greens and grass. They are soon ready to turn 
out to graze, and will pick all their food, mostly grass, in 
the fields. They require no other feed so long as this 
lasts, and they can be marketed in fine condition, called 



40 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

in England " green geese." After the supply of grass is 
cut off by winter, the geese can be put up to fatten, if so 
desired. This should be done in a dark place, and they 
should be well fed, on oats, meal or barley meal, or a 
mixture. A bunch of sweet hay should be tied up within 
their reach. 

Geese can be raised profitably with very little water, 
only plenty to drink and a large tub full for bathing. 
One valuable peculiarity of geese is that they always give 
notice of hen-roost robbers, whether biped or quadruped, 
by their shrill cries, and hence are excellent "watch 
dogs." 

The Varieties of Thoroughbred Geese are the Tou- 
louse, Embden and China. The value of thoroughbreds 
is here fully illustrated. For while the produce of pure 
Embden geese, crossed with a Toulouse Gander, make the 
very finest and largest goslings for the market, yet these, 
if bred together, will rapidly deteriorate. 

The Toulouse Geese are of an even shade of grey, 
with white on the belly. In size, the Toulouse generally 
are the largest, although sometimes equalled by the Emb- 
den. The prize Toulouse geese at the Birmingham show 
weighed as high as 60 pounds per pair, and goslings forty 
eight and a half pounds. This is counted the heaviest 
weight ever attained. They mature early, are very hardy, 
and produce an abundance of feathers. 

Embden, or Bremen Geese are of a pure white plum- 
age, with dark flesh-colored bills, orange legs and bright 
blue eyes. They should be very tall and of erect carriage, 
with large square bodies. Mr. J. K. Fowler gives the 
following weights of his prize geese: — the gander, (three 
years old,) weighed just thirty -two and a half pounds 
and his mate (a goose of the same age) pulled down 
very nearly twenty-six pounds ; the goslings weighed 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 41 

twenty-seven and a half pounds, and twenty-four 
pounds. They are kept and bred largely in Saxony, 
and are celebrated for the delicacy of their meat. 
They are good layers and easily raised. The feathers, 
(a very important ''crop" of geese are bred in quanti- 
ties,) are more valuable than those of the Toulouse 
or any other grey geese. 

The Chlva or Hong Kon'g Geese are not so large but 
are unusually prolific layers. The goose will lay as many 
as thirty eggs before ofiering to sit, and will lay three or 
even four litters in a season. Their :flesh is very superior, 
they mature early, are easily raised, and are readily fat- 
tened. Their eggs are not as large by about one third as 
the two preceding breeds, but the greatly increased quan- 
tity more than compensates. They are, besides, very 
ornamental, having a large protuberance at the base 
of the bill, and they should receive more attention from 
poultry breeders. In color they are both brown (like the 
Toulouse,) and pure snowy white. In concluding our re- 
marks on Geese, we would strongly urge breeders and 
farmers everywhere to pay more attention to the breeding 
of this valued domestic fowl. We are glad to notice a 
good demand for thoroughbred geese, and trust that 
breeders will soon perceive the value of paying these 
fowls the attention they so well deserve. 



42 THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 



Ri^ISTNa DUCKS. 



Farmers generally neglect the breeding of Ducks 
from an idea that they "eat their heads off." There is no 
farm poultry, if well managed, more profitable. It has 
been proved by actual trial that ducks often lay more 
eggs than hens. Their eggs, besides being much larger, 
and more valual)le, also contain less waste. Ducks, if mar- 
keted at the right season, always bring good prices. They 
can be raised very easily. The eggs can be set under 
hens, and as many as forty or fifty young ducUings can 
be mothered by one hen. They require much the same 
feed as fowls, and if intended for the market should be 
liberally fed. In Aylesbury, England, where thousands 
of duc'^s are marketed every week, it is estimated that 
the cost of producing a couple of ducklings of nearly four 
pounds weight at eight weeks old is two shillings pach. 
They fetch in the London market, during March, seven- 
teen to nineteen shillings a couple. One great point in 
their favor is that they are remarkably exempt from the 
ravages cf fatal diseases that so often depopulate a barn 
yard of fowls. Ducks will almost earn their living by the 
vast quantities of grubs and insects they destroy. Two 
or three ducks can be given to one drake. 

The Pekin Duck, although only introduced from 
China in 1873, has already acquired great fame. They are 
by far the largest ducks in appearance, but like all Asiatic 
Fowls are not so large as they look, having a loose, fluffy 
plumage. Although sometimes equalled in weight by the 
Rouens, yet, as a rule, w^e believe they are the heaviest. 
They mature very early, and are excellent layers. Last 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 43 

year, one duck produced 108 eggs, which were sold for 
sitting, and after we were doue shipping the egg?i ahe 
was not done supplying them. That was a profitable 
duck, producing 108 eggs at $4.00 per dozen. Pekins 
can be raised successfully with only sufiicient water for 
drinking ; they can be confined by a very low fence, and 
are very domestic. There is one drawback to them, with 
which we have had some trouble. We have found that 
some males fail to impregnate the eggs. This, we have 
reason to think, is owing to their broad clumsy bodies. 
They are clad in a beautiful coat of creamy whiteness, 
with yellow bills and orange legs. A single duck has 
been known to lay 200 eggs in one season. For breeding 
for sale, as a fancy fowl, Pekin Ducks are undoubtedly 
in great demand, and at the most satisfactory prices. 
For the first year or two the ducks sold for $20 per pair, 
and eggs $10 per dozen, and were eagerly sought at these 
figures. But now, from the increase of the stock, they 
can be had at half these prices. 

