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PLATE    1. 


Savages  of  an  entirely  unknown  tribe;  living  in  the  depths 
of  the  forest  near  volcano  Apo 








VOL.   III. 



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To  th^.  Presideiyt, 

Sir:  We  have  the  honor  to  transmit  to  you  herewith  Volumes  III 
and  IV,   together  with   the   accompanying-  atlas   of    the   Philippine 
Islands,  being  the  final  volumes  of  the  report  to  you  of  this  commission. 
Very  respectfully,  yours, 

Jacob  Gould  Schurmann, 
George  Dewey, 
Elwell  S.  Otis, 
Charles  Denby, 
Dean  C.  Worcester, 

John  R.  Mac  Arthur, 

Secretary  and  Counsel. 
December  20,  1900. 


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Paper  I. — Chorography _ 8 

II.— Orography _.  129 

III.— Hydrography  _ ..       ..     .    . 153 

Part  first— Marine  Hydrography.    . 157 

Part  second— Terrestrial  Hydrography. 201 

IV.— Mineral  Resources  and  Geology 229 

v.— Botany _.   .._. 241 

VI.— Timber  and  Fine  Woods.. 285 

VII.— Zoography .._ _  305 

VIII.— Ethnography 329 

Part  first — Origin  of  the  Philippine  Peoples 333 

Part  second— Characteristics  of  the  Races  Inhabiting  the 

Philippines 347 

IX.— Ethology _.. 387 

X. — Idiomography 395 

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It  was  proposed  in  the  beginning  simply  to  reproduce  in  this  collec- 
tion of  papers  the  chorography  of  the  Philippines  by  P.  Beranaria 
(Society  of  Jesus),  judging  it  to  be  the  best  of  all  published  up  to  the 
present  time;  but  considering  the  resulting  size  of  the  last  parts  of  the 
physical  geography — that  is  to  say,  the  orography,  the  hydrography, 
and  the  climatology,  which  were  simply  mentioned  in  the  geography 
of  this  author — it  was  deemed  best  to  amplify  the  present  treatise  on 
chorography.  In  the  composition  of  this  paper  we  have  made  use  of 
the  most  recent  work;^  that  is  to  say,  the  last  volume  of  the  Official 
Guide  of  the  Philippines,  published  in  1898,  the  Spanish-American 
Encyclopedic  Dictionary,  and  several  memoirs  and  articles  relating  to 
the  Philippines,  written  by  persons  acquainted  with  the  country. 

We  have  found  marked  discrepancies  among  the  various  authors  who 
have  written  upon  the  chorography  of  the  Philippines  in  three  points: 
First,  in  geodetic  measurements  and  measurements  of  areas  and  the 
census  of  the  various  islands,  cities,  towns,  and  of  the  various  races, 
and  in  the  spelling  or  orthography  of  the  names  of  islands,  towns, 
mountains,  rivers,  etc.  In  regard  to  measurements  we  have  generally 
accepted  those  published  by  the  Geographical  Institute  of  Madrid. 
In  regard  to  census  we  have  given  the  preference  to  the  data  found  in 
the  most  recent  parochial  books  of  registry,  they  seeming  to  us  the 
truest  sources  of  exact  information  in  this  matter.  In  regard  to 
orthography  of  proper  names  we  have  adopted  that  which  seemed  to 
us  most  generally  accepted  and  correct,  consulting  in  doubtful  cases 
the  pronunciation  of  the  natives,  who,  however,  do  not  always  seem 
to  be  in  accord.  The  only  recourse  seems  to  be  to  use  that  orthogra- 
phy which  agrees  best  with  the  tendencies  of  the  dialects  or  languages 
spoken  in  the  regions,  towns,  or  islands  where  doubtful  orthography 

The  chorographic  data  relative  to  civil,  military,  and  ecclesiastical 
organizations  which  existed  before  the  1st  of  May,  1898,  have  been 
united  in  the  introduction,  not  alone  to  avoid  repetition  in  the  partial 
chorographic  descriptions  of  each  region,  but  because  they  no  longer 
exist  at  the  present  time  on  account  of  the  change  of  sovereignty  in 
the  islands. 

Observatory  of  Manila, 
December  8,  1899, 

^The  data  in  reference  to  the  Visayas,  Mindanao,  and  Jolo  we  owe  in  large  part  to 
the  diligence  of  Padre  Baltazar  Ferrer,  S.  J.,  of  the  Observatory  of  Manila. 


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The  Philippine  Archipelago  is  a  group  composed  of  many  islands 
situated  in  the  most  northern  part  of  the  great  Asiatic  archipelago, 
within  the  North  Torrid  Zone,  between  4*^  4'  and  20^  8'  north  lati- 
tude and  116^  4'  and  126^  34'  east  longitude  from  the  meridian  of 
Greenwich.  It  is  surrounded  on  th6  north  and  west  by  the  China 
Sea,  on  the  east  by  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  on  the  south  b}^  the  Sea  of 
Celebes.  From  the  extreme  point  of  land  on  the  northeast  to  the  China 
coast  is  a  distance  of  630  kilometers.  The  nearest  land  on  the  north 
is  the  island  of  Formosa,  on  the  east  the  Palaos  Islands,  on  the  south- 
east the  Molucca  Archipelago,  on  the  south  the  island  of  Ceh^bes,  on 
the  southwest  the  island  of  Borneo,  and  on  the  west  Cochin  China. 

The  AYaters  Avhic^i  surround  it  are  very  deep,  not  far  from  the  east 
coast  the  Pacific  being  from  4,000  to  6,000  meters  in  depth.  'Die  Jolo 
Sea,  between  Mindanao  and  flolo,  reac^hes  a  depth  of  4,069  mc^ters,  oil 
the  Celebes  3,750  to  4,755,  and  not  far  from  the  south  coast  of  Min- 
danao the  depth  reaches  5,000  meters;  nevertheless,  the  Philippin(\s 
are  united  to  the  Asiatic  archipelago  at  three  points  whc^'e  the  straits 
tilled  with  islands  reach  ]>ut  little  depth,  namely,  north  of  P>()rneo  by 
the  islands  of  J^alabac  and  Paragua,  on  the  northeast  of  Borneo  by  the 
Jolo  group,  and  on  th<3  northeast  of  Celebes  by  the  islands  of  Sanguir 
and  Talut.  Without  dou!)t,  therefore,  the  whole  of  the  Philippine 
Archipelago  belongs  to  the  same  geographical  region  as  Born(H), 
Sumatra,  Java,  and  the  rest  of  the  islands  of  the  great  Asiatic  archi- 
pelago, and  in  consequence  to  Asia  rather  than  to  Oceania.  Con- 
sidering, therefore,  only  geographical  reasons,  it  is  sufficient  to  note 
the  analogy  which  the  situation  of  the  Sunda  Islands,  the  Celebes,  the 
Moluccas,  and  the  Philippines  ])ear  to  Asia  and  that  which  the  Antilles 
bear  to  America.  The  former  bound  the  interior  China  and  Sunda 
seas,  the  latter  the  Mexican  and  Caribbean  seas,  bathing,  respectively, 
the  Asiatic  and  American  coasts.  According  to  this  analogy,  there- 
fore, if  the  latter  belong  to  America  the  former  belong  to  Asia. 


It  is  believed  that  the  number  of  islands  exceeds  1,400,  although  in 
truth  up  to  the  present  time  no  one  can  state  the  exact  number.  For 
greater  clearness  and  system  in  that  which  is  to  be  said  in  this  paper, 
we  shall  consider  the  archipelago  divided  into  the  following  parts  or 

First.  Luzon  and  the  contiguous  islands.^ 

Second.  The  principal  islands  adjacent  to  Luzon. 

Third.  The  Visayan  Islands  and  those  adjacent  to  them. 

Fourth.  Mindanao  and  the  adjacent  islands. 

^  Spanish- American  Encyclopoedic  Dictionary,  vol.  VIII,  p.  371. 


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Fifth.  The  eTolo  group. 

Sixth.  Paragua,  Dumaran,  and  Balabac,  and  the  islands  adjacent  to 


We  take  the  data  in  regard  to  the  territorial  division,  area,  and 
number  of  inhabitants  from  the  corresponding  volume  of  the  census 
of  the  population  of  Spain,  according  to  the  official  census  made 
December  31,  1887,  and  published  in  1891  by  the  Institute  of  Geogra- 
phy and  Statistics,  conforming  thus  to  the  division  already  given. 
This  data  is  at  the  present  time  but  relative  in  regard  to  the  census. 

Geographical  situation. 

I'roviiioes,  districts,  and 

Cagayan  and  Palani  Islands. . 

Uocos,  north 


Uocos,  south 



Lepanto  a 

Nueva  Vizcaya 






Nueva  Ecija 






Morong  and  Calim 

Infanta  and  adjacent  islands. 

La  Laguna  and  Laguna  dc  Bay 

Tayabas  and  adjacent  islands 

Batangas,  Laguna,  and  adja- 
cent islands 

Ambos  Camarines  and  adja- 
cent islands 

Cavite  and  Corregidor 

Albay,  Catanduanes,  and  ad- 
jacent islands 



Archipelago  of  Batanes  and 

Babuyanes  d 

Mindoro  and  adjacent  islands: 

L^bang,  Bugayao,  Uing, 

MarinduQue,  Semerara, 

Sibay  ana  Caluya 


Masbate  and  Ticao  e 

Archipelago  of   Calamia- 
nes  and  of  Cuyos  d 

Latitude  north. 

From — 


o    / 

o    / 

17  4 
17  () 
17  1 
IG  9 

17  1 
IG  7 
IG  1 
IG  1 
IG  1 

14  7 

15  G 
15  7 
15  2 
15  2 
14  8 
14  G 
14  4 
14  3 
14  2 
14  3 
13  8 
13  2 

18  G 
IG  «; 

17  9 
17  5 
17  4 
17  3 
17  1 
IG  9 
IG  9 
IG  4 
IG  3 
IG  2 
IG  1 
15  8 
15  3 
15  3 
14  9 
14  8 
14  8 
14  7 
14  7 
14  G 

13  G 

14  2 

13  2 

14  G 

14  2 
14  1 

12  8 
12  5 

13  5 
13  2 

18  8 


12  2 
12  7 
11  7 

13  5 
13  2 
12  7 

10  7 

12  3 

Fjougitude  east  of 

120  9 

120  4 

120  4 

120  3 

121  3 
120  9 
120  6 
120  8 
120  2 

120  4 

119  7 

121  2 

120  5 
120  1 
120  3 

120  G 


120  9 

121  2 

121  2 

120  5 

122  2 
120  G 

123  2 
123  8 

120  3 

122  9 

123  1 

119  7 

122  2 

120  9 

121  5 

120  7 

121  9 
121  4 

120  G 

121  1 
121  5 
121  7 
121  G 

122  8 

12:]  9 

124  1 


121  2 

Area  in 

3,  328 
2, 837 

2,  G90 
4, 384 
2, 229 
h 5, 3G3 
2, 208 
2, 9{)5 
2,  G03 
5, 893 

3, 130 


4, 123 

10, 1G7 
6  508 
3, 897 


l*opu  la- 

tion per 
of  i>opu- 

9G, 357 



178, 258 

48, 302 

13, 985 

23, 945 

19, 379 

110, 0G4 

15, 734 

87, 275 

4, 198 

302, 178 


89, 339 

223, 902 

239, 221 

50, 781 


4G, 940 


1G9, 983 

109, 780 

311, 180 


195, 129 
98, 650 

10, 517 

G7, 656 








10.  G 



6. 5 

105. 9 




99. 7 


6  7 


a  We  include  data  in  regard  to  the  comandancia  of  Tiagan,  the  same  in  regard  to  the  ooman- 
dancias  included  in  the  other  provinces. 

b  There  is  probably  an  error  in  these  numbers.  The  number  given  by  Padre  Baranera  is  prob- 
ably more  correct — ^2,277  square  kilometers. 

c  This  number  is  actually  considerably  greater. 

d  Including  all  the  group. 

e  There  must  be  an  error  in  this  number.  We  adopt  the  number  published  in  the  treatise  on 
orography — 720  square  kilometers. 

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Geolog leal  aituatloi i — C( )i i tinned . 

rroviuces,  diHtricts  and 

Tanay  and  adjat;ont  islands: 

Antique  and  Oagayan 

Capiz,Calaguan,  (iigantcs, 

Sicogon  and  ('arabao... 

lloilo,  Gulmanls,  Hampu- 

lugA,n,  Malagaban,  J'an 

de  Azucar,  Cagabanjan, 

Cagu,  etc 

Bohol  and  adjacent  islands 
(Bohol,  Minoco,  Pinigan  or 
Lapinig,  I'anglao  or  Danls, 

Siquijor  or  Inegos) 

Cebii  and  adjacent  islands 
(Cebii,  Bantaydn,  Guinta- 
cjin,     Mactdn,    Malapascua 

and  Olango) 


Sdmar  and  adjacent  islands 
(S^mar,  Balicuatro,  Batag 
Capul,  Dalupirit  or  Puercos, 
Tamonjol  or  Malhon,  Sa- 
guan  or  Lavang  or  Calainu- 
tang,  Mauiconi,  Parasjin, 
Buad  Los  Naranjos  Mesa, 
Cagapula,  and  Limbancau- 


Leyte  and  adjacent  islands 
( Leyte,  Bilirjiii,  ('iilunnagrm , 
Linmsua,  Camotes,  Carnasa, 
Gigantagan,   Maripipi,   I'a- 

naon,  etc.) 

^ombl6n  and  adjacent  islands 
(Ronibl6n,  Banton,  Maestre 
de  Campo,  Sibuyan,  Simara, 
Tablas,  and  adjacent  is- 
lands) 6 

Latitude  north. 



Surigao  and  adjacent  islands 
(Bucos,  Dinagat,  Hinatuan, 
Guipoo,  Siargao,  Sibunga, 
and  various  islands) 

Misamis  and  adpacent  islands 
(Camaguin,  Silina,  and  two 

Zamboanga  and  adjacent  is- 
lands (Malinipa,  Olutanga, 
Santa  Cruz,  Tigtauan,  and 

Cottabato  and  Bongo 

Davao  and  adjacent  islands 
(S^mal,  Malipano,  Talicud, 
Sarangani,  and  various  is- 

Basilan  and  adjacent  islands 
(Basilan  group) 



First  group— Balanguigui 
islands,  7  deserted. 

Second  group— Jolo:   13  is- 
lands, 7  uninhabited 

Third  group  — Recuapons6n: 
8  islands,  almost  all  deserted 

Fourth  group — Panguratdn : 
23  islands,  12  deserted 

Fifth  group— Tagbabas:  14  is- 
lands, deserted 

Sixth  group— Tawitawl:    42 
islands,  30  deserted  c 

Paragua  and  Dumaran 


9    4 
9    1 

6    8 
6    3 

5  6 

6  4 

4    5 

8    3 
7    8 

11    3 
11    0 

11    6 

13    1 

9    8 
9    1 

8    1 
8    0 

7    8 
6    8 

Longitude  east  of 


6    4         119 

11    5 
8    2 

123    3 
122    4 

125    1 
122    2 

121     9 
123    2 

123    9 

117    1 
116    8 

Area  in 

124    G        .  3,628 

124    fy 
123    6 

125    3 

126    6 
125    4 

123    3 
125    2 

126    3 
6     122    3 

121    4 

119    7 
117    1 

6,  582 

9, 976 







13,538  '■ 


194, 8<K) 

221, 9(i5 

504, 076 
rt 242, 433 

185, 386 

270, 491 

34, 828 

f    67,760 





tion per 
of  popu- 





oThe  number  of  inhabitants  is  actually  much  greater— according  to  the  last  oflacial  guide  372,001. 
b  Including  all  the  Islands  of  the  group. 
cSome  reduce  these  six  groups  to  four. 

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In  regard  to  the  number  of  inhabitants,  which,  according  to  the  pre- 
vious statistics,  reaches  5,985,124,  it  is  necessary  to  observe  that  these 
statistics  treat  only  of  the  inhabitants  recorded  in  some  way  or  other 
in  civil  records;  in  the  parochial  records,  verified  by  greater  time,  there 
appears  a  larger  number  than  in  the  civil  census — differences  due  in 
part  to  the  greater  or  less  number  of  omissions,  and  to  the  more  oi-  less 
perfect  knowledge  of  the  number  of  pagans.  It  should  be  taken  into 
account  that  this  includes  the  number  of  inhabitants  in  the  variotis 
islands  and  provinces.  In  an  examination  finished  the  latter  part  of 
1894  it  appears  that  the  population  of  the  various  islands  included 
in  the  general  government  of  the  Philippinc^s  is  formed  as  follows: 

Population  according  to  the  parochial  records (>,  414,  373 

Omissions  and  absentees  (2  per  cent) 1 23,  237 

Clergy 2,  051 

MiUUry 13,  640 

Navy - 3, 459 

C'arbineers  (coast  and  cnstoms  guard) 440 

Civil  guard 3, 561 

Veteran  civil  guard 413 

Inmates  of  asylums 689 

Convicts - 702 


Chinese,  registered  ^ 49,  ()96 

Absentees. 24,  848 

Europeans,  Americans,  and  others 1 ,  000 


Paragua  and  J  olo  Archipelago 1 00,  000 

Mindanao  and  Basilan 209,  000 

Pagans  in  Philippines: 

Subjugated 138, 000 

Independent  tribes 692, 000 

Total 7,  782,  759 

This  number,  however,  seems  to  l)e  very  near  to  the  truth,  even  if 
it  is  reduced  on  account  of  omissions,  al)sentees,  iMoros,  and  pagans,  who 
do  not  appear  in  the  official  census.  There  would  have  been  a  very 
slight  increase  in  the  population  from  1877  to  1894,  but,  as  the  archbishop 
noted  in  1887,  the  preceding  ten  years  were  full  of  calamities  for  the 
Philippines,  so  that  the  total  annual  increase  was  about  eight-tenths  of 
1  per  cent,  and  from  that  time  until  1894,  inclusive,  the  archipelago 
has  likewise  suffered  serious  misfortunes,  among  which  should  be 
recorded  epidemics  of  cholera,  influenza,  and  smallpox.  It  is  to  be 
noted  likewise,  in  regard  to  the  political  civil  divisions  of  Luzon,  that 
in  certain  of  the  provinces  or  districts  mentioned  there  have  recently 
been  formed  politico-military  comandancias,  which  are  briefly  enume- 
rated to  complete  the  list. 


Apayaos,  situated  to  the  north  of  the  province  of  Cagayan  de  Luzon. 
Cabugaoan,  likewise  in  the  north  of  Luzon,  is  situated  to  the  east  of 
the  comandancia  of  Apayaos. 

^  According  to  the  data  in  the  office  of  the  secretary  of  the  archbishop  of  Manila, 
at  the  beginning  of  the  year  1898  the  population  estimated  by  the  parochial  priests 
was  6,559,998,  according  to  which  the  sum  total  would  be  7,928,384. 

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Amburavan,  situated  between  the  districts  of  Beiigiiet,  Tiag-aii, 
l.epaiito,  and  the  provinces  of  South  Ilocos  and  Union. 

Itaves,  ])etween  the  provinces  of  Cagayan  and  Isabela. 

Binatangan,  on  the  east  (^oastof  the  Island  of  Luzon,  between  Isabela 
and  the  district  of  Principe. 

Saltan,  in  the  province  of  Isabehi. 

Llavac.  likewise  in  the  province  of  Isa))ela. 

Caya])a,  (treated  in  181)1,  in  thc^.  island  of  Ijuzou,  nc^ar  tlu^  River  Am- 
])ayan,  near  the  provinces  of  Nueva  Viscaya. 

Quiaiigan,  just  to  the  west  of  Li^panto. 

T\w  area  of  thes(>  coniandancias,  and  the  niunber  of  inhabitants 
inclu(kHl  in  the  area,  are  included  in  the  pi-ovinces  or  districts  in  which 
they  ai'(^  foiuid. 

We  shall  now  take  u\)  the  choroo;ra])hy  of.  each  of  tlu^  aforementioned 
islands,  pro\  inces,  and  districts,  allowitio-  tlu^n  space  proportionally  to 
their  iinportanci^;  o'ivino-,  tirst,  a  general  description  of  the  island,  its 
o'eogiapliical  situation,  its  area,  and  treatino'  brietly  the  nuni])er  and 
chara(  t(M'  of  its  iidiabitaiits  and  its  politico-civil  division  into  provinc(^s, 
districts,  and  comandaiicias:  afterwards,  if  tlie  island  is  a  laro\^  one, 
Ave  shall  divide  it  into  various  re,i>'ions,  discussing"  tliese  individually, 
be^innino-  with  those  found  farthest  to  the  north,  and  continuino- 
to  follow  this  plan  accoi'dinu  to  the  atlas  of  the  Fhilippiiuvs.  We 
shall  leaA'c  out  hydrooraphic  and  orooraphic  descriptions,  which  the 
reach^r  will  iind  in  thv  papers  on  hydrography  and  orography,  con- 
fining ourselves  especially  to  what  may  be  called  the  politico-civil  cho- 
rography,  without  omitting  the  data,  and  physical  geography,  which  is 
not  especially  discussed  in  the  other  ])apers.  such  as  the  g(M:)graph- 
ical  situations,  dial(H*ts,  or  languages  of  the  inhabitants,  industries  and 
products  of  the  ditl'erent  islands  of  the  ])rovinces. 

M 1LI1  AK Y    ( ) K(; AMZ A^J^ION . 


Th(^  army  of  the  Philippines  was  com])osed  of  infantry,  cav^alry, 
artillery,  engineers,  the  civil  guard,  and  the  coast  guard.  There 
existed  also  the  exinaitive  branches  of  the  sanitary  and  veterinar}^ 
de])artments  of  e(|uitation,  the  auxiliaries  of  the  military  offic^es,  and 
tlu^  military  clergy.  For  the  organization  and  control  of  these  forces 
there  were  a  captain-genei'al  and  various  d(»])artments,  as  follows: 
Infantry,  cavalry,  c\\\\  guard,  artillery,  engiiunu's,  and  that  of  army 
sanitation,  togetluM*  with  an  administrative  body  from  the  army,  and 
military  clergy.  At  the  beginning  of  the  yc^ar  l.SJKS  there  existed  the 
following  divisions  of  operations:  Mindanao,  under  the  command  of  a 
general  of  division,  the  brigades  Iligan  and  Jolo,  the  general  coman- 
dancia  of  Manila  and  Moi'ong,  and  that  of  Laguna  and  Batangas,  that 
of  Cavite,  and  various  flying  coliunns  which  operated  in  other  parts  of 
the  archipelago,  commanded  by  generals  of  brigades  or  by  colonels. 

GENEltAr.    ()H(JAN]ZATION    OF   TflE    NAVY. 

The  naval  forces  of  the  archipelago  comprised  the  naval  station  and 
a  squadi'on.  The  immediate  commander  of  both  of  these  was  the  gen- 
eral connnandant  of  the  dockyard  and  fleet,  a  position  held  by  a  rear- 


Hosted  by 



admiral  of  the  navy.  The  naval  station  and  its  various  branches  and 
departments  assumed  direction  of  all  affairs  of  this  branch.  The  fleet 
had  charge  of  the  inspection,  vigilance,  and  defense  of  the  waters  and 
coasts  of  the  islands.  The  archipelago  was  divided  into  naval  districts, 
at  the  head  of  which  there  was  a  commandant  of  varying  rank,  accord- 
ing to  the  importance  of  the  district,  who  exercised  at  the  same  time 
the  duties  of  harbor  master  of  the  most  important  port  in  his  jurisdic- 
tion. The  naval  station  included  all  necessary  branches,  with  an 
arsenal  established  at  Cavite,  another  in  construction  at  Subig  (Olon- 
gapo),  a  dry  dock  in  Isabela  de  Basilan,  and  a  dock  at  PoUok  equipped 
with  the  necessary  machine  shops.  The  command  of  the  naval  station 
of  the  Philippines  was  held  by  a  rear-admiral  of  the  navy,  who  had 
at  his  order  a  general  staff  for  the  naval  districts  and  one  for  the  fleet. 
The  next  in  command  of  the  naval  station  was  a  captain  of  the  navy  of 
the  first  class,  who  was  at  the  same  time  commandant  of  the  arsenal  at 
Cavite.  The  commandant  was  assisted  by  a  captain  of  the  navy  of  the 
economic  board,  composed  of  the  leading  officers  of  each  branch,  and 
the  auditor's  department,  whic^h  assisted  in  all  matters  of  justice. 


The  general  board  of  the  navy,  composed  of  chiefs  and  oflicers  who 
exercised  command  either  in  the  naval  station  or  on  ships  of  the  fleet; 
the  engineering  corps  of  the  navy,  represented  by  a  chief  engineer 
and  two  other  officers  of  that  body ;  the  corps  of  the  artillery  of  the  navy, 
in  command  of  a  commandant  or  lieutenant-colonel;  the  administrative 
board,  composed  of  a  deputy  of  the  navy,  the  comptroller,  and  the 
accountants  of  the  navy;  the  marine  infantry,  commanded  by  a 
lieutenant-colonel,  composed  of  disembarking  forces  and  companies; 
arsenal  guards;  the  sanitary  department  of  the  navy,  at  the  head  of  which 
there  was  a  subinspector  of  the  first  class;  the  ecclesiastical  corps  of 
the  navy;  the  judge-advocate's  corps  of  the  navy,  which  was  formed 
of  the  auditor  and  the  attorney  and  four  assistants;  the  naval  forces, 
composed  of  the  ships'  fleet,  the  comandancias  of  the  navy,  which  were 
those  of  Manila  and  Iloilo,  and  depending  upon  those  the  districts  of 
Pangasinan,  Ilocos,  Aparri,  Marianas,  the  Caroline  Islands,  and  Leyte, 
and  the  comandancia  of  the  naval  division  of  the  south,  and  depending 
upon  these  the  divisions  and  districts  of  Mindanao  and  Isabela. 


The  fleet  was  composed  of  the  following  vessels: 

Two  cruisers  of  the  first  class — the  Reina  Cristina  and  the  Costilla, 

Two  protected  cruisers  of  the  second  class — Isla  de  Luzon  and  Isla 
de  Cvba. 

Three  cruisers  of  the  second  class — the  Velasco^  the  Don  Jvxin  de 
Austria,^  and  the  Don  Antonio  de  Ulloa, 

Three  cruisers  of  the  third  class — Ma/rques  del  Duero^  Elcano^  and 
General  Lezo, 

Two  gunboats  of  the  first  class — Quiros  and  Villalobos. 

Three  transports — Mam^ila^  Oebu^  and  General  Alava. 

One  steamer  of  the  hydrographic  commission — the  Argos, 

Thirteen  gunboats  of  the  second  class —  Calamiam^s^  Parag^ta^  Sama/r^ 
Leyte^  Dvlusan^  Mariveles^  Arayat^  Pampanga^  Albay^  Manileno^ 
IBndoro^  Pana/y,,  Callao^  and  Mindanao, 

Hosted  by 



Four  gunboats  of  the  third  class — Otalora^  Urdaneta^  Basco^  and 

Four  armed  steam  launches — Qyrcuera^  Almonte^  Lanao^  and  General 

One  tug — Rdpido, 

Three  steam  launches  and  two  others  for  the  exclusive  use  of  the 
conunander  in  chief  and  the  arsenal  of  Cavite,  without  counting  those 
which  were  at  Yap  and  at  Isabela  de  Basilan. 

The  marine  infantry  force  of  the  station  was  as  follows: 

A  colonel  (subinspector),  a  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  first  class,  and 
the  other  chiefs  and  officers  who  formed  the  second  battalion  of  the 
tirst  regiment  of  this  archipelago;  also  the  company  of  arsenal  guards 
who  garrisoned  Cavite  and  Subig. 

P  C — VOL  3 — 01 2 

Hosted  by 




Luzon,  the  largest  and  most  northern  of  the  islands  of  the  Philip- 
pine Archipelago,  is  situated  between  latitude  V2^  82'  and  18"^  39'  north 
and  longitude  11 9"^  42'  and  124°  8'  east  from  Greenwich.  In  form  it  is 
very  irregular,  elongated  fi'om  north  to  south  and  southeast,  much 
wider  at  the  north  than  at  the  south.  It  narrows  very  much  at  14°  30'. 
where  the  Bay  of  Manila  is  situated;  and  very  much  more  at  14°,  where 
a  narrow  isthmus  unites  the  larger  and  western  part  of  the  island  witl 
the  eastern. 


The  coast  of  Luzon  ^  presents  a  great  number  of  irregularities. 
There  is  near  the  center  and  on  the  south,  where  there  are  large  bays, 
excellent  ports  and  harbors.  From  Point  Negra,  at  the  extreme  north- 
west of  the  island,  the  const  extends  southwest  to  Cape  Bojeador;  it 
then  turns  to  the  south  southeast  and  south  southwest,  and  continues 
in  this  direction  as  far  as  Point  Dile.  In  all  of  this  part,  of  approxi- 
mately 1°— Cape  Bojeador  being  18  30'  and  Point  Dile  being  17°  34' — 
is  found  the  Bay  of  Dirique,  the  ])ar  of  Cauit,  Point  Culili,  Port  Cur- 
rimao,  the  Gulf  of  (ian,  the  island  of  Badoc,  and  Point  Solot,  all 
belonging  to  the  coast  of  the  province  of  North  llocos.  The  island  and 
port  of  Salomague  and  the  island  of  Pinget  belong  to  the  coast  of  the 
province  of  South  llocos. 

At  Point  Dile  the  coast  begins  to  form  a  curve  toward  the  east,  in 
which  are  the  I)ay  of  Sol  bet  and  ports  San  Estaban  and  Santiago. 
The  coast  contiiuKvs  toward  the  south  with  a  slight  deviation  as  far  as 
Point  Darigayos  almost  in  the  same  meridian  as  Point  Dile. 

Before  reaching  Darigayos,  at  th(^.  mouth  of  the  river  Am])urayan^ 
the  province  of  South  llocos  c^ids  and  that  of  Union  begins  and 
extends  almost  in  a  straight  line  to  the  south,  with  a  slight  inclination 
toward  the  west,  terminating  at  Point  San  Fernando.  Here  the  east- 
ern coast  of  the  (iulf  of  Lingayen  begins.  Toward  the  eastern  end 
of  this  gulf,  and  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  Kabong,  the  province 
of  Pangasinan  begins.  The  provincial  boundary  between  Pangasinan 
and  Zam bales  starts  opposite  the  island  of  Cabalitian .  From  the  vicinity 
of  the  island  of  Santiago  or  Purra  the  coast  advances  to  the  west  and 
southwest,  forming  Cape  Bolinao,  and  then  continues  toward  the  south 
without  other  notable  varration  than  Point  Arenas,  the  Bay  of  Agno,  and 
Point  Tambobo.  At  Point  Caiman,  somewhat  to  the  south  of  the  six- 
teenth parallel,  and  fronting  Cuelbra  Island  it  turns  to  the  east  to  form 
the  Bay  of  Dazol,  on  whose  coast  are  seen  points  Bayamban,  Banop, 

^  Encyclopedic  Dictionary,  Spanish  and  English,  Vol.  XI. 

Hosted  by 



and  Santa  Cruz,  in  front  of  the  islands  Older  and  Younger  Sisters. 
South  of  the  shoal  of  Sabalay  are  Points  Arenas  and  Bani,  Port 
Masinfoe,  the  San  Salvador  and  Macalabo  Islands,  and  the  points  and 
reefs  of  Palaing.  From  here  it  inclines  to  the  southeast  and  south - 
southeast  as  far  as  the  mountainous  peninsula  which  is  hemmed  in  on 
the  west  by  the  Capones,  Tabones,  and  Frail(\s  Islands,  which  likewise 
includes  on  the  west  the  Port  of  Subi^r.  On  the  southeast  of  this  pen- 
insula is  the  Port  of  Silanguin. 

Within  the  port  of  Subig  is  Alongapo,  where  the  province  of 
Bataan  begins,  forming,  with  the  peninsula  which  limits  it  on  the  west, 
the  Bay  of  Manila,  whose  coasts  belong  to  the  provinces  of  Bataan, 
Pampanga,  Bulacan,  Manila,  and  Cavite. ,  Leaving  the  Bay  of  Manila, 
toward  the  south  is  found  the  Gulf  of  Patungan,  witli  thc^.  Carabao 
and  Limbones  Islands.  At  the  head  -of  this  bay  the  provinc^^  of 
Batangas  begins.  Farther  to  the  south  Port  Jameto,  Point  Fuego, 
Fortun  Island,  Point  San  Diego,  Talin,  and  Cape  Santiago  an*  found. 
Fi-om  this  point,  about  18^  45'  north  latitude,  the  southern  coast  of 
Luzon  presents  the  Gulf  of  Papagas,  the  I^ay  of  Balayan,  Point 
Cazador,  the  island  of  Marica])an,  the  Bay  of  Batangas,  Points  Malocot, 
Arenas,  Talajib,  Rosario,  Malabrigo,  Puno,  Malagundi,  and  Locoloco, 
and  the  little  Gulf  of  Coloconto.  At  Point  Puna  tlu^  coast  turns 
toward  north-northeast,  and  east  to  form  the  gi'eat  Gulf  of  Tayabas. 
At  the  north  of  San  Juan  de  Bog])og,  at  the  bar  of  Nay  on,  the*,  coast 
of  the  province  of  Tayabas  begins.  From  here  it  stretch (\s  to  the 
southeast  and  south,  and  Point  Tuguian,  the  Bay  of  Catananan,  the 
island  of  Mompog,  the  Port  of  Mulanay,  the  (julf  of  Agoin,  Aguasa 
Bay,  and  Point  Bondog,  this  being  the  extreme  southcM'ii  point  of  the 
great  peninsula  which  bounds  the  Bay  of  Ragay  on  the  west,  at  which 
point  to  the  north  and  east  the  coast  of  Tayabas  ends  and  that  of 
South  Camarines  begins.  The  eastern  coast  of  this  bay  advances  to 
the  south  nearly  to  the  thii'teenth  parallel  at  Point  Cad ouranan,  where 
to  the  noi'th,  and  not  far  from  Point  Talo,  is  the  boundary  between 
South  Camarines  and  Albay.  After  (lou})ling  this  point,  Cadburanan, 
called  also  Point  Panganiran,  the  coast  extends  to  the  east  and  south- 
east and  forms  an  irregular  peninsula,  whose  southern  end  is  the 
extreme  southern  point  of  the  island,  12^  82'. 

Along  this  coast  are  the  islands  of  Lanmyon  and  Solitario,  the  prom- 
ontory of  (yatandalan,  the  port  of  Putiao,  the  great  port  of  Sorsogon, 
and  s(weral  small  bays.  Doubling  Points  Langao  and  Babulgan,  in  the 
Strait  of  San  Bernardino,  the  eastern  coast  of  Luzon  ])egins.  The 
islands  of  (3alinton,  laac,  and  Tictin  are  first  seen,  and  to  the  north 
the  prominent  point  of  Binorongan  and  others,  as  far  as  Bingay, 
where  the  coast  turns  to  the  west  to  form  the  Bay  of  Albay,  shut  in  on 
the  north  by  the  islands  of  Rapu-Rapu,  Batan,  and  Cacraray.  This, 
with  the  island  of  San  Miguel  and  the  coast  north  of  the  peninsula, 
which  bounds  the  northern  part  of  this  bay,  forms  the  Bay  of  Tobaco. 
Again  the  coast  takes  a  direction  north  and  northwest,  and  at  Punta 
Gorda,  somewhat  to  the  south  of  the  island  of  Atalayan,  is  the  eastern 
boundary  of  the  provinces  of  Albay  and  South  Camarines.  The  coast 
then  turns  in  a  semicircle  to  form  the  Bay  of  Lagonoy  and  continues 
to  the  east  as  far  as  the  Straits  of  Maqueda  and  Tacbun,  where  the 
Bay  of  Lugon  and  the  Canaguan  Islands  are  seen. 

