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Winter 2020 


FHWA's cooperative driving automation 
program is transforming transportation. 



U.S. Department Recovering From Hurricane Maria 

Rela Scenes Also in this issue: | Advancing TSMO Strategies 

Administration FHWA Puts Focus on Technology 







Reaching New Heights 
by Hoda Azari, Dennis 0’Shea, and Derek Constable 
During a 2-year study, FHWA took a closer look at the state of 
practice for unmanned aircraft systems use in bridge inspections. 

Coming Back from Disaster 
by Fernando ortiz 
After the most devastating hurticane to hit Puerto Rico in recent 
history, FHWA helped the island recover. 

Mainstreaming Transportation Systems Management and 
by Tracy Scriba, Aaron Jette, and Pepper Santalucia 
The current (and future) traveler demands improved reliability and 
efficiency. Is your TSMO program ready to deliver? 

Showcasing Highway Research 
by Kelley McKinley 
FHWA recently put its work on display at an inaugural event to 
highlight innovative technologies. 

What Does the Changing Face of Electricity Production Mean 
for Concrete? 
by Saif Al-Shmaisani and Maria Juenger 
With coal production on the decline, the concrete industry is looking 
for alternatives to the use of coal fly ash in concrete mixtures. 

CARMA”: Driving Innovation 
by Taylor Lochrane, Laura Dailey, and Corrina Tucker 
FHWA’s cooperative driving automation program is transforming 

Saluting 50 Years of Transportation Training 

by Stan Woronick and Christine Kemker 
FHWA’s National Highway Institute celebrates its golden anniversary 
in 2020. 

CARMA™: Driving Innovation | pace 28 

| oO) \ |) Ss Winter 2020 | Vol. 83, No. 4 

@ Ryan DeBerardinis / 


GUOStIEGItOniC rece cacsiscsescsecrssveotecssestrsss 1 
Innovation Corner 

Along the Road . 

TCU WOO ie, ssscccstsesonrsrcssssurescrsorevsosones 40 
Communication Product Updates ............. 42 

COVERS—Some of FHWA’s vehicles are equipped with Cooperative 
Automation Research Mobility Applications, or CARMA. Passenger 
vehicles, like the ones shown, are designed to communicate with 
each other, roadways, infrastructure, and other vehicles to enable 
cooperative driving automation. The vehicles pictured are equipped 
with the latest version, CARMA3, which is now called CARMA™. See 
“CARMA™: Driving Innovation” on page 28 of this issue of Public 

Source: FHWA, 


U.S. Department of Transportation 
Federal Highway Administration 
U.S. Department of Transportation 

Elaine L. Chao, Secretary 

Federal Highway Administration 

Nicole R. Nason, Administrator 

Office of Research, Development, and Technology 
David Winter, Acting Associate Administrator 

Shana Baker, Director, Office of Corporate 
Research, Technology, and Innovation Management 

Maria Romstedt, Editor-in-Chief 
Lisa A. Shuler, Distribution Manager 

Editorial Board: 

T. Everett, T. Hess, H. Kalla, M. Knopp, 

A. Lucero, G. Shepherd, C. Walker, D. Winter 
Editorial Contractor: 

Arch Street Communications (ASC), 

Publication Management 
N. Madonick, A. Jacobi, A. Martinez, 

Collaborating for the 

Future of Transportation 

utomated vehicle technology holds the 
A promise of improving safety and has the 
potential to transform the Nation’s roadways. A 
key driver for its success is collaboration. 
Automation provides an opportunity for the US. 
Department of Transportation, State and local 
leaders, and industry stakeholders to partner in 
new ways to prepare communities and toad users 
for the future of transportation. 
While the industry explores and tests the 
benefits of automated vehicle technology, the 
Federal Highway Administration is helping to 
facilitate collaboration and equip the owners and 
operators of roadways with information to make 


K. Vangani, C. Ibarra decisions that will improve safety and mobility for all road users. FHWA is well 
Editorial Subcontractor: positioned to serve the highway community in this capacity because it works closely 
ICF, Editorial with transportation agencies in every State, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. 
C. Boris, A. Sindlinger, J. Sullivan FHWA plays a key role in providing technical expertise and funding opportunities. In 

Design Contractor: addition. 
Schatz Strategy Group, Layout and Design 
R. Nemec, L. Sohl, C. Williams 

the agency promotes the exchange of noteworthy practices and data to 
enhance knowledge on adopting and implementing automated vehicle technologies. 
In 2018, FHWA launched a series of listening sessions with key transportation 
Public Roads (ISSN 0033-3735; USPS 516-690) stakeholders and innovators in six cities to gather information and to have a better 
ESipub is ied varied bythe oulice atineseatey understanding of the technologies’ implications for the transportation system. The 
Development, and Technology, Federal Highway ape Sere e . , . oe 
Administration (FHWA), 6300 Georgetown Pike, goals of this National Dialogue on Highway Automation were to encourage collabora- 
McLean, VA 22101-2296. The business and editorial tion and information-sharing and to receive input to inform FHWA actions. The 
office of Public Roads is located at the McLean address ee s A G Pere Te i 
sions a a ! a s ata a - 
Aiea Ukigyts AACE) EEN, eve URLECS SS sessions focused on planning and policy, digital infrastructure and data, freight, opera 
Email: Periodicals postage tions, and infrastructure design and safety. Using input from the National Dialogue, 
pag aD VA, and additional mailing offices FHWA is developing tesources to support the safe and efficient integration of auto- 
Male 2 mated driving systems. For more information, see “Mainstreaming Transportation 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to — M: 5 i tand O : ” : 11 in this i f P, blie Roads 
Public Roads, HRTM-20, FHWA, ystems Management and Operations” on page 11 in this issue of Public Roads. 
6300 Georgetown Pike, McLean, VA 22101-2296 FHWA is also facilitating collaboration in research among diverse stakeholders 
Public Roads is sold by the Superintendent interested in cooperative driving automation applications. Cooperative Automation 
of Pociments) U5 Government banting Research Mobility Applications, or CARMA, is an open-source software platform that 
Office, Washington, DC 20402. Requests for bs : if 7 a . ¢ F a ‘ 
subscriptions should be sent directly to New is available to help advance and refine the communications technology used with 
Orders, Superintendent of Documents, P.O. Box automated vehicles. CARMA aims to accelerate an understanding of the safety and 
SHA oie) i eats IGEN este 2Ieleo Sleeter tos operational benefits of cooperative driving automation by testing new automation 
are available for 1-year periods. Paid subscribers Bes eg etn ve . foie oy € ace : 
should send change of address notices to the features. This initiative is providing the research community opportunities to cultivate 
U.S. Government Printing Office, Claims Office, relationships, share expertise, pilot transportation technologies, implement cooperative 
Washington, DC 20402. 8 A ‘ . 4 i 
driving automation, and strengthen the transportation industry for public benefit. For 
The electronic version of Public Roads can be accessed fe nk ti «C ARMAS”: Driving I vation” ees 28 
ae nen arriertca ane ante iRsenenGan more information, see “CARMA™: Driving Innovation” on page 28. 
home page ( Important to these efforts is the multimodal approach USDOT takes under 
The Secretary of Transportation has determined that Secretary Elaine L. Chao’s leadership. For example, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety 
tie publica tiomotithis periodical shecessalyinitie Administration is a close partner in FHWA’s research to advance truck platooning 
transaction of the public business required by law of lications. ‘Thés licadionssexpl c d k freight deli its 
this department. applications. } hese app: ications explore safe, automated truck freight delivery and its 
implications for traffic patterns. Another example is FHWA’s collaboration with the 
Federal Transit Administration to improve safety, access, and mobility for underserved 
populations, including rural communities and people with disabilities, through research 
coordination and the development of the Complete Trips Deployment Program. This 
program enables communities to plan and showcase deployments that apply technology 
and emerging mobility services to expand access and mobility for all. 
To fulfill the promise that automated vehicle technology holds for the future state of 
transportation, it is incumbent upon transportation leaders and innovators to work 
together at all levels. FHWA stands ready to do our part. 


All articles are advisory or informational in nature and 
should not be construed as having regulatory effect. 
Articles written by private individuals contain the 
personal views of the author and do not necessarily 
reflect those of FHWA. 

All photographs are provided by FHWA unless 
otherwise credited. 

Contents of this publication may be reprinted, provided 
credit is given to Public Roads and the authors. 

For more information, representatives of the news 
media should contact FHWA's Office of Public Affairs 
at 202-366-0660. 

Mala Parker 
NOTICE Deputy Administrator 
The United States Government does not Federal Highway Administration 
endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or 8 2 aha 
manufacturers’ names appear herein solely 
because they are considered essential to 
the article. 



From the Center for Transportation Workforce Development: 

he number of projected job openings in transportation fields 

continues to outpace the number of people completing 
transportation-telated education and training programs, and 
a shortage of skilled workers presents a growing concern for 
the industry. 
When Karen Bobo became the director of the Center for 
Transportation Workforce Development (CTWD) within the Fed- 
eral Highway Administration’s Office of Innovative Program Deli- 
very (OIPD) in May 2019, she knew the workforce challenges she 
would be facing. Over her 29-year career with FHWA, Bobo has 
been involved in recruitment and mentoring. “As a participant in 
the Highway Engineer Training Program and then as the program 
coordinator, I was coaching and mentoring from the very begin- 
ning of my career,” says Bobo. 
Bobo has held positions in several FHWA division offices, 
the Office of Federal Lands Highway, and the Office of Human 
Resources. “Every job I’ve had, I have stayed involved in recruit- 
ment, coaching peers and students, and talking to the industry,” 
she says. 
Bobo and her team are defining CTWD’s plans to deliver 
initiatives that build awareness of transportation careers and 
improve the development, capability, and diversity of the Nation’s 
transportation workforce. From primary school to professional 
development, the center provides program support, technical 
assistance, and workforce development activities in partnership 
with Federal, State, and local partners; industry organizations; and 
education providers. 


Women, African Americans, and Native Americans have been 
historically underrepresented in the U.S. transportation industry. 
Because of the potential for growth, many CTWD programs 
emphasize teaching these groups. 

One example is the Garrett A. Morgan Technology and Trans- 
portation Education Program. CTWD aims to transform the pro- 
gram, which provides grants to State and local education agencies 
to develop and deliver K—12 transportation-related curricula with 
an emphasis on underrepresented groups. 

“We're doing a lot of planning and looking at how we can inte- 
grate the Garrett Morgan program into other workforce develop- 
ment efforts,” Bobo says. “Our goal is to reinvigorate it and ensure 
it is doing what it is designed to do.” 

Bobo’s vision is to integrate workforce development into edu- 
cation, especially middle school through adult practitioners. That 
means educating students as well as school professionals on trans- 
portation career opportunities. CTWD will also work with the U.S. 
Department of Education to identify collaboration opportunities. 


Partnerships are a cornerstone for reaching CTWD’s goals. 
The center’s approach to partnerships includes improving col- 
laboration with the other centers in OIPD, State departments of 


Karen Bobo, director of the Center for Transportation Workforce Development, 
is inside a historic toll plaza office during a visit to the I-74 Mississippi River 
Bridge project. 

Source: FHWA. 

transportation, national transportation organizations, and other 
Federal agencies. 

One of the center’s goals is to expand the Highway Con- 
struction Workforce Pilot, which included 12 partners. The 
program will now be called the Highway Construction Workforce 
Partnership. The partnership program aims to establish relation- 
ships between highway construction contractors in need of key 
skill sets (the demand) and the workforce system that identifies 
qualified applicants (the supply). 

“We're working to make sure the partnership program meets 
the needs of all organizations through webinars, educational 
pieces, and peer exchanges,” says Bobo. “We're aiming to expand 
from the 12 pilot partners to having a partnership in all States.” 

“If we don’t have workers, infrastructure projects won’t get 
completed,” she says. “Infrastructure will fail to meet the demands 
of travelers, and our transportation network will no longer serve 
the public. We’re working hard to make sure that possibility does 
not become a reality.” 

MARIA ROMSTEDT is the Publication Manager at FHWA\'s Turner-Fairbank 
Highway Research Center and serves as the Editor-in-Chief of Public Roads. 

A special thematic issue of 



Coming in Spring 2020 

The face of transportation is changing, and the Spring 2020 issue of Public Roads will highlight examples 
of significant contributions by women to the industry. 

+ Meet women who are using their talents to further FHWA’s mission. 

* Discover the ways women are contributing to FHWA's initiatives and technologies. 

* Be inspired by how FHWA and its partners are encouraging the next generation of young women 

to pursue careers in transportation. 

DON'T MISS THIS ISSUE! Sign up for the electronic version of Public Roads at 




~ alla 
Source: iStock - 

Seeking Innovative Solutions to the Nation's Transportation Challenges 

The U.S. Department of Transportation's highly competitive Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) 
program awards contracts to domestic small businesses to address research challenges from across 
the Department's modal agencies. The fiscal year 2020 solicitation provides new opportunities to 
conduct research and capitalize on potential for commercialization while supporting topics in safety, 

HTahigcKsidabroidl asym gate] clare) cem-lUicolaat-id(elame-latemantelacy 

Visit the Department's SBIR website at to: 

* Learn more about the solicitation and research topics. 

* Engage with the Department through public meetings and online forums. 
* Learn about 2020's new solicitation format and schedule. 

* Sign up to receive notifications about the program. 


U.S. Department 

POWERED BY DOT of Transportation 


During a 2-year study, FHWA took a closer look at the state of the practice 

for using unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for bridge inspections. 

Bie inspectors may need to use several 
access methods and tools to adequately 
meet the objectives of a bridge inspection 
in accordance with governing National 
Bridge Inspection Standards (NBIS). How- 
ever, some of these access methods, such 
as an under-bridge inspection truck (UBIT), 
can be costly to operate because the equip- 
ment is expensive to maintain and run and 
disruptive to traffic because it requires lane 
closures. Using an unmanned aircraft sys- 
tem (UAS) can be a cost-effective solution 
to obtaining stand-alone, high-quality visual 
inspection data, or to supplement standard 
inspection methods and equipment. Some 
UASs can also improve inspector safety 
and enable examination of areas that are 
difficult to access. 

UASs can produce live streaming video, 
providing opportunity for the inspector 
to inspect while remaining on the ground. 
If inspectors identify deterioration in 
UAS images, they can then decide wheth- 
er to perform a physical inspection to 
determine the severity and extent of the 
deterioration. Using UAS in this manner 
can provide more efficient use of standard 
access equipment and physical inspection 
techniques for assessing deterioration, in 
addition to increasing safety. 

In an ongoing study, the Federal High- 
way Administration is conducting research 
to identify types of sensors used in UASs; 
quantity and quality level of data needed 
to perform satisfactory inspection using 
UASs; best practice guidelines for efficient 
and reliable use of the sensors; and guid- 
ance on how the collected data should be 
assessed, presented, and stored to provide 
reliable and actionable information to 
ownets to support data-driven deci- 
sions. This research study also identifies 
the minimum requirements of sensors 
to provide comparable information as 
other visual inspection techniques. 

“We felt it was very important to 
take a closer look at how State de- 
partments of transportation are using 
unmanned aircraft systems for bridge 
inspections because of the potential 
benefits of this technology,” says 
FHWA Executive Director Thom- 
as Everett. “UASs are proving to be 
incredibly useful to bridge inspection 
staff to supplement inspection prac- 

FHWA expects to conclude the 
research project in March 2020, What 
follows ate key findings of the research 
to date. 

‘he condition of bridges 

Components of a UAS 

A UAS for bridge inspection includes 

the unmanned aircraft, control station, 
sensors, and pilot. A certified pilot is 

the most important piece of the system, 
controlling and flying the aircraft in a safe 
and professional manner. While not always 
a requirement, a visual observer can aid in 


‘Communication and 
Navigation Links 

| Ground Control Station 

The major components of an unmanned aircraft 
system are the unmanned aerial vehicle, the pilot and 
observer, the sensor, the ground control station, and 
the communication and navigation links. 

@ Futron Aviation. 



Inspectors can see irregularities on the bridge deck in this optical image taken by a UAS. The photo quality 
is sufficient to enlarge areas of interest, as shown on the right-hand side of the photo. 

© ARE/AirShark, 

hes | 

37.1¢ / 

98.8 F 

This infrared thermography image shows possible bridge deck delamination. The yellow and orange areas 
shown above in the IR map (labeled with circles), indicate possible delaminations. 

@ Minnesota Department of Transportation. 

scanning the sky to ensure safe flight while 
the pilot concentrates on the operation 
of the aircraft. As required by Federal 
law for all bridge inspections, an inspec- 
tion team leader must be on site during 
the inspection. 

Optical cameras, infrared cameras, 
and LiDAR (light detection and ranging) 
systems are the most common types of 
sensors used. Depending on the tasks, an 


WINTER 2020 

inspector can determine the appropria 
types of UAS platform and sensor types. 
Optical sensors capture the imagery data 
(video as well as still images), which enable 
inspectors to see deficiencies in an up-close 
ot magnified manner without having to 
physically access the specific area on the 
bridge. UAS-captured high-resolution 
images may reveal defects missed using 
distant visual inspection techniques. 