Aylesbury Ducks are snowy white in plumage with 

flesh colored bills and orange legs. They are long and 

graceful in shape of body and comely in appearance. They 

1 are especially celebrated as prolific layers; they will 

j commence in March and continue tillJune or July. They 

I mature early, are very hardy and easily raised. Extra 

' specimens have attained the extreme weights of 18 and 

i 19 pounds per pair, but 12 to 15 pounds are good weights. 

' These are the ducks that are so celebrated in England 

and raised in such immense quantities in the district from 

which they derive their name. An Aylesbury drake 

( will make a very marked improvement if crossed on the 

I common stock. 

I Rouen Ducks are without a rival in beauty and 
elegance of plumage. They resemble the wild mallards. 



44 THE POULTRY YARD : HOW TO 



^1 



Choice strains are very large. There are many degene- 
rated specimens of this variety in the country that are of 
small size. They mature early and are excellent table 
fowls. While not as prolific as the Aylesbury, we have 
known them to lay very well, laying in the fall as well 
as the spring. Their eggs are not so large as the Ayles- 
bury. 

Cayuga Ducks are of American origin, and are of one 
solid metallic black plumage throughout. They are of 
large size, good layers, and easily raised. 

Muscovy Ducks. These are very odd. They are dis- 
tinctly a "dr}^ land" duck, and never quack. The drakes 
are the largest of all, but the ducks are rather small. They 
are ^ve weeks hatching. They are both pure white and 
white and black splashed. Drakes will weigh ten and 
twelve pounds each. The mules between this breed and 
the water ducks make a very good table fowl, celebrated 
for early maturity. 

Crested White Ducks are very attractive. They are 
pure white, with large top knots. They are of good size, 
mature early, and lay well. 

Call Ducks are small and chiefly esteemed as orna- 
mental water fowls. They are both brown and white in 
plumage, the former resembling the wild mallards. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 45 

Guineas lay a large number of eggs, which are of a 
very rich flavor. Their flesh is very choice and game- 
like. They have, however, their drawbacks, which are 
their inherent nature of cruelty to other poultry, and also 
their great propensity to wander away from home. Both 
these objections to them can, however, to a great degree, 
be overcome ; the former by kind and goodly treatment 
of them; the latter, by furnishing secluded nests, and 
also not disturbing them. If a guinea hen's nest is rob- 
bed of a number of eggs at once, she will forsake it and 
seek a more secluded one. Hence the eggs should be 
gathered every day, one egg being left in the nest. They 
do not generally sit until late. For this reason, and also 
because the young guineas will be more domestic, the 
eggs should be set under hens. The young chicks have 
very small crops, and hence must have them filled very 
frequently, with the same food as recommended for 
chicks. In a natural state, guineas mate in pairs, but 
under domestication, one male will readily serve a couple 
of hens. It is very difiicult to distinguish the sexes. 
This can be done by watching their actions, by the hen's 
peculiar cry, and also from the fact that the cock is more 
cruel to other fowls. Guineas will generally roost in the 
; trees around their home, and are the best of " watch 
I dogs," giving ample notice of the approach of any person 
I in the neighborhood. The ordinary Pearl Guinea Fowl 
I (so called from the resemblance of the spots to pearls,) are 
very uniformly marked with white spots in a ground 
I color of grey purple. Most of the common guineas have 
I patches of white, or white feathers in the wings, and are 
' not nearly so pretty. Pure white guineas are rather 
1 rare, and are very attractive ornaments on a green lawn. 



46 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 



VARIETIES OF FOWLS. 



Brahmas. — ^N'o breed of pure bred poultry, from the 
days of the hen fever to the ]3resent, have so universally 
maintained a front rank in the estimation of all poultry 
men, as the Brahma. They are quiet in their disposition, 
and very tame. Our late lamented dark Brahma cock, 
"Joe Hooker," was as aftectionate and knowing almost as 
a dog. He would come into the kitchen at meal times 
and would quietly walk around and eat out of the hand 
what was given him, but never would he eat anything 
within his reach that was not set aside for him. Brahmas 
can easily be picked up anywhere by a child. A three 
foot fence will confine them, and no breed in the world 
is so well adapted to close confinement. They thrive well 
in the smallest quarters. They are excellent winter layers, 
their eggs are of varied shades. That pure Brahmas 
should lay eggs of one uniform color is an exploded bub- 
ble. They are very much inclined to sit, and this is a 
great drawback. Thej^ do not mature early, and are not 
so desirable for market pure bred as when crossed. For 
mothers they are the very best, when not too heavy. 
They have plenty of loose fluff, and will cover a goodly 
number of eggs. They should be of large size, but no 
giants. The days of the " long legged Shanghaes that 
could eat oft' the top of a barrel, and all there is in it," is 
past. Farmers and poulterers are beginning to realize 
that utility of form must be studied. It needs no demon- 
stration to prove that it is highly unprofitable to feel 
corn and wheat to produce such unpalatable parts as neck 
and leg. Matured cocks of 12 pounds, and hens of 8 to 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 47 

10 pounds, are fully as large as can generally be had in 
connection with other meritorious points. One peculiar- 
ity of this breed is the pea comb, which, being so small is 
safe against the winter's frosts. 