At  Point  Panahonga,  near  the  Pitogo  Islands,  the  coast  inclines 
toward  the  west  and  continues  in  this  direction  of  west-northwest,  with 

Hosted  by 



great  irregularities,  as  far  as  the  Bay  of  Lamon.  Along  this  distance 
are  curved  successively  the  islands  of  Matatarad,  Lanquipao,  Luesu- 
hin,  Lahuy,  and  Quinabugan,  Point  Tinajuagan,  the  port  of  Sisiran, 
the  islands  of  Quinalasag,  Bacacay,  Lamit,  Sibanan,  and  Paniqui,  the 
Point  and  port  of  Tanibang,  Point  Quinabucasan,  the  islands  of  Siruna, 
Canton,  Caringo,  Camino,  and  others,  at  the  entrance  to  the  great 
Bay  of  San  Miguel.  Along  the  western  coast  of  this  bay  is  the  bound- 
ary between  North  and  South  Camarines  and  the  island  of  Quinama- 
nucan,  the  Calagnas  Islands,  Cape  Baluagan,  and  Point  Pinagdungan, 
Paranquiran,  and  Tailon,  Pulunibato  and  I'unco  islands,  the  Bay  of 
Mambulao,  and  various  small  islands;  also  the  island  of  Jaulo  and  the 
Bay  of  Sugot,  at  the  head  of  which  is  the  boundary  ])etween  North 
Camarines  and  Tayabas.  Much  to  the  north  are  the  island  of  elomalig, 
the  peninsula  which  terminates  in  Point  Dappal,  the  Balegin,  Pasig, 
and  Alabat  islands,  and  the  Bay  of  Apal. 

From  the  bay  of  Lamon,  fronting  the  island  of  Calbalete,  the  coast 
of  Luzon  continues  from  south  to  north  with  some  inclination  to  north 
northeast.  It  is  tlu^  least  known  of  any  part  of  the  island.  Its  coast 
line  corresponds  to  the  district  or  province  of  Infanta,  and  the  most 
notable  features  of  it  are  the  royal  port  of  Lampon  and  Point  Inagui- 
can,  fronting  the  southern  part  of  the  island  of  Polillo.  Passing  the 
northern  boundary  of  Infanta,  along  the  coast  of  Nueva  Ecija,  the  Bay 
of  Dingala  is  found;  to  the  north  of  which,  not  far  from  Point  Sua,  the 
province  of  Principe  begins.  Here  the  coast  begins  to  incline  more 
to  the  northeast,  and  along  it  are  seen  Point  Diotoring,  the  Bay  of 
Dibut,  Point  Encanto,  the  Bay  of  Baler,  the  Bay  of  Casiguran,  and 
the  strait  and  long  peninsula  which  terminate  with  the  cape  of  San 

Somewhat  to  the  north  of  this  peninsula  the  coast  of  the  province 
of  Isabela  begins.  Here  are  seen  the  i^ay  of  Uilasac,  or  port  of 
Tumango,  and  the  Bay  of  Palanan.  After  describing  the  curve 
which  forms  this  bay  it  goes  almost  due  north,  interrupted  only  by 
the  small  peninsula  of  Point  Aubarade.  Doubling  quickly  to  the 
northwest  and  west,  it  forms  the  port  of  Dunalanson  and  the  Bay  of 
Divilican,  and  again  takes  the  direction  north  and  north  northwest  as 
far  as  17^  8(y  north  latitude,  whi^re  the  province  of  Isabela  ends  and 
Cagayan  begins.  Without  notable  variation  it  passes  latitude  18, 
turns  to  the  northeast  to  form  a  curve,  and  takes  a  westerly  direction 
at  Point  Escarpada.  On  the  coast  of  North  Luzon,  from  this  point, 
are  passed  the  island  of  Palani  and  Cape  Engano,  forming  a  great  bay 
or  curve  towards  the  south,  where  the  mouth  of  the  river  Cagayan  is, 
and  further  to  the-  northwest  the  mouth  of  the  river  Pamplona  is 
seen.  It  continues  to  the  northeast  as  far  as  Point  Cabiumgan,  and 
at  that  point  to  Mayraira,  farther  to  the  west,  which  are  the  most 
northern  points  of  Luzon.  Between  these  two  points,  somewhat 
nearer  the  former,  is  the  boundary  between  Cagayan  and  North  Ilo- 
cos.  Farther  on,  between  points  Dialao  and  Negra.  is  seen  the  Bay 
of  Bangui. 


The  total  area,  including  the  nearest  adjacent  islands,  is  106,631 
square  kilometers,  and  the  number  of  inhabitants  3,432,424,  according 
to  the  table  which  will  be  seen  in  the  introduction. 

Hosted  by 





The  north  of  Luzon  includes  the  provinces  of  Cagayan,  near  to 
the  island  of  Palani,  and  the  comandancias  of  Apayaos,  Cabagaoan, 
and  Itaves;  North  Ilocos  and  South  Ilocos,  with  the  comandancias  of 
Amburayan  and  Tiagan;  Abra,  with  the  comandancia  of  Bontoc;  Isa- 
bela,  with  the  comandancias  of  Saltan  and  Lavac;  Lepanto,  with  the 
comandancia  of  Quiangan;  Union,  Benguet,  Nueva  Viscaya,  with  the 
comandancia  of  Cayapa;  and  the  district  of  Principe,  with  the  c^oman- 
dancia  of  Binatangan.  These  provinces  and  districts,  marked  out  on 
map  No.  7  of  the  atlas  of  the  Philippines,  constitute  the  subject- 
matter  of  Chapter  II. 

CENTER    OF    LUZON    (a)  . 

Includes  the  provinces  of  Zambales,  Pangasinan,  Nueva  Ecija, 
Tarlac,  Pampanga,  Bulacan,  and  the  district  of  Infanta,  near  to  the 
island  of  Polillo.  They  are  included  in  maps  Nos.  8  and  12  of  the  atlas 
of  the  Philippines  and  are  discussed  in  Chapter  III. 

(CENTER    OF    LUZON    (b)  . 

Includes  the  provinces  of  Bataan,  Manila,  Cavite,  Morong,  Laguna, 
and  Batangas,  and  are  indicated  in  map  No.  9  and  discussed  in  Chap- 
ter IV. 

SOUTH    OF    LUZON    (a)  . 

Includes  the  provinces  of  Tayabas  and  North  Camarines,  shown  in 
map  No.  10  and  described  in  Chapter  V. 

SOUTH    OF    LUZON    (b)  . 

Includes  the  provinces  of  South  Camarines,  Albay,  and  Sorsogon, 
indicated  in  map  No.  11  and  described  in  Chapter  V. 


In  the  discussion  of  each  one  of  the  groups  of  provinces  something 
is  said  of  the  nearest  islands,  leaving  to  Chapter  VI  the  full  discussion 
of  the  so-called  ''adjacent  islands,"  which  are,  in  the  order  of  their 
situation  from  north  to  south,  the  Batanes  and  Babuyanes  Groups, 
Mindoro  and  its  adjacent  islands,  Burias,  Masbate  and  Ticao,  the 
Calamianes  Group,  and  Cuyos  Group.  Of  the  races  which  inhabit  these 
islands  and  their  languages  brief  mention  will  be  made  in  the  discus- 
sion of  the  various  provinces,  but  only  by  way  of  description,  with- 
out taking  up  philological  or  other  considerations,  which  the  reader 
will  hnd  in  Paper  7,  where  the  ethnology  of  the  Filipinos  is  treated 
in  full.  As  the  products  of  these  islands  are  so  varied,  as  also  the 
industry  and  commerce  of  the  various  provinces,  these  points  will  be 
touched  upon  in  the  description  of  each  separate  province,  the  reader 
being  refeiTed  to  the  special  paper-  on  the  commerce  and  industries  of 
the  Philippines,  Paper  II. 

Hosted  by 




[Map  No.  7  (>r  the  atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 



This  province  is  v^ery  large  and  rich,  and  is  one  of  the  oldest  in  the 
archipelago.  On  the  north  it  is  bathed  by  the  China  Sea,  })()unded  on 
the  south  by  Isabela,  on  the  east  by  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  on  the  west 
l)y  Itaves  and  Apayaos  and  North  Ilocos.  The  country  is  broken  with 
high  mountains  covered  with  vt^getation.  Between  the  low  mountains 
and  the  elevated  chains  there  are  extensive  but  irregidar  valleys,  with 
calcareous  and  c-^iy  or  granite^  soil.  There  are  about  iifty  rivers  and 
creeks,  which  water  th(>se  valleys.  There  is  a  notaT)le  grotto  in  the 
island  of  Quira. 


The  area  of  this  province  is  13,9()8  scpiare  kilometers.  Thc^  inhabit- 
ants iuun])er  1)(),8^)T.  The  province  is  inhabited  })v  various  races,  the 
pagans  usually  occupying  the  mountains  and  the  more  inaccessibk> 
coast  of  the  Pacific.  The  Aetas,  or  Negrito  race,  inhabit  the  eastern 
chain  of  the  Sierra  Madre  Mountains  on  the  Pacific  side.  The  Irayas 
occupy  the  western  side  of  this  chain.  The  (xadanes  occupy  the 
country  1)etween  the  Chico  and  Magat  rivers.  The  Calingas^  are 
found  between  the  Kio  (Irande  and  the  Apayao  River  and  Mount 
Abulug.  The  Apayaos  are  found  in  the  great  central  chain  of  Luzon; 
the  Itaves  toward  the  south  of  the  province.  The  Calanas,  Naba- 
guyanes,  Catalanganes,  Itetapanes,  and  I^ayadas  are  found  in  the 
mountain  regions.  The  (xumaanes  live  in  the  highest  mountains 
between  Abra  and  Cagayan.  T'he  Christian  natives  are  called  Caga- 
yanes.  A  certain  number  of  immigrants  from  Ilocos  are  also  found. 
Many  of  the  civilized  inhabitants  are  descendants  of  this  race;  others 
come  from  other  races  and  provinces  of  the  archipelago,  and  consti- 
tute, with  the  Cagayanes,  the  nucleus  of  the  population  of  the  towns. 
The  natives  are  pacific  and  afi'able,  and  are  considerate  of  their  guests. 

The  capital  is  Tuguegarao,  situated  near  the  Rio  Grande,  toward  the 
south  of  the  province,  and  numbers  17,358  inhabitants.  The  church  and 
government  houses  are  of  stone,  and  the  public  scjuare  is  one  of  the 
largest  in  the  entire  archipelago.     The  principal  town  is  Aparri,  with  a 

^Calinga  in  the  Ibanag  language  means  ''enemy,"  and  is  applied  at  times  to  the 
savages  of  the  valley  of  the  Rio  Grande  de  (Cagayan.     This  word  is  usually  used 
to  indicate  the  pagans,  who  inhabit  this  zone. 

Hosted  by 



population  of  11,665,  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the  Rio  Grande,  the  port 
of  which  is  very  shallow,  and  only  small  steamers  can  enter  the  mouth 
of  the  river  with  safety  during  the  months  from  Novemhc^r  to  January. 
From  Aparri,  going  up  the  riv^er,  the  following  towns  are  successively 
encountered:  Camalanigan,  with  a  population  of  5,171;  Lal-lo,  which 
formerly  was  the  P]piscopal  see  of  Nueva  Segovia,  with  5,707  inhabit- 
ants; Gattaran,  with  2, .'AS  inhabitants;  Nassiping,  with  885;  Aicala, 
with  6,087;  Amulung,  v^jth  6,498,  and  Iguig,  with  4j)It>.  All  of 
these  towns  arc^,  found  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  ri\'(vr.  On  the  west- 
ern side,  almost  in  the  southern  limit  of  the  proA  ince,  is  found  the 
town  of  Enrile,  with  a  population  of  6,000.  To  the  north  of  Enrile  is 
Solana,  with  a  population  of  5,000,  andTuao,  on  the  })anks  of  the  River 
Chico,  with  a  population  of  •1:,025.  Toward  tiie  north  thc^  towns  of 
greatest  importance  are  Pamplona,  with  8,4+1  inhabitants,  and  Cla- 
veria,  with  about  2,000.  The  total  numb^M*  of  towns  is  22,  there  being 
also  180  villages  or  hamlets  and  148  hamh^ts  of  subjugated  intidels. 

In  the  vi(^inity  of  Tuguegarao,  Ibanag  is  commonly  spokiui.  T'he 
people  of  the  town  its(4f  speak  Itaves,  and  the  Negritos  spends  Idayan, 
or  Acta.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  from  4'uguegarao,  in  the 
vicinity  of  P]nrile,  the  Gaddane  language  is  spoken.  In  Aicala,  as  most 
of  the  families  constituting  the  population  have  inuuigrated  from 
Tlocos,  the  Ilocos  language  is  spoken  almost  exclusively.  In  the  north 
and  on  the  eastern  bank  of  the  Rio  Grande.  Ibanag  is  generally 
spoken,  and  is  considered  to  be  the  language^  of  the  most  cultivated 
people,  and  is  the  same  as  the  Gagayan,  which  is  spoken  in  many  parts 
of  the  province.  In  the  hamlets  on  the  west(M*n  side  of  the  river, 
Itaves,  Apayao,  and  Mandayo  are  spoken,  and  Maiudeg  is  spoken  in 
the  southern  part. 


The  principal  and  most  valuable  product  is  to})acco,  of  which  800,000 
bales,  valued  at  more  than  $1,000,000,  are  aniuially  exported.  The 
best  quality  is  produced  in  the  vicinity  of  Itaves,  where  there  still 
remain  large  uncultivated  areas,  whose  cultivation  could  easily  double 
the  production  of  this  valuable  commodit3\  There  are  most  excellent 
woods,  but  on  account  of  the  bi'oken  and  mountainous  character  of 
the  country  they  are  difficult  to  obtain.  The  natives  take  a  certain 
amount  to  the  towns,  dragging  it  along  with  carabaos  as  far  as  the 
rivers  or  creeks,  from  whence  it  is  taken  down  in  rafts  or  baranga- 
yanes.^  The  principal  kinds  are  camalayad,  brenga,  })amalalian,  and 
alin,  which  is  employed  in  the  construction  of  small  boats,  molave, 
ipil,  narra,  camagon,  cedro,  ebano,  palo-maria,  and  others,  which  are 
eiriployed  in  the  construction  of  houses  and  furniture.  In  addition  to 
tobacco,  rice,  corn,  and  nipa  are  cultivated.  It  is,  however,  necessary 
to  import  rice  and  other  food  stuffs,  because  that  raised  is  not  suf- 
ficient to   maintain  the  inhabitants.     The  industries  are  represented 

^  See  plate  1,  which  represents  a  pontoon  bridge  over  the  river  Tinacanacian,  on 
the  plantation  of  San  Antonio.  We  are  indebted  for  this  photograph  and  others  in 
this  chapter  to  the  kindness  of  Don  Arnando  Villenier,  chief  of  the  Compania  General 
de  Tobacos  de  Filipinas. 

Hosted  by 



by  blacksmith  and  carpenter  shops;  distilleries  for  the  distillation 
of  wine  from  nipa;  fisheries;  salt-making  establishments;  rice  mills; 
and  a  few  ordinary  looms  for  the  weavin^^  of  fabrics,  which  are  used 
in  the  manufacture  of  clothing  and  the  manufacture  of  mats  from 
buri.  There  are  in  the  province  about  80,000  head  of  live  stock,  of 
which  32,000  are  carabaos,  21,000  cattle,  14,000  hogs,  and  13,000 
horses.  Some  stone  quarries  are  worked,  and  it  is  said  that  there  are 
copper  mines  in  the  volcanic  chain  of  Magnipit. 

The  roads  which  lead  from  Tuguegarao  to  Cabagan,  in  Isabela;  from 
Llao  to  Aparri;  from  Llao  to  Alcala  and  to  Tuguegarao;  from  Tugue- 
garao to  Carig;  from  Tuao  to  Piat,  and  from  Piat  to  Tabang  are  always 
in  good  condition  and  permit  of  the  passage  of  carriages.  Those 
which  unite  the  other  towns  with  each  other  can  be  used  only  by 
horses.  These  paths  and  roads  are  impassable  during  the  rainy  sea- 
son.    Rivers  are  crossed  by  means  of  bridges  of  balsas  or  rafts. 


The  island  of  Palani,  separated  from  the  northeastern  extremity  of 
Cagayan  by  a  narrow  strait,  is  of  medium  height  and  with  very  rugged 
coasts;  it  is  about  5  miles  long  from  north  to  south  and  2^  miles  wide. 
Cape  Engano,  formed  by  its  northeastern  extremity,  is  of  medium 
elevation,  and  its  southern  point,  which  is  at  the  same  time  the  point 
west  of  Point  San  Vicente,  is  an  elevated  and  rounded  mountain. 
The  point  which  forms  Cape  Engano  has  in  front  a  short  coral  reef, 
from  which  are  visible  two  rocks  called  the  ''Two  Sisters."  The  larger 
and  most  northern  of  these  is  about  one-quarter  of  a  mile  wide  and 
about  one-half  mile  from  the  cape.  The  coast  to  the  west  of  the 
island  is  rugged  and  inaccessible  to  the  point.  To  the  northeast  are 
two  islands,  the  largest  and  most  distant  being  called  the  Isla  del  Cabo, 
or  BigLaja,  and  which  is  an  inaccessible  square  of  lava,  approximately 
one-half  mile  long,  and  can  be  seen  at  a  distance  of  27  miles.  The 
water  in  sight  of  this  island  is  from  15  to  20  meters  deep.  There  is 
at  Cape  Engano  a  light-house  of  the  first  class,  showing  groups  of 
white  lights. 


This  politico-military  comandancia,  situated  on  the  eastern  side  of 
the  grand  central  chain  of  mountains  of  the  north,  is  bounded  on  the 
north  by  Claveria,  Pamplona,  and  Abulug;  on  the  east  by  Llao  and 
Gattaran,  as  far  as  the  junction  of  the  Kio  Chico  with  the  Cagayan 
River;  on  the  south  by  the  left  bank  of  the  Rio  Chico,  and  on  the 
west  by  the  slopes  of  the  grand  mountain  chain  of  the  north.  The 
population  is  about  16,000,  and  includes  about  40  villages.  The  prin- 
cipal towns  are  Fotol  and  Capinatan. 


The  plitico-military  comandancia  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the 
towns  of  Pamplona,  Claveria,  and  Abulug;  on  the  east  by  the  coman- 
dancia of  Apayaos;  on  the  south  by  Abra,  and  on  the  west  by  North 

Hosted  by 




This  politico-military  comandancia,  organized  in  1889,  is  bounded  on 
the  north  by  the  legal  limits  of  the  Apayaos  tribe,  and  on  the  east  by 
the  limits  of  the  towns  of  Reina  Mercedes,  Gamu,  Ilagan,  Hacienda 
de  Santa  Isabel,  Fumanin,  Cabagan  Nueva,  and  Viejo,  Santa  Maria, 
p]nrik>,  Solana,  Fuao,  Piat,  and  Manaleg  in  its  western  mountains, 
which  join  with  the  Apayaos  tribe  on  the  south  at  the  legal  boundary, 
along  the  watershed  north  of  the  mountains  of  Bunginan,  on  the  west 
by  the  boundaries  of  the  provinces  of  Albay  and  Bontoc.  It  contains 
more  than  15,000  inhabitants.  The  principal  town  is  Magogao. 
There  are  in  Itaves  more  than  126  villages,  formed  for  the  most  part 
by  the  Calanas,  who  speak  the  Itaves  language.^ 


This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by  the  China  Sea,  on 
the  south  by  South  Ilocos,  on  the  east  by  the  central  mountain  chain, 
as  far  as  its  termination  at  the  China  Sea,  which  separates  it  from 
Gagayan  and  from  Abra.  Its  greatest  length  from  north  to  south  is  19 
leagues.  The  country  is  mountainous  and  much  broken,  with  excel- 
lent and  varied  vegetation. 


The  area  of  this  province  is  3,324  square  kilometers,  inhabited  by 
some  163,349  persons,  according  to  the  civil  census.  A  certain  nuni- 
ber  of  the  Apayaos  tribe,  Tinguianes,  and  Igorrotes  also  inhabit  this 
province,  but  the  majority  of  the  population  is  composed  of  Indians, 
called  Ilocanos. 


Laoag,  which  means  "clearness,"  because  the  sky  and  atmosphere 
are  always  clear,  is  the  capital,  has  a  population  of  28,122,  and  extends 
for  about  3  miles  along  the  seashore  and  along  the  river  of  the 
same  name,  on  an  extensive  plain,  having  some  hills.  About  the  center 
is  an  excellent  church  and  hospital  and  many  houses  well  constructed. 
San  Nicolas,  to  the  south  of  Laoag,  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  river, 
has  9,584  inhabitants.  San  Miguel,  farther  in  the  interior,  on  the 
bank  of  the  same  river,  has  8,993  inhabitants.  Dingras,  still  farther 
in  the  interior,  but  also  near  to  the  river,  has  11,547  inhabitants. 
Piddig,  to  the  north  of  Dingras,  has  a  population  of  10,579.  Bacarra, 
not  far  from  the  sea,  on  the  bank  of  the  river  of  the  same  name,  has  a 
population  of  12,343.  To  the  south  of  San  Nicolas  is  the  important 
town  of  Batac,  containing  more  than  19,000  inhabitants;  and  to  the 
south  of  Batac,  on  the  seacoast,  is  the  port  of  Currimao.  Pasay, 
between  Batac  and  Currimao,  has  a  population  of  12,153.  Farther  to 
the  south,  and  on  the  seacoast,  is  the  town  of  Badoc,  with  a  popula- 
tion of  9,000.     The  principal  town   of  the  north  is  Bangin,  with   a 

^  Plates  2,  3,  4,  and  5  will  give  some  idea  of  the  general  aspect  of  the  country  in 
the  extreme  north  of  Luzon.  They  all  come  from  the  plantation  owned  by  the 
Compania  General  de  Tobacos,  called  San  Antonio,  situated  not  far  from  Tuguegarao. 

Hosted  by 



population  of  6,177.  The  province  has  a  total  of  15  towns,  situated 
generally  at  a  short  distance  from  the  sea,  about  119  villages  and 
hamlets,  and  51  hamlets  of  subjugated  pagans. 


Ilocano  is  spoken  generally  throughout  the  province,  and  the  Tin- 
guianes,  living  in  the  hamlets  near  the  principal  towns,  although  they 
have  their  own  dialects,  understand  and  speak  Ilocano. 

AOKKair/rintK,  industry,  commkik^e,  and   ways  of   oommunkution. 

Wheat  and  other  products  of  the  temperate  zone,  especially  vege- 
tables, can  be  cultivated  in  this  province,  in  the  mountains  are  found 
the  best  of  the  indigenous  woods,  and  in  the  north,  in  the  interior,  the 
pine,  the  oak,  and  othei*  similar  woods  are  found.  In  the  mountains, 
pitch,  hon(\v,  and  wax  are  found  in  abundance,  also  wild  cara])aos, 
boars,  deer,  and  jungle  fowl,  pigeons,  and  many  other  kinds  of  birds. 
In  all  of  the  towns  of  the  pi'ovinces  rice  of  superioi-  quality  is  grown; 
corn,  a  good  (piality  of  cotton,  sugar  cane,  and  a  fair  grade  of  tobacco 
are  raised.  In  the  town  of  Bangui  a  considerable  amount  of  coffee 
and  chocolate  is  grown.  Th(^.  mc^i  occupy  themselves  for  the  most 
part  in  agricultuie,  and  the  women  in  spimiing  and  weaving,  the 
town  of  Pasay  being  especially  noted,  as  here  are  made  the  famous 
blankets  of  Ilocos.  Horse  raising  is  notable,  as  is  also  catth^  raising. 
Fish  are  found  in  abundance  in  tlie  rivers  and  along  th(^  coast.  The 
soil  lacks  nothing  in  natural  richness,  abounding  in  iron. 

The  province  is  traversed  from  noi*th  to  south  by  an  excellent  high- 
way which  crosses  the  towns  of  Bangui,  the  most  northei'n,  Nagpartian, 
Panguin,  Bacarra,  Ijaoag,  San  Nicolas,  Batac,  and  Badoc.  The  road 
then  runs  into  the  province  of  South  Ilocos,  whose  first  town  is  Sinait. 
From  the  town  of  Batac  a  highway  runs  to  Pasay,  all  situated  to  the 
west,  and  to  the  port  of  Currimao,  the  best  in  the  province.  From 
west  to  east,  starting  from  the  head  town,  is  another  highway  which, 
after  passing  through  the  town  of  San  Miguel,  divides  into  two;  one 
of-  these  leads  to  Piddig  and  Solsona  and  the  other  to  Dingras  and 
Banna.  Another  highway  connects  the  principal  town  with  the  town 
of  Vintar,  from  which  it  passes  to  Bacarra,  there  uniting  with  the 
main  road  from  north  to  south. 


boundaries    and    (GENERAL    CONDITION    OF    THE    COUNTRY. 

This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  North  Ilocos,  on  the  south 
by  Union,  on  the  east  by  Abra  and  the  districts  of  Tiagan  and 
Lepanto,  and  on  the  west  by  the  China  Sea.  It  has  a  length  of  18 
leagues  from  north  to  south,  and  is  about  5  leagues  wide.  The 
country  is  flat  rather  than  mountainous,  and  is  separated  from  the 
province  of  Union  by  the  Kio  Grande  de  Amburayan. 


It  reaches  in  area  1,424  square  kilometers,  of  which  some  534  are 
under  cultivation  and  about  700  in  forests.  The  number  of  inhabit- 
ants is  more  than  178,000,  the  greater  part  of  these  being  Ilocanos; 

Hosted  by 



there  are  some  hamlets  of  Tin^uianes,  especially  in  the  mDuntaiiunis 
region.  The  Tloeanos  aiw  frank  and  active  in  character,  which  makes 
them  greatly  appreciated  in  all  regions. 


The  capital  or  head  town,  Vigan,  founded  by  the  intrepid  Salcedo,  was 
formerly  called  Villa  Fernandino,  and  has  a  population  of  12,000.  The 
city  is  the  Episcopal  see  of  the  Hishop  of  Nueva  Segovia.  It  is  situated 
near  the  river  Abra,  on  the  right  bank,  and  not  far  from  the  coast.  Jt 
has  line  streets  and  a  beautiful  driveway,  and  many  buildings  of 
excellent  construction,  among  these  being  the  cathcHlral,  the  Episcopal 
palace,  the  seminary,  the  government  houses  tim  house  of  the  tax 
department,  the  city  hall,  the  normal  s(^h(iol  for  girls,  the  native  town 
hall,  the  barracks,  the  prison,  and  many  other  structures  which  aid  in 
giving  it  the  aspect  of  a  city. 

The  towns  of  greatest  importance  are  Sinait,  to  the  south  of  Bodoe, 
in  North  Ilocos,  the  most  northern  town,  with  a  population  of  7,20J). 
Next,  to  the  south,  is  Cabugao,  with  11,000;  Lapo,  with  4,()Si^;  Magsin- 
gal,  with  10,441;  Santo  Domingo,  with  5,855;  San  Ild(>fonso,  with 
8,361;  San  Vicente,  with  4,000;  Bantay,  with  8,300,  and  Santa  Cat i- 
lina,  with  8,737  inhabitants.  Contimiiiig  farther  to  the  south  is  found 
the  largest  city  of  the  province,  Narvacan,  with  10,882  inhabitants; 
Santa  Maria,  with  11,720,  and  Candon,  the  third  in  population,  with 
14,035  inhabitants.  The  most  southc^rn  town,  Tagudin,  has  a  popula- 
tion of  7,864.  All  of  these  towns  arc^,  situated  near  to  the  coast,  and 
are  named  in  their  order  of  latitud(^  from  north  to  south.  There  is  a 
total  of  21  towns,  587  villages  or  hamlets,  and  55  hand(^ls  of  subju- 
gat(Hl  pagans.  ^ 


Ilocano  is  generally  spoken,  Tinguian  in  some  of  the  handets,  and 
other  dialects  among  the  pagans  of  the  mountains. 



Panorapin,  palochina,  casisguis,  deran,  banaba,  aculao,  ".nd  busilis- 
ing  are  woods  found  in  relative  abundance.  Of  the  434  square  kilo- 
meters under  cultivation  in  the  province,  30  are  of  the  highest  class. 
Of  the  land  under  cultivation,  282  square  kilometers  are  in  rice,  55  in 
corn,  1  in  wheat,  34  in  indigo,  29  in  sugar  cane,  2  in  chocolate,  2  in 
the  celebrated  maguey  fiber,  65  in  vegetables,  and  64  in  peanuts. 

In  regard  to  industry,  it  is  sufficient  to  say  that  looms  are  found  in 
every  town,  these  being  managed  by  the  women,  who  weave  cotton 
cloth  for  domestic  use.  The  towns  most  noted  for  this  industry  are 
San  Ildefonso,  Bantay,  Cavayan,  and  San  Vincente.  In  the  latter 
town  are  several  furniture  shops.  In  Vigan,  the  head  town  of  this 
province,  is  a  carriage  shop,  which  maimfactures  carriages  of  all 
classes    and   prices.     Almost  all  of  the  towns  have  one  day  of  the 

Q)  Other  pagans  found  in  the  province  are  BrisaoH,  Igorroten,  Quinanos,  and 
Negritos,  who  are  found  in  the  mountains  to  the  east,  sharing  the  country  with  the 
Itetapanes,  Mayoyaos,  Sitipanes,  and  t)thers. 

Hosted  by 



week  set  apart  as  a  market  day,  and  on  those  days  vegetables  and 
fruits  of  the  country,  cloth  of  silk  and  cotton  made  in  the  province, 
pottery,  cloth  made  in  China,  and  the  various  agricultural  products  of 
the  province,  are  bought  and  sold.  The  articles  of  export  are  indigo, 
cocoanut,  sugar,  brown  sugar,  sweet  potatoes,  cotton,  and  the  maguey 
fiber.  The  imports  are  large  quantities  of  rice,  inasnuich  as  the  pro- 
duction of  this  article  in  the  province  is  not  equal  to  the  consun^ption; 
preserves  from  Europe,  dried  fish,  iron  (manufactured  and  unmaim- 
factured),  oil,  alcohol,  and  indigo  seed. 

The  ways  of  communication,  although  they  leave  a  great  deal  to  be 
desired,  are  nevertheless  the  best  in  the  archipelago;  and  as  the  level 
part  of  the  country  comprises  almost  all  the  cultivated  agricultural 
zone,  all  of  the  towns  are  well  provided  with  roads  throughout  the 
country  districts,  which  facilitate  the  transportation  of  the  products 
of  the  country.  Along  the  line  of  road  which  traverses  the  country 
from  north  to  south  between  Vigan  and  Sinait  there  are  bridges  of 
wood  and  brick  in  good  condition.  From  Vigan  toward  the  south,  as 
far  as  the  boundary  of  the  province  of  Union,  gullies  and  rivers  of 
little  depth  are  lacking  in  bridges,  and  those  carrying  considerable  water 
have  daring  the  dry  season  light  bridges  of  wood  and  bamboo 
which  are  carried  oft'  by  the  first  flood,  the  passage  of  the  river  from 
that  time  being  made  on  rafts  made  from  bamboo.  Salomague,  to  the 
north  of  the  Bay  of  Masingat  and  the  Bay  of  Lapuag,  is  a  port  of 
some  importance. 


The  nearest  islands  of  importance  are  Pinget  and  Salomague.  Pin- 
get,  situated  near  and  to  the  northwest  of  Point  Santo  Domingo,  is 
very  low,  covered  with  forests,  has  beaches  of  sand,  and  is  surrounded 
with  reefs  which  are  very  precipitous  on  the  west,  inasmuch  as  less 
than  half  a  mile  distant  the  water  is  more  than  50  meters  deep.  This 
point  and  island  form  a  small  anchorage,  to  which  there  is  but  one 
entrance  on  the  south,  as  the  coast  to  the  north  is  surrounded  by  reefs, 
which  almost  unite  with  the  coast  on  the  east  of  the  island,  and  would 
be  very  difficult  to  avoid. 


At  approximately  a  distance  of  1  mile  to  the  northwest  of  the  point 
north  of  the  port  of  this  name  there  is  an  island  of  moderate  height 
surrounded  by  a  reef  which  extends  scarcely  a  cable's  length  ^  to  the 
southwest  and  forms  with  the  coast  a  passage  in  which  there  is  a  depth 
of  from  28  to  30  meters  in  the  center,  surrounded  on  both  sides  by  a 
reef  which  starts  2  cables'  length  from  the  coast  in  the  middle  of  the 


This  comandancia  is  situated  between  Abra,  Amburayan,  Lepanco, 
and  South  Ilocos.  It  has  7,793  inhabitants,  divided  among  25  hamlets 
and  53  villages.  The  principal  town  is  San  Emilio,  with  a  population 
of  1,658. 

^  A  cable  equals  120  fathoms. 

Hosted  by  VjOOQIC 



Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 




The  IgoiTotes  of  the  mountains  and  the  tribes  called  Burie  and 
Busao  cultivate  rice,  coffee,  chocolate,  corn,  su^ar  cane,  sweet  pota- 
toes, cotton,  and  vegetables.  Industry  is  limited  to  the  weaving  of 
cloth  and  the  making  of  baskets,  hats,  cardcases,  and  pipes. 


is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Tiagan  and  South  Ilocos,  on  the  south  by 
Union,  on  the  east  by  I^epanto,  and  on  the  west  by  the  province  of 
South  Ilocos  and  Union.  The  population  is  made  up  of  80, ()()()  pagans, 
mostly  Igorrotes,  and  150  Christians,  distributed  among  34  towns  and 
76  hamlets.  The  town  of  most  importance  is  Alilem,  the  capital. 
Cancanay  and  Tinginan  are  the  languages  spoken.  The  other  towns 
are  Luyo  and  Cabacan. 


Limited  to  the  making  of  cotton  cloth  and  other  artich^s  used  by 
these  pagans. 


This  province  takes  its  name  from  the  large  river  which  runs  through 
its  center.  It  is  boimded  on  the  north  by  North  Ilocos,  on  the  east  by 
Cagayan  and  Isabela,  on  the  west  1)}^  South  Ilocos,  and  on  the  south 
by  Bontoc  and  Lepanto.  From  north  to  south  it  is  about  20 
leagues  in  length,  and  from  east  to  west  about  8.  The  entire 
province  is  very  rugged,  and  is  crossed  in  every  direction  by  small 
mountain  chains.  Its  vegetation  is  robust  and  vigorous,  and  the 
moimtains  are  covered  with  forests  of  large  trees,  some  noted  for  their 
size,  others  for  the  finnness  and  hardness  of  their  woods,  and  almost 
all  of  them  for  their  exquisite  fruits.  The  country  is  volcanic  in 
general,  Avith  silicious  rocks  and  alluvial  deposits. 