Example of a LiDAR point cloud of San Francisco 
Bay and the Golden Gate Bridge in California. 

Source: Jason § 

High-resolution imagery can also serve 
other purposes, from providing a record of 
surface defects to measuring and tracking 
some types of defects over time. 

Infrared thermography (IR) sensors can 
detect areas of deterioration in concrete 
by identifying and viewing temperature 
gradients. Demonstrations have shown the 
areas of bridge deck delamination iden- 
tified using IR sensors correspond well 
to the areas discovered using traditional 
sounding techniques. 
LiDAR sensors actively emit pulses 
of light—up to hundreds of thousand 
of returns per second—to accurately 
measure the distance between the sensor 


and a target object. The main advantages 
of LiDAR over photogrammetry are the 
ability to penetrate vegetation with multiple 
returns, faster imagery processing times, 
and improved capabilities to resolve fine 
features. Inspectors can use a LiDAR point 
cloud to create a three-dimensional (3D) 
model of the bridge. 

Employing a UAS sensor is beyond 
simply manipulating the aircraft controls 
and pointing the sensor at a location. 

To adequately capture the quality v 
information required, personnel must also 
understand the basics as well as some of 
the more advanced principals of photog- 
raphy. An understanding of the individual 
camera’s available settings helps to maxi- 
mize effectiveness. 

What UAS Can Do 

Typically, bridges that present challenges to 
gaining access to all parts of the structure 
for a comprehensive inspection are good 
candidates for UAS augmentation. For 
example, on a bridge with an excessively 
wide sidewalk or tall pedestrian barrier, 

a UBIT would be limited to access from 
one side only. A more typical case is a wide 
bridge where the center is not accessible 


from a UBIT even when used from both 
sides. In this case, a UAS could provide 
imagery from both sides of the bridge. 
Some State DOTs have conducted 
research studies or implemented programs 
employing UASs for bridge inspections 
to detect certain types of bridge defects. 
Their efforts have successfully identified 
bridge defects and collected information 
important to the bridge planning pro- 
cess. Bridge engineers also have used the 
imagery captured during bridge inspections 
to create accurate two-dimensional and 
3D models of a bridge for analytical and 
planning purposes. State DOT efforts have 
shown that UASs can enhance traffic safety 

Michigan Oregon 
x x x 
Xx Xx 
x x 
x? x x 
x x 

Concrete cracks x 
Missing fasteners x 
Rust x 
Peeling paint 
Delamination (using IR sensor) x 
Spalling x 
Stress cracks (wood) x 
Vegetation/debris x 
Efflorescence x 
Corrosion x 
"Concrete wear x 
Fatigue crack (weld) 
Paint condition x 
Galvanizing condition 
_ Previous repairs x 
| 1, This column lists the results of two studies conducted in Florida in 2015 and in 2018. 

2. The Minnesota results are from a three-phase study that was conducted from 2015 to 2018. 
| 3. The delamination the Idaho team identified was simulated in lab conditions. 

for the public and safety for the inspection 
team in many cases. For example, during 
a 2018 study performed by the Minnesota 
Department of Transportation (MnDOT), 
contractors flying a collision-tolerant UAS 
captured imagery inside an enclosed steel 
atch. Using this type of UAS inside the 
bridge structure eliminated the need for 
personnel to enter the potentially danger- 
ous confined space. (Entering a confined 
space requires specific training for mem- 
bers of the inspection team, and requires 
the receipt of entry permits in accordance 
with current safety regulations and prac- 
tices.) MnDOT reported a potential 66 
percent cost savings using UAS com- 
pared to traditional methods in 2017 and 
an average cost savings of 40 percent for 
the case studies reviewed in 2018. 
Identifying which aspects of a bridge 
inspection are best suited for a UAS 
according to the needs of State DOTs 
is useful in determining efficient use. 

For more information on UAS appli- 
cation in transportation, see “Ready for 
Takeoff” in the Winter 2018 issue of 
Public Roads. 

Limitations of UASs 

UASs can provide many advantages to a 
bridge inspector. However, they currently 
cannot replace a person where tactile or 
other contact inspection methods are 
necessary or required. For example, inspec- 
tors cannot employ only UAS for fracture 
critical member inspections because of 

the FHWA requirement for using hands- 

Inventory Condition rating 

Geometric Data 4 Deck 

Structure Type 
and Inventory 


Structural Evaluation 

Deck Geometry 4 

on inspection techniques. The reason is 
because today’s cameras and sensors still 
have limited capability to see through 
dirt, debris, and corrosion that may hide 
critical defects. 

“Tn no way should a UAS be considered 
a complete solution that will solve all user 
needs,” says Cheryl Richter, director of 
the Office of Infrastructure Research and 
Development at FHWA. “Tt is a tool that 
may bring efficiencies in time, cost, and 
safety [of the] bridge inspection process 
when successfully employed.” 

UAS operators in both the public and 
private sectors must adhere to the statu- 
tory and regulatory requirements issued 
by the Federal Aviation Administration 
(FAA). Public aircraft operations (including 
UAS operations) are governed under the 
statutory requirements for public aircraft 
established in 49 United States Code 
(US.C,) § 40102 and § 40125. In addition, 
both public and civil UAS operators may 
operate under the regulations promulgated 
by the FAA, The provisions of 14 Code 
of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 107 
apply to most operations of UAS weigh- 
ing less than 55 pounds (24.9 kilograms). 
Operators of UASs weighing greater than 
55 pounds may request exemptions to the 
airworthiness requirements of 14 CFR 
part 91 pursuant to 49 U.S.C. §44807. UAS 
operators should also be aware of the 
requirements of the airspace in which they 
wish to fly. The FAA provides extensive 
resources and information to help guide 
UAS operators in determining which laws, 
rules, and regulations apply to a UAS 
operation. For more information, visit 


Appraisal Items 



5 Navigation Data 3 Substructure Under-Clearances 4 Damage 
The Oregon Department of Transpor- 9 ws n 9 
tation (ODOT) identifies major bridge Age and Service 2 coe and Channel Spero Ramey 4 In-depth 

: : 4 rotectio! men 
reporting categories and applies a scale EISREeE m 9 F 
of 1 to 4 to rate the usefulness of a UAS improvements 2 Culvert Waterway Adequacy 3 Fracture Critical 2 iz 
for providing inspection information, Traffic Safety — 
Identification 1 3. Underwater if 

ODOT also evaluates how useful a UAS Features a 

is in conducting various types of inspec- 
tions. They identified a monetary savings 
of around $10,000 per bridge and a 

10 percent savings in personnel time per 
project compared to inspections done 
without UAS. 

Classification 1 Scour Critical Bridges 

Load Rating 
and Posting 



Analyzing and Storing Data 
When employing a UAS during bridge 
inspections, inspectors capture large 
amounts of data that requite stor- 

age, post-processing, analysis, and 
dissemination. For most UASs, the 
imagery and data captured during 

a flight is stored on a removable media 
storage device, such as a secure digital 
(SD) memory card, integrated into the 
aircraft platform. The files stored on the 
SD card are a variety of common file types 
that are accessible by media-viewing and 
post-processing software. 

Inspectors process the captured and 
stored data into different products to 
supplement inspection documentation, 
better inform decisionmakers regarding the 
structures, and improve future inspection 
planning, Common information products 
include images, video, 3D models, and sur- 
face models. Bridge engineers can use UAS 
imagery of the entire structure to create 
bridge “plans” for bridges that do not have 
records of the original structural draw- 
ings. Also, inspectors can use this visual 
information, and the associated geographic 
position information related to the images, 
to update the structure inspection records, 
identify and assess new deficiencies, track 
the extent of specific defects over several 
inspections, and update bridge repair 

In general, an inspector will use the 
standard inspection report format that 
complies with the NBIS, supports report- 
ing data to the National Bridge Inventory, 
and satisfies State DOT policies and 
standards. When using a UAS to supple- 
ment an inspection, the inspector will 
select the imagery captured by the UAS 
sensor to include in the report. Thus, 
using a UAS for inspection purposes 
should not generate additional paperwork 
but the information and defects found in 
the images should be documented in the 
inspection notes and element condition 
data, as applicable. 

“Data management can be the most 
challenging aspect of using a UAS,” says 
Joey Hartmann, director of the Office 
of Bridges and Structures with FHWA. 
“The substantial amount of data collected 
requires an appropriate data management 
plan to ensure the inspectors capturing 
the data have (1) a standard approach for 
collecting and transferring the data, (2) a 
known and secure location and structure 
for storing and retrieving the data, and (3) 
a well understood process for sharing the 
data and inspection products generated 


ollected wi 

© Minnesota Department of Transportation. 

by the UAS.” 

Cataloguing is the process of creat- 

ing a directory of stored imagery files. 

It includes identifying where the data 

are located, identifying the types of data 
stored, establishing a process for version 
control, and instituting file naming conven- 
tions to which all users will adhere. A more 
advanced method of cataloging images is 
using a photogrammetric 3D model of the 
bridge, which requires creating a photo- 
grammetric point cloud. This method is an 
alternative that enables all the inspection 
images for the bridge to be stored as a 3D 
model. Inspectors can select the bridge 
section of interest on the model (that is, 
where a defect exists) to view the image 
for analysis. 

MnDOT tested this 3D modeling 
method to catalogue images. It enabled 
MnDOT inspectors to click on a point in 
the model and view images at that point to 
view defects. This can reduce the need for 
a manual photolog because the photogram- 
metry software will locate the image on 
the structure. 

Future Advancements 

As more bridge owners and inspectors 
incorporate UASs into their processes, 
the technologies available to improve 
inspections will continue to advance. For 
example, first-person view (FPV) devices 
or goggles are a relatively recent entry to 
the bridge inspection process. FPV gives 
the user a unique perspective from which 
to wirelessly view imagery and contro! 
the camera. Some FPV systems provide 
high-definition 1080p video and enable the 
user to control the sensor in real time with 
head movements. The image presented 
equates to looking at an 18-foot (5.5-meter) 
high-definition television from about 9 feet 
(3 meters) away. Some FPV systems also 
provide inspectors with the ability to dig- 
itally magnify the image, making it appear 
significantly closer and allowing a bridge 

inspector to see hairline cracks in 
the structure. For more information 
on FPV goggles for bridge inspec- 
tors, see “A New View for Bridge 
Inspectors” in the Summer 2018 
issue of Public Roads. 

Artificial intelligence (AI) is 
another technological advancement that 
inspectors may choose to incorporate 
into the UAS. AI can enable the system 
to navigate independently without human 
input throughout the structure (other than 
instructing the aircraft when and where it is 
supposed to fly and overriding the system 
in the event of a malfunction or signal 
loss). Flying the UAS in the same flight 
paths using AI can enhance the identifi- 
cation and tracking of defects over time. 
Inspectors could also use AI to collect and 
analyze many infrastructure images. 

The speed of technological advances 
and improvements in the integration of 
new technologies is impacting bridge 
inspection. More and more bridge owners 
are employing UAS and exploring new 
ways to integrate UAS within established 
guidelines. FHWA is moving forward 
in partnership with those in the field to 
find efficiencies in inspection methods, 
reduce the cost of conducting inspections, 
enhance the comprehensiveness and quality 
of collected data, and improve the safety 
of inspection teams by using UAS, all 
while assuring the Nation’s bridges are safe 
for travelers. 

HODA AZARI is the manager of the Nondestructive 
Evaluation (NDE) Research Program and NDE 
Laboratory at FHWA‘s Turner-Fairbank Highway 
Research Center. She holds a Ph.D. in civil engi- 
neering from the University of Texas at El Paso. 

DENNIS 0’SHEA is FHWA's senior bridge safety 
engineer for the North region. He serves as a 
technical resource for the National Bridge Inven- 
tory and National Tunnel Inventory programs for 
13 FHWA division offices in the Northeast. He has 
aBS. in civil engineering from the University of 
South Alabama and is a licensed professional 
engineer in Delaware and Pennsylvania. 

DEREK CONSTABLE is a bridge management 
engineer with the FHWA Office of Bridges and 
Structures. He holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in 
civil engineering from The Cooper Union for the 
Advancement of Science and Art. 

For more information, contact Hoda Azati 
at 202-493-3064 or 

tlantic hurricane season begins on June 1 each year and lasts 

through November 30, In 2017, a historic series of hurticanes 
tore through the Caribbean, including two that made direct hits 
on US. territories that are home to approximately 3.3 million US. 

On September 6, Hurricane Irma struck the U.S. Virgin Islands 
with recorded winds of 105 miles per hour (170 kilometers per 
hour). And on September 17—although landfall for the slowly 
moving storm would not occur until September 20—Hurricane 
Maria began to pummel Puerto Rico with winds that would reach 
up to an estimated 155 miles per hour (250 kilometers per hour). 
Meteorologists have no land-based records of Maria’s maximum 
winds on Puerto Rico because the storm damaged the island’s 
wind sensors, designed to withstand winds of 135 miles per hour 
(220 kilometers per hour), before making landfall. 

“After surviving two Category 5 hurricanes within 2 weeks, 
Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands were changed forever,” 
says Michael Avery, the associate division administrator of FHWA’s 
Puerto Rico and US. Virgin Islands Division. 

To an area still reeling from the aftermath of Hurricane Irma, 
Hurricane Maria caused about $90 billion in damages, making it 


po TAN a be 
. ys 

After the most devastating hurricane to hit Puerto Rico 
in recent history, FHWA helped the island recover. 

the third costliest hurricane in U.S. history behind Harvey and 
Katrina. The total included more than $575 million in damage 
to federally eligible roads and bridges in Puerto Rico. The island 
suffered a total loss of power, and in some places, electricity was 
not restored for a year. 

The damage literally hit home for the Federal Highway Admin- 
istration. With power and communications down across the terri- 
tory, buildings and bridges destroyed, and roads impassable, some 
employees of FHWA’s local division office could not be located 
for more than a week following landfall. Those that could began 
reporting to their workplace the day after the disaster, beginning 
the agency’s immediate emergency response. 

The day after Hurricane Maria made landfall, Puerto Rico was a 
different island. The storm destroyed the communication system, 
including cellphone towers, making contact among families as well 
as emergency responders nearly impossible. The damage to the 
power grid seriously curtailed the operation of gas stations, and in 
the days following, waiting lines of 8 hours to get gas were normal. 
Officials reported more than 6,000 separate incidents on heavily 
damaged transportation infrastructure, including 388 on bridges 
and 400 related to landslides caused by the extreme rainfall. Nearly 
20 percent of Puerto Rico’s bridges were damaged, including 26 
that collapsed completely, 
Despite destruction, damage, injury, and death, residents rallied 
to help one another. Michael Figueroa, a transportation finance 
manager with FHWA’s Puerto Rico and US. Virgin Islands Divi- 
sion, was one of the first employees to arrive at the Division’s San 
Juan office. 

INSET: Hurricane Maria devastated Puerto Rico when it hit the island in September 
2017, destroying many bridges and roads. High winds and heavy rain caused major 
damage to this bridge on PR-111 in Moca, Puerto Rico. 

BACKGROUND: Emergency relief work included reconstruction of the PR-111 bridge, 
shown here after completed repairs. 
Sources: FHWA. 

Hurricane Maria destroyed roads such as this one near Naguabo, Puerto Rico. 
Source: FHWA. 

“Soon I could make out the sound of heavy equipment and 
chainsaws,” Figueroa says, describing the scene in his neighbor- 
hood. “[It was] the rush of volunteers scrambling to move debris 
from the roads to clear a path to the highway. The community was 
taking a stand.” 

Along with Figueroa, several employees managed to get to the 
division office in San Juan the day after the hurricane to assess the 
destruction, which included extensive water damage to files and 
computers. It took more than a week to locate and account for 
every FHWA employee—thankfully, all were safe. 

While dealing with its own recovery efforts, FHWA responded 
quickly to the island’s catastrophe. 

“We provided the Puerto Rico Highways and Transportation 
Authority with immediate guidance on emergency-related topics 
and worked side by side throughout the first critical days,” says 
Avery, the division’s associate administrator. 

One of the immediate needs of the Puerto Rico government 
was funding, and FHWA provided more than $40 million in quick 
release Emergency Relief funds within 10 days of the event. The 
agency released additional Emergency Relief funds in the months 
following the hurricane as recovery efforts continued. 

On September 18, before the hurricane even made landfall 
on Puerto Rico, President Donald J. Trump declared a state of 
emergency in the territory already suffering from the approaching 
storm. The declaration enabled the Federal Emergency Manage- 
ment Agency (FEMA) and the Department of Homeland Security 
to mobilize and coordinate disaster relief efforts. Within days, 
thousands of FEMA and other U.S. Government personnel began 
to arrive. 

FHWA employees served as key partners in emergency support 
duties and coordinated with multiple Federal, Puerto Rico, and 
US. Virgin Islands agencies. The active involvement in the initial 
response and then recovery phases of the emergency requited 
significant resources and additional help. FHWA provided satellite 
phones and equipped backpacks for engineers. Mainland FHWA 
division staff provided food and other essentials to the Puerto 
Rico and US. Virgin Islands Division to ensure it could serve local 
residents and emergency responders. 

