Skip to main content

Full text of "Report of the Philippine Commission to the President, January 31, 1900 [-December 20, 1900]"

See other formats


This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  library  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 
to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 
to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 
are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  marginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 
publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  this  resource,  we  have  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 

We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  from  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attribution  The  Google  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  informing  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liability  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.  Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 


at|http  :  //books  .  google  .  com/ 


Hosted  by 


Google 


60-2. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET 


PHILIPPINE  COMMISSION 


TO 


THE    PRESIDEI^T. 


VOL.    IV. 


WASHINGTON: 

GOVERNMENT    PRINTING    OFFICE. 

1901. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


i  1 


Hosted  by 


Google 


C  0  N  ^r  K  N  T  S 


Page. 

*A PER  XL — State  of  agricultnn^ 13 

XII. — Public  workn  and  pdKiccH .* 19 

Xlll. — Health,   hygiene,  police,  and  pu})lic  order  under  Spanish  sover- 
eignty    29 

X IV. — Benevolent  in.^titution.^ 89 

XV.— State  of  industry 49 

X VI . — (yommeree 57  ' 

X  VI  I. — Means  of  conimunicatioii 75 

X  VIII. — Foreign  population 83  ■ 

XIX. — Public  lands  or  domain : 89 

X  X.— Religion 93 

XXI. — Climatology:  Climatic  and  meteorological  features 113 

Chapter  I. — Brief  account  of  the  meteorological  department, 

Manila  observatory,  18Ho-1899 117 

1 1. — Atmospheric  pressure 128 

TIL — Temperature  of  tlie  air 149 

IV. — Hygrometry 168 

V. — Precipitation  of  water 191 

VL— Winds 227 

VIL— (Jlouds 257 

VIII. — Baguios  or  cyclones  of  the  extreme  East 290 

IX. — Tornadoes 845 

XXIL— Chronology 859 

Chapter  I. — Historical  and  vhronological  notes  concerning 

the  Phili})pines 861 

U. — Second  period — From  the  naval  combat  of 
Playa  Honda  (1617)  to  the  dismissal  of  Gov- 
ernor Zabalburu  (1709) 867 

III. — Third  period — From  the  dismissal  of  Governor 
Zabalburu  (1709)  to  the  taking  of  Manila  by 

the  English  (1762) 374 

IV. — P'ourth  period — From  the  taking  of  Manila  by 
the  English  (1762)  totne  sedition  of  Tayabas 

(1841)  '. 878 

V. — Fifth  period — From  the  sedition  of  Tayabas 
(1841)  to  the  government  of  Don  Deigo  de 
Los  Rios,  last  governor-general  in  the  Philip- 
pine Islands  (1899) 886 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XI. 


STATE  OF  AGRICULTURE. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


STATE  OF  AGRICULTURE. 


INTRODUCTION. 

GENERAL    ASPECrr. 

Agriculture,  the  chief  source  of  \yealth  and  prosperity,  the  insep- 
arable (H)mpanion  of  the  well-being  of  families  and  of  the  power  of 
States,  this  branch  of  production,  most  intimately  allied  with  the  lot 
of  the  people,  has  not  prospered  in  the  Philippines  as  was  to  be 
expected,  in  view  of  the  favoring  conditions  which  exist  in  the  soil 
and  vegetation  of  the  virgin  land,  which  assist  in  the  solution  of  such 
a  g]'eat  problem.  In  effect,  the  insidar  tropical  climate  of  the  Philip- 
pine Archipelago,  with  the  various  modifications  of  it  claused  by  the 
topographical  situation -the  humid  atmosphere  on  the  one  hand,  and 
th(^  diversit}^  of  soils  due  to  mineral  constituents  and  effluvial  matter 
on  the  other  hand,  and  finally  the  great  wooded  regions  which  have 
deposited  upon  the  land  during  ages  a  thick  coating  of  organic  matter, 
a  most  desira])le  fertilizer  of  the  soil — all  this  constitutes  a  union  of 
conditions  which  make  the  Philippine  land  able  to  produce  and  mul- 
tiply not  only  the  productions  of  tropical  climates,  but  also  many 
others  of  temperate  zones,  if  proper  measures  are  taken. 

For  what  reason  is  it,  then,  that  the  actual  conditions  do  not  cor- 
respond to  such  dispositions^  The  poorl}^  developed  agricultural 
condition  is  due  to  several  causes.  We  will  enumerate  briefly  the 
principal  ones  in  the  first  of  the  three  following  chapters  into  which 
this  pail  is  divided.  In  the  second  chaptei'we  will  indicate  the  actual 
present  condition  of  Philippine  agriculture,  and  finally,  in  the  third, 
we  will  consider  certiiiri  means  of  improvement. 

CLAUSES    OF     THE     Sr.KUIT    DEVELOPMENT     IN    AGRICUETURE    IN    THE 

rniLIPPINEH. 

SMALL    POPULATION. 

One  of  the  first  requisites  for  the  cultivation  of  land,  without  which 
it  is  not  possible  to  develop  the  soil  in  a  rational  manner,  is  the  hand 
of  man,  and  human  labor  must  stand  in  hariiiony  with  all  the  other 
agents  of  production.  The  worthy  cultivation  of  the  soil  is  not  possi- 
ble if  there  is  a  lack  of  hands  for  the  multifarious  labors.  This  con- 
dition has  existed  in  the  Philippines.  There  has  existed  no  proper 
proportion  between  its  scanty  population  and  the  immense  area  of  its 
territory.  In  1810,  by  approximate  computation,  there  existed  in 
the  archipelago  2,526,000  inhabitants.  Among  them  were  Chinese 
mestizos,  119,000;  Chinamen,  7,000,  and  those  of  the  white  race  did 
not  exceed  4,000.     As  a  matter  of   fact,  but  one-ninth  part  of  the 

5 


Hosted  by 


Google 


6  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

whole  territory — 3,267,000  hectars — was  cultivated.  Bearing  in  mind 
that  the  extent  of  Philippine  territory  is  nearl}^  equal  to  that  of  Italy, 
with  28,000,000  inhabitants;  a  little  less  than  that  of  England  and 
Ireland,  with  32,000,000  inhabitants,  and  six  times  that  of  Belgium, 
with  5,000,000  inhabitants,  the  condition  of  the  Philippines  is  con- 
spicuous, presenting  a  virgin  soil  and  an  extensive  territory  to  a  popu- 
lation of  scarcely  8,000,000. 

SLIGHT    ACTIVITY    OF   THE    NATIVE   RACE. 

If,  in  connection  with  the  scanty  population,  is  taken  into  consider- 
ation the  character  of  the  Indian,  it  will  be  seen  that  the  proverbial 
laziness  of  the  native  race  has  been  no  slight  obstacle  to  advancement 
in  agriculture,  as  in  other  directions.  Content,  as  they  are,  with  the 
most  limited  amount  for  sustenance,  which,  as  a  rule,  they  are  able  to 
gain  without  effort,  they  do  not  apply  themselves  to  work  and  have 
none  of  the  more  lofty  ambitions.  They  care  naught  for  the  morrow 
nor  for  leaving  to  their  children  and  their  heirs  the  means  for  enjoying 
a  happy  future.  While  there  are  honorable  and  frequent  exceptions, 
increasing  in  number  every  day,  it  is  none  the  less  a  fact  that  in 
general  they  refuse  to  eat  bread  won  by  the  sweat  of  the  brow,  and 
this  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  it  is  to  agriculture  the  Filipino  owes  all 
there  is  of  value  in  the  general  traffic  of  the  islands;  for,  without 
taking  into  account  the  large  interisland  traffic  and  consumption  of 
prime  agricultural  products,  90  per  cent  of  its  exportation,  which 
exceeds  36,000,000  pesos  annually,  is  composed  of  a  few  leading  prod- 
ucts of  the  soil  upon  which  but  little  handiwork  is  spent,  even  in  the 
case  of  manufactured  tobacco.  Indeed,  up  to  the  present  time  there 
exists  no  considerable  branch  of  exportation  which  does  not  come 
from  the  vegetable  kingdom,  obtained  in  the  first  instance  by  field 
labor. 

THE   LACK    OF    WAYS   OF   COMMUNICATION. 

No  one  is  ignorant  of  the  great  advantages  which  means  of  commu- 
nication afford  to  agriculture.  It  is  indeed  one  of  the  chief  conditions 
for  the  development  of  agriculture,  if  there  is  any  pretense  of  seek- 
ing rich  results  from  it.  Unfortunately,  in  the  Philippines  there  are 
scarcely  known  other  ways  than  the  so-called  general  highways,  and 
these  in  certain  periods  of  the  year  are  little  less  than  impassable. 
Nor  are  there  byways  or  anything  deserving  this  name  in  tne  great 
majority  of  districts.  Such  byways,  or  secondary  roads,  are  essential 
means  of  communication  in  agricultural  districts;  and  for  the  farmer 
it  is  a  necessity  to  be  able  to  transport,  without  the  destruction  of  his 
beasts  of  burden,  the  products  of  his  lands  to  the  markets  where  they 
will  find  best  sale.  Because  of  the  lack  of  such  ways  of  communication 
it  results  that  the  districts  produce  only  that  required  for  their  own 
subsistence,  leaving  stationary  the  general  march  of  agriculture  and 
abandoning  the  elements  of  production  which  natural  opportunity 
provides  in  a  country  naturally  as  fertile  as  the  Philippines. 

FAILURE   TO   TAKE   ADVANTAGE   OF  THE   WATER   OF   RIVERS. 

A  multitude  of  rivers,  large  and  small,  pass  through  the  lands  of 
the  archipelago.  They  run  along  their  great  beds  witnout,  however, 
inundating  their  boundaries  and  fertilizing  the  country.     With  very 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  7 

slight  cost,  however,  in  many  places  they  can  be  diverted  and  run  into 
small  canals,  irrigating  extensive  tracts,  which  at  the  mouths  of  these 
rivers  stand  awaiting  this  kind  of  fertilization,  thus  transforming  barren 
plains  into  beautiful  and  productive  fields,  in  which  can  be  raised  a 
great  number  of  plants  that  will  greatly  augment  the  wealth  of  the 
country.  Many  districts  now  lose  crops  and  suffer  hunger  in  conse- 
quence of  drought  because  trusting  solely  to  the  water  of  rains,  while 
having,  nevertheless,  in  the  neighborhood  rivers  which  easily  would 
furnish  not  only  water  for  irrigation,  but  also  fertilizing  matter  which 
they  always  hold  in  greater  or  less  quantities.  To  a  still  less  extent 
has  the  country  taken  advantage  of  the  great  power  of  flowing  water 
as  a  motive  force  for  the  simple  machinery  used  in  production.  In 
man}^  rivers  there  are  falls  of  water  which,  in  addition  to  serving  as 
irrigation  for  the  district,  could,  with  small  cost,  be  turned  to  remu- 
nerative industrial  development. 

IMPERFECTION    OF    AGRICULTURAL    IMPLEMENTS. 

The  poor  state  of  production  in  which  the  archipelago  stands  with 
relation  to  other  countries  depends  further  upon  the  deplorable  sys- 
tems of  cultivation  followed  by  its  farmers.  In  the  Philippines  there 
is  scarcely  known,  much  less  employed,  a  single  one  of  the  thousand 
well-perfected  agricultural  machines,  the  use  of  which  in  other  coun- 
tri(\s  is  general,  even  among  agriculturists  least  skillful.  By  reason 
of  this  all  work  is  done  in  an  imperfect  manner,  because  in  no  other 
manner  can  work  be  done  with  the  antiquated  implements  which  are 
here  used. 

LACK    OF   CAPITAL. 

The  lack  of  proper  capital  and  the  high  price  asked  for  loans  consti- 
tute another  obstacle,  which  stupefies  industry,  augments  the  cost  of 
production,  and  restrains,  in  consequence,  its  benefits.  In  order  to  till 
the  soil  capital  is  necessary,  if  not  indispensable,  and  often  can  be  reim- 
bursed only  at  the  end  of  years. 

HAPHAZARD    METHODS. 

Vicious  also  is  the  general  system  of  agriculture  adopted  and  fol- 
lowed in  this  country.  It  neither  suits  the  necessities  of  its  inhabi- 
tants, nuich  less  nourishes  and  furthers  commerce  and  industry,  nor 
does  it  take  proper  advantage  of  the  happy  combination  of  soil, 
climate,  and  good  distribution  of  waters  which  are  at  hand.  The  unen- 
lightened method  of  cultivation  of  the  fields  employed  is  purely  brutal; 
it  being  recognized  that  to  till  the  soil,  with  proper  fruit,  there  is 
more  need  of  work  with  the  head  than  with  the  hands.  In  a  word, 
there  is  in  the  archipelago  no  system  of  agriculture,  properly  so  called, 
and  the  greater  part  of  the  people  have  no  idea  of  what  agriculture 
really  means.  In  a  land  like  the  Philippines,  in  which  in  every  direc- 
tion there  grow  spontaneously  plants  of  commercial  and  industrial 
value,  and  of  the  best  quality,  how  easy  it  would  be  to  subject  them  to 
a  cultivation  which  would  greatly  improve  and  proportion  the  prod- 
ucts to  a  greater  number  of  industries,  which  would  give  occupation 
to  many  hands  in  addition  to  those  directly  employed  in  agriculture. 
B}^  the  side  of  the  agricultural  population  there  would  then  grow  up 
an  industrial  population  which  could  make  use  of  the  products  of  the 
soil  and  in  turn  be  a  consuming  class. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


8  EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

CONSEQUENCES. 

To  the  defects  enumerated  is  to  be  attributed  the  fact  that  the 
Philippines  so  long  remain  in  the  primitive  agricultural  condition  in 
which,  according  to  economists,  the  country  produces  only  that  which 
is  strictly  necessary  for  its  own  meager  sustenance.  The  defects 
spoken  of  in  the  agricultural  system  lasted  down  to  the  time  of 
Governor-General  Basco,  who,  in  1782,  decreed  in  certain  provinces  a 
monopoly  and  an  enforced  cultivation  of  tobacco,  inaugurating  by  this 
scarcely  equitable  measure  the  agricultural  progress  of  the  country. 

FUTILE   EFFORTS   OF   THE   ROYAL   COMPANY   OF   THE   PHILIPPINES. 

Coincident  with  the  decree  above  mentioned  was  established  the  Royal 
Company  of  the  Philippines,  with  a  large  capital  raised  in  Spain.  Its 
principal  object  was  to  establish  upon  a  large  scale  proper  mercantile 
relations  between  the  archipelago,  East  India,  China,  and  the  Spanish - 
American  colonies.  The  business  with  the  last-named  countries  con- 
sumed, however,  a  great  amount  of  the  capital  and  the  greater  part  of 
the  activities  in  the  development  of  the  agriculture  of  the  archipelago. 
To  this  is  due  the  attempts  made  to  develop  on  a  large  scale  the  culti- 
vation of  cotton,  pigments,  cloves,  cinnamon,  coffee,  cocoa,  and  the 
mulberry  tree  for  the  growing  of  the  silkworm,  and  other  products 
of  the  soil.  But  the  general  apathy  that  came,  the  lack  of  technical 
knowledge  on  the  part  of  subordinates,  the  privileges  granted  to 
shippers  from  Acapulco  in  hostility  to  those  of  the  -company,  and, 
lastly,  the  strange  privileges  in  business,  amounting  to  a  tacit,  if  not 
expressed,  monopoly,  conceded  to  the  provincial  governors,  which 
lasted  down  to  the  year  1844,  together  with  other  causes,  such  as  gen- 
eral backwardness  and  ignorance  and  the  mercantile  isolation  of  the 
country  from  other  countries,  were  eventually  the  powerful  means  to 
nullify  the  high  and  patriotic  projects  of  this  company,  causing  its 
downfall,  not,  however,  without  leaving  the  seed  of  notable  agricul- 
tural experiments,  which  later  bore  valuable  fruit. 

STATISTICAL   FACTS. 

A  few  statistical  facts  will  aid  in  the  comprehension  of  the  slight 
importance  of  Philippine  agriculture  in  the  first  years  of  the  present 
century.  In  the  beginning  of  this  century,  the  exterior  commerce-^ 
exportation — of  the  archipelago  amounted  only  to  some  4,795,000 
pesos,  of  which  2,800,000  was  the  export  of  coined  silver,  sent  for  the 

Eurchase  of  silk  and  cotton  goods  and  other  products  in  China  and 
[indostan.  One  million  seven  hundred  and  forty  thousand  pesos 
more  were  sent  to  America,  leaving  only  some  500,000  pesos  to  repre- 
sent the  export  of  Philippine  products,  properly  so  called,  such  as  rice, 
ebony,  anneal,  sugar,  cotton,  shell,  birds'  nests,  horns,  etc.  So  that  it 
may  be  said  that  at  the  beginning  of  the  centur}^  the  total  exporta- 
tion of  agricultural  products  of  the  Philippines  scarcely  amounted  to 
400,000  pesos  annually. 

PRESENT   STATE   OF   AGRICULTURE    IN   THE    ISLANDS. 

In  spite  of  the  conditions  which  we  have  just  noted,  and  cue  to  the 
popularization  of  scientific  theories  and  the  stimulus  which  generally 
nas  been  lavished  upon  agricultural  industry,  and  the  admirable  devel- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  9 

opmeiit  which  every  class  of  industry  has  received  in  other  countries, 
there  is  beginning  to  be  reflected  the  beneficent  influence  in  the  Philip- 
pine territory,  and  the  stimulus  produces  excellent  results.  Science 
likewise  lends  its  aid  in  agricultural  undertakings,  bringing  practical 
ideas  to  the  mind  of  the  cultivator  and  arousing  him  from  his  old 
routine. 

MODEL    AGRICULTURAL    BUILDINGS    AND   STATIONS. 

In  addition  to  the  meteorlogical  observatory  of  Manila,  whose  serv- 
ices to  navigation,  commerce,  and  agriculture  are  well  known  to  all, 
various  royal  degrees  have  been  passed  relative  to  the  development  of 
agriculture  in  the  Philippines.     We  here  note  the  most  important. 

By  royal  decree  of  the  8th  of  July,  in  the  year  1884,  it  was  decreed 
that  in  the  future  the  agricultural  department  should  be  independent 
of  the  inspection  general  of  state  lands  and  should  remain  in  charge 
of  an  agricultural  conmiission,  who«e  organization,  object,  functions, 
and  duties  were  determined  in  regulations  approved  by  the  sovereign. 
By  these  regulations  there  were  intrusted  to  the  commission  the  fol- 
lowing duties:  First,  study  of  agriculture,  animal  production,  and  the 
means  leading  to  their  improvement;  second,  theoretical  and  practical 
teaching  of  agriculture  and  animal  culture  and  its  derivatives;  third, 
preparation  of  statistic^al  and  descriptive  documents  with  regard  to  said 
productions;  fourth,  building  of  edifices  devoted  to  agricultural  teach- 
ing; fifth,  editing  of  monographs  w^ith  reference  to  agriculture  in  the 
archipelago  and  with  reference  to  industries  created;  sixth,  zoological 
studies;  seventh,  the  making  of  agricultural  collections,  properly  clas- 
sifled,  to  be  sent  to  the  minister  of  ultramar,  and  local  museums  to  be 
created. 

By  royal  decree  of  the  i^Gth  of  November,  1887,  there  was  ordered 
the  creation  in  Manila  of  a  school  of  agriculture  whose  object  was 
the  theoretical  and  practical  education  of  skilled  farmers,  the  education 
of  overseers,  and  the  promotion  of  agricultural  development  in  the 
Philippines  by  means  of  observation,  experiment,  and  investigation. 
In  virtue  of  these  royal  acts  the  School  of  Agriculture  in  Manila  was 
opened  on  the  2d  of  July,  1889.  There  are,  in  addition,  two  courses 
in  agriculture  given;  one  in  the  University  of  Manila,  and  another  in 
the  Ateneo  Municipal.  There  exist  two  model  farms  in  the  provinces 
of  Pampanga  and  Visaya,  and  five  agricultural  stations  in  the  islands, 
which  are  at  the  same  time  schools  for  overseers. 

The  technical  work  intrusted  to  the  agricultural  stations  mentioned 
is  the  following:  First,  the  determination  and  study  of  the  physical 
properties  of  the  tillable  soils  of  the  region;  second,  mechanical 
analysis  of  the  same;  third,  physical-chemical  analysis  of  the  same; 
fourth,  qualitative  analysis  of  the  same;  fifth,  analyses  and  experi- 
ments by  the  scholars,  and  their  employment  in  actual  practice;  sixth, 
study  of  systems  of  irrigation,  quantity  and  quality  of  water,  epochs 
and  times  of  irrigation  best  adapted  to  cultivation;  seventh,  analysis 
and  study  of  seeds,  methods  of  sowing  and  grafting;  eighth,  study 
and  analysis  of  secondary  products  of  agricultural  products  and  their 
uses;  ninth,  experiments  with  classes  of  labor,  and  with  machines  and 
instruments  best  adapted  to  cultivation;  tenth,  experiments  with  new 
kinds  of  products,  and  studies  of  their  adaptability  and  cultivation; 
eleventh,  study  of  the  climate  and  its  action  upon  products,  of  the 
natural  fertility  of  the  soil,  the  assimilation  of  atmospheric  and  other 


Hosted  by 


Google 


10  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

elements,  and  the  manner  of  changing  them;  twelfth,  study  of  the 
expense  and  products  of  actual  cultivation  and  of  reforms  in  the 
economy  of  production;  thirteenth,  studies  with  reference  to  herds 
and  their  races,  qualities,  feeding,  care,  and  the  acclimatization  of  new 
species  and  breeds;  fourteenth,  study  of  agricultural  industry,  indus- 
trial products,  machiner}^,  and  reforms  in  industrial  methods;  fifteenth, 
study  of  the  diseases  or  pests  affecting  crops  and  animals  and  the  means 
of  combating  them  and  conserving  products;  sixteenth,  solution  of  all 
other  problems  of  technical  or  economical  character  which  affect,  or 
may  affect,  the  agriculture  of  the  region. 

The  chief  of  this  service,  the  professors  of  the  school,  and  the  direc- 
tors of  the  farms  and  farming  stations  are  required  to  be  agricultural 
engineers,  with  skilled,  graduated  farmers  for  assistants. 

In  the  year  1887  a  beginning  was  made  of  this  work  on  the  model 
farm  of  the  Visayan,  established  in  the  town  of  La  Carlota  (situated 
in  the  island  and  province  of  Negros),  longitude  1^8^^  east  of  Green- 
wich, latitude  lOf^^  north;  height  above  the  sea,  125  meters.  It  was 
established  near  the  principal  centers  of  cultivation  of  the  archi})elago. 
Its  results  have  been  recorded  in  a  special  publication. 

The  model  farm  of  Luzon  was  established  in  the  town  of  San  Pedro 
de  Magalang.  It  was  situated  in  the  province  of  Pampanga,  longitude 
120f^  east  of  Greenwich  and  latitude  15^^  north;  height  above  the 
sea,  33  meters.  On  this  farm  there  has  been  organized  since  1888 
a  fold  for  the  raising  of  horses  of  Arab  breed  for  crossing  with  the 
horses  of  the  island. 

The  five  agricultural  stations  heretofore  mentioned  are  as  follows: 
First,  that  of  Albay,  in  the  province  of  the  same  name.  It  is  situated 
in  the  southeast  of  Luzon  1231"^  east  of  Greenwich,  13^  09'  north 
latitude;  height  above  the  sea,  lOi  meters.  Second,  that  of  Isabela 
Luzon,  in  the  province  of  the  same  name,  in  the  north  of  Luzon,  127|^ 
east  of  Greenwich,  17^  36'  north  latitude;  height,  12  meters  above 
the  sea.  Third,  that  of  Iloilo,  in  the  district  of  the  same  name,  in  the 
island  of  Panay,  122f^  east  of  Greenwich,  10^  41'  north  latitude; 
height,  8  meters  above  the  sea.  Fourth,  that  of  Ilocos  Sur,  in  the 
province  of  the  same  name,  in  the  north  of  Luzon,  120|^  east  of 
Greenwich,  17f  ^  north  latitude;  height,  15  meters  above  the  sea.  Fifth, 
that  of  Cebu,  in  the  island  of  the  same  name,  123f  ^  east  of  Greenwich, 
lOf  ^  north  latitude;  height,  25  meters  above  the  sea. 

By  decree  of  the  general  government  of  the  islands,  on  the  22d  of 
eTuly,  1892,  there  was  ordered  the  publication  of  a  periodical,  enti- 
tled Official  Agricultural  Bulletin  of  the  Philippines,  in  which  there 
should  be  published  all  the  data  relative  to  the  work  accomplished  in 
the  agricultural  establishments  mentioned;  and  by  another  decree,  by 
the  same  authority,  on  the  3d  of  November,  1893,  it  was  ordered  that 
this  periodical  should  begin  to  be  published  from  the  1st  of  Jaimary, 
1894.  It  began  publication  from  the  1st  of  January,  1894,  the  chief 
of  the  agricultural  service  of  the  Philippines  being  director  thereof, 
and  the  engineers  and  their  assistants  being  the  editors. 

AGRICULTURK    AND    ANIMAL   CULTURE. 

Certain  animals  are  intimately  allied  with  agricultural  production. 
They  are  so  allied  because  without  them  agriculture  could  not  easily 
progress,  and  because  a  certain  number  of  the  inhabitants  must  give 


Hosted  by 


Google 


^ftK^*l;-/ 


P  C — VOL  4 — 01- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  11 

them  attention,  and  because  they  produce  without  much  cost  various 
articles  for  the  laborer,  and,  finally,  because  there  are  plants  and 
products  distinctly  and  only  for  their  maintenance.  Accordingl}^, 
after  having  set  forth  the  principal  vegetable  products  of  the  archi- 
pelago, we  will  speak  briefly  of  herds  and  other  domestic  animals  con- 
nected with  agriculture. 

IMIINCIPAI;    VECiETAHLE    PRODUCTS    OF    THE    AltCIITPEI.AGO. 

In  order  to  appreciate  the  actual  agricultural  condition  of  a  country 
or  region  with  respect  to  its  products,  it  is  sufficient  to  consider  the 
most  important.  Although  in  the  treatise  on  phytography  it  is  set 
forth  what  are  the  principal  crops  of  greater  cultivation  in  the  islands, 
nevertheless  we  will  briefly  eiuimerate  them  here,  with  some  remarks. 

Rice  is  the  bread  and  principal  sustenance  of  the  natives.  The  land 
responds  with  wonderful  fertility  to' the  labor  which  the  native  puts 
upon  it,  rendering  in  good  years  from  ninety  to  one  hundred  times  the 
amount  of  rice  sown.  There  exist  more  than  120  varieties  of  this 
grain,  distinguished  by  color,  size,  taste,  and  adaptability.  The  ordi- 
nary price  of  rice,  with  its  hull,  called  palay,  at  its  place  of  produc- 
tion and  in  normal  times,  ranges  from  0  to  7  reales  fuertes  per  cavan 
(16  liters).  The  price  of  rice  cleaned  or  hulled  ranges  from  15  to  16 
reales  per  cavan. 

The  annual  production  of  palay  in  the  Philippines  is  some  17,000,000 
cavans,  but  even  this,  united  with  maize,  mangoes,  and  other  food 
plants,  does  not  suffice  for  the  internal  consumption,  it  being  necessary 
to  import  from  Sa3^gon  annually  more  than  1,000,000  cavans,  of  the 
value  of  2,500,000  pesos  on  the  average. 

In  certain  Philippine  provinces  corn  takes  the  place  of  rice  as  the 
staple  article  of  food.  Such  is  the  case  in  Cagaj^an  and  Isabela  de 
Luzon,  where  the  cultivation  of  this  product  is  alternated  with  that  of 
tobacco. 

Ahaca  (inanUa  hem j) plant), — Hemp  occupies  the  chief  place  among 
fibrous  and  textile  plants.  Its  enormous  production  has  been  limited 
to  certain  regions  of  the  Philippine  archipelago,  as  all  the  attempts 
made  to  introduce  its  cultivation  and  utilization  in  Borneo,  Sumatra, 
and  other  points  have  failed.  It  constitutes  one-third  of  the  Philippine 
exports,  it  having  been  remarked,  according  to  statistics  published  in 
1891,  that  from  the  year  1818  to  the  year  1891  the  production  and 
exportation  of  raw  hemp  has  increased  fi'om  the  insignificant  quantity 
of  13,883  kilograms  exported  in  said  year  1818,  to  that  of  93,711,824 
exported  in  1893  and  valued  at  12,558,518,  according  to  official  custom- 
house statistics. 

Cotton. — Some  time  ago  cotton  attained  some  importance  in  the  Phil- 
ippines, because  it  was  the  principal  material  of  the  domestic  weaving 
industry  now  reduced  to  very  limited  proportions,  on  account  of  the 
competition  of  English  and  Spanish  cotton  cloths,  which  are  imported 
to  the  amount  of  5,000,000  pesos,  and  of  the  tax  on  looms. 

"  We  have  not  the  slightest  doubt,"  says  Dr.  San  Martin,  who  has 
written  a  valuable  little  book  on  the  cultivation  of  cotton  in  the  Philip- 
pines, ''that  with  a  good  choice  of  lands,  with  the  adoption  of  seed 
the  best  adapted  to  the  quantity  and  quality  of  the  cotton  harvested, 
and  principally  with  the  use  of  American  cotton-working  machines, 
either  worked  by  hand  or  by  any  kind  of  motor,  and  without  omitting 


Hosted  by 


Google 


12  REPORT    OF    THH    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

anything  essential,  the  greatest  success  would  crown  the  work  under- 
taken by  cotton  raisers.  The  sale  of  the  product  on  favorable  terms 
would  be  sure  in  Manila  itself,  where  the  certainty  of  having  good  cotton 
in  abundance  would  probably  lead  to  the  immediate  establishment  of 
spinning  factories  and  possibly  of  weaving  factories  also.  Now  that 
sugar  is  in  a  miserable  state  at  present  and  has  a  future  precarious  and 
sad  enough,  it  would  be  well  for  agriculturists  and  merchants  to  think  of 
the  great  advisability  of  establishing  cotton  plantations.  *  *  *  An 
annual  importation  of  more  than  $800,000  in  cotton  threads  and  of 
17,000,000  to  $8,000,000  in  cotton  goods  we  believe  offers  a  broad 
field  for  competition  to  a  Philippine  agricultural  and  manufactured 
product  of  this  most  valuable  textile  material." 

Sugar, — For  a  long  period  this  was  the  chief  article  of  export  and 
one  of  the  principal  Philippine  products.  Afterwards  the  demand  for 
and  production  of  hemp  grew  in  importance  until  it  was  placed  at  the 
head  of  our  exportations,  while,  with  rare  turns  of  rising,  the  demand 
for  Philippine  sugar  diminished.  In  the  period  from  1889  to  1893  the 
average  sugar  exportation  amounted  to  about  11,500,000  pesos. 

Three  enemies  as  cruel  as  persistent  mainly  conspire  to  kill  the 
exportation  of  Philippine  sugar,  and  they  are:  Beet-root  sugar;  high 
freights,  and  the  bad  curing  of  sugar. 

The  very  impure  Philippine  sugars  contain  great  quantities  of  dregs 
and  of  vegetable  acids  already  in  a  state  of  fermentation;  which  occasions 
a  great  loss  of  crystallizable  saccharine  substances  in  the  refineries. 

Tobacco. — Philippine  tobacco  represents  now  substantial  wealth  and 
a  flattering  future,  because  the  tobacco  business  rests  upon  a  solid 
basis,  which  is  the  excellence  of  the  leaf,  only  excelled  in  the  whole 
world  by  the  justly  celebrated  Havana  tobacco.  For  the  present,  limit- 
ing ourselves  to  the  prepared  leaf,  or  leaf  tobacco,  we  shall  say  that 
from  552,000  pesos'  worth  exported  in  1884,  the  exportation  during 
the  past  five  years  has  risen  to  about  2,000,000  pesos,  without  counting 
the  value  of  manufactured  tobacco,  which  is  considerable. 

These  figures  and  this  gradual  increase  observed  in  the  exportation 
of  our  tobacco  in  the  midst  of  the  general  crisis  through  which  almost 
all  the  producing  countries  have  been  passing,  overwhelmed  with  stocks 
larger  than  the  demands  of  universal  consumption,  offer  a  legitimate 
and  very  pleasing  outlook  for  the  Philippines,  because  they  clearly 
demonstrate  that  the  only  reason  for  this  increasing  demand  for  our 
tobacco  is  its  marked  superiority. 

Indigo.  —For  many  years  Philippine  indigo,  especially  that  of 
Laguna  and  of  Ilocos,  was  the  worthy  rival  of  that  from  (juatemala, 
which  is  considered  the  best  in  the  world.  But  on  the  one  hand  the 
deceptions  practiced  blindly  and  avariciously  by  the  Chinese  traders, 
in  whose  hands  this  valuable  trade  had  been,  and  which  was  discred- 
ited in  consequence,  and  on  the  other  hand  the  application  to  dyeing 
of  aniline  dyes  extracted  from  coal  tar,  very  cheap  and  with  magnifi- 
cent colors,  although  not  very  permanent,  were  potent  reasons  for 
diminishing  to  a  great  extent  the  demand  for  Philippine  indigo. 

In  1893  107,000  kilograms  of  solid  indigo,  valued  at  85,000  pesos, 
were  exported,  and  of  liquid  indigo  276,000  kilograms,  valued  at 
13,500  pesos. 

Cocoa. — Cocoa  is  a  delicate  plant,  and  although  it  is  found  in  small 
quantities  in  several  provinces  of  Luzon  and  Visayas,  where  it  pros- 
pers best  is  in  southern  Mindanao  and  in  the  district  of  Davao,  where 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  13 

it  is  produced  in  greater  abundance  and  of  better  quality.  The  pro- 
duction is  limited  and  is  estimated  to  be  some  2,000  piculs,  which  are 
consumed  in  the  archipelago.  The  first  cocoa  plants  m  the  archipelago 
are  due  to  Father  Juan  de  Avila,  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  for  he  used 
his  influence  with  the  Governor  Don  Diego  de  Salcedo  to  get  from 
New  Spain  some  living  plants  of  cocoa,  which  he  planted  and  culti- 
vated with  the  greatest  care  in  llog,  capital  of  the  island  of  Negros, 
where  he  then  lived.     (P.  Delgado,  S.  J.) 

Coffee, — Coffee  was  until  a  short  time  ago  a  very  widely  distributed 
product,  which  was  found  in  the  provinces  of  Laguna,  Taj^abas,  Cavite, 
and  especially  in  Batangas,  which  was  the  chie?  center  of  its  produc- 
tion. Philippine  coffee  may  be  compared  to  that  of  Java  and  Marti- 
nique, but  there  are  some  localities  where,  according  to  experts,  it  is 
produced  equal  to  that  of  Mocha.  The  statistics  of  the  years  1887  and 
1888  give  a  production  of  coffee  in  all  the  islands  of  115,000  piculs, 
some  100,000,  valued  at  2,000,000  pesos,  being  exported,  half  of  this 
exportation  going  to  Spain  and  the  rest  to  China,  British  India,  and 
Japan. 

In  order  that  Philippine  coffee  may  compete  in  the  markets  of  the 
world  with  similar  American  products  it  only  lacks  perfection  in 
shelling  and  polishing,  which  deficiencies  can  be  easily  remedied  by 
apparatus  suitable  for  correcting  those  defects. 

For  some  time  past  the  production  of  coffee  has  been  diminishing  to 
such  a  degree  that  during  the  year  1893  only  371  piculs  of  this  valua- 
ble article  were  exported.  The  cause  of  this  decadence  is  the  destruc- 
tion caused  in  the  plants  by  an  insect  of  the  genus  Xylotrechus,  and 
by  a  fungus  of  the  genus  Peromospera. 

(Jocoa  Palm, — This  is  a  tree  of  inestimable  value,  because  everything 
can  be  used,  as  we  have  said,  in  the  proper  place.  It  abounds  in  all  the 
archipelago,  and  its  fruit,  the  cocoanut,  is  exported  to  France,  Spain, 
England,  and  China  to  the  value  of  $675,432;  and  the  oil  only  to  China 
to  the  value  of  $15,445.     It  is  generally  exported  in  the  form  of  copra. 

STOCK  RAISING. 

In  vie^  of  the  vast  plains  which  could  be  used  for  grazing,  the  herd- 
ing industry  leaves  much  to  be  desired  in  the  archipelago. 

Horses, — Most  of  the  horses  in  the  Philippines  came  from  Mexico, 
Spain,  and  China.  They  are  small  and  have  hard  hoofs,  as  mentioned 
in  the  zoography.  The  Indian  does  not  take  the  care  of  them  that 
such  noble  animals  deserve;  they  make  them  work  before  they  are  full 
grown  and  overwork  them  in  their  races.  The  provinces  which  have 
the  best  horses  are  Batangas  and  Pangasinan.  They  are  plentiful, 
but  more  delicate,  although  better  adapted  to  racing,  in  Ambos,  Cam- 
arines,  Albay,  and  Sorsogon.  Those  of  Ilocos  are  small,  but  strong. 
In  Visayas  the  Mindoro  horses  are  renowned,  and  they  abound  in 
Negros,  Cebu,  Iloilo,  and  Leyte.  The  horses  of  Mindanao  and  Jolo 
are  very  good  and  of  good  height,  but  rather  wild;  they  are  quite 
abundant  in  the  districts  of  Misamis  and  Cotabatto. 

Buffaloes, — These  cattle  are  represented  by  the  carabao  or  buffalo 
{Bubalus  huffelus  L.)  of  the  bovine  family.  It  is  the  most  remarkable 
quadruped  which  the  Spaniards  found  in  the  Philippines.  There  are 
few  animals  so  ugly,  but  few  more  useful  for  agricultural  purposes, 
especially  in  the  Philippines,  where  it  could  not  be  replaced.     It  is 


Hosted  by 


Google 


14  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

black,  or  dark  brown,  its  coat  of  hair  being  very  streaked,  its  horns 
large,  curved,  wide,  and  rough;  the  head  small  in  comparison  to  the 
large  body.  It  has  great  strength  in  drawing  heavy  burdens,  but  its 
gait  is  slow  and  its  movements  sluggish.  On  account  of  its  great 
resistance  to  the  heat  of  the  climate  and  the  great  ease  with  which  it 
fords  large  rivers,  and  works  the  marshy  lands,  into  which  all  parts  of 
the  archipelago  are  converted  during  the  rainy  season,  it  is  invaluable. 
The  buffalo  is  also  indispensable  in  the  Philippines,  because  without  it 
it  would  be  impossible  to  travel  through  many  regions,  especially  in 
the  rainy  season.  It  begins  to  work  when  4  or  5  years  old,  and  lives 
until  30,  and  its  horns  and  hide  are  very  useful.  The  buffalo  is  unip- 
arous,  has  an  ugly  appearance,  a  good  scent,  and  excellent  hearing. 
It  eats  nuich  and  needs  to  drink  often.  It  is  supposed  that  there  are 
a  million  and  a  half  head  of  these  cattle. 

This  animal  is  the  most  abundant  and  the  best  developed  in  the 
country;  it  is  almost  the  only  animal  used  in  agricultural  work,  and 
as  a  beast  of  burden.  The  provinces  where  most  are  bred  are  Pan- 
gasinan,  Pampanga,  Albay,  Laguna,  Morong,  and  Zambales,  in  Luzon. 
In  Cebu,  Iloilo  and  Negros,  in  Visayas,  and  in  Mindanao,  in  the  dis- 
tricts of  Misamis  and  Cotabatto. 

The  wild  mountain  buffalo  in  a  savage  state  is  to  be  feared.  Meet- 
ing with  it  in  the  forests  is  really  dangerous  for  men. 

Nent  cattle. — This  species  does  not  belong  to  the  Philippines,  but 
came  from  Mexico  and  China,  and  is  not  as  useful  as  in  other  countries. 
Ordinarily  it  is  only  raised  for  beef.  In  some  provinces  they  are 
beginning  to  use  oxen  for  field  work  and  as  draft  animals. 

The  best  neat  cattle  and  the  most  abundant  arefoundin  the  province 
of  Batangas,  where  they  substitute  the  buffalo  in  a  great  measure  for 
field  work.  They  are  also  plentiful  in  Mindoro,  Masbate,  and  Ticao, 
from  which  islands  the  dealers  of  Manila  are  supplied.  There  are 
also  good  cattle  ranches  in  the  island  of  Tabiliran,  northern  Luzon,  in 
Calamianes  and  Benguet.  In  Visayas  neat  cattle  abound  in  Negros, 
Cebu,  and  Iloilo,  and  in  Mindanao,  in  the  districts  of  Misamis  and 
Cotabatto. 

Sheep. — These  animals  do  not  prosper  in  this  archipelago,  and  there 
are  very  few  and  miserable  specimens  of  this  most  important  kind  of 
cattle. 

Goats, — These  are  bred  to  a  cetain  extent,  especially  in  the  moun- 
tains. The  provinces  where  there  are  most  are  Batangas,  in  Luzon,  in 
Visayas,  Cebu,  Iloilo,  and  Leyte,  and  in  Mindanao,  in  the  district  of 
Misamis. 

Pigs. — These  are  more  abundant  and  of  more  utility  in  the  Philip- 
pines than  the  two  previous  classes.  The  Philippine  swine  are  of 
Chinese  breed.  Their  principal  use  is  that  of  the  breed,  that  is  to 
say,  for  making  lard.  In  small  towns,  and  even  on  the  outskirts  of 
large  ones,  almost  all  the  inhabitants  raise  pigs.  The  provinces  where 
there  are  most  are  in  Luzon,  Batangas,  and  Pampanga,  in  Visayas, 
Cebu,  Iloilo,  and  Samar,  and  in  Mindanao,  Misamis,  Cotabatto,  and 
Zamboanga. 

Domestic  fawl. — Chickens  abound  throughout  the  archipelago,  but 
they  are  only  raised  on  a  small  scale,  and  there  are  no  special  breeds 
which  merit  particular  mention.  Turkeys  are  also  raised,  but  in  the 
same  way  as  chickens. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  15 

Ducks. — ^The  ducks  raised  in  the  town  of  Pateros  (near  Manila), 
where  all  the  inhabitants  are  engaged  in  this  industry,  deserve  special 
mention.  The  breeding  places  are  located  on  the  banks  of  the  Pasig 
River,  in  the  form  of  yards  fenced  with  bamboo  cane  about  1  yard 
hig^her  than  the  level  of  the  water,  where  the  adult  ducks  pass  the 
day.  Near  this  there  is  another  inclosure  where  there  is  less  water, 
where  they  keep  the  medium  sized  ducks  or  those  beginning  to  have 
feathers.  Behind  these  two  inclosures  there  is  another  smaller  one, 
with  a  floor  of  woven  cane  or  sanali,  where  the  little  or  newly-hatched 
ducks  are  kept. 

The  food  of  the  little  ducks  consists  of  boiled  rice,  or  morisqueta, 
and  small  crabs.  The  larger  ones  are  given  palay,  or  rice  in  the  husk, 
and  a  small  snail,  called  by  the  natives  suso,  which  comes  from  Laguna 
de  Bay. 

In  the  duck  houses,  which  are  not  far  distant  from  the  duck  yards, 
there  is  the  same  separation.  At  sunset  all  the  ducks  retire  in  an 
orderly  manner  to  their  respective  departments,  to  return  to  the  yards 
at  daybreak  on  the  following  day  in  the  same  order.  It  is  hardly  day- 
light when  the  bantay,  or  keeper,  opens  the  doors.  In  tlie  duck  house 
there  is  a  floor  of  rice  husks  10  centimeters  thick  and  a  light  burning 
all  night.  After  the  ducks  are  let  out  in  the  morning  and  fed  their 
usual  ration,  the  keeper  gathers  the  eggs  laid  by  the  ducks  into  little 
heaps  of  from  Ave  to  ten.  Those  collected  are  taken  to  the  general 
storehouse  until  the  number  necessary  for  one  setting  is  collected. 

Near  the  house  of  the  proprietor,  not  far  from  the  duck  houses  and 
duck  yards,  there  is  a  house  or  room  of  bamboo  and  palm  leaves,  care- 
fully built,  and  with  as  few  apertures  as  possible — sometimes  only  that 
of  the  door  of  entrance.  The  interior  walls  are  of  bamboo  or  woven 
cane,  and  the  floor  is  a  thick  layer  of  rice  husks  or  ipa.  Around  the 
walls  at  the  distance  of  a  meter  a  sort  of  barrier  is  raised  with  woven 
cane  (matting),  and  between  this  and  the  wall  some  baskets,  called 
toangs,  are  placed  to  receive  the  eggs  for  hatching.  The  space  between 
the  wall  and  the  barrier  is  flUed  with  rice  husks  for  the  purpose  of 
isolating  the  interior  temperature  of  the  baskets  from  that  of  the  out- 
side room. 

At  the  entrance  door  of  the  room  there  is  an  iron  boiler,  wherein 
the  rice  husks,  contained  until  then  in  bags  of  hemp  cloth,  are  heated. 
When  the  husks  are  heated  they  are  replaced  in  the  same  bags,  near 
the  baskets  or  toangs,  where  are  already  prepared  1,000  eggs  in  the 
same  number  of  bags  as  those  containing  husks,  usually  eight.  A  bag 
containing  husks  is  then  placed  at  the  bottom  of  the  basket  without 
emptying  it,  and  above  it  one  of  eggs,  and  so  on  in  layers.     The  tem- 

Eerature  is  kept  36^  to  87°  C,  and  in  order  to  do  it  the  operation  of 
eating"  the  husks  and  returning  them  to  the  baskets  is  repeated  every 
day,  taking  care  to  place  in  the  bottom  layers  those  eggs  which  were 
the  day  before  in  the  top  layers.  After  twenty-one  days  the  eggs  are 
taken  out  and  put  on  tables  in  the  center  of  the  room.  On  each  table 
1,000  eggs  are  placed,  arranged  so  that  they  touch  each  other,  and 
covered' with  blue  cotton  cloths  to  protect  them  from  the  light  and 
somewhat  from  the  temperature  of  the  room.  The  eggs  have  a  tem- 
perature of  32°  C. ,  approximately,  and  are  kept  at  chis  temperature  for 
eight  days,  when  the  little  ducks  begin  to  hatch  out  everywhere.  At 
this  time  the  keeper,  who  during  incubation  sleeps  alongside  of  the  same 


Hosted  by 


Google 


16  REI^O^T    Oi^'    THE    PfllLlPPINE    COMMISSION. 

table,  gathers  up  the  little  ducks  one  by  one  and  puts  them  in  a  broad 
basket  of  reeds  or  bilao,  with  straw,  under  the  table,  where  they  all 
perspire  and  dry  off  for  one  or  two  days.  Thence  they  are  taken  to 
the  small  duck  yard  already  mentioned.  When  they  are  grown  the 
male  ducks  are  taken  to  market,  the  females  being  kept  for  breeding 
purposes. 

MEANS   FOR   THE    SUCCESSFUL    DEVELOPMENT    OF   AGRICULTURE. 

NECESSARY    KNOWLEDGE. 

Agricultural  production  is  a  vast  problem,  susceptible  to  an  infinite 
variety  of  combinations  and  solutions,  and  in  which  a  considerable 
number  of  elements,  not  only  differing  from  each  other,  but  variable, 
by  reason  of  a  multitude  of  accidental  and  unforeseen  circumstances, 
and  which  it  is  frequently  difficult  to  appreciate  and  discern,  enter, 
so  that  what  is  true  for  one  locality  is  not  true  for  another,  what  is 
good  in  this  district  and  beneficial  is  prejudicial  in  another,  what  can 
be  used  with  profit  on  one  farm  may  possibly  be  ruinous  on  another 
neighboring  one,  what  has  turned  out  well  one  year  may  be  a  failure 
in  the  following,  and,  finally,  what  may  give  a  profit  at  one  time  may 
by  reason  of  this  or  that  circumstance  soon  fail  to  give  it. 

In  this  state  of  things  it  is  readil}^  seen  that  it  is  impossible  to  take 
into  account  the  infinitely  changeable  influences  which  in  greater  or 
less  degree  are  involved  in  the  phenomenon  of  agricultural  produc- 
tion, both  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  laws  of  nature  as  well  as  from 
the  standpoint  of  the  mechanical  and  economical  means  to  which  it  is 
subject  at  the  will  of  man. 

In  order  to  properly  work  a  farm  to  get  out  of  it  the  crops  it  should 
produce,  it  is  not  enough  to  have  a  theoretical  and  practical  knowledge 
of  agriculture,  it  is  necessary  to  add  to  it  exact  notions  of  the  follow- 
ing points: 

(1)  The  best  system  of  cultivation  to  follow,  according  to  the  nature 
of  the  land,  its  location,  and  all  the  circumstances  which  may  influence 
the  growth  of  the  products. 

(2)  The  preference  which  should  be  given  to  certain  crops  which 
yield  the  most  profit  and  which  are  best  adapted  to  the  nature  of  the 
land  cultivated. 

(3)  The  most  economical  methods  of  obtaining  the  greatest  possible 
amount  of  crops. 

(4)  Finally,  the  best  means  of  utilizing  these  products  and  getting 
from  them  the  greatest  net  profit. 

PROTECTION    ON   THE   PART   OF   THE   GOVERNMENT. 

One  of  the  duties  most  proper  to  a  government  and  of  great  respon- 
sibility is  the  encouragement  and  protection  it  owes  to  agriculture, 
because  from  perfecting  the  same  and  the  development  of  the  arts 
necessary  for  the  utilization  of  its  products  the  welfare  of  a  people  is 
derived,  a  well-being,  which  it  is  especially  incumbent  upon  a  govern- 
ment to  promote.  The  Filipinos,  with  the  elements  contained  m  their 
soil,  will  be  able  when  the  time  comes  to  devote  themselves  with  much 
profit  to  all  kinds  of  industries;  but  in  order  that  these  industries 
may  have  rational  conditions  of  life  and  prosperity  the  first  thing  to  do 
is  to  give  the  Philippines,  by  means  of  a  good  system  of  cultivation, 
agricultural  industries. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK.  l7 

By  system  of  cultivation  is  understood  the  diverse  processes  which 
are  employed  for  working  arable  land,  harmonizing  the  forces  of 
nature  which  work  all  the  time  and  by  themselves  and  those  which, 
depending  on  man,  he  may  use  and  direct  as  he  pleases.  According 
to  this  there  must  be  many  systems  of  cultivation,  because  there  are 
many  different  ways  of  obtaining  products  from  the  soil.  Left  to  itself, 
and  therefore  limited  to  the  forces  of  nature,  the  earth  becomes  cov- 
ered with  wild  vegetation  destined,  according  to  the  quality  and  situa- 
tion of  the  lands,  to  form  meadows  or  forests,  which  in  a  certain  way 
may  be  made  to  alternate  with  products  obtained  by  the  work  of  cul- 
tivation. The  choice  of  a  system  of  cultivation  is  one  of  the  things 
which  should  most  attract  the  attention  of  the  agriculturist.  To  deter- 
mine with  probabilities  of  certainty  what  may  be  the  system  of  culti- 
vation 'best  suited  to  a  farm  there  is  necessary  (1)  exact  knowledge  of 
the  nature  of  the  land;  (2)  of  the  influence  its  location  may  have  on  its 
vegetable  products;  (3)  of  the  means  at  one's  disposal. 

MEANS    OF    COMMUNICATION. 

Having  perfected  the  methods  of  cultivation  and  the  development  of 
agricultural  production,  the  Government  should  utilize  the  proceeds 
of  taxation  by  inaugurating  the  construction  of  good  cart  roads, 
establishing  a  good  system  of  neighborhood  roads,  and  undertaking 
canal  works,  which  fertilize  the  lands,  give  an  outlet  for  its  products, 
life  to  internal  traffic,  and  food  to  external  traffic.  In  this  way  abun- 
dance, cheapening  the  products  of  the  soil,  will  increase  the  wealth  of 
the  country  without  detriment  to  the  laboring  classes.  Ease  of  com- 
munication and  the  proximity  of  places  where  the  cultivator  can  dis- 
pose of  his  goods  are  a  real  and  positive  advantage  which  can  not  fail 
to  enter  into  consideration  and  to  powerfully  influence  the  value  of  a 
piece  of  arable  land.  It  is  never  well  to  lose  sight  of  the  capital 
represented  by  herds  and  animals  used  for  transporting  farm  products 
to  market,  whose  cost  should  be  deducted  from  the  proceeds  of  the 
sale  of  these  same  products.  In  this  connection,  those  agriculturists 
do  not  calculate  well  who  are  accustomed  to  transport  the  products  of 
their  farms  for  a  long  distance  in  order  to  get  a  profit  which  is  appar- 
ently greater  but  in  reality  much  less  than  the  expenses  occasioned 
by  the  journey. 

COMBATING    FALSE    NOTIONS. 

If  agriculture  in  the  Philippines  is  to  reach  the  state  of  prosperity 
of  which  it  is  susceptible,  it  is  necessary  for  the  Government  to  duly 
foster  the  diffusion  of  agricultural  knowledge  and  cause  this  empiri- 
cisiii,  which  nullifies  with  its  tenacious  opposition  to  every  sort  of 
improvement  the  natural  fertility  of  the  Philippine  soil,  to  disappear. 
Wherever  the  sight  rests  in  the  Philippines  the  fatal  results  of  this 
empiricism,  the  inevitable  consequence  of  indifference,  are  seen. 
Cultivation  in  a  miserable  state,  on  account  of  the  lack  of  well-directed 
labor;  weak  and  degenerate  stock.  These  are  the  two  industrial  ele- 
ments which  separately,  as  a  rule,  dispute  the  development  of  this 
territory.  Outside  of  a  more  or  less  circumscript  radius  around  the 
great  centers  of  population,  in  which  there  is  more  or  less  local  con- 
sumption, but  always  of  some  importance,  it  is  a  chimera  to  expect 
large  profits  for  the  cultivator  and  improvements  in  the  agricultural 


Hosted  by 


Google 


18  REPORT    OF    THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

art,  without  machines,  which  simplify  and  cheapen  labor;  without  live 
stock,  which  at  the  same  time  that  they  supply  the  motive  power  eco- 
nomically and  plentifully  for  said  machines,  also  furnish  the  manure  so 
necessary  to  all  agricultural  development. 

INTRODUCTION    AND    PROPAGATION    OF   NEW   PLANTS. 

The  mtroduction  of  new  plants  and  their  propagation  throughout 
the  provinces  is  advisable,  such  as  that  of  the  mulberry  tree,  which 
formerly  gave  such  good  results  in  the  silk  industry.  It  would  be 
advisable  likewise  to  cultivate  the  nettle  for  the  valuable  fibers  and 
sorghum  for  alcohol  and  sugar.  Many  oleaginous  and  dyeing  plants 
and  even  sugar  cane  would  give  larger  and  better  crops  with  better 
means  and  careful  processes  in  the  different  operations  of  the  respec- 
tive industries.  The  use  of  fertilizers,  almost  unknown  to  the  natives, 
should  be  introduced.  The  many  places  that  are  not  used  for  any- 
thing should  be  made  use  of  for  herds  of  horses  and  cattle. 

SPECIAL   REMARKS. 

One  of  the  first  measures  which  should  be  taken  is  the  increase  of 
the  number  of  model  farms  and  agronomic  stations,  so  that  the  agri- 
cultural necessities  of  all  the  archipelago  may  be  studied  in  a  perfect 
manner,  because  the  climatologic  and  telluric  conditions  are  as  differ- 
ent as  the  islands  are  different  which  compose  this  extensive  archipelago. 

The  island  of  Mindanao,  where  all  the  most  important  products  of 
the  archipelago  can  be  easily  cultivated,  and  where  on  account  of  the 
lack  of  population  they  can  not  be  taken  advantage  of,  demands  special 
attention  on  the  part  of  the  Government.  To  this  end,  it  would  be 
advisable  to  plant  in  that  region,  besides  a  model  farm  with  its  corre- 
sponding agronomic  stations,  some  private  companies  or  societies  of 
colonization  and  development,  managed  by  persons  of  undoubted 
honesty  and  of  competent  knowledge  for  such  business,  for  the  ground 
is  worth  as  much  as  the  man. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XII. 


PUBLIC  WORKS  AND  EDIFICES. 


19 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PUBLIC  WORKS  AND  EDIFICES. 


PUBLIC    EDIFICES   AND   OTHER   WORKS. 

IN   GENERAL. 

The  building  materials  at  the  disposal  of  the  Filipinos,  the  climato- 
logical  conditions  of  the  countiy,  the  frequency  in  it  of  earthquakes, 
and  the  greater  or  less  degree  of  culture  in  the  difterent  districts  and 
localities,  have  chiefly  determined  the  structure  and  aspect  of  the  edi- 
fices and  even  of  works  in  general  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  so 
different  from  those  of  other  parts  of  the  world,  and  which  seem  so 
novel  to  the  European  who  arrives  here  for  the  first  time. 

VARIOUS   CLASSES   OF   EDIFICES   ACCORDING   TO    BUILDING    MATERIALS. 

Beginning  with  works  more  properly  called  edifices,  undoubtedly  the 
great  majorit}^  of  them  are  built  of  light  materials,  there  being  under- 
stood as  such,  bamboo,  nipa  palm  leaves,  grass,  etc.,  excepting  wood, 
which  in  the  form  of  timbers  or  beams  may  constitute  the  frame,  which 
is  also  made  of  bamboo  in  a  great  many  dwellings.  A  goodly  number 
of  edifices,  especially  in  large,  well  laid  out  towns,  besides  having  the 
frame  made  of  good  timbers  and  beams,  are  wholly  built  of  wood,  the 
nipa  palm  leaves  being  only  used  for  the  roof  or  covering.  There  are 
included  in  this  class  of  buildings  very  good,  substantial,  and  beauti- 
ful houses,  churches,  manufacturing,  and  mercantile  establishments, 
railroad  station^s,  barracks,  and  even  small  military  forts,  constructed 
according  to  architectural  rules  and  elegance,  in  which,  besides,  the 
nipa  roof  is  frequently  substituted  by  galvanized  iron.  Also  from 
ancient  times  there  have  been  in  use  in  the  Philippines,  and  are  still 
being  built,  edifices  of  irregular  stones  and  mortar— at  least  their  walls, 
to  a  greater  or  lesser  height;  others  of  strong  walls  resting  on  a  good 
foundation  of  hewn  stone;  and  even  some  whose  exterior  walls  are 
wholly  faced  with  hewn  stones  on  one  or  more  facades.  The  old 
buildings  usually  have  tile  roofs;  that  is,  made  of  earthen  tiles,  now 
generally  substituted  by  iron  plates.  Finally,  this  same  metal  cast  in 
pieces  or  wrought  in  bars  has  been  utilized  in  the  archipelago  as  an 
important  building  material,  and  not  many  years  ago  there  was  a  church 
built  whose  frame,  walls,  pillars,  and  roof  were  all  of  iron. 

OBJECTIONS   TO   ALL   BUILDING    MATERIALS. 

The  nipa  palm  is  often  like  tinder.  A  spark  will  often  set  it  afire, 
and  the  heavier  timbers  of  a  house  only  serve  to  feed  the  fire.  The 
houses  built  of  irregular  stones  and  mortar  are  considered  the  most 
dangerous  when  an  earthquake  occurs.     Even  the  strongest  is  so  in 

21 


Hosted  by 


Google 


22  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

case  of  earthquakes.  Tiles  are  in  such  cases  the  worst  roof.  Iron 
becomes  very  hot,  and  the  plates  of  the  same,  if  they  are  not  well 
fastened,  may  be  lifted  and  torn  away  b}^  the  typhoons.  There  is  no 
kind  of  construction  without  objections  which  the  constructor  must  try 
to  overcome,  and  advantages  which  he  will  study  how  to  avail  himself 
of,  with  due  attention  to  what  is  necessary  and  desirable  for  the  spe- 
cial object  of  the  work,  and  of  the  means  and  resources  at  his  disposal. 
Mr.  Cerero,^  in  a  conscientious  work  which  he  published,  gives  very 
definite  instructions  about  constructing  edifices  so  that  they  may 
oppose  bo^h  to  earthquakes  and  winds  all  the  resistance  possible.  To 
prevent  the  effects  of  the  former,  buildings  in  the  Philippines  do 
not  usually  have  more  than  one  story,  or  at  most  two,  above  the 
foundations. 

PUBLIC  edifices:  where  and  what. 

Overlooking  the  little  which  in  the  way  of  buildings  may  attract 
attention  in  sparsely  populated  lands,  in  ranches,  villages,  and  even  in 
the  majority  of  small  places,  it  is  our  duty  to  say  that  all  the  civil  towns 
have  these  public  edifices:  The  church,  the  convent,  the  court,  and  the 
two  schools  for  boys  and  girls  frequently  joined  together-  and  so  placed 
that  they  surround  a  square.  To  these  nuist  be  added  the  cemetery, 
more  or  less  well  inclosed  and  suitable.  In  the  capitals  of  provinces 
or  districts  it  is  also  customary  to  have  a  goverimient  house  or  royal 
house,  as  it  is  called.  In  certain  capitals,  besides,  and  perhaps  in  other 
towns  which  are  not,  there  are  located  other  centers:  Official,  eccle- 
siastical, civil,  army,  or  navy,  or  dependencies  of  the  same;  all  of  which 
occupy  their  respective  buildings,  constructed  or  adapted  to  their  pur- 
pose. This  may  likewise  be  said  of  the  establishments  erected  by  the 
companies  or  mercantile  or  industrial  societies,  by  religious  corpora- 
tions, or  by  private  or  public  charity,  or  supported  by  pious  founda- 
tions in  favor  of  beneficence  or  public  instruction,  scattered  throughout 
the  archipelago.  The  buildings  which  all  these  centers  and  dependen- 
cies occupy  are  not  alwaysowned  by  them,  but  frequently  rented  from 
private  parties.  The  ecclesiastical  establishments  usually  own  their 
buildings,  as  well  as  the  companies  and  manufacturing  and  commercial 
enterprises. 

OMISSION   OF   DESCRIPTION. 

It  would  be  ridiculous,  because  impossible,  to  try  to  give  a  descrip 
tion  here  of  all  the  buildings  of  the  archipelago  to  which  we  have 
referred,  and  even  to  do  so  of  the  principal  ones  of  the  various  kinds 
mentioned  would  be  tiresome.  Moreover,  a  brief  sketch  or  enumera- 
tion, besides  being  probably  incomplete,  would  be  of  no  use.  A  vast 
country  like  this,  where  there  are  established  all  the  organizations  of 
the  State  and  of  the  church,  and  many  institutions  of  various  charac- 
ters which  the  Catholic  civilization  of  Spain  and  public  and  private 
enterprises  have  been  accumulating  for  a  period  of  almost  four  cen- 
turies, it  is  understood,  must  have  a  considerable  number  of  houses  for 
the  dwellings  of  its  governing  classes,  central  and  subordinate  offices 
of  administration,  audience  chambers  and  courts,  cathedrals,  episcopal 
palaces,  seminaries  and  convents  of  religious  communities,  with  their 

*  Study  of  the  Resistance  and  Stability  of  Buildings  Subjected  to  Hurricanes  and 
Earthquakes,  by  the  Brigadier-General,  Commander-General,  Inspector  of  Engineers* 
of  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  Don  Rafael  Cerero,  Madrid,  1890. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


0^     o 
(X)      aj 

w    ^ 

g 
S 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPHSTE    COMMISSION.  23 

churches,  military  establishments,  army  and  navy  posts,  barracks, 
hospitals,  and  military  infirmaries,  storehouses  and  factories,  public 
hospitals,  hospices  and  benevolent  institutions,  colleges,  asylums  with 
monasteries  and  nunneries,  scientific  establishments,  banking  houses 
and  other  economical,  trading,  and  manufacturing  institutions,  and  even 
of  amusement  and  diversion,  with  which  the  outer  life  of  people  is 
maniicsted.  In  the  treatise  on  geography  mention  is  made  of  the 
greater  part  of  these  edifices  in  describing  the  cities  and  towns. 


The  church,  as  well  as  the  state  and  various  enterprises,  chiefly 
benevolent,  have  built  in  the  Philippines  in  the  course  of  the  Spanish 
dominion  very  good,  substantial,  and  handsome  edifices.  Not  a  few, 
in  spite  of  their  strength,  have  been  destroyed  by  the  earthquakes, 
especially  by  that  of  1863.  Within  the  walls  of  Manila  there  were 
destroyed,  among  others,  the  magnificent  palace  of  the  captain-general, 
with  an  elegant  facade  of  the  Doric  order;  the  cathedral,  all  of  cut 
stone  of  the  Ionic  order  in  part,  which  cost  500,000  pesos,  and  which  had 
been  preceded  by  three  others,  was  included  in  the  ruins;  also  the  con- 
sistorial  houses,  of  modern  construction;  the  beautiful  church  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus,  which  occupied,  with  its  adjoining  house,  a  space  of 
28,900  meters;  the  custom-house,  the  tribunal  of  accounts,  the  hospital 
of  San  Juan  de  Dios,  and  others.  The  church  of  San  Augustin  lost 
one  of  its  towers,  and  its  vaulted  roof  was  split  open  throughout  its 
length. 

In  the  rest  of  the  archipelago  the  earthquakes  overthrew  other  build- 
ings, also,  which  appeared  to  be  very  solid.  The  effects  of  the  earth- 
quake of  Pangasinan,  in  1882,  are  still  visible.  Other  buildings  have 
been  buried  forever  by  volcanic  eruptions.  And  another  very  differ- 
ent phenomenon  is  quite  recent — the  tornado  of  Samar  and  Leyte  of 
1897,  which  caused  great  ruin  and  damage  to  important  buildings  in 
those  towns. 

In  Manila  the  greater  part  of  the  public  buildings  destroyed  some 
time  ago  have  been  rebuilt  or  repaired.  The  church  of  San  Domingo 
was  rebuilt  for  the  fifth  time  in  1868.  The  fifth  cathedral  also — the 
one  now  standing — was  finished  in  1880.  The  palace  of  the  governor- 
general  is  in  the  beginning  of  its  total  reconstruction. 

To-day  the  best  edifices  in  Manila  are,  if  we  accept  the  opinion  of 
Tariel  de  Andrade,^  the  convents.  That  of  the  Franciscans  with  their 
church  occupies  an  extent  of  25,000  square  meters;  that  of  the  Augus- 
tinians  21,250;  that  of  the  Dominicans  12,750;  that  of  the  Recoletos 
10,200.  All  of  them  are  handsome  and  with  views  on  four  streets. 
The  said  author  adds  to  the  list  of  notable  buildings  the  University  of 
St.  Thomas,  the  College  of  San  Juan  de  Letran,  the  normal  school  for 
teachers,  the  ateneo  municipal  (school),  the  nunnery  of  Santa  Catalina, 
the  colegios  de  Santa  Isabel  and  Santa  Rosa,  the  municipal  school 
for  girls,  the  convent  of  Santa  Clara,  the  school  for  native  girls  or 
called  the  convent  '^de  la  Compania,"  the  custom-house,  the  tribunal 
of  accounts,  the  artillery  storehouse,  various  barracks,  and  the  hos- 
pital of  San  Juan  de  Dios.  To  which  we  should  add  others  of  equal  or 
more  importance,  such  as  the  ''intendencia"  (commandant's  residence 


^  History  of  the  Exposition  of  the  Philippine  Islands  in  Madrid  in  the  year  1887, 
Vol.  II,  Chap.  XI. 

P  C — VOL  4 — 01 3 


Hosted  by 


Google 


24  KEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISyiON. 

or  office),  the  offices  of  the  civil  government,  the  audience  chamber, 
the  palace  of  Santa  Potenciana,  the  general  commandancy  of  engineers, 
the  barracks  of  Santa  Lucia,  the  archiepiscopal  palace,  the  old  semi- 
nar3%  and  others  of  later  construction,  as  the  new  consistorial  houses, 
the  new  seminary,  and  the  new  Spanish  barracks.  These  are  within  the 
confines  of  the  walled  city,  whose  maximum  area  without  doubt  so 
many  buildings  of  a  public  character  occupy. 

Neither  are  there  huvking  very  notable  buildings  in  the  suburbs, 
as  for  example,  the  handsome  churches  of  Tondo,  Binondo,  Santa 
Cruz,  and  Paco.  The  suburbs  also  contain  the  Ilospicio  de  San  Jose, 
the  military  hospital,  the  palace  of  Malacanang,  the  office  of  the  cap- 
tain of  the  port,  and  some  handsome  newer  l)uildings,  such  as  the  bar- 
racks of  Meisic,  Arroceros,  and  Malate,  and  the  ''monte  de  piedad" 
(public  pawnbroker  institution)  and  savings  bank.  In  the  suburbs, 
likewise,  new  markets  are  building  or  proposed;  and  as  the  suljurbs 
are  the  center  of  niercantile  and  maimfacturing  activity,  there  are 
not  lacking  establishments  of  various  kinds,  very  extensive  and  well 
arranged,  such  as  the  Hotel  of  the  Orient,  the  tobacco  factories.  La 
Insular  and  La  Flor  de  la  Tsa})ela,  and  a  great  many  and  very  sightly 
business  houses.  Finally,  on  account  of  greater  space,  air,  and  salu- 
brity in  the  suburbs,  there  have  })een  building  for  some  years  past 
private  houses,  in  modei-n  styl(\  of  fine  appearance,  and  with  comfort- 
able interiors. 

We  shall  omit  all  othei*  details  on  the  subject  of  pul)lic  ))uildings, 
although  we  could  mention  not  a  few  outside  of  Manila,  if  we  should 
begin  to  review  among  others  capitals  as  important  as  Cebu  and  lloilo 
in  Visayas,  and  Vigan  and  Nueva  Ckceres  in  Luzon  itself. 

SOME  e>stimatp:,s. 

We  are  going  to  permit  ourselves  to  make  estimates,  although  very 
briefly,  regarding  the  properly  artistic  form  of  the  buildings  of  which 
we  have  just  spoken.  We  nuist  at  once  frankly  confess  that  in  our  opin- 
ion up  to  the  present  time  there  have  hardly  been  any  true  architectural 
monuments  which  could  l)e  properly  called  artistic.  We  believe  that 
the  chief  causes  of  this  phenomenon  have  been  these  two:  First,  because 
the  centuries  of  Spanish  domination  in  the  Philippines,  almost  the 
only  influence  which  impressed  its  seal  on  the  architecture  of  the 
country,  were  not,  even  in  the  metropolis,  the  centuries  of  splendor  in 
art,  but  rather  centuries  when  good  taste  was  scarce;  even  in  the  Penin- 
sula the  monuments  of  beautiful  architecture  are  anterior  to  the 
fifteenth  century,  or  of  relatively  very  modern  date;  that  is  to  say, 
already  belonging  to  the  times  of  the  present  artistic  renaissance. 
Second,  we  attribute  it  to  the  climatologic  and  telluric  conditions  of  the 
country  above  referred  to,  which  do  not  permit  architects  to  give  free 
rein  to  their  genius  and  apply  in  Philippine  construction  certain  orders 
of  classic,  or,  more  strictly,  aesthetic  architecture.  So  it  happens  that 
the  most  remarkable  buildings  of  the  Philippines  are  so,  generally,  on 
account  of  their  great  size  and  on  account  of  the  solidity  of  their  con- 
struction, as  we  have  before  indicated. 

We  have  in  the  Philippines  large  churches  of  great  capacity  and 
thick  walls,  such  as  many  in  Manila  and  outside  of  it,  that  of  Taal 
being  among  the  most  remarkable;  but  we  lack  churches  properly 
Byzantine  or  of  good  styles,  pure  or  combined.  We  might  say  the 
same  of  other  kinds  of  edifices.     However,  a  few  years  ago  something 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  25 

began  to  be  done  here — that  is,  the  renaissance  of  good  taste  in  the 
metropolis  did  not  utterly  fail  to  reach  the  colony.  For  which  reason 
we  do  not  think  that  it  is  impossible  to  harmonize  in  the  Philippines 
the  various  local  exigencies  in  the  matter  of  building  with  some  of  the 
laws  of  aesthetic  art  and  certain  elements  of  good  taste.  In  Manila, 
examples  of  good  architectural  style  are  the  above-mentioned  build- 
ings, the  monte  de  piedad  (charitable  pawnbroker  shop),  the  ayuntami- 
ento  (town  hall),  and  the  new  seminary ;  and  even  La  Insular,  the  Oriental 
Hotel,  and  some  other  modern  buildings  are  examples  of  good  taste. 
In  churches  we  have  no  better  model,  in  our  judgment,  of  good  style 
than  the  cathedral,  of  good  Romano-B^^zantine  taste,  very  severe  and 
suitable,  and  the  church  of  San  Ignacio.  of  Greco-Roman  style  with 
Corinthian  details,  and  very  handsome. 

FORTIFICATIONS. 

Neither  shall  we  say  more  of  this  kind  of  construction  than  some 
generalities  and  brief  remarks  in  particular,  referring  for  further 
information  to  the  chorography. 

There  are  fortifications  in  many  places  in  the  archipelago,  generally 
located  on  high  places,  some  as  towers  or  stone  defenses,  destined  in 
former  times  as  a  refuge  and  defense  for  the  people  who  had  built 
them  against  the  surprises  and  attacks  of  the  natives.  Now  they  are 
hardly  of  an}^  use. 

In  other  places  more  important  and  strategical,  and  at  later  dates, 
there  were  fortifications  planned  according  to  the  rules  of  military 
engineering  then  current,  although  still  insufficient  to  withstand  mod- 
ern artillery.  The  walls  of  Manila,  with  the  moats,  drawbridges,  forts 
and  counterforts,  and  good  batteries,  made  the  capital  some  time  ago 
a  veritable  stronghold.  The  arsenal  of  Cavite  was  as  much  so,  but  it 
still  remained  very  well  defended  by  its  own  fortifications  and  supported 
by  the  battery  of  Point  Sangley  and  by  the  small  fort  of  San  Antonio. 
Jolo  was  also  a  strong  place  on  account  of  the  bulwarks  around  it, 
although  the  wall,  with  which  a  short  time  ago  they  were  united,  is 
weak.  With  pretty  good  batteries  it  could  still  be  defended  against 
the  imperfect  artillery  used  by  the  natives  of  that  place.  As  an  advance 
guard  there  are  two  forts  near  by  and  one  at  a  distance  toward  the 
south,  also  of  modern  construction. 

It  does  not  appear  that  there  are  any  other  towns  in  the  Philippines 
which  may  be  called  strong  places,  although  there  are  some  which  do 
not  have  walls  about  them,  but  which  have  near  them  fortresses  more 
or  less  good.  The  following  have  their  respective  fortresses:  Iloilo, 
Cebu,  Iligan  (called  there  ''Cotas"),  Zamboanga  (Fort  Pilar,  especially 
the  old  part  erected  by  P.  Melchor  de  Vera,  which  the  recent  severe 
earthquakes  left  unhurt,  and  furnished  in  a  modern  manner  with  hand- 
some pavilions),  and  Isabel  a  de  Basilan  (on  an  adjacent  height,  the  plan 
of  which  fort  received  a  premium  in  the  Philadelphia  Exposition,  the 
work  being  already  injured  by  said  earthquakes).  They  are  of  hewn 
stone.  The  fort  of  the  port  of  Santa  Maria,  although  on  a  strategic 
height,  that  which  defends  the  military  post  of  Sindangan,  and  others 
occupied  by  other  military  posts  in  other  points  of  Mindanao  or  of  the 
archipelago,  do  not  now  deserve  such  honorable  mention  as  military 
works. 

Lately,  also,  and  to  facilitate  the  complete  subjection  of  the  natives 
of  the  south,  there  were  erected  on  the  Rio  Grande  de  Cottabato,  in 


Hosted  by 


Google 


26  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

the  Bay  of  Illana,  in  Sal)anilla  and  in  the  of  Iligan  at  Marahnit, 

in  Mindanao,  a  number  of  stone  fortifications  of  sufficient  strength 
for  the  purpose  for  which  they  were  intended,  namely,  the  defense  of 
the  positions  of  the  Spanish  military  posts  against  the  natives  of  Rio 
Grande  I^aguna  de  Lanao  and  ranchmen  of  the  bay  Illana.  Besides 
the  works  which  constitute  the  military  encampment  of  Parang- 
parang,  the  fort  of  Reina  Regente  in  the  delta  of  the  Pulangui  is 
probably  the  best  of  all. 

Finally,  it  is  hardly  necessary  to  mention  the  series  of  wooden  block 
houses  which  w^.re  constructed  on  the  exterior  line  of  defense  of  Manila, 
and  which  were  of  service  in  the  last  war  against  the  Philippine  insur- 
gents and  during  the  siege  which  terminated  with  the  occupation  of  the 
capital  l)V  the  North  American  troops. 

SEAPORT    WORKS. 

We  shall  mention  particularly  the  following: 

r<>rt  of  Man 'da, — By  royal  decree  of  the  2d  of  Januarv,  1880,  there 
were  established,  w^ith  the  exclusive  o])ject  of  executing  and  preserving 
the  port  works  of  Manila  and  for  the  time  that  might  be  necessary,  the 
following  taxes :  Two  per  cent  on  the  value  of  goods  imported;  1  per 
cent  on  the  value  of  goods  exported;  20  centimes  per  ton  of  burden 
for  ships  navigating  the  high  seas;  and  10  more  per  ton  of  burden  for 
coastwise  vessels.  There  was  also  granti^d  for  the  same  object  the 
duties  on  fisheries  in  the  l)ay,  the  proceeds  of  the  sale  or  hire  of  the 
lands  recovered  from  the  sea,  and  an  additional  $12,000  per  annum 
assigned  in  the  general  budget.  Finally,  the  commission  of  port 
works  was  created  and  salaries  were  assigned  them.  With  these 
resources  and  under  this  direction  the  w^orksof  the  new  port  of  Maiula 
were  begun  and  carried  on,  until  now  they  are  far  advanced,  but  still 
incomplete,  and  of  which  we  shall  not  give  details.  The  linal  result 
must  be  a  truly  magnificent  fort.  At  times  the  work  came  to  a  stand- 
still; and  it  is  said  that  a  great  part  of  the  funds  collected  were  used 
in  war  expenses. 

Dry  dock  of  Canacao. — Although  it  appears  that  the  commission  of 
port  works  of  Manila  proposed  to  construct  a  dry  dock,  they  did  not 
succeed  in  realizing  the  project.  After  the  year  1880  the  govern- 
ment of  Madrid  granted  to  a  stock  company  called  the  Manila  Dry 
Dock  Company  permission  to  construct  it,  as  indeed  they  did,  in 
Canacao  (Cavite).  It  is  magnificent,  and  the  steamers  which  navigate 
among  the  Philippine  Islands  are  cleaned  and  repaired  in  it. 

Army  and  navy  viorl'H, — Besides  the  dock  yards  and  magnificent 
arsenal  which  the  commandancy  general  of  the  Philippine  navy  has  in 
Cavite,  the  naval  division  of  the  south,  located  in  Zamboanga,  has  a 
station  very  well  appointed  and  furnished  in  La  Isabela  de  Basilan  and 
a  small  wharf  in  Polloc  (Cottaboto). 

Proponed  port  and  arsenal  of  jSuhlc. — T'his  beautiful  and,  as  they 
say,  most  useful  project  is  in  the  beginning  of  its  construction  near  the 
town  of  Olongapo  (Bataan).  There  is  much  difference  of  opinion 
about  it,  and  the  Spanish  Government  proceeded  very  slowly  and  with 
limited  funds  in  its  execution. 

Othermarithne  works  of  lesser  importance. — There  are,  indeed,  many 
in  the  ports  of  the  archipelago,  which,  although  they  may  be  called 
natural  ports,  have  the  shores  strengthened  with  wharves  or  pilings, 
more  or  less  costly,  and  firm  piers,  wnich  project  some  meters  into  the 
water  to  facilitate  the  loading  and  unloading  of  cargo. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


KEPOKT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION.  27 

We  have  already  considered  light-houses  and  buoys  in  speaking  of 

"SritS£k-Very  few  works  of  this  kind  have  been 
made  in  the  Philippines  and  of  very  httle  importance,  which,  even 
Sking  into  consideration  the  climatic  conditions  of  the  country,  would 
doubtiss  be  of  the  greatest  utility  if  carefully  executed  m  certain 
Sricts  For  waterways  the  Filipino  people  take  advantage  almost 
entirely  of  the  marshes  of  the  rivers,  which,  fortunately,  are  many. 
Some  ditches  and  small  canals  have  been  built  by  monks  on  their  prop- 
erties and  possibly  some  by  municipalities  or  provinces,  assisted  by 
?he  stkte  with  a  small  credit;  but  all  of  them  are  woi^ks  of  relatively 
little  importance  and  merely  of  local  or  very  partial  utility 

The  same  may  be  said  of  waterworks  outside  of  Manila,     borne 
towns  have  wate?  brought  by  ordinary  open  ditches  o^  ^lose^^^^^^^^^^ 
from  sources  not  very  distant ;  and  we  have  heard  of  oth^i  pio]ects  ot 
more  importance,  which,  unfortunately,  have  not  been  realized.     Only 
the  following  deserves  special  mention  : 


CARRIBDO'S  DRINKING  WATER. 


Formerly  and  up  to  not  very  long  ago  the  city  of  Manila  did  not 
have  drinking  water.  The  majority  of  the  houses  had  cisterns  to  pro- 
vide themself  es  with  rain  water.  T^e  illustrious  Spanish  patr^^^^^^^^ 
Don  Francisco  Carriedo  y  Peredo  who  died  m  the  1^^*  century  left  in 
his  will  a  bequest  to  introduce  this  great  improvement  into  the  cap- 
ital. The  capital  accumulated,  according  to  Taviel  de  Andrade,  at  the 
beginning  of  the  work  amounted  to  f 250,000  At  2  kilometers  from 
thf  town  of  Mariquina,  not  very  far  from  Manila  the  water  is  taken 
from  the  river  of  the  same  name.  It  is  conducted  through  large  iron 
pipes  to  the  reservoirs  constructed  in  Santolan,  whence  it  is  conducted 
an^  distributed  by  pipes  of  different  diameters,  all  of  cast  iron,  to  the 
city.  The  work  was  begun  in  1878  and  on  being  hnished  was  inaugu- 
rated in  1882  under  the  direction  of  the  engineer  Don  Genaro  Pala- 
cios  There  are  more  than  390  fountains,  which  the  public  use  gratis; 
there  are  280  lire  plugs.  Some  establishments  have  grants  of  water 
for  their  use  by  tfie  lisposition  of  the  founder  himself  or  by  permis- 
sion of  the  town  council. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.   XIII. 


HEALTH,  HYGIENE,  POLICE,  AND  PUBLIC  ORDER 
UNDER  SPANISH  SOVEREIGNTY. 


29 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


HEALTH,  HYGIENE,  POLICE,  AND  PUBLIC  ORDER  UNDER 
SPANISH  SOVEREIGNTY. 


HEALTH   AND    HYGIENE. 


GENERAL    INSPECTION. 


There  is  in  Manila  a  l)oard  of  general  inspection  of  charities  and 
health,  which  supervises  from  a  civil  standpoint  all  matters  relating  to 
these  two  branches  in  the  archipelago.  Therefore  the  corps  of  titular 
physicians,  the  maritime  health  boards,  the  bathing  establishments 
and  civil  hospitals  and  pesthouses,  the  municipal  board  of  charities, 
that  of  vaccinators,  and  the  subdelegations  of  medicine  and  pharmacy 
are  dependent  upon  it. 


TITULAR    I'HYSICIANS   AND   HEALERS. 


For  the  skillful  attendance  of  the  sick  poor  and  the  inspection  of 
public  hygiene  in  the  towns  of  these  islands  the  government  has 
created  and  is  still  creating  the  office  of  physicians  called  'Hitular," 
sufficiently  qualified,  according  to  the  number  of  inhabitants  and 
importance  of  the  provinces  and  localities.  At  the  beginning  of  1898 
there  were  42  in  the  island  of  Luzon,  18  in  the  islands  of  Visayas,  and 
()  in  that  of  Mindanao.  The  titular  physicians  also  exercise  the  func- 
tion of  court  physicians. 

Besides  in  rural  towns  of  small  population,  distant  from  capitals, 
and  therefore  destitute  of  professional  physicians,  the  authorized 
attendance  on  the  sick  is  in  charge  of  healers,  that  is,  of  persons 
without  an  academic  degree  in  medicine,  but  with  some  knowledge 
of  it  and  much  practice,  who  take  the  place  of  a  regular  physician  by 
appointment  and  payment  of  the  government. 


MARITIME    HEALTH. 


The  care  of  maritime  health  in  this  archipelago  is  intrusted  to  the 
maritime  health  boards  established  in  some  ports  of  the  same,  namely, 
Manila,  Iloilo,  Cebu,  and  Zamboanga,  which  are  composed  of  one 
director,  first  physician  for  visiting  ships,  second  physician  for  visiting 
ships,  a  secretary,  a  substitute,  an  interpreter,  and  the  necessary  sub- 
ordinates. They  do  not  always  have  all  this  staff,  and  sometimes  they 
also  have  it  for  the  service  of  the  boat  of  the  board. 


Because  they  are  the  most  frequented  and  the  best  equipped  for  the 
public  service,  the  following  four  baths  belonging  to  the  island  of  Luzon 
deserve  special  mention:  Sibul,  in  the  province  of  Bulacan,  which 
P  O— VOL  4—01 4  31 


Hosted  by 


Google 


32  REPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

include  the  waters  of  San  Rafael,  Santa  Matilde,  and  San  Jose;  Aguas 
Santas  and  Galas,  in  the  province  of  Laguna,  and  Tini,  in  the  province 
of  Albay,  in  which  are  found  the  waters  of  Jicabo  and  Naglabong. 
Of  these  four  establishments,  that  of  Aguas  Santas  had  a  beautiful 
building,^  the  property  of  the  state,  and  at  its  head  a  director  of  the 
medical  corps  of  baths,  in  whose  charge  is  also  the  authorized  direc- 
tion of  Galas;  that  of  Tini  has  comfortable  lodgings  and  skillful  direc- 
tion equal  to  that  of  Aguas  Santas.  Sibul  had  also  a  suitable  building 
for  the  bathers;^  that  of  Galas  has  not  yet  been  built. 

LAZARETTO. 

To  Gjserve  persons  coming  from  suspected  ports,  there  is  a  lazaretto 
in  Mariveles,  near  the  entrance  of  the  Bay  of  Manila.  It  is  in  charge 
of  a  first  medical  director,  a  second  physician,  and  an  interpreter  and 
secretary,  with  the  number  of  subordinates  the  service  requires. 

MIDWIVES. 

Thera  are  22  titular  midwives  paid  from  the  public  treasury  and 
distributed  as  follows:  Twelve  of  the  first  class,  of  which  there  are  6 
in  the  province  of  Manila  and  its  environs,  and  6  others  for  each  one 
of  the  provinces  of  Albay,  Batangas,  Bulacan,  Laguna,  Pampanga, 
and  Pangasinan;  five  of  the  second  class  for  Ambos,  Camarines,  Cavite, 
Ilocos  Norte,  Ilocos  Sur,  and  Zambales,  and  5  of  the  third  class  for 
those  of  Bataan,  Cagayan,  Isabela  de  Luzon,  Nueva  Ecija,  and  Nueva 
Vizcaya.     This  service  was  inaugurated  the  6th  of  May,  1887. 

VACCINATORS. 

After  having  worked  hard  to  persuade  the  natives  of  the  advantages 
of  vaccine  inoculation,  as  it  was  seen  that  neither  reasons  nor  facts  nor 
the  great  mortality  of  children  produced  the  desired  conviction,  it  was 
necessary  for  the  government  to  appoint,  as  it  did  in  1849,  vaccinators 
with  a  salary,  and  to  order  the  obligatory  presentation  of  children  one 
day  in  the  week  before  the  chief  of  the  province,  and  in  towns  before 
the  curate,  and  to  give  statements  and  exact  accounts  of  the  per- 
formance of  this  operation.  The  effect  produced  was  so  noticeable 
that  the  population  increased  visibly  from  that  time.  At  the  end  of 
1897  there  were  127  vaccinators  scattered  in  the  different  provinces 
of  the  archipelago  and  subject  to  an  institute  or  central  vaccination 
house  established  in  Manila,  which  consists  of  a  first  medical  director, 
a  second  physician,  another  provisional  one,  and  3  orderlies. 

COLLEGE   OF   PHARMACISTS. 

This  college  has  been  in  Manila  since  1892.  Its  object  is  to  defend, 
protect,  and  promote  professional  interests.  The  idea  of  its  founda- 
tion was  initiated  in  a  preparatoiy  meeting  held  by  several  professors 
on  the  29th  of  November,  1891,  and  the  project  was  approved  by  the 
decree  of  the  civil  governor  of  Manila  the  31st  of  December  of  the 
same  year,  and  the  college  was  inaugurated  the  3d  of  January,  1892. 

Its  first  act  was  to  aid  two  professors  of  the  science  who  had  met 
with  losses  on  account  of  the  then  recent  inundations  of  Consuegra 
(Spain),  and  since  then  it  has  done  many  other  works  in  conformity 
with  the  object  of  the  institution. 

^Destroyed  in  the  late  war 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  33 


POLICE   AND   PUBLIC   ORDERS. 

VARIOUS    INSTITUTIONS. 


Some  time  ago  the  services  of  police  and  public  order  in  Manila,  and 
even  outside  of  it,  were  intrusted  to  two  bodies  called  ''public  safety" 
and  ''civil  regiment,"  which  for  reasons  that  it  is  irrelevant  to 
explain  were  dissolved.  Exclusively  for  the  services  of  police  and 
vigilance  within  the  limits  of  Manila  and  its  suburbs,  there  was  created 
in  1868  a  municipal  guard,  and  on  the  13th  of  December,  1869,  the 
governor-general  decreed  its  reorganization  as  the  corps  of  vigilance 
and  the  creation  of  the  civil  regiment,  which  afterwards  became  the 
corps  of  firemen,  as  explained  later  on. 


VETERANS. 


This  body,  which  has  always  distinguished  itself  in  this  kind  of  serv- 
ice, on  account  of  its  integrity,  courage,  and  constancy,  is  also  called 
the  Veteran  Civil  Guard.  Its  creation  was  proposed  in  1871  to  the 
Government  of  Madrid  by  Governor-General  Izquierdo,  and,  having 
been  approved,  it  began  to  work  the  1st  of  July,  1872,  and  continued 
until  the  end  of  the  Spanish  dominion,  always  preserving  the  prestige 
and  the  sympathy  which  it  gained  for  itself  from  the  beginning  of  all 
the  inhabitants  of  Manila  and  its  suburbs.  In  1894  it  numbered  413 
members,  part  infantry  and  part  cavalry,  but  all  with  the  military 
organization  proper  to  the  civil  guard,  and  under  the  orders  of  a  com- 
mander and  six  lieutenants,  in  charge,  respectively,  of  six  subdivisions. 

MUNICIPAL  GUARD. 

About  the  years  1894  and  1895,  when  the  oflSces  of  civil  governor 
and  judge  of  Manila  were  separated,  which  had  formerly  been  united 
in  the  person  of  the  mayor,  the  veterans  remaining  under  the  orders 
of  the  former,  the  judge  and  town  council  created  for  the  services  of 
vigilance  and  police  at  their  command  the  Municipal  Guard,  composed 
of  a  much  smaller  number  than  the  veterans,  and  wnich  likewise  existed 
until  1898. 

IN   THE   PROVINCES. 

Outside  of  the  city  of  Manila  the  services  of  police  and  public  order 
in  the  capitals  and  other  towns  were  attended  to  by  the  provincial  gov- 
ernors, in  harmony  with  the  head  governor  of  the  archipelago. 

SECRET   SERVICE. 

On  account  of  the  rebellion  which  broke  out  in  1896,  a  corps  of  secret 
police  was  created  by  the  governor-general  to  assist  the  veterans,  mak- 
ing use  of  the  advantages  offered  over  that  organization  by  ordinary  or 
unrecognizable  clothing,  in  order  to  enter,  unnoticed  and  without  caus- 
ing anyone  to  suspect  them,  the  anti-Spanish  meetings  or  conspiracies. 

CIVIL  GUARD. 

This  body,  or  institution,  has  for  its  chief  object  the  capture  of  the 
criminals  who  roam  outside  of  the  centers  of  population  in  the  islands 
of  Luzon  and  Visayas.     In  1855  the  governor-general,  Crespo,  prg- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


34  REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

posed  its  creation  to  the  Madrid  Government,  and  the  project  being 
approved  in  1868,  the  corps  was  inaugurated  in  1869,  patterned  after 
that  in  Spain.  It  was  distinguished  from  the  beginning  by  its  severe 
discipline  and  by  the  martial  aspect  of  its  members,  and  it  had  in  its 
charge  the  provinces  and  districts  of  Manila,  Morong,  Cavite,  Laguna, 
Batangas,  Tayabas,  Pampanga,  Nueva  Ecija,  Bulacan,  and  Pangasinan. 
In  view  of  the  useful  service  which  it  gave,  Governor- General  Izqui- 
erdo  obtained  authority  to  organize  another  regiment  of  the  Civil  Guard, 
which,  with  the  regulations  of  the  former,  began  work  on  the  1st  of 
June,  1872,  in  the  remaining  provinces  of  the  island  of  Luzon.  Later 
a  civil  guard  for  the  islands  of  Visa3^as  was  organized. 

It  was,  therefore,  composed  of  three  regiments.  The  Twentieth 
(number  of  the  order  relative  to  those  of  Spain)  exercised  its  jurisdic- 
tion in  the  north  of  Luzon,  the  Twenty-iirst  in  the  south,  and  the 
Twenty-second  in  the  Visayas  islands;  each  commanded  by  a  colonel 
(first  chief),  a  lieutenant-colonel  (chief  of  battalion),  a  captain-pay- 
master, and  another  adjutant.  Besides,  there  were  three  districts 
commanded  l)y  commandants,  with  the  necessary  lines,  sections,  and 
posts.  In  189T  the  total  number  of  the  Civil  Guard  in  the  Philippines 
amounted  to  3,561  individuals,  according  to  the  Official  Guide  of  1898. 

IN   MINDANAO. 

In  Mindanao  the  Civil  Guard  had  not  yet  been  established.  Its 
duties  were  intrusted  to  the  civil  regiments;  that  is,  to  a  militia, 
which  the  natives  entered  by  lot  (into  which  the  natives  were  drafted) 
and  under  the  orders  of  Spanish  officers,  with  a  military  organization 
suited  to  the  people  and  the  country  and  approved  by  the  head  gov- 
ernment of  the  Philippines.  It  was  subject  to  the  politico-military 
governor  residing  in  the  provincial  capital,  who  retained  them  or  dis- 
tributed them  according  to  the  exigencies  of  the  public  service. 

ARMED   BANDS. 

In  the  towns  of  the  archipelago  there  are  also  armed  bands  (cuadril- 
leros);  that  is,  a  fixed  number  of  youths  who  by  weekly  turns  are  in 
the  government  house  at  the  disposal  of  the  subgovernor  and  electors 
(principalia),  for  these  remaining  services  of  police  and  public  order 
not  intrusted  to  the  Civil  Guard  or  regiments.  Their  organization  is 
wholly  civil,  and  is  subject  in  eveiy thing  to  the  subgovernor,  captain, 
or  judge  of  the  town,  who  is  accustomed  to  employ  them  in  carry- 
ing the  mails  where  no  special  service  of  communication  has  been 
established. 

CORPS   OP    FIREMEN. 

The  corps  of  firemen  has  in  charge  the  service  against  fires  in 
Manila  and  its  environs.  It  depends  on  the  municipality,  at  whose 
orders  it  is  usuall}^  employed  on  municipal  works,  together  with  the 
municipal  laborers.  The  Civil  Regiment,  mentioned  a  short  time  ago, 
organized  by  virtue  of  the  decree  of  the  governor-general  on  Decem- 
ber 13,  1869,  to  attend  to  municipal  police  and  vigilance,  was  on  the 
14th  of  January,  1870,  the  corps  first  detailed  for  fire  service,  and  it 
has  existed  since  that  date,  with  some  modifications.  In  1871  it  was 
organized  for  this  special  service.  At  the  end  of  1896  its  force  con- 
sisted of  96  individuals,  distributed  in  four  zones,  which,  together 
with  the  180  municipal  laborers^  made  a  total  of  276  persons. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REX'ORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


35 


PUBLIC   LIGHTING. 

That  used  in  the  archipelago  until  a  short  time  ago  was  cocoa  oil  or 
kerosene  in  all  the  chief  towns  or  capitals  of  provinces  and  other 
important  towns. 

In  the  walled  city  of  Manila  and  its  suburbs  it  was  substituted  in 
1895  by  electric  light,  whose  installation,  preservation,  and  other  works 
were  carried  on  by  a  Spanish  company  called  the  Electric  Company 
of  Manila.  Notwithstanding,  the  kerosene  lamps  did  not  entirely 
disappear  at  that  time,  as  is  indicated  by  the  table  published  in  the 
bulletin  of  statistics  of  the  city  of  Manila  in  December,  1896,  which  is 
as  follows: 

Number  of  electric  lights  and  kerosene  lamps  in  each  district  and  linear  extent  of  the  public 

streets. 


Districts. 

Electric  lights. 

Kero- 
sene 
lamps. 

Total. 

Linear 
extent 

of 
public 
streets. 

Arc. 

Incan- 
descent. 

Intramuros 

46 
22 
12 

4 

14 
12 

6 

174 
114 
165 

79 
113 

60 

45 
6 

67 

........ 

9' 

2 
154 
150 

77 

220 
186 
177 
92 

'?! 

53 
160 
230 

84 
181 

Meiers. 
10, 708 

Binondo 

3,806 

Santa  Cruz 

14, 781 

Tondo 

Quiapo 

11,944 
10, 534 

San  Miguel 

8,600 

Sanipaloc 

4, 1(55 

San  Fernando  do  Dilao 

10,895 

Erniita             

]3 

7 
4 

5, 470 

Malate 

6,915 

San  Nicolas 

177 

8,392 

Walks  and  gardens 

8, 070 

Total 

140 

1000 

392 

1 ,  532 

104,280 

At  the  present  time  the  company  has  0  large  engines  of  300  horse- 
power eacli,  with  8  Galloway  ])oilers,  which  put  in  motion  12  Ajmi- 
mos,  capable  of  developing  a  potential  of  2,080  volts  of  30  amperes 
each,  therefore  sufficient  to  supply  the  current  required  for  30,000  lamps 
of  16  candlepower.  Eight  of  these  dynamos  are  alternating,  for  the 
incandescent  lamps,  and  1  continuous,  of  the  Brush  system,  for  the 
arc  lights,  and  they  furnish  the  public  and  private  lighting  of  Manila 
and  its  suburbs. 

Eight  circuits  start  from  the  distributing  board  of  the  central 
station  and  they  cover  a  distance  of  50  kilometers,  more  or  less,  since 
only  the  circuit  which  goes  to  the  limits  of  Malate  measures  some  9 
kilometers  and  the  rest  go  out  on  an  average  of  5  kilometers. 

In  spite  of  this,  the  number  of  new  electric  lights  is  so  great  that 
said  machines  exhaust  their  power  in  developing  the  electric  current 
contracted  for,  and  the  company  came  near  being  obliged  to  request 
the  postponement  of  the  introduction  of  new  lights  until  the  arrival 
of  two  new  engines  of  500  horsepower,  with  dynamos  capable  of  creat- 
ing a  current  for  12,000  more  lights  or  lamps,  which  will  not  only 
supply  them,  but  will  permit  of  electricity  being  applied  to  the  solu- 
tion of  industrial  and  domestic  problems,  until  now  untried  in  the 
Philippines,  such  as  for  washing,  ironing,  sewing,  printing,  litho- 
graphing, the  manufacture  oi  cigarettes,  and  other  work  which  does 
not  require  powerful  motors. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


36  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

The  School  of  Arts  and  Sciences  of  Iloilo  introduced  electric  light- 
ing June  1,  1895.  The  dynamo  was  of  continuous  current,  of  the 
Brown  type;  it  had  12,000  watts,  and  developed  a  tension  of  110  volts. 
But  on  account  of  lack  of  power  in  the  motor  it  was  impossible  to 
feed  the  incandescent  lamps  put  in  the  building,  for  which  reason  some 
otherwise  indispensable  lights  were  disconnected. 


APPENDIX. 

PHILIPPINE   EXPOSITIONS. 

We  do  not  believe  that  we  can  conclude  this  treatise  on  the  state  of 
culture  in  these  islands  in  a  better  way  than  by  briefly  describing  these 
two  splendid  manifestations  of  it,  still  recent  and  very  apropos,  to  prove 
with  facts  the  perfect  conception  which  we  have  tried  to  give  in  this 
book. 

GENERAL   EXPOSITION   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   ISLANDS   IN   MADRID. 

The  Philippines  had  won  laurels  in  all  the  international  expositions 
held  in  this  century,  and  especially  in  those  of  Philadelphia  and 
Amsterdam,  where,  on  account  of  the  importance  of  her  exhibits,  they 
had  been  given  preference  among  the  colonies  there  represented. 

To  make  known  to  all  Spaniards  what  the  Philippines  were  accom- 
plishing in  the  various  branches  of  agriculture,  industries,  and  com- 
merce, and  in  all  the  various  products  of  labor,  the  Government  of  Spain 
decreed  that  there  should  be  opened  in  Madrid  a  general  exposition 
of  the  Philippine  islands,  including  under  this  name  and  for  this 
occasion  the  products  of  the  towns  and  territories  which  were  subject 
to  the  general  government  of  the  Philippines,  and  consequently,  also, 
the  Marianas,  Palaos,  and  Caroline  islands. 

The  exposition  was  inaugurated  the  30th  of  June,  1877,  in  Campo 
Grande.  It  was  divided  into  82  groups,  comprised  in  the  8  following 
sections: 

(1)  Geography,  meteorology  and  terrestrial  magnetism,  orography, 
hydrography,  anthropology,  biology,  geology ,  and  mineralogy  (groups 
ltol3). 

(2)  Indian  dress,  customs,  and  manners  (groups  14  to  22). 

(3)  Army  and  armed  auxiliary  forces  of  the  Government  (groups  23 
to  29). 

(4)  Navy  (groups  30  to  35). 

(5)  Botanical  geography  of  the  archipelago,  flora,  forestry,  and 
fauna  (groups  36  to  43). 

(6)  Agriculture,  horticulture,  and  fisheries  (groups  44  to  47). 

(7)  Industries,  commercial  movement,  and  traffic  (groups  48  to  68). 

(8)  Public  and  private  works,  printing,  public  instruction,  sciences, 
and  arts  (groups  69  to  82). 

The  premiums  awarded  were  of  five  classes,  viz.:  (1)  Diploma  of 
honor;  (2)  gold  medal;  (3)  silver  medal;  (4)  bronze  medal;  (5)  hon- 
orable mention. 

According  to  the  judgment  of  an  expert,  among  these  sections  the 
second  was  the  most  curious,  if  not  the  most  original ;  the  fifth,  the 
most  interesting  and  complete;  the  sixth,  the  most  important  and  the 
richest  of  all. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  37 

LOOAL   PHILIPPINE   EXPOSITION. 

The  great  success  of  the  General  Exposition  of  the  Philippines,  of 
which  we  have  just  spoken,  and  later,  in  the  Universal  Exposition  of 
Barcelona,  was  a  stimulus  for  the  local  one  of  this  archipelago,  decreed 
by  the  Madrid  Government  and  inaugurated  in  Manila  the  23d  of  Jan- 
uary, 1895.  The  products  of  the  Marianas,  Palaos,  and  Caroline  islands 
also  appeared  in  this  exposition.  It  embraced  the  six  following  sec- 
tions: 

(1)  Orography,  hydrography,  geology,  anthropology,  mining,  met- 
allurgy, and  meteorology  (6  groups). 

(2)  Implements,  fishing  industries  and  manufactures,  flora,  forestry, 
and  medicinal  plants  (10  groups). 

(3)  Agriculture  (14  groups). 

(4)  Trades  and  manufactures  (14  groups). 

(5)  Commerce  and  transportation  (11  groups). 

(6)  Fine  arts  (11  groups). 

(7)  (Not  assigned  in  the  programme.)  Periodical  press,  normal 
school  for  teachers,  park,  military  sanitation,  etc. 

The  rewards  were  altogether  1  diploma  of  honor,  6  diplomas  of 
merit,  24  gold  medals,  48  silver  medals,  96  copper  medals,  192  honor- 
able mentions,  and  an  undetermined  number  of  cooperation  medals  of 
gold,  silver,  and  copper. 

The  result  surpassed  all  expectations. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XIV. 


BENEVOLENT  INSTITUTIONS. 


39 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BENEVOLENT  INSTITUTIONS. 


BENEVOLENT   INSTITUTIONS. 

It  would  be  a  difficult  task  to  describe  the  many  establishments  and 
associations  belonging  to  this  class  in  all  the  Philippine  Archipelago, 
and  especially  in  the  capital.     Omitting  mention  of  the  military  hos- 

f)itals  and  the  benevolent  institutions  founded  in  the  Marianas,  Caro- 
ine,  and  Palaos  islands,  dependent  until  a  short  time  ago  on  the  gen- 
eral government  of  the  Philippines  in  its  character  of  vice  royal  patron 
of  the  churches  of  Asia  founded  in  the  Spanish  dominions,  and  pass- 
ing by  some  colleges  and  centers  of  learning  elsewhere  described, 
which  on  account  of  the  object  of  their  foundation  are  true  and  not 
insignificant  benevolent  works,  we  reduce  this  sketch  to  the  three  fol- 
lowing paragraphs:  Hospitals,  almshouse  asylums,  other  analogous 
benevolent  institutions. 

HOSPITALS. 

We  shall  briefly  describe  five  hospitals,  some  of  them  in  the  city  of 
Manila,  others  outside  of  it.  However,  we  do  not  pretend  to  assert 
that  these  are  the  only  institutions  of  this  kind  established  in  the 
Philiryines.  They  are  the  following:  Hospital  of  San  Juan  Dios  and 
the  Hospital  of  San  Lazaro,  in  Manila;  Hospital  of  San  Jose,  in 
Cavite;  Leper  Hospital,  of  Cebu,  and,  finally,  the  Leper  Hospital  of 
Palestina,  in  Camarines  Sur. 

Hospital  of  San  Juan  de  Dios, — This  was  the  first  establishment  of 
its  kind,  and  is  one  of  the  most  important  institutions  in  the  capital  of 
the  archipelago. 

"  It  was  founded  in  1596  by  the  Brotherhood  of  Santa  Misericordia, 
for  the  care  and  assistance  of  poor,  sick  Spaniards  in  private  life.  In 
1656  the  brotherhood  ceded  it  to  the  monks  of  San  Juan  de  Dios,  in 
whose  charge  it  remained  until  1866,  when  they  were  succeeded  by  the 
Sisters  of  Charity.  In  the  same  year,  1866,  the  government  created 
the  inspecting  board  charged  with  its  direction  and  administration.  It 
has  passed  through  many  vicissitudes.  The  horrible  earthquake  of 
1863  ruined  it  almost  completely,  and  what  remained  was  overthrown 
by  the  earthquake  of  1880.  Later  large  sums  were  spent  to  repair  the 
damage  which  the  tornado  of  1882  caused  in  the  whole  edifice,  which 
was  being  partially  rebuilt  with  the  funds  supplied  by  the  generosity 
of  governors-general,  of  pious  persons,  and  especially  of  the  arch- 
bishop. 

The  income  derived  from  the  pious  legacies  which  the  hospital  had 
in  the  beginning  was  in  a  great  measure  lost  in  the  course  of  time  on 
account  of  the  frequent  wars  and  political  changes  which  have  afflicted 
this  country.  Recently  it  only  depended  on  the  income  from  four  or 
five  houses  and  three  country  places  in  Manila  and  its  suburbs,  and 

41 


Hosted  by 


Google 


42  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILTPPIKE    COMMISSrON. 

2,000  pesos  which  it  received  for  the  cure  and  support  of  sick  Chinese. 
The  rents  of  the  plantation  of  Buena  Vista,  in  Bidacan,  are  what  prin- 
cipally supports  it.  It  formerly  depended,  also,  on  the  vice-royal 
patronage. 

The  number  of  beds  was  not  indicated  at  its  foundation,  and  was  as 
follows : 

Beds. 

2  wards  for  Spaniards  and  foreigners 30 

1  medical  ward  called  San  Rafael. 90 

1  surgical  department ()5 

1  women's  department,  divided  into  2  wards,  medical  and  surgical 80 

1  Chinese  department,  divided  into  medical  and  surgical  wards 75 

2  infirmary  ward-  for  the  fort  and  prison  of  Bilibid 80 

2  isolated  wards  for  contagious  diseases 25 

In  normal  times  the  greatest  number  of  patients  was  462  and  the 
least  373. 

The  staff  engaged  in  the  service  of  the  establishment  is  as  follows* 

Head  administrator „ 1 

Managing  director 1 

Physicians 6 

Apothecary 1 

Mother  superior  and  Sisters  of  Charity 23 

Chaplains 2 

Arc;hitect 1 

Head  nurse 1 

Medical  students  (internes) 8 

Besides  the  number  of  experienced  orderlies  and  apprentices  which 
the  service  requires.  There  were  436  patients  at  the  l)eginning  of 
1897,  among  them  241  Indians. 

Hospital  ()f  8an  Lazaro, — This  hospital  was  begun  in  1578,  on  the 
occasion  of  the  venerable  Juan  Clemente,  hiy  l)r()ther  of  San  Francisco, 
devoting  himself  to  gathering  together  and  curing  sick  people  at  the 
gate  of  his  convent  in  Manila.  As  the  num])er  of  these  increased  he 
constructed  for  them  two  wards  of  light  materials  with  the  alms  which 
he  collected  and  the  work  of  those  who  could  do  it.  Twice  it  was 
destroyed  by  fire  and  as  often  rebuilt.  The  third  time  it  was  built  of 
stone  outside  of  Manila,  and  it  was  destroyed  so  as  not  to  provide  a 
fortress  for  the  Chinese  pirate  Kogson.  Rebuilt  on  the  same  site,  it 
was  ordered  to  be  destroyed  again  on  account  of  the  damage  done  to 
Manila  by  the  battery  set  up  in  it  by  the  English  in  the  eighteenth 
century.  Finally  it  was  erected  on  the  present  site  of  Mayjaligue  in 
1788.  It  was  in  charge  of  the  Monks  of  San  Francisco  and  in  it  leper 
patients  sought  refuge  and  were  maintained  by  a  certain  sum  appro- 
priated in  the  provincial  budgets,  b}^  pious  legacies,  and  by  the  alms  of 
benevolent  people.  At  the  beginning  of  1897  there  were  152  Indian 
patients. 

The  Hospital  of  San  Jose^  in  Camte.- — The  Hospital  Brotherhood  of 
San  Juan  de  Dios  founded  this  hospital  in  Cavite  in  the  year  1641,  in 
the  royal  houses  which  Were  then  in  existence,  with  the  alms  of  pious 
persons.  With  these  and  the  great  zeal  of  those  monks  some  beds 
were  soon  provided. 

Recently  the  internal  administration  was  in  charge  of  one  medical 
director,  one  treasurer,  one  chaplain,  three  Sisters  of  Charity,  one 
apothecary,  and  two  orderlies.  It  depended  upon  the  viceroyal  pat- 
ronage.    Lately  there  were  two  other  Sisters  of  Charity  to  take  care 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPriNE    COMMISSION.  43 

of  a  girls'  school  founded  in  1890  in  the  lower  story  of  the  same 
establishment. 

Leper  hospital  in  Cebu. — Bishop  Jimeno,  of  Cebii,  built  this  in  1850, 
and  it  was  under  the  immediate  direction  of  the  prelate  of  that  diocese. 
It  was  a  building  of  stone  with  a  tile  roof,  located  outside  the  walls 
of  the  city  on  the  north  and  in  an  open  and  hygienic  place.  It  had 
capacity  for  100  sick  men  and  women,  with  their  respective  apart- 
ments, and  w^as  supported  })y  local  funds  and  alms.  The  interior  ad- 
ministration was  in  charge  of  the  Sisters  of  Charity.  (See  what  is 
said  about   the  house  of  charity  of  Cebu.) 

Leper  Jiospital  e)f  PaJestina  in  Camarines  Sur. — This  hospital  was 
founded  in  1872,  near  Nueva  Caceres  by  the  illustrious  Bishop  (lainza 
of  that  diocese,  with  charitable  collections  and  a  moderate  sum  from 
the  proceeds  of  a  pious  legacy  in  favor  of  this  hospital  which  had 
been  accumulating  for  several  years. 

It  was  maintained  with  the  annual  revenue  from  said  legacy  and  a 
Government  appropriation  charged  to  the  local  funds  of  the  provinces 
of  Tayabas,  Albay,  and  Ambos  Camarines,  for  whose  sick  this  hospi- 
tal was  intended. 

Recently  and  in  normal  times  there  were  some  85  patients  of  both 
sexes,  lepers,  bodily  and  spiritually  cared  for  by  the  Franciscan  fathers, 
who  with  this  object  administered  the  hospital  from  its  foundation. 

ALMSHOUSE  AND  ASYEUMS. 

We  have  to  describe  one  almshouse  and  three  asylums — the  royal 
almshouse  of  San  Jose;  the  male  orphan  asylums  of  Tambobong,  the 
female  orphan  asylum  of  Mandaloya,  and  that  of  San  Vicente  de  Paul. 

THE   ROYAL    ALMSHOUSE    OF    SAN    JOSE. 

This  was  founded  in  1810  by  the  royal  decree  of  1806  with  the  pro- 
ceeds of  pious  bequests  left  at  their  death  by  several  individuals.  It 
was  closed  on  account  of  difficulties  and  lack  of  funds  and  reestab- 
lished in  1828,  aided  by  public  funds  greater  or  larger  according  to  the 
times  and  vicissitudes,  with  the  object  of  maintaining,  sheltering,  and 
assisting  the  poor  children  and  insane  persons  who  were  sent  from  the 
provinces  of  the  archipelago  by  the  competent  authorities.  In  1889  the 
Government  appropriation  was  increased.  It  depended  upon  the  vice- 
royal  patronage;  and  for  its  internal  management  it  had  a  medical 
director,  a  treasurer,  a  chaplain,  three  Sisters  of  Charity,  one  apothe- 
cary, and  two  orderlies.     At  the  beginning  of  1897  it  had  548  inmates. 

MALE  ORPHAN  ASYLUMS   OF  TAMBOBONG    AND    FEMALE   ORPHAN   ASYLUM    OF   MANDALOYA. 

The  principal  ladies  of  Manila,  taking  pity  on  the  many  orphans  of 
both  sexes  left  by  the  cholera  in  1882,  with  the  approval  of  the  Gov- 
ernment and  the  alms  of  pious  persons,  founded  a  temporary  asylum 
for  the  benefit  of  said  orphans,  under  the  title  of  "Nuestra  Senora  de 
la  Consolacion"  and  ''Santo  Tomas  de  Villanueva  "  With  the  object 
of  making  the  institution  permanent,  they  first  offered  its  manage- 
ment, and  later,  for  lack  of  means,  its  support  also,  to  the  Augustinian 
fathers  (not  barefoot),  who  in  1885  took  charge  of  everything  relating 
to  the  support,  instruction,  and  education  of  the  children  of  both  sexes 
already  received  or  to  be  received  in  future. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


44  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPIIS^E    COMMISSION. 

The  boys  were  temporarily  transferred  to  the  Convent  of  Guadalupe 
in  1885,  and  in  1890  permanently  to  the  town  of  Tambobong,  Longos 
ward,  in  the  province  of  Manila,  where  they  receive  primary,  elemental, 
and  superior  instruction,  and  a  Christian  education,  and  at  the  same 
time  they  are  taught  a  trade  by  which  they  can  later  earn  an  honest 
living. 

Those  monks  ceded  to  the  girls  temporarily  the  property  in  Manda- 
loya  as  soon  as  they  had  brought  from  Spain  the  Tertiary  Augustinian 
nuns  to  look  after  their  instruction  and  education.  This  arrangement 
was  soon  made  permanent  and  was  approved  by  the  Government;  and 
the  girls  learn  in  the  institution  to  read,  write,  figure,  sew,  embroider, 
wash,  and  to  do  all  the  other  work  required  of  a  poor  woman  who  has 
to  support  herself  by  her  work. 

The  orphans  of  both  sexes  are  admitted  into  their  respective  asylums 
on  certain  conditions,  and  recently  they  numbered  100. 

ASYLUM   OF   SAN    VICENTE   DE   PAUL. 

This  is  located  in  San  Fernando  de  Dilao,  in  the  ward  of  Looban. 
The  building  was  the  property  of  a  Sister  of  Charity,  who  donated  it 
and  some  real  estate  to  the  same  community  for  the  purpose  of  receiv- 
ing and  educating  in  it  about  30  poor  girls.  Others  are  admitted  on 
the  payment  of  a  moderate  pension.  Recently  the  total  number  of 
girls  amounted  to  180,  in  charge  of  the  same  Sisters  of  Charity. 

OTHER  ANALOGOUS   BENEVOLENT  INSTITUTIONS. 

HOUSE   OF   CHARITY   OF   CEBU. 

This  house,  recently  founded  in  the  city  of  Cebu,  which  is  at  the 
same  time  a  college,  school,  hospital,  and  almshouse,  is  subject  to  the 
bishop  of  Cebu,  and  under  the  immediate  direction  of  the  Sisters  of 
Charity. 

ROYAL   HOUSE   OF   MERCY. 

The  Brotherhood  of  Misericordia  founded  this  in  1594  for  the  pur- 
pose of  doing  deeds  of  mercy  through  the  alms  of  the  members. 
Among  the  works  projected  that  which  prevailed  was  taking  destitute 
Spanish  orphan  girls  to  bring  up  and  educate,  and  for  this  purpose  the 
College  of  Santa  Isabel  was  erected. 

The  many  girls  who  were  soon  admitted  were  maintained  by  the 
alms  of  the  members  alone  until  1640,  when  the  first  bequest  was  made, 
and  soon  after  many  others  devoted  to  the  same  object.  Later  the 
resources  diminished  to  such  a  degree  that  if,  about  the  year  1880,  Arch- 
bishop Payo  had  not  transferred  some  pious  legacies  to  this  college  it 
would  have  disappeared  altogether. 

On  account  of  identity  of  purpose,  the  Government  in  1861  added 
to  this  college  that  of  Santa  Potenciana,  with  its  respective  income  and 
funds. 

At  present  it  is  supported  by  the  sums  which  it  receives  as  one  of 
many  participants  from  the  appropriation  for  pious  works  and  by  the 
pensions  of  some  boarding  pupils,  naif  pensioners,  and  outside  paying 
pupils. 

In  describing  the  institutions  of  learning,  we  spoke  more  fully  of 
this  college  and  of  that  of  Santa  Potenciana,  which  was  added  to  it, 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  45 

because  that  was  the  most  appropriate  place  for  it.  For  the  same 
reason  we  shall  say  nothing  here  of  other  institutions  which,  although 
on  account  of  the  object  of  the  founders  and  the  way  they  are  sup- 
ported, are  really  charitable  works,  yet  are  rather  centers  of  learning 
and  education,  namely,  the  i\oj^l  and  Pontifical  University  of  St. 
Thomas,  the  colleges  of  St.  Thomas,  St.  John  Lateran,  St.  Joseph, 
and  St.  Catherine. 

Finally,  we  shall  not  undertake  to  describe  here  some  associations 
which,  practicing  certain  works  of  charity  toward  their  neighbors,  are 
notwithstanding  essentially  religious  in  character,  such  as  the  Ven- 
erable Third  Order  of  Santo  Domingo,  the  Venerable  Third  Orders  of 
San  Francisco,  of  Manila,  and  of  Sampaloc,  the  Ai^ch-Confraternity 
of  Nuestro  Padre  Jesus  Nazareno  in  the  Church  of  the  Padres  Reco- 
letos,  the  monasteries  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  of  Santa  Rita  in  Pasig, 
of  San  Sebastian  in  Calumpang,  t^e  monastery  of  Santa  Clara,  the 
Arch-Confraternities  of  the  Sanctisimo  Sacramento  de  la  Catedral,  and 
of  Binondo,  that  of  Nuestra  Seiiora  de  la  Consolacion  and  Correa,  the 
Venerable  Congregation  of  the  Priests  of  St.  Peter  the  Apostle,  all 
established  in  old  times  by  virtue  of  some  pious  bequest  in  the  walled 
city  of  Manila  or  in  its  suburbs.  They  may  be  seen  in  the  first  part, 
entitled  ''Religion." 

COUNTRY    INSTITUTION    FOR   RESCUED    CHILDREN    IN    TAMONTACA     (mINDANAo)  . 

The  first  missionaries  of  the  Societ}^  of  Jesus,  who,  on  their  second 
coming  to  the  Philippines,  left  Manila  for  Mindanao  in  1861,  earnestly 
desired  and  succeeded  in  gathering  together  some  children,  chiefly  of 
the  Moro  race  or  their  captives,  to  educate  them  suitably  so  as  to  rear 
a  new  Christian  generation  in  the  midst  of  the  country  of  the  Moros. 
Little  was  accomplished,  however,  until  1872.  Then  the  Fathers, 
having  acquired  the  necessary  land  in  Tamontaca,  and  having  obtained 
the  protection  of  Mr.  Golfin,  the  politico-military  governor  of  Min- 
danao, on  the  occasion  of  the  famine  which  afilicted  the  valley  of  the 
Rio  Grande,  easily  ransomed  from  the  Moros  many  children  of  both 
sexes  using  the  alms  which  the  chief  authorities  of  Manila  and  a  board 
constituted  for  this  purpose  sent  them.  Having  made  this  beginning, 
the  mission  of  the  society  continued  the  work  on  their  own  account 
according  to  their  means. 

The  freed  boys  received  in  the  institution  were  subject  to  the  disci- 
pline and  direction  of  the  fathers  and  brothers  of  the  society,  and 
there  they  were  provided  with  everything  necessary.  If  they  were 
infants  they  were  promptly  baptized;  and  if  adults  they  instructed 
and  prepared  them,  having  previously  ascertained  their  desire  for  bap- 
tism. They  heard  mass  ever}^  day,  confessed  and  communed  generally 
every  three  months,  and  observed  a  common  distribution  of  time,  and 
learned  the  catechism,  good  manners  and  customs,  to  read,  write,  and 
speak  Spanish,  and  to  work  in  the  fields  or  in  some  other  occupation, 
according  to  their  strength,  so  as  to  become  useful  and  honest  men  on 
leaving  the  institution. 

The  girls  lived  in  a  separate  building,  not  far  from  the  Mission 
House,  consigned  to  the  care  of  the  mothers  of  the  nunnery  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus,  who  went  there  from  Manila  for  that  purpose,  and 
they  were  all  subject  to  the  missionary  fathers.  They  followed  a 
regime  similar  to  that  of  the  boys,  and  learned  to  read,  write,  and  do 


Hosted  by 


Google 


46  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

work  proper  to  their  sex,  the  practice  of  which  they  needed  to  know 
when  they  left  the  institution. 

On  reaching  the  proper  age  the  mission  father  inquired  the  will  of 
the  wards,  and  if  the  contracting  parties  were  willing  they  made  their 
houses,  which  they  then  occupied  as  married  people,  aided  with  a  water 
buffalo  and  implements  of  agriculture  and  maintenance  for  one  year 
at  the  expense  of  the  institution.  Almost  all  the  people  of  Tamontaca 
came  from  these  marriages. 

The  number  of  boys  or  internes  in  the  institution  used  to  be  from 
To  to  80,  and  that  of  girls  from  60  to  70,  including  some  adult  persons 
not  redeemed,  but  who  had  entered  voluntarily.  The  annual  average 
of  redeemed  children  was  about  28;  and  that  of  new  pupils  receiv^ed, 
8,  because  the  many  ordinary  expenses  and  those  necessary  for  erect- 
ing and  enlarging  the  two  houses  and  church,  and  those  caused  ])y  two 
fires  which  occasioned  great  losses,  did  not  permit  more.  Besides,  the 
institution  became  in  times  of  famine,  and  for  all  the  necessities  of  the 
town  and  even  of  the  neighboring  ranches  of  all  that  district,  a  veri- 
table almshouse. 

ClIAKITAHLE    I'AVV'NBKOKER    ESTAJMJHIIMJCNT    AND    SAVINCiH    BANK. 

Although  the  Government  of  Madrid  ordered  in  1860  the  founding 
of  a  charital)le  pawnbroker  establishment,  notwithstanding  so  many 
difficulties  arose  that  it  could  not  ])e  realized  luitil  the  2ist  of  fJuly, 
1880,  when  it  was  opened  on  the  ground  floor  of  the  Royal  College  of 
Santa  Isabel,  by  juaking  use  of  the  sum  of  some  legacies  for  pious 
works,  whose  administration  was  in  charge  of  the  Royal  House  of 
Mercy.  Later  it  was  installed  in  a  new  building  in  the  center  of  the 
capital. 

It  was  dependent  upon  the  viccroA^al  patronage  and  was  managed 
by  a  council  of  administration,  of  which  the  archbishop  was  the  presi- 
dent. For  its  internal  management,  it  had  a  managing  directer,  a 
cashier,  a  treasurer,  three  helpers,  and  two  appraisers.  It  had  its  by- 
laws. 

It  lent  money  at  6  per  cent  interest  annually,  or  one-half  of  1  per  cent 
per  month  on  jewels,  which  could  be  redeemed  at  any  timc^  of  the  year 
when  due  and  renewed  when  this  time  came.  They  also  accepted 
deposits  in  the  savings  bank,  which  drew  interest  at  4  per  cent  annually, 
counting  from  the  week  following  the  one  in  which  the  deposit  was 
made,  which,  if  in  the  name  of  a  single  person  interested,  only  drew 
interest  on  amounts  not  exceeding  1,000,000  pesos,  which  was  subject 
to  some  variations. 

The  sales  of  jewels  at  public  auction  were  held  on  the  10th  and  11th 
days  of  each  month. 

(X)NFERENCES   OF   SAN   VICENTE   1)E   PAUL. 

The  members  of  San  Vicente  de  Paul  visit,  two  by  two,  weekly  the 
homes  of  the  families  which  the  conferences  adopt,  making  use  of 
temporal  alms  to  better  impart  the  spiritual  help  they  may  need. 

In  1860,  Father  Cuevas,  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  its  spiritual  director, 
founded  the  intramural  conference,  called  La  Immaculada.  There 
were  established  successively  in  the  suburbs  of  the  capital:  in  1885, 
those  of  Binondo  and  Santa  Cruz;  in  1886,  those  of  Tondo  and  Ermita; 
in  1887,  that  of  Quiapo;  in  1899,  that  of  San  Miguel;  in  Mindanao,  in 
1892,  that  of  Zambpanga,  and  in  1894,  that  of  Cottabato. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  47 

They  are  all  subordinate  to  the  central  council  of  Manila,  always 
subject  to  the  spiritual  direction  of  a  Jesuit  father. 

The  council  has  also  instituted  other  beneficent  works  besides  the 
conferences,  although  under  their  patronage  and  direction,  among 
which  are  worthy  of  mention :  The  Patronage  of  Widows  and  Orphans 
(1886),  carried  on  by  ladies  of  the  best  society,  who  assist  them  with 
liberal  donations,  and  dependent  on  it  the  asylum  for  homeless  girls; 
the  carpenter  shop  and  cabinetmaking  shop  for  boys  and  youths  of 
the  working  class  (1886) — these  ceased  to  exist  years  ago;  another  of 
matrimony  (1887),  which  occupies  itself  in  canonically  regulating  illicit 
unions.     At  one  time  it  also  undertook  to  distribute  catechetical  tracts. 

p  c — ^VOL  4 — 01 5 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XV. 


STATE   OF   INDUSTRY. 


49 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


M^l^^H 

H 

HHH 

■H 

^H8Ri 

HI 

PlU^M 

^ 

^'ilfl^^^^l 

H 

H^HB| 

1 

f 

1 

.    ^1^         '  ^H 

^H^ 

Bl^^^l 

^^I^H'^                       '^1 

^H 

HH^^H 

i^lf          ;'^|A 

1 

t|j 

I'^H 

fr^fllB 

^9 

j 

i^^^^^B^Z^^k^ ''^  !•<--'  ''■■■■i-S^MBBWBBBS^^Si 

1 

i^H 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


STATE  OF  INDUSTRY. 


AGRICULTURAL   INDUSTRIES. 


THE   TOBACCO    INDUSTRY. 


This  is  without  doubt  the  principal  Philippine  industry  which,  on 
account  of  the  excellence  and  cheapness  of  its  products,  can  compete 
with  those  of  more  advanced  nations.  In  general  it  may  be  said  that 
the  tobacco  industry  since  the  abolition  of  the  monopoly  has  increased 
in  all  regions  to  an  extraordinary  degree,  both  in  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  the  product.  As  a  result  the  Havana  methods  of  gathering 
and  curing  the  leaf  and  manufacturing  the  product  have  become  popu- 
lar throughout  the  country.  A  full  knowledge  of  the  fermentation  or 
preparation  of  the  leaf  is  still  lacking,  or  perhaps  this  work  is  carried 
out  under  poor  conditions,  so  that  the  leaf  does  not  have  the  aroma 
and  strength  of  the  Havana.  In  many  parts  of  the  islands  the  manu- 
facture of  tobacco  is  carried  on  with  modern  machinery.  More  women 
are  employed  in  the  tobacco  factories  than  men. 

The  samples  of  manufactured  tobacco  shown  in  the  General  Expo- 
sition of  the  Philippine  Islands  in  1887  indicated  great  advances  in 
the  manufacture  of  this  product.  The  beautiful  containers  in  which 
this  tobacco  was  exhibited  followed  the  models  of  those  used  in  Cuba. 

The  General  Tobacco  Company  of  the  Philippines  has  a  factory  in 
operation  near  Manila  known  by  the  name  Flor  de  la  Isabella.  This 
building  has  12,000  square  meters  of  floor  surface  and  gives  employ- 
ment to  4,000  persons — almost  all  women.  This  factory  uses  the  best 
of  selected  tobacco  from  Isabella  and  Cagayan.  The  cigarette  machines 
in  this  factory  are  worked  by  steam.  All  of  the  containers  used  are 
made  here  and  all  the  labels  are  printed  here.  The  factory  communi- 
cates with  the  Pasig  River  by  a  canal  crossing  the  company's  land, 
which  was  opened  at  the  company's  own  expense.  The  company  owns 
in  the  Province  of  Isabella  two  important  plantations,  which  produce 
tobacco  of  a  superior  grade,  due  to  the  vigilance  shown  in  cultivating 
and  gathering.  In  all  the  towns  in  tobacco-producing  regions  of  the 
Philippines  the  company  has  agents,  these  being  dependent  upon  a 
central  agent  in  each  province. 


THE   SUGAR   INDUSTRY. 


In  the  manufacture  of  sugar  the  best  methods  are  not  generally 
employed.  The  natives  extract  the  juice  by  means  of  mills  of  stone, 
wood,  or  iron;  these  being  called  trapiches.  The  juice  is  then  col- 
lected and  boiled  in  kettles,  a  little  lime  being  added  to  purify  it. 
When  the  boiling  has  reached  a  certain  point,  which  is  recognized  by 
those  who  are  expert,  it  is  passed  on  to  a  second  kettle,  where  the 

51 


Hosted  by 


Google 


52  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

boiling  is  continued  until  it  reaches  a  certain  temperature.  It  is  then 
poured  into  conical  molds  which  are  placed  upright  so  that  the 
molasses  may  drain  oflf.  These  molds  are  placed  over  small  jars, 
where  they  remain  until  the  sugar  has  formed,  it  now  being  free  from 
molasses.  It  will  be  seen  therefore  that  there  is  great  opportunity 
for  improvement  in  these  methods.  In  Negros  and  Pampanga  there 
are  many  iron  mills  worked  by  animal  power,  water,  or  steam. 

In  Manila  there  are  two  large  sugar  refineries,  the  Clementina, 
belonging  to  the  General  Tobacco  Company,  and  another  establishment 
in  Malabon. 

THE   HEMP    INDUSTRY. 

For  extracting  the  fiber  from  the  sajas  or  long  strips  of  the  plant  a 
very  simple  apparatus  is  used.  This  consists  of  a  sharp,  somewhat 
dentate  knife  fixed  above  a  smooth  piece  of  wood.  One  end  is  fastened 
by  a  pivot;  the  other  end,  extending  beyond  the  wood,  has  a  cord  and 
weight  attached  to  it,  so  that  the  knife  is  kept  in  close  apposition  to 
the  wood.  Another  cord  attached  to  the  knife  runs  over  a  pulley  and 
then  downward,  being  attached  to  a  pedal.  Pressure  on  this  pedal 
raises  the  knife  so  that  the  saja  may  be  inserted.  The  fiber  is  now 
pulled  out,  the  fleshy  part  of  the  plant  remaining  behind.  The  saja 
is  now  reversed  so  as  to  clean  the  other  end.  With  this  machine  a 
workman  can  clean  85  or  40  pounds  of  hemp  a  day.  The  hemp  is  then 
placed  in  bundles  in  the  sun  to  dry,  so  as  to  prevent  the  putrefaction 
of  the  cellular  tissues  still  adherent  to  the  fiber.  When  thoi-oughly 
dried  it  is  ready  for  the  market.  The  fiber  from  the  same  plant  pre- 
sents marked  dift'erences  in  strength,  solidity,  and  luster.  That  from 
the  outer  part  is  coarse,  strong,  and  reddish  in  color,  and  is  known  as 
bandala  ordinaria.  It  is  employed  largely  in  the  manufacture  of  heavy 
rope. 

Fiber  from  the  middle  layer,  the  ordinary  hemp  of  commerce,  is 
called  bandala,  while  that  coming  from  nearest  the  heart  of  the  plant 
is  very  white  and  of  superior  quality.  This  is  called  lupis  in  Albay 
and  quitoti  in  Marinduque.  The  latter  two  which  are  firm,  lustrous, 
and  flesh  colored,  are  largely  employed  for  the  manufacture  of  fab- 
rics. It  is  found  in  the  market  in  bunches  or  bundles  called  pilihan. 
The  natives  classify  this  hemp  in  four  ways,  according  to  its  quality,  as 
binani,  tonga,  cadaraclan,  and  tinunguos.  Fabrics  are  made  from  the 
first  kind  so  delicate  as  to  compare  favorably  with  pineapple  cloth. 
The  fiber,  tied  at  the  ends  into  small  knots,  is  wound  into  bundles  and 
beaten  with  a  mallet  against  a  hollow  piece  of  wood  so  that  it  may 
become  more  elastic. 

THE   INDIGO    INDUSTRY. 

The  production  of  indigo  was  formerly  of  much  more  importance 
than  now.  The  method  of  making  it  in  this  archipelago  will  now  be 
spoken  of.  This  includes  several  operations,  maceration  in  water,  the 
addition  of  lime,  shaking  or  stirring  and  decantation  of  the  water, 
formation  of  the  indigo  into  masses,  and  wrapping.  After  the  plant 
is  cut  and  made  up  into  bundles  it  is  taken  to  the  factory.  This  is  com- 
posed of  various  parts.  In  the  first  there  are  two  or  more  cylindrical 
or  conical  receptacles  made  of  masonry  or  wood,  each  being  2i  meters 
in  height  and  2  in  diameter.  These  are  called  machos.  In  the  second, 
called  hembra,  there  is  a  receptacle  double  the  capacity  of  those  already 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  53 

mentioned  which  is  cylindrical  in  shape,  wider  than  it  is  hi^h^  the  sides 
somewhat  inclined,  and  having  two  faucets  at  different  heights  on  the 
side,  through  which  the  impregnated  liquor  can  flow;  in  the  third  a 
receptacle,  made  of  masonry,  which  is  in  circular  form,  a  meter  and  a 
half  high  and  a  meter  in  diameter,  into  which  the  indigo  paste  coming 
from  the  hembra  is  placed,  in  order  to  separate  the  water  from  it,  and 
lastly  the  secadero,  where  the  indigo  is  exposed  to  the  air  and  after- 
wards dried. 

Maceration  is  the  first  process.  The  receptacles  called  machos  are 
filled  four-fifths  full  of  water  and  the  bundles  of  indigo  immediately 
thrown  in  them.  A  grating  of  bamboo  having  weights  attached  is  now 
lowered  4  or  5  inches  below  the  surface  of  the  water,  the  plant  being 
allowed  to  macerate  for  twenty-two  hours,  during  which  time  the  leaves 
undergo  a  sort  of  fermentation,  liberating  the  indigo  which  is  held  in 
solution  in  the  water.  During  this  operation  the  water  first  becomes 
yellowish  in  color,  then  yellowish -green,  and  finally  green  with  a  yel- 
lowish tinge.  The  maceration  being  complete,  lime  is  added.  In  this 
operation  the  grating  is  first  removed  and  the  plants  taken  out  after 
being  allowed  to  drain  on  the  sides  of  the  receptacle.  Baskets  of  quick- 
lime are  then  lowered  into  the  water,  when  the  liquid  immediately 
changes  from  green  to  greenish-blue.  It  is  then  drawn  off  immediately 
b}^  means  of  the  faucets,  beginning  with  the  upper  one,  and  passed  on 
to  the  hembra  or  second  receptacle  by  means  of  little  troughs.  In  the 
hembra  the  liquid  is  stirred  with  sticks,  thus  exposing  it  to  the  air  so 
that  the  indigo  becomes  insoluble.  This  operation  lasts  from  half  an 
hour  to  an  hour.  At  the  end  of  the  operation  the  water  is  bluish-brown 
in  color.  It  is  allowed  to  remain  until  more  water  is  added  from  the 
first  receptacle,  when  the  same  operation  is  repeated.  The  indigo 
deposited  is  now  allowed  to  remain  fifteen  or  twenty  days,  when  it  is 
transferred  to  the  third  receptacle.  Here  it  remains  for  two  or  three 
days,  becoming  separated  from  the  greater  part  of  the  water  which  it 
contains,  this  being  drawn  off^by  the  faucets. 

In  this  place  the  various  grades  of  indigo  become  distinguishable, 
the  upper  layers  containing  the  superior  grade,  the  central  layers  the 
medium  grade,  and  the  lower  layers  the  inferior  grade.  The  indigo  is 
now  placed  in  bamboo  boxes,  having  a  layer  of  cotton  in  the  bottom 
so  that  the  water  may  drain  through.  At  the  end  of  two  days  the 
mass  is  kneaded  by  hand  into  cakes  or  balls,  which  are  placed  on  mats 
arranged  on  benches  in  the  drying  room.  Here  the  drying  process 
continues  for  five  or  six  days,  the  indigo  being  placed  in  the  sun  as 
often  as  possible,  so  as  to  advance  the  process  more  rapidly.  The 
mass  is  now  cut  with  bamboo  knives  into  the  proper  size,  which  is 
usually  about  6  inches  in  length  by  half  as  much  in  depth  and  height, 
the  corners  of  the  cake  being  rounded  off  with  the  hand.  After  the 
cakes  are  dried  they  are  placed  in  wooden  boxes,  where  they  are  kept 
ready  for  the  market. 

MANUFACTURE  OP   ALCOHOL. 

The  crude  materials  which  are  here  used  for  the  manufacture  of 
alcohol  are  very  cheap.  They  are  the  juice  from  the  nipa  palm  and 
from  the  cocoanut  palm  and  low  grade  molasses.  In  Manila  there  are 
four  large  accredited  distilleries,  while  smaller  ones  are  found  both  in 
Manila  and  in  the  provinces.     Nipa  wine  is  manufactured  in  Dagu- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


54  KEPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Ean,  in  the  province  of  Pangasinan,  in  Vigan,  in  the  province  of  South 
locos,  and  m  Capiz,  in  the  province  of  Capiz,  Panay  Island.  In  all 
the  archipelago  there  are  not  less  than  500  stills.  All  the  alcohol  man- 
ufactured is  consumed  in  the  country. 

MANUFACTUKE   OP   OIL. 

A  great  de^-l  of  oil  is  extracted  from  the  millions  of  cocoanuts  which 
are  grown  in  the  Philippines,  although  the  methods  employed  are  in 
general  quite  rudimentary.  Other  oils  extracted  are  lumban}^,  castor 
oil,  and  those  from  other  plants.  Much  remains  to  be  done  in  this 
industry,  not  only  in  perfecting  the  apparatus  employed,  which  is  in 
general  very  imperfect,  but  also  in  the  exploitation  of  certain  plants 
such  as  the  peanut,  which  furnish  excellent  oil.  Among  the  many 
essential  oils  useful  for  the  manufacture  of  perfumes,  almost  the  only 
one  of  commercial  importance  is  the  ilang  ilang,  although  a  little 
sampagita  and  champaca  are  manufactured. 