Light Brahmas wath us are perhaps more generally 
bred throughout the entire country than any other breed? 
and yet there is always a very lively demand for good 
stock at satisfactory prices. They are often inclined to be 
long legged; this must be guarded against by judicious 
selection. In mating, the cock and hens should not 
both have dark hackles, or the progeny will be very 
unsatisfactory. There is a prejudice in the minds of 
some that Light Brahmas are delicate, on account of their 
plumage. This is entirely a mistake. They are altoge- 
ther a most worthy breed, and invaluable to increase the 
size, laying and early maturity of a lot of "dunghills." 

Dark Brahmas have nearly the same characteristics as 
the light. They are, however, deeper and more compact 
in body, with shorter legs. They are like the lights, well 
feathered down to the ends of the toes, but should be 
tree from vulture hock. They are very hard to breed to 
the "standard," only four or live birds put of every 100 
will be meritorious show birds, even from the best stock. 
But all the remaining birds are by no means disqualified. 
Many of them are generally as good, and some even 
better for breeding. 

Cochins are large noble looking fowls, with an abun- 
dance of loose flatfy feathers, especially in the hens, thus 
making them the very best mothers. Mature cocks should 
weigh 10 to 13 pounds, and hens 8 to 10 pounds ; small 
weights should not be tolerated, neither should extra 
heavy birds be bred, if, as is generally the case, they are 
correspondingly badly proportioned. The legs should be 
abundantly feathered to the toes, bat not "vulture hock- 



48 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

ed." They are very docile, can be picked up by a child, 
and are easily confined. They are rather poor foragers, 
and must be fed liberally. They are good winter layers. 
Their eggs are of various shades. They are very much 
inclined to sit, and hard to break. On account of their 
large size they are invaluable for crossing, whereby they 
can be improved in early maturity and flesh. They have 
single erect combs of line texture. Recently a strain of 
Pea Comb Partridge Cochins has been introduced, and it 
is claimed for them the undoubted advanta2:e for cold 
winters. "We fear, however, that should this variety be- 
come popular, the distinct tyi^es of Brahmas and Cochins 
would be lost — merged into one common mixture. Co- 
chins have so long been bred almost exclusively for large 
size and fashionable form and markings, that the econo- 
mic qualities have been neglected. Much can be done in 
the way of improving their laying, &c. The varieties are 
the Buff, Partriige, Black and White Cochins. There 
is also a new breed styled the Sebright Cochins not yet 
recognized in the standard, nor will that name be allowed. 
Buff Cochins are fowls of unusual beauty. They should 
be of one clear buff color throughout, free from any white 
or colored feathers or uneven shading. Partridge Co- 
chins are very aristocratic, with the deep black breast 
and beautifully resplendent and varied plumage of the 
cock, and the exv][uisitely pencilled hen. For small city 
yards, a more pleasing breed could scarcely be desired. 
Black Cochins are only recently established, and are still 
subject to brassy or white feathers. They cannot fail, 
however, soon to take a prominent position among their 
fellows. "Whitb Cochins being of a pure snowy white- 
ness throughout, do not present the difficulties to the 
young breeder, which are sure to be experienced in raising 
the other varieties of Cochins. All Cochins possess the 



FtJRNlSH AND MANAGE it. 4S 

same prominent characteristics and the amateur should 
select the variety best suited to his fancy. 



Legliorns, 



Of late years, Leghorns have attained a wonderful, al- 
most miraculous popularity. And well deserved it is too. 
They are without doubt the best layers. They are non- 
sitters, althoug-h, as in all non-sitting varieties, a hen wiU 
occasionally take a notion towards incubation and will 
often perform her unaccustomed duties very satisfactorily. 
Leghorns lay as many as 200 and even 250 eggs per year. 
Tlie pullets begin to lay at 4J and 5 months. The cock- 
erels will crow at seven weeks old, and a very amusing 
sight it IS to see a large flock of chicks at this age. They 
very soon learn to run after the hens. From the very 
eggs, almost before "their mother knows they are out," 
they are the liveliest of all chicks. They are splendid 
foragers, and after eight weeks old they generally pick 
up all their own feed, among the wheat stubble, around 
the barn, etc. The eggs are pure white, rather thin shell, 
and nearly transparent. They are not a large breed, but 
where e2:2:s are desired are all the more profitable on that 
account, i. e., with less machinery to feed, they will shell 
out larger results than any other breed. The cocks weigh 
4J to 6 pounds, aud the hens SJ to 4 pounds. They are 
very hardy and easily raised. For market, although not 
large, they are very presentable, with bright yellow legs 
and skin. They have high single combs, and in this cli- 
mate they are apt to get frozen in winter. This spoils 
their looks, but does not hurt their breeding qualities. 
Ko breed will so improve the laying qualities of barn 
yard fowls as Pure Leghorns. 



66 THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

White Leghorns were the first introduced, and are the 
most generally disseminated. They should be pure snowy 
white throughout, and entirely free from any colored 
feathers, or a shade of j^ellow. Their ear lobes should be 
solid white or creamy white, and in this particular good 
strains breed remarkably true. Their combs should be ot 
medium size, perfectly erect and evenly formed, deeply 
serrated, w^ith five prominent points, wattles pendant. 
Legs bright yellow. Carriage proud and upright. 