More than 40 FHWA volunteers from 15 States came to Puerto 
Rico between October 2017 and December 2018 to help supple- 
ment the division office’s emergency response and recovery ef- 
forts. The volunteers conducted field assessments and inspections, 
prepared detailed damage inspection reports, and provided essen- 
tial onsite guidance to all stakeholders. This help ftom FHWA had 
a direct impact on how effectively Puerto Rico recovered from the 


Alandslide blocks PR-191 near Naguabo, Puerto Rico. The residents in the area wrote 
on the rocks to warn of the road closure. 

Source: FHWA. 

emergency, reinforcing the capacity of the agency to execute tasks 
necessary for a quick and efficient response. 

Government executives, including President Trump and U.S. 
Secretary of Transportation Elaine L. Chao, also visited the island 
to see firsthand the damages caused by the hurricanes. 


At of the end of 2017, nearly half of Puerto Rico’s residents were 
still without power, and by the end of January 2018, recovery 
efforts had restored electricity to only about 65 percent of the 
island, Full restoration of power and water took a year after the 
hurricane hit. 

FHWA’ involvement continues long after the initial emergency 
response. The Eastern Federal Lands Highway Division (EFL) has 
been a fundamental partner in the recovery of Puerto Rico and the 
US. Virgin Islands, as it is performing the majority of the long- 
term recovery work in Puerto Rico. EFL is designing projects and 
preparing environment; right-of-way; and plan, specification, and 
estimate documents for construction projects. The EFL division 
is also advertising, awarding, and administering contracts for road 
construction, bridges, traffic signage, safety improvements, and 
landslide repairs. In all, EFL provides design, procurement, and 
construction management services valued at close to $1 billion. 

The response to Hurricane Maria was unprecedented. It was 
the largest and longest Federal response to a domestic disaster in 
the history of the United States. Although much work remains 
to be done over the next 3 to 5 years, progress is being made in 
getting Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands back to normal. 
Recovery efforts successfully restored power, communications 
systems, water, fuel, and other essential services to both territories. 
As a result, tourism is on the rise. Many construction projects are 
still underway, providing jobs to local workers and growing the 
economy—the Association of General Contractors estimated 
that hurricane reconstruction would require an additional 50,000 
employees over 3 years. 

“Trma and Maria hit us hard,” says Andres Alvarez, the divi- 
sion’s engineering team leader, “but both territories have bounced 
back and are ready to receive visitors from all over the world.” 

FERDINAND ORTIZ is a financial specialist in FHWA’s Puerto Rico and USS. Vir- 
gin Islands Division Office. He holds a B.A. in accounting from the University 
of Puerto Rico at Humacao and an MBA in finance and accounting from the 
Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico. 

For more information, contact Ferdinand Ortiz at 787-771-2538 ot 

Ene Bee ie 


The current (and future) traveler demands improved reliability 
and efficiency. Is your TSMO program ready to deliver? 

n today’s connected world, U.S. travelers 

have come to expect ever-improving 
ways of using teal-time information to 
make their lives better. As road users see 
rapid advances in information and trans- 
portation technologies 
tional apps, shared mobility services, and 
connected and automated vehicles, they 

expect more teliable travel and access to 
accurate, real-time information about travel 
conditions. Travelers are less tolerant of 
unexpected delays and demand greater 
accountability from public officials to 
ensure effective spending of public funds 
to maximize the performance of the trans- 
portation system. 

Faced with heightened trav- 

eler expectations and funding 

constraints, as well as growing opportuni- 
ties from advances in technology and data, 
transportation agencies are increasingly 
turning to operations strategies that opti- 
mize the use of existing roadway capacity. 
These strategi 
transportation systems management and 
operations (TSMO). TSMO is defined 
as a set of integrated strategies that 

are known collectively as 

enable transportation agencies to better 
manage and operate existing roadway 
capacity to improve the reliability and 
efficiency of the system and the mobility 
of s. TSMO looks at perfor- 

ystem use: 

mance from a systems perspective so that 

strategies to improve the operation of the 
transportation network are coordinated 
across multiple jurisdictions, agencies, 
and modes. 

One key effort that helped agencies 
advance TSMO was the second Strategic 

Highway R 
a decade, SHRP2 provided critical 

atch Program (SHRP2). For 

ing and technical resources to agencies 


innovative “ 

with developing and deploying 

SMO solutions. SHRP2 was 

a national partnership of the Federal 
Highway Administration, the American 

Association of State Highway and Trans- 
portation Officials, and the Transpor- 

tation Research Board. A set 

of SHRP2 tools and training 
resources, the SHRP2 Reliability 
Solutions, focuses on improving 
the capability of transportation 
agencies to analyze and address 
congestion and travel time 
reliability. Every State, as well 

as the District of Columbia and 
Puerto Rico, has implemented 
these solutions. 

Today’s road users expect accurate, real-time-information about travel conditions to help them make informed decisions, especially 
when encountering congestion. Variable message signs like the one shown here are one way to provide real-time information. 

© iStock/Willowpix. 


How are State departments of trans- 
portation building and implementing 
effective TSMO programs? The following 
sections detail elements of success and 
provide examples that give a snapshot of 
21st-century operations programs using 
SHRP2 solutions and beyond. 

A Toolbox of Strategies 

TSMO strategies include a wide range 

of operations strategies from work zone 
management and traffic signal timing 

and coordination, to congestion pricing 
and demand management. Many TSMO 
strategies leverage intelligent transportation 
systems (ITS) and advanced information 
technologies, but the TSMO toolbox also 
includes relatively low-tech operational 
enhancements and design treatments, such 
as snow fences, pullout areas, and part-time 
shoulder use. 

TSMO looks at management and 
operations of the transportation system as 
a whole, and how it can effectively move 
people and goods safely, reliably, and 
efficiently to their destinations. Examples 
include use of traffic management centers 
to actively manage traffic flow between 
freeways and arterials during delays and 
crashes, real-time information that enables 
travelers to choose other toutes or modes 
of travel to avoid delays, and coordinated 
incident response to reopen lanes sooner. 

TSMO strategies can often mitigate, or 
even solve, many issues and improve traffic 
flow. However, addressing growing demand 
may sometimes necessitate adding lanes 
or other significant capital improvements. 
Integrating the best possible combi- 
nation of solutions requires planning, 
data, organizational capabilities, and 

* Active transportationand »* Parking management * Traffic signal 
demand management «Rodd waather coordination 
* Congestion pricing management * Transit signal priority 
* Freight management * Special event * Traveler information 

* Integrated corridor 

* Work zone management 

management © Traffic incident 

* Managed lanes 


Each of these categories has a number of individual strategies. More information on 
TSMO is available at 

coordination among a range of partners. 
TSMO helps system operators get the 
most out of their transportation facilities 
by smoothing everyday traffic flow and 
mitigating disruptions caused by weather, 
traffic incidents, planned events, and work 
zones. However, agencies must do more 
than deploy ITS projects to achieve the full 
potential of TSMO. To be most effective, 
TSMO must be recognized as a formal 
core function of State and local DOTs, 
just as project delivery is considered a core 
function today. 
“Moving forward, managing road- 
ways through a TSMO framework must 
become as much a part of the Massa- 
chusetts Department of Transportation’s 
(MassDOT’s) DNA as fixing potholes and 
plowing snow,” said Stephanie Pollack, 
transportation secretary and CEO at 
MassDOT, in a recently published news 
release. “Advancing, expanding, and insti- 
tutionalizing these kinds of [TSMO] solu- 
tions will help limit the effects of crashes, 
work zones, and weather on already 
lengthy commutes.” 

Authorized by the 2005 highway reauthorization act, SHRP2 undertook more than 
100 research projects designed to address critical State and local challenges, such as 
aging infrastructure, congestion, and safety. Reliability was one of the four focus areas 
of the SHRP2 program. The SHRP2 Reliability research projects developed analytical 
techniques, decision-support tools, strategies, and institutional and workforce 
approaches to improve the effectiveness of transportation operations. Many of the 
solutions developed in SHRP2’s Reliability focus area are intended to help agencies 

implement TSMO more effectively. 

To help State DOTs and metropolitan planning organizations deploy SHRP2 solutions, 
FHWA and AASHTO created the SHRP2 Implementation Assistance Program. This program 
conducted seven rounds of funding awards between 2013 and 2016. This program made 
36 awards to States and MPOs for implementing SHRP2 Reliability solutions. 


Championing TSMO 

SHRP2 Reliability Solutions arrived at the 
right time to help early TSMO champions 
with products based on research and input 
from stakeholders. Research identified the 
importance of travel time reliability and the 
gap in how to analyze reliability and use it 
in decisionmaking. This led to the devel- 
opment of analytical tools and resources. 
Reseatch focused on what differentiates 
agencies that are most effective at TSMO. 
The research found that the key differ- 
entiating factor between agencies most 
effectively implementing TSMO and other 
agencies was not the amount of technol- 
ogy deployed or money spent (however, 
both of these factors are necessary). It 

was whether an agency had effective 
processes and organizational capabilities 
for TSMO. These elements help create an 
organizational culture that supports TSMO 
and enables it to become the standard way 
of doing business. 

The SHRP2 products and implemen- 
tation assistance helped bring energy, 
attention, funding, and new tools to 
advance TSMO and create buy-in across 
transportation agencies. Monica Harwood 
Duncan, TSMO development engineer 
for the Washington State Department of 
Transportation (WSDOT), noted the value 
of the SHRP2 tools in helping to advance 
TSMO at WSDOT. “We have been fortu- 
nate enough to have received support for 
using around eight different SHRP2 prod- 
ucts,” Duncan says. “To summarize what 
those products meant to us as an agency— 
they created a conversation of innovation 
for us, to look at what’s next for us, which 
may not have happened without SHRP2 
products. It set very clear focus areas for 
us. We have to have TSMO be part of [our 
organization|—not champion driven, but 
fully integrated.” 

Reflecting on SHRP2 experiences 
and observations from other recent 

collaborations with agencies on TSMO, 
some elements that are helping agencies 
advance TSMO are: 

* Treating TSMO as a core 
agency program. 

* Integrating TSMO into existing 
processes, including planning for 
operations, and enabling it to compete 
effectively for funding. 

* Developing an agency culture that 
supports and values TSMO by gaining 
leadership support and building 
support through the organization. 

* Communicating the value of TSMO 
and making a business case for 
‘TSMO investments. 

* Including reliability in analysis 

for project investments and 

system performance. 

* Developing workforce capabilities for 
* Developing effective partnerships and 
collaboration between internal agency 
departments and with external partners 
across regions. 

A recent National Operations Center 
of Excellence (NOCoE) report confirmed 
these observations by sharing the findings 
from a series of engagements with five 
State DOTs about theit TSMO programs. 
This report identified common characteris- 
tics to a successful environment for TSMO 
including strong leadership and a champion 
at the senior staff level; prioritization, visi- 
bility, and availability of resources to do the 
job; the importance of culture in breaking 
down silos; collaboration, communication, 
and coordination; and attention to the 
workforce of the future. 

Enhancing Organizational Capacity 
SHRP2 Organizing for Reliability Tools 
provide solutions to help agencies inte- 
grate and mainstream operations. These 
products focus on orienting and improving 
key aspects within the agency to facilitate 
effective management and operations 
programs and projects. Using a capability 
maturity model (CMM) framework, these 
tools are designed to help agencies assess 
their TSMO programs. By systematically 
assessing distinct aspects of their TSMO 
programs using the CMM framework, 
agencies can identify and prioritize changes 
to their business and technical processes, 
as well as their organizational structure and 

The capability maturity model helps agencies assess 
their TSMO capabilities across six key dimensions. 

institutional partnerships. These changes 
will enhance their ability to manage 
congestion and more effectively operate 
their transportation system. 

The Organizing for Reliability 
Tools garnered a high level of interest. 
Twenty-seven State and regional agencies 
applied for and received implementation 
assistance through the SHRP2 program to 
deploy these products. Interest in the CMM 
framework has continued to increase, 
and more than 50 States and regions have 
osted workshops during which they used 
the CMM framework to evaluate their 
strengths and weaknesses and develop 
action plans to improve their TSMO capa- 
bilities. Agencies have used the results of 
these workshops to guide the development 
of TSMO program plans, build buy-in 
from agency leadership and key stakehold- 
ers, restructure organizations or business 
processes to integrate TSMO, increase 
workforce understanding and knowledge 
of TSMO approaches, and strengthen 
interagency partnerships. 

Companion tools and case studies that 
apply the CMM approach to individual 
program areas like work zone management 
and road weather programs are available at 


feo) RWY: To) Vale} 

Relationships with public safety 
agencies, local governments, 

metropolitan planning 
organization, and the 
private sector. 

Source: FHWA. 

CMM in Action 

The Maryland Department of Transpor- 
tation (MDOT) has used the CMM to 
assess its TSMO capabilities. After MDOT 
conducted an initial CMM assessment, they 
decided to develop and adopt a TSMO 
strategic plan. The agency also restruc- 
tured the board overseeing the statewide 
traffic management system to include 
senior-level personnel and experts on the 
TSMO elements of planning, operations, 
and maintenance. As a result, MDOT has 
made progress toward integrating TSMO 
into its planning and project development 
processes, developing TSMO performance 
measutes, and fostering a TSMO culture 
across the agency. MDOT established a 
leadership position to serve as the program 
manager to oversee implementation of the 
TSMO strategic plan. An assessment after 
3 years showed improvement in five out 
the six CMM dimensions. 

The Iowa Department of Trans- 
portation (lowa DOT) also assessed its 
TSMO processes and capabilities using 
the CMM framework. Based on the results 
of its assessment, the agency developed 
a TSMO strategic plan, a TSMO pro- 
gram plan, and TSMO service layer plans. 
Through this comprehensive planning 


Maturity Model 


process, lowa DOT sought to improve 
TSMO business processes and develop 
[SMO tools to enable the effective 

identifying goals, objectives, performance 
measures, and specific projects, TSMO 
program plans define the programmatic 

transportation management center function 
that activates during major weather events) 
at their transportation management centers, 

application of integrated TSMO strate- 
gies across eight different service areas 
such as traveler information, work zones, 
and connected and autonomous vehicles. 
owa DOT held an executive briefing and 
a workshop to launch its TSMO plan, 
developed a business case for TSMO to 
communicate the value of TSMO efforts 
to address its transportation challenges, 
and implemented other communication 
and education efforts, including a TSMO 
website and video. A reassessment using 
the same CMM showed that lowa DOT’s 
scores increased in three of the six 
CMM dimensions. 

Program Planning 

As in Iowa, many of the action plans 
coming out of the CMM self-assessment 
efforts of other States identified the need 
to develop a TSMO program plan. A 
program plan helps guide the agency in 
advancing its institutional focus on TSMO. 
Many States have plans for specific TSMO 
services, projects, and activities (such as 
ITS or incident response plans), but those 
plans often do not describe the role of 
TSMO in support of the agency’s mission 
and do not address all TSMO functions or 
explain how they integrate. States and agen- 
cies have recognized a need to better main- 
stream TSMO within their agencies and to 
set priorities for activities and investments. 
As a result, more than 20 States and 
regional agencies have developed TSMO 
program plans. 

The process of TSMO program plan- 
ning, as described in FHWA’s primer on 
TSMO program planning, Developing and 
Sustaining a Transportation Systems Management 
¢> Operations Mission for Your Organization: 
Primer for Program Planning, identifies the 
strategic, programmatic, and tactical 
elements to advance TSMO as a critical 
part of an agency’s mission. In addition to 


structure for organizing an agency’s 
activities, functions, and workforce to 
accomplish the goals and objectives of the 
program. Through the plans, agencies can 
establish TSMO as a core agency program. 
Institutionalizing TSMO within agencies 
can help it endure over time as champions 
come and go; raise awareness and sup- 
port for TSMO in agency policy, business 
processes, and budgets; and integrate it 
throughout the whole project life cycle. 
FHWA’ primer on TSMO program plan- 
ning is available at 

Business Processes 
Business processes are vital to guiding 

jow an agency conducts its day-to-day 
business, establishing consistent steps for 
getting work done. Business processes can 
elp integrate TSMO into agency project 
development and procurement processes, 
and increase the effectiveness of TSMO 
strategy deployment. 

SHRP2 created resources to enhance 
business processes for TSMO. These 
resources provide a methodology and 
incorporate best practices to help trans- 
portation agencies change their business 
practices to strengthen systems operations, 
address nonrecurring traffic congestion, 
and improve travel time reliability. FHWA 
released a guide and workshop, which 
provide a methodology that managers can 
follow to develop and improve TSMO 
operational and programmatic processes. 
The guide, Improving Business Processes for 
More Effective Transportation Systems Manage- 
ment and Operation (FHWA-HOP-16-018), 
is available at 

State and regional agencies have 
used the methodology and workshops 
to develop a process for activating and 
deactivating a storm desk (a special 

Source: FHWA. 

providing feedback on work zone traffic 
management plans from the field back 

to designers to improve future plans, and 
coordinating traffic management between 


managed by local agencies and the 

State freeway system during major inci- 
dents on the freeway. 