RICE   CLEANING. 

The  primitive  apparatus  called  the  lusong  is  about  the  only  one 
employed  in  the  Philippines  for  cleaning  rice.  The  lusong  is  simply 
a  large  wooden  mortar  in  which  the  rice  is  pounded  until  the  husk  is 
removed.     One  or  two  steam  mills  have  recently  been  installed. 

SOAP    MAKING. 

Soap  has  been  made  in  these  islands  for  a  long  time,  but  the  methods 
employed  are  most  primitive.  The  industry  is  not  large  in  spite  of 
the  abundance  of  suitable  material  found  in  the  country. 

FECULAS  OR  STARCHES  AND  FLOURS. 

This  industry  is  carried  on  but  little,  although  the  abundance  of 
material  found  in  this  country  might  furnish  employment  to  a  large 
number  of  people. 

MANUFACTURE   OF   PAPER. 

In  spite  of  the  abundant  raw  material  found  in  this  country  no  paper 
mill  exists. 

CHEESE    MAKING. 

Cheese  is  made  in  small  quantities,  that  coming  from  Cebu  being  of 
excellent  quality. 

MANUFACTURE   OF   LEATHER. 

This  industry  is  but  rudimentary,  although  considering  the  large 
number  of  cattle  found  in  the  country  it  might  be  made  of  some 
importance. 

SILK   RAISING. 

The  silkworm  was  formerly  raised  in  the  Philippines,  but  is  not  at 
the  present  time.  D.  Jose  Montero  Vidal,  in  his  book  on  the  Philip- 
pines, says: 

The  mulberry  (moeus  alba)  has  existed  in  the  Philippines  since  1593,  when  it 
was  planted  throughout  the  Visayan  Islands  by  P.  Antonio  Sedeno,  S.  J.  After- 
wards, in  1780,  the  Augustin  missionary,  P.  Manuel  Galiana,  sent  this  plant  from 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  55 

China,  and  at  the  same  time  eggs  of  the  silkworm.  The  Royal  Economic  Society  of 
Friends  of  the  country  attempted  to  encourage  this  industry,  but  agriculturists  never 
favored  the  growth  of  the  silkworm  on  account  of  the  care  involved.  So  that  the 
industry  was  almost  entirely  abandoned.  In  the  time  of  Governor-General  Basco  y 
Vargas  there  were  about  4,500,000  trees  in  Camarines. 

The  silkworm  flourishes  well,  and  numerous  trials  in  its  cultivation 
prove  that  it  is  possible  to  obtain  two  or  three  crops  of  cocoons 
annually.  The  worm  which  lives  upon  the  castor-oil  plant  or  tangan- 
tangan  resists  storms  and  even  typhoons,  and  although  the  silk  is  not 
of  me  finest,  it  has  many  uses. 

COCHINEAL. 

The  cochineal  insect  grows  well  on  the  plant  called  dilang-vaca,  and 
when  carefully  prepared  sells  well  at  a  good  price. 

MANUFACTUllING    INDUSTRIES. 

In  the  Philippines  these  industries,  in  spite  of  the  great  aptitude  of 
the  inhabitants,  are  not  nearly  so  important  as  agriculture;  due  in 
part  to  the  lack  of  modern  machinery.  The  most  important  industries 
are:  The  weaving  of  hemp,  pineapple  fiber,  silk  and  cotton,  and  the 
making  of  mats,  hats,  and  other  articles  of  fine  quality. 

HEMP,    PINEAPPLE,    SILK,     AND   COTTON    FABRICS. 

The  manufacture  of  fabrics  from  these  articles  has  been  carried  on 
in  the  Philippines  for  a  long  time  on  a  considerable  scale.  The  natives 
show  great  aptitude  in  this  line  of  work,  as  is  evidenced  by  the  per- 
fection which  they  have  reached,  this  appearing  marvelous  when  one 
considers  the  simple  methods  they  follow  and  the  primitive  machinery 
used.  Women  are  the  only  ones  who  work  at  the  looms.  The 
provinces  of  Albay,  Camarines,  Ilocos,  Iloilo,  and  Tayabas  are  pre- 
eminent in  this  line.  Senor  Martin  Martinez,  in  his  review  of  the 
exposition,  says: 

In  all  the  Philippine  territory  there  is  not  a  machine  moved  by  steam,  although 
there  are  thousands  of  primitive  looms  worked  by  women  by  hand  and  by  the  most 
simple  methods,  which  produce  a  great  variety  of  fabrics  suitable  for  local 
consumption. 

The  fibers  used  in  weaving  in  the  Philippines  are  hemp,  pineapple  fiber,  cotton, 
and  silk.  The  first  two  are  products  of  the  country.  Silk  comes  from  China,  and 
cotton,  except  a  few  thousand  kilograms  grown,  cleaned,  sponged,  and  woven  in 
Ilocos,  Batangas,  and  Visayas,  comes  from  "England.  About  900,000  kilograms  in 
the  form  of  white  and  colored  thread,  and  having  a  value  of  about  1900,000,  is 
imported  annually.  About  8,000  kilograms  of  silk  thread,  valued  at  $120,000,  are 
imported  each  year  from  China.  In  other  words,  Philippine  looms  use  each  year 
cotton  and  silk  thread  valued  at  more  than  one  million  dollars.  It  is  estimated  that 
hemp  and  pineapple  fiber  of  equal  value  are  annually  woven  into  cloth.  It  is  easy 
to  see,  therefore,  that  an  industry  which  consumes  raw  material  to  the  value  of 
$2,200,000  annually  is  of  considerable  importance. 

Cloth  made  from  hemp  alone  is  called  sinamay,  and  though  it  is 
somewhat  rough,  is  very  cool,  durable,  and  cheap.  It  is  used  for  mak- 
ing shirts  for  men  and  waists  and  skirts  for  women.  A  finer  variety 
of  hemp  cloth,  which  is  often  confused  with  pineapple  cloth,  is  called 
tinampipi.  A  piece  5  yards  in  length  is  worth  |2,  or,  say,  four  times 
as  much  as  ordinary  sinamay.  But  the  especial  product  of  Philippine 
looms,  especially  those  from  the  towns  of  Caloocan  and  Iloilo,  is  jusi. 

p  c— VOL  4 — 01 6 


Hosted  by 


Google 


56  REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

These  Philippine  jusis,  celebrated  for  their  lightness,  beauty,  and  deli- 
cate patterns,  are  made  from  silk  alone,  or  more  commonly  with  the 
warp  of  cotton  or  pineapple  fiber  and  the  woof  of  silk.  Pieces  are 
made  to  suit  the  buyer.  These  pieces  are  usually  30  or  more  yards  in 
length  and  from  three-quarters  of  a  yard  to  a  yard  in  width,  and  beau- 
tifully bordered  in  colors.  This  beautiful  cloth,  which  varies  in  price 
from  50  cents  to  $1  a  yard,  compares  favorably  with  fabrics  of  Euro- 
pean manufacture. 

Weavers  make  from  6  to  25  cents  a  day  and  food,  according  to  their 
ability.  The  majority  of  these  weavers  are  girls  of  from  12  to  20 
years  of  age.  This  is  often  a  household  industry,  the  two  or  three 
looms  in  the  house  being  worked  by  the  women  in  the  family  or  by 
capable  servants.  In  both  the  llocos  provinces  a  specialty  is  made  of 
the  manufacture  of  heavy  cotton  blankets.  Thes^  are  much  valued 
in  the  country,  and  sell  for  from  $4  to  $10  each,  according  to  quality. 
They  are  sometimes  made  of  silk,  when  they  may  reach  a  value  of 
$100  each. 

MANUFACTURE   OF   MATS,  SLEEPING    MATS,   HATS,  ETC. 

The  manufacture  of  mats,  sleeping  mats,  hats,  bags,  etc.,  is  worthy 
of  mention,  because  of  the  intelligence,  ability,  and  patience  shown 
by  those  who  make  these  beautiful  articles.  This  is  the  more  won- 
derful when  one  considers  that  the  only  instrument  used  is  a  sort  of 
knife  called  guloc.  The  materials  used  are  rattan,  palm  leaves,  ferns, 
and  bamboo,  all  of  which  are  so  abundant  in  this  country.  The  prov- 
inces notable  for  these  articles  are  Bulacan,  Laguna,  Pampanga, 
Camarines,  Albay,  and  lloilo. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.   XVI. 


COMMERCE. 


57 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


COMMERCE. 


The  statistical  and  other  sources  of  information  with  regard  to  the 
commerce  of  the  Philippine  Islands' are  far  from  complete.  For  cer- 
tain years  rather  full  data  have  been  found.  For  other  years  it  has 
not  as  yet  been  possible  to  obtain  them.  Nevertheless,  much  informa- 
tion has  been  and  is  being  gathered  by  other  departments  of  the 
Government.^ 

It  is  not  proposed  in  this  paper  to  give  an  exhaustive  discussion  of  the 
subject,  but,  making  use  of  the  material  mentioned  above  and  of  the 
testimony  and  other  information  acquired  by  the  commission,  it  is 
intended  to  present  only  a  brief  resume  of  the  commercial  conditions 
of  the  islands. 

For  a  period  of  thirty  years  past,  excepting,  however,  the  last  five 
years,  the  trade  of  the  islands,  export  plus  import,  has  fluctuated 
between  the  amounts  of  $30,000,000  and  $40,000,000  annually,  the 
average  lying  somewhere  between  $35,000,000  and  $40,000,000.  Of 
this  amount  something  more  than  one-half  represents  the  value  of 
exports  and  something  less  than  one-half  the  value  of  imports.  The 
excess  of  exports  over  imports,  fluctuating  between  $2,000,000  and 
$6,000,000,  may  be  roughly  placed  at  $4,000,000  on  the  average. 

In  the  estimates  given  herein  little  or  no  account  of  the  last  five 
years  is  made,  on  account  of  the  unusual  political  and  social  conditions 
which  have  existed,  and  which  have  not  only  disturbed  the  normal 
trade,  but  rendered  any  accurate  account  of  it  less  possible. 

Of  the  total  export  and  import  trade  of,  say,  $35,000,000,  the  United 
Kingdom,  China,  Spain,  and  the  United  States  have  been  the  chief 
beneficiaries  for  years  past.  Eighty  per  cent  of  the  entire  trade  has 
been  with  them.  Of  this  amount  the  United  Kingdom  has  had  by  far 
the  largest  share,  to  wit,  35  to  40  per  cent  of  the  whole  trade  of  the 
islands,  and  to  this  may  still  be  added  a  large  per  cent  for  the  trade 
between  the  Philippines  and  Hongkong,  Singapore,  and  other  British 
possessions  in  Asia  not  included  in  the  above  estimate,  and  scheduled, 
as  a  rule,  as  China  trade.  Spain  and  the  United  States,  while  follow- 
ing next  in  order  of  importance  in  the  Philippine  trade,  have  had  a 
much  smaller  amount  of  it.  In  1881  the  Spanish  part  of  the  total 
import  and  export  trade  was  about  6  per  cent;  that  of  the  United 
States  about  23  per  cent;  that  of  the  United  Kingdom  about  34  per 
cent,  and  that  of  the  British  possessions  in  Asia  about  35  per  cent. 


^  Bulletin  No.  14  of  the  U.  S.  Department  of  Agriculture,  Section  of  Foreign  Markets, 
1898,  contains  much  valuable  information  which  has  been  freely  used. 

59 


Hosted  by 


Google 


60 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Owing  largely  to  the  industrial,  financial,  and  tariff  measures  taken 
by  Spain  in  behalf  of  the  peninsula,  the  Spanish  trade  was  very  largely 
increased  in  the  ten  years  succeeding  1881.  .  At  the  end  of  that  period 
the  relative  percentages  of  trade  enjoyed  by  the  chief  trading  coun- 
tries with  the  islands  were  as  follows:  United  States,  about  9  per  cent; 
Spain,  about  18  per  cent;  the  United  Kingdom,  about  33  per  cent,  and 
China,  including  Hongkong,  about  25  per  cent. 

The  following  table  will  show  the  relative  amounts  of  trade  enjoyed 
by  the  countries  mentioned  in  1881  and  a  decade  later  (1892-93): 

Tirade  of  the  archipelago  with  its  chief  trading  countries  in  the  years  J 881  and  in  1892 

and  1893. 


1881. 
British  Asiatic  possessions  . . . 

United  Kingdom 

United  States 

Spain 

China 

Germany 

French  Indo-China 

1892. 

United  Kingdom 

China  (including  Hongkong) 

Spain 

United  States 

Singapore 

French  Indo-China 

Germany  

1893. 

United  Kingdom 

China  (including  Hongkong) 

Spain 

United  States 

Germany 

France 

Singapore 

French  Indo-China 


Imports. 


19, 953, 207 

5,297,873 

771,266 

1,365,662 

494, 274 

485, 767 

512 


5, 196, 192 

3, 029, 940 

4, 397, 642 

208, 392 

987, 652 

1,003,074 

527, 587 


4, 247, 883 

2, 237, 471 

5, 104, 875 

956, 706 

1, 246, 248 

477, 026 

156, 135 

517, 933 


53. 83 
28. 65 
4.17 
7.39 
2.67 
2.63 


31.85 
18.57 
26. 96 
1.28 
6.05 
6.15 
3. 23 


26.73 

14.08 

32.13 

6.02 

7.84 

3.00 

.98 

3. 26 


Exports. 


$4, 054, 888 

8,315,454 

8,217,141 

973, 329 

60,829 


6,371,119 
5,778,449 
1, 839, 109 
2, 903, 648 
1,574,910 
181,933 


i  Total  im- 

Per  cent.  I  ports  and 

'    exports. 


18.54 
38.01 
37.56 
4.45 

.28 


9, 959, 949 

4, 866,  640 

1,919,253 

2, 994, 897 

19, 728 

241,844 

509, 912 

5, 725 


33. 24 
30.15 
9.60 
15.15 

8.22 
.95 


44.90 

21.94 

8.65 

13. 50 

.09 

1.09 

2.30 

.03 


S14, 008, 095 

13, 613, 327 

8, 988, 407 

2, 338, 991 

555, 103 

485, 767 

730 


11, 567, 311 
8,808,389 
6, 236, 751 
3, 112, 040 
2, 562, 562 
1,185,007 
627, 587 


14, 207, 832 

7, 104, 111 

7, 024, 128 

3,951,603 

1,265,976 

718, 870 

666,047 

523, 658 


34.70 
33.72 

22.27 
5.80 
1.38 
1.20 


32. 60 
24.83 
17. 58 
8.77 
7. 22 
3.34 
1.49 


37.32 
18.66 
18.45 
10.38 
3.32 
1.89 
1.75 
1.38 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


61 


The  following  tables  more  clearly  show  the  differences  in  value 
between  the  exports  and  imports  of  the  several  chief  trading  coun- 
tries for  the  3^ears  1892,  1893,  and  1894: 


Countries. 


1892. 

United  Kingdom 

China  (including  Hongkong) 

Spain 

United  Stii  tes 

Singapore 

French  Indo-China 

Germany 

France 

1893. 

United  Kingdom 

China  (including  Hongkong) 

Spain 

United  States 

Germany 

France 

Singapore 

French  Indo-China 

1894.  a 

Spain 

Germany 

Australia 

China 

United  States 

France 

England 

Japan  

Russia 

Cochin  China 

Singapore 

Switzerland 


Imports. 


S5, 196, 192 

3, 029, 940 

4, 397, 642 

208, 392 

987, 652 

1,003,074 

527, 587 

272, 866 


4, 247, 883 

2, 237,  471 

5,104,875 

956, 706 

1,246,248 

477, 026 

156, 135 

517, 933 


255, 000 
929, 000 

65, 000 
382, 000 
364, 000 
394,000 
500,000 

86,000 
375, 000 
445, 000 
219, 000 
153, 000 


Exports. 


$6,371,119 
5, 778, 449 
1,839,109 
2, 903, 648 
1, 574, 910 
181,933 


9,959,949 

4, 866, 640 

1,919,253 

2, 994, 897 

19, 728 

241, 844 

509,912 

5,725 


1,427,000 
14, 500 
1, 280, 000 
2, 300, 000 
3, 690, 000 

617, 000 
4, 344, 000 

619,000 


1,500 

843, 000 
205 


Imports. 


$2, 558, 533 


821, 141 
527, 587 
272,866 


4,185,622 


1,226,520 
235, 182 


3, 828, 000 
914, 500 


1,082,000 


375, 000 
443, 500 


152, 795 


Exports. 


$1,174,927 

2, 748, 509 


2, 695, 256 

587, 258 


5, 712, 066 
2, 629, 169 


2,038,191 
'""353;777 


1,215,000 


3,326,000 
218, 000 
844,000 
533, 000 


624,000 


a  The  original  of  the  tabulation  for  this  year,  calculated  in  pesos,  is  in  this  instance  turned  into 
dollars  at  the  convenient  ratio  of  two  Spanish  pesos  for  one  American  dollar,  and  only  round  num- 
bers are  given. 

The  following  table  gives  the  annual  values  of  merchandise,  exports 
and  imports  combined,  of  the  chief  trading  countries  for  the  ten  3^ears 
1887-1896  and  the  annual  averages  for  the  lirst  and  second  halves  of 
that  period: 

Total  value  of  merchandise  imported  and  exported  by  certain  countries  in  their  trade  with 
the  Philippine  Islands  during  the  years  (a)  1887  to  1891^  inclusive. 


Countries. 


United  Kingdom  — 

United  States 

Spain 

Straits  Settlements. 

Canada  

Germany 

France 

iVustria 

China 

Australasia 

Japan  

Belgium 

British  India 

Netherlands 


Dollars. 
7,647,062 
10,434,181 
3,802,910 
1,449,422 

256, 126 

(b) 

412, 049 

(&) 

416,263 

178,794 

104, 662 

63,932 

18,144 


Dollars. 

14, 165, 311 

10,772,819 

3, 934, 605 

1,429,909 

906, 314 

(&) 
292, 165 

(&) 

428, 187 
200, 393 
207, 347 
107,884 

11,886 
2,067 


1, 


Dollars. 

19, 096, 974 

11,714,902 

6,052,707 

1,355,051 

641, 273 

210, 468 

600, 616 

486, 488 

459, 583 

352, 380 

183,062 

190, 006 

27,722 

1,171 


Dollars. 

13, 036, 361 

5,291,781 

6, 472, 162 

1,077,138 

1,410,183 

945, 098 

603, 766 

564. 341 

323,287 

168,434 

369, 432 

124, 526 

128,824 

1,307 


Dollars. 

15.  734, 684 

6, 369, 567 

7,024,766 

885,061 

2,  316, 948 

1,034,348 

729,935 

-    142,753 

330, 517 

237, 879 

266, 721 

88, 751 

174,085 

8,164 


Annual  av- 
erage, 

1887-1891. 


Dollars. 

13,936,078 

8,916,650 

5,457,430 

1,239,316 

1, 106, 169 

c  1,063, 304 

527, 706 

c 397, 860 

391, 568 

227, 576 

226, 245 

115,020 

72, 133 

2, 542 


a  Calendar  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.  For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.  For  British  India,  fiscal  years  begin- 
ning April  1  of  the  years  specified.  h  Not  separately  stated.  c  Annual  average,  1889-1891. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


62 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Total  value  of  merchandise  imported  and  exported  by  certain  countries  in  their  trade  with 
the  Philippine  Islands  during  the  years  (a)  1892-1896,  inclusive. 


United  Kingdom. . . 

Spain 

United  States 

France 

Canada  

Germany 

Straits  Settlements. 

Japan  

Australasia 

China 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Dutch  East  Indies  . 

Austria 

British  India 

Ceylon 

Hungary 

Cape  Colony 


Dollars. 

14,086,800 

8, 066, 822 

9,314,235 

611,058 

2, 204, 454 

903,210 

836, 085 

388,  725 

249, 656 

212,109 

98, 093 

4,148 

(&) 

118,971 
79, 827 
(&) 
(/) 


Dollars. 

14,398,781 

7, 768, 973 

7, 153, 808 

781, 495 

1, 135, 577 

1,113,364 

691,020 

418, 718 

167,183 

189, 587 

138, 797 

202,063 

(&) 

66,354 

61, 194 

9,142 

4,423 


Dollars. 
11,234,243 
8, 709, 721 
4,850,621 
1,132,011 
423, 417 
789, 684 

(&) 

950, 106 
256, 809 
217,011 

86, 318 
177,452 

(&) 

116, 159 

73,288 

6,741 

1,438 

24 


1895. 


Dollars. 
9,975,892 
8, 886, 504 
5,145,303 
1,472,900 
864, 711 
970, 088 

721, 944 
196, 722 
138,742 
115,659 
190,396 

(&) 

59,835 

87,833 

6,117 

608 

594 


Dollars. 
10, 054, 296 
11, 713, 816 
4, 478, 337 
1,965,867 
1,242,441 
970, 326 

(&) 

1,050,153 

261, 292 

116, 801 

241,286 

14, 374 

104,801 

51, 307 

78, 456 

14, 922 


1,314 


Annual  av- 
erage, 
1892-1896. 


Dollars. 

11,950,002 

9, 029, 167 

6, 188, 460 

1,192,666 

1, 174, 120 

949,335 

c 763, 553 

705,930 

226, 333 

174,850 

136, 030 

117,687 

(Z 104, 801 

82, 525 

76, 120 

e9,231 

el,  617 


a  Calender  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.    For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.     For  British  India,  fiscal  years 
beginning  April  1  of  the  years  specified.         b  No  statistics  available.         c  Annual  average,  1892-1893. 
d  Statistics  for  1896  only.  e  Annual  average,  1893-1896.  /Not  separately  stated. 

The  following  table  gives  the  annual  average  for  the  first  and  second 
halves  of  the  decade  1887  to  1896  of  imports  and  exports,  separately 
stated  and  combined: 

Average  annual  value  of  merchandise  imported  and  exported  by  certain  countries  in  their 
trade  ivith  the  Philippine  Islands  during  the  five-year  (a)  periods  1887-1891  and  1892- 
1896. 


United  Kingdom  . . . 

Spain 

United  States 

France 

Canada  

Germany 

Straits  Settlements. . 

Japan 

Australasia 

China 

Belgium 

Netherlands 

Dutch  East  Indies. . . 

Austria 

British  India 

Ceylon 

Hungary 

Cape  Colony 


Annual  average,  1887-1891. 


Imports 
from  the 
Philip- 
pines. 

Dollars. 

8, 729, 072 

3, 819, 426 

8, 785, 988 

185, 575 

1,105,991 

h  175, 961 

528, 030 

161, 361 

115, 422 

67, 735 

6,904 

95 

{d) 

?)  361, 531 

12, 338 

{d) 


Exports  to 
the  Phil- 
ippines. 


Dollars. 

5, 207, 006 

1, 638. 004 

130; 662 

342, 131 

178 

Z>  887, 343 

711, 286 

64, 884 

112, 154 

323, 833 

108, 116 

2,447 

id) 

h  36, 329 

59, 795 

{d) 


Total  im- 
ports and 
exports. 


Dollars. 

13, 936, 078 

5,457,430 

8, 916, 650 

527, 706 

1, 106, 169 

&  1,063, 304 

1,239,316 

226, 245 

227, 576 

391, 568 

115,020 

2,542 

id) 

6  397,860 

72, 133 

id) 


Annual  average,  1892-1896. 


Imports 
from  the 
Philip- 
pines. 

Dollars. 

8, 844, 026 

3,855,165 

6, 053, 232 

986, 012 

1,174,068 

201,158 

^345,430 

616, 631 

106, 602 

31, 710 

27,487 

106, 451 

6  99,174 

18,894 

7,835 

/9,117 


386 


Exports  to 
the  Phil- 
ippines. 


Dollars. 

3, 105, 976 

5, 174, 002 

135, 228 

206, 654 

52 

748, 177 

a  418, 123 

89, 299 

119, 731 

143, 140 

108, 543 

11,236 

e5,627 

63, 631 

68,285 

/114 

/1, 617 


Total  im- 
ports and 
exports. 


Dollars. 

11,950,002 

9, 029, 167 

6, 188, 460 

1,192,666 

1,174,120 

949, 335 

c 763, 553 

705,930 

226, 333 

174, 850 

136, 030 

117, 687 

e 104, 801 

82,525 

76, 120 

/9,231 

/1, 617 

386 


a  Calendar  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.    For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.    For  British  India,  fiscal  years  begin- 
ning April  1  of  the  years  specified.  b  Annual  average,  1889-1891.  c  Annual  average,  1892-93. 
d  No  statistics  available.            e Statistics  for  1896  only.           /Annual  average,  1893-1896. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOl^. 


63 


EXPORTS    FROM    THE    PHILIPPINES. 

The  following  tables  show  the  value  of  merchandise  imported  from 
the  Philippines  by  the  several  foreign  countries  during  each  of  the 
ten  years  1887  to  1896,  with  the  annual  average  for  the  first  and 
second  halves  of  that  decade: 

Value  of  mercaandise  imported  by  certain  countries  in  their  trade  with  the  Philippine  Islands 
during  the  years  (a)  1887  to  1891,  inclusive. 


Countries  from  which  im- 
ported. 


United  States 

United  Kingdom. . . 

Spain 

Canada  

Straits  Settlements. 

Austria 

France 

Germany 

Japan  

Australasia 

China 

British  India 

Belgium 

Netherlands 


Annual 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

average, 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

1887-1891. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

10, 268, 278 

10, 593, 172 

11,592,626 

5,167,209 

6, 308, 653 

8, 785, 988 

4,275,989 

8,220,263- 

11, 347, 637 

8,018,571 

11, 782, 901 

8, 729, 072 

2,937,237 

2, 740, 715 

4,397,241 

4,706,957 

4, 314, 979 

3, 819, 426 

256, 126 

906, 314 

641,273 

1,409,543 

2,316,699 

1,105,991 

461,994 

710, 369 

648, 103 

484, 466 

335, 219 

528,030 

(&) 
142, 919 

(b) 

447, 128 

530, 184 

107, 282 

c 361, 531 

38, 504 

100, 415 

175, 659 

470, 377 

185, 575 

(&) 

(&) 

93,058 

116, 620 

318, 206 

c 175, 961 

100, 080 

156, 253 

165, 837 

208, 477 

176, 159 

161, 361 

74,622 

108, 105 

215, 874 

87, 553 

90, 955 

115,422 

79,866 

76, 542 

78, 490 

47, 830 

55, 946 

67,735 

18, 139 

9,469 

13,494 

14,875 

5,711 

12,338 

2,497 

7,871 
475 

8,792 

80 

15, 278 

6,904 
95 

a  Calendar  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.  For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.  For  British  India,  fiscal  years  begin- 
ning April  1  of  the  years  specified.  b  Not  separately  stated.  c  Annual  average,  1889-1891. 

Value  of  7nerchandise  imported  by  certain  countries  in  their  trade  with  the  Philippine  Islands 
during  the  years  (a)  1892  to  1896,  inclusive. 


Countries  from  which  im- 
ported. 


United  Kingdom. . . 

United  States 

Spain 

Canada  

France 

Japan  

Straits  Settlements. 

Germany 

Australasia 

Netherlands 

Dutch  East  Indies  . 

China 

Belgium 

Austria 

Ceylon 

British  India 

Cape  Colony 


Dollars. 

10, 370, 098 

9,159,857 

4,421,846 

2, 204, 368 

395, 624 

323, 084 

370,816 

220, 150 

127, 497 


ib) 

45, 344 
11, 637 
68, 059 

(&) 
10, 145 


Dollars. 

10, 607, 491 

7, 008, 342 

3,391,759 

1,135,402 

558,985 

345, 384 

320,044 

227, 290 

81, 221 

193,436 

(&) 

24, 188 
23, 271 
1,582 
9,110 
6,096 


Dollars. 

7,948,085 

4, 731, 366 

3, 196, 778 

423,417 

882, 434 

840,915 

(&) 

127, 330 
87, 051 
157, 262 

(&) 

62,260 
20,500 
24,092 
6,548 
7,017 
24 


Dollars. 
7, 816, 918 
4,982,857 
3, 953, 059 

864, 711 
1,291,048 

622, 580 

(&) 

205, 632 
103, 928 
181, 484 

(&) 

12,990 
60, 611 
267 
5,970 
7,727 
594 


Dollars. 
7,477,538 
4, 383,  740 
4,312,383 
1,242,441 
1,801,969 
951,190 

(&) 

225, 386 

133, 312 

71 

99, 174 

13, 770 

21,418 

471 

14, 840 

8,188 

1,314 


Annual 
average, 
1892-1896. 


Dollars. 

8, 844, 026 

6, 053, 232 

3, 855, 165 

1, 174, 068 

986,012 

616,631 

c 345, 430 

201, 158 

106, 602 

106, 451 

^99,174 

31, 710 

27,487 

18, 894 

6  9,117 

7,835 


a  Calendar  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.    For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.    For  British  India,  fiscal  years 
beginning  April  1  of  the  years  specified,         b  No  statistics  available.         c  Annual  average,  1892-93. 
d  Statistics  for  1896  only.  e  Annual  average,  1893-18%. 

IMPORTS    INTO    THE    PHILIPPINES. 

The  following  tables  show  the  value  of  merchandise  exported  to  the 
islands  by  the  several  foreign  countries  during  each  of  the  ten  years 


Hosted  by 


Google 


64 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


1887  to  1896,  with  the  annual  average  for  the  first  and  second  halves  of 
that  decade: 

Value  of  merchandise  exported  by  certain  countries  in  their  trade  with  the  Philippine  Islands 
during  the  years  (a)  1887  to  1891,  inclusive. 


Countries  to  which  exported. 

1887. 

1888. 

1889. 

1890. 

1891. 

Annual 
average, 
1887-1891. 

United  Kingdom 

Dollars. 
3,371,073 
865, 673 

ih) 

987,428 
269, 130 
336, 397 
165, 903 
104, 172 

61,435 
4, 582 

(b). 

Dollars. 

5,945,048 

1,193,890 

ib) 

719, 540 
253, 661 
351, 645 
179, 647 
92, 288 
•       100, 013 
51,094 
2,417 

(&) 
1, 592 

Dollars. 

7, 749, 337 

1,655,466 

1,117,410 

706, 948 

500, 201 

381,093 

122, 276 

136, 506 

181,214 

17,225 

14,228 

39, 360 

1,171 

Dollars. 

5, 017, 790 

1,765,205 

828, 478 

592, 672 

428, 107 

275, 457 

124, 572 

80, 881 

124,  446 

160, 955 

113, 949 

34, 157 

1,307 

640 

Dollars. 

3, 951, 783 

2, 709, 787 

716, 142 

549, 842 

259, 558 

274, 571 

60, 914 

146, 924 

73,473 

90,562 

168, 374 

35,471 

8,164 

249 

Dollars. 
5,207,006 

Spain 

1,638,004 

Germany      .             

c 887, 343 

straits  Settlements 

711,286 

France .                            

342, 131 

China 

323,833 

United  States                 

130,662 

Australasia 

112, 154 

Belgium                           

108, 116 

Japan 

64,884 

British  India 

59,795 

Austria 

c 36, 329 

Netherlands                  

2,447 

Canada  

178 

a  Calendar  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.  For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.  For  British  India,  fiscal  years 
beginning  April  1  of  the  years  specified.  b  Not  separately  stated.         c  Annual  average,  1889-1891, 

Value  of  merchandise  exported  by  certain  countries  in  their  trade  with  the  Philippine  Islands 
during  the  years  (a)  1892  to  1896,  inclusive. 


Countries  to  which  exported. 


Spain 

United  Kingdom 

Germany , 

Straits  Settlements. 

France 

China 

United  States 

Australasia 

Belgium 

Japan  

British  India 

Austria 

Netherlands 

Dutch  East  Indies. . 

Hungary 

Ceylon 

Canada  


Annual 

1892. 

1893. 

1894. 

1895. 

1896. 

average, 
1892-1896. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

Dollars. 

3, 644, 976 

4, 377, 214 

5,512,943 

4, 933, 445 

7,401,433 

5, 174, 002 

3, 716, 702 

3,791,290 

3,286,158 

2, 158, 974 

2,576,758 

3, 105, 976 

683, 060 

886, 074 

662, 354 

764, 456 

744, 940 

748, 177 

465, 269 

370, 976 

Q)) 

(?>) 

(&) 

c 418, 123 

215, 434 

222,510 

249,577 

181,852 

163,898 

206, 654 

166,765 

165, 399 

154, 751 

125, 752 

103, 031 

143, 140 

154, 378 

145, 466 

119,255 

162, 446 

94, 597 

135,228 

122, 159 

85, 962 

169, 758 

92, 794 

127, 980 

119,731 

86,456 

115, 526 

65, 818 

55,048 

219, 868 

108,543 

65, 641 

73,334 

109, 191 

99, 364 

98, 963 

89, 299 

69, 682 

55,098 

66, 271 

80, 106 

70,268 

68,285 

50, 912 

64,772 

92,067 

59,568 

50,836 

63,631 

4,148 

8,627 

20,190 

8, 912 

14, 303 

11,236 

(&) 

(&) 

(&) 

(&) 

5,627 

d5,627 

4,423 

1,438 

608 

/1, 617 
/114 

& 

32 

193 

147 

82 

86 

175 

52 

a  Calendar  years,  except  for  the  United  States,  Canada,  and  British  India.    For  the  United  States 
and  Canada,  fiscal  years  beginning  July  1  of  the  years  specified.    For  British  India,  fiscal  years 
beginning  April  1  of  the  years  specified.         h  No  statistics  available.         c  Annual  average,  1892-93. 
d Statistics  for  1896  only.  eNot  separately  stated.  /Annual  average,  1893-1896. 

The  percentages  of  trade  of  some  of  the  more  important  countries,  as 
indicated  by  the  figures  of  1881  and  those  of  1893,  are  as  follows: 


Countries. 


British  possessions  in  Asia. 

United  Kingdom 

United  States 

Spain 

China 

Germany 

French  Indo-China 


Per  cent 
of  total 
trade, 

1881. 


Per  cent. 

34.70 

33. 72 

22.27 

5.8 

1.38 

1.20 


Import 

and 
export. 


Per  cent. 


37.32 
10.38 
18.45 
18.66 
8.32 
1.38 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOKT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  65 

The  tables  heretofore  given  make  it  possible  to  form  some  general 
ideas  in  regard  to  the  trade  and  its  apportionment  among  the  countries 
with  which  the  islands  deal.     There  are  some  striking  features  about  it. 

TRADE    WITH    THE    UNITED    KINGDOM. 

For  the  last  thirty  years  or  more  the  trade  of  the  United  Kingdom 
with  the  Philippines  has  ranked  first  in  importance,  amounting,  as  a 
general  rule,  to  something  more  than  one-third  of  the  total  trade  of  the 
islands.  In  this  statement  is  not  included  the  trade  between  the  islands 
and  the  British  Asiatic  possessions  of  Hongkong,  Singapore,  and  the 
Straits  Settlements.  The  trade  with  these  latter  places  is  ordinarily 
schedided  as  Chinese  and  Singapore  trade.  It  is  unquestionable,  how- 
ever, that  a  veiy  lai'ge  part  of  the  trade  credited  to  those  ports  is  trade 
which  may  properly  be  classed  under  British  trade,  Singapore  and 
Hongkong  being  ports  of  large  transshipment.  Were  the  trade  of 
these  ports  included  in  that  of  the  United  Kingdom,  and  all  entitled 
British  trade,  it  is  probable  that  at  least  one-half  of  the  trade  of  the 
islands,  export  and  import  combined,  would  be  scheduled  as  British 
trade. 

The  United  Kingdom  and,  in  addition,  Hongkong  and  Singapore  for 
years  past  have  been  steady  exporters  from  the  islands  of  some  of 
their  chief  products.  To  pay  for  the  products  thus  taken  the  United 
Kingdom  has  returned  goods  of  British  manufacture.  As  a  rule,  the 
manufactured  products  so  returned  have  nearly,  though  never  quite, 
balanced  in  value  the  amount  of  products  taken  fi'om  the  islands.  In 
spite  of  the  amount  of  commodities  sent  by  Great  Britain,  there  has 
always  been  a  balance  of  trade  against  her,  varying  in  amoimt.  In 
fact,  Great  Britain,  the  United  States,  and  China,  including  Hongkong 
and  Singapore,  are  the  only  countries  dealing  with  the  islands  which 
have  always  had  a  balance  of  trade  against  them.  Other  countries 
have  enjoyed  a  balance  in  their  favor. 

In  recent  years  it  would  appear  that  the  balance  against  England  has 
tended  to  increase  rather  than  diminish.  This  is  doubtless  owing  to 
the  increased  introduction  of  the  manufactured  products  of  other 
countries,  to  wit,  Spain,  Germany,  and  France,  supplanting  in  part 
the  introduction  of  imports  from  the  United  Kingdom.  In  1881  the 
United  Kingdom  sent  to  the  islands  merchandise  worth  something 
over  $5,000,000  and  took  away  products  worth  something  over 
$8,000,000,  enjoying  a  total  trade  slightly  over  one-third  the  total 
foreign  trade  of  the  islands.  In  1892  she  sent  to  the  islands  merchan- 
dise of  about  $5,000,000  in  value  and  took  away  products  of  about 
$6,000,000  in  value,  still  enjoying  about  one-third  of  the  total  trade. 
In  1893  she  sent  $4,000,000  and  took  away  nearly  $10,000,000,  enjoy- 
ing 87  per  cent  of  the  trade. 

In  the  decade  just  referred  to  it  is  seen  that  while  the  amount  taken 
from  the  islands  by  the  United  Kingdom  has  very  greatly  increased, 
the  amount  sent  to  the  islands  has  very  sensibly  diminished.  During 
the  same  period  the  imports  into  the  islands  from  Spain,  Germany, 
and  France,  and  particularly  the  two  first  mentioned,  very  greatly 
increased.  Although,  as  is  seen,  the  value  of  goods  sent  to  the  islands 
by  the  United  Kingdom  has  in  recent  years  greatly  decreased,  the 
value  of  the  products  taken  from  the  islands  has  so  increased  as  to 


Hosted  by 


Google 


66  REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

keep  the  percentage  of  the  total  trade  of  the  islands  which  the  United 
Kingdom  has  enjoyed  about  constant,  to  wit,  in  the  neighborhood  of 
35  per  cent. 

TRADE   WITH   THE    UNITED    STATES. 

For  a  long  time  the  trade  of  the  United  States  with  the  islands 
enjoyed  a  place  second  only  to  that  of  the  United  Kingdom,  Hongkong, 
and  Singapore.  In  1881  it  amounted  to  about  22  per  cent  of  the  entire 
trade  of  the  islands.  This  percentage,  large  in  comparison  with  that 
of  other  countries,  save  the  United  Kingdom,  was  due,  however,  not 
to  a  reciprocal  trade,  but  to  the  large  consumption  by  the  United  States 
of  certain  of  the  leading  products  of  the  archipelago.  Indeed,  the 
disparity  between  the  value  of  products  taken  from  the  islands  by  the 
United  States  and  the  value  of  merchandise  returned  has  been  very 
great,  much  greater  than  in  the  case  of  any  other  country. 

In  1881  the  United  States  sent  to  the  islands  but  littlp.  more  than 
three-quarters  of  a  million  dollars  of  merchandise,  while  it  took  away 
from  the  islands  nearly  eight  and  one-quarter  millions.  In  later  years — 
1893,  for  example — its  imports  into  the  islands  reached  nearly  one 
million,  it  taking  away  from  the  islands  products  of  about  three  mil- 
lions. Its  trade  with  the  islands  has  always  resulted  in  a  large  balance 
against  it.  While  the  ratio  of  the  United  Kingdom's  exports  from  the 
islands  to  her  imports  into  the  islands  has  been  as  37  to  33,  that  of  the 
United  States  has  been  as  15  to  3.  Most  of  the  other  countries  dealing 
with  the  islands  have  always  been  creditors — that  is,  with  balances  of 
trade  in  their  favor. 

The  changes  in  the  trade  of  Spain  and  Germany  are  very  deserving 
of  notice. 

TRADE    WITH    SPAIN. 

So  far  as  information  has  been  gathered,  the  trade  with  Spain  prior 
to  the  last  fifteen  years,  while  next  to  that  of  the  United  States,  was, 
nevertheless,  far  below  it  in  amount.  It  ranged  from  4  to  6  per  cent 
of  the  total  trade  of  the  islands.  In  1881  she  had  5.8  per  cent.  This 
was  made  up  of  fl, 365, 000  of  commodities  sent  to  the  islands,  and  of 
$973,000  worth  of  commodities  taken  away. 

During  the  decade  immediately  succeeding  1881,  and  owing  largely, 
as  heretofore  mentioned,  to  the  commercial  and  industrial  measures 
taken  by  Spain  in  behalf  of  the  mother  peninsula,  her  trade  with  the 
archipelago  was  very  greatl}^  increased;  so  that  in  1893  she  sent  to  the 
islands  $5,104,000  worth  of  products  and  took  away  $1,919,000.  In 
1894  she  sent  $5,255,000  worth  and  took  awaj^  $1,427,000,  thus  increas- 
ing her  total  trade  between  1881  and  1893  more  than  200  per  cent, 
making  it  amount  in  the  latter  year  to  18.45  per  cent  of  the  total  trade 
of  the  islands,  and  taking  second  place  to  that  of  the  United  Kingdom. 
She  became,  not  like  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States,  a 
large  debtor  to  the  islands,  but,  on  the  contrary,  their  largest  single 
creditor. 

TRADE   WITH   GERMANY. 

The  German  trade  with  the  islands  during  the  period  under  con- 
sideration was  likewise  greatly  increased.  In  1881  she  sent  to  the 
islands  $485,000  worth  of  merchandise  and  took  away  little  or  nothing, 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION-.  67 

enjoying  a  total  trade  of  but  a  very  little  over  1  per  cent  of  the  entire 
island  trade.  In  1893  she  sent  to  the  islands  merchandise  of  the  value 
of  $1,246,000,  exceeding  that  of  the  United  States  by  about  $300,000, 
and  took  away  in  value  $19,728,  or  about  one  one  hundred  and  fiftieth 
part  of  that  taken  away  by  the  United  States. 

An  approximate  statement  of  the  average  relative  percentages  of 
import  and  export  trade  enjoyed  by  the  principal  countries  dealing 
with  the  islands  for  the  ten  years  prior  to  the  insurrection  of  1897  is 
set  forth  in  the  following  schedule: 

Approximate  average  relative  percentages  of  exports  froin  and  imports  into  the  archipelago 
in  trade  luith  principal  countries. 


United  Kingdom 

China,  including  British  Asiatic  possessions  . 

Spain 

United  States 


Imports 
into  the 
archi- 
pelago. 


Per  cent. 
33 
30 
20 
3 


Exports 
from  the 
archi- 
pelago. 


In  addition  to  the  influence  of  the  legislation  of  Spain  heretofore 
referred  to  over  the  trade  of  the  islands,  the  various  trade  relations  of 
the  several  countries  are  in  large  measure  explained  by  a  considera- 
tion of  the  nature  of  the  products  of  the  islands  and  the  demand  for 
them  by  the  countries  dealing  with  the  archipelago.  The  large  trade 
of  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States  and  the  large  balances 
against  them  arc  due  in  great  measure  to  the  demand  of  those  coun- 
tries for  hemp  and  sugar,  and  especially  hemp.  In  their  shipping  and 
commerce  these  countries  require  great  quantities  of  hemp,  other 
countries  taking  comparatively  little.  Their  demand  for  years  has 
been  more  or  less  constant.  England  has  been  able  to  pay  for  the 
hemp  and  commodities  taken  by  her  by  returning  finished  products. 
The  United  States  has  been  able  to  pay  her  bill  only  to  a  limited  degree 
in  products,  the  balance  being  paid  in  money  or  exchange  on  other 
foreign  countries.  Spain,  on  the  other  hand,  because  of  the  remedial 
legislation  referred  to,  ultimately  became  a  great  creditor  of  the 
islands,  sending  to  them  her  products  of  cotton — the  output  of  Barce- 
lona and  other  factories — wines  and  spirits,  oils,  fruits,  canned  goods, 
etc.  In  return  she  satisfied  her  balance  in  part  by  products  from  the 
islands  and  in  part  by  money.  Of  the  products  taken,  the  chief  has 
been  leaf  tobacco,  the  next  in  importance  being  sugar  and  coffee. 

In  view  of  the  great  importance  in  the  islands  of  four  or  five  of  its 
chief  products,  a  word  in  regard  to  each  of  them  may  be  serviceable. 

HEMP. 

Manila  hemp  is  the  product  of  a  variety  of  the  banana  tree.  It  is  a 
unique  product  of  the  archipelago  and  constitutes  more  than  a  third 
of  the  entire  export  trade.  It  is  consumed  almost  wholly  by  the  United 
Kingdom  and  the  United  States.  In  1893  the  former  took  about  one- 
half  and  the  latter  about  one-third  of  the  entire  amount,  or  together 


Hosted  by 


Google 


68  REPOBT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

they  took  about  85  per  cent.  I'he  averag"e  ainuial  value  of  this  export 
from  1886  to  1890  was  something  over  17,500,000,  the  average  annual 
value  of  all  exports  during  that  period  being  nearly  $19,000,000. 

SUGAR. 

The  export  of  sugar  is  sometimes  greater  and  sometimes  less  in 
value  than  that  of  hemp.  Its  average  value  from  1886  to  1890  was 
16,740,000,  being  somewhat  less  than  that  of  hemp.  In  1893  it  was 
some  $3,000,000  more  than  that  of  hemp.  As  in  the  case  of  hemp,  so 
also  in  the  case  of  sugar,  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  United  States 
are  the  chief  consumers.  Of  the  $10,000,000  worth  of  sugar  exported 
in  1893  the  United  Kingdom  took  nearly  $6,000,000  worth;  China, 
Hongkong,  Singapore,  and  Port  Said  some  $3,500,000  more.  The 
United  States  in  this  year  (1893)  took  less  than  a. half  million.  In  the 
year  previous  it  took  nearlj^  a  million  and  a  half. 

TOBACCO 

For  a  long  period  of  years  tobacco  has  formed  another  of  the  chief 
exports  of  the  islands,  constituting  about  10  per  cent  thereof.  It  is 
exported  in  leaf  and  manufactured.  More  than  half  of  the  leaf  export 
has  gone  to  Spain.  The  export  of  manufactured  tobacco  is  distrib- 
uted throughout  Europe  and  Asia.  A  merely  nominal  quantity  has 
come  to  the  United  States.  For  a  long  period  of  years  Spain's  taking 
all  the  Philippine  tobacco  kept  a  fair  balance  with  the  archipelago's 
importation  of  products  from  Spain.  In  the  latter  years  of  Spanish 
dominion,  as  has  been  heretofore  pointed  out,  Spanish  imports  into 
the  islands  were  greatly  in  excess  of  her  exports. 

COFFEE. 

During  the  decade  1880  to  1890  the  coffee  industry,  though  very 
newly  introduced  into  the  islands,  made  rapid  strides  and  reached  in 
its  importance  in  the  islands'  export  trade  third  or  fourth  place.  It 
was  cultivated  in  only  a  limited  area,  but  its  production  bid  fair  to 
rival  that  of  hemp  and  sugar  as  a  permanent  product  of  the  islands. 
It  was  exported  to  the  diverse  coffee-consuming  countries.  In  the 
last  ten  years,  however,  and  with  remarkable  suddenness,  its  yield  has 
been  almost  wholly  cut  off*,  owing  to  the  destruction  of  the  plants  by 
a  devouring  insect.  If  preventive  measures  can  be  had  against  such 
ravages,  it  is  reasonable  to  expect  that  coffee  would  again  form  a  most 
valuable  product. 

COPRA. 

Another  of  the  leading  exports  of  the  islands  is  copra  (dried  cocoa- 
nuts).  It  has  had  an  export  in  some  years  of  a  value  of  from  $2,000,000 
to  $3,000,000.  About  15  per  cent  of  it  goes  to  the  United  Kingdom 
and  the  balance  to  the  Continent.  A  very  small  amount  goes  to  the 
United  States. 

These  articles  mentioned — hemp,  sugar,  tobacco,  and  copra — form 
over  90  per  cent  of  the  entire  export  trade  of  the  islands.     A  fair  idea 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


69 


of  the  list  of  exports  of  the  islands  will  be  gained  from  the  following 
table,  giving  a  list,  with  the  value  thereof,  in  the  year  1888: 

Value  of  principal  articles  exported  from  the  Philippine  Islands  during  the  calendar  year 

1888. 


Artiviles  exported. 


Manila  hemp 

Sugar 

Coffee 

Leaf  tobacco 

Cigars  and  cigarettes 

Cocoanuts 

Hides 

Sapan  wood 

Indigo 

Cordage 

Gold,  including  gold  jewelry 

Cocoanut  oil 

Hats 

Ylang-ylang  oil 

Tintarron  a 

Timber 

Candle  nuts 

Trepang  

Candle-nutoil 

Copal 

Aloe  fiber  (maguey) 


Value. 


100,898 
271, 030 
500, 426 
340, 314 
108, 911 
130, 609 
139, 618 
88, 102 
94, 810 
22, 012 
40, 310 
21, 801 
42, 062 
16, 443 
16, 841 
28, 541 
2,173 
18, 094 
20, 868 
17, 471 
16,022 


Articles  exported 

Fruits 

Mother-of-pearl 

Tortoise  shell 

Hide  cuttings 

Old  copper 

Horns , 

Old  iron 

Sesame 

Bones 

Cane 

Flowering  plants 

Glue 

Edible  birds'  nests 

Sharks'  fins 

Cigar  cases 

Wax 

Betel  nuts 

Reexported  articles 

All  other  articles 

Total 


Value. 


7,230 

3,982 

6,229 

5,182 

7,545 

1,210 

4,486 

3,590 

15 

1,088 

1,559 

1,476 

691 

492 

1,674 

759 

81,194 

3,376 


19, 169, 922 


a  Liquid  indigo. 
IMPOj^TS. 

The  imports  into  the  islands  are  conditioned,  as  in  every  other  coim- 
tr}^,  upon  the  needs  and  demands  of  the  people.  The  manufacturing 
industries  of  the  islands  are  very  meager,  and  consist  mostly  of  the 
crude  manufacture  of  native  products.  Most  manufactured  articles 
have  to  be  imported.  In  addition  to  imported  manufactures,  there  is 
also  the  importation  of  foreign  agricultural  products,  such  as  rice, 
wheat  flour,  canned  goods,  wines,  meats,  etc. 

Of  the  importation  of  agricultural  products,  rice  heads  the  list  in 
value  of  importation.  The  islands  are  themselves  a  large  rice-producing 
tract.  In  some  years  they  have  been  able  to  supply  their  own  demand 
and  even  at  times  to  export.  In  later  years,  however,  their  supply 
has  not  met  their  demand,  and  rice  has  been  imported  in  considerable 
quantities. 

Wheat  flour  is  also  a  staple  import,  and  there  is  a  steady  increase  in 
its  consumption.     Wines  are  an  important  article  of  import. 

The  following  table  shows  the  annual  average  value  of  the  importa- 
tion of  some  of  the  chief  imports  for  the  period  of  five  years  from 
1886  to  1890,  inclusive: 

Value  of  principal  articles  of  merchandise  {agricultural  products)  imported  into  the  Phil- 
ippine Islands  during  each  calendar  year  from  1886  to  1890^  inclusive. 


Articles  imported. 

Annual 
average, 
1886-1890. 

Articles  imported. 

Annual 
average, 
1886-1890. 

Rice 

$1,836,000 

515, 521 

496, 149 

251,323 

239,239 

218, 157 

102, 313 

99,746 

62, 919 

53,569 

Cocoa  and  chocolate 

$46, 812 

Wheat  flour 

Macaroni  vermicelli,  etc 

46, 186 

Wines 

Tea 

38,641 

Distilled  spirituous  liquors 

Butter  and  lard 

24, 436 

Canned  goods 

Cheese 

19,856 

Vegetables,  including  dried  pulse 

Beer  and  cider 

Flour  other  than  wheat 

8,640 
a  8, 140 
a  4, 081 

Animals,  live 

Meat,  pickled  or  salted;  sausages,  etc . 
Fruits... 

Starch 

Total  annual  average  value  — 

Beeswax,  stearin,  etc  .*...!]...!]].!.] 

4, 069, 284 

P  0— VOL  4—01- 


a  Annual  average,  1886-1889. 

-7 


Hosted  by 


Google 


70 


EEFORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


As  will  be  seen,  the  total  annual  average  import  of  agricultural 
products  amounts  to  about  $4,000,000.  Of  nonagricultural  imports 
the  total  in  value  is  much  greater,  amounting  for  the  same  period  of 
1886-1890  to  $11,284,576.  Chief  among  these  articles  of  import  are 
cotton  manufactures,  iron  and  steel,  mineral  oil  (kerosene),  paper,  and 
manufactures  thereof. 

The  amount  of  importation  of  some  of  the  principal  articles  will  be 
seen  from  the  following  table,  which  gives  the  annual  average  value 
of  importation  for  the  period  of  four  and  live  years  from  1886  to  1889 
in  some  cases  and  from  1886  to  1890  in  others.  This  table  is  made  up 
from  one  of  the  tables  contained  in  Bulletin  No.  14  of  the  United 
States  Department  of  Agriculture,  Section  of  Foreign  Markets,  enti- 
tled ''Trade  of  the  Philippine  Islands,"  which  gives  very  full  statis- 
tics, and  is  an  admirable  presentation  in  detailed  form  of  the  trade  of 
the  islands: 

Average  value  of  principal  articles  of  merchandise  imported  into  the  Archipelago  between 

1886  and  1890,  inclusive. 


Articles  imported. 

Annual 
average. 

Articles  imported. 

Annual 
average. 

Cotton  manufactures 

$5, 778, 675 

593, 149 
474, 971 
452, 595 
401,210 
395,077 
383, 143 
360,826 

Jute,  flax,  etc     

$356,224 
192, 179 

Iron    and   steel,   and  manufactures 

Umbrellas  and  parasols 

thereof 

Wool  and  hair  manufactures 

176, 781 

Mineral  oil  (kerosene) 

Sundries    (including    earthenware, 
chinaware,  glass,  coal,  matches,  en- 
gines, jewelry,  and  a  variety  of  im- 
ports not  heretofore  mentioned) . . . 

Total  annual  average  value 

Drugs  and  chemicals 

Paper,  and  manufactures  thereof 

Silk  manufactures 

11, 107, 795 

Hats  and  cans 

Furniture  

11, 284, 576 

The  following  are  tables  of  Philippine  trade  for  the  year  1895,  being, 
it  is  believed,  the  last  year  under  Spanish  dominion  for  which  accurate 
data  have  thus  far  been  obtainable.  The  first  table  also  shows  the 
customs  duties  collected  by  the  Spanish  Government  in  that  year. 


IMPORTS  IN  1895. 


Ports. 

Value  of  merchandise. 

Duties  collected. 

Pesos. 

Dollars. 

Pesos. 

Dollars. 

Manila 

23, 374, 053 

1,992,234 

31,061 

1,450 

11,687,026 

996, 117 

15,630 

725 

2,926,806 

302,611 

1,832 

292 

1, 463, 403 

Iloilo       ... 

151, 255 

Cebu 

916 

Zamboanga 

146 

Total 

25,398,799 

12,699,399 

3,231,441 

1,615,720 

EXPORTS  IN  1895. 


Manila 

28, 399, 036 
5, 794, 888 
2,461,803 

14,199,618 
2,897,444 
1,230,901 

614,241 
56,351 
59,771 

307, 120 
27,675 

29,885 

Iloilo     

Cebu 

Total 

36,655,727 

18,327,863 

729,369 

364,684 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINI,    COMMISSION. 


71 


Principal  articles  of  importation  in  1895. 


Articles. 


Mineral  oils,  chiefly  kerosene kilograms. 

Brandies  and  liquors liters. 

Bice kilograms . 

Coal  and  coke do . . . 

Beer  and  cider : liters. 

Canned  goods,  preserves,  and  sweets kilograms. 

Matches do. . . 

Wheat  flour do. . . 

Iron  and  steel do. . . 

Cotton  threads do. . . 

Silk  threads do. . . 

Garden  vegetables do. . . 

Earthenware do. . . 

Paper do... 

Umbrellas number. 

Chemical  and  pharmaceutical  products 

Hats number. 

Textiles: 

Of  cotton kilograms. 

Of  hemp  and  flax , do. . . 

Of  wool  and  hair do. . . 

Of  silk do. . . 

Glass  and  crystal do. . . 

Wines ." liters. 


Total  . 


Quantity, 


13,582,165 

173, 663 

11, 668, 079 

94, 267, 304 

384,901 

701,430 

714, 515 

8,080,550 

6,559,979 

901,761 

24, 719 

2, 677, 312 

988, 662 

1,836,032 

200, 510 


266, 477 

4,290,021 

134, 614 

59,785 

43,100 

1,889,058 

2,701,634 


Value, 

United  States 

money.a 


$1,193,503 
118,050 
218, 289 
117,833 
65, 183 
350, 715 
178,630 
436,340 
481, 394 
750, 976 
185,317 
133,865 
132,430 
357,658 
99,303 
194, 310 
227,944 

3,778,631 
123,457 
109,049 
351,520 
102, 670 
810,489 


10,617,523 


a  These  values  are  calculated  from  the  Philippine  peso  at  the  rate  of  2  pesos  to  fl. 

PRINCIPAL  PRODUCTS  IMPORTED  FROM  SPAIN  DURING  THE  YEAR  1895,  IN  QUANTITIES 

AND  VALUES. 


Brandies,  wines,  etc liters. 

Canned  goods  and  preserves kilograms. 

Macaroni,  vermicelli,  etc do. . . 

Garden  truck  and  vegetables do. . . 

Cordage  of  hemp do. . . 

Printed  books do. . . 

Playing  cards do. . . 

Paper do. . . 

Textiles: 

Of  cotton do. . . 

Of  linen  and  hemp do. . . 

Of  wool  and  hair do. . . 

Of  silk .'do- . . 

Wines liters. 

Total 


70, 818 

$36,090 

440,580 

220,290 

64, 057 

7,233 

419, 112 

20,955 

34,685 

3,607 

36, 310 

9,038 

56, 106 

30,858 

772,039 

166,028 

1,783,567 

1,609,779 

31, 692 

31, 619 

14, 271 

22,636 

15, 117 

140,811 

2,673,344 

802,004 

3,100,951 


Importations,  by  countries,  in  values,  during  the  year  1895. 


Spain 

England 

China,  Hongkong  and  Amoy  . 

Germany 

United  States 

Switzerland 

Russia 

France  

Singapore  

Saigon 

Belgium 

Japan 

Australia 


Value 
of  importa- 
tions, a 


$4,647, 

2, 753, 

2, 125, 

984, 

516, 

498, 

273, 

271 

170, 

134, 

72, 

67, 


Countries. 


Austria-Hungary 

Holland 

Italy 

Holland  possessions . . 

British  India 

Denmark  

Egypt  - 

Spanish  Antilles 

Norway  and  Sweden . 
Portugal 


Total . 


Value 
of  importa- 
tions, a 


$60,703 

36,993 

8,991 

4,055 

2,217 

1,970 

1,093 

750 

307 

112 


12,699,399 


a  Values  are  calculated  at  the  ratio  of  2  pesos  to  $1. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


72 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPHSTE    COMMISSION. 


Principal  articles  exported  from  the  Archipelago  in  1895  according  to  country  of  destination. 


Article  and  destination. 


Hemp,  in  bulk: 

England 

United  States 

China  6 

Japan 

France , 

Spain 

Singapore 

Australia 

Egypt  (Port  Said)  , 


Sugar: 

England 

United  States 

China  b 

Japan 

Australia 

Egypt  (Port  Said)  . 
Spain 


Coffee: 

Spain 

China  &  ... 
Singapore. 


Colored  woods: 

Chinaft 

England  . . . 


Tobacco,  manufactured: 

Singapore , 

Chinaft 

Spain , 

England , 

Egypt  (Port Said).... 

Japan  

Australia , 

Holland  possessions., 

France 

British  India 

United  States 


Tobacco,  in  leaf: 

Spain 

Egypt  (Port Said). 

Singapore 

China  5 

England 


Quantity. 


Kilos. 

54,366,048 

30, 684, 304 

20, 175, 050 

1,059,116 

541, 300 

318, 849 

136, 142 

49, 600 

3, 542 


107, 333, 951 


145, 859, 095 
91, 587, 961 
66, 613, 242 
16, 538, 397 
10, 807, 160 
6,  960, 301 
3, 097, 400 


341,469,558 


154, 725 
16, 250 
1,221 


173, 270 


1,237,408 
383,573 


1,620,981 


438, 037 

463, 534 

219, 314 

122, 836 

40, 920 

23, 635 

5, 925 

4,429 

3,706 

125 


Value,  a 


$2, 007, 892 

2, 084, 272 

2, 104, 539 

82, 840 

30, 975 

19, 674 

8,550 

4, 000 

1,771 


6, 345, 114 


2, 320, 893 
1, 036, 615 
1, 720, 534 
344, 166 
234, 408 
126, 500 
121, 228 


5, 904, 344 


5, 226 

6,133 

716 


118,490 


9,703 
3,750 


13, 453 


1,321,869 


6, 974, 954 

2, 354, 764 

376,072 

263, 511 

90, 121 


10,059,422 


313, 095 

531, 348 

153, 404 

80, 958 

31, 278 

13, 222 

3,440 

2.632 

3,408 

85 

10 


720,541 
262,341 
60,225 
30, 789 

7,748 


1,081,646 


a  Values  are  calculated  at  the  ratio  of  2  pesos  to  $1. 

b  Importations  to  the  English  port  of  Hongkong  are  presumably  included  with  those  of  China, 

The  following  is  a  schedule  of  the  average  customs  duties,  taxes, 
fines,  etc.,  collected  at  the  custom-houses  of  the  Philippines  for  a 
period  of  five  years — 1890  to  1895: 


Source. 


Average  annual 
amount,  1890  to  1895. 


Pesos. 


Dollars. 


Importation 

Exportation 

Navigation  tax 

Confiscations  and  fines 

Mercantile  deposits 

Tax  on  merchandise  consumed  in  voyage 

Loading  tax 

Discharging  tax , 

Fifty  per  cent  additional  tax 

Various  other  taxes 

Total 


[,305,281 

340,057 

1,356 

16,448 

320 

47,589 

325, 925 

90, 631 

66,319 

12,519 


1, 652, 640 

170,028 

678 

8,224 

160 

23,794 

162, 962 

45,315 

33, 159 

6,259 


4,186,458 


13,229 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOlSr. 


73 


Little  or  nothing  lias  been  obtainable  of  the  commerce  in  1896, 
except  that  in  that  year  Spain's  imports  into  the  Philippines  amounted 
to  8,261,911  pesos,  or  about  12,130,000,  and  her  exports  in  that  year 
to  4,595,345  pesos,  or  about  12,297,000. 

In  1897  the  imports  from  Spain  werel, 583,415  pesos,  or  1791,707, 
being  greatly  augmented  on  account  of  the  importation  of  money, 
included  in  the  amount  stated,  and  on  account  of  the  extraordinary 
importation  of  commodities  required  by  the  additional  troops  then 
maintained  in  the  islands  owing  to  the  insurrection.  The  total  value 
of  the  importations  into  the  islands  in  1897  is  said  to  have  amounted 
to  the  sum  of  between  22,000,000  and  24,000,000  pesos— to  wit, 
111,000,000  or  $12,000,000— and  the  total  exports  to  some  28,000,000 
pesos,  or  $14,000,000. 

Shipping  and  clearances  of  vessels  from  jports  of  the  Archipelago  in  1894- 
ENTRANCE. 


Ports. 

Number. 

Tonnage. 

Manila 

248 
67 
15 

305,468 
75, 305 
16,562 

Iloilo 

Cebu 

Total 

330 

397, 335 

Of  the  above  330  vessels,  62,  with  a  tonnage  of  73,000,  were  under 
the  Spanish  flag;  the  balance  were  under  foreign  flags. 


CLEARANCE. 


Ports. 

Number. 

Tonnage. 

Manila 

221 
38 
12 

275,142 
64, 145 

18  946 

Iloilo 

Cebu ---  ..  - 

Total 

271 

358, 233 

Of  the  above  number,  42,  with  a  tonnage  of  54,622,  were  under  the 
Spanish  flag;  the  balance  were  under  foreign  flags. 

Of  the  internal  trade  of  the  islands  few  statistics  are  available. 
Such  as  have  been  obtained,  though  very  deficient,  indicate  an  export 
trade  from  Luzon,  the  Visayas,  and  Mindanao  to  other  parts  of  the 
archipelago  of  some  10,000,000  pesos,  or  $5,000,000,  in  recent  years. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XVII. 


MEANS  OF    OOMMUNICATIOISr. 


75 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


MEANS  OF  COMMUNICATIO]^. 


As  elsewhere  stated  in  this  report,  the  Philippine  Archipelago 
embraces  a  great  number  of  islands,  large  and  small,  estimated  at 
about  1,700.  It  is  manifest,  therefore,  that  water  must  be  the  great 
highway  of  communication  in  the  archipelago,  as  well  as  between 
the  archipelago  and  foreign  countries.  In  the  time  of  Spanish  domin- 
ion there  existed  well-established  lines  of  foreign  communication  as 
well  as  of  interisland  communication.  The  chief  single  means  of 
communication  between  the  archipelago  and  Europe  was  that  of  the 
Compania  Trans- Atlantique,  a  Spanish  line  of  steamships  subven- 
tioned  by  the  Spanish  Government,  plying  between  Manila,  Barce- 
lona, and  intervening  ports,  and  carrying  the  regular  mails.  One 
of  these  ships  left  Barcelona  and  another  Manila  at  least  once  in 
every  four  weeks.  Additional  trips  were  also  made  from  time  to 
time.  Other  facilities  for  communication  between  the  archipelago 
and  Europe  were  by  means  of  various  lines  of  steamers  plying  between 
the  Far  East,  the  Straits  Settlements,  India,  Suez,  and  Europe,  such 
as  the  Messagerie  Line,  the  Peninsula  and  Oriental  Line,  and  the 
elapanese  Line. 

The  islands  are  also  in  direct  and  constant  communication  with  Hong- 
kong, Amoy,  Saigon,  and  Singapore,  across  the  China  Sea,  by  means 
of  steamships  of  smaller  tonnage  plying  between  the  archipelago  and 
those  ports.  At  Hongkong  connections  are  made  with  the  lines  for 
Europe  and  with  the  great  trans-Pacific  lines  for  San  Francisco  and 
Vancouver  by  way  of  Japan.  In  addition  steamships  of  fairly  good 
size  call  at  archipelagic  ports  on  their  way  from  north  China  and 
Japanese  ports  to  Australian  ports. 

Since  the  cession  of  the  archipelago  to  America  the  means  of  com- 
munication with  foreign  ports  have  considerably  increased,  partly 
in  the  number  of  ships  used  on  the  old  lines,  and  partly  by  the  estab- 
lishment of  new  lines.  Owing  to  the  increased  interest  of  Americans 
in  the  archipelago  and  the  Far  East,  the  transit  of  passengers,  freight, 
and  mail  across  the  Pacific  has  been  greatly  increased.  This  increase 
has  been  met  in  large  measure  by  the  regular^  established  lines  plying 
between  Vancouver,  San  Francisco,  and  Hongkong,  and  by  the  United 
States  transport  service,  which  has  carried  the  troops  and  official 
freight  and  mails  of  the  United  States. 

INTERISLAND   COMMUNICATION. 

The  interisland  communication  has,  of  course,  been  seriously  inter- 
rupted during  the  insurrection.  It  is  reasonable  to  expect  that  when 
peace  is  restored  throughout  the  archipelago  it  will  resume  its  former 
importance  and  be  greatly  increased  in  magnitude.     According  to 

77 


Hosted  by 


Google 


78  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

official  figures,  in  1891  there  were  some  7,000  registered  craft  of  all 
kinds  engaged  in  the  interisland  trade,  and  it  is  reported  that  in  1895 
the  number  had  increased  to  11,000. 

The  bulky  products  of  hemp,  sugar,  tobacco,  and  copra  produced  in 
various  parts  of  the  archipelago  have  always  depended  upon  inter- 
island craft  for  transport  to  Manila  or  other  ports  of  the  islands  (Iloilo 
and  (ycbu)  for  transshipment  to  foreign  parts.  Of  these  vessels,  some 
have  belonged  to  established  lines  and  others  have  run  independently. 
Of  the  established  lines  the  Spanish  Government  selected  certain  ones 
for  the  carrying  of  interisland  mails.  There  were  four  such  mail  lines 
in  number — (1)  the  mail  line  of  North  Luzon;  (2)  that  of  South  Luzon; 
(3)  that  of  southeast  of  the  archipelago,  and  (4:)  that  of  south  of  the 
archipelago. 

Line  1,  that  of  North  Luzon,  starting  at  Manila,  touched  at  the  fol- 
lowing among  other  points:  Subig,  Zual,  San  Fernando  (Union), 
Caoayan,  Currimao,  Aparri,  Calayan,  Batanes,  and  Isbayat. 

Line  2,  that  of  South  Luzon,  starting  from  Manila,  touched  at  the 
following  among  other  ports:  Batangas,  Calapan,  Boac,  Laquimanoc, 
Pasacao,  SanPascual,  Palanoc,  Donsol,  Sorsogon,  Legaspi,Virac  6  Bato, 
and  Tabaco. 

Line  3,  that  of  the  southeast  of  the  archipelago,  starting  from 
Manila,  stopped  at  liomblon,  Cebu,  Orinoc,  Catbalogan,  Tacloban, 
Cabalian,  Surigao,  Camiguing,  and  Misamis. 

Line  4,  that  of  south  of  the  archipelago,  ran  from  Manila  to  Cotta- 
bato,  stopping  at  Culion,  Guys,  Puerto  Princesa,  Puerta  Separacion, 
Marangas,  Balabac,  Cagayan  de  Jolo,  lolo,  Isabela  de  Basilan,  Zam- 
boanga,  and  Tukuran. 

RIVER   AND   HARBOR    COMMUNICATION. 

Numbers  of  small  boats,  carrying  passengers  and  freight,  ply  the 
various  harbors  and  rivers  of  the  archipelago,  some  in  established  lines 
and  others  separately.  The  rivers  of  the  archipelago  afford  the  chief 
means  of  transportation  for  the  heavy  products  of  the  islands  from 
the  interior  to  the  seaboard.  In  most  of  the  large  islands  of  the  archi- 
pelago there  are  rivers  of  large  size  running  to  the  sea.  In  the  island 
of  Luzon  the  principal  one  is  the  great  river  of  Cagayan,  rising  in 
the  mountains  in  the  middle  of  the  island  north  of  Manila  and  flow- 
ing north  for  a  distance  of  over  200  miles,  emptying  into  the  sea  at 
Aparri.  It  is  navigable  for  a  considerable  portion  of  its  length, 
depending,  of  course,  upon  the  kind  of  craft.  It  is  said  that  the  ordi- 
nary river  craft,  for  the  transporting  of  merchandise,  navigate  it  for 
some  75  or  80  miles  from  its  mouth,  beyond  which  point  only  small 
boats  or  dugouts  can  proced.  The  navigation  is  greatly  impeded,  how- 
ever, by  fallen  timber,  floating  trees,  etc. ,  which  come  down  in  the 
wet  season. 

Among  the  other  rivers  of  Luzon  navigable  in  part  may  be  men- 
tioned the  Agno,  in  the  middle  west,  about  100  miles  long;  the  Abra, 
also  100  miles  long,  and  the  Rio  Grande  de  la  Pampanga,  an  impor- 
tant navigable  river  running  through  the  rice  districts  of  Pampanga, 
Tarlac,  and  Neuva  Ejica,  and  emptying  into  the  bay  of  Manila.  The 
short  river  Pasig,  some  20  miles  in  length,  is  important  in  the  trade 
of  Manila,  connecting  the  Bay  of  Manila  with  the  great  Lake  of 
Laguna  de  Bay,  and  forming  a  means  of  water  communication  with 
the  territory  lying  around  that  lake. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOJRT    OF    THE    PHILIPPHSTE    COMMISSION.  79 

In  the  island  of  Mindora  there  are  about  seventy  known  rivers,  of 
which  some  ten  or  a  dozen  are  of  importance.  The  Visayan  Islands 
also  have  a  due  proportion,  and  the  island  of  Mindanao  has,  among 
other  large  rivers,  the  river  Agusan,  which  crosses  nearly  the  entire 
island  and  has  a  length  of  about  225  miles.  Most  of  these  rivers  are 
in  their  more  or  less  natural  state,  little  attempt  having  been  made  to 
improve  their  navigation. 

LAND   COMMUNICATION. 

The  islands  are  exceedingly  deficient  in  proper  means  of  land 
communication.  There  is  need  of  railways,  highways,  byways;  the 
repairing  of  old  and  construction  of  new.  The  need  of  railways  is 
especially  felt  in  the  great  island  of  Luzon.  It  was  felt  under  Spanish 
dominion,  and  considerable  study  was  given  to  the  matter  from  1875 
down  to  the  termination  of  Spanish  rule.  One  road  of  122  miles  was 
constructed.  In  the  year  mentioned  the  preparation  of  a  railway 
system  for  the  islands  was  authorized  and  a  commission  appointed. 
A  general  plan  of  railway  system  was  elaborated  in  1876.  It  was  not, 
however,  until  1884  that  any  practical  result  came  of  it.  In  that  year 
construction  of  the  railroad  from  Manila  to  Dagupan  was  authorized. 
Some  difficulty  was  experienced  in  the  undertaking.  At  first  there 
was  an  attempt  to  dispose  of  the  franchise  at  public  auction  by  an 
offer  of  subvention  on  the  part  of  the  state  of  a  specific  sum  per 
kilometer.  This  did  not  prove  acceptable,  and  finally  the  method  of 
subvention  was  changed  to  that  of  a  guarantee  of  8  per  cent  upon  the 
capital  invested.  By  a  decree  dated  April  9,  1887,  a  concession  was 
made  on  those  terms,  the  Government  of  Spain  guaranteeing  an  inter- 
est of  8  per  cent  upon  the  estimated  cost  of  4,911,173.65  pesos. 

The  franchise  was  taken  by  an  English  company,  entitled  "The 
Manila  Railway  Company,  Limited."  The  construction  of  the  road 
was  begun  in  1888,  and,  w^th  the  exception  of  the  Rio  Grande  bridge, 
was  finished  in  1892.  The  road  runs  northwest  from  Manila  to  Dagu- 
pan, traversing  the  provinces  of  Manila,  Bulacan,  Pampanga,  and 
Pangasinan.  It  is  122  miles  long.  The  capital  of  the  company  is 
iJl,700,000.  The  commission  has  no  information  as  to  the  exact  cost 
of  the  road.  It  was  testified,  „  however,  that  the  cost  was  greatly  in 
excess  of  the  amount  that  it  should  have  cost;  that  in  many  cases  the 
requirements  of  the  Government  were  excessive  and  unnecessary,  and 
that  under  the  American  system  of  railroad  building  a  proper  railway 
of  that  length  could  be  built  to-day  for  a  much  smaller  sum. 

The  road  traverses  one  of  the  most  fertile  and  populous  districts  of 
the  island  and  has  had  a  great  effect  upon  the  wealth  and  condition  of 
the  territory  through  which  it  runs.  It  is  said  to  have  increased  the 
amount  of  products  of  the  territory  through  which  it  passes  more 
than  100  per  cent.  It  passes  through  rice  and  sugar  lands.  The 
natives  are  very  fond  of  travel  and  make  large  use  of  the  road. 

In  addition  to  this  road,  which  reached  completion,  other  roads  were 
contemplated  by  Spanish  authorities.  Some  of  them  progressed  as 
far  as  survey  and  specific  study.  Of  various  lines  proposed,  the  fol- 
lowing are  conceded  to  be  the  more  necessary:  A  line  either  starting 
from  Manila  independently,  or  leaving  the  Manila-Dagupan  Railway 
at  Quinqua;  thence  running  north  through  the  great  rice  plains  of  the 
Rio  Grande,  traversing  the  watershed  between  the  Rio  Grande  and 


Hosted  by 


Google 


80  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

the  Cagayan  River,  passing  through  the  rich  tobacco  lands  of  the 
province  of  Isabela  and  down  the  fertile  lands  of  the  province  of  Caga- 
yan  to  the  town  of  Tuguegarao,  from  which  place  the  Cagayan  River 
is  navigable  to  its  mouth.  This  line  would  bring  Manila  into  com- 
munication with  the  great  northeastern  portion  of  the  island  of  Luzon 
and  afford  an  outlet  for  the  products  of  the  northern  provinces.  The 
existence  of  this  railway  would,  it  is  said,  open  up  an  immense  tract 
of  fertile  land  to  greatly  increased  production. 

Another  line  of  equal,  if  not  greater,  importance,  and  one  for  which 
a  more  or  less  thorough  study  has  been  made  by  Spanish  officials, 
should  run  from  Manila  south  to  the  town  of  Taal,  on  the  southern 
coast,  a  distance  of  100  miles,  passing  through  a  very  populous  and 
rich  agricultural  district  and  touching  many  of  the  other  interior 
towns.  This  road  could  be  continued  when  found  expedient  through 
the  lower  provinces  of  the  island  of  Luzon,  Tayabas,  and  Camarines, 
to  Albay,  thus  affording  a  complete  system  of  railroads  from  the  north 
to  the  south  of  the  island,  and  placing  the  capital  of  the  archipelago 
in  more  or  less  direct  and  speedy  communication  with  its  principal 
provinces.  From  time  to  time  branches  of  these  roads  could  be  built 
as^might  be  found  expedient. 

Other  roads  in  the  islands  of  Panay,  Negros,  and  Cebu  are  sug- 
gested. It  does  not  appear,  however,  that  there  is  the  same  pressing 
need  for  them. 

HIGHWAYS. 

As  in  the  case  of  railroads,  so  even  more  in  the  case  of  highways, 
there  is  a  sad  deficiency  and  need.  In  the  island  of  Luzon  there  are 
laid  down  on  the  maps  three  large  highways,  with  byways  leading  from 
them.  They  are,  first,  a  road  running  northwest  from  Manila  and 
extending  up  through  the  provinces  of  Manila,  Pampanga,  Tarlac, 
Pangasinan,  Union,  Ilocos  Sur,  and  Ilicos  Norte  to  the  town  Laoag,  a 
distance  in  all  of  some  340  miles;  second,  a  high  road  starting  from 
Manila  and  running  northeast  through  the  provinces  of  Pampanga, 
Nueva  Ejica,  Nueva  Viscaya,  Isabela,  and  Cagayan  to  Aparri,  a  dis- 
tance of  some  355  miles;  third,  a  highway  of  the  south  running  from 
Manila,  through  the  provinces  of  Cavite,  Lag  una,  Tayabas,  and  the 
Camarines,  to  Albay,  a  distance  of  some  300  miles. 

These  highways  are  said  to  be  fit  for  carriages  in  the  dry  season; 
and,  with  exceptions,  they  are  likewise  said  to  be  in  a  very  wretched 
state  of  repair  and  preservation,  being  in  parts  and  for  whole  sections 
next  to  impassable.  In  the  rainy  season  communication  by  means  of 
them  is  almost  wholly  suspended,  not  only  on  account  of  claj^  mud, 
and  washouts,  but  also  on  account  of  the  lack  of  bridges.  These  four 
highways  in  the  island  of  Luzon  furnish  a  basis,  however,  for  the 
construction  of  a  proper  system  of  highway  communication  in  the 
island.  They  need  to  be  repaired;  bridges  need  to  be  built,  and  when 
once  repaired  they  need  to  be  so  maintained.  The  highways  in  the 
other  islands  are  said  to  be,  as  a  rule,  in  far  worse  condition  than  those 
of  Luzon. 


With  regard  to  the  smaller  roads  leading  from  the  highways,  it  need 
only  be  said  that  they  are  few  and  far  between  and,  as  a  rule,  in 
wretched  condition. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT   OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK.  81 

The  whole  road  system  of  the  islands  needs  careful  attention  and 
vigorous  reformation.  Upon  it  depends  in  large  measure  the  pros- 
perity and  welfare  of  the  people. 

TELEGRAPHS   AND    CABLES. 

The  archipelago  is  connected  with  the  Asiatic  continent,  Europe, 
and  America  by  a  cable  running  from  Manila  to  Hongkong.  From 
Hongkong  the  messages  are  transmitted  by  some  one  of  the  cable  lines 
running  across  the  continent  of  Asia  or  touching  from  point  to  point 
along  the  Indian  Ocean,  Mediterranean  Sea,  etc.  To  reach  San  Fran- 
cisco a  cable  message  from  Manila  traverses  from  longitude  120^  east 
to  longitude  122°  west,  or  in  all  242  out  of  the  360  degrees,  with  a  cor- 
responding cost  per  word  of  telegram.  The  business  done  over  the 
Manila-Hongkong  cable  since  the  cession  of  the  islands  by  Spain  to 
the  United  States  has  been  of  large  proportions. 

Telegraphic  communication  between  the  islands  has  been  planned 
by  the  United  States  authorities  on  an  adequate  scale  and  several  new 
cables  have  been  run.  Manila  is  now  connected  with  Iloilo,  Cebu, 
and  other  points  in  the  Visayan  Islands. 

TELEGRAPHS. 

The  first  telegraph  line  of  the  archipelago  was  erected  in  1872  and 
ran  from  Manila  to  Cavite.  There  are  now,  or  were  before  the  insur- 
rection, three  principal  lines  in  Luzon,  with  numerous  branches;  one 
in  the  northwest,  following,  as  a  rule,  the  highway  of  the  northwest 
to  Laoag,  in  the  province  of  Ilocos  Norte;  one  in  the  east,  following 
the  highway  of  the  northeast  and  terminating  in  Aparri,  in  the 
province  of  Cagayan,  and  one  in  the  south,  running  from  Manila  to 
Sorsogon,  in  the  province  of  Albay.  In  the  other  islands  telegraph 
facilities  also  existed.  Much  of  the  system  has  doubtless  been  destroyed 
or  has  greatly  suffered  during  the  insurrection.  It  is  a  means  of  com- 
munication, however,  that  can  bo  restored  and  extended  with  compar- 
ative ease. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XVIII. 


FOREIGIS^  POPULATION. 


83 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


FOREIGN  POPULATION. 


It  has  been  deemed  advisable  to  furnish  some  description  and  to 
give  a  few  statistics  of  the  population  and  business  of  the  important 
cities  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

MANILA. 

Manila,  the  capital  of  the  islands,  is  situated  in  the  island  of  Luzon, 
at  the  mouth  of  the  river  Pasig,  which  flows  into  the  bay  of  Manila. 
It  was  founded  in  1571.  Earthquakes,  with  very  disastrous  results, 
occurred  in  1645,  in  1863,  and  in  1880.  To  meet  these  conditions,  as 
far  as  possible,  the  dwelling  houses  are  usually  of  not  more  than  two 
stories,  and  covered  with  corrugated  iron.  The  old  city  of  Manila  is 
surrounded  by  a  wall  and  a  moat,  and  the  larger  Government  build- 
ings and  many  of  the  religious  institutions  are  located  therein. 
Across  the  river  Pasig  from  the  intramural  city  are  the  centers  of 
trade  and  industry.  On  the  Escolta,  which  is  the  main  retail 
business  street,  are  found  most  of  the  European  stores  and  bazaars. 
This  portion  of  the  city  is  called  Binondo.  The  Rosario  is  another 
broad  thoroughfare,  which  is  occupied  chiefly  by  Chinese  shops.  San 
Miguel  is  an  aristocratic  suburb,  as  is  also  Malate. 

The  architecture  of  Manila  is  not  imposing,  owing  to  the  often  recur- 
ring earthquakes.  The  city  has  an  old  appearance.  In  the  evening 
the  streets  are  very  animated;  apparently  all  the  world  being  out  for 
a  drive.  There  are  several  ancient  churches.  The  church  of  San 
Sebastian  is  notable  for  having  been  constructed  of  iron  and  steel, 
which  was  brought  ready  to  put  up  from  Belgium.  The  cathedral, 
which  was  founded  originally  in  1578,  has  been  several  times  destroyed 
by  earthquakes.  It  suffered  great  damage  in  1884.  There  are  several 
theaters,  but  none  of  any  particular  note.  There  is  an  opera,  which  is 
well  patronized.  At  various  places  in  the  city  are  statues;  for  instance, 
Charles  IV  and  Isabella  11.  There  are  monuments  to  several  distin- 
guished Spaniards. 

The  ordinary  population  of  the  city  is  about  300,000.  It  is  the  seat 
of  a  large  commerce,  which  is  continually  increasing.  The  principal 
articles  of  export  are  hemp,  sugar,  tobacco,  cigars,  coffee,  and  indigo, 
and  the  chief  imports  are  cotton  goods. 

The  anchorage  for  large  ships  is  about  3  miles  from  the  shore,  but 
of  smaller  vessels  there  are  a  great  number  grouped  in  the  mouth  of 
the  river,  and  steamboats  drawing  7  feet  of  water  go  a  little  distance 
up  the  river  to  the  bridge  of  Spain,  which  spans  the  Pasig,  and  are 
there  loaded  and  unloaded;  cascoes  and  tugs  go  underneath  this  bridge 
and  farther  up  the  river. 

p  c — VOL  4 — 01 8 


Hosted  by 


Google 


86  REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Before  our  occupation  in  1898  there  were  six  Spanish  newspapers 
published  in  Manila.  Some  of  these  have  been  discontinued  and  others 
have  taken  their  places,  so  that  there  are  about  that  number  published 
there  now.  There  are  several  American  newspapers,  the  three  prin- 
cipal of  which  are  the  Manila  Times,  the  American,  and  Freedom. 

The  hottest  season  of  the  year  commences  in  March  and  continues 
throughout  May.  The  temperature  averages  about  81i^  F.  It  varies 
but  slightly  during  the  year.  The  climate  may  be  said  to  be  a  continual 
summer.  The  rains  commence  in  June  and  continue  to  December. 
Last  July  the  rainfall  amounted  to  48  inches,  but  this  was  considered 
to  be  abnormal,  the  ordinary  rainfall  for  this  month  being  about  15 
inches.  The  maximum  annual  rainfall  is  114  inches,  and  the  minimum 
84  inches.  The  maximum  temperature  is  about  92^  and  the  mini- 
mum 61^. 

The  last  census  was  taken  in  1883.  There  were  then  residing  in 
Manila  250  foreigners  of  European  origin,  4,189  European  Spaniards, 
15,157  Chinese,  46,066  Chinese  mestizos,  or  half-breeds,  3,849  Spanish 
mestizos,  and  160,896  pure  natives. 

In  1897  our  imports  from  the  Philippines  amounted  to  $4,383,740. 
Our  exports  to  the  Philippines  were  $94,597,  but  we  have  not  been 
able  to  secure  exact  statistics  for  Manila. 

In  1894  the  principal  exports  from  Manila  were:  Sugar,  105,019,245 
kilograms;  hemp,  82,108,599  kilograms;  raw  tobacco,  7,019,117  kilo- 
grams; manufactured  tobacco,  1,144,365  kilograms;  precious  and  dye 
woods,  2,405,755  kilograms;  coffee,  603,156  kilograms. 

There  are  tramways  in  the  principal  streets  of  the  city,  and  there  is 
a  railway  to  Dagupan,  122  miles,  which  was  opened  on  the  23d  of 
November,  1892.  There  is  also  a  steam  road  to  Malabon.  There  are 
electric  lights  in  the  streets  and  public  squares,  and  in  many  of  the 
houses.  There  is  a  very  good  water  supply,  which  is  brought  from 
the  Mariquina  River.  The  telephone  system  extends  throughout  the 
city,  and  as  far  as  Malabon.  There  are  many  educational  and  chari- 
table institutions,  which  have  been  enumerated  in  other  parts  of  this 
report.  There  is  a  telegraph  service  from  Manila  to  all  civilized  por- 
tions of  Luzon  Island.  There  is  a  land  line  from  Manila  to  Bollinao, 
Zambales,  from  which  point  a  submarine  cable  was  laid  in  April,  1880, 
by  the  Eastern  Extension  Australasian  and  China  Telegraph  Com- 
pany, Limited,  whereby  Manila  was  placed  in  direct  telegraphic  com- 
munication with  the  rest  of  the  world.  In  May,  1898,  Admiral  Dewey 
ordered  the  Manila  and  Hongkong  cable  cut,  but  the  connection  was 
made  good  again  on  the  21st  of  August,  1898.  In  1897  another  sub- 
marine cable  was  laid  by  the  above  company,  under  contract  with  the 
Spanish  Government,  connecting  Manila  with  the  southern  islands  of 
Panay  and  Cebu  (Tugaran).  This  cable  was  also  cut  on  the  23d  of 
May,  1898,  but  after  the  12th  of  August  was  reopened. 

The  following  countries  had,  under  Spanish  rule,  consulates  at  Manila, 
the  most  of  which  are  continued:  Austria-Hungary,  Brazil,  Chile, 
Denmark,  Ecuador,  France,  Germany,  Great  Britain,  Hawaii,  Italy, 
Japan,  Liberia,  Mexico,  Netherlands,  Portugal,  Kussia,  Sweden  and 
Norway,  Switzerland,  and  the  United  States. 

The  foreigners  in  the  islands  are  engaged  in  all  branches  of  business 
and  professions.  The  English  are  principally  engaged  in  banking  and 
exporting  the  products  of  the  islands,  chief  among  which  is  hemp; 
they  also  are  the  greatest  transportation  agents,  representing  most  of 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  87 

the  shipping  interests  of  the  Philippines.  The  Germans,  French,  and 
Swiss  are  chiefly  engaged  in  importing;  while  all  the  foreigners  are 
occupied  to  some  extent  in  sugar  raising  and  refining.  Many  foreign- 
ers follow  all  the  ordinary  businesses  of  life,  such  as  brokers,  attor- 
neys, physicians,  and  merchants. 

In  considering  the  future  of  the  Philippines,  naturally  the  rights, 
privileges,  and  obligations  which  have  arisen  with  reference  to  the 
foreigners  therein  would  have  to  be  considered  with  some  care. 
Article  VIII  of  the  treaty  of  December  10,  1898,  by  which  the  prop- 
erty of  the  Crown  of  Spain  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago  was  ceded 
to  the  United  States,  provides  that  such  cession  ''can  not  in  any 
respect  impair  the  property  or  rights  which  by  law  belong  to  the  peace- 
ful possession  of  property  of  all  kinds,  of  provinces,  municipalities, 
public  or  private  establishments,  ecclesiastical  or  civic  bodies,  or  any 
other  associations  having  legal  capacity  to  acquire  and  possess  property 
in  the  aforesaid  territories  renounced  or  ceded,  or  of  private  individ- 
uals, of  whatsoever  nationality  such  individuals  may  be." 

The  terms  of  the  treaty  cited  would  have  to  be  complied  with  by 
any  government  that  might  be  established  in  the  Philippines.  Having 
assumed  these  obligations,  we  must  see  that  they  are  complied  with. 

ILOILO. 

This  port  is  the  chief  town  of  the  province  of  Panay.  It  is  sit- 
uated in  latitude  10^  48'  north,  near  the  southwestern  extremity  of  the 
island,  close  to  the  sea.  It  is  built  on  low,  marshy  ground,  partly 
along  the  sea  and  partly  along  the  left  bank  of  a  creek  or  inlet  which 
runs  toward  Jaro,  and  after  describing  a  semicircle,  again  meets  the 
sea  near  Iloilo.  It  is  the  principal  seaport  and  seat  of  government  of 
the  province,  but  it  is  smaller  than  some  other  towns  in  its  vicinity. 
The  harbor  is  well  protected  and  the  anchorage  good.  The  depth  of 
water  on  the  bar  at  the  entrance  to  the  creek  or  river,  Iloilo,  is  about 
5  fathoms  at  low  water.  It  decreases  in  a  short  distance  to  15  feet, 
and  then  deepens  again. 

Iloilo  is  said  to  be  a  very  healthy  place,  and  is  cooler  than  Manila. 
The  better  class  of  houses  are  built  on  strong  wooden  posts,  2  or  3 
feet  in  diameter;  these  posts  reach  to  the  roof.  They  have  stone 
walls  to  the  first  floor,  with  wooden  windows  above,  and  iron  roofs. 
The  poorer  class  of  dwellings  are  flimsy  structures  of  nipa,  built  on  four 
strong  posts.  Means  of  communication  with  the  interior  are  very 
inadequate. 

The  principal  manufacture  in  Iloilo  is  that  of  pina,  a  cloth  made 
from  the  fiber  of  the  pineapple  leaf.  Another  cloth  called  jusi  is 
woven  from  silk,  and  is  made  in  white  and  colors.  The  country 
around  is  very  fertile.  The  annual  crop  of  sugar  is  estimated  at 
about  a  million  of  piculs.  Tobacco  and  rice  are  largely  cultivated. 
Typhoons  do  great  damage.     Earthquakes  are  rare. 

Iloilo  is  about  250  miles  from  Manila.  The  chief  article  of  export 
is  sugar.  In  1894  the  imports  were  $2,225,690,  and  the  exports  in  the 
same  year  were  $4,624,290.  In  1894  Iloilo  exported  1,455,037  kilo- 
grams of  valuable  hard  and  dye  woods.  The  island  of  Negros  con- 
tributes three-fourths  of  the  sugar  shipped  from  Iloilo.  The  following 
countries  have  consulates  in  Iloilo:  Germany,  Great  Britain,  and 
Portugal.     There  are  many  foreign  merchants  here.     The  Hongkong 


Hosted  by 


Google 


88  EEPOKT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

and  Shanghai  Banking  Corporation  has  a  branch  here,  and  the  National 
Bank  of  China,  the  Qiartered  Bank  of  India,  Australia,  and  China, 
the  Bank  of  India,  China,  and  the  Spanish  Filipino  Bank  are  here 
represented. 

When  peace  is  restored  Iloilo  will  become  a  prosperous  city.  Ameri- 
cans will  be  greatly  attracted  to  it  by  the  many  varieties  of  fine  wood 
that  are  found  on  the  island  of  Panay  and  adjacent  islands. 

CEBU. 

Cebu  is  the  capital  of  the  island  of  the  same  name,  and  ranks  next 
to  Iloilo  among  the  ports  of  the  Philippines.  It  is  a  well-built  town 
and  possesses  fine  roads,  but  there  is  little  commercial  enterprise 
among  the  people.     The  trade  consists  principally  of  hemp  and  sugar. 

The  neighboring  islands  of  Leyte,  Mindanao,  and  Cameguin  possess 
extensive  hemp  plantations.  This  produce  finds  its  way  to  Cebu  for 
shipment. 

There  are  some  valuable  and  extensive  coal  deposits  in  the  island, 
but  the  mines  have  not  as  yet  been  worked  with  any  enterprise. 

In  1894  the  imports  were  $205,671,  the  exports  amounting  to 
$2,671,688.     Sugar  and  hemp  were  the  principal  exports  in  1894. 

Germany,  Great  Britain,  Denmark,  Italy,  and  Venezuela  have  con- 
sulates at  Cebu.  These  consulates  are  mostly  in  the  hands  of  vice- 
consuls  who  carry  on  business.  There  are  some  other  foreign 
merchants,  and  most  of  the  larger  houses  in  Manila  have  branches 
here. 

The  population  of  Cebu  in  1896  was  10,972,  against  9,629  in  1888. 
The  inhabitants  of  the  island  of  Cebu  in  1896  amounted  to  595,736. 
Cebu  was  the  residence  of  the  brigadier-governor  of  the  Visayas,  as 
well  as  the  governor  of  the  island,  and  the  usual  local  officials.  In 
1886  the  supreme  court  of  Cebu  was  established. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XIX. 


PUBLIC  LAND8  OR  DOMAIN. 


89 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PUBLIC  LANDS  OR  DOMAIK 


It  has  been  impossible  to  obtain  accurate  data  or  information  with 
reference  to  the  public  lands  and  other  public  property  belonging  to 
the  Spanish  Government  as  sovereign  in  the  archipelago.  There  existed 
under  the  Spanish  administration  a  department  known  as  the  inspeccion 
de  montes,  which,  among  other  duties,  had  general  supervision  and 
charge  of  the  public  lands  (realengos).  It  pertained  to  this  depart- 
ment to  make  surveys  of  land,  run  lines  of  demarcation,  etc.  For 
this  purpose  it  had  attached  to  it  a  corps  of  engineers.  Outside  of 
the  general  organization  of  this  department  little  information  in  regard 
to  it  or  its  accomplishments  was  obtainable.  The  records  of  the 
department  had  recently  gone  through  a  fire  and,  up  to  the  time  of  the 
leaving  of  the  commission,  were  in  charred  and  hopeless  confusion. 
The  commission  was  informed  that,  even  if  intact,  these  documents 
would  probably  give  little  or  no  information  as  to  the  extent  of  the 
public  domain  throughout  the  archipelago.  From  general  informa- 
tion gathered  from  various  sources,  particularly  from  natives  acquainted 
with  the  provinces,  the  opinion  has  been  formed  that  the  public  domain 
in  the  archipelago  is  very  large.  Some  place  it  as  high  as  one-half 
the  area  of  the  archipelago. 

For  the  most  part  these  lands  are  in  the  more  remote  and  inaccessible 
portions  of  the  islands,  being  the  mountains,  the  uplands,  and  other 
lands  more  or  less  remote  from  means  of  communication.  It  is  said, 
for  instance,  that  of  the  province  of  Union,  which,  with  respect  to 
mountains,  uplands,  and  remote  lands,  may  be  taken  as  an  average 
province,  one-half  is  public  domain.  These  lands  are  wild  and  wooded, 
in  many  cases  with  valuable  growing  timber  standing  upon  them.  The 
mines  of  coal,  iron,  copper,  gold,  and  other  mineral  deposits,  which  by 
many  are  believed  to  abound  in  the  islands,  are  in  large  measure,  it  is 
said,  to  be  found  upon  this  public  domain.  So  far  as  has  been  learned 
the  surveys  of  this  land  have  been  meager  and  very  incomplete.  When 
proper  means  of  communication  have  been  developed  and  proper 
measures  adopted  for  taking  advantage  of  the  benefits  of  these  lands 
they  will  doubtless  form  a  large  reserve  source  of  revenue  for  the 
benefit  of  the  government  of  the  islands. 

LAND  TENURE  AND  HYPOTHECATION. 

The  privately  owned  lands  in  the  archipelago  are  held  for  the  most 
part  by  individuals  or  families  and  by  the  religious  corporations.  It 
has  not  been  possible  for  the  commission  to  ascertain  accurately  what 
land  is  held  by  the  corporations.  It  is  stated  that  their  holdings  are 
very  large  and  of  the  most  fertile  and  valuable  lands  of  the  islands. 

91 


Hosted  by 


Google 


92  REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPIISTE    COMMISSION. 

There  is  great  need,  it  is  said,  of  a  revision  of  the  laws  respecting 
the  tenure  and  transfer  of  land.  The  present  method  of  transfer  is 
so  cumbersome  and  the  methods  of  recording  and  certifying  titles 
so  imperfect  as  to  render  transfers  diflScult  and  titles  insecure.  For 
this  reason,  it  is  said,  the  landowning  class  finds  great  difiiculty  in 
securing  the  capital  which  it  so  greatly  needs.  If  a  modern  system  of 
transfer  and  of  mortgaging  were  adopted,  rendering  transactions  easy 
and  secure,  capital  could  be  had  by  landowners  at  a  fair  per  cent, 
thus  greatly  encouraging  the  agricultural  development  of  the  country. 
Some  of  the  most  enlightened  lawyers  of  the  archipelago  favor  the  adop- 
tion of  the  Torrens  system  of  land  transfer  and  mortgage,  or  a  system 
based  upon  or  similar  to  it.  This  system  has  been  practically  adopted 
in  Australia  with  satisfactory  results,  and  also  in  several  of  the  States 
of  the  United  States,  and  there  seems  to  be  much  to  recommend  its 
adoption  in  the  islands. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XX. 


R  EL  1  Gr  I  O  IST 

Bv  The  Jesuit  Fathers. 


m 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


RELIGION/ 


PROPAGATION   OF   CATHOLICISM. 
DIFFICULTY   OF   THE   UNDERTAKING. 

Among  the  benefits  which  the  Fjlipino  people  have  received  from 
Spain,  the  greatest  and  transcendent  has  been  the  apostolic  Roman 
Catholic  religion,  with  the  abolition  of  the  idolatry  and  heathen  super- 
stitions which  they  formerly  professed. 

In  order  to  understand  what  this  benefit  is  and  the  difficulties  which 
the  missionaries  had  to  encounter  in  the  evangelization  of  the  Philip- 
pines, it  is  necessary  to  look  back  and  briefly  consider  what  the 
Filipinos  were  before  the  Spanish  conquest. 

SUPERSTITIONS   AND     BARBAROUS   CUSTOMS   OF   THE   INDIANS. 

What  were  the  Filipinos  before  Magellan  and  Legaspi  arrived  at 
these  islands  as  regards  religion?  They  were  what  the  immense 
majority  of  the  idolatrous  Indians  of  Asia,  the  Chinese,  the  Japanese, 
the  Igorrotes,  the  Ataas,  the  Manobos,  and  the  savages  of  the  high 
mountain  ranges  of  Mindanao,  not  yet  conquered  and  converted  to  the 
Christian  faith,  are  still  to-day.  They  were  Animists,  or  worshipers 
of  the  souls  of  their  ancestors;  they  were  Sabians,  or  worshipers  of 
the  sun,  of  the  moon,  and  of  the  stars.  They  had  no  idea  of  one  God, 
spiritual,  infinite,  eternal.  Creator  of  heaven  and  earth,  and  Kind  Father 
of  the  human  race;  they  found  gods  in  plants,  in  birds,  in  quadrupeds, 
in  cliffs,  in  caves,  and  in  the  reefs  of  the  sea.  This  explains  how  the 
Tagalos  worshiped  a  blue  bird  called  Tigmamanuquin,  which  the}^  hon- 
ored under  the  name  of  Bathala,  which  signifies  among  them  divinity; 
they  gave  the  same  honors  to  the  crow,  which  they  called  Maylupa,  or 
lord  of  the  earth;  they  did  the  same  with  the  alligator,  which  they 
saluted  when  they  saw  it  in  the  water  by  the  name  of  Nono,  which 
means  grandfather,  and  affectionately  begged  it  not  to  hurt  them,  and 
for  this  purpose  they  offered  it  something  of  what  they  had  in  their 
canoes. 

Among  the  rocks  which  they  adored  and  to  which  the}^  offered  gifts, 
one  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Pasig,  near  Guadalupe,  was  for  many 
years  an  idol  of  the  Tagalo  worship,  which  they  said  was  a  crocodile 
changed  into  stone.  They  adored,  as  all  the  people  of  the  Malay  i-ace, 
the  tree  called  Balete,  and  they  did  not  dare  to  cut  it.  They  had  in 
their  houses  many  monstrous  small  idols,  which  the  Visayas  called 
Dinata  and  the  Tagalos  Anito.  According  to  them  there  were  anitos 
of  the  country,  who  gave  permission  to  go  through  it;  anitos  of  the 
fields,  who  influenced  the  fertility  of  the  earth;  anitos  of  the  sea,  who 

^This  paper  on  Catholicism  in  the  Philippine  Islands  is  furnished  by  the  Jesuit 
fathers  of  Manila. 

95 


Hosted  by 


Google 


96  EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 

fed  the  fishes  and  took  care  of  boats;  anitos  to  look  after  the  houses 
and  new-born  and  nursing  infants.  These  domestic  anitos  were, 
according  to  the  Malays,  the  souls  of  their  ancestors,  whom  they  ven- 
erated with  a  religious  worship,  as  the  Chinese  do;  and  even  some  old 
people,  in  order  to  have  themselves  adored  by  the  people  after  death, 
affected  a  divine  air  and  demeanor  in  their  words  or  actions. 

They  described  the  creation  of  the  world  with  gross  fables.  They 
said  that  formerly  the  sky  and  water  were  walking  together;  that  a 
Milano  (kite)  interfered  between  them,  and  in  order  to  keep  the  waters 
from  rising  to  the  sky,  he  placed  over  them  the  islands,  and  so  the 
world  was  formed,  which  for  the  Filipinos  was  represented  by  a  num- 
ber of  islands.  The  first  man  and  the  first  woman,  according  to  the 
Filipinos,  came  out  of  a  piece  of  bamboo.  This  cane  was  floating  on 
the  water;  the  water  cast  it  at  the  foot  of  a  kite,  and  he,  angered  by 
the  blow,  broke  it  open  with  his  beak,  and  the  man  came  out  of  one 
joint  and  the  woman  out  of  another. 

They  believed  that  the  souls  of  the  defunct  were  material;  that  they 
ate  morisqueta  and  drank  tuba,  and  so,  on  burying  the  dead,  they 
placed  food  on  their  sepulchers.  This  custom  is  still  kept  up  among 
the  savage  races  of  Mindanao. 

Instead  of  priests  they  generally  had  priestesses,  whom  the  Visayas 
called  baylanas  and  the  Tagalos  catoolanas,  who  used  to  be  ridiculous, 
astute,  and  devilish  old  women  who,  at  the  feasts,  made  sacrifices 
of  animals,  and  even  of  slaves  and  human  victims,  to  the  sound  of 
musical  instruments.  When  a  chief  fell  sick  and  found  no  relief  in 
medicines,  he  called  on  the  baylana  or  catoolana.  She  placed  a  pig  or 
a  bound  slave  near  the  bed  of  the  sufferer,  or  in  the  middle  of  the 
room;  then  taking  a  lance  and  dancing  to  the  sound  of  a  bronze  bell, 
called  agum,  she  attacked  the  victim  and  wounded  him  with  a  lance 
thrust,  and  with  his  blood  she  anointed  the  sick  person,  and  then 
opened  the  entrails  of  the  animal  or  of  the  slave  and  examined  them 
after  the  manner  of  augurers;  and  the  baylana  or  catoolana,  pretend- 
ing by  grimaces  and  foamings  at  the  mouth  that  the  prophetic  genius 
had  taken  possession  of  her,  predicted  the  result  of  the  malady.  If 
the  prophecy  was  of  life,  all  ate  and  drank  until  they  became  drunk; 
if  it  was  of  death,  she  consoled  the  sick  person  by  telling  him  that  he 
should  prepare  to  ascend  to  the  stars  by  way  of  the  rainbow. 

The  Filipinos  did  not  have  churches,  because  all  their  houses  served 
them  as  chapels  or  places  of  worship.  They  believed  in  a  multitude  of 
auguries  or  superstitions.  The  hooting  of  the  owl  and  the  song  of  the 
wild  dove,  called  limocon;  the  sight  of  a  serpent,  the  hissing  of  a  lizard, 
were  to  them  so  many  messages  from  heaven.  The  asuang  was  an  evil 
sprite,  witch,  or  demon,  feared  by  all  the  Tagalos,  Bicoles,  Panpangas, 
Visayas,  and  Mandayas;  and  they  believed  that  it  took  different  forms, 
such  as  dog,  cat,  bird,  goat,  or  other  animal.  The  asuang  caught,  by 
preference,  abandoned  children,  solitary  travelers,  and  even  with  its 
horrible,  swollen,  black,  and  flexible  tongue  extracted  unborn  children 
from  women.  A  thousand  other  fabulous  and  fictitious  horrors  were 
attributed  to  the  asuang. 

Finally,  whoever  wishes  to  inform  himself  of  the  superstitions  and 
the  dark  myths  of  infidelity  with  which  all  the  Malay  race  of  the  Phil- 
ippines were  surrounded  on  the  arrival  there  of  the  Spanish  Catholic 
missionaries  should  read  Book  3,  Chapters  XVI  and  XVII,  of  the  his- 
tory written  by  Father  Delgado  of  the  Company  of  Jesus;  or  count,  if 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPIKE    0OMMIS8ION.  97 

he  has  time  and  takes  pleasure  in  it,  the  nine  hundred  divinities  or 
superstitious  beliefs  so  ably  described  by  the  German  Philippinolomst 
iernando  Blumentritt,  in  his  recent  Mythological  Dictionary.  ' 

To  this  darkness  in  religion  should  be  added  the  corruption  of  Phil- 
ippine morals  in  the  times  of  paganism,  the  buying  and  selling  of 
wives  which  took  place  whenever  matrimony  was  entered  into;  the 
usury  or  premium  on  loans  to  an  inconceivable  degree;  slavery  so 
general  m  the  country  that  children  had  no  objections  to  making  slaves 
ot  their  parents;  war  to  the  death,  or  to  the  extermination,  of  some 
^^^^^•1^^^^?^  others;  and  anyone  will  be  convinced  of  the  great  labor 
and  difficulties  which  presented  themselves  to  the  missionaries  in  propa- 

f^^*\"^.n    .  i^^^^i^^^^^^^^^^^^^P^^  among  the  inhabitants  of 

the  1,400  islands  of  which  the  archipelago  of  Magellan  is  composed,  all 
ot  whom  were  m  general  imbued  and  saturated  to  their  bones  with  those 
superstitions  and  customs  so  contrary  to  the  Gospel  and  to  Christian 
civilization  and  so  difficult  to  uproot.  Who  could  have  caused  the 
Philippine  nation,  buried  in  the  darkness  of  their  false  deities,  obscene 
rites,  and  bloody  sacrifices  to  be  transformed  into  a  Catholic  nation, 
zealously  believing  m  one  true  God;  most  devoted  to  the  immaculate 
Virgin  Mary,  preeminent  in  the  services  of  the  Catholic  worship- 
acknowledging  the  sanctity  of  marriage;  respectful  to  their  wives 
whose  dignity  has  been  raised  to  the  height  of  a  true  companion  for 
man;  generous  toward  their  slaves,  to  whom  they  gave  liberty  as  soon 
as  they  embraced  the  Christian  faith  ?  This  radical  transformation  of  a 
people  could  only  proceed  from  divine  grace,  and  through  the  medium 
•  n  •  y^^^^^^  Church,  the  only  true  church  of  Christ,  which  has 
civilized  Europe  and  America,  and  which  will  civilize  the  rest  of 
Oceania,  Africa,  and  Asia. 

But  let  us  see  how  this  miracle  was  accomplished. 

EXTENDED   THROUGH   THE   ARCHIPELAGO   BY   THE   AUGUSTINIAN,  FRANCISCAN,  JESUIT, 
DOMINICAN,  AND   RECOLETO    MISSIONARIES. 

We  have  already  told  how  the  first  missionaries  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Augustine,  who  arrived  at  the  Philippines  with  the  immortal  Legaspi, 
labored  for  the  conversion  of  the  Indians.  Father  Herrera  founded 
the  province  of  the  Santisimo  Nombre  de  Jesus  with  Augustinian 
monks  (not  barefoot),  returned  to  Europe,  where  he  gathered  together 
40  missionaries  of  his  order,  of  whom  34  were  left  in  Mexico  on  account 
ot  illness,  and  the  other  6,  together  with  3  others,  residents  of  New 
bpam,  undertook  the  journey  to  these  islands,  but  were  wrecked  by  a 
furious  storm  on  the  coast  of  Catanduanes,  and  there  murdered  by  the 
savages.  How  many  missionaries,  martyrs  like  these,  the  history  of 
the  Philippines  records.  But  that  does  not  matter.  The  Order  of  St. 
Augustine  grew,  watered  with  the  blood  of  its  sons,  and  they  founded 
their  first  convent  m  Cebu,  and  soon  after  another  larger  one  as  the 
head  of  the  order  in  Manila.  On  the  other  side  of  the  Pasig  River  the 
Augustinian  missionaries  founded  the  parish  of  Tondo,  that  of  Tambo- 
bong,  and  that  which  bears  the  name  of  Pasig,  near  the  Lake  of  Bay 
and  travehng  through  Bulacan  they  founded  the  convents  and  parishes 
of  Dapdap,  Guigumto,  Bigoa,  Angat,  Balinag,  Quingua,  Malolos, 
Paombong,  Calumpit,  and  Hagonoy.  In  the  province  of  Pampanga 
they  founded  a  multitude  of  Christian  communities,  such  as  those  of 
Bacolor,  Macabebe,  Porac,  Mexico,  Arayat,  Tarlac,  and  they  arrived 


Hosted  by 


Google 


98  REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

as  far  as  San  Miguel  de  Mayumo,  Candaba,  Apalit,  and  even  to  the 
mountain  ranges,  where  they  domesticated  the  mountain  Indians.  In 
Batangas  they  founded  towns  as  large  as  Taal,  Balayan,  Bauan,  Batan- 
gas,  Tanauan,  and  Lipa,  which  have  20,000,  30,000,  and  40,000  inhabit- 
ants, all  Christians.  In  the  island  of  Panay  they  founded  the  parishes 
of  Capiz,  Dumalag,  Antique,  Jaro,  and  many  others.  Even  in  the 
provinces  of  Ilocos  they  established  missions  in  the  northern  part  of 
Luzon,  which  later,  in  the  course  of  time,  became  large  towns. 

A  fleet  of  Franciscan  missionaries  being  in  Seville,  in  the  year  1576, 
ready  to  sail  for  the  Solomon  Islands,  Philip  II  obtained  the  permis- 
sion of  Pope  Gregory  XIII  that  they  should  go  to  evangelize  the 
Philippines,  where  they  arrived  the  24th  of  June,  1577,  being  received 
in  Manila  with  enthusiastic  demonstrations  of  joy.  They  soon  founded 
a  religious  province,  which  they  called  St.  Gregory  the  Great.     The 

fraud  marshal,  Don  Gabriel  de  Rivera,  built  them  the  convent  of  San 
'rancisco  the  same  year,  1577.  The  holy  martyr  of  Japan,  Father 
Pedro  Bautista,  Franciscan,  was  the  founder  of  the  convent  of  San 
Francisco  del  Monte,  outside  of  Manila.  The  convent  of  Franciscan 
nuns  of  Santa  Clara  was  founded  in  1620,  its  first  mother  superior 
being  Geronima  de  la  Asuncion.  A  porter  of  the  convent  of  San 
Francisco,  of  Manila, was  the  founder  of  the  hospital  of  St.  Lazarus  in 
1598,  which  afterwards,  in  1603,  was  located  outside  of  Manila.  The 
Franciscan  missionaries  were  the  first  missionaries  of  Samtaloc,  Pan- 
dacan,  Santa  Ana,  Meycauayan,  Bocauc,  Morong,  Baraa,  Pagsaughan, 
Santa  Cruz  de  la  Laguna,  and  Mainit,  where  were  established  some 
baths  of  hot  sulphur  water  from  the  springs  in  that  locality.  In  this 
same  province  of  Laguna  they  founded  Nagearlang,  Lilio,  and  Mahay- 
hay,  and  some  missions  in  the  mountains  of  Daractan. 

They  were  the  apostles  who  evangelized  and  converted  to  Christianity 
the  provinces  of  Camarines.  In  the  province  of  Tayabas  they  estab- 
lished the  towns  of  Pagbilao,  Sarriaya,  Lueban,  and  others;  the  mis- 
sions of  Lupe  and  Ragay,  those  of  the  mountains  of  Mangairia,  and  on 
the  opposite  coast  the  Christian  communities  of  Binangonan,  Polo, 
Baler,  and  Casiguran.  These  distinguished  missionaries  of  the  glori- 
ous San  Francisco  extended  their  apostolic  zeal  even  to  the  islands  of 
Japan,  where  23  canonized  martyrs  and  40  blessed  ones  shed  their 
blood  for  Jesus  Christ. 

A  lay  brother  named  Friar  Antonio  de  San  Gregorio,  who  was  the 
corner  stone  of  this  holy  and  apostolic  province  of  St.  Gregory  the 
Great,  was  able  to  give  all  this  glory  to  God. 

To  these  two  missionary  bodies  was  added  a  third,  that  of  the 
Society  of  Jesus.  As  the  sons  of  Ignacio  have  everywhere  marched 
in  the  vanguard  of  Catholicism,  it  could  not  fail  to  happen  that  they 
should  wish  to  emulate  the  distinguished  sons  of  San  Francisco  and 
San  Augustine  in  the  Philippines  by  dauntlessly  following  the  foot- 
steps of  the  Apostle  of  the  Orient  and  their  brother,  St.  Francis 
Xavier.  The  Jesuit  fathers  who  arrived  at  these  islands  in  1581  in 
company  with  the  first  bishop,  Domingo  de  Salazar,  of  the  Order  of 
Preachers,  were  two  only;  but  it  would  be  hard  to  find  two  men  who 
have  rendered  greater  services  to  the  Philippines.  There  names  were 
Antonio  Sedeno  and  Alonzo  Sanchez.  Father  Sedeno,  a  native  of  the 
town  of  San  Clemente,  province  of  Cuenca,  in  Spain,  followed  in  his 
youth  the  career  of  a  soldier  under  the  orders  of  the  Duke  of  Frias, 
at  which  time  he  studied  the  art  of  fortification.     He  afterwards  pro- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


P  C— VOL  4—01 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  99 

f  essed  in  the  Society  of  Jesus,  and  was  a  missionary  in  Florida.  He 
taught  the  Filipinos  to  sew  cloth,  to  cut  stone,  and  to  make  mortar. 
He  built  the  Episcopal  palace,  procured  quantities  of  seeds,  taught 
them  to  spin  silk,  planted  mulberry  trees,  set  up  looms,  had  painters 
come  from  China,  opened  the  first  school  in  the  Philippines,  founded 
the  colleges  of  Manila  and  Cebu,  and  sent  out  missionaries  all  through 
the  Visayas.  He  died  in  peace  after  fourteen  3^ears  of  apostleship. 
Father  Alonzo  Sanchez  was  sent  as  an  ambassador  to  Macao,  and  then 
to  the  courts  of  Madrid  and  Rome  to  negotiate  with  the  King  of  Spain 
and  with  the  Pontiff  the  establishment  of  the  fundamental  bases  and 
the  relief  of  the  most  urgent  necessities  of  the  infant  colony.  It  was 
he  who  obtained  from  Philip  H  the  support  of  the  colony  against  the 
opinion  of  the  counselors  of  the  Crown,  who  thought  it  should  be  aban- 
doned on  account  of  the  large  expense  it  occasioned  without  giving 
any  return. 

The  King,  influenced  by  the  reasoning  of  Sanchez,  energetically  sup- 
ported his  proposal  for  love  of  the  salvation  of  the  souls  of  the  poor 
Indians.  The  principal  measures  which  he  obtained  from  the  King 
and  from  the  Pope  were:  The  preservation  of  the  cathedral;  the 
sending  out  of  missionaries  of  the  different  religious  orders  at  the 
expense  of  the  State;  the  founding  of  two  hospitals,  one  for  Spaniards 
and  the  other  for  Indians;  the  founding  of  the  college  of  Santa 
Potenciana  for  Spanish  girls;  the  imposition  of  a  3  per  cent  tax 
on  goods  in  the  custom-house;  and  besides,  that  from  each  tax  one- 
half  real  should  be  taken  for  the  support  of  the  ministers  and  holy 
objects  of  the  church;  that  the  debts  of  the  first  Spaniards  who  arrived 
in  the  islands  at  the  expense  of  the  State  should  be  paid;  that  the  Gov- 
ernor-General of  the  Philippines  should  not  confer  offices  on  his  rela- 
tives, but  on  people  who  had  worked  in  the  country  for  three  years; 
that  in  the  lawsuits  of  the  Indians  he  should  proceed  summarily;  that 
slavery  should  be  abolished  by  freeing  the  children  of  slaves;  that  the 
army  should  be  well  provided  for  from  the  royal  treasury  of  Mexico; 
that  soldiers  in  active  service  could  not  engage  in  trade;  that  the  city 
of  Manila  should  be  fortified;  that  four  strongholds  should  be  con- 
structed in  the  archipelago,  defended  by  a  powerful  squadron ;  that, 
in  view  of  the  distance,  the  Governor-General  should  have  unlimited 
power  in  case  of  need;  the  consent  of  the  bishop,  of  the  audiencia,  and 
of  the  chiefs  of  the  army  being  sufficient. 

The  Jesuits  founded  the  royal  college  of  St.  Joseph  in  1595,  and 
then  that  of  San  Ignacio,  which  was  raised  to  the  rank  of  pontificial 
university  in  1621  and  royal  in  1653;  the  community  of  Santa  Cruz, 
that  of  San  Miguel,  and  the  Noviciado  de  San  Pedro  Macati.  In  the 
mountains  of  the  country  of  the  Tagalos  they  built  the  sanctuary  of 
Antipolo,  where  they  placed  the  miraculous  image  of  Nuestra  Senora 
de  la  Paz  y  Buen  Viaje,  the  object  of  the  pilgrimages  of  the  pious 
Filipinos.  In  Cavite  they  established  the  missions  of  Cavite,  Viejo, 
Silang,  Indang,  and  Maragondon.  They  devoted  themselves  to  the 
study  of  Tagalog  and  filled  their  large  libraries  with  Tagalog  books. 
But  as  the  Tagalo  provinces  already  had  missionaries  of  other  reli- 
gious orders,  the  Jesuits  hastened  to  the  evangelization  of  the  Visayan 
Islands;  they  established  a  central  college  in  Cebu,  and  from  there  they 
undertook  a  spirtual  campaign  against  error,  ignorance,  superstition, 
and  vice,  which  lasted  for  two  centuries  and  which  extended  through- 
out the  islands  of  Bohol,  Negros,  Leyte,  Samar,  Mindanao,  Marianas, 


Hosted  by 


Google 


100  EEPOET   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK. 

and  Carolinas.  In  Bohol,  from  1597  to  1622,  Fathers  Gabriel  Sanchez 
and  Juan  Torres  founded  the  missions  of  Loboc,  Baclayon,  Danis, 
Malabohoc,  San  Miguel,  Talibon,  and  Inabanga;  in  Negros,  the  towns 
of  Hog  and  Cabancalan.  In  Leyte  Fathers  Chirimo,  Jimenez,  Carpio, 
and  others  founded  the  towns  of  Leyte,  Palompon,  Ormoc,  Bay  bay, 
Hilongos,  Maasin,  Sogor,  Cabalian,  Carigara,  and  many  others. 
Fathers  Otazo,  Ponce,  Miralles,  and  Damian  passed  over  to  the  moun- 
tainous island  of  Samar,  wall  of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  reduced  it  all 
to  orderly  life.  By  studying  the  language  and  reducing  it  to  writing, 
they  composed  dictionaries  and  elegant  books,  and  gathered  together 
twenty  centers  of  population,  not  without  infinite  labor,  shipwrecks, 
captivity,  and  the  martyrdom  of  some  of  their  missionaries.  In 
Guinang,  a  town  of  said  island.  Father  Delgado  wrote  his  copious  his- 
tory,, in  the  .year  1790. 

From  Samar,  Leyte,  and  Bohol  the  Jesuits  proceeded  to  the  evan- 
gelization of  Butuan  and  Dapitan,  in  Mindanao;  and  toward  the  south 
they  reached  Zamboanga,  Basilan,  and  Jolo,  accompanying  the  Spanish 
squadrons,  who  were  fighting  against  the  Moros.  Father  Sanritores, 
with  a  few  companions,  evangelized  the  Marianas  Islands,  where  he 
was  martyred  by  those  islanders  in  1670,  after  having  baptized  13,000  of 
them  and  leaving  20,000  catechumens.  And  still  the  zeal  of  the  Society 
of  Jesus  was  not  satisfied,  and  during  the  last  century  it  did  not  cease 
sending  various  expeditions  to  the  Caroline  Islands,  which  were  not 
successful,^  because  the  majority  of  the  missionaries  perished,  victims 
of  the  furious  typhoons  which  are  so  frequent  in  those  seas. 

After  the  Jesuit  missionaries  the  Dominican  fathers  arrived  in  the 
Philippines  in  the  year  1587.  In  order  to  understand  the  great  benefits 
which  these  most  learned  fathers  have  conferred  on  the  islands,  read 
the  magnificent  History  of  the  Province  of  Santisimo  Rosario,  written 
by  Father  Fonseca,  for  it  would  be  a  task  little  less  than  impossible 
to  reduce  to  a  brief  sketch  all  their  labors  and  enterprises  in  Luzon, 
Formosa,  and  in  the  vast  Empire  of  China.  The  first  bishop  of  Manila, 
Rev.  Father  Domingo  Salazar,  was  a  Dominican,  and  from  the  Domin- 
ican monastery  of  that  city  there  have  gone  out  a  multitude  of  wise 
and  holy  prelates,  who  have  occupied  the  sees  of  the  East,  and  even 
many  of  the  sees  of  Spain,  to  the  glory  of  their  order  and  the  Holy 
Catholic  Church,  which  they  have  extended  in  the  Orient. 

The  image  of  Our  Lady  of  the  Rosary,  which  is  venerated  in  the 
Church  of  San  Domingo,  is  celebrated  in  all  the  islands,  and  there  is 
no  rnore  popular  feast  than  that  called  Naval,  which  is  held  yearly, 
the  first  Sunday  in  October,  in  said  city  of  Manila.  Their  University 
of  St.  Thomas,  founded  in  1620,  confirmed  as  the  Pontifical  Univer- 
sity in  1640  and  as  the  Royal  University  in  1680,  has  been  the  most 
lasting  center  of  learning  of  all  those  founded  in  the  Philippines, 
and  has  had  professors  as  learned  as  Cardinal  Ceferino  Gonzalez. 
These  missionaries  scattered  themselves  throughout  the  provinces  of 
Batuan  and  Pangasinan,  and  reduced  them  all  to  Christianity.  The 
government  of  the  Sangleys  or  Chinese  Christians  was  intrusted  to 
them.  It  was  not  long  after  their  arrival  when  they  extended  their 
missions  throughout  Cagayan  and  the  Batanes  Islands.  Their  zeal  not 
being  satisfied  with  such  a  vast  field,  in  1626  Friar  Bartolome  Mar- 
tinez, provincial  of  the  Dominicans,  with  five  other  monks  of  his  order, 
navigated  to  the  island  of  Formosa,  where  they  established  several 
missions.     In  1633  Father  Juan  de  Morales  was  sent  out  to  organize 


Hosted  by 


Google 


o 
o 

o 


o 
w 

12; 
o 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT   OP   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  101 

flourishiir'.f2\^.''^r'  ^"  China,  Which  have  been  maintained  in  a 
flourishing  state  to  the  present  time.  In  1676  Fathers  Juan  de  la 
Cruz,  Arjona  and  Morales  crossed  to  Tonquin  and  were  the  founders 
of  the  Spanish  mission  in  that  Kingdom,  where  the  Christian  relidon 
has  been  propagated  in  a  marvelous  manner  in  spite  of  the  persecu 
tions  suffered,  and  in  which  12  Spanish  Dominicans,  6  of  them  Kps 

createdToriR  fT  -^.-^l  '"  increased  in  Tonquin  that  Pius  IX 
T.n  XTTr^  f  A^''^^u-''f'?i'^  government  two  apostolic  vicarages,  and 
^rn^  ?nd  Central."  '  *^'''  "°^  ^'"'^  "^'"^^^  Oriental  N^rth 

The  great  sacrifices  made  for  a  holv  cause  are  an  example  and  stim 

tt  Ordei"of  St^A  "     ?"%"•  ''''^  V?f'  *^^  ^^^^^"'^  ReSetanclf  of 
tueurdei  of  St  Augustine,  being  holily   ealous  of  the  pains  labors 
and  triumphs  which  other  religious  bodies  had  had  in  the  SnverSon  of 
the  Philippines,  came  to  these  islands  in  the  year  1606      Their  first 
missionary  was  the  venerable  Father  Juan  de  San  Geronimo    who 
•enounced  the  Bishopric  of  Chapa,  in  America,  to  devote  himsel7  to 
the  spintual  conquest  of  these  lands,  as  the  humblest  of  the  M  owers 
of  the  Gos^e       Without  allowing  themselves  a  moment  of  rest  the 
Eecoletps   Fathers  began   their  apostolic  iourney,  evangeliS  the 
mountains  of  Mariveles  and  the  province  of  Zambales   where  thev 
mace  the  echoes  of  their  inspired  words  resound.     In  tl^smitE 
part  ot  the  arcliipelago  there  is  the  large  and  most  fertile  island  of 
Mindanao,  the  home  of  Moro  piracy  and^of  the  obscene  So-   S  the 
m,a  to;  ^Tl '*  ""^'t  ^YT  ""f  i«;^a"««  ^l«elared  war  without  truce  or 
Ttl      J.  i'"'  ^""^  celebrated  of  them  all,  in  Philippine  historv    s 
Je^df  .^v'"-^"  San  Agustfn,  called  Father  Captahf  The  glorious 
deeds  of  this  vigorous  champion  of  the  faith  appear  incredible     He  was 
the  first  who,  about  the  year  18:^5,  penetratid  to  the  Lake  of  lHo 
and  inspired  the  fanat  cal  followers  of  Mohammed  with  terror  since 

ct™  iti^^^^^  S ""'  r r-^^-ted'.but  devastated  the  ChriSn 

communities  which  the  father  had  established  with  so  much  trouble 
and  labor  in  the  north  of  Mindanao.  "ouDie 

fb  Ji""  V^f  J!"^  of'^Rombl6n  was  the  prey  of  the  Mussulman  piracies,  and 
theie  lather  Captain  went,  obeying   the  orders   of  his   superiors 
humiliating  the  power  of  the  Mores  (iohammedans)  in  those  seas  and 
constructing  bulwarks  such  as  those  of  Banton  and  Punta  RaScav 
which  demonstrate  a  very  superior  knowledge  not  on"y  of  mSteTv 

fn'thoTe* k'l'  Y  "^•'"  «*  ,b^I««ti<'«-     The  floufishing  stal  of  ?eS 
in  those  islands  proves  how  great  the  Lord  is,  who  from  a  peacef\il 
monk  could  make  a  bold  captain  and  apostle  of  these  regW  ^ 
TnKi       ■   ^Tfi^^ajies  Islands,  in  Paragua,  Mindoro,  in  the  island  of 

tWt  fe  V'l"  ^f'^S"'  "'  *^^'  .°*  ?""^«'  i«  that  of  Ticao,  in  the  most 
tei  tile  island  of  Negros  and  in  the  province  of  Cairte,  the  Eecoletanos 
lathers  have  established  numerous  missions  and  parishes,  Sch  will 
fef;^     T^°*  °*  *¥'^'  ^f  ^^  ^'^^  **^«  f  ruitf  ulness  of  the  Catholic  Church 
Besides  thev  promoted  the  arts  and  agriculture,  building  in  Manila  an 

7cfvt  '^f  r^'  '""'^^  ®"°.  Sebastia^n,andcultVatingilthe  provLce 
of  Cavite  the  famous  plantation  of  Imus.  ^  ovmce 

lo  the  labors  of  these  five  missionary  bodies  we  have  iust  mentioned 
namely,  the  Augustinians,  the  Franciscans,  the  Jesuits,  the  D^minSans 
and  the  Eecoletanos,  must  be  added  the  work  of  the  secular  cler^v' 
composed  in  part  of  Spanish  clergy  and  in  part  of  natife  Sergy     % 


Hosted  by 


Google 


102  EEPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK. 

them  is  due  the  maintenance  of  worship  in  the  cathedral  churches  of 
Manila,  Cebu,  Jaro,  Nueva  Caceres,  and  Nueva  Segovia.  The  native 
clergy  already  in  the  last  century  administered  16  curacies  in  the  Arch- 
bishopric of  Manila,  15  in  the  Bishopric  of  Cebu,  18  in  that  of  Cama- 
rines,  and  4  in  that  of  Cagayan  or  Vigan,  and  they  are  the  ones  who 
up  to  the  present  time  have  held  the  office  of  coadjutors  of  the  rectors 
in  the  large  parishes  of  the  rest  of  the  archipelago.  Their  knowledge 
of  the  languages  of  the  country  in  which  they  were  brought  up  makes 
them  very  well  fitted  for  the  ministry  of  the  Word  and  for  the  admin- 
istration of  the  sacraments  to  the  Indians.  They  have  not  failed  to 
give  eminent  men  to  the  Philippine  church. 

ESTABLISHMENT   OF   THE   ECCLESIASTICAL   HIERARCHY. 

The  Philippine  Church  could  not  exist  without  ecclesiastical  hier- 
archy, and  indeed  Philip  II  selected  at  once  Father  Domingo  Salazar, 
master  in  theology  of  the  Monastery  of  St.  Stephen  in  Salamanca,  of 
the  Order  of  Preachers,  as  the  first  bishop  of  the  Philippines,  and 
Pope  Gregory  XIII  approved  his  selection  and  he  was  consecrated  in 
Madrid  in  the  year  1579,  arriving  at  Manila  in  1581.  The  series  of 
most  illustrious  bishops  and  archbishops  of  this  see  can  be  found-, 
together  with  an  account  of  their  principal  enterprises,  in  the  history 
written  by  Father  Elelgado  of  the  Society  of  Jesus,  Book  2,  Chapter 
X.  Among  the  preeminent  pontiffs  there  are  worthy  of  mention, 
besides  Salazar,  Santibanez,  raised  to  the  dignity  of  archibishop  in 
1598;  Benavides,  founder  of  the  University  of  St.  Thomas,  who  died 
in  1616;  Guerrero,  intrepid  defender  of  the  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction, 
who  died  in  1611;  Miguel  Poblete,  Mexican  priest,  who  died  full  of 
merits  and  virtues  in  1667;  Diego  Camacho,  most  zealous  for  the  splen- 
dor of  the  cathedral  and  a  great  lover  of  the  seminary,  who  rested  in 
peace  in  the  year  1712;  Rodriguez,  who  died  in  1742,  and  others  whom 
we  do  not  mention  for  the  sake  of  brevity.  All  of  them  distinguished 
themselves  by  their  love  for  the  Indians,  protecting  them  with  their 
episcopal  authority,  which  is  greatest  among  the  ecclesiastics  of  the 
Far  East.  The  archdiocese  of  Manila  is  one  of  the  most  extensive  and 
populated  of  the  Catholic  world,  and  has  to-day  subject  to  it  the  epis- 
copal chairs  of  Cebu,  Nueva  Segovia,  Nueva  Caceres,  and  Jaro. 

FOUNDATION    OF   THE   DIFFERENT   DIOCESES. 

The  diocese  of  Cebu  was  founded  in  1535,  and  Father  Pedro  de 
Agusto,  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine,  was  elected  as  its  first  bishop, 
and  governed  it  holil}-^  until  1608.  The  illustrious  Arce  succeeded 
him,  who  died  in  1642.  Several  other  most  edifying  prelates  succeeded 
him,  among  those  worthy  of  mention  being  Miguel  Bayat,  barefooted 
Franciscan,  who  when  he  died  had  but  five  reals,  because  he  gave  all 
his  treasures  to  the  poor. 

This  diocese  was  so  extensive  that  it  included,  before  that  of  Jaro 
was  created,  all  the  Visayan  Islands,  Mindanao,  Jolo,  the  Marianas, 
and  the  Carolines.  The  life  of  man  was  too  short  to  visit  it,  and  it 
was  necessary  to  divide  it,  as  was  done  in  1865. 

The  diocese  of  Nueva  Caceres,  or  of  Camarines,  was  created  by  apos- 
tolic brief  of  Clement  VIII,  in  the  year  1595,  at  the  same  time  as  that 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHURCH  OF  JOLO. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  103 

of  Cebu,  and  its  first  bishop  was  Francisco  de  Otorga,  Augustinian 
monk,  who  died  in  1601.  His  successors  were  generally  apostolic 
men  taken  from  the  monasteries  and  the  missions;  although  there  were 
seated  in  this  chair,  as  in  the  rest  of  the  archipelago,  priests  of  the 
secular  clergy,  as  illustrious,  zealous,  and  charitable  as  Felipe  de 
Molina,  native  clergyman  of  the  town  of  Arevalo,  in  Iloilo,  who 
repaired  the  ruins  of  its  church  and  governed  the  diocese  apostoli- 
caliy. 

The  first  Bishop  of  Nueva  Segovia  was  Miguel  de  Benavides,  who 
ruled  over  the  church  from  1599  to  1603,  when  he  was  promoted  to  be 
Metropolitan  of  Manila.  He  was  succeeded  by  other  learned  men  of 
much  power,  some  of  whom  were  also  transferred  to  the  archiepiscopal 
chair  of  Manila,  such  as  the  illustrious  Serrano  and  Jose  Millan  de 
Poblete;  and  still  more  worthy  of  mention  is  what  happened  with 
Father  Juan  Arrechedera,  Dominican  monk,  who,  at  the  same  time  he 
was  J^ishop  of  Nueva  Segovia,  was  elected  by  decree  of  the  royal 
audi(^nce  to  fill  the  office  of  governor  and  captain-general  of  the  islands, 
on  account  of  the  death  of  Don  Gaspar  de  la  Torre,  and  he  held  the 
stjirt'  of  the  supreme  command  of  these  islands  from  the  year  1745  to 
1750,  ]nnng  very  much  beloved  by  the  Indians.  In  truth,  this  Philip- 
pine colony  did  not  need  ^soldiers  for  a  period  of  three  centuries  to 
maintain  order,  or  even  to  defend  itself  from  foreigners,  because 
religious  influence  substituted  with  advantage  military  force,  and  it 
was  lost  only  when  the  Spanish  Government  allowed*^  this  religious 
influence  to  diminish. 

The  diocese  of  Jaro  was  created  by  bull  of  Pope  Pius  IX  in  1865, 
its  first  bishop  being  Mariano  Quartero,  who  died  in  1884.  Leandro 
Arrue,  of  the  Order  of  Eecoletanos,  succeeded  him,  who  died  in  1897, 
Andres  Terrero  de  San  Jose,  monk  of  the  same  order,  being  elected 
to  succeed  him. 

In  all  the  dioceses  the  bishops  took  care  to  found  seminaries  for  the 
native  clergy,  not  only  because  they  were  necessary  to  assist  in  the 
administration  of  the  sacraments  in  the  large  parishes  created  by  the 
monks,  but  also  in  order  that  they  could  occupy  some  district  parishes 
which  from  very  old  times  had  been  reserved  for  them. 

THE    FATHERS   OF   THE    CONGREGATION   OF   ST.    VINCENT    DE   PAUL,  THE    CAPUCHINS,    AND 
THE   BENEDICTINES   AKRIVE   AT   THE   ISLANDS. 

To  govern  some  of  these  seminaries  there  came  from  Spain  in  1862 
the  Sons  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  together  with  the  Sisters  of  Charity, 
who  took  charge  of  the  attendance  on  the  sick  in  hospitals  and  of  the 
instruction  of  girls. 

The  Capuchin  Fathers  also  arrived  in  these  islands  in  1886  for  the 
purpose  of  taking  charge  of  the  missions  of  both  the  Caroline  and 
Palaos  islands— an  office  which  they  have  filled  in  a  marvelous  manner, 
not  without  the  sacrifice  of  all  earthly  ambitions,  going  to  bury  them- 
selves forever  in  those  solitary  places*^  of  the  Pacific  Ocean  for  love  of 
the  poor  natives. 

Finally,  in  1895,  the  Benedictine  Fathers  of  the  Monastery  of  Mont- 
serrat,  in  Spain,  disembarked  for  the  first  time  in  Manila  to  take 
charge  of  some  missions  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Mindanao. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


104  EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

WONDERFUL  TRANSFORMATION  OF  THE  PHILIPPINES. 

What  a  beautiful  page  for  the  Catholic  Church  the  history  of  the 
propagation  of  Christianity  in  the  Philippines  presents!  What  fruit- 
fulness  on  the  part  of  the  Church!  What  glory  for  the  missionaries! 
What  honor  for  Spain!  The  monks  arrived  at  these  islands  in  the 
year  1565.  They  found  in  them  about  2,000,000  inhabitants;  some  of 
them  wholly  savage,  cannibals,  others  semibarbarous;  all  of  them 
pagans,  idolaters,  sunk  in  the  densest  darkness  of  superstition,  slavery, 
and  vice.  But  what  was  the  condition  of  the  Philippines  one  century 
later  ?  The  barbarians  had  already  been  reduced  to  civil  and  orderly 
life;  idolatr}^  had  disappeared;  slavery  had  been  abolished;  matrimony 
had  been  sanctified;  thousands  of  children  attended  the  schools,  mag- 
nificent churches  had  been  erected,  and  1,000,000  inhabitants  had 
received  the  waters  of  baptism  and  practiced  the  Christian  religion, 
just  as  those  born  in  Europe.  In  the  succeeding  century  the  number 
of  Catholics  became  2,000,000,  and  soon  6,000,000. 