Brown Leghorns are of recent introduction, but al- 
ready are the most popular. They are very beautiful, re- 
sembling the Black Red Games in plumage, and from the 
fighting qualities of this breed, we have reason lo believe 
they contain some game blood. We well remember our 
first experience with them. We had three favorite cocks, 
two of which were placed on one farm until one should 
be mated to another lot of hens. No sooner had they 
escaped from their respective cages than a terrible fight 
ensued, and before they could be separated one was killed. 
The Brown Leghorns are shorter in the legs and rather 
heavier bodied than the whites. They have bright yellow 
legs and skin, and are very palatable as table fowls. They 
are excelled b}- none as layers. One hen owned by a 
friend who kept a careful record, in ten consecutive 
months of last year, (including February, when she was 
rather " under the weather," which by-the-bye was very 
severe, and only laid ten eggs,) laid 223 eggs. This hen 
was not selected, but was the only one the party owned 
of this breed. The following is the record : 

1st month, 23 ; 2d mo. 8 ; 3d mo. 22 ; 4th mo. 28 ; 5th 
mo. 27; 6th mo. 26 ; 7th mo. 24 ; 8th mo. 24; 9th mo- 
24; 10th mo. 18; total, 223. 

In England, this breed is becoming very popular, al- 
though as yet quite rare. They are prominently an Ame- 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 



51 




BROWN LEGHORNS, 

WINNERS OF CENTENNIAL MEDALS. 

Owned by Benson & Burpee. Bred by W. Atlee Burpee. 



6S THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

rican breed. "We have exported them ourselves to Eng- 
land, as have also other breeders. L. Wright, in his 
English Book of Poultry, says, ""We consider them the 
best layers we have ever met with.'' They have always been 
our own favorites, and wherever introduced they soon 
take the lead for eggs, both on account of immense quan- 
tity and admirable quality of same. They have all the 
desirable qualities of this breed to a preeminent degree. 
We give below a letter just received from a good breeder 
of this variety, which demonstrates an important fact. 

" I will write you a word about the standard as now 
given for Brown Leghorns. There is here just one fault, 
a solid white ear lobe, and the plumage (standard) of this 
variety cannot consistently go together without white 
feathers being made allowable or dark legs not a disqual- 
ification, but white ear lobes — spotless white — and yellow 
legs, cannot be made to breed; it \Q2i\togQi\iQv inconsistent 
with natural laws. 

" In a certain number of the Poultry World, there ap- 
peared an article in which the writer stated that the ori- 
ginal jungle fowls were nearly of the plumage of the 
Brown Leghorns, and some have willow legs, and some 
white ear lobes, to prove, doubtless that it was natural to 
have this white lobe. I enquired in the succeeding 
number of the Poultry World whether it was the yellow 
and dark leg birds that had the white ear lobes, but have 
never learned ; there is too much trying to cover up the 
defects of the standard as given to Brown Leghorns, the 
most open confession I have ever seen is an article in 
January (22) number. 

1 am now running a strain of Brown Leghorns, direct 
descendants of the W. F, B. S. crossed on natives, and 
find stamina much improved, and when I get them where 
I can rely on them, which I know will be in 78, 1 will 
have a strain of Brown Leghorns that will not lose tail 
feathers in summer, nor give dark legs, but a type just to 
my own liking. 1 want lobes one-third surface white, no 
more. But by all means. Brother Burpee, insert in your 
book an open remonstrance against the wholesale slaugh- 
ter of valuable points and desirable qualities, just to cater 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 53 

to the wants of a few fanciers like , who had so much 

to do in compiling the standard that he got in what has 
just ruined him, and I am glad of it. Last year, 75, in 
August or September, he had not 25 hens or cocks but 
were disqualitied, on account of white feathers. I know 
this to be true, and am heartily glad of it.'' 

The writer of the above is only too true to his 
statements. Much has been done to injure the fair fame 
of the Brown Leghorns by advertising solid white ear 
lobes and sending out birds with nearly red lobes. Rais- 
ing, as we do, hundreds of Brown Leghorns, from the 
most carefully mated stock, we every year raise birds 
that are throughout free from any white tinge, with 
bright yellow legs and solid white lobes, but they are 
scarce. We consider the Brown Leghorns as difficult a 
breed, to handle with a view to exhibition purposes, as 
the Dark Brahmas, and requiring equally as much skill. 
Hens with pure white ear lobes are easily produced from 
good strains. Ihe trouble is with the cocks. If the ma- 
jority of the cocks have ear lobes two-thirds white and 
about ia.ve per cent pure white, with no corresponding 
defects, it is as good as can be expected at present. "Truth 
will out.'' Even if by letting it out we may tread on 
some tender toes, yet it is our only true plan in writing 
for the poultry public. We regard the Brown Leghorns 
as too valuable a breed to be altered by crossing, or to be 
ruined in stamina and important excellencies by a mad 
rush after white ear lobes, ''regardless of cost." In mat- 
ing, always keep in view the one great quality that en- 
dears this breed to the people — the eggs. 