Changing the Culture 

In general 

terms, efforts to advance TSMO 

have been described as moving an agency 

to become operations oriented—going 

from ad 

hoc activities to a complete TSMO 

program with integrated services that 
improve the performance of the existing 
transportation system. This is a cultural 
shift for many agencies. 

Agencies advancing TSMO have built a 
TSMO culture working from both the lead- 
ership level and from staff-level champions. 


hip can provide indication of the 
support for considering TSMO 
es to transportation issues and 

investing in TSMO strategies and work- 
force skills. Even with leadership support, 
senior staff champions play a key role in 
integrating TSMO into agency processes 
and working relationships, and helping 
identify where resources are needed. In 

some ca! 
been in 

ses, staff-level champions have 
place for several years and TSMO 

efforts build slowly until leadership is in 
place that is ready to increase support for 
TSMO. Other times, new leaders come in 
emphasizing TSMO and staff-level sup- 

port fo! 


Many agencies have found it helpful to 
build a strong business case for TSMO, 
which can effectively communicate the 
value of operations and gain support and 
resources for TSMO. 

The Nevada Department of Transpor- 
tation’s (NDOT’s) SHRP2 CMM assess- 
ment led the agency to identify the need 
for a stronger internal understanding of 


and data come 
together in traffic 
centers like this 
lowa DOT facility 
_ to help agencies 
quickly identify 

traveler information 
and provide incident response. 
With the extensive data available today, 
agencies can also track roadway performance. 

TSMO. The NDOT Traffic 
Operations Division saw 

a business case as a way to 
enhance culture and collab- 
oration for TSMO across 
NDOT’s divisions. NDOT 
developed a case for TSMO 
that looks at eight current 

traffic and roadwa 
issues and make u challenges and TSMO’s 
adjustments to contribution to addressing the 

challenges. NDOT drew these 
challenges ftom those already 
identified in the statewide 

[WHY TSM 0 4 

133% 2-2 1990-2008, fastest growing State in the Service sector employs about tsiziB In wasted time and fuel cost in U.S. per year. ai From 176 billion in 2000 to 26: billion in 

half of Nevada's workers 


3 Mllll0m Poptietion in 2018, fastest growing in the $1,400 & Cost of congestion to average driver 

nation based on US, Census Bureau. Tourism sustains GO hrs in Nevada annually. Projected increase of 30% by the year 2030 to: 
4,3 Million 27% 34 Billion 

je i ‘of alljobs in Nevada $1.6 Billion 

ERE PORN ES. oe Value of lost time and fuel in Nevada mr 

Roadway incidents account 

25% of travel delay, 

4 minutes tor every 
minute of congestion, 

2.8% increased chance of 

‘<Increase in demand, congestion, and delay <NDOT must provide, maintain, and operate a safe, reliable, and 
< Reduction of capacity, transportation safety. and reliability efficient transportation network for its workers and tourists 

< With VT demand increasing at rapid rate, the need 
{or efficient and reliable roads to accommodate this 
demand is paramount. 



solutions on existing roadways and collaborate Easily implementable and cost-effective TSMO strategies such SMO focuses on easily implementable and cost-effective Improvements to non-motorized facilities (pedestrian 
\within NDOT to include TSMO strategies such os Traffic 4s real-time traffic information to ptan efficient and reliable work solutions that have measurable benefits to existing roadways and and bicycle paths) to reduce the demand on motorized 
Incident Management, Work Zone Management. Special Event tips, ridership on public transportation to reduce the maximizes the efficiency of new suchas facilities, switching mode choices (bus rider or ride share) 

‘number of vehicles on the road, and providing safe alternatives —_—_—Traffic Responsive Freeway Ramp Metering can decrease delay to reduce the number of vehicles on the roadway. real- 
‘and improve trip reliability, which in turn reduces traffic crashes. 

such as pedestrian and bicycle paths will help to reduce 

‘congestion and crashes, and increase the reliability of NOOT congestion and subsequent. trip rerouting due to congestion oF will help to 
inanesim te late io soremenrcte Bis pening pepaeten, ‘The Colorado DOT benefits trom TSMO strategies suchas TH# Pennsylvania DOT benefits trom TSMO st oro een oe eae s ed Es Pome 
Ohio—Kentucky—indiana Regional Council of the Freeway Service Patrol, |-70 Peak Period Shoulder Lane, and <Inexdent Response Management reduced incident response. 
Governments benefits trom TSMO strategies Colorado Bottleneck Reduction Alternatives (COBRA) Project. times by 87 rinutes, incHent clesrance times by &3 minutes, _ Washington DOT Commute Trip Reduction (CTR) 
aidnaied Interactive Management and ‘These projects have: ‘and hours of delay by 547,000 hours per year, wth a total Program: 

Information System Sass Crna regan yeoesa erat <High benefit-cost ratios typically 10:1 and ws much as 40:1 tmanetery sexings of $8.5 milion per year. 41m 2009, WSDOT's CTR program implemented 

of 12:1, while the capacity-adding project woukd have had « Strateges such as encouraging vanpoots, carpoots, 
benefit of only 1: een kke Seleirnil eete Nevada WayCare Project: condensed work weeks and telecommuting to help 
<< Additionally the ARTIMIS program cost was 1/20 the cost of sgh visible, many times but not always, and noticeable << The WayCore Project reduced congestion and incident ans Renan Ot OF RENE OSE) TES 

b and into alternative program was. 
the capacity-adding project. improvements \aeparse Nee by evcagiog rst ne predialysis gana iis 

< Quantifiable reduction in delay and improvement in travel time 

[Preventative measures 

«Measurable safety-related improvements 
‘Improvements that continue to provide value even when long- 
projects are completed 

term construction 

transportation plan. NDOT’s business 
case addressed challenges related to (1) a 
gtowing population, (2) a tourism-based 
economy, (3) growing congestion, (4) 
increasing vehicle miles of travel, (5) the 
need to repair roads and bridges, (6) safety 
issues, (7) trucks and freight movement, 
and (8) asset and performance manage- 
ment. NDOT formatted its business case 
in an easy-to-read two-page layout. 

Other States, such as Iowa, Michigan, 
Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Utah have also 
created a business case for TSMO to help 
increase understanding and awareness of 
its value. As a result of their efforts to 
make a compelling case and build support 
for TSMO, a few States have established 
a mechanism to provide some dedicated 
funding for TSMO projects. For example, 
DOTs in both Michigan and Ohio have 
established competitive processes to which 
their regions or districts can submit proj- 
ects for funding. 

Another way some agencies have 
indicated support for TSMO is by 
incorporating TSMO into their agency 
missions, goals, and objectives. This 
is a visible way of establishing the key 
role that TSMO plays in a DOT and its 
transportation programs. 

Two key resources for building a 

business case ate the SHRP2 Business Case 

Primer Communicating the Value of Transpor- 
tation Systems Management and Operations, 
available at 
-management-and, and FHWA’s Advancing 
TSMO: Making the Business Case for Institu- 
tional, Organizational, and Procedural Changes 
(FHWA-HOP-19-017), available at 

Incorporating Reliability into Data 
and Analysis 
Traditionally, analytical tools used by 
transportation agencies for highway oper- 
ations have focused on average conditions. 
They have not taken into account a range 
of travel times or how travel times vary 
in response to changing conditions. To 
improve travel time reliability, transporta- 
tion agencies need new tools for monitor- 
ing and analyzing fluctuations in traffic. 
With such tools, agencies can better analyze 
and diagnose the causes of travel time 
delays and select the appropriate manage- 
ment strategies to address specific issues. 
Many TSMO strategies help manage 
disruptions caused by crashes, storms, or 
roadwork that can lead to unreliable travel 

‘entity high-risk incident agencies 
‘as NOT, OPS-NHP, and RTC FAST can now take proactive 

times. The SHRP2 Reliability Program 
produced a suite of analytical tools to help 
transportation agencies better identify the 
sources of travel time delays, analyze the 
likely impact on travel time reliability from 
implementing various strategies, and incor- 
porate these considerations into the trans- 
portation planning and funding process. 
These analytical tools also enable agencies 
to include reliability in their assessment of 
transportation alternatives. 

WSDOT piloted SHRP2 tools to 
improve the monitoring and analysis of 
travel time reliability in both urban and 
rural areas of the State. WSDOT used 
the tools to enhance the capabilities of 
its existing data management and analysis 
system called the Digital Roadway Interac- 
tive Visualization and Evaluation Network 
(DRIVE Net). This system, developed 
by the University of Washington, uses 
geospatial, traffic, and other types of data 
to calculate a range of performance mea- 
sures and conduct other types of analyses. 
WSDOT modified DRIVE Net to accept 
additional data sources and to perform new 
analytical functions based on the SHRP2 
tool set. With the additional data sources 
and enhanced capabilities, WSDOT is now 
able to provide comprehensive travel time 
reliability measures for the statewide traffic 


Variations in Travel Times by Time of Day 
Copyright: STARLAB ( 

Travel Time (Minutes) 

No Events 

Time of Day (5-minutes) 

Reliability analytical tools help the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) 
understand the effect of incidents and weather on travel times in particular corridors in the State. 
WSDOT can then select the most relevant TSMO strategies. 

@ University of Washington. 

network in days rather than months. 

The Florida Department of ‘Transpor- 
tation (FDOT) is actively working toward 
integration of TSMO planning and reliabil- 
ity analysis into its processes with support 
from the SHRP2 tools and Implementation 
Assistance Program. FDOT developed the 
Planning for Travel Time Reliability Guide and 
The Planning for TSM&O Guidebook. FDOT 
then conducted outreach to its staff about 
integrating TSMO planning and reliability 
analysis into its processes. These efforts 
built on FDOT’s earlier efforts, includ- 
ing a Central Office reorganization that 
changed an ITS office to a TSMO office in 
2015. The reorganization recognized the 
importance of TSMO and the need for 
strong champions for implementation to 
be successful. FDOT also built off a 2016 
TSMO CMM self-assessment that led to 
the development of a TSMO strategic plan. 
In addition, FDOT prepared the Evaluation 
of Project Processes in Relation to Transportation 
Systems Management and Operations (TSM&O) 
in 2018, which explored what would be 
required to integrate and mainstream 
TSMO throughout FDOT’s entire project 
development process. 

Developing Workforce Capabilities 
Implementing TSMO strategies effectively 
may require enhancing the knowledge and 
skills of the current transportation agency 
workforce. This is especially true as trans- 
portation rapidly evolves to incorporate 
new data sources (such as crowdsoutcing, 
where data comes from travelers them- 
selves rather than from sensors or cameras 
managed by infrastructure operators), 
measures (such as reliability), technologies, 
and modes (such as dockless bikes and 
autonomous shuttles), in addition to more 


proactive approaches to system operations 
and management. 

NOCOoE identified TSMO workforce 
as a key challenge and selected it as the 
topic for its first national summit. To 
address TSMO capabilities in the trans- 
portation workforce, several entities, 
including FHWA and the SHRP2 pro- 
gram, have developed different types of 
TSMO training. 

Regional Operations Forums. One of the 
key reliability solutions that SHRP2 devel- 
oped was the Regional Operations Forum 
(ROP), a week-long immersion program 
in TSMO that includes peer exchange, 
learning from experts, and interactive 
group exercises. Over 5 years, a combina- 
tion of FHWA, AASHTO, and SHRP2 
implementation efforts have supported 26 
ROFs with participants from all 50 States, 
Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia, 
and as well as some staff from 

metropolitan planning organi- 
s¥ ra zations, municipalities, 

and public safety agencies. Some of these 
efforts were led by State DOTS using their 
SHRP2 implementation assistance funding. 
Based on feedback from the early forums, 
FHWA worked with AASHTO to adapt 
the ROF format to a condensed 2.5-day 
version called the Regional Operations 
Leadership Forum that is being delivered to 
every region of the country. 

The forums enable program leaders 
at public agencies to build knowledge in 
TSMO while also developing a strong 
network of TSMO peers. Topics cov- 
ered include core areas such as business 
processes, culture, organization, and work- 
force, as well as some technical topics such 
as integrated corridor management and 
emerging technologies. 

TSMO Educational Program. Led by the 
Kansas Department of Transportation, 
the ITS Heartland regional chapter of 
the Intelligent Transportation Society of 
America (ITS America) used SHRP2 imple- 
mentation assistance funding to establish 
a TSMO educational program based 
on the ROF model for its five member 
States: lowa, Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, 
and Oklahoma. As part of its training 
program, ITS Heartland has delivered a 
series of TSMO webinars and in-person 
training sessions, two TSMO train-the- 
trainer workshops, and a self-paced TSMO 
course. The program has reached more 
than 600 participants to date and received 
a 2018 NOCoE TSMO Award. Webinar 
recordings and other training resources 
are available on ITS Heartland’s website at 

TIM Responder Training. Traffic Incident 
Management (TIM), an important TSMO 
strategy, is the planned and coordinated 

multidisciplinary process to 
detect, respond to, and clear 
traffic incidents and restore traf- 
fic flow as safely and quickly as 
possible. A strong TIM program 
equips responders of all disci- 
plines to work together effectively 
and consistently, which decreases 
incident duration and reduces the 
number of secondary crashes. 

The SHRP2 program created a 
TIM training curriculum that offers 
a set of practices to enable safer and 
faster clearance of traffic crashes. The 
training brings police officers; firefighters; 
DOT, towing, and medical personnel; 
and other incident responders together to 
engage in joint learning and interactive, 
hands-on exercises. A train-the-trainer 
program has created a national network 
of instructors, enabling quicker and more 
consistent training of the entire responder 
corps. To reach even more responders, the 
program developed a web-based version 
of the training for individuals who cannot 
access a classtoom session. 

More than 445,000 responders have 
completed one form of the training to 
date. In addition, more than 65 public 
safety academies in at least 38 States 
have integrated the training content into 
their curricula. 

A formal evaluation of the SHRP2 
TIM training program found that States 
that adopted the TIM 
training saw strength- 
ened responder 



Trainees attend the Tennessee Traffic 
Incident Management Training Facility, 
which is designed for them to practice 
responding to crashes. 

© Tennessee Department of Transportation. 






FHWA has developed fact sheets to explain how TSMO relates to other DOT functions such as design, 
construction, safety, and environment. 

Source: FHWA. 

and agency practices, resulting in further 
reductions to overall roadway-clearance 
and incident-clearance times. Participants 
in the TIM trainings in Arizona and Ten- 
nessee noted that the training enabled them 
to understand incident response from the 
perspective of other agencies, which made 
them become aware of nuances that could 
help expedite incident response. 

The Tennessee Department of Trans- 
portation (DOT) created an advanced 
TIM coutse to engage responders more 
deeply about multiagency collaboration. 
Using Federal Highway Safety Improve- 
ment Program funds, Tennessee DOT 
also built a TIM training facility next 
to a training center for the Tennessee 
Highway Patrol. 

“The SHRP2 Program has provided 
TDOT with a number of resources that 
have helped mature our—and other 
Tennessee agencies-—TSMO capabili- 
ties,” says Brad Freeze, director of the 
Traffic Operations Division at TDOT. 
“Specifically, the program has helped 
TDOT in developing a strategic direc- 
tion for operations with the creation of a 
Traffic Operations Program Plan and has 
advanced the state of practice of incident 
management in Tennessee through the 
National TIM Responder Training course 
and our subsequent development of an 
advanced TIM training course.” 

Strengthening Collaboration 
Implementing TSMO effectively requires 
collaboration not only within a transporta- 
tion agency but also among transportation 
agencies from neighboring jurisdictions and 
from other modes such as transit. It also 
requires collaboration between transpor- 
tation agencies and first responders. Some 
of the workforce development initiatives, 

such as the TIM responder training and the 
ROFs, foster collaboration while improving 
workforce skills. Other initiatives directly 
aim to build the internal and external rela- 
tionships needed for effective TSMO. 
Collaboration between planners and 
operators, commonly known in the indus- 
try as planning for operations, can improve 
the integration of TSMO into the entire 
project life cycle—from system planning 
and investment decisionmaking to design, 
construction, maintenance, and system 
monitoring and evaluation. Planning for 
operations also supports improved regional 
TSMO by considering operations strate- 
gies in regional transportation planning. 
Regional partners may include planning 
and operations staff from MPOs, State 
DOTs, transit agencies, highway agencies, 
toll authorities, and local governments. 
TSMO often supports or benefits 
from other transportation agency func- 
tions and offices such as design, main- 
tenance, and safety. Historically, these 
connections are not well understood or 
communicated, and organizational silos 
may exist in some agencies. However, 
acknowledging and strengthening these 
connections may result in more effective 
functions. FHWA has developed a series 
of nine fact sheets that detail how TSMO 
relates to other functions within a DOT 
and provide examples of how connecting 
these functions has worked in practice. For 
example, the Maricopa County Department 
of Transportation and Arizona Depart- 
ment of Transportation created AZTech, 
a regional traffic management partnership 
in the Phoenix metropolitan area, AZTech 
established a regional data-sharing system 
among its member agencies and jurisdic- 
tions to enable local jurisdictions to share 
real-time information on traffic incidents 


and infrastructure conditions. The 
FHWA fact sheets ate available at 

National Operations Center of 
Excellence. Created in 2015 with support 
from the SHRP2 Reliability Program, 
NOCOE is an organization dedicated 
to promoting TSMO, educating TSMO 
practitioners, bringing together the 
TSMO community, and accelerating 
deployment of TSMO strategies. 
NOCObE is a partnership of AASHTO, 
ITS America, and the Institute of 
Transportation Engineers, with support 
from FHWA. The center offers an 
array of technical services, such as 
peer exchange workshops, webinars, 
and case studies, and raises awareness 
of TSMO strategies and successes 
through its TSMO awards program and 
technology tournament. 