This  is  the  work  of  the  Catholic  Church  and  of  the  Catholic  Spanish 
nation,  true  mothers,  the  one  spiritual  and  the  other  temporal,  of  this 
fortunate  colony;  the  most  pious  spirit  of  both  dictating  the  benevo- 
lent disposititions  and  concessions  of  the  Popes  and  of  the  Philip- 
pine episcopate,  and  the  most  magnanimous  and  humanitarian  laws 
of  the  never  sufiiciently  praised  code  of  the  Indies,  so  suited  to 
the  capacity  and  so  protective  of  the  rights  of  the  Indians,  that  it 
seems  rather  to  come  from  the  good  heart  of  a  Pontiff  than  from  a 
temporal  monarch — a  true  model  of  Christian  secular  legislation. 
These  two  powers  and  legislations,  ecclesiastical  and  political,  klways 
working  with  the  most  admirable  harmony  during  the  first  three  cen- 
turies, were  the  two  agents,  but  in  spirit  one,  of  this  work  of  culture, 
which  has  no  equal  in  the  history  of  colonial  civilization. 

PRESENT     STATE     OF     THE     CATHOLIC     RELIGION     IN     THE     PHILIPPINES. 
PROGRESSIVE   INCREASE   OF   CATHOLICS   IN   THE   PHILIPPINES   UNTIL   1898. 

In  order  to  understand  the  present  state  of  the  Catholic  religion  in 
the  Philippines  (we  refer  to  the  year  1896,  before  the  Tagalo  insur- 
rection) it  would  be  well  to  put  before  the  eyes  of  the  reader  the 
growth  of  the  Christian  population  and  the  increase  of  the  faithful 
from  the  time  of  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards  until  the  present  time. 

The  number  of  inhabitants  which  the  Spaniards  found  on  their 
arrival  in  these  islands  is  not  definitely  known,  but  it  is  estimated  by 
some  historians  as  less  than  2,000,000,  and  it  would  not  be  imprudent 
to  affirm  that  it  scarcely  reached  1,500,000,  all  of  them  either  idolaters, 
who  admitted  a  plurality  of  gods,  or  Mohammedans,  who,  although 
they  professed,  as  they  still  do,  the  unity  of  God,  did  not  believe,  nor 
do  they  yet  believe,  in  the  divinity  of  Jesus  Christ,  but  rather  have 
almost  always  been  instructed  from  their  earliest  youth  by  their 
parents  and  teachers  to  hate  Christianity. 

Then  the  Spanish  missionaries  arrived  and  began  the  work  of  evan- 
gelization, at  the  same  time  as  the  humanitarian  undertaking  of  reduc- 
ing them  to  political  life,  because  the  majority  of  the  Indians  and 
Moros  lived  scattered  about  on  the  shores,  fi.elds,  and  in  the  woods, 
forming  little  ranches. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


105 


What  was  the  result  of  their  apostolic  labors?  Let  us  see.  Juan 
Francisco  de  San  Augustin,  chronicler  of  the  Franciscan  missionaries, 
gives  us  the  following: 

General  resume  of  souls,  not  taking  into  account  more  than  the  natives  converted  to  Chris- 
tianity in  all  the  Philippine  archipelago  in  the  year  1736. 

In  142  towns  which  the  clergy  have  in  their  charge  in  all  this  archipelago. .  131, 279 

Shod  Augustinians  (in  more  than  150  towns) 241, 806 

Order  of  San  Domingo   (in  51  towns) 89,  752 

Society  of  Jesus   (in  80  towns) 170, 000 

Augustinian  Recoletos  (in  105  towns) 63, 149 

Barefoot  Franciscans  (in  63  towns) 141, 196 

Total 837, 182 

Father  Delgado,  who  wrote  about  the  year  1750,  gives  almost  the 
same  statistics,  but  adds  these  words: 

I  do  not  doubt  that  the  souls  ministered  to  by  the  secular  and  regular  priests  in  all 
the  islands  of  this  archipelago  exceed  a  million  and  many  thousands  more,  because 
in  the  church  registers  children  under  7  years  are  not  entered  or  enumerated,  and  so 
I  am  depending  on  the  count  which  was  made  a  few  years  ago. 

In  the  work  entitled  "State  of  the  Philippine  Islands,"  written  by 
Don  Tomas  de  Comyn  in  1820,  and  translated  into  English  by  William 
Walton  in  1821,  there  is  an  appendix,  as  follows: 

Recapitulation _  of  the  population  of  the  Philippines. 

Indians  of  both  sexes  (Catholics) 2,  395, 687 

Chinese  half-breeds  (Catholics) 119,  719 

Sangleyes,  or  Chinese 7, 000 

Whites 4, 000 

Total  population 2,  526,  406 

Comparison  of  the  total  population  in  1791  and  1810. 


Year  1791. 

Year  1810. 

Increase. 

Indians 

1, 582, 761 
66, 917 

2, 395, 687 
119, 719 

812,926 
52,802 

Half-breeds 

Total 

1,649,678 

2, 515, 406 

865, 728 

And  he  concludes,  saying: 

The  difference  resulting  from  the  foregoing  comparison,  founded  on  public  docu- 
ments, ^ives  an  excess  of  52  per  cent  of  increment  in  each  eighteen  years,  and  if  said 
proportion  continues,  the  population  of  the  Philippine  Islands  will  be  doubled  in 
thirty-four  years,  an  increase  which  might  be  considered  incredible  if  we  did  not 
have  an  extraordinary  example  in  Philadelphia,  which  has  doubled  its  population  in 
twenty-eight  years,  as  Buffon  affirms,  on  the  authority  of  Dr.  Franklin. 

This  remark  of  Mr.  Comyn  has  already  been  realized  with  accuracy, 
if  we  hold  to  what  Don  Felipe  del  Pan,  a  studious  newspaper  man  of 
Manila,  assures  us  of  in  his  published  works;  for,  according  to  this 
author,  in  1876  the  population  of  the  Philippines  amounted  to  9,000,000 
individuals. 

Mr.  Ferreiro,  secretary  of  the  Geographic  Society  of  Madrid,  also 
estimated  the  population  of  the  Philippines  in  1887  to  be  approxi- 
mately 9,000,000,  a  figure  which  to  some  appears  to  exceed  the  true 
number. 


P  C — VOL  4 — 01- 


-10 


Hosted  by 


Google 


106  REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

In  a  study  made  the  last  three  months  of  1894  the  population  of  the 
archipelagoes  which  were  under  the  general  government  of  the  Philip- 
pines appeared  as  follows: 

Christian  parochial  population q  414  373 

Refugees.  :::.";::::::.':  'i28;287 

Regular  and  secular  clergy 2  651 

Spanish  and  Indian  soldiers .".....!.."  ^ ! .  2l'  513 

In  asylums ..[.... ' 689 

Criminals 702 

Chinese  foreigners ..!!.!....."...  74  504 

White  foreigners i  qqq 

Mohammedans '.IT. '.'".! ".".;".!!  309^000 

Heathen 880,000 

Total 7^  832^  719 

Finally,  the  secretary  of  the  archbishopric  of  Manila  offers  us  the 
following  census  with  relation  to  the  Catholics  in  the  Philippine, 
Marianas,  and  Caroline  archipelagoes  in  the  year  1898,  according  to 
the  parochial  registers: 

Number  of  persons  per  dioces:. 

Archbishopric  of  Manila 1  gn  445 

Bishopric  of  Cebii .'...!."].  l'  748'  872 

Bishopric  of  Jaro ]][[[["[[  1  31o'  754 

Bishopric  of  Nueva Segovia \\ ...[[[[" [[[[  ' 997' 629 

Bishopric  of  Nueva  Ciiceres [!!......  69l'  298 

Total  number  of  Catholics q  559  993 

To  whom  is  due  this  increase  of  Catholicism  and  this  growth  of  the 
population  of  the  Philippines  in  general  from  the  time  of  the  Spanish 
conquest?  It  is  due  to  the  regular  and  secular  clergy.  Scarcely  any 
importance  can  be  attached  to  the  immigration  into  the  Philippines  in 
the  course  of  years.  The  Chinese  and  the  Europeans,  including  the 
Spaniards  themselves,  may  be  considered,  as  a  general  rule,  birds 
of  passage,  who  come  to  pass  a  few  years  here  and  then  return  to  their 
own  country.  The  Philippine  population  has  increased,  thanks  to  the 
organization  and  good  government  of  the  centers  of  population,  prin- 
cipally established  by  the  action  of  missionaries  at  the  time  of  the  con- 
version to  Christianity  of  the  natives  of  the  evangelized  territories. 
The  secular  power,  even  aided  by  arms,  did  not  attempt  to  create  towns 
of  infidels.  Not  even  the  military  posts  have  become  populous  or 
permanent  towns. 

The  center  of  attraction  and  of  permanence  in  Philippine  towns  has 
always  been,  and  continues  to  be,  the  church  and  the  monastery.  The 
parish  priest,  who  is  not  a  bird  of  passage,  is  generally  the  most 
respected  authority,  the  chief  guarantee  of  peace  and  order,  and  the 
most  zealous  guardian  of  morality,  the  undoubted  and  most  important 
cause  of  the  increase  in  the  population  of  any  country.  The  numerous 
and  important  towns,  which  now  have  other  powerful  roots  and  ele- 
ments of  cohesion,  began  and  grew  in  this  way.  Take  away  from 
them,  especially  when  recently  founded  and  young,  the  center  of 
union  of  which  we  have  spoken,  and  it  will  be  seen  how  the  families 
will  separate  and  the  new  citizens  readily  return  to  the  life  of  the 
mountains. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  VII. 


INTERIOil  OF  CHURCH  AT  TETUAN  (ZAMBOANGA). 
Usual  form  of  Jesuit  missionary  church  in  Mindanao. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPIKE    COMMlSBlOlSf.  107 

PRESENT   STATE   OF    THE     ARCHBISHOPRIC     OF     MANILA     AND    THE    BISHOPRICS     OF     CEBU, 
JARO,    NUEVA   CACERES,    AND   NUEVA    SEGOVIA. 

To  shepherd  this  flock  of  6,500,000  Catholics  the  church  of  the 
Philippines  has  an  archbishop  and  four  bishops. 

The  present  archbishop  of  Manila  is  Don  Bernardino  Nozaleda,  of  the 
Order  of  St.  Dominic,  a  wise  and  prudent  prelate,  who  took  possession  of 
his  chair  the  29th  of  October,  1890.  This  archdiocese  has  a  magnifi- 
cent cathedral  and  a  considerable  chapter,  which  in  the  time  of  Span- 
ish dominion  was  composed  of  24  prebendaries.  The  ecclesiastical 
court  has  its  offices  in  the  archiepiscopal  palace.  The  seminary  of 
the  council  is  a  beautiful  edifice  and  is  governed  by  the  Fathers  of  the 
Congregation  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul.  It  is  now  closed  on  account  of 
the  state  of  war  which  exists  in  the  country.  The  pious  works  of  the 
miter  before  the  revolution  counted  upon  a  considerable  fund,  and 
they  are  in  charge  of  an  administmtor.  The  archbishopric  of  Manila 
has  219  parishes,  24  parish  missions,  16  active  missions,  259  parish 
priests  or  missionaries,  and  198  native  clergymen  to  assist  the  parish 
priests. 

The  diocese  of  Cebu  is  ruled  over  by  Don  Fr.  Martin  Garcia  de 
Alcocer,  of  the  Order  of  St.  Francis,  a  most  worthy  prelate  and  very 
rnuch  beloved  by  all  those  in  his  diocese.  He  took  possession  of  his 
diocese  the  11th  of  December,  1886.  In  Cebu  there  is  an  old  cathe- 
dral, and  they  were  building  a  new  one  when  the  revolution  broke  out. 
Besides,  that  city  has  a  conciliar  seminary,  in  charge  of  the  Paulist 
Fathers,  and  two  hospitals  dependent  on  the  miter.  The  diocese  hta 
166  parishes,  15  parish  missions,  32  active  missions,  213  parish  priesss 
or  missionaries,  and  125  native  clergymen. 

On  account  of  the  death  of  Father  Leandro  Arrue,  which  occurred 
in  1897,  D.  Fr.  Mauricio  Ferrero,  ex-provincial  of  the  monks  of  the 
Recoletano  Order  of  St.  Augustine,  has  just  been  appointed  bishop  of 
Jaro.  The  bishopric  of  Jaro  has  a  cathedral  church,  which  is  at  the 
same  time  the  parish  church  of  the  city  of  Jaro,  with  the  correspond- 
ing ecclesiastical  court,  and  a  seminary  governed  by  the  Fathers  of  St. 
Vincent  de  Paul.  There  are  in  the  diocese  144  parishes,  23  parish 
missions,  33  active  missions,  200  parish  priests  or  missionaries,  and  73 
native  clergymen  employed  in  the  parochial  ministry. 

The  diocese  of  Nueva  Caceres  has  for  its  bishop  D.  Fr.  Arsenio  del 
Campo,  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine,  w^ho  took  possession  of  his  chair 
the  8d  of  June,  1888.  Although  it  lacks  a  chapter,  as  the  dioceses  of 
Cebu,  Jaro,  and  Nueva  Segovia,  there  is,  nothwithstanding,  in  Nueva 
Cacere  sa  cathedral  church,  ecclesiastical  tribunal,  conciliar  seminary 
in  charge  of  tbe  Paulist  Fathers,  and  a  leper  hospital.  The  bishopric 
of  Nueva  Caceres  has  107  parishes,  17  parish  missions,  124  parish 
priests  or  missionaries,  and  148  native  priests. 

The  present  bishop  of  Nueva  Segovia  is  Don  Fr.  Jose  Heria  Campo- 
manes,  a  monk  of  the  Dominican  Order,  very  well  versed  in  the  Tagalo 
language,  who  previously  had  been  for  many  years  parish  priest  of 
Binondo,  which  parish  he  enriched  with  a  magnificent  cemetery.  He 
took  possession  of  his  chair  on  the  19th  of  June,  1890,  but,  the  revo- 
lution having  broken  out,  he  was  made  a  prisoner,  and  at  the  present 
writing  he  is  still  groaning  under  the  painful  chains  of  captivity,  and 
not  always  treated  as  his  sacred  character,  his  authority,  and  his  per- 
sonal qualifications  merit.     The  diocese  of  Nueva  Segovia  has  110  par- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


108  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

ishes,  26  parish  missions,  35  active  missions,  171  parish  priests  or 
missionaries,  and  131  native  priests.  The  ecclesiastical  court  is  located 
in  Vigan,  where  there  is,  besides,  a  cathedral  church  and  a  conciliar 
seminary,  which  have  been  governed  up  to  the  present  time  by  the 
monks  of  the  Order  of  St.  Augustine. 


STATE    OJ^   THE    RELIGIOUS   BODIES. 


The  Corporation  of  Augustinian  Fathers  (shod)  had,  before  the  revo- 
lutionary movement,  the  fine  monastery  and  church  of  San  Augustin  in 
Manila,  those  of  Cebu  and  Guadalupe,  and  the  orphan  asylums  of 
Tambobong  and  Mandaloyan;  and  in  Spain  the  colleges  of  Valladolid, 
of  Palma  de  Mallorca,  and  of  Santa  Maria  de  la  Vid,  with  the  Royal 
Monastery  of  the  Escorial  and  the  hospitium  of  Barcelona,  besides  a 
mission  in  China.     The  total  number  of  monks  was  644. 

The  Corporation  of  Kecoletos,  Augustinians,  also  had,  before  the 
war  in  the  Philippines,  a  monastery  and  church  in  Manila,  churches  in 
Cavite,  San  Sebastian,  and  Cebu,  and  the  plantation  house  at  Imus; 
and  in  Spain  the  colleges  of  Monteagudo,  of  Marcilla,  and  of  San  Millan 
de  la  Cogulla,  the  number  of  monks  being  522. 

The  monks  of  the  Order  of  St.  Francis  have  in  the  Philippines 
their  monastery  and  church  in  Manila,  and  that  of  San  Francisco  del 
Monte,  the  Hospital  of  St.  Lazarus,  the  church  of  the  Venerable 
Third  Order  of  Sampaloc,  the  almshouse  of  San  Pascual  Baylon,  the 
infirmary  of  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Laguna,  a  leper  hospital  in  Camarines, 
the  college  of  Guinobatan,  and  the  monastery  of  Santa  Clara;  and  in 
Spain  the  colleges  of  Pastrana,  Consuegra,  Arenas  de  San  Pedro, 
Puebla  de  Montalban,  Almagro  and  Belmonte,  with  a  residence  in 
Madrid,  and  besides  a  college  in  Rome.  The  total  number  of  monks 
is  475  and  of  nuns  34. 

^  The  monks  of  the  Order  of  St.  Dominic,  besides  the  missions  in 
China  and  Formosa,  have  in  Manila  the  convent  and  church  of  San 
Domingo,  the  university  of  San  Tomas,  the  college  of  San  Tomas, 
that  of  San  Jose,  and  that  of  San  Juan  de  Letran,  the  college  of  San 
Alberto  Magno  in  Daguj)an,  the  vicarage  of  San  Juan  del  Monte, 
and  of  San  Telmo  in  Cavite,  the  nunnery  of  Santa  Catalina  de  Sena 
in  Manila  for  girls,  that  of  Our  Lady  of  the  Rosary  in  Singayen, 
that  of  Santa  Imelda  in  Tuguegarao,  and  that  of  Our  Lady  of  the 
Rosary  in  Vigan,  also  for  the  education  of  girls;  and  in  Spain  the 
two  colleges  of  San  Domingo  de  Ocana  and  San  Tomas  de  Xvila,  with 
a  total  number  of  528  monks. 

The  missionaries  of  the  Society  of  Jesus  have  in  Manila  a  central 
mission  house  and  municipal  school,  the  normal  school,  and  a  meteoro- 
logical observatory,  and  they  administer  37  missions,  with  265  stations 
or  settlements  of  converts  in  Mindanao,  Basilan,  and  Jolo.  The  total 
number  of  Jesuits  resident  in  the  Philippines  was  only  164,  but  the 
provmce  of  Aragon,  to  which  the  mission  belongs,  has  several  pre- 
paratory houses,  colleges,  and  residences  in  Spain  besides  those  it 
supports  in  South  America. 

The  fathers  of  the  Mission  of  San  Vicente  de  Paul  have  the  house 
of  San  Marcelino  in  Manila  and  the  conciliar  seminary  of  that  city, 
with  also  those  of  Cebu,  Jaro,  and  Nueva  Caceres. 

The  Capuchin  missionaries  have  the  church  and  mission  house  in 
Manila,  the  mission  of  Jap  in  the  Western  Carolines,  that  of  Palaos, 


Hosted  by 


Google 


525 
< 

< 

pq 

2 
3 

Oh 


o 
o 

:^ 

w 

o 
;?; 
o 
:^ 

o 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  109 

that  of  Panapa,  io  the  Eastern  Carolines,  and  the  procuration  of  Mad- 
rid, the  total  number  of  monks  being  36. 

The  Benedictine  missionaries  occupy  the  Central  Mission  House  in 
Manilla,  the  missions  of  Taganadn,  Cantilan,  Gigaquit,  Cabiintoff, 
^umancia,  and  Dinagat  in  Mindanao,  and  a  college  of  missionaries  m 
Montserrat  (bpain).     Those  resident  in  these  islands  number  14 

In  conclusion  there  are  in  the  Philippines,  besides  the  monks,  sev- 
eral nunneries  dedicated,  some  to  contemplation,  such  as  those  of  Santa 
Uara;  others  to  education,  such  as  those  of  Asuncion,  the  Dominicans, 
and  the  nuns  of  the  Society  of  Jesus;  and,  finally,  others  to  the  prac- 
tice of  charity,  such  as  the  Sisters  of  Charity  or  of  St.  Vincent  de 
Paul,  who  have  m  their  charge  the  hospitals,  although  they  also  devote 
themselves  with  great  success  to  the  instruction  of  girls  in  the  colleg-es 
ot  Concordia,  Santa  Isabel,  Santa  Rosa,  Escuela  Municipal,  Looban, 
Ilospicio,  San  Jose  in  Jaro,  and  Santa  Isabel  in  Nueve  Ca^eres. 

RELIGIOUS   SPIRIT    OP   THE    COUNTRY. 

After  this  superficial  account  of  religious  statistics,  we  can  not  resist 
the  desire  to  set  forth,  although  very  briefly,  what  is  at  present  and 
in  reality  the  character  or  qualities  of  the  religious  spirit  reirainsr  in 
this  country,  which  owes  all  that  it  is,  aside  from  purely  natural 
elements,  to  the  Catholic  civilization  of  Spain.  Moreover,  the  point  is 
very  pertinent  to  the  subject. 

It  is  indisputable  from  the  very  beginning  that  the  native  masses 
who  have  received  the  direct  influence  of  the  Spanish  civilization  are 
wholly  Catholic.  The  infidel  natives  are  still  barbarous  or  semi- 
barbarous;  and  the  Moros,  besides  lacking  the  civilization  of  the 
Christian  Indians,  only  retain  of  merely  external  Mohammedanism 
their  innate  pride  and  treachery,  and  a  few  formalities  known  and 
practiced  by  a  very  small  number  of  their  race.  Those  in  the  Philip- 
pines who  profess,  or  are  said  to  profess,  any  other  positive  religion 
and  especially  Christian  distinct  from  Catholic,  are  not  found  except 
among  the  foreign  element.  Therefore,  Catholicism  is  the  relimon, 
not  only  of  the  majority,  but  of  all  the  civilized  Filipinos. 

It  IS  also  certain  that  the  Filipinos  are  sincere  Catholics.     Their 
religion  suits  them  and  is  agreeable  to  them;  they  practice  it  volun- 
tarily; they  profess  it  without  objection,  openly  and  publicly      The 
most  remote  suspicion  that  Catholicism  is  not  the  true  religion  and  the 
only  one  capable  of  insuring  temporal  and  eternal  felicity,  is  far  from 
their  minds.     All  these  Indians  are  in  themselves  docile  to  the  teach- 
ings and  admonitions  of  their  parish  priests  and  spiritual  fathers;  manv 
good  people  readily  and  frequently  partake  of  the  holy  sacramentss 
andtha^t  many  others  eithar  do  not  come,  or  do  not  come  so  frequently 
must  be  attributed  to  neglect,  to  carelessness,  or  to  real  impediments' 
but  never  to  aversion.     The  ceremonies  and  the  solemnity  of  the  wor- 
ship attract  them  extraordinarily,   as  do  also  the  popular  Catholic 
exhibitions  of  great  feasts  and  processions.     They  show,  without  any 
objection,  but  rather  with  much  pleasure,  the  pious  objects  and  insig- 
nia ot  any  pious  devotion  or  association  to  which  they  belong,  and  m 
many  places  the  women  use  the  scapular  or  the  rosary  around  their 
necks  as  a  part  or  complement  of  their  costume.     It  may  be  said  that 
there  is  not  a  house  or  family,  no  matter  how  poor,  which  does  not 
have  an  altar  or  domestic  oratory.     Among  the  Filipino  people  there 


Hosted  by 


Google 


110  REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

may  be  careless,  vicious  Christians,  and  those  scandalous  for  their  bad 
habits,  and  even  those  ignorant  of  the  essentials  of  their  religion;  but 
there  are  no  unbelievers  or  impious  ones,  unless  there  are  some,  in 
number  relatively  insignificant,  who  have  gone  to  foreign  countries 
and  become  vicious,  and  have  afterwards  returned  to  the  country;  and 
even  these  have  taken  good  care  not  to  show  it  until  now,  because  of 
a  certain  remnant  of  shame,  unless  among  irreligious  or  sectarian  com- 
panions. Finally,  the  three  orders,  confraternities,  pious  associations, 
and  old  and  new  devotions  have  always  had  in  the  Philippines  a  great 
number  of  inscribed,  and  even  faithful  and  fervent,  affiliated  members. 

The  Catholic  religion,  always  holy  and  sanctifjdng,  works  in  its 
subjects  who  embrace  it  according  to  the  natural  or  acquired  dispo- 
sition of  the  same.  So  that  the  defects  of  character  of  the  Indians, 
although  they  are  frequently  lessened,  thanks  to  the  religion  which 
they  profess,  hardly  disappear  wholly,  and  even  influence  the  private 
life  and  religious  character  of  the  natives.  Therefore,  because  they 
are  more  superficial  and  more  impressed  with  novelties  than  other 
races,  they  perhaps  might  be  less  constant  in  their  Catholic  practices, 
sentiments,  and  convictions,  and  they  would  more  readily  than  others 
feel  the  evil  influences  of  false  doctrines  and  worships  if  they  should 
experience  them.  They  are  prone  to  superstition,  on  account  of 
ancient  bad  habits,  on  account  of  the  proximity  and  intercourse  with 
those  still  infidels,  and  on  account  of  their  puerile  imagination  and 
their  natural  love  of  externals. 

This  we  understand  to  be,  in  broad  lines,  the  religious  character  of 
the  Indians  of  the  Philippines. 

Now  read  what  has  been  said  recently  on  this  same  subject  b}^  another 
eye-witness,  with  whom  we  agree  almost  entirely. 

Mr.  Peyton,  Protestant  bishop,  in  a  meeting  of  Protestant  bishops 
of  the  Episcopal  Church,  held  in  St.  Louis  last  October,  said,  speak- 
ing of  Catholicism  in  the  Philippines  : 

I  found  in  all  the  towns  a  magnificent  church.  I  attended  mass  several  times,  and 
the  churches  were  always  full  of  natives,  even  under  unfavorable  circumstances,  on 
account  of  the  military  occupation.  There  are  almost  no  seats  in  these  churches, 
the  services  lasting  from  an  hour  to  an  hour  and  a  half.  Never  in  my  life  have  I 
observed  more  evident  signs  of  deep  devotion  than  those  I  witnessed  there — the 
men  kneeling  or  prostrated  before  the  altar  and  the  women  on  their  knees  or  seated 
on  the  floor.  Nobody  left  the  church  during  the  services  nor  spoke  to  anyone. 
There  is  no  sectarian  spirit  there.  All  have  been  instructed  in  the  creed,  in  prayer, 
in  the  ten  commandments,  and  in  the  catechism.  All  have  been  baptized  in 
infancy.^  I  do  not  know  that  there  exists  in  the  world  a  people  as  pure,  as  moral, 
and  as  devout  as  the  Filipino  people. 

THIS   GRANTED,    WOULD    FREEDOM    OF   RELIGIONS    BE    ADVISABLE    IN   THE    PHILIPPINES? 

Therefore,  religion — and,  consequently,  morality — being  so  universal 
in  the  Philippines,  would  it  be  advisable  to  introduce  liberty  of  relig- 
ious worship  in  this  country  ?  If  by  freedom  of  religion  is  understood 
religious  tolerance  in  fact,  by  virtue  of  which  no  one  can  be  compelled 
to  profess  Catholicism,  or  be  persecuted  for  not  being  a  Catholic,  but 
each  individual  may  privately  profess  the  religion  which  suits  him 
best,  then  this  liberty  has  always  existed  in  the  Philippines;  and  no 
Filipino  or  foreigner  has  ever  been  forced  to  embrace  the  Catholic 

^It  must  be  understood  that  this  is  outside  of  living  missions,  in  more  or  less  ancient 
Christian  communities  and  towns. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPIIfE    00MMIS8I0N.  Ill 

religion.  But  if  by  liberty  of  religions  is  understood  the  granting 
to  all  religions— for  example,  the  worship  of  Confucius,  or  of  Moham- 
med— and  to  all  the  Protestant  sects  equal  rights  to  open  schools,  erect 
churches,  create  parishes,  have  processions  and  public  ceremonies, 
with  the  Catholic  Church,  we  believe  that  it  would  not  only  not  be  advis- 
able, but  it  would  be  a  lamentable  measure  for  any  government  which 
may  rule  the  destinies  of  the  Filipinos.  In  fact,  if  this  Government 
should  concede  this  liberty  of  religions,  it  will  make  itself  hateful  to 
6,500,000  of  Filipino  Catholics;  because,  although  said  Government 
may  not  profess  any  religion,  the  Filipino  people  would  hold  it 
responsible  for  all  the  consequences  of  this  measure,  and  so  it  could 
not  be  regarded  favorably  by  these  6,500,000  Catholics.  They  are 
fully  convinced  that  their  religion  is  the  only  true  one,  the  only  one 
by  which  man  can  be  saved;  and  if  any  government  should  try  to 
deprive  them  of  this  religion,  which  is  their  most  precious  jewel  and 
the  richest  inheritance  that  they  have  received  from  their  superiors, 
although  it  may  not  be  more  than  permitting  Protestant  or  heterodox 
propagandism  publicly  and  boldly,  then  they  could  not  help  complain- 
ing, and  disturbance  of  public  order  might  even  result  from  it,  with 
all  the  fury  and  all  the  disasters,  which,  as  is  well  known,  this  kind 
of  war  usually  entails. 

Two  serious  difficulties  may  oppose  the  rights  of  Catholicism  in  the 
Philippines.  The  first  is  the  Americans  who  are  now  governing  here, 
and  the  second  is  the  Filipinos  themselves.  The  Americans  enjoy  in 
America  the  most  complete  religious  liberty.  Why,  then,  should  they 
not  enjoy  the  same  liberty  on  moving  to  the  Philippines?  We  answer 
that  each  citizen  should  conform  to  the  laws  of  the  country  where  he 
lives.  The  Chinese  enjoyed  the  most  complete  liberty  to  erect  temples 
to  Buddha  or  to  Confucius;  but  for  three  centuries  they  have  not  had 
such  liberty  in  Manila.  On  the  other  hand,  no  Chinese  has  been 
obliged  to  become  a  Catholic;  and,  we  may  say  more,  no  Chinese  has 
needed  to  make  a  show  of  his  religion  in  order  to  trade,  become  rich, 
and  return  to  die  in  China.  The  same  may  be  said  of  Englishmen  and 
Americans.  If,  in  the  Philippines,  for  the  good  order  and  government 
of  6,500,000  Catholics,  besides  which  there  are  only  1,500,000  inhab- 
itants, idolaters  and  Mohammedans,  who  are  still  to  be  civilized,  it  is 
necessary  not  to  permit  nor  to  encourage  liberty  of  religions,  the 
government  which  rules  the  destinies  of  these  islands  should  legislate 
m  this  direction,  for  the  laws  should  be  adapted  to  the  necessities  of 
the  majority  of  the  citizens.  And  Americans  themselves  who  make 
their  residence  here  should  accommodate  themselves  to  this  law,  with- 
out any  temporal  or  spiritual  injury  resulting  to  them  from  it,  because, 
privately,  they  could  profess  the  religion  which  their  conscience  dic- 
tates to  them  to  be  the  true  one.  The  English  in  Malta  do  this,  where 
the  Catholic  religion  flourishes;  and,  although  the  island  is  very  small, 
there  are  more  than  2,000  Italian  Catholic  priests  there,  better  satis- 
fied and  content  to  live  under  the  English  Government  than  under  the 
Italian  Government. 

The  other  difficulty  against  the  Catholicism  of  the  Filipinos  arises 
from  the  Filipino  rebels  themselves,  who  in  their  congress  at  Malolos 
proclaimed  liberty  of  religions  and  separation  of  church  and  state. 
Why,  then,  should  not  this  religious  liberty  be  granted  to  the  Fili- 
pinos if  they  themselves  demand  it?  We  answer  that  they  also  ask 
for  independence.     Will  the  Americans,  therefore,  give  it  to  them? 


Hosted  by 


Google 


112  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

The  majority  of  the  Philippine  insurgents  were  addicted  to  Masonry. 
They  had  agreed  a  long  time  ago  to  work  for  the  expulsion  of  the 
friars,  and  drunken  with  the  wine  of  liberty  they  asked  for  all  liberties, 
including  religious  freedom.  These  revolutionists,  who  have  abjured 
Catholicism,  how  many  are  they?  They  do  not  exceed  two  dozen. 
For  them  the  law  of  religious  liberty  is  unnecessary,  because  they  do 
not  profess  any.  The  Filipino  people,  that  is  to  say,  the  6,500,000 
Catholics  inscribed  in  the  parochial  registers — these  do  not  ask  for  nor 
want  religious  liberty,  nor  the  separation  of  the  church  and  state; 
these  are  content  with  their  Catholicism,  and  they  do  not  desire  any- 
thing more,  nor  would  they  suffer  their  government  to  overthrow  the 
Catholic  unity. 

This  we  have  heard  from  qualified  and  accredited  defenders  of  Phil- 
ippine independence,  who  even  deny  that  the  Malolos  platform  was 
the  true  expression  of  the  will  of  that  congress;  that  on  the  contrary 
it  w  as  far  from  being  the  total  and  proper  representation  of  the  Fili- 
pino people.  This  people  have  a  horror  of  heresies  and  of  all  reli- 
gious disturbances.  W  hoever  should  introduce  them  would  commit  an 
offense.  Therefore  it  is  demonstrated  that  religious  liberty  in  the 
Philippines  is  not  only  not  advisable  but  adverse  to  the  public  peace. 

In  conclusion,  if  it  be  said  that  as  regards  the  state  of  religion  in 
the  Philippines  there  are  points  of  public  interest  which  demand  some 
reform,  we  shall  not  deny  it;  but  the  church  has  the  desire  and  the 
means  to  remedy  these  supposed  or  recognized  evils.  If  by  chance 
she  does  not  remedy  them  because  she  is  ignorant  of  them,  then  any- 
one interested  may  make  them  known,  and  the  government  of  the 
country  sooner  than  anybody  else.  On  the  other  hand,  this  subject 
has  nothing  to  do  with  religious  liberty. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XI. 


CHURCH  OF  SAN  SEBASTIAN  (MANILA). 


r   C— VOL    4—01 11 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


M 


^^^^H::T':i^  i 

P«»              ] 

Br  IP 

■HH^H^H^Hpi      i^«^HWMiiir«^ 

r^^:|p 

Timi^^  '^M^i-(4 

---if- ; 

Pi 

^  .^^^^  3f«  .•^ttiiiK/^ 

^ 

: ,,  ^,  1 ,  i           1 

|»:||||     -Mgmm 

|*5^'.  . 

5  'W 

'  .     1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PAPER    NO.    XXI. 


C  L  1  M  A  T  O  L  O  G  Y 


CLIMATE  AND  MKTEOROLOGICAL  FEATURES. 


ii;^ 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PROLOGUE. 


The  state  of  the  weather  and  the  different  changes  which  it  under- 
goes, due  to  the  annual,  daily,  and  hourly  variations  of  the  different 
meteorological  elements  (that  is  to  say,  to  the  temperature,  atmos- 
pheric pressure,  nebulosity,  water 'precipitations,  and  the  direction 
and  force  of  the  winds,  etc.)  constitute  the  climate  of  a  country. 

The  importance  and  utility  of  a  perfect  climatic  knowledge  are  well- 
known  to  all,  as  well  as  the  methods  generally  adopted  by  meteorolo- 
gists to  obtain  with  ease  most  satisfactory  results  in  this  branch  of 
meteorology.  But  referring  in  particular  to  the  climate  of  these 
islands,  it  is  to  be  said  that  the  incidents  which  have  developed  in  the 
last  few  years  have  excited  most  powerfully  the  anxiety  of  foreign 
nations,  and  especially  of  the  United  States,  to  more  fully  learn  their 
climatic  conditions,  as  is  proved  by  the  many  requests  made  of  this 
observatory,  and  which  we  have  tried  to  acknowledge  with  the  most 
copious  meteorological  data— data  which  at  all  times  has  been  most 
acceptable,  and  is  particularly  so  at  the  present  time. 

On  this  account  the  idea  occurred  to  us  to  write  a  memoir  or  treatise 
on  the  '^Climatology  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago."  We  could  not 
help  acknowledging  its  importance  and  the  great  opportuneness  of  the 
work,  the  more  so  since  Spanish  rule  having  ceased  in  these  islands,  it 
would  serve  to  prove  in  the  most  evident  manner  the  beneficial  results 
obtained  in  this  observatory  after  so  many  years  of  hard  work,  thanks 
to  the  protection  given  it  by  the  Government  of  Spain,  which  in  1884 
declared  it  an  official  institution  of  the  State. 

We  could  not  help  but  see  the  grave  obstacles  that  would  be  encoun- 
tered m  the  consummation  of  this  difficult  task,  which  we  had  to  com- 
plete in  a  limited  period  of  time.  Yet  the  motives  which  encouraged 
us  in  our  work  were  so  great  and  powerful  that  we  decided,  with  the 
help  of  God,  to  undertake  it,  desirous  of  obtaining  the  best  possible 
results  from  whatever  data  and  observations  were  at  our  command. 
We  have  to  acknowledge,  however,  that  we  had  to  do  without  many 
of  them,  and  they  may  serve  later  for  a  more  complete  work  on  this 
subject. 

The  present  work  is  divided  into  nine  chapters.  After  a  brief  his- 
torical synopsis  of  the  meteorological  department  of  this  observatory 
we  give  proper  attention  to  atmospheric  pressure,  the  temperature  of 
the  air,  hygrometry,  and  aqueous  precipitation,  all  of  which  comprise 
the  first  five  chapters.  We  give  the  next  two  chapters  to  the  discus- 
sion of  the  winds  and  atmospheric  currents.  In  the  eighth  chapter 
we  dwell  on  the  most  prominent  or  salient  points  of  cyclones  from  the 
Far  East,  and  we  close  the  ninth  chapter  with  some  details  of  the  hurri- 
canes in  Manila  in  recent  years. 


115 


Hosted  by 


Google 


116  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

In  addition  to  a  large  nuniber  of  illustrations  112  tables  accompany 
this  treatise,  in  the  compilation  of  which  we  have  relied  on  skillful 
calculators  attached  to  the  observatory,  all  of  whom,  and  especially 
Mr.  Alejandro  Amareta  and  Mr.  Leopoldo  Areopagita,  are  entitled  to 
our  gratitude  for  their  activity  and  earnestness  in  helping  us  with  the 
many  calculations  in  the  tables  mentioned. 

We  hope  that  our  humble  work,  though  deficient  and  incomplete, 
will  be  well  received  by  all  those  accustomed  to  the  study  of  meteorol- 
ogy, not  on  account  of  the  manner  in  which  it  has  been  done,  but  on 
account  of  the  great  importance  the  work  itself  embodies. 

Observatory  of  Manila,  December  8^  1899. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CLIMATOLOGY. 


CHAPTER  I. 

BRIEF  HISTORICAT^  ACCOITIS^T   OF   THE  MFTEORO LOGICAL 
DEPARTMElSrT,  MAIS^ILA  OBSERVATORY,  1865-1899. 

I.— FOUNDATION   AND   EARLY   PROGRESS   OF  THE   METEOROLOGICAL 
DEPARTMENT,  1865-1884. 

FOUNDATION. 

The  history  of  the  meteorological  department  of  the  Manila  Observ- 
atory dates  from  the  foundation  of  the  said  observatory  in  1865;  for 
the  only  object  which  its  founders  had  in  the  beginning,  and  especially 
Father  Faura,  was  to  devote  himself  to  the  study  of  meteorology,  and 
to  try  to  discover  the  laws  governing  the  typhoons  which  so  frequently 
visit  these  islands,  in  order  to  be  able  to  give  notice  of  them  several 
days  in  advance,  and  prevent  as  much  as  possible  their  disastrous 
effects.  The  other  departments — seismic,  magnetic,  and  astronomic, 
which  this  observatory  also  now  embraces  and  which  are  endowed  with 
good  collections  of  direct  and  registering  apparatus — were  created 
many  years  after.  Their  creation  is  due  to  the  great  development  which 
the  establishment  was  acquiring,  patronized,  as  it  was,  first  by  private 
citizens,  mainly  mariners  and  merchants,  residents  of  these  islands, 
and  afterwards  by  the  Spanish  Government  itself,  which  gave  it  an 
official  character.  Thus  it  was  provided  with  an  adequate  faculty  and 
sufficient  means  to  extend  its  sphere  of  action  and  place  itself  on  the 
level  of  the  best  observatories  in  the  Far  East. 

FIRST    INSTRUMENTS    AND    PUBLICATIONS. 

From  1865  to  1869,  Father  Faura  did  not  have  other  means  than  a 
few  absolutely  necessary  instruments  for  the  observation  of  the  prin- 
cipal meteorologic  elements;  instruments  which  were  put  at  his  dis- 
posal by  the  Ataneo  Municipal,  a  school  carried  on  by  the  fathers  of 
the  Society  of  Jesus,  with  which  the  observatory  was  connected  until 
shortly  after  it  was  declared  official. 

Notwithstanding,  in  these  first  five  years,  they  were  able  to  publish 
a  monthly  sheet,  and  another  annual  report  illustrated  with  various 
curves  and  lithographic  figures,  in  which  the  results  obtained  in  the 
observations  of  each  month  were  given  to  the  public,  the  measure- 
ments, monthly  and  annual,  of  atmospheric  pressure,  temperature,  etc., 
and  a  short  sketch  of  the  principal  atmospheric  perturbations  that 
occurred  during  the  year. 

117 


Hosted  by 


Google 


118  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

ACQUISITION     OF    NEW   METEOROLOGICAL     APPAKATU8 — MONTHLY 

BULLETIN. 

In  1870,  the  observatory,  having  acquired  the  universal  meteoro- 
graph of  Father  Secchi,  which  gave  its  inventor  such  fame  in  the  Expo- 
osition  of  Paris  in  1867,  began  to  publish  regularly  a  monthly  bulletin, 
which  has  been  gradually  perfected  as  the  best  means  for  carrying  on 
these  works,  undertaken  solely  for  the  glory  of  God,  the  love  of  science, 
and  the  good  of  humanity.  In  addition  to  the  large  meteorograph, 
and  at  the  expense  of  several  private  citizens,  who  regarded  the  work 
of  the  Jesuit  Fathers  with  enthusiasm,  this  observatory  obtained 
several  other  apparatus  of  direct  observation,  all  of  which  had  been 
previously  corrected  and  compared  with  the  normal  instruments  of  the 
celebrated  observatory  of  Montsouris. 

FIRST   ANNOUNCEMENTS   OF   TYPHOONS   IN    THE    PHILIPPINES. 

After  some  years  of  absence,  during  which  various  fathers,  who  were 
at  the  same  time  professors  of  the  Ataneo  Municipal,  were  at  the  head 
of  the  observatory,  Father  Faura  returned  to  these  islands  as  enthusi- 
astic as  ever  for  meteorology,  and  more  so  now  that  he  had  had  an 
opportunity  to  visit  the  principal  observatories  of  Europe.  With  the 
experience  he  had  acquired  during  the  first  years  of  his  residence  in 
the  Philippines  he  already  saw  not  far  distant  the  day  when  he  could 
give  notice  in  advance  of  the  typhoons,  and  thus  render  incalculable 
service  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  these  islands,  and  especially  to  mari- 
time and  commercial  companies  who,  on  different  occasions,  have  given 
unequivocal  proof  of  their  gratitude. 

In  effect,  Father  Faura  returned  to  Manila  in  August,  1878,  and  the 
following  year  he  had  the  honor  of  being  the  first  person  in  the  Far 
East  to  predict  the  existence  and  duration  and  determine  the  probable 
course  of  the  cyclones— known  in  the  China  Sea  by  the  name  of 
typhoons,  and  by  that  of  baguios  in  the  Philippines.  The  first  announce- 
ment of  a  typhoon  was  given  by  him  the  7th  of  July,  1879,  indicating 
that  its  vortex  would  pass  through  the  provinces  of  northern  Luzon. 
The  sad  news  of  the  destruction  caused  by  the  passage  of  the  cyclone 
in  the  provinces  of  Isabela  and  Cagayan  de  Luzon  soon  confirmed  the 
truth  of  that  announcement. 

The  18th  of  November  of  the  same  year  Father  Faura  announced  a 
second  cyclone,  this  one  to  be  feared  in  Manila  itself.  The  alarm 
caused  by  such  a  prediction  is  indescribable.  The  captain  of  the  port, 
Don  Alejandro  de  Churruca,  gave  orders  that  no  ship  should  leave  port. 
The  governor-general  sent  a  messenger  to  Father  Faura  begging  him 
to  tell  him  what  he  had  observed,  which  the  father  answered  by  simply 
confirming  his  announcement  and  adding  that  he  thought  it  would  be 
advisable  to  take  precautions.  Though  there  were  those  who  contra- 
dicted these  predictions,  proper  precautions  were  nevertheless  taken, 
and,  thanks  to  this,  the  damages  were  greatly  lessened.  The  storm 
broke  with  force  in  the  capital  at  midday,  November  20.  In  the 
ports  where  for  lack  of  telegraphic  communication  the  notices  could 
not  arrive  in  time,  the  destructive  effects  of  the  hurricane  were  very 
great,  42  ships  being  lost  in  South  Luzon  and  many  persons  killed. 

We  have  stopped  to  give  an  a,ccount  of  this  fact,  because  the  accuracy 
of  Father  Faura  in  these  first  storm  predictions  was  the  chief  reason 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOIsr.  119 

why  from  that  time  on  the  aimouncements  from  this  observatory  have 
been  regarded  as  worthy  of  consideration  and  have  been  held  in  great 
esteem. 

FIRST  NOTICES  OF  TYPHOONS  SENT  TO  HONGKONG  BY  THE  MANILA 
OBSERVATORY — NEW  PUBLICATIONS — THE  BAROMETER  OF  FATHER 
FAURA. 

In  the  year  1880,  as  soon  as  the  cable  connected  these  islands  with 
the  neighboring  colony  of  Hongkong,  the  requests  from  there  by 
mariners  and  merchants  for  notices  of  typhoons  from  the  observatory 
of  Manila  were  so  many  that  the  government  of  the  Philippines  was 
obliged  to  accede  to  the  petitions.  Thus  Father  Faura  soon  saw  with 
satisfaction  that  the  fruit  of  his  labors  was  being  extended  outside  the 
archipelago.  Stimulated  by  these  results,  he  not  only  wrote  several 
articles  on  storms,  tracing  the  course  of  their  trajectories,  but  in  1881 
he  published  the  well-known  pamphlet  entitled  Precursory  Storm 
Signals  in  the  Philippines.  He  went  on  perfecting  his  barometer,  now 
so  celebrated  and  popular,  intended  to  foretell  the  weather  in  the  Phil- 
ippines. In  1886  he  offered  it  to  the  public  and  it  has  always  been 
considered  since  that  time  by  all  who  navigate  these  seas  as  the  best 
guaranty  of  their  safety. 

II.— OFFICIAL   APPOINTMENT    AND    SUBSEQUENT    DEVELOPMENT    OF 
THE  METEOROLOGICAL  DEPARTMENT,  1884-1899. 

OFFICIAL   APPOINTMENT. 

The  happy  announcements  of  Father  Faura  suggested  to  many 
private  citizens,  to  the  press,  and  finally  to  the  authorities  of  Manila 
the  idea  that  the  observatory  of  the  Ateneo  Municipal,  which  con- 
tinued working  as  a  private  meteorological  station,  should  be  declared 
official  and  subsidized  by  the  State  and  converted  into  a  central  station 
for  a  network  of  secondary  stations,  which  should  constitute  the  most 
complete  meteorological  service  possible.  To  this  end  a  committee 
was  formed  which,  after  several  sessions  (the  minutes  of  which  are 
in  the  archives  of  this  observatory),  decided  to  organize  a  meteoro- 
logical service  in  all  the  archipelago,  dependent  in  all  respects  on  the 
observatory  of  the  Ateneo  Municipal,  which  in  future  should  be  called 
the  Meteorological  Observatory  of  Manila,  and  should  be  in  charge  of 
its  first  founders,  the  fathers  of  the  Society  of  Jesus. 

With  this  object  a  memorial  was  presented  to  His  Majesty's  Gov- 
ernment in  Madrid,  which  issued,  on  the  28th  of  April,  1884,  a  royal 
order  by  which  the  observatory  was  declared  an  official  State  institu- 
tion, supported  by  it,  and  the  meteorological  service  of  the  island  of 
Luzon  was  created,  the  way  being  left  open  to  extend  it  to  the  other 
islands  when,  in  the  course  of  time,  they  should  be  united  by  cable  to 
the  capital  of  the  archipelago. 

REMOVAL   OF   THE    OBSERVATORY    TO   THE   NEW  BUILDING   IT   NOW 

OCCUPIES. 

With  this  a  new  era  for  the  Manila  observatory  began,  which  two 
years  later  was  transferred  to  the  magnificent  building,  surrounded 
with  spacious  gardens,  which  it  now  occupies,  and  where  the  different 


Hosted  by 


Google 


120  REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPIJSTE    COMMISSION. 

departments  we  mentioned  in  the  beginning  were  soon  organized. 
Limiting  ourselves  to  the  meteorological  department,  we  shall  briefly 
review  here  what  has  been  accomplished  in  it  from  that  time  until  the 
present  year,  1899. 

CREATION  OF  THE  METEOROLOGICAL  SERVICE  OF  LUZON. 

The  meteorological  service  granted  by  the  Government  of  His 
Majesty  was  at  once  established  in  Luzon,  fourteen  substations  being 
created,  conveniently  located  in  the  center  and  on  the  eastern  and 
western  coasts  of  the  island.  All  of  them  were  supplied  with  a  good 
set  of  meteorological  apparatus  and  with  ''regulations  and  practical 
instruction,"  which  were  dictated  by  the  director  of  the  observatory 
for  their  good  use  and  management.  The  daily  observations  taken  in 
each  one  of  these  stations  began  to  be  published  in  the  monthly  bulle- 
tin of  the  observatory  in  the  year  1885. 

MUTUAL  EXCHANGE  OF  OBSERVATIONS  BETWEEN  MANILA  ARD  JAPAN. 
ANNOUNCEMENTS  OF  TYPHOONS  SENT  TO  THAT  EMPIRE  FROM  THE 
OBSERVATORY   OF   MANILA. 

In  1890,  at  the  instance  of  his  excellency  the  minister  of  foreign 
affairs  of  the  Japanese  Empire,  a  mutual  exchange  of  observations 
was  established  between  our  observatory  and  the  Central  Observa- 
tory of  Tokyo,  to  which  were  also  sent  after  that  time  announcements 
of  typhoons  which,  as  we  have  already  said,  were  sent  to  the  coast  of 
China  from  the  year  1880. 

THE   OBSERVATORY   TAKES  PART  IN  THE  METEOROLOGICAL  CONGRESS    OF 
THE    CHICAGO    EXPOSITION. 

At  the  end  of  1892  Father  Miguel  Saderra  Mata,  who  was  then 
director  of  the  observatory  of  Manila,  was  officially  invited  to  take 
part  in  the  meteorological  congress  of  the  Chicago  Exposition.  This 
invitation  being  accepted,  Fathers  Faura  and  Algue  were  commis- 
sioned for  this  purpose  at  the  expense  and  in  representation  of  the 
Government  of  Spain.  On  their  return  from  their  scientific  mission 
they  published  in  Spanish,  in  proof  of  their  gratitude  to  the  Spanish 
nation,  which  they  had  had  the  honor  of  representing  in  that  congress, 
an  interesting  memorial  entitled  Meteorology  in  the  Columbian  Expo- 
sition of  Chicago.  Father  Miguel  Saderra,  who,  on  account  of  his 
office,  could  not  attend  the  congress  personally,  contributed,  however, 
a  memorial  on  Whirlwinds  in  the  Philippines. 

THE   OBSERVATORY   COOPERATED   IN   THE    INTERNATIONAL   WORK   OF 

MEASUREMENT   OF    CLOUDS,    1896-97. 

Under  date  of  May  6,  1895,  an  official  communication  was  received 
from  Mr.  Robert  H.  Scott,  secretary  of  the  international  meteorological 
committee,  inviting  the  director  of  this  observatory  to  cooperate  in 
the  international  work  of  measuring  clouds  for  a  period  of  one  whole 
year,  beginning  May  1,  1896.^ 

^  Later  the  period  of  observation  was  prolonged  till  August  1,  1897. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


P   C~TOL   4—01 -12 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  121 

The  invitation  was  accepted,  and  in  consequence  the  observatory  of 
Manila  is  the  only  one  in  the  Far  East  which  can  be  counted  amons- 
the  sixteen  central  observatories  of  different  nations  which  took  part 
in  a  scientific  enterprise  of  such  interest  for  the  study  of  meteorology 

Without  loss  of  time  Mr.  O.  Gunther  was  ordered  to  construct  two 
phototheodohtes  exactly  like  those  constructed  by  the  same  man  for 
the  Centra]  Observatory  of  Germany,  Potsdam,  which  could  not  pos- 
sibly reach  Manila  before  the  end  of  May,  1:896. 

The  photographic  observations  began  with  regularity  on  the  1st  of 
eJune  of  said  year,  under  the  direction  of  Father  Jose  Algue,  then  sub- 
director  and  now  director  of  the  observatory,  who  published  last  year 
the  result  of  his  investigations  in  a  valuable  work  which  has  for  its 
title  ^  The  Clouds  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago.  Collaboration  of 
the  international  W  ork  of  Cloud  Measurement.  eXune  1, 1896  to  Julv 
31,  1897."^  .  '  9  J 

PUBLICATION   OF   THE   WORK    ''bAGUIOS,"    OR   PHILIPPINE    CYCLONES. 
FATHER   ALGUE's   BAROCYCLONOMETER. 

In  the  year  1897  the  same  Father  Algue  published  the  well-written 
work  '  Baguios,"  or  ''Philippine  Cyclones,"  so  coveted  by  mariners, 
and  which  is  at  present  being  translated  into  several  languages.  At  the 
same  time  he  offered  to  the  public  his  ''barocyclonometer,"  a  perfec- 
tion of  the  barometer  of  Father  Faura,  intended  to  foretell  typhoons 
not  only  m  the  Philippines,  but  in  all  the  extreme  Orient.  ' 

THE   METEOROLOGIC   SERVICE    OF   THE    OBSERVATORY    OF   MANILA 
VINDICATED   AND   REHABILITATED    IN    1899. 

The  announcements  of  typhoons  of  the  Manila  observatory  have 
always  been  held  m  great  esteem,  not  only  in  the  time  of  the  never-to- 
be-iorgotten  Father  Faura,  but  also  up  to  the  present  time,  as  innu- 
merable facts  confirm  it.  We  shall  only  cite  one,  which  is  worth  a 
thousand. 

At  the  end  of  1898  the  director  of  the  British  meteorological  service 
at  llongkong,  taking  advantage  of  the  favorable  opportunity  offered 
by  the  serious  circumstances  through  which  these  islands  were  passing 
addi^ssed  himself  to  the  Agricultural  Department  of  the  Government 
ot  the  United  States  of  America  in  terms  very  unfavorable  to  the 
directors  of  the  Manila  observatory,  calling  the  attention  of  said  Gov- 
ernment especially  to  the  scandalous  alarm  which,  according  to  him 
the.  alarming  predictions  of  typhoons  sent  out  by  this  observatory  and 
published  m  the  newspapers  of  the  neighboring  colon v  frequently 
caused.     The  immediate  effect  of  this  accusation  was  the'  order  given 

1  Mr  H.  H  Hildebrandsson  said  of  it,  in  a  letter  written  to  Father  Jos^  Aleu^ 
dated  June  19,  1899  for  the  purpose  of  thanking  him  for  a  copy  which  he  had  just 
received:  Your  pubhcation  regarding  cloud  observations  in  the  period  from  1896  to 
J»y/ 18  the  first  that  has  appeared  up  to  date  complete.  I  beg  you  to  send  me 
anotner  copy  that  I  may  present  to  the  international  committee,  which  is  to  meet  in 
bt  Petersburg  on  the  2d  of  next  September. " 

^  In  another  later  letter,  of  September  22,  the  same  Mr.  Hildebrandsson  added: 
ocrl  pubhcation  on  clouds  was  received  with  admiration  and  the  liveliest  enthusi- 
asm on  the  part  of  all  the  members  of  the  international  commission  assembled  in  St 
ret^rsburg,  especially  taking  into  account  the  stupendous  difficulties  in  the  midst  of 
which  you  carried  out  a  work  of  such  importance. " 


Hosted  by 


Google 


122  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOIST. 

by  the  Secretary  of  War  of  the  United  States  that  from  that  time 
all  notices  of  typhoons  sent  by  telegraph  from  Manila  to  points  outside 
of  the  Philippine  Archipelago  should  be  suspended. 

The  indignation  which  this  act  caused  in  the  press  of  Manila  and 
Hongkong,  in  marine  circles  and  mercantile  communities,  and  in  gen- 
eral in  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  Far  East,  the  curious  reader  may  see 
in  a  collection  of  documents  entitled  ''The  meteorological  service  of 
the  Manila  observatory  vindicated  and  rehabilitated,"  which  was  pub- 
lished in  Manila  about  the  njiddle  of  the  present  year  (1899). 

The  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  Hongkong  protested  vigorously 
before  the  colonial  government  against  the  suspension  of  the  announce- 
ments of  typhoons  from  Manila,  so  contrary  to  the  maritime  and  com- 
mercial interests  of  the  Far  East,  in  view  of  which  the  government  of 
Hongkong  addressed  an  official  communication  to  the  military  governor 
of  the  Philippine  Islands  requesting  the  revocation  of  the  order  pro- 
hibiting the  announcements  of  typhoons,  as  the  director  of  the  Hong- 
kong observatory  had  not  been  authorized  in  any  way  for  the  request 
made  on  his  own  responsibility  to  the  Secretary  of  Agriculture  of  the 
United  States,  against  the  will  of  his  own  government  and  contrary  to 
the  welfare  of  the  colony. 

The  governor-general  of  the  Philippines  granted  the  petition  of 
the  colonial  governor  of  Hongkong,  and  under  date  of  April  3  the 
director  of  this  observatory  received  an  official  communication  in 
which  said  order  was  revoked  and  he  was  told  to  continue  sending 
out  from  the  islands  his  notices  of  typhoons  which  were  so  much 
desired  in  Hongkong. 

In  this  way,  thanks  to  the  unanimous  testimony  of  public  opinion 
and  especially  to  the  attitude  taken  by  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  of 
Hongkong,  the  meteorological  department  of  the  Manila  observatory 
was  reinstated  in  the  esteem  of  the  Government  of  the  United  States, 
which  has  begun  to  support  this  institution,  recognizing  the  same 
official  character  which  the  Spanish  Government  gave  it  in  1884. 

III.— APPARATUS    OF   THE   METEOROLOGICAL   DEPARTMENT   OF   THE 
MANILA   OBSERVATORY. 

It  is  not  our  intention,  nor  is  it  proper  in  this  place,  to  describe  any 
of  the  valuable  instruments  which  the  meteorological  department  of 
this  observatory  now  has.  We  suppose  that  they  are  known  to  our 
readers,  and  we  shall  only  give  here  a  list  or  catalogue  of  the  same,  so 
that  an  exact  idea  may  be  had  of  how  well  equipped  and  furnished  is 
this  section,  which  on  account  of  its  nature  is  the  first  and  most 
important  one  of  the  observatory. 

APPARATUS  OF  DIRECT  OBSERVATION. 

Two  large  standard  barometers,  one  of  the  Fortin  system,  made  by 
Casella;  the  other  with  a  fixed  bulb  and  movable  scale,  made  by 
Negretti  &  Zambra.  Both  were  tested  in  the  observatory  of  Kew. 
The  tube  measures  17.5  mm.  interior  diameter. 

Other  mercurial  barometers,  Fortin  and  Tormelot,  for  ordinary  use. 
Several  aneroid  barometers  of  Father  Faura  and  barocyclonometers  of 
Father  Algue. 

One  standard  thermometer,  made  in  France,  with  a  scale  divided  into 
tenths  of  a  degree. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  123 

Another  thermometer,  also  standard,  Kuchler. 

Standard    thermometers,   maximum    and    minimum,    from    Fuess 
(Berlin). 

Various  other  simple  maximum  and  minimum  thermometers  from 
Negretti  &  Zambra. 

One  standard  Fuess  psychrometer. 

One  hygrometer  of  condensation,  Regnault. 

One  photopolarimeter,  M.  A.  Cornu. 

One  thermohygroscope  and  weather  telegraph  (Lambrecht)  to 
announce  storms  and  changes  of  weather. 

One  psychrometrograph  of  aspiration,  Lambrecht. 

One  Lambrecht  polymeter  to  observe  the  temperature,  humidity, 
and  tension  of  vapor. 

Several  Robinson  anemometers  and  weathercocks. 

Two  traveling  anemometers,  Fuqss  and  lEiichard. 

One  Weld  anemometer. 

One  nephoscope  of  Father  Cecchi. 

Two  Fineman  nephoscopes. 

Two  French  photogrameters  made  by  Charles  Echassoux,  machinist 
of  Teisserene  de  Bort,  secretary  of  the  Central  Meteorological  Bureau 
of  France;  and  two  others,  German,  made  by  D.  Gunther,  of  Bruns- 
wick, exactly  like  those  made  by  him  for  the  Central  Observatory  of 
Germany  at  Potsdam.  These  instruments  were  obtained  by  the 
Observatory  of  Manila  to  contribute  to  the  great  international  under- 
taking of  the  determination  of  the  general  movements  of  the  atmos- 
phere in  all  the  globe,  taking  as  a  basis  the  exact  measurements  of  the 
height,  velocity,  and  direction  of  the  clouds. 

Two  pluviometers,  Symonds  and  Grosley,  and  others  of  different 
systems. 

Several  Piche  vaporimeters. 

One  ozonometer  of  James  Clarke. 

One  actinometer  of  Arago. 

One  hygienic-meteorologic  observatory. 

A  shelter  for  the  thermometers  and  hygrometers  (Montsouris  system). 

A  shelter  for  the  thermometers  and  hygrometers  (Fuess  system). 

Aspirating  pump  to  compare  aneroids. 

REGISTERING   APPARATUS. 

Father  Cecchi's  universal  meteorograph,  which  has  been  in  use  hi 
the  observatory  of  Manila  since  1869. 

One  barograph,  Sprung-Fuess. 

Several  Richard  barographs,  of  large  size,  type  adopted  for  the  sec- 
ondary stations  established  in  Luzon. 

Several  thermographs,  Richard. 

Two  Richard  terrestrial  thermographs. 

Several  Richard  psychrographs. 

One  Richard  hygrometrograph. 

One  Richard  anemoscope-anemograph,  which  transmits  electrically 
the  velocity  of  the  wind  and  mechanically  its  direction. 

One  Beckley  anemograph,  made  by  Negretti  &>  Zambra. 

One  Garrigon-La^range  ayno-anemograph. 

One  Richard  pluviograph. 

One  Casella  piuviograpn. 
^     One  Whipple-Casella  universal  heliograph. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


124  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILltPIJSTE    COMMISSION. 

One  Richard  heliograph. 

One  Thompson  electrometer,  modified  by  M.  Mascart,  with  photo- 
graphic register  in  order  to  observe  atmospheric  electricity. 
Two  stations  in  the  open  air  with  registering  apparatus. 

INSTALLATION    OF    THESE    APPARATUS. 

Before  concluding  this  paragraph  we  shall  say  a  few  words  about 
the  installation  of  these  instruments  and  the  observations  made  daily 
in  our  department.  There  are  three  buildings  built  in  the  same 
inclosure  for  the  uses  of  the  observatory — the  main  one,  partly  occu- 
pied by  the  Superior  Normal  School  for  Teachers,  and  two  others 
devoted  exclusively  to  the  magnetic  and  astronomical  sections.  The 
meteorological  apparatus  that  do  not  require  to  be  in  the  open  air  are 
distributed  in  two  large  rooms  in  the  main  building.  On  the  roof  of 
the  right  tower  of  the  same  edifice,  about  18  meters  above  sea  level, 
we  have  suitably  placed  the  apparatus  for  the  open  air  and  for  the 
shade.  For  the  latter  we  make  use  of  ordinary  shelters  of  double 
blinds,  a  system  of  covering  which,  considering  the  locality  where 
they  are  placed,  has  given  us  better  results  than  the  double  covering 
used  in  the  observatories  of  Montsouris  and  of  the  park  of  San  Mauro. 
Notwithstanding,  at  a  short  distance  from  the  ground  and  in  the  park 
there  has  also  been  built  a  shelter  agreeing  in  all  respects  with  that 
used  in  the  park  of  San  Mauro  in  Paris,  but  the  observations  made  in 
it  have  up  to  the  present  time  been  very  few,  so  that  in  studying  the 
climate  of  Manila  we  can  only  make  use  of  those  taken  in  the  plant 
above  mentioned. 

SERIES  OF   METEOROLOGICAL  OBSERVATIONS  MADE  IN  THE  OBSERVATORY 

FROM  1865  TO  1899. 

From  1865  to  1880  only  six  daily  observations  were  taken.  In  1880 
they  began  taking  hourly  observations  from  5  in  the  morning  until  11 
at  night,  and  from  1883  to  the  present  time  they  have  also  been  mak- 
ing hourly  observations  during  the  night.  At  first  these  observations 
were  made  each  hour  with  the  direct  apparatus,  but  at  present,  when 
the  observatory  is  well  provided  with  registering  apparatus  which  is 
perfectly  accurate,  they  take  from  them  the  hourly  data  during  the 
night,  and  continue  taking  direct  observations  during  the  day  from 
5  a.  m.  to  9  p.  m.  They  began  publishing  the  hourly  observations  in 
the  monthl}^  bulletin  in  1890. 

IV.— SERVICES  WHICH  THE  METEOROLOGICAL  DEPARTMENT  OF  THE 
MANILA  OBSERVATORY  RENDERS  TO  THE  PUBLIC,  AND  ESPE- 
CIALLY TO  MARINERS. 

ORDINARY  REPORTS  OE  WEATHER,  MAXIMUM  AND  MINIMUM  TEMPERA- 
TURE OF  EACH  DAY,  DAILY  TELEGRAMS  OF  OBSERVATIONS  TO  THE 
CAPTAIN  OF  THE  PORT  AND  THE  CHIEFS  OF  THE  SQUADRON  AND 
TO   THE    COASTS   OF   CHINA   AND   JAPAN. 

In  the  meteorological  department  of  the  Central  Observatory  of 
Manila,  besides  the  constant  and  assiduous  work  of  the  direct  obser- 
vations which  are  made  hour  after  hour,  of  the  mean  values  deducted 
from  these  observations,  and  which  are  published  in  the  monthly  bul- 
letin, of  the  studies  of  the  state  of  the  atmosphere  and  atmospheric 
perturbations,  which  may  be  seen  in  the  same  bulletin,  etc.,  even  in 


Hosted  by 


Google 


View  IV. 


DEPARTMENT  OF  SEISMOLOGY  AND  TOWER  OF  METEOROLOGICAL  APPARATUS. 

Manila  Observatory. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    OOMMISSIOlNr.  125 

normal  weather  important  services  are  rendered  to  the  public,  which 
it  would  not  be  fair  to  pass  by  in  silence. 

There  are  received  daily  the  meteorological  registries  from  the 
coasts  of  China  and  eJapan  and  from  the  secondary  stations  of  Luzon 
(when  this  meteorological  service  of  the  island  is  working  regularly, 
as  was  the  case  before  the  present  state  of  things).  Having  studied 
all  these  observations  carefully,  the  report  of  the  probable  weather 
during  the  next  twenty-four  hours  is  given;  a  report  which  is  pub- 
lished in  the  newspapers  of  the  capital  and  transmitted  telegraphically 
to  the  captain  of  the  port  of  Manila,  to  the  chiefs  of  the  squadron 
and  of  the  naval  station  at  Cavite.  Besides,  arid  also  daily,  the  maxi- 
mum and  minimum  temperature  for  each  day  is  sent  to  the  news- 
papers. To  the  captain  of  the  port  of  Manila,  as  well  as  to  the  above- 
mentioned  chiefs,  there  is  a  report  made  by  telegraph  twice  a  day — 
that  is,  at  10  a.  m.  and  4  p.  m. — of  the  observations  made  in  the 
observatory  of  atmospheric  pressure,  temperature,  direction  and  force 
of  the  wind,  and  state  of  the  weather.  Likewise,  at  10  a.  m.  and  4  p.  m. 
the  same  observations  are  transmitted  to  the  most  important  stations 
on  the  coasts  of  China  and  Japan. 

EXTRAORDINARY  REPORTS,  ANNOUNCEMENTS,  AND  ADVICES  WHICH  THE 
OBSERVATORY  ISSUES  ON  NOTING  THE  FIRST  INDICATIONS  OF  THE 
PROXIMITY    OF   A    TYPHOON. 

In  times  of  any  atmospheric  disturbance,  more  or  less  near,  the 
work  and  the  vigilance  of  the  directors  of  the  observatory  is  multiplied. 
As  soon  as  the  first  indications  of  a  storm  are  noted  observations  are 
taken  more  frequently,  especially  of  the  direction  of  the  different 
classes  of  clouds,  and  observations  are  more  frequently  asked  for  from 
those  secondary  stations  likely  to  feel  its  influence  most,  and,  if  neces- 
sary, every  hour,  and  they  advise  the  public  of  Manila,  the  captain 
of  the  port,  the  authorities,  and  all  who  ask  the  observatory  about 
the  state  of  the  weather,  especially  the  firm^  controlling  the  ships 
anchored  in  the  bay,  of  the  existence  of  the  storm.  As  soon  as  it  is 
possible  to  determine  the  time  of  the  typhoon  and  its  approximate 
course  the  captain  of  the  port  is  notified  to  hoist  the  appropriate 
signal. 

If  the  typhoon  is  not  imminent  nor  very  dangerous  for  the  capital, 
the  observatory  limits  itself  to  indicating  the  course  of  the  same  in  the 
weather  reports  it  gives  to  the  public,  to  the  authorities,  and  to  the 
captain  of  the  port,  but  not  without  giving  due  notice  to  the  provinces 
of  Luzon  that  are  threatened,  so  that  they  may  be  prepared  for  the 
storm.  If  the  typhoon  is  likely  to  be  dangerous  for  the  place,  then 
the  number  of  observations  is  considerably  increased,  and  even  through 
all  the  night  advices  are  given  to  the  public  and  to  the  authorities, 
more  or  less  urgent,  as  the  case  requires,  and  especially  a  detailed 
account  of  the  danger  is  given  to  the  chiefs  of  the  squadron  and  to  the 
captain  of  the  port;  in  a  word,  all  those  measures  and  precautions  that 
may  seem  best  are  taken  to  prevent  misfortunes  as  much  as  possible. 

Besides,  the  observatory  not  only  fulfills  its  obligations  toward  the 
public  in  general  and  the  authorities  of  Manila,  but  it  is  also  accus- 
tomed to  give  due  notice  to  shipping  firms  that  have  advertised  the 
sailing  of  any  ship,  so  that  they  may  either  detain  it,  if  they  think  it 
necessary,  or,  in  case  it  sails,  that  the  captain  may  be  forewarned,  and, 
realizing  the  danger,  may  take  the  necessary  steps  to  escape  from  it. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


126  REPORT    OF   THE    PHTLIPPHSTE    OOMMISSIOlSr. 

IMPORTANCE    OF     THE     TYPHOON     NOTICES     WHICH     THE     OBSERVATORY 

SENDS   OUT   TO   THE    PRINCIPAL     STATIONS   ON    THE    COASTS   OF   CHINA, 
COCHIN   CHINA,  AND   JAPAN. 

But  the  services  rendered  by  the  Manila  observatoiy  are  not  confined 
to  Manila  nor  to  the  Philippine  Archipelago.  In  fact,  telegrams  are 
often  received  from  captains  of  ships  anchored  in  the  different  ports 
of  the  archipelago,  or  even  also  in  Singapore  or  in  Hongkong,  asking 
the  opinion  of  our  observatory  in  regard  to  the  weather,  whether  or 
not  there  is  any  danger  of  encountering  a  typhoon  in  the  passage  they 
have  to  make  from  that  port  to  Manila — telegrams  which  the  Manila 
observatory  always  answers  as  promptly  and  as  accurately  as  possible. 
Outside  of  this,  there  is  no  reason  why  we  should  praise  here  the 
services  rendered  by  this  observatory  to  mariners  and  merchants  and 
to  the  general  public  by  the  announcements  of  storms  which  it  issues 
to  Hongkong,  Macao,  Saigon,  Shanghai,  and  Tokyo.  The  position 
occupied  by  the  Manila  observatory  makes  it  an  outpost  whence  the 
coasts  of  Asia  and  Japan  can  be  advised  in  due  time  of  the  existence 
and  course  of  the  typhoons.  The  storms  which,  passing  through  our 
latitudes  more  or  less  near  to  Manila,  cross  the  China  Sea,  do  not 
reach  the  Asiatic  coast  for  two,  three,  or  even  more  days,  as  the 
experience  of  many  years  teaches  us;  and  those  which  we  experience 
in  eastern  Luzon,  and  which  travel  in  the  direction  of  Japan,  take 
from  three  to  ten,  and  even  more,  days  in  crossing.  This  clearly  demon- 
strates the  utilit}^  of  our  observations  and  advices  of  storms  to  the 
continent  of  Asia,  the  Empire  of  Japan,  and  to  all  the  foreigners  who 
navigate  these  seas.  The  governments  of  the  colonies  of  Hongkong, 
Saigon,  Macao,  and  Shanghai,  and  that  of  Japan  understood  this  when 
they  asked  with  so  much  interest  for  telegraphic  advices  of  typhoons 
from  the  Manila  observatory. 

AVERAGE  NUMBER  OF  TELEGRAMS  SENT  OUT  DURING  EACH  TYPHOON — 
EAGERNESS  WITH  WHICH  THESE  TYPHOON  NOTICES  FROM  THE  MANILA 
OBSERVATORY   ARE    RECEIVED    IN   HONGKONG. 

These  telegrams  are  usually  three  for  each  typhoon — one  when  the 
first  symptoms  are  noted,  announcing  its  existence  and  its  delay; 
another  when  it  passes  at  the  minimum  distance  from  the  archipelago 
or  crosses  the  islands,  alread}^  indicating,  not  only  the  delay,  but,  if 
possible,  the  direction  of  the  meteor;  and  another  final  one  when  it 
leaves  the  archipelago,  either  by  the  China  Sea  or  by  the  Pacific,  in 
the  direction  of  Japan.  The  eagerness  with  which  these  telegrams 
are  received  in  the  neighboring  colony  of  Hongkong  is  known  to  all 
who  reside  there,  and  is  confirmed  by  two  recent  events. 

COMPLAINT  MADE  TO  ADMIRAL  DEWEY  BY  A  HIGH  OFFICIAL  OF  THE 
BRITISH  FLEET  AT  HONGKONG  ON  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  INTERRUPTION  OF 
THESE  TYPHOON  NOTICES  FROM  MANILA  ON  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  BREAK  IN 

THE  CABLE  IN  THE  FIRST  PART  OF  MAY,  1898. 

The  first  was  the  communication  which,  shortly  after  the  breaking 
of  the  cable  connecting  Manila  with  Hongkong,  a  high  officer  of  the 
Royal  British  fleet  at  Hongkong  addressed  to  Admiral  Dewey,  request- 
ing him  to  reestablish  the  cable  if  he  did  not  wish  to  make  himself 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    OOMMISSIOI^.  127 

responsible  for  the  loss  of  life  and  property  which  would  doubtless 
result  from  the  lack  of  telegraphic  advices  of  typhoons  from  the 
Manila  observatory. 

THE  CONSUL-GENERAL  OF  THE  UNITED  STATES  IN  HONGKONG   ASKS   THAT 
THE  TYPHOON   NOTICES   FROM   MANILA   BE    SENT   DIRECTLY   TO    HIM. 

The  second  is  the  petition  made  to  the  Manila  Observatory  by  Mr. 
Rounsevelle  Wildman,  consul-general  of  the  United  States  in  that 
colony,  when  the  cable  Avas  reestablished,  that  our  telegrams  should 
be  sent  directly  to  him,  as  they  had  formerly  been  sent  to  the  Spanish 
consul  when  Manila  was  under  the  Spanish  dominion. 

SERVICES   RENDERED    BY   THE    OBSERVATORY   BY   THE    REGULATION    AND 
COMPARISON    OF   ALL    SORTS   OF   BAROMETERS   AND    BAROGRAPHS. 

We  shall  conclude  this  paragraph  by  briefly  mentioning  another  of 
the  services  rendered  gratis  to  the  public,  and  especially  to  mariners, 
by  the  meteorological  department  of  the  Manila  Observatory,  and  that 
is  the  comparison,  and  even  repairing  in  many  cases,  of  all  kinds  of 
barometers  and  barographs.  Here  the  worth  of  these  instruments  is 
tested,  their  working  is  observed,  and  they  are  compared  with  the 
standard  ones  in  the  observatory,  and,  if  it  is  tliought  necessary,  a 
report  is  given  of  the  instrumental  error  of  the  apparatus. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTER  II. 
ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE. 

INTRODUCTION. 

As  a  preamble  to  what  we  shall  have  to  say  in  this  and  in  the  subse- 
quent chapters  we  shall  mention  here  two  things:  First,  that  on 
account  of  lack  of  time  at  our  disposal  for  this  work,  which  is  in  itself 
arduous  and  diiEcult,  we  have  only  used  the  hourly  observations  taken 
without  interruption  from  1883  up  to  last  year,  1898,  inclusive.  Those 
taken  in  this  observatory  previous  to  1883  were  not  hourly,  and  so, 
partly  for  this  reason  and  also  partly  because  of  some  deficiencies 
which  we  found  in  the  trihourly  observations  and  in  the  monthly 
averages  deducted  from  them,  we  could  not  make  use  of  them  without 
making  some  corrections  in  order  to  make  them  uniform  and  compar- 
able with  the  hourly  ones  of  said  period  from  1883  to  1898,  which 
required  more  time  and  less  haste  on  our  part.  Second,  that  even 
when  the  monthly  mean  values  of  the  four  meteorological  elements 
which  we  shall  soon  study,  namely,  atmospheric  pressure,  temperature 
of  the  air,  relative  humidity,  and  tension  of  aqueous  vapor,  have  been 
deducted  from  this  period  of  sixteen  years,  notwithstanding,  we  deduct 
the  mean  daily  variation  from  a  somewhat  shorter  period,  for  the  reason 
which  we  are  going  to  indicate.  We  have  already  said  in  the  last 
chapter  that,  although  hourly  observations  began  to  be  made  in  this 
observatory  in  1883,  still  these  were  not  published  in  our  bulletin 
until  1890;  hence  those  for  the  earlier  years  are  not  only  unpublished, 
but  not  even  arranged  so  that  the  hourly  means  for  each  month  could 
be  easily  found.  With  this  brief  explanation,  those  persons  versed  in 
this  kind  of  study  will  understand  the  laborious  work  involved  in 
putting  so  much  material  in  order,  and,  after  arranging  it,  deducting 
the  hourly  averages  for  each  one  of  the  seven  years  from  1883  to  1889 — 
a  work  which  we  would  have  been  glad  to  undertake  if  the  time  in 
which  we  prepared  this  memorial  had  not  been  so  limited.  Hence 
for  the  daily  variation  of  i^he  barometer  we  have  taken  the  period  from 
1887  to  1898  (twelve  years);  for  the  variation,  also  daily,  of  the  tem- 
perature of  the  air,  the  period  from  1889  to  1898  (ten  years),  and  the 
period  from  1890  to  1898  (nine  years)  for  the  daily  variation  of  the 
relative  humidity  and  tension  of  aqueous  vapor.  In  view  of  the  regu- 
larity with  which,  here  in  the  Tropics,  the  variations  and  oscillations 
of  these  meteorologic  elements  are  repeated  every  year,  we  believe 
that  the  results  obtained  with  these  periods  will  give  us  mean  values 
sufficiently  exact  and  precise,  although  we  must  confess  that  they 
will  be  still  more  accurate  when,  having  more  time,  a  greater  number 
of  years  of  observation  is  included  in  mis  study. 
128 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


129 


I.— ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  IN  MANILA. 

The  annual  variation  of  atmosptieric  pressure  in  Manila  may  be 
seen  in  Table  I.  From  the  monthly  averages  as  they  appear  on  the 
last  line  of  the  table  between  years  1883  and  1898  has  been  plotted  the 
curve,  Plate  I. 

Table  I. — Monthly  and  annual  averages  of  atmospJieric  pressure  in  Manila  during  the 

period  from  1883  to  1898. 


Yei 

ir.    Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

1883 

. .  760. 82 

61.47 

60.62 

59.31 

58.34 

58.43 

57.25 

57.77 

58.09 

59.53 

59.74 

62.52 

59.49 

1884 

. .  763. 23 

62.91 

60.89 

60.75 

58.93 

58.70 

56.62 

57.68 

57.91 

60.12 

59.92 

61.70 

59.95 

1885 

..763.60 

62.10 

62.39 

60.34 

59.89 

58.49 

58.50 

57. 52 

59.57 

60.28 

61.39 

61.79 

60.49 

1886 

. .  761. 61 

62.46 

61.73 

59.80 

59.04 

58.76 

58.61 

58.44 

58.15 

59.36 

59.65 

60.48 

59.84 

1887 

. .  760. 54 

61.06 

60.14 

59.27 

58.44 

58.23 

57.58 

58.45 

56.66 

59.51 

59.70 

60.71 

59.19 

1888 

..761.76 

62.25 

61.26 

59.84 

58.59 

57.54 

56.00 

57. 84 

57.90 

60.06 

60.52 

60.96 

59.54 

1889 

. .  761. 99 

61.75 

62.03 

59.80 

59.09 

58.74 

67.75 

58.20 

58.37 

58.28 

58.17 

58.90 

59.42 

1890 

. .  759. 68 

60.70 

59.74 

59.26 

58.43 

58.32 

58.05 

58.18 

56.24 

57.76 

60.08 

61.03 

58.96 

1891 

. .  760. 37 

62.57 

60.96 

60.06 

58.76 

57.65 

56.60 

57.70 

58.11 

59. 34 

58.97 

61.75 

59.40 

1892 

. .  760. 93 

60.48 

59.45 

59.50 

58.62 

67.72 

57.53 

58.61 

57.03 

57.63 

58.63 

60.70 

68.90 

1893 

. .  760. 66 

61.10 

60.98 

59.35 

57.47 

68.96 

57.57 

57.41 

56.56 

58.48 

59.76 

60.45 

59.06 

1894 

. .  760. 23 

61.96 

59.97 

59.19 

57.89 

57.83 

57.78 

57.58 

56.53 

58.35 

59.45 

60.67 

58,95 

1895 

..760.65 

61.42 

60.20 

59.39 

57.81 

57.48 

57.92 

56.85 

56.41 

58.68 

60.37 

60.96 

59.01 

1896 

. .  761. 79 

61.73 

60.24 

58.97 

58.00 

57.97 

56.66 

56.99 

58.29 

58.65 

60.39 

62.34 

59.33 

1897 

. .  761. 44 

61.13 

60.71 

59.43 

58.41 

57.41 

58.36 

57.82 

57.91 

58.56 

58.75 

60.30 

59.19 

1898 

. .  760. 97 

59.26 

58.30 

58.88 

57.74 

57.04 

57.36 

56. 93 

58.23 

57.52 

57.26 

59.40 

58.24 

Mea 

n .  761. 27 

61.52 

60.60 

59.57 

58.47 

58.08 

57.50 

57.75 

57.62 

58.88 

59.55 

60.92 

59.31 

RELATION   BETWEEN   THE    NORMAL   AVERAGES   OF    THE    DIFFERENT 
MONTHS   OF   THE    YEAR. 

From  simply  looking  at  this  curve,  we  deduce  that  the  barometer 
reaches  its  greatest  mean  height  in  the  month  of  February.  It 
descends  at  almost  the  rate  of  1  mm.  a  month  from  February  to  March, 
from  March  to  April,  and  from  April  to  May.  It  continues  its 
descent,  although  not  so  noticeably,  from  May  to  July,  when  the 
lowest  average  of  the  whole  year  is  reached.  A  slight  rise  is  noted  in 
August,  after  which  it  again  descends  a  little  in  September,  although 
the  mean  height  for  this  month  is  somewhat  greater  than  that  of  July. 
Finally,  the  monthly  average  increases  without  interruption  from 
October  to  February,  the  ascents  which  are  observed  from  Septem- 
ber to  October  and  from  November  to  December  being  very  remarkable. 

ANNUAL   MEAN   OSCILLATION   OF   THE   BAROMETER. 

The  mean  annual  oscillation  of  the  barometer,  or  the  difference 
between  the  maximum  monthly  average,  which  is,  as  has  been  said, 
that  of  February,  and  the  minimum,  or  that  of  July,  is  4.02  mm. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


130 


REPORT  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  COMMISSION. 


THE  NORMAL  AVERAGES  OF  EACH  MONTH  COMPARED  WITH  THE  NORMAL 

ANNUAL  AVERAGE. 

The  annual  average  is  759.31  mm.  The  degree  to  which  the  different 
monthly  averages  differ  more  or  less  from  this  annual  mean  is  indicated 
in  the  following  table: 


Month. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Annual  mean 


Monthly 
mean. 


Millimeters. 
761. 27 
761. 52 
760.  60 
759. 57 
758. 47 
758. 08 
757. 50 
757. 75 
757. 62 
758. 88 
759, 55 
760. 92 


759.31 


Millimeters. 
4-1.96 
+2.21 
+1.29 
+0.26 
-0.84 
-1.23 
-1.81 
-1.56 
-1.09 
-0.43 
+0.24 
+1.61 


EXTREME  ANNUAL  AVERAGES. 


The  extreme  annual  averages  of  the  period  we  are  considering  are 
760.49  mm.  (1885)  and  758.24  mm.  (1898),  only  differing  by  2.25  mm. 


COMPARISON  BETWEEN  THE  NORMAL  AND  EXTREME  AVERAGES  OF  EACH 

MONTH. 

In  the  following  table  we  give  the  difference  between  the  normal 
monthly  averages  and  the  extreme  averages  of  each  month: 


Months. 


Monthly 
mean. 


Maximum  posi- 
tive difference. 


Maximum  nega- 
tive difference. 


January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August  . . . 
September 
October. . . 
November 
December 


mm. 
761. 27 
761.52 
760. 60 
759. 57 
758.47 
758. 08 
757. 50 
757. 75 
757. 62 
758. 88 
759.55 
760.92 


mm. 

2.33  (1885) 
1.39  (1884) 
1. 79  (1885) 
1.18  (1884) 
1.42  (1885) 


1.11 

.86 
1.95 
1.40 
1.84 
1.60 


1892) 
*1885) 
;i885) 
1885) 
1883) 


mm. 

1.59  (1890) 
2.26  (1898) 
2. 30  (1898) 

.  69  (1898) 
1. 00  (1893) 
1.04  (1898) 
1.50  (1888) 

.  90  (1895) 
1.38  (1890) 
1.36  (1898) 
2.29  (1898) 
2.02  (1889) 


The  maximum  positive  difference  was  2.33  mm.,  observed  in  the 
month  of  January,  1885;  and  the  maximum  negative  difference  corre- 
sponding to  March,  1898,  was  2. 30  mm.  The  minimum  positive  and 
negative  differences,  0.86  mm.  and  0.69  mm.,  belong  to  the  months  of 
August,  1892,  and  April,  1898,  respectively. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  I. 


ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERIC 

PRESSURE  AT  MANILA 

»       «•        r       M       J       m'^^'J^^^       a       s        0       jv       j> 

Tnmv. 

y^ 



mm. 

/ 

/ 

\ 

761. 0 

r~^ 

\ 

\ 
\ 

1 

60  0 

\ 

\ 

1 

59.0 

58o 

\ 

V 

SSo 

7570 

\ 

/ 

7*70 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


131 


II.— MONTHLY  ABSOLUTE  MAXIMA  AND   MINIMA  OF   ATMOSPHERIC 

PRESSURE  IN  MANILA. 

Desiring  to  present  here  in  two  tables  the  monthly  absolute  maxima 
and  minima  observed  in  this  observatory,  we  decided  to  begin  with 
the  year  1887,  because,  having  installed  the  previous  year  the  oprung- 
Fuess  barograph,  it  was  only  from  that  time  that  they  began  to  take 
these  absolute  maxima  and  minima  from  the  curves  registered  by  said 
apparatus.  The  extreme  values  which  this  observatory  published 
before  that  were  not,  properly  speaking,  absolute  maxima  and  minima, 
but  the  maxima  and  minima  of  the  twenty-four  daily  observations. 

Tables  II  and  III  therefore  include,  respectively,  the  monthly  abso- 
lute maxima  and  minima  for  a  period  of  twelve  years — from  1887 
to  1898. 

Table  II. — Monthly  and  annual  absolute  maxima  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila 
during  the  period  from  1887  to  1898. 


Yea 

r.      Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Bee. 

An- 
nual 
maxi- 
mum. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

1887 

..    763.70 

65.64 

63.29 

62.63 

61.57 

61.54 

61.12 

61.43 

61.79 

62.80 

63.23 

63.07 

65.64 

1888 

..    765.39 

66.55 

64.20 

62.62 

61.97 

60.88 

59.99 

62.62 

61.37 

63.43 

64.00 

65.23 

66.55 

1889 

..    764.45 

65.03 

65.64 

62.83 

62.40 

61.40 

61.14 

62.46 

62.59 

62.60 

62.97 

63.56 

65.64 

1890 

..    764.54 

64.29 

63.74 

62.81 

60.98 

61.00 

61.78 

61.10 

59.54 

62.73 

64.51 

63.78 

64.54 

1891 

..    764.35 

66.78 

64.39 

63.07 

62.41 

60.55 

60.45 

61.45 

62.32 

63.20 

63.70 

65.09 

66.78 

1892 

..    765.06 

63.70 

62. 98 

62.92 

61.09 

61.22 

60.71 

61.60 

62.03 

62.15 

62.22 

64.14 

65.06 

1893 

..    765.18 

65.21 

65.72 

63.52 

61.60 

62.01 

60.27 

61.35 

61.76 

62.67 

62.99 

64.05 

65.72 

1894 

..    763.47 

65.18 

64.70 

62.43 

61.09 

61.07 

60.78 

60.31 

61.95 

61.35 

63.81 

66.00 

66.00 

1895 

..    764.05 

64.74 

64.34 

63.33 

61.16 

60.44 

61.60 

60.42 

61.02 

61.17 

64.43 

64.81 

64.81 

1896 

..    765.70 

65.80 

63.80 

62.62 

61.90 

60.35 

60.80 

61.20 

61.15 

63.25 

63.24 

65.96 

65.96 

•1897 

..    765.30 

64.85 

63.65 

63.10 

61.61 

60.20 

61.60 

61.55 

61.66 

62.80 

61.70 

64.11 

65.30 

1898 

..    764.50 

63.84 

62.58 

62.74 

62.22 

59.90 

60.45 

61.00 

61.80 

60.85 

63.05 

64.25 

64.50 

Mea 

Q.    764.64 

65.13 

64.09 

62.89 

61.67 

60.88 

60.89 

61,37 

61.58 

62.42 

63.32 

64.50 

66.54 

Table  III.- 


-Monthly  and  annual  absolute  minima  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila 
during  the  period  from  1887' to  1898. 


An- 

Years. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

.  Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

nual 
mini- 
ma. 

mm.. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

m,m. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

1887.... 

756. 96 

66.22 

66.33 

53. 60 

53.97 

53. 35 

53.47 

65.50 

48.01 

66.03 

65.06 

58.16 

48.01 

1888.... 

757.38 

58.18 

67.70 

56.40 

65.50 

63.90 

47.60 

53.67 

61.04 

65.90 

56.69 

55.18 

47.60 

1889.... 

757. 97 

58.61 

66.96 

66. 90 

66.38 

56.36 

62.00 

54.13 

63.58 

51.03 

50.14 

50.29 

50.14 

1890.... 

765.65 

65.  36 

55. 99 

54.52 

65.17 

55.17 

63.80 

64.55 

47.09 

52.00 

43.50 

67.37 

43.60 

1891.... 

756.08 

67.36 

55.80 

55. 60 

56. 06 

56.35 

60.98 

53.30 

54.13 

65.86 

48.60 

56.72 

48.60 

1892- . . . 

766.47 

56.95 

56.00 

56.16 

56.51 

62.91 

53.  82 

66.83 

60.28 

49.80 

49.10 

66. 99 

49.10 

1893.... 

756.52 

67.58 

56.42 

54. 37 

46.12 

66.00 

53.73 

63. 32 

46.44 

49.24 

56.76 

66.80 

46.12 

1894.... 

756.46 

58.94 

56.18 

56.00 

53. 41 

52.63 

64.75 

65. 12 

42.34 

48.02 

54.25 

65.63 

42.34 

1895. . - . 

757. 27 

56.04 

56.76 

66.11 

61.70 

53.35 

63.67 

62.85 

62.15 

53.98 

54.21 

67.20 

5L70 

1896.... 

758.95 

57.85 

56.90 

65.35 

61.10 

61.65 

60.69 

60.23 

53.90 

50.36 

56. 20 

69.03 

50.23 

1897.... 

767. 15 

66.45 

57.20 

56.78 

54.50 

54.51 

53.16 

52.66 

53.20 

6L86 

54.98 

55.85 

51.86 

1898.-.. 

756.90 

53.82 

53.00 

64.91 

50.82 

53.96 

60.90 

50.70 

53.18 

51.86 

47.00 

54.56 

47.00 

Mean . . 

756.98 

56.94 

56.10 

55.23 

63.19 

53.93 

62.36 

53.48 

50.45 

52.08 

52.13 

56.06 

48.00 

ABSOLUTE   MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM   OF   ALL   THE   PERIOD. 

The  absolute  maximum  registered  in  this  observatory  during  these 
twelve  last  years  was  766.78  mm.  and  the  absolute  minimum  742.34 
mm.,  the  difference  being  24.44  mm. 

p  o — VOL  4 — 01 13 


Hosted  by 


Google 


132 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


MONTHLY    ABSOLUTE    MAXIMA    AND   MINIMA    OF    THE    WHOLE    PERIOD. 

The  monthly  absolute  maxima  and  minima  for  the  whole  period 
which  we  are  considering  are  the  following: 


Months. 


Maxima. 


Minima. 


January... 
February  . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 


765.70 
766. 78 
765. 72 
763. 52 
762.41 
762. 01 
761. 78 
762. 62 
762. 59 
763.43 
764. 51 
766.00 


(1896) 
(1891) 
(1893) 
(1893) 
1891) 

r'3) 

1890) 

I  ^} 
1889) 

1890) 
(1894) 


765. 65 
753.82 
753.00 
753.60 
746. 12 
751. 65 
747.50 
750.23 
742. 34 
748.02 
743.50 
750.29 


(1890) 
(1898) 
(1898) 
(1887) 
(1893) 
(1896) 
(1888) 
(1896) 
(1894) 
(1894) 
(1890) 
(1889) 


DISTRIBUTION  OF   THE  ANNUAL   MAXIMUMS   AND   MINIMUMS   DURING   THE 
DIFFERENT   MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

The  twelve  annual  absolute  maximums  and  minimums  are  distributed 
among  the  different  months  of  the  year  in  this  way: 

Maxima: 

January 4 

February 3 

March 2 

December 3 

Minima: 

May 2 

July 1 

August 1 

September 2 

October 1 

November 5 

So  that  the  greatest  number  of  maximums  corresponds  to  January, 
and  the  greatest  number  of  minimums  to  the  month  of  November,  in 
which,  consequently,  have  occurred  the  greatest  number  of  the  typhoons 
which  in  these  last  years  have  passed  near  the  capital  of  the  archipelago. 

III.— MONTHLY  MEANS  OF  THE  DAILY  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA  OF 
ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  IN  MANILA.— MEAN  VALUES  OF  THE 
DAILY  OSCILLATION. 


In  Tables  IV  and  V  we  give  the  mean  monthly  values  deducted  from 
the  absolute  maxima  and  minima  of  every  day  in  the  month,  or,  in 
other  words,  the  mean  maxima  and  minima  of  each  month  during  the 
period  from  1887  to  1898.  Table  VI  has  been  made  up  of  the  differ- 
ence of  these  two,  which  will  therefore  represent  the  mean  monthly 
oscillation  of  atmospheric  pressure,  oscillation  being  understood  to 
be  the  difference  between  the  absolute  maxima  and  minima  of  each  day. 


Hoste(d  by 


Google 


BEPOET    OP   THE    PHILIPMNE    COMMISSION. 


133 


Table  IV. — Monthly  means  of  the  absolute  maxima  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila 
during  the  period  from  1887  to  1898. 


Years. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Get. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

1887... 

761. 93 

62.49 

61.64 

60.76 

59.72 

59.52 

.58.80 

59.68 

58.41 

60.84 

61.06 

62. 06 

60.58 

1888... 

763. 14 

63.81 

62.80 

61.39 

59.92 

58.83 

57.18 

59.09 

59.28 

61.47 

61. 83 

62.37 

60.93 

1889... 

763.41 

63.33 

63.62 

61.34 

60.56 

60.09 

59.08 

59.50 

59.72 

59.80 

59.71 

60.35 

60.88 

1890. . . 

761. 15 

62.16 

61.20 

60.74 

59.75 

59.57 

59.38 

59.40 

57.78 

59.18 

61.61 

62.37 

60.36 

1891... 

761. 76 

64.08 

62.55 

61.63 

60.19 

59.00 

57.87 

59.14 

59. 44 

60.68 

60.56 

63.19 

60.84 

1892... 

762.34 

62.06 

60.94 

60.95 

60.10 

59.12 

58.82 

59.91 

58. 42 

59.20 

60.20 

62.11 

60.35 

1893... 

762. 11 

62.63 

62.48 

60.89 

59.05 

60.18 

58.91 

58.73 

58.19 

59. 92 

61.07 

61.68 

60. 49 

1894. . . 

761. 68 

63.45 

61.52 

60.74 

59.26 

59.25 

59.14 

58.92 

58.07 

59.87 

60.85 

62.11 

60.41 

1895... 

762.31 

62.94 

61.78 

60.88 

59.15 

58.86 

59.17 

58.19 

57.77 

60.36 

61.72 

62.43 

60.46 

1896... 

763. 24 

63.34 

61.87 

60.59 

59.27 

59.32 

58.19 

58.59 

59.54 

60.21 

61.27 

63.76 

60.77 

1897. . . 

762. 97 

62.74 

62.31 

60.96 

59.79 

58.57 

59.64 

59.19 

59.35 

60.10 

60.73 

61.58 

60.66 

1898... 

762. 24 

60.68 

59.75 

60.39 

59.21 

68.38 

58.58 

58.42 

59.52 

58.96 

58.73 

60.77 

59.64 

Mean. 

762. 36 

62.81 

61.87 

60.94 

59.66 

59.22 

58.73 

59.06 

58. 79 

60.05 

60.78 

62.07 

60.53 

Table  V. — Monthly  means  of  the  absolute  minima  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila 
during  the  period  from  1887  to  1898. 


Yeai 

rs.     Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

1887 

. .  759. 07 

59.51 

58.33 

57.33 

56. 72 

56.75 

56.35 

b1. 00 

54. 87 

58. 12 

58.34 

59.16 

57.63 

1888 

. .  760. 25 

60.49 

59.44 

57.95 

56.71 

56.16 

54.66 

56. 48 

56. 28 

58.54 

59.13 

59.37 

57.96 

1889 

. .  760. 32 

60.08 

60.16 

57.83 

57.09 

57.06 

56.33 

56.77 

56.72 

56.75 

56. 69 

57.32 

57.76 

1890 

. .  758. 16 

59.07 

57.93 

57. 35 

56.71 

56.80 

56.63 

56.62 

54.71 

56.29 

58.46 

59. 50 

57.35 

1891 

. .  758. 80 

60.87 

59.07 

58.08 

56. 79 

56.20 

55.05 

56.29 

56.68 

57.69 

57. 22 

60.16 

57.74 

1892 

. .  759. 27 

58.83 

57.69 

57.74 

56.  73 

56.11 

56.20 

57.16 

55.67 

56.01 

57.08 

59.06 

57.30 

1893 

..759.08 

59.45 

59.25 

57.37 

55.  73 

57.42 

56.25 

55.99 

54.93 

56.95 

58. 31 

58.92 

57.47 

1894 

. .  758. 52 

60.27 

58.08 

57.27 

56. 15 

56.28 

56.43 

56.21 

54.29 

56.46 

57.51 

59.12 

57.22 

1895 

..759.03 

59. 69 

58.37 

57.57 

56.18 

55. 95 

56.46 

55.35 

55.08 

57.12 

58.91 

59.42 

57.43 

1896 

. .  760. 12 

59.95 

58.38 

57.01 

56.50 

56.41 

55.11 

55.51 

56.82 

57.09 

58.92 

60.78 

57.72 

1897 

. .  759. 74 

59.36 

58.88 

57.46 

56.56 

55.85 

56.90 

56.40 

56.36 

56.91 

57.31 

58.82 

57.55 

1898 

. .  759. 47 

57.75 

56.73 

57.06 

56.03 

55.66 

55. 95 

55.  58 

56.61 

55.92 

55.65 

57.91 

56.69 

Mea 

n .  759. 32 

59.61 

58.53 

57.50 

56.49 

56.39 

56.03 

56.28 

55.75 

56.99 

57.79 

59.13 

57.49 

Table  VI. — Mean  monthly  oscillation  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila  during  the  period 

from  1887  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Means. 

1887 

mm. 
2.86 
2.89 
3.09 
2.99 
2.96 
3.07 
3.03 
3.16 
3.28 
3.12 
3.23 
2.77 

mm. 
2.98 
3.32 
3.25 
3.09 
3.21 
3.23 
3.18 
3.18 
3.25 
3.39 
3.88 
2.93 

mm. 
3.31 
3.36 
3.46 
3.27 
3.48 
3.25 
3.23 
3.44 
8.41 
3.49 
8.43 
3.02 

mm. 
3.43 
3.44 
3.51 
3.39 
3.55 
3.21 
3.52 
3.47 
3.81 
8.58 
8.50 
8.33 

mm. 
3.00 
3.21 
3.47 
3.04 
3.40 
8.37 
3.32 
8.11 
2.97 
2.77 
3.23 
3.18 

mm. 
2.77 
2.67 
8.03 
2.77 
2.80 
8.01 
2.76 
2.97 
2.91 
2.91 
2.72 
2.72 

mm. 
2.45 
2.52 
2.75 
2.75 
2.82 
2.62 
2.66 
2.71 
2.71 
3.08 
2.74 
2.63 

mm. 
2.68 
2.61 
2.73 
2.78 
2.85 
2.75 
2.74 
2.71 
2.84 
3.08 
2.79 
2.84 

mm. 
3.54 
3.00 
3.00 
3.07 
2.76 
2.75 
3.26 
3.78 
2.69 
2.72 
2.99 
2.91 

mm. 
2.72 
2.93 
3.05 
2.89 
2.99 
3.19 
2.97 
3.41 
3.24 
3.12 
3.19 
3.04 

mm. 
2.72 
2.70 
3.02 
3.15 
3.34 
3.12 
2.76 
3.34 
2.81 
2.85 
3.42 
3.08 

mm. 
2.90 
3.00 
8.03 
-2.87 
8.03 
8.05 
2.76 
2.99 
3.01 
2.98 
2.76 
2.86 

mm. 
2.95 

1888 

2.97 

1889 

3.12 

1890 

3.01 

1891     

3.10 

1892 

3.05 

1893 

8.02 

1894 

8.19 

1895 

8.04 

1896 

8.05 

1897 

3.12 

1898 

2.94 

Mean 

3.04 

3.20 

3.35 

3.44 

3.17 

2.84 

2.70 

2.78 

3.04 

3.06 

2.98 

2.94 

3.05 

Hosted  by 


Google 


134  EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

ANNUAL     MEANS     OF     THE     MAXIMA   AND     MINIMA EXTREME     MONTHLY 

MEANS. 

The  annual  means  of  the  maxima  and  minima  do  not  differ  much 
from  each  other,  excepting  only  the  year  1898,  of  which  the  annual 
mean,  both  of  the  maxima  and  the  minima,  is  much  less  than  those  of 
the  other  previous  years.  The  extreme  monthly  means  are:  The  mean 
of  the  maxima  of  the  month  of  February,  1891,  764.08  mm.,  and  the 
mean  of  the  minima  of  the  month  of  September,  1894,  754.29  mm.; 
the  months  to  which,  according  to  what  was  said  in  the  previous  para- 
graph, the  absolute  maxima  and  minima  registered  in  this  observatory 
in  all  the  period  of  twelve  years  also  belong. 

MEAN   OSCILLATION    OF    ATMOSPHERIC   PRESSURE    IN   THE    DIFFERENT 
MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR: 

As  regards  the  last  table  of  the  mean  monthly  oscillation,  it  is  neces- 
sary for  us  to  make  a  most  important  observation.  Without  doubt 
attention  will  be  attracted  in  it  to  the  fact  that  the  mean  value  of  the 
oscillation  for  the  months  of  September,  October,  and  November  is 
equal  or  greater  than  that  of  December  and  January,  and  also  that  the 
oscillation  for  June,  July,  and  August  is  so  marked;  and  this  with  all 
the  more  reason  because  at  first  sight  it  would  appear  to  contradict 
what  we  shall  say  in  paragraphs  V  and  YI  about  the  daily  variation  of 
atmospheric  pressure. 

To  solve  this  difficulty  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  in  all  these 
tables  the  days  of  atmospheric  perturbation  are  included,  in  which  the 
difference  between  the  absolute  maximum  and  minimum  is  usually 
very  extraordinary;  hence  in  months  such  as  those  cited,  in  which 
typhoons  are  very  frequent,  it  is  clear  that  these  extraordinary  and 
abnormal  oscillations,  often  repeated,  must  have  a  very  marked  influence 
on  the  value  of  the  mean  monthly  oscillation.  But  as,  in  the  study 
which  we  shall  make  in  paragraphs  V  and  VI,  we  have  not  omitted  the 
days  of  perturbation  why  should  not  the  influence  of  the  same  on  the 
mean  values  of  the  daily  and  nightly  oscillations  be  noted  there  in  at 
least  as  marked  a  way  ?  The  reason  is  very  simple — because  said  study 
is  not  based  on  the  simple  comparison  or  difference  of  the  extreme 
values  of  each  day,  but  irom  all  the  observations  made  hour  after  hour 
in  the  course  of  each  month  we  have  deducted  the  mean  values  of  each 
one  of  the  twenty-four  hours  of  the  day,  mean  values  which  have 
enabled  us  to  indicate  the  tropical  hours  of  the  maxima  and  minima, 
or  the  hours  corresponding  to  the  extreme  hourly  means  of  day  and 
night.  Now,  therefore,  as  the  daily  maxima  and  minima  of  typhoon 
days  may  take  place  at  any  hour  dependent  only  on  the  moment  when 
the  vortex  is  nearest,  it  follows  that  said  extraordinary  maxima  and 
minima  are  distributed  for  different  typhoons  in  different  hours  of 
the  day,  and  therefore  their  influence  in  relation  to  the  hourly  means 
is  very  slight  and  will  be  less  and  less  the  greater  the  number  of  years 
taken  to  deduct  them  may  be. 

IV.— MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM   MONTHLY  OSCILLATIONS   OF  ATMOS- 
PHERIC PRESSURE  IN  MANILA. 

In  Tables  VII  and  VIU  we  include  the  monthly  maximum  and 
minimum  oscillations  of  the  period  from  1887  to  1898,  indicating  at 
the  same  time  the  day  on  which  they  were  observed. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


135 


Table  VII. — Monthly  maximum  oscillations  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila  during  the 

riod  from  1887  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

mm. 
3.43 
4.47 
5.49 
3.72 
4.10 
3.71 
3.73 
3.80 
4.15 
4.00 
3.63 
3.80 

Annual 
maxi- 
mum. 

1887 

mm. 
3.70 
3.70 
4.58 
4.41 
3.76 
3.98 
4.18 
4.28 
4.17 
8.88 
3.95 
3,80 

mm. 
4.07 
4.32 
3.87 
4.41 
4.03 
4.06 
3.89 
3.90 
4.06 
4.57 
4.20 
3.82 

mm. 
4.30 
4.34 
4.19 
4.40 
4.34 
4.27 
4.20 
4.52 
4.41 
4.40 
4.15 
4.03 

mm. 
4.23 
4.02 
4.34 
4.18 
4.83 
3.81 
4.61 
4.28 
4.10 
4.29 
4.23 
4.00 

mm. 
3.75 
4.26 
4.17 
3.78 
4.72 
4.54 
8.01 
4.14 
4.32 
3.54 
4.01 
5.04 

mm. 
3.70 
4.12 
4.05 
3.51 
3.94 
4.35 
3.56 
4.52 
3.67 
6.75 
4.21 
3.76 

mm. 
3.57 
7.31 
4.32 
3.88 
4.68 
3.43 
3.72 
4.16 
3.41 
5.55 
4.30 
4.90 

mm. 
3.36 
3.73 
3.92 
3.53 
3.92 
3.27 
4.09 
3.86 
4.15 
6.00 
3.69 
4.40 

mm. 
6.23 
3.70 
4.06 
6.04 
3.82 
4.10 
7.77 
9.90 
4.06 
3.55 
4.35 
3.94 

mm. 
4.64 
3.87 
4.86 
3.72 
3.62 
5.14 
7.53 
10.43 
3.44 
5,35 
4.72 
4.45 

mm. 
4.18 
3.50 
4.47 
9.10 
9.02 
6.29 
3.40 
4.20 
4.69 
3.85 
3.40 
5.20 

mm. 
6.23 

1888 

7.31 

1889 

5.49 

1890- 

9  10 

1891 

9.02 

1892. 

6  29 

1893 

8  01 

1894 

10  43 

1895 

1896 

1897 

4.69 
6.75 
4.72 

1898. 

5  20 

Mean 

4.03 

4.10 

4.30 

4.24 

4.52 

4.18 

4.44 

3.99 

5.13 

5.14 

5.11 

4.00 

6.94 

Table  VIII. — Monthly  minimum  oscillations  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila  during 
the  period  from  1887  to  1898, 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Annual 
mini- 
ma. 

1887 

mm. 
2.36 
2.03 
2.41 
2.48 
2.36 
2.42 
2.44 
2.32 
2.34 
2.13 
2.32 
1.95 

mm. 
2.25 
2.52 
2.52 
2.40 
2.55 
2.30 
2.58 
2.28 
2.00 
2.73 
2.37 
2.28 

mm. 
2.10 
2.65 
2.76 
2.65 
2.66 
2.39 
2.23 
2.48 
2.42 
2.65 
2.60 
2.11 

mm. 
2.46 
2.59 
2.49 
2.51 
2.58 
2.44 
2.36 
2.82 
2.47 
2.33 
2.57 
2.30 

mm. 
1.72 
2.28 
2.90 
2.28 
2.58 
2.32 
2.18 
2.21 
1.93 
1.97 
2.10 
2.12 

mm. 
1.94 
1.88 
1.98 
1.75 
2.09 
2.03 
1.60 
2.10 
1.96 
1.93 
1.75 
1.80 

mm. 
1.58 
1.57 
1.76 
1.54 
1.82 
1.88 
1.96 
1.88 
1.77 
1.77 
1.75 
1.75 

mm. 
1.73 
1.77 
1.96 
2.04 
1.72 
2.05 
1.70 
1.92 
1.93 
1.67 
1.99 
1.80 

mm. 
2.29 
2.40 
2.24 
2.00 
1.96 
2.02 
1.99 
2.09 
2.15 
2.01 
1.91 
2.19 

mm. 
1.85 
2.26 
1.57 
2.10 
2.19 
2.12 
2.17 
2.29 
2.41 
2.08 
2.20 
2.34 

mm. 
1.88 
2.21 
2.02 
1.69 
2.05 
1.86 
1.83 
2.30 
2.02 
2.20 
2.04 
2.30 

mm. 
2.04 
2.34 
2.23 
2.09 
1.90 
2.36 
L88 
2.43 
2.48 
2.05 
1.93 
2.00 

mm. 
1.58 

1888 : 

1.57 

1889 

1.57 

1890 

1.54 

1891 

1.72 

1892          

1.86 

1893 

1.60 

1894          

1.88 

1895 

1.77 

1896 

1.67 

1897 

1.75 

1898      

1.75 

Mean 

2.30 

2.40 

2.48 

2.49 

2.22 

1.90 

1.75 

1.86 

2.10 

2.13 

2.03 

2.14 

1.69 

MAXIMUM  OSCILLATIONS  OF  THE  BAROMETER  IN  THE  DIFFERENT  SEASONS 

OF    THE   YEAR. 

In  regard  to  the  result  of  these  tables  we  must  first  speak  of  some- 
thing similar  to  what  we  have  already  noted  in  the  preceding  para- 
graph, that  is  to  say,  that  not  having  discarded  the  days  of  atmospheric 
disturbances,  their  influence  must  necessarily  be  seen  in  a  marked 
manner  on  the  means  of  the  maximum  oscillations  corresponding  to 
the  months  in  which  typhoons  are  most  frequent.  For  this  reason, 
according  to  Table  VIT,  the  months  of  May,  September,  October,  and 
November  have  the  highest  means  of  maximum  oscillation,  iri  which 
months  the  greater  number  of  typhoons  which  have  passed  near  the 
capital  have  been  observed.  If  we  were  to  leave  out  the  days  when 
Manila  has  been  under  the  influence  of  a  typhoon  we  should  see  that 
the  maximum  barometric  oscillation  for  the  months  from  June  to 
September,  both  inclusive,  would  scarcely  ever  exceed  3  millimeters. 
On  the  contrary,  the  maxima  of  the  months  from  December  to  April 
may  be  considered  as  proper  to  them  in  normal  weather,  since  tney 
are  either  wholly  exempt  from  typhoons,  or  if  any  are  observed  they 
are  usually  far  off  and  scarcely  have  any  influence  on  the  daily  oscilla- 
tion of  atmospheric  pressure.  Moreover,  excepting  some  special  case, 
such  as,  for  example,  the  maximum  oscillation  observed  the  4th  of 
December,  1889,  it  may  be  asserted  that  the  maximum  oscillations  of 


Hosted  by 


Google 


136  REPOET    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

these  five  months  most  commonly  occur  on  days  of  high  atmospheric 
pressure.  Hence,  the  frequency  with  which  in  said  months,  and  espe- 
cially in  February,  March,  and  April,  barometric  oscillations  greater 
than  4  mm.  are  observed,  is  worthy  of  notice. 

MINIMUM    OSCILLATIONS   OF   THE   BAROMETER   PROPER   TO    EACH  MONTH. 

The  atmospheric  perturbations — which,  as  we  have  just  said,  are  the 
chief  cause  of  the  maximum  oscillations  observed  in  the  months  of 
June  to  November — have  scarcely  any  influence,  speaking  in  general 
terms,  on  the  minimum  oscillations,  which  are,  for  this  reason,  worthy 
of  special  mention. 

In  the  first  place,  examining  the  minimum  oscillations  of  the  four 
first  months  of  the  year  from  January  to  April,  we  find  that,  with  the 
exception  of  a  single  case  (January,  1898),  all  the  minimum  monthly 
oscillations  are  greater  than  2  mm.  In  May  three  cases  in  which  the 
minimum  monthly  oscillation  did  not  reach  that  extent  are  recorded. 
In  June,  «Tuly,  and  August  all  the  minimum  oscillations  are  less  than 
2  mm.,  except  the  minimums  of  June,  1891,  1892,  and  1894,  and 
August,  1890  and  1892,  the  only  ones  which  exceeded  this  value. 

From  September  to  December  these  oscillations  of  little  importance 
are  less  frequent,  the  only  cases  in  which  the  amount  of  the  minimum 
monthly  oscillation  did  not  reach  2  mm.  being  3,  2,  4,  and  3  times, 
respectively,  in  those  months. 

EXTREME    ANNUAL   MAXIMUM   AND    MINIMUM    OSCILLATIONS. 

The  extreme  annual  maximum  oscillations  for  all  the  period  from 
1887  to  1898  were  10.43  mm.  and  4.69,  differing  by  5.74  mm.  The 
extreme  annual  minimum  oscillations,  1.88  mm.  and  1.54  mm.,  do  not 
differ  between  themselves  more  than  0.34  mm. 

The  difference  between  the  absolute  maximum  and  minimum  oscil- 
lation of  the  whole  period  is  8.89. 

The  annual  maximum  and  minimum  oscillations  are  distributed 
among  the  different  months  of  the  vears  as  follows: 

Maxima: 

May 1 

June 1 

July : 1 

September 1 

October 2 

November 5 

December 1 

Minima: 

June .' 1 

July 7 

August 2 

October 1 

November 1 

The  distribution  of  the  maximum  oscillations  is,  as  is  seen,  very  like 
the  distribution  of  the  monthly  absolute  minima,  which  we  gave  in 
Paragraph  II  of  this  chapter.  The  greatest  frequency  of  annual  mini- 
mum oscillations  corresponds  to  the  month  of  July,  the  month  in  which 
the  monthly  mean  of  the  least  atmospheric  pressure  in  all  the  year 
occurs,  as  we  saw  in  Paragraph  1,  and  also  the  least  mean  oscillation, 
as  may  be  seen  in  the  following  paragraph. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


137 


MONTHLY    MAXIMUM     AND     MINIMUM     OSCILLATIONS     FOR    THE     WHOLE 

PERIOD. 

The  monthly  maximum  and  minimum  oscillations  for  the  whole  pe- 
riod may  be  seen  in  the  following  table: 


Months. 


Maximum 
oscillations. 


Minimum 
oscillations. 


January  .. 
February  . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December 


Millimeters. 
4.58  (1889) 
4.57  (1896) 
4. 52  (1894) 
4.83(1891) 
8.01  (1893) 
6. 75  (1896) 
7. 31  (1888) 
6.00(1896) 
9. 90  (1894) 
10.43  (1894) 
9.10(1890) 
5.49  (1889) 


Y. —DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  IN  MANILA. 


IMPORTANCE     OF 


THE    LAWS    OF    THE    DAILY    OSCILLATION    OF   THE 
BAROMETER. 


A  careful  study  of  the  daily  course  of  atmospheric  pressure  m  the 
Philippines  must,  without  doubt,  be  of  the  greatest  importance,  not 
only  for  the  better  knowledge  of  the  climate  of  these  islands,  but 
mainly  to  be  able  to  know  several  days  in  advance  of  the  existence  of 
a  cyclone  or  typhoon  and  to  seek  protection  from  its  fearful  effects. 
The  daily  oscillation  of  the  barometer  is  so  regular  in  these  latitudes 
that  we  have  seen  it  rightly  compared  by  some  authors  to  the  move- 
ments of  a  clock;  and  it  may  be  said  with  certainty  that  the  least 
irregularities  observed  in  it  are  generally  the  most  unmistakable  indi- 
cations of  the  proximity  of  some  atmospheric  disturbance.  When  we 
speak  further  on  of  the  cyclones  in  the  Far  East,  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
rules  which  worthy  Father  Faura  gave  for  the  right  use  of  his  popular 
barometer  are  based,  at  least  in  a  great  measure,  on  the  laws  which 
govern  the  daily  oscillation  of  atmospheric  pressure  in  normal  weather 
or  when  there  is  freedom  from  any  noticeable  change  in  the  atmosphere. 

DOUBLE   DAILY   OSCILLATION   OF  ATMOSPHERIC   PRESSURE. 

Therefore,  taking  for  granted  the  importance  of  these  laws,  let  us 
see,  in  the  first  place,  what  is  the  daily  course  of  the  barometer  in  the 
different  months  of  the  year.  In  Table  IX  we  give  the  hourly 
monthly  means  of  atmospheric  pressure  deducted  from  the  period  of 
twelve  years,  1887-1898.  With  these  same  means  we  have  traced  the 
twelve  curves  on  Plates  II  and  III,  which  represent  graphically  the 
daily  oscillation  of  the  barometer  in  Manila  in  each  one  of  the  twelve 
months  of  the  year. 

In  all  these  curves  the  double  oscillation  of  the  atmospheric  pressure 
in  the  course  of  the  day  is  very  noticeable,  two  maxima  being 
always  observed,  one  in  the  morning  and  the  other  at  night,  and  like- 
wise two  minima,  one  at  dawn  and  the  other  in  the  afternoon. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


138 


REPOBT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  IX. — Hourly,  monthly ,  annual,  and  semiannual  means  of  atmospheric  pressure  in 
Manila  during  the  period  from  1887  to  1898. 


Months. 


January 

February  .. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November  . 
December. . 


Forenoon. 


Mean 

Mean,  Novem- 
ber to  May... 
Mean,  June  to 
October 


61.08 
CI.  46 
60.58 
59.72 
58.53 
58.19 
57.63 
57.97 
57.52 
58. 62 
59.42 
60.82 


60.75 
61.15 
60.24 
59.37 
58.21 
57.88 
57.30 
57.60 
57.17 
58.29 
59.04 
60.44 


60.49 
60.92 
60.04 
59.14 
58.01 
57.69 
57.10 
57.36 
56.94 
58.09 
58.79 
60.17 


60.52 
60.92 
60.00 
59.16 
58.02 
57.64 
57.04 
57.32 
56.88 
58.05 
58.79 
60.22 


59.30  58.95  58.73  58.71 
60.23  59.89  59.65  59.66 
57.99     57.65 


60.73 
61.14 
60.21 
59.42 
58.20 
57.75 
57.12 
57.41 
57.04 
58.23 
59.01 
60.43 


58.89 
59. 88 
57. 51 


61.07 
61.  53 
60.64 
59.76 
58.50 
58.04 
57.39 
57.62 
57.29 
58.67 
59.43 
60.75 


61.53 
61. 99 
61.15 
60.23 
58.91 
58.36 
57.71 
57.98 
57.67 
59.09 
59.87 
61.21 


59. 22  59. 64 
60. 24  60. 70 
58.16 


62.00 
62.39 
61.53 
60.65 
59.19 
58.55 
57.94 
58.31 
58.09 
59.44 
60.25 
61.72 


60.01 
61. 10 


62.27 
62.69 
61.75 
60.80 
59.32 
58.65 
58.07 
58.47 
58.24 
59.66 
60.49 
61.91 


60.19 
CI.  32 


62.12 
62.64 
61.61 
60.61 
59.20 
68.56 
58.04 
58.41 
58.19 
59.59 
60.36 
61.76 


58.47     58.62 


60.09 
61. 19 
58.56 


11. 


I 


61.71 
62.22 
61.28 
60.26 
58.87 
58.30 
57.85 
58.23 
67.95 
59.17 
59.% 
61.37 


59.76 
60.81 
58.30 


61.09 
61.62 
60.66 
59.72 
58.41 
57.95 
57.54 
57.90 
57.45 
58.61 
59.42 
60.80 


59.26 
60.25 
57.89 


Month. 


January , . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December  . . 


Mean 

Mean,  November  to 
May 

Mean,  June  to  Octo- 
ber   


Afternoon. 


60.32 
00.82 
59.86 
58.88 
57.77 
67.44 
57.07 
57.31 
56.81 
57. 98 
58.72 
60.04 


58. 59 
59.49 


59.70 
60.17 
59.17 
58.18 
57.18 
57.02 
56.68 
56.89 
56.34 
57.45 
58.23 
59.49 


58.04 

58.87 


57.32   56.  g 


59.38 
59.74 
68.70 
57.75 
56.82 
56.67 
56.41 
56.61 
56.10 
67.22 
58.04 
69.23 


57.  72 
58. 52 
56.60 


59.51 
59.74 
58.63 
57.62 
56. 70 
56.59 
56.29 
56.63 
56.15 
57.34 
58.16 
59.36 


57.72 
58.53 
56.58 


59.88 

60.01 

58, 

57.82 

56.91 

66.78 

66.46 

56.69 

56.38 

57.66 

58.47 

59.73 


57.97 

58.82 
56.79 


60.27 
60.37 
59.28 
58.33 
57.42 
67.21 
56.82 
67.07 
56.78 
57.99 
58.81 
60.13 


58.37 
59.23 
57.17 


60.71 
60.78 
69.74 
58.86 
57.92 
57.65 
57.24 
57.61 
57.22 
68.46 
59.29 
60.59 


68.83 
59.70 
57.62 


61.13 
61.25 
60.25 
59.35 
58.38 
58.11 
57.66 
57.96 
57.65 
58.95 
59.75 
61.03 


69.29 
60.16 

68.07 


61.44 
61.64 
60.76 
69.84 
58.83 
58.62 
58.01 
58.38 
58.07 
69.31 
60.03 
61.32 


59.68 
60.55 
58.46 


61.52 
61.84 
61.02 
60.21 
59.13 
58.81 
68.30 
58.67 
68.29 
59.42 
60.11 
61.38 


59.89 
60.74 
58.70 


61.48 
61.87 
61.09 
60.24 
69.16 
58.88 
58.31 
58.63 
58.19 
59.34 
60.02 
61.29 


59.87 
60.73 

58.67 


12     Mean. 


61.35 
61.76 
60.90 
59.97 
58.86 
58.59 
58.02 
58.34 
57.87 
69.08 
69.78 
61.06 


69.63 
60.52 

58.38 


60.92 
61.28 
60.33 
59.41 
58.27 
57.91 
57.42 
57.72 
57.35 
58.67 
69.34 
60.68 


59.10 
60.03 
57.79 


LAWS     OF     THIS     DOUBLE     DAILY     OSCILLATION     IN     THE     ATMOSPHERIC 
PRESSURE    m   THE    DIFFERENT   MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

In  order  that  the  laws  which  govern  this  double  daily  oscillation  of 
the  barometer  may  be  more  readily  and  more  clearly  recognized,  we 
have  made  the  following  table,  in  which  we  give  separately  the  four 
daily  semioscillations,  with  the  differences  between  the  maxima  and 
minima,  and  the  hours  to  which  they  correspond,  all  taken  from  the 
hourly  means  of  Table  IX: 


Months 

Diurnal  oscillation. 

Nocturnal  oscillation. 

Ascent. 

Descent. 

Ascent. 

Descent. 

January  

February  ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . . 

October 

November  .. 

December. . . 

3  a.  m.  to  9  a.  m. 
3-4  a.  m.  to  9  a. 

m. 
4 a.m. to  9  a.m. 

3  a.  m.  to  9  a.  m. 
3 a.m. to  9  a.m. 
4a.m. to  9  a.m. 
4a.m.  to  9  a.m. 

4  a.m.  to  9  a.m. 
4 a.m.  to  9 a.m. 
4  a.  m.  to  9  a.  m. 
3-4  a.  m.  to  9  a. 

m. 
3  a.  m.  to  9  a.  m. 

1.78 
1.77 

1.75 
1.66 
1.31 
1.01 
1.03 
1.15 
1.36 
1.61 
1.70 

1.74 

9  a.  m.  to  3  p.  m. 
9  a.  m  to  3-4  p. 

m. 
9  a.  m.  to  4  p.  m. 
9  a.m.  to  4  p.m. 
9  a.m.  to  4  p.m. 
9  a.  m.  to  4  p.  m. 
9  a.m.  to 4 p.m. 
9  a.m.  to 4 p.m. 
9  a.m.  to  3  p.m. 
9  a.m.  to 3 p.m. 
9  a.  m.  to  3  p.  m. 

9  a.  m.  to  3  p.  m. 

2.89 
2.96 

3.12 
3.18 
2.62 
2.06 
1.78 
1.94 
2.14 
2.44 
2.46 

2.68 

3  p.m.to  10  p.m. 
3-4  p.m.  to  11  p. 

m. 

4  p.m.  to  11  p.m. 
4  p.m.  to  11  p.m. 
4  p.m.  to  11  p.m. 
4  p.m.  to  11  p.m. 
4  p.m.  to  11  p.m. 
4  p.m.  to  10  p.m. 
3  p.m.  to  10  p.m. 
3  p.m.  to  10  p.m. 
3  p.m.  to  10  p.m. 

3  p.m.  to  10  p.m. 

2.14 
2.13 

2.46 
2.62 
2.45 
2.29 
2.02 
2.14 
2.19 
2.20 
2.07 

2.15 

11p.m.  to 3 a.m. 
11  p.  m.  to  3-4  a. 

m. 
11  p.  m.  to  4  a.  m. 
11  p.m.  to  3  a.m. 
11p.m.  to  3  a.m. 
11p.m.  to  4  a.m. 
11  p.  m.  to  4  a.  m. 
10  p.m.  to  4  a.m. 
10  p.m.  to  4  a.m. 
10  p.  m.  to  4  a.  m. 
10  p.  m.  to  3-4  a. 

m. 
10  p.m.  to  3  a.m. 

1.03 
0.95 

1.09 
1.10 
1.14 
1.24 
1.27 
1.35 
L41 
1.37 
1.32 

1.21 

Mean.. 

1.49 

2.62 

2.24 

1.21 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  II. 


DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERIC 
PRESSURE  AT  MANILA 

1887-1808 

L , 

Janaary 

March 

May 

iTtin 

6c 

6c 

$i 

9S 

-- 

— 

van 

7S$ 
$4 

S-9 

rse 

ft 
ft 

s-r 
if 

AprA 
June 

^ 

■^ 

"^ 

^ 

■ 

""^^ 

■^ 





^^ 

^ 

Sfc,_- 

^ 

" 

— 

— 

r^ 

--^ 

--. 

..^ 

^ 

'^ 

N 

^-= 

■^ 

^ 

^^ 





-— 



^ 

■-^ 

>s 

=- 

— 

^^ 

.^ 

N 

^ 

^ 

.^ 

" 

.__ 

___ 

.. 

'       ■ 

1 

■■- 1 

- 

— 

^ 

--^ 

'^^r 

^-^ 

■*~~ 

---. 

t^__ 

N 

\^ 

^ 

^ 

"^ 

' 

__ 

— 

— 

— 

— 

..... 

1 

— 

— 

1 

-^ 

'^^ 

^-^ 

— 

^ 

^ 

^ 

— 

— 

=^ 

^ 



■^ 

"^ 

~~^ 



-^ 

--> 

-^ 



_ 



-' 

' 

_ 

_ 

__ 

— i. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  III. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  IV. 


DAIL 

int.  i     1      i 

Y  VARIATION  OF  THE  ATM( 
PRESSURE  AT  MANIL/J 

_^     .    .      .     .     .     .•887..a98.     .     .     ,     , 

DSPHERIC 

i 

L...- 

to 
May 

From 

June 

to 

October 

Annual 
Mean 

mm, 

$c 

Si 

^; 

s6 

w 

ss 

— 

!      1 

1 

1 

SI 

€6 

ss 

Tram, 

to 
May 

June 

to 

Octxibm 

Annaal 
Mean 

, 

1 

"T 

- 

— 

1 

— \ — J 

- 

— 

I 1 

—- "- 

-• — \ 

L 

1 

1 

1 

" 

t 

1 

u 



---^ 

^ 

^ 

l~ 

r^ 

^ — 

^ 

-^^i^^ 

1 

-— 

- 

^ 

1 

'n 

k 

r^ 

; 

— . 

"t"r 

^ 

— 

— 

1  1 

j 

1 1 

... 

-1 

1 

"^ 

1 

^ . 

■ — 

— " 

— ^ 

^^ 

"'-^ 

-J 





-^ 

^^ 

^ 

— 

r 

~A 

1 

^~ 

- 

-~ 

"^ 

.  - 

^ 

-- 

== 

^ 

' 

■^ 

"^ 

-— . 

— ^ 

" 

""v 

^ 

--^ 

^ 

— 

— - 

1 

— 

^.^^ 

__. 

___ 

,|. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    OOMMISSIOISr.  139 

From  a  mere  glance  at  this  table  the  following  principal  conclusions 
may  be  deducted: 

(1)  The  difference  between  the  morning  maximum  and  the  afternoon 
minimum  is  generally  greater  than  that  noticed  between  the  night  max- 
imum and  the  dawn  minimum. 

(2)  The  afternoon  minimum  may  be  considered  in  general  as  the 
absolute  minimum  of  the  whole  day.  This  law  is  so  constant,  as  may 
be  seen  by  looking  over  the  leaves  of  ''Extreme  values"  of  our 
monthly  bulletins,  that  we  take  the  liberty  of  asserting  that  with  very 
rare  exceptions,  the  daily  minimum  is  only  registered  in  the  morning 
in  days  oi  marked  atmospheric  disturbance. 

(3)  The  barometer  usually  rises  considerably  higher  in  the  noctur- 
nal semioscillation  than  in  the  diurnal  one. 

(4)  Hence,  considering  two  entire  oscillations,  or  which  consist  of 
one  rise  and  one  fall  of  the  barometer,  it  may  be  said  that  the  oscilla- 
tion which  takes  place  from  the  morning  maximum  to  the  night  maxi- 
mum is  generally  greater  than  the  other,  which  takes  place  from  the 
night  maximum  to  the  maximum  of  the  following  morning. 

(5)  The  mean  value  of  the  ascent  which  the  barometer  experiences 
during  the  night,  or  in  the  nocturnal  semioscillation,  is  less  than  the 
amount  of  the  previous  descent  of  the  diurnal  semioscillation  in  the 
months  of  January,  February,  March,  April,  May,  October,  Novem- 
ber, and  December;  but,  on  the  contrary,  it  is  greater  in  the  months 
of  June,  July,  August,  and  September. 

(6)  From  the  preceding  conclusion  we  deduct  that,  speaking  in  gen- 
eral of  the  whole  year,  the  morning  maximum  can  not  be  taken  as  the 
absolute  maximum  of  the  whole  day,  nor  as  the  maximum  daily  oscil- 
lation the  difference  between  the  morning  maximum  and  the  afternoon 
minimum.  This  can  only  apply  to  the  months  of  January,  February, 
March,  April,  a-nd  December,  and  especially  to  the  first  four,  in  which  the 
afternoon  descent  is  apt  to  be  very  much  greater  than  the  night  ascent. 
In  the  months  from  June  to  September,  the  daily  maximum  will  be  more 
frequently  observed  at  night  than  in  the  morning,  but  as  the  difference 
between  the  mean  value  of  the  night  ascent  and  that  of  the  previous 
fall  is  hardly  noticeable,  and  less  than  0.25  mm.  in  each  one  of  the  four 
months,  hence  the  night  maximum  can  not  be  taken  in  general  as  the 
daily  maximum  either.  In  the  months  of  October  and  November, 
although  the  mean  night  ascent  is  less  than  the  afternoon  descent,  the 
difference  is  slight,  which  supposes  that  the  daily  maximum  may  be 
registered  several  times  during  the  night;  it  being  therefore  demon- 
strated in  these  two  months  that  the  morning  maximum  may  be 
regarded  as  the  absolute  maximum  of  the  whole  day. 

(7)  The  extent  of  the  mean  afternoon  descent  gradually  increases 
from  July  to  April,  and  diminishes  rapidly  from  April  to  July.  The 
difference  between  the  mean  extent  of  these  two  months  is  1.40  mm. 
The  mean  amplitude  of  the  night  ascent  and  the  dawn  descent  varies 
relatively  little  from  one  month  to  another.  The  mean  monthly  extent 
of  the  morning  rise  differs  somewhat  more,  which  increases  progres- 
sively from  June  to  February  and  diminishes  from  February  to  June, 
the  difference  between  the  two  extremes  being  0.76  mm. 

(8)  The  morning  maximum  is  generally  observed  about  9  o'clock, 
whereas  the  night  maximum  is  somewhat  later,  taking  place  between 
10  and  11  p.  m. ;  nearer  10  in  the  months  of  August  to  January,  and 
nearer  11  m  the  other  six  months,  from  February  to  July. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


140 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


(9)  The  minimums  at  dawn  and  in  the  afternoon  are  observed,  speak- 
ing in  a  general  way,  between  3  and  4  o'clock.  The  afternoon  mini- 
mums  are  usually  registered  at  3  in  the  months  of  September,  October, 
November,  December,  and  January,  and  also  February  (at  least  in  part), 
or  when  the  sun  is  in  the  Southern  Hemisphere.  In  the  other  months, 
when  the  sun  is  in  the  Northern  Hemisphere,  they  generally  occur 
at  4.  The  dawn  minimums  are  observed  nearer  4  o'clock  in  the  months 
of  March,  June,  July,  August,  September,  and  October;  sometimes 
nearer  3  and  others  nearer  4  in  February  and  November,  and,  finally, 
they  are  usually  registered  at  3,  or  shox^tly  after,  in  the  months  of  Janu- 
ary, April,  May,  and  December. 

LAWS   OF   THE    ANNUAL   DAILY    OSCILLATION. 

Now,  formulating  a  table  similar  to  the  one  we  presented  of  the 
hourly  means  of  each  month  for  the  hourly,  annual,  and  semiannual 
means,  which  are  at  the  end  of  Table  IX  and  in  the  curves  of  Plate  IV, 
we  shall  get  this  result: 


Diurnal  oscillation. 

Nocturnal  oscillation. 

Ascent. 

Descent. 

Ascent. 

Descent. 

Annual 

November  to 
May. 

June  to  Octo- 
ber. 

4  a.  m.  to  9 
a.m. 

3  a.  m.  to  9 
a.m. 

4  a.  m.  to  9 
a.m. 

1.48 
1.67 
1.23 

9  a.m.  to  3-4  p.m. 
9  a.  m.  to  3  p.  m.  - . . 
9  a.  m.  to  4  p.  m  . . . 

2.47 
2.80 
2.04 

3-4  p.  m.  to 
10  p.m. 

3  p.  m.  to  10 
p.m. 

4  p.  m.  to  10 
p.m. 

2.17 

2.22 
2.12 

10 p.m. to  4 

a.m. 
10 p.m. to  3 

a.m. 
10  p.  m.  to  4 

a.m. 

1.18 
1.09 
1.31 

According  to  this  table  we  note  in  the  hourly  annual  variation : 

(1)  That  the  least  semioscillation  corresponds  to  the  dawn  descent, 
and  the  greatest  to  the  afternoon  descent; 

(2)  That  the  night  ascent  is  noticeably  greater  than  that  of  the 
morning;  and 

(3)  That  the  morning  maximums  and  the  afternoon  minimums  cor- 
respond, respectively,  to  9  and  to  3  and  4  o'clock;  whereas  the  night 
maximum  and  the  dawn  minimum  correspond  to  10  and  4  o'clock. 

THE  DAILY  OSCILLATION  OF  THE  BAROMETER  IN  THE  PERIODS  FROM 
JUNE  TO  OCTOBER  AND  FROM  NOVEMBER  TO  MAY. 

Between  the  two  semiannual  variations  the  following  most  remark- 
able differences  are  observed: 

(1)  The  amplitude  of  the  semioscillations  of  the  morning,  after- 
noon, and  night  is  greater  in  the  mean  of  the  period  from  November 
to  May  than  in  the  other  from  June  to  October,  the  dawn  semioscil- 
lation being,  on  the  contrary,  less. 

(2)  The  ascent  of  the  nocturnal  semioscillation  is  less  than  the 
descent  of  the  previous  diurnal  one  in  the  mean  of  the  period  from 
November  to  May,  but  is  greater  in  the  mean  of  the  other  period. 

(3)  The  afternoon  minimums,  as  well  as  the  dawn  minimums,  occur 
at  3  o'clock  in  the  first  period  and  at  4  in  the  second.  The  morning 
maximum  is  in  both  periods  at  9  o'clock,  and  the  night  maximum  at  10. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


IN  NORMAL  ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  DAYS 


12  13  January  169 J.       22-23 Febnmry  1896.        17-18  March  mm 


23-24- JllIv  [8,99.  2.Q-30  Julv  fAW.        24- ~2.'\  Aunu.'it  m.W 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  141 

CURVES    TRACED    IN    NORMAL   WEATHER    BY   THE    SPRUNG-FUESS    BARO- 
GRi^PH   OF   THE   MANILA    OBSERVATORY. 

To  illustrate  this  most  important  subject,  we  have  selected  among 
the  curves  traced  in  normal  weather  by  the  Sprung-Fuess  barograph, 
three  which  may  be  regarded  as  typical  for  the  months  in  which  the 
greatest  barometric  oscillation  occurs,  and  three  others  proper  to  the 
months  of  the  least  oscillation. 

We  have  intentionally  given  preference  to  curves  in  which  the  oscil- 
lation has  been  somewhat  more  pronounced  than  ordinary,  in  both 
directions,  in  order  that  the  difference  ma}^  thus  be  more  marked. 

VI— THE  HOURLY  MEANS  OF  ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  COMPARED 
WITH  EACH  OTHER  AND  WITH  THE  MONTHLY  MEANS. 