Black Leghorns. These are solid black in plumage, 
with pure white ear lobes and erect combs. They, like all 
black fowls, usually have dark legs. They are the smallest 
of the Leghorns, and although good layers, are no better 
than the others. They look too much like degenerated black 
Spanish, and it is our opinion that unless improved they 



64 



THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 



^1 



will soon sink into oblivion as a variety not worthy of dis- 
tinct cultivation. 

Dominique LevIHorns. These fowls are certainly very 
pretty, being of the uniform Dominique color, contrasting 
nicely with white ear lobes. The finest fowls we raised 
the past season, and exhibited at the Centennial, were 
perfect as regards Leghorn characteristics and color, but 
had a few black spots over the yellow legs. We have had 
birds of this breed with pure yellow legs, but they were 
faulty in the ear lobes. This variety can never compete 
in popularity with the Brown and White Leghorns. 
Some breeders claim that they are the largest of all Leg- 
horns, and we have purchased birds of such stock which 
were very large — too large for pure Leghorns, and plainly 
showing a cross, also having nearly or quite red ear 
lobes. 

BLi^CK SPANISH. 



The White Face Black Spanish are 
one of the oldest pure breeds. They 
are everlasting layers of very large 
eggs, of excellent flavor. The yelk 
of the egg is not larger than ordina- 
ry eggs, the white or albumen pre- 
dominating. They are very hardy if 
properly bred, the only danger being 
their large erect single combs, which 
will become frozen in very severe 
weather. They are very high in bo- 
dy, with fine stylish carriage. Their legs are of a lead 
color, becoming lighter with age. Breeding in-and-in 
also produces pale legs, and then a cross should be made 




FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 55 

with a very bluish-black legged cock of fresh blood. 
Their white face and long serrated comb extending out 
almost to the end of the bill are well depicted in the ac- 
companying cut. They are very poor table fowls, but 
their line eggs entitle them to a high rank among the 
breeds of domestic poultry. 



Hamburgs are a very popular breed of non-sitting 
fowls. They are unrivalled in variety and beauty of 
plumage. Our colored frontispiece (prepared expressly 
for The Poultry Yard,) well represents an imported trio 
of the Black Hamburgs, bred by the Rev. W. Sergeatson, 
the most celebrated English exhibitor of this variety. 

All Hamburgs possess the same general characteristics. 
Stylish and active in carriage, slender, rather short, blue 
or slaty blue l^gs, with deep red rose combs and close 
fitting pure white ear lobes. They require free range, 
and are then easily kept, as they are excellent foragers. 
They will lay upwards of 200 eggs in a year. While 
their eggs are not so large as those cf the Leghorns, yet, 
as long as eggs are sold by the dozen, this makes little 
material ditference in supplying the market. Mr. A. 
Beldon says of their early maturity, he has found that 
pullets of the pencilled varieties lay at five months; the 
spangled not quite so early. The varieties of Hamburgs 
are the silver and golden pencilled, the spangled and the 
solid black. The Blacks are the largest of all, and lay 
the largest eggs. They are also considered the most 
hardy. A great fault with many Black Hamburgs is a 
tendency to white on the face. This should never be 
tolerated. The face must be one rich deep red, like the 
wattles, contrasting strikingly with the pure white ear 



56 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 



41 



lobes. We have also seen fowls awarded a premium as 
Black Hamburgs that showed very plainly the carriage 
and form of the Black Spanish. 



a^MES, 



4\ 



Games are generally familiar to everyone, and are by 
many considered the fowls. Even those who rightly dis- 
approve of the pit and its uses, admire a really Dead 
Game Cock, l^o breed can equal them in true symmetry, 
elegance and style, with fearless expression. They are 
light feathered and all muscle. A game fowl will weigh 
much heavier than it appears. Cocks of good size will 
weigh 6J pounds, and hens 5 to SJ pounds. Their flesh 
is unsurpassed, being the finest flavored of any breed of 
fowls. They are excellent layers of fine rich eggs, much 
esteemed. The hens are the very best mothers and will 
faithfully protect their young broods. They are easily 
reared and are undoubtedly a very profitable breed for 
economic purposes — the only drawback for domestic use 
being their fighting qualities. But these latter adding 
so to their beauty and elegance, besides the extra quality 
of their flesh, surely warrant a little extra trouble with 
the young stags. When the young stags are troublesome 
in fighting each other, they can be penned in small coops 
arranged in tiers, and each one left out occasionally in a 
small yard, to exercise. There is always a lively demand 
for pure games, of fine strains at very satisfactory prices, 
and they are consequently one of the most profitable fancy 
breeds. The varieties of Games are numerous, and our 
limited space does not permit a description of each. The 
most prominent are the Black-Breasted Red, Brown- 
Breasted Red, Duckwings, Derby, Piles, Sumatra, White 
and Henny Games. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 57 



FOLISH, 



The Polish Fowls belong to the non-sitting breeds, and 
are excellent layers. Their flesh is yevy line, tender and 
juicy. They are reasonably hardy, if kept free from wet 
and dampness, which they can not stand. They bear 
confinement well, better than any others of the laying 
breeds, and can be bred successfully in very small quar- 
ters. They are very tame. As an ornamental fowl, they 




are 7ie plus ultra,, and, combining as they do so many good 
qualities are excellent for a gentleman's park, while for 
farm use they cannot equal the Leghorns. The general 
form and markings are well depicted in the accompanying 
cut of a Bearded Golden Polish hen, the property of Messrs. 
C. D. Cartwright and Co. The varieties of Polish are the 
White-Crested Black, pure White, Golden, Silver ; the 
three latter being both plain and bearded. 