NOCoE maintains a website at that serves as a 
centralized source of TSMO information. 
On its site, NOCoE maintains a web page 
of resources on TSMO workforce devel- 
opment and offers a collection of TSMO 
case studies to share TSMO successes from 
agencies across the country. 

Is Your TSMO Program Ready? 
The transportation sector is rapidly 
transforming—connected and auto- 
mated vehicles, ride-hailing services, 
micromobility vehicles such as shared 
bicycles and electric scooters, and the 
growing use of active and even proactive 
corridor management. Also changing 
is the increasing ubiquity of data about 
travelers and the transportation systems 
they are using (for example, ctowdsourced 
data from travelers, private-sector data 
providers, and road condition data from 
connected vehicles) as well as the process- 
ing power and analytical tools to manage 
and make sense of the data. 
Technological changes are increasing 
both the quantity and quality of real-time 
data that transportation agencies can use 

FHWA Planning for Operations: 

FHWA SHRP2 Reliability: 


Real-time Data Capture and Management 


Vehicle Status Data Status Data 

Truck Data 

Data from 

New or Enhanced TSMO Strategies 

Transit Signal 

Priority j 


Travel Info 













Fleet Management/Dynamic 

Route Guidance I 









— i Real-Time Signal 

(e) () Phase and Timing 
— Optimization 

Safety Alerts and Advisories 

Transportation agencies are leveraging connectivity and emerging transportation data capabilities to 
advance TSMO strategies. This diagram shows various types of real-time data that agencies can use for 

new or enhanced TSM strategies. 
Source: U.S. Department of Transportation. 

to implement TSMO strategies. In some 
cases, the effectiveness of existing TSMO 
strategies will be enhanced. In other 
cases, it will be possible to try new TSMO 
strategies. However, unless agencies have 
addressed the organizational, workforce, 
and analytical aspects of TSMO, they may 
not be able to take full advantage of new 
technologies and new data sources. 
FHWA is working with a wide range 
of stakeholders to prepare the Nation’s 
roadway systems for the coming age of 
connected and automated vehicles. In 
2018, FHWA held the National Dialogue 
on Highway Automation, a series of six 
national workshops focused on auto- 
mated vehicles. The series highlighted 
the importance of integrating automated 
vehicle considerations into TSMO strate- 
gies to ensure that these vehicles can safely 
navigate traffic incidents, work zones, 
special events, and signal disruptions. Based 
on the outcomes of the National Dialogue, 
FHWA is prioritizing programs, policies, 
and research to support the safe and 
efficient integration of automated 
vehicles. For example, FHWA is 
pursuing an update to the Manual 
on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for 
Streets and Highways (MUTCD) to 
help prepare roads for the future of 
automated vehicles. 
“Addressing congestion issues 
requites transportation profes- 
sionals to seek out solutions that 


involve optimizing performance to get 
more out of our existing facilities,” says 
Martin Knopp, FHWA Associate Adminis- 
trator for Operations. “We have seen grow- 
ing recognition of the need for effective 
operations. SHRP2 efforts played a big role 
in that. FHWA will continue to support 
the development of TSMO strategies and 
a national TSMO community of practice 
and to assist its partners in their efforts to 
improve roadway operations.” 

TRACY SCRIBA is the team leader of the Orga- 

nizing and Planning for Operations Team in the 
FHWA Office of Operations. She holds a bach- 

elor’s degree in systems engineering from the 
University of Virginia. 

AARON JETTE is chief of the Program Development 
and Capacity Building Division at USDOT's Volpe 
National Transportation Systems Center. He holds 
a master’s degree in public policy from Harvard 

PEPPER SANTALUCIA is a contractor to USDOT’s 
Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. 
He holds a master’s degree in public affairs from 
Princeton University. 

For more information, see https://ops ot contact 
Tracy Sctiba at 202-366-0855 or 


FHWA recently put its work on display at an inaugural 
event to highlight innovative technologies. 

esearch and technology are key ingredients for helping the 

Federal Highway Administration reach its mission to enable 
and empower the strengthening of a world-class highway system. 

On September 18, 2019, FHWA hosted its first-ever Research 
Showcase at the U.S. Department of Transportation’s headquarters 
in Washington, DC. The event featured innovations developed 
through FHWA’s Office of Research, Development, and Technol- 
ogy (RD&T), located at the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research 
Center (TFHRC), and other FHWA offices. 

The FHWA Research Showcase featured 25 exhibits and 
demonstrations, and 3 presentations that provided representa- 
tives from USDOT modes and other highway stakeholders with 
a first-hand look at the latest transportation technology. During 
the event, attendees had the opportunity to interact with leading 
researchers and innovative technologies such as: 

* CARMA®™, which enables automated vehicles to share 
information with each other and roadway infrastructure, and 
to manage complex traffic issues that human drivers deal 
with daily. 

* Ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC), the most tech- 
nologically advanced concrete available in today’s market. 
UHPC is 5 times stronger and 10 times more durable than 
conventional concrete. 

¢ A hand-held spectrometer, which offers the potential to 
improve infrastructure performance by making it possible 
to very quickly determine whether materials brought to the 
project site meet agency requirements. 

* An FHWA Hydraulics Research Program’s mobile robotic 
system that automates the current riverbed material testing 
process, which can be time consuming and labor intensive. 

by Kelley McKINLEY 

Unmanned aerial systems provide high-quality data and imagery where 
traditional data collection practices are inadequate or sites are difficult to access 
for bridge inspection, field surveys, geotechnical investigations, and routine 
construction inspection. 

Source: FHWA, 

The event also highlighted the importance of multimodal 
collaborations that support “one DOT.” FHWA Administrator 
Nicole R. Nason noted how the “incredible research work being 
conducted by the FHWA plays an important role in improving our 
current and future highway and bridge infrastructure and its bene- 
fits are seen across nearly all modes of the USDOT,” most notably 
in the multimodal efforts related to connected and automated 
vehicle research. 

In addition, TFHRC plays a key role in ensuring that FHWA 
research extends beyond USDOT. At the event, U.S. Secretary 
of Transportation Elaine L. Chao said, “The research being 
conducted at the Federal Highway Administration’s Turner- 
Fairbank Highway Research Center—in partnership with univer- 
sities, startups, and industry stakeholders—has helped to advance 
transportation innovation, This work includes development of 
innovations in materials, designs, operations, and safety.” She also 
noted that the research and technology developed at TFHRC 
“has enabled the highway system to move people and freight 
more safely and has contributed to the economic success of our 

KELLEY McKINLEY is a marketing and communications specialist at TFHRC, 
where she is responsible for developing communications strategy for FHWA’s 
research and technology. She holds a B.S. in communication studies from 
Northwestern University and an M.S. in communication management from 
Temple University. 



LEFT: Stacy Balk, who supports TFHRC’s Human Factors program, shows a showcase 
visitor how to use FHWA‘s virtual reality bicycle. This technology provides an 
opportunity to explore and investigate new infrastructure and safety enhancing 
techniques, without the safety risks of real-world evaluation. 

TOP RIGHT: Secretary Chao welcomes visitors to the FHWA Research Showcase. 

BOTTOM RIGHT: Administrator Nason inspects a hand-held spectrometer with 
Terry Arnold, a chemist at TFHRC. The technology can quickly assess the 
composition of highway materials to detect the presence or absence of various 
constituent materials. 




9 10:00AM-2:00PM 

TOP LEFT: The RABIT™ bridge deck assessment 
tool collects comprehensive data on surface and 
subsurface conditions. 

TOP RIGHT: David Kuehn, program manager of the 
Exploratory Advanced Research (EAR) Program, 
engages visitors at the EAR table. The EAR Program 
addresses the need to conduct longer term 

and higher risk breakthrough research with the 
potential for transformational improvements to 
plan, build, renew, and operate safe, congestion 
free, and environmentally sound transportation 

MIDDLE: Secretary Chao discusses the value of 
research in front of a large audience at the event. 

BOTTOM: Visitors to the Research Showcase could 
view the CARMA vehicles parked on the Third Street 
Plaza between the West and East buildings of 
USDOT headquarters. 

Sources: FHWA. 


on the decline fo 

Fly ash 
from coal 
burning is an almost 
essential component of 
concrete mixtures. But with coal 
power production, the 

concrete industry is looking for alternatives. 

Buns coal is one of the primary means 
of generating electricity in the United 
States. The coal-burning process produces 
residual, incombustible materials. Fly 
ash—fine, glassy, rounded particles tich 
in silicon, aluminum, calcium, and iron 
oxides—is one of these residual materials, 
captured from the flue gas by precipitators 
and bag filters. Because of its chemical 
and physical characteristics, fly ash can 
substitute for a portion of portland cement 
in concrete mixtures as a supplementary 
cementitious material (SCM). Fly ash also 
improves many concrete properties such as 
workability. The spherical shape of fly ash 
particles compared to the shape of other 
SCMs can be seen in microscopic images. 
The concrete industry has used fly ash 
as an SCM for decades, thereby diverting it 
from landfills and impoundments, provid- 
ing a benefit to both the power and con- 
crete industries. According to the American 
Coal Ash Association’s (ACAA) 2017 Pro- 
duction and Use Survey, 111.3 million tons of 
coal combustion products were produced 

that year, with 71.8 million tons beneficially 
used. In 2017, concrete manufacturers used 
14.1 million tons of fly ash in concrete. 

Fly ash is the primary SCM used in 
concrete in the United States. Because fly 
ash is a byproduct material and cement is 
a manufactured material, the cost of fly ash 
is generally lower than the cost of cement. 
Therefore, substituting fly ash for cement 
reduces the cost of concrete. 

Recent environmental regulations that 
require emissions-control systems and the 
abundance of natural gas as an alternative 
fuel to coal have led to a decline in coal- 
fired power plants—a trend that is likely 
to continue. The U.S. Energy Information 
Administration (EIA) forecasts that 42 
percent of existing coal-fired generation 
capacity will retire by 2050. As fly ash 
becomes less and less available, State 
departments of transportation and their 
contractors will need to seek alternatives. 
Many are already considering other options, 
such as natural pozzolans. 

Concrete pavement durability and service life depend on the selection of quality materials and proper 
construction practices. SCMs are important ingredients in concrete for pavements—both to improve durability in 
freezing and thawing exposures and for the mitigation of alkali-silica reaction with some aggregate sources. 

Source: FHWA 


The Benefits of SCMs 

Fly ash and other SCMs enhance concrete 
properties. The spherical particles of fly 
ash reduce friction during mixing when 
concrete is in its early, fluid state, enabling 
the reduction of mixing water or chemi- 
cal additives used to improve flow. SCMs 
chemically react over time in a pozzolanic 
reaction with calcium and hydroxyl ions in 
the concrete pore solution to form calcium 
silicate hydrates. The calcium silicate 
hydrates inctease concrete’s long-term 
strength and reduce porosity and permea- 
bility. The slow reaction is especially benefi- 
cial in thick concrete pavement and mass 
concrete applications to prevent cracking 
and develop long-term strength. 

SCMs can reduce the risk of thermal 
cracking and subsequently provide good 
long-term mechanical properties. SCMs 
also help protect concrete from long-term 
chemical degradation, For example, SCMs 
reduce porosity through the pozzolanic 

reaction, slowing the intrusion of chlorides 
that can cause corrosion of steel reinforce- 
ment and sulfates that can cause expan- 
sive reactions and cracking. Lastly, SCMs 
can reduce expansion and cracking from 
alkali-silica reaction in aggregates contain- 
ing reactive siliceous materials. 

An Uncertain Future 

In 2011, the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) issued a rule regulating the 
amount of mercury and other air toxins 
emitted by power plants in response to the 
1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act. 
To meet these regulations, coal-fired power 
plants have had to install emission control 
systems to reduce emissions primarily 
from sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and 
mercury. These systems often contaminate 
the fly ash produced by treating the flue gas 
with various substances, such as limestone 
powder, to react with the sulfur producing 
gypsum and activated carbon to absorb the 

mercury. Often the products of emission 
control systems become mixed with the fly 
ash, reducing its quality and performance 
in concrete. 

In addition to the contamination of 
fly ash, installation and maintenance of 
emission control systems can be costly for 
smaller or older plants, forcing many to be 
retired. The EIA reports approximately 475 
coal-fired power generator closures since 
the EPA finalized the 2011 regulation. 
Coal-fired power plants that can make the 
necessary modifications incur higher costs 
to produce electricity, which increases the 
cost of electricity generated by the plants. 
This has created a more competitive market 
for other energy sources, such as natural 
gas, solar, and wind energy. 

According to the ACAA’s Production and 
Use Surveys, the amount of fly ash used in 
concrete products has increased 5 percent 
between 2011 and 2017; however, the 
amount of fly ash produced has dropped 
36 percent. The American Road and Trans- 
portation Builders Association (ARTBA) 
estimates that concrete production will 
increase more than 50 percent by 2033. 

Dwindling fly ash production necessi- 

Adump truck collects a fresh concrete batch froma 
SRT CaR i Reece eave tates the search for alternative sources of 
flac has both an active, Oca silo storage and this material, 
on-ground pneumatic “pigs” (bulk tanks) for cement ‘The Texas Department of Transpor- 
and fly ash storage. tation [TxDOT], [like] many other DOTs, 
Source: FHWA. has relied heavily on fly ash to improve 
long-term durability of concrete,” says 
Andy Naranjo, rigid pavements and con- 
crete materials branch manager of TxDOT. 
“Seasonal power plant outages, changes 

in coal sources, and power plant closures 
have significantly impacted the supply of 
fly ash making it challenging for the fly 

ash industry to meet the fly ash demand. 
TxDOT has worked closely with fly ash 
marketers as they bring in new sources of 
fly ash from other States and countries, and 
some unconventional options to ensure the 
immediate demand is met.” 

Fly Ash Beneficiation and Harvesting 
According to the ACAA, only 64 percent 
of the fly ash produced in the United 
States in 2017 was beneficially reused. The 
large unused quantities of fly ash produced 
per year are often landfilled or ponded 
onsite at power plants. Therefore, oppor- 
tunities exist for excavating or dredging 
and recovering these materials, a process 
referred to as harvesting. In addition, coal 
combustion produces other residuals, such 
as bottom ash and economizer ash, which 
may be untapped resources for SCMs. 

The primary obstacle to using underuti- 
lized coal combustion residuals in concrete 
is material quality. ASTM International 
(ASTM) C618 and the American Associa- 
tion of State Highway and Transportation 
Officials (AASHTO) M295 specify the 
chemical and physical properties that fly 
ash must meet for use in concrete mixtures. 
However, beneficiating or remediating 
fly ashes that do not meet these speci- 
fications can make them acceptable for 
use. For example, coarse material can be 
post-processed by classifying or grinding 
to inctease fineness and fly ash with high 
unburned carbon content can be thermally, 
electrostatically, or chemically treated to 
remove carbon or reduce its absorptivity. 

Rescarcu at FHWA 

Aconstruction crew pours fresh concrete on an 

asphalt base during construction of a jointed plain 

concrete slip-formed pavement. 
Source: FHWA. 

FHWA’s Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center (TFHRC) continues concrete research on 

SCMs and SCMs used with limestone powder in cooperation with FHWA Exploratory Advanced 
Research Program researchers and with the National Institute of Standards and Technology. To 

date, the research has resulted in the following documents: 

e Benefits of High Volume Fly Ash Fact Sheet 

e Increased Use of Fly Ash in Hydraulic Ce- 
ment Concrete (HCC) for Pavement Layers 
and Transportation Structures 

e Evaluation of High-Volume Fly Ash Mix- 
tures (Paste and Mortar Components) 
Using A Dynamic Shear Rheometer and 
an Isothermal Calorimeter TechBrief 

e “|sothermal Calorimetry as a Tool to 
Evaluate Early-Age Performance of Fly 
Ash Mixtures,” Transportation Research 
Record: Journal of the Transportation 
Research Board 

e “Ternary Blends for Controlling Cost and 
Carbon Content,” Concrete International 

e “Multi-Scale Investigation of the Per- 
formance of Limestone in Concrete,” 
Construction and Building Materials 

Conducting laboratory 
research on trial 
concrete mixtures 
containing various 
cementitious blends 
is an important step 

in selecting materials 
and blends that 

will yield long-term 
concrete performance 
and durability in 
Laboratory technicians 
will run workability 
tests on this fresh 
batch of concrete. 