In  order  to  fully  confirm  the  laws  which,  as  we  have  seen  in  the  pre- 
ceding paragraph,  govern  the  daily  oscillation  of  the  barometer  in 
Manila,  and  in  order  to  deduct  some  others  besides,  of  no  less  impor- 
tance, we  have  made  Table  X,  in  which  we  shall  not  do  more  than  give 
the  differences  between  each  one  of  the  hourly  means  of  Table  IX  and 
the  respective  monthly  means,  adding  below,  as  auxiliary  data,  the 
mean  value  of  the  ascent  or  descent  between  each  one  of  the  twenty- 
four  hours  and  that  immediately  preceding. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


142 


« 
^ 


^ 
S^ 


^ 
^ 


I 


BEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


I      f     I     I      f     I      I     I 


o  o*  o  o*  o  o*  rA  ^  o  ^-;  d  ^ 


05     O     (35     CO     5© 
Oi     1-1     (^     00     ^ 

I 


S  §  g 


'=©^©<^d'=©==^*©o^d^ 
i     I     f     I     I      I  I  I 


fill 


CO     CO 

I     I     ! 


©«^MCO,ocq,'^Oe«C^w 
©     ^    O     <^    ©'     O     <-J     d    ^     d     ^* 


*   "=**   r?   '=^*   ©    '=>   ©    o   ^   d   „•   d 
I  I  I      I      I      I      I 


i©   SO 


I        I        I        I 


^.     O^»S)'*©C0^CN^ 
^     ©     ^     ©     '^*     ©     ■=>     lH     O     ^ 


I©  CO  QO 
©  ^  <N 
©     O     o* 


'>Tj-^»QW|55T-Hp^T3^^(5T}<3^CO©C<l^ 


^^     O     "-I     ?©     "^    ©     lO     ^ 

"    o   o*    o    ^ 
!      !      f      I 


f 


r-i     2  ©  ^ 

1H     ^  CO  iH 

d  ^'  d 

I  I  I 


'  ©*  ®"  © 


I   i   I   I 


^'  © 


fe  2 


CO     ** 

O     o*     d     o' 

fill 


»0     r^     CO     t»     CO     iH 

CO    ^     (N     ^     a     OS 

d     ^     d    <5' 


«o  «e  10  (N 

'-^    ©     <N    CO 

o   S   d  ^   ci   ^ 


I  I      I      I      f      I      I      I 

©     "="     ©     <=^'     ©     "=     iH     '=^'    tH     © 


IH*     O     ^*     d     o' 


f 


O    ^     ^     _.     ^     _.     o    ^-     d    ^-    o    ^-    d    ^«    d 


:    O    ^ 

I 


to    t^    (M 

(N     CO     ^ 


1        I        I 


CO^OCM^OcOO^ 


I      I 


;-i   ©    50    ©    CO   »« 

<^    (M     CO     10     CO    tC  _ 

o    ^    d    ^'    d    <^ 


'    ©•    o    ^ 


to     ©■     O     fH 
r-(      .-      O      to 


©*    ^   ©    ^   ©    o   <-J    d   ^ 

I   I   I   I   I   I 


^     QfO     CO 
rH     ^     CO    ■ 

d 
I 


o   ©•    d   ^ 
I      I 


10       QC 


'=^'     IH     O 
I         f        f 


"    ©    ^    ©*    o    ^'    d    ^    d    ^ 


I   i   I 


I    I    I 


©  =>■  © 


^    © 


05    r»    lo    eo 

^  (N  o  ;ii 


''^   nj  "s  f^  ^p 

_     ^     CO  50  -rt*  t^  ,.  ^  ^, 

©     '='    ©     <^*  ©  '^'  ©  O  ^  d 

I  I  I  !  I  I  I 


©  *=^  ©  "^  ©   '=^' 


I     I     I     I 


© 
I     I 


M     Oi    »0 
fH      Csl     ^ 

©*     O'     ©     ^     © 


CO     50 


05     "tfl 


S  i2  o  S 


'    ©    o    e* 


.  -        © 

■=  ©  ^  © 


JO     t>.     tH     ©     (M     .^     u^ 
■^    -*     "O     00     ^    (N     CO 

^   ©    o   o'    o   ^    d 


CO   ©    oj  ©  o  i© 

CO     ©     CO  (J,  c^  ^^ 

d   o'    o  <5-  d  ^ 

I  I  I  I 


'    t^    00    CO     o 

;   ©   rH   a,-,    CO   , 


I      I 


^00»©COCOCJ©CO 
©     <='     fH     "^     ©     O     ^     d 


■    ©•    o    ©•    o   ^    d    <^' 


"*    ^  ®  7a' 

iH     '^  lO  "^O 

©•     O  <-J  d 

I        I        i 


I        I 


0^0 
I        I 


=>  © 


I    I    f 


;    ^     Cq     ©     10    © 

:    IN    ^,    ©0    f-f    S 

1H    ©    rH    O    r4 


'    JS    iH    Tt;    ©0    T^ 
•    '^    50    ^    «0    00 

d   ©•    d   <-J    d 


(   I   [   f   I   I 


»0     C^     ©     ;3<     ©     O     CO 
<N     CO    Q     CO     (5^     (N     -- 


I        f        I        f        f 


3  S 


$2*3.';:^©SS<N(MaD'<*< 
.■■      .-,    ^ao'o©,co^(Ng^;23 

•^   ©    o   O*    o    ^   d   ^-    d   ^-   d   ^-d 
1      I  I 


O  CO  tH  «0  CO  © 

CO  ^  CO  «)  (N  J^ 

o  ^  d  ^-J  d  ^' 

I  I  I  I  I  I 


8 


CO 

09 

C^ 

r» 

0 

© 

a> 

^ 

00 

'^ 

00 

1H 

<o 

Tt< 

0 

1 

© 

0 

1 

© 
I 

0 
1 

1H 
1 

0 
I 

1 

0 
1 

'  © 
I 


I     (N     CO     t, 

'    ©    o    © 


6^6 
I     i 


o   p- 

I 


CO    «o    © 
-**<   c^   <* 

*   <=^  © 


rH     O     ^     O    ^     d    ^     d    ^    d    ^ 
'  I  III 


I        I        I        I 


1        I        I 


>  ©  tH  »©  T}<  r-( 
I  r-(  C^l  ^  CO  S 
'     ©     ^    ©     O     ^ 


^   00   t>- 


«©   t^   © 

©0    <^    (N 
IH*     O     ^* 


>0     ©     r-j     t>.     <M 
""I     t-»     "^     tH      '^ 


t^     (M     <N    ■<*     (N 

•^  (N  «o  ;5  CO 


©       ^      FH 

I 


I   I   I   I  I 


fi^  a 


*  a 

a 

a 

*«Ne8c4ae4eliieBco 


s  ^'  s  ^ 


c5  oi>  ^  S  ^ 


r   ®    r 

6      fi     rH 


g     ft    g     ft 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


143 


I 


I 


CO    Its    t^    »o    o 
1-1    as    CO    »o    Tt< 

©  ^ 


©1  CO  »o 

09  '-I  CS 

^'  ^  d 

I  I 


©  ^  ©• 


i.o3;"*io5©^f-(o>t>. 


'«   22  '-^   2   ^ 


TH<MOCCC?Ht>QOS"«!H«OiiO 
^COoCO^'rJ*54"<tlt^COQ(r) 

©^©^©^©==^*©«=© 


l^  25  1H  ?0 

D-  O  ».o  '^^ 

o  o  ^  o 

!  I 


I  to  t>»  CO  !>.  o 

1  O  05  C^  »0  ^ 


TH      O   O 

I       I 


© 

I 


-=  © 


CO  1^1  <M  •^  C^  ■*  O 


^   -^Ti   I.N   -^ 

^  «S  =^  CID 


I 


! 


I 


OS  CO  eo  «o 

tH  O  o  '-^ 


^*  ^'  © 


'0'^©"=^©'^©'^©'^©'^ 


I  I 


I 


I 


©9  C]  «© 

^  ,H  OS 

f4  O  <^ 

I  I  I 


^  ® 


CO  ^ 

©  ^  © 

1       i 


c3'-t*c3©oaooos'H©g5 

^5-l'=*^»«COa(0(N(X)Oq5<M 
OoJ'^©'^©'^©'^'©'-^' 


o 

1 

! 

O 

© 
1 

O 

© 
I 

<15 

?1 

lO 

^ 

1-H      "=> 


'     ©      ^      © 


O     «     C^I     © 

CO    c»    ■^    - 


O   o>    ^*   ©    '^*   ©    "-^ 


(^^ 

CO 

o 

o 

fir 

rH 

,^ 

CO     © 

r-i 

o 

© 

o 

to     O 

1 

o 

1 

1 

o 

^ 

O 

© 
[ 

o    ^ 

© 

r^ 

•^ 

to 

iO 

a> 

© 

52   <* 

t* 

o 

•* 

(M 

© 

CO 

U5 

-#    © 

■    CO    CO    ©    t^ 


O    OS    ■==>    ©    ®    ©' 


6   OS 


o  ,N    (N   OS 
o  ^   o   © 


OS     ©      O      ©      CO     QC 

i    CO    1©    C^     lO    '=='^    •^ 
O     OS     '==     ©     "^^     © 


I 


^     CO     -♦<     t^     10 
^     rH     o     "^     © 


d   OS    =^   © 


oi    tH    -*<    1-1    (M    ijq 

CO     (SI     ^     »1     'S^     »,© 

-       •      -do* 


iH     ©     GO 


^ 


I 


I 


I 


be  •      . 

:::::::::;::::::  J  '3  :    ■ 

:  a  :  a   :  a   :  a   :  a   ;  a  :  I  :  p.  I  a  II 

Aob      P4t}*      ftlA      P4<yb      ftl>      P«06^Cft.^r-lQ,rH 


Hostea  by 


Google 


144  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

CONCLUSIONS     DEDUCTED     FROM    THIS    TABLE — HOURS    IN    WHICH    THE 
ASCENT   OR   DESCENT    OF    THE    BAROMETER    IS    USUALLY    GREATER   OR 

LESS. 

A  careful  examination  of  the  iirst  part  of  this  table,  which  contains 
the  differences  between  the  hourly  means  and  the  monthly  means, 
serves  principally  to  confirm  in  a  marvelous  manner  all  that  we  have 
said  regarding  the  laws  of  the  double  daily  oscillation  of  the  barom- 
eter; but,  in  the  second  place,  or  from  the  differences  between  each  one 
of  the  hourly  means  and  that  immediately  preceding,  the  following 
conclusions  may  also  be  deducted: 

(1)  In  genei-al,  the  fall  of  the  barometer  is  more  marked  from  0  to  2 
a.  m.  and  from  11  a.  m.  to  2  p.  m.  than  in  the  other  hours  of  descent. 

(2)  Among  the  hours  of  ascent  this  is  much  more  pronounced  from 
5  to  8  a.  m.  and  from  5  to  9  p.  m. 

(3)  In  all  the  months  the  difference  between  3  and  4  a.  m.  and  3  and 
4  p.  m.  are  very  insignificant,  which  confirms  the  fact  that  between 
these  two  hours  the  minimums  of  the  dawn  and  of  the  afternoon  must 
take  place. 

(4)  The  least  morning  differences  are  observed,  with  the  exception 
of  the  month  of  April,  between  9  and  10  a.  m.,  it  being  observed, 
besides,  that  even  in  the  other  months  the  difference  between  these  two 
hours  is  very  small,  if  it  is  compared  with  that  between  10  and  11  a.  m. 
From  this  may  be  deducted,  in  confirmation  of  what  was  said  in  the 
preceding  paragraph,  that  the  morning  maximum  is  usually  registered 
in  the  neighborhood  of  9,  at  times  a  little  before  this  hour,  but  more 
commonly  a  little  after — that  is  to  say,  between  9  and  9.30  a.  m. 

(5)  The  least  night  difference  is  from  10  to  11  p.  m. ,  except  in  Novem- 
ber and  December,  in  which  the  difference  is  least  from  9  to  10  p.  m. 
This  would  tend  to  prove  that  in  these  last  two  months  the  hour  of  the 
nightly  maximum  advances  a  little,  which  is  generally  registered 
between  10  and  11  p.  m. 

(6)  In  general,  the  differences  are  less  in  the  hours  nearest  the  maxi- 
mums and  minimums,  and  they  increase  as  they  depart  from  them 
and  again  gradually  diminish  as  the  following  maximum  or  minimum 
approaches;  and,  indeed,  examining  day  by  day  the  curves  traced  by 
the  Sprung-Fuess  barograph  since  it  was  installed  in  this  observatory, 
in  1886,  it  is  noted  that  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  maximums  and 
minimums  the  atmospheric  pressure  remains  for  a  time  little  less  than 
stationary,  without  rising  or  falling,  the  beginning  and  the  end,  both 
of  the  barometric  ascent  and  descent,  being,  besides,  generally  very  low 

VIL— ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  IN  DIFFERENT 
POINTS  OF  THE  ARCHIPELAGO. 

OBJECT  OF  THIS  PARAGRAPH  AND  METHOD  FOLLOW^ED  TO  FIND  THE  BAR- 
OMETRIC MEANS  OF  VARIOUS  PHILIPPINE  STATIONS. 

Neither  the  time  nor  the  data  at  our  disposal  permit  us  to  make  a 
complete  and  careful  study  of  the  annual  variation,  and  much  less  of 
the  daily  variation,  of  the  atmospheric  pressure  in  the  different  islands 
which  compose  the  Philippine  Archipelago.  And,  on  the  other  hand, 
what  has  been  said  of  Manila  is  applicable,  with  slight  variations,  to 
all  of  them;  hence  we  content  ourselves  for  the  present  by  choosing  a 
few  of  the  principal  stations  and  giving  the  monthly  means  of  several 
years  of  observation,  leaving  further  investigations  on  this  subject  for 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


145 


other  works  which  could  be  accomplished  with  better  success  when 
there  are  more  data  and  a  greater  number  of  meteorological  stations, 
especially  in  Visayas  and  Mindanao. 

Considering  that  even  in  the  official  stations  in  Luzon  only  five  or 
six  daily  observations  were  made,  which  were  frequently  interrupted 
on  account  of  urgent  telegraphic  services,  no  other  means  has  occurred 
to  us  to  find  in  a  somewhat  approximate  manner  the  barometric  means 
of  said  stations  than  to  take  as  such  the  means  of  the  observations  of 
10  a.  m.  and  4  p.  m. ,  hours  which  are  not  far  removed  from  the  maxi- 
mum and  minimum  of  the  diurnal  oscillation.  And  although  it  is  true 
that  the  absolute  daily  maximum  during  certain  months  of  the  year  is 
observed  rather  at  night  than  in  the  morning,  as  we  said  in  paragraph 
V,  still,  as  we  are  only  dealing  with  an  approximate  value,  and  mainly 
desiring  to  see  the  relative  annual  variation  of  atmospheric  pressure  in 
different  regions  of  the  Philippines,  it  is  readily  seen  that  said  method 
is  not  to  be  in  any  way  despised,  especially  as  we  can  not  rely  upon 
other  data  of  greater  accuracy. 

ATMOSPHERIC    PRESSURE   IN   APARRI   AND   ALBAT. 

Having  briefly  indicated  the  method  we  have  followed  in  finding  the 
monthly  means,  let  us  take  up  in  the  first  place  the  stations  of  Aparri 
and  Albay,  located  at  the  two  extremes  north  and  south  of  Luzon, 
collecting  in  the  two  Tables  XI  and  XII  the  means  of  the  period  of 
ten  years,  from  1886  to  1895. 

Table  XI. — Monthkj  and  annual  barometric  means  at  the  station  of  Aparri  during  the 

period  from  1886  to  1895. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1886 

mm. 
763.1 
762.1 
764.1 
764.1 
762.5 
762.1 
762.2 
761.2 
761.9 
762.8 

mm. 
64.1 
62.6 
63.5 
64.1 
62.8 
63.2 
60.5 
61.5 
63.9 
63.1 

mm. 
62.3 
61.8 
62.5 
63.6 
61.6 
60.9 
59.4 
61.0 
61.4 
61.9 

mm. 
59.8 
60.0 
60.7 
60.7 
60.5 
59.7 
58.5 
59.4 
59.7 
60.3 

mm. 
59.0 
58.9 
58.9 
59.8 
68.8 
57.7 
56.8 
56.8 
57.9 
58.1 

mm. 
57.6 
57.8 
56.9 
58.6 
58.3 
55.7 

"58."  9" 
57.0 
57.1 

mm. 

"m'.K 

56.1 
57.6 
57.5 
54.7 
55.9 
56.3 
57.1 
57.1 

mm. 
57.5 
58.2 
57.1 
57.7 
58.0 
56.1 
57.3 
56.5 
56.8 
56.0 

mm. 
57.2 
56.5 
58.6 
58.9 
55.6 
55.8 
54.6 
55.0 
56.2 
55.7 

mm. 
60.0 
69.7 
61.9 
59.1 
57.9 
59.2 
57.1 
59.2 
59.3 
59.8 

mm. 
62.0 
61.3 
62.4 
60.4 
61.3 
60.0 
59.5 
63.0 
60.8 
62.4 

mm. 
63.6 
62.6 
63.2 
62.4 
61.5 
63.3 
63.0 
63.0 
63.0 
63.6 

mm. 

1887 

59.8 

1888 

60.5 

1889 

60.6 

1890 

59.7 

1891 

69.0 

1892 

1893 

69.3 

1894 

69.6 

1895 

69.8 

Mean 

762. 6 

62.9 

61.6 

59.9 

58.3 

57.5 

56.5 

57.1 

56.4 

59.3 

61.3 

62.9 

69.8 

Table  XII. — Monthly  and  annual  barometric  means  at  the  station  of  Albay  during  the 

period  from  1886  to  1895. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1886 

mm. 
761.7 
760.5 
761.2 
757.2 

mm. 
62.2 
60.8 
62.4 
62.2 
60.9 
62.3 
60.2 
60.8 
61.5 
61.4 

mm, 
61.7 
60.2 
61.4 
62.6 
60.1 
60.8 
59.1 
60.7 
59.6 
60.2 

mm. 
59.5 
60.0 
60.6 
60.5 
69.6 
59.9 
59.3 
59.1 
59.4 
69.5 

mm. 
58.9 
58.4 
58.9 
69.6 
68.7 
68.7 
58.1 
67.1 
67.6 
68.0 

mm. 
58.9 
58.3 
57.8 
68.8 
68.0 
57.1 
67.3 
58.6 
57.8 
57.4 

mm. 

'bl'.h' 
56.3 
67.9 
56.7 
56.2 
57.0 
57.2 
57.4 
57.9 

mm. 
67.8 
58.3 
58.0 
68.3 
56.9 
67.1 
58.0 
67.0 
57.2 
56.6 

mm. 
57.6 
57.1 
58.0 
58.0 
55.0 
67.6 
56.6 
66.6 
56.6 
56.3 

mm. 
58.8 
59.3 
60.0 
67.3 
56.6 
58.6 
56.8 
68.0 
58.0 
68.5 

mm. 
59.5 
59.5 
60.4 

"59.' 7* 
68.3 
57.7 
59.1 
58.9 
60.0 

mm. 
59.9 
60.3 
61.1 
58.6 
59.9 
60.7 
59.7 
59.7 
60.2 
60.7 

mm. 

1887 

59.2 

1888 

59.7 

1889 

1890 

1891 

759. 5 
759.8 
760.0 
759.8 
760.3 

58.9 

1892 

58.3 

1893 

58.7 

1894 

58.7 

1896 

68.9 

Mean 

760.0 

61.5 

60.6 

69.7 

58.4 

68.0 

57.2 

57.5 

66.9 

68.2 

59.2 

60.1 

58.9 

Hosted  by 


Google 


146 


EEPOBT   OF   THE    PHILIPPHSTE    COMMISSION. 


MONTHLY    MEANS    OF    APAKKI    AND    ALBAY    COMPARED    WITH    THOSE    OF 

MANILA. 

Comparing  the  means  of  both  stations  with  each  other  and  with  those 
of  Manila,  it  is  seen  that  the  maximum  and  minimum  pressures  are 
observed  in  the  same  months  in  the  three  points  cited;  but  both,  and 
especially  the  first,  are  much  more  pronounced  in  Aparri  than  in 
Manila  and  Albay,  and  for  the  same  reason  the  annual  variation  of  the 
atmospheric  pressure  is  greater  in  that  station  than  in  the  two  latter. 

ANNUAL   MEANS. 

The  annual  mean  of  Aparri  is  759.8  mm.,  and  that  of  Albay  758.9 
mm.,  differing,  respectively,  from  that  of  Manila  by  0.5  and  0.4  mm. 

In  Tables  XIII  and  XI V  we  give  the  monthly  barometric  maxima 
observed  at  10  a.  m.  in  the  same  two  stations  of  Aparri  and  Albay. 

Table  XIII. — Monthly  barometric  maxima  observed  at  10  a.  m.  in  the  station  of  Aparri 
during  the  period  from  1886  to  1895. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1886 

mm. 
768.8 
767.1 
768. 5 
768.2 
768.2 
766.2 

767.3 
767.1 
766.1 

mm. 
68.4 
68.8 
68.0 
68.2 
67.7 
69.0 
65.9 
65.5 
67.8 
67.5 

mm. 
66.1 
65.0 
67.4 
68.2 
66.8 
65.6 
63.7 
66.8 
68.3 
66.9 

mm. 
63.7 
64.7 
63.8 
63.3 
64.9 
63.9 
63.4 
64.5 
63.2 
65.0 

mm. 
63.1 
61.6 
62.5 
63.1 
62.0 
62.3 

mm. 
61.8 
61.5 
60.4 
61.6 
61.7 
58.8 

mm. 

"ei.'s" 

60.7 
61.2 
61.9 
59.0 
59.5 
59.8 
59.7 
60.9 

mm. 
60.4 
60.9 
62.1 
60.7 
61.0 
60.3 
59.8 
59.7 
60.3 
60.6 

mm. 
61.7 
62.2 
62.1 
62.1 
58.6 
60.6 
60.2 
61.1 
61.3 
59.6 

mm. 
63.9 
64.3 
66.6 
63.5 
63.9 
63.9 
61.8 
65.3 
63.1 
62.2 

mm. 
65.8 
65.8 
66.9 
66.9 
65.3 
66.2 
64.6 
65.9 
65.7 
67.0 

mm. 
68.3 
64.7 
68.0 
67.4 
64.4 
67.7 
66.4 
67.2 
69.1 
67.6 

mm. 

1887 

68.8 

1888 

68.5 

1889 

68.2 

1890 

68.2 

1891  . 

69.0 

1892 

1893 

61.5 
61.5 
62.6 

61.3 
61.0 
59.6 

67.3 

1894 

69.1 

1895 

67.6 

Mean 

767.5 

67.7 

66.5 

64.0 

62.2 

60.9 

60.4 

60.6 

61.0 

63.9 

66.0 

67.1 

68.3 

Table  XIV. — Monthly  barometric  maxima  observed  at  10  a.  m.  in  the  station  of  Albay 
during  the  period  from  1886  to  1896. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Means. 

1886 

mm. 
765.9 
764.0 
764.3 
764.3 

mm. 
66.0 
64.8 
66.4 
64.6 
63.9 
66.2 
62.9 
64.9 
64.6 
64.5 

mm. 
65.6 
63.2 
63.8 
66.4 
62.5 
63.9 
62.1 
64.6 
64.1 
63.6 

mm. 
63.0 
64.6 
62.8 
62.9 
63.1 
62.8 
62.5 
63.1 
62.7 
62.5 

mm. 
61.3 
61.6 
62.2 
62.5 
62.2 
61.9 
60.8 
60.2 
61.1 
61.0 

mm. 
61.5 
61.3 
60.5 
61.4 
61.5 
60.1 
60.4 
61.7 
60.4 
60.2 

mm. 

"m.'i 

60.0 
60.8 
61.0 
59.5 
59.8 
60.0 
59.7 
60.6 

mm. 
60.5 
61.2 
61.6 
62.3 
59.4 
60.2 
60.1 
61.0 
59.4 
60.1 

mm. 
59.8 
61.0 
60.8 
62.4 
58.7 
61.7 
60.9 
60.8 
60.9 
60.3 

mm. 
61.8 
62.2 
63.3 
60.4 
61.1 
62.5 
61.1 
61.5 
60.7 
60.7 

mm. 
62.5 
62.3 
63.9 

'63.' 6' 
62.1 
61.0 
62.3 
62.3 
63.6 

mm. 
62.7 
62.5 
64.7 
62.9 
62.3 
64.0 
63.1 
62.9 
64.9 
64.0 

mm. 

1887 

64.8 

1888 

66.4 

1889 

1890 

1891 

763.1 
764.0 
764.5 
762.9 
762.9 

66.2 

1892 

64.0 

1893 

64.9 

1894 

64.9 

1895 

64.5 

Mean 

764.0 

64.9 

64.0 

63.0 

61.5 

60.9 

60.2 

60.6 

60.7 

61.5 

62.6 

63.4 

65.2 

MAXIMUM   BAROMETRIC   HEIGHTS   AT   APARRI   AND    ALBAY. 

We  have  already  seen,  in  paragraph  II  of  this  chapter,  that  the  abso- 
lute maximum  observed  in  Manila  m  all  the  period  from  1887  to  1898 
was  766.78  mm.,  whereas  in  Aparri  it  reached  769.1  mm.  in  December, 
1894,  and  769  in  February,  1891,  its  attaining  the  height  of  767  mm. 
and  768  mm.  during  the  months  of  December,  January,  February, 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


147 


and  March  being  even  less  rare.  That  was  not  the  case  in  Albay, 
where  the  maximum  for  the  period  from  1886  to  1895  did  not  exceed 
766.4  mm.,  observed  in  February,  1888,  and  March,  1889. 

ATMOSPHERIC    PRESSURE    AT    OOlHER   POINTS   IN   THE    ARCHIPELAGO. 

In  Table  XV  we  have  grouped  together,  besides  the  monthly  means 
of  Manila,  Aparri,  and  Albay,  those  of  eight  other  stations  in  Luzon, 
which  are  the  following:  Daet,  on  the  eastern  coast;  San  Isidro, 
Bayombong,  and  Tuguegarao,  of  the  center  of  the  island,  and  Bolinas, 
Vigan,  Laoag,  and  Punta  Santiago,  on  the  western  coast.  We  add  at 
the  end  of  the  same  table  the  means  derived  from  a  few  years  of  obser- 
vation for  Iloilo,  Calbayog,  and  Zamboanga.^ 


Table  XV. 


-Monthly   barometric  means  of  various  stations  of  Luzon, 
Mindanao. 


VisayaSj    and 


stations. 

Jan. 

Fob. 

mm. 

62.9 

61.47 

61.92 

60.92 

61.58 

61.14 

61.32 

61.52 

61.75 

61.08 

61.5 

60.64 

60.2 

59.9 

Aparri 

mm. 
762.6 
761. 19 
762. 29 
760. 47 
761. 62 
760. 91 
761.08 
761.27 
762. 29 
760. 68 
760. 00 
759.  70 
758. 9 
759.1 

Laoag  

Tuguegarao 

Vigan 

Bayombong 

CaboBolinao 

San  Isidro 

Manila     

Ddet 

Punta  Santiago.. 
Albay  

Calbdyog(Samar) 
Iloilo 

Zamboanga 

Mar. 


mm. 
61.6 
60.52 
60.  65 


Apr. 


mm. 
59.9 
59.65 
59. 15 


72^  58.81 
60.36^  59.09 
59.95:  58.93 
60.18!  59.02 
60.60  59.57 
60.79  59.75 


60.07 

60.6 

59.39 

58.8 
58.7 


.13 

9.7 
8.91 

'8.2 
'9.2 


May. 


mm. 

58.3 

58.0! 

57.33 

57.33 

57.43 

57. 63 

57.  68 

58.4' 

57.98 

58.31 

58.4 

58.01 

57.8 

57.8 


June, 


mm. 

57.5 

57.59 

57.03 

56.98 

57. 15 

57.24 

57.71 

58.08 

57.67 

57.68 

58.00 

57.72 

57.9 

58.9 


July. 


mm. 

56. 5 

57. 16 

56.49 

56.53 

56.48 

56.95 

57.53 

57.50 

57.07 

57. 58 

57.2 

57.60 

57.7 

59.3 


Aug. 


mm. 

57.1 

57. 19 

56.47 

56.56 

56.45 

56. 91 

57.31 

57.75 

56. 95 

57.49 

57.5 

57.08 

57.7 

59.6 


Sept. 


mm. 

56.4 

56.49 

56.14 

55.95 

56.01 

56.42 

57. 16 

57.  62 

56.67 

57. 28 

56.9 

56. 9{ 

57.9 

59.2 


mm. 

59.3 

58.09 

58.40 

57.66 

58.28 

58.25 

58.38 

58.88 

58.31 

58.36 

58.2 

57.95 

58.3 

59.8 


mm. 

61.3 

59.75 

60.57 

69.06 

60.08 

59.40 

59.69 

59.55 

59.47 

59.23 

59.2 

58.75 

58.7 

59.1 


Dec. 


Years 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tion. 


mm. 

62.9 

61. 25 

62.53 

60.57 

61.88 

61 

61.22 

60.92 

61.21 

60.37 

60.1 

59.21 

59.2 

58.3 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 

16 
6 
6 

10 
3 
4 
2 


The  annual  means  may  be  seen  in  the  following  schedule: 


stations. 


Annual 
mean. 


Complete 
years  of  ob- 
servation. 


Aparri 

Laoag 

Tuguegarao 

Vigan 

Bayombong 

Cabo  Bolinas 

San  Isidro 

Manila 

Ddet 

Punta  Santiago . . 

Albay  

Calbayog  (Sdmar) 
Iloilo 


Millimeters. 
59.78 
59.04 
59.13 
58.28 
58.87 
58.69 
59.02 
59.31 
59.08 
58.91 
58.91 
68.48 
58.70 


8 
6 
6 
5 
6 
3 
6 
16 
6 
5 
7 
2 
2 


^  We  have  chosen  just  these  three  stations  because  there  are  in  them  good  mercu- 
rial barometers.  There  were  also  some  in  the  farm  houses  of  La  Carlota  and  Cebii; 
but  they  must  have  had  an  instrumental  error  which  is  unknown  to  us.  The  Iloilo 
observations  are  from  the  agronomic  station  established  there.  We  owe  those  from. 
Calbdyog  to  the  generosity  of  the  teacher,  Don  Bio  Santos,  and  finally  we  have  to 
thank  for  those  of  Zamboanga  the  care  of  Father  Baltasar  Ferrer,  S.  J. ,  to  whom 
this  observatory  is  indebted  tor  valuable  observations  made  by  him  during  his  two 
years'  residence  in  the  capital  of  Mindanao. 


P  C — VOL  4 — 01- 


-14 


Hosted  by 


Google 


148  REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

If  these  annual  means  are  compared  with  those  which  could  be 
obtained  from  the  monthly  means  of  Table  XV  differences  will  be 
noted  in  some  stations  due  to  the  fact  that  in  calculating  the  annual 
mean  we  have  omitted  some  incomplete  years  of  observation  which  we 
took  into  account  in  deducting  the  monthly  means. 

REMARKABLE  BAROMETRIC  INCLINATION  TOWARD  THE  NORTH-NORTHEAST 
IN   LUz6n   during   THE   MONTHS   OF  HIGH   ATMOSPHERIC   PRESSURE. 

Comparing  the  normal  monthly  means  of  the  stations  in  Luzon 
included  in  Table  XV  with  each  other,  a  very  remarkable  fact  worthy 
of  attracting  our  attention  is  noted,  which  we  shall  only  briefly  indi- 
cate. We  refer  to  the  barometric  inclination  which  exists  in  the  island 
of  Luzon  during  the  months  of  high  atmospheric  pressures,  from  Aparri 
to  Laoag,  Vigan,  and  Cabo  Bolinas.  The  center  of  maximum  pressure 
in  these  months  of  December,  January,  February,  and  March  being 
in  the  interior  of  the  continent  of  Asia  and  to  the  north-northwest  of 
Luzon,  it  would  appear  natural  that  the  stations  of  Aparri  and  Laoag, 
being  almost  on  the  same  parallel,  one  at  the  north  and  the  other  at 
the  northwest  of  the  island,  the  same  isobar  would  reach  both,  greater 
than  those  corresponding  to  the  other  stations  located  in  lower  parallels. 
However,  it  is  not  so,  but  on  the  contrary,  we  may  say  that  whereas 
Laoag,  Vigan,  and  Cabo  Bolinas  are  almost  in  the  same  isobar  as 
Manila,  the  atmospheric  pressure  rises  in  a  remarkable  manner  from 
Manila  to  Bayombong,  from  Bayombong  to  Tuguegarao,  and  from 
Tuguegarao  to  Aparri,  the  isobar  of  this  latter  place  being  on  an  aver- 
age 2  mm.  greater  than  that  of  Vigan  and  Laoag.  And  even  on  days 
when  the  pressure  reaches  its  maximum  it  exceeds  it  by  3  and  even 
4  mm.  So  that  it  appears  as  if  a  center  of  high  pressure  exists  toward 
the  north-northeast  of  Luzon,  extending  its  isobars  in  the  form  of  an 
ellipse,  whose  longer  axis  is  inclined  from  north-northeast  to  south- 
southwest. 

THE    ANNUAL    VARIATION   OF    THE    ATMOSPHERIC    PRESSURE    IN    MANILA 
COMPARED   WITH   THAT    OF   VISAYAS   AND   MINDANAO. 

Moreover,  the  annual  variation  of  the  atmospheric  pressure  in  Manila, 
and  in  general  in  southern  Luzon,  differs  little  from  that  oli^gerved  in 
Visayas  and  Mindanao.  On  the  whole,  according  to  the  data  from 
Zamboanga,  it  appears  as  though  it  could  be  said  that  the  barometer 
there  does  not  rise  as  high  as  in  Manila  in  the  months  of  high  pressure, 
and,  on  the  contrary,  it  remains  a  little  higher  in  the  months  in  which 
atmospheric  disturbances  are  most  frequent,  or  from  J  une  to  September. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTER  III. 
TEMPERATURE   OF  THE  AIR. 


I.— ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  TEMPERATUKE  OF   THE  AIR  IN 

MANILA. 


THE    MEAN   TEMPEKATURE    OF   THE    AIR   IN    MANILA    IN   THE     DIFFERENT 
MONTHS    OF   THE   YEAR. 

In  Table  XVI  we  give  the  annual  course  of  the  temperature  of  the 
air  in  Manila,  deducted  from  24  daily  observations  and  from  sixteen 
years  of  observation  (1883-1898).  According  to  this  table,  the  mildest 
month  is  January,  the  months  of  December  and  February  following 
in  the  second  place;  the  temperature  rises  considerably  in  the  month 
of  March,  reaching  its  maximum  in  May;  it  diminishes  very  gradually 
from  May  to  July,  and  from  August  to  September;  in  August  it  keeps 
the  same  degree  of  heat  as  in  eJuly,  and  in  October  the  same  also  as 
in  September,  and  it  again  diminishes  from  October  to  January,  but 
in  this  second  part  of  the  3"ear,  or,  in  the  months  in  which  the  temper- 
ature decreases,  the  sudden  jumps  which  occur  in  the  first  part  are  not 
noted  if  the  mean  normal  temperature  of  February  is  compared  with 
the  normal  temperature  of  March  and  the  latter  with  that  of  April. 

Table  XVL — Mean  moyithly  mid  annual  temj^eratures  for  tJte  period  from  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1883 

25.2 
23.6 
24.6 
25.2 
25.2 
24.9 
25.8 
25.6 
24.6 
25.3 
24.1 
24.7 
24.7 
24.6 
25.7 
25.5 

25.6 
24.7 
24.4 
24.7 
25.3 
25.2 
26.4 
25.9 
25.0 
26.0 
25.4 
25.0 
25. 1 
25.8 
26.3 
26.2 

27.7 
26.4 
26.1 
26.4 
26.7 
27.5 
27.5 
27.3 
26.7 
27.1 
26.5 
26.6 
26.7 
27.2 
27.7 
26.3 

28.2 
27  8 
27.3 
28.3 
27.7 
28.7 
29.4 
27.9 
28.6 
28.0 
28.3 
28.2 
28.3 
28.4 
29.0 
27.9 

28.7 
28.2 
28.5 
28.5 
27.7 
29.2 
30.3 
27.9 
29.8 
28.8 
27.8 
28.0 
28.0 
27.6 
29.4 
28.2 

°  a 

27.1 
27.0 

28.3 
27.5 
27.6 
27.8 
28.7 
27.3 
27.6 
28.1 
27.7 
27.7 
27.8 
28.0 
29.5 
27.6 

26.7 
26.3 
27.3 
27.0 
27.1 
26.1 
27.5 
27.3 
26.8 
27.3 
27.3 
27.2 
27.5 
27.3 
27.5 
26.7 

27.4 
26.5 
27.1 
27.5 
27.3 
27.2 
27.3 
27.4 
26.6 
27.0 
27.7 
27.3 
27.1 
26.4 
27.1 
27.3 

o  a 

26.5 
26.6 
27.6 
27.1 
26.3 
27.6 
27.5 
26.5 
26.8 
26.7 
26.6 
26.8 
26.9 
27.2 
27.2 
27.2 

°  a 

26.5 
26.6 
27.3 
26.6 
26.4 
26.3 
27.1 
26.1 
27.4 
27.1 
26.5 
26.9 
27.5 
27.2 
27.3 
26.9 

°  a 

26.0 
25.9 
26.4 
26.0 
26.1 
26.5 
26.5 
25.4 
26.8 
25.8 
25.7 
25.6 
25.8 
26.4 
26.8 
26.1 

24.1 
24.3 
25.2 
24.9 
25.4 
26.0 
24.9 
25.2 
25.5 
25.0 
25.4 
25.0 
25.1 
25.3 
25.5 
25.7 

°  a 

26.6 

1884 

26.2 

1885 

26.7 

1886 

26.6 

1887 

1888 

26.6 
26.9 

1889. .       . 

27.4 

1890 

26.6 

1891.            

26.8 

1892 

26.9 

1893 

26.6 

1894 

26.6 

1895 

26.7 

1896.                  .     . . 

26.8 

1897 

27.4 

1898.                  .     . . 

26.8 

Mean 

25.0 

25.4 

26.9 

28.3 

28.5 

27.8 

27.1 

27. 1  j  26. 9 

26.9 

26.1 

25.2 

26.8 

149 


Hosted  by 


Google 


150 


REPORT  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  COMMISSION. 


THE  NORMAL  MONTHLY  TEMPERATURES  COMPARED  WITH  THE  NORMAL 
ANNUAL  TEMPERATURE. 

The  greater  or  less  degree  with  which  the  normal  temperature  of  the 
different  months  of  the  year  increases  or  diminishes  may  be  clearly  seen 
in  the  following  table,  in  which  we  give  the  difference  between  the 
normal  mean  of  each  month  and  the  annual  mean: 


Month. 


Monthly- 
mean. 


Differ- 
ence. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Annual  mean 


25.0 
25.4 
26.9 
28.3 
28.5 
27.8 
27.1 
27.1 
26.9 
26.9 
26.1 
25.2 


26.8 


-1.8 
-1.4 
+  .1 
+1.5 
+1.7 
+1.0 
+  .3 
+  .3 
+  .1 
+  .1 
-  .7 
-1.6 


EXTREME  ANNUAL  MEANS — COMPARISON  BETWEEN  THE  NORMAL  AND 
THE  EXTREME  MEANS  OF  EACH  MONTH. 

Now,  if  we  compare  the  temperature  of  some  years  with  that  of 
others,  we  find  very  little  difference  between  the  mean  annual  tempera- 
tures, whose  extremes,  26.2^  in  1884  and  27.4^  in  1889  and  1897,  only 
differ  by  1.2^,  as  also  between  the  same  monthly  means. 

In  order  that  this  may  be  readil}^  seen,  we  have  arranged  the  follow- 
ing table,  in  which  we  give  the  extreme  differences  observed  in  the 
period  from  1883  to  1898  between  the  normal  temperatures  and  the 
means  of  each  month: 


Month. 


Normal 
mean. 


Maximum  positive 
difference. 


Maximum 

negative 

difference. 


January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August . . . 
September 
October... 
November 
December . 


25.0 
25.4 
26.9 
28.3 
28.5 
27.8 
27.1 
27.1 
26.9 
26.9 
26.1 
25.2 


0.8 

1.0 

.8 

1.1 

1.8 

1.7 

.4 

.6 

.7 

.6 

.7 


(1883, 1897) 

(1889) 

(1889) 

(1897) 

(1889,1895,1897) 

(1893) 

(1885,1888) 

(1895) 

(1897) 

(1888) 


1.4 

1.0 
.8 

1.0 
.9 
.8 

1.0 
.7 
.6 
.8 
.7 

1.1 


(1884) 
(1885) 
(1885) 
(1885) 
(1896) 
(1884 
(1888) 
(1896) 
(1887) 
(1890) 
(1890) 
(1883) 


So  that  the  greatest  positive  difference  of  the  monthly  means  is  1.8^ 
and  the  maximum  negative  difference  1.4^.  It  is  noted,  by  the  way, 
that  the  three  maximum  positive  differences  were  observed  in  the 
months  of  the  greatest  heat,  April,  May,  and  June,  and,  on  the  con- 
trary, the  two  maximum  negative  differences  correspond  to  the  two 
months  that  are  least  hot — January  and  December. 


Hoste(d  by 


Google 


Plate  VI. 


ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  TEMPERATURE 
AT  MANILA 

1883-1898 
^ £         r        M        A         M        J^        t/        A  S         O        M         D 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  151 

SLIGHT   ANNUAL   VARIATION   OF   THE    TEMPERATURE. 

A  mere  glance  at  Table  XVI  and  at  the  curve  that  we  have  traced  in 
Plate  VI  is  sufficient  to  convince  us  of  the  slight  annual  variation  of 
the  temperature  in  these  tropical  countries;  the  difference  between 
the  maximum  monthly  temperature,  which  is  that  of  May,  and  the 
minimum,  which  is  that  of  January,  does  not  exceed  3.5°. 

DIVISION   OF    THE   YEAR    INTO   THREE     GROUPS   OF    MONTHS   ACCORDING 
TO   THEIR   HIGHER    OR   LOWER   TEMPERATURE. 

Notwithstanding  this,  the  change  from  the  mild  temperature  proper 
to  the  months  of  December,  January,  and  February,  to  the  excessively 
hot  temperature  of  April  and  May  can  not  fail  to  be  sensibly  noted. 
And  so,  although  on  account  of  the,  distribution  of  rain  two  seasons 
are  recognized  in  the  Philippines  (one  called  dry  and  the  other  wet  or 
rainy,  as  we  shall  see  in  the  proper  place,  with  regard  at  the  same 
time  to  the  temperature)  some  authors  also  divide  the  year  into  three 
seasons,  which  they  call  dry  and  temperate  the  first,  hot  and  dry  the 
second,  and  wet  and  temperate  the  third.  In  corroboration  of  this 
see  what  is  said  in  the  Official  Guide  of  the  Philippines^  regarding  the 
general  characteristics  of  the  climate  of  this  archipelago: 

As  the  archipelago  is  wholly  situated  within  the  tropic  zone,  it  has  the  climate 
which  characterizes  the  countries  which  are  found  in  the  same  position.  The  high 
and  uniform  temperature  which  the  thermometer  registers  throughout  the  year  is 
the  chief  reason  which  makes  it  disagreeable  and  wearisome  to  live  in  this  region, 
and  which  produces  in  the  natives  the  laziness  and  inertia  which  characterizes  them, 
and  a  sensible  prostration  of  forces  in  the  Europeans  who  reside  for  some  years  in 
the  country.  But  this  uniformity  is  not  to  be  taken  in  an  absolute  manner;  for  there 
are  three  well-defined  seasons  in  the  year,  of  which  the  first,  temperate  and  dry, 
usually  includes  the  months  of  December  and  January  and  part  of  November  and 
February;  another,  excessively  hot  and  dry,  embraces  the  months  of  March,  April, 
and  May,  and  the  last,  finally,  temperate  and  wet,  extends  from  June  to  October, 
inclusive;  this  would  be  much  hotter  if  the  almost  constant  and  abundant  aque- 
ous precipitation  which  takes  place  in  those  months  did  not  come  to  refresh  the 
temperature. 

This  division,  so  far  as  the  annual  distribution  of  rain  is  concerned, 
or,  in  other  words,  the  dry  and  wet  or  rainy  seasons,  can  by  no  means 
be  applied  to  the  whole  archipelago,  but  only  to  the  interior  and  to 
the  western  coasts,  as  we  shall  see  in  Chapter  V.  This  same  fact  is 
duly  noted  in  the  place  cited  of  the  Official  Guide  in  these  words: 

It  must  be  stated  that  this  refers  only  to  the  interior  of  the  archipelago  and  to  the 
western  coasts  of  the  same.  This  is  not  the  case  on  the  eastern  coasts,  because  the 
season  which  we  call  here  temperate  and  dry  is  distinguished  there  by  much  precipi- 
tation, caused  by  winds  from  the  north,  both  by  condensing  the  great  mass  of  vapor 
rising  from  the  ocean  as  well  as  by  meeting  and  mingling  with  winds  from  the  south, 
which  also  are  bearing  a  great  quantity  of  evaporated  water  on  account  of  the  vast 
sea  surface  they  have  passed  over;  and  the  last,  which  we  call  hot  and  wet,  is  far 
from  being  on  thkt  coast  as  wet  as  on  the  western,  because  the  winds  have  already 
precipitated  on  this  coast  a  great  quantity  of  the  vapor  they  contained. 

Now,  therefore,  overlooking  here  the  annual  distribution  of  rains 
and  only  paying  attention  to  the  variation  of  the  temperature,  such  as 
presented  to  us  by  the  curve  of  Plate  VI,  it  appears  that,  with  respect 

^See  Oflacial  Guide  of  the  Philippines,  year  1898,  page  114. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


152 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


to  Manila,  the  twelve  months  of  the  year  could  be  divided  into  the  three 
following  groups:  The  first  would  comprise  the  months  of  temperature 
that  we  could  almost  call  temperate,  whose  monthly  means  oscillate 
between  25^  and  26.5°;  these  are  the  months  of  November,  December, 
January,  and  February.  In  the  second  we  would  include  the  months 
of  excessively  hot  temperature,  whose  monthly  means  range  between 
27.5^  and  28.5°,  or  the  months  of  April,  May,  and  June.  Finally, 
we  include  in  the  third  group  the  other  months  of  intermediate  tem- 
perature— that  is  to  say,  not  as  mild  as  the  months  of  the  first  group 
nor  as^excessively  hot  as  the  temperature  of  the  second  group — whose 
monthly  means  are  not  less  than  26.5°  nor  greater  than  27.5°;  conse- 
quently there  are  included  in  this  group  the  month  of  March,  which 
is  between  the  coolest  and  the  hottest  months,  and  those  of  July, 
August,  September,  and  October,  also  intervening  on  the  opposite  side 
between  the  same  two  extreme  seasons. 

With  this  it  is  seen  that  we  differ  considerably  from  what  is  said  in 
the  Ofificial  Guide  in  the  place  cited  a  short  time  ago.  But  this  has 
appeared  necessary  to  us,  because,  according  to  the  results  obtained 
with  the  observations  of  these  last  years,  which  are  much  more  accu- 
rate than  those  of  previous  years,  the  month  of  March  can  not  by  any 
means  be  included  among  the  months  of  excessive  heat,  because  the 
mean  which  corresponds  to  it  is  considerably  less  than  that  of  June, 
even  a  little  less  than  that  of  July  and  August,  and  the  same  as  that 
of  September  and  October. 


II.~MONTHLY    AND    ANNUAL    ABSOLUTE   MAXIMA  AND    MINIMA 
THE  TEMPERATURE  OF  THE  AIR  IN  MANILA. 


OF 


In  the  two  Tables  XVII  and  XVIII  we  include  the  monthly  and 
annual  absolute  maxima  and  minima  registered  in  this  observatory^ 
during  the  whole  period  from  1883  to  1898,  adding  at  the  foot  of  each 
table  the  respective  mean  values  of  said  maxima  and  minima. 

Table  XVIL — Monthly  and  annual  absolute  maxima  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in 
Manila  during  the  period  from  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Annual 
maxi- 
mum. 

1883 

33.2 
30.5 
30.6 
31.8 
32.1 
32.0 
33.0 
32.3 
31.4 
32.3 
31.7 
31.7 
33.0 
32.3 
33.9 
32.1 

°  a 

34.1 
31.4 
32.1 
32.9 
32.8 
33.8 
33.8 
32.8 
32.5 
35.4 
34.4 
32.4 
33.7 
32.9 
33.2 
32.5 

°  a 

34.8 
32.5 
33.9 
33.2 
33.7 
35.3 
35.0 
34.8 
33.7 
34.0 
35.5 
34.1 
35.4 
35.0 
34.6 
33.6 

35.8 
34.1 
34.0 
35.5 
35.0 
35.8 
37.2 
35.6 
35.4 
35.2 
36.1 
35.6 
36.2 
36.2 
35.4 
34.9 

35.8 
35. 2 
35.7 
34.9 
36.0 
36.7 
37.8 
35.7 
37.7 
36.9 
35.7 
35.4 
35.4 
35.0 
37.2 
35.4 

33.9 
33.4 
35.6 
34.4 
35.0 
34.4 
35.0 
34.7 
33.8 
36.0 
35.4 
34.9 
36.1 
35.3 
35.6 
33.8 

33.6 
31.8 
33.1 
33.3 
33.2 
33.0 
33.5 
33.1 
32.8 
33.4 
33.8 
34.9 
33.9 
34.4 
34.1 
32.7 

33.3 
32.2 
31.8 
33.3 
33.8 
33.4 
33.9 
33.3 
31.1 
34.6 
33.7 
33.8 
33.4 
32.1 
33.5 
31.7 

33.2 
32.0 
33.3 
32.9 
32.4 
34.2 
34.2 
33.2 
32.3 
32.1 
32.2 
33.2 
34.0 
33.3 
33.1 
34.3 

32.3 
31.9 
33.3 
33.4 
32.7 
33.7 
33.1 
32.2 
34.9 
33.3 
31.7 
33.9 
34.1 
34.4 
32.9 
33.2 

32.5 
32.9 
32.1 
33.4 
32.9 
32.4 
33.1 
32.2 
32.9 
32.2 
33.2 
31.7 
32.9 
32.7 
33.3 
32.8 

31.7 
31.1 
32.3 
31.7 
32.7 
33.3 
31.4 
32.1 
31.6 
31.1 
31.2 
32.2 
32.3 
33.2 
31.9 
31.7 

35  8 

1884. 

35.2 

1885 

35  7 

1886 

35.5 

1887.. 

36  0 

1888 

36.7 

1889 

37.8 

1890 

35.7 

1891 

37.7 

1892 

36  9 

1893 

36.1 

1894..     . 

35.6 

1895 

36.2 

1896. 

36.2 

1897 

37.2 

1898 

35.4 

Mean 

32.1 

33.2 

34.3 

35.5 

36.0 

34.8 

33.4 

33.1 

33.1 

33.2 

32.7 

32.0 

36.2 

Hosted  by 


Google 


KEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION, 


153 


Table  XVIII. — Monthly  and  annual  absolute  minima  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in 
Manila  during  the  period  from  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

°  a 

22.8 
22.2 
22.2 
21.9 
22.2 
23.2 
22.2 
23.3 
22.7 
22.1 
23.1 
22.8 
22.6 
20.6 
22.3 
22.5 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Annual 
mini- 
mum. 

1883 

1884 

1885 

18.3 
18.0 
18.6 
16.7 
17.2 
17.7 
18.2 
17.8 
17.8 
19.2 
17.2 
17.2 
18.3 
17.3 
17.9 
17.1 

19.2 
17.9 
18.3 
17.6 
17.2 
16.1 
20.0 
18.2 
17.2 
18.6 
17.8 
17.9 
18.2 
18.3 
18.7 
18.4 

20.1 
19.9 
17.4 
18.9 
19.9 
19.3 
19.4 
20.5 
18.3 
20.7 
18.9 
18.4 
1^.2 
18.3 
19.9 
19.8 

22.8 
21.0 
20.6 
20.7 
21.1 
21.4 
21.1 
21.9 
21.0 
20.7 
20.4 
18.9 
21.0 
19.8 
22.7 
21.0 

22.6 
23.1 
22.2 
22.8 
22.3 
22.8 
23.3 
22.9 
22.6 
21.7 
22.5 
22.3 
22.9 
22.9 
23.9 
23.0 

22.8 

22.8 

23.1 

22.8 

21.9 

22.8 

22.8 

22.2 

22.2 

22.9 

21.7 

22.8 

21.6 

23.4 

23.4* 

22.9 

22.8 
21.6 
22.9 
22.4 
22.8 
22.3 
22.8 
22.4 
21.1 
22.5 
22.8 
22.9 
21.6 
22.8 
22.4 
22.9 

22.8 
21.9 
22.9 
22.9 
22.2 
23.1 
22.8 
22.5 
22.2 
21.8 
21.7 
22.5 
21.4 
23.3 
23.1 
22.5 

22.2 
21.8 
22.4 
21.9 
20.6 
21.7 
22.9 
20.4 
21.2 
21.7 
21.1 
21.6 
20.6 
21.8 
22.2 
22.7 

°(7. 
21.0 
19.0 
21.0 
20.7 
21.2 
21.1 
21.4 
18.3 
21.1 
19.2 
20.8 
18.9 
18.8 
21.2 
21.7 
21.7 

°  a 

16.7 
17.5 
18.4 
19.2 
18.3 
17.7 
19.4 
17.8 
19.3 
15.7 
19.2 
19.3 
18.3 
18.7 
20.1 
19.4 

o 

16.7 
17.5 
17  4 

1886 

16  7 

1887    

17  2 

1888 

16  1 

1889    

18  2 

1890 

17.8 

1891 

17.2 

1892 

15  7 

1893 

17.2 

1894 

17.2 

1895 

18.2 

1896    

17  3 

1897 

17.9 

1898  ...    

17  1 

Mean 

17.8 

18.1 

19.2 

21.0 

22.7 

22.6 

22.4 

22.4 

22.5 

21.7 

20.4 

18.4 

17.2 

MEAN  VALUES  OF  THE  ANNUAL  AND  MONTHLY  ABSOLUTE  MAXIMA  AND 

MINIMA. 

According"  to  the  data  shown  by  these  tables,  the  difference  between 
the  means  of  the  absolute  maxima  and  minima  is  19°.  The  maxima 
and  minima  means  of  the  monthly  absolute  maxima  are  those  of  May 
and  December,  differing  only  by  4P, 

The  maxima  and  minima  means  of  the  monthly  absolute  minima  cor- 
respond to  the  months  of  May  and  January,  the  difference  being  4.9°. 

ABSOLUTE    MAXIMA   AND    MINIMA   OF    THE    WHOLE    PERIOD    FBOM    1883 

TO  1898. 

The  absolute  maxima  for  the  whole  period  we  are  studying  was  37.8°, 
registered  the  23d  of  May,  1889,  the  absolute  maxima  of  the  year  1891, 
37.7°,  being  very  near  it,  which  was  observed  on  the  21st  of  May. 
The  absolute  minima  of  the  same  period  was  15.7°,  and  corresponds 
to  the  31st  day  of  December,  1892.  Therefore  the  difference  between 
the  absolute  maxima  and  minima  of  these  sixteen  last  years  is  22.1°, 

MONTHLY   ABSOLUTE   MAXIMA   AND   MINIMA   OF  THE   WHOLE   PERIOD. 


The  monthly  absolute  maxima  and  minima  for  the  whole  period  may 
be  seen  in  the  following  table: 


Month. 


Minimum 


January  .. 
February  . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 


16.7 
16.1 
17.4 
18.9 
21.7 
21.6 
21.1 
20.6 
21.4 
20.4 
18.3 
15.7 


(1886) 
(1888' 
(1885* 
(1894' 
(1892J 
(1895 
'1891' 
i) 

1895) 
1890) 
'1890> 

1892) 


HosTe(d  by 


Google 


154 


EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


DISTRIBUTION   OF  THE  ANNUAL   ABSOLUTE   MAXIMA  AND   MINIMA   IN  THE 
DIFFERENT   MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

In  the  following  table  we  give,  distributed  among  the  different 
months  of  the  year,  the  annual  absolute  maxima  and  minima  of  the 
sixteen  years  included  in  the  period  from  1883  to  1898: 

Maxima: 

April 6 

May 11 

Minima: 

January 9 

February 4 

March 2 

December 4 

Naturally  the  annual  absolute  maxima  have  always  taken  place  in 
the  hottest  months,  which  are  April  and  May^  and  the  absolute  minima 
in  the  coolest,  which  are  December,  January,  and  February.  And 
although  it  is  true  that  we  also  find  two  minima  registered  in  the 
month  of  March,  still  they  were  observed  in  the  first  days  of  that 
month,  which  yet  share  in  the  thermic  conditions  of  the  month  of 
February.  This  fact,  which  we  do  no  more  than  to  intimate,  again  con- 
firms us  in  the  idea  expressed  in  the  preceding  paragraph,  that  the 
month  of  March  can  not  be  counted  among  the  hottest  months,  as 
supposed  in  the  Official  Guide  of  the  Philippines, 

III.— MONTHLY  MEANS  OF  THE  DAILY  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA  OF 
THE  TEMPERATURE  OF  THE  AIR  IN  MANILA— MEAN  VALUES  OF 
THE  DAILY  OSCILLATION. 

From  the  absolute  maxima  and  minima  of  all  the  days  of  the  month 
and  for  the  whole  period  from  1885  to  1898  we  have  deducted  the 
monthly  means,  which  we  include  in  the  two  tables,  XIX  and  XX.  The 
difference  between  the  values  of  these  two  tables,  or  between  the 
maximum  and  minimum  monthly  means,  will  give  us  the  monthly 
mean  oscillation,  as  may  be  seen  in  Table  XXI. 

Table  XIX. — MoiitJily  means  of  the  absolute  inaxima  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in 
Manila  during  the  period  from  1885  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1885 

28.8 
29.5 
30.2 
29.6 
30.8 
30.5 
29.0 
29.5 
29.1 
29.7 
29.8 
29.9 
30.9 
29.8 

29.4 
29.5 
30.3 
31.0 
31.6 
31.1 
30.0 
31.4 
31.0 
29.9 
30.5 
31.6 
31.6 
30.9 

31.2 
31.6 
31.8 
33.2 
33.2 
32.9 
32.1 
32.4 
31.8 
31.7 
32.1 
33.0 
32.6 
30.6 

32.3 
33.3 
32.4 
34.4 
35.1 
33.1 
33.9 
33.5 
33.9 
34.0 
33.5 
33.8 
34.0 
32.5 

33.4 
33.1 
32.4 
34.3 
35.8 
32.9 
35.0 
33.9 
32.1 
33.0 
32.0 
31.3 
34.1 
32.5 

32.8 
31.7 
31.8 
31.4 
33.2 
31.7 
31.2 
32.9 
32.5 
31.9 
32.2 
31.8 
33.4 
31.2 

30.3 
31.2 
30.1 
29.0 
31.7 
30.7 
29.8 
30.9 
30.9 
30.8 
31.6 
30.9 
31.2 
30.4 

30.2 
31.3 
31.4 
30.1 
31.0 
31.4 
29.6 
31.4 
30.8 
30.9 
30.8 
29.1 
30.5 
29.7 

31.3 
30.5 
29.2 
31.7 
31.7 
29.6 
29.6 
29.8 
29.7 
30.3 
29.9 
30.5 
31.3 
31.4 

31.6 
30.7 
30.5 
31.0 
31.1 
29.8 
32.1 
30.9 
30.2 
30.9 
32.2 
31.0 
31.0 
30.6 

30.4 
30.1 
29.9 
30.9 
30.2 
29.6 
30.4 
29.7 
29.6 
29.8 
30.4 
31.5 
31.0 
29k  4 

29.8 
28.7 
30.7 
30.6 
28.4 
29.6 
29.5 
29.2 
29.3 
29.0 
30.0 
30.5 
29.6 
29.9 

31.0 

1886                     .   . 

30  9 

1887 

30.9 

1888 

31.4 

1889 

1890 

1891 

32.0 
31.1 
31.0 

1892 

31.3 

1893 

30.9 

1894 

31.0 

1895 

31.3 

1896 

31.2 

1897 

31.8 

1898 

30.7 

Mean 

29.8 

30.7 

32.2 

33.6 

33.3 

32.1 

30.7 

30.6 

30.5 

31.0 

30.2 

29.6 

31.2 

Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


155 


Table  XX.— iforif/t/v/  mean3  of  the  monthly  absolute  minima  of  the  iemperaiure  of  the  air 
in  Manila  during  the  period  from  1886  to  1898. 


Year, 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1885 

20.5 
21.1 
20.8 
20.0 
21.4 
21.5 
20.7 
21.6 
19. 5 
20. 1 
20.2 
19.8 
20.7 
21.7 

20.0 
20.3 
20.5 
19.5 
21.6 
21.2 
19.9 
21.3 
20.1 
20.6 
20.2 
20.6 
21.2 
21.  6 

21.4 
21.4 
22.5 
22.4 
22.1 
22.2 
21.4 
22.5 
21.5 
21.9 
21.8 
22.0 
22.8 
22. 5 

23.0 
24.0 
23.2 
23.0 
23.8 
23.5 
23.3 
22.8 
23.2 
23.0 
23.2 
22.7 
24.1 
23.3 

24.2 
24.6 
23.8 
24. 2 
24.9 
23.9 
24.6 
24.1 
24.1 
23.8 
24.4 
24.3 
25.2 
24.0 

24.6 
24.1 
23.8 
24.3 
24.7 
23.7 
23.9 
24.0 
23.7 
24.0 
24.3 
24.5 
25.3 
24.3 

24.1 

23.8 
24.3 
23.7 
24.1 
23.8 
23.7 
24.0 
24.0 
23.8 
23.7 
24.1 
24.0 
23.6 

24.0 
23.8 
23.7 
23.7 
24.0 
23.6 
23.8 
23.3 
24.2 
24.0 
23.8 
23.8 
24.1 
24.3 

24.0 
24.1 
23. 6 
23.9 
24.0 
23.8 
23.9 
23.7 
23.4 
24.7 
24.0 
24.0 
24.1 
23.5 

23.6 
23.5 
22.9 
23.4 
23.8 
23.1 
23.2 
23.6 
23.2 
23.3 
23.3 
23.9 
24.0 
23.7 

23.1 
22.1 
22.9 
22. 6 
23.4 
21.7 
22.8 
22.4 
22.5 
22.0 
21.9 
22.2 
23  2 
23.2 

21.4 
21.7 
21.8 
21.9 
22.0 
20.8 
22.2 
21.6 
22.0 
21.5 
20.9 
20.7 
22.3 
22.0 

22.8 

1886 

22.9 

1887 

22.8 

1888 

22.8 

1889 

23.3 

1890 

22.7 

1891....= 

1892 

22.8 
22.9 

1893.. 

22.6 

1894 

22.7 

1895 

22.6 

1896 

22.7 

1897 

23.4 

1898 

23.1 

Mean 

20.7 

20.6 

22.0 

23.3 

24.3 

24.2 

23. 9 

23. 9 

23.9 

23.5 

22.6 

21.6 

22. 9 

Table  XXI. — 3fean  7nontJdy  oscillation  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in  Manila  during  the 

2)eri.odfrom  1885  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1885 

8.3 
8.4 
9.4 
9.0 
9.4 
9.0 
8.3 
7.9 
9.6 
9.6 
9.6 
10.1 
10.2 
8.1 

9.4 

9.2 

9.8 

11.5 

10.0 

9.9 

10.1 

10.1 

10.9 

9.3 

10.3 

11.0 

10.4 

9.3 

9.8 
10.2 

9.3 
10.8 
11.1 
10.7 
10.7 

9.9 
10.3 

9.8 
10.3 
11.0 

9.8 

8.1 

9.3 

9.3 

9.2 

11.4 

11.3 

9.6 

10.6 

10.7 

10.7 

11.0 

10.3 

11.1 

9.9 

9.2 

9.2 
8.5 
8.6 
10.1 
10.9 
9.0 
10.4 
9.8 
8.0 
9.2 
7.6 
7.0 
8.9 
8.5 

8.2 
7.6 
8.0 
7.1 
8.5 
8.0 
7.3 
8.9 
8.8 
7.9 
7.9 
7.3 
8.1 
6.9 

6.2 
7.4 
5.8 
5.3 
7.6 
6.9 
6.1 
6.9 
6.9 
7.0 
7.9 
6.8 
7.2 
6.8 

6.2 
7.5 

7.7 
6.4 
7.0 
7.8 
5.8 
8.1 

6.9 
7.0 
5.3 
6.4 
5.4 

7.3 
6.4 
5.6 
7.8 
7.  7 
5.8 
5.7 
6.1 
6.3 
5.6 
5.9 
0.5 
7.2 
7.9 

8.0 
7.2 
7.6 
7.6 
7.3 
6.7 
8.9 
7.3 
7.0 
7.6 
8.9 
7.1 
7.0 
6.9 

7.3 

7.3 
7.0 
8.3 
6.8 
7.9 
7.6 
7.3 
7.1 
7.8 
8.5 
9.3 
7.8 
6.2 

8.4 
7.0 
8.9 
8.7 
6.4 
8.8 
7.3 
7.6 
7.3 
7.5 
9.1 
9.8 
7.3 
7.9 

8.1 

1886 

8.0 

1887 

8.1 

1888 

8.6 

1889. .                ... 

8.7 

1890 

8.4 

1891 . 

8.2 

1892 

8.4 

1893 

8.3 

1894 

8.3 

1895 

8.6 

1896 

8.5 

1897 

8.4 

1898 

7.6 

Mean 

9.1 

10.1 

10.1 

10.3 

9.0 

7.9 

6.8 

6.7 

6.6 

7.5 

7.6 

8.0 

8.3 

RELATION  BETWEEN  THE  DIFFERENT  MONTHLY  MEANS  AND  THE 
MAXIMUM  TEMPERATURES, 

By  examining  the  mean  values  of  the  monthly  absolute  maxima 
given  in  Table  XIX  we  find  that  the  highest  means,  33.6^  and  33. 3^^, 
are  those  of  April  and  May,  and  the  least,  29.6°  and  29.8°,  those  of 
December  and  January;  the  means  of  the  remaining  months  oscillate 
between  30.2°  and  32.2°.  It  is  noted  thkt  the  means  of  the  absolute 
maxima  of  March  and  June  are  almost  identical,  and  even  that  of 
the  former  somewhat  higher  than  that  of  June;  but,  on  the  contrary, 
as  is  seen  in  Table  XX,  the  mean  of  the  minima  corresponding  to  the 
month  of  March  is  2.2°  less  than  that  of  June,  and  this  is  the  reason 
why,  in  spite  of  the  absolute  maxima  of  both  months  being  so  similar, 
still  the  monthly  mean  of  June  is  considerably  higher  than  the  monthly 
mean  of  March,  as  we  have  stated  in  Paragraph  I  of  this  chapter. 
The  rains,  which  begin  to  be  frequent  in  the  month  of  June,  produce 
a  notable  diminution  in  the  thermic  oscillation,  and  prevent  the  tem- 

f)erature  of  the  air  reaching  that  degree  of  heat  which  it  would  doubt- 
ess  attain  in  that  month  and  even  in  the  two  or  three  following  if  it 
were  not  for  the  state  of  cloudiness  and  the  abundant  aqueous  precipi- 
tation belonging  to  that  season  of  the  year.  To  this  same  fact  we 
attribute  the  rise  which  is  observed  in  the  mean  value  of  the  October 


Hosted  by 


Google 


156 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


maxima,  if  compared  with  that  of  the  three  preceding  months, 
because  in  that  month,  being  as  it  is  the  last  of  the  so-called  rainy  sea- 
son, the  frequency  of  the  rains  is  already  much  less,  and  therefore  the 
clearer  state  of  the  atmosphere,  especially  during  the  hottest  part  of 
the  day,  permits  the  absolute  maxima  of  the  temperature  to  be 
somewhat  higher,  whereas,  as  the  oscillation  is  also  greater,  the  mean 
of  the  minima  of  said  month  of  October  comes  to  0.4^  less  than  that 
of  July,  August,  and  September;  hence  it  is  easily  understood  how  the 
monthly  means  of  these  four  months  differ  so  little,  as  indicated  at  the 
beginning  of  this  chapter. 

RELATION   BETWEEN    THE    MONTHLY   MEANS   AND    THE    MINIMUM 
TEMPERATURES. 

If  we  note  the  relation  which  the  monthly  means  of  Table  XX  bear 
to  each  other,  we  shall  see  that  the  least  minimum  means  correspond 
to  the  months  of  February  and  January  and  the  greatest  to  May  and 
June.  The  mean  minimums  of  July,  August,  and  September  follow 
these  latter  and  preserve  the  same  degree  of  relationship,  the  mean 
values  of  the  minimums  of  the  remaining  months — October,  April, 
November,  March,  and  December — being  less  high. 


GREATEST   MAXIMUM    MEAN   AND    LEAST   MINIMUM    MEAN   IN   THE 
WHOLE   PERIOD. 

The  highest  mean  maximums  of  all  the  period  were  35.8^,  35.1°, 
35°,  corresponding  respectively  to  May  and  April,  1889,  and  May, 
1891.  The  least  minimum  mean,  likewise  of  the  whole  period,  was 
19.5°,  and  corresponds  to  February,  1888,  and  January,  1893.     There- 


fore  the  difference  between  the  two  extremes- 
16.3°. 


-35.8°  and  19.5°— is 


IV.  MAXIMUM  AND  MINIMUM  MONTHLY  AND  ANNUAL  VARIATIONS 
OF  THE  TEMPERATURE  OF  THE  AIR  IN  MANILA. 

The  two  tables  (XXII  and  XXIII)  include  respectively  the  maximum 
and  minimum  monthly  oscillations  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in 
Manila  during  the  period  of  sixteen  years,  1883-1898: 

Table  XXII. — Maximum  monthly  and  annual  variations  of  the  temjjerature  of  the  air  in 
Manila  during  the  period  of  JS8S  to  1898. 


Y€ar. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Annual 
maxi- 
mum. 

1883 

12.9 
11.3 
11.2 
11.9 
13.4 
11.5 
13.4 
12.8 
12.0 
12.3 
12.7 
13.9 
14.7 
14.0 
13.4 
13.0 

12.9 
11.1 
13.5 
12.0 
13.7 
13.9 
12.5 
12.7 
14.5 
15.0 
14.3 
13.2 
12.9 
14.3 
12.9 
12.9 

°  a 

13.2 
11.9 
14.3 
12.1 
12.6 
13.4 
14.0 
13.4 
13.6 
13.3 
13.8 
13.5 
14.6 
14.9 
13.4 
12.0 

13.0 
11.8 
12.7 
12.3 
12.5 
13.2 
14.3 
12.8 
14.1 
13.4 
13.0 
16.4 
13.3 
13.7 
11.6 
12.2 

10.9 
10.8 
11.6 
11.1 
11.6 
13.0 
13.0 
11.4 
12.5 
13.2 
11.4 
12.1 
11.4 
11.2 
12.1 
11.6 

°  a 

10.0 
9.0 
11.0 
10.2 
11.1 
9.4 
12.2 
11.5 
9.7 
12.0 
11.4 
11.0 
11.2 
10.3 
12.1 
10.4 

°  a 

9.8 
8.6 
8.9 
10.9 
9.3 
9.2 
10.2 
10.2 
8.9 
10.0 
9.8 
11.4 
10.1 
10.0 
9.8 
9.5 

°  a 

9.4 

8.8 

9.6 

10.0 

11.0 

8.4 

10.6 

10.7 

7.7 

11.5 

9.8 

10.0 

9.4 

8.9 

9.7 

8.9 

°  a 

9.4 
9.3 
9.4 
9.3 
8.4 
10.9 
10.6 
9.3 
8.8 
9.6 
8.6 
9.7 
9.7 
9.9 
9.3 
11.4 

°  a 

10.0 
9.3 
9.8 
11.2 
11.1 
11.0 
9.5 
10.7 
11.0 
10.6 
9.7 
10.9 
11.2 
11.0 
9.9 
9.3 

°  a 

11.0 
9.9 
10.2 
11.8 
10.5 
10.7 
10.8 
11.5 
10.8 
11.4 
11.5 
10.4 
12.2 
11.3 
10.9 
9.6 

°  a 

10.7 
10.3 
11.1 
11.1 
12.1 
11.3 
10.6 
12.0 
10.6 
12.7 
10.5 
10.3 
12.8 
13.8 
10.9 
11.2 

°  a 

13.2 

1884 

11.9 

1885 

14.3 

1886 

12.3 

1887 

13.7 

1888.     

13.9 

1889 

14.3 

1890 

13.4 

1891 

14.5 

1892 

15.0 

1893 

14.3 

1894.                 ..   . 

16.4 

1895 

14.7 

1896 

14.9 

1897 

1898 

13.4 
13.0 

Mean 

12.8 

13.3 

13.4 

13.1. 

11.8 

10.8 

9.8 

9.7 

9.6 

10.4 

10.9 

11.4 

14.0 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


157 


Table  XXIII. — Minimum  monthly  and  annual  variations  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in 
Manila  during  the  period  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

•  Feb. 

Mar. 

°  a 

6.7 
6.2 
5.2 
6.9 
6.3 
7.9 
8.1 
8.8 
6.6 
6.3 
6.2 
5.6 
5.9 
7.6 
4.7 
2.2 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dee. 

Annual 
mean. 

1883 

°  a 

4.4 
4.8 
5.2 
5.9 
4.5 
'  4.9 
5.1 
6.2 
2.5 
2.0 
5.4 
•5.4 
5.5 
5.8 
6.2 
3.7 

°  C. 
6.5 
4.5 
6.8 
6.2 
6.6 
8.3 
7.2 
7.1 
6.0 
6.2 
6.8 
6.5 
6.5 
8.0 
7.2 
2.9 

°  a 

4.3 
5.9 
4.4 
5.8 
4.2 
7.7 
7.2 
4.3 
7.4 
7.1 
6.7 
6.5 
6.7 
6.9 
7.9 
5.4 

°  a 

2.8 
3.2 
6.4 
5.5 
5.5 
5.0 
7.1 
5.8 
5.6 
7.3 
2.2 
5.3 
2.7 
2.9 
4.8 
3.2 

°  a 

3.9 

3.1 

3.5 

5.0 

4.7 

2.9 

5.6 

2.6 

2.3 

5.3 

1.6 

3.1 

2.9 

2.9 

4.3. 

3.5 

°  a 

1.6 
2.6 
3.4 
3.6 
3.1 
2.5 
2.7 
1.5 
2.6 
4.0 
2.4 
3.6 
4.5 
4.2 
3.9 
3.3 

°  a 

3.0 
2.8 
4.1 
2.8 
4.0 
2.9 
3.5 
5.4 
2.9 
4.0 
2.8 
3.6 
4.1 
2.7 
1.9 
2.2 

°  a 

2.1 
2.4 
2.6 
2.4 
2.9 
5.1 
4.3 
1.1 
3.2 
2.7 
3.4 
2.0 
2.5 
3.8 
2.7 
5.6 

°  a 

1.8 
5.2 
5.9 
1.9 
2.5 
2.6 
4.0 
2.6 
5.6 
3.5 
2.9 
5.5 
4.7 
2.7 
2.4 
3.2 

1.8 
3.4 
4.1 
4.0 
2.7 
5.0 
2.8 
2.9 
2.1 
3.2 
2.2 
3.1 
4.4 
6.0 
3.5 
1.8 

°  a 

4.6 
3.4 
6.0 
3.0 
4.1 
2.1 
1.2 
4.7 
3.7 
5.1 
5.0 
5.0 
5.0 
7.2 
3.8 
5.5 

°  a 

1.6 

1884 :. 

2.4 

1885 

2.6 

1886 

1.9 

1887 

2.5 

1888 

2.1 

1889 

1.2 

1890 

1.1 

1891.. 

1892 

2.1 
2.0 

1893. 

1.6 

1894 

2.0 

1895 

2.5 

1896 

2.7 

1897 

1.9 

1898 

1.8 

Mean 

4.8 

6.5 

6.3 

6.2 

4.7 

3.6 

3.1 

3.3 

3.1 

3.6 

3.3 

4.3 

2.0 

MEAN  MONTHLY  VALUES  OF  THE  MAXIMUM  VARIATIONS  OF  THE 

TEMPERATURE. 

According  to  the  result  which  Table  XXII  gives  us,  the  highest 
means  of  the  maximum  variations  are  those  of  February,  March,  and 
April;  then  follow  in  diminishing  order  the  means  of  January,  May, 
December,  November,  June,  and  October,  and  finally  those  of  least 
amplitude  correspond  to  July,  August,  and  September — that  is  to  say, 
to  the  months  that  are  most  rainy  and  have  the  greatest  nebulosity. 
From  December  to  May,  both  inclusive,  we  do  not  find  in  the  whole 
period  any  maximum  variation  the  amplitude  of  which  is  less  than  10^, 
On  the  contrary,  from  July  to  September,  and  especially  in  the  latter 
month,  the  maximum  oscillations  which  reach  this  amplitude  are  very 
few  in  number. 

RELATION    BETWEEN    THE    MONTHLY    MEANS    OF    THE    MINIMUM    OSCIL- 
LATIONS. 

The  relation  between  the  monthly  means  of  the  minimum  oscillations 
of  temperature  is  on  the  whole  very  similar  to  what  we  have  indicated 
for  the  means  of  the  maximum  oscillations.  The  means  of  least  ampli- 
tude are  those  of  July  and  September;  those  of  August,  November, 
October,  »Tune,  December,  May,  and  January  are  somewhat  greater 
and  in  ascending  order;  and  the  means  of  February,  March,  and  April 
show  the  highest  values.  As  it  may  be  said  that  the  most  insignificant 
oscillations,  less  than  4^  and  3°,  are  always  observed  on  very  rainy,  or 
at  least  very  cloudy,  days,  and  these  days  may  occur  in  any  of  the 
months  of  the  year;  hence  in  almost  all,  even  those  which  are  usually 
clearest  and  have  the  greatest  thermic  oscillation,  we  may  find  here 
and  there  a  minimum  oscillation  less  than  3^.  Only  in  the  month  of 
April,  to  which  corresponds,  as  will  be  seen  in  the  proper  place,  the 
least  nebulosity,  we  do  not  find  in  the  whole  period  of  sixteen  years 
any  oscillation  whose  amplitude  has  not  exceeded  4"^. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


158 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


MAXIMUM  AND  MINIMUM  OSCILLATIONS  OF  THE  WHOLE  PERIOD. 
EXTREME  VALUES  OF  THE  MAXIMUM  AND  MINIMUM  ANNUAL  OSCIL- 
LATIONS. 

The  maximum  and  minimmii  oscillations  for  the  whole  period  from 
1883  to  1898  are  of  16.4°  and  1.1^,  registered,  respectively,  the  9th  of 
April,  1894,  and  the  27th  of  September,  1890.  The  extreme  values  of 
the  maximum  annual  oscillations  are  16.4^  and  11.9^,  corresponding 
to  the  years  1894  and  1884.  The  minimum  annual  oscillations  are 
comprised  between  1.1^  and  2.7^,  observed  in  1890  and  1896. 

DISTRIBUTION    OF   THE   ANNUAL   MAXIMA     AND   MINIMA    IN    THE 
DIFFERENT   MONTHS    OF   THE    YEAR. 

In  the  following  table  we  give  the  annual  maximum  and  minimum 
oscillations  distributed  among  the  different  months  of  the  year: 

Maxima: 

January 3 

February 5 

March 6 

April 3 

Minima: 

January 1 

June 1 

July 1 1 

August 2 

September 5 

October 3 

November 2 

December 2 

The  greatest  frequency  of  annual  maximum  oscillations  is  observed 
in  the  months  of  February  and  March,  and  that  of  the  minimum  in  the 
month  of  September. 

MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM   OSCIUUATIONS    FOR   THE    ENTIRE    PERIOD. 

The  maximum  and  minimum  monthly  oscillations  for  the  entire 
period  may  be  seen  below. 


Month. 


January. . . 
February.. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November. 
December. 


[aximun 

I  oscillation. 

Minimum  oscil- 
lation. 

o  a 

°a 

13.9 

(1894) 

2. 0     (1892) 

16.0 

(1892) 

2.9     (1898) 

14.9 

(1896) 

2. 2     (1898) 

16.4 

(1894) 

4.2     (1887) 

13.2 

(1892) 

2.2     (1893) 

12.2 

(1889) 

1.6     (1893) 

11.4 

(1894) 
(1892) 

1. 5    (1890) 

11.6 

1.9     (1897) 

11.4 

(1898) 

1.1     (1890) 

11.2 

(1886, 1895) 

1.8    (1883) 

12.2 

(1895) 

1.8     (1883,1898) 

13.8 

(1896) 

1.2    (1889) 

Without  doubt  the  minimum  oscillation  corresponding  to  the  month 
of  December,  1889,  in  this  table  will  attract  attention,  but  it  should  be 
noted  that  this  was  observed  on  a  very  cloudy  day  when  there  were 
copious  rains,  due  to  the  influence  of  a  typhoon,  which,  proceeding  from 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


159 


the  Pacific,  divided  itself  into  two  branches  on  reaching  the  archi- 
pelago, one  passing  by  the  south,  not  very  far  from  Manila,  and  the 
other  advancing  toward  the  north  in  the  Pacific,  to  the  east  of  Luzon. 

DAILY   VARIATION    OF    THE    TEMPERATURE    OF    THE    AIR   IN    MANILA. 

The  daily  monthly  course  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in  Manila 
may  be  seen  in  Table  XXIV,  which  includes  the  hourly  means  of  each 
month,  taken  from  the  period  1889-1898.  These  same  mean  monthly 
values  have  been  used  in  tracing  the  twelve  curves  of  Plates  VII  and 
VIII. 

Table  XXIV. — Mean  hourly,  monthly,  annual^  mid  semiannual  variations  of  the  tem- 
perature of  the  air  during  the  period  1889  to  1898, 

FORENOON. 


Month. 

1. 

°  a 

23.1 
23.5 
24.6 
25.9 
26.4 
26.0 
25.  6 
25.6 
25.5 
25.2 
24.4 
23.5 

2, 

°  a 

23.1 
24.2 
25.5 
26.1 
25. 8 
26.4 
25.4 
25.3 
25.0 
24.2 
23.3 

3. 

°  a 

22.4 
22.7 
23.8 
25.0 
25.7 
25. 5 
25.2 
25.2 
25.2 
24.7 
23.9 
23.0 

4. 

°  C. 
22.0 
22. 3 
23.4 
24.5 
25.4 
25.3 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
24.5 
23.6 
22.8 

5. 

6. 

7. 

°C. 
21.7 
22.0 
23.7 
25.7 
27.0 
26.4 
25.8 
25.7 
25.7 
25.2 
24.0 
22.8 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

January             

°  G. 
21.7 
21.8 
23.0 
24.1 
25.1 
25.1 
24.8 
24.9 
24.9 
24.4. 
23. 5 
22.5 

21.5 
21.6 
22.8 
23.9 
25.2 
25.2 
24.8 
24.8 
24.8 
24.3 
23.3 
22.3 

23.4 
24.2 
26.1 
28.3 
29.0 
28.2 
27.2 
27.0 
26.9 
26.7 
25.4 
24.2 

25.7 
26.5 
28.1 
29.5 
30.0 
29.3 
28.2 
28.0 
27.9 
28.0 
26.8 
25.9 

°  a 

26.7 
27.3 
28.6 
30.0 
30.4 
30.0 
28.9 
28.6 
28.6 
28.8 
27.8 
26.9 

27.3 

28.0 
29.1 
30.6 
31.0 
•30.4 
29.3 
29.1 
28.9 
29.3 
28.4 
27.7 

27.9 

February  

28.5 

March  .              

29.8 

April 

31.3 

May 

31.5 

June 

30.7 

July..  .           

29.6 

August 

29.3 

September    

29.2 

October 

29.7 

November    

28.7 

December 

28.0 

Mean 

24.94 

24.67 

24.36 

24.07 

23. 82 

23. 71 

24.64 

26.38 

27.83 

28.55 

29.09 

29.52 

Mean,  November-May. . . 
Mean,  June-October 

24.49 
25.  58 

24.16 
25.38 

23.79 
25.16 

23.43 
24.96 

23.10 
24.82 

22.94 

24.78 

23.84 
25.76 

25.80 
27.20 

27.50 

28.28 

28.24 
28.98 

28.87 
29.40 

29.39 
29.70 

AFTERNOON. 


January 

February  

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Mean 

Mean,    November- 
May  

Mean,  June-October 


°  a 

28.4 
29.4 
30.6 
32.2 
32.0 
31.0 
29.8 
29.6 
29.4 
29.9 
29.0 
28.4 


29.98 


30.00 
29.94 


29.9 
31.2 
32.7 
32.1 
31.1 
29.8 
29.5 
29.3 
29.9 
29.0 
28.5 


0.16 


30.33 
29.92 


°  a 

29.1 
30.1 
31.4 
32.8 
31.8 
30.8 
29.6 
29.2 
29.0 
29.6 
28.8 
28.4 


0.06 


30.34 
29.64 


°  a 

28.7 
29.8 
31.0 
32.4 
31.2 
30.4 
29.1 
28.7 
28.5 
29.2 
28.4 
28.0 


29.62 


29.93 
29.18 


°  a 

27.8 
29.0 
30.2 
31.5 
30.5 
29.7 
28.6 
28.3 
28.0 
28.5 
27.6 
27.2 


28.90 


29.11 
28.60 


°  a 

26.6 
27.6 
28.8 
30.1 
29.6 
28.9 
27.9 
27.7 
27.4 
27.7 
26.8 
26.1 


27.93 


27.94 
27.92 


°  C. 
25.5 
26.4 
27.7 
29.0 
28.9 
28.2 
27.3 
27.2 
27.0 
27.1 
26.1 
26.4 


27.15 


27.00 
27.36 


°  a 

24.9 
25.7 
26.9 
28.3 
28.4 
27.7 
27.0 
26.8 
26.7 
26.8 
25.7 
25.0 


26.66 


26.41 
27.00 


°  a 

24.5 
25.1 
26.3 
27.7 
27.9 
27.3 
26.6 
26.5 
26.3 
26.3 
25.4 
24.5 


26.20 


25.91 
26.60 


o  a 

24.1 
24.7 
25.9 
27.2 
27.5 
26.9 
26.2 
26.3 
26.1 
26.0 
25.1 
24.3 


25.86 


25.64 
26.30 


°  a 

23.8 
24.4 
25.5 
26.9 
27.1 
26.6 
26.0 
26.0 
25.9 
25.7 
24.8 
24.0 


25.56 


25.21 
26.04 


°  a 

23.4 
24.0 
25.1 
26.4 
26.8 
26.3 
25.8 
25.8 
25.6 
25.5 
24.6 
23.8 


25.26 


24.87 
25.80 


°  a 

25.1 
25.7 
27.0 
28.4 
28.6 
28.0 
27.2 
27.1 
26.9 
27.0 
26.1 
25.3 


26.87 


26.60 
27.24 


DAILY    OSCILLATION    OF    THE    TEMPERATURE    OF    THE    AIR. 

In  the  following  table,  as  well  as  in  the  twelve  curves,  the  only  oscil- 
lation which  is  ordinarily  observed  in  the  daily  variation  of  the  tem- 
perature of  the  air  is  seen  at  once,  the  minimum  taking  place  at  5  or  6 
m  the  morning  and  the  maximum  from  1  to  3  in  the  afternoon. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


160 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


The  laws  which,  govern  this  oscillation  will  be  readily  observed  by 
means  of  the  following  table,  in  which  we  give  the  hours  of  the  minima 
and  maxima  and  the  amount  of  the  mean  oscillation  of  each  month, 
data  which  we  take  from  the  same  Table  XXIV: 


January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 


August 

September. 

October 


November . 
December  . 


Hours  of— 


Minimum.  Maximum. 


6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 
5  a.m. 

5  a.m. 
f5a.m. 
[6  a.m. 

6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 


»p.] 
3  p.] 
3  p.] 
3  p.] 
2p.  ] 
2  p.] 
ip.] 
2  p.] 
ip.] 
ip.] 
ip.i 
2p.i 
ip.i 
2p.i 
2  p.] 


Amplitude 
of  oscilla- 
tion. 


7.6 

8,5 

8.6 

8.9' 

7.0 

6.0 


4.8 
4.6 

5.6 


5.7 
6.2 


6.5 


LAWS     OF     THIS     DAILY     OSCILLATION     IN    THE     DIFFERENT    MONTHS     OF 

THE   YEAR. 

These  conclusions  may  evidently  be  deduced  from  this  table: 

1.  That  the  months 'of  greatest  oscillation,  whose  mean  amplitude  is 
comprised  between  7^  and  9^,  are  April,  March,  February,  and  Janu- 
ary.   The  greatest  mean  amplitude  is  of  8.9^  and  corresponds  to  April. 

2.  That  the  months  of  the  least  oscillation,  whose  amplitude  oscil- 
lates between  4^  and  5^,  are  July,  August,  and  September.  The  mini- 
mum mean  amplitude  of  thermic  oscillation  is  4.6°  and  corresponds  to 
the  month  of  September. 

3.  That  the  months  of  intermediate  oscillation,  whose  amplitude 
varies  from  5°  to  7°,  are  June,  October,  November,  and  December. 

4.  Hence  it  follows  that  what  we  read  in  the  OflScial  Guide  of  the 
Philippines,  page  115,  can  not  be  admitted  in  an  absolute  way,  that  is 
to  say,  that  the  greatest  oscillations  are  observed  in  the  most  temper- 
ate months  and  the  least  in  the  hottest  months;  because  it  is  certain 
that  April  is  the  hottest  month  after  May,  and  notwithstanding  it 
shows  the  maximum  thermic  oscillation.  The  reason  for  this  greater 
or  lesser  oscillation  must  be  sought  rather,  as  we  have  already  indi- 
cated, in  the  state  of  nebulosity  of  the  atmosphere. 

5.  In  the  months  of  the  greatest  oscillation — January- April — the 
minimum  corresponds  to  6  a.  m.  and  the  maximum  to  3  p.  m. 

6.  In  the  months  of  May  and  June  the  hour  of  the  minimum  as  well 
as'  that  of  the  maximum  is  somewhat  advanced,  the  former  occurring 
at  5  a.  m.  and  the  latter  at  2  p.  m. 

7.  In  the  month  of  July  the  minimum  hourly  observation  corre- 
sponds to  5  and  6  in  the  morning  and  the  maximum  to  1  and  2  in  the 
afternoon,  which  indicates  that  the  hour  of  the  minimum  is  again 
retarded,  at  the  same  time  that  the  hour  of  the  maximum  still  advances. 
In  August  and  September  the  minimum  is  already  observed  at  6  a.  m. , 
as  in  the  first  months  of  the  year;  but  the  maximum  has  advanced  to 
1  p.  m. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  VII. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  VIII. 


DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  TEMPERATURE 
AT  MANILA 

1889-1898 

Jvly 

30 

» 

\ 

> 

( 

3 

J 

0 

1 

'     1 

, 

I      1 
f     '' 

> 

0 

r    \ 

: 

VI 
»6 

%» 
ZS 
Z7 

Ze 

u 

29 
28 
27 
26 
?5 
Z4 

n 
22 

fktobet 

-^ 

2S 

2T 
26 

^ 

V, 

-V, 

{' 

\ 

^ 

/ 

'^ 

^^ 

25 

30 

26 
28 
27 

^5 
Zi 

29 

—- ■ 

^>_ 

/ 

■ — 

, 

•\ 

/ 

V 

,/ 

i    " 

, 

^ 

--^ 

— \ 

1    / 

■ 

— 

^ 

^^ 

"^ 

\/ 

r 

^ 

'^ 

-C 

,/ 

^ 

"-^ 

— 

^ 



/ 

y 

^*'~~- 

r' 

--^ 

k 

L 

/^ 

^X 

N 

/ 

^ 

/ 

/ 

''■" 

^ 

h- 

/ 

•^ — , 

"^ 

~~-«. 

y 

— 



-- 

- 

— 

__.- 

^ 

■"^ 

s 

27 
26 

/ 

N, 

-- 



/ 

Xj 

L 

2S 
34 

/ 

*->«i 

^ 

>.^ 

-^ 

[-, 

/' 

H 

'^^ 

-.^ 

y 

■'- 

-~ 

— 

.-^ 

^ 

N 

<. 

/ 

\ 

/ 

V 

•^--^ 

/ 

--^ 

^^ 

— ^ 

.^^ 

/ 

**■ 

--^ 

,^ 

—iM 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  IX. 


DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  TEMPERATURE 
AT  MANILA 

1889-1898 

fynm 

to 
May 

From, 

Jvme 

to 

Octobtr 

Annual 
Mman 

31 
30 

29 

4  i  M 

-' 

k 

^    1 

f 

\ 

.  k  \ 

SO 
S9 
S8 
VI 
X. 
«4 
«'i 
23 
%% 

31 
50 
29 
28 

2r 
26 
26 

e4 

23 
28 

51 
10 

S9 

\1 

26 
25 

Frwn, 

n '"'I' 

I 

1 1  1  1 

i 

1 

1 

— 

^ 

-  - 

-~ 



-- 

— 

1 

^ 

^ 

>^ 

N 

— 

27 

Z6 

25 
?4 
X3 
S2 

51 

30 

X9 
29 
27 
26 
25 

*S 
22 

io 
29 

it 

27 
26 
26 
24 
i3 
2Z 

___ 

^- 

- 

\ 

^ 

— 

-— 







- 

7 

t 

y' 

— 

-- 

-- 

- 

- 

*\ 

^ 

^ 

4_           i 

From, 

JWM 

to 
Anmud 

"~^ 

-^ 

^-~-, 

/ 

1, 

-- 

- 

, 

i 

1— 

;  ! 

i 

-    - 

I      1     J 

-        ^ 

H 

t- 

M 

1 

^ 

N 

" 

y^ 

T^ 

i_ 

1 

/ 

^ 

^-«^ 

^ 

4 

1-       - 

/ 

^ 

/ 

i 

— 

J 

- 

.  i  Lj  ]  . 

L      J 

,     , 

f       - 

|_ 

^'!  1 

-        - 

-        - 

-     - 

— 

U    - 

-- 

-- 

- 

-- 

-- 

~ 

^- 

— 

1 

r^ 

l^ 

"^ 

^ 

^ 

— 

"" 

-- 

,^ 

[_    ^ 

/ 

, 
V 

k^ 

/ 

r  t   ] 

--^ 

K  , 

h-^ 

1 

/ 

/ 

r^  1 

1      J 

*^-. 

-^ 

■~-H^ 

/ 

24 

u 

"■'— 

1 

- 

-- 

-4 

— 

1, 

-J 

-J 

i 

_ 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPUNTE    COMMISSION.  161 

8.  From  October  to  December,  both  inclusive,  the  minimum  still 
takes  place  at  6  a.  m.,  but  the  maximum  is  a^ain  somewhat  retarded, 
especially  in  December;  in  October  and  November  the  hourly  maxi- 
mum observation  is  that  of  1  and  that  of  2  p.  m.,  but  in  December  it 
is  already  only  that  of  2  p.  m. 

MEAN    DAILY    OSCILLATION    OF    THE    TEMPERATURE,     ANNUAL    AND 

SEMIANNUAL. 

At  the  foot  of  Table  XXIV  we  give  not  onlj^^  the  hourly  annual 
variation  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in  Manila  but  also  the  hourly 
semiannual  variation,  for  which  purpose  we  have  considered  the  year 
as  divided  into  two  periods — June-October  and  November-May— a 
division  which  we  think  very  apropos  for  our  object,  since  the  first 
includes  the  months  of  most  copious  rains  and  greatest  nebulosity,  and 
the  second,  on  the  contrary,  the  least  cloudy  months  and  with  the  least 
aqueous  precipitation.  These  mean  annual  and  semiannual  values  may 
be  seen  graphically  represented  in  the  three  curves  of  Plate  IX.  In 
the  adjoining  table  we  give  the  amplitude  of  the  oscillation  and  the 
hours  of  the  maximum  and  minimum,  such  as  they  appear  in  these 
same  annual  and  semiannual  means: 


Annual 

November-May  . 
June-October  . . . 


Hours  of — 
Minimum.   Maximum. 


6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 
6  a.m. 


2p,m. 
3  p.m. 
1  p.m. 


Amplitude 

of 
oscillation. 


6.45 
7.40 
5.16 


From  these  data  we  conclude: 

1.  That  the  mean  annual  oscillation  is  6.45^. 

2.  That  the  mean  oscillation  for  the  period  from  November  to  May 
is  7.40^,  and  that  of  the  other  period  from  June  to  October,  5.16^. 
The  difference  between  the  oscillations  of  both  periods  is  2.24^. 

3.  That  the  mean  annual  hours  of  the  daily  minima  and  maxima  are 
respectively  6  a.  m.  and  2  p.  m. 

4.  That  in  the  two  periods  the  mean  minimum  of  the  hourly  obser- 
vations corresponds  to  6  a.  m. 

5.  That  the  maximum  of  the  mean  result  of  the  period  from  Novem- 
ber to  May  corresponds  to  3  p.  m. ,  and  that  of  the  other  period  from 
June  to  October  to  1  p.  m. 

PROBABLE    CAUSE    OF    THE    ADVANCE    OF    THE    HOUR    OF    MINIMUM    OR 
MAXIMUM   TEMPERATURE   IN   SOME   MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

It  is  known  that  the  minimum  daily  temperature  is  usupUy  regis- 
tered everywhere  about  sunrise;  and  as  in  these  countries  within  the 
Tropics  the  position  of  the  sun  and  the  length  of  the  day,  and  conse- 
quently the  hour  for  the  rising  of  said  heavenly  body  differs  very  little 
in  the  different  months  of  the  year,  hence  the  hour  of  minimum  tem- 
perature is  also  almost  the  same  in  all  the  months.  We  have  said 
above  that  said  hour  advances  a  little  in  the  months  of  May  and  June; 
and,  indeed,  we  find  that  during  these  two  months  the  sunrise  takes 
place  a  little  earlier  than  in  all  the  rest. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


162  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

So  far  as  concerns  the  advance  which  is  observed  in  the  hours  of 
the  maxima  from  May  to  December,  if  compared  with  those  of  the 
first  four  months — from  January  to  April — we  think  that  principally, 
and  more  than  to  any  other  cause,  it  is  to  be  attributed  to  the  state 
of  cloudiness  of  the  atmosphere.  As  a  clear  and  evident  confirmation 
of  this  our  readers  are  referred  to  the  study  which  Father  Algue  made 
in  the  meteor ologic  reviews  of  our  Monthly  Bulletin  of  1894  of  the 
mean  monthly  variation  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in  Manila  and 
the  actual  variation  of  the  clear  and  of  the  cloudy  days.  There  were 
published  therein  twelve  plates,  corresponding  to  the  twelve  months 
of  the  year,  in  each  of  which  may  be  seen  three  curves,  which  repre- 
sent, respectively,  the  mean  monthly  variation  of  the  temperature 
deducted  from  a  period  of  several  years,  and  taking  into  account  for 
the  average,  {a)  all  the  days  of  the  month,  (5)  only  the  clear  days,  and 
{e)  only  the  cloudy  days.  Now,  then,  comparing  the  curve  of  mean 
oscillation  of  the  clear  days  with  that  of  the  cloudy  days,  it  is  seey 
that  in  the  latter  not  only  is  the  amplitude  of  the  oscillation  much  less, 
but  also  in  all  the  months  the  hour  of  the  daily  maximum  is  notably 
advanced,  whereas  it  is  retarded  in  the  clear  days.  Thus,  we  remem- 
ber having  noted  sometimes  on  very  clear  days  that  the  maximum  has 
not  been  registered  until  almost  4  p.  m. ,  and  even  between  4  and  5  p.  m. , 
while  on  very  rainy  days  it  sometimes  takes  place  shortly  after  midday. 

Hence,  if  this  is  observed  in  all  the  months  of  the  year,  comparing 
the  oscillation  of  the  cloudy  days  with  that  of  the  clear  days,  it  is 
readily  understood  that  the  mean  nebulosity  of  the  different  months 
of  the  year  must  have  a  marked  influence  on  the  general  oscillation  of 
each  month.  In  Chapter  VII  it  will  be  told  how  January,  February, 
March,  and  April  are  the  clearest  months,  and  in  those  precisely  we 
have  just  seen  that  the  hour  of  maximum  temperature  is  most  retarded. 
On  the  contrary,  the  nebulosity  is  greater  in  the  other  months,  but 
especially  in  August  and  September;  and  so  also  we  have  noted  that 
the  hour  of  maximum  temperature  is  advanced  in  them,  especially  in 
the  two  months  cited. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


168 


THE    HOURLY    MEANS    OF     THE    TEMPERATURE    OF   THE    AIR    COMPARED 
BETWEEN   THEMSELVES   AND   WITH   THE    MONTHLY   MEANS. 


Table  XXV. — Difference  between  the  hourly  means  compared  between  themselves  and 
between  the  same  hourly  means  and  the  monthly  means  af  the  temperature  of  the  air  in 
Manila. 


1  a.m 

0-1  a.  m 

2  a.m 

1-2  a.m 

3  a.m 

2-3  a.m 

4  a.m 

3-4  a.m 

5  a.m 

4-5  a.m 

6  a.m 

5-6  a.m 

7  a.  m 

6-7  a.m 

8  a.m 

7-8  a.m 

9  a.m 

8-9  a.m 

lOa.m 

9-10  a.m 

11  a.m 

10-11  a.m 

12m.(l 

11-12  a.m 

1  p.m 

0-1  p.  m 

2  p.m 

1-2  p.m 

3  p.m 

2-3  p.  m 

4  p.m 

3-4  p.m 

5p.m 

4-5  p.m 

6  p.m 

5-6  p.m 

7  p.m 

6-7  p.m 

8  p.m 

7-8  i».  m 

9  p.m 

8-9  p.m 

lOp.m 

9-10  p.m 

11  p.m 

10-11  p.m 

12  m. II 

11-12  p.m 

Mean 


Jan. 


—  0, 
—% 

—  0. 
—2, 

—  0. 
—3. 

—  0. 
—3. 

—  0, 
—3. 

—  0. 
—3. 

0, 
— 1. 
1. 
0. 
2. 
1. 
1 
2. 
0. 
2. 
0. 
3. 
0. 
3. 
0. 
4. 
0. 
3. 

—  0. 
2. 

— o! 
1. 

—  1 

0. 

— 1, 

— 0. 

—  0. 
— 0. 

—o. 
— 1. 

—  0. 

— 1. 

—  0. 

— 1. 

—  0. 


f    2.2 

t   o.e 


Feb. 


—2.2 

—  0.5 
-2.6 
-0.4 
—3.0 

—  0.4 
—3.4 

—  0.4 
—3.9 

—  0.5 
—4.1 

—  0.2 
—3.7 

0.4 
— L5 
2.2 
0.8 
2.3 
1.6 
0.8 
2.3 
0.7 
2.8 
0.5 
3.7 
0.9 
4.2 
0.5 
4.4 
0.2 
4.1 

—  0.3 
3.3 

—  0.8 
1.9 

—  1.4 
0.7 

—  1.2 
—0.0 

—  0.7 
—0.6 

—  0.6 
—1.0 

—  0.4 
— 1. 

—  0.3 
—1.7 

—  0.4 


Mar. 


—2.4 

—  0. 
—2.8 

—  0.4 
—3.2 

—  0.4 
—3.6 
—0.4 
—4.0 

—  0.4 
—4. 

—  0.2 
—3,3 

0. 
—0.9 
2.4 
1.1 
2.0 
1.6 
0.5 
2,1 
0.5 
2.8 
0.7 
3.6 
0.8 
4.2 
0.6 
4.4 
0.2 
4.0 

—  0.4 
3.2 

—  0.8 
1.8 

—  1.4 
0.7 

—  1.1 
—0.1 

—  0.8 
—0.7 

—  0.6 
—1.1 

—  0.4 
—1.5 

—  0.4 
—1.9 

—  0.4 


2.5 

0.7 


Apr. 


—2.5 

—  0.5 
-2.9 

—  0.4 
—3.4 

—  0.5 
—3.9 

—  0.5 
-4.3 

—  0.4 
—4 

—  0.2 
—2.7 

1 
— 0. 
2.6 
1.1 
1.2 
1.6 
0.5 
2.2 
0.6 
2.9 
0.7 
3.8 
0.9 
4.3 
0.5 
4.4 
0.1 
4.0 

—  0.4 
3.1 

—  0.9 
1.7 

—  1.4 
0.6 

—  1.1 
—0.1 

—  0.7 
—0.7 

—  0.6 
—I 

—  0.5 
-1.5 

—  0.3 
—2.0 

—  0. 


2.5 

0.7 


May 


—2.2 

—  0.4 
—2.5 

—  0.3 
—2.9 

—  0.4 
—3.2 

—  0. 
—3. 

—a.  2 

—3.4 

—  0.1 
— 1 

1.8 
0.4 
2.0 
1.4 
1.0 
1.8 
0.4 
2.4 
0.6 
2.9 
0.6 
3.4 
0.5 
3.5 
0.] 
3.2 

—  0.3 
2.6 

—  0.6 
1.9 

—  0.7 
1.0 

—  0, 
0.3 

—  0.7 
—0.2 

—  0.5 
—0.7 

—  0.5 
—1.1 

—  0.4 
— 1 

—  0.4 
—1.8 

—  0.3 


2.1 

0.6 


June. 


—2.0 

—  0.3 
—2.2 

—  0.2 
—2.5 

—  0.3 
—2.7 

—  0.2 
—2.9 

—  0.2 
—2.8 
—0.1 
—1.6 

1.2 

0.2 

1, 

1.3 

1.1 

2.0 

0.7 

2.4 

0.4 

2.7 

0.3 

3.0 

0.3 

3.1 

0.] 

2.8 

—  0.3 
2.4 

—  0.4 
1.7 

—  0.7 
0.9 

—  0.8 
0.2 

—  0.7 
—0.3 

—  0.5 
—0.7 

—  0.4 
—1.1 

—  0.4 
—1.4 

—  0. 
—1.7 

—  0.3 


1.9 

0.5 


July.   Aug. 


-1.6 

-0.2 

-1.8 

-0, 

-2.0 

-0.2 

-2.2 

-0. 

-2.4 

-0.2 

-2.4 

-0.0 

-1.4 

1.0 

0.0 

1.4 

1.0 

1.0 

1.7 

0.7 

2.1 

0.4 

2.4 

0.3 

2.6 

0.2 

2.6 

0.0 

2.4 

-0.2 

1.9 

r-0.5 

1.3 

-0.6 
0.7 
-0.6 
0.1 
-0.6 
-0.2 
-0.3 
-0.6 
-0.4 
-1.0 
-0.4 
-1.2 
-0.2 
-1.4 
-0.2 


1.5 

0.4 


-1.5 

—  0.2 
—1.7 

—  0.2 
—1.9 

—  0.2 
—2.1 

—  0.2 
—2.2 

—  0.1 
—2.3 

—  0.1 
—1.4 

0.9 
0.1 
1.3 
0.9 
1.0 
1.5 
0.6 
2.0 
0.5 
2.2 
0.2 
2.5 
0.3 
2.4 

—  0.1 
2.1 

—  0.3 
1 

—  0.5 
1.2 

—  0.4 
0.6 

—  0.6 
0.1 

—  0.5 
— 0. 

—  0.4 
—0.6 

—  0.3 
—0.8 

—  0.2 
-1.1 

—  0.3 
—1.3 

—  0.2 


1.4 

0.4 


Sept. 


—1.4 

—  0.1 
— 1 

—  0.2 
_1 

—  0.1 
—1.9 

—  0.2 
—2.0 

—  0.1 
—2.1 

—  0.1 
—1.2 

0.9 
0.0 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.7 
0.7 
2.0 
0.3 
2.3 
0.3 
2.5 
0.2 
2.4 

—  0.1 
2.1 

—  0.3 
1.6 

—  0.5 
1.1 

—  0.5 
0.5 

—  0.6 
0.1 

—  0.4 
—0.2 

—  0.3 
—0.6 

—  0.4 
—0.8 

—  0.2 
—1.0 

—  0.2 
—1.3 

—  0.3 


1.4 

0.4 


—1.8 

—  0.3 
—2.0 

—  0.2 
—2.8 

—  0.3 
—2.5 

—  0.2 
—2.6 

—  0.1 
—2.7 

—  0.1 
—1.8 

0.9 
— 0. 
1.5 
1.0 
1 

1.8 
0.8 
2.3 
0.5 
2.7 
0.4 
2.9 
0.2 
2.9 
0.0 
2.6 

—  0.3 
2.2 

—  0.4 
1.5 

—  0.7 
0.7 

—  0.3 
0.1 

—  0.6 
—0.2 

—  0.3 
—0.7 

—  0.5 
—1.0 

—  0.3 
—1.3 

—  0.3 
—1.5 

—  0.2 


1.7 

0.5 


Nov. 


—1.7 

—  0.2 
—1.9 

—  0.2 
—2.2 

—  0. 3 
—2.5 

—  0.3 
—2.6 

—  0.1 
—2.8 

—  0.2 
—91.1 

0.7 
—0.7 
1.4 
0.7 
1.4 
1.7 
1.0 
2.3 
0. 

2.6 
0. 

2.9 
0.3 
2.9 
0.0 
2.7 

—  0.2 
2.3 

—  0.4 
1.5 

—  0.8 
0.7 

—  0.8 
0.0 

—  0.7 
—0.4 

—  0.4 
—0.7 

—  1.1 
—1.0 

—  0. 
—1.3 

—  0.3 
—1.5 

—  0.2 


1.7 

0.5 


—1.8 

—  0.3 
—2.0 

—  0.2 
—2.3 
—0.3 
—2.5 

—  0.2 
—2.8 

—  0.3 
—3.0 

—  0.2 
—2.5 

■  0.5 
—1.1 
1.4 
0.6 
1.7 
1 

1.0 
2.4 
0.8 
2.7 
0.3 
8.1 
0.4 
3.2 
0.1 
8.1 

—  0.1 
2.7 

—  0.4 
1.9 

—  0.8 
0.8 

—  1.1 
0.1 

—  0.7 
—0.3 

—  0.4 
—0.8 

—  0.5 
—1.0 

—  0.2 
— 1 

—  0.3 
--1.5 

—  0.2 


1.9 

0.5 


An- 
nual. 


—1.93 

—  0.32 
—2.20 

—  0.27 
—2.51 

—  0.31 
—2.80 

—  0.29 
—3.05 

—  0.25 
—3.16 

—  0.11 
—2.23 

0.93 
—0.49 
1.74 
0.96 
1.45 
1.68 
0.72 
2.22 
0.54 
2.65 
0.43 
3.11 
0.46 
3.29 
0.18 
3.18 

—  0.11 
2.76 

—  0.43 
2.03 

—  0.72 
1.06 

—  0.97 
0.28 

—0.78 
—0.21 

—  0.49 
—0.67 
—0.46 
—1.61 
—0.34 
—1.31 

—  0.30 
—1.61 
—0.30 


1.93 

0.54 


Following*  the  same  method  as  heretofore,  we  have  included  Table 
XXV,  the  differences  between  each  of  the  hourly  means  which  we  have 
given  in  Table  XXIV  and  the  respective  monthly  means.  In  the  inter- 
mediate lines  we  complete  this  study  with  the  difference  which  results 
from  comparing  each  one  of  the  hourly,  monthly,  and  annual  means 
with  that  immediately  before  it. 

A  study  of  this  table  will  not  only  confirm  the  conclusions  which 
we  have  reached  in  the  preceding  paragraph,  but  it  will  enable  us  to 
see  readily  the  hours  in  which  the  increase  or  decrease  of  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  air  is  usually  greater  or  less.  In  effect,  attending  princi- 
pally to  the  differences  between  each  one  of  the  twenty-four  hours 
and  that  immediately  preceding  it,  the  following  conclusions  may  be 

PC— VOL  4— 01 15  :  :     '  r'  ; 


Hosted  by 


Google 


164  EEPOBT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

deduced,  which  confirm  and  complete  the  laws  of  the  daily  variation  of 
the  temperature  of  the  air  in  Manila,  briefly  outlined  in  the  preceding 
paragraph. 

1.  Speaking  in  general  of  the  whole  year,  or  rather  of  the  result 
which  the  hourly  annual  means  give  us,  we  find  that  the  least  differ- 
ences between  two  consecutive  hours  are  those  which  correspond  to  5 
to  6  a.  m.  and  2  to  3  p.  m. ,  which  proves  that  most  commonly  between 
those  two  hours  and  between  these  two  latter  the  absolutely  daily 
minima  and  maxima  occur.  The  difference  from  1  to  2  p.  m.  is  even 
greater,  but  not  very  different  from  that  which  results  from  2  to  3 
p.  m. ;  a  suflSciently  clear  indication  that,  at  least  in  some  months  of 
the  year,  the  daily  maximum  is  usually  registered  before  2  p.  m. 

2.  Speaking  also  in  general  of  the  whole  year,  the  greatest  differ- 
ences are  those  from  7  to  8  a.  m.  and  5  to  6  p.  m. ;  approaching  the 
first  is  the  difference  from  8  to  9  a.  m.  and  not  very  different  from  the 
second,  those  from  4  to  5  p.  m.  and  6  to  7  p.  m. 

Hence  it  follows,  (a)  that  the  most  pronounced  ascent  of  temperature 
usually  lasts  about  two  hours,  beginning  one  or  two  hours  after  the 
rising  of  the  sun;  and  (b)  that  the  greatest  descent  occurs  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  the  setting  of  the  sun,  and  usually  begins  some  three  hours 
before  sunset,  terminating  shortly  after  the  sun  has  hidden  its  rays 
below  the  horizon. 

3.  From  January  to  July,  both  inclusive,  the  least  difference  of  the 
dawn  is  that  from  5  to  6  a.  m.  From  August  to  December  all  the 
differences  of  the  night  and  of  the  dawn  are  quite  uniform  between 
themselves  from  9  p.  m.  to  6  a.  m.,  appearing,  on  the  whole,  those 
from  4  to  5  a.  m.  and  5  to  6  a.  m.  a  little  less  in  general. 

4.  The  difference  from  5  to  6  a.  m.  in  the  months  of  May  and  June 
is  the  least  of  all  those  of  the  dawn,  but  positive;  whence  it  may  be 
deducted  that  the  minimum  in  these  months  must  be  advanced  and 
take  place  between  5  and  5.30  a.  m.,  as  already  seen  in  the  preceding 
paragraph.  In  July  the  difference  from  5  to  6  is  0.0;  therefore  the 
minimum  of  this  month  must  be  registered  in  the  neighborhood  of 
5.30  a.  m.,  or  even  sometimes  between  5  and  5.30  and  at  other  times 
between  5.30  and  6  a.  m.  In  the  remaining  months  the  difference 
between  5  to  6  a.  m.  is  still  negative,  and  consequently  indicates  that 
the  minimum  must  be  registered  in  th.e  neighborhood  of  6  a.  m. 

5.  In  the  months  from  January  to  April  the  least  difference  of  the 
afternoon  corresponds  to  2  to  3,  and  in  the  other  months  to  from  1  to  2, 
which  is  due  to  tne  advance  of  the  maximum  of  which  we  have  spoken 
in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

6.  The  difference  from  1  to  2  p.  m.  is  0.0  in  the  months  of  July,  Octo- 
ber, and  November;  hence  the  maximum  of  said  months  must  be 
registered  at  1.30  p.  m.,  or  rather  sometimes  between  1  and  1.30  and 
at  other  times  between  1.30  and  2  p.  m. 

7.  The  difference  from  1  to  2  p.  m.  is  not  only  the  least  but  nega- 
tive in  the  months  of  August  and  September,  therefore  the  maximum 
of  these  months  must  be  registered  somewhat  before  1.30  p.  m. 

8.  The  most  marked  increase  of  temperature  is  observed  from  7  to  9 
in  the  months  from  January  to  March  and  August  to  December,  and 
from  6  to  8  in  the  months  of  April,  May,  and  June.  In  eXuly  the  great- 
est increase  is  observed  from  7  to  8,  the  difference  from  6  to  7  being 
somewhat  less  and  equal  to  that  from  8  to  9. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOISr.  165 

9.  The  greatest  afternoon  difference  and  in  a  negative  direction  takes 
place  from  5  to  7  in  the  months  of  January  to  April,  and  from  4  to  6 
in  the  months  October,  November,  and  December.  In  May,  June, 
July,  August,  and  September  the  greatest  negative  differences  are 
noted  from  3  to  7,  the  greatest  of  them  being  between  5  and  6. 

ANNUAL  VARIATION    OF   THE    TEMPERATURE    OF    THE    AIR   IN    DIFFERENT 
POINTS   OF  THE   ARCHIPELAGO. 

METHOD  WHICH  WE  HAVE  FOLLOWED  TO  DETERMINE  THE  MONTHLY  THERMOMETRIC  MEANS 
OF   THE   TEMPERATURE   OF   THE   AIR   IN   DIFFERENT   STATIONS   IN   THE   PHILIPPINES. 

For  similar  reasons  to  those  heretofore  expressed  we  have  thought 
that  the  simplest  and  most  suitable  manner  of  finding  with  sufficient 
accuracy  the  monthly  means  of  the  temperature  of  the  air  in  different 
points  of  the  archipelago,  would  be  to  find  the  averages  of  the  abso- 
lute maxima  and  minima  of  each  day,  deduct  from  them  the  monthly 
means  and,  uniting  various  years  of  observation,  determine  what  we 
might  call  the  normal  means  of  each  month;  although  it  must  be  said 
that  the  term  of  years  which  we  have  taken  into  account  for  these 
results  being  generally  short,  the  means  which  we  shall  give  can  only 
have  a  temporary  value. 

STATIONS   WHICH    WE    HAVE   SELECTED    IN    LUZON,    VISAYAS,   AND    MINDANAO. 

The  stations  which  we  have  selected  for  this  study  are:  7  in  Luzon, 
1  in  Visayas,  1  in  Mindanao,  and  1  in  Jolo.  In  Luzon  we  have 
taken  Aparri,  on  the  northern  coast;  Vigan,  on  the  western  coast; 
Daet  and  Albay,  on  the  eastern  coast;  and  Tuguegarao,  Bayombong, 
and  Magalang,  in  the  interior  of  the  island.  Not  having  published  in 
our  monthly  bulletins  up  to  the  present  time  more  temperature  data 
from  the  meteorological  stations  of  Luzon  than  the  observations  of  10 
a.  m.  and  4  p.  m. ,  we  were  obliged  to  refer  to  the  original  reports  and 
pick  out  one  by  one  the  maxima  and  minima  of  each  day  in  order  to 
go  on  deducting  from  them  the  monthly  averages;  hence  the  motive 
which  induced  us  to  include  only  said  seven  stations,  overlooking  the 
others,  is  readily  understood,  and  for  only  taking  into  account  a  few 
years  of  observation. 

As  to  the  Visaj^as  Islands,  we  have  given  preference  to  the  observa- 
tions of  the  model  farm  of  La  Carlota,  partly  because  they  are  the 
most  complete  we  possess,  and  also  because  in  those  taken  in  the 
agronomic  stations  of  Iloilo  and  Cebu  we  find  notable  discrepancies 
which  lead  us  to  suppose  instrumental  errors  that  are  unknown  to  us. 

Of  this  staton  of  La  Carlota  and  of  that  of  Aparri,  located,  respec- 
tively, in  the  center  of  the  Visayas  group  of  islands  and  at  the  north- 
ern extremity  of  Luzon,  we  shall  give  quite  complete  statistics  of  mean 
monthly  temperatures  as  well  as  of  extreme  temperatures. 

In  this  way,  as  Aparri  is  distant  from  Manila,  and  Manila  from 
La  Carlota,  some  4^  of  latitude,  we  shall  be  able,  by  means  of  the 
observations  of  these  three  points  compared  between  themselves,  to 
form  an  approximate  idea  of  the  thermic  conditions  of  the  principal 
regions  oi  the  Archipelago. 

For  Mindanao  and  Jolo  we  have  made  use  of  the  observations  taken 
for  several  years  in  the  capitals  of  both  islands  by  Fathers  Baltasar 
Ferrer  and  uaspar  Colomer,  of  the  Society  oi  Jfesiis; ;    :^  H 


Hosted  by 


Google 


166 


REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


ANNUAL   VARIATION   OF   THE   TEMPERATURE   IN    AFARRI    AND   LA    CARLOTA. 

Bearing  in  mind  these  brief  indications,  see,  in  the  two  following- 
tables  (XXVI  and  XXVII),  the  mean  temperatures  of  Aparri  during 
the  period  from  1886  to  1895  and  those  of  La  Carlota  for  the  period 
from  1891  to  1898. 

Table  XXVI. — Monthly  and  annual  inean  of  temperature  at  Aparri,  1886  to  1895. 


Years. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1886 

22.6 
23.8 
22.8 
24.6 
23.6 
22.2 
22.9 
23.1 
23.0 
22.5 

22.3 
23.9 
23.9 
24.4 
24.3 
23.8 
24.7 
24.0 
23.2 
23.0 

24.7 
24.6 
25.5 
25.9 
25.8 
25.3 
25.4 
25.0 
24.6 
24.2 

^  a 

27.0 
26.3 
28.2 
28.3 
27.2 
26.7 
26.8 
26.5 
25.8 
25.8 

27.6 
27.5 
28.9 
29.0 
27.9 
29.3 

'26'5' 
27.2 
27.0 

28.4 
28.4 
28.7 
28.7 
28.7 
28.5 

'27.' 8' 
27.9 

28.2 

'27."  9' 
27.9 
28.1 

28.4 
27.8 
27.9 
26.8 
27.2 
27.8 

27.8 
27.5 
28.1 
29.0 
28.5 
27.3 
27.4 
27.3 
27.8 
27. 5 

27.5 
27.1 
28.1 
28.2 
27.3 
26.7 
27.1 
27.0 
27.1 

26.9 
25.8 
27.0 
28.1 
25.4 
26.7 
25.8 
26.0 
26.6 
26.1 

24.5 
25.1 
26.0 
25.8 
24.3 
25.4 
25.0 
23.6 
24.6 
24.7 

'  °  a 
21.8 

23.4 
24.7 
24.0 
24.1 
23.6 
22.4 
23.2 
23.5 
23.2 

°(7. 

1887 

25  9 

1888 

26  7 

1889 

27  0 

1890 

26  3 

1891 

26. 1 

1892 

1893 

25. 6 

1894 

25  7 

1895 

Mean 

23.1 

23.8 

25.1 

26.9 

27.9 

28.4 

27.8 

27.8 

27.3 

26.4 

24.9 

23.4 

26. 2 

Table  XXVII. — Monthly  and  annual  mean  of  temperature  at  La  Carlota,  1891  to  1898. 


Years. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

1            1 
Sept.    Oct.  i  Nov. 

Dec. 

Mean. 

1891 

°  a    °  a 

^  a 

27.8 
27.7 
27.9 
27.0 
27.2 
27.4 
28.3 

''a 

28.5 
28.1 
27.1 
27.5 
26.9 
26.7 
28.3 

27.5 
27.0 
27.1 
27.0 
26.3 
26.  § 
27.7 
26.8 

°  a 

26.0 
26.6 
26.9 
26.1 
26.1 
25.7 
26.7 
26.1 

25.3 
26.1 
26.8 
26.5 
25.5 
25.1 
26. 3 
26.3 

°  a 

26.5 
26.8 
26.4 
25.9 
25.4 
26.2 
26.2 
26.4 

°(7. 
26.9 
27.2 
26.6 
26.7 
26.6 
26.4 
26.6 
9f;  Q 

26.2 
26.2 
26.4 
26.1 
25.5 
26.8 
26.9 

26. 3 
25.  9 
26.2 
26.0 
25.4 
26.1 
26.3 

°C. 

1892 - 

25. 8 
25.5 
25.3 

25. 9 
24.7 
26.4 
25. 9 

26.6 

25.8 

'25.'9' 

25.8 
26.9 
26.8 

27.7 
26.4 
26.5 
25.9 
26.6 
27.0 

26  8 

1893 

26  6 

1894 

1895 

1896 

26. 1 

26. 2 

1897 

27  0 

1898 

Mean 

25.6 

26.3 

26.7 

27.6 

27.6 

27.0 

26.3 

26.0 

26.2 

26.7 

26.3 

26.0 

26.5 

Comparing  the  mean  monthly  values  of  Aparri  with  those  of  Manila 
it  is  deducted  that  in  that  station,  as  it  is  situated  on  a  higher  parallel 
of  latitude,  the  annual  variation  of  the  temperature  is  greater  and  the 
relation  which  is  observed  between  the  same  montly  means  is  also 
somewhat  different.  In  effect,  these  oscillate  between  23.1^  and  28.4^, 
the  amplitude  of  the  annual  oscillation  being  therefore  5.3°,  whereas  in 
Manila  it  does  not  exceed  3.5°.  Furthermore,  the  maximum  tempera- 
ture is  not  observed  in  May,  but  in  June;  and  the  means  of  July  and 
August  are  almost  identical  with  that  of  May,  and  that  of  September 
even  higher  than  that  of  April. 

The  minimum  temperatures  occur,  as  in  Manila,  in  the  months  of 
December,  January,  and  February;  but  are  much  less,  the  mean  mini- 
mum of  Aparri,  23.1°,  being  1.9°  less  than  that  of  Manila.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  mean  maximum,  28.4°,  only  differs  from  that  of  Manila 
by  0.1°.  The  annual  mean,  26.2°,  is  surpassed  by  the  annual  mean  of 
Manila  by  0.6°. 

Regarding  the  thermometric  data  of  La  Carlota  included  in  table 
XXvII,  we  must  state  that,  not  being  taken  from  any  official  station 
dependent  on  this  observatory,  but  on  the  model  farm,  or  agronomic 
station  established  there,  we  can  not  be  responsible  for  them,  since  we 
are  not  suflieievntly  well  acquainted  with  the  quality  of  the  instruments. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


L ongilii d e  E , o f  Greenwich 


Annual  variation  of  the  temperature  and  of  tiie  atmospheric  pressure  in  the  Phihppine  Ai-chipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


liOiigiUid  e  E .  o  f  G  reerrvvich 


Annual  variation  of  the  temperature  and  of  the  atmospheric  pressure  in  tlie  Philippine  Archipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PLAl 


l/\ 


LJZ  ON 


mSs5  . 


MI^ORO, 


JUNE 


E^Opi 


0 '' 


a 


^-■A 


-■W  ,)  ^_,-~J 


'illNDANAO  1 


(S.  f 


r  \/ 


125? 


Longitude  P^.of  Greejnvich 


Annual  variation  of  llie  temperature  and  of  Liie  atmospheric  pressure  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PI^KT 


'"'""Xiuj^i  (3:n 


JUIA^ 


5.6|5.2J 
vup^^  LJJ  Z  0  N' 


/ 


AUGUSI 


Mi 


PAMGFA 


f/ 


"^/rx:(.^ 


■3 


K 


_2_ 


J 


^Ro.(l/iio^--f-'"\ 


a 


IvilNDANAO' 


"V 


Lonoit.Luh^  K.oC (Ireeiiwu^h 


Annual  variation  of  the  temperature  and  of  the  at  mosplieric  pressure  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Longitude  E.of  Greenwich 


Annual  varioiion  of  tiie  temperature  and  of  the  atmospheric  pressure  in  the  Philippine  .\rchipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


JiOngitude  E.oV Gi-eoiiwicli 


Annual  variation  of  the  temperalure  and  of  the  atmospheric  pressure  in  the  PhiHppine  i\rchipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  167 

nor  the  accuracy  or  exactness  with  which  said  observations  were  made. 
Notwithstanding,  as  learned  persons  were  at  the  head  of  that  farm, 
whose  enthusiasm  for  meteorological  studies  we  are  well  aware  of,  we 
are  led  to  suppose  these  data  worthy  of  our  confidence  and  of  our 
attention  for  a  few  moments. 

The  annual  variation  which  the  mean  monthly  values  of  table  XXVII 
suppose  is  much  less,  not  only  with  respect  to  that  of  Aparri,  but  also 
compared  with  that  of  Manila;  and,  indeed,  it  ought  to  be  so,  as  the 
station  of  La  Carlota  is  situated  much  nearer  the  equator,  between  10° 
and  11°  north  latitude.  The  difference  between  the  minimum  mean 
of  January  and  the  maximum  mean  of  April  and  May  is  only  2°;  so 
that  the  amplitude  of  the  annual  oscillation  is  less  than  that  of  Aparri 
by  8.3°,  and  also  less  than  that  of  Manila  by  1.5°.  Although  the 
lowest  temperature  occurs  in  eJanuary  and  the  highest  in  April  and 
May,  the  same  as  in  Manila,  the  minimum  mean  is  greater,  and  the 
maximum  mean,  on  the  contrary,  is  less  than  that  of  Manila.  From 
May  to  August  the  temperature  gradually  diminishes,  again  increasing 
somewhat  during  September  and  October,  to  decrease  again  from 
October  to  January.  So  that,  besides  the  principal  maxmium  and 
minimum  of  May  and  January,  there  appears  in  these  monthly  means 
of  La  Carlota  another  secondary  maximum  in  October,  and  there  also 
appears  another  secondary  minimum  in  the  month  of  August. 

In  these  observations  it  may  be  readily  seen  that  the  annual  varia- 
tion of  the  temperature  is  less  in  the  stations  that  are  nearest  the  equa- 
tor. Thus,  for  example,  the  amplitude  of  the  annual  oscillation  is 
5.3°  in  Aparri,  3.5°  in  Manila,  2.9°  in  Albay,  2.0°  in  La  Carlota,  1.3° 
in  Zamboanga,  and  only  0.7°  in  Jolo. 

The  lowest  temperatures  in  all  the  stations  belong  to  January  or 
February,  and  the  highest  to  May  or  eTune. 

According  to  the  data  of  Aparri,  we  find  that  the  absolute  maxima 
of  said  station  have  all  been  registered  in  May  and  June,  and  the 
minima  in  January  or  February,  with  the  exception  of  the  minimum 
of  1892,  which  was  observed  in  the  month  of  December.  The  absolute 
maximum  of  the  entire  period,  35.7°,  corresponds  to  the  month  of  June, 
1886,  and  the  minimum,  also  for  the  whole  period,  13.1°,  which  is  cer- 
tainly remarkable,  belongs  to  the  month  of  February,  1888. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTEE  IV. 

HYGKOMTCTRY. 

I.— YEARLY  VARIATION  IN  THE  RELATIVE  HUMIDITY  AT  MANILA. 

Table  XXXIV  contains  the  annual  variations  of  relative  humidity  at 
Manila  for  the  period  1883  to  1898.  From  the  monthly  averages  of 
this  period  the  curve  shown  in  plate  16  has  been  drawn. 

Table  XXXIV. — Monthly  and  yearly  average  of  relative  humidity  at  M(%nila  during  the 

period  1883  to  1898, 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Aver- 
age. 

1883              

P.cL 

76.7 
77.1 
74.2 
79.5 
81.6 
83.6 
84.2 
78.4 
76.0 
76.5 
76.4 
75.0 
77.5 
73.8 
75.6 
77.3 

P.ct. 
73.3 

75.7 
75.6 
74.2 
75.6 
73.5 
80.3 
74.2 
70.2 
72.7 
72.8 
71.9 
73.4 
72.7 
71.4 
77.6 

P.ct. 
71.6 
70.1 
68.7 
66.8 
79.4 
71.0 
75.9 
68.9 
70.0 
72.3 
70.7 
70.6 
71.1 
71.4 
69.3 
78.9 

P.cL 

74.8 
68.4 
68.3 
73.7 
78.2 
72.0 
68.0 
73.1 
67.0 
67.4 
71.3 
66.9 
72.9 
66.6 
68.2 
77.5 

P.cL 
77.2 
75.1 
72.0 
75.8 
84.1 
72.2 
68.6 
79.2 
69.4 
75.0 
80.1 
77.9 
83.4 
84.1 
77.2 
79.7 

P.cL 
83.0 
81.6 
75.0 

82.5 
86.6 
82.9 
80.0 
81.8 
84.2 
79.0 
78.5 
81.3 
83.4 
83.3 
76.0 
84.1 

P.cL 

85.1 
86.1 
81.0 
84.5 
90.0 
90.8 
83.3 
83.2 
85.8 
83.8 
84.0 
83.0 
83.4 
84.5 
83.5 
86.2 

P.cL 
83.9 
83.8 
82.3 
82.6 
84.8 
85.5 
84.4 
82.4 
86.9 
84.1 
85.2 
83.9 
34.3 
88.8 
85.1 
83.1 

P.cL 
86.6 
83.4 
80.2 
86.7 
89.9 
82.8 
85.8 
87.1 
86.6 
85.9 
86.7 
85.7 
86.8 
85.7 
85.4 
83.6 

P.ct. 
80.8 
79.9 
80.8 
85.7 
83.2 
83.7 
85.0 
85.6 
79.4 
82.1 
82.4 
83.0 
79.2 
83.1 
83.1 
84.9 

P.cL 
78.4 
77.4 
80.5 
81.1 
85.3 
82.9 
83.9 
80.5 
81.9 
82.2 
79.0 
79.8 
80.9 
81.9 
83.6 
85.7 

P.ct. 
83.8 
79.0 
78.2 
82.9 
87.3 
80.7 
85.8 
79.3 
79.7 
78.4 
77.8 
80.3 
77.1 
79.2 
83.0 
78.7 

P.cL 

79  6 

1884 

78.1 

1885.                   

76  4 

1886 

79.7 

1887               

83  8 

1888 

80.1 

1889 

80.4 

1890 

79.5 

1891              

78.1 

1892 

78.3 

1893 

78.7 

1894 

1895 

78.3 
79.4 

1896 

79. 6 

1897              

78  5 

1898 

81.4 

Average 

77.7 

74.1 

71.7 

70.9 

76.9 

81.5 

84.9 

84.4 

85.6 

82.6 

81.6 

80.7 

79.4 

NOBMAL  AVERAGE  VALUES  FOR  THE  DIFFERENT  MONTHS  OF  THE  YEAR. 

The  same  humidity  is  usually  noted  in  April.  It  increases  during 
May  and  eTuly,  diminishes  somewhat  in  August,  again  increases  in 
September,  when  the  maximum  is  reached,  and  then  begins  to  diminish 
gradually  and  without  interruption  from  October  until  April.  From 
what  we  have  just  said,  and  from  what  has  been  said  in  the  two  previ- 
ous chapters,  it  may  be  noted  that  during  the  month  of  August  an 
irregularity  occurs  in  the  progress  of  these  meteorological  elements. 
When,  in  Chapter  VIII,  we  shall  speak  of  the  monthly  distribution  of 
hurricanes,  a  decrease  during  that  month  in  their  frequency  will  be 
noted,  although  their  maximum  falls  in  the  month  of  September.  To 
this,  without  doubt,  may  be  attributed  the  decrease  during  August  of 
the  value  of  the  average  rainfall  and  relative  humidity,  and  the  slight 
increase  on  the  other  hand  of  temperature  and  atmospheric  pressure. 
168 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XVI. 


ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  RELATIVE 
HUMIDITY  AT  MANILA 

1883-1898 

% 
85.0 

84.0 

820 
810 
8O0 
79.0 
780 
77.0 
760 
750 

/ 

\ 

% 

850 

/ 

X 

/ 

\ 



i 



/ 

\ 

850 

82  0 

i      • 

/ 

\ 

\ 

, 

\ 

\ 

810 

SOO 
790 
780 
770 
760 
750 
74.0 
750 
720 
710 

/ 

\ 

/ 

/ 

\ 

/ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

7  30 
720 
71.0 

\ 

\ 

V 

X- 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT   OF   THE    FHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


169 


THE  NORMAI.  MONTHLY  AVERAGE  COMPARED  WITH  THE  NORMAL.  YEARLY 

AVERAGE. 

In  the  following  table  the  difference  between  the  yearly  average, 
79.4,  and  the  normal  monthly  average  is  shown: 


Month. 


Monthly 
average. 


-Difference. 


January 

February  

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November  . . . 
December 

Average 


77.7 
74.1 
71.7 
70.9 
76.9 
81.5 
84.9 
84.4 
85.6 
82.6 
81.6 
80.7 


-1.7 
-5.3 
-7.7 

-8.5 
-2.5 
+2.1 
+5.5 
+5.0 
+6.2 
+3.2 
+2.2 
+1.3 


79.4 


The  greatest  differences  between  the  yearly  average  and  the  monthly 
averages  belong  to  April  and  May,  the  months  of  least  humidity  of  the 
year,  as  are  they  also  of  least  cloudiness,  as  will  be  seen  in  Chapter  VII. 

AVERAGE  YEARLY  EXTREMES — COMPARISON  BETWEEN  THE  AVERAGE 
NORMAL  AND  THE  AVERAGE  EXTREMES  OF  EACH  MONTH. 

.The  average  yearly  extremes  of  the  period  1883  to  1898  are  83.8 
(1887)  and  76.4  (1885);  a  difference  of  but  7.4.  The  greatest  differences 
observed  between  the  normal  averages  of  each  month  and  the  monthly 
averages  of  all  the  periods  may  be  seen  in  this  table. 


January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 
December . 


Normal 
average. 


77.7 
74.1 
71.7 
70.9 
76.9 

81.5 
84.9 
84.4 
85.6 
82.6 
81.6 
80.7 


Maxin 

mm  differ- 

ence 

positive) . 

6.5 

(1889) 

6.2 

(1889) 

7.7 

(1887) 

7.3 

(1887) 

7.2 

(1887  and 

1896) 
(1887) 

5.1 

5.9 

(1888) 

4.4 

(1896) 

4.3 

(1887) 
(1886) 

3.1 

4.1 

(1898) 
(1887) 

6.6 

Maximum 
difference 
Cnegative). 


3.9 
3.9 
4.9 
4.3 
8.3 

6.5 
3.9 
2.1 
5.4 
3.4 
4.2 
3.6 


(1891) 
(1886) 
(1896) 
(1889) 

(1885) 
(1885) 
1885) 
(1885) 
(1895) 
(1884) 
(1895) 


The  maximum  positive  differences  are  in  the  months  of  March,  April, 
and  May  and  the  maximum  negative  differences  in  May  and  June. 

INCREASED   HUMIDITY   IN   THE   PHILIPPINES  AND   ITS  PRINCIPAL  CAUSES. 

The  increased  values  which,  as  we  have  just  seen,  occur  in  the  yearly 
average  of  humidity,  as  also  in  the  different  monthly  averages,  are  con- 
vincing proof  of  the  great  quantity  of  watery  vapor  with  which  the 
atmosphere  of  the  Philippine  archipelago  is  generallj^  loaded.  This 
quantity  of  vapor  is  due,  as  is  indicated  in  the  official  guide  to  the 
Philippines  in  the  article  on  climate,  in  part  to  the  extraordinary 
evaporation  from  the  seas  which  surround  it  on  all  sides,  and  in  part 
to  the  richness  of  its  vegetation,  and  in  part  also  to  the  different  pre- 
vailing winds  of  the  various  seasons  of  the  year  and  the  abundant 


Hoste(d  by 


Google 


170 


BEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    OOMMISSIOlSr. 


aqueous  precipitation  common  to  tropical  countries.  The  first  two 
may  be  considered  as  general  causes  of  humidity  which  are  observed 
in  all  the  islands.  The  last  two  may  influence  in  a  greater  or  less 
degree  the  humidity  of  the  various  months  of  the  year  or  the  humid- 
ity of  the  different  regions  of  the  archipelago.  For  this  reason  during 
those  months  when  the  prevailing  winds  are  from  the  first  quadrant 
and  the  rains  are  most  abundant  on  the  eastern  coasts  the  humidity 
will  be  greater  in  those  towns  situated  nearest  the  Pacific,  and  not  in 
those  on  the  western  coasts.  These  latter,  however,  will  possess  greater 
humidity  from  eTune  to  October,  when  the  prevailing  winds  are  from 
the  third  quadrant — that  is  to  say,  from  west  to  south.  And  note  in 
passing  that  as  the  rains  from  June  to  October  are  caused  principally 
by  atmospheric  disturbances,  and  as  these  extend  their  influence  more 
or  less  over  the  entire  archipelago,  it  follows  that  the  humidity  pecu- 
liar to  these  months  must  be  considerably  increased,  not  alone  in  the 
vicinity  of  the  western  coast,  but  also  to  a  certain  point  in  the  interior 
and  on  the  eastern  coast.  And  it  being  true  that  from  November  to 
March  the  humidity  is  greater  on  the  western  coast,  it  is  easy  to  com- 
prehend that  the  yearly  average  of  humidity  must  reach  its  maximum 
value  in  those  regions  most  exposed  to  winds  from  the  first  quadrant. 
As  we  have  neither  time  nor  sufl&cient  data  to  carefully  study  the 
annual  variations  of  the  hygrometric  state  of  the  atmosphere  in  differ- 
ent parts  of  the  archipelago,  we  have  made  these  few  indications,  and 
it  will  be  seen  that  what  is  said  in  the  following  chapter  concerning 
the  yearly  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Philippines  will  be  of  groat  serv- 
ice in  this  connection. 