It  has  ati  area  of  t4,837  scpiare  kilometers  and  a  po})ulation  of 
41,300,  according  to  the  civil  census.  In  the  mountains  are  found 
some  Negritos  and  Guinaanes.  The  greater  part  of  tlu^  province  is 
occupied  by  Tinguianes.  Most  of  the  civilized  inhabitants  are  Iloca- 
nos.     There  are  likewise  about  2,000  Igorrotes.* 


The  principal  town  is  Bangued,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river  Abra, 
toward  the  west  of  the  province,  which  has  a  population  of  13,500. 
This  town  is  situated  about  four  hours'  drive  from  Vigan.  Tayum,  to 
the  east  of  Bangued,  has  11,237  inhabitants.     Bucay,  also  on  the  left 

^  We  judge  that  the  modern  opinion  of  certain  ethnogrophists  is  correct  that  the 
word  ''  Igorrote  "  is  not  a  generic  name  for  various  races,  but  rather  for  one  special 
race,  and  it  is  with  this  understanding  that  we  use  it. 

Hosted  by 



bank  of  the  river,  has  4,995;  Villavieja,  in  the  southern  part  of  the 
province,  2,331;  La  Paz,  to  the  north  of  Tayum,  2,000;  Pidigan,  to 
the  southwest  of  Bangued,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  river,  2,295;  San 
Gregorio,  between  La  Paz  and  Tavuni,  3,262.  There  is  a  total  of  11 
towns  and  30  villages. 


Tiie  Ilocano  language  is  generally  spoken  in  the  towns,  and  th(^ 
Igorrote  language  in  certain  villages.  The  other  pagans  speak  their 
respective  dialects,  Tinginan,  Basiao,  and  Guinnan. 


Agriculture  is  well  advanced,  considering  the  area  under  cultivation, 
some  13  square  kilometers,  and  the  limited  number  of  laborers  obtain- 
able. The  principal  products  are  tobacco,  rice,  corn,  of  which  three 
crops  are  harvested  each  year,  sugar  cane,  and  vegetables.  On  the  tops 
of  the  mountain  ranges  are  found  the  pine,  oak,  strawberry  tree,  and 
other  trees  of  the  temperate  zone.  The  above-mentioned  products, 
together  with  cotton,  which  is  now  cultivated,  rattan,  honey,  and  wax 
constitute  the  principal  articles  of  export.  It  should  be  added  that 
prospecting  for  mines  of  copper  in  the  region  of  Gambang,  between 
Vigan  and  Bangued,  and  for  coal,  of  which  there  are  indications  near 
the  village  of  Pagano  toward  the  east,  toward  the  village  of  La  Paz, 
and  iron  pyrites,  found  in  various  situations,  promises  returns.  Large 
game,  such  as  buffalo,  boars,  and  deer  is  abundant  in  the  mountains,  and 
the  number  of  species  of  monkeys  inhabiting  the  various  islands  is 
almost  innumerable.  The  only  industry  is  the  weaving  of  cotton  cloth 
of  various  kinds,  many  of  these  being  notable  for  their  firmness,  even- 
ness, and  durability.  The  towns  are  united  by  various  roads,  suitable 
for  animals,  which  likewise  connect  this  province  with  Lepanto, 
Cagayan,  and  South  Ilocos. 


It  is  ])ounded  on  the  north  by  Isabela,  on  the  south  by  Lepanto,  on 
the  east  by  the  district  of  Principe  and  Nueva  Viscaya,  and  on  the 
west  by  Abra.  It  measures  from  north  to  south  some  50  kilometers, 
and  from  east  to  west  27.  The  country  is  mountainous  and  not  very 
fertile,  probabl}^  of  volcanic  nature;  the  climate  is  temperate  and 


It  measures  1,322  square  kilometers  and  has  13,985  inha})itants  reg- 
istered in  the  civil  census.  Of  the  pagan  inhabitants  some  are  Ifugaos, 
others  Igorrotes  and  Busaos;  there  are  also  Itetapanes,  Calingas,  Gad- 
danes,  and  Dayadas.  Some  authors,  in  consideration  of  the  number  of 
races  scattered  over  this  territory,  place  the  total  number  of  inhabit- 
ants at  82,500. 

Hosted  by 




The  most  important  and  almost  the  only  town  is  the  head  town,  hav- 
ing the  same  name  as  the  province.  It  has  a  population  of  10,751. 
The  villages  of  Sagasa,  Sacasacan,  and  Basao,  recently  organized,  are 
worthy  of  mention. 


llocano,  Sutlim  and  Itctapan,  Igorrote,  and  other  analogou.s  dialects 
are  spoken. 


The  only  cultivated  lands  lie  along  the  banks  of  the  river.  The  onl}^ 
industry  of  the  few  pagans  is  the  manufacture  of  salt  from  the  springs 
of  Mainit,  to  the  southeast  of  Bontoc.  The  water  of  these  springs 
is  clear,  hot,  without  odor,  and  salty.  In  Dalican,  to  the  west  of 
Bontoc,  there  is  an  abundance  of  iron  pyrites;  and  at  Tanolo  there 
is  a  bed  of  ore  supposed  to  be  argentiferous  galena.  There  is  no 




It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Cagayan  and  Itaves,  on  the  south  by 
Nueva  Viscaya  and  Principe,  on  the  east  by  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  on  the 
west  by  Lepanto,  Bontoc,  and  Abra.  The  country  is  covered  from 
north  to  south  by  the  Rio  Grande  de  Cagayan,  and  from  southwest  to 
northeast  by  its  large  tributary,  the  Magat.  The  eastern  zone,  along 
the  coast  of  the  Pacific,  is  mountainous  and  rugged,  as  through  it, 
running  from  north  to  south,  is  the  Sierra  Madre  Range.  The  zone 
which  extends  from  the  west  of  the  Sierra  Madre  Mountains  is  very 
extensive,  and  presents  plains  and  valleys  fertilized  by  the  Rio  Grande 
and  the  Magat. 


It  measures  about  14,234  square  kilometers,  and  is  the  largest  prov- 
ince in  Luzon.  It  has  48,302  registered  inhabitants.  In  some  of  the 
eastern  mountains  Negritos  are  found.  The  other  pagan  inhabitants 
are  of  various  races.  Igorrotes,  Togades,  who  live  between  Echagiie 
and  Angadanan,  Gaddanes,  Mayaoaos,  Ilongotes  or  Ibilaos,  Bujuanes, 
Silipianes,  Binanganes,  Bunginanes,  the  Isanayas,  the  Ilongotes,  the 
Buay as,  who  inhabit  the  Defim  country,  and  the  Catalanganes.  Among 
the  civilized  Indians  there  are  a  great  many  Tagalogs.  This  is  prob- 
ably the  province  in  which  there  is  the  largest  number  of  pagan  races.  ^ 


The  principal  town  is  Ilagan,  the  capital,  about  the  center  of  the 
province,  situated  on  an  elevation  and  surrounded  by  the  Rio  Grande 
de  Cagayan  and  Pinacananan  rivers.     The  climate  is  temperate  and 

^  Plate  7  shows  a  group  of  native  laborers  on  the  Santa  Isabel  plantation, 
p  c — VOL  3 — 01 3 

Hosted  by 



mild.  This  town  has  been  several  times  destroyed  by  fire.  It  has  a 
population  of  18,049  and  is  a  twenty-four  hours'  drive  from  Aparri. 
Cabagan  Viejo  and  Cabagan  Nueva  are  situated  in  the  north  of  the  prov- 
ince on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rio  Grande,  and  have  a  population  of  9,000. 
Following  the  right  bank  of  the  Rio  Grande  toward  the  south  the 
following  towns  are  found:  Balasag  and  Tumauini,  the  ancient  capital, 
with  4,500  inhabitants;  (lamu,  to  the  south  of  lligan  and  on  the  left 
bank  of  the  river,  with  5,820;  Canayan,  2,167;  Angadanan,  3,900; 
Echagi'ie,  r),638,  and  Carig,  between  the  Rio  Grande  and  the  Magat, 
with  2,()51.  There  are  22  towns,  25  villages  or  hamlets,  and  88  villages 
of  conquered  pagans. 


Ilocano,  Ibanag,  Cagayan,  Gaddan,  and  Tagalog  are  spoken. 
PRODUcrrs,  agriculture,    industry,  commerce,  and    ways    of 


Rice,  sugar  cane,  chocolate,  and  coffee  grow  almost  without  the  care 
of  the  planter;  it  being  about  the  same  with  all  kinds  of  vegetables, 
which  in  flavor  and  size  can  compete  with  those  of  Spain.  But  all  this 
production  does  not  meet  the  necessities  of  the  inhabitants,  because  the 
area  under  cultivation  is  small.  The  corn  crop  is  the  object  of  consid- 
erable care  on  the  part  of  the  natives,  because  when  rice  becomes  high 
it  constitutes  the  principal  food  supply.  The  principal  and  most 
important  product  is  tobacco,  which  is  gathered  in  large  quantities  and 
is  considered  the  best  in  the  Philippines.  It  is  the  principal  article  of 
export  and  constitutes  the  wealth  of  the  country.  A  few  cattle^  are 
raised.  The  forests,  for  the  great  part  unexplored,  are  rich  in  valuable 
woods  suitable  for  the  manufacture  of  furniture.  There  is  an  abun- 
dance of  molave,  ipil,  narra,  camagon,  and  other  excellent  woods  for 
building.  There  are  but  two  ways  of  communication  with  the  interior, 
that  afforded  by  the  Rio  Grande,  and  the  cart  road  which  runs  from 
north  to  south  through  the  center  of  the  province. 


This  comandancia  takes  its  name  from  the  branch  of  the  Rio  Chico  de 
Cagayan,  and  extends  along  the  bend  which  this  river  forms  in  the 
comandancia  of  Bon  toe.  The  inhabitants  number  about  14,000, 
mostly  pagans  and  subjugated  Gaddanes,  who  speak  the  Ibanag  and 
Gaddan,  the  Yaga,  and  the  Iraya  languages. 


This  military  comandancia  was  located  in  the  Province  of  Isabela 
with  the  object  of  restraining  the  inroads  of  the  Igorrotes  and  other 

^  See  plate  8,  which  represents  one  of  the  stock  farms  of  the  Compania  General  de 
Tobacos,  on  Santa  Isabel  plantation. 

Hosted  by 





It  is  })ounded  on  the  north  by  Abra  and  Bon  toe,  on  the  south  by 
Benguet  and  Nueva  Viscaya,  on  the  east  by  Bontoc  and  Quiangan,  and 
on  the  west  by  Tiagan  and  Ain})urayan.  It  measures  from  north  to 
south  55  kilometers  and  from  east  to  west  49.  The  country  is 


It  has  an  area  of  t^,U)T  S([uare  k'dometers,  and  is  occupied  by  vari- 
ous races.'  There  are  1(),152  I'egistered  inhabitants  of  various  races, 
Ifugaos  and  the  Busaos  Igorrotes  being- the  most  numerous. 

The  principal  towns  are  Cervantes, the  capital,  situated  in  the  center 
of  the  district,  about  twelve  hours'  drive  from  Vigan,  Cayan,  the  old 
capital,  to  the  northeast,  and  very  near  Cervantes,  and  iVlancayan,  to 
the  southeast  of  the  capital,  famous  for  its  copper  mines.  There  is  a 
total  of  five  towns  and  40  villages. 


Ilocano,  Cataoan,  Igorrote,  Ifugao,  and  other  dialects  are  spoken. 


This  district  has  about  70  square  kilometers,  cultivated  by  a  few 
Indians  and  8,000  Igorrotes.  The  products  are  rice,  tobacco,  sugar 
cane,  and  a  small  amount  of  corn  and  garden  stutf .  In  the  forest  there 
is  an  abundance  of  molave,  banal)a,  pine,  oak,  sabine,  elm,  strawberry 
trees,  cedar,  and  casilang.  At  one  time  the  mines  of  Mancayan  were 
in  operation,  producing  annually  more  than  4,000  quintals  of  fine 
copper.  A  road  starting  from  Vigan  crosses  the  district  from  north- 
west to  southeast,  uniting  the  towns  of  Tiagan,  Lepanto,  Cervantes, 
and  Mancayan,  facilitating  importation  and  exportation. 


This  comandancia  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Bontoc,  on  the  south 
by  Nueva  Viscaya,  on  the  east  by  Nueva  Viscaj^a  and  Isabela,  and  on 
the  west  by  Lepanto.  It  has  an  area  of  about  80  square  kilometers, 
and  a  population  of  about  30,000,  divided  among  a  multitude  of  hamlets, 
of  which  at  least  218  are  known.  The  principal  town  is  Quiangan, 
situated  in  the  valley  of  the  same  name,  which  runs  from  north  to 
south  from  Lepanto  to  Nueva  Viscaya,  following  along  the  river 
Abulao,  a  branch  of  the  river  Magat.  Other  important  towns  are 
Magulang,  Nangaoa,  Lagan i,  Sapao,  and  Bonaue. 

^  The  general  records  of  the  Augustinian  order  for  1897  give  21,745  inhabitants,  and, 
according  to  the  same  records,  the  most  recent  population  of  Saabangan  is  10,085. 

Hosted  by 



BOUNDAKTKS    AND    (iKNERAI.    (X)N1>1  i  IONS    OF    THE    (OlINTRY. 

This  proviiK-e  is  hounded  on  the  north  Iry  South  llocos,  on  the  south 
by  Pangasinan,  on  the  east  })y  J^epanto  and  Beng^uet,  and  on  the  west 
by  the  China  Sea.  Jt  is  16  k^.agues  in  length  from  north  to  south,  and 
5  in  width  from  (Hist  to  west.  The  eountry  is  flat  along  the  coast  and 
very  mountainous  a  short  distance  from  the  sea. 


It  has  an  area  of  "2^0{)S  scjuare  kih)meters,  and  is  Inliabited  ])v  1  lo,  l()4 
registerc^d  })e()pU%  beh)nging  for  the  most  part  to  the  Hoeos  and  Pan- 
gasinan  races.     There  are  many  viUages  of  Jgorrotes  In  the  mountains. 


The  principal  toAvn  is  the  capital,  San  Fernando,  situated  near  the 
port  of  the  same  name,  which  has  a  popidation  of  14,542.  Bangar,  the 
most  northern  town,  has  a  population  of  10,700.  From  Bangar,  going 
southward,  the  following  towns  are  found:  Mamacpacan,  with  a  popu- 
lation of  10,000;  Bacnotan,w^ith  8,311;  San  Juan,  with  11,189;  Baoang, 
wdth  9,079;  Caba,  with  8,849;  Agoo,  with  more  than  11,000;  Santo 
Tomas  and  Rosario,  with  8,507.  There  is  a  total  of  14  towns,  240 
villages  and  hamlets,  and  a  midtitude  of  little  handets  within  the 
jurisdiction  of  Christian  towns. 


llocano  and  Pangasinan  are  spoken  and,  in  the  mountains,  various 
Igorrote  dialects. 


The  mountains  produce  a  lai-ge  cjuantity  of  sel)ucao.  The  c  ultivated 
area,  64  s(]uare  kilometers,  is  in  the  care  of  45,000  people.  The  prod- 
ucts are  tobacco,  rice,  corn,  cotton,  sugar  cane,  chocolate,  fruits,  and 
fai'inacious  roots.  There  are  about  47,800  live  stock  in  the  province; 
21,i^00  carabaos,  8,200  c^attle,  and  5,500  horses.  A  carriage  road  in  fair 
condition  runs  parallel  to  the  coast,  and  unites  all  of  the  towns  above 
mentioned  with  one  another,  and  with  south  llocos  by  way  of  Tagudin, 
and  with  Pangasinan  by  way  of  San  Fabian,  from  which  point  Manila 
mav  be  reached  by  carriage. 


This  is  an  interior  comandancia  in  the  province  of  Union.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  I^epanto  and  Union,  on  the  south  by  Pan- 
gasinan, on  the  east  by  Nueva  Viscaya  and  Lepanto,  and  on  the  west 
by  Union.  The  country  is  mountainous  and  hemmed  in  between  the 
offshoots  of  the  great  Caraballo  chain.  The  altitude  and  mountainous 
character  of  the  country  aid  in  giving  it  a  climate  somewhat  like  that 
of  the  temperate  zone. 

Hosted  by 




It  has  an  area  of  24  square  kilometers.  There  are  15,784  registered 
inhabitants,  the  greater  number  of  these  living  in  the  mountains.  The 
number  of  Christian  inhabitants  does  not  exceed  1,000.  The  pagans 
ar(^.  mostly  Jgorrotes,  called  Ben(|uetanos. 


The  principal  town  is  the  capital,  called  La  Trinidad,  with  a  popula- 
tion of  2,980.  It  is  a  new  and  picturescjui^  place,  situated  in  a  b(»autiful 
and  extensive  plain,  not  far  from  a  small  lake  some  5  kilometcis  in 
circumference.  Other  important  towiis  art*  Oaliano,  to  the  west  of 
La  Trinidad,  having  a  very  fertile  and  productive  soil;  Agno  and 
Ta(piian,  celebrated  for  their  excellent  potatoes,  equal  to  those  of 
Europe,  and  their  beans;  Carao,  w^here  bags  and  hats  are  manufactured; 
Tavio,  Sudab,  and  Bagnio,  where  mines  are  found. 


The  Catholic  inhabitants  speak  llocano,  and  the  Igorrotes,  although 
they  speak  Henguetano,  understand  and  speak  th(^   llocano  language. 

lMIOI)U(7rS,     AGKK  lir/rUltK,     INDUSTRY,     COMIVrEliCn:,     AND     WAYS     OF 


There  are  extensive  areas  of  pine  lands,  and  in  the  forests  oak, 
camagon,  and  narra.  The  rush,  from  w'hose  pith  the  Chinese  manu- 
facture the  wicks  for  cocoanut-oil  lamps,  known  in  the  Philippines  as 
'"Hinisn,"  grows  in  great  abundance.  Gigantic  ferns  are  found  here. 
Potatoes,  beans,  and  other  vegetables  grown  here  are  quite  equal  to  those 
produced  in  the  tempei'ate  zone.  Wheat  and  chicpeas  are  produced. 
In  the  mountains  are  found  sarsaparilla,  wild  nmlberry,  and  even 
strawberries.  The  pineapples,  mangoes,  and  l)ananas  are  of  excellent 



This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  east  by  Lepanto,  Bontoc, 
Quiangan,  Isabela,  and  Principe,  on  the  south  by  Nueva  Ecija  and 
Pangasinan,  and  on  the  west  by  Pangasinan  and  Benguet.  From 
nortn  to  south  it  is  17  leagues  in  length,  and  from  east  to  west  8 
leagues  in  width.  The  country  is  in  general  mountainous.  On  the  south 
is  the  South  Caraballo  Range.  The  province  is  crossed  almost  from 
southwest  to  northeast  by  the  river  Magat,  which  fertilizes  the  great 
central  valley.  This  flat  and  cultivated  valley  is  almost  all  under 
irrigation.  The  eastern  bank  of  the  Magat  is  of  sandy  soil,  the  west- 
ern being  clayey  and  the  most  productive. 


It  has  an  area  of  4,384  square  kilometers,  inhabited  by  19,379  regis- 
tered people.  The  pagans  are  very  numerous,  in  the  mountains  of  the 
nortli  there  being  no  less  than  12,000  Igorrotes.     The  Tinguanes,  who 

Hosted  by 



inhabit  the  northeast,  a  very  small  part  of  whom  have  been  subjugated, 
are  estimated  to  lunnber  13,000.  The  Ilongotes  or  Ibilaos  mimber  not 
less  than  4,000;  and  finally  the  Isinayas,  who  inhabit  the  country  to 
the  west  and  south,  are  divided  amongst  14  villages  and  number  not 
less  than  10,000. 


The  principal  town,  Bayombong,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Magat,  ha 
a  population  of  8,550.  Ahnost  all  the  towns  of  greatest  importance 
are  found  in  tlie  great  vaHev  of  the  Magat.  Connnencing  with  the 
most  northern,  they  are  in  the  following  order:  Diadi,  somewhat 
distant  from  the  right  bank,  has  a  population  of  2,114;  Bagabag,  on 
the  left  bank,  1,(100;  I  bung,  to  the  west  of  Bagabag,  1,097;  Salano,  on 
the  left  bank,  to  the  north  of  Bayombong,  4,411;  Bambang,  to  the 
right  of  the  river,  3,000;  Dupax,  to  the  south  of  Bambang,  3,000; 
and  finally  Aritao,  to  the  west  of  Dupax  and  on  the  opposite  ])ank  of 
the  adjacent  branch,  the  Minoli,  1,000. 


The  following  languages  are  spoken:  (jaddan,  Tsinay,  Ilongote  or 
Ibilao,  and  the  languages  of  the  various  I'aces  of  Tfugaos,  who  inhabit 
the  coiuitry  between  Solano  and  the  great  central  chain. 


Rice  is  almost  the  only  crop  harvested.  The  soil  also  produces  sugar 
cane,  chocolate,  coffee,  and  tobacco,  but  of  an  inferior  quality,  and  in 
quantity  insufficient  to  meet  the  needs  of  the  inhabitants.  The  woods 
in  the  forest  are  of  excellent  quality,  prominent  among  them  l)eing 
narra,  molave,  canutan,  and  baticulan.  These  are  difficult  to  export 
on  account  of  the  character  of  the  country.  Resins  and  gums  are  also 
found,  but  they  are  not  gathered.  Fine  stone  quarries  exist.  Game 
is  abundant.  Thei-e  is  scarcely  any  industry  worthy  of  mention. 
There  is  but  little  commerce,  on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  conuuuni- 
cating  with  the  (wterior.  In  the  interior  there  is  a  fair  carriage  road, 
which  unites  the  towns  above  mentioned  with  one  another.  This 
road  is  well  cared  for  and  permits  of  the  passage  of  carriages  during 
the  year,  except  in  the  rainy  season,  when,  on  account  of  floods  and 
the  difficulty  of  managing  the  rafts  because  of  the  strong  currents  in 
the  river,  Bayombong,  Dupax,  and  Aritao  can  not  communicate  with 
each  other.  The  capital,  Solano,  and  Bagabag  have  open  communica- 
tion even  during  the  rain}^  season,  because  the  above  difficulties  do  not 


This  comandancia  is  situated  along  the  slopes  of  the  River  Ambay- 
anan,  near  the  province  of  Nueva  Viscaya.  Its  area  is  about  660 
square  kilometers.  It  is  inhabited  by  various  races  of  the  pagan 
Ifugaos.  The  towns  are  San  Miguel  Arcangel,  with  a  population  of 
2,249,  and  Santa  Cruz  de  Ana. 

Hosted  by 




It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Nueva  Viscaya  and  Isa])ela,  on  the 
south  by  Infanta,  on  the  east  by  the  Pacific  Ocean,  and  on  the  west 
by  Nueva  Viscaya,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  the  South  Caraballo 
Range.  The  country  is  an  uninterrupted  succession  of  lofty  moun- 
tains, all  inaccessible  and  covered  with  dense  vegetation. 


It  has  an  area  of  3,051  square  kilometers  and  4,100  registered 
inhabitants.  The  greater  part  of  the  pagans  are  Ilongotes,  with  some 
Negritos.  The  savage  and  traitorous  Italones,  descendants  of  the 
Ilongotes,  live  in  the  northern  part. 


The  head  town  is  Baler,  situated  on  level,  muddy  ground;  it  has 
2,100  inhabitants.  The  Bay  of  Baler  is  large  and  wide.  Casiguran 
has  1,800  inhabitants,  and  Carignan  200.  The  Bay  of  Casiguran  is  one 
of  the  most  sheltered  of  Luzon.  Dilasag  is  a  little  tow  n  near  the  bay 
of  the  first  name.  It  is  situated  to  the  north,  between  the  Sierra  Madre 
Mountains  and  the  boundary  of  Isabela.  There  is  a  total  of  four  towns 
and  a  number  of  pagan  handets. 


The  civilized  inhabitants  speak  Tagalog  and  Ilocano;  the  pagans 


In  the  vicinity  of  the  towns  rice,  corn,  sweet  potatoes,  vegetables 
and  fruits  are  cultivated.  But  little  coffee,  cotton,  sugar  cane,  tobacco, 
and  chocolate  are  raised,  probably  because  of  lack  of  communication 
with  the  exterior.  This  difficulty,  together  Avith  the  natural  indolence 
of  the  inhabitants,  accounts  for  the  existence  of  immense  virgin  forests 
which  might  become  excellent  land  for  cultivation.  The  forest  woods 
are  of  excellent  quality  and  in  abundaru'C.  Among  these  are  bati- 
culin,  banaba,  catmon,  yellow  narra,  tuyad,  and  otliers.  Although  no 
scientific  exploration  has  been  made  in  this  country,  there  is  reason  to 
believe  that  gold  and  copper  mines  and  deposits  of  ciystallized  quartz 
exist.  Along  the  coast  fish  are  found  in  prodigious  abundance,  and  in 
the  Bay  of  Casiguran  during  the  north  monsoon  hundreds  of  tons  of 
fish  are  caught.  The  inhabitants,  especially  those  of  Baler,  are  veiy 
fond  of  hunting,  game  being  most  abundant.  There  is  almost  no  com- 
merce, merely  the  exchange  of  food  stuffs  between  the  pagans  of  the 
mountains  and  the  subjugated  natives  and  Christians.  The  ways  of 
communication  with  other  provinces  are  very  scarce.  On  land  there 
are  a  few  poor  paths,  which  with  the  greatest  difficulty  can  be  trav- 
eled on  horse  back  or  in  hammocks.  Ships  never  visit  the  coast 
regularly,  on  account  of  lack  of  trade,  and  during  the  north  and  east 
monsoon  navigation  in  small  boats  is  most  dangerous. 

Hosted  by 




It  is  bounded  north  by  Isabela,  on  the  east  by  the  district  of  Prin- 
cipe, on  the  south  by  Nueva  Ecija,  and  on  the  west  by  Nueva  Viscaya. 
It  is  composed  of  villages  of  Ilongotes  (Italones  or  Ibilaos)  and  some 
wandering  Negritos.  There  are  about  6,000  pagans  and  less  than  370 
Christians  in  the  district 


Ilongote  is  generally  spoken  by  the  pagans  and  Ilocano  and  Taga- 
log  by  the  Christians.  In  the  town  of  Munqiiia  there  are  4,182  inhal)- 
itants,  counting  Christians  and  subjugated  pagans. 


To  the  south  of  Point  Encanta,  in  the  Bay  of  Baler,  between  Points 
Dimayabay  and  Dicapinisan,  is  situated  the  small  island  and  point  of 
Distoring  and  several  smaller  islands.  Between  Point  Encanto  and 
the  mouth  of  the  river,  near  Baler,  there  is  found  a  series  of  little 
islands  running  almost  parallel  with  the  coast;  thev  are  called  ''Los 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



CF^I^TKK    OF    L.TTZ01sr    (A). 

[Maps  Nos.  S  and  12  of  the  Atlas  of  tlie  Philippines.] 



This  province  is  situated  on  the  west  coast  and  in  the  widest  part  of 
Luzon.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north,  northwest,  and  west  by  the  China 
Sea,  on  the  south  by  the  province  of  Bataan,  and  on  the  west  by  the 
provinces  of  Pangasinan,  Tarlac,  and  Pampanga.  It  is  32  leagues  long 
and  7  wide.  The  country  is  mountainous  and  generally  covered  with 
vegetation.  The  low  lands  are  fertile  and  almost  the  only  ones  culti- 
vated. The  coast  is  not  clear,  on  account  of  the  many  stones  and  rocks 
and  the  abundance  of  reefs  and  banks. 


It  has  an  area  of  2,229  square  kilometers  and  87,295  registered 
inhabitants.  The  pagan  inhabitants  are  revengeful  and  warlike,  inhab- 
iting the  mountains.  The  rest  of  the  inhabitants  are  almost  all  of  the 
Zambal  race,  including  those  called  the  Igorrotes  of  Zambales,  or  the 
savages  of  Zambales. 


Iba,  the  capital  town,  is  situated  on  the  left  bank  and  2i  miles  from 
the  river,  which  bounds  it  on  the  western  side  on  the  level  plain.  It 
has  a  population  of  3,060,  occupied  principally  in  the  cultivation  of 
the  soil,  in  hunting,  iishing,  and  the  raising  of  animals,  such  as  cattle, 
carabaos,  horses,  and  hogs.  Some  of  the  inhabitants  and  some  of  the 
people  along  the  coast  are  occupied  in  the  collection  ot  amber,  which 
is  usually  found  along  the  coast.  The  most  important  towns,  begin- 
ning with  those  of  the  north,  are:  Bolinao,  with  6,200  inhabitants  (the 
light-house  and  semaphore,  of  the  first  class,  are  situated  on  the  cape 
near  this  town);  Alaminos,  near  the  coast  of  the  bay  of  Lingayen,  has 
8,202  inhabitants;  Bani  has  4,295;  Agno,  5,294;  Santa  Cruz,  5,319; 
Masinloo,  2,847;  Botalan  and  San  Felipe,  5,000;  San  Narciso,  7,600; 
San  Antonio,  about  4,668.  In  the  magnificent  port  of  Subig,  one  of 
the  best  in  the  archipelago,  are  situated  the  towns  of  Subig  and 
Olonagapo.  The  total  number  of  towns  is  25,  not  counting  the  numer- 
ous hamlets  of  pagans.  Besides  the  port  of  Subig  there  are  several 
ports  of  some  importance  along  the  coast  of  Zambales. 


Zambal  and  Ilocano  are  spoken  in  the  southern  part,  and  Zambal, 
Ilocano,  and  Tagalog  in  the  northern  part.  In  the  region  of  Iba  and 
Batolan,  Zambal  and  Pampanga  are  used,  and  in  the  region  between 


Hosted  by 



Alammos  and  Bolincaguin,  Ilocano  and  Pangasinan.  The  Negritos 
speak  Aeta,  but  have  some  understanding  of  the  most  common  lan- 
guages of  the  province,  such  as  Zambal  and  Ilocano. 


Besides  the  products  common  to  Luzon,  the  province  furnishes  a 
large  quantity  of  building  material,  which  is  abundant  in  the  pi-ovince 
and  would  form  a  part  of  its  wealth  if  the  ways  of  communication  were 
better.  It  produces  also  pitch,  resins,  rattan,  honey,  wax,  and  amber, 
which  is  collected  along  the  shores.  Wheat  is  grown,  and  excellent 
rice,  in  large  quantities.  In  the  mountains  sweet  pineapple  is  grown, 
which  in  quality  compares  well  with  that  of  Java  and  Singapore.  So 
many  cattle  are  raised  that  with  suitable  means  of  communication  they 
would  be  sufficient  to  furnish  meat  for  all  of  Luzon.  There  is  no  lack 
of  mineral  springs,  the  most  notable  ones  being  those  of  Iba,  Dosol, 
Polanig,  and  Subig.  There  are  mines  of  copper  and  pit  coal,  some  of 
importance  in  Agno,  and  between  Balincaguin  and  San  Isidro. 

Industries  are  few.  In  some  towns  there  are  wood-working  indus- 
tries, and  in  others  iron  mills.  Ways  of  communication  in  this  province 
are  very  poor,  and  those  that  exist  are  almost  impassable  during  the  rainy 
season.  There  is  a  road  from  Bolinao  parallel  to  the  coast  as  far  as 
Moron,  in  the  province  of  Bataan,  passing  through  all  of  the  towns 
which  are  situated  near  the  sea  as  far  as  San  Narciso,  from  which  point 
it  crosses  the  province  from  northwest  to  southeast  to  Moron.  This 
road  branches  at  Botolan  to  O'Donnell,  in  Tarlac,  and  from  Agno  to 
Alaminos  and  Sual  and  San  Isidro,  in  Pangasinan,  passing  through 


Within  the  port  of  Subig,  near  to  the  entrance  of  the  bay,  is  Isla 
Grande  or  Pulo  Malaqui.  It  is  of  medium  height,  covered  with  trees, 
and  surrounded  by  reefs  and  shoals.  To  the  south  of  this  island  is  a 
smaller  one,  to  which  it  is  united  by  a  sand  spit  and  reef.  Entirely 
within  the  Bay  of  Subig  are  the  Mayanga  and  Monti  islands.  On 
leaving  the  Bay  of  Subig,  toward  the  north  are  found  the  islands 
called  Frailes,  which  are  six  rocks  close  together,  and  among  them 
the  Tabones,  Lajos,  and  Capones  Islands,  where  a  light-house  is  situ- 
ated, almost  directly  west  of  San  Antonio.  From  the  Capones,  as  far 
as  the  Bay  of  Masinloc,  there  is  no  island  found  worthy  of  mention. 
Within  the  Bay  of  Masinloc  is  the  Salvador  Island,  of  medium  height, 
covered  with  trees,  and  distinguishableat  some  distance  from  the  port; 
also  Luan  Island,  near  Salvador  Malacaba,  an  island  of  circular  form; 
Mataloi  Island,  of  medium  height,  covered  with  trees  and  surrounded 
by  mangroves,  and  the  Island  of  Pulapir,  surrounded  with  reefs. 
From  the  Bay  of  Masinloc  toward  the  north  are  found,  first,  Putipot; 
then  Hermana  Menor,  or  Macaliza,  an  island  of  about  a  mile  in  diame- 
ter, low,  and  covered  with  trees.  Then  Hermana  Mayor,  some  3 
miles  to  the  north-northwest  of  the  Lesser  Culebra  Island,  and  the 
little  island  Raton  are  found,  respectively,  to  the  north,  one-fourth 
northwest,  and  to  the  east  of  Hermana  Mayor  in  the  Bay  of  Donsol. 
Northeast  of  Cape  Bolinao  is  the  little  island  of  Silaqui.  South- 
southeast  of  this  is  Santiago,  an  island  surrounded  by  reefs  and  rocks; 
it  IS  of  about  medium  height.     Its  inhabitants  are  almost  all  united  in 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



the  town  of  Binabalian,  which  looks  toward  the  port  of  Bolinao.  To 
the  south  of  Santiago  is  found  the  well-populated  island  of  Cabar- 
ruyan.  Anda,  its  chief  town,  has  a  population  of  3,200.  The  island 
is  quite  high  and  covered  with  forests.  Between  Santiago  and  Cabar- 
ruyan  are  several  small  islands  of  little  importance,  all  surrounded  by 
banks  and  reefs  of  coral.  Near  to  the  southeastern  extremity  of  the 
large  island  of  Cabarruyan  is  a  group  of  small,  round,  high  islands, 
covered  with  vegetation,  called  Cien  Islas,  Mongosmongos,  and 
Capulupuluam.  To  the  west  of  this  gi'oup  is  Comas  Island,  and  to 
the  south  of  this  Cabalitian. 


This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  ])v  thi^  (lulf  of  Langayen  and 
the  provinces  of  Union  and  Benguet,  on  the  northeast  by  Nueva  Vis- 
caya,  on  the  southeast  by  Tarlac  and  Nueva  Ecija,  and  on  the  west  by 
Zambales.  The  country  is  mountainous  on  the  west,  northeast,  and 
east,  flat  toward  the  central  and  southern  part,  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Kiver  Agno.  The  country  generally  slopes  from  the  mountains  to  the 
sea  in  easy  undulations,  and  near  the  coast  is  very  low,  thus  giving 
rise  to  frequent  floods,  because,  on  account  of  tiie  flatness  of  the 
country,  the  rivers  during  abundant  rains  are  unable  to  iMiipty  them- 
selves.    The  soil  is  fertile  and  favorable  for  the  growth  of  all  products. 