Source: FHWA 

Assessment of New Rapid Alkali-Silica 
Reaction (ASR) Tests. Ongoing research in the 
TFHRC Concrete Laboratory and the TFHRC 
Aggregate and Petrographic Laboratory (APL) 
tests the reliability of two new test methods- 
the concrete cylinder test and miniature con- 
crete prism test-in assessing ASR mitigation 
measures. This research is in collaboration 
with the University of Texas and Oregon State 
University. Researchers plan to present the 
results of this project, comparing the perfor- 
mance of reactive aggregates in the lab with 
field exposure blocks containing SCMs (Class 
F and Class C fly ash, slag cement, or silica 
fume), at the Transportation Research Board’s 
2020 Annual Meeting. 

Assessment and Refinement of Concrete 
Durability Testing Procedures. TFHRC is one 
of the research organizations looking at 
durability testing procedures for concrete 
with and without SCMs in support of the new 
AASHTO PP84-19 for Performance Engineered 
Mixtures (PEM) for concrete. The PEM project 
is assessing a suite of new test procedures 
for practicality in the lab and relation to 
performance. One test is electrical resistivity 
of a concrete cylinder as an indicator of the 
quality of the pore system. Concrete resistivi- 
ty depends both on the pore structure and on 
the pore solution in the concrete. Aspects of 
this research, including data on concrete with 
fly ash and slag cement SCMs, are explained 
in Formation Factor Demystified and Its Rela- 
tionship to Durability (F HWA-HRT-19-030) at 


Beneficiation is not limited to 

as-produced fly ash. According to the 
EPA, more than 310 active landfills onsite 
at power plants have an average size of 
more than 120 acres (48.5 hectares) and 
an average depth of more than 40 feet (12 
meters). In addition, more than 735 active 
surface impoundments have an average 
area and depth of 50 acres (20 hectares) 
and 20 feet (6 meters). Presumably, these 
landfills and impoundments hold vast 
reserves of materials that operators or fly 
ash distributors could harvest and benefici- 
ate for use in construction. 

As reported in the July-August 2019 
issue of the American Concrete Institute Mate- 
rials Journal, research indicates that applying 
thermal, mechanical, and/or chemical 
treatment to fly ashes harvested from land- 
fills can result in fly ashes with very similar 
performance to the as-produced material. 
Similarly, bottom ash and economizer 
ashes benefit from treatments to improve 
their performance in concrete. After the 
performance of these materials is proven, 
the limiting obstacle is modification of 


the relevant standards and specifications 
to enable their use. To this end, several 
research projects recently begun through 
the Federal Highway Administration’s 
Exploratory Advanced Research Program, 
the National Cooperative Highway Re- 
search Program, and by industry associa- 
tions and SCM producers and suppliers to 
better define performance requirements 
of harvested and beneficiated fly ash and 
other coal combustion products. 

Natural Pozzolans 
Another solution to extend the resources 
for SCMs is to increase production of 
natural pozzolans. Natural pozzolans are 
quarried minerals with similar composi- 
tions to fly ash, making them also pozzo- 
lanically reactive. Minerals in this category 
include unaltered volcanic minerals such as 
pumice, perlite, and volcanic ash; altered 
volcanic minerals such as zeolites; and 
calcined sedimentary minerals such as clays 
and shales. 

Natural pozzolans have a sttong history 
of use in the United States in the early 

20th century for the construction of many 
landmark bridges and dams. Their use 
decreased as fly ash came into favor during 
the late 20th century, but they ate experi- 
encing a renaissance as fly ash production 
decreases and demand for high-quality 
SCMs increases. In the United States, 
natural pozzolan producers formed the 
Natural Pozzolan Association (NPA) in 
2017 to represent their growing industry. 
The NPA reports adding 500,000 tons of 
new production capacity in North America 
in 2018 and estimates producing 500,000 
tons more in 2019. 

Use and research on both raw and 
calcined natural pozzolans demonstrate 
excellent performance as SCMs in concrete 
in terms of fresh and hardened state prop- 
erties and long-term durability. 

Blended Ashes 

Another opportunity for extending SCM 
resources comes ftom blending materials 
from different sources. Blending facilitates 
the use of underutilized materials and 
conserves the use of high-quality materials, 

enabling the production of a larger 
quantity of good quality material for 
use in concrete. For example, blending 
an SCM that does not meet the ASTM 
C618/AASHTO M295 specification 
for fineness with a finer material can 
produce an acceptable alternative. Sim- 
ilarly, blending an SCM with a high car- 
bon content with one having a lower 
carbon content can yield an acceptable 
level of carbon content. 
Blending of SCMs is permitted 
under ASTM C1697. However, the 
specification currently only allows 
the blending of materials that meet 
specifications for fly ashes, natu- 
ral pozzolans, silica fume, and slag 
cement. Off-specification materials 
are not allowed despite research that 
shows off-specification fly ashes 
blended with natural pozzolans or 
other fly ashes perform quite well 
in concrete mixtures, as long as the 
blended material meets the chemical 
and physical requirements for a fly ash. 
Furthermore, blending materials such 
as milled bottom ash with fly ashes and 
other SCMs presents the opportunity 
to include more underutilized coal 
combustion residuals. 

“Changes in electricity genera- 
tion will continue to impact concrete 
mixture designs into the future,” says 
Michael Praul, P.E., senior concrete 
engineer with the FHWA Mobile Con- 
crete Technology Center. “However, 
there are many promising approaches 

to solving this problem—from ben- 
eficiating underutilized or landfilled 
materials to searching for new sources 
of SCM materials and optimizing 
blends for targeted performance. Now 
is the time to develop viable means 

to assure the long-term availability of 
SCMs so we can continue to produce 
high-quality concrete for the Nation’s 
infrastructure in the future.” 

Ahmad Ardani, PE, and Richard 
Meininger, PE, are the FHWA points 
of contact for this research. Ardani is 
the concrete research program manager 
with FHWA at the Turner-Fairbank 
Highway Research Center (TFHRC). 
Meininger is a research civil engineer 
on the Pavement Materials Team at 
TFHRC. For more information, con- 
tact Ardani at or 
202-493-3422, or Meininger at Richard. or 202-493-3191. 

SAIF AL-SHMAISANTI is a Ph.D. student in 
civil engineering at the University of Texas 
at Austin. Al-Shmaisani has B.S. and MS. 
degrees in civil engineering from the 
University of Texas at Austin. 

MARIA JUENGER, Ph.D,, is a professor of civil, 
architectural, and environmental engineering 
at the University of Texas at Austin. Juenger 
received a B.S. in chemistry from Duke Uni- 
versity and a Ph.D. in materials science and 
engineering from Northwestern University. 

This photo shows a typical sawed joint in plain concrete slip-formed pavement 
with the desired crack extending from the bottom of the partial-depth saw cut 
to the bottom of the slab. Using SCMs in concrete paving mixtures will help 
improve the durability of the concrete in deicing chemical exposures, whichis 
important in long-term joint performance. 

Source: FHWA. 


The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) is 
supporting research on fly ash and fly ash alter- 
natives in concrete, including the role of fly ash in 
preventing thermal cracking in mass concrete and 
controlling expansion from ASR. With respect to the 
latter, the University of Texas at Austin maintains 
outdoor exposure sites to monitor long-term durabil- 
ity of concrete mixtures both in Austin, TX, and in 
the Gulf of Mexico. The long-term outdoor exposure 
testing enables the correlation of degradation under 
accelerated testing to that which occurs under 
more realistic conditions. 

Outdoor exposure sites for durability testing at the 
University of Texas at Austin. 
© Racheal Lute. 

TxDOT-funded work on fly ash alternatives began 
in 2011 as changes in air pollution regulations for 
power plants threatened to reduce the availability 
of fly ash in Texas. TxDOT-sponsored research at 
the University of Texas at Austin targeted natural 
pozzolans as fly ash replacements, with excellent 
performance identified from pumice, perlite, and 
calcined clay and shale. At the time of the research, 
these materials were more expensive than fly ash. 
TxDOT continued to sponsor work on lower cost 
materials, such as reclaimed and remediated fly 
ashes and byproduct sources of natural pozzolans, 
such as overburden pumice. All materials with 
pozzolanic reactivity performed well in concrete 
mixtures, improving mechanical properties and 

TxDOT's support for research is continuing 
with emphasis on blended fly ashes and tools for 
screening good materials from marginal or poor 
ones, which is critically important as the industry 
sees an increasing variety of materials and blends 
introduced to the market. 




“4 s 



FHWA’s cooperative driving automation program is transforming transportation. 

ooperative driving automation (CDA) 

has the potential to improve transpor- 
tation safety and efficiency, facilitate freight 
movement, increase productivity, and save 
money by reducing the need to widen road- 
way lanes. The Federal Highway Adminis- 
tration developed the unique CARMA Plat- 
form” and CARMA Cloud™ (collectively, 
CARMA”) to support the research and 
development of CDA features in support 
of transportation systems management and 
operations ([SMO). 

“Automated vehicles, consistent with 
their name, operate autonomously or on 
their own,” says Chris Stanley, the program 
manager for FHWA’s Saxton Transporta- 
tions Operation Laboratory and the senior 
director of surface transportation research 
at Leidos. “FHWA is enabling these 
vehicles to work together for the public 
good, improving transportation safety 
and mobility.” 

CARMA is a cooperative effort among 
FHWA, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety 
Administration, the Maritime Administra- 
tion, the Intelligent Transportation Systems 
Joint Program Office, and the Volpe 
National Transportation Systems Center. 
Together, the agencies work to facilitate 
collaboration, research, and testing in CDA 
as well as the future of the Nation’s trans- 
portation system. 


What Is CARMA? 
The overarching purpose of CARMA is 
to transform transportation, improving 
efficiency and safety through automated 
vehicles working together with roadway 
To fully understand what CARMA is 
and how it can improve transportation 
efficiency and safety, it is important to 
understand how the current iteration of 
CARMA developed. CARMA started 
out as a proof of concept. A software 
package developed to enable vehicles to 
communicate their longitudinal movements 
with each other, CARMA1 marked the 
start of FHWA’s cooperative automated 
vehicle fleet. 
Next, the team developed CARMA2, 
a platform built on open-source software. 
The goal of this phase was to engage with 
the industry on CDA in order to expand 
existing automation capabilities and to 
reduce research and development time. 
CARMA2 runs on a computer inside a 
vehicle. The computer interacts with the 
vehicle’s devices and microcontrollers, 
including onboard units and after-market 
sensors such as radars. The platform 
manages the controller area network (CAN 
bus) messages for the vehicle to speed up 
or slow down, gathers data from con- 
nected sensors to understand the vehicle’s 

environment, transmits the onboard unit 
messages to other vehicles, and processes 
incoming messages ftom other vehicles and 
infrastructure in order to cooperate with 
other vehicles. The platform also provides 
many plug-ins that support cooperative 
driving tactics, such as cruising, yielding, 
lane changing and merging, platooning, and 
speed harmonizing. 

The research team then developed 
CARMAS3, the latest version of CARMA 
released in July 2019 and now simply called 
CARMA, to collaborate with the research 
and development community. It consists of 
CARMA Cloud and the CARMA Platform. 

CARMA is an open-source software 
that enables researchers and engineers to 
develop and test their CDA features on 
properly equipped vehicles. It is available 
on the GitHub development platform at 
/CARMAPIatform for any researcher to 
download and use. By making CARMA 
publicly available, FHWA and its partners 
hope to set the foundation for interoper- 
ability across vehicle makes and models 
and encourage the safe introduction of the 
technology onto the Nation’s roads. 

CARMA Cloud is a download- 
able, cloud-based, open-source service 
that enables communication between 
cloud services, vehicles, road users, and 

Alluse the third phase of CARMA (CARMA3). 
Source: FHWA. 

infrastructure devices. CARMA Cloud 

FHWA recently expanded its CDA fleet by four new passenger 
vehicles. Three different makes and models are shown here. 

AMTONALED VenicLes Working Tocetuen 

or tactical planning of vehicle behaviors 

Developing Strategies 

for Key Scenarios 
The CARMA Program aims to develop 
a concept of operations for TSMO 

enables the roadway to provide informa- 

tion to support safe operation for new 

TSMO strategies. This technology facili- 

tates cooperation among vehicles and road- 

way infrastructure through communication. 
The CARMA Platform provides 

cooperative research functionality to 

and trajectories to exercise particular 
algorithms and cooperative interaction. 
The controller plug-in API provides 
for the implementation of low-level 
motion-planning algorithms. Finally, 
the hardware driver API enables users 
to install the platform on any properly 


an automated driving system. By using 
CARMA Cloud to provide information 
about what’s ahead (such as traffic inci- 
dents, road weather conditions, and work 
zones), the CARMA Platform enables 
automated vehicles to interact and cooper- 
ate with infrastructure and other vehicles, 
improving the performance of the existing 
transportation system. 

Features of the CARMA Platform 
The developers designed the CARMA Plat- 
form with flexibility in mind. It is built on 
Robot Operating System (ROS) to encour- 
age modular design so that components 
can be easily swapped out to experiment 
with different combinations. It includes 
vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communi- 
cations capabilities to compose, transmit, 
receive, and parse V2X messaging and can 
work with any radio device. 

The platform also includes three 
application planning interfaces (APIs). 
The planning plug-in API enables users to 
install plug-ins for either strategic planning 

equipped vehicle, as long as drivers are 
installed that connect to the various 

vehicle sensors and controller equipment. 

Additionally, the third phase of 

CARMA softwate also features: 

Localization, motion planning, and 
obstacle detection and avoidance. 
Autoware™ components that 

are adaptable to work with 

other platforms. 

Environment sensing with 

light detection and ranging 
(LiDAR), radar, video, 

and MobilEye"-integrated 
roadway-sensing devices. 

Society of Automotive Engineers 
(SAE) level 2 steering and speed 
control while staying in lane. 

Basic safety message broadcasting 
using data from the CARMA system. 

FHWA and its partners are develop- 

ing further CARMA features, and more 
information will be available online as 
these features are identified and created. 

The Federal Motor Carrier Safety 
Administration (FMCSA) is the 
leading Federal government agency 
hat is responsible for regulating 
safety of commercial motor vehicles. 
FMCSA’s priority is to reduce crashes, 
injuries, and fatalities that involve 
large trucks and buses. FMCSA has 
joined the CARMA Collaborative in 
order to push the limits of CARMA 
by improving transportation safety. 
he four tractors provided by FMCSA 
are the next generation for test 
vehicles that will support Society of 
Automotive Engineers (SAE) Level 
2. and Level 3 commercial motor 
vehicle automation research, The 
areas of research for the tractors 
include roadside inspections, 
advanced driver-assistance systems, 
performance, platooning, driver 
readiness, and cybersecurity. 


strategies, including basic travel, traffic 
incident management (TIM), work zone, 

and weather scenarios. 

“The results of this research will accel- 
erate stakeholder collaboration expediting 
identification of readiness needs that will 
stimulate deployment of cooperative driv- 
ing automation technology while advancing 
safety, security, data, and application of 
artificial intelligence,” says John Harding, 
the leader of FHWA’s Connected/Auto- 

CARMA will explore two 
basic travel scenarios, 
including merging onto 
a highway. Here, the 
text bubbles indicate 
in-vehicle warning 
messages for cars that 
are merging as well as 
cars in the travel lane. 

Source: FHWA. 

This phase of the 
CARMA project 
investigates three 
scenarios related 

to traffic incident 
management, including 
changing lanes ona 
freeway in response to 
an incident ahead with a 
responding emergency 

Source: FHWA. 

The CARMA team will 
examine two work zone 
management scenarios, 
including one-lane, 
two-way traffic taper 

in which a single lane 

is used for alternating 
traffic in each direction, 
as shown here. 

Source: FHWA. 

CARMA will explore 
aroad weather 
management scenario 
in which vehicles 

must change speed 
and prepare for other 
adjustments at the 
beginning of a weather 
event zone. 

Source: FHWA. 



Merge Left 

mated Vehicles and Emerging Technolo- 

gies Team. 

Basic travel. 'The first basic travel scenario 
CARMA will explore is merging onto a 
highway. The second research priority is 

navigating a signalized intersection. 

Traffic incident management. The CARMA 

team will research three TIM-related 

scenarios. The first is when vehicles must 
move out of the way of first responder 
vehicles driving toward an incident. The 

is the move-over 

scenario being ex, 

in response to an 

Work zone management. The 

second priority for investigation 
approaching vehicles should move out of 
the lane adjacent to stationary emergency 
vehicles with flashing lights. The third 

phase is changing lanes on a freeway 

a travel lane ahead. 

aw, in which 

plored during this 

incident blocking 

Vehicles merging 
from right 

first scenario CARMA will 

Merge Left |— 

explore is a one-lane, two-way traffic taper. 
The second-priority scenario for investiga- 
tion is a road closure with diversion. 

Road weather management. CARMA 

will investigate the scenario of a vehicle 
adjusting speed and preparing for other 
adjustments at the beginning of a weather 


event zone. 

CARMA Collaborative 

FHWA established the CARMA Collabora- 
tive to bring together diverse stakeholders 
supporting the future of the transportation 
industry. The effort bridges gaps among 
several stakeholder groups and forms a 
community of existing and prospective 
CARMA usets invested in developing 
intelligent transportation solutions and 
cooperative automated driving systems 

to improve transportation efficiency and 
safety. The CARMA Collaborative provides 
opportunities to cultivate relationships, 
share expertise, pilot transportation tech- 
nologies, implement cooperative automated 
driving systems, and strengthen the trans- 

FHWA andits partners recently released the third iteration of the CARMA 
software platform. CARMA promotes collaboration and participation 
from communities of engineers and researchers to advance the 
understanding of cooperative automated driving. 