II.- 


-MONTHLY    AND    YEARLY    MAXIMA   AND    MINIMA    OF    REDATIVE 
HUMIDITY  AT  MANILA. 


The  two  Tables  XXXV  and  XXXVI  contain  the  3^ early  and  monthly 
maxima  and  minima  of  the  relative  humidity  as  observed  at  Manila 
during  the  period  1883  to  1898.  Note,  however,  that  these  maxima 
and  minima  have  not  been  taken  with  a  registering  apparatus  and  can 
not,  therefore,  be  strictly  called  absolute.  They  are  simply  the  maxi- 
mum and  minimum  of  hourly  observations  for  each  month. 

Table  XXXV. —  Yearly  and  monthly  maxima  of  relative  Jiumidity  at  Manila  during  the 

period  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 
Per  ct. 

Oct. 
Per  ct. 

Nov. 
Per  ct. 

Dec. 
Per  ct. 

Yearly 
max- 
ima. 

Per  ct 

Per  d. 

Per  ct. 

Per  ct. 

Per  ct. 

Per  ct. 

Per  ct. 

Per  ct. 

Per  ct. 

188;?... 

100.0 

99.0 

95.0 

99.0 

99.5 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

99.5 

100.0 

99.0 

99.0 

100.0 

1884... 

99.5 

99.0 

93.0 

96.0 

99.0 

99.0 

99.0 

98.0 

98.0 

98.0 

97.0 

97.0 

99. 5 

]8a5... 

99.0 

99.5 

94.0 

97.0 

95.0 

97.5 

100.0 

100.0 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1886... 

98.5 

97.0 

97.0 

97.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

1887... 

100.0 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1888... 

100.0 

97.5 

95. 5 

99.0 

97. 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

99.5 

100. 0 

100.0 

100. 0 

K)0.0 

1889- . . 

100.0 

100.0 

98.5 

94.0 

96.5 

99.0 

100.0 

99.0 

100.0 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1890... 

100.0 

99.5 

97.0 

100.0 

98.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

99.0 

100.0 

1891... 

98.5 

97.5 

96.0 

95.5 

99.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

98.5 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1892... 

97.0 

97.0 

99.0 

98.0 

97.0 

98.0 

99.0 

99.0 

100.0 

98.0 

99.0 

98.0 

100.0 

1893... 

99.0 

95.0 

96.0 

94.0 

99.0 

98.0 

99.0 

100.0 

100.0 

99.0 

100.0 

98.0 

100.0 

1894... 

100.0 

97.0 

99.0 

95.0 

99.0 

100.0 

98.0 

99.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

100.0 

1895. . . 

99.0 

99.0 

96.0 

99.0 

99.0 

100.0 

99.0 

100.0 

100.0 

99.0 

100.0 

99.0 

100.0 

1896... 

98.0 

96.0 

97.0 

94.0 

99.0 

99.0 

99.0 

99.0 

99.0 

98.0 

99.0 

97.0 

99.0 

1897... 

98.0 

95.0 

99.0 

95.0 

98.0 

97.0 

99.0 

100.0 

99.0 

98.0 

98.0 

99.0 

100.0 

1898. . . 

99.0 

98.0 

98.0 

97.0 

97.0 

99.0 

99.0 

99.0 

100.0 

99.0 

99.0 

98.0 

100.0 

Aver- 

age.. 

99.1 

97.8 

96.9 

96.9 

98.3 

99.1 

99.4 

99.6 

99.7 

99.2 

99.4 

99.0 

99.9 

Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPOBT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    00MMIS8I0M. 


171 


Tablk  XXXYI.— Yearly 

and  monthly  minima  of  relative  humidity  at  Manila  during  the 
period  of  1883  to  1898. 

Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

Perct. 
48.5 
39.0 
40.0 
39.0 
51.0 
33.0 
35.0 
45.5 
36.0 
39.0 
39.0 
38.0 
42.0 
33.0 
35.5 
50.0 

May. 

Perct. 
45.5 
40.6 
35.0 
43.0 
48.5 
32.0 
37.5 
47.0 
37. 5 
42.0 
44.0 
45.0 
52.0 
52.0 
39.0 
50.0 

June. 

Perct. 
53.0 
50.0 
42.0 
50.0 
55.0 
55.0 
47.5 
49.0 
55.5 
36.0 
50.0 
51.0 
49.0 
54.0 
42.0 
57*.  0 

July. 

Perct. 
57.0 
58.0 
53.5 
57.0 
60.0 
62. 5 
52.5 
56.0 
62.5 
58.0 
53.5 
56.0 
55.0 
57.0 
58.0 
61.0 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Perct. 
61.0 
56.0 
51.5 
61.5 
60.0 
51.0 
55.0 
60.0 
58.5 
60.0 
61.0 
59.0 
58.0 
62.0 
59.0 
52.0 

Oct. 

Perct. 
48.5 
49.0 
46.0 
54.0 
50.0 
53.0 
57.0 
48.0 
47.5 
55.0 
48.0 
59.0 

ao.o 

57.0 
52.0 
58.0 

Nov. 

Perct. 
45.0 
39.0 
53.0 
46.5 
54.0 
55.5 
56.0 
47.5 
46.0 
52.0 
51.0 
51.0 
45.0 
58.0 
57.0 
59.0 

Dee. 

Perct. 
53.0 
46.0 
39.5 
52.0 
61.5 
47.0 
54.0 
51.0 
50.0 
45.0 
52.0 
48.0 
48.0 
53.0 
56.0 
51.5 

Yearly 
mini- 
ma. 

1883 

PercL 
41.0 
44.0 
47.0 
49.0 
48.0 
60.5 
53.0 
41.0 
42.5 
46.0 
41.0 
43.0 
45.0 
42.0 
40.0 
46.5 

Perct. 
40.0 
44.5 
38.0 
41.5 
41.0 
40.0 
52.0 
43.5 
42.5 
37.0 
40.5 
33.0 
41.0 
42.0 
42.0 
48.0 

Perct. 
38.x 
35.0 
34.5 
33.5 
44.5 
36.5 
39.5 
35.0 
37.0 
36.0 
40.0 
38.0 
39.0 
40.0 
31.5 
49.0 

Perct. 
58.5 
53.0 
61.0 
56.5 
64.5 
59.0 
57.0 
57.0 
59. 0 
54.0 
58.0 
54.0 
52.0 
61.0 
56.0 
59.0 

Per  ct. 
38.5 

1884 

35.0 

1885 

34.5 

1886  .              .... 

33.5 

1887 

41.0 

1888 

32.0 

1889 

1890 

35.0 
35.0 

1891 

36.0 

1892 

36.0 

1893 

39.0 

1894          

33.0 

1895 

39.0 

1896 

33.0 

1897 

31.5 

1898 

46.5 

Average 

45.6 

41.7 

38.0 

40.2 

43.2 

49.8 

57.3 

56. 8 

57.8 

52.0 

51.0 

50.0 

36.2 

MAXIMA    OF    RELATIVE    HUMIDITY. 

We  have  but  little  to  say  concerning  the  monthly  maxima.  As  will 
be  seen  in  Table  XXXV,  this  frequently  reached  a  value  of  98,  99,  and 
100  (state  of  saturation)  even  in  the  months  which  are  noted  for  least 
humidity,  such  as  February,  March,  and  April.  This  is  not  strange, 
as  a  month  seldom  passes  without  several  rainy  days — at  least  for  a 
few  hours — and  in  these  cases  the  condensation  of  the  vapor  and  the 
aqueous  precipitation  naturally  increase  the  hygrometric  condition  of 
the  air,  this  being  the  cause  of  the  uniform  maximiun  relative  humidity 
of  all  the  months  of  the  year,  which  always  exceeds  90. 

GRADATION  BETWEEN  THE  MONTHLY  AVERAGES  AND  THE  MAXIMA*. 

Nevertheless,  examining  the  average  values  of  the  maxima  of  each 
month,  we  find  a  complete  gradation,  which  may  be  attributed  to  the 
constancy  or  greater  frequency  with  which  the  air  becomes  completely 
saturated  with  watery  vapor  in  the  months  of  greatest  average  humidity . 

Thus  the  smallest  averages  are  for  April,  March,  and  February; 
then  come  May,  December,  January,  June,  October,  November,  and 
July,  the  largest  being  in  August  and  September. 

AVERAGES   OF   MONTHLY   MINIMA. 

The  averages  of  monthly  minima  oscillate  between  38,  the  average 
for  March,  and  57.8,  the  average  for  September.  After  the  average 
of  March  follow,  in  ascending  order,  those  of  April,  February,  May, 
January,  June,  December,  November,  October,  August,  July,  and 
September,  a  gradation,  as  will  be  seen,  very  different  from  that 
observed  between  the  averages  of  the  maxima. 

MONTHLY   MINIMA   OF    ALL    THE   PERIOD. 

The  monthly  minima  for  the  entire  period  is  shown  in  the  following 
table: 


January - 40      (1897) 

February 33      (1894) 

March 31.5  (1897) 

April 33  (1888  and  1896) 

May 32      (1888) 

June 36      (1892) 


July 52.  5  (1889) 

August 52      (1895) 

September 51      (1888) 

October 46      (1885) 

November. 39      (1884) 

December 39,5  (1885) 


Hosted  by 


Google 


172 


REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


YEARLY   MIKIMA. 

The  minimum  for  the  entire  period  is  31.5,  observed  on  the  13th  of 
March,  1897.  The  greatest  annual  minimum  was  46.5,  in  1898,  differ- 
ing from  the  average  by  15.  The  years  1887  and  1898  are  the  only 
ones  which  show  a  yearly  minimum  greater  than  40. 

MONTHLY    FREQUENCY   OF   THE   YEARLY    MINIMA. 

The  yearly  minima  of  all  the  period  are  distributed  in  the  different 
months  of  the  year  as  follows: 

April 4 

May.. - 1 

June 1 


January 1 

February 2 

March 8 


III.— MONTHLY  AVERAGEvS  OF  THE  DAILY  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA  OF 
THE  RELATIVE  HUMIDITY  AT  MANILA— AVERAGE  VALUES  OF  THE 
DAILY  VARIATION. 

Tables  XXXVII  and  XXXVIIl  include  the  monthly  averages 
deduced  from  the  absolute  daily  maxima  and  minima  of  relative 
humidity  during  the  period  1885  to  1898.  The  difference  between 
these  two  tables,  or  what  is  the  same  thing,  the  difference  between  the 
average  maxima  and  minima  of  each  month,  gives  us  the  average 
monthly  variation  of  relative  humidity  which  is  included  in  Table 
XXXIX. 

Table  XXXVII. — Monthly  averages  of  daily  maxima  of  relative  humidity  of  Manila 
during  the  period  1885  to  1898. 


Jan.    Feb.    Mar.    Apr.    May.  June.  July.   Aug.   Sept.    Oct.    Nov.    Dec. 


1885. , 
13B6., 
1887., 
1888. . 
1889., 
1890.. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893- , 
1894.. 
1895- . 
1896.. 
1897.. 


Perct. 
89.2 
92.3 
96. 2 
95.6 
98.0 
94.1 
90.7 
91.1 
91.5 
90.6 
92.4 
89.7 
90.9 
91.2 


Average 92. 4 


Perct 
89.6 
88.6 
92.3 
91.6 
95.4 
93.3 
87.1 
89.6 
89.7 
87.9 
90.5 
89.1 
87.2 
92.8 


90.3 


Perct. 
84.6 
83.2 
94.3 
89.4 
92.1 


90.4 

87.7 
87.2 
88.1 
87.8 
86.1 
92.9 


Perct. 
83.6 
88.0 
94.1 
91.2 
86.9 
90.4 
84.6 
86.2 
87.5 
85.7 
89.1 
83.7 
84.7 
92.5 


87.7 


Perct. 
86.5 
90.4 
98.1 
91.3 
87.2 
94.9 
86.5 
91.6 
94.1 
92.8 
95.2 
94.8 
91.2 
93.6 


92.0 


Perct. 
91.0 
95.8 
98.6 
96.3 
95.0 
95.3 
95.9 
94.6 
93.2 
95.0 
95.9 
95.5 
90.3 
95.4 


94.  S 


Perct. 
94.4 
98.2 
98.1 
98.1 
96.7 
96.0 
95.9 
95.2 
95.0 
95.6 
95.9 
95.5 
95.0 
96.1 


96.1 


Perct. 
95.8 
97.4 
97.8 
96.3 
96.2 
97.1 
96.8 
96.7 
96.7 
95.9 
95.9 
96.5 
95.5 
93.0 


96.3 


Perct. 
94.7 
98.1 
98.6 
96.4 
97.7 
97.3 
97.0 
95.6 
96.8 
96.7 
96.5 
95.8 
95.7 
95.6 


96.6 


Perct. 
94.9 
97.1 
96.3 
96.4 
96.3 
97.5 
94.6 
94.5 
94.8 
96.0 
94.3 
94.7 
94.9 
95.0 


95.5 


Per  ct. 
94.1 
94.8 
97.0 
96.7 
95.4 
93.8 
94.5 
93.9 
91.4 
93.9 
95.0 
94.9 
95.3 
95.4 


94.7 


Perct. 
91.0 


95.1 
95.8 
95.0 
93.2 
91.4 
90.4 
96.4 
91.2 
93.0 
94.0 
91.4 


Per  ct . 
90.8 
93.3 
96.6 
94.5 
94.4 
94.5 

.  92.0 
92.6 
92.4 
92.8 
93.3 
92.6 
91.7 
93.7 


Table  XXXVIIL— 

■Monthly  averages  of  the  daily  minima  of  relative  humidity  at  Manila 
during  the  period  1885  to  1898. 

Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

P.ct. 
63.8 
68.2 
66.8 
66.3 
68.7 
69.6 
61.1 
65.9 
66.9 
66.4 
61.2 
69.0 
67.2 
70.0 

Nov. 

P.ct. 
65.2 
63.8 
69.5 
65.6 
69.2 
64.1 
64.8 
67.4 
65.0 
63.6 
63.9 
66.2 
68.1 
72.8 

Dec. 

Aver- 
age. 

1885    

P.ct. 
57.2 
63.6 
63.8 
69.4 
66.8 
58.4 
59.7 
60.3 
58.2 
56.6 
58.2 
54.7 
55.4 
61.2 

P.ct. 
57.6 
57.3 
58.4 
52.9 
63.1 
55.0 
52.3 
51.8 
53.1 
53.1 
53.4 
53.6 
54.0 
60.6 

P.ct. 
51.2 
48.3 
61.2 
60.9 
64.0 
46.9 
60.0 
61.2 
61.0 
62.4 
61.7 
61.7 
49.6 
62.9 

P.ct 
50.2 
54.7 
61.3 
60.8 
46.6 
64.4 
47.6 
47.6 
51.1 
47.3 
64.4 
47.9 
48.4 
60.0 

P.ct. 
62.8 
68.9 
66.4 
60.2 
48.3 
60.7 
49.7 
63.4 
62.5 
68.9 
68.4 
69.0 
69.2 
63.5 

P.ct. 
56.8 
65.7 
69.6 
67.9 
60.2 
64.2 
69.4 
69.1 
69.7 
64.6 
67.0 
68.3 
59.7 
70.2 

P.ct. 
67.5 
67.8 
78.4 
79.1 
67.1 
67.6 
73.7 
69.1 
68.7 
66  9 
67.0 
69.1 
68.1 
70.7 

P.ct. 
67.8 
65.0 
66.6 
72.5 
68.6 
65.2 
74.1 
65.9 
70.6 
69.1 
69.1 
77.6 
70.2 
72.8 

P.ct. 
64.2 
71.9 
76.5 
65.0 
67.1 
72.4 
74.5 
72.8 
72.6 
70.7 
74.1 
72.7 
71.8 
65.7 

P.ct. 
66.2 
67.3 
71.4 
62.4 
72.1 
61.0 
64.8 
61.8 
62.9 
64.4 
60.6 
63.7 
69.2 
64.3 

P.  ct. 
60.0 

1886 

62.7 

1887 

67.5 

1888 

62.8 

1889 

62.6 

1890 

61.6 

1891 '. 

61.8 

1892 

60.5 

1893 

61.9 

1894 

61.2 

1895 

62.4 

1896  

63.6 

1897 -.. 

61.7 

1898 

66.2 

Average  — 

60.3 

65.4 

62.4 

5L6 

58.7 

64.5 

70.1 

69.6 

70.9 

66.5 

66.4 

65.2 

62.6 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XVli. 


DAILY   VARIATION    OF   THE    RELATIVE 
HUMIDITY    AT    MANILA 

1 890-  i  898 

MarOt 

% 

at 

S€ 
8^ 
82 
8« 

ra 

76 
74 
72 
7o 
85 
66 
64 
6Z 

86 
87 

M        1 

.ai  i  i  i  i  *  i 

, 

j       10       ll 

% 

80 

.JrH 

1  T^   T  --7-717--" 

1         ^ "  -"^ 

!      1       ' 

/f  :    ,    !\: 

"1 

ill' 
I        1                       1        1        i        1 

i — T 

I 

/ 

-^ 

j    !  \i 

, 

.               1       1        , 

1 

1 

1 
1 

f  ■'  I  ■ 

\ 

1 

1 

i 

\ 

' 

i 
1 

- 

- 

^ 

/' 

- 

.^ 

-  — 

1 

- 

^ 

- 

^    - 

/ 

/ 

r 

/ 

/ 

y 

>- 

- 

— 

-- 

— 

\ 

s 

1 

t 

1 

1 

/ 

^ 

__,  s 

>     ! 

\ 

\ 

V 

- 

'- 

/ 

-- 

"- 

;--" 

^ 

-f  -  - 

- 

- 

\ 

-. 

- 

4_ 

\ 

X 

/ 

/ 

- 

1 

^ 

-^ 

-^ 

^ 

1 

\ 

--- 

— 

-^ 

7tf 

74 

r« 

s« 

66 
64 
6?. 

ao 
»8 

84 

82 
80 

78 

76 

r4 

72 

ro 

68 

66 
64 
62 
bo 
S^8 
?6 

1 

1 
i 

— 

\ 

1 
1 

/ 

/ 

.    1 

^ 

/ 

j 

- 

i\ 

/ 

\ 

-- 

\, 

^  1 

' 

/ 

^ 

\ 

1 

c    4    - 

_+, 

/  1 

1 

^   i\ 

I     -i 

^T 

1/ 

1 

1.. 

l\  „i     L 

1 
• 

1 

j/ 

j.__l  -^ 

fto 

78 

re 

T4 

7i 

70 
6% 

> 

K 

i    l\ 

V  fr  ^ 

/ 

1 

\ 

V, 

/  , 

1      ' 

-  ' 

\ 

^ 

J    -^    -./" 

r^ 

-- 

' 

1 

' 

i    ;7 

-^- 

/ 

1 

^"     1 

1 

1 

1 

' 

1    ' 

\| 

I 

'      / 

66 
64 
62 
6o 
58 

^"1"  ^ 

jxr^x" 

l_^_L'  /i 

" 

'■      .      .      1 

/I- 

' 

"^       1 

y 

\ 

-- 

N 

-1      '          ^ 

— _i_    - 

^ 

y 

V 

-- 

'      1 

L         4 

\i 

__J         ~^ 

/       ' 

J 

s. 

/  i 

- 

^ 

^1  J 

\ 

y' 

.    f — 

' 

-^ 

— 

^- 

-- 

— 

y' 

y 

1 

j 

-f 

y 

/" 

■ 

/            \          \ 

V 

/ 

1 

\j 

/- 

— 

^ 

N 

/ 

i 

1 

^    f 

- 

■ 

- 

-- 

\ 

s 

/ 

1 

1 

\ 

y 

f-^ 



-  -  — 

— 

— - 

- 

- 

\ 

/ 

-^ 

»_ 

-1 

■■M  ■ 

■■M   • 

1      i 







1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate 

xvm. 

DAILY   VARIATION    OF   THE   RELATIVE 
HUMIDITY   AT    MANILA 

1 890- 1 898 

May 
July 

% 
£K 
8< 
8< 
8^ 
8 
g< 

78 

re 

74 
72 
7o 
6* 
66 
64 

94 
92 
90 
88 
86 
&4 
82 
80 

7« 
76 
7i 
72 

4-X- 

-jXT 

^ 

H  f  ^ 

t     ' 
X     ^ 

JL__ 

\ 

. 

^       V 

i    O/ 

June. 

1^ 

^-^■^ 

1      1      1     ^ 

1 

- 

- 

■\     L-^ 

;; I  j\ 

, 

\    ! 

^ 

.„  ^^  M 

-  — 

^y 

-^_   __ 

1 

1      1 

+     T     -^ 

- 

1 

\ 

1      1 

- 

1 

<^ 

^ 

i.  4— 

^ 

i 

\ 

-  i_ 

..  "iiT 

T 

,/" 

;'*— 

1 

4-     4- 

1. 

\ 

f-     1                  T     T      r 

,      1      ,       1      1      1       1 

i 

-/- 

' — 

1         1 

-1 

J 

V 

1    1    ! r 

\    !/ 

j 

\ 

'      ,    1          i          '         T        T 
1          f          1 

J( 

I 

—  92 

1        ,        ,         I 

X 

,    4- 

2J\ 

— 

"    t      1 

1 

kt  ^" 

/ 

' 

j 

4-    _ 

1 

k 

r 

r 
1    / 

1 

-- r 

1                 ,      ^ 

i 

\,  ; 

/ 

T   ^ 

L-r^^ 

^k'  ; 

>. — ^  i 

i 

^^  !_:_._ 

\ 

,         1 

^  88 

-  86 

-  84 

— h      -j         t       -i        - 

i 

i 

i     1     1 

r  V- 

^> 

■--^--^ 

1    ^ 

1 

[\    t- 

^  -^   r 

^ 

;:==" 

\  , 

1    i    ill 

/ 

X 

-     [ 

^ J 

,    H 

V      ' 

I'll         i 

/ 

/  ■ 

— ^ — 

-go 

. — 1 

-1^^ 

1        1         1                 '        ' 

f 

1 

, 

J 

; 

\ 

,_ 

. ..    ,1 L J 

/ 

^r 

:-^\ 

.  i  1  i 

/ 

/ 

1 

76 

-     4-Z    J       1 

■^  4- 

s^ 

-^f  - 

1    J 

/ 

1 

— V     i — 

-  rz 

~  70 

1     - 

^y 

j 

'-' 

\1          t 
-1..  ,     , 

1 

^^  ^    "^ - 

X 

P-^- 

, 

J     ,          i 

A 

-- 

— 

T  \ 

1 

! 

1    1    1 

^ 

1 

- 

■+-\ 

: 

^  4  J 

-^^ 

1      1      1 

\ 

/ 

1 

- 

1 — 

, 

\ 

"1 

/ 

' 

-- 

' 

\ 

; 

1     y 

/■■'^  

-4 

4" 

1 

_ — J 1 — 

1      1 

\, 

"^ 

-- 

A 

/ 

1     1 

— ^  -r^    ,     j 

"^ 

1 

_  4- 

-   04 

-^l-LiX 

,^^ 

— ^ 

! 

1 

1 

f 

-      4-- .- I.       4. 

1 

L  „     1    .  4 

-X    J 

*^ 

4 

,  ,  .^ 

-_^_  ^ 

u'-^ 

-^ 

\^  1 

\     ■■ 

1 

-1 — \ 
1 

h 

— 1 — 

-^ 

^ 

1 

_.^_J 

^"1 

— 1 

y 

Z' 

-  oo 

-88 
86 
84 
8? 
8o 

1         1 

1 

— 

/ 

\ 

1      1 

y 

s 

X 

— 1 — j — 

_Ti:t3 

\, 

7 

-4 

1 — 

—  — 1 \ 

\ 

/ 

1     1 

_|__i- 

1       1 

\ 

y 

X    X 

4 

\ 

v__ 

/ 

-i 

-^     i     H — 
j            1 

1 

, 

X 

^--f^,«. 

^ 

1              1 

76 

— ^ — ^ 

1 

;"~rT 

! 

74 

A 



1 

1 

1 

!     1 

1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XIX. 


DAILY   VARIATION    OF   THE   RELATIVE 
HUMIDITY   AT   MANILA 

1890-1898 

^tf^amb0 

% 

94 

©a 
9o 
88 

84 
82 

1 

>       i 

1       1 

1  -j 

i    i 

i 

i« 

-iecmiba 

__^ 

.— ■ 

■— " 

— *. 

N^ 

\ 

^ 

^^ 

\ 

i^^ 

\ 

/ 

\ 

1 

\ 

i 

/ 

^' 

1 

s 

/ 

t 

\ 

/ 

78 

\ 

/ 

k. 

v^ 

X 

/ 

— 

~ 

74 
92 

^ 

, 

^^ 

. 

' 



\ 

> 

y 

^ 

88 

\ 

^ 

^ 

86 
84 

V 

/ 

^ 

\ 

y 

•  9 

\ 

/ 

— 

-- - 

~ 

80 

\^ 

/ 

\ 

/ 

re 

-" 

\ 

N 

/ 

"Si 

s 

/ 

72 
TO 

9o 

90 

88 

^ 

,---• 

-- 

N, 

s, 

^^ 

— 

-^ 

^.^ 

-^ 

s 

. 

86 
84 
82 

^ 

Ny 

-»■' 

^ 

V 

v 

/' 

x' 

8o 
78 

76 

74 
7« 
to 

\ 

y 

^ 

L 

/ 

r 

\, 

/ 

\ 

s 

/ 

— 

- 

\ 

s 

^ 

/ 

--^ 

^ 

^ 

,-^ 

"^ 

N 

\ 

,-^ 

r--^ 

\ 

8o 

X^ 

\ 

^ 

84 

~^' 

r^ 

^ 

\ 

/■ 

\ 

/ 

y 

78 
76 
74 
75 
70 
68 

k 

/ 

\ 

/ 

\ 

^ 

/ 

-- 

\ 

J 

1 

^ 

N 

^ 

/ 

— _. 

"^ 

1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XX. 


DAILY   VARIATION    OF   THE   RELATIVE 
HUMIDITY   AT   MANILA 

1890-1898 

From 

to 
May 

From 

to 
Oetoler 

Annual 
Mean 

% 

86 

, 

L 

1      i 

■ 

»     f 

:    1 

^ 

• 

-^ 

\ 

^ 

/ 

\ 

— 

84 
82 
80 

^ 

V 

— 

— 

^ 

_,.*_- 

\ 

^ 

y^ 

> 

I 

y 

76 
72 

\ 

/' 

l\ 

/ 

i  ^ 

<. 

/ 

\ 

/ 

68 
66 

\ 

/ 

N 

/ 

64 
62 

92, 

-— 

-- - 

— 

\ 

/ 

l^ 

— 

— 

\ 

88 

SO 
84 
8? 
8o 
78 
76 
74 
7? 

do 
S8 
86 
84 
82 
8o 
7% 
76 
74 
72 
70 
«8 
66 
64 

^ 

-^ 

--^ 

\ 

\ — p 

y 

L-^ 

^ 

^ 

y 

y 

/ 

/ 

/ 

\, 

/ 

s 

s 

/ 

\ 

s 

/ 

<^ 

— 

r" 



-— 

— 

,— 

^ 

^ 

\ 

\ 

\ 

^ 

y' 

-~ 

— ■ 

-- 

\ 

/ 

\ 

/ 

^ 

\ 

/ 

\ 

/ 

— 

\ 

s 

/ 

\ 

s 

J 

/ 

-- 

N 

/ 

^ 

— 

y 

■■■■-■H 

L- 

L- 

- 

, 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPOET   OP   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 


173 


Table  XXXIX. — Average  monthly  variation  of  the  relative  humidity  at  Manila  during 

the  period  1885  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Aver- 
age. 

1885. 

P.d. 
32.0 

28.7 
32.4 
26.2 
31.2 
35.7 
31.0 
30.8 
33. 3 
34.0 
34.2 
35. 0 
35. 5 

;;o.  0 

P.ct. 
82. 0» 
31.8 
33.9 

88.7 
82.3 
38.3 
34.8 
37.8 
36.6 
34.8 
37.1 
35.5 
33.2 
32.2 

P.ct. 
38.4 
34.9 
33.1 
38.5 
38.1 
41.9 
36.9 
39.2 
36.7 
34.8 
36.4 
86.1 
36.5 
80.0 

P.ct. 
33.4 
38.3 
82.8 
40.4 
40.4 
36.0 
37.0 
38.6 
36.4 
38.4 
34.7 
35.8 
86.3 
82.5 

P.ct. 
38.7 
31.5 
31.7 
41.1 
38.9 
34.2 
36.8 
38.2 
81.6 
83.9 
26.8 
25.8 
32.0 
30.1 

P.ct. 
84.2 
30.1 
29.0 
28.4 
34.8 
31.1 
26.5 
35.5 
38.5 
80.4 
28.9 
27.2 
30.6 
25.2 

P.ct 
26.9 
80.4 
19.7 
19.0 
29.6 
28.4 
22.2 
26.1 
26.8 
28.7 
28.9 
26.4 
26.9 
25.4 

P.ct. 

28.0 
32.4 
31.2 
23.8 
27.6 
81.9 
22.7 
30.8 
26.1 
26.8 
26.8 
19.0 
25.8 
20.2 

P.ct. 
80.5 
26.2 
22.1 
31.4 
30.6 
24.9 
22.5 
22.8 
24.3 
26.0 
22.4 
23.1 
28.9 
29.9 

P.ct. 
31.1 
28.9 
29.5 
30.1 
27.6 
28.0 
38.5 
28.6 
27.9 
29.6 
38.1 
25.7 
27.7 
25.0 

P.ct. 
28.9 
81.0 
27.5 
81.1 
26.2 
29.7 
29.7 
26.5 
26.4 
80.3 
31.1 
28.7 
27.2 
22.6 

P.ct. 
24.8 
28.0 
26.9 
32.7 
28.7 
84.0 
28.4 
29.6 
27.5 
32.0 
30.6 
29.3 
24.8 
27.1 

P.ct. 
30.7 

1886 

80.6 

1887. 

29.2 

1888 

81.8 

1889.. 

31.8 

1890 

32.8 

1891 

30.2 

1892 

1893 

32.0 
30.6 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

31.6 
30.9 
29.0 
30.0 

1898... 

27.5 

!    " 

Average 

32.1 

34.9 

36.1 

36.1  1  33.3 

i 

30.'4 

26.1 

26. 6 

25. 8 

29.0 

28.4 

28. 5 

30.6 

RELATION   BETWEEN   THE    AVERAGE    MONTHLY   MAXIMA   AND   MINIMA    OF 

RELATIVE    HUMIDITY. 

The  relation  which  is  noted  between  the  different  monthlj^  averages 
at  the  end  of  Tables  XXXVII  and  XXXVIII  is  in  both  almost  the 
same  and  very  similar  to  that  shown  in  Table  XXXIV  of  paragraph  1 
of  this  chapter,  which  considered  the  yearly  variation  of  relative 
humidity  at  Manila. 

Considering  each  one  of  the  fourteen  years  included  in  these  tables 
separately,  we  see  that  the  greatest  average  of  daily  maxima  was  98.6, 
corresponding  to  the  months  of  June  and  September,  1887.  In  the 
months  of  February,  March,  and  April,  especially  in  the  latter  two, 
the  average  maxima  less  than  90  prevailed.  From  June  to  Decem- 
ber, inclusive,  all  are  greater  than  90,  and  in  January  and  May, 
although  there  are  some  less  than  90,  the  majority  exceed  this  figure. 
The  smallest  average  of  daily  minima  during  this  entire  period  of 
fourteen  years  was  46.5,  corresponding  to  the  month  of  April,  1889. 
The  averages  of  minima  for  the  months  July  to  December  are,  without 
exception,  above  60,  and  generally  above  50  for  the  other  months  of 
the  year.     In  June  the  most  of  the  averages  are  above  60. 

THE   AVERAGE    OF    DAILY   MAXIMA   AND    MINIMA   FOR   ALL   THE    PERIOD. 
AVERAGE   YEARLY   EXTREMES. 

The  average  of  all  the  daily  maxima  from  the  period  1885  to  1898  is 
93.2  and  of  the  minima  62.6 — a  difference  of  30.6.  The  greatest 
yearly  average  of  the  maxima  is  96.6  (1887)  and  the  smallest  yearly 
average  of  the  minima  60  (1886). 

AVERAGE   MONTHLY  VARIATION   OF   HUMIDITY. 

As  will  be  seen  in  the  average  values  given  us  by  Table  XXXIX, 
the  greatest  variation  in  humidity  takes  plaee  in  March  and  April, 
then  follow  February,  May,  January,  June,  October,  December,  and 
November.  The  months  of  slightest  variation  are  August,  July,  and 
September.  The  difference  between  the  normal  variation  of  March 
and  April,  36.1,  and  that  of  September,  which  is  the  least,  25.8,  is 


Hosted  by 


Google 


174 


REPOBT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


10.3.  The  average  variation  for  the  entire  period  is  30.6.  In  the  fol- 
lowing paragraph  we  shall  speak  more  fully  of  this  gradation  of  vari- 
ations of  humidity  belonging  to  the  different  months  of  the  year. 

AYFRAGE    EXTREME    VARIATIONS   OF   THE    ENTIRE    PERIOD. 

The  average  maximum  variation  for  all  the  entire  period  was  in  the 
month  of  March,  1890,  when  it  reached  the  value  of  41.9.  The  mini- 
mum, 19,  was  during  the  months  of  eTuly,  1888,  and  August,  1896. 

AVERAGE    ANNUAL   VARIATION. 

The  average  variations  deduced  for  each  one  of  the  fourteen  years 
of  the  period  vary  between  32.8  (1890)  and  22.5  (1898). 

IV.— DAILY  VARIATION  OF  RELATIVE  HUMIDITY  IN  MANILA. 

Table  XL  contains  the  hourly,  monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual 
averages  deduced  for  the  period  1890  to  1898.  From  these  average 
values  the  curves  of  Plates  XVII,  XVIII,  and  XIX  have  been  drawn. 

Table  XL. — Hourly^  monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  averages  of  relative  humidity 
deduced  for  the  period  1890  to  1898. 

FORENOON. 


Month. 


January  — 
February  . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November  . 
December. . 


Average 

Average,  November  to  May 
Average,  June  to  October. 


83.9 
81.2 
80.2 
78.8 
86.3 
89.2 
91.0 
91.3 
91.8 
90.3 
88.3 
86.0 


86. 53 
83.53 
90. 72 


85.0 
82.7 
81.4 
80.2 
87.6 
90.1 
91.5 
91.9 
92.3 
90.9 
89.1 
86.9 


87.47 
84.70 
91.34 


86.0 
84.1 
82.8 
81.7 
88.6 
90.9 
92.1 
92.7 
92.7 
91.7 
89.7 
87.6 


88.38 
85. 79 
92.02 


87.3 
85.2 
84.3 
83.3 
89.6 
91.6 
92.5 
93.1 
93.0 
92.2 
90.5 
88.7 


89.28 

86. 

92.48 


88.8 
86.9 
85.9 
84.9 
90.7 
92.3 
93.3 
93.6 
93.6 
92.8 
91.3 
89.5 


90.30 
88.29 
93.12 


89.5 
87.8 
86.9 
85.2 
90.7 
91.9 
93.4 


92.7 
91.5 
90.1 


90.61 
88.81 
93.12 


88.5 
86.4 
83.4 
79.3 
84.9 
87.2 
90.3 
90.8 
91.1 
89.5 
89.0 
88.7 


87.43 
85.74 
89.78 


82.8 
79.2 
75.1 
70.4 
77.7 
80.5 
84.8 
85.6 
86.3 
83.8 
83.6 
83.3 


81.09 
78.87 
84.20 


74.7 
71.4 
68.2 
66.5 
73.4 
76.1 
80.3 
81.4 
82.4 
78.1 
78.4 
76.7 


75.  63 
72. 76 
79.66 


70.7 
68.1 
66.7 
65.2 
71.7 
73.4 
77.6 
78.7 
79.6 
75.0 
74.7 
72.8 


72.95 
69.99 
76.36 


68.3 
65.4 
64.9 
63.5 
69.5 
71.9 
75.7 
76.8 
77.8 
72.9 
72.9 
70.3 


70. 83 
67. 83 
75. 02 


66.1 
63.7 
62.3 
61.5 
67.5 
70.9 
74.5 
75. 2 
76.5 
71.3 
71. 5 
69.2 


69.18 
65. 97 
73.68 


AFTERNOON. 


Month. 


January . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December  . 


Average 

Average,  November 

to  May 

Average,   June  to 

October 


64.0 
61.0 
59.3 
57.8 
65. 6 
69.8 
73.5 
74.4 
75.7 
70.6 
70.5 
67.7 


67.49 
63.70 
72.80 


62.6 
59.5 
56.3 
55.6 
65.2 
69.4 
73.6 
74.3 
76.2 
70.9 
70.4 
67.6 


66.80 
62.46 

72.88 


62.4 
57.8 
55.4 
54.6 
66.6 
70.7 
74.1 
75.6 
77.4 
71.7 
71.6 
68.1 


67.17 
62.36 
73.90 


63.1 
57.9 
56.3 
55.7 
69.3 
72.6 
76.3 
77.8 
79.5 
73.8 
73.1 
69.0 


68.70 
63.49 
76.00 


65.4 
59.7 
58.8 
58.7 
71.9 
74.9 
79.0 
79.5 
82.1 
76.6 
76.1 
72.0 


71.23 
66.09 

78.42 


69.6 
64.3 
62.9 
62.8 
75.1 
78.0 
81.2 
82.0 
84.7 
80.2 
79.4 
76.1 


74.69 
70.03 
81.22 


74.0 
68.7 
67.7 
66.6 
77.6 
80.9 
83.9 
84.3 
86.3 
82.1 
81.5 
78.9 


77.71 
73.57 
83.60 


76.7 
72.2 
70.9 
70.0 
79.8 
83.0 
85.4 
85.9 
87.7 
83.8 
83.2 
80.4 


79.92 
76.17 
85.16 


78.6 
74.9 
73.7 
72.6 
81.7 
84.8 
86.9 
87.4 
89.1 
85.9 
84.5 
82.0 


81.84 
78.29 
86.82 


80.0 
76.7 
75.9 
74.3 
83.0 
86.0 
88.2 


87.1 
85.6 
82.8 


83.19 
79.76 
88.00 


81.3 
78.2 
77.5 
76.0 
84.3 
87.0 
89.6 
90.3 
90.7 
88.2 
86.6 
84.0 


84.48 
81.13 
89.16 


82.6 
79.4 
78.5 
77.3 
85.6 
88.0 
90.2 
90.6 
91.3 
89.4 
87.3 
84.6 


Aver- 
age. 


76.3 
73.0 
71.5 
70.1 
78.5 
81.3 
84.1 
84.8 
85.9 
82.6 
81.7 
79.3 


85.40  79.09 
82.19'  75.77 
89. 9o'  83.74 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


175 


During  all  the  months  of  the  year  the  daily  course  of  relative  humid- 
ity contains  a  single  variation  exactly  opposite  to  the  temperature  varia- 
tion described  in  paragraph  5  of  the  previous  chapter.  The  maximum 
and  minimum  of  this  variation  is  observed  between  5  and  6  in  the 
morning  and  between  1  and  3  in  the  afternoon,  respectively,  the  hours 
of  greatest  humidity  coinciding  with  those  of  lowest  temperature  and 
those  of  least  humidity  with  the  hours  of  highest  temperature. 

LAWS   OF   THIS   VARIATION    IN    THE    DIFFERENT    MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

The  laws  governing  this  daily  variation  in  the  relative  humidity  are 
easily  deduced  from  the  following  table,  made  in  the  same  way  as  those 
which,  in  their  corresponding  place,  serve  for  the  study  of  the  laws 
of  the  daily  course  of  atmospheric  pressure  and  of  the  temperature  of 
the  air: 


January 

February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average  . 


Month. 


Hours  of— 


Maximum. 


6  a.  m.. 
6  a.m.. 
6  a.m.. 
6  a.m.. 
f5a.  m.. 
[6  a.m.. 

5  a.m.. 

6  a.  m. . 
6  a.  m. . 
6  a.m.. 

5  a.m.. 

6  a.m.. 
6  a.  m. . 


Mininmm. 


3  p.m. 
3  p.m. 
3  p.  m. 
3  p.m. 

[•2  p.m. 

2  p.m. 

1  p.  m. 

2  p.m.. 
1  p.  m . . 

1  p.  m.. 

2  p.m.. 
2  p.m.. 


Amplitude 
of  varia- 
tion. 


27.1 
30.0 
31.5 
30.6 

25.5 

22.9 
19.9 
19.6 
18.0 
22.2 
21.1 
22.5 
24.2 


From  this  data  the  conclusions  may  l)c  drawn,  first,  that  those 
months  in  which  the  variation  in  humidity  is  greatest  are  the  four 
months  showing  greatest  thermic  variation;  that  is  to  say,  March, 
April,  February,  and  January  (in  descending  scale);  second,  that 
the  minimum  variation  in  humidity  is  observed  in  those  months  show- 
ing the  minimum  thermic  variation;  that  is  to  say,  July,  August,  and 
September;  third,  that  the  average  amplitude  of  variation  oscillates 
between  27.1  and  31.5  during  the  months  from  January  to  April, 
between  19.9  and  18.0  during  the  months  from  July  to  September, 
and  between  25.5  and  2J.1  during  the  rest  of  the  months  of  the  year; 
fourth,  that  with  very  slight  differences  the  average  maxima  and 
minima  of  the  different  months  of  the  year  correspond  to  the  same 
hours  of  the  average  maxima  and  minima  of  temperature.  It  follows, 
therefore,  that  the  hour  of  maximum  humidity  is  advanced  or  retarded 
simultaneously  with  that  of  minimum  temperature,  and  so  the  hour 
of  minimum  humidity  is  advanced  or  retarded  with  that  of  maximum 
temperature. 

ANNUAL   AND   SEMIANNUAL   AVERAGE    OF   DAILY   VARIATION. 

With  the  annual  and  semiannual  averages  of  Table  XL,  we  have 
formed  the  accompanying  table,  which  represents  the  average  annual 
and  semiannual  variation  in  relative  humidity.  In  this  it  will  be 
noticed  that  the  hour  of  annual  and  semiannual  maxima  and  minima 


Hosted  by 


Google 


176 


EEPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


are  the  same  as  those  given  in  paragraph  5  of  the  preceeding  chapter 
for  the  annual  and  semiannual  minima  and  maxima  of  temperature: 


Hours  of— 

Amplitude 
of  varia- 
tion. 

Maxima. 

Minima. 

Annual 

6a. m 

6a.m 

/5a.m 

\6a.m 

2p.m 

3  p.m 

}lP-m 

23.81 

November  to  May 

26.45 

June  to  October             .        .         

20  32 

THE   OBJECT   OF   TABLE   XLI   AND   CONCLUSIONS   WHICH   MAY   BE   DRAWN 

FROM   IT. 

AU  that  we  have  just  suggested  in  the  preceding  lines  is  fully  con- 
firmed in  the  first  part  of  Table  XLI,  in  which  we  include  in  the  first 
place  the  differences  between  the  hourly  averages  of  Table  XL  and  the 
respective  monthly  avei^age,  adding,  then,  under  each  one  of  these  dif- 
ferences the  average  increase  or  decrease  experienced  in  the  relative 
humidity  of  each  one  of  the  twenty-four  hours  compared  with  that 
immediately  preceding  it.  From  this  second  part  of  the  table  we  can 
deduce  conclusions  and  considerations  analogous  to  those  found  in  para- 
graph 6  of  the  preceding  chapter,  referring  to  the  daily  variation  of 
temperature.  So,  in  order  to  avoid  useless  repetitions,  it  is  sufficient 
to  say  that,  in  general,  considering  both  the  annual  result  and  those  of 
the  different  months  of  the  year,  it  can  be  said  that  the  hours  of  greatest 
increase  in  relative  humidity  are  those  of  greatest  decrease  of  tempera- 
ture, and  on  the  other  hand,  the  hours  in  which  humidity  decreases 
with  greatest  rapidity  are  the  same  ones  in  which  temperature  most 
notably  increases. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


177 


rO 

!:^ 

•^ 

^ 

1 

^ 

s: 

o 

s?i 

^ 

lO 

^ 

c^ 

•c^ 

^ 

S 

^s:- 

:s 

r< 

^ 
t 


X 


< 


I  I        I        I        I        I        I        I        I        1      7       I        I        I        I 

^    _•   ^-    _•   _;   ^   i^  ^1   ,^£5  ij^   cc   oS   c4  o   '-^'   '-J   '"'   '-^   '^'   '^    ^ 


t^     rt<    ?0    Oi    C5 

^g      rH      t^      d      0(0 


O     C5 


I  o  ®  o 


j    d   OS 


I 


I      I      I      I      I      I      I      I      i      I      I      I 


^      r-i     ^      rH      ^      d     O 


:©O'»*<00O'^aDa0?0Q0iXiiMe0iO0»'^-. 

d^t-TdaoOaDOci'^CsOt-rc^i-JiOsoiOt^coQO  ^  ^  ^  ^ 

I      I  I  I  I  I  I  I  7  I  I  I  I  I  I 


t^d(xoc5dc5'=©'=^oo?o 


CO^i0^iOi4cOi5;(M',-3rH^d,-3doO 
^  ,H  tH  fH 

I       I    I    I    I    I    I    i    I    I    I    I    i 


,^d:od?D'=i>rdi>:di>2d,oc^O^M'^5e<=^aiO'-^«s'-^0"=^os'='QC)r-4 

J  I      I      I      I 


I      I      I      i      I      I 


I 


^r-;^d,-«^dccd55d(©coo"^o9'^?0'^a<D^os'~'0'^0'^ 


-e    d   i>I    d    i4    d   Q(D 


I 


i      I      I 


i      I      I      I      I      I      I      I 


scdt^IdaodaodasdosOi^s 


rH  t.  lO  30  lO  «0  l^  "^  a>  ®  C^l  CD  o  »©  tH  o  «P 

I     I   I   I   I   I   i   I   I   I   I   I   I     I 


d  I©  '^'  i^  <m'  cs  th  o 


05  C^  QO  05  ?o  QO  „   _  _   ^  _   ^  -^ 

III 


l^  ^  lO  •*  o 

N  OS  ^'  ©  '-^' 

I    I    I    I    i    I    I    I 


OS  tJ^ 


O  "^^ 


t>:  d  OS  '-^  6  '-' 


'rio-»*<ooQC)C^iHCCQ)ot^©<N©ooso5c«'^ 


(jj  d  d  lo  o  '^  >© 

I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I 


^?oio<Ny5ao«3THcc(N05e«05?ocj5osco«i>?ooeot^»oc^^ 

I       (llllllllllil 
I       I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I 


I©    o 

I    I 


— <     OS 


'Jl     00     t^     lO     fH     Tt<     «1 


OSl>iX)O^^'*<NC^?000O5^?OI>Mt>-©t^»®^_*J 
55TH^de«^*«D*>'Hl-^'^^l>i=^05'-''N=^W'-''<5 

I       I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    1 


59COt>»rHt^O©CO»©'OlNl>'©lO»©t^_  ...... 

t^r^C»'-^'05^F4r-i5irHwC>(NTH<a5iO^*C0^©Tj;c»c4©CN52^««'-^ 

I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I    I 


r_iC0O©-<^«i<NM 
CO 

I    I    I 


OS     C<J 

M   d 


:  ^ 

i  ^ 

• 

:  ^ 

• 

:  B 

a 


a 


a  :  a 


a 


s  ^  s  ^  s 


=^  s  5  g  - 


i     eSrH     ascij     «co     sa4     rtii     e8?i     satJ-     rtOO^ds^rH^TH     ArH     A 


Hosted  by 


Google 


178 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


^ 


■^ 
g 

e 


e 

^ 


II 
r 


e3 


I  I  I  I 


1 

as 

0 

i 

0 

CO 

1 

Tj3 

© 
1 

00 

^ 

lO 

©I 

CO 

CO 

CO 
d 

"^ 

(M 

d 

© 

o> 

«0 

10 

0 

CO 

CO 

CO 

co" 

©1 

© 

C4 

»o 

1- 

rA 

C30 
IN 

CO 

rA 

OS 

0 

« 
0 

d 

© 

00 

tH 

qCC^'<;0<^'<N<^©'-'tH'-H 


iH     i«     (N     «©     rH    00     <N 

<^^   h5   '-<   ^«   '-'   ©    ^ 


">!*<i-(QciyD»icO"^j<«5acTj<aiTfoooQC).   oO'«!*<co 
«e<^iM<^i1H<^^©^r4'-'cO'-^•*d^dlod 


©(Neoi'^aiD'Oisco^-iicoo'O 

!>•     <M     ^©     r-i     ©J     CJ     Q     CJ     pij     1-5     (5^      T-i 


^      >©      iO     QC      CO 
i-H     »!5     '-5     10     d 


I       I       I 


xcNT-(i-ot<Mirit--eoiOaciOiHcoiOTt< 

l-^     <N     »0     '^'     (5?     <^J     ©     "^'     iH     '-'     cJ     '-'     -H"     '-^*     U5     '-^ 


^    d 


t*0i'^C0«0'-''^<3^i'»'-^»0     00t»(Me»Ol-»O 

QC'— 'i:o*^w'^©<^iHC<ico'~*^'~^ia'~'©'-^ 


CO-(t<<NOt'OeO<M(NOS»5)COXCOiHCC 


1       I       I       I 


•*      tH      "-t<      O 


»fflQ0iH'*^9CO5qt-CSt^©iW 


^rH^COi,.^5^COOC0     5.l(M^THt(8r-(i>,TH 

!  I  I  I  I 


f5l     01     l-.     >.0     :C     r-l     X     OC     ?C     "^J     n     00     ■*♦<     (M     O     «5     ©     O 


»«     O     ^51     -M     X     ■^     W 

I  I  !  I 


•^     «-!      C^l     -^      C<l 


•^a(DiO05l."^t»aD(N^'*iM 


t  I  I  I  I 


<Nl--C!SCOi^(MC0'^"*t^09Oit'»'*©f0e0CO 

eo   d   o    ^   ©   '*'   ©J   '^'   ©    <m'   »J   th   CO   ^'   10    --H   50   th 


;0     «5 
00     «N 


o   ^ 

OS     <M* 


OS    lO 


(N     CO 

00    oi 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


a 


r.        -         ^  ^       ^ 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XXI. 


ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  TENSION  OF 

THE  AQUEOUS  VAPOR  AT  MANILA 

J>          £         F         M        A         Jf'^J^^^        J           s          0        A         J) 

mnv. 

mmc 

23.0 



j^ 

■\ 

-■ 



250 

22.C 

210 

/ 

f 

1 

1 
1 

\ 

22.0 

200 

\ 

\ 

210 

190 

1 

r 

\ 

2ao 

18  0 

\ 

j 

/ 

1 

1 

i 

j 

19.0 

17.0 

j 

i 

1 

1 

/ 

j 

1 

l$o 

-.. 

1 

1 

- — - 

To 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


179 


v.— ANNUAL  VARIATION   OF  THE  TENSION  OF   AQUEOUS  VAPOR  AT 

MANILA. 


Table  XLII  contains  the  monthly  and  annual  averages  of  aqueous 
vapor  at  Manila  durinp'  the  period  1883  to  1898.  From  the  normal 
averages  which  are  at  the  end  of  this  table  the  curve  in  Plate  XXI 
has  been  drawn. 


Table  XLII — Monthly  and  annual  averages  of  the  tension  of  aqueous  vapor  in  Manila 
during  the  period  of  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 


1883. 
1884. 
1885. 
1886. 
1887. 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1892. 
1893. 
1894.. 
1895.. 
1896.. 
1897.. 
1898.. 


Average  . . 


mm. 
18.1 
16.5 
16.8 
18.7 
19.4 
19.5 
20.  6 
19.0 
17.3 
18.2 
17.0 
17.2 
17,8 
16.8 
18.3 
18.8 


18.1 


Feb. 
mm. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

17.6 

19.5 

20.9 

22. 3 

22.0 

21.9 

22.8 

22.1 

20.7 

19.2 

18.6 

17.3 

17.7 

18.8 

21.0 

21.5 

2L6 

21. 5 

21.5 

20.5 

19.1 

17.7 

17.0 

17.2 

18.2 

20.7 

20.9 

21.6 

21.9 

21.9 

21.6 

20.3 

18.7 

16.9 

16. 9 

20.9 

21.8 

22. 5 

22. 5 

22.4 

23.0 

22. 0 

20. 2 

19.3 

18.0 

20.4 

21.3 

23.0 

'23.5 

23.8 

22. 6 

22.7 

21. 1 

21.3 

20.9 

17.3 

19,2 

20.9 

21.5 

22.9 

22.8 

22.8 

22.6 

21.9 

21.2 

20.1 

20.4 

20.3 

20.3 

21.6 

23.1 

22.6 

22.5 

23.3 

22. 4 

21. 5 

20.0 

18.2 

18.3 

20.3 

22.1 

21.9 

22.1 

22.0 

22.2 

21.4 

19.3 

18.7 

16. 4 

17.9 

19.2 

21.3 

22.8 

22.3 

22.4 

22.7 

21.4 

20.5. 

19.2 

17.9 

18.9 

18.7 

21.8 

22.0 

22.5 

22.1 

22.3 

21. 0 

20.2 

18.4 

17.3 

18.0 

20.0 

22.1 

21.4 

22.4 

22.9 

22.3 

21.0 

19.3 

18.6 

16. 8 

18.1 

18.8 

21.6 

22.3 

22.1 

22.5 

22.3 

21.7 

19.4 

18.9 

17.2 

18.4 

20.  6 

23.3 

23.2 

22.7 

22. 4 

22.7 

21.4 

19.8 

18. 1 

17.8 

18.9 

18.9 

22.9 

23.3 

22.7 

22.6 

22.8 

22.2 

20.8 

18. 9 

18.0 

18.9 

20.0 

23.2 

23.0 

22.5 

22.6 

22.8 

22. 2 

21.8 

20.0 

19.5 

19.9 

21.3 

22.5 

23.0 

22.3 

22.4 

22.  2 

22.2 

21.3 

19.3 

17.7 

18.7 

19.9 

22.0 

22.5 

22.4 

22.4 

22.5 

21.6 

20.3 

19.1 

Aver- 
age. 


mm. 
20.4 
19.6 
19.7 
20.6 
21.5 
21.1 
21.6 
20.5 
20.3 
20.4 
20.2 
20.1 
20.6 
20.7 
21.1 
21.2 


20.6 


KOKMAL  AVERAGES  OF  THE  DIFFERENT  MONTHS  OF  THE  YEAR. 

According  to  this  data  we  see  that  vapor  tension  remains  the  same 
during  February,  increases  from  then  until  June,  preserves  about  the 
same  tension  during  ,June,  July,  August,  and  September,  and  dimin- 
ishes from  September  to  February. 

THE  NORMAL  AVERAGES  OF  EACH  MONTH  COMPARED  WITH  THE 
ANNUAL  NORMAL  AVERAGES. 

The  annual  average  is  20.6.  The  gradation  with  which  the  normal 
values  of  each  month  of  the  year  separate  from  this  is  shown  in  the 
following  table: 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Annual  average 


Monthly 
average. 


mm. 
18.1 
17.7 
18.7 
19.9 
22.0 
22.5 
22.4 
22.4 
22.5 
21.6 
20.3 
19.1 


20.6 


Difference. 


mm. 
-2.5 
-2.9 
-1.9 

-  .7 
+1.4 
+1.9 
+1.8 
+1.8 
+L9 
+1.0 

-  .3 
-L5 


P  C — VOL  4 01- 


-16 


Hosted  by 


Google 


180 


BEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


EXTREME   ANNUAL   AVERAGES. 

The  values  of  the  annual  averages  of  the  period  1883  to  1898  vary 
between  19.6  (1884)  and  21.6  (1889);  the  difference  therefore  being  2. 

COMPARISON  BETWEEN  THE  NORMAL  AVERAGES  AND  THE  EXTREME 
AVERAGES  OF  EACH  MONTH. 

The  maximum  and  minimum  averages  of  each  month  vary  more  or 
less  from  the  normal  average,  as  is  indicated  in  the  following  table: 


Month. 


Normal 
average. 


January . . 
February . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October  .., 
November. 
December . 


mm. 
18.1 
17.7 

18.7 
19.9 

22.0 
22.5 
22.4 

22.4 
22.5 
21.6 
20.3 
19.1 


Maximum  difference. 


Positive. 


mm. 
2.5  (1889) 
2.7  (1889) 

1.7  (1887) 
1.4  (1887  and 

1898) 

1.3  (1895) 
1.0(1887) 

1.4  (1887) 

.5(1893) 
.8  (1889) 
.8  (1889) 

1. 5  (1897) 

1.8  (1887) 


Negative. 


1.  6  (1884) 
1.3  (1891) 
1.8  (1886) 
1.  7  (1885) 

1.3  (1885) 
1.6  (1885) 

.  8  (1884  and 
1885) 

.9  (1884) 

1.0  (1884) 

1.1  (1884) 

1.2  (1884) 
1.  4  (1884) 


The  maximum  positive  differences,  2.7  and  2.5,  correspond  to  the 
months  of  February  and  January  of  1889;  the  maximum  negative  dif- 
ference, 1.8,  to  the  month  of  March,  1886. 


VI. 


-MONTHLY  AND  ANNUAL  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA  OF  THE  TENSION 
OF  AQUEOUS  VAPOR  AT  MANILA. 


In  Tables  XLIIl  and  XLIV  we  give  the  maxima  and  minima  of  the 
tension  of  aqueous  vapor  as  noted  in  this  observatory  during  the  period 
of  sixteen  years  from  1883  to  1898,  concerning  which  it  should  be 
remembered  that  the  same  is  true  of  these  observations  as  was  said  of 
those  concerning  humidity  at  the  beginning  of  paragraph  2. 

Table  XLIIL — Monthly  and  annual  maxima  of  the  tension  of  aqueous  vapor  at  Manila 
during  the  period  of  188S  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Annual 
maxi- 
mum. 

1883.   ... 

m,m. 
21.4 
22.3 
21.8 
23.9 
24.4 
26.0 
25.5 
23.7 
22.3 
22.2 
22.2 
22.8 
22.2 
23.3 
25.5 
24.3 

mm. 
22.6 
24.8 
22.0 
23.0 
24.8 
22.5 
25.2 
23.4 
21.7 
23.2 
22.0 
21.1 
23.2 
23.9 
23.4 
23.1 

mm. 
24.5 
23.6 
23.6 
23.0 
26.4 
23.6 
29.0 
23.6 
23.9 
23.4 
22.2 
23.3 
23.3 
24.2 
24.0 
25.0 

mm. 
26.6 
23.9 
24.2 
28.9 
26.4 
26.7 
26.2 
25.1 
24.4 
23.0 
25.8 
24.6 
26.1 
24.6 
25.6 
24.6 

mm. 
25.5 
24.8 
25.5 
25.7 
27.1 
25.0 
27.0 
25.4 
26.9 
25.3 
26.1 
25.4 
26.7 
26.2 
28.5 
26.5 

mm. 
25.0 
24.6 
24.5 
25.9 
27.6 
26.0 
27.2 
25.5 
26.4 
25.3 
24.4 
25.7 
27.1 
27.0 
26.3 
26.1 

mm. 
25.5 
25.0 
24.6 
27.1 
27.3 
25.5 
25.6 
25.4 
25.0 
25.3 
25.0 
25.0 
25.1 
25.9 
25.3 
25.3 

mm. 
26.0 
24.6 
24.7 
27.5 
26.5 
25.6 
25.4 
25.0 
24.8 
25.3 
25. 4 
25.6 
25.2 
26.1 
26.1 
25.2 

mm. 
24.9 
24.8 
25.0 
27.2 
25.9 
25.5 
26.4 
24.8 
24.9 
26.0 
25.5 
25.6 
24.9 
25.7 
26.0 
25.1 

mm. 
25.5 
24.5 
25.2 
26.7 
24.3 
25.6 
26.1 
25.3 
25.8 
25.3 
24.4 
25.5 
25.9 
25.8 
25.8 
25.9 

mm. 
24.6 
23.6 
25. 4 
24.7 
25. 3 
24.6 
25.8 
23.8 
23.8 
24.8 
23.4 
24.8 
24.5 
24.6 
25.0 
25.5 

mm. 
25.0 
22.6 
23.3 
25.3 
25. 6 
23.9 
26. 0 
22.2 
23.6 
24. 3 
23.8 
24.2 
24.7 
26.8 
24.2 
23.9 

mm. 
26  0 

1884 

25.0 

1885 

25  5 

1886.... 

28  9 

1887 

27  6 

1888 

26  7 

1889 

29.0 

1890 

25  5 

1891 

26.9 

1892 

26  0 

1893 

26.1 

1894 

25  7 

1895 

27.1 

1896.     . . 

27  0 

1897 

28.5 

1898 

26. 5 

Average .... 

23.6 

23.1 

24.2 

25.3 

26.1 

25.9 

25.5 

25.6 

25.5 

25.5 

24.6 

24.3 

26.8 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


181 


Table  XLIV. — Monthly  and  annual  minima  of  the  tendon  of  aqueous  vapor  at  Manila 
during  the  period  of  1883  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

mm. 
12.9 
12.6 
11.6 
11.8 
12.0 
9.7 
15.3 
14.4 
11.2 
13.7 
13.4 
11.8 
13.4 
14.0 
13.9 
14.5 

Mar. 

mm. 
13.7 
10.8 
10.6 
10.4 
14.5 
12.0 
13.7 
12.7 
13.2 
12.5 
13.0 
13.1 
13.6 
13.0 
9.9 
14.6 

Apr. 

mm. 
17.2 
12.6 
13.9 
14.4 
16.6 
12.0 
14.4 
16.8 
14.4 
13.4 
14.4 
12.7 
15.3 
12.5 
12.8 
16.5 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Annual 
mini- 
mum. 

1883 

mm. 
13.6 
11.9 
13.7 
13.1 
14.4 
14.8 
14.0 
12.9 
12.3 
15.4 
12.0 
12.6 
14.0 
13.2 
12.0 
12.1 

mm. 
17.6 
15.4 
13.2 
16.0 
17.1 
12.9 
15.5 
17.8 
15.3 
16.6 
18.3 
14.8 
18.0 
17.7 
18.2 
17.6 

mm. 
18.6 
18.6 
15.8 
18.5 
19.7 
19.4 
17.0 
17.8 
20.3 
14.9 
17.7 
19.4 
19.6 
20.0 
17.1 

mm. 
18.3 
17.2 
18.0 
17.8 
19.9 
19.8 
19.1 
19.1 
19.4 
20.0 
19.0 
19.8 
17.9 
19.2 
19.0 
19.9 

mm. 
18.5 
17.9 
19.1 
17.8 
18.7 
20.5 
19.6 
18.5 
19.8 
19.0 
20.0 
19.4 
17.5 
19.8 
20.3 
19.0 

mm. 
19.6 
15.6 
17.5 
19.2 
18.5 
19.6 
19.2 
18.3 
19.4 
18.0 
19.0 
18.0 
20.0 
18.8 
19.9 
18.2 

mm. 
14.4 
14.2 
16.4 
18.1 
16.7 
16.2 
19.5 
14.9 
16.9 
18.1 
15.3 
17.6 
17.2 
18.6 
18.6 
19.0 

mm. 
14.5 
11.2 
15.3 
14.1 
18.1 
16.7 
17.3 
14.8 
12.8 
15.2 
15.5 
12.7 
15.1 
16.8 
16.5 
17.8 

mm. 
12.6 
11.5 
12.3 
15.2 
15.5 
12.1 
15.4 
14.3 
14.1 
11.9 
14.9 
12.0 
13.2 
14.5 
15.4 
14.7 

mm. 
12.6 

1884 

10.8 

1885 

10.6 

1886              

10.4 

1887 

12.0 

1888                 

9.7 

1889 

13.7 

1890            

12.7 

1891 

11.2 

1892               

11.9 

1893 

12.0 

1894 

11.8 

1895 

13.2 

1896 

12.5 

1897     

9.9 

1898 

12.1 

Average 

13.3 

12. 9 

12.6 

14.4 

16.4 

18.4 

19.0 

19.1 

18.7 

17.0 

15.3 

13.7 

11.7 

RELATION  BETWEEN  THE  AVERAGE  MONTHLY  VALUES  OF  THE  MAXIMA 
AND  MINIMA  OF  THE  TENSION  OF  AQUEOUS  VAPOR. 

According  to  Table  XLIII,  the  averages  of  monthly  maxima  are 
included  between  25.3  and  26.1  in  the  months  April  to  October,  and 
between  23.1  and  24.6  in  the  months  from  November  to  March,  inclu- 
sive. The  greatest  average,  26.1,  corresponds  to  the  month  of  May, 
and  the  smallest,  23.1,  to  the  month  of  February.  Very  different  is 
the  relation  existing  between  the  values  of  the  average  monthly  minima. 
The  greatest  average,  19.1,  is  that  for  the  month  of  August,  and  the 
smallest,  12.6,  is  for  the  month  of  March.  Following  this  latter  in 
ascending  order  come  the  averages  for  February,  January,  December, 
April,  November,  May,  October,  June,  September,  July,  and  August. 

Monthly  maxima  and  minima  for  all  the  period  may  be  seen  in  the 
following  table: 


Month. 


January... 
February  . 

March 

ApriL..... 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December 


11.9 
9.7 
9.9 
12.0 
12.9 
14.9 
17.2 
17.5 
15.6 
14.2 
11.2 
11.5 


(1884) 
(1888) 
(1897) 
(1888) 
(1888) 
(1892) 
(1884) 
(1895) 
(1884) 
(1884) 
(1884) 
(1884) 


MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM    FOR   ALL   THE    PERIOD. 

The  maximum  and  minimum  during  all  the  period  are  29.0  and  9.7, 
respective^,  observed  on  the  30th  of  March,  1889,  and  the  4th  of 
February,  1888.  The  difference  between  these  two  extremes  is  19.3. 
Very  near  to  these  are  the  annual  maximum  for  1886,  28.9,  and  the 
annual  minimum  for  1897,  9.9. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


182 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


DISTRIBUTION  OF  THE  ANNUAL  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA   IN  THE  DIFFERENT 
MONTHS   OF   THE    YEAR. 

The  following  table  shows  the  monthly  frequency  of  the  16  annual 
maxima  and  minima: 


Maxima — 

March 1 

April 2 

May 5 

June 5 

July 1 

August 1 

September 1 


Minima — 

January 2 

February 4 

March 6 

April 1 

December 3 


It  happens  that  all  the  annual  maxima  and  minima  fall  within  the 
months  March  to  September  and  December  to  April,  respectively. 
The  greater  frequency  of  maxima  corresponds  to  the  months  May  to 
June,  and  of  minima  those  of  March  and  February. 


VII.— MONTHLY  AVERAGES  OF  THE  DAILY  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA  OF 
THE  TENSION  OF  THE  AQUEOUS  VAPOR  AT  MANILA— AVERAGE 
DAILY  VARIATION. 

In  Tables  XLV  and  XL VI  we  give  tlie  monthly  and  aiuuial  averages 
deduced  from  the  maxima  and  minima  daily  tension  of  the  aqueous 
vapor  during  the  periods  from  1885  to  1898.  The  difference  between 
the  averages  of  those  two  tables  represents  the  average  monthly  varia- 
tion of  this  element,  which  is  included  in  Table  XLVII. 


Table  XLV. — Montlily  and  annual  averages  oftJie  daily  maxima  of  the  tension  of  aqueous 
vapor  at  Manila  during  the  period  1885  to  1898. 


1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Average 


Jan, 


mm. 
18.8 
21.2 
22.0 
22.2 
22. 9 
20.9 
18.9 
19.9 
18.8 
19.1 
19.9 
18.8 
20.8 
20.  6 


Feb.  I  Mar. 


mm. 
19.4 
19.1 
20.2 
19.5 
23.0 
20.3 
18.2 
19.9 
19.4 
19.3 
19.1 
20.0 
20.3 
21.5 


mm. 
19.8 
19.5 
22.7 
21.2 
22.8 
20.4 
20.0 
20.9 
19.7 
20. 2 
20. 5 
21.0 
21.2 
21.9 


20.8 


Apr. 


mm. 
20.6 
23.3 
23.4 
23.3 

22. 7 
22.1 
21.2 
20.8 
22.1 
20.7 

22. 8 
21.6 
23.4 
23. 2 


22.2 


May.  Jnne.  .Inly.    Aug. 


mm. 
23.2 
23.9 
25.3 
23.5 
23.7 
23.8 
23.7 
23.7 
23. 8 
23. 5 
25. 0 
24.6 
25. 3 
24. 5 


24.1 


mm 
22.9 
24.2 
25.5 
24.4 
25.0 
23.6 
24.6 
23.8 
23.1 
23.9 
24.9 
25. 1 
24.9 
24.7 


24.3 


7)im. 
23.0 
24.2 
25.5 
24.3 
24.3 
23.8 
23.7 
24.0 
23.8 
23.4 
24.2 
24.3 
24.2 
23.8 


24.0 


Trim, 
23.4 
24. 1 
24.2 
24.] 
23.9 
23.6 
23.7 
23.5 
24.3 
24.1 
23.9 
24.0 
24.2 
23.8 


23.9 


Sept. 


mm. 
23.5 
24.7 
24. 2 
24. 0 
24.9 
23. 5 
24. 0 
23.9 

23. 8 
23.8 

23. 9 
24.4 
24.5 
23. 9 


24.1 


Oqt. 


mm. 

23. 5 
23.9 
22.8 
23.8 
24.2 
23.0 
23.2 
23.1 

22. 6 
23.6 
23. 3 
23.9 
23.8 
24.0 


23.5 


Nov. 

Dec. 

Aver- 

age. 

mm,. 

mm.. 

mm. 

22. 3 

20.8 

21.8 

22.0 

21.2 

22.6 

22.9 

23.1 

23.5 

23.2 

22.0 

23.0 

23. 2 

21.8 

23.5 

21.2 

20.5 

22.2 

21.7 

21.1 

22. 0 

22. 1 

20.2 

22.2 

20.9 

20.2 

21.9 

21.6 

20. 5 

22. 0 

21.5 

20.1 

22.4 

23.0 

21.6 

22.7 

23. 6 

21.7 

23. 2 

22.  9 

21.2 

23. 0 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


183 


Table  XLVI.- 


-Monthly  and  annual  averages  of  the  daily  minima  of  the  tension  of  aqueous 
vapor  at  Manila  during  the  period  1885  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

mm. 
14.8 
15.0 
15.9 
15. 2 
18.1 
10.4 
14.5 
15.9 
15.3 
14.7 
15.5 
15.9 
15.9 
17.7 

Mar. 

mm. 
14.9 
14.5 
18.4 
17.0 
17.7 
15.0 
15.9 
10.9 
10.2 
10.2 
10.5 
10.9 
10.5 
17.4 

Apr. 

mm. 
10. 2 
18.3 
19.3 
18.3 
17.8 
18.4 
10.9 
10.5 
17.9 
10.5 
18.4 
10.2 
17.4 
19.5 

May. 

mm. 
17.9 
19.7 
21.0 
19.0 
19.2 
20.4 
18.8 
19.0 
20.2 
19. 5 
21.0 
21.4 
21.3 
20.4 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

mm. 
20.3 
20. 1 
21.2 
21.0 
21.1 
20.4 
21.2 
20. 5 
21. 0 
21.0 
20.9 
21.2 
21.1 
20.9 

Sept. 

mm. 
20.0 
21.4 
21. 1 
21. 1 
21.4 
21.0 
21.3 
20  8 
20.8 
20.7 
21.4 
21.3 
21.0 
20.4 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Aver- 
age. 

1885                    -    ■ 

mm. 
15.2 

10. 4 
17.3 
17.1 
18.4 
17.1 
15.7 
10.0 
15.3 

15. 5 
10.1 
15. 1 
10.1 
10.9 

mm. 
19.2 
20  5 
21.0 
21.5 
20.8 
20.1 
21.2 
20.3 
19.7 
21. 0 
21.5 
21.7 
21.1 
21.3 

mm. 
20.1 
20.5 

22. 1 
21.0 
20.9 
20.3 

21. 2 
21.1 
20.8 
20.  7 
21.0 
21.2 
20.8 
21.0 

7nm. 
19.5 
20.3 
19.8 
20.3 
20.9 
19.7 
19.0 
20.0 
19.0 
20.2 
19.8 
20.0 
20.0 
20.8 

mm. 
18.0 
18.0 
19.9 
19.3 
20.2 
17.0 
18.5 
18.8 
17.8 
17.5 
18.2 
18.0 
20.1 
20.0 

mm. 
10.0 
17.7 
19.1 
18.0 
18.4 
10.8 
17.6 
17.0 
17.3 
17.3 
10.4 
10.8 
18.4 
17.7 

mm. 

17.8 

188G 

18.6 

1887 

19.7 

1888 

19.2 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1890 

19.0 

18.7 
18.5 
18.7 
18.5 
18.4 
18.9 
18.9 

1897 

1898              

19.2 
19.5 

Average 

10.3 

15.8     10.5 

17.7 

20.0  1  20.8 

1 

21.0 

20.9     21.0 

20.1 

18.8 

n.5 

18.9 

Table  XLVII. — Average  of  the  monthly  variation  of  the  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor  in 
Manila  during  the  period  1885  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

mm. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

mm. 

June. 

mm. 

July. 

mm. 

Aug. 
mm.. 

Sept. 
mm.. 

Oct. 
mm,. 

Nov. 

Dee. 

Aver- 
age. 

mm. 

mm,. 

mm. 

m,m. 

mm. 

mm. 

1885 

3.  0 

4.6 

4.9 

4.4 

5. 3 

3.7 

2.9 

3.1 

3.6 

4.0 

3.7 

4.2 

4.0 

1880 

4.8 

4.1 

5.0 

5.0 

4.2 

3.7 

3.7 

4.0 

3.3 

3.0 

3.4 

3.5 

4.0 

1887        

4.7 
5.1 

4.3 
4.3 

4.3 
4.2 

4.1 
.5.0 

4.3 
4.5 

3.9 
2.9 

3.4 

2.7 

3.0 
2.5 

3.1 
2.9 

3.0 
3.5 

3.0 

3.9 

4.0 
4.0 

3.8 

1888 

3.8 

1889 

4.5 

4.9 

5.1 

4.9 

4.5 

4.2 

3.4 

2.8 

3.5 

3.3 

3.0 

3.4 

4.0 

1890 

3.8 

3.9 

4.8 

3.7 

3.4 

3. 5 

3.5 

3.2 

2.5 

3.3 

3.6 

3.7 

3.6 

1891 

3.2 

3.7 

4.1 

4.3 

4.  9 

3.4 

2.5 

2.5 

2.7 

3.6 

3.2 

3.5 

3.5 

1892 

3.3 

4.0 

4.0 

4.3 

4.1 

3.5 

2.9 

3.0 

3.1 

3.1 

3.3 

3.2 

3.5 

1893        

3.5 
3.0 

4.1 

4.0 

3.5 
4.0 

4.2 
4.2 

3. 0 
4.0 

3.4 
2.9 

3.0 

2.7 

2.7 
3.1 

3.0 
3.1 

3.0 
3.4 

3.1 
4.1 

2.9 
3.2 

3.3 

1894 

3.6 

1895      

3.8 
3.7 

3.0 
4.1 

4.0 
4.1 

4.4 
5.4 

3.4 
3.2 

3.4 
3.4 

3.2 
3.1 

3.0 

2.8 

2.5 
3.1 

3.5 
3.3 

3.3 

4.4 

3.7 

4.8 

3.5 

1890 

8.8 

1897     

4.7 
3.7 

4.4 

3.8 

4.7 
4.5 

6.0 
3.7 

4.0 
4.1 

3.8 
3.4 

3.4 

2.8 

3.1 

2.9 

2.9 

3.5 

3.2 

3.2 

3.5 

2.9 

8.3 

3.5 

3.9 

1898 

3.5 

Average 

4.0 

4.2 

4.4 

4.5 

4.1 

3.5 

3.1 

3.0 

3.1 

3.4 

3.5 

3.6 

3.7 

RELATION   BETWEEN   THE    AVERAGE    MONTHLY   MAXIMA   AND   MINIMA  OF 
THE    TENSION   OF   THE   AQUEOUS    VAPOR. 

According  to  the  normal  values  of  the  average  maxima  deduced 
from  Table  XLV  it  will  be  seen  that  the  greatest  maximum  occurs  in 
June,  it  is  felt  but  very  little  less  during  the  months  of  May,  July, 
August,  and  September,  is  considerably  less  during  October,  Novem- 
ber, April,  and  December,  and  begins  to  reach  an  end  in  March,  Janu- 
ary, and  February.  The  difference  between  the  average  monthly 
extremes  which  in  February  are  19.9  and  in  June  24.3  is  4.4. 

Between  the  normal  averages  of  the  minimum  there  is  observed  a 
very  similar  gradation  to  that  which  we  have  indicated  for  the  average 
of  the  maxima.  The  maximum  is  reached  in  February  and  increases 
gradually  from  February  to  July,  which  remains  almost  of  the  same 
tension  from  July  to  September,  beginning  to  diminish  gradually  from 
September  to  February.  The  normal  extremes  are  15.8  in  February 
and  21.0  in  July  and  September,  the  difference  being  5.2. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


184  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


AYERAGE    OF   THE    MAXIMA    AND  AVERAGE    OF   THE   MINIMA    OF  ALL  THE 

PERrODS. 

The  average  deduced  from  all  daily  maxima  of  the  period  1885  to 
1898  is  22.6,  and  the  average  deduced  from  all  the  minimum  is  18.9. 
The  difference  is  only  3.7  degrees,  which  represents  also  the  average 
annual  variation  of  the  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor  in  Manila.  The 
greatest  annual  average  of  the  maxima  is  23.5  (1887  and  1889)  and- 
the  least  annual  average  of  the  minima  17.8  (1885),  the  difference 
being  5.7. 

RELATION  BETWEEN  THE  AVERAGE  DAILY  VARIATIONS  OF  THE  DIFFER- 
ENT MONTHS  OF  THE  YEAR. 

If  we  fix  now  on  the  result  which  we  find  in  Table  XLVII,  we  see 
that  the  months  in  which  occur  the  greatest  average  daily  variations  of 
the  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor  are  the  months  of  March  and  April, 
and  in  those  months  there  is  also  the  greatest  average  variation  of  the 
temperature  and  the  relative  humidity.  In  May  there  is  already  a 
diminution  of  the  extent  of  those  variations  which  continues  until  the 
month  of  August,  when  it  corresponds  to  the  minimum  average  varia- 
tions. This  is  maintained  with  little  difference  throughout  the  period 
from  July  to  Septeniber,  inclusive;  beginning  with  October  it  increases 
gradually  until  the  months  of  March  and  April. 

The  difference  between  the  two  normal  extreme  variations,  1.5  in 
April  and  3.0  in  August,  is  1.5. 

EXTENT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  AVERAGE  DAILY  VARIATIONS.   ANNUAL  AVER- 
AGES AND  MONTHLY  EXTREMES  OF  ALL  PERIODS. 

The  average  annual  extent  of  the  daily  variation  is  3. 7.  The  annual 
extreme  averages  of  all  periods,  1885-1898,  4.0  (1885,  1886,  and  1889) 
and  of  3.3  in  1893.  The  maximum  average  monthly  extent  of  the 
daily  variations  was  for  April,  1897,  when  it  reached  the  value  of  6.0, 
while  in  July  and  August,  1891,  and  August,  1888,  and  September, 
1890  and  1895,  the  minimum  was  2.5. 

VIII.— DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  TENSION  OF  THE  AQUEOUS  VAPOE 

IN  MANILA. 

The  Table  XLVIII  covers  the  hourly,  monthly,  semiannual,  and 
annual  averages  of  the  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor  in  Manila  deduced 
from  the  period  1890-1898  with  those  which  have  been  traced  by  the 
curves  of  Plates  XXII  and  XXIU. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate 

XXII. 

DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  TENSION  OF  THE 
AQUEOUS  VAPOR  AT  MANILA 

1890-1898 

January 

March, 

Majy 

Sept'- 
Wovmtber 

r/f/ri 
18 

n 

19 
18 

2S 
22 

25 

22 

25 
22 

21 
2o 

' 

{    , 

^ 

'  f  ^ 

■    i   ^Jrl 

t 

\ 

f    i 

' 

y 

'    J 

\k\ 

rmn. 

1» 

17 

2o 
19 

23 
22 

25 

22 

22 
21 

19 

AprH 
June, 

Aoffust 
OctcAm 

iftctmbei 

.^ 

— 



, 

-^ 

1 

-^1 

\ — 

■^ 

-~^ 

-^ 

r '  ^ 

1 

^ 

-^ 

y^ 

^ 

/ 

/ 

-^ 

. 

■^ 

— 

■^^ 

^ 

/ 

1 

^ 

^ 

— 

— - 

* 

1 

^ 

\ 

"^ 

-^ 

^-. 

— 

_^ 

^ 

r 

f        1       ' 

_i 

\4--^ 

1 

1 

1 

1 

-+-     r  "-     -| 

1 

^ 

^_,i^^ 

"--^ 

^^--t^4- 

/ 

1 

-^ 

— 

^ 

--», 

^ 

/ 

' 

^     T 

_— 

-— — 

f— 

^ 

k-^.  i 

^     tl^ 

/' 

1      1       i       i      ' 

4    -        1  J_ 

"" 

.— . 

- 

-^ 

/ 

-1 

; 

i  i 

J 

"^ 

^^ 

— 

-^ 

-- 

~~- 

.^ 

/ 

/ 

1 

1 

1 1 

^ 

1 

— 

- 

^ 

y 

' 

! 

1 

— 1 — 



_  _ 

- 

— 

— 

— 

__ 

__ 

--H 

___ 

— 



— 

— 

-- 

_  _ 

~ 

/ 





- 

— 

— 

___ 

— 

— 

=* 

^ 

== 

=::: 

^ 

-- 

- 

■---- 

— 

^^ 













^^ 

~j 

^ 

y 

-- 

— 

— 

-~- 

-- 

- 

^ 

-— 

-"^ 

--- 

--- 

— 



-~~J 

— 

-- 

=^ 

1/ 

V 

-^ 

y 

„— ■ 

~~^ 

^— 

— 

^/ 

/ 

" 



■ — ■ 

-->-- 

'^ 

— 

/ 

-^ 

-^ 

t 



-^ 

^ 

/ 

'    r 



^-^ 

f- 

^ 

t 

^^ 

-^ 

^^ 

---- 

::== 

/ 

1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PLATl   XXIII. 


DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  TENSION  OF  THE 
AQUEOUS  VAPOR  AT  MANILA 

1890-1896 

From 

ix> 
May 

From, 

Jtane, 

to 

betober 

Annuai 

Moan 

mm 

50 
19 
it 

25 
22 
21 

21 

ar> 

19 

. 

. 

r 

. 

. 

i 

J 

^,j 

unn. 

to 
J3 
A 

23 
22 
IX 

21 
20 
15 

Front 

to 
May 

Front 

June 

to 

Octobtr 

4nnaaL 
Matm. 

'    f     ■ 



Li-^ 

■^ 

r 1 

, 



tr^ 



-^ 

/ 

r 

-^ 

^ 

/ 

1 

— 

1 

1 — 

1 

1 

— 1 



, 

U 

/ 

+  —J 

■*~-^ 

' — - 

y 

-- 

„. 

1 

" 

- 

^— . 

— 



. 

. ^ 

'/ 

^ 

^ 

i 

— 

_ 

_ 

_ 

_ 

_ 

_ 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


185 


Table  XLVIII. — Hourly^  monthly,  semiannual^  and  annual  averages  of  the  tension  of 
the  aqueous  vapor  in  Manila  obtained  from  the  period  1890-1898, 


FORENOON. 


Month. 

1a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10 
a.m. 

11 
a.m. 

12 
noon. 

January                     

mm. 
17.6 
17.5 
18.5 
19.5 
21.9 
22.2 
22.1 
22.2 
22. 2 
21.5 
20.0 
18.6 

mm. 
17.4 
17.3 
18.3 
19.4 
21.8 
22.1 
22.0 
22.1 
22.1 
21.4 
19.8 
18.5 

mm. 
17.3 
17.2 
18.2 
19.2 
21.7 
22.0 
21.9 
22.0 
22.0 
21.2 
19.8 
18.3 

mm. 
17.1 
17.0 
18.0 
19.0 
21.6 
21.9 
21.8 
21.9 
21.9 
21.1 
19.6 
18.2 

mm. 
17.1 
16.8 
17.9 
19.0 
21.5 
21.8 
21.7 
21.9 
21.9 
21.0 
19.5 
18.1 

mm. 
17.0 
16.8 
17.9 
18.9 
21.5 
21.8 
21.7 
21.9 
21.9 
20.9 
19.5 
18.1 

mm. 
11. \ 
16.9 
18.2 
19.5 
22.1 
22.3 
22.1 
22.2 
22.3 
21.3 
19.7 
18.2 

mm. 
17.6 
17.7 
18.8 
19.9 
22.6 
22.8 
22.6 
22.6 
22.7 
21.8 
20.2 
18.7 

mm. 
18.1 
18.2 
19.1 
20.2 
22.7 
22.9 
22.8 
22.7 
22.8 
21.9 
20.4 
19.0 

mm. 
18.3 
18.2 
19.3 
20.3 
22.8 
22.9 
22.8 
22.7 
22.9 
21.9 
20.6 
19.3 

mm. 
18.3 
18.1 
19.3 
20.5 
22.8 
22.8 
22.8 
22.7 
22.8 
21.9 
20.7 
19.4 

mm. 
18.3 

February..         

18.4 

March 

19.2 

April         

20.5 

May 

22.6 

June                         

22.9 

July 

22.7 

August                  

22.7 

September 

22.7 

October 

22.0 

November 

20.8 

December 

19.5 

Average 

20.32 
19.09 
22. 04 

20.18 
18.93 
21. 94 

20.07 
18.81 

21. 82 

19.93 
18.64 
21.72 

19.85 
18.56 
21.66 

19.83 
18.53 
21.64 

20.16 
18.81 
22.04 

20.67 
19.36 
22.50 

20.90 
19.67 
22.62 

21.00 
19.83 
22.64 

21.01 
19.87 
22. 60 

21.03 

Average   November   to 
May 

19.90 

Average  June  to  Octo- 
ber   - 

22.60 

AFTERNOON. 


Month. 

1. 

2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 

10. 

11. 

12. 

Mean. 

January             

mm. 
18.4 
18.4 
19.1 
20.3 
22. 5 
22.8 
22.7 
22.7 
22.8 
22.0 
20.8 
19.5 

mm. 
18.4 
18.4 
18.8 
20.1 
22.5 
22.8 
22.7 
22.7 
22.7 
22. 0 
20.7 
19.6 

mm. 
18.4 
18.1 
18.6 
19.9 
22.5 
22.8 
22.6 
22.7 
22.7 
22.0 
20.9 
19.6 

mm. 
18.2 
17.9 
18.5 
19.8 
22.6 
22.8 
22.6 
22.6 
22.8 
22.1 
20.8 
19.5 

mm. 
18.1 
17.7 
18.5 
19. 7 
22.7 
22.8 
22  7 
22^7 
22.7 
22.0 
20.8 
19.4 

mm. 
17.9 
17.6 
18.3 
19.7 
22.6 
22.7 
22.6 
22.6 
22.7 
22.0 
20.6 
19.2 

mm. 
17.9 
17.6 
18.5 
19.7 
•22.6 
22.7 
22.6 
22.6 
22.7 
21.9 
20.4 
19.1 

mm. 
17.9 
17.7 
18.6 
19.9 
22.5 
22.8 
22.5 
22.5 
22.6 
21.9 
20.3 
18.9 

mm. 
17.9 
17.8 
18.7 
19.9 
-22.4 
22.7 
22.4 
22.5 
22.5 
21.8 
20.2 
18.9 

mm,. 
17.8 
17.8 
18.7 
19.9 
22.4 
22.6 
22.4 
22.5 
22.4 
21.7 
20.2 
18.7 

mm. 
17.8 
17.7 
18.7 
19.8 
22.2 
22.5 
22.3 
22.4 
22.4 
21.7 
20.1 
18.7 

mm. 

n.i 

17.6 
18.  G 
19.7 
22.1 
22.3 
22.2 
22.3 
22.3 
21.5 
20.1 
18.6 

mm. 
17.8 

February 

17.7 

March 

18.6 

April 

19.8 

May 

22.3 

June        

22.5 

July 

22.4 

August     

22.4 

September 

October 

22.5 
21.7 

November 

December 

20.3 
18.9 

Average 

Average,  Novem- 
ber to  May 

Average,  June  to 
October 

21.00 
19.86 
22.60 

20.95 
19.79 
22.58 

20.90 
19.71 
22. 56 

20.85 
19.61 

22.58 

20.82 
19.56 
22.58 

20.71 
19.41 
22.52 

20.69 
19.40 
22.50 

20.68 
19.40 
22.46 

20.64 
19.40 
22.38 

20.59 
19.36 
22. 32 

20.53 
19.29 
22.26 

20. 42 
19. 20 
22.12 

20.58 
19.34 
22.30 

DAILY  COURSE   OF  THE   TENSION   OF   THE   AQUEOUS  YAPOR. 

If  we  look  at  the  curves  on  Plate  XXII,  which  represent  the  partial 
averages  of  each  month,  we  see  in  all  of  them  some  irregularity  of 
movement,  though  of  little  importance,  especially  during  the  afternoon 
and  early  hours  of  the  night;  nevertheless,  in  the  annual  curve,  as  in 
the  semiannual  curves  of  Plate  XXIII,  almost  all  irregularity  disap- 
pears, and  we  suppose  it  would  disappear  also  in  the  similar  monthly 
curves,  although  there  can  be  traced  the  value  of  the  averages  deduced 
from  a  great  number  of  years  of  observation. 

From  this  supposition  we  shall  be  able  to  form  a  sufficiently  com- 
plete idea  of  the  average  daily  course  of  this  element,  examining  these 
annual  and  semiannual  curves,  or  that  which  is  the  same,  the  annual  and 
semiannual  averages,  which  will  be  seen  at  the  end  of  Table  XLVIII. 
According  to  these  annual  averages  it  can  be  said  that  this  daily  varia- 
tion consists  in  a  simple  oscillation  whose  minimum,  which  is  usually 


Hosted  by 


Google 


186 


REJPOM   Of   TBM   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


observed  at  daybreak,  coincides  with  the  minimum  temperature  and 
the  maximum  humidity,  and  whose  maximum  corresponds  to  12  noon. 

The  greatest  increase  of  tension  is  observed  from  6  to  10  a.  m., 
remaining  almost  stationar}^  from  that  hour  until  1  in  the  afternoon. 
At  2  it  begins  to  diminish,  but  in  an  extraordinarily  slow  and  almost 
insensible  manner  until  11  or  12  at  night,  when  it  decreases  with 
greater  rapidity  until  it  reaches  the  minimum  at  dawn. 

In  the  semiannual  averages  it  is  seen  that  the  minimum  corresponds 
in  both  periods  at  6  a.  m. ,  but  in  the  period  from  November  to  May 
the  tension  reaches  its  maximum  at  the  hour  of  12  midnight,  remaining 
almost  stationary  from  11  a.  m.  until  1  p.  m.,  while  in  the  other  period 
from  June  to  October  the  maximum  is  reached  at  10  a.  m.,  remaining 
almost  stationary  from  9  a.  m.  until  5  in  the  afternoon,  inclusive. 

In  regard  to  the  different  curves  of  each  month  we  will  only  indicate 
those  of  November  to  April  which  are  peculiar  for  a  somewhat  notable 
increase,  which  is,  not  to  be  seen  in  the  curves  of  the  other  months. 
This  decrease  occurs  from  5  to  9  a.  m.  in  November,  from  8  to  8  in 
December,  from  3  to  6  in  January,  from  2  to  6  in  February,  from  1 
to  4  in  March,  and  from  12  m.  to  4  p.  m.  in  April.  Besides,  it  is 
observed  in  February  to  April  that  the  tension  begins  to  increase  some- 
what at  night;  from  7  to  9  in  February,  from  6  to  9  in  March,  and 
from  7  to  8  in  April. 

HOURS  OF  THE  MAXIMUM  AND  MINIMUM  TENSION  AND  EXTENT  OF  THE 
VARIATION  OF  THE  AQUEOUS  VAPOR  IN  THE  DIFFERENT  MONTHS  OF 
THE    YEAR. 

Following  the  same  method  which  we  have  adopted  for  the  atmos- 
pheric pressure,  temperature,  and  humidity,  we  give  in  the  following 
table  the  hours  of  the  minimum  and  maximum  tension,  with  the  extent 
of  the  monthly,  semiannual,  and  annual  variation,  the  data  for  which 
we  take  from  the  monthly,  semiannual,  and  annual  averages  of  Table 
XLVIIL 


January . . 
February . 
March . . . . 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August .  - . 


September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

Annual 

November  to  May. 

June  to  October . . . 


IIouT'v  ot  distention. 
Minimum.  ^raxirnnni. 


a.  m 

,  ()  a.  m . . . 
6  a.  m  . . 
a.m 

6  a.  m  . . 
6  a.  m  . . 
6  a.  m  . . 
5,6  a.m. 

5, 6  a.  m. 
a.m 

6  a.m... 
6  a.  m . . . 


6  a.  m . 
6  a.m.. 
6  a.m.. 


1, 2, 3  p.  m 

12  noon;  1,2  p.  m 

10,11  a.  m 

11a.  m.;  12  noon 

10, 11  a.m 

9,10  a.m.;  12  noon 

9, 10, 11  a.m 

9,10,11  a.m.;  12  noon: 
3, 5  p.  m. 

10  a.  m 

4p.  m 

3  p.m 

2,3  p.  m 


12  noon  . 
12  noon . 
10  a.m.. 


Amplitude 
of  the  os- 
cillation. 


1.1 
1.1 


1.0 

1.2 

1.4 

1.5 

1.3 

1.2 

1.37 

1.0 


Concerning  this  table  it  only  remains  for  us  to  add  to  what  has  been 
briefly  indicated  above  that,  although  in  some  months,  as  October, 
November,  and  December,  the  daily  maximum  is  observed  consider- 
ably after  noon,  considering  the  hourly  averages  and  the  curves  of 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOBT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION.  187 

.said  months,  it  is  seen  that  the  tension  increases  rapidly  from  9  to  10 
in  the  morning;  the  increase  observed  after  10  o'clock,  or  about  noon 
or  afternoon,  is  very  insignificant  and  almost  imperceptible. 

AVERAGE  EXTENT  OF  THE  ANNUAL  AND  SEMIANNUAL  VARIATIONS. 

The  average  annual  extent  of  this  variation  of  the  tension  of  the 
aqueous  vapor  is  1.20  mm.  The  extent  of  the  period  from  November 
to  May  is  1.37  mm.,  and  that  of  the  other  period  down  to  October 
does  not  exceed  1  mm.  The  months  in  which  there  is  a  lesser  vari- 
ation are  August  and  September,  which,  as  we  have  said,  correspond 
also  to  the  lesser  variations  of  temperature  and  relative  humidity. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


188 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


^ 


o   ©   o   o 

I   I    I   I 


o  ©  ^ 
i    I    I 


O    o     ^     © 

I    I    i    I 


1 


CO     C>    'fH     r-\ 


©    o    © 
I  ! 


IM  c  tH  CO  r-l  QO 
D©C>©0©<=^© 
I        i         I        I         I         I        I         I 


©o©o©o©'^© 


O     ©     O     o 


o 

I 


I    I    I 


<N     kO     O    i^.     <M     OO 

<^   ©    o    ©    o    --J 

I       I    I 


I    I    I 


O         ?0  f^         T^  "^  T— 

o    ©    o    ©    o    © 


d   ©• 


rH     M    CO     <M    '^ 


©    d   ©    d   © 


d    ©    d    ©    d  . 


15-1     O    CO     '"'    ^     C^    «0 

O   d   ©   <=   ©   <=^   © 

j       I    I    I    I    I 


t>.     tH     GC     tH     -^ 

©    d   ©    <=>   © 


1-(lO©.lrH<5clO(MO!?0 


d   ©    d 


©o©o©o©o© 


M     O     CO     O 


©    d   ©    ^ 

III' 


lO      rH     © 

©do 

Mil 


©    o    © 


© 

I    I 


O    W     rt*    (M 

(d>   ^    S   1^    <£   ^ 

I        I 


<^    9    <^    ^    ci    O 


d©d©o©d© 


(nT-i©9'-"-*THioi-(iooioo(Nco!MTt<co 
©d©'=='©'^©'^©'^©'^©'='©d© 
i      I      I      I      I      I      1      I      I  I  I 


O    CO    O    CO    o 


©   o   ©    o   ©    d   © 


CO    --<    "«*< 

©   d  © 
I      I      I 


iH     ©     T-l     t>.     i-i     t.     O     ,„ 
»'==©<='©'='© 
I         I         I        I  I 


o    ©    o    © 

I    I    I    I 


ST     lO     tH     (N     -* 

'^    <6   ^    c:^   lO    '^   S 


O    -i*     O     CO 


1^   d   1^    d   1^ 


O    CO     O    SI 

d   ©    d   © 


CO    '-'•*'-•    »S) 


i      I      I      I      I 


t>.     O    (W     i-O    CO     o    •* 

od©d©d©d© 


"*ocor-f'««t<T-icO'-ieoocoo 


o   ©   o   ©    o   © 


-*      (M      »0      rH      © 

O   d   ©    "=^   © 
I      I      I      I      I 


I      I      I 


'-iaD'-iaoO(5<i«5co»o-<!t<r-iiorHiooeo<M(Mi-i<5ioino 
d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d 
I     I 


,^   d   lO   '^  ^   "^   <o 

III       i 


^.2 


§^ 


d  S 
I   I 


d  ©  d 


00  c^_  00 
©  d  © 


I   I   I   I 


>  ©   rH  ©9 

'  ©  ^  © 

I    I    I 


IX)  ri  ^  "*  CO  U5 

©  d  ©  d  ©  <^  '  * 


»«  <M  CO 

©  d  © 


d  ©  d 


r-(THc«C^^'-'©C<l«>"'~^l»O'^C0(McOt©C0t>«<Mt>»O©r-(».'0TH(MC0©C^ 

od©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d©d 
I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I   I     I  I     I     i     I 


(n  iH  "* 
©  d  © 


iM  lO  "-I  t»  "M 

d  ©  d  ©  d 
I   I   1   i   . 


©  i^J  ©  o 


ao  th  © 
©  d  © 


OOtOiOlOO-iftr-lt^COD-O 


!>.      O     "^ 

©    d   © 


^ 
^ 


(NT-li(t<(MuO»Ht>«(Mt'»OGO 


■^^         V.N        Altf        1 — I        !-■»        V-^        i--*        ^-p'        tJU         1 — 1        I.-— 

©d©'^©<^©d©d© 
I      I      I      I      I      I      I  III 


i5-iiOc<5'^^C^»OOiOO 


_  ^  _  _  _  _d©d©^©'^©'^©*^©d©d©d 

I      I      i      I      I      I      I      I  ill  I 


I 


si. 


e3 


:  £ 

^ 

£ 

£ 

£ 

E 

a 

a  ^  a 


a^a^a^a^a 


<a  a 


O      88rH      9S(N      08CO      9St}*      fl8i6      S8<0      fSt^      S8     00^a>^THg^rH      ftiH 


e.    rH      ft    <N 
1H  1H  (N  ©9 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 


189 


O    O    o    '=^'    ©    <=    ©    *^'    O     '=^    © 
i  i  I  I 


d  o  <=>'  ©  "^^  ©    - 

I       I    I    I    I    i 


?©     iH     lO      tH     CO      <>1     »«      »-•     ©      <^      ©      "^     ©^ 

oo©<=>©<=='©'='©'='©'=^©'^©'=^© 

1       I       I       I       I  ' 


(N     (N     O     CO     rH 

d   ^    o    ^    o 

Til        II 


lCOe0C^lHO4©'-HT-lr-(rHO(JlTH<NO 
©<=>©'='©'='     ©00"=^©"=^©     '='©<=^ 
1  I  i         I         i         I  III 


o    O    o    "=>    © 


OT-lTH©rH©0<N<N 


■^  rH  CO  <-•  CO  o  «i  .--  ^.^  ^^  T-^  •  ■  ^  —  -^  ~.  -; 
O00'=^©<='©<^®0©'=^©"=^©<='© 

I  I  II  II 


CO  r-l  (M  r-l  (5:1  O  Sa  O  ,H  rH  ©  1-H  »-H  rH  tH  O  51  T-^ 

oooo©'='©^©"=''©o©^©<=>©'=> 

I  I        I    I    I    I        I    I 


©00'=^©'=^©"^©'=^©'='©'=^©'=^©"^ 


«M  O  CO  --<  15^1  T-H  IM  O  tH  rH  ©  iH  ©  O  rH  tH  5^  tH 

©d©'=^©=^©'=^©'=^©<='©'=>©'=^©© 

I  II  I    I    I    I 


C0OC0O(5lT-liyiOC0rH(MiHTHrH©TH5-lC^^ 

^doo©o©'^©'^©<=^©'^©'^©'^ 

1  I  I  I        I        I 


©   d 


©    d   ©   "^^   © 


r-IC0O©l»HTHrHl-(Or1 

d©*^©d©d©dd 


d   d 


I    I 


^rHTHr-lrHOrHOrH(MTHOTHO©'HFH 

©d©d©<=^©'=^©d©d©d©d© 
1      I      I      I  II 


r-^T^oco<MTH<^^©rHTH1-^THOTHO©r-^ 
dd'^*©'^'©^'®'-^'®'^®'^®*^ 


©   d   © 
I      I      I 


o  d  ©   -   w    - 
I  ill 


^    o   © 


c>^ci^ci<z>'^S^O 


rH      O     ©      rH 


d   ©    d    ©    d 
I      I      I 


©   o 


©   d 


•^(N00i-lr-l(NiHOi-(OTHO©TH©OiHTH 

©d^ddd©":^   ©'='©'='©   <=5©d©d 
III  III 


s  r  a 


Hosted  by 


Google 


190  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMlSSIOlSr. 

HOURS   OF   THE    MOST   NOTABLE    INCREASE   AND    DIMINUTION   OF   THE 
TENSION    OF   THE    AQUEOUS   VAPOR. 

In  confirmation  of  that  which  we  have  just  said  relating  to  the  daily 
variation  of  the  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor  in  Manila,  Table  XLIX 
can  be  consulted;  in  which,  as  we  have  given  the  atmospheric  pressure, 
the  temperature,  and  the  humidity.,  we  give  the  difference  between  each 
one  of  tne  twenty-four  hours  of  the  day  of  each  month  and  the  respec- 
tive monthly  averages,  adding  such  additional  data  of  the  average  range 
of  the  increase  and  decrease  of  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor  corre- 
sponding to  each  hour  with  respect  to  the  preceding  one.  In  this  table 
it  will  be  easily  seen,  speaking  generally  of  all  the  year,  that  the 
greatest  increase  of  tension  takes  place  during  all  the  months  from  6 
to  9  a.  m.  and  the  greatest  decrease  from  11  at  night  until  4  or  5  in 
the  morning,  the  changes  which  this  element  suffer  in  the  other  hours 
of  the  day  being  of  very  little  importance. 

Looking,  however,  at  each  one  of  the  months,  there  is  also  observed 
a  somewhat  notable  increase  in  some  of  the  hours  of  the  afternoon 
during  the  months  of  November  to  April  conforming  to  those  which 
we  have  above  indicated. 

NOTABLE  DIFFERENCES  BETWEEN  THE  AVERAGE  DAILY  VARIATION 
DEDUCED  FROM  TABLE  XLVII  AND  THAT  DEDUCED  FROM  TABLE 
XLVIII — IRREGULARITIES  IN  THE  DAILY  VARIATION  OF  THE  TENSION 
OF  THE   AQUEOUS   VAPOR. 

Comparing  the  average  values  of  the  daily  variation  deduced  in  this 
paragraph  from  the  difference  between  the  average  extremes  of  the  24 
daily  observations  with  those  which  we  have  studied  in  the  preceding 
paragraph,  deduced  simply  from  the  average  difference  between  the 
daily  maxima  and  the  daily  minima  of  each  month,  there  will  be  seen 
a  discrepancy  notable  and  otherwise  extraordinaiy.  It  is  certain  that 
from  an  examination  of  the  proper  daily  oscillation  of  the  meteorologi- 
cal elements  we  will  iind  naturally  some  divergencies  in  the  absolute 
value  of  the  results  obtained  by  these  two  methods;  but  said  diver- 
gencies are  very  far  from  being  what  they  appear  in  the  variation  of 
the  tension  of  the  aqueous  vapor,  which  we  are  now  considering.  These 
notable  differences  are  due  not  so  much  to  the  diversity  of  method 
employed,  with  w^hich  we  have  collected  these  results,  as  to  the  fact 
that  the  daily  variation  of  this  element  is  far  from  preserving  the  regu- 
larity which  is  seen  in  the  others.  In  confirmation  of  this  it  is  sufficient 
to  point  out,  among  other  facts  which  we  are  presently  going  to  analyze, 
that  it  is  not  rare  to  find  the  minimum  daily  tension  registered  between 
the  hours  of  11  a.  m.  and  6  or  6  p.  m.,  hours  when  there  is  the  greatest, 
or,  at  all  events,  a  very  great  increase  in  the  temperature  of  the  air, 
especially  so  on  days  that  are  clear  and  when  the  slight  humidity  of  the 
air  is  relatively  most  pronounced.  To  such  a  degree  is  this  true  that 
with  much  frequency  it  is  seen  in  our  monthly  bulletins  that  there  is  a 
coincidence,  not  only  in  the  day  but  even  in  the  hour,  of  the  monthly 
minimum  tension  and  humidity,  in  spite  of  which,  however,  the  annual 
average  of  tension  corresponding  to  the  hour  of  least  humidity  is,  never- 
theless, the  maximum  of  the  normal  hourly  averages,  but  slightly  less. 
This  we  have  already  had  occasion  to  remark  in  paragraph  5,  while 
examining  the  mean  values  obtained  by  means  of  Table  XLII. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTER  V. 

PKECIPITATIOK  OF  WATER. 

INTKODUCTION. 

It  has  been  verified  that  the  precipitation  of  water  is  one  of  the  ele- 
ments which  influence  the  climate  of  any  countrj^  For  this  reason  we 
believe  that  what  we  have  to  say  about  this  matter  will  be  read  with 
pleasure  by  all  who  are  interested  in  the  climate  of  the  Philippines. 
With  this  object  in  view  we  have  united  here  all  the  data  which  we 
could  obtain  from  the  observatory  from  its  foundation  in  1865  until 
the  present  year,  1899.  We  examined  closely  all  the  statements  and 
calculations  therein  contained  in  order  that  the  result  of  this  study 
might  be  entirely  satisfactory.  We  will  treat  in  this  chapter  of  the 
yearly  variation  of  rain  in  Manila,  of  its  frequency,  its  distribution 
during  the  different  epochs  of  the  year  and  different  hours  of  the  day, 
of  the  monthly  maximum  and  minimum  precipitation  and  of  the  great- 
est quantity  of  water  collected  in  one  day  and  in  one  hour,  of  the  rela- 
tion of  rain  to  the  atmospheric  pressure  and  its  distribution  in  the 
several  points  of  the  archipelago. 


VALUE    OF   MONTHLY   AVERAGES. 

In  Table  L  we  give  in  millimeters  and  by  months  the  quantity  of 
water  collected  in  the  pluviometers  of  this  observatory  during  the 
long  period  from  1865  to  1898.  The  curved  lines  in  plate  XXIV 
represent  the  normal  averages  of  rainfall  which,  as  shown  in  this 
table,  is  the  result  of  observations  made  in  each  month  of  the  year. 
It  is  shown  that  the  months  during  which  the  greatest  amount  of  rain 
falls  in  Manila  are  July  and  September,  during  which  months  the  nor- 
mal averages  reach  370  mm.  and  379.1  mm.;  and  the  months  during 
which  the  least  rain  falls  is  February,  the  normal  average  of  which 
never  exceeds  10.5  mm.  As  will  be  seen  by  reference  to  the  engrav- 
ing, the  normal  average  of  rainfall  is  augmented  gradually  from  Feb- 
ruary to  July,  and  diminishes  gradually  from  September  to  February; 
in  August  the  value  of  the  average  decreases  until  it  reaches  the 
medium  of  the  two  maximum  averages  of  the  whole  year. 

191 


Hosted  by 


Google 


192  EEPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

I.—YEARLY  VARIATION  OF  RAINFALL  IN  MANILA. 

Table  L. — Quantity  of  water  collected  in  the  pluviometers  in  the  observatory  at  Manila 

for  the  years  1865  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

1865 

mm. 

11.0 

44.0 

21.5 

9,0 

35.5 

82.6 

9.6 

15.3 

20.0 

13.9 

99,2 

28.4 

2.8 

L5 

55.2 

42,3 

4.1 

9.5 

195.2 

0.5 

2.0 

3.0 

13.4 

16.0 

98.1 

14.1 

18.7 

43.7 

14.2 

10.0 

26.7 

1.0 

12.3 

54.2 

mm. 

38,0 
0.0 

18.2 
0.0 

11.1 

24.6 
6.7 

10,0 

12,8 
5.0 

28.3 
3.6 
0.2 
7.5 

39.6 

11.6 
0.0 

28.0 

15.4 
0.4 
0.0 

16.5 
4,8 
0.0 

10,8 

15,6 
1.8 

17.1 
5,7 
3.3 
1.6 
7.6 
0,0 

10.3 

mm. 

0.0 

60.0 

12,8 

0,0 

0.0 

3.4 

11.2 

28,2 

14.0 

2,2 

24,2 

9.4 

0.2 

10.8 

11.3 

15.6 

9.2 

30.7 

23.0 

5.5 

3.0 

0.0 

100.2 

18.8 

4.8 

16.4 

4.1 

27.1 

18.0 

61.9 

11.4 

10.6 

22.4 

65.6 

mm. 

0.0 
20.0 
21,5 

0.0 
40.8 
21.0 

0.0 
39.8 
100.9 
17.7 

2.3 
29.8 

0.0 

5.5 
119.8 
136.4 

7.1 
40.8 
75.3 

0.0 
22.8 
31.4 
27.2 
14.3 

3.5 
77.3 

4.0 
13.8 
20.8 
22.1 

5.6 

4.9 
25.6 
35.5 

mm. 

90.6 

106.4 

169.0 

75.0 

129.2 

194.1 

12.6 

89.4 

59.0 

37.2 

0.0 

185.7 

200.4 

76.2 

103.  9 

21.0 

174.2 

131.9 

123.7 

96.4 

1.2 

107.1 

256. 9 

28.2 

0.0 

69. 6 

97.7 

76.2 

184.5 

108.1 

246.8 

168.8 

36.3 

167.1 

mm. 
266  2 

1866    

355  0 

1867 

206  0 

1868            ...                       

393  7 

1869 

276  9 

1870                              

199  *? 

1871 

375  7 

1872 

168  6 

1873            

354  3 

1874 

110  3 

1875            

49  4 

1876 

222  1 

1877                           ..            

233  9 

1878 

207  2 

1879                              .          

96  5 

1880 

205  5 

1881 

433.0 

1882             

235  1 

1883 

212.9 

1884             

297  8 

1885 

169.5 

1886              .              

219  9 

1887 

135  7 

1888                                         

265  4 

1889 

167  7 

1890                                         .   .          

255  5 

1891  .            

655  5 

1892 

114  2 

1893              

24  8 

1894 

281  3 

1895              

539  5 

1896 

156. 6 

1897 .                   

96  0 

1898 

329.6 

Average 

30.3 

10.5 

18.7 

29.0 

106.6 

244.4 

Year. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1865 

mm. 
249.0 
134.0 
357.8 
286,0 
368.8 
390.1 
269.6 
206.6 
261.7 
284.4 
330.2 
470.1 
602,0 
239,1 
143.4 
809.8 
486.7 
573.6 
754.6 
721.0 
313.9 
225.9 
378.7 
680.6 
292.9 
498.8 
642. 7 
231.0 
234.2 
209.9 
178.6 
221.8 
245.7 
288,1 

mm. 
219.0 
302.7 
340.2 
286.5 
407.8 
423.3 
248.9 
798.8 
388.3 
422.0 
400.7 
339.6 
1,095.6 
220.5 
290.7 
499.8 
440.7 
306.3 
256.5 
327.5 
170.7 
248.4 
142.8 
355.2 
339.0 
130.8 
276.1 
151.0 
276.8 
189.5 
349.4 
650.2 
263.6 
414.3 

mm. 
687.9 
362.5 
1,469.7 
462.0 
446.2 
273.7 
351.3 
257.4 
146.1 
115.6 
486.9 
520.3 
93.6 
399.6 
316.4 
349.6 
255.7 
327.5 
353.4 
194.2 
50.8 
233.1 
738.0 
138.1 
117.5 
536.7 
477.8 
377.2 
475.1 
399.2 
463.8 
424.6 
263.2 
325.1 

mm. 

266. 4 

403.9 

280.1 

162. 4 

589.7 

133.8 

189.1 

198.0 

317.8 

138.2 

134. 2 

58.2 
239.4 

99.6 
147.3 
172.8 
155.5 
320.3 
162.0 

47.5 
111.6 
363.5 
210.9 
200.2 
198.8 
224.9 

39.5 

77.7 

83.8 
224.6 

78.3 
109.2 
121.7 
245.2 

mm. 

95.0 

137. 5 

69.0 

267.3 

200.8 

210.8 

141,4 

133.4 

37.9 

45.5 

98.6 

61.5 

50.1 

122. 4 

397.8 

105. 7 

64.9 

177.4 

72.5 

149.1 

57.5 

63. 5 

141.9 

53.4 

152.6 

209.9 

306.6 

100.7 

94.2 

59.9 

167.6 

29.8 

73,9 

277.6 

mm. 

19.5 

131.0 

13.0 

2.3 

42.0 

46.1 

7.9 

32.0 

1.0 

15.0 

32.9 

61.5 

6.8 

89.6 

5.0 

36.4 

91.2 

104.9 

3.2 

61.7 

3.5 

89.3 

117.2 

36.9 

346.9 

45.4 

59.2 

52.9 

9.3 

108.6 

15.4 

0.2 

142. 8 

14.1 

1, 942. 6 

1866               -                

2,057.0 
2,978.8 
1,943.9 
2, 548. 8 

1867 

1868                                            

1869 

1870 

2,002.7 
1, 624. 0 

1871 

1872 

1,977.5 

1873 

1, 713. 8 

1874 

1,207.0 
1, 686. 9 
1,990.2 
2, 525. 0 
1,479.5 
1, 726. 9 
2, 406. 5 
2, 122. 3 

1875 

1876 

1877              ..            

1878 

1879 

1880 

1881 

1882 

2,286.0 
2, 247. 7 

1883 

1884 

1,901.6 

1885 

906.5 

1886- -            

1,601.6 

1887 

2, 267.  7 
1, 807. 1 
1, 732. 6 

1888                            - .            

1889 

1890               ..                ... 

2, 095. 0 
2, 583. 7 

1891 

1892 

1, 282. 6 

1893 

1,441.4 
1,678.4 

1894 

1895 

2,084.7 

1896 

1, 7a5. 3 

1897 

1,303.5 

1898 

2,226.7 

Average 

-370.0 

352.2 

379. 1 

191.4 

130.2 

54.2 

1,916.6 

Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  193 

GENERAL   CAUSES   OF   RAINFALLS   IN   MANILA. 

What  we  have  just  said  should  be  compared  with  what  we  will  have 
to  say  in  the  second  paragraph  of  the  eighth  chapter.  The  engrav- 
ing which  we  will  present  in  the  eighth  chapter  should  be  considered 
in  comparison  with  the  engraving  which  we  are  now  studying.  From 
the  coincidence  between  the  hurricanes  and  their  monthly  distribution 
in  the  extreme  Orient  and  the  yearly  variations  of  rainfall  in  Manila, 
it  may  be  deduced  with  reasonable  probability  that  they  are  controlled 
in  a  large  measure  by  the  influence  of  atmospheric  perturbations. 

As  we  touch  upon  this  point  we  will  indicate,  in  passing,  the  three 
causes  which  we  believe  to  be  nearly  the  only  ones  of  the  precipita- 
tion of  water  as  observed  in  Manila  during  the  course  of  the  year. 

The  first  and  principal  cause  is  the  atmospheric  perturbation,  includ- 
ing, under  this  head,  not  only  the  true  hurricanes,  or  cyclones,  but 
also  the  other  centers  or  large  areas  of  low  pressure  of  which  we  will 
*  speak  shortly  in  the  first  paragraph  of  the  eighth  chapter. 

The  second  cause  of  rainfalls  in  Manila  is  the  tornado,  local  tempest 
accompanied  by  great  thunder  and  lightning  which  frequently  continues 
from  May  to  October,  both  months  inclusive,  and  occasionally  in  April 
and  November,  but  is  very  rare  from  December  to  March.  These  rains 
are  distinguished  from  the  preceding  ones  in  that  while  they  are  some- 
times fierce  and  come  in  torrents,  still  they  are  usually  of  short  dura- 
tion, as  is  also  the  duration  of  the  phenomenon  which  produces  them. 
They  rarely  occur  in  the  morning,  but  are  frequent  in  the  afternoon 
and  evening,  continuing  during  the  night.  Sometimes  these  rains  are 
prolonged  for  several  days,  during  which  time  the  cyclonic  centers 
which  cause  the  same  exist. 

Finally,  we  cite  as  the  third  cause  of  rain  in  Manila  the  influence  of 
the  center  of  maximum  pressure  which  in  the  months  of  December 
and  February  is  found  to  be  situated  in  Siberia  toward  the  north- 
northwest  of  Luzon,  frequently  extending  its  ramifications  to  Mongolio, 
north  of  China,  and  the  sea  of  Japan;  the  current  of  the  first  quadrant 
influenced  by  the  maximum  pressure  causes  great  and  frequent  con- 
densations which,  in  the  months  referred  to,  are  produced  on  the 
Oriental  coast  of  the  archipelago,  being  at  times  also  abundant  and 
extraordinary  in  their  force  and  reaching  to  the  Occidental  coasts. 

CAUSES  OF   RAINFALL   IN  MANILA    DURING  THE   DIFFERENT  MONTHS   OF 

THE   YEAR. 

With  reference  particularly  to  the  different  months  of  the  year,  we 
can  say  that  the  rainfalls  observed  in  Manila  during  the  months  of 
December  and  January  are  usually  the  result  of  high  pressure  of  the 
cyclonic  centers  and  of  large  areas  of  low  pressure.  The  rains  of 
February  are  usually  produced  by  high  pressure  from  the  north  or 
areas  of  low  pressure  in  the  region  of  the  archipelago.  The  rains  of 
March,  April,  and  May  are  mainly  caused  by  electric  tempests,  as  is 
especially  true  of  those  occurring  during  April,  while  those  of  May 
are  the  result  of  the  influence  of  cyclonic  centers.  Finally,  the  prin- 
cipal cause  of  rain  during  June  and  November  is  the  typnoon  which 
frequently  occurs  during  these  months  and  the  large  area  of  low  pres- 
sure which  extends  to  a  higher  parallel  than  those  which  occur  during 


Hosted  by 


Google 


194 


EEPOET   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


December,  January,  and  February.  To  this  class  of  rainfalls  should 
be  assigned  the  rains  that  occur  during  the  months  of  June  and  July, 
notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  second  cause  of  these  disturbances 
which  we  have  before  mentioned — the  tornadoes  and  electric  tempests — 
abound  during  this  season  of  the  year,  especially  from  May  to  October. 

YEARLY   AVERAGE — TOTAL   AMOUNT   OF   WATER    COLLECTED   IN     MANILA 
DURING   EACH   OF   THE   LAST   THIRTY-FOUR   YEARS. 

The  yearly  average  of  rainfall  deduced  from  observations  covering 
a  period  of  thirty-four  years,  which  is  embraced  in  Table  L,  is 
1,916.6  mm.  It  is  a  fact  that  frequently  there  is  a  vast  difference  in 
the  amount  of  rain  that  falls  from  one  year  to  another  in  Manila,  as 
can  be  seen  by  reference  to  Table  L.  During  the  period  which  we 
are  studying,  the  maximum  of  rain  for  one  year  is  shown  to  have  been 
during  1867,  during  which  time  the  observations  made,  by  use  of  the 
pluviometer  in  the  observatory,  show  an  average  of  2,978.8  mm.;  in 
1885,  an  excessively  dry  year,  there  did  not  fall  in  Manila  more  tnan 
906.5  mm.  of  water.  This  shows  that  the  difference  between  the  maxi- 
mum and  minimum  rainfall  yearly  for  this  season  is  2,072.3  mm.,  a 
larger  quantity  than  in  any  other  yearly  average. 

In  Engraving  XXV  we  graphically  represent  the  total  amount  of 
water  collected  in  Manila  during  the  last  thirty-four  years. 

II.— DAYS  OF  RAIN  IN  MANILA. 

Table  LI  contains,  by  months  and  by  years,  the  number  of  rainy  days 
in  Manila  from  1866  to  1898. 

Table  LI. — Days  of  rain  in  Manila  during  the  years  from  1866  to  1898. 


Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dee. 

Total. 

1866      

6 
6 
4 
1 

11 
4 
7 
8 
4 
8 
5 
6 
4 

10 
7 
6 
2 
5 
1 
1 
3 
5 
1 
9 
7 
7 
6 
3 
4 
5 
2 
3 
9 

0 
2 
0 
2 
7 
3 

10 
4 
3 
7 
2 

1 
3 
5 
2 
0 
5 
5 
1 
0 
2 
3 
0 
1 
5 
2 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
0 
5 

1 

4 
0 
0 
1 
1 
3 
2 
1 
4 
3 
2 
3 
3 
6 
5 
6 
3 
1 
1 
0 
7 
4 
2 
2 

3 
5 
2 
2 
4 
3 
2 
13 

1 
2 
0 
2 
5 
0 
4 
9 
4 
1 
5 
0 
4 
9 
6 
1 
4 
9 
0 
4 
3 
3 
2 
2 

7 
1 
6 
5 
2 
2 
2 
5 
11 

9 

10 

5 

11 

11 

4 

9 

2 

5 

0 

17 
10 
8 
6 
7 
4 
7 

10 
10 
1 

10 
20 
8 
0 
13 
5 
9 
16 
14 
19 
17 
10 
13 

15 
9 
19 
14 
14 
18 
17 
16 
13 
6 
19 
19 
15 
13 
19 
13 
15 
19 
21 
11 
18 
19 
19 
13 
16 
18 
17 
14 
18 
14 
12 
11 
22 

16 
14 
20 
19 
19 
15 
13 
20 
16 
21 
27 
24 
23 
12 
23 
30 
26 
19 
27 
17 
10 
22 
29 
20 
17 
23 
25 
17 
21 
22 
19 
18 
26 

18 
23 
17 
16 
21 
16 
19 
23 
21 
23 
25 
26 
16 
18 
18 
17 
15 
18 
12 
17 
19 
19 
19 
25 
13 
26 
20 
22 
22 
22 
28 
23 
22 

22 
26 
20 
15 
20 
18 
17 
15 
10 
26 
22 
13 
21 
18 
20 
18 
22 
27 
20 
11 
21 
29 
14 
22 
25 
15 
22 
26 
20 
23 
22 
24 
22 

23 
15 
15 
20 
13 
13 
18 
17 
13 
21 
10 
20 
13 
14 
15 
12 
19 
16 
15 
14 
21 
12 
15 
18 
21 
9 
11 
15 
15 
13 
15 
22 
24 

10 
10 
8 
8 

15 
11 
15 
5 
7 

15 
8 
14 

8 
14 
10 
10 
12 
10 
16 
13 
13 
13 

7 
12 
14 
11 
14 
10 

4 
10 
22 

14 
4 
1 
8 
4 
5 
5 
3 
4 
7 

11 
5 

14 
3 

11 
8 

13 
1 

12 
2 

12 

14 
6 

13 
7 

13 
9 
8 
8 
8 
2 

17 
9 

134 

1867 

125 

1868      

109 

1869 

116 

1870        

141 

1871 

108 

1872        

137 

1873 

124 

1874 

101 

1875 

139 

1876 

154 

1877   

140 

1878 

141 

1879      

130 

1880 

142 

1881       ...... 

128 

1882 

144 

1883 

142 

1884 

142 

1885 

89 

1886     

145 

1887 

166 

1888 

1889 

130 
138 

1890 

140 

1891 

134 

1892 

146 

1893 

142 

1894 

142 

1895 

144 

1896 

128 

1897 

145 

1898 

198 

Average 

5.1 

2.8 

3.0 

3.7 

9.1 

15.6 

20.6 

20.3 

20.2 

16.0 

11.7 

7.9 

135.9 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OP    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOlSr.  195 

WHAT   DO   WE    UNDERSTAND    BY   RAINY    DAYS? 

We  understand  by  the  words  ''rainy  days"  all  those  days  during 
which  enough  rain  has  fallen  to  be  appreciated,  or  measured,  by  our 
apparatus;  and  in  this  case  days  of  passing  showers  are  not  registered, 
g?nd  therefore  have  not  been  taken  into  account  in  forming  this  table/ 

DISTRIBUTION  OF   THE   DAYS   OF   RAIN   DURING   THE    DIFFERENT   MONTHS 

OF   THE    YEAR. 

The  maximum  of  days  of  rain  is  observed  during  July,  August,  and 
September,  and  the  minimum  in  February  and  March.  From  the 
maximum  rainfall  observed  in  the  first-named  three  months  until  the 
minimum  in  the  last-named  two  months  the  number  of  daj^s  gradually 
diminishes;  and  the  number  of  rainy  days  increases  gradually  from 
the  minimum  in  February  to  the  maximum  in  July. 

YEARLY  AVERAGE  DAYS  OF  RAIN — TOTAL  OF  DAYS  OF  RAIN  IN  THE  LAST 

THIRTY-THREE  YEARS. 

The  yearly  average  of  rainy  days  is  135.9.  The  year  1898  shows  a 
total  of  198  days  of  rain,  while  in  1885  there  were  only  89  days  of 
rain.  The  difference  in  these  two  figures,  embracing  the  yearly  maxi- 
mum and  minimum,  is  109.  Subtracting  from  these  two  years  the 
maximum  difference  which  is  observed  between  the  two  totals  of  the 
rainy  daysof  all  the  rest,  the  average  would  not  exceed  sixty-five  days. 

III.— DISTRIBUTION  OF  RAINFALL   IN  MANILA  DURING  THE  DIF- 
FERENT SEASONS  OF  THE  YEAR. 

DRY    SEASON    AND    HUMID    OR    RAINY    SEASON. 

The  writers  who  generally  treat  of  the  climate  of  the  intertropical 
regions  usually  take  much  care  to  distinguish  the  two  season,  the  dry 
season,  which  lasts  from  November  to  May,  inclusive  (seven  months), 
and  the  humid  or  rainy  season,  also  called  the  epoch  of  rain,  which 
continues  during  the  other  five  months,  from  June  to  October,  both 
inclubsive. 

THE   DIVISION    OF  THE    YEAR   INTO    TWO    SEASONS   CAN   NOT   BE    GENER- 
ALLY  APPLIED   TO   THE   WHOLE   ARCHIPELAGO. 

In  considering  the  climate  of  the  Philippines  it  must  be  taken  into 
account  from  the  start  that  this  division  can  only  be  applied  to  the 
interior,  and  principally  to  the  occidental  coasts  of  the  archipelago, 
but  not  in  any  manner  whatever  to  the  oriental  regions,  as  we  shall 
see  more  fully  below  when  we  shall  consider  the  yearly  distribution 
of  rain  in  the  different  points  of  the  islands.  - 

^  In  the  bulletins  of  this  observatory,  probably  on  account  of  the  change  in  the 
personnel  which  has  taken  place,  we  have  found  that  in  some  years  there  was  included 
in  the  total  number  of  rainy  days  the  days  of  simple  showers,  and  in  other  years  this 
was  not  the  case;  so  that  if  we  have  in  some  way  modified  some  of  these  statements 
it  has  been  with  the  object  of  having  them  uniform,  in  order  that  the  true  monthly 
averages  might  then  be  deduced. 

p  c— VOL  4--01 17 


Hosted  by 


Google 


196 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


IN  WHAT  SENSE  DO  WE  APPLY  THESE  TWO  SEASONS  TO  MANILA? — OUT- 
LINE OF  DISTRIBUTION  OF  RAIN  IN  MANILA  DURING  JUNE-SEPTEM- 
BER, 1899. 

If  we  include  the  capital  only,  which  is  found  on  the  occidental  coast 
of  Luzon,  we  shall  have  no  difficulty  whatever  in  applying  the  two 
seasons  to  this  territory,  especially  when  it  is  understood  that  the 
epochs  of  rain  are  not  so  called  because  of  lack  of  interruption  in  the 
rain  in  the  whole  five  months,  but  because  the  total  quantity  of  water 
which  is  precipitated  in  that  time  is  always  greater  than  the  amount 
collected  in  the  other  seven  months  of  the  year.  We  say  this  because 
the  so-called  rainy  months,  eTune-October,  are  not  so  produced  by  a 
constant  cause,  but,  for  instance,  by  a  monsoon,  and,  as  we  have  already 
indicated  above,  are  subject  to  the  influence  of  the  tornadoes  and  atmos- 
pheric perturbations,  which  are  never  a  constant  cause,  but  rather  vary 
much  in  character  and  force,  and  often  have  long  periods  of  interrup- 
tions. For  this  reason  it  is  not  a  rare  occuiTence,  as  has  already  been 
noted  in  the  case  of  September  of  1899,  for  ten,  fifteen,  or  even  more 
days  to  pass  without  rain,  or,  at  best,  with  showers  of  but  little  impor- 
tance. Confirmatory  of  what  we  have  just  said,  we  believe  it  will  not 
fail  to  be  of  interest  to  explain  here  the  manner  in  which  the  rainfall 
in  Manila  has  been  distributed  during  the  months  of  June,  July, 
August,  and  September.  For  this  reason  we  have  made  the  attached 
outline,  in  which,  besides  the  quantity  of  water  collected  dail}^  in  the 
observatory,  we  have  added  the  hours  of  sun  and  some  other  obser- 
vations which  will  enable  one  to  better  understand  the  nature  and 
course  of  the  rainfall  cited. 

Outlhie  of  the  duiribution  of  rain  in  Manila  (hiring  the  months  of  June  to  September,  1899. 

JUNE. 


Day. 

Total 
of  rain 
in  mm. 

0,0 

Hours 
of  sun. 

Observations. 

1 

7.45 

2 

8.5 

7.15 

At  2.35  p.  m.  rain  with  tornado  for  scarce  half  an  hour. 

3 

0.0 

9.35 

4 

2.3 

6.15 

At  11.40  a.  m.  rain  of  short  duration. 

5 

7.6 

10.30 

From  8.45  p.  m.  to  12  m.  rain  with  intervals  of  tornadoes. 

6 

3.1 

9.40 

Passing  rams  at  1  a.  m.,  10,  and  11  p.  m. 

7 

5.1 

0.45 

Brief  rain  at  intervals  from  10  a.  m.  to  7  p.  m. 

8 

0.0 

8.45 

9 

0.0 

10.00 

10 

0.0 

8.00 

11 

7.0 

7.05 

Rain  of  regular  duration  between  8  and  10  p.  m. 

12 

0.0 

7.40 

13 

0.0 

8.00 

14 

43.5 

5.40 

Rain  with  tornadoes  between  5  and  9  p.  m. 

15 

1.0 

8.05 

Passing  rain  between  7  and  8  p.  m. 

16 

1.0 

8.40 

Passing  rain  between  1  and  2  a.  m. 

17 

0.0 

9.00 

18 

0.0 

6.00 

19 

0.0 

10.05 

20 

2.5 

5.10 

Passing  rain  between  4  and  9  p.  m. 

21 

1.1 

5.00 

Rain  and  passing  showers  between  2  and  5  p.  m. 

22 

2.5 

4.35 

Rain  with  tornadoes  at  7.13  p.  m. 

23 

1.2 

5. 25 

Passing  rain  from  4  to  5  a.  m. 

24 

8.2 

5. 55 

Brief  rain  at  intervals,  with  tornadoes  between  2  and  7  a.  m. 

25 

6.5 

7.30 

Passing  rains  at  intervals  4.40  to  7  p.  m. 

26 

0.5 

6.10 

Showers  at  3  p.  m. 

27 

0.7 

4.55 

Rain  with  tornadoes  at  7  p.  m. 

28 

105.2 

0.00 

Raining  the  whole  day. 

29 

8.8 

5.30 

Rain  at  intervals  from  4  to  5  a.  m.  and  1  to  3  p.  m. 

30 

1.0 

0.00 

Passing  rains  from  7  to  8  a.  m.  and  between  4  and  6  p.  m. 

Total  days  of  rain 

20 

Total  days  exempt  from  rain  and  generally  fair 

10 

Days  of  rain  of  miich  and  regular  duration 

7 

Days  of  passing  rains  of  short  duration  and  generally  5, 6,  or  7  hours  of  sun. 

13 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


197 


Outline  of  the  distribution  of  rain  in  Manila  during  the  months  of  June  to  September, 

^     "   aea. 


1899— Continue 
JULY. 


Day. 

Total 
of  rain 

Hours 
of  sun. 

in  mm. 

1 

0.0 

4.30 

2 

11.8 

7.15 

8 

0.0 

6.30 

4 

0.6 

0.05 

5 

2.9 

4.30 

6 

4.4 

1.00 

7 

4.2 

5.30 

8 

19.0 

3.55 

9 

209.8 

0.00 

10 

158.7 

0.00 

n 

54.7 

1.10 

12 

3.5 

2,45 

18 

0.4 

4,55 

14 

2.6 

1.00 

15 

6.3 

8.00 

16 

0.0 

5.15 

17 

3.2 

4.05 

18 

169.3 

0.00 

19 

253.5 

0.00 

20 

148.8 

0.00 

21 

29.1 

3.30 

22 

0.0 

10.30 

23 

0.0 

10.30 

24 

0.0 

11.20 

25 

8.2 

6.30 

26 

25.4 

4.30 

27 

8.5 

5.40 

28 

4.0 

6.45 

29 

35.1 

10.40 

80 

7.4 

7.00 

31 

19.5 

8.30 

1 

Observations. 


Passing  rains  at  9. 12  a.  m.,  12  m.,  and  2.35  p.  m. 

Passing  rains  from  10  a.  m.  to  3  p.  m. 

Passing  rains  from  10  to  12  p.  m. 

Passing  rains  from  1  to  8  a.  m. 

In  afternoon  and  night  some  short,  passing  rains. 

Rain  of  regular  duration  in  different  hours  of  the  day. 

Raining  the  whole  day. 

Do. 
From  0  to  11  a.  m. 
From  3  to  4  a.  m.  passing  rain. 
From  7  to  8  p.  m.  very  short,  -passing  rains. 
From  8  to  10  a.  m.  and  7  to  8  p.  m.  passing  rains. 
Passing  rain  in  the  early  morning. 

Passing  rain  from  0  to  1  a.  m.  and  3.35  p.  m. 
Raining  the  whole  day. 

Do. 

Do. 
Raining  the  whole  morning  and  from  9  to  10  p.  m. 


From  5  to  8  p.  m.  slight  rain. 

From  1.15  p.  m.  to  4.15  and  9  p.  m.  rains  at  intervals. 

From  2  to  9  p.  m.  rains  with  tornadoes  at  intervals. 

From  7  to  8  a.  m.  and  from  11  to  12  p.  m.  short  rains. 

From  0  to  4  a.  m.  rains  at  intervals. 

At  7.15  a.  m.  passing  rains. 

At  10.15  p.  m.  passing  rains. 

Total  days  of  rain 25 

Total  days  without  rain 6 

Days  of  rain  of  long  and  regular  duration 13 

Days  of  short,  passing  rains 12 


AUGUST. 


1 

16.0 

9.50 

2 

6.3 

3.40 

8 

0.0 

4.55 

4 

4.2 

2.00 

5 

14.2 

1.05 

6 

15.6 

1.30 

7 

6.5 

0.30 

8 

2.2 

11.00 

9 

0.0 

9.10 

10 

2.1 

8.05 

11 

12.0 

1.20 

12 

0.6 

8.10 

18 

2.1 

9.00 

14 

5.3 

6.10 

15 

6.7 

6.40 

16 

11.4 

7.30 

17 

7.2 

3.30 

18 

15.3 

0.00 

19 

68.1 

1.00 

20 

0.0 

6.45 

21 

12.2 

2.46 

22 

58.5 

0.00 

23 

28.0 

0.07 

24 

1.3 

1.05 

25 

0.0 

8.35 

26 

25.0 

0.00 

27 

11.1 

3.20 

28 

0.5 

8.00 

29 

6.9 

0.00 

30 

0.0 

5.55 

31 

0.0 

9.30 

Passing  rain  at  8.10  p.  m. 
Slight  rains  from  8  to  11  p.  m. 
Passing  rains  from  5.15  to  7  p.  m. 

Passing  rain,  with  tornadoes,  at  6  a.  m.  and  between  3  and  11  p.  m. 
Passing  rain  from  6  a.  m.  to  2  p.  m. 

Passing  rain  from  0  to  1  a.  m.  and  at  7  a.  m.  and  6. 52  p.  m. 
Passing  rain  from  0  to  2  a.  m.  and  4  to  5  a.  m. 

Short  passing  rain  from  0.50  p.  m.  to  3.30  p.  m. 

Slight  rains  at  5  a.  m.  and  between  1  and  6  p.  m. 

Passing  rain  from  0  to  1  a.  m. 

Passing  rain  in  the  early  morning. 

Passing  rain  early  in  the  morning  and  in  afternoon. 

Passing  rain  from  8  p.  m.  to  12  midnight. 

Passing  rain,  with  tornadoes,  from  4  to  7.10  p.  m. 

Passing  rain  from  2.43  to  4  p.  m. 

Slight  rains  between  4  and  9  a.  m.  and  4  to  6  p.  m. 

Frequent  rains  from  2  p.  m.  to  12  midnight. 

Several  slight  rains  in  afternoon  and  night. 
Raining  the  whole  day. 

Do. 
Slight  rains  from  1  to  2  a.  m.  and  8  to  11  a.  m. 

Slight  rains  between  2  a.  m.  to  3  p.  m. 
Slight  rains  from  1  to  2  a.  m.  and  6  to  11  p.  m. 
Passing  rain  from  11  to  12  midnight. 
Frequent  rains  from  0  a.  m.  to  1  p.  m.  and  6  p.  m. 

Total  days  of  rain 25 

Total  days  without  rain 6 

Days  of  rain  of  long  and  regular  duration 13 

Days  of  short  passing  rains 12 


Hosted  by 


Google 


198 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


OutUne  of  the  distribution  of  rain  in  Marila  during  the  months  of  June  to  September, 

1899 — Continued . 


SEPTEMBER. 


Day. 

Total 
of  rain 

Hours 
of  sun. 

in  mm. 

1 

0.0 

3.00 

2 

0.0 

10.40 

8 

15.2 

1.40 

4 

8.9 

0.00 

5 

4.6 

4.30 

6 

19.3 

1.50 

7 

0.8 

9.10 

8 

0.0 

11.30 

9 

0.0 

11.40 

10 

1.0 

10.45 

11 

0.0 

9.55 

12 

12.2 

7.20 

18 

1.4 

7.20 

14 

0.0 

6.25 

15 

0.0 

5.20 

16 

4.6 

1.20 

17 

47.5 

4.10 

18 

12.7 

0.35 

19 

64.7 

0.00 

20 

180.8 

0.00 

21 

8.5 

0.35 

22 

0.6 

0.35 

28 

0.0 

6.55 

24 

7.2 

6.00 

25 

0.0 

9.30 

26 

0.0 

9.15 

27 

0.0 

10.05 

2>^ 

0.0 

11.20 

29 

0.0 

9.45 

30 

0.0 

7.40 

Observations. 


Rains  at  intervals  from  11  a.  m,  to  9  p.  m. 
Passing  rains  0  to  10  a.  m. 

Passing  rains,  with  tornado,  from  10  a.  m.  to  12  m. 
Passing  rains,  with  tornado, from  11.13  to  1  p.m. 
Passing  rains  from  4  to  5  p.  m. 

Passing  rains  from  4  to  5  a.  m. 