It  has  an  area  of  2,854  square  kilometers,  inha])ited  by  302,178 
people,  the  greater  part  of  Avhom  belong  to  the  Pangasinan  race.  Some 
wandering  Negritos  live  in  the  mountains  which  separate  this  province 
from  Zambales.  There  are  also  some  Ilocanos  in  the  province,  and 
along  the  boundary  to  the  northeast  and  east  a  few  Igorrotes. 


The  capital  is  Langayem,  with  a  population  of  14,120.  It  has  a  flne 
church  and  a  large  number  of  well-constructed  buildings.  Sual,  a  sea- 
port on  the  western  coast  of  the  bay  of  Langayen,  has  a  population  of 
3,000;  San  Fabian,  on  the  western  coast  of  the  ba\,  10,200;  Mangaldan, 
to  the  south  of  San  Fabian,  about  15,600;  Dagupan,  a  seaport,  16,6111; 
Binmale}^,  likewise  a  port,  16,100;  Calasiao,  to  the  southeast  of  Dagu- 
pan, 13,800;  San  Carlos,  23,931;  Malasiqui,  10,770;  Urdaneta,  16,600; 
Mangatarem,  11,000;  IJrbiztondo  and  Bayambang,  to  the  south  of 
Malasiqui,  5,278  and  14,111,  respectively.  There  are  othei-  towns  of 
more  than  6,000  inhabitants  too  numerous  to  mention.  The  total  num- 
ber of  towns  is  29  and  of  villages  364. 


Pangasinan  is  generally  spoken.  In  some  towns  in  the  north,  north- 
east, and  southeast  Ilocano  is  spoken.  The  Negritos  speak  Acta,  but 
understand  Pangasinan,  as  do  the  Igorrotes  who  trade  with  the 

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Rice  is  most  extensively  cultivated  and  is  harvested  in  abundance,  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  in  certain  years  there  is  a  total  loss  of  the 
crop  in  some  low-lying  towns  on  account  of  floods.  Sugar  cane,  corn, 
tobacco,  and  cocoanuts  are  cultivated.  The  production  of  indigo,  cof- 
fee, and  chocolate  is  insignificant,  although  the  natural  conditions  for 
the  production  of  the  first  of  these  are  superior.  But  few  provinces 
have  more  extensive  areas  covered  with  the  nipa  palm  than  has  Panga- 
sinan,  and  probably  not  one  has  them  in  such  a  pitiable  condition  of 
neglect,  notwithstanding  the  importance  of  this  product  to  the  native 
and  the  acknowledged  danger  to  health  which  its  neglect  involves. 
This  abundance  of  the  nipa  gives  origin  to  the  trade  of  distillation  for 
obtaining  alcohol.  The  industry  is  but  small  and  at  the  present  time 
is  much  neglected.  Another  industry  which  is  carried  on  on  a  small 
scale  is  that  of  the  weaving  of  buri,  from  which  sleeping  mats,  hats, 
sacks,  etc.,  are  made.  The  delicacy  of  the  work  required  in  the  manu- 
facture of  these  articles  and  the  firmness  of  texture  are  truly  admira- 
ble. The  industries  which  are  without  doubt  of  greatest  importance 
are  the  production  of  rice,  wines,  and  sugar.  Commerce,  wholesale 
and  retail,  is  carried  on  by  the  Chinese,  as  in  the  rest  of  the  archipel- 
ago, and  this  industry  necessitates  the  employment  of  a  large  number 
of  small  boats  engaged  in  transportation.  The  province  of  Panga- 
sinan  is  rich  in  gum.  In  its  forests  are  an  abundance  of  woods,  some  of 
very  fine  quality  and  useful  for  the  construction  of  ships,  as  is  shown 
in  the  small  boats  constructed  there,  which,  according  to  the  best  opin- 
ion, are  most  seaworthy.  This  province  is  not  less  favored  by  nature 
in  the  matter  of  minerals.  Common  salt  is  so  abundant  that  it  has 
given  its  name  to  the  province,  as  ' '  Pangasinan"  signifies  the  place 
where  salt  is  made.  Gold  and  copper  are  obtained  by  the  Igorrotes, 
who  market  these  products  in  the  towns. 

The  railroad  from  Manila  to  Dagupan  traverses  this  province,  pass- 
ing through  the  important  towns  of  Ba3^ambang,  Malasiqui,  San 
Carlos,  Calasiao,  and  Dagupan.  Roads  traverse  the  province  in  all 
directions  and  unite  the  towns  with  each  other  and  with  Nueva  Ecija 
by  way  of  San  Quintin,  with  Union  by  way  of  San  Fabian  and  Santo 
Tomas,  with  Tarlac  by  way  of  Paniqui  and  Bayatin,  and  finally  with 
Zambales  by  way  of  Sual  and  Alos. 



The  province  of  Nueva  Ecija  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  province 
of  Nueva  Viscaya  and  the  district  or  comandancia  of  Principe,  on  the 
south  by  the  provinces  of  Bulacan  and  Morong,  on  the  east  by  the 
Pacific  and  the  district  of  Infanta,  and  on  the  west  by  the  provinces 
of  Pampanga,  Tarlac,  and  Pangasinan.  The  country  is  somewhat 
broken,  and  all  is  fertile,  making  it  suitable  to  the  cultivation  of  all 
kinds  of  products  on  account  of  the  great  variety  of  mountains  and 


It  has  an  area  of  6,610  square  kilometers,  inhabited  by  156,610 
registered  people.  Both  the  civilized  and  pagan  inhabitants  are  of 
various   races.     Among  the  former   the  greater  part  are  Tagalog, 

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r  (^— YOL  3 — 01 4 

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especially  in  the  southern  part;  toward  the  north  and  northeast  there 
are  a  great  many  Pangasinanes  and  Ilocanos;  in  the  west,  a  large 
number  of  Pampangos.  The  pagans,  not  registered,  inhabit  the  central 
part  of  the  heights  of  the  Caraballo  Mountains,  and  are  Igorrotes, 
Balugas  or  Negritos,  Ibilaos  or  Ilongotes. 


The  head  town  is  San  Isidro,  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Rio 
Grande  de  Pampanga,  and  has  a  population  of  6,900;  it  has  a  good 
church  and  some  well-built  houses.  Commencing  on  the  north,  the 
towns  of  most  importance  are  as  follows:  San  Quintin,  near  the  Panga- 
sinan  boundary,  with  a  population  of  6,892;  Carranglan,  near  thesource 
of  the  Rio  Grande  de  Pampanga,  1,000;  Viningan,  to  the  south  of  San 
Quintin,  8,502;  Rosales,  to  the  west  of  Viningan,  5,016;  Pantabangan, 
to  the  southeast  of  Carranglan,  1,200;  Cuyapo,  to  the  south  of  Rosales, 
16,325;  Bongabon,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Rio  Grande,  5,707;  Talavera, 
to  the  west  of  Bongabon,  7,400;  Cabanatuan,  to  the  south  of  Talavera, 
near  the  left  bank  of  the  Rio  Grande,  11,500;  Aliaga,  to  the  west  of 
Cabanatuan,  23,890;  Taen,  a  short  distance  from  San  Isidro,  toward 
the  northeast,  5,524;  Gapan,  east  of  San  Isidro,  20,000  (the  largest 
town  of  the  province,  famous  for  the  excellent  quality  of  the  tobacco 
which  is  grown  in  the  vicinity);  San  Antonio,  west  of  San  Isidro, 
7,000;  Penaranda,  northeast  of  Gapan,  5,600;  Cabiao,  toward  the 
south,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Rio  Grande,  8,000.  There  is  a  total  of 
25  towns  and  118  villages.  Many  of  the  pagans  who  dwell  in  the 
mountains  are  absolutely  independent,  without  any  sort  of  civil  control. 


In  the  south  Tagalog  is  spoken ;  in  the  north  and  northwest  Pangasi- 
nan  and  Ilocano;  in  the  west  Pampango  and  Pangasinan,  although 
Ilocano  and  Tagalog  are  somewhat  known.  The  pagans  speak  their 
respective  languages,  and  only  those  who  trade  with  the  Christian 
natives  understand  Tagalog,  or  Ilocano,  or  Pangasinan. 


The  waters  diverted  from  the  mountains  form  a  multitude  of  creeks, 
which  by  themselves,  and  united  i^n  large  rivers,  such  as  the  Coronel 
Grande,  Chico,  Managsac,  etc. ,  flooS  during  their  frequent  overflows  and 
fertilize  the  fields  with  the  mud  brought  down  by  their  currents.  The 
soil  is  fertile  and  well  suited  to  the  cultivation  of  the  best  and  richest 
products  of  the  country.  In  the  central  part  and  to  the  south  rice 
is  raised  in  abundance,  more  than  500,000  ca vanes  being  exported 
annually.  This  constitutes  the  principal  product;  also  large  quantities 
of  corn  are  raised.  Along  the  river  banks  tobacco  is  cultivated, 
although  in  less  quantity  than  formerly,  on  account  of  the  deprecia- 
tion in  price  which  the  renowned  tobacco  of  Gapan  has  suffered  since 
the  monopoly,  although  it  has  the  highest  price  among  the  natives. 
Su^ar  cane  is  easily  produced,  and  some  plantations,  where  its  culti- 
vation is  of  genuine  importance,  are  provided  with  steam  machinery 
for  manufacturing  and  refining,  and  with  stills  for  the  extraction  of 

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In  the  north  there  are  some  magnificent  lands  under  irrigation, 
where  rice  is  cultivated;  others  are  suitable  for  chocolate  an*d  coffee, 
the  fine  quality  of  the  latter  being  shown  by  that  which  is  gathered  in 
the  village  of  Mariquit;  and,  finally,  in  the  central  part  of  the  province, 
there  are  magnificent  grazing  lands,  where  the  greater  part  of  the 
cattle,  which  constitute  the  peculiar  wealth  of  the  province,  are  pas- 
tured. Along  the  Pacific  coast  hemp  grows  spontaneously  in  abundance 
and  is  of  superior  quality.  The  forests  in  the  level  part  of  the  coun- 
try are  almost  all  cut  off,  but  in  the  mountainous  regions  are  rich  in 
the  number  and  variety  of  their  woods,  those  useful  in  cabinetmaking 
being  as  abundant  as  those  ordinarily  used  in  the  construction  of  the 
modest  dwellings  of  the  natives.  During  the  diy  season  almost  the 
entire  province  can  be  traveled  over  in  carriages.  There  is  connnunica- 
tion  with  the  province  of  Bulacan  by  means  of  the  road  to  San  Isidro, 
and  Gapan  to  Balnarte,  in  Bulacan,  and  Penaranda  and  Mayonloc,  in 
Bulacan;  with  Nueva  Viscaya  by  way  of  Carranglan  to  Aritao,  in 
Nueva  Viscaya;  with  Pangasinan  from  Rosales  to  Villasis,  and  from 
San  Quintin  to  Tayug;  with  Tar  lac  from  Cuyapo  to  Paniqui,  from 
Aliaga  to  LaPaz,  and  from  San  Juan  to  Victoria. 


Boundaries  and  General  Conditions  of  the  Country.  Area  and  Inhabi- 
tants, Towns,  Languages,  Products,  Industry,  Commerce  and  Ways  of 


This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Pangasinan,  on  the  south 
by  Pampanga,  on  the  east  by  Nueva  Ecija,  and  on  the  west  by  Zain- 
bales.  The  countiy  is  level  near  the  sea  and  mountainous  on  the  west, 
and  in  part  volcanic,  where  it  is  calcareous,  argillaceous,  sandy,  and 
capped  with  loam;  and  on  the  west  of  the  mountain  chain  of  Zambales 
calcareous  and  fossil  if  erous,  hav^ing  considerable  elevation  above  the 
level  of  the  sea. 


The  province  has  an  area  of  2,277  square  kilometers,  and  a  regis- 
tered population  of  89,839.  The  inhabitants,  for  the  greater  part, 
belong  to  the  same  races  as  those  in  Pangasinam  and  Pampanga. 


The  capital  is  Tarlac,  situated  not  far  from  the  source  of  the  river  of 
this  name,  a  branch  of  the  Agno.  It  has  a  population  of  12,700.  The 
towns  of  most  importance  are:  Paniqui,  on  the  right  bank  of  the  river 
Agno,  with  11,200  inhabitants;  Gerona,  to  the  north  of  Tarlac,  with 
9,600;  Victoria,  to  the  northeast  of  Tarlac,  near  Lake  Canaren,  with 
12,645;  LaPaz,  near  the  Rio  Chico  de  la  Pampanga,  to  the  southeast 
of  Tarlac,  with  1,721;  Concepcion,  to  the  south  of  Tarlac,  with  18,671, 
and  Capas,  near  to  Concepcion,  with  about  8,865  inhabitants.  San 
Miguel  de  Camiligg,  Santa  Ignacia,  and  Mariones  are  towns  situated 
between  the  Tarlac  River  and  the  mountain  chain  of  Zambales,  and  are 
well  populated,  especially  San  Miguel,  which,  according  to  some 
authors,  has  a  population  of  18,000.  The  total  number  of  towns  is 
17,  and  of  villages,  59. 

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Pampanga  is  spoken  in  the  south  and  Pangasinan  in  the  north.     In 
the  vicinity  of  Gerona,  Ilocano  is  spoken  a  great  deal. 

This  province  contains  forest  wealth  of  a  great  deal  of  importance, 
and  very  easy  to  utilize,  on  account  of  the  proximity  of  the  rivers  to 
the  forests  containing  useful  trees.  La  Paz  and  Concepcion  contain 
more  than  150  square  kilometers  of  very  valuable  woods,  such  as  narra, 
acle,  ambiongo,  juyo,  ipil,  and  others.  Near  the  mountain  towns  of 
Camiling  and  Morriones,  near  the  mountain  chain  of  Zambales,  there  is 
an  abundance  of  molave  and  other  building  woods.  Agricultural  prod- 
ucts form  the  principal  richness  of  this  province,  the  most  important 
being  rice.  Next  in  importance  comes  sugar,  above  all  in  the  vicinity 
of  Concepcion.  The  main  road  of  the  north  traverses  the  province 
from  north  to  south,  branching  toward  the  principal  towns.  The  rail- 
road traverses  the  country  also,  almost  parallel  to  the  road,  passing 
through  the  towns  of  Bam  ban,  Capas,  Tarlac,  Gerona,  Paniqui,  and 
Moncada.  The  province  is  connected  with  Nueva  Ecija  by  the  road 
from  Concepcion  to  Arayan,  that  from  Tarlac  to  San  Vicinte,  that 
from  Victoria  to  San  Juan  de  Guimba,  and  that  from  Paniqui  to 
Cayapo.  It  is  connected  with  Pangasinan  by  the  road  from  Painiqui 
to  Bayambong,  by  both  the  road  and  the  railroad;  by  the  latter  from 
Camiling  to  Mangatorem  and  Bayambong;  and  with  Pampanga  by  the 
railroad  and  the  wagon  road  from  Capas  and  Concepcion  to  Masapinit. 


This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Tarlac  and  Nueva  Ecija, 
on  the  south  by  the  bay  of  Manila  and  the  province  of  Bataan,  on 
the  east  by  the  province  of  Bulacan,  and  on  the  west  by  Zambales. 
The  country  is  mountainous  in  the  western  part  and  near  the  boundary 
of  Zambales,  where,  besides  the  dividing  range,  is  that  of  Mabanga, 
just  east  of  Porac.  There  are  other  mountain  groups  to  the  east  of 
Magalang,  near  the  boundary  of  Tarlac.  The  central  part  of  the 
province  is  flat.  To  the  south  is  a  multitude  of  canals  and  estuaries, 
which  may  be  seen  in  detail  in  map  No.  25  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philip- 


Pampanga  has  an  area  of  about  2,208  square  kilometers,  inhabited 
by  223,902  registered  people.  The  great  majority  of  these  are  Pam- 
pangos,  a  peculiar  and  distinguished  race  among  all  of  those  in  the 
archipelago.  There  are  a  few  Ilocanos;  in  the  mountains  there  are 
some  Negritos  or  Aetas,  called  Balugas  in  the  language  of  Pampanga. 


The  capital  is  Bacolor,  situated  on  a  plane  on  the  right  bank 
of  the  Elver  Betis,  and  has  a  population  of  17,100.  It  has  some 
well-constructed  houses,  such  as  the  church,  the  convent,  the  gov- 

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ernment  house,  and  the  magnificent  court-house.  It  has  a  simple 
monument  erected  to  the  memory  of  Anda  y  Salazar.  There  are  other 
towns  which  compare  favorably  with  the  capital  in  population  and  in 
the  number  and  beauty  of  its  buildings,  such  as  San  Fernando,  Lubao, 
Arayat,  Macabebe,  San  Luis,  Mexico,  and  Candaba,  which  each  have 
more  than  14,000  inhabitants;  Apalit,  Mabalacat,  which  exceed  1,000 
each;  Angeles,  Guagua,  Magalang,  which  exceed  9,000  each;  Porac, 
San  Simon,  and  Santa  Ana,  which  exceed  7,000,  and,  finally,  Betis, 
Santa  Rita,  Santo  Tomas,  and  Minalin,  which  each  have  more  than 
5,000  inhabitants.  There  is  a  total  of  25  towns,  328  villages,  and  297 


Pampango,  their  own  language,  is  used  exclusive!}^  in  the  province. 
The  few  natives  of  other  races  in  the  province,  and  also  the  Balugas, 
who  come  down  to  the  towns  to  trade,  understand  and  speak  Pampango. 


The  principal  products  of  the  province  are  sugar,  rice,  corn,  some 
indigo,  sweet  potatoes,  gabe,  tobacco,  and  cotton.  The  value  of  these 
products  is  estimated  at  11,210,000,  more  or  less.  Woods  are  scarce; 
nevertheless  the  towns  of  Floridablanca,  Porac,  Magalang,  and  Arayat 
produce  some,  and  their  value,  with  bamboo  and  palms,  reaches  $182,- 
380.  There  are  no  mines.  Statistics  in  regard  to  industries  were  as 
follows  a  few  years  ago:  Steam  machinery  for  evaporating  sugar,  1; 
alcohol  stills,  8;  sugar  mills,  hydraulic,  31;  steam,  177;  hand-power, 
445;  stone  mills,  365;  pottery  factories,  9;  looms,  12,577;  belt  fac- 
tories, 1;  carriage  shops,  15;  shoe  shops,  6;  carpenter  shops,  8.  In 
Bacolor,  San  Fernando,  Guagua,  Angeles,  Apalit,  and  Arayat  whole- 
sale and  retail  groceries  exist,  and  in  San  Fernando  and  Guagua,  drug 
stores.  In  all  the  towns  of  the  province  carriages  may  be  hired. 
Commerce  is  carried  on  in  manufactured  nipa,  firewood  (called  bacuan), 
sugar,  hone}^,  indigo,  woods,  sacks,  sleeping  mats,  lime,  tobacco.,  and 
rice.  Grazing  is  an  industry  very  much  neglected  in  this  province, 
not  because  of  lack  of  land,  but  on  account  of  the  lack  of  pasturage. 
Fisheries^  are  of  value,  and  if  in  this  province  this  branch  has  not 
reached  the  point  of  importance  that  it  has  in  other  provinces,  it  is 
growing,  and  has  a  value  already  of  $13,950.  And  finally  it  should  be 
added  that  there  exist  two  telegraph  stations — one  in  San  Fernando 
and  one  in  Bacolor,  the  first  with  limited  service  and  the  second  with 
complete  service,  the  chief  of  the  line  residing  in  the  latter  place.  To 
the  port  of  Guagua  a  steamer  runs  every  day. 

The  province  is  divided  into  two  parts — the  high  and  the  low — in  the 
first  of  which  the  air  is  very  pure  and  the  water  excellent,  the  tempera- 
ture being  cool  and  healthful.  In  the  lowlands,  where  rice  is  by  prefer- 
ence grown,  there  is  much  humidity,  greater  heat,  and  it  is  less  healthful. 
This  is  especially  true  of  towns  located  in  sandy  regions,  these  includ- 
ing the  principal  towns  of  the  province.  All  of  the  towns  have  inte- 
rior communication  by  wagon  road  and  paths,  and  water  communication 
between  the  towns  of  Bacolor,  Betis,  Guagua,  Sexinoan,  Lubao,  San 
Miguel,    Macabebe,    Minalin,    Santo    Tomas,    Apalit,    San   Simeon, 

^  Plate  9  represents  the  methods  used  by  the  natives  in  fishing  in  the  rivers. 

Hosted  by  VjOOQIC 

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Hosted  by 



San  Luis,  Arrayat,  Candaba,  and  San  Fernando,  and  also  with  the 
provinces  of  Manila,  Cavite,  Bulacan,  Tarlac,  Niieva  Ecija,  and  Batuan; 
and  by  the  aforesaid  wagon  roads  with  the  same  provinces,  with  the 
exception  of  Cavite.  The  railroad  cuts  the  province  from  south- 
east to  northwest,  and  has  been  the  cause  of  a  notable  development  of 
its  industry  and  commerce.  The  line  passes  through  important  towns, 
such  as  Apalit,  Santo  Tomas,  San  Fernando,  Calulut,  Angeles,  and 
Mabalacat,  near  the  boundary  of  Tarlac. 


This  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Nueva  Ecija,  on  the  south 
by  Manila  and  the  Bay  of  Manila,  on  the  east  by  the  districts  of  Morong 
and  Infanta,  and  on  the  west  by  Pampanga.  The  country  is  m  great 
part  flat,  covered  with  a  rich  vegetation,  which  forms  extensive  forests 
of  fruit  trees.  These  form  an  arch  over  many  roads.  Some  call  this 
province  ''the  garden  of  the  Philippines."  This  province  was  for- 
merly called  Neicanayan,  because  the  town  of  that  name  was  the  capital. 
The  cave  of  Biac-na-bato,  of  which  a  good  idea  is  given  in  plate  12,  is 
very  famous. 


The  province  has  an  area  of  2,965  square  kilometers.  There  are 
239,221  registered  inhabitants,  almost  all  of  them  being  of  the  Tagalog 


The  capital,  Bulacan,  has  a  population  of  14,000.  It  contains  well- 
constructed  houses  and  a  beautiful  church.  There  is  a  monument 
dedicated  to  the  memory  of  the  celebrated  botanist,  P.  Blanco,  of  the 
order  of  Saint  Augustine.  Its  streets  and  driveways  are  both  beautiful 
and  wide.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  towns  is  Baliuag,  which  has  a 
population  of  about  20,000.  It  is  traversed  by  the  river  Quingua,  has 
wide  streets  and  in  the  square  has  a  celebrated  market  weekly.  At 
this  place  hats  and  patacas  of  the  finest  quality  are  made.  Qumgua,  to 
the  north  of  Bulacan,  with  a  population  of  6,714,  is  a  celebrated  health 
resort,  noted  for  the  baths  in  the  crystal  waters  of  the  river.  Angat, 
to  the  northeast  of  Bulacan,  has  a  population  of  6,630.  In  the  moun- 
tains are  found  abundant  iron  mines  and  beautiful  building  woods- 
ebony,  palotinto,  sivucao,  etc.  The  iron  pots  and  kettles  so  much 
used  in  the  country  are  manufactured  here.  San  Miguel  de  Mayumo, 
with  16,865  inhabitants,  is  noted  for  its  iron  mines  and  the  famous 
springs  of  Sibul,  where  so  many  are  cured  of  their  infirmities.  Malolos, 
in  the  northwest  of  Bulacan,  has  a  population  of  13,426.  ^  Hagonoy,  on 
the  seacoast  near  the  boundary  Pampanga,  has  a  population  of  20,900. 
Calumpit  has  a  population  of  15,900.  Maria,  San  Eafael,  and  ban 
Isidro  are  towns  of  more  than  10,000.  Meycauayan,  Polo,  Obando, 
and  SantL  Isabel  have  more  than  9,000  inhabitants.  There  is  a  total 
of  25  towns,  360  villages,  and  365  hamlets. 


Tagalog  is  generally  spoken. 

Hosted  by 




This  province  is  under  perfect  cultivation  and  produces  abundant 
crops  of  rice  and  corn,  large  quantities  of  sugar,  indigo,  beneseed, 
chocolate,  coffee,  and  all  kinds  of  fruits  and  vegetables.  There  are 
excellent  woods  in  the  mountains,  among  these  sibucao.  Besides 
these  there  are  gum,  ginger,  tingantaangan,  from  which  oil  for  lamps 
is  extracted;  the  castor  bean,  for  the  manufacture  of  oil  for  medicinal 
purposes;  balao,  from  which  varnish  is  made,  and  large  numbers  of 
nipa  palms,  for  the  manufacture  of  alcohol.  Hat  making  is  the  prin- 
cipal industry,  there  being  an  extensive  hat  market  in  Baliuag.  The 
finest  quality  of  petacas  de  nito,  which  have  been  given  premiums  in 
international  expositions  and  which  are  celebrated  in  all  the  principal 
cities  of  Europe,  are  manufactured  here.  Cotton  cloth,  sinamay,  and 
other  fabrics  are  also  manufactured. 

In  the  town  of  Angat  there  is  an  abundance  of  iron  ore  quite  unde- 
velopedr  Magnetic  ore,  coal,  copper,  lead,  and  silver  are  found,  and 
in  the  beds  of  the  rivers  some  gold.  There  are  good  quarries  where 
slate  and  flint  are  found.  The  province  is  but  5  leagues  from  Manila. 
There  is  a  daily  steamer  direct  to  Manila  and  a  well-preserved  road 
going  by  land.  From  Bulacan  to  Baliuag  it  is  30  kilometers,  to  Hago- 
noi  18,  to  San  Miguel  de  Mayumo  17,  to  San  Jose  28,  to  Meycauayan 
about  20.  The  province  communicates  by  railroad  and  wagon  road 
with  Pampanga,  by  wagon  road  from  San  Miguel  to  Polo  in  Nueva 
Ecija,  and  also  to  Peiiaranda,  also  in  Nueva  Ecija.  Both  the  railroad 
and  wagon  road  connect  it  with  Manila.  The  railroad  runs  through 
the  western  part  of  the  province,  passing  through  the  towns  of  Polo, 
Meycauayan,  Marillao,  Bocaue,  Bigaa,  (luiguinto,  Malolos,  and 


This  comandancia  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Nueva  Ecija  and  the 
district  of  Principe,  on  the  south  by  Tayabas,  on  the  east  by  the 
Pacific,  and  on  the  west  by  the  provinces  of  Morong,  Laguna,  and 
Manila.  It  is  a  strip  of  country  very  narrow,  especially  toward  the 
south,  in  the  region  between  the  sea  and  the  mountain  chain  of  Bana- 
tangan,  which  separates  it  from  Buacan  and  Morong.  This  mountain 
range  throws  off  spurs  toward  the  sea,  and  between  these  are  small 
rivers.  Along  the  coast  east  of  Binangonan  there  is  a  peninsula,  the 
coasts  of  which  are  almost  unknown.  A  canal  separates  this  from  the 
mainland,  thus  converting  it  into  an  island,  which  terminates  in  Point 
Inaguican.  To  the  south  there  is  another  peninsula,  which  terminates 
in  Point  Tactigan,  to  the  west  of  which  is  the  famous  royal  port, 


The  total  area,  including  Polillo  and  the  adjacent  islands,  is  2,194 
square  kilometers.     There  are  7,100  registered  inhabitants,  the  greater 

Sart  being  Tagalog.     In  the  mountains  there  are  some  hamlets  of 
[egritos,  who,  refusing  to  be  subdued,  wander  about  in  the  mountains 
of  Binangonan. 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 




The  principal  and  almost  the  only  town,  Binangonan  de  Lampon,  is 
situated  about  3  kilometers  from  the  sea.  It  has  an  excellent  port, 
called  the  royal  port,  and  is  the  ancient  Lampon  so  well  known  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  because  it  was  then  the  depository  of  the  galleons 
and  the  wealth  of  Manila,  as  it  was  considered  a  safer  way  of  communica- 
tion with  new  Spain  than  by  way  of  the  narrow  strait  of  San  Bernardino. 
There  are  two  other  ports,  Santa  Monica  and  Misna,  completely  neg- 
lected at  the  present  time,  the  same  being  true  of  the  royal  port. 
Binangonan  has  a  population  of  9,096. 


Tagalog  is  spoken,  and  is  understood  and  spoken  also  by  the  few 
Negritos  who  wander  about  in  the  mountains  and  come  down  to  the 
plains  to  trade. 


There  are  fine  woods  in  the  mountains,  but  they  are  not  worked,  on 
account  of  the  difficulty  in  transporting  them.  The  area  of  land  under 
cultivation  is  less  than  1  square  kilometer,  this  being  devoted  to  rice. 
Other  products  are  the  cocoanut,  chocolate,  and  coffee.  The  only 
industry  is  the  manufacture  of  nipa  wine  at  Binangonan.  There  were 
formerly  other  establishments  of  this  kind  and  factories  for  the  manu- 
facture of  cocoanut  oil,  but  these  industries  were  paralyzed  by  the 
injuries  wrought  by  the  hurricane  of  1882.  The  precipitous  character 
of  the  country,  and  the  mountains  and  rivers  which  must  be  crossed, 
render  the  construction  of  good  roads  impossible,  except  at  a  cost  not 
warranted  by  the  commerce  of  this  region.  The  footpath  which  leads 
to  the  town  of  Sinaloan,  in  the  Laguna  province,  is  the  only  one  which 
exists  for  the  use  of  mail  carriers  and  travelers. 



The  island,  which  is  situated  in  front  of  the  comandancia  of  Infanta 
is  formed  of  a  central  mountain  of  medium  height  and  is  covered  with 
forests.  It  has  the  shape  of  a  right-angle  triangle  whose  sides  north 
and  east,  broken  by  bays  and  openings,  are  on  the  north  unbroken  and 
inaccessible.  The  east  coast  is  fringed  with  islands  and  dangerous 
reefs.  On  the  west  coast  the  water  is  deep,  except  in  front  of  the 
port  of  Polillo,  where  there  is  an  extensive  reef,  which,  extending 
from  southeast  to  southwest  parallel  with  the  island,  forms  a  narrow 
canal,  open  on  the  northwest  with  a  depth  from  25  to  28  meters,  which 
leads  to  the  port  of  Polillo. 


The  town  of  Polillo  is  a  fair  port,  but  little  used  and  dangerous  on 
account  of  the  reefs.  It  has  a  population  of  1,700,  almost  all  of 
the  Tagalog  race. 

Hosted  by 




The  commerce  of  the  island  of  Polillois  confined  to  the  sale  of  balate 
and  wax,  which  are  collected  in  considerable  quantities.  Coal  and  other 
minerals  are  found  in  this  island,  but  on  account  of  the  cost  of  extrac- 
tion they  are  not  worked. 


The  rocky  island  of  Tumalic,  to  the  southeast  of  Polillo,  is  of  no 
importance  and  is  uninhabited.  To  the  south  of  Polillo  is  Baleguin,  a 
little  island  of  no  importance.  To  the  east  of  Polillo  there  is  a  group 
of  uninhabited  islands.  The  principal  of  these  are  Palasan,  Malagui- 
nan,  Cadungeoen,  Iguicon,  and  Patnanonagan,  the  largest  of  the  group. 

Hosted  by 


THE    CENTER   OF   I^UZOl^    (B). 

[Map  No.  9  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 



This  province  is  a  peninsula,  united  on  the  north  with  Zambales  and 
Pampanga.  It  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  Bay  of  Manila,  on  the 
southeast  by  the  Boca-chica  of  this  bay,  and  on  the  west  and  south- 
west by  the  China  Sea.  The  country  is  mountainous,  but  in  the 
southern  extremity,  where  the  Mariveles  Range  rises,  there  are  exten- 
sive plains.  The  rivers  are  of  small  size  and  navigable  only  for  small 
boats.  The  province  is  10  leagues  in  length  from  north  to  south  and 
8  in  width  from  east  to  west.  Only  one-sixth  of  the  area  of  the  prov- 
ince is  under  cultivation. 


The  area  is  1,264  square  kilometers.  There  are  50,761  registered 
inhabitants,  the  most  of  them  Tagalogs.  In  the  towns  to  the  north- 
east there  are  many  Pampangos.  In  the  mountains  there  are  many 
Negritos,  the  most  of  them  leading  an  erratic  life.  Very  few  of  these 
live  in  villages,  and  fewer  still  are  registered  in  the  civil  records. 


The  capital  is  Balanga,  a  beautiful  place  with  an  excellent  church. 
The  public  square  is  beautiful  and  the  streets  straight  and  wide.  The 
principal  buildings  are  the  government  house,  the  city  hall,  and  the 
prison.  The  population  is  9,000.  Other  important  towns  are  Moron, 
to  the  extreme  west,  with  a  population  of  3,000;  Dinalupijan,  to  the 
north,  2,600;  Hermosa,  to  the  south  of  Dinalupijan,  3,000;  Oreni,  to 
the  south  of  Hermosa,  6,600;  Samal,  to  the  south  of  Oreni,  4,500; 
Albucay,  to  the  north  of  Balanga,  7,000;  Orion,  to  the  south-southeast 
of  Balanga,  7,600;  Mariveles,  on  the  port  of  the  same  name  near  the 
entrance  of  the  bay,  2,000.    There  are  12  towns  and  8  Negrito  villages. 


Most  of  the  civilized  natives  speak  Tagalog,  although  some  speak 
Pampango.  The  Negritos,  who  come  down  to  trade,  understand  and 
speak  either  one  or  the  other  of  these  languages. 

p  G — VOL  3 — 01 5 

Hosted  by 




The  products  are  rice  in  abundance,  sugar  cane,  indigo,  beneseed,  and 
different  kinds  of  fruits.  There  are  but  few  industries.  In  the  town  of 
Oreni  there  is  a  pottery  shop,  where  jars  for  sugar  and  alcohol  are  made. 
In  Abucay,  a  brickyard;  in  Balanga,  two  alcohol  distilleries,  and 
another  in  Pilar.  On  the  road  from  Oreni  to  Hermosa  there  is  a  place 
called  Lamina,  where  bolos  (knives)  are  made.  In  the  mountains 
there  are  quarries  of  valuable  marble  and  white  and  red  jasper  marked 
with  wavy  lines.  As  the  forests  constitute  one  of  the  principal  sources 
of  wealth,  Manila,  Bulacan,  and  other  adjacent  provinces  look  to  this 
province  for  woods  for  the  construction  uf  large  and  small  boats  and 
for  building.  The  towns  of  the  province  are  united  by  wagon  roads. 
The  principal  one  of  these  runs  along  the  coast  of  the  bay  from 
Dinalupijan  to  Mariveles,  bifurcating  at  Balanga  in  the  direction  of 
Moron  and  Bagac,  on  the  coast  of  the  China  Sea.  Communication 
with  Manila  is  by  water;  with  Zambales  by  land;  from  Moron  and 
Dinalupijan  to  Santa  Rita,  and  with  Pampanga  by  way  of  Florida- 


At  the  mouth  of  the  Orani  River  is  the  island  of  Tuba-tuba.  ^  This 
island  is  covered  with  trees  and  is  often  overflowed  by  the  tide.  There 
are  other  small  islands  in  the  same  vicinity.  The  islands  at  the  entrance 
of  the  bay  will  be  described  when  the  island  of  Correjidor  is  discussed. 