Source: FHWA. 

portation industry for public benefit. 

The CARMA Collaborative advances 
the understanding of CDA and the impacts 
it can have on mobility, cultivates technol- 
ogy that enables cooperative automated 
driving systems, and accelerates use of 
CARMA by stakeholders to support the 
collaborative development and adoption of 
cooperative and automated technologies. 
The collaborative facilitates active engage- 
ment, interaction, and discussion on the 
use of CARMA through its open-source 
platform, stakeholder engagement, and 
webinars to share information. 

Get Involved! 

The latest version of CARMA is now live 
on GitHub and open for collaboration. 
The unique CARMA Platform enables 
users to download and add this software to 
a properly equipped vehicle with automated 
driving technology. Download the software 
to begin collaborating with FHWA and its 
partners in improving the roadways today. 

TAYLOR LOCHRANE is the technical program 
manager for CARMA, leading the open source 
development and collaboration efforts of CARMA 
with partners and stakeholders. He earned 

B.S, M.S,, and Ph.D. degrees in civil engineering 
focused in transportation from the University of 
Central Florida. 

LAURA DAILEY is the communications manager of 
the Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory, 
overseeing marketing and engagement activities. 
She earned an MS. degree from Drexel University 
and B.S. degree with a marketing concentration 
from Elon 

CORRINA TUCKER is a junior communications 
specialist in the Saxton Transportation Operations 
Laboratory leading outreach activities. She holds 
a BA. degree in digital media from Penn State and 
specializes in technical writing and multimedia. 

For more information, contact Taylor 
Lochrane at or visit 


n 1970, the Nation was at the height of 
Eisenhower's Interstate Era. Federal and 
State highway agencies worked to plan and 

build the interstate highway stem, the 
largest civil works project ever constructed 
in the United States. At the same time, 
people across all industries looked for new 
ways to protect natural, social, and cultural 
environments. As the Nation’s interstate 
routes expanded, the Federal Highway 
Administration recognized that maintaining 
and updating this system would require a 
contemporary, trained workforce, one able 
to implement new methods and technolo- 
gies. More and larger projects, developing 
and adapting new innovations, and a grow- 
ing workforce meant a need for training to 
meet the demands. 

To rise to the challenge of providing 
new skills and staffing for the transpor- 
tation industry, Congress authorized the 
creation of the National Highway Institute 
(NHI) as part of the Federal-Aid Highway 
Act of 1970, As FHWA’s training arm, 
NHI was tasked with the development 
and delivery of training for State and 
local highway organizations across the 
United States. 

In the beginning, NHI was a lean 
organization with just a few employees 
who completed all course registrations, 
scheduling arrangements, and certificates 
by hand. With this limitation, the agency 
understandably offered only a small 
selection of courses. Today, NHI regu- 
larly collaborates with partners across the 


transportation industry, both nationally and 
internationally, to offer a catalog that has 
grown to include more than 400 courses in 
18 broad categories, including more than 
200 distance-learning courses that capitalize 
on the latest web technologies. With 205 
web-based trainings, 20 web-conference 
trainings, and an ever-increasing num- 

ber of blended courses (part online, part 
instructor led) on the books, NHI aims to 
train more transportation professionals, 
accessibly and affordably, in the fields they 
need most. 

Even though the technology and 
teaching formats are relatively new, NHI’s 
commitment to excellence in training is 
not. As FHWA’s training and educational 
business unit, NHI has provided quality 
technical training to the Nation’s broad 
network of transportation professionals 
for the past 50 years. And this year, as NHI 
celebrates its golden anniversary, it proudly 
continues to serve as the country’s princi- 
pal source of transportation-related course 
materials and training. 

res the Nation’s transportation 
professionals remain at the forefront 

of their chosen disciplines and helps to 
safeguard the country’s infrastructure as 

a national asset. NHI develops its techni- 
cal training in collaboration with FHWA 
program offices, FHWA’s Resource Center, 
State departments of transportation, local 
agencies, and industry partners, which 

encourages nationwide application of state- 
of-the-practice techniques. 

NHI’s portfolio of training products 
covers a wide variety of transportation- 
related program areas ranging from asset 
management and structures to intelligent 
transportation systems and highway safety. 
The instructor-led and web-conference 
sessions provide a direct line of commu- 
nication with experienced practitioners 
considered by their peers to be experts in 
their respective fields. 

NHI strives to be the authoritative 
source for transportation training by 
offering relevant and organized curricula, 
providing outstanding customer service, 
and delivering training formats that sup- 
port various learning needs and workforce 
trends. The organization is dedicated to 
improving the performance of the trans- 
portation industry by providing effective 
and innovative instruction, both in the 
classroom and online. 

To ensure that current training needs 
ate being met, NHI is conducting a 3-year 
initiative to update the entire 418-course 
catalog. The goal of this undertaking, as 
well as that of the new web-based courses, 
is to make NHI more affordable and acces- 
sible to professionals across the industry. 

NHI’s new director, Michael Davies, is 
the push behind this effort. “We recog- 
nize the ever-changing landscape of the 
transportation industry and its workforce 
development needs,” says Davies. ““That’s 
why we ate laser-focused and committed 

For 50 years, the National Highway Institute has delivered innovative and expert transportation training. As the primary training and education branch of the Federal Highway 
Administration, NHI aims to provide transportation professionals with the knowledge they need to perform and advance their careers. 

Image compilation by Schatz Strategy Group. Photos, left to right © Matej Kastelic, @ Matej Kastelic, @ Pavone. 

to providing a high-quality learning experi- 
ence through the most innovative training 
solutions available.” 


NHI uses the latest adult learning princi- 
ples to keep learners engaged and enthu- 
siastic about applying what they learn as 
soon as they return to work. NHI uses 

an iterative course development process, 
through which accredited instructional 
designers and subject matter experts work 
closely to determine training needs, design 
and develop a solution, and deliver a 
high-quality product based on the custom- 
ers’ unique objectives, timelines, and bud- 
get. That means that each course is not a 
cookie-cutter lecture, but instead uses local 
examples and tailored content to meet the 
specific challenges faced by attendees. 

The organization pursues strategic 
partnerships that enhance and attest to the 
quality of its training. These partnerships 
include university transportation centers, 
State DOTs, and FHWA’s Resource Center. 
Collaboration with these partners has 
elped NHI to provide better training to 
more customers. 

Beyond offering state-of-the-art and 
state-of-the-practice training, NHI is 
accredited by the International Association 
for Continuing Education and Training 
(IACET) as an authorized provider of 
continuing education units (CEUs). As an 
authorized provider, NHI can offer CEUs 
for its courses that qualify under the Amer- 

ican National Standards Institute/IACET 
1-2007 Standard. Accredited training may 
be used by highway industry professionals 
to maintain State-issued professional engi- 
neer licenses or other designations. For its 
planning and freight series courses, NHI is 
also an approved provider of the American 
nstitute of Certified Planners certification 
maintenance credits. 

“Accreditation gives our courses 
validity as high-quality trainings,” says 
Carolyn Eberhard, an NHI instructor 
liaison and historian. 

In addition to the IACET accredi- 
tation, several of NHI’s courses meet 
Federal and State requirements as 
approved training for industry certifi- 
cations. Maintaining Federal and State 
approval for many of NHI’s courses 
means enforcing rigorous standards 
and providing up-to-date trainings on 
transportation policies, technologies, 
and best practices. These efforts ensure 
added value, above and beyond CEUs, 
for individuals who take these courses. 

NHI uses innovative training delivery 
methods that increase accessibility to 
learning without sacrificing the quality 
or comprehensiveness of the content. 
This includes staying up-to-date on 
adult learning theory and convert- 
ing many introductory courses into 
accessible, user-oriented formats. NHI 
implements blended learning strategies 
to encourage the most efficient expendi- 
tutes of participant and instructor time. 

“Blended courses address participants’ 
needs to learn at their own pace and 
when it’s convenient to them,” says 
Melonie Barrington, an NHI training 

program manager. 

‘This dedication to excellence has results. 
In the last decade, NHI has significantly 
increased its reach in the transportation 
industry, training 173 percent more 

NHI Training Categories 




















LEFT: FHWA’s Administrator Francis C. Turner (left) 
with Emmett H. Karrer, the first director of NHI, in 
September 1971. 

Source: FHWA 

RIGHT: FHWA’s Executive Director, Thomas Everett 
(left), poses with NHI’s newest director, Michael 
Davies, who took the position in January 2019. While 
proud of the last 50 years, Davies is looking ahead 
to NHI’s future through innovative training and 
collaborative efforts. 

Source: FHWA 

participants in 2018 than in 2008 thanks to 
the incorporation of new training delivery 
formats, such as web-based training (first 
offered in 2003) and blended courses (first 
course offered in 2006). In the last 5 years 
alone, NHI has trained more than 200,000 
personnel from Federal agencies, State 
DOTS, local public agencies, international 
industry organizations, and institutes of 
higher learning. 

Developers continually update courses 
as needed to reflect the latest guidance, 
methods, and knowledge, and to incorpo- 
rate feedback received from participants. 
As an organization dedicated to learners, 
NHI provides access to highly skilled sub- 
ject matter experts from government and 
industry, incorporates hands-on learning 
opportunities and practical exercises that 
make real-world application a priority, 
and offers opportunities to collaborate, 
solve problems, and shate successful 


practices with industry peers across the 
United States. 

The vision for the future of NHI 
continues a longstanding history of 
forward-thinking ideas. In observation of 
NHI’s 50th anniversary, the focus this year 
revolves around one central theme: Moving 
forward, giving back. 

To celebrate its momentous anniversary, 
NHI plans to rebrand, increase visibility, 
and focus on innovation. 

Rebranding. NHI has developed a new style 
guide and introduced a redesigned logo, an 
all-new color scheme, and a revamped look 
and feel with modernized fonts and icons. 

Visibility. NHI plans to participate in more 
key industry events and develop a stron- 
ger digital and social media presence. The 
kickoff for NHI’s 50th year takes place at 
the Transportation Research Board’s 99th 
Annual Meeting, held January 12-16, 2020, 
at the Walter E. Washington Convention 
Center, in Washington, D.C 

Innovation. NHI is exploring new tech- 
nologies and finding innovative ways to 
communicate to broader audiences by 
modernizing its video library and training 
curriculum and implementing more oppor- 

tunities to use state-of-the-art virtual reality 
technology. NHI currently offers three 
computer-based trainings that use virtual 
inspections, including the popular Safety 
Inspection of In-Service Bridges (course 
130055), which was hosted 35 times in 

2020 offers a golden opportunity to give 
back to the transportation community and 
further support industry professionals. 

Financial Support. To strengthen its part- 
nerships with State and Federal agencies, 
NHI will provide resources to the trans- 
portation workforce throughout 2020. This 
will include discounted courses across the 
board and curated sessions for industry 
professionals hosted at NHI’s training 
facilities just outside of Washington, DC. 
NHI is also promoting its 50th anniversary 
by offering select NHI-sponsored “Golden 
Anniversary Courses” to State DOTS, local 
agencies, Tribal governments, and other 
FHWA partners. 

Website Chat Box. To make it easier for on- 
line users to get access to the answers they 
ate looking for, NHI is developing a chat 
box interface for its website. The feature 
will assist customers in finding informa- 
tion, offer help with hosting a session, and 

Fiscal Year 2018 Course Highlights 

Bridge Inspection Refresher Training 

Course with the Most Sessions (FHWA-NHI-130053) 

FHWA Planning and Research Grants: 
The Uniform Guidance (2 CFR Part 200) — Part 2 

Most Popular 
Web-Based Training 

Transportation Performance Management for Con- 
gestion including Freight (FHWA-NHI-138010) (this 
course has been replaced by a web-based version with- 
out the live conference session: FHWA-NHI-138019) 

Web-Conference Training 
with the 
Most Sessions 

Highest Rated Course Basic Relocation under the Uniform Act 

RIGHT: NHI uses virtual inspections in three courses, 
such as this one of a steel truss bridge from the 
updated Safety Inspection of In-Service Bridges 
course. NHI hopes to incorporate more virtual reality 
technology into its courses in the coming years. 

Source: NHI. 

answer questions about NHI coutses in 
real time. 

Collaboration. NHI has been working to 
build new and better partnerships internally 
and externally to create better opportuni- 
ties for our customers. These collabora- 
tions include the Resource Centet’s “Call 
For Service” (an initiative designed to 
identify and meet the technical and training 
needs of FHWA’s division partners), a joint 
training facility with the Federal Motor 
Carrier Safety Administration, and a new 
agreement with the Office of Innovative 
Program Delivery to offer all NHI web- 

“For the last 50 years, FHWA's National Highway 
Institute has been training and building the 
transportation workforce of the future. While 
our teaching methods may look different today 
and certainly will be different in the future, our 
goal for the next 50 years remains: to continue to 
deliver high-quality, leading-edge training for the 
transportation industry.” 

a : Source: FHWA. : 
based training at no cost to local agencies " -AMY LUCERO, FHWA Chief Technical Services Officer 

and Tribal governments. 
“We want to advance the industry and eee. 
better support the many transportation STAN WORONICK is the training delivery and customer service manager at NHI. Previously, he worked at 

professionals we serve,” says NHI Director _ the FHWA Missouri Division as an administrative officer and finance specialist. He holds a bachelor of 
Davies. “Throughout our 50th anniversary science in workforce development from Southern Illinois University-Carbondale and a master’s degree 
and beyond, NHI is committed to reinvest- in human resource development from Webster University. 

ing in their technical training needs, shoring 

up and strengthening the lines of commu- CHRISTINE KEMKER is c contracted marketing specialist for NHI 

nication, and uncovering new ways to bet- 

ter serve the transportation community.” For more information, visit 


Along the Road is the place to look for information about current and upcoming activities, developments, trends, and items of general interest to 
the highway community. This information comes from U.S. Department of Transportation sources unless otherwise indicated. Your suggestions 
and input are welcome. Let's meet along the road. 

Public Information and Information Exchange 

Secretary Chao Celebrates Groundbreaking 

of New Volpe Center 

In a ceremony on October 30, 2019, U.S. Secretary of Transpor- 
tation Elaine L. Chao celebrated the official groundbreaking of 
the new U.S, Department of Transportation John A. Volpe 
Transportation Systems Center in Cambridge, MA. Secretary 
Chao was joined by Massachusetts Governor Charlie Baker, 
Cambridge Mayor Marc McGovern, U.S. General Services 
Administration (GSA) Chief of Staff Robert Borden, U.S. 
Senator Edward Markey’s State Director James Cantwell, and 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Vice President for 
Research Maria Zuber for the groundbreaking ceremony. 

The Volpe Center currently occupies approximately 14 acres 
(5.7 hectares) of land in the Kendall Square section of the city. 
Following the conclusion of a two-phase solicitation process, GSA 
entered into an exchange agreement with MIT, which will pay 
$750 million to design and construct a state-of-the-art-facility for 
Volpe on approximately four acres (1.6 hectares). In exchange, the 
portion of the property no longer needed by the Federal Govern- 
ment will be conveyed to MIT for mixed-use development. 

The new facility will replace Volpe’s six existing buildings and 
surface parking lots with an energy-efficient structure accompa- 
nied by underground parking and approximately 100 bicycle 
parking spaces. As part of the Federal Government’s Art in 


Architecture program, which commissions artworks for new 
buildings nationwide, the new building will feature an art piece 
designed by Maya Lin integrated into the landscape on the east 
side of the site. 

USDOT Holds Inaugural Meeting of Rural 

Transportation Infrastructure Council 

In November 2019, USDOT hosted the first meeting of the 
ROUTES Council, which will improve the use of the Depart- 
ment’s discretionary grant funds in support of the Nation’s rural 
transportation system. The initiative, known as the Rural Oppor- 
tunities to Use Transportation for Economic Success (ROUTES) 
Initiative, will analyze the Department’s discretionary funding and 
financing opportunities to ensure rural communities’ transporta- 
tion infrastructure helps the national transportation network meet 
desired outcomes for safety and economic competitiveness. 

Rural transportation infrastructure has significant challenges. 
While one-fifth of Americans live in rural areas, 70 percent of 
the Nation’s road miles are in rural areas, carrying nearly 50 
percent of truck traffic. The highway fatality rate is more than 
twice that of urban areas, and 90 percent of the Nation’s bridges 
that ate posted for weight limits are in rural locations. 

The new ROUTES Initiative will address these national 
transportation challenges by assisting rural stakeholders in 

OPPOSITE PAGE: ROUTES is an initiative to address disparities in rural 
transportation infrastructure. 

© Drotyk Roman/ 

understanding how to access USDOT grants and financing 
products, and developing data-driven approaches to better assess 
needs and benefits of rural transportation projects. 

For more information, visit 

USDOT Awards Automated Driving 

System Demonstration Grants 

Eight projects in seven States will receive a total of nearly $60 
million in Federal grant funding to test the safe integration of 
automated driving systems (ADS) on the Nation’s roadways. The 
grants aim to gather significant safety data to inform rulemaking 
and foster collaboration among State and local governments and 
private partners. 