Passing  rains,  with  tornadoes,  from  2  to  3  p.  jn.  and  7  to  8  p.  m. 
Passing  rains,  with  tornadoes,  between  2  and  3  p.  m. 


Passing  rains  at  8.44  p.  m. 

Frequent  rains,  with  tornadoes,  between  12  m.  and  7  p.  m. 

Frequent  rains  between  7  p.  m.  to  12  p.  m. 

Raining  the  whole  day. 

Do. 
Slight  rains  between  1  and  3  a.  m.  and  10  a.  m.  to  7  p.  m 
Passing  rains  from  4  to  5  a.  m. 


Passing  rains  from  5.23  to  8  p.  m. 


Total  days  of  rain 16 

Total  days  without  rain 14 

Days  of  rain  of  long  and  regular  duration 7 

Days  of  short  passing  rains 9 


This  outline  gives  the  evident  result  that  in  these  four  months  of  rainy 
season  of  the  present  year  (1899)  there  were  only  7  days  in  June,  13 
in  July,  13  in  August,  and  7  in  September,  a  total  of  40  days,  which 
may  be  properly  called  rainy  days.  The  other  days  may  be  consid- 
ered absolutely  exempt  from  rain^  or  may  have  only  passing  showers, 
and  they  could  very  well  figure  as  days  not  improperly  called  the  dry 
season,  in  the  months  of  November  to  May. 

NOTABLE   DIFFERENCE   IN   THE   QUANTITY   OF   RAIN   IN   THE   TWO 

SEASONS. 

Accepting  the  sense  in  which  we  take  the  words  "dry  season"  and 
"humid"  or  "rainy  season,"  we  give  in  Table  LII  the  total  quantity 
of  water  and  the  days  of  rain  corresponding  to  each  one  of  these  two 
epochs  of  the  year  in  the  period  from  1865  to  1898.  In  this  table  it 
will  be  seen  from  the  beginning  that  a  great  difference  exists  between 
the  two  seasons,  resulting  in  an  average  percentage  of  rain  of  20  for 
the  dry  season  and  80  for  the  humid  or  rainy  season. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XXIV. 


ANNUAL   VARIATION   OF  THE  RAIN  AT  MANILA 

1866-1898 

mm 
400 

300 

ZSro 
ZOO 
JSo 
too 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mardi 

April 

Miy 

.Mm 

July 

higast 

Sepi 

.     Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

•nan. 

1 

1 

■"  T 

4ao 
3so 

- 

-- 

— 

-^ 

- 

— 

/ 

\ 

/ 

r 

1 

\ 

/ 

\ 

- 

1 

1 

\ 

1 

1 

_- 

-- 

ZSo 

J6-0 
100 

sro 
0 

-- 

-- 

-- 

-- 

— 

— 

- 

- 

1 

1 

^"~f    ■ 

I 

1 

- 

- 

-- 

__ 

r^ 

— 

—  ■ 

-- 

— 

1 
1 

"     T 

V 

r~ 

■"i 

[_ 

- 

V 

1 
1 

1 

^ 

\ 

1 

! 

j 

„„, 

- 

_    -|— . 

i  "■ 

J 

\ 

"T 

1 

i 

\ 

^ 

-  \- 

\ 

1 

— ^„ 

\ 

1 

\ 

1 

\ 

\ 

-    1 

y 

\ 

i 

\ 

1 

v 

1. 

\ 

\ 

1 

\ 

^ 

^ 

\ 

^ 

^ 

— 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XXV. 


RAIN  AT  MANILA 

Annual  Quantity  in  millimeters,  from  1865  to  1898 


iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


KEPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPMNE    COMMISSIOK. 


199 


Table  LII. 


-Total  rainfall  and  days  of  rain  in  the  dry  and  rainy  season  during  period 
from  1865  to  1898. 


Dry  season. 

Rainy  season. 

Years. 

Rain. 

Days  of  rain. 

Rain. 

Days  of  rain. 

Total. 

Per 

cent. 

Total. 

Per 

cent. 

Total. 

Per 
cent. 

Total. 

Per 
cent. 

1865 

254. 1 
498.9 
325. 0 
353.3 
459.4 

582. 6 
189.4 
348.1 
245.  6 
136. 5 
285. 5 
379.9 
260.5 
313.5 
732.6 
369.0 
350.7 
523.2 
508.3 
313.6 

90.0 
310.8 
661.6 
167.6 

616. 7 
448.3 
492.1 
331.5 
346.7 
373. 9 
475.1 
222.  9 
313.3 
624.4 

13 
24 
11 

18 
18 
29 
12 
18 
14 
11 
17 
19 
10 
21 
42 
15 
17 
23 
23 
16 
10 
19 
29 
9 
36 
21 
19 
26 
24 
22 
23 
12 
24 
28 

1, 688. 5 
1,558.1 
2,  653. 8 
1,590.6 
2,089.4 
1,420.1 
1,434.6 
1 ,  629. 4 
7  4f5S  9. 

87 
76 

89 
82 
82 
71 

88 
82 
iHi 
89 
83 
81 
90 
79 
58 
85 
83 

11 
84 
90 
81 
71 
91 
64 
79 
81 
74 
76 
78 
77 
88 
76 
72 

1866 

40 

38 
18 
32 
54 
28 
53 
33 
28 
42 
51 
•  38 
53 
55 
47 
38 
47 
48 
37 
19 
46 
65 
34 
40 
48 
43 
51 
48 
46 
50 
32 
47 
82 

30 
30 
17 

28 
38 
26 
39 

27 

94 

87 
91 
84 
87 
80 
84 
91 
73 
97 

103 

102 
88 
75 
95 
90 
97 
99 

105 
70 
98 

101 
96 
99 
92 
91 
95 
94 
96 
94 
96 
98 

116 

70 

1867 

70 

1868 

1869 

83 

72 

1870                     ...                .         - 

62 

1871 

74 

1872 

61 

1873 

73 

1874                   . .              

28  i     1,070.5 
30  !     1,401.4 
33  1     1,610.3 
27  !     2,264.5 
38  '    1  i<!(i  n 

72 

1875 

70 
67 

1876                 .  -            

1877 

73 

1878  .              .                   .           

62 

1879 

42 
33 
30 
33 
30 
26 
21 
32 
39 
26 
29 
34 
32 
35 
34 

994. 3 
2, 037. 5 
1,771.6 
1,762.8 
1,739.4 
1,588.0 

816. 5 
1,290.8 
1, 606. 1 
1,639.5 
1,115.9 
1,646.7 
2,091.6 

951. 1 
1    0Q4  7 

58 

1880 

1881 

67 
70 

1882  .                  ... 

67 

1883 

70 

1884                  ...           

74 

1885 

79 

1886  .              

68 

1887 

61 

1888 

74 

71 
66 

1889 

1890 

1891 

68 
65 
66 

1892 

1893 

1894 

32  i     I'^ni  .p. 

68 
65 
75 
68 
59 

1895 

35 
25 
32 
41 

1,609.6 

1,662.4 

990. 2 

1    P^iY)   9. 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Av(;rages 

279. 5 

20 

43 

31    1      1    RV7  1 

80 

93 

69 

1 

1 

It  may  be  noted  that  in  these  last  we  hav  e  inchided  iive  months  and 
m  the  first  we  embrace  seven  months,  for  it  is  easily  seen  that  if  divided 
the  year  into  equal  parts  the  contrast  would  be  stiil  greater.  Not- 
withstanding we  would  like  to  admit  this  division,  even  though  unequal 
in  results,  since  it  appears  to  be  the  one  adopted  by  most  writers  upon 
this  subject,  it  is  not  the  proper  one,  although  it  has  not  failed  some 
who  have  not  included  in  the  epoch  of  rain  part  at  least  of  the  month 
of  November,  and  some  others  who,  excluding  this  month,  has  counted 
as  rainy  days  the  month  of  May.  If  the  normal  averages  are  closely 
examined  in  each  month,  it  will  be  observed  that  the  leaps  made  in 
the  average  of  April  to  the  average  of  May,  and  those  of  November 
to  December,  are  very  brusque,  so  that  we  doubt  at  the  start,  with 
cause,  if  we  had  not  best  count,  at  least  in  part,  as  included  in  the 
season  of  rain  the  two  months  of  May  and  November.  For  this  reason 
we  take  the  total  of  water  collected  in  these  months  during  the  last 
fifteen  years  and  divide  the  months  into  halves,  when  we  find  that  the 
average  of  the  first  and  second  half  of  both  months  can  be  easily  ascer- 
tained. But  as  the  result  of  these  averages  would  matter  very  little 
to  us,  we  maintain  that  there  is  no  reasonable  motive  for  including  in 
the  rainy  season  the  second  half  of  May  or  the  first  half  of  November, 
as  it  is  our  intention  to  exchide  the  other  two. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


200 


KEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


CONTRAST   BETWEEN  THE  RAIN  IN  THE   THREE  DRIEST  AND   THE   THREE 
MOST   RAINY   MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

For  this  reason  we  have  followed  the  division  of  the  year  as  above 
indicated,  but  to  make  it  more  plain,  and  to  show  the  extraordinary 
-  difference  which  exists  between  the  epoch  of  rain  and  the  months  less 
characteristic  also  of  the  dry  season,  we  have  formed  the  Table  LIll, 
in  which  we  have  united  on  one  side  the  total  of  rain  collected  in 
Manila  in  the  three  driest  months  of  the  year,  February,  March,  and 
Apiil,  and  on  the  other  side  the  total  by  itself  of  the  other  three  most 
rainy  months,  July,  August,  and  September,  adding  later  the  difference 
between  the  two  totals.  As  shown  by  this  table  the  average  of  rain 
during  the  first  period,  February  to  April,  is  52.2  mm.,  and  the  aver- 
age of  the  second  period,  July  to  September,  is  1,101.3  mm.,  while  the 
difference  between  the  two  averages  is  1,043.1  mm. 

Table  LIU. — Difference  between  the  total  rainfall  of  the  dry  est  months  of  the  year  and  the 
three  most  rainy  months  during  period  from  1865  to  1898. 


Year. 

From 
February 
to  April. 

From 
July  to 
Septem- 
ber. 

Differ- 
ence. 

Year. 

From 
February 
to  April. 

From 
July  to 
Septem- 
ber. 

Differ- 
ence. 

1865 

38.0 

80.0 

52.5 

0.0 

51.9 

49.0 

17.9 

78.0 

127. 7 

24.9 

54.8 

42.8 

0.4 

23.8 

170.7 

163.6 

16.3 

99.5 

1,155.9 

799. 2 

2, 167. 7 

1,034.5 

1,222.8 

1,087.1 

869.8 

1,262.8 

796.1 

822.0 

1,217.8 

1,330.0 

1,791.2 

859.2 

750.5 

1,659.2 

1, 183. 1 

1,207.4 

1,117.9 

719.2 

2, 115. 2 

1,034.5 

1,170.9 

1,038.1 

851.9 

1,184.8 

668.4 

797.1 

1,163.0 

1,287.2 

1. 790. 8 
835.4 
579.8 

1, 495. 6 
1,166.8 

1. 107. 9 

1883 

113. 7 

5.9 

25.8 

47.9 

132.2 
33.1 
19.1 

109.3 
9.9 
58.0 
44.5 
87.3 
18.6 
23. 1 
48.0 

111.4 

1,364.5 

1, 242. 7 

535.4 

707.4 

1,259.5 

1,173.9 

749.4 

1,166.3 

1,396.6 

759. 2 

986.1 

798.6 

991.8 

1,296.6 

772.5 

1, 027. 5 

1  250  8 

1866 

1884  . . . 

1  236  8 

1867 

1885 

509  6 

1868 

1886.. 

659  5 

1869 

1887 

1  127  3 

1870 

1888. 

1  140  8 

1871 

1889 

730  8 

1872 

1890. 

1  057  0 

1873 

1891 

1  386  7 

1874 

1892  . 

701  2 

1875 

1893 

941  6 

1876 

1894 

711  3 

1877 

1895 

973  2 

1878 

1896. 

1,273.5 
724  5 

1879 

1897 

1880 

1898 

916  1 

1881 

Average 

1882 

58.2 

1,101.3 

1  043  1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


201 


IV —MONTHLY  AND  YEARLY  MAXIMA  AND  MINIMA. 

Tables  LIV  and  LV  contain,  by  months,  the  absolute  extremes  of 
quantities  of  water  precipitated  (1865  to  1898),  and  the  days  of  rain 
(1866  to  1898),  the  difference  between  both  extremes,  e.nd  the  normal 
values  of  each  month  with  which  they  are  compared: 

Table  LIV. — Absolute  maxima  and  minima  during  the  period  from  1865  to  1898. 


January. . . 
February  . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 


Normal. 


Absolute 
maximum. 


195.2  (1883) 

39. 6  (1879) 

18.7       100.2  (1887) 

i 

29.0  I     13G.4  (1880) 


10().()  !     256.9 


244. 4 
370.0 
352. 2 
379.1 
191.4 
130.2 
54.2 


655.5 
809.8 
1,095.6 
1,469.7 
589.7 
397.8 
346.9 


(1887) 

(1891) 
(1880) 
(1877) 
(1867) 
(1869) 
(1879) 
(1889) 


Absolute  Differ- 

minimum.  ence. 


0.0 

24.8 
134.0 
130.8 
50.8 
39.5 
29.8 
0.2 


(1884) 

1866 

1868 

1881 

1885 

1888 

1897 

1865 

1868 

1869 

1886 

1865 

1868 

1871 

1884 

/1875 

11889 

(1893) 

(1866) 

(1890) 

(1885) 

(1891) 

(1896) 

(1896) 


194.7 


256.9 

630.7 
675.8 
964.8 
1,418.9 
550. 2 
368.0 
346.7 


Table  LV. — Ahxohde  maxima  ami  minima  of  ram  during  the  period  from  1866  to  1898. 


January.. . 

February  . 

Man^h 

Ai>ril 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 

December. 


Normal. 


9.1 

15.6 
20.6 
20.3 
20.2 
16.0 
11.7 

7.9 


Absolute 
maximum. 


11     (1S70) 


10     (1872) 


13  (1898) 

11  (1898) 

20  (1887) 

22  (1898) 

30  (1881) 

28  (1896) 

29  (1887) 
24  (1898) 
22  (1898) 

17  (1897) 


Absolute 
minimum. 


1869 

1884 
1885 
1888 
1866 
1868 
1881 
1885 
1888 
1897 
1868 
1869 
1886 
1868 
1871 
1877 
1884 

0  IJSS 


6  (1875) 

12  (1879) 

13  (1890) 
10  (1874) 

9  (1891) 

4  (1896^ 

1  fl868 


0 


0 


0 


Differ- 
ence. 


16 
18 
15 
19 
15 
18 

16 


Hosted  by 


Google 


202 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


DIFFERENCE    BETWEEN    THE    ABSOLUTE     MAXIMA   AND    MINIMA    OF    THE 

MONTHLY   AVERAGES. 

Looking  only  at  Table  LIV  we  will  be  convinced  of  how  much  the 
quantity  of  water  which  falls  in  any  one  month  sometimes  separates 
itself  from  the  average  of  the  same  month,  and  it  is  enough  to  state 
that  the  difference  between  the  two  extremes,  maximum  and  minimum, 
of  each  month  always  shows  a  greater  result  than  the  monthly  average. 

Something  similar  can  be  said  of  the  difference  between  the  maxi- 
mum and  minimum  of  the  days  of  rain  from  November  to  June,  which 
is  greater  than  the  normal  average  of  said  months,  is  a  little  less  than 
normal  in  August,  and  still  less  than  the  normal  in  July,  September, 
and  October. 

MONTHS  OF  MOST  ABUNDANT  RAINS  IN  THE  PERIOD  BETWEEN  1865-1898. 

The  most  heavy  and  abundant  rainfalls  which,  until  up  to  date,  have 
been  registered  in  this  observatory,  cover  the  month  of  September, 
1867,  in  which  there  fell,  in  Manila,  1,469.7  mm.  of  water.  On 
the  other  hand,  another  September,  in  1885,  only  50.8  mm.  of  water 
fell  in  Manila.  After  September,  1867,  the  most  rain}^  month  or 
months  which  have  been  registered  in  our  pluviometer,  during  which 
the  greatest  quantity  of  water  fell,  was  last  July,  1899,  when  a  total  of 
1,011.9  mm.  of  water  fell,  which  quantit}^  is  not  included  in  Table 
LIV,  because  this  table  onl}^  covers  the  period  including  1898.  As 
third  instance  may  figure  the  month  of  August,  1877,  in  which  1,095.6 
mm.  of  water  were  collected. 

MONTHS   DURING    WHICH    THERE    WAS   NO    PRECIPITATION    OF   WATER. 

Concerning  the  absolute  maximums,  it  will  be  seen  that  there  have 
passed  as  many  as  six  Februarys  absolutely  without  rain,  five  Aprils, 
four  Marchs,  and  two  Mays. 

DISTRIBUTION     OF     THE     YEARLY     MAXIMA     AND     MINIMA     DURING     THE 
DIFFERENT   MONTHS   OF    THE    YEAR. 

The  frequency  with  which  the  yearly  maximum  and  minimum  quan- 
tities of  water  and  the  days  of  rain  occur  can  be  seen  in  the  following 
table: 


Rainfall. 

Days  of  rain. 

Maximum. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Minimum. 

June      3 
July      7 
Aug.      8 
Sept.    11 
Oct.       3 
Nov.      1 
Dec.      1 

Jan. 
Feb. 
Mar. 
Apr. 
Mav 
Dec. 

3 
15 
7 
6 
2 
4 

June       1 
July      11 
Aug.      10 
Sept.      11 
Oct.         3 
Nov.        1 

Jan.       2 
Feb.     16 
Mar.     12 
Apr.     10 
May       3 
Dec.       3 

The  greatest  frequency  of  the  yearly  minima  corresponds  to  the 
month  of  February,  as  has  been  observed.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
frequency  of  maxima  is  in  the  month  of  September.  These  maxima 
and  minima  decrease  in  the  folloAving  order:  August,  July,  June, 
October,  November,  and  December.  The  fact  that  the  greatest  max- 
imum was  obtained  once  in  November  (1879)  and  once  in  the  month  of 
December  (1889)  must  be  regarded  as  extraordinary. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOBT   OP   THE   PHILIPPINE    OOMMISSIOK. 


203 


Table  LVI. — Daily  maximum  rainfall  during  period  from  1865  to  1899. 


January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

Year. 

Milli- 
meters. 

Bay. 

Milli- 
meters. 

Day. 

Milli- 
meters. 

Day. 

Milli- 
meters. 

Day. 

Milli- 
meters. 

Day. 

Milli- 
meters. 

Day. 

1865 

6.0 
12.0 
13.0 
3.0 
35.5 
30.0 
4.4 
8.0 
9.2 
11.7 
27.1 
12.6 

1.9 

0.8 

15.3 

20.3 
1.6 
5.9 
186.1 
0.5 
2.0 
1.5 
5.2 

16.0 

51.0 
5.0 
9.5 

39.1 
7.1 
6.8 

19.7 
0.6 
7.1 

21.2 

22.4 

""l2 

22 

25 

6 

25 
9 
24 
9 
8 
4 
10 

30 

13 

11 

5 
13 
1 
1 

29 

9 

16 

16 

24 

29 

25 

14 

21 

8 

1 

3 

1 

22 

2 

15 

38.0 
0 

14.0 
0 
8.1 

13.0 
2.5 
4.0 
4.5 
4.3 

14.1 
-       3. 1 

0.2 

4.6 

34.9 

11.1 

0 
15.0 

9.7 

0.4 

0 
14.0 

2.8 

0 

10.8 
10.5 

1.1 
17.0 

2.5 

2.5 

1.4 

5.6 

0 

4.2 

1.5 

'"'h' 

27 

0 

20 

9 

15 
12 
23 
14 
18 
12 

26 

7 

2 

24 
0 
1 

11 

16 

0 

11 

12 

0 

19 

7 

8 

29 

11 

5 

i 

0 

24 

f    12 

i    13 

0 
60.0 

7.2 

0 

0 

3.4 
11.2 
17.5 
10.0 

2.2 

8.1 

7.3 

0.1 

5.8 

5.6 

7.5 
3.8 
15.0 
20.0 
5.5 
3.0 
0 

24.2 

10.8 

3.0 

15.4 

3.3 

12.2 

13.3 

52.5 

9.6 

8.0 

22.2 

24.4 

}   - 

0 
18 
30 
0 
0 
4 
9 
27 
31 
13 
31 
28 

9 

22 
21 
14 
29 
9 
17 
0 
6 
29 
1 

12 
10 
23 
1 
9 
8 
2 

16 
11 

15 

0 

20.0 
19.0 

0 

30.0 
13.2 

0 

15.2 
43.8 
12.2 

2.3 
12.9 

}   » 

4.3 

30.0 

42.0 
7.1 
19.8 
24.0 
0 

18.0 

29.4 

10.8 

14.0 

2.5 

18.8 

4.0 

5.9 

13.0 

21.7 

4.0 

4.2 

10.7 

15.0 

25.7 

0 
24 
11 

0 
26 
23 

0 

2 
13 
28 

3 
14 

0 

5 
f  16 
1  24 
25 
25 
10 
25 

0 
22 
29 

3 

20 
23 

5 
29 

4 
14 
30 
29 
27 
30 
13 

30 

28.0 
55.0 
39.0 
36.0 
30.8 
101.8 

3.6 
32.0 
51.0 
12.0 

0 
30.1 

53.6 

45.0 

1    51.5 

11.1 
166.8 
56.0 
29.5 
21.2 

1.2 
32.5 
45.6 

7.5 

0 

12.4 
56.2 
64.0 
62.5 
28.0 
71.3 
36.4 
11.5 
49.9 

12.2 

""'9" 
30 
17 

1^ 

22 
22 
29 
27 
0 
21 

28 

20 

31 

22 
24 

5 

26 
25 

4 

13 

25 

1      18 

0 
25 
29 
21 
16 
25 
13 
17 
28 
31 

16 

69.0 
92.0 
63.0 
80.5 
102.8 
42.4 
80.1 
32.2 
74.3 
31.1 
17.7 
28.8 

111.4 

44.2 

30.4 

39.4 
139.3 
67.3 
88.0 
41.0 
52.8 
45.4 
26.2 
50.4 
49.4 
34.1 
252.7 
18.1 
6.1 
93.6 
143.4 
58.3 
33.0 
80.1 

105.2 

1866 

24 

1867 

26 

1868 

18 

1869 

23 

1870 

11 

1871 

24 

1872 

13 

1873 

25 

1874 

22 

1875 

24 

1876 

9 

1877 

21 

1878 

29 

1879 

1 

1880           

3 

1881 

29 

1882 

29 

1883 

3 

1884 

15 

1885 

29 

1886 

16 

1887 

21 

1888 

17 

1889 

30 

1890 

15 

1891 

15 

1892             -.   .. 

11 

1893 

21 

1894            

28 

1895 

24 

1896             ..   .. 

6 

1897 

16 

1898         

16 

1899 

28 

Milli- 
meters. 


1865 
1866 
1867 
1868 

1869 

1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 

1874 

1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 
1880 
1881 
1882 

1883 

1884' 
1885 
1886 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 

1896 

1897 
1898 
1899 


July. 


44.5 
21.5 
145.0 
50.0 

101.8 

71.0 
45.0 
67.3 

48.7 

63.8 

79.8 
104.5 

91.2 
128.8 

59.2 
290.1 

96.0 
176.8 

156.9 

179.5 
74.3 
38.0 
115.7 
109.2 
95.5 
189.1 
139.4 
89.6 
53.8 
67.0 
34.5 

46.1 

66.6 
30.0 
253. 5 


Day. 


August. 


Milli- 


36.0 
79.0 
59.0 
40.0 

107.6 

72.6 

76.0 

226.5 

69.6 

124.8 

69.1 
95.5 
192.7 
84.0 
49.3 
111.6 
118.8 
86.4 

46.0 

57.8 
41.0 
45.9 
41.6 
107.4 
63.0 
37.6 
89.6 
45.9 
58.5 
43.8 
62.2 


58.5 
78.6 
68.1 


Day. 


September. 


October. 


Milli- 
meters. 

114.0 
55.0 

336.0 
82.0 

128.0 

46.9 
56.7 
42.0 

23.8 

37.2 

60.4 
117.8 
32.2 
74.2 
162.3 
213.1 
61.3 
50.5 

5.0 

50.9 
11.4 
48.8 

164.8 
47.0 
40.2 
83.0 

115.8 
60.2 
77.0 
67.'7 

115.6 

72.2 

75.4 

87.2 
180.8 


Day. 


Milli- 
meters. 


94.0 
61.0 
172.0 
32.5 

94.8 

29.7 
88.1 
87.5 
85.0 

26.1 

27.1 
13.2 
60.0 
23.3 

74.8 
48.0 
20.8 
165.2 

34.5 

11.2 
24.0 
76.0 
118.6 
31.5 
76.0 
29.0 
15.5 
17.8 
28.8 
35.9 
21.3 

13.2 

18.2 
54.4 
25.5 


Day. 

3 
19 

7 
16 


Milli- 
meters. 


November. 


37.5 
55.0 
24.0 
139.1 

86.0 

40.0 
80.1 
52.7 
14.7 

18.5 

15.6 
25.2 
19.1 
21.0 
102.6 
68.8 
15.3 
67.2 

14.7 

98.7 
18.9 
16.9 
64.2 
14.0 
63.3 
153.8 
180.6 
29.1 
34.6 
14.2 
39.6 

20.3 

19.0 
76.8 


Day. 


Milli-    r) 
meters,   ^^y* 


December. 


8.5 

65.5 

5.0 

2.0 

10.0 

25.2 
5.0 

20.0 
0.5 

5.0 

13.2 
32.6 
2.2 
26.0 
2.6 
8.5 
37.3 
26.2 

3.2 

17.7 
3.0 
34.7 
35.4 
21.1 
90.0 
20.3 
16.8 
14.4 
2.1 
61.9 
5.1 

0.1 

20.8 
5.7 


16 
14 

7 
21 
17 
24 

9 

8 
10 
25 

9 
12 

3 
18 

3 
23 
15 

2 
12 
19 

12 

2 
3 

19 
5 
5 
1 

22 
4 
3 

21 
2 

24 
5 

15 

31 

23 


Hosted  by 


Google 


204 


REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


v.— MAXIMUM  RAINFALLS  IN  ONE  DAY. 

In  this  paragraph  we  shall  examine  the  greatest  quantity  of  water 
which  has  been  collected  at  this  observator}^  in  the  interval  of  one  day 
only.     With  this  object  in  view  we  have  prepared  the  Table  LVI. 

MAXIMUM   DAILY   RAINFALL   GREATER   THAN   200   MM. 

This  table  shows  the  greatest  maximum  of  water  fell  on  September 
24,  1867,  in  which  day  there  was  registered  not  less  than  336  mm.  of 
water,  which  was  collected  during  the  twenty-four  hours  of  the  day. 

Following  this  figure,  and  descending  in  the  named  order,  was  July 
30,  1880,  July  19,  1899,  June  15,  1891,  August  2,  1872,  and  Septem- 
ber 15,  1880.  On  these  dates  there  fell  in  Manila  the  following  quan- 
tities of  water  respectively:  290.1  mm.,  253.5  mm.,  252.7  mm.,  226.5 
mm.,  213.1  mm.  With  these  exceptions,  the  other  daily  maximums 
of  rainfalls  are  not  less  than  200  mm. 

DISTRIBUTION    OF    DAILY    AND    YEARLY    RAINFALLS    IN    THE    DIFFERENT 
MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

The  dail}^  and  yearly  maximum  rainfalls  are  distributed  in  the  dif- 
ferent months  of  the  year  in  the  following  manner: 


January 

May 

June 

July.... 


1 

2 

4 

11 


August 

September . 

October 

November  . 


The  greatest  frequency  of  the  maximum  of  the  daily  and  yearly  rain- 
fall takes  place  in  the  months  of  July  and  September,  followed  by  the 
months  of  June,  August,  and  October,  and  finally  May,  January,  and 
November,  in  which  last  months  it  is  also  very  rare  that  a  greater 
quantity  of  rain  is  registered  in  any  one  day. 

REASONS  FOR  THE  GREATER  RAINFALLS  OBSERVED  AT  MANILA  IN  ONE 

DAY. 

Concerning  the  reasons  or  causes  which  produce  these  maxima  of 
registered  rainfalls  in  Manila  in  one  day,  we  believe  that  we  can  state, 
without  fear  of  contradiction,  that  they  were  caused,  at  least  in  the 
minority  of  cases,  by  the  influence  of  the  hurricanes  or  atmospheric 
perturbations  more  or  less  in  the  neighborhood  of  Manila.  The  live 
maxima  of  which  we  have  spoken  in  the  above  account  took  place  with 
low  barometers  and  without  false  indications  of  depression  from  the 
quadrants  of  the  north. 

RAINFALLS  OF  JULY  19,  1899,  CAUSED  BY  THE  INFLUENCE  OF  THE 
TYPHOON  OF  SHANGHAI  FROM  JULY  18  TO  26,  1899. 

By  way  of  example  we  mention  briefly  the  cyclone  which  was  the 
cause  of  the  great  rainfall  of  July  18,  1899.  The  English  publication 
which  since  April  last  has  been  issued  by  this  observatory  at  the  end 
of  each  month,  has  this  to  say  concerning  the  typhoon  or  cyclone 
mentioned:  **'The  third  typhoon,  probably  tlie  most  noted  of  the  whole 
month,  is  the  typhoon  which  extended  to  Manila  principally  during 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 


205 


the  18th,  19th,  and  20th  of  July."  On  the  18th  the  tempest  which 
started  in  the  northeast  of  Luzon  extended  its  influence  and  reached 
simultaneously  to  a  great  distance,  taking  in  Japan  and  the  Philip- 
pines. At  the  beginning  it  seemed  to  be  inclined  to  move  to  the  west 
m  the  direction  of  the  island  of  Formosa,  but  afterwards  took  a  turn 
to  the  north,  as  was  indicated  by  our  observatory  in  the  forecast  for 
the  day  of  July  21,  in  which  it  was  stated  that  the  typhoon  was  already 
in  the  suburbs  of  Shanghai.  The  accuracy  of  this  forecast  of  the 
observatory  was  proven  by  the  statements  published  in  the  newspapers 
of  this  colony  early  on  the  morning  of  the  21st,  destroying  many  trees 
and  bringing  down  the  column  of  the  mercury  to  736.6  mm. 

After  making  a  diagram  near  the  east  of  Shanghai,  the  cyclone 
turned  in  another  direction,  from  west  to  east,  reaching  south  of  the 
island  of  Kiushimu  in  Japan  on  July  24.  We  will  give  the  course 
followed  by  this  typhoon  in  chapter  8,  Paragraph  VI,  Engraving 
XLIV. 

In  the  following  paragraph  we  shall  have  occasion  to  see  that  in  no 
manner  whatever  can  the  same  be  said  concerning  the  greater  rainfalls 
observed  in  Manila  in  the  short  space  of  one  hour,  or  less  than  one 
hour. 

Table  LVII. — Maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  Manila  during  the  period  from,  1885  to  1899. 


January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

Years. 

1 

S3 
O 

1 

§ 

i 

a: 

§ 

1885 

188t) 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1.0 

1.5 
5.0 
11.5 
36.0 
4.2 
9.5 
8.4 
3.0 
0.9 
14.5 

0.4 

5.1 

17.4 

7.6 

9 

16 
16 
24 
29 
13 
14 
21 
8 
4 
3 

{I 

22 
2 
15 

r  2-3  p.m. 
\  3-4  p.m. 

0-1  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

0-1  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

3-4  a.m. 
10-11  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

5-6p.m. 

2-3  a.m. 

6-7  a.m. 

1-2  p.m. 
11-12  p.m. 

3-4  a.m. 

5.5 
2.8 
0 

10.7 
3.0 
1.1 
8.2 
2.5 
0.8 
1.4 

0 

2.2 

1.5 

0 

11 

12 
0 
19 

7 
8 
29 
12 
20 
7 

13 

0 
10 
12 

0 

8-9  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
0 

2-3  p.m. 
8-9  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
6-7  p.m. 
11-12  a.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
6-7  a.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

0 

4-5  p.m. 
10-11  a.m. 

3.0 

0 
12.4 

10.8 
2.5 

15.4 
3.3 

8.5 

8.0 

45.8 

9.6 

2.1 

9.5 
6.1 

5.8 

17 

0 
31 
29 
10 
12 
10 
23 
10 
9 
8 

2 

16 
15 
30 

4-5  p.m. 

0 

0-1  a.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
10-11  p.m. 
0-1  a.m. 
5-«p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 

0-1  a.m. 

5-6  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 

16.0 

13.3 
10.8 
14.0 

2.5 
14.6 

4.0 

5.0 
12.0 
16.3 

2.0 

3.0 

10.7 
14.5 
16.0 

22 

29 
3 
20 
23 
15 
29 
4 
14 
30 
29 

27 

30 
13 
22 

8-9  p.m. 

4-5  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
8-4  a.m. 
3-4  a.m. 
4-5  p.m. 
4-5  a.m. 
9-10  p.m. 
11-12  a.m. 
5-6  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

10-11  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
6-7  p.m. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

August. 

Years. 

6 

Ss 

ft 

o 

1- 

ft 

!3 
O 

1 

o 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

1.0 
16.5 
36.5 

4.0 

0 

10.3 
42.0 
60.0 

13.8 

21.3 
25.5 
33.6 
11.5 
25.0 
9.2 

4 

2 

22 

21 

0 

6 

29 

21 

16 

10 
13 
17 
28 
10 
16 

4-5p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
9-10  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
0 

2-8  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 

9-10  a.m. 

9-10  p.m. 
9-10  a.m. 

5-6  a.m. 

2-3  p.m. 
9-10  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

34.0 
24.0 
55.0 
27.1 
47.2 
27.1 
55.0 
11.8 

5.0 

25.4 
31.8 
16.0 
33.0 
38.2 
37.5 

29 
16 
21 
17 
30 
15 
15 
11 
f  18 
128 
28 
26 
6 
16 
10 
28 

5-6  a.m. 
3-4p.m. 
8-9  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 
7-8  a.m. 
11-12  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
0-1  a.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
4-5  p.m. 
4-5  a.m. 
4-5  p.m. 

27.2 
30.8 
31.5 
42.8 
32.7 
50.0 
26.2 
40.0 

}.7.1 

27.8 
24.8 
12.5 
21.0 
23.0 
51.3 

24 
30 
20 
23 
15 
16 
27 
30 

9 

18 
18 
23 
26 
17 
19 

3-4  p.m. 
0-1  a.m. 
8-9  p.m. 
4-5  a.m. 
6-7  a.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
9-10  a.m. 
0-1  a.m. 

9-10  p.m. 

6-7  p.m. 
8-9  p.m. 
11-12  a.m. 
4-5  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 
1-2  a.m. 

25.0 
42.0 
20.0 
47.0 
48.0 
20.5 
22.0 
20.3 

32.0 

29.7 
23.4 
32.8 
46.0 
40.0 
38.0 

30 
26 
17 

27 
6 

25 
8 

28 

21 

5 
3 

28 

19 

8-9  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
2-8  a.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 

10-11  p.m. 

8-9  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 
11-12  p.m. 
8-9  p.m. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


206 


:at]Po:feT  ot^  I^Btii:  :PHiLIJPPlNl  OOMMisSloK. 


Table  LVII. — Maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  Manila  during  the  period  from  1SS5  to 

i6'5>5>— Continued. 


September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

Years. 

6 

U 

i- 

ft 

t 

0) 

ft 

o 

1^ 

03 
ft 

a- 

1 

o 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890. 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

1899 

9.0 
23.3 
52.5 
47.0 

26.5 
38.4 
50.3 
26.5 
40.0 
25.8 
30.3 

44.0 

24.5 
47.2 

27.4 

17 

18 
18 
17 
10 
10 
15 
13 
18 
15 
11 

6 
2 

14 
20 

7-8  p.m. 
8-9  a.m. 
6-7  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
2-3  a.m. 
10-12  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
7-8  a.m. 
1-2  a.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
6-7  p.m. 

1-2  a.m. 

7-8  p.m. 
1-2  a.m. 
3-4  a.m. 

24.0 
31.5 
17.0 
27.0 
14.5 
17.5 
15.5 
15.6 
22.4 
21.6 
21.2 

10.0 

9.7 
21.8 
10.5 

6 

10 
5 
9 

18 
14 
9 
7 

11 
22 
7 

12 

7 
6 
1 

6-7  p.m. 
4-5  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
9-10  p.m. 
4-5  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
0-1  a.m. 
11-12  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 

11-12  p.m 

6-7  p.m. 
11-12  p.m. 
9-10  p.m. 

6.0 
11.3 
21.9 

4.8 
12.8 
24.0 
49.8 
12.6 
11.0 
10.0 
17.0 

17.7 
35.5 
14.3 

17 
5 
26 
16 
4 
11 
16 
4 
22 
3 
6 

21 

21 

22 
14 

11-12  p.m. 

1-2  a.m. 

8-9  a.m. 

5-6  p.m. 

2-3  a.m. 
10-11  a.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

5-6  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 

3.0 

7.0 
25.6 
13.3 
22.0 
10.0 
10.8 
10.5 

2.0 
16.2 

4.0 

0.1 

8.5 
2.4 

3 

19 
5 
5 
9 
19 
3 

26 
22 
2 
24 

{li 

31 
23 

4-5  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
0-1  a.m. 
11-12  p.m. 
6-7  a.m. 
4-5  a.m. 
5-6  a.m. 

}    0-1  p.m. 

6-7  a.m. 
7-8  a.m. 

VI.— MAXIMUM  RAINFALLS  IN  THE  SPACE  OF  ONE  HOUR. 
OBJECTS   OF    THIS   PARAGRAPH   AND   ITS   UTILITY. 

The  material  treated  of  in  this  paragraph  is  of  special  interest  and 
utility,  for  it  will  explain  the  major  quantities  of  water  which  can  be 
expected  to  fall  in  Manila  in  the  short  space  of  one  hour.  With  this 
object  in  view  we  have  formed  Table  LVIII,  which  contains  by 
months  the  maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  Manila  in  the  space  of  one 
hour  during  the  period  from  1885  to  1899  (until  the  month  of  Novem- 
ber, inclusive).  We  expressly  begin  with  the  year  1885,  for  in  the 
register  of  this  observatory  anterior  to  this  year  we  find  that  the 
water  collected  in  the  pluviometers  during  the  night  is  given  com- 
bined with  the  water  collected  in  the  early  morning,  without  suecif ying 
the  respective  quantities  of  water  for  each  hour. 

MOST   EXCESSIVE   RAINFALLS   IN   ONE   HOUR. 

According  to  this  table  it  will  be  seen  that  the  greatest  quantity  of 
water  which  fell  in  the  space  of  one  hour  in  the  period  of  fifteen 
years  was  60  mm.,  which  was  on  the  evening  of  May  21,  1892.  Fol- 
lowing this,  the  quantity  collected  from  7  to  8  in  the  morning  on  June 
15,  1891,  55  mm. ;  from  6  to  7  in  the  evening  of  September  18,  1887, 
52.7  mm.;  from  1  to  2  a.  m.  of  July  19,  1899,  51.3  mm.,  and  from 
5  to  6  p.  m.  on  September  15,  1891,  50.3  mm. 

REASONS   FOR   THESE    HEAVIER    RAINFALLS    IN    SHORT    SPACE   OF   TIME. 

This  involves  two  questions.  First,  are  these  heavier  rainfalls  which 
precipitate  a  large  quantity  of  water  in  a  short  space  of  time  subject 
to  atmospheric  perturbations  or  to  electric  tempests  in  Manila  ?  Sec- 
ond, the  rainfalls  which  are  shown  in  Table  Lit,  are  they  of  uniform 
quantity  during  the  stated  hours  or  have  they  been  much  heavier  in 
some  parts  of  the  island  than  in  others,  resulting  in  greater  quantities 
of  water  falling  in  one  minute?     Both  of  these   questions  we  will 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


207 


answer  in  Table  LVII,  showing  those  which  caused  a  greater  quantity 
of  water  to  fall  than  40  mm. ,  and  indicating  in  another  column  the 
immediate  reason  for  each  one  of  these  rainfalls,  and  adding,  in  the 
last  column,  some  observations  with  reference  to  the  shortest  space  of 
time  during  the  same  hour  which  has  been  mentioned  in  which  the 
greatest  quantity  of  water  fell  and  was  registered,  whenever  it  has 
been  possible  for  us  to  deduce  it  from  the  registering  apparatus. 

The  annual  maximum  of  each  hour  in  these  fifteen  years  is  distrib- 
uted in  the  following  manner: 

1     July... 1 

1     August 4 

1     September 6 


March  . 

May 

June  ... 


The  maximum  frequency  occurs  in  September,  descending  in  the 
following  manner:  August,  June,  July,  May,  and  March. 

Table  LVIII. — Causes  and  other  details  of  the  most  abundant  rainfalls  in  Manila  in  the 
space  of  one  hour  or  part  of  one  hour. 


Year. 

Date. 

Hour. 

Quantity 
of  water 
in  milli- 
meters. 

60.0 

55.0 
52,  5 
51.3 
50. 3 
50.0 
49.8 

48.0 
47.2 

47.2 

47.0 
47.0 

46.0 
45.8 
44.0 
42.8 
42.0 
42.0 

Reasons  for  these  rains. 

Observations. 

1892 

1891 

1887 

May  21 

June  15 
Sept.  18 
July  19 
Sept.  15 
July  16 
Nov.  16 

Aug.    6 

June  30 

Sept.  14 

Aug.  27 
Sept.  17 

Aug.  28 
Mar.    9 
Sept.    6 
July  23 
Aug.  26 
May  29 

,5-()  p.m. 

7-8  a.m. 
6-7  p.m. 
1-2  a.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

1-2  a.m. 

2-3  a.m. 
7-8  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 

0-1  p.m. 
1-2  a.m. 
4-5  a.m. 
5-6  p.m. 
7-8  p.m. 

Intense  local  tornado 

Influence  of  distant  pressure . 
Intense  tornadoes 

These  60  mm.  were  registered  by 
the  pluviograph  Cassella  in  30 
minutes. 

In  8  minutes  50  mm.  were  col- 
lected. 

The  pluviograph  registered  40 
mm.  in  30  minutes. 

We  found  20  mm.  registered  in 
15  minutes. 

20  mm.  were  registered  in  12 
minutes. 

In  7  minutes  50  mm.  were  regis- 
tered. 
In  20  minutes  30  mm.  were  reg- 

1899 
1891 
1890 
1891 

1889 

Tornado   influenced    by    a 
distant  hurricane. 

Influence  of  distant  hurri- 
cane. 

Distant   hurricane   in    the 
north. 

Influence    of  a    hurricane 
which    crossed    near  the 
south  of  Manila. 

Tornado 

1889 

.  ...do 

1898 

Distant  pressure 

istered. 
In  17  minutes  25  mm.  were  reg- 

1888 

do 

istered  in  the  pluviograph. 

1888 

Tornado 

45  mm.  of  water  fell  in  35  min- 

1897 
1894 

Intense  local  tornado 

Tornado 

utes. 
40  mm.  registered  in  16  minutes. 

1896 

do 

20  mm.  collected  in  15  minutes. 

1888 

do 

1886 

do 

15  mm.  registered  in  15  minutes. 

1891 

do 

20  mm.  registered  in  10  minutes. 

From  this  table  it  is  evident  that  the  principal  reason  for  the  most 
frequent  of  these  heavy  rainfalls,  observed  in  Manila,  is  not  atmos- 
pheric perturbations,  but- is  the  tornado  or  electric  tempest. 


THE   ABSOLUTE   RAINFALLS   IN   LESS   SPACE   OF    TIME- 
SPONDING   TO  A  MINUTE. 


-AVERAGE   CORRE- 


Of  the  eighteen  extraordinary  and  excessive  rainfalls  which  are 
included  in  this  table,  the  most  noted  one— that  is,  the  one  during  which 
time  the  greatest  quantity  of  water  fell  in  the  least  space  of  time — is  the 
rain  which  occurred  during  the  tornadoes  of  August  28, 1897,  in  which 


Hosted  by 


Google 


208 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIoI^. 


40  mm.  of  water  was  collected  in  only  sixteen  minutes,  giving  an 
average  of  2.5  mm.  by  the  minute. 

Second  in  importance  to  this  rainfall  are  those  rains  caused  by  other 
tornadoes  on  August  6,  1889,  May  21,  1892,  and  May  29,  1891,  in 
which  there  fell  15  mm.  in  seven  minutes,  60  mm.  in  thirty  minutes, 
20  mm.  in  ten  minutes,  respectively,  giving  an  average  of  21.1  mm. 
for  the  first  and  2  mm.  for  the  last  two  mentioned  to  the  minute. 


VII.-DAILY  VARIATION  OF  RAINFALLS  IN  MANILA. 

RAINFALLS   OBSERVED   IN   MANILA  AT   NIGHT,    IN   THE   MORNING,  AND   IN 
THE   EVENING   DURING   THE   PERIOD   FROM   1889  to  1898. 

it  is  not  our  intention  to  give  here  the  rainfall  in  Manila  distributed 
during  the  twenty-four  hours  of  the  day,  but  merely  to  show  when 
the  rain  is  most  probable  during  the  different  months  of  the  year, 
whether  at  night,  in  the  morning,  or  in  the  evening.  With  this  end  in 
view,  we  have  prepared  the  following  outline  in  which,  taking  the 
period  of  ten  years,  we  have  indicated,  by  months,  the  number  of  times 
in  which  rain  has  been  registered  from  8  p.  m.  to  4  a.  m. ,  from  4.  a.  m. 
to  12  m.,  and  from  12  m.  to  8  p.m. 


Months. 

8  p.m.  to 
4  a.m. 

4  a.  m.  to 
12  m. 

12  m.  to  8 
p.  m. 

January 

11 

9 

14 

15 

49 

80 

121 

131 

120 

78 

49 

31 

14 

6 

17 

10 

40 

65 

100 

116 

107 

68 

63 

-50 

38 
16 

February .      ... 

March 

22 

April 

30 

May 

83 

June 

118 

July 

138 
140 

August 

September 

152 

October 

105 

November 

77 
61 

December 

Total 

708 

656 

975 

WHEN   DO    THE    MAXIMUM     AND     MINIMUM   OF    THESE   RAINFALLS   TAKE 
PLACE  MOST  FREQUENTLY? 

Speaking  in  general  of  the  whole  year,  the  maximum  frequency  of 
rainfall  is  observed  in  the  afternoons  and  the  minimum  frequency  in 
the  mornings.  The  difference  between  the  totals  of  the  number  of 
times  it  has  rained  in  the  afternoons  and  the  total  rainfalls  occurring 
at  night  is  much  greater  than  that  observed  between  those  occurring 
in  the  afternoons  and  in  the  mornings. 

DAILY   VARIATION    OF   RAINFALLS    IN    THE    DIFFERENT   MONTHS  OF  THE 

YEAR. 

Examining  each  one  of  the  months  of  the  year,  we  see  that  without 
exception  there  is  always  more  rain  in  the  afternoons  than  in  the  even- 
ings during  the  months  of  January,  March,  November,  and  December, 
in  which  months  the  number  of  rainfalls  occurring  in  the  morning 
is  greater  than  those  of  the  evenings  in  other  months;  but  on  the  other 
hand  the  total  of  these  is  greater  than  the  total  of  those. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


FACSIMlLb;  OF  bOMK  UURVEbKliUlsrii.Kt.um  Tttt,  bFKUJNUr-i^uii.s&  KAKUUKArn 

OB^  THE  MANILA  OBSERVATORY 
IN  RAINY  DAYS 


Hour 


Hours 


ua  T 

oogle 


sta    tes^t 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  209 

VIII.— THE  RAIN  AND  ATMOSPHERIC  PRESSURE  IN  MANILA. 

RELATION    BETWEEN    THE   ATMOSPHERIC   PRESSURE,    AVERAGE    DAYS   OF 
RAIN,  AND   THE   NORMAL   PRESSURE   OF   EACH   MONTH. 

As  stated  in  the  first  paragraph,  concerning  the  cause  of  rain  in 
Manila,  it  may  be  said  that  the  principal  cause  is,  at  least  for  most 
months  of  the  year,  the  atmospheric  perturbation  which  reach  the 
proportions  of  true  cyclonic  centers,  or  it  may  be  simply  the  effect  of 
areas  of  low  pressure  undeveloped.  To  better  illustrate  this,  we  refer 
to  Table  LIX,  which  shows  the  relation  which  exists  between  the 
atmospheric  pressure,  average  days  of  rain,  and  the  normal  pressure 
of  each  month.  With  this  end  in  view  we  have  computed  figures  for 
a  period  of  ten  years,  from  1889  to  1898,  and  have  deducted  the 
monthly  average  of  this  period,  only  taking  into  account  the  days  in 
which  there  has  been  any  rain  registered,  and  later  on  we  have  com- 
pared this  average  with  the  normal  deducted  from  the  same  period. 

Table  LIX. — Barometric  average  of  days  of  rain  and  its  difference  from  the  normal  aver- 
age during  the  period  from  1889  to  1898. 


1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Average 

Average  of  normal  pres- 
sure from  1889-1898. . . . 

Monthly  pressure  of  the 
days  of  rain  from  1889- 
1898 

Difference 


Jan.     Feb.    Mar.    Apr.    May.  June.  July.  Aug.   Sept.    Get.    Nov.    Dec. 


mm. 

761.93 

758.99 

759. 95 

761. 12 

761.41 

759. 65 

760.76 

760.63 

762. 73 

760.80 


760.80 


760.87 
760.80 


-0.07 


mm. 
61.51 
60.72 
63.45 
60.25 
60.53 
61.40 
59.37 
62.53 
0.0 
60.53 


61.14 


61. 21 
61.14 


-0.07 


mm. 

62.05 

59.25 

61.85 

59.14 

59.83 

59.28 

60.19 

60.22 

60.18 

57.82 


59.98 


60.24 


-0.26 


mm. 

59.58 

58.93 

59.62 

60.14 

58.13 

60.03 

59.73 

59.65 

59.13 

58.96 


59.39 


59.38 
59.39 


+0.01 


mm. 
0.0 
58.28 
58.41 
58.89 
56.84 
57.63 
57.62 
57.33 
58.44 
57.73 


57.91 


58.22 
57.91 


-0.31 


mm. 

59.24 

57.97 

57.36 

57.51 

59.13 

57,63 

56.94 

58.02 

56.87 

56.96 


57. 76 


57.91 
57.76 


-0. 15 


mm.  \  mm. 
57.581  58.01 
57.521  58.22 
56. 121  57. 
57.39|  58.43 
57.44!  57.26 
57.76!  57.54 
57.69  56.87 


55.74 
58.11 
57.22 


57.26 


57.55 
57. 26 


57.07 
57.15 
56.27 


57.47 


57.63 
57.47 


mm. 

58.37 

56.18 

57.56 

56.29 

56. 30 

55. 62 

56.11 

58.12 

57.96 

58.23 


57. 07 


57.37 
57.07 


-0.30 


mm. 

58. 30 

57.48 

59.95 

57.83 

58.22 

58.09 

58.29 

58.41 

58.43 

57.19 


58.22 


58. 33 

58.22 


-0.11 


mm. 

57. 27 

56.31 

58.22 

58.71 

59.33 

59.37 

59. 33 

61.03 

58.69 

57.00 


58.53 


59. 18 

58. 53 


-0.65 


57. 22 
61.21 
61.74 
60.31 
60.43 
59.09 
60.65 
62.02 
60.24 
59.29 


60.22 


60.68 
60.22 


-0.46 


Average  yearly  difference,  — 0.24. 

As  can  be  seen  by  the  comparison  made  in  this  table,  with  the  excep- 
tion of  April  only 5  during  which  month  the  average  pressure  of  the 
days  of  rain  is  nearly  equal  to  the  normal,  they  do  not  differ  more  than 
0.01.  In  all  the  other  months  of  the  year  the  difference  between  the 
average  pressure  and  the  normal  does  not  reach  even  1  mm.  The  dif- 
ference in  the  two  yearly  averages  is  —0.24.  While  this  is  very  insig- 
nificant, it  is  well  proven  on  one  hand  that  the  atmospheric  perturba- 
tions or  centers  of  low  pressure  are  the  principal  causes  of  rain  in 
Manila,  and  on  the  other  hand  it  indicates  the  indications  in  some 
cases  are  that  the  rainfalls  are  the  result  of  the  influence  of  high  pres- 
sure and  tornadoes,  which  frequently  occur,  when  the  barometer  is 
sent  to  its  normal  height. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


210  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    0OMMIS8I0K. 

MONTHS  IN  WHICH  ARE  SHOWN  THE  MAXIMUM  AND  MINIMUM  DIF- 
FERENCES BETWEEN  THE  PRESSURE,  DAYS  OF  RAIN,  AND  NORMAL 
PRESSURE. 

The  maximum  differences  —0.65  and  —0.46  occur  in  the  months  of 
November  and  December,  in  which  the  tornadoes  are  very  rare,  and 
for  this  reason  it  must  be  noted  as  the  result  of  the  inliuence  of  atmos- 
pheric perturbations.  This  same  difference,  observed  in  April,  has 
to  be  attributed  to  the  small  number  of  typhoons  that  generally  present 
themselves  in  the  same  months,  and  the  frequency  with  which  changes 
are  observed  with  some  tornadoes  in  the  second  half  of  the  month. 

MOVEMENTS   OCCASIONED   IN    THE    BAROMETER    DURING    RAINS   AND 

SQUALLS. 

In  the  Engraving  XXXI  we  give  some  models  of  diagrams  traced  by 
the  barograph  Sprung-Fuess  of  this  observatory  during  days  of  abun- 
dant rains  and  squalls.  The  effect  of  this  spiral  curve,  more  or  less 
continued,  is  to  show  the  frequency  of  rain,  whether  less  or  greater 
at  given  points  and  times. 

IX.— MONTHLY   DISTRIBUTION   OF  RAIN  IN   THE   ISLAND   OF   LUZON. 

DATES   WHICH   WE   HAVE   BEEN  ABLE    TO  USE    FOR   THE    STUDY  OF   RAIN- 
FALL  IN    THE   PHILIPPINE   ARCHIPELAGO. 

Before  we  deal  with  these  last  paragraphs  concerning  the  rainfall  in 
the  Philippine  Archipelago  we  will  say  a  few  words  regarding  the 
dates  we  have  been  able  to  use  in  the  study  of  the  distribution  of  these 
rains. 

In  the  first  place  the  observations  verified  in  the  secondary  stations 
of  Luzon  will  serve  our  purpose,  which,  while  they  are  sufficient  in 
number,  still  have  left  us  with  certain  difficulties  due  to  the  frequent 
change  in  the  personnel,  which  does  not  seem  to  have  been  always 
fully  instructed  in  this  matter  as  we  would  have  desired  for  this  kind 
of  work,  and  which  causes  some  deficiencies  in  this  work  which  we  find 
it  difficult  to  arrange.  To  these  difficulties  must  be  added  errors  in 
copy  and  print  which  we  have  found  in  the  daily  reports  and  the  monthly 
totals  of  rainfall  at  those  stations  mentioned  in  the  published  bulletins 
of  this  observatory;  for  which  reason  in  trying  to  present  here  some 
tables  of  rainfall  in  certain  points  in  Luzon,  we  have  found  ourselves 
obliged  to  refer  to  the  same  originals  from  which  they  were  compiled 
and  which  we  have  examined  closely  with  the  desire  to  utilize  only 
those  months  and  years  which  merit  our  full  confidence.  This  means 
that  in  the  tables  which  we  present  here  we  shall  leave  blank  those 
observations  which  seem  lo  us  deficient  as  to  the  quantity  of  rain,  days 
of  rain,  and  the  maximums  of  daily  rainfall  at  various  points.  From 
this  it  appears  that  when  the  averages  are  in  general  the  result  of 
number  of  years  which  we  indicate  in  a  corresponding  table,  the  yearly 
averages  will  be  deducted  in  several  minor  cases  because  it  necessarily 
depends  on  the  number  of  years  of  observation  which  have  been  com- 
plete, and  to  us  seem  correct,  from  which  we  have  prepared  these 
tables. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


211 


Concerning  the  other  islands  outside  of  Luzon,  we  are  indebted  to 
some  private  persons  in  the  agricultural  stations  of  Iloilo,  Cebu,  and 
La  Carlota,  and  several  Jesuit  missionaries  of  the  island  of  Mindanao 
for  what  data  we  have  been  able  to  procure. 

THE  YEARLY  MARCH   OF   RAIN   IN   THE   ISLAND   OF   LUZON. 

Having  made  these  indications,  we  will  consider  in  this  paragraph 
the  distribution  of  rain  in  the  island  of  Luzon  during  the  different 
months  of  the  year. 

For  this  reason  we  have  taken  3  stations  of  the  occidental  coast, 
Vigan,  Cabo  Bolinao,  and  Punta  Santiago;  3  points  in  the  interior  of 
Luzon,  Tuguegarao,  San  Isidro,  and  Tayabas;  and  4  stations  on  the 
northern  and  oriental  coast,  Aparri,  Atimonan,  Daet,  and  Albay. 

In  Table  LX  we  give  the  monthly  averages  of  the  quantity  of  rain 
registered  at  each  of  these  stations  during  the  periods  of  years 
indicated. 

Table  LX. — Monthly  averages  of  the  quantity  of  rain  in  the  different  stations  of  Luzon. 


stations. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Years 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tion. 


Vigan 

Cabo  Bolinao... 
Punta  Santiago 

Daet  

Atimonan 

Albay 

Aparri 

Tuguegarao  — 

San  Isidro 

Tayabas , 


mm 

0.0 

1.2 

6.5 

252. 

116.7 

233. 5 

230.9 

3.4 

15.9 

124. 0 


mm. 

0.0 

1.5 

0.2 

177.9 

81.3 

168.2 

98.8 

1.1 

6.5 

48.9 


mm. 
4.3 
11.3 
5.7 

226.7 
73.3 

229.0 
48.7 
11.2 
18.9 
60.2 


mm. 
3.5 
10.1 
4.6 
81.4 
75.0 

155.4 
27.9 
23.2 
23.3 
23, 


mm 

89.2 
122. 6 

99.4 
189.5 
163.3 
188.3 

66. 9 

9.1. 1 
210.1 
100.7 


mm. 

217.4 

382.5 

186.9 

13rl.  7 

169.1 

207.6 

58.3 

52.6 

192.7 

88.6 


mm. 
535.6 
558. 2 
368.2 
211.4 
258.4 
266.2 
129.4 
154.6 
339.4 
96.6 


mm,. 
289.4 
525.4 
239.9 
382. 2 
178.7 
242.1 
174.1 

68.0 
282.9 

73.9 


mm. 
486.1 
584. 0 
321.5 
269.3 
166.8 
299.9 
242.0 
76.1 
361. 5 
116.5 


mm. 

176.4 

192.1 

120.8 

313, 

408, 

212.5 

285. 8 

143.8 

168.0 

239.0 


mm. 

65.5 

34.4 

101.6 

205.6 

530.7 

301.1 

241.0 

50.2 

102.0 

283.2 


mm. 

0.3 

8.1 

57.5 

436.9 

428.5 

457.0 

264.5 

89.1 

51.6 

195. 4 


10 
12 
12 

2 


2 
10 

7 


MONTHLY    DISTIIIBUTION    OF 


RAINFALL   ON  THE   OCCIDENTAL   COAST   OF 
LUZON. 


According  to  the  averages  shown  in  this  table  we  examine  first  the 
yearly  march  of  rain  in  the  first  three  stations  situated  in  the  three 
different  points  at  large  of  the  occidental  coast  of  Luzon. 

We  observe  two  things  principally  in  this  examination:  First,  that 
in  these  three  stations  the  dry  and  rainy  season  is  as  distinctly  marked 
as  in  Manila;  second,  that  in  the  dry  months  at  these  points  the  pre- 
cipitation of  water  is  much  less  than  in  Manila,  and  it  can  be  assumed 
that  the  precipitation  of  water  there  during  December,  January,  Feb- 
ruary, March,  and  April  amounts  to  almost  nothing. 

This  difference  is  attributable  to  the  position  which  the  capital  of 
the  archipelago  occupies  in  the  background  of  the  bay  of  Manila,  for 
which  reason  it  is  not  very  far  from  the  oriental  coast,  and  the  influ- 
ence of  the  currents  from  the  northeast — which  are  the  cause  of  the 
great  condensations  and  precipitations  of  water  observed  in  said  ori- 
ental coast  during  the  months  of  high  atmospheric  pressure — reaches 
them  with  greater  facility  than  the  other  stations  of  the  occidental 
coast. 

Concerning  the  epoch  of  the  humid  or  rainy  year,  the  monthly 
distribution  at  these  three  stations  which  we  are  considering  is  very 


P  C— VOL  4—01- 


-18 


Hosted  by 


Google 


212 


EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINB    COMMISSION. 


similar  to  that  of  Manila,  since  in  all  of  them  the  greatest  averages 
are  observed  in  the  months  of  July  and  September. 

Notwithstanding  this,  the  rainfalls  appear  to  be  more  abundant  in 
Bolinao  than  in  Vigan,  and  in  Vigan  more  than  in  Punta  Santiago,  and 
in  this  last  one  a  little  less  than  in  Manila. 

COMPLETE   STATEMENT  OF  RAINFALL   AT  THE  STATIONS  OF  BOLINAO  AND 
PUNTA   SANTIAGO — MONTHLY   AVERAGES. 

In  order  that  these  yearly  marches  of  rain  may  be  more  fully  under- 
stood as  regards  the  occidental  coast  of  Luzon,  we  give  in  Table  LXI 
and  LXII  two  complete  statements  of  the  quantity  of  water  collected 
in  both  stations  during  the  period  from  1886  to  1897. 

January  and  February  are  the  months  during  which  the  least  rain 
falls  in  Bolinao,  for,  in  the  twelve  years  comprised  in  these  tables,  dur- 
ing two  years  in  January  and  three  in  February  only  was  any  rain 
registered.  In  Punta  Santiago  the  month  during  which  the  least  rain 
falls  is  February,  in  which  during  the  period  under  consideration 
only  one  year  shows  that  any  water  was  registered  in  the  pluviome- 
ters of  this  station,  and  in  the  following  descending  order  are  the 
months  which  have  not  had  any  rain:  April,  March,  and  January,  in 
seven,  six,  and  three  years,  respectively. 

Table  LXI. — Quantity  of  water  reglMered  in  the  pluvioniders  of  Bolinao  during  the  period 

from  1886  to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1886 

Mm. 
13.9 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
1.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

Mm. 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.4 
8.0 
9.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

Mm. 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

22.0 

30.0 
0.0 

68.0 
0.0 
3.0 
0.0 

13.0 
0.0 

Mm. 
0.0 
29.0 

' '  "o.'o 
o!o 

8.0 

0.0 

35.0 

3.0 

12.0 

19.6 

Mm. 
119.0 

41.0 
102. 0 

25.0 
200.0 

20.0 
123.0 
449.0 

66.8 
197.0 

•••5.-8 

Mm. 
629.0 
111.0 
463.0 
140.0 
286.0 
751.0 
691.0 

Mm. 
464.2 
538.0 
392.0 
555.0 

Mm. 

498.5 

161.0 

422.0 

726.0 

Mm. 
708.0 
751. 0 

Mm. 
130. 5 
151.0 

Mm. 

0.0 

9.0 

0.0 

35.0 

'  '94."6 

9.0 

11.0 

38.0 

161.5 

0.0 

21.0 

Mm. 

16.4 
0.0 

21.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

40.0 
3.0 

13.0 
0.0 
0.0 
4.0 

Mm. 
2, 579. 5 

1887 

1888 

1, 791. 0 

1889 

262. 6 
547.  0 
793.0 
1, 008. 0 
637.0 
676.2 
442.8 
343.6 
255.0 

217.0 

177.0 

8.0 

188.0 

55.3 
668.6 
124.8 

1,982.0 

1890 

1891 

726.0 
649.0 

404.0 
288.0 
307.0 
326. 4 
1,334.4 
962.0 
3,^.0 

2, 796. 4 
8, 075. 0 

1892 

1893 

1894 

298.8 
199.3 
131.0 
507.0 

238.8 
812. 0 
902.0 
805.0 

1,897.0 

1895 

2, 705. 3 

1896 

1897 

2,092.2 

Average . . 

1.2 

1.5 

11.3 

10.1 

122.6 

382. 5 

558.2 

525.4 

584.0 

192.1 

34.4 

8.1 

2,364.8 

Tablb  LXII. — Quantity  of  water  collected  in  the  pluviometers  of  Punta  Santiago  during 
the  period  from  1886  to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1886..-.; 

mm. 
8.0 
8.0 
0.0 

17.0 
9.0 
6.0 
0.0 
4.0 
5.0 

13.0 
7.5 
0.0 

mm. 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
2.0 
0.0 
0.0 

mm. 
0.0 

20.0 
7.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 

15.0 
0.0 

15.0 
0.0 
5.0 
6.0 

mm. 

mm. 

mm. 

83.0 
181.0 
287.0 
151.0 
244.0 
195.0 

76.0 

15.0 
143.0 
554.0 
288.0 

25.5 

mm. 
191.0 
F,l.  5 
1,122.0 
108.0 
173.0 
726.0 

'  'i37.*6 
255.0 
276.0 
692.0 
209.1 

mm. 

118.9 

127.0 

367.0 

261.0 

81.0 

817.0 

10.0 

36.0 

105.0 

216.0 

887.0 

353.0 

mm. 
275.0 
421.0 
120.0 
123.0 
511.5 
132.0 
278.0 
306.0 
688.0 
498.0 
201. 0 
305.0 

mm. 
150.5 

68.0 

72.  (^ 

153.5 

336.0 

6.0 

11.0, 
133.0 
146.0 

44.0 
109.0 
220.0 

mm. 

'im'.b 

44.0 

269.0 

210.0 

75.0 

45.0 

103.0 

45.0 

160.5 

14.0 

45.5 

mm. 

31.6 

60.0 

101.0 

245.0 

2.0 

85.0 

0.0 

35.0 

27.0 

16.0 

mm. 

1887 

1888 

36.6 
0.0 
0.0 
8.0 
6.5 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
1.0 

117.5 

9.0 

0.0 

62.0 

0.0 

17.0 

100.0 

20.0 

345.0 

350.0 

78.0 

1,306.6 
2,129.0 
1,327.5 
1,636.5 
1,547.5 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

869.0 
1,449.0 
2,124.5 

1896 

1897 :.... 

30.0 

1,268.1 

Average . . . 

6.6 

0.2 

5.7 

4.6 

99.4 

186.9 

868.2 

239.9 

321.6 

120.8 

101.6 

57.6 

1,617.5 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


213 


Yearly  averages  of  these  two  stations, — Of  Bolinao,  2,364.8  mm.  and 
of  Punta  Santiago,  1,517.5  mm.  These  averages  differ  from  those  of 
Manila  as  follows:  448.2  mm.  and  399.2  mm.,  respectively. 

MONTHLY   DISTRIBUTION   OF   RAIN   ON   THE   ORIENTAL   COAST   OF   LUZON. 

The  monthly  distribution  of  rain  on  the  oriental  coast  of  Luzon  is 
very  different  from  the  above,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  monthly  averages 
of  Atimonan,  Daet,  and  Albay.  In  these  stations  it  is  impossible  to 
recognize  any  dry  and  rainy  season,  which  is  so  marked  in  the  occi- 
dental coast.  On  the  other  hand,  we  must  confess  that  the  rainfall  is 
very  abundant  during  all  the  months  of  the  year. 

In  the  months  of  high  pressure  the  reasons  given  in  the  first  para- 
graph apply  here  as  well,  and  in  other  months  the  rains  are  caused  by 
the  influence  of  atmospheric  perturbations  principally. 

The  maximum  averages  for  Albay  and  Daet  are  reached  in  Decem- 
ber, and  in  Atimonan  in  October,  November,  and  December.  The 
months  which  show  the  smallest  average  are  February,  April,  and 
May  for  Albay,  and  April,  June,  February,  and  May  for  Daet,  and 
February,  March,  and  April  for  Atimonan.  It  must  be  remembered 
that  the  averages  of  Daet  are  taken  from  only  two  years'  observations, 
and  those  of  Atimonan  from  three  years,  while  those  of  Albay  are 
the  result  of  six  years'  observations,  and  for  this  reason  we  give 
special  attention  to  the  latter. 

YEARLY   MARCH    OF   RAIN    IN    THE    STATION    OF   ALBAY. 

With  this  end  in  view  we  publish  in  Table  LXIII  the  statements  of 
rainfalls  in  this  station  during  the  period  from  1893  to  1897  and  com- 
prising the  year  1891. 

Table  LXlll. — Quantity  of  vjaier  collected  in  the  pluviometers  of  the  station  of  Albay  in 
the  year  1891  and  during  the  period  from  1893  to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

mm,. 

368.8 

140.1 

183. 5 

171.3 

480.5 

108.3 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1891 

1893 

mm. 
457.6 
191.5 
145.3 
221.8 
294.1 
90.7 

mm. 
99.5 
187.9 
261.7 
157.5 
184.7 
117.9 

mm. 
130.1 
358.9 
271.9 
321.1 
128.8 
163.0 

mm. 
166.9 
167.6 
154.5 
203.7 
172.6 
67.4 

mm. 

89.1 
179.4 
174.3 
164.0 
472.5 

50.3 

mm. 
232.6 
207.1 
365.2 
181.3 
223.1 
36.5 

mm. 
421.1 
270.0 

485.4 
179.8 
158.4 
80.3 

nmi. 
84.2 
217.0 
489.6 
485.0 
149.8 
373. 5 

mm. 
140.8 
173.1 
306.2 
328. 2 
91.6 
234.9 

mm.. 
478.9 
547.7 
343.2 
170.1 
113.6 
152.8 

mm. 

690.-6 

695.7 

469.0 

366.1 

236.7 

283.6 

mm. 
3,360.1 
3,336.0 
3,649.8 
2, 949. 9 
2,706.4 
1,761.2 

1894                     

1895 

1896  ... 

1897 

Average 

233.5 

168.2 

229.0 

155.4 

188.3 

207.6 

266.2 

242.1 

299.9 

212.5 

301.1 

457.0 

2,960.6 

As  shown  by  this  table,  the  yearly  minimums  of  Albay  are  distrib- 
uted over  the  following  six  months:  September,  August,  January, 
February,  November,  and  June.  The  yearly  maximums  are  distrib- 
uted as  follows:  Two  in  the  months  of  December,  three  in  September, 
and  one  in  August.  The  yearly  average  is  2,960.6  mm. ,  which  exceeds 
the  3^early  average  of  Manila  by  1,044  mm. 

MONTHLY   DISTRIBUTION  OF  RAINFALL  IN  THE   NORTH   COAST   OF  LUZON. 

In  the  stations  situated  as  Aparri  is,  on  the  northern  coast t)f  Luzon, 
the  yearly  distribution  of  rainfall  is  very  similar  to  what  we  have  just 
stated  in  regard  to  the  oriental  coast,  at  least  in  regard  to  the  months  of 


Hosted  by 


Google 


214 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


August-January.  During  the  rest  of  the  3^ear,  February- July,  the 
precipitation  of  water  is  less  abundant  and  the  months  are  similar  to 
those  of  some  months  which  we  have  included  in  the  so-called  dry  sea- 
son of  Manila. 


MONTHLY   DISTRIBUTION   OF   RAIN   IN   THE    INTERIOR   OF   LUZON. 

Concerning  the  yearly  march  of  rainfall  in  the  interior  of  Luzon, 
we  may  say  in  general  that  it  is  more  or  less  similar  to  that  of  Manila 
and  the  occidental  coast  or  to  the  villages  on  the  oriental  coast  which 
are  far  from  the  said  coasts.  So,  as  seen  in  Table  LX,  in  Fayabas, 
which  is  quite  near  the  oriental  coast,  the  distribution  of  rain  is  small, 
as  observed  in  Albay,  Daet,  and  Atimonan,  though  there  is  more  rain 
in  the  last-mentioned  one,  and  yet  we  may  say  that  the  dry  and  rainy 
season  is  divided  into  the  period  from  February  to  August,  for  the 
first,  and  September  to  January  for  the  second. 

It  appears  that  in  Fuguegarao  the  quantity  of  rain  which  falls  dur- 
ing the  year  is  much  less  than  at  other  points  in  the  interior  of  Luzon, 
although  we  were  able  to  utilize  the  observations  of  two  years  for  this 
study.  It  is  impossible  to  give  the  montlily  averages  of  this  station 
any  other  value  than  a  provisional  one,  for  which  reason  we  do  not 
enter  into  any  more  details  concerning  the  relation  of  these  averages. 

COMPLETE  STATEMENT  EROM  THE  STATION  OF  SAN   ISIDRO  (nUEVA  ECIJA). 

In  San  Isido  it  will  be  seen  by  the  monthly  averages  we  give  in 
Table  LX,  and  by  the  statements  which  have  gone  before  in  Table 
LXIV,  which  comprise  the  pluviometric  observations  of  this  station 
from  1888  to  1897,  the  yearly  march  of  rain  is  very  similar  to  that  of 
Manila,  with  the  exception  that  the  average  for  the  month  of  May  is 
greater  than  in  this  station.  We  believe  in  general  that  the  same 
averages  would  be  even  more  similar  to  those  of  Manila  if  the  number  of 
years  of  observation  were  greater.  The  yearl}^  average  of  1,815.2  mm. 
differs  from  the  yearly  average  of  Manila  by  only  65.4  mm. 

Table  LXIV. — Quantity  of  VMter  collected  in  the  pluviometers  of  the  station  of  San  Isidro 
during  the  period  from  1888  to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1888 

mm. 
0 
115 

7 
6 
0 

0 
0 
3 

mm. 

0 

0 
13 

0 

2 
11 
30 

2 

6 

1 

mm. 
90.5 
19 
20 

2 

8 

0 

2 

0 

7 
40 

mm. 
29 
20 
59 

6 

2 
65 

2 

0 

0 
50 

mm. 
224 

64 
208 

64 

"438"' 
86 
437 
156 
214 

mm. 

261 

156 

164 

418 

145 

131 

219 

274 

77 

82 

mm. 
424. 1 
187 
193 
400 
76.8 
359 
572 
293 
495 
394 

mm. 

265 

218 

192 

441 

"i56'7 
241 
367 
474 
191 

mm. 
224 
308 
782 
406 
53.6 
420.2 
444 
431 

"i85"' 

mm. 
162 

228 
251.5 

82 

"i77."5 
214 
83 
191 
123 

mm. 

62 
172 

91 
237 

91 
121. 2 

54 

68 

""22"' 

mm. 

68 

181 

7 

74 
9 
4 
27 
1 
0 
145 

mm. 
1, 809. 6 

1889 

1,668.0 

1890 

1, 987. 5 

1891 

2, 136. 0 

1892 

1893 

1, 883. 6 

1894 

1,919.0 

1895 

1, 956. 0 

1896.       

1897 

1, 450. 0 

Average  — 

15.9 

6.5 

18.9 

23.3 

210.1 

192.7 

339.4 

282.9 

361.5 

168.0 

102.0 

51.6 

1,851.2 

CONCLUSION — THE   YEAELY   VARIATION  OF   RAIN   IS   VERY   DIFFERENT  IN 
THE   VARIOUS   PARTS   OF  LUZON. 

From  what  we  have  said*  in  this  paragraph  it  is  evident  how  great 
is  the  yearly  variation  of  rain  in  the  various  parts  of  Luzon,  and  how 
correct  what  we  said  in  the  beginning  concerning  the  so-called  rainy 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PLATE  X 


Monthly  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Phihppine  Archipelago 

Longitude  E . o f  Greenwicli 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PLATE 


Monthly  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PI^TK 


~T 


fA 


d 


^ 


Mindanao 


b 


Monthly  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Monllily  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 

Longitude  E.of  Greeimdch 


Hosted  by 


Google 


.  "*??*  «'« .^v, 


0 


0 


'^^^amar) 


r^ /,  1) 


^^-\i: 


Monthly  distribution  of  rain  in  tlie  Philippine  Archipelago 

L  ongitiide  PI  o  f  G  i  -e  enwich 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Monthly  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 

Longitude  E.of  Greenwicli 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PLATE 


JUNE  OCTOBER 


('824f    BA^M 

"     mo 


J2- 


-^ 


Semi-annual  distribution  of  rain  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago 

Longitude  E.of  Greenwich 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPIKE    COMMISSION. 


215 


and  dry  season.  This,  however,  can  be  applied  only  to  the  occidental 
coasts,  and  partly,  but  not  in  a  uniform  manner,  to  the  stations  ot 
the  center  of  Luzon. 

MAPS   OF   THE   MONTHLY   AND    HALF-YEARLY    DISTRIBUTION   OF   RAIN   IN 
THE   PHILIPPINE   ARCHIPELAGO. 

That  the  monthly  and  half-yearly  distributions  of  rain  may  be  the 
more  readily  seen  in  the  different  stations  which  we  have  selected 
for  this  study  of  the  island  of  Luzon,  and  those  which  we  shall  here- 
after select  from  the  other  islands,  we  give  in  the  seven  accompanying 
engravings  the  monthly  and  half-yearly  averages  of  rain  in  the  clitter- 
ent  points  of  the  archipelago. 

X -DAILY  MAXIMUM  RAINFALL  IN  THE  DIFFERENT  POINTS  OF 

LUZON. 

OBJECT  OF  THE  FOLLOWING  TABLES. 

In  this  paragraph  we  will  give  year  by  year  and  month  by  month 
the  maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  the  interval  of  ^ne  day  in  the 
stations  of  Bolinao,  Punta  Santiago^  San  Isidro,  and  Albay.  ihis 
will  be  the  object  of  Tables  LXV,  LXVI,  LXVII,  and  LXVIIL  In 
Table  LXIX  will  appear  the  daily  maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  eacJi 
month  of  the  year  in  the  said  four  stations,  and  in  several  other  parts 
of  the  island  of  Luzon. 

Table  I.ILY.— Daily  maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  the  station  of  Bolinao  in  each  one  of 
the  months  during  1886  to  1897. 


1886. 
1887  - 
1888. 
1889. 
1890. 
1891. 
1992. 
1893. 
1894. 
1895. 
1896. 
1897. 


Year. 


January. 


10.  f 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
1 
0 
0 
0 
0 


(19) 


(11) 


1880 
1887 
1888 
1889 
1890 
1891 
1892 
1893 
1894 
1895 
1896 
1897 


July. 


56  (16) 
117  (20) 
150  (14) 
115  (16) 

95  (18) 
143  (19) 
128  (24) 
217  (18) 

74  (1) 
105  (27) 
200  (18) 
158  (28) 


bruary. 

March. 

April. 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

23     (3) 

0 
0 

0 

22  (19) 

6 

0 

30  (25) 

9  (30) 

0.4  (18) 

0 

0 

8        (4) 

34     (3) 

2     (4) 

6        (9) 

0 

0 

0 

2  (28) 

32     (1) 

0 

0 

3  (26) 

0 

10  (12) 

8  (28) 

0 

0 

12  (18) 

August. 


117.5  (27) 

80   (13) 

170   (3) 

125   (23) 

23  (7,23) 

53    (8) 

71   (30) 

59   (7) 

48.6  (10) 

226   (25) 

340   (30) 

42   (11) 


September. 


75   (17) 
135   (20) 


75  (10) 
-"■  (12) 
(8) 
(8) 
(9) 
(18) 


202 

101 

158 
91 

116 
95.2  (22) 
95.6  (20) 
72   (16) 


October. 


6 
102 


(13) 

(1) 

(19) 

(29) 


82   (4) 

23   (15) 

190   (12) 

38. 5  (3) 


50  (15) 
25  (19) 
35  (28) 
25  (14) 
77  (26) 
20  (11) 
49  (22) 
IW)  (27) 
16  (1) 
84  (24) 


5  (29) 


June. 


158  (15) 

19  (30)  , 

150  (16) 

40  (29) 

104  (5) 

155  (15) 

136  (10) 

31  (20) 

58  (29) 

70  (25) 

37  (8) 

116  (23) 


November.     December. 


0 
35 


(9) 
(1) 


78      (17) 
3  (12,22^ 
9       (24) 

23      (18) 

95.1    (3) 
0 

20      (10) 


6  (20,23) 
0 


21 
0 
0 
0 

40 
2 
8 
0 
0 


(22) 


(26 

(24 
(4) 


(17) 


Hoste(d  by 


Google 


216  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPII^E    COMMISSION. 

Table  LXVI. — Daily  maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  the  station  of  Punta  Santiago  dur- 
ing each  month  of  the  years  from  1886  to  1897. 


Year. 

January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

1886 

4  (17) 

5  (1) 
0 

8  (14) 

6  (16) 
5     (6) 
0 

4  (2) 

5  (1 

7  (6) 
3     (1) 
0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

0 

2     (7) 

0 

0 

0 

14  (28) 
7(22) 

0 
0 

13  (25) 
0 

15  (23) 

0 

5     (5) 

25    (1) 

85  (5) 
70  (29) 
70  (29) 

1887 

30        (2) 
0 
0 

8       (28) 
5.5    (9) 

0 
0 
0 
0 

1      (13) 

73          (7J 
7        (14) 
0 

40          (1) 
0 

11        (22) 
75          (6) 
10  (10,28) 
136        (11) 
62          (9) 
25        (20) 

1888 

1889 

1890 

126  (28) 
55  (13) 
31  (9) 
15  (8) 
80  (28) 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

175  (27) 

1896 

158  (6) 
16  (13) 

1897 

Year. 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

1886 

74  (24) 
90        (20) 

179.5  (28 
19  (5) 
35  (10,21) 

197  (26) 
40  (18) 
29  (30) 
47  (19) 
70  (27) 
as  (23) 
63        (26) 

70     (29) 

40  (2) 
104      (3) 

62      (5) 
20  (1,8) 
52     (30) 
7      {%) 
25     (28) 
25     (31) 

41  (6) 
220       (2) 

86       (9) 

60  (21) 
90  (20) 
48  (8) 
20      (14) 

115.5  (29) 
86  (3) 
64  (5) 
92       (26) 

262      (17) 

104  (2) 
75        (8) 

116       (14) 

47  (15) 
25    (2) 
85    (4) 
80  (29) 
135  (17) 
4  (14) 

25  (29) 
46  (17) 

"   "23"'"(9r 
15      (16) 
123        (4J 
127       (11) 
30      (28) 
35      (12) 
70       (22) 
10       (22) 
76        (5) 
3       (22) 
17.5  (15) 

8  (21) 

1887 

32  (12) 

1888 

65    (6) 
87    (3) 

2  (23) 
40  (23) 

0 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

35  (27) 

1894 

10    (2) 
3  (25) 

1895 

1896 

1897 

10  (23) 

Table  LXVII. — Daily  maximum  rainfalls  observed  at  the  station  of  San  Isidro  for  each 

month  from  1888  to  1897. 


Year. 

January. 

February. 

March, 

April. 

May. 

June. 

1888 

0 

76     (8) 
3  (14) 
3     (5) 
0 
0 

28  (14) 

0 

2  (22) 

0 
0 

13      (8) 
0 

1  (4,5) 
7      (6) 

17      (4) 

2  (7) 
6     (15) 
1     (11) 

57        (23) 
15        (20) 
10          (5) 

1  (14,29) 

I     <'> 

2  (» 

6        (31) 
30        (21) 

19  (30) 

20  (30) 

88  (24) 
9A  (1?.\ 

52  (16) 
66  (20) 
35    (3) 
65  (12) 
46  (27) 
25  (26) 
54  (29) 
68  (27) 
28    (7) 
18  (22) 

1889 

1890 

24    (5)  i            46  \3) 
3  (12)  i            28  (22^ 

1891 

1892 

2     (4) 

48  (15) 

2     (2) 

0 

20  (21) 

1893 

69  (28) 
15  (24) 
97  (14) 
30  (23) 
80    (5) 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

Year. 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October, 

November. 

December. 

1888 

80        (14) 

42  (16 
40        (17) 
58        (22) 
17          (9) 
80  (14,17) 

140          (7) 
100        (16) 
95        (29) 

43  (25,26) 

33  (21) 
21  (22) 
38     (4) 
67  (11) 
45  (26) 
48  (18) 
73    14) 
78  (14) 
64    (3 
40  (18) 

56  (12) 

66    (1 

385  (30) 

93  (28) 

12  (13) 

76    (5 

100  (18) 

142  (17) 

47  (10) 
87  (19) 
50  (18 
38  (24 
47    (7 
120    (1) 
63     (8) 
21     (3) 
80  (10) 
65    (2) 

23        (17) 

59  (6 

60  (12 
65  (17,29 
63        (13) 
41        (23) 
25        (19) 
16          (2 

I    it! 

28  (19) 

52     (4) 

7  (28) 

28  (27) 

l&\ 

16    (3) 
1(24) 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894  . 

1895 

1896  . . 

1897 

39  (15) 

50  (22) 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


217 


Table  LXVIII. — Daily  maximum  rainfalls  observed  in  the  station  of  Alhay  during  each 
one  of  the  months  of  the  year  1891^  and  during  the  period  from  1893  to  1897. 


Year. 

January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

1891 

124.2  (13) 
40      (21) 
46.6    15) 
66.5    (4) 
70        (3) 
23. 4    (1) 

46.8  (22) 
77.5  (20) 
54.3  (11) 
34.8  (22) 
70  (7) 
31        (7) 

45      (27) 
150      (17) 
68.3  (12) 
88.8    (7) 
20.5    (1) 
42.7  (15) 

27.2  (22) 
42.5    (9) 
33.5    (4) 
59.7     (2) 

49.5  (21) 

18.6  (14) 

19.5  (25) 

49.6  (13) 
39.1  (20) 
48.1  (10) 

179.1    (5) 
12.4  (10) 

35. 1    (3) 

1893                     

32. 7    (8) 

1894 

84.2  (26) 

1895 .                     

44. 1    (9) 

1896 

30      (27) 

1897                

20. 2    (9) 

Year. 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

1891 

115      (25) 
87.3  (24) 
99.6  (19) 
47.2  (23) 
27        (4) 
29.8  (26) 

67.9  (16) 

43.5  (3) 
45  (21) 
40.9  (30) 

86.6  (1) 
25.9    (3) 

24.6  (16) 
38.6  (30) 
106.5  (27) 
74      (16) 
27.3    (4) 
92.8  (12) 

34.5  (18) 
44.5  (28 
67.7    (3) 
87.5    (9) 
22.5  (14) 
59.3  (17) 

198.9  (13) 
168.7  (16) 
61.3  (23) 
76.7    (7) 
46.5  (24) 
25. 1     (4) 

157.5  (23) 
179      (15) 

1893         

1894 

95.9    (9) 

1895           

124      (31) 

1896 

65.3  (25) 

1897 

50.4    (4) 

Hosted  by 


Google 


218 


EEPORT   Oir   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


^ 


^ 

e 


g^ 


1^ 


'l^ 


i 


^ 


£  c;  fl 

goo 

>H  o 


ft 


O  (M  C^  C-J  CO  'X> 


(M  05        tOTt< 

lO  00  .05 

00        COOO 


S     S  CO  c 


C<l  rH 


(M  ,-H 


8^ 

(MOO 


OO  (MOO  lOiO  rHI> 

^  05  CO  00  .05  CO     OS 

-100  rHOO  I>00  tHOO 

r-l  iH  OOrH  tH 


OCO  Ttf-t 
!M  05  t^CT) 
iHOO         rHOO 


O^O        (Mtj< 

O  OT        CD05 
iMOO        (MOO 


COOD        rHOO 


00^        C5<35 

COOO         rH  00 


00  CO 
(MOO 
COOO 


O  CO  lO  CO 
(MOi  t^05 
iMOO         tH  00        Tf 


00  I>   CO  CO   o  t^  C^ 


O  lO  l^  CO  t>  iH 
O  05  I— t  05  Oi  1^ 
(M  00    (M  (XI    rHOO 


iC  rH 
1HC35 

rHOO 


Tt<05  ^C 


LOrH 

.^^ 

r-  05 

^^ 

i0  1> 

(M^ 

CO 

.o 

00  lO 

'^S^ 

^ 

rHGO 

rHOO 

SS 

lO 

s 

2 

>ooo 

<M 

lO 

t^ 

05 

lO 

^ 

iM 

(M 

CM 

(M 

CM 

rHOO 

coco 

^S 

1^ 

tjh'oO 

'IS 
Ol  00 

^ 

^g 

§§? 

Tj^" 

t^ 

""i. 

S'l 

'"1 

^. 

^^ 

lO  <X)       t-iO 


?S       'c2S        SS 
CM  oT  cm" 


^s^ 


lO  (35        lO     05 


lO  CD      aooi 


5^  ^s  ^  s 


a 

-I 


t*';3fl^.Hx!^  cH>> 


03  -43  ^ 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOliT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


219 


STATIONS   IN   WHICH   THE   MOST   ABUNDANT   RAINS   HAVE   FALLEN. 

From  all  these  tables  can  be  deduced  the  fact  that  the  most  abun- 
dant rains  have  been  observed  principally  in  the  stations  situated  on 
the  occidental  coasts.  Of  all  the  stations  included  in  Table  LXIX, 
San  Isidro  shows  the  greatest  maximum  rainfall — 385  mm.  This  was 
observed  on  September  13,  1890.  Next  in  order  is  Bolinao,  with 
340  mm.,  on  August  30,  1896,  and  then  Vigan,  with  328  mm.,  on 
August  10,  1888. 

XI.— MONTHLY  DISTRIBUTION  OF   DAYS  OF  RAIN  IN  THE   ISLAND  OF 

LUZON. 

MONTHLY  AVERAGE   DAYS   OF  RAIN   IN   THE   DIFFERENT   POINTS   OF    THE 

ISLAND   OF   LUZON. 

In  Tables  LXX,  LXXI,  LXXII,  and  LXXIII,  following  the  same 
order  of  the  previous  paragraph,  we  publish  the  statements  of  the  days 
of  rain  at  the  stations  of  Cabo  Bolinao,  Punta  Santiago,  San  Isidro, 
and  Albay.  In  Table  LXXIV  we  give  the  united  monthly  average 
days  of  rain  corresponding  to  these  and  several  other  stations  in  the 
island  of  Luzon.  The  relation  which  is  observed  between  them  is 
very  similar  to  that  observed  before  in  the  monthly  averages  of  rainfall 
collected  in  the  same  stations,  and  as  much  as  has  been  said  on  this 
point  can  easily  be  applied  to  the  average  number  of  days  of  the  month 
and  yearly  rainfall,  and  which  is  the  object  of  the  following  tables: 

Table  LXX. — Days  of  rainfall  m  the  station  of  Cabo  Bolinao  during  the  period  from 

1886  to  1897. 


1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

Average 


Feb.    Mar.    Apr.    May.  June.  July.   Aug.   Sept.    Oct.    Nov.    Dec.    Total 


0.4 


18.1 


17.5 


7.5 


103 
67 


76 
86 
92 
102 


108 

78 
84 
80 


87.7 


Table  LXXI.- 


of  rainfall  in  the  station  of  Punta  Santiago  during  the  period  from 
1886  to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1886 

3 
2 
0 
4 
2 
2 
0 
1 
1 
6 
3 
0 

0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 
1 
0 
0 

0 
3 
1 
0 
0 
0 
2 
0 
1 
0 
0 
2 

3 
4 
0 
0 
1 
1 
0 
0 
0 
0 
0 

1 

2 
10 
2 
0 
4 
0 
2 
4 
2 

12 
17 
9 

10 
6 
9 

12 
9 

10 
4 
1 
4 

15 

12 
6 

12 
9 

23 
14 
11 
15 
8 
8 
18 
19 
21 
16 

7 

12 
10 
17 

6 
13 

2 

4 
14 
19 
27 
16 

17 
21 
10 
12 
18 
7 

10 
11 
17 
23 
14 
13 

14 
12 
9 
8 
19 
2 
2 
5 
9 
7 
15 
12 

""i'i" 

5 
11 
5 
6 
2 
5 
15 
9 
7 
6 

8 
5 
3 

11 
1 
4 
0 
1 
7 

10 

1887  . . 

96 

1888 

72 

1889.   .  . 

89 

1890 

76 

1891 

60 

1892 

32 

1893 

40 

1894 

88 

1895 

121 

18% 

1897 

6 

87 

Average 

2.0 

0.1 

0.8 

0.8 

5,3 

8.2 

14.5 

12.3 

14.4 

9.5 

7.5 

5.1 

76.1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


220 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXII. — Days  of  rainfall  in  the  station  of  San  Isidro  during  the  period  from  1888 

to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1888 

0 
6 
3 
3 
0 
0 
1 
0 
0 
2 

0 
0 
1 
0 
2 
2 
3 
1 
1 
1 

4 
3 
3 

2 
1 
0 
1 
0 
2 
2 

3 
1 
6 
3 
1 
6 
1 
0 
0 
4 

9 
8 
18 
7 
5 
16 
15 
18 
15 
9 

19 
16 
13 
20 
8 
12 
15 
13 
11 
11 

27 
18 
18 
21 
17 
17 
24 
14 
23 
19 

21 
21 
15 

27 
12 
19 

17 
21 

27 
18 

22 
21 
24 
24 
13 
24 
19 
27 

""i2' 

13 
19 
16 
4 
8 
9 
9 
11 
14 
10 

8 
12 
6 
9 
5 
6 
5 
11 
1 

6 

11 
1 

11 
4 
1 
3 
1 
0 
8 

132 

1889  

136 

1890 

124 

1891          

131 

1892 

76 

1893 

112 

1894 

113 

1895 

117 

1896 

1897 

Average 

1.5 

1.1 

1.8 

2.5 

12.0 

13.8 

19.8 

19,8 

20.7 

11.3 

7.0 

4.6 

117.6 

Table  LXXIII. — Days  of  rainfall  in  the  station  of  Albay  in  each  one  of  the  months  of  the 
year  1891  j  and  during  the  period  from  1893  to  1897. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1891     

25 
21 

18 
20 
24 
20 

9 
18 
19 
14 
15 
16 

14 
16 
16 
19 
19 
14 

13 
13 
17 
13 
13 
13 

10 
13 
13 
15 
23 
16 

19 
20 
21 
19 
19 
9 

25 
15 
24 
16 
21 
17 

24 
22 
21 
16 
23 
23 

8 
21 
24 
23 
16 
23 

13 
16 
20 
15 
13 
16 

17 
23 
21 
14 
17 
19 

30 
25 
27 
19 
24 
24 

207 

1893 

223 

1894 

241 

1895 

203 

1896 

227 

1897 

210 

Average 

2L3 

15.2 

16.3 

13.7 

15.0 

17.8 

19.7 

2L5 

19.2 

15.5 

18.5 

24.8 

218.5 

Table  LXXIV.- 


-Monthly  averages  of  the  days  of  rainfall  in  the  different  stations  of 
Luzon. 


Station. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Years 

of 
obser- 
vation. 

Vigan 

0.2 
0.3 
2.0 
2L5 
16.7 
21.3 

n.7 

2.0 

L5 

10.4 

0 

0.4 
0.1 
11.5 
10.3 
15.2 
6.1 
1.0 
LI 
7.7 

0.2 
0.8 
0.8 

18.0 
7.7 

16.3 
5.7 
4.0 
L8 
8,1 

0.7 
L4 
0.8 
9.5 
6.7 
13.7 
3.2 
3.5 
2.5 
5.5 

2.9 

6.9 

5.3 

12.5 

10.3 

15.0 

5.4 

5.0 

12.0 

9.9 

10.0 
14.1 

8.2 

n.5 

13.3 
17.8 
5.3 
14.0 
13.8 
13.0 

13.8 
17.0 
14.5 
15.0 
18.3 
19.7 
7.5 
16.5 
19.8 
12.7 

13.9 
18.1 
12.3 
17.5 
15.0 
2Lo 
10.5 
10.0 
19.8 
12.6 

15.8 
17.5 
14.4 
14.0 
12.0 
19.2 
12.3 
14.0 
20.7 
15.0 

5.0 
7.5 
9.5 
21.0 
22.0 
15.5 
11.4 
15.5 

n.3 

15.0 

L9 

2.6 

7,5 

19.0 

22.3 

18.5 

14.6 

8.5 

7.0 

14.1 

0.1 
1.0 
5.1 
24.0 
21.0 
24.8 
16.3 
14.5 
4.6 
18.7 

10 

Bolinao 

12 

Santiago 

12 

Ddet 

2 

Atimonan 

Albay  

3 
6 

Aparri 

9 

Fuguegarao 

San  Ysidro 

Fayabas 

2 
10 

7 

XII.— MONTHLY  DISTRIBUTION  OF  RAIN  AND  DAYS  OF  RAIN  IN  OTHER 
POINTS  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ARCHIPELAGO. 

STATISTICS   OF   RAIN   AT   THE   MODEL   FARM    "  LA   CARLOTA." 

At  the  beginning  of  Paragrapti  IX  we  indicated  that  outside  of  the 
island  of  Luzon  there  were  very  few  pluviometric  observations  which 
we  could  obtain,  these  stations  not  yet  having  been  established  in  the 
other  islands  of  the  archipelago,  and  no  official  meteorologic  stations  at 
which  data  could  be  obtained.  The  most  complete  statistics  which  we 
could  find  in  the  registers  of  this  observatory  are  those  of  the  model 
farm  La  Carlota  (Occidental  Negros),  which  embrace  the  period  of 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


221 


ten  years  from  1889  to  1898,  which  statistics  are  given  in  the  following 
table: 

Table  LXXV. — Quantity  of  water  collected  in  the  pluviometer  of  La  Corlota  during  the 

period  from  1889  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

8.5 
48.2 
61.4 
62.9 
50.5 
14.5 
47.0 
20.5 
113. 0 

Apr. 

3.0 
292. 9 
30.3 
104.9 
20.0 
182. 8 
37.0 
43.5 
69.0 

May. 

44.4 
201.0 
101.7 
180.9 
477.0 
203. 0 
262. 0 
372.0 
222. 0 

June. 

287.5 

259. 7 
175.9 

346. 8 
409.0 
267. 5 
415.0 
230. 4 
351.0 
211.0 

July. 

369.5 
449.0 

584.5 
252.6 
282. 5 
114.9 
347. 5 
607.0 
221.0 
■  287. 0 

Aug. 

Sept. 

317.9 
511.6 
290. 8 
454.8 
379.0 
623.4 
313.0 
234.0 
412. 0 
244.0 

Oct. 

370. 8 
400.0 
254.2 
887.8 
287.6 
167.0 
106.6 
339. 5 
344.6 
289.0 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1889 

10.1 
101.6 
179.9 
28.8 
10.4 
33.5 
135. 5 
6.0 
31.5 
52.0 

25.9 
141.7 
60.4 
14.5 
144.5 
12.0 
82.6 
19.0 
0.0 
40.0 

857.0 
402.9 
588.0 
333. 4 
275.0 
232. 0 
336.9 
547.0 
335.0 
377.0 

368.4 
202.2 
245.4 
208.4 
182.5 
146.0 
148.4 
47.5 
242.0 

262,  9 

13.0 

225.9 

188.7 

222.4 

83.0 

38.0 

9.0 

103.0 

2,425.9 

1890 

3, 023. 8 

1891 

2,798.4 

1892 

3,064.5 

1893 

2, 740. 4 

1894 

2,079.6 

1895 

2, 269. 6 

1896 

2, 475. 4 

1897. 

2, 444. 1 

1898 

Average 

58.9 

54.1 

47.4!     87.0 

229. 3 

295. 4 

351. 6 

378.4!  378.1 

1 

344.7 

199.0 

127.3 

2,591.3 

Table  LXXVI.^/>a//,s'  of  rain  In  the  agricultural  station  of  La  Corlota  during  the  period 

from  1889  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

4 

16 
43 

6 
2 

5 
9 

3 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

6 
23 

6 

14 
14 
16 
43 
15 
17 

June. 

July. 

24 
22 
22 
22 
24 
46 
16 
22 
16 
24 

Aug. 

20 
49 
27 
23 
24 
47 
48 
22 
20 
47 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1889 

2 

8 
2 

s 

6 
2 
5 
3 

5 

4 

3 
3 
6 
4 
% 
5 
4 
3 

1 
43 
6 
8 
2 

13 
4 
6 
6 

26 
18 
17 
18 
27 
16 
20 
19 
13 
45 

22 
22 
18 
19 
21 
24 
47 
44 
49 
48 

25 
20 
16 
23 
14 
17 
42 
45 
47 
22 

17 
10 
21 
20 
45 
40 
40 
5 
45 

19 
2 
12 
15 
14 
9 
4 
2 
42 

467 

1890 

176 

1891 

163 

1892 

177 

1893 

158 

1894 

145 

1895 

133 

1896 

129 

1897 

441 

1898 

Average 

6.5 

;>.  6 

3.9 

6.6 

13.  8 

48.9 

49.9 

20.4 

49.4 

48.1 

43. 7 

9.6 

154.3 

From  Table  LXXV  it  can  be  understood  that  the  distribution  of 
water  in  I^a  Corlota  during  the  months  from  June  to  September  is  very 
similar  to  that  of  Manila;  also  in  the  matter  of  monthly  averages  and 
in  the  relation  of  some  months  to  others,  but  is  different  during  the 
period  from  October  to  May,  in  which  the  precipitation  of  water  is 
much  more  abundant  than  in  Manila,  but,  notwithstanding  the  dry  sea- 
son covering  the  period  from  December  to  April,  both  months  inclu- 
sive, can  be  easily  distinguished.  The  yearly  average  is  2,691.3  mm. 
and  is  higher  than  the  yearly  average  in  Manila  of  674.7  mm. 

PI.UVIOMETRIO    DATA    OF   OTHER   POINTS — VISAYAS  AND   MINDANAO. 

The  data  which  we  have  in  hand  from  other  points  generally  cover 
only  two  years;  although  those  of  Iloilo,  Cebu,  and  Jolo  cover  longer 
periods,  still  they  are  considered  deficient  and  incomplete  in  some 
months.  For  this  reason,  we  have  simply  given  the  average  quantity 
and  days  of  rain  in  eight  stations  situated  in  different  points  of  the 
islands  south  of  Luzon,  whose  names  and  the  periods  of  observation 
can  be  seen  in  the  same  tables. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


222 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXVII. — Monthly  average  quantity  of  rain  in  the  different  points,  Visayas  and 

Mindanao. 


Station. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Years 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tion. 

Mamburao 

Zamboanga 

Jolo 

3.2 
41.2 
103.1 
23.5 
91.6 
61.4 
283.5 
682.5 

2.3 
27.0 
45.6 
24.1 
52.1 
50.3 
124.8 
403.6 

9.4 
58.5 
44.2 
29.3 
64.0 

128.0 
71.0 

624.4 

29.9 
21.8 
88.3 
34.5 
21.2 
82.8 
161.7 
356.3 

271.8 
86.6 
243.3 
222.9 
102.6 
191.2 
123.8 
217.4 

595.0 
162.4 
144.8 
174.2 
191.4 
312.3 
197.9 
164.3 

327.0 
94.1 
145.9 
367.8 
160.8 
224.8 
247.6 
217.1 

997.1 
39.1 
117.8 
238.8 
165.8 
200.6 
160.7 
123.7 

485.4 
73.6 
149.5 
272.0 
165.2 
293.8 
159.5 
187.5 

323.3 
95.6 
163.9 
220.1 
169.4 
136.5 
234.8 
198.3 

48.2 
74.6 
127.8 
126.0 
116.3 
151.2 
66.6 
284.1 

23.7 

ni.6 

160.2 
63.1 

171.7 
76.7 

208.5 

966.0 

2 
2 
5 

Iloilo 

4 

Cebu 

6 

Tamontaca 

Davao 

Tandag 

2 
2 
2 

Table  LXXVIII.- 


-Monthly  average  days  of  rain  in  the  different  points  of  Visayas  and 
Mindanao. 


Station. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Years 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tion. 

Mamburao 

Zamboanga 

Jolo 

2.5 
11.0 

5.5 

3.3 
11.0 

6.0 
17.5 
27.5 

3.0 

7.0 

2.5 

3.8 

11.2 

5.0 

10.0 

22.0 

4.0 
9.0 
3.7 
5.3 
10.8 
9.0 
14.5 
23.0 

5.0 
5.0 
4.5 
6.8 
6.6 
8.0 
13.0 
23.6 

13.0 
10.0 
13.0 
11.5 
10.2 
11.3 
17.0 
15.0 

22.0 
12.5 
10.3 
17.8 
16.8 
13.0 
18.0 
15.5 

26.5 
12.5 
11.7 
18.3 
16.0 
16.5 
19.0 
14.5 

24.5 
9.0 
9.0 
22.0 
15.8 
12.0 
17.0 
12.5 

20.5 
10.0 
9.0 
20.0 
14.4 
13.0 
14.0 
10.0 

17.0 
13.0 
13.0 
16.7 
15.0 
9.5 
19.0 
12.5 

4.6 
11.0 

8.7 
13.8 
14.2 
10.5 
15.0 
19.0 

6.0 
11.0 
10.3 
13.3 
19.0 

7.5 
13.0 
28.0 

2 
2 
5 

Yloilo 

4 

Cebii 

6 

Tamontaca 

Ddvao  

2 
2 

Tandag 

2 

YEARLY   MARCH    OF   RAIN    ON    THE    OCCIDENTAL    COAST    OF   MINDORO. 


Taking  these  tables  as  a  basis,  we  will  say  a  few  words  about  the 
yearly  march  of  rain  in  the  islands  south  of  Luzon.  First  of  all  it  can 
be  seen  by  the  observations  of  Manburao,  a  village  situated  west  of 
Mindoroand,  that  the  two  seasons — dry  and  rainy — are  easily  distin- 
guished, as  in  the  case  of  the  occidental  coasts  of  Luzon,  and  that  the 
precipitation  of  water  is  very  insignificant  from  December  to  April, 
and  very  abundant  from  June  to  October.  Only  in  the  month  of 
August,  1898,  do  we  see  collected  1,295.5  mm.  of  water,  which,  united 
with  the  average  for  this  month  in  1897,  698.6  mm.,  gives  us  an  aver- 
age of  997.1  mm. ,  an  extraordinary  average,  and  which  would  undoubt- 
edly have  been  less  if  the  number  of  years  had  been  extended. 


MONTHLY   DISTRIBUTION   OF   RAIN   IN   ZAMBOANGA   AND  JOLO. 

We  can  learn  but  little  from  the  averages  of  Zamboanga,  as  deducted 
from  only  two  years  of  observation,  in  which  two  months  were  incom- 
plete, for  the  study  of  distribution  of  rain  in  this  region.  Of  greater 
value  are  the  averages  of  Jolo,  which  have  been  deducted  from  a  period 
of  five  years,  and  if  it  is  true  that  some  of  them  are  incomplete  in  some 
months,  it  is  equally  true  that  no  average  is  shown,  which  have  been 
the  result  of  at  least  three  years  of  observation.  As  appears  from 
these  averages,  the  rainfalls  there  are  less  abundant  than  in  Manila 
during  the  rainy  season,  but  a  little  more  abundant  during  the  dry 
season.  The  months  in  which  it  rains  least  are  February,  March,  and 
April. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION.  223 

The  month  of  Ma}^  presents  the  maximum  average,  which  is  also 
very  similar  to  the  averages  of  the  other  months  of  the  year.  We 
believe  that  a  longer  period  of  observation  would  show  a  greater 
maximum  average. 

THE    RAINFALLS   OF   TLOILO,    CEBU,    AND    TAMONTACA — DRY    AND    RAINY 

SEASON. 

In  these  stations  the  dry  and  rainy  seasons  are  very  distinct,  though 
not  in  a  uniform  manner,  as  in  the  case  of  Manila  and  the  occidental 
coast  of  Luzon.  The  dry  season  embraces  the  months  of  December, 
January,  February,  March,  and  April,  and  is  more  pronounced  in 
Iloilo  than  in  Cebu  or  Tamontaca.  The  average  given  for  the  month 
of  May  seems  to  be  applicable  to  the  other  months  of  other  stations, 
though  we  believe  that  when  the  period  of  observation  is  extended  the 
average  will  be  diminished.  During  the  rainy  season  the  averages  are 
more  abundant  in  Iloilo  and  Tamontaca  than  in  Cebu.  This  last-named 
city  is  situated  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  island  of  Cebu  and  has  some 
precipitation  of  rain  and  presents  somewhat  of  the  udometric  condi- 
tions of  this  season  in  the  oriental  coast  of  the  archipelago  during  the 
months  of  December  and  January,  the  results  of  which  show  the  aver- 
ages for  these  two  months  to  be  as  high  as  171.7  mm.  and  91.6  mm. 

YEARLY  MARCH  OF  RAIN  IN  THE  LARGE  ORIENTAL  COAST   OF  MINDANAO. 

The  station  of  Tandag  is  situated  on  the  northwest  coast  of  Min- 
danao, and  is  very  convenient  for  the  study  of  the  yearly  distribution 
of  rain  at  large  on  the  oriental  coast  of  this  island.  We  have  been 
benefited  by  the  observations  made  by  the  observatory  there,  which 
were  verified  by  the  missionary.  Father  Francisco  Sanchez,  of  the 
Jesuits,  during  the  two  years  he  was  stationed  there,  and  we  give  the 
result  in  averages  in  Table  LXXVII.  Similar  to  the  state  of  rain  on 
the  oriental  coast  of  Luzon  is  the  rainy  season  on  the  oriental  coast  of 
Mindanao,  and  here  the  high  pressure  from  the  northwest  predomi- 
nates, particularly  as  to  the  rains  on  the  west  coast  of  Mindanao,  which 
are  more  abundant  and  constant  than  in  the  stations  east  of  the  island 
of  Luzon,  and  yet  more  than  those  observed  in  Manila  and  the  occi- 
dental coasts  during  the  months  from  July  to  September.  Only  in 
the  month  of  December  of  1897  there  was  collected  in  Fandag  1,321.1 
mm.  of  water,  and  610.8  mm.  in  the  same  month  in  1896.  For  these 
regions,  contrary  to  the  conditions  in  Manila,  the  months  in  which  it 
rains  least  are  June,  July,  August,  September,  and  October,  notwith- 
standing the  fact  that  the  averages  for  these  months,  as  seen  in  Table 
LXXVII,  is  greater  than  100  mm.  It  must  be  understood  that  the 
3^early  average  is  much  higher  than  that  of  Manila.  The  total  amount 
of  rain  collected  in  Fandag  during  the  year  1897  was  4,299.2  mm. 

IMPORTANT  ADVICE. 

We  can  not  close  this  paragraph  without  inserting  the  one  idea  which 
we  have  already  indicated;  that  is,  that  the  averages  which  appear  in 
Table  LXXVII,  and  in  the  maps  of  the  monthly  distribution  of  rain 
in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  concerning  the  station  of  Visayas  and 
Mindanao,  are  only  provisional  with  the  exception  of  the  model  f^rm 


Hosted  by 


Google 


224  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

La  Carlota.  For  this  reason,  in  the  said  maps,  we  have  inclosed  in  a 
limited  circle  by  one  line  of  periods  the  averages  which  have  been 
deducted  from  only  two  years  of  observation  so  that  they  can  be  dis- 
tinguished easily  from  those  of  a  greater  number  of  years  of  observa- 
tion, which  last  are  inclosed  in  a  limited  circle  by  a  continuous  line. 

THE  RAINFALL  IN  MANILA  IN  THE  TWO  SEASONS  OF  THE  YEAR 
COMPARED  WITH  THE  RAINFALL  IN  OTHER  POINTS  OF  THE 
PHILIPPINE  ARCHIPELAGO. 

The  monthly  distribution  of  rain  is  very  different  in  the  various 
parts  of  the  archipelago.  Table  LXXIX  shows  the  yearl}^  average  of 
rain  in  the  different  stations  of  the  archipelago  divided  into  two  periods, 
from  June  to  October,  and  November  to  May,  and  gives  Pluviometric 
data  of  Jap  (Occidental  Carolines)  and  San  Louis  de  Apra  (Guam, 
Mariana  Islands). 

MONTHLY    DISTRIBUTION    OF    RAIN    IS   VERY    DIFFERENT  IN  THE  VARIOUS 
POINTS   OF   THE    ARCHIPELAGO. 

We  have  already,  in  preceding  chapters,  compared  the  3^ early  dis- 
tribution ot*  rain  in  the  several  points  of  the  archipelago  several  times 
with  the  yearly  distribution  in  Manila.  This  comparison  will  be  more 
apparent  if  we  divide  the  yearly  amount  of  rain  at  the  different 
meteorologic  stations  in  the  same  two  groups  of  months  in  which  we 
have  divided  the  rainfall  of  Manila  in  Paragraph  III;  that  is,  into 
the  dry  and  rainy  seasons.  In  this  way  it  can  be  readil}^  seen  that  this 
division  into  the  dry  and  rainy  seasons  can  not  in  any  way  be  applied 
to  the  entire  archipelago,  because  the  months  which  in  one  region 
constitute  tl  3  dry  season  in  another  region  constitute  the  rainy  season. 

Even  at  the  points  where  it  appears  that  the  division  of  the  year  into 
the  dry  and  rainy  seasons  may  be  admitted,  the  characteristic  differ- 
ences between  both  are  in  some  localities  more  pronounced  than  in 
others,  as  may  be  seen  by  the  topographic  conditions  of  the  same  and 
their  greater  or  less  proximity  to  the  oriental  or  occidental  coasts  of 
the  archipelago,  as  indicated  by  us  in  some  other  places. 

This  is  the  object  of  Table  LXXIX.  In  it  we  give  the  averages  of 
the  total  amount  of  rain  corresponding  to  the  periods  of  the  year  from 
November  to  May  and  June  to  October.  Beginning  with  Manila,  we 
put  the  occidental  stations  of  Luzon  and  Mindoro,  following  after  sev- 
eral villages  of  the  center  of  the  island,  in  the  second  place;  and  end 
with  Aparri  and  several  stations  of  the  oriental  coast  of  Luzon  and 
Mindanao.  To  the  averages  of  the  partial  totals  we  add  also,  as  we 
did  in  Paragraph  III,  the  percentage  of  yearly  averages.  From  the 
points  in  Mindanao,  as  in  Fandag,  Daves,  and  Mati,  we  have  only  one 
year's  observations,  but  we  like  to  include  them;  giving  at  the  same 
time  the  average  of  the  partial  amounts  corresponding  to  the  two 
periods  of  the  year  and  the  percentage  of  the  yearly  amount. 

PLUVIOMETRIC    DATA    OF    JAP   (OCCIDENTAL    CAROLINES)    AND    SAN    LUIS 
DE   APRA   (GUAM,   MARIANA   ISLANDS). 

Besides,  we  may  add  to  the  end  of  the  table,  by  way  of  index,  the 
pluviometric  datas  of  Jap  and  San  Louis  de  Apra  during  the  one  year 
of  observation  (1896)  for  the  first,  and  two  years  (1896  and  1897)  for 
the  last  named. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EXPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


225 


The  only  thing  we  can  say  about  them  is  that  in  both  the  dry  and 
rainy  season  is  slightly  distinguished,  while  in  San  Louis  de  Apra  the 
difference  is  more  pronounced. 

Table  LXXIX. —  Yearly  average  rainfall  m  several  places  of  the  archipelago  divided  into 
two  periods — June  to  October  and  November  to  May. 


stations. 


November  to  May. 


Manila  (34  years) 

Vigan  (3  years) 

Bolinao  (8  years) 

Punta  Santiago  (9  years)  

DAet  (1  year)  

Atimonan  (3  years) 

Albay  (6  years) 

Apacci  (2  years) 

Fnguegacao  (2  years) 

San  Ysidro  (8  years) 

Fayabas  (1  year) 

La  Carlota  (9  years) 

Tolo  (2  years) 

Iloilo  (3  years) 

Cebii  (2  years) 

D^vas  (1  year) 

F^ndag  (1  year) 

Mati,  southeast  of  Mindanao  (1  year) 

Jap,  Carolinas  Occidentales  (1  year)  

San  Luis  de  Apra,  Guam,  Mariana  Islands  (2  years) 


mm. 

379.5 

247.7 

155.4 

283.2 

1,468.6 

1,468.8 

1,732.4 

1,049.2 

205.2 

461.2 

1,002 

805. 4 

716.6 

494.4 

550.5 

963.8 

3,218.3 

905.8 

734.9 

303.3 


Per  ct. 
20 
11 
7 
19 
53 
55 
59 
54 
29 
25 
61 
31 
47 
29 
41 
49 
75 
66 
39 
24 


June  to  October. 


mm. 

1,537.1 

2,109.6 

2,209.4 

1,234.3 

1,285.9 

1,181.7 

1,228.2 

905.2 

494.9 
1,390 

640.8 
1,785.9 

823. 9 
1, 229. 5 

788.8 

995. 3 
1,080.9 

467. 5 
1,160.1 

951. 9 


Per  ct. 
80 
89 
93 
81 
47 
45 
41 
46 
71 
75 
39 
69 
53 
71 
59 
51 
25 
34 
61 
76 


The  observations  of  the  year  1896  are  incomplete  for  the  months  of 
January,  February,  and  March,  in  which  we  find  only  one  or  two  signs 
of  rain,  the  quantity  of  which  has  not  been  measured;  however,  the 
data  of  the  other  months  is  very  complete,  although  we  could  not  pre- 
scind from  said  year  anything  but  the  average  of  rain  during  the  dry 
season,  which  resulted  in  less  than  if  the  observations  had  been  con- 
tinuously made. 


XI v.— YEARLY  RAINFALL  IN  THE  PHILIPPINEH  COMPARED  WITH 
SOME  OF  THE  PRINCIPAL  POINTS  OF  THE  EXTREME  ORIENT  AND 
OF  THE  UNITED  STATES. 

We  give  herewith  some  data  which  will  serve  to  compare  the  proper 
rainfalls  of  these  islands  with  those  of  the  other  regions  of  the  extreme 
Orient  and  with  the  United  States.  For  this  object  we  have  selected 
the  following  stations  of  the  archipelago:  Manila,  Bolinao,  Punta  San- 
tiago, San  Ysidro,  Albay,  La  Carlota,  Iloilo,  Cebu,  Jolo,  and  Fandag. 
From  the  extreme  Orient  we  take  the  following  points:  Hongkong, 
Zikawei  (Shanghai),  Tok\'o,  Jap  (Occidental  Carolines),  and  San  Luis 
de  Apra.  At  last,  from  the  United  States,  we  name  only  San  Fran- 
cisco, Chicago,  New  York,  New  Orleans,  and  Key  West.  Between 
San  Luis  de  Apra  and  California  we  put  Honolulu  (Hawaii).  Besides 
this,  at  the  end,  we  add  two  stations  from  the  Antilles,  namely,  Habana 
and  San  Juan  de  Porto  Rico. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


226 


REPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


OUTLINE    OF    THE   YEARLY   AVERAGE    OF   RAIN    FROM    SEVERAL    POINTS 
OF   THE   EXTREME   ORIENT   AND   THE   UNITED   STATES. 

In  the  following  outline  our  readers  may  see  the  yearly  averages  of 
rain  in  each  one  of  the  stations  we  have  just  indicated  and  the  period 
of  years  from  which  they  have  been  deduced: 


stations. 


Yearly 
average. 


Years  of 
observa- 
tion. 


Manila 

Bolinao 

Punta  Santiago 

San  Ysidro 

Albay 

La  Carlota 

Iloilo 

Cebu 

Jolo 

Fandag  

Hongkong  

Zikawei,  Shanghai 

Tokyo,  Japan 

lap  (Occidental  Carolines) 

San  Luis  de  Apra,  Guam,  Marianas 

Honolulu 

San  Francisco 

Chicago 

New  York 

Washington 

New  Orleans 

Key  West 

Habana 

San  Juan  de  Porto  Rico 


mm. 

1916. 

2364. 

1517. 

1851. 

2960. 

2591. 

1723. 

1339. 

1540. 

4299. 
a 2205. 
blll9. 
C1467. 

1895. 

1255. 
dl004. 

e594. 

e863. 
C1135. 
el089. 
el531. 

6970. 
dl314. 
rfl510. 


24 
21 
1 

2 
16 

47 
30 
61 
41 
26 
49 


a  From  the  publication  Observations  and  Researches,  made  at  Hongkong  in  the  year  1898,  page  8. 
6  From  the  monthly  bulletin  of  1896,  Observatory  of  Zikawei,  page  217. 

c  From  the  yearly  report  of  the  Central  Meteorological  Observatory  of  Japan  for  the  year  1896,  part 
1,  page  3. 
e  Data  taken  from  the  memoirs  Rainfall  of  the  United  States,  by  Alfred  J.  Henry. 
d  Data  taken  from  the  report  of  the  Chief  of  the  Weather  Bureau,  1897-98,  pages  316  and  320. 

GRAPHIC  REPRESENTATION  OF  THE  AVERAGES  OF  PRECIPITATION  OF 
WATER  IN  SEVERAL  POINTS  OF  THE  PHILIPPINE  ARCHIPELAGO,  THE 
ANTILLES,    AND   THE   UNITED   STATES   OF   AMERICA. 

Let  US  close  this  account  of  the  rainfall  in  Manila  with  Engraving 
XXXIIl,  which  represents  by  way  of  curved  lines  the  yearly  variation 
of  rainfall  in  distinctive  station  of  the  archipelago,  Habana,  and  some 
points  in  the  United  States;  for  instance,  San  Francisco,  Cal.  (occi- 
dental coast),  Chicago  (interior),  and  New  York  (oriental  coast).  It 
will  immediately  be  seen  that  the  most  abundant  yearly  precipitation 
of  water  in  the  Philippines  may  be  compared  with  the  yearly  precipi- 
tation of  the  points  wnich  we  have  just  named. 

The  yearly  variation  of  rainfall  of  San  Francisco,  Cal. ,  is  inverse  to 
that  of  Manila,  because  when  there  is  no  precipitation  of  water  in 
California  at  the  same  time  in  Manila  it  is  most  abundant  and 
extraordinary. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate 

XXXIV. 

Annual  variation  of  the  rain  in  different  places  of  the 

Philippine  Archipelago,  of  the  Antilles  and  of 

the  United  States  of  America 

6oc 
550 

Jaiv. 

Feb 

March 

April 

Mar 

Jaive. 

JuJLy 

August 

Sept. 

Oct. 

2fov. 

Dec. 

irutt. 

j 

1 

/ 

1 

/ 

1 

— 

"^ 

1 

1 

"^^ 

te.  :  / 

I 

Soo 

/ 

1^/ 

1 

1 

\ 

' 

I 

f 

1 

1 

1 

*5o 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 



- 

— 

1 

1 

1 

) 

/ 

I 

/ 

\ 

/ 

\ 

/ 

\ 

?,5o 
2oo 

1 

1 

^ 

it^kt 

hb^ 

\ 

^  "1  " 

v^ 

'.. 

, 

^ 

•■ 

1&^ 

^... 

I  '•., 

1 

1 

Va 

F 

t 

\ 

1 

/•• 

1 

t\ 

1 

300 
2  So 
2oo 
l5o 

lOO 

5o 

/ 

\ 

yt 

*\ 

t 

■    • 

/  / 

> 

V 

*\ 

/ 

/ 

r   / 

\ 

l\ 

/ 

/ 

\ 

l' 

— 

1 

' 

\ 

\ 

.  -X.    _ 

1  / 

/ 

f 

S 

/ 

\   \ 

^- 

r 

// 

/ 

1 

/ 

\  1 

IIl  _.. 

/ 

S^ 

/ 

\ 

^  / 

/ 

^ 

4> 

/ 

^ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

% 

r 

/ 

^ 

.• 

Ij 

/ 

\ 

/ 

< 

/ 

y 

/ 

•. 

\ 

/ 

\ 

■' 

T 

/ 

>^ 

/ 

\ 

•J 

^  r* 

7 

' 

ISO 

loo 

So 

o 

\. 

/ 

^ 

.' ' 

i*" 

/ 

\ 

V 

/ 

\ 

•./' 

^ 

A 

*. 

\ 

/ 

\ 

<' 

1 

'    * 

X 

*•* 

'. 

\ 

,/ 

.  / 

i  i\ 

^ 

X 

J'^ 

;> 

' 

^ 

f^ 

/ 

1 1 

1* 

k 

/ 

^  V 

•^ 

: 

4— 

111 

n 

a" 

W 

: 

]  h- 

v*"* 

s. 

: 

1 

T 

J\ 

^ 

\ 

jj 

f 

.^•^ 

^. 

\ 

s. 

:    1 

jfi 

■■•-, 

\ 

s, 

' 

I 

^. 

•V"^ 

•, 

^7^ 

— 

s^- 

-.. 

"'•y 

Zf 

i¥ 

■  '*. 

**.-♦ 

"*¥ 

\  "* 

X 

•. 

s 

*■'* 

t  I 

f 

*•*■ 

i*J 

T^l- 

»..^. 

..^■^ 

'*-'*■•* 

.-^ 

1  , 

" 

••*., 

_ 

+••«- 

♦  + 

t^-^- 

^n- 

*"  * 

V;* 

Vj 

I'A 

^ 

f-4..^ 

* 

oUJ 

-^ 

:S 

fi\ 

-^ 

^ 

. — 

— 

^^^ 

"t^ 

/ 

^ 

— 









— r^ 

/ 

^ 

" 

■**•»•• 

^ 

S^ 

^ 

L__. 

^^ 

"^ 

Ei^ 

m<^ 

c»i; 

^ 

:^ 

y* 

— 

^ 

^^ 

Hosted  by 


Google 


120** 


CYCLONES  IN  THE  MARIANAS  OR  MAGAIIANK  ISI^^DS 


PLATE  XLfl 


130"    Longitude  E  of  SFertmn do    i4o« 


150" 


V 


■)\'- 


N.B.IIw  arrx)Ws  indicate  the  winds  which  are  to  he 
expected  atMiMLA  m'th  tra/ect oriels-  or  that  type 


V 


40 


..y 


No.  I      SO  October  ^A'ov./a9o\^ 
,.  2      ■^8/)ec./6\%'  t  Janimrv/80S^ 
,,'S      7  il'  October  fa94 


4  /^y^?  XovemberWQ/> 

:>  /8:^2Ain/ti^t  mot> 

k\  .;  yy  Oetotje/-/ei9ty 

1  2:j  y^Ap/ft  /<9.9.9 


--^^' 


^-^^--r' 


r\r^~ 


m 


V 


v^/ 


y 


.-f)^    \ 


0   <\W 


.V^5 


30  h 


"V 


v» 


V"-. 


••<]qt 


f^ 


-^ 


10  ^ 


/?-o' 


,j-^  ,  '-■' 


} ^ 


'if 


-^-' 


•-^ 


120*^ 


1  -Z^ 
120^ 


J-^^'V 


130** 


40 


H30 


Hosted  tiy 


-< 


140" 


150« 


Google 


1  .ongit tide  K.(>r  (nt^ertwich 


Jil'UUS  BJEN  a  CO.  UTH  ( 


CYCLOMES  t'ORMED  IN  THE  PACIFICWHICHHAVE  RECURVKD  TOWARDS  JAPAN 

AT  SOME  DI  STANCE  OF  THE  MERmiAN  OF  MANILA  pi^TE  XLfll 


130"  Lon^itudgE.of  SFernando    140** 


N^B.  The  roman  mimders  I.l.  ^md  M  ek:  indicate  the sticcc^sive 

order  of  the  winds  which  are  to  be  ejcpected  ai  MANILA  with 

trq/ectories  of  thai  type.  The  numbers  of  the  feathers  in  the  L, 

ar*ro  w^-  d^notale  the  retalive  in  tensity  ■  ofth  e  sa  me  n  inds       /^^^     ^^ 


No.  I  rJ23Aax/iistW95 

.,  2  /e2(xALi^ust/&S5 

,  3  t  /2  Septernber/Sm 

.,  4  6  /O  S'eptem6er/a6)7 

,.  5  2  8    Septf^nibc/'  /&98^ 

,  G  2  /O   ,/utv  WS8 


Gopgle 


l.ong'i iude  H.of  (jiT^envvii*! 


CYCLONES  FORMED  INTHE PACIFIC,WHICHHAVB: RECURVED 
TOWARDS  JAPAN  NEAR  THE  MERIDI/\N  OF  MANIIA 


PIxATE  XLW 


130**   Ij«i^itiiAeE.<^SJ'«pa»ado   140** 


^B.men>manmimdersm.andmeic.  indica^  the  successive 
order o^&ie  winds  which  aj^tode  ejypectedcU  MANILA  with 
trq/ectoriey  or  that  type.  The  numbers  of  the  feathers  in  the 
CLrrows  denotate  the  refntive  intensity  of  the  same  winds 


No.l  -  4  JO   September  h 
„   2 "  4-/3    October  W92 
„   3  ^  /7  24  .Vovenitjer  1892 
;  4=  22   June  -  SJi 
„   5  =  26  Augusts  Sept.  /s\ 
„   G     /6  25  July  W9e 
.   7      ,y  12  August /&97 

V    B  -  24  30  September /89 
„   9  "  26    Oct  -7 A^oveniber 
.  10  -  2  //Au<just7d98 
„  11'  13-26    July  7899 


liOiigitude  K  of  Grcenwich 


150** 

JUUUS  8IEN  aCO.LITH.  N.Y 


CYCIiONES  OF  THE  FORMOSA  IS  I^AND 


PLATE  XLY 


lao^   LooLglUideB.QfaFcinmndo  14K)** 


4VM  The  romari  m^ribers  1.11.  and  HI  etc.  mdwate  t7ie  successive 
order*  of  the  winds  which  are  ta  be  avpectedat  MANILA  with 
trci^ectsries  oftTiat  type.  The  munbers  of  the  feathers  in.  th^ 
arrows  d^notale  the  retadve  irUensity  of  the  same  winds 


No.  I  -/f/SAiiqust/im 
„  l-^^// September /892 
,^  3  ^  //  h)  September  fSf?:^ 
„  4  /7-2/ SeptembeT^Wky 
„  3  =  fy/S  September /Sa 
„  ()  23  27 September'  /8S6 
„  7     27  Sepjt    /tJetober/a'^ 


yoggle 


[.ongitude  ^  K.of  Giveivwith 


JUL4US  BIEN  SCO.  LITH.  N.Y. 


CYCI.ONES  OF  LUZONWHICH  HAVE  CROSSED  THROUGH  THE  NORTH  OF  MANILA  .\ND  HAVE  A  LITTLE 
AFTERWARDS  RECURAT^^D  EITHER  IN  TOE  INTERIOR  OR  NEAR  THE  ISLAND  IN  THE  CHINA  SEA, 


PT^TEXXVl 


Longiliule  E of* Oivefvwi< 'h 


JUUUS  BIEN  b  CO  LiTH    I 


CYCLONES  OF  LUZON  WHICH  HAVE  CROSSED  THROUGH  THE  NORTH 
OFMANII^  AND  HAVE  iMMEDL\TELY  GONE  TO  THE  CONTINENT 


PIuATEXI.Vn 


Longitude  E of Gi-eeiivv iih 


jUUU»  BiEN  6C0.  LITH    I 


CYCLONE S  OF  LUZON  WHICH  HAVE  CROSSED  THROUGH  THE  SOUTH  OF  MANHA 


PLuATEXLVTQ 


Coc'gle 


Lonjdjitude  E.of  Gn?enwii-h 


JUUUS  BIEN  aCO.LtTH   N.r 


CYCI.OXKS  OFLUZON  W^[CHHAVP^.  CROSSED TMROUGH  THE  NORTH 
OF  MANILA  AND  HAVE  IMMEDIATEEY  GONE  TO  THE  CONTINEN!^ 


PLATE  XI ABI  BIS 


130"  LoR^iUideE.oi  aFememdo    14fO*^ 


120** 


VIO 


130** 


140^ 


150^ 


liOni;^'iUuie  Hot" GrtHMiwifli 


JUi.4U^  BiEN  tiCO.LJTH    N  > 


CYCFiONES  OF  BISAYAN  AND  MINDANAO  ISLANDS 


PI^VTE  XLIX 


130*^   longitude  E.of&FertijedadjO   140^ 


MB.  The  roma/i  mimJ>ers  II.  and.  Iff  etc.  indicate  the  successive 
order  of  the  winds  which  are  to  be  expected  at  MANILA  with 
trq/ectories  oPthat  type.  TTie  numbers  of  the  feathers  in  &ie 
arrows  ctenotale  the  relative  intensity  of  the  same  winds 


No.  1  2d  i^OAprii  /ma 

,.  2  //^oYJdt/r///s/ h9.92 

..  :\  6'  /3.Vovenidcrh3.92 
/  8  Dcccrrdwr  U/S2 

..   3  /726\/(f unary  789:) 

..    (>  -/  /U  ,///// c   UiSAT 

7  .;    />"    Aorc//ibe//<^Mi 

.,   8  7  djOct(d)er/897 

7  S)  fd  /9()ctoljrr/8f)7 


Hosted  by 


120** 


Vlif 


130** 


140' 


150'' 


Gc)<3gle 


I  iOMo'i  I  u d e  K.of  ( iixH^nvvi ct \ 


JUL4Ui>  BIEN  a  CO.  LITH   NY. 


BE'rWEEN  PARAliLEl.S  KrAND  20'^ AND  HAVE  CROSSED  BEFORE  THE  SOUTH 
AND  AFTERWARDS  THE  NORTH  OF  THE  MERHllAN  OF  MAN  FLA 


PEATE  h 


120** 


120" 


130"    LoiigiUi.de  £.ofS.F§mando  140' 


150" 


A^/^.  TTte  roman  nu/ribens-  l.TI.  and  HT  etc.  indicate  the  successive 
order  of  the  winds  which  are  to  be  exipectedat  MANILA  with 
trq/ect^ries  of  that  type.  The  numbers  of  the  feathers  in  the 
arrows  denotale  the  reialive  intensity'  of  tAe  same  winds 


.  7 
.  8 


"  29A/)ril  t)Ma.v  /SSO 

3-/4  May  /6\9/ 
^  8-/7  A/qr  /8S5 

-  6''20May  WOtr 
2-8  June    1896 

-  9~/S uYovember  /8S7 . 

-  6-2/ March /898 

-  /a  28  Afay  /899 


120" 


120° 


130** 


Hosted  by  V^OO 


140** 


150** 


igle 


Lonoitude  E.of  Greenwich 


JUUUS  BIEN  a  CO.LITH    NY 


CYCIiONES  FORMED  IN  THE  CHINA  SEA, 


PLATE  LJ 


^. 


liOngitude  E  of  Gix^eiwvioli 


JUUUS  SlENaCO.UTH    N.V 


CYCIiONES  FOFIMKI)  INTHK  SEA  OFJOLO  (SULU)  AND  IN  THE 
IXTKRLI^l  lAH  SKAS  TO  THE  SOUTH  OF  LUZON 


PI^\TELn 


liOii)Q;itiuie  K.of  On*en\yi(.:b 


JUUiUvS  Bl£N  oCO.LirH    N   y 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTER  VI. 
WIISTDS. 

I.— MONTHLY  FREQUENCY  OF  THE   WINDS  IN  MANILA. 

METHODS    WE    HAVE    FOLLOWED    IN    ASCERTAINING   THE   MONTHLY 
FREQUENCY   OF   WINDS   IN    MANILA. 

The  study  of  the  monthly  frequency  or  repetition  of  the  winds  is, 
no  doubt,  one  of  the  most  important  in  determining  the  climate  of 
countries  and  the  changes  it  undergoes  in  the  course  of  a  year.  Foi 
this  reason,  and  desirous  that  this  work  shall  be  most  complete,  we 

have  not  deemed  it  wise  to  include  or  give  the  same  total  of  results 
which  we  might  have  obtained  from  the  drawings  of  the  ''frequency 
of  winds"  C'frequentia  de  vientos"),  published  in  our  monthly  bulle- 
tin, for  the  reason  that  it  contains  but  the  eight  principal  points  of  the 
compass  or  direction  of  the  winds.  In  order  to  include  sixteen  direc- 
tions, we  have  had  access  to  the  original  records,  and  beginning  with 
the  year  1887  to  1898,  inclusive,^  we  have  formulated,  noting  month 
by  month  and  year  by  year,  every  time  the  same  direction  has  been 
repeated.  In  preparing  these  records  or  statistics  we  have  found  that 
on  some  days,  by  reason  of  the  clock  stopping  or  other  similar  reason, 
the  observations  of  two  or  more  hours  were  wanting,  and  these  days 
we  have  omitted  in  order  that  they  may  be  made  more  complete  and 
satisfactory.  The  number  of  days  omitted  is  seventeen;  four  in  the 
month  of  December,  1895;  four  in  the  month  of  April;  one  in  the 
month  of  September,  1896,  and  eight  in  the  month  of  August,  1898. 
Those  most  important  to  examine  and  remember  are  those  of  the  last 
column  of  the  Table  LXXX,  where  we  give  the  total  number  of  obser- 
vations in  each  month  and  the  sum  total  for  twelve  years. 

OBJECT   OR   PURPOSE    OF   TABLE   LXXX. 

Having  made  these  brief  observations,  which  we  have  deemed  nec- 
essary, let  us  proceed  to  give  in  Table  LXXX  the  total  obtained 
for  each  month  in  the  16  directions  or  points  of  the  compass  by 
means  of  the  records  mentioned,  adding  to  each  sum  the  corresponding 
per  cent.  Most  important  deductions  can  be  obtained  from  this  table, 
worthy  of  special  attention  and  study.  In  order  to  proceed  with  some 
degree  of  method,  we  will  simply  dwell  here  on  the  monthly  frequency 
or  repetition  of  the  winds,  leaving  for  the  next  paragraph  their  annual 
and  semiannual  frequency,  as  shown  in  the  aforesaid  table. 

^  For  the  lack  of  time  we  have  omitted  several  years  prior  to  1887. 

227 
p  c— VOL  4—01 19 


Hosted  by 


Google 


228 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXX. — Monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  frequency  of  the  winds  in  Manila, 

1887-1898, 


N. 

NNE.   , 

NE. 

ENE. 

E. 

ESE. 

Month. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

January  

1,053 
515 
400 
252 
398 
354 
348 
297 
330 
562 
984 

1,314 

11.8 
6.3 
4.5 
2.9 
4.5 
4.1 
3.9 
3.4 
3.8 
6.3 
11.4 
14.9 

954 
446 
414 
248 
391 
367 
281 
243 
291 
664 
899 
1,168 

10.7 
5.5 
4.6 
2.9 
4.4 
4.2 
3.1 
2.8 
3.4 
7.4 
10.4 
13.2 

848 
627 
578 
351 
453 
478 
309 
385 
307 
615 
833 
902 

9.5 
7.7 
6.5 
4.1 
5.1 
5.5 
3.5 
4.4 
3.6 
6.9 
9.6 
10.2 

517 
527 
594 
454 
294 
300 
240 
197 
203 
322 
404 
369 

5.8 
6.5 
6.7 
5.3 
3.3 
3.5 
2.7 
2.3 
2.4 
3.6 
4.7 
4.2 

887 

1,197 

1,432 

1,211 

721 

606 

369 

334 

343 

516 

551 

593 

9.9 
14.7 
16.0 
14.2 

8.1 
7.0 
4.1 
3.8 
4.0 
5.8 
6.4 
6.7 

497 
795 
1,022 
1,142 
620 
473 
268 
251 
239 
330 
290 
314 

5.6 

February              .... 

9.8 

March      

11.4 

April 

13.4 

May         

6.9 

June 

5.5 

July              

3.0 

August 

2.9 

September   

2.8 

October 

3.7 

November 

3.4 

December 

3.6 

Annual 

November  and 
May 

6,807 
4,916 
1,891 

6.5 
8.0 
4.3 

6,366 
4,520 
1,846 

6.1 
7.4 
4.2 

6,686 
4,592 
2,094 

6.4 

7.5 

4.8 

4,421 
3,159 
1,262 

4.2 
5.2 

2.9 

8,760 
6,592 
2,168 

8.4 
10.8 
4.9 

6,241 
4,680 
1,561 

6.0 

7.7 

June  and  Octo- 
ber  

3.6 

SE. 

SSE. 

S. 

ssw. 

SW. 

wsw. 