As  this  is  the  most  important  province  of  the  archipelago,  it  will  be 
discussed  at  length.  This  province,  which  was  formerly  called  Pondo, 
IS  in  central  Luzon,  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Bulacan,  on  the 
south  by  Cavite,  on  the  east  by  the  province  and  lake  of  Laguna, 
and  on  the  west  by  the  bay  of  Manila.  Although  one  of  the  smallest 
of  the  provinces,  having  a  circumference  of  not  more  than  98  kilo- 
meters, it  is,  nevertheless,  one  of  the  most  populous,  having  500,000  ^ 
inhabitants,  divided  among  28  parishes. 


The  city  of  Manila,  founded  in  1571,  is  the  capital  of  the  province 
and  of  the  archipelago.  Here  are  located  the  residence  of  the  gov- 
ernor-general, that  of  the  archbishop,  the  metropolitan  of  all  the 
islands,  the  supreme  court  of  Manila,  the  departments  of  dvil 
administration  and  of  the  treasury,  the  civil  governor  and  municipal 
government  of  Manila,  the  military  department,  the  department  of 
military  and  civil  engineers,  the*^  council  of  administration,  the 
reasury,  the  post-ofSce  and  telegraph  departments,  the  customs- 
house,  where  the  treasury  has  its  offices,  and  the  town  corporation. 
The  population  is  14,000.  The  city  has  been  fortified  since  1590,  its 
houses  all  being  of  solid  construction.  The  streets  are  quite  wide  and 
built  on  the  plan  in  accordance  with  the  idea  of  its  immortal  founder, 

'  Consult  the  introduction  in  regard  to  the  census. 

2  In  plates  11  and  12  we  give  a  view  of  Manila  taken  from  the  bay,  and  of  the 
walled  city  taken  the  day  after  the  terrible  fire  of  September  27,  1897. 

Hosted  by 



Legaspi,  with  such  art  that  one  side  of  the  street  is  always  in  the 
shade.  The  public  squares  and  the  neighborhood  are  adorned  with 
beautiful  gardens,  constantly  watered  by  fountains,  and  thanks  to  the 
immortal  Carriedo,  who  died  in  1743,  there  is  hardly  a  street  in  the 
entire  municipal  district  which  does  not  have  its  own  standpipe  to 
furnish  an  abundance  of  water  to  the  people  living^  in  the  vicinity. 
Communication  between  the  most  distant  points  within  the  municipal 
radius  and  the  city  is  facilitated  by  the  telephone  system,  having 
436,549  metres  of  'wire,  and  the  street  railway  system,  which  runs 
through  the  principal  streets  of  the  city  and  its  suburbs,  covering  a 
distance  of  about  17,200  meters. 


The  cathedral  has  been  restored,  following  the  Komano-Byzantine 
style  of  architecture.  There  are  also  in  Manila  four  convents,  with 
spacious  churches,  belonging  to  the  religious  orders  of  San  Augustin, 
San  Francisco,  Santo  Domingo,  and  the  Recoletos  of  San  Augustin. 
Also  the  residence  and  church  of  San  Ignatio,  belonging  to  the  Jesuits, 
the  mission  church  of  the  Capuchins,  the  convent  and  church  belong- 
ing to  the  religious  order  of  Santa  Clara,  and  the  Church  of  the  Third 


There  is  a  seminary  in  charge  of  the  Faulist  friars.  A  university  in 
charge  of  the  Domhiicans  confers  the  degrees  of  licentiate  and  doctor  in 
theology,  and  of  licentiate  in  civil  law,  medicine,  and  pharmacy.  The 
college  of  San  Juan  de  Letran,  in  charge  of  the  Dominicans,  is  an 
institution  of  primary  and  secondary  instruction.  Another  subsidized 
by  the  civil  government,  called  the  Ateneo  Municipal,  is  in  charge  of  the 
Jesuits.  In  both  of  these  studies  applicable  to  commerce  and  industry 
are  pursued  and  degrees  are  given  as  bachelor  of  arts  or  mercantile  or 
mechanical  experts.  A  normal  school  for  teachers,  founded  by  royal 
order  in  1865,  and  elevated  to  higher  grade  by  royal  order  of  1894,  is 
an  institution  of  primary  instruction  and  is  in  the  care  of  the  Jesuits. 
In  all  of  these  colleges  the  pupils  are  divided  into  two  classes,  resident 
and  nonresident,  except  in  the  seminary,  where  they  are  all  residents. 
There  are  besides  in  the  capital  the  Naval  School,  the  School  of  Arts 
and  Trades,  which  has  combined  with  it  the  old  Academy  of  Design, 
and  the  School  of  Agriculture.  This  institution  publishes  the  Official 
Gazette,  the  Ecclesiastical  Bulletin  of  the  archbishopric  of  Manila, 
and  various  daily  papers  and  reviews.  For  the  education  of  girls  there 
are,  first,  the  College  of  Santa  Isabel,  which  has  united  with  the  old 
College  of  Santa  Potenciana,  both  of  remote  foundation;  second,  the 
College  of  Santa  Rosa  and  the  Municipal  School,  under  the  care  of  the 
Sisters  of  San  Vicente  de  Paul;  third,  the  College  of  Santa  Catalina,  in 
charge  of  the  Dominican  sisters,  and,  fourth,  the  Beaterio  of  the  Jesuits. 
Just  on  the  edge  of  the  city  is  the  College  of  the  Concepcion,  called  the 
Concordia,  and  that  of  Loban,  both  in  charge  of  the  Sisters  of  San 
Vicente  de  Paul:  and  about  a  league  from  Manila  is  the  orphan  asylum 
of  Nandaloyan,  under  the  direction  of  the  Augustin  nuns. 

Hosted  by 




Within  the  walled  city  is  a  large  civil  hospital;  outside  a  military 
hospital  and  the  Hospicio  of  San  Jose.  The  Sisters  of  Charity  serve 
in  all  of  these.  There  is  also  a  leper  hospital;  also  a  government 
pawn  shop.  There  is  a  large  jail  and  a  penitentiary  having  800 
inmates,  and  in  both  of  these  useful  trades  are  taught. 


Three  bridges — the  bridge  of  Spain,  the  Suspension  bridge,  and  the 
Ayala  bridge — span  the  Pasig  River  and  unite  the  city  with  its  popu- 
lous suburbs. 


This  is  the  most  important  suburb,  and  in  it  domestic  and  foreign 
commerce  are  centralized.  It  has  some  fine  buildings,  among  which 
may  be  mentioned  the  church,  the  Hotel  de  Oriente,  the  Spanish  bank, 
the  post-ofiice,  the  stores  along  the  Escolta,  and  others.  Its  streets  are 
wide  and  well  cared  for. 

This  populous  suburb  is  situated  to  the  north  of  Binondo.  Although 
it  has  many  nipa  houses,  their  construction  is  no  longer  permitted 
within  the  area  bounded  by  Divisoria  street.  Plate  18  gives  a  good 
idea  of  this  suburb  and  the  traffic  on  one  of  its  canals. 

The  other  suburbs  within  the  municipal  radius  are:  Trozo  or  San 
Jose,  Santa  Cruz,  Sampalog,  Quiapo,  San  Miguel,  Ermita,  Paco,  or 
San  Fernando  de  Dilao,  and  Arroceros.  San  Miguel  and  San  Sebas- 
tian are  noted  for  the  elegance  of  their  residences.  The  magnificent 
church  of  the  Recoletos  of  San  Augustin  is  located  in  San  Sebastian. 
San  Anton  and  Sampalog  contain  many  beautiful  houses  and  wide 
streets,  among  the  latter  being  the  wide  avenues  of  Iris  and  of  Alix. 
Ermita  also  should  be  mentioned  because  of  its  elegant  houses  of 
modern  construction,  and  the  magnificent  building  of  the  Normal 
School  and  the  observatory.  The  population  of  Manila  and  its  suburbs 
is  about  300,000. 


Among  the  most  important  are  the  following:  Malabon,  with  a  pop- 
ulation of  20,000,  which  is  connected  with  Manila  by  a  steam  tramway 
having  hourly  trains.  The  church  is  very  large;  it  has  two  fine 
towers.  A  sugar  refinery  is  located  here.  The  orphan  asylum  is 
under  the  direction  of  the  Augustin  friars.  The  principal  wealth  of 
the  town  is  in  its  fisheries.  Pasig,  a  town  of  20,900  inhabitants,  has, 
besides  its  church  and  convent,  many  fine  houses  and  a  school  for  the 
education  of  young  girls.  Bateros,  with  9,200  inhabitants,  is  notable 
for  the  peculiar  industry  of  duck  raising.  Immense  flocks  of  ducks 
are  raised  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  their  eggs,  which  are  much 
esteemed  by  the  natives.  Mariquina,  with  a  population  of  11,000,  is 
celebrated  because  of  an  iron  spring,  known  as  the  Chorrillo,  whose 
waters  have  cured  many  invalids.  Malate,  with  a  population  of  6,100, 
is  noted  for  its  many  beautiful  houses  recently  constructed.     Santa 

Hosted  by 



Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



Anna,  with  a  population  of  6,000,  is  known  on  account  of  the  fine 
laces  manufactured  by  the  native  woiiien.  San  Pedro  Macati  occupies 
a  picturesque  position  on  the  banks  of  the  Pasig. 


Besides  the  ordinary  products  of  the  country,  such  as  rice,  sugar 
cane,  corn,  etc.,  this  province  cultivates  and  e^xports  large  quantities 
of  betel,  a  plaAt  whose  aromatic  leaf  forms  the  principal  part  of  the 
buyo.  Pasay  is  a  town  which  devotes  itself  almost  entirely  to  this 
branch  of  agriculture. 


In  Manila  and  its  towns  there  are  many  establishments  for  the  man- 
ufacture of  tobacco,  ice,  thread,  cord,  and  rope,  iron  factories,  steam 
sawmills,  etc.  Commerce  in  copra,  which  promises  a  great  deal  in 
the  future,  consists  in  exporting  to  Europe  the  dried  meat  of  the 
cocoanut,  from  which  the*^  oil  is  afterwards  extracted.  Almost  all 
the  commerce  of  the  Philippines,  domestic  as  well  as  foreign,  is  car- 
ried on  through  Manila,  there  are  many  Spanish  and  foreign  houses 
which  have  branches  inthe  provinces. 


In  the  port  are  ships  from  all  the  nations  of  the  world  Many  of 
the  smaller  craft  anchor  within  the  river  in  order  to  facilitate  unload- 
ing. Daily  steamers  leave  for  various  parts  on  the  island  of  Luzon 
and  weekly  steamers  to  the  distant  provinces  and  to  China.  Thei  e  are 
Sonthty  subsidized  mail  steamers  for  all  points  in  the  archipelago 
and  for  Europe.  Manila  is  in  communication  by  wagon  road  and  rail- 
road with  the  provinces  of  Bulacan,  Pampanga,  farloc,  and  Pan 
gasina^;  by  water  with  the  Laguna  De  Bayand  the  provinces  bor- 
dering on  it,  and  by  sea  with  all  of  the  provinces  of  the  islands. 


The  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Bay  of  Manila,  on  the 
south  by  Batangas,  on  the  east  by  Batangas  and  Mam  a  and  on  the 
west  bv  the  China  Sea.  The  country  is  mountainous  at  some  8  kilo- 
mSL's'fiom  the":oast,  rising  gradually  fiw  the  sea.  ^ The  ™ost  -oun^ 
tainous  part  of  the  province  is  the  southwest  and  south,  where  the 
mountain  slopes  of  Sungay  are  found. 


The  province  has  an  area  of  1,348  square  kilometers  and  a  popula- 
tion of  134,569,  the  most  of  these  Tagalogs. 


The  capital  is  Cavite,  a  seaport  and  ortified  towm  Th«  Tagalos 
call  it  Cauit:  that  is  to  say,  fishhook,  which  is  the  shape  ^ken  by  the 
bay      It  is  united  to  the  island  by  a  narrow  isthmus,  w^ich  appears  to 

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be  artificial.  Cavite  is  also  called  "  the  port. "  The  streets  are  quite 
straight,  although  somewhat  narrow.  The  houses  are  of  masonry. 
There  is  a  fine  parochial  church,  two  convents,  and  a  fine  large  hospital. 
There  is  also  the  Sanctuary  of  Nuestra  Senora,  called  Porta  Baga,  a 
well-equipped  arsenal,  a  dockyard,  and  a  fair  dry  dock,  where  the 
shipping  of  the  archipelago  is  repaired  and  cleaned.  There  are  some 
tobacco  factories  of  importance;  steam,  hydraulic,  and  handmills  for 
the  manufacture  of  sugar,  sawmills,  soap  and  oil  factories,  and  distill- 
eries.    The  city  has  a  population  of  3,000. 

Other  towns  of  importance  are  Bacoor,  Cavite  Vicjo,  San  Roque, 
and  Caridad,  all  situated  on  the  Bay  of  Bacoor.  Caridada  has  a  popu- 
lation of  more  than  6,000,  San  Roque  11,500,  Cavite  Vicjo  9,800,  and 
Bacoor  13,600.  On  the  western  coast  are  Rosario  with  6,600,  Santa 
Cruz  with  7,600,  Naic  with  7,400,  and  Ternate  with  2,200  inhabitants. 

In  the  interior  toward  the  north  the  towns  of  most  importance  tare 
Imus  with  14,000,  Carmona  with  3,167,  San  Francisco  de  Malabon 
with  8,700  inhabitants;  in  the  central  part  of  the  province,  Dasnari- 
mas  with  3,500,  Silan  with  9,100,  Maragonbon  with  10,400,  Indan  with 
14,700  inhabitants,  and  in  the  south,  Bailin  with  4,189  and  Alfonso  with 
7,089.     There  is  a  total  of  22  towns  and  108  villages. 


Spanish  is  spoken  in  the  port  of  Cavite,  Estanzuela,  and  San  Roque, 
and  Tagalog  in  the  other  towns. 


The  soil  in  the  vicinity  of  the  lowland  towns  produces  rice  of  an  excel- 
lent quality,  which  is  greatly  esteemed  in  the  archipelago.  Coffee  of 
the  best  quality  is  gathered  in  Indan,  Silan,  and  Alfonso.  The  area 
under  cultivation  is  increasing  steadily.  Corn,  sugar  cane,  and  choco- 
late are  also  grown.  In  the  southwestern  region  there  are  fine  forests 
of  large  and  well-grown  trees,  whose  wood  is  serviceable  for  the  •con- 
struction of  ships  and  for  making  furniture.  There  is  excellent  hunt- 
ing in  the  province.  The  live  stock  in  the  province  includes  15,000 
buffalo  (carabaos),  9,000  cattle,  6,000  hogs,  and  5,000  horses.  The 
principal  industries  of  this  province  consist,  in  the  elevated  towns,  in 
the  manufacture  of  cloth  from  hemp  and  cotton  and  the  production  of 
sugar,  there  being  more  than  160  sugar  mills;  in  the  coast  towns  the 
fisheries,  the  manufacture  of  salt,  and  the  cultivation  of  rice.  Com- 
nierce  is  not  much  developed.  Cloth  and  hardware  are  imported,  and 
rice,  coffee,  sugar,  and  fish  exported.  There  are  good  roads  in  the 
province,  uniting  the  coast  towns,  but  many  of  these  are  impassable 
during  the  rainy  season.  Other  roads  cross  in  all  directions,  uniting 
the  principal  towns  and  villages.  Communication  with  Manila  is  by 
the  bay  and  by  land  along  the  road  following  the  coast;  with  Batangas 
by  the  road  from  Alfonso  to  Tuy,  and  with  the  Laguna  by  the  road 
from  Carmona  to  Binan. 




The  island  of   Corregidor,  lying  at  the  entrance  to   the  bay  of 
Manila,  has  on  the  north  the  strait  called  Boca-chica,  which  separates 

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it  from  Bataan;  on  the  southeast  the  Boca-grande,  fronting  on  the 
southwest  Cavite.  The  island  of  Corregidor  extends  from  west-south- 
west to  east-northeast  from  Point  Horadada  to  Point  Buri  for  a  dis- 
tance of  4  miles  in  greatest  length,  its  breadth  being  very  unequal  on 
account  of  the  irregularity  in  form.  Tt  is  2()i  miles  distant  from  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Pasig  of  Manila.  At  al)out  one-third  of  its  length 
there  is  a  low-lying,  narrow,  sandy  isthnuis  which  unites  two  high 
mountains.  The  eastern  partis  high,  while  the  western  part  g-radually 
rises  to  form  an  extensive  plateau,  which  is  the  highest  part  of  the 
island.  On  this  are  the  semaphore  and  light-house  of  the  port  of 
Manila.  In  general  all  of  the  western  part  of  the  island  is  composed  of 
elevated  crests  and  ])luffs,  frequently  cut  by  deep  fissures,  whose  bot- 
toms during  the  rainy  season  are  converted  into  so  many  ponds. 
Toward  the  northern  part  of  the  isthnuts,  on  a  little  bay  formed  by 
the  coast,  is  situated  the  town  of  San  Jose.  This  ba,y  offers  a  deep 
and  well-protected  anchorage  for  all  classes  of  ships  during  the  south- 
west and  northeast  monsoons.  There  is  a  good  anchorage  almost 
entirely  inclosed  formed  by  this  island  and  Pulo  Caballo,  which  is  a 
small  island  situated  to  the  northeast  of  the  central  part  of  Corregidor. 

This  island  also  has  a  light-house.  On  all  of  the  western  part  of 
the  island  there  is  an  abundant  supply  of  excellent  water  filtering" 
through  from  the  mountains,  and  three  springs,  which  at  all  times 
furnish  pure  water,  are  located  near  the  anchorage,  so  that  it  is  very 
easy  for  ships  to  procure  water  here.  The  climate  is  even,  temper- 
ate, and  in  general  very  healthful,  many  of  the  natives  reaching  old 
age.  This  island,  on  account  of  its  isolated  situation  and  its  healthful 
conditions,  seems  more  suitable  for  the  estal)lishment  of  a  sanitarium 
or  leper  hospital.  From  a  military  view  point  it  may  be  considered 
the  only  base  of  defense  of  the  iinportant  bay  of  Manila,  being  as 
suitable  for  a  torpedo  station  as  for  a  shelter  for  ships  designated  to 
defend  the  entrance,  its  elevation  making  it  a  good  outlook  station. 
The  soil  is  red  clay,  covered  with  great  rocks,  rendering  its  cultivation 
very  difficult.  The  subsoil  is  a  sandy  clay  rock,  soft  in  some  places 
and  in  others  hard,  white,  and  of  a  slaty  appearance,  disposed  in  diag- 
onal layers  of  little  thickness,  which  are  easily  broken  up.  In  other 
parts  it  is  sandy  granite,  uniformly  hard.  The  few  small  regions 
where  the  soil  on  account  of  its  situation  and  quality  is  favorable  for 
cultivation  are  cleared  off  and  sown  to  rice,  bananas,  corn,  sweet 
potatoes,  etc. 

As -the  character  of  the  ground  demands  incessant  work,  and  this  is 
distasteful  to  the  native,  who  is  accustomed  to  plant  in  virgin  soil  and 
then  leave  the  crop  to  the  care  of  Providence,  these  cultivated  areas 
are  but  few  and  do  not  produce  as  much  as  they  should,  or  sufficient 
to  provide  a  small  number  of  irdiabitants.  Another  reason  why  these 
lands  are  not  cultivated  is  the  prevalence  of  the  winds,  which  are  quite 
violent  during  thp  monsoons,  particularly  that  from  the  north,  which, 
in  addition  to  being  strong,  are  very  dry.  The  island  pastures  about 
200  head  of  cattle.  The  inhabitants  have  no  other  occupation  than 
fishing,  which  is  not  carried  on  to  any  great  extent.  There  is  no  com- 
merce, articles  of  prime  necessity  coming  from  Cavite  and  the  adjacent 
coast  of  Bataan  and  Cavite.  The  only  town  is  San  Jose,  with  420 


As  in  Cavite,  both  Spanish  and  Tagalog  are  spoken. 

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Pulo  Caballo,  situated  to  the  south,  is  the  largest  of  the  islands 
which  surround  Corregidor.  It  is  very  rocky,  and  possesses  limited  veg- 
itation;  there  are  but  few  inhabitants.  On  the  northeastern  extrem- 
ity there  is  a  light-house  showing  a  white  light.  La  Monja  is  a  conical 
rock  40  meters  In  height,  situated  2i  miles  to  the  west  southwest  of 
the  western  part  of  the  island  of  Corregidor.  El  Fraile  is  a  rugged 
rock,  rising  clear  of  the  water,  almost  to  the  south  of  the  light-house 
on  the  Pulo  Caballo  and  to  the  northwest  of  Punta  Restinga  in  Cavite. 
Los  Cochinos  or  Lechones  are  five  low  rocks  visible  one-half  mile  to 
the  south  of  the  point  southwest  of  the  port  of  Mariveles.  The  most 
eastern  of  these  is  called  Pulo  Monti.  To  the  northeast  of  Corregidor 
are  two  little  islands  smaller  than  La  Monja,  called  Horadadas  and 
Santa  Amalia. 




This  province  or  district  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Bulacan,  on  the 
south  by  the  Laguna  de  Bay,  on  the  east  by  the  district  of  Infanta  and 
Laguna,  and  on  the  west  by  Manila.  The  country,  although  broken 
in  some  parts,  has  many  extensive  plains,  which  would  be  excellent  for 
cultivation  were  it  not  for  the  floods  from  the  lake,  which  often  destroy 
the  crops. 


The  area,  including  Talin,  is  1,656  square  kilometers,  and  the  popula- 
tion 46,940,  almost  all  Tagalogs.  In  the  mountain  chain  of  San  Mateo  a 
few  Negritos  are  found. 


The  capital,  Morong,  has  a  population  of  10,000.  It  has  some  fine 
buildings,  such  as  the  church,  the  convent,  and  the  town  hall.  The 
principal  towns,  almost  all  situated  near  the  lake,  are:  fJala  Jala,  with 
15,000  inhabitants;  Tanay,  with  4,774;  Bares,  with  1,500;  Binangonan, 
with  7,801;  Cardona,  with  10,000;  Taytay,  with  6,684,  and  Cainta,  with 
2,417.  In  the  interior  is  Antipolo,  with  a  population  of  3,700.  This 
place  is  famous  throughout  the  Philippines  as  the  sanctuary  of  the 
miraculous  image  of  Nuestra  Seiiora  de  la  Paz.  There  is  a  total  of  14 
towns  and  5  villages. 


Tagalog  is  used  almost  exclusively,  even  by  the  Negritos,  who 
come  down  to  trade  with  the  Tagalogs. 


This  province  is  not  well  adapted  to  agriculture,  but  nevertheless  rice 
and  sugar  cane  are  cultivated  in  considerable  quantities;  also  corn, 
tobacco,  and  bamboo.  In  the  mountains  molave,  narra,  acle,  banaba, 
baticulin,  dongon,  calamansanay,  tindalo,  and  a  small  variety  of  bamboo 

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and  rattan  are  found.  The  region  about  San  Guillermo  de  Bosoboso, 
Jala  Jala,  Tanay,  Baras,  and  Pililla  abounds  in  large  game.  The  indus- 
tries of  this  district  consist  mainly  in  the  manufacture  of  lime,  rush 
mats,  and  clothing  for  the  natives.  Most  of  the  commerce  is  in  sugar, 
lime,  cattle,  and  deer;  bamboo,  wood,  and  fish  as  articles  of  export; 
and  in  the  interior  of  the  district  rice,  corn,  cattle,  fowls,  fish,  fruit, 
and  tobacco.  The  towns  are  united  by  roads  and  paths,  and  the  dis- 
trict is  in  communication  with  the  adjacent  provinces  by  land  and  with 
the  rest  of  the  archipelago  by  the  Laguna  de  Bay.  The  connection 
with  the  province  of  Manila  by  land  is  along  the  road  from  Cainta  to 
Mariquina,  and  with  the  province  of  Laguna  from  Pililla  to  Santa 


The  island  of  Talim,  situated  to  the  south  of  and  very  near  to  Pomt 
Quinabulasan,  extends  from  north  to  south  in  the  form  of  an  elongated 
oval.  It  is  14  kilometers  long  and  about  6  kilometers  broad  at  the 
widest  part.  A  mountain  range  runs  from  north  to  south  in  the  island. 
From  these  mountains  a  fine  stone  is  obtained,  which  during  the  last 
few  years  has  been  used  for  construction  in  the  new  works  of  the 
port.  Its  area  is  about  40  square  kilometers.  It  has  but  few  inhabit- 
ants, who  occupy  small  villages  or  hamlets  along  the  shore.  Many  of 
these  inhabitants  are  employed  in  the  quarries  of  the  works  of  the 
port.  The  principal  villages  are:  Banla,  Tabong,  Quinagatang,  Subag,. 
and  Aanosa.  Along  the  south  coast  are  several  small  islands  of  little 
importance,  the  largest  of  these  being  Olagitan.  To  the  west  of  the 
strait  which  separates  Talim  from  Morong  is  the  little  island  of  Tusan. 


The  large  lake  or  bay,  having  a  circumference  of  165  kilometers,  gives 
its  name  fo  this  province.  It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  district 
of  Morong  and  Bulacan,  on  the  east  by  the  mountain  range  which 
separates  it  from  the  Pacific,  on  the  south  by  the  provinces  of  Tabayas 
and  Batangas,  and  on  the  west  by  Cavite  and  Manila.  The  country  is 
nuich  broken  toward  the  boundaries  of  Morong,  but  on  account  of  the 
multitude  of  rivers  is  very  fertile,  especially  in  the  northwest  and  east, 
where  it  is  quite  level,  the  province  is  14  leagues  in  length  and  the 
same  in  breadth,  including  the  lake.  The  lake  sometimes  becomes 
very  rough,  almost  like  the  ocean,  causing  the  shipwreck  at  times  of 
boats  of  good  size.  The  shape  of  Mount  Banajao  and  the  waterfall  at 
Bocotan  are  worthy  of  mention.  The  latter  will  be  described  in  speak- 
ing of  the  town  of  Majayjay.  The  hot  mineral  baths  of  Aguas  Santas 
and  the  grotto  of  Maquiling  are  also  worthy  of  mention. 


The  province  has  an  area  of  2,603  square  kilometers,  and  a  popula- 
tion of  169,983,  almost  all  of  whom  belong  to  the  Tagalog  race. 

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The  capital,  Santa  Cruz,  has  a  population  of  13,800.^  It  has  a 
magnificent  church  and  hospital  belonging;  to  the  Franciscans,  and 
many  notable  public  and  private  buildings.  The  principal  towns 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  eastern  shore  of  the  lake  are:  Siniloan, 
with  6,400  inhabitants;  Pangil,  with  2,481;  Paete,  with  3,000;  Pila, 
with  5,600;  Bay,  on  the  southern  shore,  with  2,400;  Los  Banos,  with 
2,850,  and  Calamba,  with  11,470.  On  the  west  coast,  Cabuyao,  with 
11,181;  Santa  Rosa,  with  9,300;  Binang,  with  18,000;  San  Pedro  de 
Tunasan,  with  3,800  inhabitants.  In  the  interior,  Pagsanjan,  to  the 
east  of  Santa  Cruz,  with  6,300,  and  Majayjay,  to  the  south  of  Pag- 
sanjan, with  6,634.  This  town  is  famous  for  being  in  the  vicmity  of 
the  waterfall  of  Botocan,  formed  by  the  river  Camatian.  ^  This  river, 
having  its  source  to  the  east  of  the  great  mountain  Banajao,  receives 
during  its  course  of  nine  miles  the  waters  of  sevei-al  large  branches, 
runs  through  the  mountainous  country,  which  at  times  forms  canyons, 
until  it  reaches  Salto,  where  there  is  an  abyss  of  140  meters  deep. 
There  the  waters,  extending  themselves  to  a  width  of  90  feet  deep, 
fall  perpendicularly.  The  water  in  its  fall  is  dashed  into  spray, 
presenting  the  appearance  of  a  cloud  of  vapor,  Avhich,  being  pierced 
by  the  rays  of  the  sun,  presents  a  thousand  color  illusions,  the 
appearance  being  sometimes  like  that  of  a  distant  tire.  To  the  south 
of  Santa  Cruz  and  southwest  of  Mayjayjay  is  the  town  Nagcarlang, 
famous  for  its  cemetery,  which  is,  perhaps,  the  best  in  the  Philip- 
pines. The  town  has  a  popvdation  of  12,97r).  The  province  has  a 
total  of  33  towns,  15  villages,  and  about  400  hamlets. 


Tagalog  is  the  only  language  spoken. 


This  province  may  be  considered  the  garden  of  the  Philippines. 
Its  soil  produces  every  kind  of  tropical  plant  and  tree.  Among  the 
products  are  sugar  cane,  rice,  the  betel  nut,  corn,  coffee,  and  the 
cocoanut,  there  being  a  flourishing  trade  in  cocoanut  oil.  The  area 
of  cultivated  land  exceeds  423  square  kilometers.  There  are  in  the 
province  more  than  45,000  head  of  live  stock,  including  horses,  cattle, 
sheep,  goats,  hogs,  and  buffaloes.  There  are  large  cocoanut  wine  dis- 
tilleries, cabinet  shops,  and  blacksmith  shops,  the  latter  celebrated  for 
the  bolos  (large  knives)  which  they  make.  There  are  more  than  210  mills 
for  the  extraction  of  cocoanut  oil.  The  fruits  grown  in  this  province 
are  exquisite.  They  are  mostly  exported  to  Manila.  The  lanzon  and 
the  chicomame  are  worthy  of  mention.  The  province  communicates 
with  the  adjacent  provinces  by  cart  roads.  One  from  San  Paglo  runs 
to  Dolores  and  Tidon,  in  Tayabas;  another  from  Calamba  to  Santo 
Tomas,  in  Batangas;  another  from  Binan  to  Muntinlupa,  in  Manila; 
another  from  Santa  Maria  to  Pililla,  in  Morong.  The  waterway  to 
Manila  and  the  bay  of  Manila  by  the  Eiver  Pasig  is  excellent. 

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This  rich  and  well-cultivated  province  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 
Cavite  and  La  Laguna,  on  the  south  and  west  by  the  sea,  and  on  the 
east  by  the  province  and  bay  of  Tayabas.  It  was  formerly  known  as 
Balayan,  Comintan,  and  Taal  province.  It  measures  12  leagues  from 
north  to  south  and  20  from  east  to  west.  The  country  is  in  general 
uneven.  From  the  great  mountain  chain  of  Sungay  the  country  grad- 
ually slopes  to  the  sea,  forming  wide  valleys  between  the  small  spurs 
and  ridges,  which  generally  disappear  before  reaching  the  coast. 
Point  Santiago  and  Point  Cagador  are  the  terminal  points  of  moun- 
tainous land.  The  latter  of  these  separates  the  magnificent  bays  of 
Balayan  and  Batangas.  The  eastern  part  is  more  mountainous.  The 
grottos  of  the  town  of  San  Juan  are  of  great  depth  and  almost 


The  province  has  an  area  of  3,130  square  kilometers  and  a  popula- 
tion of  311,180,  almost  all  Tagalogs. 


The  capital,  Batangas,  situated  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name,  in  the 
south  central  part  of  the  province,  has  a  population  of  37,400.  It  has 
some  fine  buildings,  such  as  the  church,  the  convent,  the  government 
house,  the  city  hall,  the  prison,  and  many  private  residences.  The 
cemetery  is  located  in  a  well-kept  open  space,  and  is  worthy  of  a  peo- 
ple so  religious  and  wealthy.  This  province  contains  the  most  popu- 
lous towns  of  the  archipelago.  The  most  important  along  the  southern 
coast  are:  Balayan,  a  port  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name,  with  22,126 
inhabitants;  Calaca,  on  the  same  bay,  with  11,715;  Lemerey,  on  the 
same  bay,  and  near  the  Mansipit  River,  with  13,000;  Taal,  near  Leme 
rey,  on  the  opposite  bank  of  the  same  river,  with  15,921;  Battang, 
on  the  bay  of  Batangas,  one  of  the  most  populous  of  the  towns,  with 
a  population  of  38,300.  The  towns  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  province 
are:  San  Juan  de  Bocdoc,  with  a  population  of  13,456,  and  Lobo,  with 
6,202.  On  the  western  coast  are:  Lian  and  Nasugbu,  with  3,889  and 
8,263,  respectively.  To  the  north  of  Lake  Taal  are:  Talasay,  with 
8,200  inhabitants,  and  near  the  boundary  of  the  province  of  Laguna, 
Santo  Tomas,  with  a  population  of  10,607,  and  Tanauan,  with  a  popu- 
lation of  21,513.  In  the  interior  are:  Lipa,  with  39,559  inhabitants; 
Rosario,  with  13,606;  San  Jose,  with  10,455;  Ibaan  and  Taisan,  each 
with  more  than  9,000.  There  are  in  all  22  towns,  720  villages,  and  7 


Tagalog  is  exclusively  spoken. 


About  100,000  piculs  of  coffee  are  produced  annually  and  150,000 
piculs  of  sugar.  Rice,  chocolate,  and  various  other  articles  are  also 

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Many  kinds  of  cloth  of  the  finest  texture  are  produced  in  looms  of 
the  most  simple  construction  and  at  very  slight  cost.     These  fabrics 

are  made  of  silk,  hemp,  and  cotton,  and  brightly  dyed.  The  value  of 
the  exports  of  this  province  is  double  that  of  the  imports.  In  the 
early  part  of  February  in  each  year  there  is  a  notable  fair  held  in  the 
capital  town,  which  attracts  large  numbers  of  people.  It  is  in  the 
nature  of  an  agricultural  and  industrial  exposition,  and  offers  premiums, 
both  honorary  and  in  money,  for  the  best  exhibits.  The  fair  held  in 
Taal  the  8th  of  December  is  also  one  of  importance. 

There  are  146,576  head  of  live  stock  in  the  province,  whose  value  is 
estimated  at  $1,691,282.  In  the  mountains  of  San  Juan,  Santo  'I'omas, 
and  Rosario  there  are  many  fine  woods  suitable  for  building  purposes 
and  the  manufacture  of  furniture.  To  reach  Batangas  from  Manila  by 
sea  it  is  necessary  to  cross  the  bay  of  Manila  and  follow  the  coast  of 
Cavite.  There  are  three  steamers  on  this  line.  The  roads  are  all  good 
during  the  dry  season,  but  during  the  rainy  season  many  of  them 
become  impassable  on  account  of  the  character  of  the  soil,  which  is 
clay.  From  the  capital  town  there  are  two  main  cart  roads,  one  to  the 
northeast  and  one  to  the  north.  There  is  communication  by  sea  with 
the  entire  archipelago.  By  land  there  are  cart  roads  to  Laguna  by 
way  of  Santo  Tomas  and  Calamba,  to  Tayabas  by  way  of  Eosario  and 
Tindon,  and  to  Cavite  from  Balayan  by  footpath  to  the  village  of 

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i— 1 




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Plate  XXVI. 