US. Secretary of Transportation Elaine L. Chao made the 
announcement at the Federal Highway Administration Research 
Showcase, an event promoting the importance of research and 
innovation in transportation. The event featured exhibits and 
demonstrations of the ongoing research, emerging technologies, 
and capabilities of the Turner-Fairbank Highway Research 

USDOT’s top priority is safety. Automation offers the 
potential to improve safety for vehicle operators, occupants, and 
other travelers sharing the road. To address this potential, 
USDOT solicited applications for the ADS grants, highlighting 
key goals for safety, data for safety analysis and rulemaking, and 
collaboration, The Department received 73 proposals. 

For more information, visit 

BELOW: One goal of USDOT’s new mobility initiatives is to increase availability and 
decrease cost of aftermarket modifiers that improve accessibility of vehicles for 
all users. 

@ Supannee_Hickman / 

Helping States Plan for ITS Cybersecurity 

USDOT’s Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) Joint 
Program Office (JPO) recently released Cybersecurity and 
Intelligent Transportation Systems: A Best Practice Guide 
(FHWA-JPO-19-763). This report presents the best practices 
in ITS cybersecurity, particularly in planning and conducting 
a penetration test. 

The report details the methodology of scoping a test, 
including the objectives, requirements, success criteria, test type, 
management, and test readiness. It includes a template test plan 
to help local and State departments of transportation get started 
on their own cybersecurity plan and penetration testing. The 
National Institute for Standards in Technology Critical Infra- 
structure Cybersecurity Framework and the Department of 
Homeland Security Implementation Guidance for Transportation 
provide context for using penetration testing as a mechanism to 
identify vulnerabilities. 

The report is available at 

Improving Access and Mobility for All Americans 

At the Access and Mobility for All Summit held in October 
2019, US. Secretary of Transportation Elaine L. Chao announced 
nearly $50 million in new initiatives to expand access to transpor- 
tation for people with disabilities, older adults, and individuals of 
low income. The initiatives include new programs to develop and 
deploy innovations in technology and further interagency 
partnerships to improve mobility. 

The summit assembled leaders from industry, academia, 
nonprofits, and government to participate in panel discussions 
and breakout sessions focused on interagency coordination, 
advanced vehicle technologies, and innovations in mobility 

As part of her keynote address, Secretary Chao announced a 
planned Complete Trip Deployment solicitation, which will make 
up to $40 million available to enable communities to showcase 
innovative business partnerships, technologies, and practices that 


New USDOT initiatives aim to expand mobility and access to transportation for 
people with disabilities, older adults, and individuals of low income. 

@ Supannee_Hickman / 

promote independent mobility for all. “Complete trip” means that 
a uset can get from point A to point B seamlessly, regardless of 
the number of modes, transfers, and connections. 

A planned inclusive design challenge will make up to $5 million 
in cash prizes available to innovators who design solutions to 
enable accessible automated vehicles. USDOT aims to increase 
availability and decrease cost of aftermarket modifiers that 
improve accessibility of vehicles today and spark development 
for future automated vehicles. 

For more information, visit 

Understanding the Business Case 

for Automated Bus Technologies 

Automation technology for personal vehicles is 
widely researched and discussed, but much less 
information is available about automation 
technologies in public transportation, specifically 
bus systems. This information gap can make it 
difficult for transit agencies to decide which, if 
any, technologies to invest in. 

Economists at USDOT’s Volpe Center 
analyzed the cost-effectiveness of a selection of 
bus automation technologies to help transit 
agencies evaluate which technologies may yield 
returns in the form of reduced labor or opera- 
tions costs. Different from a traditional public 
policy analysis or benefit-cost analysis, a business 

Number of docking station: 

for fiscally constrained transit agencies. 
In a report published in the Transportation 

case analysis offers a decisionmaking framework Hl New systems 

LB Existing systems 

from near-term, readily availa 

of automation. 


of Urban Mobility Systems 
Statistics (BTS) released an ini 

bikeshare (docked and dockle 

July 2019. 

busses with five different categories of 
automation technology. The technologies 
include a range of automation concepts, 

ble technolo- 

gies to longer term or early-stage ideas. The 
technologies also spanned different levels 

For more information, visit www.volpe 

Source: Volpe Center 

BTS Interactive Map Shows Growth 

USDOT’s Bureau of Transportation 

teractive map 

that documents the rapid growth of 

ss) and 

e-scooter systems across the country from 
2015 to 2019. The total number of these 
systems teached more than 350 systems 
serving more than 200 cities as of 

BTS’ interactive bikeshare and e-scooter map shows, by city, 
the name of the bikeshare system (docked or dockless) and 
e-scooter system serving it for every year from 2015 to 2019. For 

cities with a docked bikeshare system, the map can 

be zoomed in 

to the locations of the docking stations at the street level. 
Of 111 docked bikeshare systems in operation, 85 launched 

across the U.S. from 2015 through July 2019. More 
systems operate actoss multiple cities. Only docked 
systems open to the general public are included in t 

than 30 of the 

e€ count. 

College, employer, and resident docked bikeshare systems are not 
counted. The top five largest docked bikeshare systems in metro 
areas are Boston’s Blue Bikes; San Francisco’s BayWheels; Capital 
Bikeshare in Washington, DC; Chicago’s Divvy; and Citi Bike in 

New York City. 

Growth in Docked Bikeshare Systems, 2015-2019 

Note: Number is total at end of year, except 2019, For 2019, number is as of July 2 
systems open to the general public included in the count. College, employer, and resident docked bikeshare 
systems not counted. Last updated November 2019. 

1019. Only docked bikeshare 

Research Record, Volpe Center economists Source: U.S. Department of Transportation, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, Bikeshare and Scooter Systems, 
studied the costs of installing and maintaining available at as of November 2019. 


Dockless bikeshare systems and e-scooters first appeared in 
the United States in 2017 and have expanded coverage since then. 
As of July 2019, dockless bikeshare systems serve 38 cities and 
e-scooters serve 100 cities. 

For more information, visit 

Source: BTS 

Georgia DOT Launches Middle School Educational Program 

The Georgia Department of Transportation (GDOT) joined 
with Scholastic, a global children’s publishing, education, and 
media company, on a multiyear educational initiative designed to 
help educate the next generation of drivers. Developed for 
middle school students across the State, the Recognizing the Risk 
campaign provides students, teachers, and parents with resources 
addressing the dangers of distracted driving and walking. The 
program builds upon GDOT’s existing Drive Alert Arrive Alive 
and See & Be Seen campaigns. 

In 2018, 70 percent of the 1,514 fatalities on Georgia roads 
occurted as a result of distracted behavior, including 265 fatalities 
involving pedestrians. As a result of the new collaboration, 
Georgia teachers will provide their students with a number of 
classroom activities focused on promoting pedestrian and driver 
safety by discussing the hazards of texting, headphones, and 
more. The program enables teachers, students, and parents to 
engage in a wide range of collaborative discussions on real-world 
scenarios to foster responsible and safe alternatives to risky 

For more information, visit 

Source: Georgia DOT 

GDOT recently launched a new campaign to educate middle schoolers, teachers, 
and parents on the dangers of distracted driving and walking. 

TOP: © Ryan DeBerardinis / 
BOTTOM: © tab62 / 




Load and resistance factor rating (LRFR) is a methodology 
closely aligned with load and resistance factor design (LRFD) for 
new highway bridges. While LRFD specifications focus on the 
design of bridges, LRFR takes a parallel track aimed at determin- 
ing the load ratings for existing in-service bridges. 

To help States successfully implement LRFR, in 2009 the 
Federal Highway Administration developed Fundamentals of 
LRER and Applications of LRFR for Bridge Superstructures 
(FHWA-NHI-130092), offered by the National Highway Institute 
(NHI). NHI designed the course to provide State agencies and 
consulting engineers with the training they needed to implement 
this new method effectively based on a core curriculum in the 
fundamentals and applications of the American Association of 
State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) 

LRER specifications. 

With an increasing number of States implementing LRFR, 
NHI recently overhauled the course to reflect modifications and 
revisions made over the last decade to AASHTO LRED Bridge 
Design Specifications (AASHTO LRED) and the AASHTO 
Manual for Bridge Evaluation (MBE). Now titled Load and Resis- 


tance Factor Rating of Highway Bridges, this course is designed 
in accordance with the AASHTO MBE, 3rd Edition (2018 with 
2019 Interim Revisions), and the AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design 
Specifications, 8th Edition. 

Designed for the Modern Workforce 

The newly updated course includes brief lessons in an additional 
six topics at the end of each instructional day and a revision to 
the end-of-course assessment that ensures participants are 
receiving the latest possible information about LRFR bridge 
ratings. The six new topics are load rating of timber bridges, State 
load rating policies and procedures, State load posting and 
permitting policies and procedures, load rating of reinforced 
concrete box culverts, load rating of superstructures, and load 
rating of gusset plates. 

The content covered in this 4-day course is designed to 
provide both the foundational knowledge needed by less experi- 
enced engineers and the technical rigor and expertise needed by 
seasoned professionals. 

NHI suggests this course for State agency bridge and struc- 

tutes engineers or practitioners responsible for load rating of 
highway bridges, including designers, consultants, reviewers, 
maintenance and management engineers, and load raters. 

While there are no prerequisites for this course, it is best 
suited for professionals who have taken NHI LRFD for Highway 
Bridge Superstructures (course 130081). Individuals attending 
this course should have at least a bachelor of science in civil 
engineering, a working knowledge of the current MBE and 
AASHTO LRED specifications, and relevant experience using 
these specifications on at least one load rating project. 

For more information, visit To register 
for a course or to sign up for alerts when a course session is 
scheduled, visit the individual course description page and select 
the “Sign Up for Session Alerts” link. 

MELONIE BARRINGTON is a training program manager and ALANA WELCH is a 
contractor for NHI. 

States are increasingly implementing load and resistance factor rating on 
highway bridges. The National Highway Institute offers a course to help engineers 
at all levels understand this methodology. 

© Vitpho / 


about hosting NHI 130092. 

by the International Associa- 
tion for Continuing Education 
and Training (IACET). As an 
IACET Accredited Provider, 
NHI offers continuing 
education units for its 

programs that qualify under 
the ANSI/IACET Standard. 


NHI invites professionals interested in earning 
continuing education units or professional 
development hours to visit 
to browse the complete digital course catalog, 
which lists more than 400 courses spanning 18 
program areas. Interested hosts can submit a 
Host Request Form or find more information 

NHI is approved as an Accredited Provider 




Below are brief descriptions of communications products recently developed by the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Research, 
Development, and Technology. All of the reports are or will soon be available from the National Technical Information Service (NTIS). In some cases, 
limited copies of the communications products are available from FHWA’s Research and Technology (R&T) Product Distribution Center (PDC). 


When ordering from NTIS, include the NTIS publication 
number (PB number) and the publication title. You also may visit 
the NTIS website at to order publications online. 
Call NTIS for current prices. For customers outside the United 
States, Canada, and Mexico, the cost is usually double the listed 
price. Address requests to: 

National Technical Information Service 
5301 Shawnee Road 

Alexandria, VA 22312 

Telephone: 703-605-6050 

Toll-free number: 1-888-584-8332 


Requests for items available from the R&T Product Distribution 
Center should be addressed to: 

R&T Product Distribution Center 
Szanca Solutions/ FHWA PDC 
700 North 3rd Avenue 

Altoona, PA 16601 

Telephone: 814-239-1160 

Fax: 814-239-2156 


For more information on R&T communications products 
available from FHWA, visit FHWA’s website at, 
the FHWA Research Library at 
-library (or email, or the National Transporta- 
tion Library at (or email 

Automation in Highway Construction Part I: 
Implementation Challenges at State Transportation 
Departments and Success Stories 

Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-16-030 

The Federal Highway Administration conducted research to 
document gaps for implementing automation in highway 
construction and to develop guidance for State departments of 
transportation to assist agencies in implementing and using 
automation to improve project delivery. There are two volumes 
of the final report. Part I presents a description of the key 
automation technology areas and the associated benefits, 
challenges, and solutions. 

This volume provides State DOTs a focus on five key 


technology areas: remote sensing, 
technologies for locating under- 
ground utilities, three-dimensional 
(3D) design, machine control and 
automation, and field technology and 
inspection. This volume documents 
success stories and best practices for 
automation in highway construction; 
best uses for individual technologies, 
including the types of costs and 
resoutces requited by the industry 
and agencies for implementing these 
technologies; and the associated 
returns on investment. This volume also documents the challen- 
ges of automation technology in the areas of surveying, utilities, 
real-time verification, and data management. 

‘The document is available to download at 

Automation in Highway Construction Part II: Design 
Guidance and Guide Specification Manual 
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-16-031 

The second volume of FHWA’s 
report on research on imple- 
menting automation in highway 
construction and guidance for 
State DOTs presents an over- 
view of enabling technologies 
and policies as well as implemen- 
tation strategies, design proce- 
dures, and practical guidelines to 
properly generate 3D models for 
use in construction and other 
phases of highway project 

3D design practices are common in State DOTs, but automa- 
tion technology requires added detail in 3D design models to 
output data in a reusable and robust format, and it requires 
additional organization and description of the data. This report 
provides the accuracies needed for both survey control and 
topographic survey. The report describes how construction 
specifications can incorporate practices to manage the use of 
automation technology in a manner that adapts to project 
characteristics and evolving technologies. State DOTs interested 
in developing 3D digital design for use in automation in highway 

construction would benefit from reading this volume. 

The document is available to download at 

Mechanisms of Hydration and Setting of Ordinary Portland 
Cement in Simple and Complex Systems 
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-17-102 

This summary report provides a 
description of research conducted 
to improve the understanding of 
the mechanisms of hydration of Be 
portland cement in complex and 
simple mixtures. The summary 
report also describes research that 
develops analytical methods to 
directly observe hydration process- 
es in real time, and develops and 
validates improved computer 
models to design optimal concrete 
composition, curing methods, 
performance, and durability. 

The goal of FHWA’s project, “Mechanisms of Hydration and 
Setting of Ordinary Portland Cement in Simple and Complex 
Systems,” was to develop more efficient and effective ways to use 
concrete. Project scientists developed innovative analytical 
technologies to observe the mechanisms of hydration in three 
dimensions at the nano-, micto-, and macroscopic scales. These 
unprecedented observations have provided a depth of under- 
standing of hydration mechanisms that was not previously 

This perspective enabled researchers to develop a new and 
clearer hypothesis to understand the mechanisms of cement 
hydration. Computer models based on the new hypothesis will 
provide engineers and practitioners with tools to produce more 
efficient, durable, and cost-effective concrete products 
and structures. 

Mechanisms of 
Hydration and Setting 
of Ordinary Portland 
Cement in Simple and 
Fig complex Systems 

The document is available to download at 

LTPP InfoPave™: Knowledge Into Action...Performance Data 
For Pavement Innovation 
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-18-011 

The FHWA Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) 
ptogram’s web portal—LTPP InfoPave™ at https://infopave—facilitates access and analysis of LTPP and 
other pavement-performance data through a variety of online 
data selection applications and data viewing tools, organized 
into hubs. 

This brochure highlights each LTPP InfoPave hub, including 
Home, Data, Visualization, Analysis, Tools, Operations, Refer- 
ence Library, and Non-LTPP data. The data retrieved from LTPP 
InfoPave can be used for research, pavement design, and product 
development for decades to come. 

The LTPP program was initiated in 1987 to satisfy a wide 
range of pavement information needs. Over the years, the 
program has accumulated a vast repository of research-quality 
data, extensive documentation, and related tools, which compose 
LTPP’s comprehensive information management system. 

The document is available to download at 

LTBP InfoBridge: Gateway to Bridge 
Performance Information 
Publication Number: FHWA-HRT-19-009 

The FHWA Long-Term Bridge Performance (LTBP) Program’s 
web portal—LTPP InfoBridge at https://infobridge.fhwa—provides for storage, retrieval, dissemination, analysis, 
and visualization of data collected through State, national, and 
LTBP Program efforts to enable users with the ability to holisti- 
cally assess bridge performance on a network or individual 
bridge basis. 
This brochure highlights key LTBP InfoBridge modules, 
including Find Bridges (also Advanced Find and Map Find), 
Performance Dashboard, Bridge Information, Visualize Bridge 
Data, Bridge Analytics, Library, and Help. LIBP InfoBridge is a 
comprehensive bridge performance portal enabling researchers to 
develop tools and products that will enhance understanding of 
the performance of highway bridge assets, leading to more 
efficient design, construction, rehabilitation, maintenance, 
preservation, and management of those assets. 

The LTBP Program is designed to collect critical performance 
data that are not available elsewhere and merge them with data 
gathered from available soutces. 

‘The document is available to download at 


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Do you have research results or a program success story to share? * 

Are you using state-of-the-art technology or innovative methods that have had a positive effect on your 
program? Do you know of a good story that would be of interest to fellow highway professionals? If so, share your 
idea for a possible article in Public Roads. Promote your work while providing readers with valuable data, insights, 

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