Month. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

January  

341 
591 
741 
996 
637 
529 
373 
224 
257 
328 
244 
159 

3.8 
7.3 
8.3 
11.7 
7.1 
6.1 
4.2 
2.6 
3.0 
3.7 
2.8 
1.8 

124 
184 
284 
334 
301 
294 
316 
221 
269 
243 
141 
93 

1.4 
2.3 
3.2 
3.9 
3.4 
3.4 
3.5 
2.5 
3.1 
2.7 
1.6 
1.1 

114 
103 
125 
142 
296 
411 
463 
461 
466 
300 
147 
100 

1.3 
1.3 
1.4 
1.7 
3.3 
4.8 
5.2 
5.3 
5.4 
3.4 
1.7 
1.1 

158 
141 
154 
188 
413 
534 
907 
892 
833 
465 
194 
151 

1.8 
1.7 
1.7 
2.2 
4.6 
6.2 
10.2 
10.2 
9  7 
5.2 
2.2 
1.7 

358 

328 

385 

430 

872 

1,027 

1, 719 

1,712 

1,700 

729 

342 

258 

4.0 
4.0 
4.2 
5.0 
9.8 
11.9 
19.3 
19.6 
19.7 
8.2 
4.1 
2.9 

457 
483 
506 
471 
743 
680 
778 
1,008 
910 
656 
378 
376 

5.1 

February 

5.9 

March 

5.7 

April 

5.5 

May        

8.3 

June 

7.9 

July 

8.7 

August 

11.5 

September 

10.6 

October 

7.3 

November       .     ... 

4.4 

December 

4.3 

Annual 

November  and 
May 

5,420 
3,709 
1,711 

5.2 
6.1 
3.9 

2,804 
1,461 
1,343 

2.7 
2.4 
3.1 

3,128 
1,027 
2,101 

3.0 
1.7 

4.8 

5,030 
1,399 
3,631 

4.8 
2.3 

8.3 

9,860 
2,973 

6,887 

9.4 
4.9 
15.7 

7,446 
3,414 
4,032 

7.1 
5.6 

June  and  Octo- 
ber  

9.2 

W. 

WNW. 

NW. 

NNW. 

Calm. 

Month. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber 
of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Total 
obser- 
vations. 

January            

410 
431 
451 
471 
534 
409 
445 
412 
437 
421 
343 
311 

4.6 
5.3 
5.1 
5.5 
6.0 
4.7 
5.0 
4.7 
5.1 
4.7 
4.0 
3.5 

161 
184 
149 
182 
169 
180 
211 
194 
188 
200 
162 
153 

1.8 
2.3 
1.7 
2.1 
1.9 
2.1 
2.4 
2.2 
2.2 
2.2 
1.9 
1.7 

151 
99 
90 
84 
96 
142 
173 
151 
148 
142 
183 
169 

1.7 
1.2 
1.0 
1.0 
1.1 
1.6 
1.9 
1.7 
1.7 
1.6 
2.1 
1.9 

185 
88 
108 
69 
120 
90 
119 
139 
132 
171 
237 
247 

2.1 
1.1 
1.2 
0.8 
1.3 
1.0 
1.3 
1.6 
1.5 
1.9 
2.7 
2.8 

1,713 
1,397 
1,495 
1,519 
1,870 
1,766 
1,609 
1,615 
1, 563 
2,264 
2,308 
2,155 

19.2 
17.2 
16.6 
17.8 
20.9 
20.4 
18.0 
18.5 
18.1 
25.4 
26.7 
24.4 

8,928 

February 

8,136 

March          

8,928 

April    

8,544 

Mav 

8,928 

June 

8,640 

July 

8,928 

August       

8,736 

Rentember 

8,616 

October       

8,928 

November 

8,640 

December               

8,832 

Annual 

November  and 
May   

5,075 
2,951 
2,124 

4.8 
4.8 
4.8 

2,133 

1,100 

973 

2.0 
1.9 
2.2 

1,628 
872 
756 

1.6 
1.4 
1.7 

1,705 

1,054 

651 

1.6 
1.7 
1.5 

21,274 
12,457 
8,817 

20.3 
20.4 
20.1 

104, 784 
60,936 

June  and  Octo- 
ber        

43,848 

_ 

__ 

^ 





Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


^229 


WINDS  OF   MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM    FREQUENCr   IN    THE   DIFFERENT 
MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

In  the  following  summary  will  be  seen  the  maximum  and  minimum 
frequency  or  repetition  of  the  winds  in  the  different  months  of  the 
year,  as  shown  by  a  simple  glance  at  Table  LXXX: 


Month. 

Frequency. 

Month. 

Frequency. 

Maximum. 

Minimum. 

Maximum. 

Minimum. 

January  

N. 
E. 
E. 
E. 

SW. 

sw. 

S. 

NNW. 

NW. 
NNW. 

NW. 
NNW. 

July 

sw. 

SW. 

sw. 
sw. 

N. 
N. 

NNW. 

February 

August 

NNW. 

March 

September 

NNW. 

Anril              

October 

NW. 

May  ::::::.:::.:::: 

November 

SSE. 

June 

December . 

SSE.  and  S. 

So  that  the  prevailing  wind  in  Manila  is  from  the  southwest  from 
May  until  October;  that  is  to  say,  for  about  six  months.  From  Novem- 
ber to  January  north  winds  prevail,  and  during  the  other  three  months, 
February,  March,  and  April,  the  easterly  winds  prevail.  The  same 
frequency  of  the  north  and  northwest  winds  occurs  in  February  and 
October,  and  that  of  the  south  and  south-southeast  winds  in  the  months 
of  November,  December,  and  January. 

Table  LXXX  shows  the  months  in  which  the  north  wind  has  the 
greatest  per  cent  and  those  in  which  the  north-northeast  and  north- 
east winds  prevail  mostly  after  that,  and  also  the  months  in  which  the 
east  winds  are  most  prevalent,  after  the  maximum  frequency  of  the 
east-southeast  and  southeast,  if  we  leave  out  the  month  of  February, 
which  gives  the  northeast  wind  a  larger  per  cent  than  that  from  the 
southeast.  Accordingly  it  can  be  said  that  in  the  months  of  January, 
February,  and  April  the  east  and  southeast  winds  prevail,  both  inclu- 
sive. 

As  to  the  months  in  which  the  southwest  winds  prevail,  it  is  to  be 
seen  that  May  and  October  are  not  below  the  maximum  frequency  of 
east  and  north-northeast  winds,  from  which  it  appears  that  May  is  the 
month  of  the  veering  of  the  winds  from  east  to  those  of  southwest, 
and  that  October  is  the  month  wherein  they  change  from  southwest 
to  those  of  the  north. 


MONTHLY   MEDIUM   OR   RESULTANT   DIRECTION. 

Applying  Lambert's  complete  form  and  substituting  each  of  the  16 
directions  instead  of  the  corresponding  per  cent  the  table  gives  us,  we 
will  have  found  the  medium  or  resultant  directions  for  each  of  the 
twelve  months  in  the  year,  as  follows: 


Month. 

Resultant. 

Month. 

Resultant. 

January 

N.  41°  07'  E. 
N.  83°  18'  E. 
S.  84°  18'  E. 
S.  63°  31'  E. 
S.  16°  55'  E. 
S.  0°  41'  E. 

July 

S.  34*^  28'  W. 

February 

August 

S.  40°  48'  W. 

March 

September     

S.39°41' W. 

April 

October 

S.  75°  32'  E. 

May 

November     .... 

N.  27°  45'  E. 

June 

December 

N.24°13'E. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


230  REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    0OMMI8SI0K. 

TI.— ANNUAL  AND  SEMIANNUAL  RI^GIME  OF  THE  WINDS  OF  MANILA 
ANNUAL   FREQUENCY    OF   THE    WINDS   IN   MANILA. 

From  the  annual  sums  or  totals  and  the  corresponding  percentage 
which  we  have  given  in  Table  LXXX  the  annual  regime  of  the  winds 
can  be  deduced,  which  is  herewith  graphically  represented  in  the 
drawing  or  figure  (1). 

These  facts  show  that  the  most  prevailing  winds  during  the  year  are 
those  from  the  southwest,  followed  by  those  from  the  east.  The  fre- 
quency or  prevalence  of  those  from  the  other  directions  diminish  in 
the  following  order:  West  southwest,  north,  northeast,  north  north- 
east, east  southeast,  southeast,  south  southwest,  west,  east  northeast, 
south,  south  southeast,  west  northwest,  northwest,  and  north  northwest. 

PREVALENCE    OF    THE    WINDS    IN    MANILA    DURING    THE    TWO    SEASONS 
NOVEMBER   TO   MAY   AND   JUNE    TO    OCTOBER. 

We  have  divided  the  year  into  two  periods,  from  November  to  May 
and  from  June  to  October,  and  we  have  added  to  Table  LXXX  the 
corresponding  facts  which  have  helped  us  to  give  in  the  two  following 
drawings,  2  A  and  3  A,  the  annual  regime  of  the  winds  in  Manila. 
During  the  period  from  June  to  October  those  from  the  southwest  are 
most  prevalent,  those  from  the  east  and  north  having  the  maximum 
prevalence  in  the  other  period. 

Annual  medium  or  resultant  direction S.  58°  42^  E. 

Medium  semiannual  direction — 

June  to  October S.  32°  41MV. 

November  to  May N.  70°  30^  E. 

ARE    THE    PARTICULAR   WINDS    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    ISLANDS    MONSOONS 
IN    THE    PROPER   SENSE    OF   THE    WORD? 

This  is  a  question  which  naturally  suggests  itself  to  us  after  treat- 
ing of  the  monthly  prevalence  and  annual  and  semiannual  regimes  of 
the  winds  in  the  Philippines.  As  Father  Algue  has  treated  this  sub- 
ject in  a  masterly  manner  in  Chapter  IV  of  the  second  volume,  page 
179,  of  the  work  Philippino  Cyclones,  we  will  simply  quote  his  ideas, 
proving  them  as  we  pass  with  certain  more  recent  facts  which  we 
gathered  in  our  meteorological  researches  of  1897.  Yet,  to  a  great 
degree,  we  will  have  to  take  for  granted  the  meaning  of  normal,  gen- 
eral, and  particular  winds. 

WHAT   IS   UNDERSTOOD   BY  NORMAL,  GENERAL,  AND   PARTICULAR  WINDS. 

According  to  Father  Algue,  there  are'  certain  winds  which  can  be 
called  or  termed  general,  or  eastern  or  tropical  winds;  those  depend- 
ent on  the  difference  of  temperature  between  the  polar  and  equatorial 
regions;  others,  particular  or  local  winds,  dependent  on  certain  thermic 
conditions  between  the  continent  and  the  seas  or  between  the  islands 
and  contiguous  seas.  If  the  diJBferences  exist  for  a  long  period  of 
time  they  are  termed  or  called  monsoons.  If  the  differences  obey  the 
dail}'^  thermic  changes  they  are  called  breezes  from  the  sea  or  breezes 
from  the  mountains;  that  is  to  say,  there  is  no  essential  difference 


Hosted  by 


Google 


ANNUAL  PROGRESSION  OF  THE  WINDS  AT  MANILA. 
5  mm.  = 


Fig. » 1 ». 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


w 
o 
o 


II 

4 


^  ' 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  231 

between  breezes  and  monsoons,  since  both  winds  are  essentially 
dependent  on  the  geographical,  geodetical,  and,  to  a  certain  extent, 
the  topographical  distances  of  the  regions,  and  only  diflfer  in  the  dura- 
tion of  their  period,  or  whether  comin j  from  a  greater  or  lesser  dis- 
tance. From  what  precedes,  it  follows  that  the  essential  difference 
between  general  or  tropical  winds  and  monsoons  lies  in  the  fact  that 
the  general  winds  depend  on  the  normal  changes  of  temperature  cor- 
responding to  the  latitude,  while  the  monsoons  depend,  not  on  the 
normal  changes  of  temperature  in  themselves,  but  on  the  changes  of 
these  and  on  other  particular  causes  more  or  less  independent  of  the 
latitude,  such  as  elevations  and  depressions  of  ground,  large  or  small 
continents  and  seas,  or  extensive  sea^  etc.  It  can  well  happen  that  in 
determined  circumstances  general  winds  and  monsoons  may  contribute 
to  give  to  the  winds  the  same  course,  or  can  modify  themselves  to 
different  results  (resultantes). 

The  winds  from  north  and  east,  prevailing  in  the  Philippines  certain 
months  in  the  year,  can  only  be  improperly  termed  monsoons  from  the 
northeast. 

Now  that  these  preliminaries  are  laid  down,  it  is  known  that,  accord- 
ing to  the  theory  of  atmospheric  circulation,  the  normal  and  general  or 
tropical  winds  would  be  all  the  year  round  from  the  north,  by  reason  of 
the  rotation  of  the  earth  from  the  northeast,  in  the  zones  and  seas  com- 
prised in  our  archipelago,  and,  in  general,  in  all  the  seas  and  inter- 
tropical countries  in  the  Northern  Hemisphere.^  Nevertheless,  it  does 
not  so  happen  in  the  archipelago  and  adjacent  seas,  thus  pointing  out 
the  existence  here  of  some  particular  cause  which  modifies  or  changes 
its  normal  direction.  For  example,  taking  the  medium  change  of  the 
atmosphere  in  the  archipelago,  the  change  observed  in  Manila,  situ- 
ated in  the  intervening  latitude,  the  highest  degree  of  Manila,  including 
the  Bataens  Islands,  it  is  to  be  observed  by  the  preceding  paragraph 
that  the  maximum  frequency  pertains  to  the  north  and  northeast 
winds,  the  most  prevalent  being  those  from  east  to  southeast. 

This  granted,  the  winds  being  from  the  northeast  normal  or  tropi- 
cal, they  could  not  be  properly  called  monsoons  coming  from  the  north- 
east. In  the  months  of  November  to  March  the  thermic  conditions 
are  so  changeable  in  the  archipelago  and  the  immense  Asiatic  Conti- 
nent, the  inland  of  which  is  very  cold,  that  there  exist  certain  currents 
from  north  to  south,  leaning  more  to  the  east,  so  to  speak,  by  the  rota- 
tion of  the  earth — currents  which  reenf orce  the  normal  currents  in  the 
same  direction  as  that  of  the  tropical  winds,  making  the  northeasters 
very  hard  in  those  months,  as  they  are  felt  on  the  high  seas  and  on  the 
eastern  coast  of  the  island.  Solely  on  this  ground  could  the  currents 
or  tropical  winds  from  northeast  be  called  monsoons.^ 

We  will  not  pay  much  attention  to  the  winds  comprised  between  east 
and  southeast,  which  are  the  prevailing  ones  in  Manila  during  Febru- 
ary, March,  and  April,  partly  because  the  authors  who  admit  of  the 
presence  of  monsoons  m  the  Philippines  at  times  only  mention  the 
monsoons  from  northeast  and  from  southwest,  partly  because  in  other 
places  in  the  archipelago  they  do  not  go  close  to  the  second  quadrant, 
as  they  do  in  Manila,  but  are  more  or  less  comprised  in  those  from 
northeast  in  March  and  April,  as  can  be  gathered  from  the  observa- 

1  See  The  Winds  of  the  Globe,  by  Coffin,  p.  665. 

^  See  the  excellent  work,  Memoirs  on  the  Winds  and  Monsoons  of  the  Arabian  Sea 
and  North  Indian  Ocean,  by  Dallas.    Calcutta,  1887.    Page  29. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


232  REPOBT    OF   THE   PHILIPPHSTE    COMMISSION. 

tions  at  Albay,  Aparri,  and  Iloilo,  which  we  will  mention  hereafter,  and 
in  part  because  this  inclination,  more  or  less  marked,  toward  the  east, 
east-southeast  or  southeast  might  be  due  to  the  prevailing  normal  or 
tropical  winds  of  the  Southern  Hemisphere  coming  in  contect  with  the 
wind  currents  of  the  Northern  Hemisphere,  which  become  weakened 
as  the  temperature  of  the  Asiatic  Continent  increases  and  the  conti- 
nents of  Borneo  and  Australia  become  colder. 

The  southwest  winds  prevailing  in  the  Philippines  in  the  months  of 
June  to  September  are  not  monsoons  in  the  real  sense  of  the  term.  It 
is  difficult  to  determine  whether  the  winds  from  the  southwest,  which 
we  have  seen  prevail  in  the  months  of  June  to  September,  should  prop- 
erly be  called!^  monsoons.  This  is  a  delicate  subject,  especially  when 
both  ancient  and  modern  writers  assert  that  there  exists  in  the  Philip- 
pines and  south  of  the  China  Sea  the  monsoon  from  the  southwest.  For 
this  reason  we  shall  reply  with  the  least  apprehension,  basing  our  reply 
on  verified  facts,  and  giving  the  results  of  our  investigations  only  that 
credit  which  they  themselves  deserve  and  bear  out,  as  in  the  case  of 
any  other  physical  theme. 

The  question  can  be  framed  on  the  following  form :  Are  the  south- 
west winds  which  prevail  in  the  archipelago  and  in  the  China  Sea 
(partly  tropical)  during  certain  periods  of  the  year,  in  the  scientific 
sense  of  the  word,  monsoons?  In  our  humble  wa}^  of  thinking  they 
are  not  monsoons  in  the  proper  sense  of  the  word,  but  currents  due 
to  corresponding  cyclonic  vortices,  or  due  to  abnormal  changes  in  the 
atmosphere. 

The  frequency  and  force  of  such  currents  being  a  fact,  it  might  lead 
to  the  existence  of  a  cyclonic  vortex  or  some  atmospheric  disturbance, 
and  consequently  the  question  is  not  a  matter  of  name,  but  something 
more  important,  in  order  that  we  may  try  to  prove  our  assertion  with 
due  ease. 

The  writers  who  in  some  way  or  another  have  dwelt  on  this  ques- 
tion suppose  that  the  beginning  of  the  southwest  monsoon  is  some- 
time in  the  month  of  May,  so  that  according  to  their  views,  said 
monsoon  prevails  in  the  month  of  June.  The  constant  and  attentive 
experience  of  many  years  shows  that  this  is  not  the  case  in  Manila  and 
near-by  seas.  In  order  to  prove  this  it  will  only  be  necessary  to  cite 
several  meteorological  paragraphs  of  observations  corresponding  to 
the  month  of  June  for  several  years  back. 

We  read  in  the  review  of  June,  1890: 

What  is  strange  is  the  prevailing  winds  from  the  second  quadrant  in  the  period 
(according  to  the  opinion  of  some)  of  that  of  the  southwest  monsoon.  Bearing  in 
mind  the  observations  above  set  forth,  it  is  an  argument  of  great  importance  in 
meteorology  in  general  which  ought  not  to  be  passed  by  without  treating  of  the 
atmospheric  currents. 

The  review  of  the  month  of  June,  1892,  says: 

Though  in  the  season  of  the  monsoon  of  the  southwest,  the  currents  of  the  second 
quadrant  prevail  in  the  month  of  June,  not  only  with  respect  to  the  lower  but  to  the 
higher  wmds.  This  was  fully  explained  by  the  observation  of  the  two  principal 
atmospheric  disturbances  taking  place  in  Luzon,  which  had  their  center  of  minimum 
pressure  toward  the  Indian  Ocean.  When  the  disturbing  center,  during  the  first 
squall,  was  in  the  north  of  Luzon  the  winds  of  the  third  quadrant  became  general. 

The  meteorological  review  of  the  month  of  June,  1893,  begins  this 
way: 

The  meteorological  state  or  nature  of  the  month  of  June  proves  once  more  that  the 
change  of  the  monsoon  does  not  take  place  in  this  archipelago  with  the  almost  mathe- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  233 

matical  precision  told  us  by  many  writers.  In  fact,  after  the  depressions  which 
crossed  this  island  in  the  month  of  March,  the  currents  from  the  second  and  third 
quadrant  prevailed  with  as  much  regularity  as  if  we  were  in  the  month  of  April. 

The  review  of  June,  1894,  says: 

From  the  study  of  the  directions  of  the  superficial  currents  and  inferior  or  lower 
clouds  we  find  an  important  result;  that  is,  that  in  the  month  of  June  the  currents 
from  the  third  quadrant  originate  or  take  place  more  in  the  abnormal  conditions  of 
the  atmosphere  than  in  the  normal.  We  will  confine  ourselves  to  the  month  of 
June  in  the  years  1890, 1891, 1892, 1893,  and  1894.  The  month  of  June,  1890,  was  a 
month  of  little  atmospheric  agitation,  so  that  the  extent  of  the  minimum  of  the 
month  did  not  go  below  755.17  mm.;  nevertheless,  through  influences  of  distant 
depressions,  the  barometer  was  low  during  the  first  days  of  the  month — that  is  to  say, 
from  the  2d  to  the  5th,  from  the  13th  to  the  15th,  and  from  the  22d  to  the  25th. 
There  were  the  only  days  in  which  the  winds  of  the  third  quadrant  prevailed. 
During  the  rest  of  the  days  not  only  the  direction  of  the  clouds  but  that  of  the  winds 
was  from  the  second  quadrant. 

Just  the  opposite  was  the  month  of  June,  1891,  being  full  of  atmospheric  agitation 
or  changes — not  intense  or  great  agitation,  nor  did  the  barometer  go  below  755  mm., 
but  persistent  to  such  a  degree  as  to  cause  the  barometer  to  drop  from  the  6th  to  the 
17th  and  from  the  20th  to  the  last  of  the  month.  The  winds  of  the  third  quadrant 
prevailed  during  all  these  days,  Lambert's  formula  giving  us  the  resultant  direction 
of  winds  southwest,  and  the  prevailing  direction  of  the  clouds  west-southwest. 
During  the  6th,  10th,  12th  of  June,  1892,  the  winds  blew  from  the  third  quadrant  on 
days  of  atmospheric  disturbances,  the  barometer  reaching  752.91  mm.  We  do  not 
mean  to  say  by  this  that  in  case  of  atmospheric  disturbances  the  southwest  winds 
alone  blow;  it  is  understood  that  if  the  cyclonic  center  forms  near  the  south  of 
Manila,  or  cross  the  southerly  region  of  the  archipelago,  it  must  follow  that  the 
winds  prevailing  in  Manila  are  those  from  the  first  and  second  quadrants.  This  hap- 
pened exactly  in  the  month  of  June,  1892  and  1893,  when  the  resultant  of  both  the 
currents  and  lower  clouds  were  from  the  first  quadrant,  on  account  of  small  cyclones 
in  the  Tolo  Sea  and  the  China  Sea. 

As  to  the  present  month  of  June,  the  currents  from  the  third  quadrant  prevailed; 
that  is  to  say,  a  cyclonic  center  was  being  developed  to  the  north-northwest  of  Manila, 
and  another  ran  by  the  Pacific,  as  will  be  seen  later  on  in  treating  of  atmospheric 
disturbances.  The  facts  above  mentioned  not  only  confirm  what  was  said  in  the 
review  of  June,  1892,  and  more  so  that  of  1893,  but  also  give  us  ground  to  suspect 
whether  they  are  a  basis  for  us  to  properly  count  or  embody  the  month  of  June 
among  those  months  where  the  monsoon  from  the  southwest  prevails. 

In  the  review  of  June,  1897,  we  said: 

If  in  the  table  of  ''extreme  equivalents "  of  this  bulletin  we  give  attention  to  the 
medium  which  results  for  the  relative  prevalence  of  the  winds,  we  shall  see  that  the 
major  medium  corresponds  to  the  winds  from  the  third  quadrant.  If  we  examine 
separately  each  decade,  we  will  find  that,  in  the  first,  two  from  the  east  prevail,  gen- 
erally of  the  second  quadrant,  and  that  only  in  the  third  decade  those  of  the  south- 
west or  third  quadrant  prevail,  due  to  various  depressions  running  along  the  north 
quadrants.  If  on  the  4th,  5th,  6th,  and  12th  of  the  month  the  winds  of  the  third 
quadrant  blew,  it  is  to  be  noted  that  they  coincided  in  the  path  of  two  depressions 
which  in  those  days  ran  through  high  parallels,  as  can  be  seen  on  the  daily  maps  at 
the  observatory  of  Tokio,  and  blowing  only  a  certain  hour,  being  the  breeze  (brisa) 
which  blows  here  in  Manila  and  from  the  third  quadrant. 

This  is  another  proof  of  an  idea  several  times  given  in  our  bulletins;  that  is  to  say, 
that  at  least  not  in  the  month  of  June  does  the  monsoon  from  the  southwest,  in  the 
correct  sense  of  the  word,  prevail.  If  at  any  time  the  wind  of  this  name  prevails  in 
these  parts  it  is  not  the  real  monsoon,  but  something  similar,  due  to  the  atmospheric 
disturbances,  more  or  less  near,  that  develop  or  cross  the  north  quadrants. 

In  view  of  this  large  amount  of  testimony,  founded  on  fact  and  well 
studied  and  understood,  there  seems  to  be  little  room  to  doubt  that  the 
wind  sthat  blow  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago  in  June  are  not  the  real 
monsoon,  but  are  due  to  atmospheric  disturbances.  From  what  we 
have  said  we  can  only  conclude  that  the  southwest  monsoon  in  the 
Philippines  is  retarded  and  does  not  prevail  in  the  month  of  June, 
because  of  the  prevalence,  even  in  that  monthj  of  the  tropical  winds  of 
the  southeast. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


234 


BEPOBT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    OOMMISSIOl^. 


From  tne  tables  of  meteorological  extreme  equivalents  published  by 
the  observatory  in  their  monthly  bulletins  of  the  aforesaid  month 
from  1890  to  1898  (omitting  the  winds  from  west,  west-southwest,  and 
southwest  south-southwest)  during  those  days  when  the  archipelago 
was  evidently  under  the  influence  of  some  cyclonic  vortex,  it  will  be 
easy  to  calculate  the  prevailing  currents  of  air  in  normal  weather. 
Note  that  the  breeze  (brisa)  or  southwest  winds  is  still  included,  being 
from  that  quarter  in  Manila. 

The  results  of  the  above-mentioned  study  of  comparisons  we  pub- 
lish in  the  following  table,  in  which  the  sum  totals  of  the  prevailing 
winds  and  calms  vary  by  reason  of  the  omission  of  certain  winds. 

Prevailing  winds  in  Manila  during  the  month  of  July, 
[The  cyclonic  winds  of  the  third  quadrant  are  eliminated.] 


Year. 

N. 
NNW. 

WNW. 

SW. 

ssw. 

W. 

wsw. 

S. 

SSE. 

SE. 
ESE. 

E. 

ENE. 

NE. 
NNE. 

Calms. 

1890 

1.7 
1.0 
1.4 
2.0 
1.3 
0.8 
1.5 
0.8 
0.5 

1.5 
1.1 
0.6 
1.5 
1.4 
0.6 
1.9 
0.7 
0.7 

0.9 
0.6 
0.7 
1.0 
0.7 
0.8 
0.8 
1.3 
0.8 

0.3 
0.,4 
0.5 
1.3 
1.3 
1.1 
1.0 
1.3 
1.0 

1.6 
4.4 
3.1 
1.5 
2.5 
1.8 
2.5 
1.9 
1.6 

0.9 
1.4 
1.6 
1.5 
1.2 
0.9 
2.7 
2.6 
2.5 

1.6 
1.1 
3.1 
2.2 
1.4 
0.9 
1.1 
1.8 
2.1 

1.3 
0.5 
1.7 

3.2 
2.2 
1.7 

1.8 
1.8 
0.7 

3.7 

1891            .                     

3.9 

1892 

2.3 

1893                             

1.9 

1894 ... 

4.2 

1895                                 

6.3 

1896 

3.3 

1897                               

6.3 

1898 

9.8 

Total 

11.0 
1.2 

10.0 
1.1 

7.6 
0.8 

8.2 
0.9 

20.9 
2.3 

15.3 
1.7 

14.1 
1.6 

14.9 
1.7 

41.7 

Mean 

4.6 

From  the  medium  equivalents  of  the  foregoing  table  it  can  be  seen 
that  the  prevailing  winds  in  Manila  in  normal  weather  are  of  the  sec- 
ond quadrant  or  tropical  winds  of  the  Southern  Hemisphere. 

Accordingly,  the  southwest  winds  of  July  are  not,  scientifically 
speaking,  monsoons.^  A  like  study  could  be  made  from  the  meteoro- 
logical data  of  the  months  of  August  and  September  giving  identical 
results.  The  prior  argument  acquires  still  more  force  when  we  con- 
sider that  from  time  immemorial  the  tribe  of  Indians  found  in  the  west- 

^  Remember  what  we  said  in  the  affirmative  as  to  the  foregoing  in  the  Meteorolog- 
ical Review  of  the  month  of  July,  1897. 

In  the  observations  made  in  the  present  month  of  July  we  find  a  very  convincing 
proof  of  the  opinion  we  have  so  often  given  in  our  publications,  that  the  southwest 
winds  in  the  months  of  July,  August,  and  September  in  the  Philippines  are  not  real 
monsoons,  inasmuch  as  they  only  predominate  when  we  feel  some  atmospheric 
depressions  that  run  along  the  northern  quadrant.  Look  at  the  table  of  equivalent 
extremes  and  it  will  be  seen  at  a  glance  that  during  the  whole  month  the  pre- 
vailing winds  were  from  the  third  quarter  from  the  1st  to  the  5th,  the  17th  to  the 
18th,  and  from  the  23d  to  the  last  of  the  month;  yet  from  the  1st  to  the  5th  there 
existed  in  the  archipelago  a  depression  from  the  month  before,  drifting  northerly; 
and  from  the  23d  to  the  last  of  the  month  it  will  be  seen,  from  what  we  shall  say 
later,  that  we  were  under  the  influences  of  depressions,  also  drifting  along  the  north- 
ern quadrant;  and,  lastly,  during  the  17th  and  18th  of  the  month  there  was  in  high 
parallels  in  Japan  a  center  of  low  pressure,  the  extreme  of  which  almost  reached 
to  the  extreme  northern  point  of  the  island  of  Formosa,  as  can  be  seen  from  the 
daily  maps  published  by  the  central  observatory  of  Tokyo.  We  have  to  confess  that, 
after  having  suspected  the  existence  of  this  cyclonic  center  merely  by  observing  that 
the  winds  of  the  third  quadrant  continued  to  blow  in  Manila  outside  the  accustomed 
hours,  we  felt  a  real  satisfaction  in  finding  our  suspicions  fully  confirmed  by  refer- 
ence to  the  tables  referred  to.  During  the  rest  of  the  month  the  southwest  winds 
have  blown  on  certain  few  occasions,  and  only  at  the  time  of  the  brisa,  which  here 
in  Manila  blows  from  that  quarter. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET   OF   THE   PHILIPPHSTE    COMMISSION.  235 

ern  parts  of  Luzon  took  advantage  of  the  month  of  August  to  set  sail 
with  their  boats  to  various  southern  points,  as  the  "prevail  wind"  (as 
they  used  to  call  it  in  their  tongue)  was  the  small  monsoon  or  winds 
from  the  first  quadrant  and  sometimes  of  the  second,  that  is  to  say, 
easterly  winds.  Because  it  is  true  that  during  the  month  of  August 
the  atmospheric  depressions  are  less,  and  the  winds  from  the  third 
quadrant  are  less  prevalent,  which,  if  they  had  been  real  monsoons 
from  the  China  seas,  would  not  have  given  rise  to  such  persistent  popu- 
lar belief. 

What  we  have  said  is  sufficient  to  confirm  our  position,  all  the  more 
so  because,  according  to  the  opinion  of  those  who  have  dealt  with 
monsoons,  it  is  during  the  month  of  eJuly  that  they  are  most  encoun- 
tered in  the  whole  zone  of  our  archipelago. 

If  the  winds  of  the  third  quadrant  in  the  Philippines  and  the  China 
Sea  were  real  monsoons,^  that  is  to  say,  a  wind  coming  at  regular 
times  and  regular  in  force,  caused  by  a  general  unbalancing  of  the 
atmosphere,  but  distinct  from  that  which  originates  the  tropical  winds, 
there  is  no  reason  that  there  should  be  any  difficulty  in  explaining  why 
they  prevail  in  such  a  small  area,  as  in  the  lower  part  of  the  China 
Sea  and  in  the  archipelago. 

In  neither  the  western  Carolinas,  for  example,  nor  in  the  islands  of 
Batanes,  nor  on  the  coast  of  China,  nor  in  the  canals  of  Bachi  and 
Balintang,  from  the  parallel  20°  and  other  localities  and  contiguous 
seas  that  are  in  similar  physical  conditions  to  our  archipelago,  do  the 
winds  of  the  third  quadrant  prevail,  but  only  easterly  winds.  ^  Nor 
should  it  be  said  that  the  southwest  monsoon  in  the  Philippines  and 
the  China  Sea  is  the  cause  of  the  real  monsoon  of  the  Indian  Ocean, 
because,  were  this  so,  the  real  monsoon  should  prevail  in  the  lands 
and  seas  lying  between,  but  neither  in  the  westerly  ones  north  of 
Borneo  and  contiguous  seas  nor  in  Sumatra  do  the  winds  of  the  third 
quarter  prevail,  but  those  from  the  south,  or  tropical  winds. 

As  in  good  logic  it  can  not  be  admitted  that  the  winds  of  the  third 
quadrant,  which  prevail  in  the  Philippines  in  the  months  of  July, 
August,  and  September,  are  monsoons  in  the  correct  sense  of  the  term, 
but  are  winds  of  depression,  to  what  frequent  atmospheric  changes 
and  disturbances  must  our  archipelago  be  exposed  south  of  the  China 
Sea  that  such  winds  should  prevail  during  so  many  months?  From  a 
careful  study  of  the  trajectories  (or  planes)  of  real  Philippine  cyclones 
in  the  months  of  July,  August,  and  September  we  can  say:  First, 
that  when  their  vortices  enter  into  the  archipelago  they  occupy  at  least 
the  parallel  12°  N. ;  and  the  influence  of  the  cyclone  at  regular  dis- 
tances from  its  entering  the  archipelago  until  its  disappearance  in  the 
continent  keeps  in  commotion  for  several  days  all  points  south  of  the 
China  Sea  and  the  greater  portion  of  the  archipelago,  drawing  toward 
it  the  currents  from  the  third  quadrant. 

Second.  The  following  is  worthy  of  note:  During  the  months  of 
July,  August,  and  September  many  of  the  cyclones  whirl  around  to 
the  east  of  the  Straits  of  Baschi  and  Baligegtan,  or  of  the  island  of 
Formosa,  as  well  as  to  the  west  of  the  Batanes  Islands,  or  the  Formosa 

^ The  word  monsoon  (manzon)  comes  from  mandnc,  Arabic,  which  means  ''season" 
or  part  of  the  year. 

2  The  Winds  of  Globe,  by  Coffin;  Discussion  and  Analysis  of  Winds,  by  Wyckoff, 
p.  735. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


236  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Strait,  whence  they  exert  their  influence  on  the  whole  of  the  archipel- 
ago and  the  south  of  the  China  Sea  of  ten  for  many  days,  being  often 
slow  in  their  returning  course.  We  know  of  cases  where  it  has  taken 
the  vortex  of  the  cyclone  five  days  to  revolve  or  recurve.  On  the 
other  hand,  when  the  cyclones  follow  tracts  much  inclined  to  the  north, 
after  they  have  returned  they  exert  their  influence  in  the  lower  lati- 
tudes again  for  many  successive  days,  so  that  it  results  not  infrequently 
that  the  influence  of  a  single  typhoon  is  felt  for  the  space  of  twelve, 
fourteen,  or  more  days. 

If  we  further  allege  that  oftentimes  these  cyclones  follow  each 
other  closely,  four  or  five  days  apart,  during  the  months  of  July, 
August,  and  September,  it  can  be  possible  that  the  southwesters  pre- 
vail for  many  days  in  those  localities. 

Besides,  it  often  happens,  and  singularly,  too,  that  in  the  months  of 
June  and  July  there  develop  in  the  northwest,  north,  and  north-north- 
east of  Luzon  centers  of  minimum  pressure  so  slowly  that  they 
appear  to  remain  stationary  for  many  days,  followed,  as  is  natural,  by 
continuous  currents  and  showers  of  rain  from  the  third  quadrants, 
known  by  the  native-born  residents  as  '^coUas,"  which  we  will  have 
occasion  to  describe  in  Chapter  VIII. 

We  will  close  this  proof  with  a  further  suggestion.  Our  experi- 
ence teaches  us  that  in  Manila  (and  the  same  happens,  no  doubt,  in  the 
China  Sea)  the  winds  of  the  third  quadrants  are  so  ahead  of  time  on 
the  approach  of  a  cyclonic  vortex  to  the  east  of  Luzon,  in  the  Pacific, 
that  not  only  there  is  a  complete  convergence,  but  also  it  is  not  rare  to 
have  the  southwest  winds  prevail  when  the  vortex  is  directly  east  of 
the  observer. 

On  the  other  hand,  it  is  a  fact  that  the  advance  of  the  southwesters 
in  Manila  is  greater  when  the  angle  formed  by  the  trajectory  and 
parallel  are  greater,  measuring  the  angle  from  east  to  west,  on  the 
north.  This  angle  increases  in  April,  May,  June,  July,  and  August, 
and  consequently  during  these  months  with  more  frequency  and  prev- 
alence the  southwesters  advance.  This  being  so,  what  is  the  cause  of 
such  peculiar  phenomena?  We  judge  it  is  nothing  more  than  the 
tropical  winds  from  the  southeast,  which  are  the  normal  winds  of 
April,  May,  and  June,  and  probably  those  of  July  and  August. 

In  effect,  the  cyclonic  vortex  being  to  the  east  of  the  observer,  there 
ought  to  be  winds  from  the  fourth  quadrant,  though  slight;  and  even 
though  the  cyclone  is  at  a  moderate  distance  (and  this  does  not  take 
place,  as  shown  by  experience),  it  is  hard  to  admit  a  general  cause 
which  drifts  the  winds  to  the  third  quadrant,  and  this  cause  seems  to 
be  none  else  than  the  tropical  winds  from  southeast  which  may  be 
confused  with  those  of  the  fourth  quadrant,  giving  always  results  of 
the  third  quadrant  as  observed;  and  being  of  light  force,  readily 
explains  why  they  exert  a  very  slight  influence  on  the  cyclonic  winds. 

III.--HOURLY  PREVALENCE  OF  THE  WINDS  IN  MANILA, 

HOURLY   MONTHLY   FREQUENCY. 

After  having  treated,  in  the  two  prior  paragraphs,  of  the  monthly 
and  annual  frequency  of  the  winds  in  Manila,  we  will  devote  ourselves 
here  to  the  hourly  frequency,  studying,  before  all,  the  medium  hourly 
prevalence  or  frequency  in  each  month,  and  thereafter  the  medium 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


237 


hourly  annual  frequency.  For  the  first  step  we  have  formulated  Table 
LXXXI,  in  which  we  give,  hour  by  hour,  the  number  of  times  each 
of  the  sixteen  principal  directions  of  the  wind  is  found  in  the  records 
of  this  observatory  from  1892-1898.  Bear  in  mind  that  in  this  work 
and  some  of  the  former  works  we  have  omitted  some  days,  wherein  some 
hour  of  observation  is  lacking,  as  we  have  hereinbefore  mentioned. 


Table  LXXXI.- 


-Mean  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manila^  averaged 
by  months^  for  the  period  1892-1898. 


JANUARY. 


Direction, 

1a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.  m. 

5  a.  m. 

6  a.  m. 

7  a.  m. 

8  a.  m. 

9  a.  m. 

10  a.m. 

11  a.m. 

12  m. 

N. 

35 

34 

35 

39 

38 

38 

39 

30 

37 

19 

8 

10 

NNE. 

25 

42 

36 

39 

36 

32 

24 

40 

35 

13 

17 

11 

NE. 

28 

26 

27 

U 

38 

36 

32 

36 

26 

19 

17 

15 

ENE. 

11 

9 

17 

19 

20 

17 

16 

14 

11 

7 

5 

8 

E. 

14 

n 

10 

9 

9 

9 

8 

7 

11 

11 

2 

8 

ESE. 

12 

9 

5 

4 

6 

2 

•  2 

2 

5 

6 

SE. 

8 

5 

4 

5 

1 

1 

1 

6 

2 

4 

SSE. 

3 
1 

3 
1 

1 

2 

1 
3 
3 

S. 

5 
6 

8 
11 

7 

ssw. 

8 

sw. 

5 

18 

11 

21 

wsw. 

1 
3 

6 
7 

26 
41 

38 
54 

36 

w. 

2 

1 

1 

1 

48 

WNW. 

2 
1 

3 
1 

8 
5 

12 
11 

20 
11 

16 

NW. 

2 

3 

1 

1 

2 

12 

NNW. 

3 

5 

7 

5 

2 

6 

7 

8 

13 

11 

6 

2 

Calm. 

70 

m 

72 

57 

G& 

76 

86 

78 

40 

16 

2 

5 

Direction. 

Ip.  m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.  m. 

4  p.  m. 

5  p.  m. 

6  p.  m. 

7  p.  m. 
9 

8  p.  ra. 

9  p.  m. 

10  p.m. 

11  p.  m. 

12  p.m. 

N. 

7 

5 

4 

7 

y 

13 

13 

14 

18 

23 

28 

NNE. 

10 

12 

16 

12 

15 

19 

16 

14 

8 

15 

18 

22 

NE. 

16 

15 

8 

24 

16 

20 

19 

15 

17 

11 

8 

25 

ENE. 

11 

10 

14 

11 

22 

15 

11 

15 

17 

8 

10 

11 

E. 

7 

20 

24 

26 

36 

38 

59 

44 

35 

31 

27 

17 

ESE. 

10 

8 

12 

24 

27 

41 

33 

37 

34 

32 

25 

17 

SE. 

4 

8 

20 

22 

26 

22 

22 

15 

22 

17 

12 

13 

SSE. 

7 

5 

5 

9 

8 

3 

1 

7 

5 

3 

6 

3 

s. 

7 

9 

6 

8 

8 

3 

2 

3 

1 

3 

1 

SSW. 

9 

13 

10 

5 

3 

2 

3 

5 

1 

1 

sw. 

21 
41 
36 
13 
9 

19 
41 

30 
9 

7 

17 
37 
22 
4 
4 

6 
.   33 
10 
6 
4 

6 
11 
1 
4 
3 

7 

2 

1 

5 
3 

2 
2 

2 
1 
1 

1 

wsw. 

1 

w. 

1 

WNW. 

1 
5 

1 

NW. 

1 

1 

1 

2 

NNW. 

3 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

2 

4 

3 

5 

Calm. 

6 

5 

13 

9 

23 

30 

35 

46 

53 

72 

79 

69 

FEBRUARY. 


Direction. 

1  a.m. 

2  a.  m. 

3  a.  m. 

4a.m. 

5  a.  m. 

6  a.  m. 

7  a.  m. 

8  a.m. 

9a.m 

10  a.  m. 

11a.m. 

12  m. 

N. 

17 

14 

16 

21 

25 

21 

24 

22 

17 

6 

3 

1 

NNE. 

14 

12 

22 

25 

16 

21 

21 

17 

17 

4 

2 

1 

NE. 

13 

21 

20 

22 

26 

25 

27 

26 

12 

7 

2 

5 

ENE. 

6 

12 

20 

19 

20 

20 

16 

18 

9 

6 

7 

5 

E. 

23 

23 

15 

10 

7 

10 

11 

8 

8 

12 

♦   9 

13 

ESE. 

13 

9 

9 

8 

8 

5 

,   4 

5 

7 

8 

9 

SE. 

18 

12 

6 

5 

2 

1 

6 

3 

4 

5 

SSE. 

2 
2 

1 
1 

2 
1 

1 
1 

1 

3 
4 

1 

2 

5 
4 

1^ 

i 
? 

3 
1 
2 

S. 

SSW. 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 

1 

1 

10 
7 
21 
20 
11 
5 

9 
22 
82 
57 
15 

6 

5 

23 
47 
41 
26 
9 

sw. 

1 

1 

wsw. 

1 

i 

w. 

WNW. 

2 
1 

1 

1 
3 

5' 

3 
1 

NW. 

3 

3 

NNW. 

5 

7 

4 

4 

2 

2 

4 

3 

2 

Calm. 

80 

81 

78 

79 

86 

87 

90 

93 

89 

6 

1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


238 


BE  PORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXXI.— ifean  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  189^-1898— Continned, 

FEBRUARY— Continued. 


Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.m. 

11p.m. 

12  p.m. 

N 

2 

2 

4 

3 

5 

5 

3 

6 

9 

8 

13 

NNE 

3 

1 

2 

2 

1 

3 

3 

1 

1 

5 

5 

NE. 

4 

5 

8 

-   12 

6 

10 

10 

6 

4 

7 

11 

10 

ENE. 
E 

5 

4 

4 

11 

18 

15 

7 

9 

7 

10 

12 

10 

12 

17 

21 

20 

31 

48 

64 

74 

55 

43 

44 

32 

ESE 

19 

22 

25 

38 

49 

45 

53 

39 

33 

39 

25 

21 

SE 

6 

.13 

24 

37 

34 

40 

27 

29 

44 

34 

33 

26 

SSE. 

5 

9 

16 

23 

15 

13 

5 

2 

4 

4 

3 

3 
1 

S. 

7 

4 

9 

3 

3 

2 

3 

5 

ssw. 

12 

8 

11 

1 

3 

2 

2 

3 

1 

i 

18 

24 

19 

8 

5 

5 

4 

3 

1 

wsw. 

51 

39 

32 

17 

10 

2 

1 

1 

2 

w. 

WNW. 

41 
13 

"26 
12 

15 

7 

8 

4 

3 

2 

1 

1 

1 

3 

NW. 

2 

4 

2 

4 

1 

'^ 

2 
2 
46 

1 
33 

4 

NNW. 
Calm. 

1 
4 

42' 

1 

3 

5 

10 

9 

16 

23 

68 

MARCH. 


Direction. 


N. 
NNE. 
NE. 
ENE. 

E. 
ESE. 

SE. 
SSE. 

S. 
SSW. 

sw. 

wsw. 

w. 

WNW. 

NW. 

NNW. 

Calm. 


3  a.  m. 


2 

1 

4 

100 


9a.m. 

10  a.m. 

11  a.m. 

12  m. 

11 

4 

3 

1 

12 

4 

3 

4 

9 

6 

3 

4 

14 

8 

11 

10 

7 

15 

8 

14 

12 

9 

13 

12 

7 

6 

8 

12 

1 

3 

3 

5 

9 

4 

2 

3 

3 

6 

5 

3 

16 

14 

16 

29 

33 

48 

51 

43 

27 

50 

58 

48 

4 

19 

14 

19 

12 

12 

12 

3 

10 

4 

3 

2 

30 

5 

4 

5 

Direction. 


N. 
NNE. 

NE. 
ENE. 

E. 
ESE. 

SE. 
SSE. 

S. 
SSW. 
SW. 

wsw. 
w. 

WNW. 
NW. 
NNW. 
Calm. 


Ip.  m, 


2  p.m.  3  p.m. 


4  p.m. 


5  p.m.  6p.  m 


7  p.m. 


8  p.m. 


9  p.  m . 


10  p.m. 


11  p.  m. 


12p.m. 


4 
15 
11 
30 
41 
29 

7 


2 
62 


Hosted  by 


Google 


KEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


239 


Table  LXXXI.- 


-Mean  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  1892-1898 — Continued. 


APRIL. 


Direction. 


N. 
NNE. 
NE. 
ENE. 

E. 
ESE. 
SE. 
SSE. 

S. 

ssw. 

sw. 

wsw. 

w. 

WNW. 
NW. 
NNW 
Calm. 


1 

1 

100 


1 

124 


8  a.  m 


1 
11 

18 
13 
9 
6 
2 
20 
48 
53 
20 
2 


Direction. 


N. 
NNE. 
NE. 
ENE. 

E. 
ESE. 
SE. 
SSE. 

S. 
SSW. 

sw. 

wsw. 

w. 

WNW. 
NW. 
NNW. 
Calm. 


1p.m. 


2p.m 


3  p.m. 


4  p.m. 


5  p.m. 


6  p.  m. 


7  p.m. 


8  p.  m. 


6  p.m. 


10  p.m. 


11  p.  m. 


12  p.m. 


4 

7 
12 

8 
23 
34 
39 

5 


2 
4 
61 


MAY. 


Direction. 

1a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.  m. 

10  a.  m. 

11  a.  m. 

12  m. 

N. 

21 

19 

20 

17 

17 

10 

14 

14 

2 

4 

1 

2 

NNE. 

18. 

22 

24 

23 

11 

16 

12 

9 

7 

3 

1 

NE. 

21 

17 

21 

20 

21 

26 

14 

15 

7 

2 

3 

4 

ENE. 

5 

10 

8 

17 

15 

11 

19 

8 

3 

4 

3 

3 

E. 

15 

17 

13 

14 

21 

16 

18 

11 

11 

6 

6 

3 

ESE. 

13 

14 

11 

10 

7 

10 

13 

16 

13 

12 

12 

6 

SE. 

18 

18 

16 

14 

10 

5 

8 

23 

11 

14 

^l 

15 

SSE. 

9 

9 

7 

7 

4 

6 

4 

6 

7 

3 

6 

8 

S. 

6 

5 

4 

2 

4 

1 

2 

7 

12 

7 

6 

6 

SSW. 

4 

2 

3 

3 

1 

1 

7 

14 

12 

8 

9 

sw. 

9 

6 

5 

2 

5 

3 

2 

12 

31 

31 

32 

34 

wsw. 

3 

7 

6 

4 

1 

2 

3 

5 

26 

41 

52 

46 

w. 

1 

1 

5 

2 

1 

5 

29 

39 

40 

54 

WNW. 

1 
1 

1 

2 

1 

3 
4 

5 

8 

10 
13 

16 
6 

12 

NW. 

2 

1 

6 

NNW. 

4 

5 

4 

4 

3 

3 

3 

5 

4 

2 

5 

2 

Calm. 

69 

63 

74 

75 

97 

103 

102 

67 

27 

14 

7 

7 

P  C — YOL  4 — 01- 


-20 


Hosted  by 


Google 


240 


BEPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXXI. — Mean  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  1892-1898 — Continued. 


MAY— Continued. 


Direction, 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.  m. 

11  p.  m. 

12  p.m. 

N. 

4 

7 

9 

5 

6 

3 

4 

7 

11 

15 

18 

15 

NNE. 

2 

6 

4 

3 

6 

6 

4 

4 

6 

10 

14 

19 

NE. 

3 

3 

7 

16 

13 

12 

7 

8 

7 

10 

10 

12 

ENE. 

3 

3 

3 

7 

6 

14 

6 

6 

7 

4 

3 

E. 

6 

6 

8 

8 

12 

13 

12 

25 

18 

22 

11 

16 

ESE. 

9 

9 

10 

16 

8 

18 

19 

17 

22 

13 

23 

14 

SE. 

17 

18 

20 

11 

19 

17 

21 

17 

20 

25 

16 

18 

SSE. 

6 

6 

8 

13 

9 

4 

10 

12 

12 

8 

10 

9 

S. 

8 

7 

11 

9 

13 

16 

15 

18 

16 

11 

11 

7 

ssw. 

..       9 

12 

12 

17 

26 

19 

20 

21 

17 

9 

10 

6 

sw. 

31 

40 

44 

48 

42 

40 

37 

25 

18 

15 

8 

9 

wsw. 

57 

50 

38 

33 

23 

22 

11 

8 

6 

6 

5 

4 

w. 

42 

40 

19 

8 

8 

6 

2 

2 

1 

3 

1 

1 

WNW. 

13 

4 

11 

3 

1 

1 

2 

1 

2 

1 

3 

NW. 

3 

4 

5 

3 

2 

1 

1 

2 

1 

3 

NNW. 

2 

1 

3 

1 

1 

2 

3 

1 

.3 

3 

Calm. 

5 

2 

7 

18 

23 

32 

37 

43 

62 

69 

69 

78 

JUNE. 


Direction. 

1  a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.m. 

11  a.  m. 

12  m. 

N. 

22 

24 

26 

19 

18 

7 

10 

10 

7 

4 

4 

2 

NNE. 

15 

15 

17 

16 

12 

21 

25 

5 

6 

3 

1 

2 

NE. 

21 

8 

23 
13 

21 

7 

28 
10 

27 
6 

24 
10 

24 
12 

24 

6 

12 
2 

4 
1 

ENE. 

3 

2 

E. 

19 

9 

14 

11 

14 

18 

20 

19 

10 

8 

9 

10 

ESE. 

13 

9 

7 

11 

17 

8 

8 

9 

18 

19 

16 

18 

SE. 

8 

8 

11 

12 

11 

9 

11 

16 

12 

9 

14 

13 

SSE. 

8 

6 

4 

4 

4 

5 

8 

13 

7 

6 

7 

8 

S. 

9 

7 

11 

9 

7 

7 

7 

11 

15 

10 

5 

4 

SSW. 

6 

15 

10 

6 

3 

4 

7 

2 

16 

12 

17 

12 

sw. 

13 

8 

9 

8 

3 

3 

4 

8 

27 

43 

28 

26 

wsw. 

3 

4 

5 

6 

2 

2 

4 

13 

24 

39 

50 

w. 

2 

1 

1 

1 

3 

3 

1 

1 

19 

33 

36 

35 

WNW. 

1 
2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

3' 

3 
5 
4 

5 

5 
3 

10 
6 
4 

17 

I 

17 

NW. 

3 
2 

1 
1 

1 
3 

5 

NNW. 

3 

4 

2 

Calm. 

58 

63 

62 

64 

81 

87 

67 

70 

33 

14 

5 

4 

Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.  m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.m. 

11  p.  m. 

12p.m. 

N. 

3 

4 

4 

8 

5 

3 

4 

4 

11 

9 

8 

10 

NNE. 

2 

3 

5 

8 

13 

7 

2 

6 

3 

7 

4 

H 

NE. 

3 

5 

5 

8 

10 

9 

8 

8 

6 

11 

17 

21 

ENE. 

1 

7 

3 

'   5 

11 

12 

6 

8 

13 

7 

8 

E. 

5 

8 

12 

14 

14 

22 

18 

24 

28 

24 

23 

16 

ESE. 

22 

17 

20 

12 

14 

14 

13 

8 

10 

15 

6 

9 

SE. 

15 

15 

10 

15 

21 

11 

23 

21 

18 

19 

18 

13 

SSE. 

3 

4 

17 

7 

7 

4 

7 

7 

6 

6 

8 

9 

S. 

6 

3 

6 

10 

11 

11 

13 

11 

8 

7 

9 

3 

SSW. 

10 

7 

11 

14 

•  13 

14 

14 

-  15 

9 

10 

14 

13 

sw. 

32 

35 

40 

30 

38 

31 

27 

18 

21 

15 

8 

9 

wsw. 

43 

43 

35 

44 

23 

28 

19 

15 

8 

10 

7 

6 

w. 

37 

28 

18 

11 

5 

1 

8 

4 

5 

2 

4 

3 

WNW. 

16 

13 

16 

3 

2 

2 

3 

4 

1 

1 

1 

3 

NW. 

8 

8 

7 

9 

7 

3 

2 

1 

4 

2 

NNW. 

3 

1 

1 

2 

4 

1 

3 

4 

1 

2 

3 

Calm. 

1 

10 

7 

13 

20 

35 

36 

56 

63 

56 

72 

74 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


241 


Table  LXXXI. — Mean  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manilaj  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  1892-1898 — Continued. 


JULY. 


Direction. 

1  a.  m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.  m. 

4  a.m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.  m. 

11  a.  m. 

12  md. 

N. 

15 

16 

16 

14 

11 

13 

10 

9 

3 

2 

4 

3 

NNE. 

12 

14 

16 

15 

11 

11 

16 

14 

4 

2 

2 

NE. 

8 

14 

13 

18 

22 

14 

21 

9 

5 

2 

1 

2 

ENE. 

12 

11 

9 

9 

10 

12 

11 

8 

7 

2 

3 

E. 

8 

4 

5 

9 

18 

14 

12 

17 

15 

8 

2 

6 

ESE. 

5 

4 

5 

8 

7 

11 

7 

15 

11 

8 

6 

8 

SE. 

12 

13 

17 

12 

10 

11 

9 

9 

16 

12 

10 

8 

SSE. 

11 

12 

6 

11 

8 

7 

7 

8 

9 

6 

3 

S. 

6 

5 

8 

9 

2 

7 

7 

15 

24 

15 

9 

5 

SSW. 

17 

14 

15 

10 

8 

9 

3 

12 

16 

31 

33 

24 

SW. 

20 

16 

17 

12 

12 

4 

9 

10 

17 

37 

45 

53 

wsw. 

9 

10 

7 

7 

9 

8 

■  5 

7 

20 

31 

37 

50 

w. 

5 

5 

3 

4 

3 

3 

2 

4 

17 

26 

33 

39 

WNW. 

1 

1 

3 

3 

2 

3 

2 

7 

9 

12 

11 

NW. 

5 

6 

8 

4 

3 

1 

3 

2 

10 

11 

8 

4 

NNW. 

5 

5 

5 

7 

2 

4 

1 

3 

3 

2 

2 

Calm. 

66 

67 

64 

65 

79 

85 

94 

.  73 

33 

13 

7 

4 

Direction. 

1  p.m. 

2  p.  m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.m. 

11  p.m. 

12  mn. 

N. 

5 

5 

2 

3 

6 

2 

5 

6 

9 

10 

14 

9 

NNE. 

3 

5 

9 

3 

5 

6 

3 

8 

14 

13 

12 

NE. 

4 

5 

4 

2 

7 

5 

9 

11 

12 

12 

13 

ENE. 

1 

3 

6 

6 

6 

6 

11 

9 

10 

9 

8 

E. 

7 

4 

6 

6 

11 

17 

11 

11 

12 

8 

5 

7 

ESE. 

5 

5 

3 

5 

8 

5 

7 

3 

3 

4 

6 

5 

SE. 

6 

3 

6 

6 

8 

8 

14 

11 

10 

10 

12 

12 

SSE. 

3 

4 

6 

13 

9 

12 

14 

11 

15 

12 

13 

17 

S. 

5 

9 

13 

9 

10 

19 

9 

15 

12 

14 

14 

6 

SSW. 

24 

22 

22 

25 

34 

24 

25 

20 

19 

21 

15 

17 

SW. 

43 

50 

53 

59 

54 

48 

46 

30 

27 

20 

23 

21 

wsw. 

57 

51 

46 

34 

31 

31 

18 

24 

12 

11 

% 

7 

w. 

35 

28 

23 

13 

5 

3 

7 

4 

8 

6 

7 

6 

WNW. 

14 

13 

7 

7 

9 

5 

3 

3 

2 

6 

1 

2 

NW. 

6 

3 

8 

3 

2 

1 

2 

5 

1 

2 

2 

1 

NNW. 

2 

2 

1 

2 

1 

4 

4 

3 

6 

7 

Calm. 

5 

10 

9 

15. 

18 

22 

39 

51 

55 

54 

59 

67 

AUGUST. 


Direction. 

1  a.  m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.  m. 

4  a.m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.m. 

11  a.  m. 

12  md. 

N. 

12 

9 

12 

13 

8 

10 

11 

5 

3 

2 

2 

1 

NNE. 

8 

10 

9 

13 

18 

9 

9 

11 

4 

4 

3 

3 

NE. 

9 

9 

13 

21 

8 

13 

13 

17 

5 

3 

1 

2 

ENE. 

8 

6 

8 

5 

12 

4 

7 

6 

4 

1 

2 

E. 

7 

8 

6 

11 

18 

20 

15 

13 

8 

9 

4 

3 

ESE. 

7 

/ 

14 

9 

7 

12 

11 

12 

6 

6 

5 

5 

SE. 

4 

4 

6 

4 

4 

8 

4 

6 

11 

8 

5 

6 

SSE. 

9 

7 

6 

9 

6 

5 

5 

6 

9 

3 

3 

1 

S. 

8 

11 

12 

8 

6 

6 

6 

13 

17 

17 

8 

5 

SSW. 

21 

24 

12 

18 

16 

17 

15 

21 

17 

23 

19 

19 

SW. 

15 

14 

18 

14 

6 

11 

14 

12 

29 

39 

52 

46 

wsw. 

26 

23 

22 

17 

16 

12 

14 

13 

28 

46 

44 

65 

w. 

5 

3 

4 

8 

4 

2 

5 

10 

14 

30 

30 

WNW. 

1 

7 

1 

6 

3 

1 

4 

6 

12 

12 

10 

NW. 

5 

2 

3 

3 

1 

3 

5 

8 

8 

5 

NNW. 

1 

3 

3 

4 

4 

3 

3 

5 

5 

5 

2 

1 

Calm. 

63 

62 

60 

49 

70 

76 

81 

57 

42 

9 

11 

5 

Hosted  by 


Google 


242 


REPOET   OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXXI. — Mea7i  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  tvind  in  Manila,  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  1892-1898 — Continued. 


AUGUST— Continued. 


Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.  m. 

11  p.  m. 

12  mn. 

N. 

2 

3 

4 

4 

2 

3 

5 

3 

11 

12 

11 

18 

NNE. 

3 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

2 

2 

5 

5 

2 

4 

NE. 

3 

4 

5 

8 

5 

6 

10 

7 

9 

12 

10 

ENE. 

\ 

1 
4 

4 

3 

1 

8 

1 
11 

4 

8 

4 

7 

2 
10 

6 

7 

6 

E. 

1 

9 

ESE. 

3 

3 

2 

2 

3 

5 

5 

5 

8 

4 

9 

7 

SE. 

4 

3 

7 

6 

3 

4 

9 

9 

11 

15 

8 

9 

SSE. 

4 

2 

3 

6 

5 

10 

6 

5 

8 

4 

2 

S. 

5 

4 

5 

10 

10 

6 

10 

10 

17 

12 

10 

6 

ssw. 

15 

20 

18 

21 

24 

21 

30 

28 

24 

25 

26 

29 

sw. 

52 

52 

58 

76 

63 

65 

45 

36 

24 

22 

22 

16 

wsw. 

65 

74 

67 

46 

52 

42 

35 

35 

24 

17 

17 

20 

w. 

30 

21 

14 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

10 

10 

7 

7 

WNW. 

10 

11 

11 

7 

2 

5 

4 

3 

2 

2 

2 

4 

NW. 

5 

5 

6 

5 

3 

4 

1 

3 

1 

4 

5 

4 

NNW. 

3 

3 

2 

2 

3 

2 

3 

3 

4 

3 

3 

2 

'Lalm. 

6 

4 

5 

9 

15 

26 

27 

40 

45 

49 

58 

56 

SEPTEMBER. 


Direction. 

1  a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.m. 

11  a.  m. 

12  m. 

N. 

5 

7 

10 

12 

17 

12 

10 

10 

4 

3 

3 

3 

NNE. 

10 

15 

14 

9 

8 

7 

6 

7 

6 

2 

3 

2 

NE. 

7 

10 

11 

13 

8 

15 

7 

9 

5 

5 

1 

1 

ENE. 

4 

9 

7 
12 

4 
16 

4 
14 

9 
13 

7 
13 

8 
17 

4 
15 

2 
5 

E. 

4 

1 

ESE. 

8 

8 

9 

9 

10 

11 

6 

11 

5 

4 

5 

SE. 

7 

5 

11 

7 

6 

9 

7 

9 

6 

7 

3 

4 

'W- 

10 

13 

5 

9 

5 

5 

6 

10 

12 

3 

4 

6 

9 

3 

10 

8 

10 

11 

12 

19 

26 

22 

16 

10 

SSW. 

18 

25 

15 

15 

11 

7 

6 

12 

24 

29 

21 

16 

sw. 

26 

21 

23 

21 

19 

21 

20 

22 

29 

35 

43 

42 

wsw. 

13 

12 

12 

11 

4 

4 

3, 

9 

25 

39 

58 

70 

w. 

9 

11 

7 

5 

8 

4 

3 

3 

9 

17 

30 

31 

WNW. 

3 

4 

6 

4 

1 

1 

3 

4 

5 

12 

7 

12 

NW. 

5 

5 

1 

3 

6 

1 

3 

4 

6 

9 

7 

3 

NNW. 

2 

2 

3 

3 

3 

4 

3 

2 

6 

4 

1 

4 

Calm. 

64 

49 

54 

62 

71 

77 

89 

59 

34 

14 

6 

5 

Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.  m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.m. 

11  p.  m. 

12  p.m. 

N. 

2 

3 

2 

2 

5 

2 

7 

3 

6 

9 

6 

NNE. 

3 

6 

3 

1 

3 

1 

8 

7 

8 

7 

7 

8 

NE. 

1 

1 

3 

1 

1 

2 

4 

4 

7 

7 

13 

13 

ENE. 

2 

1 

3 

2 

2 

2 

1 

4 

8 

7 

4 

E. 

1 

2 

4 

5 

5 

6 

5 

5 

10 

12 

10 

11 

ESE. 

3 

4 

1 

2 

3 

8 

7 

8 

13 

7 

7 

SE. 

5 

3 

3 

7 

9 

13 

13 

16 

9 

15 

13 

SSE. 

8 

7 

7 

6 

7 

8 

5 

8 

8 

11 

10 

5 

S. 

1 

6 

4 

9 

13 

13 

17 

16 

10 

9 

11 

8 

SSW. 

16 

24 

24 

17 

14 

17 

21 

20 

17 

15 

12 

19 

sw. 

63 

55 

65 

76 

76 

70 

62 

54 

44 

33 

26 

25 

wsw. 

53 

48 

54 

49 

41 

27 

18 

13 

14 

10 

18 

18 

w. 

30 

34 

24 

12 

6 

10 

10 

9 

5 

12 

8 

8 

WNW. 

9 

10 

4 

3 

3 

4 

2 

2 

5 

2 

2 

NW. 

6 

4 

1 

4 

3 

5 

1 

6 

8 

6 

4 

4 

NNW. 

2 

1 

3 

3 

1 

4 

7 

3 

4 

2 

Calm. 

9 

6 

5 

14 

21 

26 

31 

33 

35 

47 

46 

58 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOBT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


243 


Table  LXXXI. — Mean  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  1892-1898 — Continued. 


OCTOBER. 


Direction. 

1a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.m. 
20 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.  m. 

11a.m. 

12  m. 

N. 

16 

19 

22 

16 

19 

21 

24 

19 

10 

5 

5 

NNE. 

25 

26 

30 

18 

20 

24 

21 

34 

21 

5 

8 

10 

NE. 

17 

28 

22 

32 

33 

17 

21 

20 

6 

11 

7 

6 

ENE. 

8 

7 

8 

11 

8 

18 

11 

8 

10 

1 

2 

2 

E. 

14 

12 

9 

7 

14 

6 

12 

9 

10 

7 

4 

5 

ESE. 

3 

5 

10 

6 

12 

9 

8 

6 

11 

5 

4 

6 

SE. 

8 

8 

6 

8 

9 

10 

4 

5 

8 

10 

8 

6 

SSE. 

3 

4 

6 

9 

2 

6 

2 

5 

4 

6 

6 

2 

S. 

4 

1 

3 

1 

4 

4 

3 

7 

7 

8 

11 

6 

ssw. 

12 

12 

10 

7 

5 

5 

10 

9 

19 

18 

13 

19 

sw. 

8 

10 

6 

5 

5 

3 

1 

10 

23 

24 

28 

wsw. 

7 

4 

5 

3 

2 

3 

2 

5 

12 

30 

46 

51 

w. 

4 

4 

2 

1 

1 

4 

3 

3 

16 

28 

36 

33 

WNW. 

3 

4 

3 

2 

2 

1 

1 

1 

9 

15 

16 

12 

NW. 

2 

2 

2 

4 

7 

8 

5 

7 

NNW. 

10 

4 

5 

8 

3 

3 

6 

7 

8 

14 

4 

3 

Calm. 

75 

69 

70 

79 

79 

83 

89 

^0 

40 

18 

18 

16 

Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.  m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.m. 

11p.m. 

12  p.m. 

N. 

10 

3 

3 

2 

6 

1 

4 

5 

6 

13 

15 

20 

NNE. 

6 

7 

9 

16 

16 

14 

6 

7 

9 

13 

15 

20 

NE. 

8 

8 

11 

2 

10 

15 

13 

10 

'  13 

9 

11 

18 

ENE. 

2 

6 

4 

7 

6 

7 

12 

5 

11 

6 

8 

7 

E. 

6 

5 

6 

6 

11 

17 

14 

19 

22 

17 

14 

12 

ESE. 

6 

8 

7 

13 

9 

8 

11 

15 

9 

16 

11 

5 

SE. 

4 

7 

8 

11 

13 

11 

11 

11 

8 

11 

13 

12 

SSE. 

2 

6 

9 

16 

10 

8 

8 

9 

11 

7 

6 

7 

S. 

6 

13 

9 

7 

8 

7 

10 

4 

7 

4 

7 

4 

SSW. 

20 

16 

16 

16 

15 

13 

12 

11 

13 

12 

8 

9 

sw. 

29 

32 

38 

32 

25 

24 

22 

18 

13 

9 

8 

5 

wsw. 

56 

55 

44 

32 

26 

25 

15 

14 

10 

4 

5 

7 

w. 

30 

20 

20 

19 

8 

4 

5 

4 

1 

4 

4 

2 

WNW. 

11 

9 

5 

8 

6 

5 

2 

6 

5 

6 

4 

8 

NW. 

3 

6 

2 

3 

2 

3 

4 

1 

2 

3 

3 

8 

NNW. 

2 

2 

3 

1 

2 

1 

6 

5 

7 

5 

Calm. 

18 

16 

24 

25 

43 

54 

66 

77 

71 

78 

78 

78 

NOVEMBER. 


Direction. 

1a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.  m. 

5  a.m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.m. 

11a.  m. 

12  m. 

N. 

28 

30 

29 

37 

35 

37 

25 

28 

32 

10 

13 

14 

NNE. 

25 

32 

34 

32 

32 

25 

29 

33 

20 

21 

10 

7 

NE. 

24 

24 

24 

25 

27 

26 

29 

33 

19 

16 

13 

11 

ENE. 

3 

13 

13 

14 

12 

9 

14 

6 

9 

4 

8 

5 

E. 

7 

7 

7 

7 

11 

10 

5 

7 

8 

5 

2 

8 

ESE. 

5 

4 

3 

4 

4 

6 

1 

3 

4 

8 

6 

4 

SE. 

9 

5 

3 

3 

3 

3 

2 

3 

7 

4 

5 

2 

SSE. 

3 

1 

1 

2 

3 

1 

3 

5 

1 

1 

2 

S. 

3 

2 

1 

1 

3 

3 

1 

7 

6 

6 

5 

SSW. 

4 

2 

3 

3 

1 

1 

3 

6 

12 

11 

14 

SW. 

1 

3 

1 

2 

. 

1 

4 

20 

32 

20 

wsw. 

3 

1 

2 

2 

2 

3 

3 

8 

26 

31 

43 

w. 

2 

3 

1 

1 

1 

2 

4 

16 

30 

34 

WNW. 

3 
2 

1 
2 

2 

1 
4 

2 
3 

1 
1 

7 
13 

13 
5 

12 

7 

11 

NW. 

3 

2 

6 

NNW. 

9 

8 

6 

3 

5 

4 

5 

8 

9 

14 

8 

9 

Calm. 

81 

73 

77 

71 

68 

76 

88 

74 

48 

29 

15 

15 

Hosted  by 


Google 


244 


BEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXXI.— ifmn  hourly  frequency  and  direction  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  averaged 
by  months,  for  the  period  189^-1898— Contmued. 


NOVEMBER— Continued. 


Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p.  m. 

10  p.m. 

11  p.  m. 

12p.m. 

N. 

9 

10 

13 

20 

18 

20 

19 

16 

10 

15 

28 

23 

NNE. 

21 

13 

13 

14 

20 

22 

14 

13 

13 

15 

19 

21 

NE. 

9 

22 

19 

23 

16 

21 

23 

18 

14 

17 

17 

21 

ENE. 

10 

8 

9 

7 

16 

10 

8 

7 

12 

14 

10 

7 

E. 

3 

6 

21 

18 

28 

18 

25 

20 

13 

14 

10 

8 

ESE. 

5 

7 

7 

13 

6 

13 

8 

.  4 

14 

13 

9 

8 

SE. 

8 

6 

3 

8 

1 

7 

10 

8 

10 

9 

10 

4 

SSE. 

4 

2 

4 

3 

7 

6 

5 

6 

5 

6 

6 

6 

S. 

6 

7 

7 

9 

6 

5 

2 

1 

2 

3 

1 

1 

.  ssw. 

12 

10 

12 

11 

4 

4 

5 

8 

■  6 

4 

5 

4 

sw. 

24 

24 

18 

10 

5 

4 

5 

3 

3 

2 

1 

1 

wsw. 

37 

31 

33 

22 

12 

6 

6 

3 

4 

2 

2 

2 

w. 

27 

25 

17 

16 

9 

4 

7 

4 

2 

1 

1 

WNW. 

9 

10 

5 

6 

3 

1 

1 

2 

5 

2 

2 

2 

NW. 

5 

3 

8 

3 

6 

1 

5 

4 

4 

2 

2 

3 

NNW. 

6 

8 

4 

■  5 

4 

4 

3 

5 

4 

11 

7 

10 

Calm. 

15 

18 

17 

22 

49 

64 

64 

88 

89 

80 

79 

88 

DECEMBER. 


Direction. 

1  a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.  m. 

5  a.  m. 

6  a.m. 

7  a.m. 

8  a.m. 

9  a.m. 

10  a.  m. 

11  a.m. 

12  m. 

N. 

40 

47 

41 

41 

37 

43 

39 

53 

40 

28 

17 

14 

NNE. 

26 

29 

35 

38 

35 

31 

36 

30 

32 

32 

15 

15 

NE. 

19 

25 

27 

33 

35 

30 

23 

28 

26 

12 

17 

18 

ENE. 

5 

8 

5 

7 

11 

10 

12 

9 

9 

7 

8 

5 

E. 

9 

7 

9 

10 

4 

8 

5 

5 

5 

6 

2 

11 

ESE. 

4 

3 

1 

5 

1 

2 

4 

1 

2 

2 

4 

6 

SE. 

4 

2 

1 

2 

2 

0 

1 

1 

1 

2 

2 

SSE. 

S. 
SSW 

2 
1 
1 

2 

2 

2 

i 

3 

2 

2 

2 

1 

2 

3 
4 

10 
9 

5 

1 

1 

2 

11 

sw. 

wsw. 

w. 

WNW. 

8 
4 

14 
30 
22 
9 

19 
38 
29 
12 

21 

1 

2 

1 



44 

2 

2 

3 

3 

1 

2 

2 
1 

34 

1 

8 

NW. 

5 

3 

4 

2 

4 

5 

8 

3 

5 

8 

11 

6 

NNW. 

4 

4 

6 

5 

9 

7 

8 

14 

17 

11 

5 

5 

Calm. 

89 

77 

78 

63 

72 

76 

77 

67 

42 

22 

13 

6 

Direction. 

1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4p.m. 

5  p.m. 

6  p.m. 

7  p.m. 

8  p.  m. 

9  p.m. 

10  p.  m. 

11p.m. 

12p.m. 

N. 

9 

11 

21 

18 

17 

24 

21 

21 

17 

20 

26 

29 

NNE. 

22 

20 

23 

28 

34 

24 

21 

15 

20 

20 

22 

28 

NE. 

24 

31 

24 

27 

31 

28 

22 

20 

16 

19 

19 

18 

ENE. 

8 

8 

13 

16 

18 

17 

14 

7 

7 

13 

11 

9 

E. 

12 

12 

14 

21 

24 

26 

28 

18 

18 

17 

17 

8 

ESE. 

6 

8 

6 

20 

15 

16 

15 

10 

6 

10 

8 

7 

SE. 

3 

3 

6 

8 

7 

8 

10 

8 

3 

6 

1 

3 

SSE. 

1 

5 

7 

9 

5 

4 

2 

2 

1 

4 

2 

S. 
SSW. 

8 
17 

9 
11 

6 
12 

5 
14 

5 
3 

2 

3 

2 

3 

1 

2 

2 

2 

2 

1 

1 

SW. 

wsw. 

18 
45 

14 
33 

17 

17 

7 
10 

5 
3 

1 

4 

2 

2 

1 

1 

w. 

21 

24 

17 

7 

2 

1 

i 

1 

1 

2 

1 

WNW. 

8 

8 

4 

2 

2 

1 

2 

3 

5 

2 

NW. 

3 

3 

6 

2 

3 

3 

3 

5 

5 

2 

3 

NNW. 

1 

5 

2 

2 

4 

2 

i 

5 

4 

4 

5 

2 

Calm. 

8 

12 

20 

19 

31 

51 

67 

95 

106 

90 

93 

100 

From  a  simple  glance  at  these  tables  most  important  facts  are  deduced, 
to  which  we  will  most  briefly  and  clearly  allude. 

First.  The  calms  or  winds  of  very  light  force'  prevail  in  all  months 

1  We  say  "  winds  of  more  calm,"  or  of  very  slight  force,  because  in  Table  LXXXI, 
as  well  as  LXXXII,  we  see  that  there  is,  as  to  the  frequency  of  calms,  too  high  a  num- 
ber, which  perhaps  is  due  to  the  imperfections  of  the  instruments,  which  were  unable 
to  register  the  corresponding  velocity  between  0  and  0.5  meters  per  second. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK. 


245 


during  the  hours  of  the  night,  their  maximum  prevalence  being  at 
6  to  7,  and  most  commonly  yet  at  7  in  the  morning,  except  in  the 
months  of  November  and  December,  which,  according  to  observations, 
occur  mostly  at  9  o'clock  at  night. 

Second.  The  minimum  prevalency  of  calms  happens  at  about  12 
o'clock  m.,  or,  in  other  words,  at  the  time  of  greatest  heat. 

Third.  From  the  month  of  December  to  April,  both  inclusive,  the 
winds  of  the  third  quarter  very  rarely  happen  during  the  night,  nor 
even  after  8  oclock  in  the  morning. 

Fourth.  Nevertheless,  these  winds  generally  prevail  in  all  the  months 
of  the  year  from  9, 10,  or  11  o'clock  in  the  morning  until  3  or  i  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  owing  to  the  sea  breezes,  which  in  Manila  blow  in 
that  direction  or  quarter.  In  the  month  of  April  these  breezes  often 
prevail  until  1p.m.,  giving  way  then  to  the  winds  from  east-southeast, 
which  are  proper  in  this  month  and  which  are  often  strong  in  the  few 
hours  of  the  afternoon. 

Fifth.  In  those  months  where  the  winds  of  the  third  quadrant  pre- 
vail, still  in  the  first  few  hours  of  the  day  the  first  and  second  quad- 
rants also  prevail  to  a  certain  extent.  In  the  month  of  June  these  give 
a  maximum  frequency  from  8  o'clock  at  night  until  8  o'clock  in  the 
morning. 

Table  LXXXII. — Frequency  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  with  direction  noted  by  hours,  for 

period  1892-1898. 


1a.m. 

2  a.m. 

3  a.m. 

4  a.m. 

5a.  m. 

6  a.  m. 

Direction. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 

cent. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

N. 
NNE. 
NE. 
ENE. 

E. 
ESE. 
SE. 
SSE. 

S. 

ssw. 

sw. 
wsw. 

w. 

WNW. 
.  NW. 
NNW. 
Calm. 

230 
188 
190 
100 
160 
142 
150 
69 
53 
88 
94 
65 
30 
19 
29 
47 
886 

6.6 
5.5 
4.9 
4.0 
3.6 
3.9 
4.3 
3.9 
3.0 
3.2 
1.9 
1.3 
1.0 
1.5 
3.0 
4.8 
6.6 

242 
233 
235 
135 
151 
116 
117 
66 
39 
99 
78 
62 
32 
25 
25 
48 
837 

6.9 
6.8 
6.0 
5.4 
3.4 
3.2 
3.3 
3.8 
2.2 
3.6 
1.6 
1.2 
1.0 
1.9 
2.6 
4.9 
6.3 

255 

264 

245 

133 

141 

105 

104 

45 

53 

69 

81 

58 

23 

16 

25 

50 

873 

7.3 
7.7 
6.3 
5.3 
3.2 
2.9 
3.0 
2.6 
3.0 
2.5 
1.6 
1.2 
0.7 
1.2 
2.6 
5.1 
6.5 

261 

262 

'297 

153 

142 

97 

89 

58 

40 

65 

64 

52 

28 

18 

19 

50 

845 

7.4 
7.6 
7.6 
6.1 
3.2 
2.6 
2.5 
3.3 
2.3 
2.4 
1.3 
1.0 
0.9 
1.4 
2.0 
5.1 
6.3 

254 

221 

294 

170 

172 

91 

62 

33 

34 

47 

51 

36 

21 

15 

28 

39 

-969 

7.2 
6.4 
7.5 
6.7 
3.9 
2.6 
1.8 
1.9 
1.9 
1.7 
1.0 
0.7 
0.7 
1.2 
2.9 
4.0 
7.2 

227 

222 

270 

160 

164 

102 

60 

38 

39 

45 

48 

31 

19 

7 

19 

48 

1,041 

6.5 
6.4 
6.9 
6.3 
3.7 
2.8 
1.7 
2.2 
2.2 
1.6 
1.0 
0.6 
0.6 
0.5 
2.0 
4.9 
7.8 

7  a.  m. 

8  a.  m. 

9  a.  m. 

10  a.  m. 

11  a.  m. 

12  noon. 

Direction. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 

cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

N. 
NNE. 

NE. 
ENE. 

E. 
ESE. 

SE. 
SSE. 

s. 

ssw. 

sw. 

wsw. 

w. 

WNW. 
NW. 

NNW. 
Calm. 

228 

232 

247 

166 

158 

79 

47 

35 

41 

46 

50 

32 

12 

10 

23 

40 

1,094 

6.5 
6.7 
6.3 
Q.% 
3.6 
2.2 
1.3 
2.0 
2.3 
1.7 
1.0 
0.6 
0.4 
0.8 
2.4 
4.1 
8.2 

243 
223 
251 
118 
144 
99 
79 
59 
82 
71 
74 
53 
37 
21 
34 
65 
887 

6.9 
6.5 
6.4 
4.7 
3.3 
2.7 
2.3 
3.4 
4.6 
2.6 
1.5 
1.1 
1.2 
1.6 
3.5 
6.6 

178 

169 

139 

85 

114 

97 

101 

65 

132 

138 

194 

250 

197 

83 

85 

87 

426 

5.1 
4.9 
3.6 
3.4 
2.6 
2.6 
2.9 
3.7 
7.4 
5.0 
3.9 
5.0 
6.3 
6.4 
8.7 
8.9 
3.2 

92 

93 

91 

44 

101 

89 

85 

38 

104 

168 

322 

411 

403 

156 

104 

2.6 
2.7 
2.3 
1.7 
2.3 
2.4 
2.4 
2.2 
5.9 
6.1 
6.5 
8.2 
12.9 
12.1 
10.7 
7.6 
1.2 

64 

66 

65 

54 

61 

93 

80 

45 

90 

159 

.     345 

540 

472 

179 

95 

40 

92 

1.8 
1.9 
1.7 
2.1 
1.4 
2.5 
2.3 
2.6 
5.1 
5.8 
7.0 
10.7 
15.1 
13.9 
9.8 
4.1 
0.7 

57 

55 

68 

43 

92 

98 

90 

46 

72 

142 

373 

689 

485 

161 

62 

31 

76 

1.6 
1.6 
1.7 
1.7 
2.1 
2.7 
2.6 
2.6 
4.1 
5.2 
7.6 
11.7 
15.5 
12.5 
6.4 
3.2 
0.6 

Hosted  by 


Google 


246 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  LXXXII. — Frequency  of  the  wind  in  Manila,  ivith  direction  noted  by  hours,  for 
period  189^-1898— Continned. 


1p.m. 

2  p.m. 

3  p.m. 

4  p. 

m. 

5p 

.m. 

6  p.m. 

Direction. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber oi 
cases 

Per 
cent. 

N. 

57 

1.6 

55 

1.6 

73 

2.1 

79 

2.3 

78 

2.2 

83 

2.4 

NNE. 

75 

2.2 

80 

2.3 

86 

2,5 

102 

3.0 

121 

3.5 

106 

3.1 

NE. 

73 

1.9 

110 

2.8 

111 

2.8 

140 

3.6 

134 

3.4 

142 

3.6 

ENE. 

53 

2.1 

66 

2.6 

81 

3.2 

99 

3.9 

141 

5.6 

125 

5.0 

E. 

94 

2.1 

115 

2.6 

155 

3.5 

182 

4.1 

247 

5.6 

326 

7.4 

ESE. 

118 

3.2 

126 

3,4 

148 

4.0 

208 

5.7 

202 

5.5 

252 

6.9 

SE. 

119 

3.4 

139 

4.0 

189 

5.4 

224 

6.4 

239 

6.8 

211 

6.0 

•SSE. 

66 

3.8 

85 

4.8 

115 

6.5 

147 

8.4 

121 

6.9 

93 

5.3 

S. 

69 

3.9 

91 

5.1 

87 

4.9 

97 

5.5 

98 

5.5 

89 

5.0 

ssw. 

150 

5.4 

154 

5.6 

158 

5.7 

151 

5.5 

149 

5.4 

129 

4.7 

sw. 

379 

7. 7 

375 

7.6 

403 

8.2 

377 

7.7 

348 

7.1 

321 

6.5 

wsw. 

588 

11.7 

532 

10.6 

436 

8.7 

342 

6.8 

241 

4.8 

189 

3.8 

w. 

398 

12.7 

327 

10.4 

213 

6.8 

122 

3.9 

59 

1.9 

36 

1.1 

WNW. 

143 

11.1 

112 

8.7 

87 

6.7 

48 

3.7 

34 

2.6 

26 

2.0 

NW. 

53 

5.4 

53 

5.4 

59 

6.1 

43 

4.4 

34 

3.5 

26 

2.7 

NNW. 

25 

2.5 

30 

3.1 

18 

1.8 

25 

2.5 

24 

2.4 

17 

1.7 

Calm. 

80 

0.6 

90 

0.7 

121 

0.9 

154 

1.2 

270 

2.0 

369 

2.8 

7  p.m. 

8  p.m. 

9  p. 

m. 

10  p.  m. 

111 

.m. 

12  midnight.  1 

Total 

of 
obser- 
va- 
tions. 

Direction, 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent 

Num- 
ber oi 
cases 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Per 
cent. 

N. 

77 

2.2 

88 

2.5 

101 

2.9 

132 

3.8 

167 

4.8 

183 

5.2 

3,504 

NNE. 

87 

2.5 

77 

2.2 

83 

2.4 

114 

3.3 

126 

3.7 

161 

4.7 

3,446 

NE. 

124 

3.2 

115 

2.9 

112 

2.9 

121 

3.1 

144 

3.7 

188 

4.8 

3,906 

ENE. 

119 

4.7 

90 

3.6 

98 

3.9 

104 

4.1 

94 

3.7 

92 

3.6 

2,523 

E. 

370 

8.4 

349 

7.9 

292 

6.6 

255 

5.8 

232 

5.3 

188 

4.3 

4,405 

ESE. 

269 

7.3 

245 

6.7 

245 

6.7 

248 

6.8 

216 

5.9 

175 

4.8 

3,663 

SE. 

218 

6.2 

206 

5.9 

254 

7.3 

238 

6.8 

205 

5.9 

191 

5.5 

3,497 

SSE. 

91 

5. 2 

93 

5.3 

95 

5.4 

96 

5.5 

85 

4.8 

75 

4.3 

1,759 

S. 

89 

5.0 

93 

5.2 

89 

5.0 

78 

4.4 

73 

4.1 

43 

2.4 

1,775 

SSW. 

150 

5.4 

141 

5.1 

125 

4.5 

105 

3.8 

100 

3.6 

105 

3.8 

2,754 

SW. 

272 

5.5 

207 

4.2 

161 

3.3 

123 

2.5 

100 

2.0 

87 

1.8 

4,927 

WSW. 

182 

2.6 

118 

2.3 

82 

1.6 

62 

1.2 

62 

1.2 

69 

1.4 

5, 032 

W. 

46 

1.5 

31 

1.0 

35 

1.1 

40 

1.3 

38 

1.2 

29 

0.9 

3,133 

WNW. 

18 

1.4 

24 

1.9 

26 

2.0 

25 

1.9 

19 

1.5 

18 

1.4 

1,290 

NW. 

17 

1.7 

24 

2.5 

24 

2.5 

33 

3.4 

31 

3.2 

28 

2.9 

973 

NNW. 

13 

1.3 

26 

2.6 

44 

4.5 

40 

4.1 

52 

5.3 

49 

5.0 

983 

Calm» 

448 

3.3 

613 

4.6 

674 

5.0 

726 

5.4 

796 

5.9 

859 

6.4 

13,390 

HOURLY,  ANNUAL,  AND  SEMIANNUAL  FREQUENCY. 

In  Table  LXXXII  we  give  the  final  results  of  Table  LXXXI;  that 
is  to  say,  the  yearly  summary  and  the  corresponding  percentage  to 
each  twenty-four  hours  of  the  day,  and  the  principal  direction. 

According  to  the  table,  and  taking  the  whole  year,  we  have  as 
follows: 

First.  The  frequency  of  the  calms  reaches  its  maximum  equivalent 
or  average  at  7  in  the  morning,  then  diminishes  from  8  to  12,  and 
increases  from  2  in  the  afternoon  until  1  in  the  morning;  the  frequency 
at  2,  3,  and  4  a.  m.  is  a  trifle  less  than  that  of  1  a.  m.,  increasing 
again  from  6  to  7  a.  m. 

Second.  Between  1  and  8  a.  m.  the  prevalence  of  the  winds  from  the 
north  and  northeast  is  very  apparent. 

Third.  In  like  manner  the  prevalence  of  the  winds  of  the  third 
quadrant  is  more  apparent  during  the  hours  of  4  and  5  in  the  after- 
noon. 

Fourth.  From  the  hours  6  p.  m.  and  12  midnight  winds  from  east 
and  southeast  mostly  prevail. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Pl^TE    XXXV. 


ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  DAILY  VELOCITY 
OF  THE  WIND  AT  MANILA 

1886-1808 

Z7S. 

z^^ » 

17S  . 

ISO, 

loo  , 

Jan. 

Feb. 

mrch 

Aprd 

M^ 

Jam 

Ju^ 

SiOffusi  Sept. 

Oct; 

Jfov. 

Dec. 

3oo  Km. 

z-rs  « 

ZSO  » 

Z2S  » 
Soo  » ■ 
17S' 

iSo  » 

-- 

\ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

j 

V 

s 

/ 

— 

— 

1 

1 

j 

1 

/ 

— 

/ 

/ 

y 

-^ 

y 

j 

1 

J 

1 

j 

\ 

j 

\ 

f 

/ 

r 

/ 

^ 

^, 

/ 

IZS  » 

-- 

— 

— 

— 

-- 

too 

— 

— 

-- 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


247 


IV.— ANNUAL  VAKIATION  OF  VELOCITY  OF  THE  AVIND  IN  MANILA. 
NORMAL   AVERAGE    OF   THE    DIFFERENT    MONTHS   IN   THE   YEAR. 

Table  LXXXIII  contains  the  monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  equiv- 
alent averages  of  the  daily  velocity  of  the  wind  in  kilometers,  taken 
from  hourly  observations  in  this  observatory  during  1885-1898.  In 
ascertaining  the  average  of  the  whole  period  of  fourteen  years  we  have 
obtained  for  each  month  the  normal  averages  which  are  at  the  footings  of 
the  table.  Accordingly  they  show  that  the  force  of  the  winds  increases 
gradually  from  January  to  April ,  decreases  a  very  little  in  May,  increases 
again  in  June  and  July,  and  decreases  for  the  second  time  in  August, 
reaching  its  maximumln  September,  and  decreases  again  from  October 
to  December,  in  which  latter  month  the  minimum  annual  velocity  is 
attained.  The  annual  average  of  the  daily  velocity  of  wind  resulting 
from  the  fourteen  years  of  study  is  217.8  kilometers.  The  greater  or 
less  degree  in  which  they  differ  from  this  annual  average  and  different 
monthly  averages  can  be  seen  from  the  following  table: 

Table  JuXXJUIl.— Monthly  and  annual  averages  of  the  daily  velocity  of  the  whid  in 
Manila  during  the  period  1885-1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb.' 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Get. 

Nov. 

Dee. 

Aver- 
age. 

1885 

km. 

232. 4 

245. 5 
120.9 
116.4 
113.7 
106.4 
112.0 
132. 8 
199.9 
213. 1 
192.7 
114.3 
216. 4 
205. 8 

km. 
301.5 
268. 8 
150.  4 
188. 7 
115.6 
116.3 
163. 1 
132. 1 
219.3 

km. 
353.  4 
345.  9 
178.5 
169. 8 
184.0 
159.9 
185. 4 
169.1 
238.9 

km. 

367.5 

323.0 

197.0 

189.8 

193.9 

147.6 

184.9 

187.6 

239.0 

257.9 

265. 1 

235.8 

277. 8 

190.2 

km. 
381.8 

229. 5 
178.4 
168.7 
186.1 
110.5 
187.6 
187.3 
324. 2 

226. 6 
288. 2 
337. 2 
210. 1 
222. 8 

km. 
414.7 
223. 8 
153. 6 
299. 3 
173.5 

km. 

449.7 

196.4 

415.4 

364.9 

174.7 

km. 
428.3 
223. 3 
141.9 

337. 1 
191.9 
199. 6 
247.8 
127. 8 
299. 8 

324. 2 
299.5 
353. 6 
210.9 
447.1 

km. 

306. 5 

288.9 

360. 3 

181.1 

110.9 

287.1 

345.5 

312.0 

454.1 

347.8 

391.5 

258.8 

241.0 

188.8 

km. 
218.  7 
133. 9 
165. 9 
121.2 
154.1 
163.9 
77.4 
160.0 
242.1 
214.5 
182.1 
315. 4 
196.6 
206. 6 

hii. 

263.5 

136.9 

122.1 

105.3 

119.9 

119.0 

120.5 

109.8 

220.9 

189.1 

179.9 

133.0 

136.9 

206. 6 

km. 

247.6 

126.5 

100.3 

109.5 

158. 3 
100.5 
115.0 

95.3 
190.6 

209. 4 
171.9 
169.8 
157.1 
138. 1 

km. 
330.5 

1886 

1887      

228.5 
190.4 

1888                      -   .- 

196.0 

1889        

156.4 

1890 

109.0:  209.8 
194. 0:  291.1 
172.71  2^.7 
171.2:  330.2 
302. 5!  281. 5 
255.8'  291.2 

152.5 

1891              

185.4 

1892 

1893              

171.4 
260. 9 

1894 

201.  9 

259. 3 

252.5 

1895               

214.5 
121.7 

258.8 
247.2 

250. 1 
131.5 
281.3 
240.  3 

248.5 

1896 

203. 9 

274.7 

220. 8 

1897 

1898 

332. 3 
276. 2 

203. 1 
166.5 

226. 9 
228.0 

Average 

165.9 

192. 9 

224. 8 

232. 7 

231.4 

234. 5 

280.0 

273. 8 

291.0 

182.3 

154. 5 

149. 3 

217. 8 

Month. 


January 

February... 

March 

April 

May 

June , 

July 

August 

September  . 

October 

November. 
December . 


Monthly 
average. 


km. 
165.9 
192. 9 
224. 8 
232.7 
231.4 
234.5 
280.0 
273.8 
291.0 
182.3 
154.5 
149.3 


Average. 


217.  i 


km. 
-51.9 
-24.9 
+  7.0 
+  14.9 
+13.6 
+16.7 
+62.2 
+56.0 
+73. 2 
+35.5 
-63.3 
-68.5 


Extreme  annual  and  monthly  averages  of  the  period:  The  greatest 
annual  average,  corresponding  to  1885,  has  been  330.5  km.;  the  least, 
52. 5  km. ,  that  of  1890.  The  maximum  monthly  average  reached  454. 1 
km. ;  the  minimum,  794,  being  that  of  September,  1893,  and  October, 
1891. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


248 


EEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Comparison  of  the  normal  averages  and  the  extremes  of  each  month: 
In  the  following  table  we  give  the  maximum  and  minimum  averages  of 
each  as  compared  with  the  corresponding  normal  average: 


Month. 


January  . . . 
February  . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 
October — 
November . 
December. . 


Normal 
averages. 

Positive. 

Negative. 

165.9 

79.6 

(1886) 

59.5 

(1890) 

192. 9 

108.6 

(1885) 

77.3 

(1889) 

224. 8 

128. 6 

(1885) 

93.3 

(1896) 

232.7 

134.8 

(1885) 

85.1 

(1890) 

231.4 

150.4 

(1885) 

120.9 

(1890) 

234.5 

180.2 

(1885) 

125.5 

(1890) 

280.0 

169.7 

(1885) 

113.5 

(1898) 

273.8 

173.3 

(1898) 

146.0 

(1892) 

291.0 

163.1 

(1893) 

180.1 

(1889) 

182.3 

133. 1 

(1896) 

104.9 

(1891) 

154.5 

109.9 

(1885) 

49.2 

(1888) 

149.3 

98.3 

(1885) 

54.0 

(1892) 

The  greatest  number  of  maximum  positive  differences  have  taken 
place  in  the  year  1885  and  the  greatest  maximum  negative  differences 
in  the  year  1890  being  the  respective  years  to  which  belong  the  maxi- 
mum annual  average  of  the  period. 

v.— MAXIMUM   AND    MINIMUM   DAILY    VELOCITY   OF   THE   WIND    IN 

MANILA. 

Tables  LXXXIV  and  LXXXV  embody,  respectively,  the  maxi- 
mum and  minimum  daily  velocities  of  the  wind  registered  in  this 
observatory  during  the  period  1885-1898. 

Table.  LXXXIV. — Maximum  daily  velocity  of  the  tvind  in  Manila  during  the  period 

1885-1898. 


January. 

February 

March. 

April 

May. 

June. 

Km. 

Days.      Km. 

Days. 

Km.     Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

1885 

366.0 
478.5 
263.0 
229.3 
174.6 
233.0 
169. 8 
285.8 
272.5 
312. 2 
322.0 
195.4 
305.5 
366.0 

22     407.0 
30  1  398.0 

9  i  238.9 
21  i  405.9 

7  !  431.5 
28  j  215.7 

4  i  255.1 
16  i  199.5 

20 
1 
9 
4 

10 
17 
21 
20 
35 
6 
5 
23 
21 
15 

488.0  1        26 
478.0  '          8 

271.2  i        31 
254.8  1        26 

268.5  :         8 
250.8  \        20 

247.6  31 
288.  9  1        26 

398.3  i        20 
380.  5  i        23 
356.8           28 

230.7  8 

627.5 
436.5 
612. 3 
250.7 
310.0 
277.1 
314.3 
252. 9 
337.0 
331.7 
358.  0 
374.7 

1 

5 

18 

25 

14 

30 

1 

21 

] 

5 

22 

15 

8 

8 

589.5 
415.6 
383. 9 
293. 8 
255.3 
217.  7 
262. 8 
319. 5 

1007. 5 
413. 0 
780.6 

1042. 0 
282.0 
821.0 

17 
8 
27 
18 
28 
1 

15 
10 
15 
8 

14 
17 
15 
31 

1031. 5 
641.5 
361.0 
525.5 
333.3 
207.2 
384.4 
422.3 
218.3 
990.0 
808.7 
650.4 
701.5 
598.0 

28 

1886    

12 

1887 

15 

1888 

14 

1889 

11 

1890 

29 

1891 

8 

1892         

9 

1893 

27 
22 
24 
3 
8 
29 

313.1 
300. 4 
299.8 
220.  7 
389.0 
316.0 

25 

1894 

26 

1895 

24 

1896 

6 

1897       

353.5          12  \  374.5 
438.  5          16     299.  5 

27 

1898 

18 

Average,  or 
mean 

283.  8 

242  2 

336. 

1  ' 

368.3 

506.0 

562. 4 

July. 

August. 

September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

An- 
nual 
maxi- 
mum. 
Km. 

Year. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days 

Km. 

Day6'. 

1885 

977.5 
522.2 
994.6 

1008.1 
450.0 
634.8 

1022.3 
941.5 

1006.5 
647.0 
702.8 
730.4 
773.5 
423.5 

23 
12 
24 
14 
11 
15 
17 
22 
24 
19 
21 
28 
26 
31 

1000.0 
458.5 
440.3 
765.3 
606.2 
342.2 
580. 5 
369.5 
706.9 
786.0 
791.5 
821.2 
770.0 

1038.0 

24 
13 

1 

15 
21 

6 

2 

15 
31 

2 
22 

8 

I 

816. 4 
558.6 
1051. 1 
847.6 
251.9 
1477.6 
847.8 
752.4 
1420. 5 
1311. 8 
1212. 0 
503.5 
777.5 
429.0 

4 
21 
19 

27 
25 
30 
12 
7 

30 
17 
4 
9 

14 
30 

384.5 
574. 2 
844.9 
284.0 
575.0 
723.2 
197.3 
609.8 
749.9 
912.7 
509.0 
1191. 5 
752. 5 
629.5 

13 

9 

5 

23 

29 

17 

16 

9 

1 

3 

1 

4 

13 
25 

1159. 5 
440.8 
373.6 
263.0 
336.4 

1037. 3 
732.2 
526.9 
388.3 
458.0 
536.0 
203. 5 
249.5 
843.5 

4 

18 
27 
16 

4 
11 
16 
22 
22 
17 

2 

3 
13 
13 

412.5 
367.2 
174.6 
315.5 
542.1 
170.9 
487.6 
155.8 
455.5 
483.2 
265.0 
299.0 
313.0 
331.0 

30 
18 
12 
5 
4 
13 
23 
4 
5 
22 
17 
23 
31 
9 

1159. 5 

1886 

641.5 

1887       

1051.1 

1888 

1008.1 

1889         

606.2 

1890 

1477. 6 

1891              

1022. 3 

1892 

941.5 

1893 

1420. 5 

1894 

1311. 8 

1895 

1212. 0 

1896       

1191. 5 

1897 

777.5 

1898              -   .. 

1038. 0 

Average,  or 
mean 

773.9 

676.9 

875.6    

638.4 

539. 2 

340.9 

1061.4 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OP   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


249 


Table  LXXXV. — Minimum  daily  velocity  of  the  vrind  in   Manila   during  the  veriod 

1885-1898. 


Years. 

January. 

February. 

March. 

April. 

May. 

June. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

1885 

150.5 
137.5 

m.  0 

49.1 
66.5 
49.3 
72.7 
57.7 
132.5 
132.6 
113.3 
19.2 
122.5 
108.0 

9 
6 
26 
24 
30 
1 
5 

10 
9 
12 
6 
30 
22 
21 

195.0 
127.0 
102. 5 
109. 2 
75.9 
63.7 
75.4 
56.0 
150.6 
138. 2 
135. 0 
50.6 
124.0 
97.5 

1 
12 
6 
2 

15 
3 
8 
9 

12 
4 
1 
5 
11 
27 

206.0 
253.0 

88.0 
112.9 
114.4 

81.7 
107.8 

97.8 
104.6 
163. 7 
140.0 

46.8 
136.5 
112. 5 

12 

13 
6 

12 
1 
3 

11 
7 
1 

19 
1 
2 

15 

26 

241.0 
195. 6 

87.7 
135. 5 
141.5 

68.0 
118. 9 

107. 1 
155.5 
199.8 

143. 2 
152. 9 
184.5 
114.5 

23 
30 
2 
30 

2 
29 

9 
3 

29 

22 

18 

3 

252.0 
122.6 
78.9 
87.8 
92.6 
15.4 
54.3 
100.3 
155. 5 
133.5 
145.3 
118.0 
131.0 
96.0 

16 
23 
20 
8 

25 
30 
31 
29 
30 
26 
22 
27 
29 
24 

217.0 
51.4 
40.5 

108.1 
52.2 
53.5 
48.3 
78.5 
99.6 

122. 0 

121.3 
52.5 

135. 0 
86.5 

6 

188G 

24 

1S87 

20 

1888 

18 

1889 

28 

1890 

'  22 

1891 

1892    . .   .  - 

24 
30 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

20 
10 
13 
9 

1897 

17 

1898 

8 

Averages  or 

91.2 

107.2 

126. 1 

146.1 

113.1 

90.5 

Jul 

y. 

August.        September. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

An- 
nual 

Years. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Dj 

lys. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

Km. 

Days. 

mini- 
mum. 

Km. 

1885 

163.0 

55. 6 

49.4 

90.9 

61.9 

30.6 

47.8 

54.6 

120. 2 

139.5 

118.6 

102. 5 

105. 0 

79.0 

13 

7 

18 
25 
22 
23 
4 
18 
15 
28 

'  11 
8 

6-19 

149.5 
53.7 
33.5 

107.1 
16.9 
39.0 
51.8 
49.0 

100. 2 
74.8 

121.5 

132. 1 
70.5 

149.5 

28 

28 

13 

23 

9 

18 

17 

21 

23 

21 

5 

4 

23 

18 

159.0 
56.4 
58. 8 
70.9 
25. 1 
45.2 
36.2 
57.5 
120.7 
100. 5 
122. 0 
95.5 
53.0 
86. 5 

9 
28 

1 

19 
17 
21 
15 
19 
14 

5 

18 
27 

168. 5 
54.8 
60.7 
43. 9 
27. 0 
46.7 
28.4 
24.0 
97. 2 
102. 0 
115.  7 
84.5 
94.5 
62.  5 

4 
21 

9 
29 

6 
26 

2 
17 
16 
30 
23 
26 
11 
19-23 

124.0 
42.0 
45.8 
16.4 
44.4 
18.2 
13.5 
10.1 
106. 0 
104.0 
105. 0 
78.0 
62.  0 
3.0 

10 
20 
1 

? 

18 
27 

6 
27 

5 
23 

9 

4 
30 

131.5 
40.2 
47.4 
56.6 
22.0 
64.8 
42.1 
41.0 
72.5 
111.4 
101.3 
70.7 
80. 5 
35.5 

2 
31 

1 
18 

6 
11 
18 

9 

21 

_   28 

22 

8 
20 

3 

124.0 

1886 

40.2 

1887 

33.5 

1888....- 

16.4 

1889 

16.9 

1890 

1891 

15.4 
13.5 

1892 

10.1 

1893 

1894 

72.5 

74.8 

1895 

1896 

101.3 
19.2 

1897 

53.0 

1898 

3.0 

Averages  or 
mean 

87.8 

82.1 

77.  7 

7l 

)  2 

r... 

65.5 

42.4 

AVERAGE  NORMAL  VALUES  OF  THE  MAXIMUM  AND 
AND  MONTHLY  VELOCITY. 


MINIMUM  ANNUAL 


According  to  the  results  at  the  footings  of  the  tables  mentioned  the 
average  of  the  annual  maximum  velocity  is  1061.4  km.,  and  the  mini- 
mum annual  velocity  424  km.,  there  being  a  difference  between  them 
of  1019.0  km. 

A  gradual  increase  is  to  be  observed  from  one  month  to  another  in 
the  average  values  of  the  maximum  and  the  minimum  velocities. 

The  first  increase  is  from  February  to  July;  decreasing  somewhat 
in  August,  and  increasing  to  the  annual  maximum  average  in  Septem- 
ber. In  the  following  month  it  decreases  gradually  until  it  reaches 
the  annual  minimum  average  velocity  in  February. 

Far  different  is  the  relation  between  the  monthly  average  difference 
and  that  of  the  daily  minimum  averages.  In  effect  the  maximum 
average  values  correspond  to  the  month  of  April,  decreasing  later 
without  stopping  until  they  reach  the  minimum  average  velocity  in 
the  month  of  November.  From  December  they  again  increase  without 
interruption  until  the  month  of  April.  The  greatest  minimum  averages 
are  those  of  February,  March,  April,  and  May.     This  we  believe  is 


Hosted  by 


Google 


250 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK. 


due  to  the  fact  that  in  normal  days  these  are  the  four  months  in  which 
the  winds  often  increase  in  force,  and  even  though  in  the  season  of 
atmospheric  disturbances  there  are  normal  days  to  be  found  in  which 
the  minimum  velocity  of  the  wind  is  recorded,  generally  more  in  the 
remaining  months  of  the  year  than  those  above  mentioned. 

MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM    DAILY    VELOCITY    OF   THE    WIND     DURING   THE 

PERIOD    1895-1898. 


The  maximum  daily  velocity  during  the  period  1885-1898,  1477.6 
km. ,  was  recorded  the  30th  day  of  September,  1890,  when  a  violent 


typhoon  crossed  the  center  of  Luzon,  north  of  Manila. 

The  minimum  velocity  was  recorded  on  the  30th  of  November, 
during  which  the  wind  blew  less  than  3  kilometers. 


1898, 


THE   MAXIMUM   AND   MINIMUM    DAILY    VELOCITY    IN   EACH   MONTH. 

In  the  following  table  we  give  the  maximum  and  minimum  daily 
velocity  during  the  whole  period  corresponding  to  each  of  the  twelve 
months  in  the  year: 


Month. 


Maxim,  um. 


Minimum. 


January... 
February.. 
March..*... 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October  . . . 
November 
December. 


Kilometers. 


478.5 

431.5 

433.0 

647.5 

1,042.0 

1,031.5 

1,022.3 

1,033.0 

1,477.6 

1,191.5 

1,159.5 

542.1 


(1886) 
(1889) 
(1886) 
(1885) 
(1896) 
(1885) 
(1891) 
(1898) 
(1890) 
(1896) 
(1885) 
(1889) 


Kilometers. 
19.2     (1896) 


50. 
46.8 
68.0 
15.4 
40.5 
30.6 
16.9 
25.1 
24.0 
3.0 
22.0 


(1896) 
(1896) 
(1890) 
(1890) 
(1887) 
(1890) 
(1889) 
(1889) 
(1892) 
(1898) 
(1889) 


MONTHLY    DISTRIBUTION    OF   THE    MAXIMUM  AND    MINIMUM   ANNUAL 

VELOCITIES. 

The  manner  in  which  the  maximum  and  minimum  annual  velocities 
of  the  winds  are  distributed  in  each  month  is  seen  in  the  following 
table : 


Maximum : 

June 1 

July 3 

August 2 

September 6 

October 4 

November 1 


Minimum : 

January 1 

May  . .  1 1 

August ^ 3 

September 1 

November 5 

December 3 


The  maximum  velocities  occur  most  frequently  in  the  month  of  Sep- 
tember, and  the  minimum  velocities  occur  most  frequently  in  the 
month  of  November;  that  is  to  say,  in  the  first-mentioned  month  the 
average  of  the  maxima  is  greatest,  and  in  the  last-mentioned  month 
the  average  of  the  minima  is  greatest.  In  September  there  has 
occurred  the  greatest  number  of  annual  maxima,  it  being  the  month 
in  which  typhoons  most  abound;  and  for  this  same  cause  the  maximum 
frequency  of  velocity  is  found  next  in  the  months  of  July  and  August. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


251 


Table  LXXXVI. — Monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  average  vahies  of  the  hourly  vHocity 
of  the  wind  in  Manila  obtained  from  the  period  1892-1S98. 


Month. 


0-1 
1.  m. 


1-2       2-3 
a.m.   a.m. 


3-4 


4-5 
a.  mi. 


5-6 
a.m. 


6-7 
a.m. 


7-8 
a.m. 


8-9 
a.m. 


9-10      10-11 
a.m.     a.m. 


11-12 
noon. 


January 

February  

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

Average,  November 
to  May 

Average,  June  to  Octo- 
ber   


Km. 
4.3 
4.1 
4.7 
4.3 
6.5 
6.2 
7.4 
9 

9.4 
6.7 
4.8 
4.1 


Km. 
4.6 
3.9 
4.1 

3.9 
6.1 
5.8 
7.6 
8.1 
9.7 
6.5 
4.9 
4 


Km. 
4.7 
3.8 
4.0 
3.7 
5.8 
6.0 
7.5 
7.8 
9.7 
6.5 
4.9 
4.5 


Km. 
5.0 
3.9 
4.1 
3.6 
5.9 
6.0 
7.7 
8.1 
9.0 
6.3 
4.9 
4.6 


Km. 

4.8 
4.0 
4.0 
3.8 
5.6 
5.7 
7.2 
7.4 
8.6 
6.6 
5.2 
4.7 


Km. 
4.8 
3.8 
4.1 
3.8 
5.3 
5.2 
6.2 
6.8 
8.0 
5.8 
4.7 
4.6 


Km. 
4.7 
3.5 
3.9 
3.3 
5.2 
5.3 
5.7 
7.0 
8.0 
5.7 
4.8 
5.0 


Km. 
4.9 
3.2 
4.1 
3.6 
5.8 
6.3 
5.7 
7.5 
8.7 
6.3 
5.3 
5.3 


Km. 
5.6 
4.4 
5.4 
6.3 
7.9 
7.9 
7.0 
8.3 
9.3 
7.4 
6.0 
6.1 


Km. 

7.3 

7.5 

8.8 

10.4 

11.0 

10.4 

9.3 

10.8 

11.7 

9.4 

7.8 

7.4 


Km. 
10.8 
11.3 
12.7 
13.8 
13.4 
13.4 
12.6 
13.4 
14.5 
11.5 
9.9 
9.7 


6 
4.7 

7.7 


5.8 
4.5 
7.5 


5.7 
4.5 

7.5 


5.8 
4.4 
7.4 


5.6 
4.6 
7.1 


5.3 
4.4 

6.4 


5.2 
4.3 

6.3 


5.6 
4.6 
6.9 


6.8 
6.0 

8.0 


9.3 

8.6 
10.3 


12.3 
11.7 
13.1 


Km. 
11.9 
12.9 
14.4 
14.4 
14.7 
15.2 
13.5 
14.9 
15.6 
12.6 
11.7 
10.1 


13.5 
12.9 
14.4 


Month. 


12-1 
p.m. 


1-2 
p.m. 


2-3 
p.m. 


3-4 
p.m. 


4-5 
p.m. 


5-6 
p.m. 


6-7 
p.m. 


p.m. 


8-9 
p.m. 


9-10 
p.m. 


10-11 
p.m. 


11-12 
night. 


Aver- 
age. 


January 

February  

March 

April 

May 

June - 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average . . . 

Average,  No- 
vember to  May 

Average,  June  to 
October 


Km. 
13.1 
13.4 
15.5 
15.9 
15.3 
16.3 
15.3 
16.2 
17.1 
13.9 
11.4 
11.5 


Km. 
13.8 
13.8 
16.4 
17.1 
16.1 
17.1 
16.6 
18.3 
19.2 
13.3 
11.6 
\11.8 


Km. 
12.5 
13.9 
16.9 
18.1 
17.0 
17.1 
17.6 
19.5 
19.7 
13.4 
11.0 
11.4 


Km. 
12.5 
14.9 
17.8 
18.8 
17.2 
17.1 
17.2 
20.2 
20.5 
13.5 
10.0 
10.8 


Km. 
11.8 
14.8 
17.5 
18.8 
17.1 
16.4 
16.7 
19.2 
19.8 
12.5 
8.9 


Km. 
9.5 
12.9 
15.3 
16.0 
15.7 
14.1 
15.3 
17.1 
18.1 
11.0 
7.2 
7.3 


Km. 
7.9 
10.7 
12.3 
13.0 
13.8 
12.1 
12.9 
15.9 
16.0 
10.0 
6.5 
6.1 


Km. 
7.2 
9.3 
10.0 
11.6 
13.1 
10.3 
12.3 
14.0 
15.4 
9.6 
6.0 
5.3 


Km. 
5.9 
7.7 
8.3 
10.2 
10.7 
9.2 
10.8 
11.9 
12.9 
8.2 
5.1 
4.6 


Km. 
5.3 
6.8 
7.7 
8.7 
9.3 
8.5 
9.9 
10.5 
11.6 
7.2 
5.0 
4.3 


Km. 
4.8 
6.0 
6.6 
7.3 
7.9 
7.3 
9.5 
9.9 

10.6 
6.8 
5.1 
4.2 


Km. 
4.6 
4.7 
5.6 
5.6 
6.9 
6.3 
8.6 
9.5 
9.6 
6.4 
5.1 
4.1 


14.6 


15.4 
14.4 


15.7 


15.9 


15.3 
14.1 
16.9 


13.3 


15.1 


11.4 
10.0 


13.4 


10.3 


12.3 


8.8 
7.5 


7.9 
6.7 


7.2 
6.0 
8.8 


6.4 
5.2 
8.1 


Km. 
7.6 
8.1 


10.6 
10.2 
10.8 
12.1 
13.0 
9.0 
7.0 
6.8 


9.5 
8.5 
11.0 


VI.— HOURLY  VARIATION  OF  THE  VELOCITY  OF  THE  WIND  IN  MANILA. 

Table  LXXXVI  contains  the  averages  of  the  monthly,  annual,  and 
semiannual  velocity  corresponding  to  each  of  the  twenty-four  hours 
of  the  dav,  obtained   from   hourly  observations  during   the  period 

1892-1898'.' 

HOURS   IN   WHICH   THE   FORCE   OF   THE   WIND    IS    GREATER    OR    LESS    IN 
THE    DIFFERENT   MONTHS   OF   THE   YEAR. 

From  the  monthly  average  values,  as  well  as  the  annual  and  semi- 
annual ones,  we  obtain  the  result  that  the  minimum  force  of  the  wind 
is  felt  generally  from  6  to  7  in  the  morning,  and  the  greater  force 
from  3  to  4  in  the  afternoon — that  is  to  say,  almost  in  the  hours  of 
most  heat.  Nevertheless,  in  October,  November,  December,  and 
January  the  maximum  average  is  from  1  to  2  in  the  afternoon.  The 
averages  of  the  period  from  November  to  May  occur  in  later  hours 
than  those  of  the  period  from  June  to  October.  The  force  of  the 
wind  from  1  to  8  a.  m.  seems  to  be  greater  in  the  months  of  Novem- 
ber, December,  and  January  than  in  the  three  following  months, 
February,  March,  and  April.  On  the  contrary,  in  these  three  latter 
months,  in  which  the  winds  from  east  to  southeast  prevail,  the  average 
velocity  in  the  hours  from  11  a.  m.  to  11  p.  m.  is  greater  than  in  the 


Hosted  by 


Google 


252 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


three  former  months,  the  winds  from  north  to  northeast  prevailing. 
And  yet  in  the  month  of  April  the  mean  or  average  velocity  from  3 
to  7  p.  m.  is  more  than  that  of  the  months  of  May,  June,  and  July. 

AVERAGE  OF  THE  HOURLY  OBSERVATIONS  OF  THE  PERIOD — MONTHLY 

AVERAGE. 

According  to  the  last  result  obtained  in  the  tables  we  find  that  the 
hourly  average  of  the  observations  during  the  period  1892-1898  was 
95  km.  per  hour,  or  2.6  km.  per  second.  The  monthly  averages 
varied  between  130  km.  (September)  and  68  km.  (December),  a  differ- 
ence of  62  km. 

WINDS   WHICH    OFTEN   ACQUIRE    A    GREATER    FORCE    IN   MANILA. 

Comparing  Tables  LXXII  and  LXXXVI  it  is  readily  seen  that  the 
winds  which  are  accustomed  to  blow  in  Manila  with  greatest  force  are 
those  of  the  southwest,  which  predominate  in  the  months  of  May  to 
October,  and  those  of  the  east-southeast,  which  belong  to  the  months 
of  February,  March,  and  April,  and  in  part  to  the  month  of  May. 

Table  LXXXVII. — Maximum  velocity  of  the  tvind  recorded  in  Manila  in  the  interval  of 
one  hour  during  the  period  1885-1898. 


January.                \               February, 

March. 

Year. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

1885 

H^.O 

35.0 
22.7 

27.2 

25. 0 

23.8 

28.0 
23.3 
29.0 
27.0 
28.5 
23.4 
36. 5 

30.0 

22 
30 

8 

21 

15 

3 

25 
26 

27 
22 
29 
24 
1 
7 

2-3  p.  m. 
1-2  p.  m. 
3-4  p.  m. 

5-6  p.  m. 

0-1  p.  m. 

11-12  noon. 

3-4  p.  m. 
4-5  p.  m. 
0-1  a.  m. 
3-4  p.  m. 
1-2  p.  m. 
4-6  p.  m. 
2-3  p.  m. 

2-3  p.  m. 

36.5 
37.5 
24.5 

30.5 

39.7 

23.5 

27.8 
22.5 
29.0 
30.0 
33.0 
30.0 
37.0 

29.0 

26 
25 
19 

4 

10 

17 

10 
20 
24 
14 
4 
23 
16 

19 

3-4  p.  m. 
1-2  p.  m. 
2-3  p.  m. 

8-9  a.  m. 

8-9  p.  m. 
/  1-2  p.  m. 
\  2-3  p.  m. 

1-2  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

5-6  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

7-8  p.  m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

5-6  p.  m. 

42.5 
41.0 
27.1 

23. 2 

27.8 

1    32.0 

33.5 
30.8 
39.0 
42.0 
33.5 
43.4 
35.0 

35.0 

31 
11 
16 

f    22 

20 

31 
26 
19 
27 
15 
8 
27 
/    15 
I    16 

1-2  p.  m. 

1886 

2-3  p.  m. 

1887... 

4-5  p.  m. 

1888          

5-6  p.  m. 
4-5  p.  m. 
2-3  p.  m. 

1889 

1890 

0-1  p.  m. 

1891 

5-6  p.  m. 

1892 

4-5  p.  m. 

1893 

4-5  p.  m. 

1894 

3-4  p.  m. 

1895 

2-3  p.  m. 

1896 

9-10  p.  m. 

1897 

2-3  p.  m. 

1898.                          -   -. 

0-1  p.  m. 
9-10  a.  m. 

Mean  or  aver- 
age velocity . . 

28.3 

30.8 

34.7 

April. 

May. 

June. 

Year. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

48.0 

40.0 

51.7 
27. 5 
27.9 
29.9 
31.2 
30.3 
32.5 
31.5 
38.0 

41.3 

40.0 

29.0 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

1885.. 

1 

/    1^- 

i    12 

18 
12 

7 
21 

4 
19 

1 
28 
26 

15 

12 

8 

/  2-3  p.  m. 
\  5-6  p.  m. 
f  0-1  p.  m. 
\  2-3  p.  m. 
I  3-4  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

0-1  p.  m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

2-3  p.  m. 

5-6  p.  m. 

2-3  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

2-3  p.  m. 

1-2  p.  m. 
/  1-2  p.  m. 
t  2-3  p.  m. 

}    53.0. 

I- 

41.0 
36.0 
32.9 
25.0 
36.9 
36.0 
63.5 
44.5 
50.0 

60.5 

28.5 

1    50.5 

15 

17 

12 
18 
31 

3 

14 
10 
15 

8 
13 

■? 

31 

3-4  p.  m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

8-9  p.  m. 

2-3  p.  m. 

6-7  p.  m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

6-7  p.  m. 

5-6  p.  m. 

4-5  a.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 
11-12  noon 

7-8  p.  m. 
10-11  p.  m. 

3-4  p.  m. 

5-6  p.  m. 

66.0 

56.4 

49.2 
48.0 
39.0 
30.9 
45. 1 
35.5 
23.0 
68.0 
52.2 

1     48.5 

'     48.0 

41.0 

29 

11 

15 
19 
13 
11 
3 
9 
7 
28 
24 

6 

21 

18 

0-1  p.  m. 

4-5  p.  m„ 

3-4  p.  m. 
3-4  p.  m. 
3-4  p.  m. 
2-3  p.  m. 
2-3  p.  m. 
4-5  p.  m. 
3-4  p.  m. 
7-8  a.  m. 

1886. 

1887 

1888 

1889          

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1-2  p.  m. 
4-5  p.  m. 
0-1  p.  m,, 
1-2  p.  m. 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Mean 

35.6 

42.5 

42.0 

Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPOET    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


253 


Table  LXXXVII. — Maximum  velocity  of  the  vnnd  recorded  in  Manila  in  the  interval  of 
one  hour  during  the  period  1885-1898 — Continued. 


July. 

August. 

September. 

Year. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

59.0 
55.6 
35.0 
55.0 

52.9 

40.8 
43.1 
33.3 

48.8 

48.5 
50.5 
63.0 

j-    53.0 

52.0 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

1885            

69.0 
40.3 
52.9 
60.5 

52.2 

54.8 
65.7 
49.1 
64.0 

47.0 
53.5 
47.0 

47.0 

40.0 

22 
12 
18 
21 

16 

16 
17 
22 
17 

24 

27 

28 

-{ 

31 

8-9  a.m. 
4-5  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
6-7  a.m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

0-1  a.m. 

2-3  a.m. 

10-11  a.m. 

1-2  a.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

3-4  a.m. 

8-9  a.m. 
10-11  a.m. 
11-12  noon. 

2-3  p.m. 

11 
14 
4 
15 

23 

6 
2 
16 
31 

11 

22 
8 

5 

9-10  a.m. 
1-2  p.  m. 
3-4  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

3-4  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
7-8  p.  m. 

7-8  p.  m. 
7-8  p.  m. 
4-5  a.m. 

9-10  a.m. 

.  1-2  a.  m. 

57.0 
44.8 
79.0 
69.5 

35.7 

100.0 
46.0 
45.1 
90.0 

89.0 
65.0 
44.5 

57.0 

31.5 

4 

8 
19 
27 

-{ 

30 

6 

7 

30 

17 
4 
12 

14 

15 

1-2  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 
2-3  a.m. 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

1890 

11-12  noon. 
1-2  p.  m. 
7-8  a.  m. 

1891 

1-2  p.  m. 
0-1  a.m. 

1892 

1893 

11-12  mid- 

1894  

night. 
9-10  a.m. 

1895  ..             

6-7  a.  m. 

1896 

4-5  p.m. 
0-1  p.m. 
3-4  p.m. 

1897 

1898.             

Mean 

53.0 

49.3 

61.0 

Year. 

October. 

November. 

December. 

Maxi- 
mum 
annual 
veloc- 
ity. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

3-4  p.m. 
11-12  noon. 

1-2  p.m. 

4-5  p.  m. 

6-7  a.m. 

0-1  p.m. 

8-9  a.m. 

5-6  p.  m. 
11-12  noon. 

0-1  p.m. 

1-2  p.  m. 

0-1  p.m. 

2-3  p.  m. 

1-2  p.m. 
9-10  a.  m. 

Kilo- 
meters. 

Days. 

Hours. 

1885 

1886 

1887 

1888 

1889 

35.0 
38. 2 
55.0 
27.9 
45.3 
57.8 
20.2 
47.4 
73.0 
90.0 
37.5 
74.0 

54.0 

38.5 

23 
9 
4 
1 

29 
17 
23 
28 
1 
3 
1 
4 

13 

25 

2-3  p.m.  1      96.0 
1-2  p.  m.  ;       32. 3 
0-1  p.  m.  1       32. 8 
5-6  p.m.  1       27.0 
8-9  a.m.  1      30.5 
2-3  p.m.  1      84.1 

7 
17 
27 
19 

4 
11 
16 
21 
15 
17 

2 

24 

J    13 

I    29 

13 

39.0 
25.0 
18.9 
19.8 
42.0 
29.0 
28.8 
25.9 
36.0 
57.0 
25.5 
33.5 

1    26.0 

38.0 

30 
18 
10 
2 
4 
17 
23 
6 

28 
22 
27 
14 

9 

9 

0-1  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 
10-11  a,m. 
10-11  a.m. 
10-11  a.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

1-2  p.m. 

3-4  p.m. 

2-3  p.m. 
2-3  p.m. 

96.0 
56.4 
79.0 
69.5 
52.9 

1890 

100.0 

1891 

5-6  p.m. 
1-2  p.m. 
1-2  a.  m. 
3-4  a.m. 
4-5  p.  m. 
8-9  a.m. 

10-11  a.  m. 

5-6  a.m. 

58. 4 
36.2 
32.1 
41.0 
50.5 
20.0 

25. 0 

50.0 

65.7 

1892 

1893 

49.1 
90.0 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

90.0 
65.0 
74.0 

57.0 

1898 

52.0 

Mean 

49.6 

44.0 

31.7 

71.2 



VII.— MAXIMUM  HOURLY  VELOCITY  OF  THE  WIND  IN  MANILA. 

Table  LXXXVII  contains  the  monthly  maximum  velocities  of  the 
wind  in  Manila  in  the  interval  of  a  single  hour  during  the  period 

1895-1898. 

HOURLY   VELOCITIES    MOST    EXTRAORDINAKY    OF   THE    PERIOD. 

The  maximum  most  extraordinary  velocity  of  all  the  period  was 
that  recorded  from  7  to  8  of  the  morning  of  the  30th  of  September, 
1890,  during  which  the  wind  blew  at  the  rate  of  100  kilometers;  that 
is  to  say,  at  the  rate  27  meters  per  second.  This  last  sum  is  nothing  but 
the  hourly  average  of  said  velocity  of  100  kilometers;  but  in  the  rec- 
ords of  this  observatory  we  find  that  during  the  interval  of  that  hour 
there  were  wind  squalls  or  puffs  which  measured  40  meters  per  second. 

The  next  greatest  maximum  velocity  was  of  96  kilometers  (26.7 
meters  per  second),  recorded  from  3  to  4  p.  m.  on  the  7th  of  Novem- 
ber, 1885.    The  third  greatest  hourly  velocity  obtained  was  of  90  kilo- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


254 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPIKE    COMMISSION. 


meters  (25  meters  per  second),  taken  from  11  to  12  m.  on  the  30th  of 
September,  1893,  and  from  3  to  4  a.  m.  on  the  3d  of  October,  1894. 

All  these  maximum  velocities  were  occasioned  and  recorded  during 
the  passing  of  some  cyclone  north  of  Manila. 

MAXIMUM   HOURLY   VELOCITIES   OF  EACH   MONTH. 


The  maximum  hourly  velocities  of  each  month  can  be  seen  in  the 
following  table: 

Kilometers. 

January 370  (1885) 

February 397  (1889) 

March, 434  (1896) 

April : 527  (1889) 

May 635  (1893) 

June 580  (1890) 

July 690  (1880) 

August 630  (1896) 

September 1,  000  (1890) 

October 980  (1880) 

November 960  (1886) 

December 570  (1890) 

The  fourteen  annual  maxima  are  distributed  among  the  different 
months  of  the  year  as  follows: 


June 1 

July -.  2 

August  . 2 


September 6 

October 2 

November 1 


VIII.— MONTHLY,  ANNUAL,  AND  SEMIANNUAL  AVERAGE  OF  FRE- 
QUENCY OF  THE  WINDS  IN  SOME  OF  THE  PLACES  OF  THE 
ARCHIPELAGO. 

AVERAGE    FREQUENCY   OF   THE    WINDS    IN    APARRI,  ALBAY,  AND   ILOILO. 

Being  impossible  to  discuss,  as  we  would  like  to,  or  as  it  might  be 
well  to  do,  the  frequency  of  the  winds  in  distinct  islands  and  localities 
of  the  archipelago,  we  will  content  ourselves  with  discussing  this  sub- 
ject, taking  the  three  stations  of  Aparri,  Albay,  and  Iloilo,  north  and 
south  of  Luzon  and  in  the  center  of  the  Visayan  Islands.  To  accom- 
plish this  end  we  give  in  Tables  LXXXVIII  and  LXXXIX  the  mean 
frequency  of  the  winds  of  Aparri  and  Albay,  obtained  by  six  daily 
observations  taken  during  1880-1895.  By  reason  of  the  fact  that  the 
records  of  said  stations  are  lacking  in  the  observations  of  some  days 
and  hours,  we  are  obliged  to  omit  from  both  tables  some  three  entire 
months  and  here  and  there  some  isolated  days  scattered  through  the 
different  years  of  that  period.  This,  however,  does  not  in  any  way 
change  the  relation  between  the  monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual 
averages. 

Table  XC  contains  the  average  or  mean  frequency  of  the  winds  in 
Iloilo  (though  not  complete)  obtained  during  the  period  1894-1897. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


255 


Table  LXXXVIII. — Monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  average  of  frequency  of  the  winds 
at  the  meteorological  station  of  Aparri  {north  of  Luzon)  1886-1895. 


Month. 


January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

Average,     Novem- 
ber to  May 

Average,   June   to 
October 


N. 
NNW. 


11.3 
12.3 
15.2 
18.0 
25.2 
19.7 
28.7 
24.5 
25.1 
16.2 
6.0 
5.9 


17.3 
13.4 

22.  8 


NW. 
WNW. 


3.5 
4.8 
4.3 
7.3 
10.4 
8.1 
10.9 
12.9 
17.0 
9.1 
3.1 
2.5 


7.8 
5.1 
11.6 


W. 

wsw. 


0.8 
2.2 
1.4 
2.9 
4.2 
5.8 
7.4 
7.4 
8.7 
3.5 
1.5 
0.5 


3.9 
1.9 
6.6 


SW. 

ssw. 


1.9 
4.5 
6.5 
4.2 
8.9 
22.4 
25.0 
33.9 
25.2 
9.1 
3.4 
4.0 


12.4 
4.8 
23.1 


S. 

SSE. 


9.1 
9.4 
13.6 
19.7 
20.0 
34.8 
29.8 
25.7 
12.9 
8.4 
3.4 
5.9 


16.1 
11.6 


SE. 

ESE. 


14.4 
11.9 
13.8 
13.7 
15.3 
18.1 
11.8 
11.1 
10.8 

8.9 
10.0 

9.2 


12.6 
12. 1 


E. 

ENE. 


46.6 

38.7 

33.0 

25.0 

20.2 

11.7 

7.2 

5.2 

9.2 

25.8 

44. 5 

45.7 


26.1 
36.2 
11.8 


NE. 
NNE. 


75.7 
65.9 
74.6 
64.6 
51.9 
36.4 
35.6 
35.4 
39.9 
71.1 
87.5 
89.2 


60.7 

72.8 


Calm, 


20.3 
19.5 
21.2 
24.6 
25.8 
23.0 
26.2 
26.9 
31.2 
29.1 
20.6 
20.1 


24.0 
21.7 
27.3 


Total 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tions. 


1,836 
1,692 
1,836 
1,800 
1,638 
1,620 
1, 644 

i,8no 

1,620 

l,8]i 

i,Hiia 

1,8  0 


Table  LXXXIX. — Monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  average  of  frequency  of  the  umids 
at  the  meteorological  station  of  Alhay  {south  of  Luzon),  1886-1895. 


Month. 


January 

February  

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Average 

Average,    Novem- 
ber to  May 

Average,  June   to 
October 


N. 
NNW. 


2.1 

2.9 
1.0 
0.4 
1.0 
1.9 
1.8 
6.0 
4.8 
5.1 
5.3 
4.3 


3.1 
2.4 
3.9 


NW. 
WNW. 


0.1 
0.0 

1.1 

0.1 
1.0 
5.3 
6.1 
11.2 
9.1 
1.7 
1.3 
0.2 


3.1 
0.5 

6.7 


W. 

WSW. 


0.1 

6.9 

11.6 

1.6 

2.5 

11.0 

27.7 

21.2 

27.5 

8.6 

2.8 

1.7 


10.3 


SW. 

ssw 


0.0 
7.4 
4.4 
0.8 
5.9 
14.1 
35.7 
38.6 
47.4 
16.1 
6.4 
10.5 


15. 6 
5.1 
30.4 


S. 
SSE. 


0.0 
0.1 
6.5 
4.8 
7.3 
7.1 
8.9 
6.3 
7.2 
4.9 
1.4 
1.8 


4.7 
4.4 
6.9 


SE. 
ESE. 


0.9 
1.5 

3.9 
4.9 
5.0 
5.5 

7.6 
8.2 
3.2 
4.0 
4.0 
1.8 


4.2 
3.1 
5.7 


E. 

ENE. 


68.9 
67.1 
80.3 
86.2 
78.4 
49.5 
17.8 
18.5 
7.9 
36.1 
47.6 
48.8 


50.6 
68.2 
26.0 


NE.' 
NNE. 


80.8 
59.2 
39.8 
26.3 
11.0 
12.2 
7.4 
7.0 
8.2 
38.8 
63.2 
77.8 


36.0 
51.1 
14.7 


Calm. 


32.6 
22.9 
35.0 
49.5 
70.3 
67.4 
69.8 
66.6 
59.3 
66.5 
45.9 
35.5 


51.8 
41.7 
66.9 


Total 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tions. 


1.668 
1.680 
1.836 
1.746 
1.824 
1.740 
1.644 
1.836 
1.746 
1.818 
1.602 
1.824 


Table  XC. — Monthly,  annual,  and  semiannual  average  of  frequency  of  the  winds  at  the 
agricultural  station  of  Lloilo,  1894-1897. 


Month. 

N. 
NNW. 

NW. 
WNW. 

W. 
WSW. 

SW. 
SSW. 

S. 

SSE. 

SE. 

ESE. 

E. 
ENE. 

NE. 

NNE. 

Calm. 

Total 
of  ob- 
serva- 
tions. 

January 

47.0 
41.3 
38.3 
30.3 
9.3 
10.8 
5.5 
3.5 
6.3 
21.3 
36.8 
42.0 

18.3 

21.0 

16.0 

18.8 

8.0 

6.5 

2.8 

1.5 

1.3 

9.3 

7.8 

4.0 

1.3 
1.3 
2.0 
4.3 
13.5 
15.0 
16.0 
13.5 
5.3 
5.3 
4.8 
2.3 

0.0 

0.3 

0.0 

2.3 

22.0 

20.8 

28.3 

45.8 

43.5 

16.3 

4.5 

1.3 

0.3 

0.0 

0.7 

2.5 

17.5 

14.8 

24.5 

33.5 

36.5 

13.7 

2.0 

0.8 

0.0 
0.0 
0.3 
3.5 
19.0 
13.8 
23.3 
11.3 
14.8 
8.7 
4.3 
0.5 

13.7 
6.5 
9.0 

14.3 
9.3 

12.8 

12.0 
5.8 
6.3 
9.7 

12.5 
9.5 

40.3 
41.5 
53.0 
38.8 
14.0 
15.5 
6.0 
4.3 
4.0 
22.7 
41.5 
61.3 

3.0 
3.8 
4.7 
5.5 
11.5 
10.3 
5.8 
5.0 
2.5 
17.0 
6.0 
2.5 

372 

February  

452 

March 

372 

April 

480 

May 

496 

June 

480 

July 

496 

August. 

496 

September ... 

480 

October .  . 

372 

November  ..  .. 

480 

December. 

496 

Average 

Average,  Novem- 
ber to  May 

Average,  June  to 
October 

24.4 
35.0 
9.5 

9.6 
13.4 
4.3 

7.1 
4.2 
4.0 

15.4 
4.3 
30.9 

12.2 
3.4 
24.5 

8.3 
3.9 
14.4 

10.1 
10.7 
9.3 

28.6 
41.5 
10.5 

6.5 
5.3 
8.1 

P   C— TOL  4r-01- 


-21 


Hosted  by 


Google 


256  REPORT   OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

CONCLUSIONS  WHICH   FOLLOW   FROM   THESE   TABLES. 

From  these  tables  we  find,  first,  that  at  the  station  in  Aparri  the 
winds  most  prevalent,  even  in  the  months  of  July  to  September,  are 
those  from  north  to  east,  and  those  less  prevalent  are  from  the  west. 

Second.  That  at  the  station  in  Albay  the  most  prevalent  winds  during 
the  year  are  those  from  north  to  east,  with  the  exception  of  only  three 
months — July,  August,  and  September — in  which  the  most  or  greater 
frequency  prevails  in  those  of  the  third  quadrant.  During  the  months 
of  March,  April,  May,  and  June  there  is  to  be  seen  a  marked  inclina- 
tion in  the  prevailing  winds  from  the  east,  corresponding  to  east  to 
east-northeast,  the  maximum  monthly  frequency,  so  that  in  other 
months  when  winds  of  the  first  quadrant  prevail  those  from  northeast 
and  north-northeast  give  a  higher  degree  of  pre  valency. 

Third.  In  Iloilo  the  north  winds  prevail  in  the  months  of  January, 
February,  March,  April,  October,  November,  and  December,  and  winds 
from  the  south,  principally  those  comprised  of  south  and  southwest 
winds,  prevail  in  the  other  months — May,  June,  July,  August,  and 
September. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTER  Vn. 

INTRODUCTION. 

This  important  meteorological  element  exercises  a  notable  influence 
upon  the  climatology,  both  directly  and  indirectly,  in  a  greater  or  less 
degree,  predisposing  the  general  conditions  of  the  atmosphere  to 
diverse  alterations,  and  indicating  by  its  form,  disposition,  and  height, 
and  by  its  direction,  velocity,  and  position,-  the  great  atmospheric 
changes. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  direction  and  velocity  of  the  clouds  can  be 
an  indication,  to  a  greater  or  less  degree,  of  the  diurnal  ascending  cur- 
rents, caused  for  the  most  part  by  the  greater  or  smaller  terrestrial 
irradiation,  which  is  an  important  factor  in  climatology. 