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j>  C — VOL  3 

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The  irregular  shape  of  this  province  makes  it  difficult  to  indicate  the 
boundaries  with  precision.  It  may  be  said  that  the  north  boundary  is 
formed  by  the  province  of  Laguna  and  the  Pacific  Ocean.  On  the 
east  it  is  bounded  by  Ambos  Camarines,  on  the  south  by  the  sea  of 
Mindoro,  and  on  the  west  by  Batangas  and  La  Laguna.  The  country 
is  exceedingly  mountainous,  and  the  configuration  very  irregular.  The 
distance  from  Gumaca,  on  the  north,  to  Laguimanoc,  on  the  south,  is 
6  leagues;  from  Point  Dapdap,  on  the  north,  to  the  head  of  Bondoc, 
on  the  south,  more  than  20  leagues,  and  from  Batangas  to  the  head  of 
Bondoc  more  than  30.  That  part  of  the  country  between  Gumaca  and 
Laguimanoc  is  a  kind  of  isthmus,  which  divides  the  province  into  two 
parts.  Throughout  the  length  of  the  province,  as  far  as  Bondoc,  there 
is  a  central  mountain  chain,  which  sends  out  smaller  chains  of  less 
importance  into  the  interior.  These  are  covered  with  vegetation,  and 
send  out  in  all  directions  a  large  number  of  rivers  and  streams. 


The  area  of  this  province  is  5,893  square  kilometers  and  the  popu- 
lation 109,780.  Of  these  the  inhabitants  of  the  western  part  and  on 
the  western  slope  of  the  peninsula  of  Tayabas,  which  terminates  in 
Point  Bondoc  (or  Cabeza  Bondoc),  are  almost  all  Tagalogs.  Those  who 
inhabit  the  country  near  Camarines  and  the  eastern  slope  of  the  penin- 
sula are  Vicols. 


The  capital,  Tayabas,  has  a  population  of  16,900.  A  century  ago 
Calanag,  on  the  coast  of  the  Pacific,  was  the  capital.  The  towns  of 
most  importance  are:  Near  the  Laguna  boundary,  Mauban,  with  10,288 
inhabitants;  Lucban,  with  11,560;  Dolores,  with  2,500,  and  Tiaon, 
with  5,979.  On  the  Pacific  coast  are:  Antimonan,  or  Lanoon,  a  town 
situated  on  an  excellent  port,  with  a  population  of  10,712;  Gumaca, 
with  7,431  inhabitants;  Calanag,  with  2,671,  situated  on  the  western 
coast  of  the  peninsula;  Guiangan,  with  2,216;  San  Narciso,  near  the 
southern  coast,  with  2,064;  Mulanay,  with  2,464;  Catanoan,  with 
3,754;  Nacalelon,  with  3,473;  Pitogo,  with  2,500;  Pagabilao,  near 
Tayabas,  with  6,152.  This  province  has  a  totalof  20  towns,  425 
villages,  and  5  hamlets. 


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Tagalog  is  spoken  in  the  western  part  and  Vicol  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  peninsula  of  Tayabas. 


The  forests  produce  a  great  variety  of  excellent  woods,  especially 
those  suitable  for  shipbuilding.  These  are  sent  to  the  various  parts 
of  the  Philippines  and  also  to  foreign  countries.  The  forests  also 
produce  large  quantities  of  wax,  pitch,  tar,  rosin,  and  cobonegro 
wood.  There  are  thousands  of  head  of  live  stock  grazing  m  the  fields. 
Cocoanut  oil  is  manufactured  in  large  quantities.  The  rice  which  is 
grown  is  of  excellent  quality.  The  natives  manufacture  a  great  many 
hats,  boxes,  and  various  kinds  of  cloth.  The  inhabitants  of  Tayabas 
grow  a  special  kind  of  seed  called  lumban,  which  produces  an  excellent 
dry  oil  containing  a  large  amount  of  oleaginous  substance.  There  are 
a  number  of  dock  and  ship  yards  where  large  numbers  of  boats  for 
the  coast  trade  are  built.  From  dumgal,  an  exceedingly  bitter  wood, 
cups  are  made,  in  which  in  a  few  hours  water  takes  a  taste  similar  to 
quinine,  and  whose  effects  are  identical  with  those  produced  by  this 
plant.  There  are  about  300  looms  where  hemp  and  pineapple  fiber 
cloth  are  woven.  There  are  about  40  cocoanut  oil  mills  in  the  prov- 
ince. This  province  has  communication  with  all  the  rest  of  the 
archipelago  by  sea;  bv  land  with  the  Laguna  province  by  way  of 
Lucban,  Dolores,  and  Tiaon;  with  Camarines  by  way  of  Calanag 
and  Guinayangan.     There  is  much  trade  along  the  coasts. 



In  front  of  Point  Salag,  in  the  most  northern  part  of  the  peninsula, 
is  the  little  island  of  Cabalete,  traversed  from  northwest  to  southeast 
by  a  little  mountain  range,  which  is  covered  with  trees  and  vegetation. 


To  the  southeast  of  Cabalete,  in  the  great  bay  of  Malaon,  there  is  an 
island  called  Alabat,  extending  from  northwest  to  southeast,  likewise 
traversed  by  a  range  of  mountains  covered  with  vegetation.  Here  are 
found  many  kinds  of  woods  most  suitable  for  building  purposes  and 
furniture  making.  The  exportation  of  these  woods  would  undoubtedly 
have  been  greater  were  it  not  that  the  place  is  little  known,  as  boats 
seldom  go  to  this  coast,  as  it  is  very  dangerous  during  a  part  of  the 
year.  This  island  is  inhabited  by  a  few  Tagalog  families,  who  live  m 
villages  and  hamlets  along  the  western  coast.  The  principal  of  these 
is  Sangirin  in  the  north.  In  the  mountains  to  the  north  of  this  village 
coal  is  found.  In  the  central  part  of  the  island  the  valuable  wood 
known  as  camagon  is  found,  and  in  the  southern  part  silangon. 


Near  Point  Panjan,  to  the  east  of  Alabat,  is  the  little  island  of  Pasig, 
united  to  Luzon  by  means  of  a  reef. 

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This  island  is  almost  united  to  the  coast  of  Luzon  at  Point  Puaya 
and  forms  with  this  coast  the  anchorages  of  Pagdilao  on  the  west  and 
that  between  the  islands  on  the  south  and  the  island  of  Laguimanoo  on 
the  east.  It  is  triangular  in  shape,  extenduig  about  4  miles  trom 
north  to  south  and  ^  miles  from  east  to  west,  Mount  Mitra  kw- 
ering  above  the  rest  of  the  islands.  It  is  surrounded  by  a  little  island 
and  huge  rocks,  the  most  of  which  are  above  water  at  high  tide. 


This  island  is  situated  to  the  east  of  Pagdilao  Grande  and  is  united 
to  it  by  a  narrow  sand  bar,  in  which  the  island  termmates  on  the 


R-cently  the  two  provinces  of  North  Camarines  and^  South  Cama- 
rines  were  united  into  a  single  province  called  Ainbos  Camarines.  it 
is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Pacific  Ocean,  on  the  south  by  Min- 
doro  Sea,  onthe  west  by  Tavabas,  and  on  the  east  by  Albay  and  the 
Pacific  Ocean  or  Bay  of  Lagonov.  The  northern  part  ot  the  province 
is  crossed  by  manv  large  rivers  and  covered  by  high  mountains  having 
luxuriant  vegetation  on  them.  These  mountains  form  a  chain,  which 
is  a  continuation  of  that  traversing  the  province  of  layabas.  ihe 
southern  part  is  likewise  mountainous,  its  extensive  valleys  being 
watered  by  rivers  and  creeks  which  frequently  flood  the  lowlands  and 
destroy  the  crops.  There  are  48  rivers  and  296  creeks  in  this  region. 
The  53  waterfalls,  some  of  them  having  a  fall  of  15  meters,  piT)ve 
the  rugged  character  of  this  region.  Near  the  town  of  Kuba,  south  ot 
the  Grotto  of  Orocosoc,  there  is  a  lake  having  a  perimeter  of  5,184 
meters  and  a  depth  of  3.34  meters.  There  is  another  lake  on  Mount 
Hanti  from  which  the  waters  filter  into  the  Grotto  of  Calangitan. 


The  area  of  Ambos  Camarines,  including  the  adjacent  islands,  is  7,897 
square  kilometers,  and  has  a  registered  population  of  19'1,022.  The 
most  of  these  are  Vicols,  indigenous  and  ancient  people  of  this  region. 
Two  tribes  of  Negritos  are  found  in  this  province;  one  m  the  north, 
not  far  from  the  boundaries  of  Tayabas,  in  the  mountainous  region  ot 
Capolonga,  the  other  in  the  vicinity  of  Triga.  On  the  tops  of  the 
Isarog  Mountains  there  dwell  certain  savages  called  Cimarromes  del 
Isarog  (wild  men  of  Isarog).  Some  of  these  are  also  found  in  the  spurs 
of  these  mountains,  which  extend  into  the  so-called  peninsula  of  Cama- 
rines. There  are  a  few  Igorrotes  on  Mount  Triga,  to  the  south-south- 
east of  Isarog. 


The  capital  is  Nueva  Caceres,  with  a  population  of  7,395.  This  was 
formerly  the  seat  of  the  Episcopal  see  of  these  islands  and  is  now  the 
residence  of  civil  and  ecclesiastical  authority.     It  has  some  fine  build - 

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ings,  such  as  the  cathedral,  the  Episcopal  palace,  the  government 
house,  the  town  hall,  the  seminary,  the  hospital,  and  the  girls'  school. 
This  school  is  at  the  same  time  a  normal  school  for  female  teachers  and 
was  founded  by  His  Excellency  Senor  Gainza  O.  P.  The^  most  impor- 
tant towns  are  Daet,  the  former  capital  of  North  Camarines,  situated 
about  a  mile  and  a  half  from  the  sea  between  the  Daet  River  and  one 
of  its  branches,  having  a  population  of  10,332;  Talisay,  to  the  north- 
west of  Daet,  has  a  population  of  3,600;  Labo,  farther  inland  and  also 
to  the  northwest  of  Daet,  4,200;  Paracale,  celebrated  for  its  ancient 
mines,  3,824.  In  North  Camarines  the  most  important  towns  are  Cara- 
moan,  with  6,100  inhabitants;  Tinambac,  on  the  southern  part  of  the 
Bay  of  San  Miguel;  Laganoy,  on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  peninsula, 
with  3,549  inhabitants;  San  Jose,  to  the  south  of  Laganoy, with  9,212, 
and  Goa,  west-northwest  of  San  Jose,  with  7,608.  Along  the  coastto 
the  south  are  Ragay,  with  900,  and  Pasacao,  with  1,183  inhabitants. 
In  the  interior,  along  the  banks  of  the  large  river  Vicol,  there  are 
towns  of  importance,  among  which  may  be  mentioned  Bato,with  5,035 
inhabitants;  Minaladac,  with  3,869;  San  Fernando,  with  2,844;  Camali- 
gan,  with  5,050;  Canaman,  with  5,248;  Magarao,  with  5,293,  andCab- 
alanga,  not  far  from  the  coast  and  south  of  the  great  Bay  of  San 
Miguel.  There  are  in  the  province  44  towns,  180  villages,  and  221 


Vicol  is  generally  spoken,  though  in  some  places  Tagalog  is  used. 
The  savages  and  various  tribes  of  Negritos  speak  their  own  peculiar 
dialects,  although  those  who  come  down  to  the  towns  to  trade  under- 
stand and  speak  Vicol. 


The  forest  products  are  woods  of  excellent  quality  suitable  for 
building,  such  as  baticuHn,  molave,  and  narra  in  the  northern  part, 
and.  anajan,  cedro,  mangachapuy,  naya,  palo-maria,  tindole,  acle, 
balete,  bagainto,  camagon,  jaral,  and  also  narra  and  molave  in  the 
southern  part.  The  forests  also  produce  resins,  pitch,  tar,  and  large 
quantities  of  wax  and  honey.  Among  mineral  products  are  gold, 
silver,  iron,  lead,  and  copper,  which  are  found  in  the  mines  worked  at 
Mambulao  and  those  at  Taracale.  In  the  southern  part  there  are 
mines  of  pit  coal.  Marble  and  gypsum  quarries  are  also  found.  In 
the  southern  part  there  are  no  mines  known,  but  many  of  the  rivers 
carry  gold.  Agriculture  is  well  advanced,  hemp  being  the  especial 
object  of  cultivation.  Rice  and  sugar  are  produced,  and  are  articles 
of  export.  In  the  center  of  the  peninsula  of  Camarines  is  the  majestic 
mountain  of  Isarog,  inhabited  by  pagans. 

To  the  south  and  west  of  this  mountain  are  extensive  and  fertile 
valleys,  where  excellent  rice,  chocolate  superior  to  that  from  the 
Moluccas,  corn,  hemp,  sugar  cane,  and  all  kinds  of  bananas  are  grown. 
There  are  alcohol  distilleries,  sugar  mills,  and  refineries ;  distilleries 
for  the  manuf aeture  of  the  essence  of  ilang-ilang ;  silversmiths'  shops, 
shoe  shops,  and  looms,  especially  those  for  the  manufacture  of  sinamay 
and  guinaras.  There  are  lao  hemp  presses,  brickyards,  and  fisheries. 
There  is  an  abundance  of  live  stock  of  all  kinds,  particularly  bujffalos 
and  hogs.     Ways  of  communication  in  the  interior  are  very  few,  espe- 

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cially  in  the  north,  where  there  are  four  cart  roads.  One  of  these 
runs  parallel  to  the  coast  of  the  Bay  of  Ragay  and  communicates  with 
the  province  of  Tayabas.  It  continues  as  far  as  Daet,  on  the  Facilic 
coast,  and  from  there  goes  to  Indan.  There  is  communication  by  sea 
with  the  entire  archipelago.  In  the  south  the  ways  of  communication 
between  the  towns  and  with  the  rest  of  the  archipelago  are  better  and 
more  numerous.  From  Port  Pasacao  one  can  easily  go  to  JNueva 
Caceres,  and  from  there  in  every  direction,  there  being  communication 
with  Albay  from  Triga  to  Polonguy,  and  from  Tigaon  to  Sangay. 


There  are  many  islands  adjacent  to  the  coast  of  this  provinc^e, 
especially  on  the  north.  The  principal  ones  are  as  follows:  To  the 
north  of  Daet  are  the  Calagnas  islands,  a  group  composed  ot  various 
inhabited  islands  covered  with  vegetation.  The  largest  of  these  4 
kilometers  long  by  li  kilometers  wide,  is  22  kilometers  from  the 
coast.  The  islands  which  border  this  island,  known  as  Tinaga,  are 
Pinasruapan,  Samar,  Maculad,  Ingatan,  Siata,  Cagbalisan,  and  Calagua. 
To  the  north  of  Mambulao  and  of  Capalonga  there  is  a  multitude  ot 
islands  and  rock,  which  render  navigation  along  this  coast  most  dilti- 
cult.  To  the  northeast  of  Indan  is  the  small  island  of  Quinamanocan, 
which  is  covered  with  vegetation.  Canino,  Canton,  and  a  multitude 
of  other  small  islands  constitute  a  group  to  the  east  of  Daet  at  the 
entrance  of  the  Bay  of  San  Miguel.  The  little  island  of  Canit  is  found 
at  the  head  of  this  bay,  and  near  its  eastern  coast,  to  the  north,  is  the 
small  island  of  San  Miguel.  The  coast  of  the  peninsula  ot  South 
Camarines  is  bordered  by  as  many  small  islands,  as  may  be  seen  m 
Chapter  I,  which  discusses  the  configuration  of  Luzon. 



The  modern  and  commercial  province  of  Albay,  near  the  extreme 
southeast  of  Luzon,  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Camarines,  on  the 
east  by  the  Pacific  Ocean,  on  the  south  by  Sorsogon  and  the  Mindoro 
Sea  and  on  the  west  by  the  Mindoro  Sea  and  Ambos  Camarines.  Ihe 
country  is  rugged  and  volcanic.  A  chain  of  mountains  traverses  the 
province  from  east  to  west,  the  majestic  volcano  of  May  on  or  Albay 
rising  not  far  from  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Bay  of  Albay.  It  is  situ- 
ated about  20  miles  from  the  sea.  From  the  mountains  arise  number- 
less rivers  which  fertilize  the  valleys  and  plains. 


The  area  of  this  province,  including  the  island  of  Catanduanes  and 
those  contiguous  to  Luzon,  is  4,123  kilometers.  There  are  195,129 
inhabitants,  the  great  majority  being  Vicols. 


The  capital,  Albay,  situated  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name  not  far 
from  Mayon  volcano,  has  a  population  of  10,600.  It  has  fine  houses, 
with  a  church,  town  hall,  parochial  residence,  and  other  well-con- 

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structed  public  buildings.  On  the  eastern  coast  the  towns  of  most 
importance,  beginning  at  the  north,  are:  Tivi,  noted  for  its  springs, 
has  a  population  of  10,447;  Malinao,  to  the  south  of  the  great  Bay  of 
Lagonoy  and  to  the  southeast  of  Tivi,  with  a  population  of  11,849. 
Tobaco,'  to  the  southeast  of  Malinao,  with  a  population  of  18,000,  is 
situated  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name.  It  is  a  much  used  port,  and 
has  on  its  shores  the  towns  of  Malilipot,  with  a  population  of  5,858, 
and  Bagacay,  with  a  population  of  11,379.  On  the  northern  coast  of 
the  Bay  of  Albay  is  Libog,  with  a  population  of  5,751.  It  is  just 
south  of  the  port  called  Sula  and  is  very  well  protected.  Legaspi,  to 
the  northeast  of  Albay,  with  a  population  of  6,830,  is  also  a  much  fre- 
quented port.  Manito,  on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Bay  of  Paliqui,  has 
a  population  of  2,369.  Near  the  boundary  of  Ambos  Camarines  are 
the  ports  of  Libong,  with  a  populatibn  of  5,449;  Polangui,  with  10,047; 
Ligao,  to  the  southeast  of  Polangui  and  farther  in  the  interior,  has  a 
papulation  of  17,900.  Between  Ligao  and  Polangui  is  the  important 
town  of  Oas,  with  15,987  inhabitants.  Guinobatan,  to  the  southeast  of 
Ligao  and  to  the  west  of  Legaspi,  with  20,414;  Cagsaua,  just  to  the 
west  of  Albay,  22,000;  Camalig,  west  of  Cagsaua,  15,853.  There  is  a 
total  of  23  towns  and  260  villages. 


Vicol  is  spoken  almost  exclusively. 


A  great  advance  has  been  made  by  this  province  on  account  of  its 
richness  in  hemp,  which  is  cultivated  here  in  a  special  manner.  The 
value  of  the  annual  product  is  about  $4,750,217.  The  ordinary  fruits 
of  the  countrv  are  produced  here.  The  industries  are  the  production 
of  cloth  f rom^^abaca  and  oil  from  the  cocoanut.  The  principal  part  of 
the  commerce  consists  in  the  exportation  of  the  hemp  fiber,  there  being 
370,400  piculs  exported,  whose  value  is  about  $3,700,000,  this  having 
risen  within  a  few  years  from  a  value  of  $2,000,000.  A  considerable 
amount  of  sinamay  cloth  is  made  here,  and  there  are  besides  other 
industries  of  minor  importance.  There  are  several  shipyards,  which 
manufacture  small  coasting  vessels,  and  where  a  large  amount  of  the 
valuable  woods  produced  by  the  forests  is  utilized.  There  are  besides 
.  some  coal  mines  and  gold,  silver,  and  iron  mines  in  operation,  and 
some  abandoned  quicksilver  mines.  The  principal  ways  of  comnmni- 
cation  are  by  the  carriage  roads  which  extend  from  Albay  to  all  of 
the  important  towns  of  the  province.  There  are  four  telegraph 


Speaking  of  the  configuration  of  the  Island  of  Luzon  in  the  first 
chapter,  we  indicated  certain  islands  adjacent  to  the  coast  of  this  great 
island;  we  will  now  speak  briefly  of  some  of  the  principal  ones  of  these 
situated  to  the  east  of  the  bays  of  Albay  and  Tobaco: 


This  is  an  island  of  considerable  elevation,  and  triangular  in  shape. 
The  village  of  Santo  Florentina  is  located  about  the  center  of  the  south 
coast,  and  is  the  only  town  on  the  island.     Coal  is  found  here. 

Hosted  by 



Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


HfiPOBT    OF   TfiE    PHll^IPPIl^E    OOMMlSSlOH.  65 


This  island,  like  Rapurapu,  is  about  2  miles  wide  at  its  broadest 
part.  The  only  important  town  which  is  worth  naming  is  Batan,  on 
the  western  coast.     There  are  several  coal  mines  here. 


This  island,  situated  to  the  west  of  Batan,  is  very  similar  to  the  two 
already  described.     There  is  no  town  of  importance. 


This  is  the  smallest  of  the  named  islands,  situated  to  the  east  of 
Tobaco,  and  is  surrounded  by  reefs,  like  all  the  rest. 


This  island,  situated  to  the  east  of  the  peninsula  of  Ambos  Cama- 
rines,  extends  from  north  to  south,  and  is  surrounded  by  the  waters  ot 
the  Pacific  Ocean.  On  the  west  is  the  channel  or  strait  of  Maqueda, 
which  separates  it  from  Luzon.  The  soil  is  very  much  broken  and 
mountainous  and  very  fertile,  being  watered  by  many  small  rivers. 
From  east  to  west  in  its  greatest  breadth  it  measures  about  40  kilo- 
meters and  from  north  to  south  about  70  kilometers. 


Its  area  is  1,676  square  kilometers,  and  its  population  33,310,  the 
greater  part  of  whom  present  many  points  in  common  with  the 
Visayas,  according  to  the  testirnony  of  the  first  missionaries  who  con- 
verted them  to  the  Christian  faith. 


The  capital  is  Virac,  situated  on  the  south  coast  of  the  Bay  of 
Cabagas,  which  has  a  population  of  6,843.  Calolbon,  also  on  the  south 
coast? has  a  population  of  4,201.  Pandan,  in  the  extreme  north  of  the 
island,  has  2,500  inhabitants.  Payo,  to  the  south  of  the  bay  called 
"The  South  Anchorage,"  and  Biga,  near  Payo,  have  together  a  popula- 
tion of  some  3,252.  There  is  a  total  of  29  towns  and  10  established 


Vicol  is  spoken. 


The  principal  products  are  rice,  corn,  hemp,  indigo,  cocoanuts,  and 
fine  building  woods.  The  natives  wash  a  considerable  amount  ot  gold 
from  the  sands  of  the  rivers.  There  is  communication  between  the 
towns  of  Virac  and  Cololbon  with  Bato. 

Hosted  by 




The  most  important  of  these  are  Panay,  in  the  Bay  of  Payo;  Biga 
and  Tambongon,  to  the  north;  also  Balumbanes,  with  the  small  group 
of  islands.  In  the  front  of  Carao,  toward  the  north,  there  is  a  small 
island  of  little  imDortance. 


The  new  province  of  Sorsogon  is  situated  in  the  southeastern  extrem- 
ity of  the  island  of  Luzon,  and  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  province 
of  Albay  and  the  Pacific  Ocean,  on  the  south  by  the  Strait  of  San 
Bernardino,  on  the  east  by  the  Pacific  Ocean  and  the  Oton  or  interior 
sea  of  the  archpielago.  The  character  of  the  country  is  similar  to 
that  in  the  province  of  Albay.  The  most  southern  part  forms  a 
peninsula,  irom  the  center  of  which  rises  the  volcano  of  Bulusan, 
which  is  the  origin  of  many  small  mountain  ranges,  which  form  the 
sources  of  the  rivers  which  water  the  extensive  and  fertile  valleys. 


Ther  area  is  1,954  square  kilometers,  the  population  98,650,  almost 
all  of  the  Vicol  race. 


Sorsogon  is  the  capital  of  this  new  province.  The  port  of  Sorsogon 
is  the  best  of  all  those  found  between  the  Strait  of  Verdi  Islands  and 
that  of  San  Bernardino,  and  is  suitable  for  all  kinds  of  ships.  It  is 
an  excellent  refuge  for  ships  which  in  the  Marinduque  Sea  have  been 
surprised  by  squalls  or  typhoons,  which  usually  pass  to  the  north  of 
the  Strait  of  Ticao,  and  for  ships  which  have  been  damaged  in  passing 
through  the  Strait  of  San  Bernardino.  The  entrance  to  the  bay  lying 
between  Point  Bantique  on  the  west  and  that  of  Bagatao  on  the  east 
contains  the  islands  of  Bagatao  and  Malamahuan,  which  divide  it  into 
three  channels,  the  one  between  the  two  islands,  being  the  principal 
one,  and  the  only  practicable  one  for  all  kinds  of  ships.  That  which  is 
called  the  Boco-chica,  to  the  east  of  the  island  of  Bagatao,  is  very 
narrow,  having  a  rock  located  on  the  southern  side,  and  to  pass  this 
even  with  small  steam  launches  it  is  necessary  to  run  very  close  to  the 
shore  of  Bagatao,  which  is  clear  and  with  a  depth  of  from  13  to  15 
meters  of  water,  this  not  being  true  of  the  opposite  side.  The  channel 
found  between  the  island  of  Luzon  and  Malamahuan,  although  having 
a  depth  of  from  5  to  8  meters,  is  very  narrow,  and  still  worse  than  the 
one  already  mentioned.  The  coast  and  islands  on  the  other  side  are 
clear,  and  the  islands  which  appear  on  the  north  abrupt,  especially 
on  the  outer  side,  so  that  navigation  through  the  middle  of  the  channel 
is  free  from  all  danger. 

The  Bay  of  Sorsogon,  which  is  entered  after  passing  the  entrance, 
is  spacious  and  19  miles  in  width  from  the  east-northeast  to  the  vicinity 
of  the  town  of  Sorsogon.  Soundings  diminish  progressively  from  17 
to  5  meters,  the  bottom  being  muddy.     To  the  the  north  of  this  bay 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 




there  is  a  fine  gulf,  having  a  depth  of  7i  meters,  with  muddy  bottom 
all  over.  The  coast  of  Casiguran,  to  the  south  of  Sorsogon,  is  notable 
for  the  malformation,  which  is  seen,  according  to  the  best  data  obtama- 
ble,  for  a  long  while.  It  has  sunk  about  eighty-four  one-hundredths  ot 
a  meter  annually.     The  population  is  10,700.  .^u  ^  ^^^  •   u  u-^ 

Around  the  Bay  of  Sorsogon  are  situated  Tuban,  with  5,555  inhabit- 
ants: Catilla,  with  2,069;  Magallanes,  at  the  entrance  of  the  ba}^  with 
2  928-  Pilar,  or  Port  Putiao,  on  the  western  coast,  with  a  population  ot 
9' 127;  Donsol,near  to  the  boundaries  of  Albay,  with  4,682;  Bulan, 
near  the  southern  part  of  the  peninsula,  with  S;,545;  Matnog,  on  the 
Pacific  coast,  with  2,320;  Bulusan,  with  5,413;  Barcelona  with  4,947, 
and  Cubat,  one  of  the  finest  towns  of  the  province,  with  12,590.  ihere 
is  a  total  of  16  towns,  131  villages,  and  numerous  hamlets. 


The  language  is  Vicol. 


The  principal  products,  apart  from  building  woods,  which  are  found 
in  the  mountains,  are  hemp  and  copra,  both  articles  of  exportation. 
The  industries  are  in  about  the  same  condition  as  m  the  province  ot 
Albay.  There  are  various  mines,  not  worked.  The  principal  towns 
are  connected  by  cart  roads  and  paths;  one  leads  to  Labay  from  Pilar. 


The  islands  near  to  the  coast  of  this  province  are  of  little  importance. 
Several  are  seen  to  the  southeast  of  the  central  part  of  the  province 
north  of  the  Strait  of  San  Bernardino.  The  others  are  enumerated 
and  described  in  Chapter  T, 

Hosted  by 




[Maps  Nos.  13,  15,  and  17,  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philix)pmes.] 



To  the  north  of  Luzon  and  south-southeast  of  Formosa  are  the  two 
groups  of  islands  called  the  Batanes  and  the  Babuyanes,  the  latter 
nearest  to  the  north  of  Luzon. 


The  most  important  islands  of  this  group  are  Basay  or  Batan,  Saptan, 
and  Itbayat.  The  northern  islands  near  Formosa,  called  Jamia  and 
Norte,  terminate  the  group.  There  are  other  islands  of  little  impor- 
tance, or  uninhabited,  such  as  Siayan,  Diogo,  Misanga,  Dequez, 
Mabudis,  and  Diamis,  or  the  Diami  rocks. 


The  second  group  consists  of  the  islands  of  Calayan,  the  largest  of 
all,  the  name  which  has  been  given  to  the  group  on  account  of  the 
abundance  of  hogs  (babuyes  in  Tagalog  meaning  hogs). 

Other  islands  of  fair  size  are  Camiguin,  Dalupiri,  Fuga,  and  Font. 
Those  farthest  distant  from  Luzon  are  the  two  called  Balingtan,  which 
give  name  to  the  channel,  which  is  between  the  Babuyanes  and  the 
island  of  Saptan,  the  most  southern  of  the  Batanes.  Some  authors 
include  Balington  with  the  Batanes. 


The  most  important  of  the  Batanes  measures  20  kilometers  from 
north  to  south  and  4  kilometers  from  east  to  west.  In  the  northern 
part  rises  Mount  Irada,  which  seems  to  be  volcanic.  The  country  is 
mountainous,  but  has  large  cultivated  plains. 


At  about  6  kilometers  to  the  southwest  of  Basay  rises  the  island  of 
Saptan,  which  has  an  area  of  about  half  that  of  the  preceding  island. 
It  nas  the  same  general  conditions  of  country. 

Hosted  by 




This  island  is  situated  to  the  northwest  of  Basay  at  a  distance  of  about 
20  miles;  it  is  a  very  fertile  island,  and  the  largest  of  the  Batanes, 
almost  a  half  larger  than  Basay. 


This  is  the  most  western  of  the  Babuyanes  Islands,  and  is  situated 
about  25  miles  northeast  of  Point  Cabicungan,  of  Luzon.  It  is  regular 
in  asx)ect  and  about  8  miles  long. 


This  island  is  situated  9  miles  to  the  south-southeast  of  Dalupiri,  is 
also  flatter  than  that  island,  and  extends  from  east  to  west  a  distance  of 
lOi  miles.  This  island  is  known  on  account  of  the  port  of  Musa, 
situated  on  the  western  side. 


This  island  is  situated  13  miles  to  the  east  of  Dalupiri,  and  is  larger 
and  of  greater  elevation  than  the  island  of  Fuga.  It  is  composed  ot 
mountainous  and  low  lands,  and  its  greatest  elevation  is  m  the  center 
of  the  island.  It  is  cut  in  certain  places  by  deep  valleys.  It  extends 
from  east  to  west  a  distance  of  about  10  miles.  There  is  a  fan'  bay  on 
the  south  coast. 




This  island  lies  farthest  to  the  northeast,  and  is  the  highest  of  all  the 
roup.  It  is  situated  about  25  miles  east-northeast  from  Calayan. 
'here  is  a  volcano  situated  at  the  western  extremity  of  the  island. 


This  island  is  very  mountainous  and  high,  especially  on  the  north- 
east. It  is  about  12  miles  long  from  north-northeast  to  south-south- 
west, and  is  situated  about  32  miles  south  one-fourth  southwest  of 
Claro  Babuyan.  It  is  known  on  account  of  the  volcano,  called  Caini- 
guin.  Seven  and  a  half  miles  to  the  east,  one-fourth  southeast  of  the 
northeastern  point  of  Camiguin,  arise  the  two  rocks  called  Guinapac. 
They  present  the  appearance  of  two  towers,  and  are  surrounded  by 
various  little  islands.  To  the  northeast  of  these  rocks  are  four  others 
called  Didicas,  more  elevated  than  the  preceding  and  surrounded  by 
various  smaller  rocks,  and  a  little  island  about  60  meters  m  height,  and 
less  than  a  mile  in  circumference,  forms  a  group  with  these  rocks.  On 
the  northern  coast  there  is  an  active  volcano. 


This  island  has  a  diameter  of  U  miles;  it  is  high  and  very  rugged 
on  the  west,  and  uninhabited  the  greater  part  of  the  year. 

Hosted  by 




The  towns  of  greatest  importance  in  the  Batanes  are  Santo  Domingo 
de  Baseo,  the  head  town,  with  a  population  of  2,652.  It  is  situated  at 
the  foot  of  Mount  Irraya,  and  is  surrounded  by  the  best  land  in  the 
Batanes,  this  being  level  and  picturesque.  It  contains  some  fine 
buildings.  The  port  is  excellent  and  very  safe,  except  during  the 
west  monsoon.  To  the  south  of  Santo  Domingo,  about  5  kilometers 
distant,  is  Magatao,  a  town  of  1,195  inhabitants;  it  has  the  best  church 
in  the  Batanes,  and  a  port  suitable  for  small  vessels.  At  a  distance  of 
2  kilometers  from  this  town  is  Ibana,  with  a  population  of  1,914;  San 
Vincente,  with  a  population  of  1,935,  is  the  only  town  on  the  island  of 
Saptan,  although  the  entire  island  is  bordered  with  little  villages. 
Maya,  the  only  town  of  Itbayat,  with  a  population  of  1,080,  is  situ- 
ated on  most  fertile  ground,  and  not  far  from  forests  containing 
excellent  woods  for  furniture  making,  but  of  little  value  for  building 

In  the  Babuyanes  the  principal  towns  are  Musa,  on  the  island  of 
Juga,  and  Calayan,  on  the  island  of  the  same  name,  situated  near  to 
the  east  of  the  center  of  the  coast,  and  which  has  a  population  of  584. 
On  Camiguin  Island  there  are  several  small  hamlets. 


The  native  inhabitants  speak  their  own  language,  Batan,  which  must 
not  be  confounded  with  Ibanag,  although  it  is  somewhat  similar  to  it. 


The  Batanes,  with  the  exception  of  Itbayat,  are  lacking  in  building 
woods;  on  the  other  hand,  there  is  an  abundance  of  lime,  sand,  and 
stone  for  building  materials.  The  principal  products  are  ube,  sweet 
potatoes,  corn,  a  little  rice,  and  some  sugar  cane,  which  is  used  for  the 
manufacture  of  the  wine  known  as  "palec."  There  is  not  a  great 
variety  of  fruits,  although  the  pineapples  of  Batanes  are  so  fine  that 
they  are  superior  in  size  and  quality  to  those  produced  in  other  parts 
of  the  archipelago.  Potatoes,  rice,  and  vegetables  found  in  Spain  grow 
well  here.  The  principal  industry  is  grazing,  which  assumes  large 
proportions.  Goats,  horses,  and  hogs  are  raised  and  exported  in  large 
numbers.  There  is  a  large  exportation  of  lard.  In  the  vicinity  of  the 
towns  are  large  cocoanut  groves,  especially  near  to  Itbayat,  the  oil 
being  exported  to  Manila. 