68 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

ECOTJDi^LlSrS. 

Houdans, with their fine well-formed bodies, covered 
with a beautiful plumage of black and white intermixed, 
pinky legs, and their heads almost hidden by the large 
crest, muffs and beards, and triple antler-like comb, and 
supernumary toe, cannot fail to attract attention every- 
where. They are the best and most hardy of any of the 
French breeds, and are a fine farmer's fowl. They also 
bear confinement well and are easily reared. As a table 
fowl they are well entitled to the cognomen of " The 
French Dorking." They are excellent layers of fine eggs 
of unusually large size. The cocks are very vigorous and 
can serve a large number of hens. The chickens usually 
hatch some hours before their time, and it is a rare oc- 
currence to find an unfertile egg. They are non-sitters. 
Houdans make excellent crosses on common fowls, or the 
Asiatics. 

La Fleche and Crevecoeurs are also French breeds of 
poultry, bred to a small extent in this country, but on 
account of their delicate constitutions are not valued for 
farmer's use. All the French breeds, it is believed, ori- 
ginated from a cross of the Polish and the Crevecoeurs, 
and are in fact a Polish iowl^ to all intents and purposes, 
but increased in size ; the same ancestry is shown by the 
delicate constitution which characterises nearly all the 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 59 

DORKINGH. 

Dorkings are of three colors or styles of markings, 
white, silver-grey and colored, as recognized in the Ame- 
rican standard. But the Standard is exceedingly loose 
in its notice of Colored Dorkings, making no markino*s 
other than uniformity in the birds of one pen requisite. 
One noticeable difference between the White and Grey 
Dorking is that while the former must possess rose combs, 
square in front, firm and close fitting, terminating in a 
|)oint behind ; the latter are generally single combed. 
The Dorking is pre-eminently an English fowl — a very 
old variety— and true to his nature, John Bull has, in 
this fowl, admirably catered to his tastes. For as a table 
fowl, the Dorking is unsurpassed. They are indifferent, 
rather poor layers, but for the table they afford an extra 
portion of very fine meat, especially abundant in the 
parts most esteemed — the breast and wings. The Dork- 
ing is a heavy bodied, well put-up fowl, long broad back 
and close feathered. A cross with the Leghorn would 
make a fine fowl for farm use. 



PLYMOUTH ROCKS. 

Plymouth Rocks are a " made " breed of Xew England 
origin, and they are a production of which American 
breeders may well feel proud. No other breed of poultry 
combine so many excellencies nor can rival them as a 
" farmers' fowls." The irplumage is a plain quaker-like 
attire — the old-fashioned Dominique color. They have 
single combs and bright yellow legs. Little is sacrificed in 
breeding to fancy points. Their value is judged by early 



go THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

maturity, large size, gref>t utility of form and good laying 
qualities. They are good sitters and excellent mothers. 
They mature very early and are fit to market long before 
the Asiatics. As yet they do not breed as true to feather 
as some of the older established breeds, but a constant im- 
provement is being effected. 



American Dominiqiies. 

These fowls are like the Plymouth Eocks in plumage 
and brio-ht yellow legs. But unlike the P. Rocks they 
are an old-established variety, and breed very true to 
color; the cocks, however, are lighter colored than the 
hens. They have neat rose combs, are excellent tal)le 
fowls, good layers, free breeders, very hardy, and one of 
our most valuable breeds for the general farmer. They 
are not quite as large as the Plymouth Rocks. 



BA.ISrTA.MS. 

There are several distinct breeds of Bantams ; the 
Games, Silver and Golden Seabrights and Black African, 
being the most important. All are cultivated almost 
solely as pets, and hence it is not in our province to speak 
of them here. Bantams can, however, be bred in so small 
a yard (five or six feet square,) that they can be kept by 
many who have no better facilities. They also will pro- 
duce as many eggs, although of small size, as larger fowls. 
Nothing can exceed their eggs in delicacy of flavor. Small 
Bantams can be run in the same yard with large Asiatics 
or Plymouth Rocks, without danger of mixing. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 61 



TRADE MAKK. 




PATENTED FEB. ^54, 1875. 

IMPERIAL EGG FOOD. 

The reputation of this article has been so rapiflly increasing for three years, that it is 
now in com HIGH use by the best poultrymen atid farmers throuyihout the country, and is 
kept hir^ely for sale by dealers and agents. We continue to send by mail to any parties 
ordering at the usual prices; 