In  this  chapter  we  have  collected  all  the  information  concerning  the 
clouds  which  has  been  observed  at  the  observatory  in  Manila,  and  we 
will  deal  first  with  that  portion  of  it  which  refers  to  the  number  of 
clouds;  after  that  we  will  consider  the  movements  of  the  clouds,  and 

finally  will  give  the  results  which  have  been  obtained  with  the  most 
modern  photographic  apparatus,  by  which  means  we  have  been  able 
to  analyze  and  compare  them,  one  to  another,  thus  bringing  them  into 
relation  with  the  most  important  climatologic  elements,  namely,  the 
temperature  and  atmospheric  pressure. 

I.  NUMBER  OF  CLOUDS. 
WHAT   IS   UNDERSTOOD   BY   CLOUDINESS   OR   NEBULOUSNESS. 

The  number  of  clouds  constitute  what  we  call  a  condition  of  cloudi- 
ness or  nebulousness,  modifying  the  aspect  of  the  sky  in  such  a  man- 
ner and  in  such  varying  degrees  as  to  be  called  clear,  covered,  or 
variable.  The  number  or  quantity  of  clouds  is  generally  measured  by 
a  scale,  from  0  to  10,  by  0  it  being  understood  that  the  sky  is  clear, 
and  by  10  that  the  sky  is  completely  covered  by  clouds. 

The  sky  is  generally  called  clear  when  the  scale  does  not  pass  over 
3  degrees,  variable  when  between  3  and  7  degrees,  and  clouded  when 
more  than  the  seventh  part  of  the  sky  is  covered. 

CLOUDINESS   IN  MANILA. 

In  Table  XCI  we  give  by  months  and  years  the  average  p umber  of 
clouds  observed  to  prevail  in  Manila  from  the  hourly  observations 

^  We  owe  the  statements  contained  in  this  chapter  to  Father  Algu^,  director  of  this 
observatory,  from  whose  last  pubHcation,  The  Clouds  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago, 
we  have  used  extracts  and  totals,  besides  an  interesting  study  upon  the  solar  splendor 
and  the  sky  of  Manila. 

257 


Hosted  by 


Google 


258 


REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 


made  since  1885  up  to  and  including  1898.  From  a  study  of  these 
averages  an  adequate  idea  may  be  obtained  of  the  extent  of  cloudy 
days  in  Manila  during  each  year. 

Table  XCI. — Monthly  and  yearly  average  cloudiness  at  Manila  during  the  period  from 

1885  to  1898. 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Aver- 
age. 

1885 

3.0 
3.0 
4.0 
4.5 
4.0 
4.9 
5.9 
5.6 
4.7 
5.3 
5.0 
5.1 
3.6 
5.3 

3.4 
3.0 
4.6 
2.3 
3.4 
4.8 
3.7 
3.6 
4.1 
5.0 
3.7 
4.3 
4.0 
3.9 

3.0 
2.0 
4.6 
3.1 
2.4 
3.5 
3.5 
5.0 
4.0 
3.5 
4.6 
4.4 
4.3 
5.4 

3.0 
2.0 
4.9 
2.3 
2.6 
4.7 
3.8 
3.8 
4.0 
3.2 
3.2 
2.7 
4.3 
5.2 

2.0 

2.8 

6.2 

4.4 

3.1 

6.1 

5.0 

4.9 

6.2 

6.2 

6.8  . 

7.2 

5.3 

5.9 

5.0 
Q>.% 
6.5 

6.8 
6.5 
6.1 
7.5 
6.5 
&.& 
7.8 
7.8 
6.9 
6.5 
7.7 

6.0 
6.2 
3.0 
8.5 
6.7 
7.7 
7.9 
7.6 
8.0 
8.6 
6.7 
7.8 
7.4 
8.0 

6.3 
7.0 
6.3 
7.1 
7.4 
7.0 
8.6 
7.1 
7.7 
7.5 
8.1 
8.9 
8.0 
7.5 

4.0 

7.7 
8.9 
6.0 
6.5 
8.7 
8.1 
7.8 
7.8 
8.8 
8.5 
7.0 
7.3 
6.7 

4.0 
6.6 
5.2 
5.6 
6.4 
7.6 
4.7 
6.5 
6.5 
6.8 
5.4 
6.4 
7.1 
7.2 

4.0 
6.8 
6.4 
4.6 
6.5 
4.7 
6.7 
7.1 
6.6 
7.1 
5.4 
3.8 
6.0 
7.1 

3.0 
6.9 
5.5 
4.5 
6.3 
4.3 
6.7 
6.3 
6.2 
6.1 
5.9 
4.9 
6.9 
5.7 

3  9 

1880 

5  1 

1887 

5  9 

1888 

5  0 

1889 

5  2 

1890 

5  8 

1891   .  . 

6  0 

1892 

5  9 

1893 

6.0 

1894 

6  3 

1895 

5.9 

1896 

5  8 

1897 

5.9 

1898 

6  3 

Average 

4.6 

3.8 

3.8 

3.5 

5.1 

6.8 

7.5 

7.5 

7.4 

6.1 

5.8 

5.6 

5.6 

GENERAL   ASPECT   OF   THE   SKY   AT   MANILA. 

Dividing  the  day  into  four  parts — early  morning,  morning,  after- 
noon, and  evening — we  will  consider  the  general  aspect  of  the  sky  at 
Manila,  using  the  general  denominations  of  clear,  covered,  and  variable. 
We  take  into  account  only  the  observations  that  have  been  made  and 
verified  since  the  year  1890,  which  we  include  in  the  following  tables, 
XCII,  giving  the  averages. 

Table  XCII. — General  aspect  of  the  shy  at  Manila,  1890-1898. 

JANUARY. 


^ 

Early  morning. 

Forenoon. 

Afternoon. 

Night. 

Year. 

Q 

1 

1 

6 

6 

1 
1 

6 

1 

1 

6 

■c 

3 

1 
1 

6 

1 

1 

6 

i 
1 

6 

a5 

1890 

9 
8 
4 
14 
6 
15 
14 
23 
12 

4 
6 

18 
5 
9 
8 
8 
2 
6 

18 
17 
9 
12 
16 
8 
9 
6 
13 

2 
4 

1 
6 
2 
8 
8 
11 
9 

6 
9 

19 
5 

14 
5 
8 
2 
2 

23 
18 
11 
20 
15 
18 
15 
18 
20 

2 
2 
4 
5 
2 
5 
5 
13 
6 

14 
9 
19 
13 
17 
13 
11 
3 
3 

15 
20 
8 
13 
12 
13 
15 
15 
22 

6 

10 
10 
14 
13 
13 
14 
20 
11 

5 
7 
11 
5 
8 
7 
5 
1 
5 

20 

1891 

14 

1892 

10 

1893.. 

12 

1894 

10 

1895 

11 

1896 

12 

1897 

10 

1898 

15 

Average 

11.7 

7.3 

12.0 

5.7 

7.7 

17.6 

4.9 

11.3 

14.8 

12.3 

6.0 

12.7 

FEBRUARY. 


1890 

13 
15 
14 
13 
13 
13 
12 
18 
14 

6 
3 
6 
5 
6 
5 
6 
4 
4 

9 
10 

9 
10 

9 
10 
11 

6 
10 

5 
12 
12 
10 

7 
13 

8 
11 
13 

11 

7 
6 
5 
7 
7 
6 
6 
4 

12 
9 
11 
13 
14 
8 
15 
11 
11 

2 
8 

12 
7 
3 

10 

11 
9 

10 

13 

8 
6 
6 
8 
9 
4 
6 
7 

13 
12 
11 
15 
17 
9 
14 
13 
11 

11 
16 
18 
16 
15 
17 
17 
19 
16 

8 
2 
3 
5 
7 
4 
4 
4 
2 

9 

1891 

10 

1892 

8 

1893  . 

7 

1894 

6 

1895 

7 

1896 

8 

1897 

5 

1898 

10 

Average 

13.8 

5.0 

9.3 

10.2 

6.5 

11.5 

8.0 

7.4 

12.8 

16.1 

4.3 

7.8 

Hosted  by 


Google 


■REPORT   O^  THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSIOK. 


269 


Table  XCII. — General  aspect  of  the  sky  at  Manila,  1890-1898 — Continued. 

MARCH. 


Early  morning. 

Forenoon. 

Afternoon. 

Night. 

Year. 

5 

1 

6 

6 

I 

o 

o 

6 

6 
3 

> 

6 

1 

6 

6 

03 
> 

i 

6 

1 

'd 

§ 

6 

6 

1 

1890 

17 
12 
11 
16 
17 
14 
17 
14 
14 

3 
4 
14 

I 

13 

7 
6 
12 

11 
15 
6 

12 
12 
4 
7 

13 
9 
8 
14 
11 
10 
9 

I 

4 

5 
12 
16 

3 
11 

6 

7 
12 

14 
17 
11 
1 

n 

10 
16 
16 

11 

12 
14 

8 
12 
10 

8 
6 
7 
9 

7 
3 

8 
12 
5 
5 
10 

12 
14 
11 
12 
13 
11 
20 
19 
12 

19 
15 
15 
20 
21 
21 
17 
17 
15 

2 
2 

9 

2 
2 
7 
7 
3 
10 

10 

1891 

14 

1892 

7 

1893 

9 

1894 

8 

1895 

3 

1890 

7 

1897 

11 

1898 

6 

Average 

14.7 

7. 1   9-2 

10.0 

8.4 

12. 6 

9.5 

7.7  1.^  « 

17.8 

4.9 

8  3 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 

1895 

1896 

1897 

1898 

Average 


14 

y 

9 

7 

8 

15 

5 

11 

14 

13 

11 

17 

3 

10 

11 

5 

14 

6 

10 

14 

15 

4 

20 

2 

8 

10 

2 

18 

7 

2 

21 

18 

3 

18 

5 

7 

12 

3 

15 

10 

7 

13 

17 

4 

18 

2 

10 

9 

5 

16 

7 

6 

17 

19 

4 

22 

3 

5 

17 

7 

6 

12 

5 

13 

21 

3 

22 

5 

3 

20 

3 

7 

17 

3 

10 

23 

3 

13 

4 

13 

6 

0 

24 

4 

1 

25 

17 

3 

16 

5 

9 

10 

9 

11 

2 

11 

17 

13 

7 

17.8 

4.0 

8.2 

11.3 

4.7 

14.0 

7.8 

6.2 

16.0 

17.3 

4.7 

6 
11 


6 
4 
10 
10 


MAY. 


1890 

4 

10 
11 
3 
3 
5 
6 

10 
10 

6 
11 

5 
11 
11 

8 
17 

4 

6 

21 
10 
15 
17 
17 
18 
8 
17 
15 

2 
2 
12 
2 
4 
3 
3 
5 
4 

11 
13 
4 
10 
12 
12 
16 
2 
7 

18 
16 
15 
19 
15 
16 
12 
24 
20 

2 
2 
6 
1 
2 
2 
2 
0 
1 

13 
16 
12 
15 
21 
17 
16 
3 
18 

16 
13 
13 
15 
8 
12 
13 
28 
12 

2 
12 

5 
7 
6 
3 
6 
9 
9 

11 
7 
12 
13 
16 
15 
16 
4 
8 

18 

1891 

12 

1892 

14 

1893 

11 

1894 

9 

1895 

18 

1896 

9 

1897  .      .... 

18 

1898 

14 

Average 

6.9 

8.8 

15.3 

4.1 

9.6 

17.3 

2.0 

14.5 

14.5 

6.6 

11.3 

13.1 

1890 

1 
3 
4 
6 
9 
2 
2 
7 
1 

4 
24 
9 
4 

11 
14 

7 

7 

17 

25 
3 
17 
20 
10 
14 
21 
16 
12 

2 
6 
1 
4 
2 
3 
2 

i 

17 

20 

11 

8 

10 

12 

7 

9 

17 

13 
8 
13 
26 
16 
16 
20 
19 
12 

1 

8 
20 
13 

7 
20 
20 
16 
12 
24 

21 
10 
16 
23 
9 
9 
13 
17 
6 

6 
2 
3 
6 
2 
1 
1 
3 
2 

5 
21 
12 

5 
16 
14 
13 

7 
19 

19 

1891 

7 

1892 

15 

1893  . . 

19 

1894 

12 

1895 . 

15 

1896 

16 

1897 

20 

1898 

9 

Average 

3.9 

10.8 

15.3 

2.3 

11.8 

15.9 

0.7 

15.5 

13.8 

2.9 

12.4 

14  7 

JULY. 


1890 

1 
4 
2 
3 
1 
8 
3 
2 
1 

3 
18 
13 
12 
12 
11 
20 
12 
18 

27 
9 
16 
16 
18 
12 
18 
17 
12 

1 

"i"' 

1 
0 
8 
2 
1 

6 
21 
17 

7 
16 
11 
17 
13 
15 

24 
10 
13 
23 
15 

i 

16 
16 

0 
1 

"l" 
0 
2 
1 

7 
26 
17 
16 
27 
18 
19 
21 
29 

24 
4 
14 
14 
4 
17 
11 
10 
2 

1 
3 
3 
2 
0 
4 
4 
2 
1 

4 
23 
16 
17 
26 
15 
19 
15 
22 

26 

1891 

5 

1892 

12 

1893  . . . 

12 

1894 

5 

1895  .... 

12 

1896 

8 

1897 

14 

1898 

8 

Average 

2.8 

13.2 

15,0 

1,5 

13.7 

15.8 

0.6 

20.0 

10.4 

2.2 

17.4 

11.4 

Hosted  by 


Google 


260  REPORT   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 

Table  XCII. — General  aspect  of  the  sky  at  Manila^  1890-1898 — Continued. 

AUGUST. 


Early  morning. 

Forenoon. 

Afternoon. 

Night. 

Year 

6 

o 

6 

6 

1 
1 

6 

i 

0 

1 

1 
0 

1 

'd 

1 

6 

1- 

6 

1 

> 

1891) .* 

0 

1 

7 
2 
1 
4 

1 

25 
11 
18 
17 
16 
23 
15 
17 

30 
5 
13 
11 
13 
11 
8 
15 
11 

1 

""2" 

"3"'" 
4 
1 

"2""' 

6 
25 

7 

18 
15 
17 
22 
11 
17 

24 
6 
22 
13 
13 
10 
8 
20 
12 

0 







2 
0 

4 

27 
17 
25 
18 
18 
27 
18 
15 

27 
4 

14 
6 

11 

13 

:l 

15 

1 

"2"" 
1 
0 
1 

"2" 
3 

2 
26 
14 
15 
19 
25 
25 
16 
20 

28 

1891 

5 

1892 

15 

1893 

15 

1894 

12 

1895 

5 

1896 

6 

1897 

1 
3 

13 

1898 

8 

Average 

2.1 

15.9 

13.0 

1.4 

15.3 

14.3 

0.3 

18.8 

11.9 

1.1 

18.0 

11.9 

SEPTEMBER. 

1890 

28 
17 
16 
15 
16 
23 
13 
8 
11 

2 
11 

7 

14 
11 

6 
15 
21 
16 

...... 

1 

"2" 
3 
2 

"2" 

30 
18 
16 
13 
15 
16 
10 
7 
8 

30 
22 
19 
17 
20 
20 
10 
9 
17 

25 
21 
19 
16 
21 
24 
13 
13 
10 

5 

1891 

2 
7 
1 
3 
1 
2 
1 
3 

11 
13 
17 
13 
11 
18 
23 
20 

2 
1 
1 

'"6"' 

8 
11 
13 
8 
9 
19 
21 
13 

1 

4 
1 
3 
0 
5 

"4"" 

8 

1892 

7 

1893 

13 

1894. 

6 

1895 

6 

1896... 

12 

1897 

17 

1898 

16 

Average   .  . 

2.2 

16.3 

11.5 

1.2 

14.8 

14.0 

0.4 

18.2 

11,4 

2.0 

18.0 

10  0 

OCTOBER. 

1890  

2 
9 

7 
8 
8 
9 
3 
5 
8 

19 
9 
13 
11 
8 
14 
10 
16 
14 

10 
13 
11 
12 
15 

8 
18 
10 

9 

3 
10 
5 
4 
8 
12 
4 
3 
5 

23 
13 
14 
14 
10 
11 
11 
8 
16 

5 
8 
12 
13 
13 
8 
16 
20 
10 

2 
2 
2 
1 
5 
9 
3 
1 
1 

25 
22 
16 
16 
17 
12 
13 
11 
21 

6 
7 
15 
14 
9 
10 
15 
19 
10 

8 
9 
7 
9 
6 
0 
1 

17 
6 
12 
11 
17 
13 
7 

14 
16 

12 

1891 

12 

1892  .... 

11 

1893 

11 

1894 

7 

1895 

9 

1896 

18 

1897 

17 

1898 

14 

Average   

6.5 

12.7 

11.8 

6.0 

13.3 

11.7 

2.3 

17.0 

11.7 

6.1 

12.6 

12  3 

NOVEMBER. 


1890 

12 

7 
5 
4 
6 
7 
12 
9 
6 

7 
12 
13 
11 
12 
15 
8 
4 
17 

11 
11 
12 
15 
12 

8 
15 
17 

7 

8 
7 
3 
2 
4 
8 
9 
2 
3 

5 
17 
16 
10 
11 
12 
1 
7 
16 

17 
6 
11 
18 
15 
10 
20 
21 
11 

6 
2 
1 
1 
6 
4 
6 
1 
1 

8 
21 
20 
15 
15 
15 
15 

8 
17 

16 
7 
9 

14 
9 
11 
24 
21 
12 

16 
7 
6 
6 
8 
10 
22 
9 
7 

7 
17 
15 
10 
15 
16 
16 

7 
17 

7 

1891 

6 

1892  ., 

9 

1893 

15 

1894 

7 

1895 

4 

1896 

8 

1897 

14 

1898 

6 

Average 

7.6 

10.4 

12.0 

5.1 

10.5 

14.4 

3.1 

13.2 

13.7 

10.0 

11.5 

8,5 

DECEMBER. 

1890 

19 
5 
3 
6 
7 
9 

14 
5 

15 

4 
14 

8 

8 
16 
11 

5 
10 
10 

8 

12 
20 
17 

8 
11 
12 
16 

6 

13 
1 
3 
1 
5 
5 
3 
2 
3 

5 
19 

7 

19 
15 
14 

6 
11 
10 

13 
11 
21 
11 
11 
12 
22 
18 
18 

10 
0 
3 
0 
8 
1 
4 
4 
2 

8 
26 

9 
20 
19 
16 

2 
14 
12 

13 
5 
19 
11 
9 
14 
25 
17 
17 

20 

1? 

8 
9 
12 
21 
9 
15 

5 
14 
4 
10 
13 
8 
2 
9 
8 

6 

1891 

11 

1892 

10 

1893 

13 

1894 

9 

1895 ... 

11 

1896 

8 

1897 

13 

1898 

8 

Average 

9.2 

9.5 

12.3 

4.0 

11.8 

15.2 

2.5 

14.0 

14.5 

13.0 

8.1 

9.9 

Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOBT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION.  261 

IMPORTANT  OBSERVATIONS. 

If  we  closely  examine  the  preceding  tables,  we  will  find  that  they 
contain  some  interesting  details  of  importance  in  climatology.  Com- 
paring some  months  with  others,  we  will  see  that  the  clear  early 
mornings,  mornings,  afternoons,  and  evenings,  or  nights  increase 
in  proportion  nearly  regularly,  beginning  with  August  and  increas- 
ing until  April,  when  tney  reach  their  maximum  average.  On  the 
other  hand,  the  number  of  clouded  early  mornings,  mornings,  after- 
noons, and  nights  decrease  in  almost  regular  progression  from  April  to 
August.  The  number  of  clouds,  or  cloudy  afternoons,  increase,  also, 
progressively,  until  August,  for  the  reason  that  tornadoes  develop, 
particularly  after  midday,  from  the  month  of  April  until  the  month 
of  August,  when  they  begin  to  diminish.  For  this  same  reason  it 
may  be  noted  that  the  number  of  clear  afternoons,  and  even  nights,  is 
greater  in  March,  a  month  generally  free  of  tornadoes,  than  in  April, 
since  March  is  the  clearest  month  of  the  whole  year,  especially  during 
the  mornings  and  early  in  the  morning.  Regarding  the  clear  correla- 
tion of  the  early  mornings,  mornings,  afternoons,  and  nights  during 
the  different  months  it  will  be  observed: 

(1)  That  in  the  months  of  December,  January,  February,  March, 
and  April  the  number  of  clear  earlj  mornings  and  nights  is  much 
greater  than  the  number  of  cloudy  ones,  beginning  to  increase  gradu- 
ally in  December;  that  in  March  the  number  of  clear  nights  and  early 
mornings  is  twice  as  great  as  the  number  of  cloudy  ones,  and  this 
proportion  is  observed  until  April,  when  it  begins  to  decrease  in  May 
very  rapidly  and  continues,  successively,  during  the  other  months,  so 
that  in  August  the  number  of  cloudy  mornings  and  nights  is  much 
greater  than  the  number  of  clear  mornings  and  nights. 

(2)  From  April  the  number  of  cloudy  and  variable  afternoons  begins 
to  increase  very  perceptibly  and  continues  to  August,  probably  for 
the  reason  that  the  tornadoes  develop  during  this  month,  and  especially 
during  the  afternoons. 

(3)  Generally  from  May  until  October  the  number  of  clear  early 
mornings  is  greater  than  that  of  clear  nights. 

(4)  On  the  other  hand,  the  contingent  of  clear  nights  is  greater  than 
of  clear  early  mornings  in  January,  February,  and  March. 

(5)  From  April  until  November  the  mornings  are  generally  clearer 
than  the  afternoons. 

GRAPHIC   REPRESENTATION   OF  THE   STATE   OF   THE  SKY  AT  MANILA. 

In  Engraving  XXXVI  we  give  a  graphic  representation  of  the 
numeric  averages  of  the  preceding  outlines  for  the  better  understanding 
of  the  conditions  which  we  have  just  noted. 

SOLAR   SPLENDOR   (sUNSHINE). 

The  number  of  clouds  bear  a  close  relation  to  the  duration  of  the 
sunshine  upon  the  horizon.  Since  the  year  1897  the  sunshine  of 
Manila  has  been  observed  at  the  observatory  by  means  of  a  Whipple- 
Casella  register  (Universal  sunshine  recorder). 


Hosted  by 


Google 


262 


EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


SENSIBILITY   OF   THE    HELIOGRAPH. 

Concerning  the  value  of  the  observations  published  regularly  since 
the  year  1890,  in  the  monthly  bulletins  of  the  observatory,  it  is  well 
to  refer  to  what  has  been  written  upon  this  subject  by  writers  who 
have  interested  themselves  in  such  investigations.  The  result  shows 
that  the  recorders  heretofore  used  were  not  sensible  when  the  sun  was 
near  the  the  horizon,  for  instance,  by  less  than  six  grades  of  height.^ 
The  greater  or  less  degree  of  sensibility  depends  at  times  upon  local 
circumstances,  and  always  is  influenced  by  the  vapor  of  the  horizon 
from  the  accumulation  of  the  stratus  and  the  same  physical  constitu- 
tion of  the  air  and  of  greater  or  less  abundance  of  foreign  elements 
with  which  the  air  is  general^  impregnated.  The  determination  of 
this  sensibility  is  empiric  in  each  locality,  as  is  seen  by  comparing  the 
register  of  days  entirely  clear  with  the  duration  of  sunshine  at  the 
horizon.  By  this  means  it  will  be  found  how  long  a  time  the  sun's 
rays  are  inefficacious  for  registry,  and  this  time  being  ascertained  by 
means  of  physical  induction  the  most  important  constant  of  the  appa^- 
ratus  will  thus  be  determined. 

DETERMINATION    OF   THE    EFFECTIVE   AND    INEFFECTIVE    SUNSHINE. 

This  constant  of  the  apparatus  we  have  found  by  the  following  pro- 
ceeding: 

Consulting  the  published  observations  since  the  year  1890,  and  some 
not  published  from  1887,  we  have  grouped  by  months  and  days  the 
time  in  which  the  greatest  possible  efficacy  of  sunshine  was  registered, 
after  having,  at  the  same  time,  closely  examined  the  aspect  of  the  sk}^ 
corresponding  to  said  days,  especially  by  the  waning  and  setting  sun. 

The  result  is  expressed  in  the  following  table: 


Jan, 

h.  m. 
11.24 

10.53 

Feb. 

March 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Average  num- 
ber of  hours 
of  actual  sun- 
shine  

h.  m. 
11.40 

11.18 

h.  m. 
12.3 

11.30 

h.  m. 
12.28 

11.48 

h.  m. 
12.47 

11.32 

h.  m. 
12.57 

11. 17 

h.  m. 
12.58 

11.23 

h.  m. 
12.46 

11.15 

i 

h.  m. 
12.18 

11.0 

h.  m. 
11.49 

10.56 

h.  m. 
11.29 

10.40 

h.  m. 
11  19 

Average  num- 
ber of  hours 
of  effective 
sunshine 

10.30 

Differences. 

0.31 

0.22 

0.33 

0.40 

1.15 

1.40 

1.35 

1.31 

1.18 

0.53 

0.49 

0.49 

By  this  it  can  be  seen  that  in  February  the  sun's  rays  are  more 
effective  than  in  June,  and  generally  from  October  to  March,  both 
months  inclusive,  they  are  more  effective  than  during  the  rest  of  the 
year.  What  can  be  the  reason  of  this  difference?  We  are  satisfied 
to  indicate  that  this  efficacy  of  the  sunshine  is  closely  related  to  the 
yearly  oscillation  of  the  tension  of  the  watery  vapor,  as  can  be  seen 
when  it  is  compared  with  the  monthly  curve  of  this  element.     It  is, 

^The  heliographs  up  to  date  invented  are  reduced  to  three  classes:  (a)  Thermo- 
metric  heliographs,  in  which  the  principal  agent  of  the  record  of  sunshine  is  the 
thermal  power  of  its  rays.  (6)  Heliographs  provided  with  photographic  apparatus 
in  which  the  sun's  rays  act  chemically  upon  determined  substances,  (c)  Heliographs 
which  we  might  call  termical  mechanics,  and  which  are  those  that  by  way  of  heat 
concentrated  from  the  sun's  rays  produce  the  mechanical  effect  of  burning  substances,. 
as  paper,  powder,  etc. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XXXVI. 


GENERAL  APPEARANCE  OF  THE  SKY  AT  MANILA 

Clear Cloudy              Variable  ^^.^^ 

JANUARY 

FEBRUARY 

MARCH 

APRIL 

MAY 

JUNE 

JULY 

AUGUST 

SEPTEMBER 

OCTOBER 

NOVEMBER 

DECEMBER 

JANUARY 

FEBRUAITT 

MARCH 

APRIL 

MAY 

JUNE 

JULY 

AUGUST 

SEPTEMBER 

OCTOBER 

NOVEMBER 

DECEMBER 

Nights 

to  j 2*                                                                                                                                                 10 

1» __   _    .           .      _.    .        1                       .. 

a 1 ..                          „                              1 

•'  -      -Vr-            -     -   I      J.^      "  '^   r 

..    1        TT                                    t             \        \ 

j  \    ^^         .     \                 **         1              r \ »* 

«  -  ^  5  ~^\.  ■■■       "  i    r  ^^    "^      u 

"    V      $    ^      ■         I    t       XJ  K       "^          " 

/         T           V'          »     »-        Tl    /t                 ;    " 

«     1-         -jL                      •          ..      <           -t'       '    *     f\   L     .. 

-   '■'■     %  -          '     ..  \     J       ^^Tr 

.    '-  M/-           -;      1     a           13 

-d              -          7             J^:^fi                        7^ 

'                           \                                 J—        •        — J  p.^  J-*  -*-            -1 ± , 

y  t 4—                                       -v^                      r                                          J                                                      / 

.  -^^  --iX    -  U  -       ^  ^  tt    1 

V   3__    _  t                ^  ■'■^    T          7 

-  \       t           >                 J          I 

N«=^                          '        "-^ 

^7        it 

&                                             »                                             s. 

1            -4-                             ..                         'X                   1 

i                                                 /   -v/^i        1 

2                                                                           •»•     -                              -^             V-                    uj 

M V^ ^     ■".                                               ^                                         :                         \ 

\                f        •*•♦-,                               '•                 — St ' ■ — ^i ■  —  »• 

T        f            A    \      :^           L       T   '{^               ^ 

'      -V             '                             '  '^^         n                             J.            '    /•^.•••' 

«    ^z  .-         "^  :  r    t    ^         :, 

.  -^    t'            r  x^^^ 

.    ^-    ?                              A^^L       it 

'  £/^  1                    i-\  ^ 

•           -4               ^            /      H- 

-^^         ^"^^      L     r 

T   ^                  4 

^       i                  4            -,^ 

^v           "                                    ^                   -^^^ 

^--                           S         7 

_                                                    -^ '^ 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XXXVII. 


ANNUAL  VARIATION  OF  THE  EFFICACY  OF  THE 
SUN'S  RAYS  (INSOLATION)  AT  MANILA 

I890-I898 

Hours 

JOTl. 

Fed. 

Mairh 

AririL 

MOA^' 

Jami 

Jnly 

Anffust 

S^t. 

Oct. 

iVm'. 

3ec 

Hours 

26o 
250 
24o 
23« 
22o 
2fo 
2oo 
l9o 

17o 

ibo 
t/to 

— 

' 

"- 

— 

/ 

V 

- 

-~- 

— 

— 



— 

-H 

— 

26o 

25o 

24  o 

23o 

22o 

21o 

2oo 

i9o 

iSo 

17o 

160 

l5o 

12|0 

-- 

— 

-- 



f 

\ 

\ 

-- 

i 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

1 

— 

~  - 

-- 

— 

- 

-- 

/ 

L 

"""" 

- 

1 

j 

i 
1 

1 

/ 

! 

! 

-- 

-  - 

-- 

^ 

— 

-- 

-- 

-  - 

r 

I 

i 

^ X"~ 

-- 

v 

]_ 

\ 

\ 

1 

^^ 

\ 

k 

^ 

'- 

^  - 

\ 

V 

j 

\ 

/ 



^ 

\ 

/ 

_ — 

A 

^ 

/ 

^mmmm 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPIKE    0OMMI8SIOK. 


263 


besides,  inversely  proportionate  to  the  monthly  variation  of  the  rela- 
tive humidity,  and  finally  bears  relation  directly  to  the  monthly  varia- 
tion of  the  atmospheric  pressure. 

With  the  preceding  data  we  can  determine  with  sufficient  approxi- 
mation the  constant  of  the  apparatus,  which  is  called  twilight  correc- 
tion, which  for  the  months  January,  February,  March,  April,  October, 
November,  and  December  is  approximately  forty  minutes,  and  one  hour 
twenty-eight  minutes  for  the  other  five  months,  May,  June,  July, 
August,  and  September. 

II.— DIRECTION   OF   THE   CLOUDS. 


PRACTICAL   DETERMINATION    OF   THE    MEAN   DIRECTION   OF   CLOUDS, 
HIGH,  LOW,  AND   INTERMEDIATE. 

Another  practical  result  of  the  observations  of  clouds  has  been  the 
determination  of  their  medial  direction.  There  have  greatly  served 
us  for  this  purpose  the  observations  made  in  the  observatory  in  Manila 
from  the  year  1890  to  1897.  The  practical  result  of  these  observa- 
tions, taken  from  the  work  entitled  Clouds  in  the  Philippine  Archi- 
pelago, is  published  in  Table  XCV,  which  we  do  not  doubt  will  be  of 
great  practical  utility  in  ascertaining  the  existence,  location,  and 
direction  of  cyclonic  vortices  by  means  of  the  direction  of  the  clouds.^ 

Table  XCV. — General  movement  of  the  atmosphere  in  Manila. 
HIGH  CLOUDS  (BETWEEN  19,000  AND  5,000  METERS)— CIRRUS  AND  CIRRO  STRATUS. 


Month. 


January  . . 
February . 

March 

April  ..... 

May 

June 

July 

August  . . . 
September 
October... 
November 
December  , 

Year. 


From 
SE.  to 
NW. 

0.0038 
.0020 
.0028 
.0007 
.0032 
.0020 
.0020 
.0052 
.0016 
.0047 
.0054 
.0039 


.0373 


From  S. 
toN. 


0.0044 
.0023 
.0037 
.0024 
.0006 
.0017 
.0007 
.0012 
.0007 
.0001 
.0027 
.0023 


.0228 


From 

SW.  to 

NE. 


0.0041 
.0026 
.0005 
.0027 
.0022 
.0018 
.0013 
.0012 
.0010 
.0021 
.0013 
.0023 


.0231 


From  W. 
toE. 


0.0006 
.0008 
.0006 
.0058 
.0021 
.0026 
.0015 
.0008 
.0003 
.0002 
.0011 
.0018 


.0182 


From 

NW.  to 
SE. 


0.0003 
.0016 
.0023 
.0008 
.0011 
.0001 
.0017 
.0015 
.0007 
.0002 


.0103 


From  N. 
toS. 


0.0004 
.0003 
.0001 
.0018 
.0012 
.0024 
.0005 
.0020 
.0019 
.0003 
.0008 
.0004 


.0121 


From 

NE.  to 
SE. 


0.0002 
.0015 
.0001 
.0014 
.0048 
.0059 
.0087 
.0100 
.0105 
.0034 
.0032 
.0012 


.0509 


From  E, 
toW. 


0.0017 
.0010 
.0009 
.0003 
.0057 
.0094 
.0139 
.0173 
.0093 
.0095 
.0064 
.0036 


.0790 


0.0152 
.0105 
.0090 
.0167 
.  0221 
.0266 
.0297 
.0378 
.0270 
.0218 
.  0216 
.0157 


.2537 


INTERMEDIATE  CLOUDS   (BETWEEN    5,000  AND  2,000  METERS)— HIGH  CUMULUS,    CIRRO- 
CUMULUS,  HIGH  STRATUS,  CUMULO-NIMBUS. 


January . . . 
February . . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September. 

October 

November . 
December . 

Year. 


From 
SE.  to 

NE. 


0.0011 
.0004 
.0011 
.0013 
.0028 
.0037 
.0012 
.0015 
.0007 
.0023 
.0034 
.0039 


.0234 


From  S. 
toN. 


0.0002 


.0002 
.0007 
.0006 
.0015 
.0012 
.0018 
.0005 
.0003 
.0011 
.0006 


.0087 


From 
SE.  to 

NE. 


0.0006 
.0001 
.0004 
.0003 
.0009 
.0017 
.0047 
.0047 
.0053 
.0022 
.0006 


.0215 


From 
W.toE. 


0.0001 


.0003 
.0003 
.0004 
.0014 
.0044 
.0058 
.0040 
.0013 
.0008 
.0001 


.0179 


From 
W.  to 

SE. 


0.0005 
.0005 
.0008 
.0013 
.0011 
.0007 
.0016 
.0004 


.0069 


From 

N.  to  S. 


0.0007 
.0003 
.0001 
.0007 
.0004 
.0002 
.0004 
.0007 
.0009 
.0003 
.0005 
.0002 


.0054 


From 

NE.  to 
SW. 


0.0074 
.0037 
.0039 
.0020 
.0013 
.0002 
.0020 
.0015 
.0007 
.0056 
.0040 
.0073 


From 
E.  to  W. 


0. 0191 
.0138 
.0166 
.0108 
.0064 
.0085 
.0026 
.0035 
.0010 
.0071 
.0153 
.0167 


.1214 


Total. 


^  See  also  on  this  point  what  is  said  in  Chapter  VIII,  paragraph  8. 


0. 0282 
.0183 
.0226 
.0166 
.0133 
.0180 
.0178 
.0206 
.0138 
.0207 
.0261 
.0288 


.2448 


Hosted  by 


Google 


264  EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE   COMMISSION. 

Table  XCV. — General  movement  of  the  atmosphere  in  Manila — Continued. 

LOW  CLOUDS  (BETWEEN  2,000  AND  200  METERS)— CUMULUS,  NIMBUS,  STRATUS,  CUMULO- 

STRATUS. 


Month. 

From 
SE.  to 

NW. 

From  S. 
toN. 

From 
SW.  to 

NE. 

From 
W.  to  E. 

From 
NW.to 

SE. 

From 

N.  to  S. 

From 
NE.  to 

SE. 

From 
E.  to  W. 

Total. 

January 

0.0005 
.0004 
,0014 
.0008 
.0032 
.0043 
.0022 
.0019 
.0010 
.0006 
.0018 
.0020 

0.0002 
.0001 
.0005 
.0003 
.0017 
.0035 
.0064 
.0047 
.0083 
.0017 
.0008 

0.0002 
.0003 

0.0054 
.0037 
.0027 
.0015 
.0014 
.0003 
.0007 
.0015 
.0010 
.0037 
.0045 
.0044 

0.0112 
.0119 
.0117 
.0127 
.0082 
.0071 
.0033 
.0035 
.0020 
.0087 
.0109 
.0100 

0.0175 

Fobmary 

.0164 

March 

0.0002 
.0003 
.0016 
.0038 
.0059 
.0058 
.0089 
.0019 
.0008 

.0165 

April 

0.0002 
.0011 
.0007 
.0004 
.0006 
.0013 
.0001 
.0010 

0.0002 
.0006 
.0002 
.0011 
.0011 
.0018 
.0009 
.0009 

.0001 
.0004 
.0002 
.0010 
.0007 
.0012 
.0007 
.0007 
.0003 

.0161 

May 

.0182 

June 

.0201 

July 

.0210 

August 

.0198 

September 

.0255 

October 

.0183 

November 

.0214 

December 

.0167 

Year 

.0201 

.0054 

.0282 

.0292 

.0068 

.0058 

.0308 

.  1012 

.2275 

RESULTANT   DIRECTION   OR   MONTHLY   AVERAGE. 

Employing  the  form  used  by  Lambert,  we  have  deduced  from  the 
outlines  of  the  preceding  tables  the  results  which,  at  length,  further 
on,  we  express  in  regard  to  each  month  of  the  year.  Adding  the  result- 
ant direction  of  the  winds,  which  were  given  in  the  preceding  chapter, 
we  have  so  arranged  them  that  they  can  be  readily  compared  with  the 
changes  which  verify  themselves  in  the  atmosphere,  from  the  surface 
of  the  sea  to  the  regions  of  high  temperature. 


Month. 

High  clouds. 

Intermedial 
clouds. 

Low  clouds. 

Winds. 

January 

o     / 

S.  06-00  E. 
S.  11-20  E. 
S. 17-29  E. 
S.  82-54  W. 
N.  73-29  E. 
N.  75-23  E. 
N.  76-28  E. 
N.  83-53  E. 
N.  62-58  E. 
S. 47-25  E. 
S.  68-44  E. 
S.  55-29  E. 

o     / 
N. 79-34  E. 
N. 78-04  E. 
N. 83-18  E. 
N. 86-25  E. 

S.  78-59  E. 

S. 61-15  E. 

S.5i-58W. 

S.  53-45  W. 

S.  66-07  W. 
N. 77-36  E. 

S. 89-04  E. 
N. 85-20  E. 

o     / 

W.  76^9  E. 
N. 80-08  E. 
N.  87-04  E. 
N.88-40E. 

S.  71-32  E. 

S.  40-09  E. 

S.  54-15  W. 

S.  55-38  W. 

S.  69-26  W. 
N.  74-25  E. 
N.  82-49  E. 
N.  82-10  E. 

o     / 
N. 41-07  E. 

February  

N. 83-13  E. 

March 

S.  84-18  E. 

April  

S.  63-31  E. 

May 

S.  16-55  E. 

June 

S.  0-41  W. 

July                           .      

S.  34-28  W. 

August 

S.  40-48  W. 

September 

S.  39-41  W. 

October 

S.  75-32  E. 

November 

N.  27-45  E. 

December 

N.  24-13  E. 

These  results,  which  only  refer  to  the  currents  observed  in  Manila, 
can  be  taken,  however,  as  average  representations  of  the  general 
direction  of  the  atmospheric  movements,  at  least  as  to  the  central 
parts  of  the  archipelago;  and  mariners  may  consider  them  as  an 
expression  of  the  dominating  direction  of  the  different  a^ric  currents, 
not  only  in  the  interinsular  seas,  but  those  comprehended  in  the  zone 
of  the  archipelago. 

For  the  convenience  of  the  observers,  and  especially  of  those  mari- 
ners touching  at  these  coasts,  we  represent  in  Engraving  XXXIX  the 
verified  average  direction  of  currents  corresponaing  to  the  different 
regions  of  the  atmosphere. 

In  said  engraving,  we  begin  the  series  of  months  with  October,  for 
the  reason  that  in  October  and  September  the  most  noted  changes  of 
direction  take  place. 

Referring  to  each  one  of  the  months,  the  directions  are  to  be  indi- 
cated as  to  their  relation  to  each  other  with  the  cross  of  interrupted 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate 

XXXVHU 

THERMIC  OSCILLATION,  HYGROMETRIC  STATE 

AND  NEBULOSITY  AT  MANILA 

JANUARY 
FEBRUARY 

MARCH 

APRIL 

MAY 

JUNE 

JULY 

AUGUST 

SEPTEMBER 

OCTOBER 

NOVEMBER 

DECEMBER 

c' 

;i 

0-10 

11 

10 
9 
8 

92 
88 

10 
9 
8 

\, 

/ 

\ 

^ 

7 
6 

84 
82 

> 

V 

.;^- 

T 

• 

X 

7 
6 

"^ 

^ 

^ 

K 

/  ; 

f 

■-^ 

k 

5 

«o 

J 

'    ♦* 

5 

A 

* 

4 
3 
2 

78 
76 
74 

/ 

• 

4 

3 
2 

\' 

""->. 

/ 
* 

« 

\ 

1 

* 
* 

\ 

* 
* 
* 
• 

1 

hermi 

iOscil 

ation  - 

1 

72 

\ 

♦ 
* 

y 

y§rom 
ebulo 

3!tricS 
iitv  - 

ate^., 

4'**0*«1 

1 

\ 

V- 

• 

^ 

.ity 

0 

70 

1 

0 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


BEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


265 


lines,  in  order  to  understand  its  position.  We  give  to  the  numbers 
found  and  their  graphic  representation  only  provisional  averages, 
because  the  observations  from  the  year  1890,  having  been  made  by  a 
number  of  persons  and  it  also  being  very  difficult  to  obtain  exact 
information  of  some  facts,  it  is  not  strange  that  some  observations 
appear  mixed  up  and  that  some  groups  are  confounded  with  others, 
resulting  in  an  alteration  of  the  averages.  The  brusque  changes  in 
the  direction  of  the  high  clouds  of  March  and  April  are  indeed  notable, 
especially  when  we  consider  the  fact  that  during  the  month  of  April 
the  false  rumors  are  not  so  abundant  as  in  May,  June,  July,  August, 
and  September;  nor  are  there  high  hurricanes  on  the  China  Sea,  which 
would  be  the  only  two  causes  that  could  falsify  the  normal  direction 
of  the  clouds.  This  is  not  the  place  to  discuss  the  cause  of  these  gen- 
eral movements  of  the  atmosphere  of  Manila.  With  special  reference 
to  the  greater  convenience  of  the  observer,  we  have  calculated  the 
result  of  the  general  movements,  grouping  the  months  in  conformity 
to  the  division  of  the  year  made  with  regard  to  the  hurricanes.^  The 
result  we  publish  in  the  following  tables. 


HIGH  CLOUDS. 


Group  I 

Group  II . . . 
Group  III . . 

Total 


From  SE, 
toNW. 


0.0125 
.0079 
.  0159 


.0363 


Prom  S. 

toN. 


0.0107 
.0054 
.0040 


.0207 


FromSW. 

toNE. 


0.0095 
.0080 
.0056 


.0231 


From  W. 
toE. 


0.0038 
.0130 
.0024 


From 

NW.  to 
SE. 


0. 0005 
.0058 
.0040 


From  N. 
toS. 


0. 0012 
.  0059 
.0050 


From  NE. 
toSW. 


0.0030 
.0208 
.  0271 


From  E. 
to  W. 


0.0072 
.  0293 
.  0425 


0. 0484 
.0961 
.1071 


INTERMEDIATE  CLOUDS. 


Group  I 

0.0065 

0.0010 
.0040 
.0037 

0.0001 
.0076 
.0128 

0.0004 
.0065 
.0119 

0. 0013 
.0017 
.0024 

0.0223 
.0055 
.0118 

0. 0662 
.  0283 
.0279 

0.0978 

Group  II 

Group  III... 

.0090 
.0079 

0.0031 
.0038 

.0657 
.0822 

Total . 

.0234 

.0087 

.0205 

.0188 

.0069 

.0054 

.0396 

.1224 

.2457 

LOW  CLOUDS. 


Group  I 

0.0043 
.0105 
.0053 

0.0008 
.0119 
.0211 

0.0002 
.0116 
.0225 

0. 0162 

n  0448 

0  0663 

Group  II 

Group  III... 

0. 0024 
.0044 

0.0021 
.0049 

0.0017 
.0033 

.0059           .03% 
.  0067           .  0281 

.0857 
.0963 

Total  . 

.0201 

.0068 

.0338 

.0343 

.0070 

.0050 

.0288 

.1125 

.2483 

Applying  the  formula  of  Lambert  there  result  for  each  group  the 
following  mean  directions: 


High  clouds. 


Intermediate 
clouds. 


Low  clouds. 


Group  I.. 
Group  II. 
Group  III 


S.  4°51'E. 
N.820  28'E. 
N.74°4rE. 


N.73°28'E. 
S.80°44'E. 
S.37°51' W. 


N.83°51'E. 
S.76°56'E. 
S.46°23' W. 


^Reference  should  be  made  to  the  book  *'  Philippine  Hurricanes  or  Cyclones,"  on 
page  17,  chapter  8,  paragraph  5,  of  this  treatise. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


266  EEPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

GENERAL  CIRCULATION  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERE  AT  DIFFERENT  LATITUDES 
IN  THE  NORTHERN  HEMISPHERE — GRAPHIC  REPRESENTATION  OF  SAID 
CIRCULATION. 

Finally,  in  order  to  complete  this  investigation,  we  have  traced 
another  graphic  outline  in  comparison  with  the  general  currents  of  the 
atmosphere  at  four  different  latitudes — Davao,  Manila,  Zikawei,  and 
Blue  Hill.  It  is  suiBcient  to  note  that  the  direction  of  the  high  clouds 
during  the  summer,  as  regards  Manila,  differs  little  from  the  observed 
direction  in  Jamaica^  during  the  summer.  It  also  differs  very  little 
from  the  direction  of  our  intermedials  observed  in  both  tropical  stations. 
The  directions  of  the  low  clouds  differ  more  from  the  fact  that  they 
are  influenced  by  the  tornadoes. 

We  have  taken  the  directions  observed  at  Zikawei  and  Blue  Hill 
from  an  interesting  book  written  by  Father  Marcos  Dechevrens,  of  the 
Jesuit  order.  ^  The  observations  regarding  Davao  are  the  fruit  of  the 
patient  work  of  the  Jesuit  missionary.  Father  Baltasser  Ferrer,  who, 
in  spite  of  the  arduous  duties  of  his  apostolic  ministry,  found  time  to 
devote  to  science,  rendering  an  invaluable  service  to  the  same  by  his 
notes,  since  the  observations  made  by  him  are  the  only  ones  up  to  date 
which  have  been  made  with  any  regularity  in  a  location  so  near  the 
equator  as  is  Davao.  It  will  be  noted  that  the  direction  of  the  high 
clouds  at  Manila  is  always  to  the  east,  while  the  direction  of  the  high- 
est latitude  is  always  to  the  west.  It  is  especially  interesting  to  call 
attention  to  the  direction  of  the  clouds  at  Davao^  which  are  exactly 
opposite  to  the  direction  of  the  clouds  at  Zikawei  and  Blue  Hill.  It 
appears  that  this  change,  noted  most  near  the  tropical  line,  has  been 
observed  by  Poey  in  Habana  (Lat.  N.  23^,  9').  It  is  important  to  inves- 
tigate in  which  zone  the  principal  currents  begin  to  be  occidental. 

It  is  to  be  regretted  that  the  observations  made  in  the  observatory 
at  Hongkong  (Lat.  22^  18')  are  not  sufficiently  full  to  clear  up  this 
point.  Besides  this,  during  the  time  the  sun  is  in  the  southern  hemi- 
sphere, or  rather,  it  may  be  said,  during  the  months  of  October, 
November,  December,  January,  February,  and  March,  the  tumults  of 
the  second  quadrant  prevail,  and  during  the  other  months  of  the 
year  those  of  the  first  quadrant.  We  content  ourselves  with  these 
indications,  because  it  is  not  our  general  purpose  to  investigate  here 
the  causes  of  the  diverse  circulation  of  the  zones  in  the  different 
latitudes. 

Having  ascertained  the  normal  direction  of  the  diverse  elements  of 
the  atmosphere,  it  remains  for  the  observer  to  distinguish  with  greater 
accuracy  whatever  concerns  the  value  of  the  signs  of  the  hurricanes 
taken  from  the  direction  of  the  clouds. 

In  this  manner  the  observer  can  utilize  the  indications  of  the  direc- 
tions of  the  clouds  when  the  normal  directions  are  known,  and  the 
provisions  of  the  atmospheric  disturbances  can  be  seen  best  in  the 
publication  Philippine  Hurricanes  and  Cyclones,  page  156;  also  in 
Chapter  VIII  of  the  treatise. 

^  See  publication  Clouds  and  Cloud-Brift  in  Jamaica,  by  Hall,  Jamaica,  1896. 

^Movements  of  the  Different  Couches  of  the  Atmosphere,  by  Jesuit  Father  De- 
chevrens, Rome,  1896.  (Extract  from  the  memorials  of  the  Pontific  Academy  of 
New  Lincci.) 


Hosted  by 


Google 


PtATE   XXXIX. 


GENERAL  MOVEMENTS  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERE 
AT  MANILA 


o 


N 

i 


E 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XL. 


GENERAL  CIRCULATION  OF  THE  ATMOSPHERE 

AT 
DIFFERENT  LATITUDES 

Davao  Manila         ZiKawei(Chma)  Blue  Hin(E.U) 

iMOtiuie    7°0rjr     LcLdtiuU  14°35'ir        LaMtadji  31°I2V      LatUtuU  42°f5'Jir 


O 


-OLgh  OJ^fods^  Ci.Ci.  S 
12  000  h  5ooo  '* 


» Intenw&dLcube.  GidBxA»£i.  Cu..,  A .  Cii.,A .  S.,  Ot.N. 

5000^2000™ 


■X^w  aonjd:^'GL.,KS.,  Cms. 

2O00  h  4  Oo"^ 


>^E 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPIITE    COMMISSION.  267 


III.— PHOTOGRAMMETRY  OF  THE  CLOUDS. 

In  the  second  paragraph  of  the  first  chapter  this  observatory  was 
invited  to  take  part  in  the  international  measurement  of  clouds  to  be 
made.  We  will  briefly  mention  the  results  obtained  by  this  analysis, 
which  figure  in  the  general  tables  which  we  will  publish  in  the  con- 
tinuation of  this  work/ 

AVERAGE    HEIGHT^ — TABLES   XOVI   A   AND   XCVI   B. 

In  the  first  place  we  give  the  monthly  average  height  of  the  clouds, 
dividing  these  into  three  groups,  as,  for  instance,  high  clouds,  which 
are  represented  by  the  cirrus  and  cirro-stratus;^  the  intermedials, 
represented  by  cirro-cumulus,  high  cumulus,  high  stratus,  and  high 
nimbus;  and  the  low  clouds,  represented  by  cumulus,  nimbus,  stratus, 
cumulo-stratus,  and  fr. -cumulus. 

TOTAL  AVERAGE  DIRECTION  AND  VELOCITY  OF  THE  CLOUDS — TABLES 
XCVI  A,  XCVI  B,  AND  XCVI  D. 

If  these  totals  are  compared  with  those  given  in  the  preceding  para- 
graph, it  will  be  found  that  the  difference  is  sufficient  to  interest  one 
and  call  attention  to  the  study  of  the  same.  It  is  enough  to  note  that 
the  different  photographic  methods  do  not  add  precision  to  the  obser- 
vations of  the  directions  of  clouds  made  with  the  simple  nephoscope, 
or,  it  may  be  better  said,  the  direction  of  the  clouds  can  be  observed 
with  greater  precision  with  the  simple  nephoscope  than  by  employing 
the  theodolite  and  the  phototheodolite.  The  averages  which  we  give 
in  the  preceding  paragraph,  corresponding  to  the  different  years,  is  of 
more  scientific  value  than  that  which  is  based  upon  observations  made 
in  the  transcura  of  a  year,  more  or  less,  as  in  this  table. 

The  direction  of  the  high  clouds  has  resulted  differe^ntly  in  the 
months  of  January,  March,  October,  and  November,  agreeing  notably 
in  the  other  months. 

The  average  directions  of  those  of  January,  February,  December, 
and  especially  those  of  July  and  August,  disagree  very  materially. 
However,  it  must  be  noted  that  the  photographic  observations  give 
oriental  directions  and  that  the  result  of  the  direct  observations  is  that 
during  several  years  the  directions  are  occidental  for  the  same  months. 
This  appears  to  confirm  all  that  we  have  written  concerning  the  mon- 
soons of  the  southwest  or,  better  said,  the  occidental  currents;  but  in 
the  case  of  atmospheric  perturbations  succeeding,  for  the  reason  that 
only  in  the  frequency  of  these  can  the  result  be  occidental,  at  times 
during  which  they  do  not  exist,  the  clouds  are  influenced  mostly  by  the 
east  winds  of  the  south.  ^ 

The  same  may  be  said  in  regard  to  the  diverse  directions  of  low 
clouds  during  the  months  of  July  and  October,  remembering  only  that 
in  October  the  normal  direction  participates  in  the  polar  currents. 

^The  methods  and  instruments  employed,  together  with  all  the  necessary  details 
used  for  measurement  of  clouds,  and  the  photogrammetric  observations,  can  be  seen 
explained  at  length  in  the  publication  Clouds  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  pages 
40  to  82. 

-^  We  employ  the  international  classification  and  abbreviations  of  the  clouds. 

^  See  the  preceding  chapter,  Paragraph  II. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


268  EEPOET   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

This  difference  in  direction  disappears  almost  entirely  by  dividing 
the  months  into  three  groups,  of  which  we  have  spoken  in  the  preced- 
ing paragraph,  and  as  is  shown  by  Table  XCVI  c. 

AVERAGE    HEIGHT    OF    THE    DIFFERENT    FORMS    OF    CLOUDS. — TABLES 
XCVII  A   AND   XOVII  B. 

In  these  tables  we  study  the  average  heights  of  the  clouds  at  the 
different  hours  of  the  day,  and  at  different  epochs  of  the  year,  during 
the  mentioned  months  and  groups  first,  and,  second,  for  the  period 
from  April-September  and  October-March. 

The  greatest  heights  correspond  to  Group  III,  or  rather  to  the 
months  of  June,  July,  August,  and  September  for  the  high  clouds  and 
intermedials,  and  to  Group  I  for  the  inferior  clouds. 

This  observation  gives  greater  heights  for  the  high  clouds  from 
midday  to  4  p.  m.,  and  belong  to  Groups  I  and  III.  The  clouds, 
which  depend  upon  the  diurnal  ascending  currents,  seem  to  lift  them- 
selves to  greater  heights  not  only  from  the  effect  of  the  daily  thermic 
oscillation  but  also  the  yearly,  as  is  proved  by  the  observations  of 
cumulus  and  cumulus-nimbus,  which  are  very  high  from  midday  to 
8  p.  m.  in  all  the  groups  and  months  of  greatest  heat,  or,  better  said, 
during  the  period  from  April  to  September. 

AVERAGE    VELOCITY    OF    THE    DIFFERENT    TYPES    OF    CLOUDS. TABLES 

XCVIII  A   AND   XCVIII  B. 

In  this  table  we  give  the  velocity  corresponding  to  the  different 
forms  of  clouds  in  the  various  hours  of  the  day  and  the  different  years 
or  periods  of  the  year.  The  greatest  velocity  is  attained  at  the  highest 
position  of  the  clouds. 

It  is  notable  that  in  cirro-cumulus  and  high  cumulus  there  is  an 
absence  of  velocity,  probably  because  the  minor  component  of  its 
absolute  velocity  is  vertical.  In  this  case  we  believe  the  motive  is 
that  cirro-cumulus  and  high  cumulus  arise  from  the  ascending  move- 
ment, while  the  cumulus  diminishes  this  movement  with  the  increase 
of  height. 

It  appears  that  the  greatest  velocity  of  the  high  clouds  is  noted  in 
the  afternoons,  and  of  the  low  clouds  near  midday,  when  the  ascen- 
sional force  results  from  greater  temperature. 

EXTREME   HEIGHT. TABLE   XCIX. 

It  will  not  be  a  loss  of  interest  to  call  attention  to  the  maximum 
and  minimum  heights  observed  during  the  months  and  during  each 
month. 

The  maximum  height  of  the  high  clouds  is  reache  J  in  June  and  the 
greatest  height  in  general  to  the  months  of  the  third  group,  which 
confirms  what  we  have  said  in  Table  XCVII  a. 

EXTREME   VELOCITY. — TABLE   C. 

In  this  table  it  will  be  seen  that  the  maximum  velocity  of  the  low 
clouds  occurs  in  the  months  of  the  first  group  and  of  the  second  group, 
while  the  maximum  of  the  intermedials  occurs  in  the  months  of  the 
third  group. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  269 

The  cumulus,  which  abound  in  the  months  of  the  first  group.,  and 
also  in  April,  move  with  more  rapidity  during  this  time,  and  espe- 
cially in  the  month  of  March. 

There  appear  to  be  two  influential  causes:  First,  the  greater  noctur 
nal  radiation,  producing  clearer  nights  and  mornings  during  this  period 
of  the  year,  and  giving  place  to  greater  evaporation  of  the  sun  rays 
during  the  day,  consequently  making  more  powerful  currents;  second, 
the  force  of  the  oriental  current,  which  reaches  its  maximum  value  by 
this  time,  resulting  from  such  components,  one  ascending  nearly  hori- 
zontally and  the  other  attaining  the  greatest  velocity  of  the  low  clouds. 

RELATION   BETWEEN  THE   TEMPERATURE  AND  THE   AVERAG2:   HEIGHT  OF 
THE   CLOUDS. — TABLE   CI. 

In  this  table  we  establish  the  said  relation,  concerning  which  we 
state  that  the  temperature  of  the  inferior  stratum  only  influences  the 
height  of  the  clouds  formed  by  the  diurnal  ascending  currents,  as  this 
one  of  the  cumulus  and  cumulus-nimbus. 

RELATION    BETWEEN    THE    HEIGHT    OF    THE    CLOUDS   AND    THE   ATMOS- 
PHERIC  PRESSURE. — TABLES   CII   A   AND   CII   B. 

If  we  take  into  account  Groups  II  and  III  we  will  note  that  the  high 
clouds  are  generally  observed  at  a  greater  height  with  low  barometers 
during  the  months  of  the  second  group.  The  cumulus  and  cumulus- 
nimbus  also  rise  less  with  high  barometers  during  all  the  year,  which 
probably  results  from  the  hindrance  interposed  by  the  general  cur- 
rents, which  are  extended  by  the  diurnal  oscillation. 

RELATION    BETWEEN   THE   HEIGHT  AND    DIRECTION   OF   THE   CLOUDS. — 
TABLES   cm   A   AND   CIII   B. 

Concerning  these  tables  we  note  that  during  the  months  of  the  second 
and  third  group  the  high  clouds  come  from  the  first  quadrant,  nearly 
from  the  east,  and  the  result  of  which  entirely  agrees  with  the  direct 
observations  which  we  publish  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 

RELATION   BETWEEN  VELOCITY   AND    HEIGHT. — TABLES   CIV   A   AND 

CIV    B. 

It  does  not  appear  that  a  precise  rule  can  be  established  concerning 
this  relation.  However,  it  will  be  generally  verified  in  Manila  what 
we  have  already  observed  as  to  other  parts,  or  rather,  we  might  say, 
that  results  are  proportional  to  the  height. 

FREQUENCY  OF  WINDS  AT  DIFFERENT  HEIGHTS. — TABLES  CV  A  AND  CV  B. 

The  proportions  of  the  clouds  enable  us  to  recognize  the  currents  in 
the  diflerent  strata  of  the  atmosphere  which  is  nearer  to  the  earth. 

From  0  to  1,000  meters  of  height  the  dominating  currents  of  the 
whole  year  are  from  the  second  quadrant,  and  nearly  from  the  south 
during  the  months  of  Group  III.  From  1,000  to  3,000  meters  the  cur- 
rents come  from  the  south-southeast  during  the  months  of  the  third 
group,  and  the  first  quadrant  in  the  rest  of  the  year,  and  nearly  from 
the  east  during  the  months  of  Group  II.     There  is  more  diversity  in 


Hosted  by 


Google 


270 


EEPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


the  currents  which  extend  from  3,000  to  5,000  meters,  probably  because 
this  is  the  average  region  of  the  cumulus  nimbus  when  the  electric 
tempests  or  tornadoes  are  forming.  The  currents  which  extend  over 
5,000  meters  arrive  normally  from  the  first  quadrant  during  the  month 
of  the  third  group.  In  the  other  months  the  directions  change  and  are 
generally  between  the  south  and  northeast. 

During  the  period  from  April  to  September,  which  embraces  the 
months  called  generally  the  typhonic  season,  during  which  the  currents 
exceed  5,000  meters  and  come  from  the  northeast,  at  the  same  time 
those  which  circulate  lower  than  5,000  meters  have  the  understood 
direction  between  the  south  and  southeast. 

During  the  period  from  October  to  May  the  high  and  low  currents 
come  from  routes  comprised  between  the  northeast  and  south-southeast. 

Table  XCVI  a. — Average  height  of  clouds. 


High  clouds. 

Intermediate  clouds. 

Low  clouds. 

Height  in  meters. 

AZ 

Height  in  meters. 

AZ 

Height  in  meters. 

AZ 

Zi 

Z2 

Zi 

Z.2 

Zi 

Z, 

January 

February 

March 

10069. 37 
12546.  66 
11841. 80 
10063. 50 
10525.  72 
13311. 48 

10898. 14 

12209. 15 
11508. 10 
11420. 54 

8646. 51 
10138. 60 

10072. 25 
12549. 13 
11841.  89 
10062. 57 
10525. 66 
13310. 91 
10896. 12 
12210. 23 
11509. 38 
11416. 61 
8634.  64 
10141. 37 

-2.88 

-2.47 

-0.09 

0.93 

0.06 

0.57 

2.02 

-1.08 

-1.28 

3.93 

11.87 

-2.77 

5244. 72 
7036. 91 
5912. 58 
5372. 14 
6312. 85 
6546. 41 
6662. 97 
6254. 58 
5080. 62 
4803. 11 
3819. 01 
4503. 28 

5245. 53 
7036. 32 
5913.04 
5372. 82 
6312. 89 
6546. 44 
6663. 43 
6254. 91 
5080. 34 
4803. 58 
3816. 39 
4498.08 

-0.81 

0.59 

-0.46 

-0.68 

-0.04 

-0.03 

-0.46 

-0.33 

0.28 

-0.47 

2.62 

5.20 

1805. 60 
1843.  65 
2051.66 
1846. 14 
1597. 54 
1518.  71 
1439. 59 
2082. 30 
1680. 97 
1640. 83 
1628. 71 
1807.25 

1805. 11 
1843.  74 
2050. 89 
1846. 16 
1598. 27 
1519. 38 
1440. 05 
2082. 95 
1679. 98 
1640. 26 
1629.  93 
1808. 52 

0.49 

-0.09 

0.77 

April 

-0.02 

May 

-0.73 

June.. 

—0.67 

July 

-0.46 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

-0.65 

0.99 

0.57 

-1.22 

-1. 27 

Average . 

11098. 30 

11097. 56 

0.74 

5629. 10 

5628. 65 

0.45 

1745. 24 

1745. 44 

-0.20 

Table  XCVI  b. — EesumS  of  the  mean  direction  of  the  clouds. 


High  clouds. 

Intermediate  clouds. 

Low  clouds. 

Direction. 

Velocity 
in  m.  p.  s. 

Direction. 

Velocity 
in  m.  p.  s. 

Direction. 

Velocity 
inm.p.s. 

January  

S.  49°  23'  0. 
S.  10°  39'  E. 
S.  22°  02'  0. 
S.  49°  31'  0. 
N.  46°  25'  E. 
N.  65°  43'  E. 
N.  60°  19'  E. 
N.  42°  00'  E. 
N.  68°  00'  E. 
N.  71°  03'  E. 
N.  29°  00'  E. 
S.  23°  28'  E. 

6.97 
9.05 
16. 39 
15.40 
10.36 
15.97 
12.16 
23.61 
6.63 
17;  64 
14.70 
10.28 

S.  45°  00'  E. 
S.     2°  10'  E. 
N.  75°  24'  E. 
N.  69°  08'  E. 
S.  67°  56'  E. 
S.  51°  43'  E. 
S.   61°  18'  E. 
S.   82°  17'  E. 
S.  69°  21'  0. 
N.  79°  22'  E. 
S.   73°  06'  E. 
S.  25°  02'  E. 

2.74 
5.45 
6.51 
5.46 
5.59 
7.00 
11.62 
14.83 
3.33 
5.66 
3.59 
5.22 

N.  78°  57'  E. 
N.  56°  05'  E. 
N.  65°  26'  E. 
N.  75°  29'  E. 
S.  67°  18'  E. 
S.  22°  58'  E. 
S.  42°01'E. 
S.  63°  37'  0. 
S.  78°  49'  0. 
N.  68°  59'  0. 
N.  73°  40'  E. 
N.  82°  48'  E. 

7  88 

February  

March 

5.94 
10  32 

April 

7.52 

May  .  .. 

4  10 

June 

6.09 

July  . 

4  47 

August 

September 

October 

2.96 

November 

December 

4.02 
4.05 

Table  XCVI  c. 


High  clouds. 

Intermediate  clouds. 

Low  clouds. 

Height  in  meters. 

AZ 

Height  in  meters. 

AZ 

Height  in  meters. 

AZ 

Zi 

Zo 

Zi 

Z2 

Zi 

Z2 

Group! 

Group  II 

Group  III 

11149. 11 
10164. 07 
11981. 72 

11151.16 
10159. 87 
11981. 66 

-2.05 
4.20 
0.06 

5674. 37 
5076. 78 
6136. 14 

5673.24 
5076.42 
6136.28 

L13 

0.36 

-0. 14 

1877.04 
1678. 30 
1680. 39 

1877.06 
1678. 65 
1680.59 

-0.02 
-0.35 
►-0.20 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 
Table  XOVI  d. 


271 


High  clouds. 

Intermediate  clouds. 

Low  clouds. 

Direction. 

Velocity 
in  m.  p.  s. 

Direction. 

Velocity 
in  m.  p.  s. 

Direction. 

Velocity 
in  m.  p.  s. 

Group  I 

(xroup  If 

S.    15°    28'     0. 
N.   45°    00'     E. 
N.    61°    56'     E. 

10.47 
14. 52 
14.59 

S.     41°    51'    E. 
S.     84°    12'     E. 
S.     49°    13'    E. 

4.98 
5.08 
9.20 

N.    78°    45'    E. 
N.    67°    30'     E. 
S.     17°    33'     0. 

7.05 
4. 65 

Group  I.I 

5.  28 

Table  XCVII 


-Mean  height. 


Group  I. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.  m.  to  8  p.  m. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus    

11,610.4 
10, 446. 7 
6,031.5 

23 
13 
10 

11,714.2 

12,788.2 

'8 
3 

10, 222. 7 
12, 733. 5 
5, 854. 1 

6 

2 
1 

11,182.4 

Cirro-stratus 

11,989.5 

Cirro-  cumulus 

5,942.8 

Hififli  stratus 

High  cumulus 

5,087.5 

2. 247. 4 

1. 725. 5 

1. 849. 6 

10 
1 
3 

47 

3,492.2 

1 

4, 500. 8 
1,858.2 
1,565.8 
1,849.0 
7,151.4 

5 
3 
11 
45 
3 

4,360.2 

Strato-cumulus 

2  052  9 

Nimbus 

1,626.6 
1,742.6 
3,974.2 

2 

15 
3 

l|639.3 

Cumulus 

1,813.7 

Cumulo-nimbus 

5, 562. 8 

Stratus 

Group  II 

Form. 

8  a.m. to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.m. to  8  p.m. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

10,268.8 
11, 219. 5 
5, 310. 3 

52 

4 

25 

9, 617. 7 
13, 112. 2 
5,  776. 7 

5 
1 
1 

9, 675. 1 
9, 101. 8 
8,342.9 
3,898.2 
5,716.3 
2, 024. 7 
1,536.8 
1,703.4 
4, 157. 5 

18 
1 
5 
1 
2 
4 
2 
19 
20 

9, 855. 5 

Cirro-stratus    . 

11,144.5 

Cirro-cumulus 

High  stratus 

6,476.6 

High  cumulus 

Strato-cumulus 

4, 650. 8 

14 

4, 878. 8 

1 

5,082.0 

Nimbus 

873.7 
1, 618. 9 
4,335.3 

4 
49 
11 



1,205.2 

Cumulus 

2, 074. 0 
2,107.3 

6 

1,765.4 

Cumulo-nimbus 

3,500.0 

Stratus  .   . 

1 

Group  III. 

Form. 

8  a,  m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.  m.  to  8  p.  m. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

11,037.0 
11, 355. 9 
7, 125. 5 
2, 312. 5 
5,381.8 
1,995.1 
1,550.4 
1, 609. 1 
4,854.7 
1,045.4 

67 
13 
30 

1 
K) 

9 

3 

45 
19 

4 

11,913.4 
15, 314. 4 
6,028.7 
4, 759. 2 
5,710.6 

12 
1 

11 

2 

11 

11,838.3 
11, 744. 4 
7,847.9 
5,833.0 
6, 147. 7 
1,878.4 
1,101.5 
1,875.5 
3, 333. 7 
1,195.4 

19 
3 

10 
3 
4 
8 
3 

16 
9 
2 

11, 596. 2 
12. 971. 6 

Cirro-stratus 

Cirro-cumulus 

7,000.7 
4,301.6 
5, 746. 7 
1,936.7 
1,326.0 
1,703.3 

High  stratus 

High  cumulus. 

Strato-cumulus 

Nimbus 

Cumulus 

1,625.3 
9,826.2 
1,270.8 

13 
4 
3 

Cumulo-nimbus 

6,004.9 

Stratus" 

1  170  7 

P   C — ^YOL   4: — 01- 


Hosted  by 


Google 


272 


REPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 
Table  XCVII  b. 


April  to  September. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.m.  to  8  p.m. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height, 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

10,678.1 
11,313.1 
6,593.6 
2,312.5 
5,233.3 
1,995.1 
1,550.4 
1,620.4 
5,186.0 
1,045.5 

100 
16 
44 

1 
11 

9 

3 
64 
23 

4 

11,440.4 
15,814.4 
6,028.7 
4,759.2 
5,739.9 

16 
1 

11 
2 

11 

11,280.7 
11,777.7 
7,847.9 
5,833.0 
6, 147. 7 
1,806.1 
1,214.1 
1,951.6 
4,350.3 
1, 195. 4 

29 
3 

10 
3 
4 
9 
2 

20 

17 

11,133.1 
12, 968. 4 
6,823.4 
4,301.6 
5  707  0 

Cirro-stratus 

Cirro-cumulus           

High  stratus 

High  cumulus    .           

Strato-cumulus 

1,900.6 
1, 382. 2 
1,836.0 

Nimbus             . 

Cumulus 

1,936.1 

9,826.2 

953.1 

7 
4 
3 

Cumulo-uimbus 

Stratus 

2          1,064.7 

October  to  March. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.m. to  8  p.m. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Mean 
height. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus                .          

11,204.5 
10, 520. 9 

5,558.2 

45 
14 
21 

11,184.0 
12, 869. 2 
5, 776. 7 

7 
4 
1 

9,514.7 
11,523.0 
7,928.1 
3,898.2 
4, 848. 1 
2,288.8 
1,597.6 
1,839.8 
4,043.5 

13 
3 
6 
1 
7 
5 

14 
59 
15 

10, 634. 4 
11, 637. 7 
6,421.0 

Cirro-stratus 

Cirro-cumulus 

High  stratus 

High  cumulus           .        .  . 

4,881.3 
2,354.7 
1,238.7 
1,794.4 
3,257.3 

23 
2 
7 
86 
10 

4,185.6 

2 

4  638  3 

Strato-cumulus 

2,321.7 
1,487.6 
1,820.6 
3,136.0 

Nimbus                   .  . 

1,626.6 
1,827.6 
2, 107. 3 

2 
18 
6 

Cumulus 

Cumulo-nimbus.      .  .     ...  . 

Stratus 

Table  XCVIII  a. 

Mean  velocities  in  m.  p.  s. 


Group  I. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.  m.  to  8  p.  m. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

6.44 
9.31 
4.09 

36 
19 
11 

12.50 
10.45 

9 
5 

22.71 
55.11 
1.48 

8 
4 
2 

9  93 

Cirro-stratus 

16  06 

Cirro-cumulus     

3  69 

High  stratus 

High  cumulus    

6.79 

7.67 

10.14 

7.51 

14 
3 
3 

93 

6.78 

2 

2.72 
0.45 
5.92 
1.32 
8.63 

8 
1 
12 

m 

6 

5  44 

Strato-cumulus 

5  86 

Nimbus.  

7.96 
6.15 
7.88 

2 

.       25 
5 

6  90 

Cumulus 

5  06 

Cumulornimbus 

8  29 

Group  II. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  li 

I  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.  m.  to  { 

^p.m.  • 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

15.26 
6.22 
4.31 

75 
9 
32 

12.64 
10.41 

7 
2 

12.59 

26.88 

.50 

18.97 

28 
2 
2 
1 

14  42 

Cirro-stratus 

10  04 

Cirro-cumulus 

4.08 

High  stratus 

18  97 

High  cumulus 

3.59 
3.67 
2.25 
5.32 
4.13 

13 

5 

2 

69 

10 

3  59 

Strato-cumulus 

9.23 
5.47 
5.56 
6.77 

4 

3 

23 

27 

6  14 

Nimbus 

4.18 

Cumulus 

7.66 
8.87 

6 
9 

5  52 

Cumulo-nimbus 

6.61 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  273 

Table  XCVIII  a— Continued. 


Group  III. 

Form. 

8  a.m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.  m.  to  8  p.  m. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

12.18 
23.26 
9.72 

76 
10 
25 

18.19 

16 

13.31 

7 

13.23 

Cirro-stratus 

23.26 

Cirro-cumulus .               ... 

5.02 

8 

8.58 

High  stratus 

High  cumulus    .                .  .. 

12.78 

6 

2.13 

2 

10.12 

Strato-cumulus 

Nimbus 

Cumulus 

5.52 
9.27 

38 
5 

5.52 

Cumulo-nimbus 

15.23 

5 

12.25 

Table  XCVIII  b. 


April  to  September. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  12  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.  m.  to  8  p.  m. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

13. 24 
15.54 
3.07 

127 
18 
47 

15.81 

21 

11.43 

24 

13  30 

Cirro-stratus 

15.54 

Cirro-cumulus 

5.02 

8 

3.35 

High  stratus 

High  cumulus 

12.61 
3.67 

8 
5 

2.13 

2 

10.71 

Strato-cumulus 

3.67 

Nimbus 

Cumulus 

5.65 
6.80 

87 
9 

8.55 
15.23 

5 
5 

10.07 
7.25 

11 
10 

6  27 

Cumulo-nimbus 

8  74 

October  to  March. 

Form. 

8  a.  m.  to  15 

I  noon. 

12  noon  to  4  p.  m. 

4  p.m.  to  8  p.m. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

Cases. 

Average. 

Cirrus 

10.35 
9.26 
3.89 

60 

20 
21 

14.55 
10.44 

11 

7 

18.59 

45.70 

.99 

18.97 

2.72 

7.48 

5.83 

1.33 

7.05 

19 
6 
4 
1 
8 
5 

15 
80 
23 

12  60 

Cirro-stratus  i. 

16.15 

Cirro-cumulus 

*           3  42 

High  stratus 

18  97 

High  cumulus 

4.63 
7.67 
6.99 
6.84 
4.41 

25 

3 

5 

113 

6 

6.78 

2 

4  31 

Strato-cumulus 

7  55 

Nimbus 

7.96 
6.04 
8.51 

2 
26 
14 

6  28 

Cumulus 

4  78 

Cumulo-nimbus 

7  16 

Table  XCIX. — Extreme  heights. 


Month. 


Ci. 


Maximum.  Minimum. 


Ci-S. 


Maximum.  Minimum 


Ci-Cu. 


Maximum.  Minimum, 


January  .. 
February  . 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 
October . . . 
November 
December. 


Meters. 

17,449.2 

15,498.2 

15,868.3 

14, 127. 9 

12,468.5 

20,453.6 

18,014.2 

12,854.8 

14,871.0 

16, 342. 9 

12,025.9 

15,785.7 


Meters. 
5,532.2 
8,749.7 
6,573.1 
5,111.8 
5,823.4 
6,411.6 
7,021.4 
9,845.5 
8,267.0 
5,764.4 
3, 962. 2 
5,732,9 


Meters. 
10,211.2 
16,233.1 
16,488.4 


11,682.4 
17,136.8 
14,574.5 
16,832.5 
15,814.4 


13,138.7 
14,787.0 


Meters. 
9,788.8 
9,826.2 
7,689.3 


7,476.7 
10,519.2 

7,111.7 
11,367.1 


9,101.8 
6,878.7 


Meters. 
6,074.3 
7, 712. 0 


Meters. 
.^    5,854.1 
6,199.8 


7,277.5 
6,448.3 
11,224.6 
9,360.8 
8,609.2 
8,292.8 
9,169.6 
9,563.6 
5,482.1 


3,249.1 
3,447.7 
6,043.2 
4,119.1 
4,713.6 
3,867.4 
3,412.7 
6,294.7 
4,979.9 


Hosted  by 


Google 


274 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  XCIX. — Extreme  heights — Continued. 


Month. 


A-8. 


A-Cu. 


Maximum.  Minimum.  Maximum.  Minimum, 


S-Cu. 


Maximum.  Minimum 


January  ... 
February  .. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November  . 
December.. 


Month. 


January 

February  .. 

March 

April....... 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September . 

October 

November  . 
December.. 


Meters. 


Meters.     \     Meters. 
3, 988. 3 


7. 086. 1 
7,141.0 
5,244.3 

3. 898. 2 


3,272.0 
3,212.5 
4, 274. 2 


Meters. 
3,  743. 6 


7,527.2 


3,169.4 


3,778.0 
5, 232. 5 
7,639.9 
7.644.9 
8,045.2 
6,593.9 
5, 720. 7 
5, 600. 4 


3,715.6 

3. 973. 3 
5, 000. 4 

3. 874. 4 

2. 908. 7 
3,804.8 

3. 757. 8 
3, 492. 2 


Meters. 
2, 247. 4 
1,461.9 


Meters. 
2, 133.  7 


1,881.1 


1, 875.  7 
3, 883. 3 

2. 193. 8 
1,408.8 

3. 013. 9 
2, 254. 9 


1,384.4 
1,450.6 
1,338.3 


Cu. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Meters. 
1,950.8 
1,620.3 
2, 047. 6 


923.3 
1,982.3 
1,724.1 

988.9 
2, 294. 3 
1,876.8 


Mini- 
mum. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Meters. 
1,030.7 
1,512.2 
1,382.4 


944.  J 


836.0 
1,410.2 
1,503.6 


Meters. 
3,484.0 
3,140.0 
8, 820. 8 
2, 793. 2 

2. 740. 6 
3,283.3 
3,931.1 
3,546.9 

4. 448. 7 
2,742.2 
2,503.9 
2,918.8 


Mini- 
mum. 


Meters. 
813.3 

1,014.0 

1,146.0 

1, 264. 5 
870.3 
798.7 
528.8 

1,171.0 
842.9 

1,413.7 
622.2 

1,069.7 


Cu-N. 


Maxi- 
mum. 


135. 3 
797.9 
724.5 
051.1 
859.3 
781.8 
751.1 
274.1 
359.8 
779.2 


Mini- 
mum. 


Meters. 


7. 591. 8 

2. 976. 4 
3,011.0 

885.8 
2,001.7 

4. 558. 9 
1,424.8 

2. 042. 5 
1, 140. 4 
3, 286. 3 


Maxi- 
mum. 


Meters. 


1,184.3 
1,400.7 
1, 581. 2 
1, 356. 7 


Mini- 
mum. 


Meters 


948.8 
990.2 
611.6 

587.7 


Table  0. — Extreme 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-Cu. 

Month. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

January...* 

M.p.s. 

8.77 
11.60 
20.56 
70.48 
46.52 
64.93 
42.13 
41.66 
12.44 
71.02 
26.88 
36.34 

M.p.s. 
2.35 
2.70 
7.16 
2.69 
2.87 
1.02 
3.74 
1^30 
1.% 
2.56 
1.51 
2.46 

M.p.s. 
18.34 
25. 50 
84.71 

M.p.s. 

M.p.s. 
4.55 
9.24 

M.p.s. 
1.48, 
1.66 

M.p.s. 
2.18 

M.p.s. 

February 

March  .      . .        ... 

6.39 

9.54 

2.59 

April 

9.42 

7.88 
17.39 
37. 87 

1.50 
1.82 
2.34 
2.49 

May 

8.59 
70.51 
15.11 
10.86 

4.20 

13.10 
5.98 
16.12 
16.23 

June 

July 

7.02 

1.42 

August 

September 

3.33 

5.84 
7.50 

2.82 

October 

1.10 
0.50 

November 

10.41 
9.13 

8.90 
3.51 

4.43 
15. 01 

1.12 

December 

1.21 

S-( 

^u. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

Month. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

Maxi- 
mum. 

Mini- 
mum. 

January 

M.p.s. 

M.p.s. 

M.p.s. 
11.54 
11.58 
7.35 

M.p.s. 
1.85 

M.p.s. 
28.85 
22.25 
33. 72 
22.33 
8.06 
10.19 
11.60 

M.  p.  s. 
0.80 
0.16 
1.69 
0.88 
0.63 
1.95 
0.75 

3T.p.s. 

M.p.s. 

February 

0.16 

March 

1.30 

13.25 
12.14 
10.51 
5.85 
20.29 
13.44 

10. 29 

April 

4.13 



3.36 

5.00 

Mav 

0.84 

June 



July 

7.64 

August 

September 



October 

2.25 
6.71 
3.24 

6.50 
6.40 
14.52 

13.09 

31.04 

8.89 

1.88 

November 

13.72 

6.71 

3.00 
2.12 

0.50 
0.45 

1.02 

December 

2.36 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPIKE    COMMISSION. 

Table  (^L — Mean  heights  according  to  varying  temperatMres. 


275 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Temperature 
(centigrade). 

Height. 

Meters. 
9, 665 
10, 813 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

28 
275 

Height. 

Meters. 
11,125 
11,323 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

10 
54 

Height. 

Meters. 
6, 441 
6,336 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

13 
105 

Height. 

Meters. 
7,144 
4,349 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

17°  to  27° 

27°  to  37° 

1 
6 

Meters. 
4,774 
5,068 

8 
62 

S-Cu. 

N 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

S. 

Temperature 
(centigrade). 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

eases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

17°  to  27° 

Meters. 
2,316 
1,900 

6 

22 

Meters. 

Meters. 
1,637 
1,765 

41 
321 

Meters. 
3,325 
.',046 

4 
92 

Meters. 

27°  to  37° 

1,535 

37 

1.038 

10 

Table  CXI  a. — Mean  heights  according  to  varying  atmospheric  pressure. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Pressure  in 
milli- 
meters. 

•^                       r/, 

w      1  6 

S 
§ 
CP 

1 

1 

1 

Group  I 

750  to  756  . 

Meters.    1 

Meters. 

Meters. 

MeteA. 

Meters. 

756  to  760  . 
760  to  765  . 
750  to  756  . 
756  to  760 . 
760  to  765  - 
750  to  756  . 

11,044.4  1     11 
11.206.1  !    42 
12,74L8  !      3 
10,   70.1  i     75 
9,312.6  \    37 
11.392.9       14 

13, 264. 4 
10,710.2 

9 
19 

5. 883. 8 
6,035.7 
7,473.1 

5. 690. 9 
5.  ,523.  3 

2 
11 

2 
26 
12 
11 
51 

3 

3, 479. 8 
5,598.9 

7 

16 

Group  ir 

10, 422. 4 
11, 487. 2 
13, 968. 9 
12, 072. 9 

12 
1 

3,900.1 

1 

4,782.0 
4, 715. 7 
6,610.8 
5,424.6 

7 
11 

Group  III  .. 

2       7.' 218.1   I 

3 

756  to  760.;  11,290.6  1  111 
760  to  765  .      9, 795. 7  :      9 

21 

6, 919. 9 
5,532.3 

4,889.7 

6 

26 



S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

S. 

Height. 

Cases. 

Height. 

Cases. 

Height. 

Cases. 

Height. 

Cases. 

Height. 

Cases. 

Group  I 

Meters. 

Metei's. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

1,464.1 
1,728.1 

9 
14 

1,953.7 
1,816.4 
2, 027. 2 
1,855.5 
1,511.7 
1,343.4 
1,717.4 
1  436.7 

45 
145 

4 
51 
47 

9 
60 

1 

8. 870. 7 
4,084.8 

9. 658. 8 
4,362.5 
2,544.1 
5,195.4 
5,609.9 
5  906  9 

4 
7 
2 
33 
15 
4 
27 
4 

2, 028. 9 

' 

Group  II 

1, 909. 5 
2, 998. 5 
1,828.7 
1,991.7 

8 

1 

4 

11 

1,409.9 
1, 350. 6 
1, 340. 6 
1,393.2 

1 

7 
2 
4 

Group  III  . . 

1,096.4 
1,023.0 

2 

8 

Table  CII  b. — Mean  heights  according  to  varying  pressures. 

APRIL  TO  SEPTEMBER. 


Ci. 

Ci.S. 

Ci.  Cu. 

A.S. 

A.Cu. 

Pressure 
(mm.). 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

750  to  756 

Meters. 
11,336.4 
11,12L2 

9, 507. 9 

16 
164 
28 

Meters. 
13, 968. 9 
11,512.3 

2 
29 

Meters. 
7,218.1 
6, 675. 4 
5, 242. 3 

11 
63 
13 

Meters. 

Meters. 
6,610.8 
5,304.8 

3 

756  to  760 

760  to  765 

4,889.7 



6 

28 

Hosted  by 


Google 


276  EEPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Table  Oil  b. — Memi  heights  according  to  varying  pressures — Continued. 
APRIL  TO  SEPTEMBER— Continued. 


S.Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu.N. 

S 

Pressure 
(mm.). 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height, 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

750  to  756 

756  to  760 

760  to  765 

Meters. 
1,828.7 
1,906.6 

4 
16 

Meters.  * 

1,340.6 

1,393.2 

2 
4 

Meters. 
1,506.9 
1,791.5 
1,519.8 

12 
100 
23 

Meters. 
6, 683. 2 
5,753.4 
5,906.9 

6 

39 
4 

Meters. 
1, 096. 4 
1,023.0 

2 

8 

OCTOBER  TO  MARCH. 


Ci. 

Ci.S. 

Ci.Cu, 

A.S. 

A.Cu. 

Pressure 
(mm.) . 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

750  to  756 

Meters. 

1,634.4 
10,732.9 
10, 619. 4 

1 

34 
60 

Meters. 

Meters. 
7, 473. 1 
5,755.9 
6,239.8 

2 
16 
13 

Meters. 

Meters. 

756  to  760 

760  to  765 

12,624.9 
10, 749. 0 

13 
20 

3,900.1 

1 

4, 105. 0 
5, 239. 2 

12 

27 

S.Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu.N. 

S. 

Pressure 
(mm.) . 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

750  to  756 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 
2, 117. 0 
1,900.7 
1,770.1 

1 

56 
170 

Meters. 

Meters. 

756  to  760 

2,226.7 
2,222.8 

3 
6 

1,458.7 
1,602.3 

10 
21 

4,258.2 
3, 034. 3 

25 

22 

760  to  765. 

Table  GUI  a. — Mean  height  and  frequency  at  different  directions. 
GROUP  I. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

NNE 

11,573.3 

2 

3, 172. 6 
7,259.5 
5,596.1 
3, 567. 0 
4,883.1 
4,424.8 

2 

NE 

, 

4 

ENE      

10,468.1 
12, 053. 7 

7 
3 

4 

E 

16,183.0 
10,383.3 
10, 257. 6 

2 
4 

7 

7 

ESE        

5,256.6 

5 

1 

SE 

10, 143. 6 
11,837.4 
11,003.2 

4 
9 
5 

2 

SSE         .     . 

s 

7,036.9 

4 

ssw 

10,512.4 
9, 987. 7 
13,513.9 
11,653.9 
16,065.2 

6 
2 
2 
3 
2 

sw 

ii,  ois.  7 

13,614.4 
5,763.8 

7 
7 
4 

5,981.1 

2 

3,564.0 
5,172.0 

2 

wsw 

2 

w        

5,883.8 

2 

WNW 

NW     

12,989.1 

5 

NNW 

Mean  direc- 
tion    . 

S.8°51' W. 

S.1°1'E. 

S.9°20'E. 

N.  80°  3r  E 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  277 

Table  CIII  a. — Mean  height  and  frequency  ai  different  directions — Continued. 
GROUP  I— Continued. 


S.-Gu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu.-N. 

S. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 

Meters. 
1,546.3 
2,350.0 

1 
3 

Meters. 
1,596.8 
1,889.3 
2,028.8 
2, 177. 2 
1, 746. 9 
1,861.0 
1,691.3 
1,748.1 
1,620.2 

17 
22 
24 
46 
34 
18 
13 
3 
2 

Meters. 

Meters. 

NNE 

4, 189. 2 

2 

NE 

ENE 

1,462.1 
2,199.4 

1 
2 

1,587.0 
2, 129. 7 
1,382.4 
1,579.4 

4 
4 
1 

2 

E 



ESE 



SE 

SSE 

2,254.6 

1 

S. 

3,849.3 

2 

ssw 

sw 

.       .... 

1,112.6 

2 

1,935.9 
2,714.3 

2 
2 

wsw 

8,853.0 

4 

w 





WNW... 

4,172.3 

3 



NW 

1,659.6 

3. 

NNW 



1 

Mean  direc- 
tion   

S.  80°  42'  E. 

N.  64°  4fi'  E. 

N.  67°  33'  E. 

S.84038' W. 

GROUP  II. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Cl-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 
9,399.0 
9,964.9 
9,216.2 

11,321.5 
9,409.1 

13,084.7 
6,597.9 

11 
13 
12 
17 
10 
11 
5 

Meters. 

Meters. 
7,260.2 
5,707.8 
6,679.0 
5,481.5 
3,975.3 

4 
6 
3 
13 
5 

Meters. 

Meters. 
5,607.2 

2 

NNE 



NE 

7,972.0 
12,403.0 
11,019.6 

3 
4 
3 

3, 798. 8 

1 

ENE 



E 

ESE.  ■      

3,900.1 

1 

3,908.7 

4,878.8 

4 

SE 

5,776.7 

1 

1 

SSE 

s 

9,796.8 
11,512.0 
10,180.6 

3 
3 

9 

6,429.0 
6, 446. 2 
5,071.3 

4 
2 
2 

5,004.7 

5 

SSW  .   . 

sw 

9,241.3 

2 

wsw    . 

w. 

8, 164. 1 
9,453.6 



6 

7 

3, 746. 6 

2 

WNW 

NW 

NNW 

14, 186. 1 

2 

11,487.2 

1 

5,717.8 

2 

Mean  direc- 
tion   

N.  54°  44'  E. 

N.65°45'E. 

N.  66°  30'  E. 

S.67°30'E. 

S.41° 

38' E. 

S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

S. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 
1,481.2 
1,476.3 
1,820.5 
1,574.7 
1,504.2 
2,650.1 
1,611.8 
1,303.6 
2,725.4 
1,904.2 
782.0 
2,117.0 
2,918.2 

1 
4 
12 
20 
15 
14 
12 
3 
2 
5 
2 
1 
7 

Meters. 

Meters. 

NNE 

2,254.0 
1,610.9 

3 
3 

2,261.6 

2 

1,614.5 
2,472.5 
4,430.6 
4,646.0 
2,428.3 
4,948.0 
3,228.6 
9,658.8 
4,524.7 
5,640.8 

4 

6 
8 
2 
4 
4 
4 
2 
5 
3 

NE   

ENE 

E 

1,409.9 

1 

1 

ESE  . 

2,635.8 

2 

1 

SE 

SSE.. 

S 

SSW 

SW 

874.4 
944.4 

2 

1 

WSW  . 

w 

4,104.1 

2 

1 

WNW 

NW 

1,408.2 

1 

1,483.8 
864.8 

1 
2 

7,189.3 
2,732.1 

2 

2 

NNW 

Mean  direc- 
tion.  

N.42°22'E. 

N.  11°  15'  E. 

S.88°14'E. 

S.80°24'E. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


278 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


Table  GUI  a.- 


-Mean  height  and  frequency  of  different  directions — Continued. 
GROUP  III. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 
10, 526. 9 
12,545.3 
10, 221. 2 

10, 882. 2 
9,557.3 
9,511.4 

3 
28 
12 
23 
26 
5 
9 

Meters. 

Meters. 
6, 258. 5 
5, 980. 0 
8,582.2 
7, 707. 2 
5,059.6 
7, 198. 7 
6,477.0 

3 
4 

10 
6 
4 
5 
4 

Meters. 

Meters. 
6,251.0 

1 

NNE 

12, 800. 9 

4 

NE 

7, 689. 0 
5,781.4 
7,210.0 
4, 650. 5 

2 

ENE 

17,  i32.  7 
10,920.0 

2 
3 

7, 144. 3 

1 

6 

E 

3 

ESE. 

3 

SE 

9,926.9 

5 

2, 312. 5 

1 

SSE 

s 

ssw 

1 

sw 

13,124.0 
11,941.8 
18,080.2 
11,232.4 

3 
6 
3 
2 

12, 042. 0 

2 

7,550.6 
5, 967. 6 
7, 175. 3 

5 

8 
4 

7,085.5 
4, 282. 1 
3,268.8 

1 
1 
1 

3. 948. 0 

6. 056. 1 
4,454.5 

2 

wsw 

3 

w... 

1 

WNW 

NW 

15, 817. 5 

1 

5,253.8 

1 

4, 717. 2 

2 

NNW 

Mean  direc- 
tion   

N.  62°  12'  E. 

N.  88°  23'  E. 

N.  61°  23'  E. 

S.  35°  15'  W. 

N.  68°  30'  E. 

S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

S. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Height. 

Num 
ber  of 

eases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

N 

Meters. 

^ 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

- 

NNE 

NE 

2,829.9 
837.8 
1,491.5 
1,524.1 
1,684.2 
2, 432. 3 

i 

6 
7 

10 
10 
5 

4,015.8 
3,189.8 
6,032.0 

1 

2 
8 

ENE 

1,338.3 

1 

E 

1, 181. 3 

1 

ESE.        .  . 

SE 

i,  927. 2 

4 

2,238.6 

3 

SSE 

1, 193. 7 

2 

S 

12,302.1 
2,001.7 

12, 613. 5 
3, 759. 7 
4,913.4 
6, 148. 2 
4,556.8 

3 
1 

2 
8 
1 
2 
1 

SSW 

1, 706. 2 

2 

1,800.9 
1,183.0 
1, 920. 3 
1,371.7 
1,481.5 

7 
7 
6 
4 
3 

sw 

wsw 

2,096.1 
2, 222. 4 
1,671.8 

2 
3 
1 

1,724.4 
1,554.3 

1 
3 

w 

927.0 

3 

WNW 

NW 

NNW 

2, 834. 3 

2 

Mean  direc- 
tion   

S.  30°  46'  W. 

S.  84°  25'  W. 

S.  66°  10'  E. 

S.  0°  30'  W. 

S.  18°  21'  E. 

Table  CIIIb. — Mam  height  and  frequency  at  different  directions. 
FROM  APRIL  TO  SEPTEMBER. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 
10,234.6 
12,385.5 
10, 131. 0 

9,947.4 
10,758.1 
10,312.8 

9,204.5 

9 

34 
21 
32 
32 

9 
12 

Meters. 

Meters. 
6,258.5 
6,493.5 
8,582.2 
6,718.1 
4,457.2 
7, 198. 7 
6,477.0 

3 

7 
10 
14 
9 
5 
4 

Meters. 

Meters. 
6,251.0 

1 

NNE 

i2,866.9 
7,972.0 
14, 401. 5 
10,969.9 

4 
3 
4 
6 

NE 

7, 689. 0 
5,781.4 
7,210.0 
4,650.5 

2 

ENE 

E 

7,144.3 

1 

6 
3 

ESE 

3 

SE 

9,926.9 

5 

2,312.5 

1 

SSE 

s 

9, 796. 8 
11,512.0 
11,902.4 
11,941.8 
11,469.5 

9,848.9 

3 
3 

10 
6 
9 
9 

3,467.1 
6,446.2 
6,842.3 
5,967.6 
7,175.3 

2 
2 
7 
8 
4 

SSW 

sw 

12, 042. 0 

2 

7,085.5 
4,282.1 
3,268.8 

1 
1 
1 

3,948.0 
6,056.1 
3, 982. 6 

2 

wsw 

3 

w  

3 

WNW 

NW 

15,817.5 

1 

5,253.8 

1 

4,117.2 

2 

NNW  ....... 

Mean  direc- 
tion  

N.  59°^ 

W  E. 

N.  65°  16'  E. 

N.  74° 

32' E. 

S.  35°  53'  W. 

N.  59°  41'  E. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OP   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


279 


Table  CIII  b. — Mean  height  and  frequency  at  different  directions — Continued. 
FROM  APRIL  TO  SEPTEMBER— Continued. 


S-Cn. 

N 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

S. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Meters. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases'. 



Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Meters. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 

Meters. 

Meters. 

NNE 

1,881.7 
1,610.9 
1,338.3 

2 
3 
1 

NE 

2, 088. 4 

1. 364. 6 
1,579.6 

2. 232. 7 
1, 772. 7 
2,432.3 
2,725.4 
1,800.9 
1, 093. 9 
1, 920. 3 
1,892.9 
1,481.5 

5 

25 
19 
23 
18 
5 
2 
7 
9 
6 
9 
3 

4,015.8 
5,350.2 
6,032.0 

1 

7 
8 

ENE 

E 

1,181.3 

1 

ESE 

SE 

1,927.2 

4 

4, 686. 1 

5 

1 

SSE..   . 

1,  i93  7  !             •> 

s 

11,244.8 
2,001.7 
8,429.9 
3, 759. 7 
4, 373. 9 
6, 148. 2 
4,556.8 

5 
1 
5 

8 
3 
2 
1 

ssw 

1,706.2 

2 

sw 

wsw 

2,096.1 
2,222.4 
1,671.8 

2 
3 
1 

1,724.4 
1,554.3 

i 

3 

w 

927.0 

3 

WNW 

NW       ...   . 

NNW 

..   . 

2, 834. 3 

2* 

Mean  direc- 
tion   

S.  8°  12'  E. 

S.  84°  26'  W. 

S.  85°  52'  E. 

S.  9°  22'  E. 

S.  33°  82'  W. 

FROM  OCTOBER  TO  MARCH. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Direction. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
eases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 
8,571.5 
9,205.7 
6, 499. 1 

11,653.4 
9,847.0 

14, 128. 9 
8,118.7 

11,837.4 

11,003.2 

5 

9 
3 

15 

7 
7 
6 
9 
5 

Meters. 

Meters. 
7, 260. 2 
4, 237. 6 
6, 679. 0 
4,689.8 

4 
3 
3 
5 

Meters. 

Meters. 
5,607.2 
3, 172. 6 
6, 567. 4 
5, 596. 1 
3, 567. 0 
4, 103. 6 
4,576.2 

2 

NNE         .   .. 

2 

NE 

5 

ENE 

13,131.2 
16, 183.'0 
10,383.3 
10,257.6 

2 

2 
4 

7 

4 

E     

7 

ESE           .   . 

5, 256. 6 
5,776.7 

5 
1 

3, 900. 1 

1 

5 

SE 

3 

SSE 

s 

7,821.5 

6 

5,004.7 

5 

SSW 

10,512.4 
9, 614. 5 
13,513.9 
11,653.9 
16,065.2 

6 
4 
2 
3 
2 

sw      

9,900.4 
13, 614. 4 

5,763.8 


9 

7 
4 

5, 981. 1 

2 

3, 564. 0 
5,172.0 

2 

wsw 

2 

w 

5,883.8 



2 

WNW 

NW 

12,989.1 
14,186.1 

5 

2 

NNW 

11,487.2 

1 

5,717.8 

2 

Mean  direc- 
tion   

S.  82°  ( 

)2'E. 

S.  1°  15'  E. 

N,  89°  32'  E. 

S.  67°  30'  E. 

S.  88°  32'  E. 

S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N.           1              S. 

Direction. 

.-0 

Height. 
Meters. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Height. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

N 

Meters. 
1,546.3 
2,314.6 

1 
5 

Meters. 
1,590.4 
1,825.8 
1,966.4 
2,182.0 
1,686.0 
1,815.2 
1,544.9 
1,525.9 
1,620.2 
1,904.2 
1,935.9 
2,515.2 
2,189.3 

18 
26 
32 
47 
37 
19 
17 
6 
2 
5 
2 
3 
2 

Meters. 

Meters. 

NNE ,. 

2,998.5 

1 

2, 472. 8 
2, 472. 5 
1,  457. 8 
4, 646. 0 
2,428.3 
1,538.6 
3,228.6 
3,849.3 
4,524.7 

6 
6 
3 
2 
4 
2 
4 
2 
5 

NE 

ENE 

1,462.1 
2,199.4 
2,635.8 

i 

2 
2 

1,587.0 
1,985.7 
1,382.4 
1,579.4 

4 
5 

1 
2 

E 

ESE 

SE 

SSE  . 

2, 254. 6 

1 

S 

SSW 



sw 

993.5 
944.4 

4 

1 



wsw 

8,853.0 

4 

w 

WNW. 

4,172.3 
7,189.3 
2,732.1 

3 

2 
2 

NW 

1, 408. 2 

1 

1,615.9 
864.8 

4 
2 

NNW 





Mean  direc- 
tion   

N.  89°  36'  E. 

N.  76° . 

>3'E. 

N.  68°  11'  E. 

N.  89°  03'  E. 

Hosted  by 


Google 


280 


REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Table  CIV  a. — Mean  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes. 
GROUP  I. . 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Height  (in  meters). 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
Hi.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

500  to  1,000 

1,000  to  1,500 

1, 500  to  2,000 

2, 000  to  2,500 

2, 500  to  3,000 

3, 000  to  3,500 

3.99 
3.82 
2. 93 
6.38 

7 

3, 500  to  4,000 

5 

4, 000  to  4,500 

.  1 

4, 500  to  6,000 

2.82 
2.82 
2.50 
3.11 
1.66 

1 
4 
3 
2 
1 

3 

5, 000  to  6,500 

5,500  to6,000 

6,000to6,500 

6, 500  to  7,000 

4.50 
8.77 
13.39 

5 
1 

2 

8.86 
2.70 
9.54 
9.54 
9.64 

2 

2 

3.51 

2 

1 

7  000  to  7,500 

2 

7,500to8,000 

8,000to8,500 

8,500to9,000 

9,000  to9,500 

5.77 

6.77 

20.64 

26.85 

2.35 

9.68 

8.26 

9.28 

12.29 

4.92 

17.42 

13.01 

\ 

2 
2 
2 
2 
3 
8 
4 
2 
4 
2 

8.59 
6.15 
10.79 
10.79 
17.84 
15.53 

2 
1 
1 
2 
3 
4 

. .   ... 

9.24 

2 

1 



9,500  to  10,000 

10, 000  to  10,500 

10, 500  to  11,000 

11, 000  to  11,500 

11, 500  to  12,000 

12, 000  to  12,500 

12, 500  to  13,000 

13, 000  to  13,500 

13  500  to  14,000 



8.04 
8.70 
8.70 

4 
1 

1 

14, 000  to  14,500 

14  500  to  15,000 

11.76 

2 

9.13 

2 

15, 000  to  15,500 

15, 500  to  16,000 

16, 000  to  16,500 

2.77 
7.12 

3 
4 

84.71 
29.68 

1 
4 

16, 500  to  17,000 

17, 000  to  17,500 

17, 500  to  18,000 

2.97 
17.36 

2 
1 

18, 000  to  18,500 

18  500  to  19  000    .   . . 

19, 000  to  19,500 

19  500  to  20  000 

20, 000  to  20,500    

S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

Mean 
velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Height  (in  meters) . 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

500  to  1,000 

5.91 
7.93 
1.30 

6 

10 
2 

11.20 
6.49 
7.06 
7.79 
9.21 
7.40 

14.54 

3 

28 
79 
39 
20 
5 
2 

11.20 

1,000  to  1,500........ 

1,500  to  2,000 

0.16 

1 

6  27 

7.17 

2,000  to  2,500 

2  500  to  3,000 

7.76 

3 

7  49 

9.21 

3,000  to  3,500 

8.89 
2.36 
7.20 

8.89 

1 
2 
3 
1 

6.68 

3,500  to  4,000 . 

5.88 

4,000  to  4,500 

6.   1 

4  500  to  5  000  .     . 

6.i7 

5,000  to  5,500 

2.82 

5  500  to  6  000 

4.77 

6,000  to  6,500 

4.08 

6  500  to  7  000 

7.50 

7  000  to  7  500 

9  54 

7  500  to  8  000  .     . 

13. 25 

2 

9.68 

8,000  to  8,500 

6.93 

8  500 to  9  000. 

17.36 

9  000  to  9  500 

18  82 

9  500  to  10,000 

11.64 

10,000  to  10,500 

10.29 

2 

12.76 

10  500  to  11  000 

8.26 

11  000  to  11,500 

9.28 

11  500  to  12  000  . 

12.29 
4.92 

12.73 

11.57 
8.70 

11.76 
9.13 

12  000  to  12,500 -. 

12  500  to  13  (XX) 

13  000  to  13  500 

13,500  to  14,000    

14  000  to  14  500    .     .. 

14,500  to  15,000 

Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPOET   OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  281 

Table  CIV  a. — Mean  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes — Continued. 
GROUP  I— Continued. 


S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

Mean 

velocity, 

m.p.s. 

Height  (inmeters). 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
ases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

15,000  to  15,500 

2.77 

15,500  to  16,000 

22.64 

16,000  to  16,500 

29.68 

16  500  to  17,000 

17,000  to  17,500 

2.97 

17,500  to  18,000 

17.36 

18,000  to  18,500 

18  500  to  19,000 

19,000  to  19,500 

19,500  to  20,000 

20,000  to  20,500 

_ 

GROUP  II. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu.. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Height  (inmeters). 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

600  to  1,000 

1,000  to  1,500 

1,500  to  2, 000 

2  000  to  2, 500. 

2, 500  to  3, 000 

3, 000  to  3, 500 

3.77 
4.26 
2.55 
1.10 
7.17 
4.09 
3.47 

4 
3 
5 
1 
3 
2 
10 

3, 500  to  4, 000 

4, 000  to  4, 500 

5.91 
4.42 
26.88 
16.11 
12.32 
12.66 
2.56 
9.32 
10.17 
27.40 
11.95 
10.62 
9.57 
27.97 
9.67 
29.28 
17.73 
11.10 

1 
2 
1 
2 
1 
2 
2 
6 
9 
4 
8 
4 
4 
6 
9 
9 
9 
17 



18.97 

1 

5.91 
1.12 
1.44 
2.44 
4.43 

5 

1 

4, 500  to  5, 000 

3 

5, 000  to  5, 500 

3 

5, 500  to  6, 000 

1 

6,000  to  6, 500 

6,500  to7,000 

7,000  to  7,500....... 

7,500  to  8, 000 

8, 000  to  8, 500 

4.20 

1 

9.42 

4.20 

2 

3.57 

8, 500  to  9, 000 

9,000  to9,500 

9, 500  to  10, 000 

26.88 

2 

50 

10, 000  to  10, 500 

10, 500  to  11, 000 

11, 000  to  11, 500 

11, 500  to  12, 000 

12, 000  to  12, 500 

8.59 

1 

8.69 
4.34 

3 

2 

12, 500  to  13, 000 

13, 000  to  13,500 

11.34 
6.96 
11.40 

2 
3 
4 

10.41 

2 

13, 500  to  14, 000 

14, 000  to  14, 500 

14, 500  to  15, 000 



15, 000  to  15, 500 

i3.86 
16.50 

1 
4 



16, 500  to  16,000 

16, 000  to  16, 500 

Id,  500  to  17, 000 

17, 000  to  17, 500 

17, 500  to  18, 000 

18, 000  to  18, 500 

18  500  to  19, 000 

19,000  to  19, 500 

19, 500  to  20, 000 

20, 000  to  20, 500 

Hosted  by 


Google 


282  REPORT    OF    THE    PHILTPPIKE    COMMISSION. 

Table  CIV  a. — Mean,  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes — Continued. 
GROUP  II— Continued. 


S-Gn. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

Height  (in  meters). 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity. 

2. 25 
3.00 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

2 
1 

Velocity. 

2.64 
4.27 
6.05 
8.50 
4.63 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

6 

31 
37 
15 

9 

Velocity. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Mean 
velocity. 

500  to  1  000 

2.54 

1,000  to  1,500 

1  500  to  2  000 

3.17 
3.75 
13. 62 
10.17 

2 
4 
1 

2 

2.70 
2. 90 
9.77 
11.51 

4.83 

3 
7 
5 

10 
2 

4.05 
5.40 

2, 000  to  2, 500 

2, 500  to  3, 000 

3, 000  to  3, 500 

6. 71 

2 

8.84 
8.43 

4.12 

3  500  to  4, 000 

6.72 

4, 000  to  4, 500 

10. 42 
1.98 

5 
1  ■ 

5.75 

4  500  to  5  000 

5.71 

5  000  to  5  500 

7.63 

5  500  to  6  000 

1.98 
1.98 
5.00 
2.98 

10.51 
2.61 

10.51 

1 
1 
2 
2 
1 

2 


5.38 

6, 000  to  6, 500 

4.77 

6  500  to  7, 000 

3.78 

7',  000  to  7, 500 

7.86 

7  500  to  8  000 

10.20 

8, 000  to  8, 500 

14.09 

8  500  to  9, 000 

11.66 

9, 000  to  9, 500 

12.15 

9  500  to  10  000 

0.84 

2 

6.66 

10, 000  to  10, 500 

25. 20 

10  500  to  11, 000 

9.67 

11, 000  to  11, 500 

. 

24.13 

11  500  to  12  000 

15.30 

12, 000  to  12, 500  ..   . 

11.10 

12  500  to  13, 000 

13  000  to  13, 500  .   .   . 



10.87 

13  500  to  14  000 



6.96 

14  000  to  14, 500  . . . 



11. 40 

14  500  to  15  000 

15  000  to  15, 500  . 

13. 86 

15  500  to  16  000 

16.  50 

16  000  to  16, 500  . 

16  500  to  17  000 

17  000  to  17, 500 

17, 500  to  18,000 

18  000  to  18  500 

18, 500  to  19, 000 

19  000  to  19  500 

19, 500  to  20, 000  -   .   . 

20  000  to  20  500 

GROUP  III. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S.            j          A-Cu. 

Height  (in  meters). 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

500  to  1, 000      .... 

1,000  to  1,500 

1,500  to  2,000 

2, 000  to  2, 500 

2, 500  to  3, 000 

11.05 
16. 23 
1. 42 
1.42 

3 

8, 000  to  3, 500 

1 

3, 500  to  4, 000     . 

3.33 
21.16 

2 
3 

1 

4,  000  to  4, 500 



2 

4, 500  to  5  000 



5, 000  to  5, 500 

16. 12 

.  2 

5  500  to  6, 000 

3.83 
8.35 

7.38 
10.88 
8.37 

4 

5 
4 
4 
3 

6, 000  to  6, 500 



6, 500  to  7, 000 

7, 000  to  7, 500. . 

2. 21 

11.83 

14.28 

12.40 

30.50 

7.22 

14.24 

6.04 

9.47 

7.08 

12.91 

22.81 

2 
6 
6 
7 
5 
8 
6 
10 
4 
7 
1 
8 

15. 11 

2 

7, 500  to  8, 000 

8, 000  to  8, 500 

8, 500  to  9, 000 

9, 000  to  9, 500 

9, 500  to  10, 000 

10, 000  to  10, 500 

3.37 
3.80 

2 
4 

7.98 

i 

10, 500  to  11, 000 

7.02 
10.86 

2 
2 

11,000  to  11, 500 

7.98 

1 

11, 500  to  12, 000 

12, 000  to  12, 500 

.... 

Hosted  by 


Google 


EEPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


283 


Table  CIV  a. — Mean  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes — Continued. 
GROUP  III— Continued. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Height  (in  meters).^ 

i 

Velocity, 
m.p.  8. 

14.80 
10.63 

5.88 
8.82 
37. 19 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases; 

1 

12, 500  to  13, 000 

13, 000  to  13, 500 

13, 500  to  14, 000 

14, 000  to  14, 500 

14, 500  to  15, 000 

15  000  to  15,500.     . 

11 
3 
1 
5 
2 

70.51 

1 

;"":>: 

70. 51 

1 

15  500  to  16  000 

16  000  to  16,500 

16,500  to  17,000 



17  000  to  17,500 

"     12. 80 

2 

17, 500  to  18, 000 

18, 000  to  18, 500 

18, 500  to  19, 000 

19, 000  to  19, 500 

19, 500  to  20, 000 

25. 02 
25. 02 
13. 22 
1.51 

1 

1 
2 
1 

20, 000  to  20, 500 

14.05 

2 

S.-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu.-N. 

Height  (in  meters). 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Mean 
velocity, 
m.p.s. 

600  to    1, 000 

1  000  to    1  500      .   . 

1,500  to    2,000 

2  000  to   2  500 

2, 500  to    3, 000 

11.05 

3. 000  to    3, 500 

16.23 

3  500  to    4, 000 

2.69 

4  000  to    4  500 



7.75 

6.85 

22. 15 

1 

I 

12.34 

4  500  to    5, 000 

6.85 

5, 000  to    5, 500 

4.02 
6.02 
6.48 
4.72 
7.12 
7.07 

7 
16 
6 
4 
3 
2 

8.25 

5  500  to    6, 000 

5.58 

6  000  to    6  500 

7.33 

6  500  to    7, 000  .   .   . 

5.28 

7, 000  to    7, 500 

::::;::::::::::: 

11.07 

7  500  to    8, 000 

11.36 

8  000  to    8  500 

12.40 

8  500  to    9, 000 

13.44 

2 

20.68 

9  000  to    9  500 

6.08 

9  500  to  10, 000 

14.24 

10  000  to  10  500 

6.22 

10  500  to  11, 000  .   .   . 

8.65 

11  000  to  11, 500 

7.93 

11  500  to  12  000  .   .   . 

20. 29 
20.29 
11.86 

1 
1 
3 

16.60 

12, 000  to  12, 500 

22.53 

12  500  to  13  000  .   .   - 

14.17 

13, 000  to  13, 500 

10. 63 

13  500  to  14  000     . 



88.19 

14, 000  to  14, 500  



8.82 

14  500  to  15  000  - 



48.30 

15  000  to  15, 500 

15  500  to  16  000 

16  000  to  16, 500 

16  500  to  17  000 

17  000  to  17, 500 

12.80 

17  500  to  18  000 

25.02 

18  000  to  18, 500  . .   . . 

25. 02 

18  500  to  19  000 

13. 22 

19  000  to  19,600  

1.51 

19  500  to  20  000 

20, 000  to  20, 500 

14.05 

1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


284  REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Table  CIV  b. — Mean  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes. 
FROM  APRIL  TO  SEPTEMBER. 


Ci. 

Ci.-S. 

Ci.-Cu. 

A.-S. 

A.-Cu. 

Height  (in  meters) . 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

^K)  to  1  000 

1,000  to  1,500 

1  500  to  2  000 

2  000  to  2,500 

2,500  to  3,000 

3,000  to  3,500 

3.07 
3.33 
10.73 

3 
2 

•     7 

3,500  to  4,000 

ii.87 
16.28 
1.42 
1.42 

5 

4,000  to  4,500 

4,500  to  5,000 

2.93 

1 

1 

1 

5,000  to  5,500 

5,500  to  6,000 

6  000  to  6  500 

16.11 
12.32 
8.85 
2.21 
10.25 
11.68 
11.29 
20.32 
7.58 
11.05 
14.11 
8.64 
16.08 
17.25 
15.20 
14.80 
10.91 
4.30 
8.83 
37.19 

2 
1 
1 
2 
9 
13 
9 

12 
9 
9 

15 
10 
13 
10 
21 
11 
5 
3 
7 
2 

7.17 
3.91 
5.35 
7.38 
10.25 
8.37 

3 
6 

12 
4 
7 
3 

2 

16.12 



2 

6,500  to  7,000 

7000  to  7,500 

7,500  to  8,000 

8,000  to  8,500 

8,500  to  9,000 

9,000  to  9,500 

9,500  to  10,000 

10,000  to  10,500 

10,500  to  11,000 

11,000  to  11,500 

11,500  to  12,000 

12,000  to  12,500 

12,500  to  13,000 

13,000  to  13,500 

13,500  to  14,000 

14,000  to  14,500 

14,500  to  15,000 

15  000  to  15  500 

11.47 

3 

4.20 

2 

3.37 
3.80 

2 
4 



8.59 
7.02 
9.73 
4.34 

1 
2 
4 
2 

7.98 

1 



7.98 

1 

.............. 

70.51 

1 

70.51 

1 



15  500  to  16,000  . .     . 

16,000  to  16,500 



16  500  to  17,000 

1 7  000  to  17  500 

12.80 

2 

17,500  to  18,000  ..... 

18,000  to  18,500 

18,500  to  19,000 

19,000  to  19,500 

19  500  to  20  000 

25.02 
25.02 
13.22 
1.51 

1 
1 

2 
1 

20,000  to  20,500 

14.05 

2 



S.-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu.-N. 

Mean 

velocity, 

m.  p.  s. 

Height  (in  meters) . 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

500  to  1  000 

3.63 
6.13 
6.47 
8.91 
5.37 
7.07 

9 

31 
36 
14 
11 

2 

3  63 

1,000  to  1,500 

1,500  to  2,000 

2  000'  to  2  500 

3.36 
3.75 

1 

4 

6  04 

6.20 

8  91 

2,500  to  3,000 

5.00 
4.83 

1 

2 

5.34 

3  000  to  3  500 

4  72 

3,500  to  4,000 

9  43 

4  000  to  4  500 

10.68 

6.85 

22.15 

3 
3 
1 

11  36 

4,500  to  5,000 



5  49 

5  000  to  5  500 

9  84 

5  500  to  6,000   .. 



5  11 

6  000  to  6  500 

7  02 

6  500  to  7,000 

5.00 

2 

5  49 

7,000to  7,500 

10.44 

7  500  to  8,000 

11  06 

8,000  to  8,500 

2.61 
11.68 

2 
5 

8.86 

8  500  to  9  000 



16  26 

9,000  to  9,500 

6.41 

9  500  to  10  000 

84 

2 

9  19 

10  000  to  10,500     .     . 

13  42 

10,500  to  11,000 

8.37 

11  000  to  11,500 



14  22 

11,500  to  12,000 

20.29 
20.29 
11.86 

1 
1 
3 

15.50 

12,000  to  12,500 

15  43 

12,500  to  13,000 



14.17 

13,000  to  13,500 

10  91 

13,500  to  14,000 

20.85 

14,000  to  14,500 

8.83 

Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  286 

Table  01 V  b. — Mean  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes — Continued. 
PROM  APRIL  TO  SEPTEMBER— Continued. 


S.-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu.-N. 

Mean 
velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Height  (in  meters) . 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

14,500  to  15,000 

48.30 

15,000  to  15,500 

15,500  to  16,000 

16,000  to  16,600 

16,500  to  17,000 

17,000  to  17,500 



12  80 

17,500  to  18,000 

25.02 

18,000  to  18,500 



25  02 

18,500  to  1&,000 

13.22 

19  000  to  19,500 

1  51 

19, 500 to  20, 000.. 

20,000  to  20,500 

14  05 

FROM  OCTOBER  TO  MARCH. 


Ci. 

Ci-S. 

Ci-Cu. 

A-S. 

A-Cu. 

Height  (in  meters). 

\ 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 

cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

500  to  1,000 

1,000  to  1,500 

1,500  to  2, 000 

2, 000  to  2, 500 

2, 500  to  3, 000 

3, 000  to  3, 500 

6.84 
4.26 
1.10 
1.96 
2.82 
2.60 
3.69 
1.66 
9.24 
3.57 

1 
3 
1 
2 
4 
3 
5 
1 
2 
1 

3.99 
2.81 
2.03 
3.91 
2.44 
7.38 
2.70 
9.54 
9.54 
9.54 

7 

3, 500  to  4, 000 

5.91 
5.91 
26.88 

1 
1 
1 

18.97 

1 

8 

4, 000  to  4, 500 

2 

4, 500  to  5, 000 

6 

6, 000  to  5, 500 

3 

5, 500  to  6, 000 

4.50 
12.62 

7.97 
11.54 
10.36 
33.56 
15.19 
17.16 

9.67 
11.96 
10.54 
16.21 
12.29 
10.30 
17.42 
13.01 
13.86 
12.86 

5 
2 
4 
3 
3 
3 
3 
6 
3 
3 
6 
11 
4 
6 
4 
2 
1 
4 

3 

6, 000  to  6, 500 

.  .. 

2 

6, 500  to  7, 000 

3.51 

2 

1 

7,000  to7,500 

2 

7,500  to  8, 000 

8.59 
6.15 
10.79 
18.84 
17.84 
15.53 
8.90 

4 
3 
4 
1 

1 

8, 000  to  8, 500 

8,500  to  9,000 

.    0.50 

2 

9,000  to  9,500 

9, 500  to  10, 000 

10, 000  to  10, 500 

10, 500  to  11, 000 

11, 000  to  11, 500 

11, 500  to  12, 000 

12, 000  to  12, 500 

8.04 
9.84 
8.70 
9.13 

4 
3 
1 

2 

12, 600  to  13, 000 

13, 000  to  13, 600 

. 

13, 500  to  14, 000 

14, 000  to  14, 500 

14, 600  to  15, 000 

84.71 
29.68 

1 
4 

16, 000  to  15, 500 

6.54 
11.81 

4 

8 

16, 600  to  16, 000 

16, 000  to  16, 600 

16, 600  to  17, 000 

17, 000  to  17, 500 

2.97 
17.36 

2 
1 

17, 600  to  18, 000 

18, 000  to  18, 600 

18, 500  to  19, 000 



19, 000  to  19, 500 



19, 500  to  20, 000 

20, 000  to  20, 500 



■■ 

Hosted  by 


Google 


286  REPORT    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 

Table  CIV  b. — Mean  velocity  and  frequency  at  different  altitudes — Continued. 
FROM  OCTOBER  TO  MARCH— Continued. 


S-Cu. 

N. 

Cu. 

Cu-N. 

Mean 

velocity, 

m.p.  s. 

Height  (in  meters). 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 

m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.  p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

Velocity, 
m.p.  s. 

Num- 
ber of 
cases. 

500  to  1,000 

2.25 
5.49 
7.93 
4.01 

2 
7 

10 
4 

6.42 
5.28 
6.83 
7.39 
8.96 
7.40 
14. 54 

7 
54 

86 

5 
2 

5.49 

1,000  to  1,500 

1,500  to  2,000 

2, 000  to  2, 600 

2  500  to  3, 000  .     ... 

1.57 

9.23 

10.17 

2 
4 
2 

2.70 
2.90 
9.77 
12.24 
8.89 
2.36 
8.24 
8.89 

3 

7 
5 
9 
1 
2 
6 
1 

5.07 
6.67 
7.49 
9.96 

3, 000  to  3, 500 



5.69 

3  500  to  4  000  .   . 

5.53 

4, 000  to  4, 500 



6.05 

4  500  to  5, 000  . 

6.32 

5, 000  to  5, 500 

. 

. 

2.66 

5  500  to  6, 000 

3.96 
1.98 

2 
1 

4.62 

6, 000  to  6, 500 

5.11 

6  500  to  7  000  .     .   .  \ 





6.26 

7, 000  to  7, 500 i  

2.98 
13.25 

2 

8.68 

7  500  to  8  000  .         -J 

9.76 

8, 000  to  8, 500 '  

26.71 

8, 500  to  9  000  .          J 

9.56 

9, 000  to  9, 500 !  

17.90 

9  500  to  10  000           .  \ 

13.71 

10, 000  to  10, 500 1  

10. 29 

2 

13.16 

10  500  to  11, 000         . ' 

10.37 

11, 000  to  11, 500 

16.21 

11  500  to  12, 000 



12.29 

12, 000  to  12, 500 

9.40 

12  600  to  13  000 

14.17 

13, 000  to  13, 500 

11.51 

13, 500  to  14, 000 





10.77 

14, 000  to  14, 500 

12.86 

14, 500  to  15, 000 

84.71 

15, 000  to  15, 600 

17.61 

15, 500  to  16, 000 

11.81 

16, 000  to  16, 500 

16, 500  to  17, 000 

17, 000  to  17, 500 

2.97 

17, 500  to  18, 000 





17.36 

18, 000  to  18, 500 

18, 500  to  19, 000 

19, 000  to  19, 500 

19, 500  to  20, 000 



20, 000  to  20, 500 





Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF    THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


287 


I 
I 

> 

o 


pq 


(M  !N -^  Tj^  iM  r-l  t^  lO  C<I      •  CO 


r-lt^COlOr-l(NCOr-t 


Tj<  C^  1^1  !>•  tH  (M 


<N  (N<MrH  50 


(M      '(Mt-I      -co 


' 

h 

CO 

l^ 

(N      I 

<M 

Tt4  CO  CO  r-l  ^  (M 

(M 

00 

!MCO 

lO 

00  l^  Oi  00  lO  (M  lO 

^ 

CO 

C^I'^^C^      j 

5?; 

iO^COO(M 

(MiO'ti 

'M 

<M 

lO -X)  lO  CO  (M  lO  rH  r-l 

lO 

<M 

p4 
8 

02 

iHCOrHCO»OT—(COCOC^t^i— ItHCO 

1—1  tH 

00 

0 

s§ 

«MtH  rH 

iM 

r-l 

o 

^ 

5J2 

ip* 

2cr 

1 

^3 

It 

•S 

^^ 

c 
c 

c 

1 

0 

;> 

3 
3 
3 
) 

P  C — ^VOL  4 — 01- 


-23 


Hosted  by 


Google 


288 


EEPOKT    OF    THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


lis 

o 

Q 


-« 
^ 


^ 
s 


5S 


CM 

o 


Q 


pq 

-'J 
H 


C<J  CO  Oi  OD  »^0  CO  l^     I  CO      I  *<*  "^ 


^  t^ -*  Oi  <M '^  00 


CO  "^      i  CO  »0  CO  CO 


•  CO  'X>  T— I  CO  C<1 


.  CI  »0  CO  c<>  -^  CO     •     •  C<1  o  -* 


>     '•  r-^ -^  ^  oo  C^  r-i     'Oioaiao-^ 


•  CO  <M  C^-1  T— I  CO 


:w  -w  :ia 


.  -i^  -^  -^  :^ 


JzJggSwSS^aQ^S^^^J^il^     ^ 


^  I 
•i  £ 

i    w 

■^:^ 

r^       O 
I         ^ 

O 

« 

H 


:^      .CMC>Oi7-{      '      ■  (M  r-t  <M  CO 


CO  '^  tH  "X)  lO  CO  CO 


■  C<1  t^  00  (M '^  CO  (M 


'.    '.  1  o  CO  00  T-i  o  rH  (N  o  «3  a»  CO 

.      .         (>1  T-l  (M  iM  r-i  tH 


CO  CI  C<1  rH  CO 


;z;  ;z;  ;z;  W  W  W  cc  ^  GQ  cc  02 1^  !^ 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT    OF   THE   PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION. 


289 


-tlOC<l^^'^C4'r-tl^\nC<t      'COCJ 


P3 
W 

m 
o 

H 

o 
o 


o 

05 


(Mr-ft^COi©T— IiOCOtH      '(M 


t^COCT>QOOtOCNiOTHCOr-l      '^ti      -C^ 


d  i-H  CO      •      •      •  (M 


^JZ^JgJHHps^OOCCCCCCCCl 


Hosted  by 


Google 


CHAPTER  VIII. 
BAGUIOS  OR  CYCI^OlSrES  OF  THE  EXTREME  EAST. 

I.— DEPRESSIONS  OR  EXTENDED  AREAS  OF  LOW  PRESSURE. 
TWO    CLASSES    OF   ATMOSPHERIC    CHANGES   IN   THE    PHILIPPINES. 

Two  classes  of  atmospheric  changes  may  be  distinguished  in  the 
Philippine  Archipelago  and  the  seas  which  surround  it,  due  to  more  or 
less  developed  centers  of  low  pressure.  One  we  simply  indicate  under 
the  general  name  of  depressions,  and  the  other  we  call  baguios  or 
Philippine  cyclones,  the  latter,  as  is  known,  not  falling  short  of  the 
cyclones  of  the  Indian  Ocean  nor  of  the  hurricanes  of  the  Atlantic. 

Although  it  is  our  intention  to  speak  in  this  chapter  somewhat  at 
length  concerning  the  latter,  both  because  of  their  frequency  in  this 
archipelago  and  because  of  their  terrible  effect  on  war  vessels  and 
merchant  vessels  which  navigate  these  seas,  we  do  not  believe  it  inap- 
propriate to  first  say,  by  way  of  preamble,  a  few  words  concerning 
the  first  class  of  atmospheric  changes  which  we  have  just  indicated. 

DIVISION   OF   DEPRESSIONS   INTO   TWO   GROUPS. 

For  greater  clearness  we  consider  these  depressions  divided  into  two 
groups;  one  of  them  originating  in  low  latitudes  between  4^  and  12^ 
north  latitude,  and  the  other  formed  in  a  higher  latitude,  probably 
between  16^  and  22^. 

DEPRESSIONS   IN   LOW   LATITUDES. 

The  first,  as  we  have  had  occasion  to  say  many  times  in  meteorolog- 
ical articles  in  our  monthly  bulletins,  are  nothing  more  than  extended 
areas  of  low  pressure  which  extend  in  a  fairly  uniform  manner  over 
immense  regions,  and  occur  principally  in  the  months  of  December, 
January,  February,  and  March.  In  the  majority  of  cases  it  is  very 
difficult  to  distinguish  in  these  depressions  a  true  movement  of  trans- 
ference, as  also  to  accurately  locate  the  center  before  the  beginning  of 
the  barometric  descent  or  the  lowest  barometric  pressure,  which  is 
often  observed  at  the  same  time  in  all  the  archipelago,  and  probably 
even  in  part  of  the  Pacific  and  the  China  Sea.  This  minimum  reading 
of  the  barometer  is  generally  in  the  Visayan  Islands  and  Mindanao — 
that  is,  in  the  southern  region  of  the  Philippines — and  is  2  or  3  mm, 
lower  than  normal. 
290 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPOET    OF   THE    PHILIPPINE    COMMISSION.  291 

EFFECT   OF   THESE   DEPRESSIONS. 

The  immediate  effect  of  this  kind  of  atmospheric  disturbances  is 
manifested  by  brisk  winds  from  the  first  quadrant  and  rains  of  greater 
or  less  abundance  in  the  Visayan  Islands  and  Mindanao,  which  fre- 
quently extend  as  far  as  the  provinces  of  the  south  of  Luzon.  When- 
ever it  has  been  possible  to  locate  the  center  of  any  one  of  these 
depressions  between  Visayas  and  Mindanao,  it  has  generally  been 
observed  that  in  the  southern  part  of  the  region  moderate  or  brisk 
winds  from  S.  to  SW.  prevail. 

SOMETIMES     THESE      DEPRESSIONS      ARE      CONVERTED      INTO      GENUINE 
CYCLONE    CENTERS   IN   THE    SEA    OF   CHINA. 

Although  the  data  at  our  disposition  is  at  present  very  scanty,  it 
would  appear  that  some  of  these  wide  centers  of  low  pressure,  after 
having  crossed  the  southern  part  of  the  archipelago  as  depressions 
such  as  we  have  just  described,  by  a  movement  of  transference,  better 
defined  in  some  cases  than  in  others,  acquire,  perhaps,  a  greater  devel- 
opment in  the  China  Sea,  being  converted  into  genuine  cyclone  centers. 

DEPRESSIONS    FORMED    IN    HIGHER   LATITUDES. 

The  other  depressions  which,  as  already  indicated,  usually  form  in 
higher  latitudes,  are  also  wide  areas  of  low  pressure  prolonged  from 
east  to  west,  or  from  ENE.  to  WSW.,  and  which  usually  remain  for 
some  days  either  to  the  northwest  of  Manila,  between  the  northwest 
of  Luzon  and  the  south  of  China,  or  in  the  Pacific,  toward  the  north- 
east or  NNE.  of  Manila;  or  perhaps  they  also  extend  themselves  along 
some  part  of  the  China  Sea  and  the  racific,  between  the  north  of 
Luzon,  the  south  of  China,  Formosa,  and  the  Liukin  Islands.  These 
depressions  occur  in  the  months  in  which  baguios  are  most  frequent, 
especially  in  June  and  July. 

EFFECT   OF   THESE   DEPRESSIONS. 

Toward  the  north  of  these  wide  centers  of  low  pressure  brisk  winds 
from  north  to  east  prevail,  and  also  to  the  south  of  these  brisk  winds 
from  S.  to  SW.  In  Manila  winds  neither  brisk  nor  ligJit  prevail  from 
SSE.  and  S.  when  the  depression  lies  to  the  NW.  in  the  China  Sea, 
and  winds  between  brisk  and  strong  prevail  from  S.  to  SW.,  when  it- 
is  situated  more  to  the  north  or  to  the  NNE.  and  NE.  in  the  Pacific. 

COLLAS. 

xn  the  latter  case  these  winds  from  the  third  quadrant,  together  with 
the  squalls  which  accompany  them  at  intervals  for  several  days  consti- 
tute the  phenomenon  known  to  the  natives  by  the  name  of  colla.^ 
These  depressions  sometimes  give  place  to  the  formation  of  genuine 
cyclone  centers. 

^This  same  phenomenon  is  at  times  produced  by  two  typhoons  when  they  move 
with  great  slowness  in  the  Pacific  to  the  NE.  or  NNE.  of  Manila,  or  when  they  fol- 
low one  another  almost  without  interruption  in  the  Pacific  itself. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


292 


REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPmE    COMMISSION. 


PRINCIPAL  OBJECT  OF  THE  PRESENT  CHAPTER  AND  DATA  WHICH  HAS 
BEEN  USEFUL  TO  US  IN  THE  STUDY  OF  THE  BAGUIOS  OR  CYCLONES  OF 
THE   EXTREME   EAST. 

Having  given  these  general  ideas  concerning  depressions  of  minor 
importance  we  pass  on  to  discuss,  as  briefly  and  clearly  as  possible, 
part  of  much  that  might  be  said  concerning  true  and  typical  cyclones, 
possessing  the  two  movements  of  rotation  and  transference,  which  are 
known  in  the  Philippines  under  the  name  of  baguios,  and  under  the  name 
of  typhoons  in  the  China  Sea.  Much  of  what  we  shall  say  is  founded  on 
what  was  written  in  1897  by  P.  Jose  Algue  in  his  valuable  work,  ''The 
Baguios  or  Philippine  Cyclones,"  and  also  on  other  data  collected  in 
this  observatory,  especially  in  regard  to  the  baguios  of  1895,  1896, 
1897,  and  1898,  In  making  up  the  statistics  of  baguios  for  certain 
years  we  have  availed  ourselves  of  the  publications  of  the  meteoro- 
logical observatories  of  Tokio,  Zikawei,  and  Hongkong. 

II.— MONTHLY  DISTRIBUTION  OF  BAGUIOS,  1880-1898. 

NUMBER  OF  BAGUIOS  OBSERVED  IN  THE  PERIOD  OF  1880  TO  1898  AND 
THEIR  DISTRIBUTION  THROUGHOUT  THE  DIFFERENT  MONTHS  OF  THE 
YEAR. 

In  the  first  place,  we  believe  it  will  be  of  especial  interest  and  prac- 
tical value  to  know  something  of  the  distribution  of  baguios  over  the 
different  months  of  the  year,  so  as  to  find  in  what  month  they  appear 
with  greatest  frequency  and  what  months  are  free  from  them.  For 
this  purpose  we  have  included  those  baguios  which  have  appeared  in 
this  archipelago,  either  crossing  it,  or  passing  through  it  for  a  greater 
or  less  distance,  and  whose  trajectory  this  observatory  has  been  able 
to  discover.^  There  are  397  of  these  baguios,  whose  distribution,  by 
month  and  year,  can  be  seen  from  the  following  table: 

Table  OVI. — Monthly  and  yearly  distrihution  of  Baguios,  1880-1898, 


Year. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Apr. 

May. 

June. 

July. 

Aug. 

Sept. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Dec. 

Total. 

1880 

2 
3 
3 
3 
4 
2 

4 
2 
4 
7 
4 
3 
5 
2 
4 
6 
3 

4 
4 

""X 

5 
2 

3 
2 
3 
3 
2 
5 
4 

3^ 

3 
4 
2 
6 

2 
4 
2 
4 
4 
1 
4 
7 
3 
2 
7 
6 
5 
6 
5 
5 
5 
3 
4 

3 

2 
4 

'"'i' 

3 
3 
1 
4 
6 

""2 
3 
5 
3 
4 
5 
3 

1 
3 
1 
1 

I 

1 
3 
1 
1 
1 
4 
3 
2 
6 
5 

2 

"""2' 
1 
1 

...... 

2 
...... 

2 
1 
3 

11 

1881      -  ... 

2 

1 

21 

1882 

1 
1 

11 

1883 

1 

3 
2 

3 

1 
1 
2 
2 

\ 

22 

1884 

1 

21 

1885 

1 
1 
3 
1 

11 

1886 

16 

1887 

1 

28 

1888 

16 

1889 

14 

1890 

1 

1 

2 

5 
2 
3 

3^ 
4 

\ 

3 

27 

1891 

1 

28 

1892 

1 

2 

24 

1893 

2 
4 
1 
1 

24 

1894 

34 

1895 

1 

24 

1896 

20 

1897 

2 
2 

""i' 

20 

1898 

1 

2 

25 

Total 

Averages 

Per  cent 

6 

0.3 

2 

0 

0.0 

0 

3 

0.2 

1 

9 

0.5 

2 

24 

1.3 

6 

35 

1.8 

9 

66 
3.5 
17 

63 
3.3 
16 

79 

4.2 

20 

54 

2.8 

14 

40 

2.1 

10 

18 

0.9 

5 

397 
20.9 

^  We  begin  with  the  year  1880,  as  this  was  the  first  year  in  which  our  observatory 
sent  notices  of  typhoons  to  the  neighboring  colony  of  Hongkong,  as  telegraphic  com- 
munication was  then  established. 


Hosted  by 


Google 


Plate  XLl. 


MONTHLY  DISTRIBUTION  OF  THE  BAQUIOS 
OR  CYCLONES  IN  THE  FAR  EAST 

1880-1898 

80 

do 
50 
40 

Jan 

JlEB.  MiMCSApJUL 

Msr 

June 

JuEf  August 

Sept. 

Oct. 

mv. 

Bec. 

so 
ro 
60 
So 

1 

1 

1 

! 

! 

1 

1 

t 

1  ,. . 
1 

— 

•— 

~v 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

— 

/ 

i 

/ 

1 

V, 

/ 

S 

-— 

V 

\ 

\ 

— 

1 

HO 

3o 
2o 
lo 

O 

\ 

/ 

/ 

%o 

i 

/ 

1 

-— 

10 
0 

J 

A 



\ 

/ 

> 

< 

y 

/ 

\ 

y 

1 

Hosted  by 


Google 


Hosted  by 


Google 


REPORT   OF   THE   PHILIPPIHE   COMMlSSIOK.  293 

As  will  be  seen,  not  one  of  these  397  baguios  which  have  been  reg- 
istered from  1880  to  1898  has  been  observed  in  the  month  of  February, 
and  only  3  in  the  month  of  March.  Their  frequency  then  increases 
from  April,  when  9  occurred,  to  July,  when  66  occurred.  There  is 
then  a  slight  decrease  for  the  month  of  August,  and  the  maximum  of 
79  is  reached  in  September,  thus  giving  a  yearly