Communication  between  the  various  islands  is  most  difficult  on 
account  of  the  strong  currents  in  the  channels  and  the  lack  of  anchor- 
ages. Communication  with  the  rest  of  the  archipelago  is  still  more 


These  constitute  a  little  group  of  islands  to  the  north.  They  are 
very  small  in  size  and  are  truly  isles.  The  principal  ones,  commenc- 
ing with  those  nearest  to  the  Batanes,  are  Siayam,  Mabudis  Tanem, 
Maysanga,  and  Jami*  All  of  these  islands,  with  the  exception  of  the 
last,  are  within  sight  of  the  Batanes.  The  most  important  of  them  is 
Jami,  inhabited,  according  to  the  Batanes,  by  savages  and  pagans  of 

Hosted  by 



the  Vaschi  race.  It  is  not  known  whether  the  language  spoken  is 
derived  from  the  Batan  language  or  is  peculiar  to  the  inhabitants.  In 
the  northwest  the  inhabitants  of  the  Batanes  and  of  the  Vaschi  Islands 
understand  each  other,  perhaps  on  account  of  certain  words  in  com- 
mon.    No  Spanish  officer  or  missionary  has  ever  visited  these  islands. 


This  island  is  the  sixth  in  size  of  the  islands  of  the  Philippine  Archi- 
pelago. It  is  situated  to  the  south  of  Luzon.  On  the  western  coast 
it  is  bounded  by  the  China  Sea,  forming,  with  the  Calamianes,  the 
strait  of  Mindoro,  which  is  divided  into  two  channels  by  the  Apo 
banks;  toward  the  north  it  is  separated  from  the  coast  of  Luzon  by 
the  Isla  Verdi  Strait,  and  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the  Visayas  Sea, 
and  on  the  south  by  the  sea  of  Mindoro.  The  country  is  mountainous 
and  the  vegetation  ^exuberant.  It  produces  excellent  building  woods 
and  contains  also  copper  mines  and  sulphur.  It  is  the  least  exploited 
in  the  interior  of  all  the  islands. 


The  area,  including  the  adjacent  islands,  is  10,167  kilometers.  There 
are  67,656  registered  inhabitants,  including  unconquered  pagans,  who 
inhabit  the  interior,  whose  population  would,  without  doubt,  exceed 
106,200.  The  principal  race  inhabiting  the  interior  is  the  Manginanes, 
whose  customs  are  very  savage  and  primitive.  Some  suppose  that  the 
Manguianes  are  only  those  pagans  who  dwell  in  the  mountains  near 
Mangarin,  and  that  the  rest  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  interior  belong 
to  the  Bangot,  Buguil,  Tadianan,  Durugmunan  Beribi,  Buctulan,  Tiron, 
and  Lactan  tribes.  There  are  some  authors,  among  them  Blumentritt, 
who  believe  that  Negritos  live  in  the  vicinity  of  Halcon. 


The  capital  town  is  Calapan,  situated  on  the  north  coast,  on  the  little 
peninsula,  and  has  a  population  of  5,953.  On  the  same  coast  is  Puerto 
Galera,  which  is  famous  on  account  of  its  safe  harbor,  and  has  a  popu- 
lation of  1,700.  Naujan  has  a  population  of  5,200;  Pola,on  the  west- 
ern coast,  northeast  of  Mangarin  and  Tabayan,  is  situated  at  the  head 
of  a  magnificent  bay,  and  has  a  population  of  2,000;  Manaburao  and 
Paluan,  on  the  western  coast,  toward  the  northwest  of  the  islands,  are 
also  towns  of  importance.  All  the  towns  in  the  island  are  situated 
near  the  coast. 


Tagalog  is  spoken  in  the  northern  part,  Visayan  in  the  southern, 
and  Manguian  in  the  central  part  of  the  island. 

1  The  greater  part  of  the  data  in  reference  to  the  Batanes  and  Vaschi  islands  is 
taken  from  a  letter  from  Father  Anastasio  Idigoras,  O.  P.,  published  m  Nos.  138, 139, 
140, 141,  and  142  of  the  "  Policy  of  Spain  in  the  Philippines." 

Hosted  by 




The  immense  forests  of  this  island  contain  all  kinds  of  woods,  palms, 
and  bamboos,  although  but  little  profit  is  derived  from  them  on  account 
of  the  lack  of  people  to  work  them.  Among  the  trees  found  may  be 
mentioned  calinga,  a  species  of  cinnamon.  Near  the  principal  towns 
woodcutting  is  carried  on  in  the  adjacent  forests,  and  during  the  last 
few  years  a « considerable  quantity  of  wood  has  been  exported  to 
Manila.  Most  of  the  wood  is  cut  near  the  towns  of  Paluan,  Mam- 
burao,  Itirum,  Bulalacao,  Pola,  Pinamalayan,  Naujan,  and  the  capital; 
and  the  traffic  is  carried  on  by  a  small  number  of  ships  running  to 
Manila  and  Batangas.  The  town  of  Pola  has  extensive  nipa  groves, 
whose  products  are  exported  to  the  provinces  of  Batangas,  Tayabas, 
and  the  island  of  Marinduque.  Rattan,  diliman,  rajas,  buri,  and  wax, 
which  is  obtained  from  the  towns  of  Puerto  Galera,  Paluan,  and  Mam- 
burao;  tortoise  shell,  which  is  obtained  from  the  little  bordering 
islands;  large  canoes,  made  from  a  single  piece  of  wood,  which  are 
constructed  in  the  towns  of  Baco  and  Sabuaan;  sibucao,  which  is 
exported  from  Puerto  Galera;  balao  oil,  pitch,  nigui,  and  cabonegro 
are  the  principal  articles  of  export.  The  cultivation  of  hemp  is 
increasing  rapidly,  although  at  the  present  time  but  little  is  gathered; 
and  within  the  last  few  years  some  attention  has  been  given  to  the 
cultivation  of  sugar  cane  in  the  vicinity  of  Calapan.  Abra  de  Hog 
and  Mamburao  have  given  good  results  in  the  cultivation  of  this 
article,  as  last  vear  1,200  piculs  were  exported.  The  cultivation  of 
tobacco,  long  established  in  the  towns  of  Sablayan  and  Santa  Cruz, 
produces  a  good  quality  similar  to  that  of  the  Igorrotes.  Cotton  is 
quite  abundantly  produced,  but  is  utilized  only  by  the  natives  them- 
selves, no  exportation  taking  place,  except  to  the  island  of  Itmg. 
Grazing  in  Mindoro  is  scarcely  worthy  of  mention,  except  that  it 
exists  in  the  towns  of  Abra  de  Hog,  Naujan,  and  Mangarin.  The  live 
stock  raised  is  used  only  for  home  consumption,  perhaps  on  account 
of  lack  of  suitable  ships  for  exportation. 

There  is  found  in  the  forests  of  Mindoro  an  indigenous  animal 
called  the  tamarao— a  species  of  buffalo  or  carabao,  but  smaller  and 
very  ferocious.  Its  horns  are  straight  and  not  semilunar,  as  in  the 
carabao.  It  is  hunted  with  lassoes  and  lances,  and  in  the  attack  a 
thrust  is  made  for  the  eyes  or  the  chest.  But  any  method  of  hunting 
this  animal  is  very  dangerous,  and  the  natives  do  not  expose  them- 
selves to  it,  except  when  it  is  necessary  to  protect  their  crops. 

Of  the  mineral  products  of  this  island  nothing  is  known  except  in 
regard  to  sulphur,  which  is  found  in  large  quantities  in  the  town  of 
Subaan,  and  gypsum,  which  is  found  at  Naujan,  and  flint,  which  is 
exported  from  Baco.  ^ 

The  ways  of  communication  are  almost  all  by  sea,  and  are  danger- 
ous, although  it  is  possible  to  go  by  land  from  the  head  town  to  the 
towns  on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  island.  It  is  preferable,  however, 
to  go  by  sea,  as  the  rugged  character  of  the  country  and  the  many 
rivers,  which  are  crossed  only  with  danger  on  account  of  the  croco- 
diles, and  the  mountains  make  the  journey  by  land  exceedingly  diffi- 
cult. The  towns  of  the  north  and  west  can  communicate  with  the 
capital  only  by  sea,  as  no  roads  by  land  exist  on  account  of  the  rugged 
mountain  chains  between  Puerto  Galera  and  Subaan. 

Hosted  by 




The  principal  islands  adjacent  to  Mindoro  are,  on  the  northwest,  the 
Luban^  ^roup;  on  the  northeast,  the  Maranduque  group;  on  the 
southwest,  thelling  group;  and,  on  the  south,  the  Semaraza  group. 


The  island  of  Lubang  is  the  largest,  most  important,  and  only 
inhal)ited  one  of  this  group.  It  is  16  miles  in  length  f  roni  northwest 
to  southeast  and  4  miles  in  breadth,  and  has  many  mdentations  on  the 
coast,  among  them  the  safe  harbor  of  Tilig  and  several  bays  more  or 
less  protected.  The  land  in  the  interior  as  far  north  as  the  parallel  ot 
Tilig  is  low  and  level,  and  from  this  point  south  broken  and  moun- 
tainous, the  highest  mountain  being  near  Gontin,  on  the  western 
coast,  south-southeast  of  the  town  of  Lubang. 


This  town,  situated  on  the  northern  coast  2  miles  from  Point  Sala, 
has  a  population  of  6,51(3.  The  inhabitants  are  mostly  Tagalogs, 
engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits,  hunting,  and  tishmg.  Durmg  certain 
sejSsonsof  the  vear  a  large  number  of  turtles' eggs  and  eggs  of  the 
brush  turkey  are  found  along  the  shores.  These  are  used  as  tood  by  the 
natives.  The  other  islands  of  the  group  are  Ambil,  to  the  east  of 
Lubang;  the  Talinas  islands,  to  the  south  of  the  Imy  of  Loog,  on  the 
southeastern  part  of  the  island;  Mandani,  a  mile  to  the  north  ot  Ambil; 
Malabatuan,  a  little  island  also  to  the  north  of  Ambil;  Cabra,  the  most 
western  of  the  group,  having  a  length  of  2  miles  from  northwest^to 
southeast,  where  a  light-house  of  the  lirst  class  is  situated,  and  Uolo, 
the  most  eastern  island. 

marinduque:  group. 

The  principal  island  is  Marinduque,  situated  to  the  northeast^  of 
Mindoro  and  south  of  Luzon.  It  is  almost  circular  in  shape,  25  miles 
in  diameter,  mountainous,  and  quite  high,  having  a  range  on  its  eastern 
side  which  runs  from  north  to  south,  formed  by  the  Tapian,  ban  Anto- 
nio,'and  Marlanga  mountains.  The  land  is  fertile,  although  watered 
by  small  rivers  only.  The  principal  product  of  the  island  is  rice. 
There  are  two  ports,  San  Andreas  on  the  northwest,  and  banta  Cruz 
on  the  northeast,  and  a  few  bays  on  the  southeastern  and  western 
coasts,  which  offer  fairly  safe  anchorages,  according  to  the  prevailing 
monsoon  and  the  condition  of  the  sea.  ,^  .  k  aaa 

The  most  important  towns  are  Boac,  with  a  population  ot  15,UUU, 
and  Santa  Cruz  de  Napo,  with  a  population  of  15,600.  Large  quanti- 
ties of  rice  are  exported.     The  inhabitants  are  almost  all  Tagalogs. 

The  principal  of  the  adjacent  islands  are  the  group  Tres  Reyes  to  the 
southwest  of  Mompog,  Maninayan  to  the  northeast,  and  ban  Andreas 
and  some  smaller  islands  to  the  northwest. 


Iling,  the  principal  island  of  the  group,  has  a  length  of  10  miles 
from  the  northwest  to  the  southeast,  and  is  shaped  like  an  elongated 
triangle.     The  land  is  high  and  mountainous.     All  of  the  eastern  coast 

Hosted  by 



is  high  and  covered  with  trees  and  extensive  mangrove  swamps,  which 
reach  to  the  shore,  except  at  the  point  on  the  southeast  just  opposite 
a  rough  and  jagged  rock.  The  only  town,  called  Iling,  has  a  popula- 
tion of  500  Tagalogs  and  Visayans  engaged  in  fishing.  Their  food  is 
mostly  fish,  turtle,  and  bolate  (sea  cucumbers). 

Just  in  front  of  the  middle  of  the  eastern  coast  is  the  island  of 
Ambolan,  which  is  of  medium  height  and  surrounded  with  reefs. 


These  islands  include  the  islands  of  Semerara,  Nagubat,  Libagao, 
Sibolon,  Sibaton,  Caluya,  Sibay,  and  Panagatan.  Semerara,  situated 
8  miles  southeast  of  Point  Burancan,  southern  extremity  of  Mindoro, 
is  8i  miles  in  length  from  north-northwest  to  south-southeast  and  4^ 
miles  wide  on  the  south,  its  point  of  greatest  breadth.  The  island  is 
mountainous,  but  of  medium  height,  and  has  irregular  coasts.  It  has 
one  town  or  village  situated  in  the  northeastern  part,  inhabited  by  150 
people,  who  iire  engaged  in  collecting  the  sea  cucumbers  from  the 
shallows  which  surround  the  bay.  The  channel  between  this  island 
and  Mindoro  is  free  from  rocks,  and  deep,  according  to  the  testimony 
of  Captain  Villavicincio,  who  was  chief  of  the  hydrographic  commis- 
sion of  the  Philippines.  Coal  is  found  in  these  islands  near  the  shore 
at  a  depth  of  1  foot.  In  the  northern  part  it  is  of  good  quality;  in  the 
southern  part  of  but  medium  grade. 

This  is  a  small  island  situated  a  mile  northeast  of  Semerara,  and  is 
of  medium  height. 


This  island  is  Si  miles  to  the  east  of  Semerara,  and  4  miles  long 
from  north  to  south  and  li  miles  broad.  The  southern  part  is  quite 
elevated,  reaching  a  height  of  190  meters  above  the  sea  level. 

The  island  of  Sibolon  is  lOi  miles  east  of  Semerara  and  6  miles  north 
of  Sibato  and  is  surrounded  by  reefs. 

Sibay,  7i  miles  to  the  southeast  of  Semerara  and  2^  miles  from 
Caluya,  is  a  small  island  65  meters  in  height. 


These  are  little  isles  and  reefs  south-southwest  of  Semerara  and  7 
miles  from  Cebu.  The  channel  between  the  most  eastern  islands  of 
this  group,  Semerara,  and  the  northwestern  extremity  of  Panay  is  19 
miles  wide  and  very  deep. 



This  island  forms  a  comandancia.  It  is  narrow  and  long,  extending 
from  north-northwest  to  south-southeast,  and  is  situated  in  the  strait 
which  separates  Masbate  from  Ambos  Camarines.     To  the  north  and 

Hosted  by 



northeast  is  the  island  of  Luzon  and  to  the  southeast  the  island  of 
Ticao.  The  interior  is  mountainous  and  craggy,  and  froni  the  center 
rises  Mount  Enganoso.  A  mountain  range  traverses  the  island  from 
northwest  to  southeast.  Toward  the  southwest  is  the  little  island  of 
Gorion,  which  seems  to  be  a  continuation  of  this  mountain  range. 
On  the  northeastern  and  western  coasts  there  are  some  level  lands 
which  are  under  cultivation. 


The  island  has  an  area  of  292  square  kilometers,  and  a  population  of 
1,703,  almost  all  Vicols.  At  the  beginning  of  the  century  this  island 
was  inhabited  by  Moros. 


The  only  town  is  San  Pascual,  on^he  northwestern  extremity  of  the 
island.  It  has  a  port  fronting  the  little  island  of  Busin,  and  is  sur- 
rounded by  a  multitude  of  islands  and  shoals,  forming  narrow  chan- 
nels. It  has,  together  with  the  village  of  Claveria,  a  population  of 
1,600,  who,  with  the  few  others  in  the  five  little  villages  not  far  dis- 
tant, constitute  the  total  population  of  the  island. 


The  extensive  forests  of  this  island  produce  fine  building  woods,  but 
on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  getting  them  out  they  are  not  worked. 
Tobacco  is  produced  in  small  quantities;  also  hemp,  sugar  cane,  choco- 
late, rice,  and  cocoanuts.  There  is  an  abundance  of  live  stock,  which  is 
exported  to  Manila.  The  only  industry  is  the  manufacture  of  bay  ones, 
sugar  sacks  of  buri,  a  palm  which  is  very  abundant  in  the  forest,  and 
which  has  given  its  name  to  the  island. 


The  island  of  Masbate  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Strait  of  San 
Bernardino  and  by  the  seas  which  bathe  the  shores  of  Burias,  Cebu, 
Panay ,  and  Romblon.  It  extends  from  northwest  to  southeast  for  a  dis- 
tance^ of  72  miles,  and  is  triangular  in  shape.  It  is  very  mountainous, 
there  being  a  high  central  chain  which  follows  a  semicircular  direction 
and  terminates  in  the  .southwestern  and  southeastern  points  of  the 
island,  throwing  out  spurs  to  the  northwest,  which  go  to  form  Point 
Bugni.  Other  points  of  less  importance  are  likewise  formed  by  spurs 
from  this  chain. 


Is  24  miles  in  length  from  northwest  to  southeast  and  4  miles  wide. 
It  is  situated  to  the  west  of  the  coast  of  Albay.  The  land  is  covered 
with  vegetation  aiid  is  very  fertile.  Its  principal  ports,  although  none 
of  them  are  good,  are  San  Miguel  and  San  Jacinto.  Ticao  divides  the 
channel  of  the  same  name  into  two  channels— that  on  the  west,  formed 
with  Masbate,  65  miles  wide  in  its  narrowest  point,  and  that  on  the  west 
of  Luzon,  which  is  8i  miles  wide  and  is  most  frequented  by  ships. 

Hosted  by 




Masbate  and  Ticao  have  an  area  of  3,897  square  kilometers  and 
21,366  registered  inhabitants.  Those  in  the  central  part  are  Vicols 
and  those  in  the  south  Visayans. 


Palanoc,  situated  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name,  is  the  capital;  it  has  a 
population  of  2,900.  BakMio,  on  the  eastern  coast,  3  miles  northwest  ot 
the  port  of  Magdalena,  has  a  population  of  2,500.  On  the  bays  ot 
Uson  and  Nara  there  are  towns  of  medium  size,  as  well  as  on  the  bay 
or  port  of  Calingan  on  the  eastern  coast.  Milagros  is  another  small 
town,  having  a  population  of  3,441.  There  are  but  few  inhabitants 
on  the  south  and  west  of  the  island.  ^     .   ^.u 

In  Ticao  the  principal  town  is  San  Jacinto,  on  the  port  ot  the 
same  name;  it  has  a  population  of  2,824,  and  is  a  fairly  good  port. 


Althoucrh  the  population  is  fairly  homogeneous,  the  same  can  not 
be  said  of  the  language.  Vicol,  Tagolog,  and  Visaya  are  spoken 
according  to  the  distances  of  the  towns  from  the  mother  provinces  ot 
these  dialects.  Thus,  in  Baleno  and  Luang,  Tagalog  is  spoken  by 
preference;  in  Ticao  and  Uson,  Vicol;  and  in  Palanac,  Calmgan  and 
Milagros  Visaya. 


The  agricultural  products,  although  in  general  like  those  of  the  rest 
of  the  archipelago,  are  very  few;  this  being  especially  true  ot  rice, 
which  has  to  be  imported,  sugar  cane,  cotton,  chocolate,  and  hemp. 
In  Magdalena,  Masbate,  Calingan,  and  San  eJacinto  tobacco  is  produced; 
in  quality  it  is  very  strong,  and,  though  much  valued  by  the  Vicols 
brings  but  a  low  price  in  Manila.  One  of  the  chief  sources  of  wealth 
is  grazing,  which  has  increased  greatly  during  the  last  few  years. 
Industry  is  limited  to  the  gathering  of  forest  products,  to  hshenes, 
hunting,  weaving,  and  the  manufacture  of  palm  mats,  which,  on  account 
of  the  excellence  of  the  work  and  the  durability  of  the  colors,  have 
attracted  attention  from  European  expositions.  Commerce  is  limited 
to  the  exportation  of  agricultural  and  forest  products  and  cattle,  and 
the  importation  of  rice  and  groceries  from  Europe.  The  natives  col- 
lect some  gold  from  the  sands  in  the  rivers. 


San  Miguel  and  Mataban  are,  respectively,  northwest  and  southeasjt 
of  Ticao.  There  is  a  small  island  in  the  port  of  Barrera,  m  the  north 
of  Masbate;  also  the  island  of  Deagais,  in  the  Bay  of  Nara;  the 
island  of  Bugton,  in  the  port  of  Calaingan;  the  island  ot  JNara 
at  the  entrance  of  the  bay  of  the  same  name;  Asid  to  the  south  ot 
Masbate;  the  Zapato  and  Imtotolo  Islands,  to  the  southwest  ot  Fomt 
Pulanduta.  On  the  western  coast  are  the  islands  of  the  Bay  ot  JNm, 
Mapayagnan,  and  Majaba. 

Hosted  by 




The  Calamianes  and  Cuyos  islands  are  usually  grouped  by  authors 
under  the  name  of  ''  Calamianes."  According  to  this,  the  Calamianes 
include  a  group  of  more  than  100  islands,  situated  between  Paragua 
on  the  southeast,  Mindoro  on  the  north,  Panay  on  the  east,  and  the 
Mindoro  Sea  on  the  south.  All  of  these  islands  are,  m  general, 
mountainous  and  rugged  and  covered  with  vegetation. 


The  total  area  of  these  groups  is  1,600  square  miles,  and  the  total 
number  of  registered  inhabitants  14,291.  They  are  for  the  most  part 
Visayans  and  the  Calamianes,  or  Tagbanuas.  The  mountains  ot  the 
lar^e  islands  of  Calimian  and  Busuanga  are  inhabited  by  pagans, 
probably  of  the  Negrito  race.  The  island  of  Agutaya,  in  the  Cuyos 
group,  is  inhabited  by  the  Agutainos,  a  special  Malayan  race. 


The  principal  islands  are:  Calibangbagan,  situated  8  miles  east  of  the 
northern  point  of  Paragua;  it  is  2i  miles  long  from  northwest  to 


This  is  the  largest  of  the  numerous  group,  situated  between  the 
northeast  coast  of  Paragua  and  the  island  of  Calimian,  at  a  distance  ot 
12  miles  from  the  latter;  it  is  10  miles  in  length  from  north  to  south, 
and  its  north  coast  forms  two  deep  bays.  On  the  eastern  side  are  seen 
various  bold  conical-formed  points.  In  an  angle  to  the  southwest 
there  is  the  little  town  of  San  Nicolas. 


This  is  a  little  group  situated  to  the  southeast,  14  miles  from  the 
point  northeast  of  Linacapan.  It  is  composed  of  two  large  islands 
and  a  number  of  small  islands  and  rocks. 


To  the  northeast  of  Cabualauan,  is  of  medium  height  and  is  formed 
of  a  central  hill. 


Is  situated  10  miles  to  the  east  northeast  of  the  island  of  Culili  and 
is  the  most  northwestern  of  the  Linacapan  Islands. 


Is  situated  between  the  islands  of  Malubut  and  Calibangbagan. 
p  c— VOL  3—01 10 

Hosted  by 




the  largest  one  of  the  Calamianes  Group,  is  about  34  miles  long  from 
northwest,  one-fourth  west  to  southeast,  one-fourth  east,  and  is  18 
miles  wide  in  its  broadest  part.  It  is  very  irregular  m  shape,  and  its 
coasts  are  indented  by  numerous  deep  gulfs  and  bays.  Its  northeast 
coast,  with  the  multitude  of  little  islands  near  it,  forms  the  west  coast 
of  the  channel  west  of  Apo.  The  island  is  mountainous,  little  populated, 
and  little  cultivated,  although  its  soil  is  fertile  and  suitable  for  the 
cultivation  of  the  usual  products  of  the  archipelago,  but  its  inhabit- 
ants, almost  all  united  in  the  town  of  Busuanga,  occupy  themselves 
principally  in  gathering  sea  cucumbers  and  collecting  nests  of  saian- 


This  island  is  situated  at  the  western  entrance  of  the  strait  of  Coron 
and  extends  from  east  to  west  a  distance  of  4  miles,  being  1|  miles 
broad  at  its^ widest  part.     It  is  surrounded  by  little  islands  and  reefs. 


This  island  is  situated  to  the  southwest  of  Busuanga;  it  is  very  high, 
rocky,  and  without  vegetation.  It  measures  11  miles  from  north  to 
south  and  4^  miles  from  east  to  west. 

This  island,  also  called  Calamian,  is  situated  southwest  of  Busuanga, 
from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  channel  3  or  4  miles  wide.  The 
chief  town  is  Culion,  situated  on  the  northeast  coast,  on  a  point 
north  of  a  good  port,  and  has  a  population  of  2,100.  The  soil  is  very 
fertile,  but  the  inhabitants  cultivate  it  but  little,  raising  only  a  small 
amount  of  rice  and  occupying  themselves  almost  exclusively  m  gath- 
ering sea  cucumbers,  birds'  nests,  and  wax,  which  latter  is  of  superior 
quality.  All  of  the  islands  of  the  Calamianes  Group  abound  in  rep- 
tiles, deer,  wild  hogs,  and  birds,  which  destroy  the  crops.  The  bamboo 
of  this  island  is  of  a  special  kind. 


These  islands  are  situated  to  the  south  of  Mindoro,  halfway 
between  the  west  coast  of  Panay  and  the  northeast  coast  of  Paragua. 
They  form  a  group  composed  of  a  multitude  of  high  and  rocky  islands 
and  isles  which  occupy  a  sea  space  approximately  circular  and  45 
miles  in  diameter. 


This  island  is  also  called  ''Gran  Cuyo;"  it  extends  from  northeast  to 
southwest  a  distance  of  7i  miles,  being  4  miles  in  breadth;  a  little 
mountain  chain  divides  it  longitudinally.  On  the  western  coast  is 
situated  the  town  of  Cuyo,  the  capital  of  all  the  Calamianes,  considered 
politically.  It  has  a  population  of  6,300.  These  people  are  occupied 
principally  in  the  collecting  of  sea  cucumbers,  turtles,  and  pearls,  and 

igpme  details  concerning  these  nests  may  be  found  in  the  article  on  zoology. 

Hosted  by  VrrOOQiC 



Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



the  ^atherino-  of  birds'  nests  in  the  islands  of  Faragua  and  Culion, 
where  they  are  ordinarily  found  in  the  greatest  abundance;  they  also 
raise  hogs  and  various  kinds  of  fowls. 


is  situated  6i  miles  northwest  of  the  island  of  Cuyo,  and  is  small,  clean, 
and  precipitous,  and  formed  of  a  central  mountain.  Near  by,  to  the 
northeast  of  Cuyo,  are  the  little  islands  of  Siparay  Tuebuque  and  the 
isles  of  I'ayanayan  and  Cocoro,  these  two  being  almost  united. 


This  island  is  situated  almost  in  the  conter  of  the  group,  and  is  8 
miles  long  from  north  to  south;  it  is  bold  and  precipitous  on  all  side^ 
except  the  southwest,  and  is  surrounded  by  various  small  islands,  such 
as  Diton  the  north-northwest,  Maracanao  on  the  northeast,  Mataza- 
bis  to  the  east-southeast,  Guinla])o,  Paya,  Patunga,  Pamitman,  and 
Lubic  on  the  southwest,  Oco,  Imaranan,  and  Sean  on  the  west,  ihe 
town  of  Agutaya  has  a  population  of  2,064:  inhabitants. 


Calamian,  Vicol,  and  Visava  are  spoken,  the  latter  especially  on  the 
Cuvos  Islands,  which  are  nearest  to  Panay.  After  Calamian  and  iag- 
})anua,  it  is  the  language  most  generally  spoken  m  the  Calamianes. 
In  the  island  of  Agutaya  a  special  dialect  called  Agutiano  is  spoken. 
Coyuno  is  spoken  in  the  islands  nearest  to  Paragua. 


These  have  already  been  indicated  in  speaking  of  the  towns.  In 
general,  it  mav  be  said  that  the  inhabitants  of  these  islands  are  occu- 
pied more  in  fishing  and  hunting  than  in  agriculture.  They  cultivate 
the  land  only  for  the  production  of  articles  of  food  of  prime  necessity 
which  are  used  in  the  islands  themselves.  They  export  bamboo  wax, 
and  during  the  past  few  years,  chocolate,  the  cultivation  ot  which  is 
increasing,  and  some  cattle.  The  industries  are  limited  to  the  manu- 
facture of  wine  and  cloth,  especially  that  made  from  hemp.  In  some 
of  the  islands  gold  is  found. 

Hosted  by 




[Maps  Nos.  16  and  20  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 


The  Visayan  Islands,  formerly  called  Islas  de  Pintados  (islands  of 
the  painted  men),  occupy  the  central  part  of  the  archipelago,  between 
Luzon  on  the  north,  Mindoro  on  the  south,  the  Pacific  on  the  east,  and 
Paragua  on  the  west.  They  are  situated  between  9^  2'  and  :*  2°  39' 
north  latitude,  and  between  121^  48'  and  125^  50'  west  longitude  from 

The  total  area  of  the  Visayas  is  57,714  square  kilometers,  and  the 
number  of  inhabitants  2,202,565.  The  group  may  be  divided  into 
three  parts,  which  will  be  treated  of  in  three  chapters,  as  follows: 
First,  Romblon  and  Panay;  second,  Negros,  Cebu,  and  Bohol;  third, 
Samar  and  Leyte. 

Something  will  be  said  of  the  islands  adjacent  to  the  principal 
islands  as  these  are  spoken  of. 



The  Romblon  group  includes  the  islands  of  Romblon,  Bantan, 
Maestre  de  Campo,  Sibuyan,  Simara,  Tablas,  and  the  small  adjoin- 
ing islands.  On  the  north  are  Marinduque,  Luzon,  and  Burias;  on 
the  south  Panay,  on  the  east  Masbate,  and  on  the  west  Mindoro. 
They  are  situated  between  the  parallels  of  12^  3'  and  13^  14'  north 
latitude,  and  121^  34'  and  122^  50'  east  longitude  from  Greenwich. 

They  have  an  area  of  1,278  square  kilometers,  and  a  population  of 
34,828,  the  greater  part  of  whom  are  Visayans.  In  the  island  of 
Tablas  there  are  some  pagans  of  the  Negrito  race,  and  in  the  same 
island  and  in  Romblon  some  Manguianes. 


The  most  northern  group  is  formed  of  the  islands  of  Maestre  de 
Campo,  Banton,  Bantoncillo,  and  Simara,  which  form,  with  the  coasts 
of  Mindoro  on  the  west,  Marinduque  on  the  north,  and  Tablas  on  the 
south,  very  deep  and  clear  channels.  These  are  well-known  and  much 
frequented  by  Philippine  boats,  which  pass  through  the  Strait  of  Isla 
Verde  on  their  way  from  Manila  to  Iloilo,  Negros,  Cebu,  and  the 
southern  part  of  the  archipelago. 

Hosted  by 




This  island  is  situated  11  miles  southeast  of  the  nearest  land;  the 
elevated  hill  formed  by  Mount  Dumali  in  Mmdoro  It  is  circular  m 
form  3i  miles  in  diameter  and  very  mountainous  and  high.  1  be  pi  in- 
ci^S  anchorages  are  Concepcion  and  Sibali  on  the  southern  coast  of 
the  island. 


are  two  small,  level  islands,  42  meters  in  height  and  very  close 
together,  Sated  5  miles  northeast  one-quarter  east  of  Maestre  de 
Campo;  the  western  one  is  called  Carlota. 


This  island  is  situated  18  miles  east  of  Maestre  de  Campo  and  7  miles 
to  the  siuthea  t  of  the  island  called  Isabel,  to  the  east  of  Dos  Hermanas. 
It  s  about Tmiles  from  north  to  south,  and  the  same  from  east  to  wes  ; 
it  is  S  and  precipitous,  except  on  the  southern  side,  where  there  is 
a  small  rocky  reef.  On  the  eastern  coast  there  is  a  smal  bay,  where 
the  town  of  Banton  is  situated.  The  soil  of  the  entire  island  is  quite 
sterile  The  town  has  a  population  of  4,063  A  small  quantity  of 
tobacco  of  poor  quality,  is  produced  here.  There  is  a  mine  of  gyp- 
sum of  excellent  qualit/ 'and  another  of  almager  of  very  poor  quality. 


a  little  island  situated  to  the  southwest  of  Banton   is  very  narrow  and 
about  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long,  from  north  to  south. 


This  island  is  situated  approximately  in  the  middle  of  the  channel 
betw"e"Banton  and  the  n^o^th  of  Tablas  There  is  one  small  town 
called  Corcuera,  which  has  a  population  ot  2,064. 


This  long,  narrow  island,  extending  from  north  to  south   between 
the  little  gfJup  of  Banton  and  Bantoncillo  on  the  north  and  the  north- 
western eltremity  of  the  island  of  Panay  on  the  south   separates  the 
diannel  southeast  of  Mindoro  called  Tablazo   from  that  of  Capiz, 
wMch  will  be  spoken  of  later.     It  is  35  miles  long,  from  north  to  south, 
Tnd  ab^ut  10  miles  wide  in  its  broadest  part.     The  country  is  moun^ 
tainous  in  the  extreme  north  there  being  a  mountain  called  Cabeza 
de  TTbks,  733  meters  high,  which  dominates  the  entire  ^^^A  J) 
the  southwestern  coast  there  is  a  town  and  port  of  Looc  the  best  in 
the  island     The  town  has  a  population  of  6,463.     iheie  are  inree 
othe    towns  on  the  island,  as  follows:  Odiongan,  on  the  eastern  coast 
with  a  population  of  5,661;  Badajoz,  with  9,461,  and  Salado,  with 


This  island  divides  the  strait  between  Panay  and  Tablas.     It  is  quite 


This  island  is  situated  6  miles  to  the  east  of  the  northeastern  part  of 
Tab?::;  lus  similes  long,  from  north  to  south  and  4i  miles  in  ^ts 
(greatest  breadth.  It  is  very  rich  in  quartz,  marble,  and  slate,  ine 
P  of  RomWon,  in  the  upper  part  of  the  western  coast  of  the  island, 

Hosted  by  VjOOQIC 


although  small,  is  one  of  the  best  in  the  Visayas.  In  front  of  the  port 
is  the  small  island  of  Lubung.  On  point  Sobang  there  is  a  light- 
house, as  a  guide  to  the  entrance  of  the  harbor.  At  the  foot  of  a  high 
mountain,  just  at  the  head  of  the  bay,  is  the  principal  town  of  the 
island,  Romblon,  which  has  a  population  of  7,268. 

This  island  is  situated  to  the  north  of  Lubung,  7i  ca})les  length  from 
the  northwest  coast  of  Romblon. 


This  island  is  situated  a  mile  north  northwest  of  Alad. 


This  island  is  quite  mountainous,  and  almost  in  the  center  there 
arises  from  among  others  the  peak  called  "  Sibuyan,"  which  dominates 
the  entire  island.  The  island  is  17  miles  long,  from  northwest  to 
southeast,  and  9i  miles  broad,  from  northeast  to  southwest.  There 
are  three  principal  rivers.  The  Mabalog  rises  on  the  highest  peak  of 
the  island  on  the  southwestern  side  and  falls  in  beautiful  cascades  into 
an  extensive  valley,  which,  along  with  several  smaller  streams,  it 
waters,  finally  discharging  on  an  extensive  sand  beach  but  a  short  dis- 
tance to  the  east  of  Point  Mabalog,  from  which  it  takes  its  name. 
The  Cambulayan  has  its  source  on  the  western  side  of  Sibuyan,  winds 
its  way  around  several  mountains  which  it  encounters  in  its  course, 
and,  increasing  its  volume  from  several  small  rivers,  empties  to  the 
east  of  the  island  a  short  distance  to  the  south  of  Point  Cambulayan. 
The  Nailog  has  its  source  on  the  heights  of  one  of  the  highest  peaks 
of  the  northwest.  After  receiving  the  waters  of  several  small  rivers, 
it  flows  through  the  most  extensive  valley  of  the  island  and  empties 
on  the  north  over  a  sandy  beach,  about  the  center  of  a  bay  situated 
between  points  Balaring  and  Pagdulog. 