50 cts. for Trial Packages, $1 for Full-sized Packages 

And our FIVK-POUND BOX by EXPR ESS. freight paid by the purchaser, $2. This gives 
an opportunity for persons to buy the article in localities where the grocer or druggist d'>es 
not have it in stock. We claim for it and have innumerahle testimonials to the fnctthat it 
will Largely increase Eg<j-prodnction, Strengthen^ Weak or Drooping Fowk, Promote the Healthy 
Growth and Development of all varieties of ' Poultry^ insure fine condition and smooth plumage. 
Its effect ow the liver and digestive organs is very marked. The combination of material 
suited to the demanda of Poultry is perfect, doing away with the necessity of providing 
the great variety of food that, without its use, has always been found imi>erativ.>, in order 
to obtain the greatest profit from the flock. A great many honest men who were at first 
! reluctant to give the Egg Food a trial, have become convinced of its value, and oft m write 
I and give us full liberty to refer to them, stating that the small amount of money paid out 
for Kgg Food has been repaid a hundred times by the increased profit of their yards.— 
With the indorsement of gentlemen so well known to the farmer and poulterer as 

j I. K. Felch, Geo. P. Burnham, C. C. Plaisted, 
j S. J. Bestor, H. T. Sperry, Jas. M- Lambing, 

And hosts of others, the fraternity can be assured of its value We will send a circular 
I conli'ining testimonials to any one on application. Liberal prices are given to p^rtieswho 
desir« to sell : and a little time given to it this winter will pay a handsome profit to any 
agent. Full particulars sent on application. 

Egg Food will be furnished at our regular prices by Eobert 
James, Deuver, Colorado; K. E. Sellers & Co., Wholesale 
Druggists, Pittsburgh. Ph.; Beuson & Furpee, Philadelphia, 
Pa.; L. Buiiingame. 36 Dey St, N. Y.; Oscar Foote & Co., 
51 Blackstone St., Boston ; Geo. C. Goodwin & Co , Boston. 

ALLEN & SHERWOOD, Proprietors, 

29 PEARL ST., HARTFORD CONN. 



62 THE POULTRY YARD ; HOW TO 

I^LYMOUTH ROCKS, 

Brown and White Leghorns, Brahmas, Spanish, Games, 
Hamburgs, G. S. Sebright and Game Bantams, etc. 

Can also furnish Choice Fowls of other varieties ; and have on hand 
Ground Bone and Oyster Shell foi- io^ls and land fertilizers. Also, Hand 
Corn ^ hellers. 

Have spared no pains in procuring the best stock from the best Breeders 
in the country, regardless of cost or time. Parties ordering from nie can 
save money and get the very best. Nothing sent C. O. D. Letters promptly 
answered. Send for prices. 

A. VIGNOS, Canton, Ohio. 



J. y^r^ MOKSE, 

Box 125 f Hammonton, JVew Jersey, 

Breeds fine Light and Dark Brahmas and Houdans. Eggs. $3.00 per thirteen. Young 
Stock for snle after Septtmber, at reasonable prices. Satistactiou guaranteed. Positively 
no poor stock bhipped at any price. 

J. W REYNOLDS, - Cuckoo, Va , 
BREEDER OF CHOICE GAME FOWLS. 

Selected from the best strains. Prices reasonable and satisfac- 
tion guaranteed. 



ALFRED H. GRAVES. J, HOWARD BREED. 

GRAVES &; BREED, 

Oak Rid^e and Elmwood Farms, 

HATFIELD, MASS. 

Breeders of the Finest Strains of Poultry. 



The Poultry Yard and Pigeon Loft 

RECEIVE OUR MOST CAREFUL ATTENTION. 

We solicit your orders for Birds or Eggs of any variety 
of PURE-BKED stock. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 63 

Centennial Prerainm' Bronze Turkeys. 

Highest aivard at Centennial Exhibition. 

I have three distinct breeding flocks of Bronze Turkeys, not akin and all 
first premium birds. Young; birds for sale in the fall, bred from the largest 
and finest specimens in this country. 

THOMAS Y. ENGLAND, 

Berlin, Camdeu County, New Jersey. 

ALSO, LIGHT BRAHMA FOWLS. 

Eggs, $3.00 and $5.00 per Thirteau. 

Our Black Bamburgs have taken premiums at the following Poultry 
Exhibitions: — 

The Centennial, Philadelphia October 27th to November (Jtli, 1876 

The Bergen Co., Hackensaek, X. J November 29th to November 8()th, 1876 

The Westchester Co., Mt. Kisco, N. Y., December .5th to December Sth, 1876 

Tlie Central Conn., Bristol, Conn December 20th to December 22d, 1876 

The Maryhmd, Baltimore December 28tli to January ;id, 1877 

The iMassachusetts, Boston January 11th to January i7th, 1877 

The International, Butt'alo, N. Y February 1st to Febrnaiy 8th, 1877 

J. C. & D PENNINGTON, Patterson, N. J 
Breeders of Herd Register Jersey Cattle and Black Hamburg Chickens. 

I^EV. HI. J^. IsTIBITZ, 
READING, PA., 

BREEDER OF 

EXTRA LilGHT BRAHMAS, 

Partridge Cochins, W7iit6 Leghorns and 
Brown Leghorns. Write for Prices, 

T. J. McDANIEL, 
Hollis Centre, Maine, 

BREEDER OF 

Brown Leghorns & Black Breasted Red Games 

(Pit train,) all reared and run at liberty on three separate farms. 

Having bred Brown Leghorns during the past four years, I have 
brought ihem to a high degree of perfection, and guarantee satisfaction 
to all. 



64 THE POULTRY YARD, HOW TO 

Dealer in all kinds of Foreign and Domestic 

Thirds, [Pigeons, Cliickens, Seeds, &c. 

No. 1415 NORTH FOURTH ST., PHILADELPHIA. 

A full stock of Dogs constantly on hand. 

FAIRPORT POULTRY YARDS, 

Fairport, Monroe County, N. Y. 

C. D. CARTWRIGHT & CO., - - Proprietors. 

BREEDERS OF 

GOLD AND SILVER POLISH, 

BOTH PLAIN AND BEARDED. 

GoUlen Polish — 1st Chicago, Utica and Springfield. 18t6. 
Silver Polish — 1st Chicago and Springfield, 18t6. 

T. .A. CLOUD. ]M. D., 
Clifton Fcirins^ Kennett Square, Chester COc, Pa, 

Breeder and Shipper of 

Thoroughbred Ayrshire Cattle and Calves, 

Of all ages and both sexes, from the choicest milking strains of 
blood and imported families. 

Ai^o, thoroughbred Jerseys, Alderney Cattle and 

Calves, of the choicest type of blood and butter families. 

Also, prize-bred Chester White Pigs, all ages, unsur- 
passed, no superiors. [p^^ Send for Price List. 

s. s: A.I^:F':E]I^, 

Ridley Park. Delaware County, Pa., 

BREtDER OF FANCY PIGEONS, 

Carriers, l^arbs, Owls, Turbits, Antwerps, But^onheads and 
Inside Tumblers. Also, SETTER DOGS. 

Thp pointB of the stock I breed from : From the eye to the tip of the nose, S% inches ; 
from tip of the nose to back of the skull. 10 inches ; across the ears and skull, from tip to 
tip of pars, 20 inches; aronnd the chest, 28 inches, and stand 24 inches high at the shoulders. 
Very heavy feathered to the ends of ears, and the body and legs also. I have had over 
30 years experience in breeding S«tt«r Dogs, and training and shootiug over them. 



FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. 65 

JAMES M. LAMBING, 

PARKER'S LANDING, PA., 

BREEDER OF 

Plymouth jRocks, 

BROWN AND WHITE lEGHOaNSt 



AND 



{MA MiMil.w 



B. B. R. Game Bantams 

and Blade African Bantams, 

Circular and List of Breeding Yards 

Free to any address. Descriptive Catalogue, &c., 15 cts. 



66 



THE POULTRY YARD 



WARRANTED PURE. 

NOT MALAY CROSSES. 

Send stamp for Descriptive List of Strains, Prices, &c. 

W . H XJ IV T , 

Breeding Farm, North East, Md. 

H. BRDMANN, 

39 North Ninth St., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



^f 1st a 



gFmT©F( 



A Specialty made of Delineating and Engraving 
oice Fowls and I 
at reasonable prices. 



Choice Fowls and Pigeons. Cuts Drawn from Life 



THE INFALLIBLE 

S H fi ^ " 



Effectually destroys every species of Insects. A superior 
quality of strictly 

FURE PERSIAN. 

Price, 25 cts. a box, postpaid; 5 Boxes for $1, 

Directions accompany each box. Liberal terms to Agents. 

W. ATLEE BUllPEE, 

223 Church Street, Philadelphia. 



G. S. BENSON, JR. W. ATLEE BURPEE. 



BEIsTSOISr & BURFEE, 

Successors to W ATLEE BUKPEE, ' 
Breeders and Shippers of 

THOROUGHBRED LIVE STOCK 

Alderney, Ayrshire and Shorthorn Cattle and Calves. 



Cotswold Sheep. — We are breeding from the grand imported Ram, "Swanwick's Prize 
Royal," (weight 382 lbs.,) and winner of 2d prize Royal, and 1st prize at Cirencester, Eng. 

Southdowns, bred to our fine imported Ram, "Lord- Walsingham." See cuts of these 
rams in our new Live Stock Catalogue., 

Chester White Jfigs, of all ages, always for sale. 

Berkshire fiffs of the finest blood in England, including imported animals of the 
most fashionable strains. The Collier, imported 1876, winner of six high honors, first 
prizes and Centennial medal. 

Yorkshire Pigs of the finest importations. Perfect beauties. Pedigrees, &e., sent 
to purchasers. 

Poland China and Essex Figs, as fine as any in America. 

HIOH Glass UNO a WaXEB FOWLS. 



We make the breeding of Fancy Poultry a specialty. Brown and White Leghorns, 
Brahmas, Cochins, Plymouth Rocks, American Domiuiques, Games, Hamburgs, Polish and 
Bantams, Pekin and all other Ducks. Turkeys and Geese in variety. We breed our fowls 
on separate farms. FANCY PIGEONS in variety. Every fancier should send 50 cents for 
the "Pigeon Loft," We have added this year for new blood, 38 imported and English 
prize-winning birds. We exhibited 60 coops at the Centennial, and were awarded TWELVE 
PRIZE MEDALS for superior excellence in Fowls, Turkeys, Geese, Ducks, and Fancy 
Pigeons. FOWLS and EGGS FOR SALE. Elegant New Catalogue, 20 cents. 

Our Annual Catalogue of Reliable Garden, Fit-Id and Flower Seeds and Nursery stock, 
and circulars of Live Stock and Poultry free to all. 

BENSON & BURPEE, 
Seed Warehouse, 

223 Church St., Philadelphia. 



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Breeding and Management of Pigeons, 

PRICE, 50 CENTS, POSTPAID. 

Address, W. ATLEE BURPEE, 

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HOW TO FURNISH AND MANAGE IT. I 



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