There  are,  besides,  many  smaller  rivers  or  creeks,  all  containing  as 
fine  drinking  water  as  is  found  in  the  archipelago.  The  island  is 
extremely  fertile,  and  has  beautiful  lowlands  suitable  for  the  cultiva- 
tion of  different  articles,  but  its  inhabitants  live  in  the  greatest  misery 
and  plant  only  such  things  as  are  absolutely  necessary  for  their  exist- 
ence, being  engaged  in  the  collection  of  sea  cucumbers  and  tortoise 
shell,  and  also  in  the  collection  of  gold  from  the  placer  mines  of  the 
Nailog  River.  The  Manguianes,  who  live  in  the  mountains,  are  quite 
pacific,  but  not  at  all  addicted  to  work  and  so  dirty  that  the  most  of 
them  go  naked  and  are  covered  with  all  kinds  of  repugnant  cutaneous 
eruptions.  The  island  has  three  towns  belonging  to  the  district  of 
Romblon — Capdiocan,  on  the  eastern  coast,  with  a  population  of  3,797; 
Magallanes,  on  the  northern  coast,  with  1,744,  and  Azagra,  with  3,798. 
There  are  also  several  villages  scattered  along  the  coast.  In  the 
interior  there  are  tribes  of  Manguianes  who  have  never  been  subju- 
gated. The  sea  space  between  Romblon,  Sibuyan  and  its  adjacent 
islands,  and  Panay  is  called  by  seafaring  men  the  Tablazo  de  Capiz. 


Visayo  is  generally  spoken,  except  by  the  Manguianes,  who  use 
their  own  language. 

Hosted  by 




In  the  towns  of  this  group  various  products  are  produced  sufficient 
to  satisfy  the  wants  of  the  inhabitants.  Some  tobacco  of  rather  infe- 
rior quality  is  raised.  During-  the  last  few  years  the  exportation  of 
copra  from  Romblon  has  assumed  respectable  proportions.  A  certain 
amount  3f  gum  mastic  is  exported  from  Romblon  and  Sibuyan.  The 
marble  quarries  of  Romblon  are  also  worked  to  some  extent. 



The  island  of  Panay,  belonging  to  the  Visayan  group,  is  situated 
between  parallels  of  latitude  11^  55'  and  10^  24'  north,  and  longitude 
121°  49'  and  123°  9'  east  from  Greenwich.'  To  the  north  extends  the 
Tablazo  de  Capiz,  or  little  inland  sea,  included  between  the  islands  of 
Tablas,  Romblon,  Sibuyan,  and  Masbate.  As  has  been  said,  on  the 
east  the  Straits  of  Concepcion  and  Iloilo  separate  it  from  the  numerous 
adjacent  islands  and  the  island  of  Negros,  and  on  the  south  and  west 
extends  the  important  inland  sea  known  as  the  Sea  of  Jolo  or  of  Min- 
doro,  which  separates  it  from  Negros,  Paragua,  the  Cagayanes  group, 
and  the  Cuy OS  and  Calamianes  groups.  Ail  of  the  islands  and  isles 
adjacent,  and  some  of  those  farther  away,  belong  to  the  civil  govern- 
ment of  the  districts  into  which  this  island  is  divided.  It  may  be  said, 
in  a  general  way,  that  the  shape  of  the  island  is  triangular,  the  three 
sides  extending  from  west-northwest  to  east-southeast,  from  northeast 
to  southwest,  and  from  northwest  to  south-southwest.  In  general  the 
island  is  mountainous,  although  there  are  many  extensive  and  very 
fertile  valleys. 


The  total  area,  including  the  adjacent  islands,  is  13,583  square  kilo- 
meters; the  population,  756,786,  the  most  of  whom  are  Visayans. 
There  are  several  thousand  pagans,  called  Mundos,  dwelling  in  the 
mountains,  and  also  some  Negritos  in  some  of  the  mountain  chains. 


The  mountain  ranges  form  natural  divisions  for  the  provinces  or 
districts  of  the  island.  These  are  Antique,  Capiz,  Iloilo,  and  the 
comandancia,  or  district  of  Concepcion. 


The  fertility  of  the  soil  of  Panay  is  well  known.  Among  the  various 
woods  may  be  mentioned  molave,  ebony,  and  sibucao,  of  which  large 
quantities  are  annually  exported  to  China.  So,  too,  in  the  mountain- 
ous parts  of  Iloilo,  in  the  comandancia  of  Concepcion  and  in  Gui- 
maras,  fine  woods  are  found  in  large  quantities,  but  the  province  most 
celebrated  for  the  richness  of  its  forest  products  is  Capiz,  where  as 
many  as  87  varieties  of  excellent  building  woods  are  known.  From 
the  forests  large  quantities  of  honey,  wax,  and  pitch  are  gathered. 
The  mineral  resources  of  this  island  are  of  little  importance.  Quick- 
silver is  believed  to  exist;  so,  too,  with  copper,  although  its  situation  is 
unknown.  It  is  probable  that  beds  of  iron  ore  exist  in  some  of  the 
mountains,  and  there  are  many  places  in  which  gold  is  or  may  be 
worked,  such  as  the  vicinity  of  Dumarao,  Binatusan  and  Lausan,  etc. 
There  are  indications  of  coal  or  lignite  in  Busuanga,  Balate,  Valder- 

Hosted  by 



rama,  and  other  points.  Several  quarries  are  worked,  such  as  those 
of  Morobozo,  Gutujan,  Timunan,  and  Igan.  There  are  also  hne  mar- 
bles found,  and  a  beautiful  tonalite,  which  may  be  substituted.  Lame 
of  most  excellent  quality  is  abundant  in  the  district  of  Iloilo,  where 
various  quarries  of  excellent  quality  and  hardness  are  found,  particu- 
larly in  Igbaras  and  in  Mount  Tinicoan.  Cotton,  corn,  chocolate  pep- 
per, coffee,  tobacco,  sugar  cane  and  rice  are  cultivated  with  much  suc- 
cess; the  last  two  of  excellent  quality  and  in  large  quantities.  On  its 
mazing  lands,  which  cover  a  great  part  of  its  area,  much  live  stock  is 
raised,  in  the  district  of  Capiz  alone  there  being  more  than  50,000 
head,  the  greater  part  of  them  carabaos.  The  horses  of  Iloilo  are 
greatly  prized.  W  ild  animals  are  very  abundant,  especially  hiiiialo, 
deer,  wild  hogs,  etc.  Crocodiles  abound  in  the  rivers,  and  Ifeh  and 
shells  in  the  waters  of  the  sea;  tortoise  shell  is  also  found. 


The  principal  of  these  are:  On  the  north  coast,  Borocay,  the  little 
islands  of  Mobay,  and  Tuat,  Ocutaya,  the  little  Zapatos,  the  JNorth 
and  South  Gigantes  or  Sibuluac,  Cabay  and  Sibuluac  Lalaque.  On 
the  east  coast,  Maninigo,  Nabunut,  Balbagan,  Tumumalayum,  Gigan- 
tes, Binnluanganan,  Calaguan,  Sigocon,  Canaz,  Luginut,  Bayas,  Fan- 
de-Azucar,  Culebra,  Tagil,  Malangaban,  Danao,  Sombrero  Bagalri, 
Fagubanhan,  the  little  islands  of  Bal  and  Seite  Pecados,  Guimaras, 
Nalunga  and  Nadulao,  and  Unison.  On  the  western  coast,  Mangium, 
Balbatan,  Maralison  Islands,  and  the  reefs  of  Cagayanes,  or  the  seas 
of  Cagayan,  Cagancillo,  Calija,  and  Caville. 

We  will  speak  briefly  of  some  of  the  more  important. 


This  island  is  near  the  coast  of  Panay  and  is  the  largest  of  the  five 
northern  islands  which  are  found  at  the  north  entrance  of  the  channel 
to  Iloilo.  It  is  about  5  miles  long,  and  of  the  two  notable  peaks 
which  are  seen  the  highest  has  an  elevation  of  621  meters  above  sea 
level.     There  are  various  smaller  islands  in  the  vicinity. 


This  is  a  group  of  seven  islands,  or  rather  large  rocks,  situated  in  the 
middle  of  the  channel  from  the  Iguana  bank  and  a  little  before  reaching 
the  sheltered  water  formed  by  the  northern  point  of  Guimaras  and  the 
coast  of  Panay.  The  highest  of  these  is  about  8  meters  above  the 
water,  and  all  of  them  are  precipitous. 


This  island  is  situated  at  the  southern  entrance  of  the  strait  which 
separates  Panay  and  Negros;  it  is  very  flat  in  front  of  the  .coast  of 
Iloilo,  with  which  it  forms  the  channel  of  this  name.  The  soil  is  fertile, 
and  produces  rice,  hemp,  cotton,  corn,  and  tobacco  in  small  quantities. 
The  most  important  towns  are  Buenavista,  with  4,383  inhabitants; 
Nagaba,  with  6,297,  besides  a  large  number  of  small  villages.  The 
inhabitants  of  this  island  are  occupied  only  in  agriculture.  They  also 
engage  in  hunting  and  fishing,  and  in  the  manufacture  of  the  ordinary 
and  finer  fabrics. 

Hosted  by 




Toward  the  southeast  of  Guiraaras  are  the  little  islands  of  Nadulao, 
Lalunga,  Inampulugan,  Nanoy  Guinanon,  and  Panabulon,  and  other 
smaller  islands  of  little  importance. 



The  district  or  province  of  Antique  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the 
district  of  Capiz,  on  the  east  by  that  of  Iloilo,  and  on  the  south  and 
west  by  the  sea. 


The  total  area  of  this  district  is  472  square  kilometers,  27  of  these 
belonging  to  the  adjacent  islands.  The  number  of  registered  inhabit- 
ants is  115,434. 


A  somewhat  modified  form  of  Visayan  is  spoken. 


There  are  19  towns  having  a  population  of  over  10,000,  among  which 
are  Sibolam,  Culasi,  and  Pandan.  Antique  itself  has  10,929;  ban  J  ose 
de  Buenavista,  the  capital,  has  a  population  of  6  000;  it  is  situated  to 
the  south  of  Point  Dalipe,  on  level  ground,  and  presents  a  beautitul 
appearance,  as  is  indicated  by  its  name.  Besides  the  capital  town  are 
the  following:  Anmuy,  with  a  population  of  5,000;  Antique,  10,929; 
Barbaza,  6,334;  Bugason,  12,097;  CaganciUo,  2  316;  Culasi,  10,382 
Dao,  7,635,  Egana  and  Guisijan,  3,086;  Malupa,  2,534;  Pandan,  8,837; 
Patnongon  and  San  Remigio,  2,976;  San  Pedro,  6,190;  Sebaste  and 
Sibolam,  13,493;  Tibiao,  Valderrama,  and  Caritan.  Among  these 
Sibolam  with  a  population  of  15,000,  Pulasi,  Pandaii,  and  Antique 
the  former  capital,  figure  as  the  most  important.  Ihe  number  ot 
villages  is  63  and  of  hamlets  5.  There  are,  besides,  many  hamlets  ot 
conquered  pagans. 


Within  a  few  years  this  region  has  begun  to  develop  agriculturally, 
and  now  produces  considerable  quantities  of  rice  and  sugar  cane  and 
lesser  quantities  of  subacao,  coffee,  chocolate,  and  tobacco  ot  excellent 
quality.  In  addition  to  agriculture,  grazing  is  carried  on,  likewise 
the  manufacture  of  sugar.  Industries  are  confined  to  the  manufacture 
of  fabrics  from  pineapple  fiber,  jusi,  and  sinamay,  which  gives  employ- 
ment to  some  12,000  women  in  about  7,000  shops.  1  here  is  but  little 
commerce  in  the  interior.  The  export  trade  is  carried  on  by  nieans  of 
small  boats,  which  carry  to  Iloilo  and  Manila  sugar,  hemp,  rice,  and 
manufactured  goods  in  large  quantities,  and  sibacao,  hides,  etc.,  in 
smaller  quantities.  The  importation  in  1870  was  87,478  piculs,  and 
the  exportation  197,809.  The  forests  contain  a  great  variety  of  excel- 
lent building  and  cabinet  woods,  such  as  molave,  ipil,  banaba,  durigon, 
alintatao,  narra,  etc.;  an  abundance  of  pitch,  resin  gum,  mastic  wax, 
and  honey  is  also  obtained  in  the  forests.  In  the  vicinity  of  the  town 
of  Antique  there  are  also  found  immense  beds  of  marble  ot  various 

Hosted  by 



colors  and  structure,  more  or  less  fine,  but  these  have  not  been 
worked.  In  the  island  of  Nagas  seashells  are  found  in  abundance. 
During  the  dry  season  the  roads  can  be  traversed  without  difficulty, 
but  during  the  wet  season  they  become  impassable  for  carriages. 
There  are  two  cart  roads  which  communicate  with  the  adjacent  dis- 
tricts; one  starts  from  the  town  of  San  Jose,  passing  through  all  of 
the  towns  to  the  north  and  unites  with  the  road  in  the  district  of 
Capiz,  at  Navas.  The  other,  starting  from  San  Jose,  follows  along 
through  Antique  and  joins  with  a  road  in  the  province  of  Iloilo,  at  the 
town  of  San  Joakin.  These  roads  are  interrupted  by  the  mountains 
to  the  north  and  south,  being  reduced  to  paths  more  or  less  inacces- 
sible, according  to  the  time  of  the  year. 



This  district  is  in  the  northern  part  of  Panay,  and  is  bounded  on 
the  north  and  east  from  Point  Bulacali  to  Point  Naso  by  the  sea,  on 
the  southeast  by  the  mountain  chain  which  separates  it  from  Iloilo, 
and  on  the  southwest  by  the  mountain  which  separates  it  from  the  dis- 
trict of  Antique.  Included  in  this  province  are  the  islands  of  Carabes 
and  Busacay  and  the  smaller  islands  of  Tabon,  Malaya,  Marava, 
Mahabangpulo,  Masuleg,  Fued,  Batongbagni,  Matalinga,  Olutaya, 
Magotalipan,  JSIegtig,  Nasanda,  Manapao,  Banagay,  and  some  others. 

The  area  of  the  province  is  4,547  square  kilometers,  and  of  the 
islands  55  square  kilometers. 


The  country  for  the  most  part  is  flat  and  low,  and  exposed  to 
frequent  floods,  except  in  the  towns  of  Banga,  Buruanga,  Jamindang, 
and  Sapian,  which  are  situated  in  the  mountains.  All  of  the  others 
occupy  extensive  lowlands,  which  are  exceedingly  fertile  because  of 
the  large  number  of  rivers  and  creeks  which  water  them. 


The  population  is  about  224,000,  although  it  is  not  easy  to  estimate 
this  exactly  on  account  of  the  large  number  of  people  scattered 
throughout  the  mountains  of  Balate,  Ibajay,  Libacao,  Madalag,  and 
Tapas,  who  acknowledge  no  other  authority  than  that  of  their  head 


The  capital,  Capiz,  situated  on  the  bank  of  the  river  Panay,  has  a 
population  of  22,000.  Its  appearance  is  very  beautiful,  the  level 
land  being  traversed  by  broad  highways,  which  offer  communication 
with  Iloilo  and  Antique.  For  its  defense  it  has  a  small  fort,  contain- 
ing a  garrison.  It  is  a  telegraph  station.  Other  towns  are  Balete, 
Banga,  Bitan,  Buruanga,  Calivo,  Cuartero,  Dao,  Dumalag,  Dumaras, 
Ibajay,  Ivisan,  Jimeno,  Jamindang,  Jagnaya,  Lezo,  Libacao,  Loctu- 
£Can,  Ma-Ayon,  Macato,  Madalag,  Malinao,  Mambusao,  Navas,  Numan- 
cia,  Panay,  16,672;  Pilar,  14,448;  Pontevedra,  11,800;  Panitan,  Sapian, 
Sigma,  Tangalan,  and  Tapaz. 

Hosted  by 




The  forest  products  are  very  abundant,  there  being  not  less  than  87 
species  of  building  woods.  They  are,  however,  very  scarce  near  the 
capital  and  the  coast  towns.  Pitch  and  resins  of  various  kinds  are 
obtained.  Agriculture  has  advanced  greatly  during  the  last  few  years, 
among  the  products  being  rice,  sugar,  tobacco,  hemp,  indigo,  choco- 
late, and  corn.  The  manufacture  of  alcohol  is  of  special  importance, 
and  includes  some  very  large  distilleries,  the  total  annual  product  being 
more  than  500,000  liters.  Among  other  industries  may  be  mentioned  the 
manufacture  of  sugar  sacks,  hats  of  palm  leaf,  and  baskets,  and  fabrics 
of  silk,  cotton,  and  hemp.  These  industries  are  common  throughout 
the  province.  Commerce  is  not  very  flourishing.  Trade  is  carried  on 
at  the  weekly  fairs,  held  on  indicated  days  in  .all  towns,  the  principal 
articles  of  trade  being  rice,  hemp,  pineapple  fiber  cloth,  and  dry  fish. 
The  export  trade  is  carried  on  in  small  coasting  vessels.  Live  stock 
figures  among  the  wealth  of  the  district,  there  being  45,624  head, 
having  an  approximate  value  of  $324,504.  The  highways  are  in  good 
condition  during  the  dry  season,  but  are  almost  impassable  for  car- 
riages during  the  wet  season.  In  certain  parts  of  the  district  there  are 
mines  of  gold  and  other  metals. 



This  district  includes  all  of  the  southeastern  coast  of  the  island  of 
Panay,  from  Point  Bula  Gate,  in  latitude  11°  34'  north  on  the  northeast, 
to  Point  Nasog,  in  latitude  10°  24'  north  on  the  south.  It  has  a  coast 
line  of  140  miles.  It  is  bounded  north  by  the  district  of  Capiz,  on  the 
east  by  the  strait  and  island  of  Guimaras,  on  the  west  by  the  province 
of  Antique,  and  on  the  south  by  the  Mindoro  Sea.  The  following 
islands  pertain  to  the  district  of  Iloilo:  Guimaras  and  Inampulugan 
and  the  little  islands  of  Nadules,  Palinga,  Nanay,  Nalibas,  Nagarao, 
Susan,  Guianon,  Panabulon,  Lugaran,  Tandog,  Babalod,  Tungmban, 
and  the  group  of  Siete  Pecados,  and  others  mere  insignificant  still. 

The  general  aspect  of  the  district  is  that  of  a  well  cultivated  and 
planted  park,  dotted  with  well-built  and  commodious  houses,  which 
are  shaded  by  beautiful  fruit  trees.  The  towns  are  almost  all  large, 
clean,  ana  well  built.  In  no  other  province  or  district  are  there  so 
many  beautiful  churches;  they  are  all  of  stone,  their  architecture  being 
pleasing.  The  cemetery  of  laninay  is  especially  notable.  No  other 
province  is  crossed  by  as  many  well-built  roads  and  byways. 


The  area  is  3,755  square  kilometers,  not  counting  the  806  square 
kilometers  of  the  comandancia  of  Concepcion,  which  in  reality  belongs 
to  this  district.  The  area  of  the  islands  belonging  to  it  is  598  square 
kilometers.  After  Manila  this  province  is  the  most  populous  of  the 
archipelago,  having,  according  to  the  official  census  of  1887,  423,462 
inhabitants.  In  all  of  the  towns,  especially  those  of  the  coast,  there 
are  many  European  and  Chinese  half-castes,  and  in  this  province  many 
Chinese  are  found.  In  the  mountains  separating  the  province  from 
Capiz  and  Antique  there  are  many  families  of  Negritos  of   Aetas. 

Hosted  by 



These  lead  a  miserable  existence  and  are  rapidly  diminishing.  More 
numerous  and  important  are  the  tribes  and  iamilies  of  natives  living 
in  the  mountains.  These  are  in  reality,  in  race,  language,  and  customs, 
Visayans,  the  most  of  them  being  refugees  from  the  towns. 


As  in  other  parts  of  the  island,  Visaya  is  spoken. 


The  capital  of  the  province  is  of  the  same  name,  Iloilo,  and  is  situ- 
ated on  the  southeastern  coast  of  Panay,  on  an  excellent  and  well- 
protected  port  suitable  for  ships  of  15-foot  draft.  The  city  is  built 
on  an  irregular  plan,  its  two  principal  streets  following  the  course  of 
the  river.  Its  houses  are  excellent  and  of  good  construction,  there 
being  constant  improvement  in  this  direction.  According  to  the  Offi- 
cial Guide  for  1887  it  had  a  population  of  11,884.  It  is,  next  to 
Manila,  the^most  important  commercial  town  in  the  Philippines,  as 
well  in  exports  as  in  imports.  It  has,  like  Manila,  an  ayuntamiento, 
established  by  decree,  and  banking  houses.  It  has  a  city  and^  sub- 
urban police  force.  Among  the  important  buildings  may  be  mentioned 
the  government  house,  the  church,  the  office  of  the  captain  of  the 
port,  the  convent,  and  the  jail.  The  river  Iloilo  is  an  arm  of  the  sea, 
which,  after  passing  through  the  capital  and  the  towns  of  Iloilo,  Ari- 
valo,  and  Otorca,  empties  into  the  ocean.  It  allows  of  the  entrance  at 
all  times  of  ships  of  good  size  and  offers  excellent  protection  against 
storms.  Oil,  vinegar,  cocoa  wine,  lime,  mats,  and  various  articles  of 
palm  wood  are  manufactured.  Jaro,  formerly  Santa  Isabel,  with  a 
population  of  13,070,  is  situated  on  flat  land  along  the  right  bank  of 
the  large  river  of  the  same  name.  This  river  is  navigable  for  boats  of 
considerable  size,  and  has  a  commodious  port  for  such  shipping.  A 
stone  bridge  crosses  it.  This  town,  located  about  4  miles  from  Iloilo, 
was  founded  in  1584  or  1585.  It  was  made  an  episcopal  see,  separat- 
ing it  from  that  of  Cebu,  by  bull  of  Pius  IX,  1865.  It  has  a  fine 
cathedral,  episcopal  palace,  seminary,  and  some  fine  private  houses. 
Like  Iloilo,  it  has  its  ayuntamiento. 

Other  towns  of  the  district  are:  Alimadian,  Anilao,  Arivalo,  Bara- 
tae  Nueva,  Baratae  Viejo,  Banate,  Buenavista,  Cabatuan,  with  20,035 
inhabitants;  Calinog,  Cordoba,  Dingke,  with  12,098  Duenas;  Diman- 
ges,  with  15,178;  Guimbal,  Igbaras,  with  11,359;  Janinay,  with  26,460; 
La  Pax,  Lambunao,  Leganes,  Leon,  with  14,714;  Lucena,  Maasin, 
Mandurriao  Miagao,  Mina,  Molo,  Nagaba,  Oton,  with  13,883;  Passi, 
with  14,688;  Pavia,  with  6,328;  Pototan,  with  15,939;  San  Enrique, 
San  Miguel,  San  Joaquin,  with  13,649;  Santa  Barbara,  with  19,717; 
Tigbanan,  with  16,850;  Tubungan,  Zarraga,  and  Novales. 


The  principal  products  of  this  province  are  sugar  cane,  wheat,  corn, 
rice,  coffee,  chocolate,  tobacco,  hemp,  and  other  agricultural  products. 
There  are  37,552  farm  hands.  Mines  of  gold  and  other  metals  and 
quarries  of  fine  stone  are  found  in  the  province.  The  inhabitants 
make  excellent  fabrics  of  pineapple  fiber,  jusi,  sinamay,  and  cotton. 
As  the  province  has  abundant  pasture  land,  cattle,  carabaos,  sheep. 

Hosted  by 




and  horses  of  fine  grade  are  raised  in  all  the  towns.  There  is  a  total 
of  153,439  head  of  live  stock,  the  greater  part  being  cattle.  The  poiit 
of  Iloilo,  the  second  in  the  archipelago  in  commercial  activity,  both 
foreign  and  domestic,  was  thrown  open  to  commerce  m  1855.  There 
are  30,000  looms  in  the  province. 



This  comandancia  and  dependency  of  the  district  of  Iloilo  is  situated 
in  the  extreme  northeast  of  Panay. 

The  following  islands  are  dependencies  of  this  district:  Binnbuangan, 
Calagnan,  Sicogon,  Pan  de  Azucar,  Tago,  Bulibadiangan,  andTaguban- 
han,  and  the  little  islands  of  Calabazas,  Baybang,  Nasichuan  Point 
Brin,  Salog,  Binassan,  Ananayan,  Bagabu,  Sombrero,  Dunao,  Manga- 
ban,  Builag,  Bitad,  Naburat,  Magoise,  Culebra,  Panganoncolangan, 
Bayas  Tumugum,  Canaz,  Luginut,  Adialayo,  Tabugun  Pulupmta 
•  Taiunanaim,  Balbagan,  Nabunut,  Manigonigo,  Gigante  Norte  or 
Sibulnacbabay,  Gigante  Sur  or  Sibuluaclalaqui,  Uaidajon,  Bantiqui, 
Cabayao,  Antonio,  and  others  still  smaller. 


The  number  of  inhabitants,  according  to  the  Official  Guide  of  the 
Philippines  for  1897,  is  38,982. 


Concepcion,  the  capital,  located  on  an  excellent  anchorage,  has  a 
population  of  more  than  4,000.  Ajui,  with  the  village  of  Bolasi,  has 
a  population  of  6,228.  Other  towns  are  Balasan,  Carlos,  Limery,  b. 
Dionisio,  Sara,  with  11,746;  Batad,  and  Estancia,  with  12,564. 


The  products  are  those  common  to  all  of  Panay.  The  principal 
industry  is  the  manufacture  of  sugar. 

Hosted  by 




[Maps  Nos.  21,  22,  and  23  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 



The  island  of  Negros,  belonging  to  the  Visayan  group,  is  situated 
between  Panay  on  the  west  and  Cebu  on  the  east.  It  is  m  shape  elon- 
gated from  north  to  south,  presenting  an  extensive,  high  and  rounded 
appearance  on  the  southwestern  part,  where  the  mountain  chain  ot 
Soiatas,  dominated  by  the  highest  of  its  peaks,  is  found.  Its  bound- 
aries are,  on  the  north  the  Visayan  Sea,  on  the  south  the  sea  which 
separates  it  from  Mindoro,  on  the  east  the  channel  separating  it  from 
Cebu,  and  on  the  west  the  Jolo  Sea. 


The  spurs  from  the  central  dividing  mountain  chain  of  the  island 
have  beautiful,  large  vallevs,  which  are  inhabited  only  on  the  western 
side  from  Sajotasto  Silay,  on  the  north  and  northeast,  where  extensive 
plains  cut  by  rivers  of  good  size  are  found.  Although  the  land  is 
somewhat  rugged,  it  is  very  fertile  in  the  cultivated  part,  because  ot 
the  numerous  rivers  which  water  it.  The  central  part  of  the  island  is 
unexplored.  The  coast  is  fairly  regular  and  on  the  south  and  east 
rather  bold,  presenting  few  bays  and  no  ports. 


The  island  is  220  kilometers  in  length  by  87  in  breadth  at  Sajotas, 
and  has  an  area  of  9,341  square  kilometers.  The  population  is  240,000. 
Some  of  them  are  Visayans  and  others  Panayanos. 

The  island  has  recently  been  divided  into  two  provinces.  Western 
and  Eastern  Negros. 


The  language  commonly  used  is  Visaya,  the  pagans  and  mountain 
people  using  fanayano. 


The  island  produces  in  abundance  the  best  quality  of  chocolate  in 
the  Visayas,  also  wax,  rice,  wheat,  corn,  sugar  cane,  coffee,  tobacco, 
cotton,  hemp,  bago,  and  sibucao,  etc.  Cattle,  horses,  hogs,  and  cara- 
baos  are  found  in  abundance.  The  forests  produce  an  abundance  ot 
fine  building  woods,  among  these  being  teak.  Fish,  tortoise  shell,  sea 

Hosted  by 



cucumbers,  gulaman,  sea  shells,  lagan,  etc.,  are  found  in  abundance 
along  the  shores,  but  the  inhabitants,  little  given  to  work,  do  not  pay 
much  attention  to  this  industry.  Along  the  western  coast,  near  the 
mountains  of  Uling  and  Alpaco,  good  coal  mines  have  recently  been 
found.     The  industries  are  limited  to  the  weaving  of  hemp  and  palm. 



This  district  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  islands  of  Sibuyan  and 
Romblon,  on  the  east  by  the  province  of  Eastern  Negros,  on  the  south 
by  Mindanao,  and  on  the  west  by  the  island  of  Panay,  occupying, 
therefore,  as  is  indicated  by  its  name,  the  western  part  of  the  island 
from  the  east  to  the  watershed  of  the  central  mountain  range. 


This  province  is  very  fertile,  and,  thanks  to  constant  work  and  the 
improvements  introduced  by  the  many  Europeans  who  have  estab- 
lished themselves  there,  it  can  be  placed  in  the  front  rank  of  all  the 
provinces  of  the  archipelago.  Hydraulic  and  steam  machinery  is 
abundant,  as  is  apparatus  for  the  working  and  cultivation  of  the  soil 
and  the  extraction  of  sugar.  A  broad  carriage  road  uniting  the  vari- 
ous towns  contributes  to  the  development  of  commerce. 


The  area  is  5,800  square  kilometers. 


There  is  a  population  of  231,512. 

Bacolod,  situated  on  uneven  ground  near  the  seacoast,  has  a  popula- 
tion of  11,624,  and  is  the  capital.  It  has  some  fine  public  and  private 
buildings,  among  them  being  the  church  and  convent,  the  government 
house,  the  town  hall,  and  others.  Other  towns  are  Arguelles,  Bajo,  with 
13,390;  Binalbagan,  Cabangcalan,  Cadiz  Nueva,  Calatrava,  Canayan, 
Dancalan,  Escalante  Granada,  Guinigaran,  13,620;  Ginjungan,  Guimba^ 
laon,  11,670;  Hog,  Isabela,  12,310;  Isin,  Jinamalayan,  La  Carlota, 
12,117;  Manapla,  Minuluan,  12,132;  Murcia,  Pontevedra,  10,901;  San 
Enrique,  Saravia,  Silay,  13,780;  Suay,  Suinag,  and  Valladolid. 



This  district  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by  Western  Negros, 
on  the  east  by  the  islands  of  Cebu  and  Bohol,  and  on  the  south  by 

It  has  an  area  of  3,541  square  kilometers. 
P  C— VOL  3—01 11 

Hosted  by 




According  to  the  last  census  the  population  was  140.489.  This 
district  is  not  so  fertile  as  the  previous  one,  but,  nevertheless,  native 
labor,  stimulated  by  Europeans,  produces  crops  of  sugar  cane,  hemp, 
rice,  chocolate,  coffee,  and  cotton.  The  industries  consist  of  the  man- 
ufacture of  sugar  and  of  the  sacks  in  which  the  sugar  is  packed.  The 
manufacture  of  cotton  pillows  is  notable,  as  they  are  carried  m  large 
numbers  to  all  parts  by  steamers. 


Dumaguete  is  situated  on  level  ground,  on  the  southeastern  coast 
of  the  island,  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  the  same  name.  It  is 
the  capital  town  and  has  a  population  of  14,352.  Other  towns  are 
Amblan,  Ayungan,  Bacong,  with  10,129;  Bais,  Bayanan,  Canoan, 
Dauin,  Guijuhugan,  Jimalalud,  Lacy,  Manjuyed,  Maria,  Nueva  Valen- 
cia, San  Juan,  Siaton,  Sibulan,  Siguijoc,  Tangay,  11,743;  Tayason, 
Tolon,  and  Zamboanguita. 


There  is  almost  no  island  of  importance  near  Negros.  Bacabac  is  a 
little  island,  half  a  mile  long,  situated  2i  miles  to  the  northeast  of  Point 
Sagay,  and  divides  Tanon  Strait  into  two  channels.  In  Tanon  Strait, 
near  the  eastern  coast  of  Negros,  is  the  little  island  and  anchorage  of 
Refugio,  a  mile  from  the  coast  in  front  of  Tabon.  It  is  high  m  the 
northern  part  and  is  H  miles  long  from  north  to  south  and  1  mile 
wide  from  east  to  west.  The  Bais  Islands  are  but  little  islands  in  the 
bay  of  the  same  name.  Apo  Island  is  situated  3i  miles  south,  77° 
east  of  Point  Zamboanguita.  On  the  southeast  there  are  two  little 
islands,  Dajugan  and  Agutian. 


This  island  forms  part  of  the  Visayan  Group  and  is  situated  exactly 
in  the  center  of  it.  It  is  included  between  the  parallels  of  9°  26'  46'' 
and  11^  16'  37"  north  latitude.  To  the  north  is  the  island  of  Masbate, 
to  the  south  Siquijor,  to  the  east  Leyte,  Camotes,  Maston,  and  Bohol, 
and  to  the  west  Batayan  and  Negros.  The  eastern  coast  is  washed  by 
the  Sea  of  Cebu  and  the  western  by  the  Strait  of  Tanon,  which  sepa- 
rates it  from  Negros.  Its  outlines  are  irregular,  the  island  being 
elongated  and  narrow  in  the  direction  of  north-northeast  to  south- 


,      it  is  216  kilometers  in  length  and  36  in  width  at  it^  broadest  part. 
Its  area  is  6,582  square  kilometers,  including  the  adjacent  islands. 


According  to  the  data  published  in  the  Bulletin  de  Cebu,  the  popu- 
lation at  the  beginning  of  1888  was  518,032,  distributed  among  52 
towns.  The  population  for  each  square  mile,  therefore,  reaches  the 
respectable  figure  of  123. 

Hosted  by 






Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 




The  capital,  Cebu,  is  situated  on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  island;  the 
climate  is  hot,  but  even  and  healthful.  It  has  a  magnificent  port 
formed  by  the  two  islands  of  Mactan  and  Opon,  which  protect  it  from 
all  winds.  The  country  in  the  vicinity  is  level,  but  stony  and  sandy; 
the  town  contains  about  2,000  buildings,  and  has  a  population  of 
14,300;  the  streets  are  laid  out  on  a  regular  plan;  are  wide  and  free 
from  stones.  The  government  house  is  a  fairly  good  building;  the 
episcopal  palace,  although  small,  is  likewise  worthy  of  mention  on 
account  of  its  interior  decorations.  The  cathedral,  finished  toward 
the  end  of  the  last  century,  is  a  magnificent  temple;  in  it  is  preserved 
the  cross  which,  according  to  tradition,  was  planted  by  Magellan  in 
Cebu  on  taking  possession  of  the  island.  The  Augustin  Church  is 
magnificent,  while  the  Recolleto  Convent  and  the  Seminary  of  San 
Carlos,  formerly  the  Jesuit  College,  are  worthy  of  mention.  The  city 
is  cut  by  a  small  river  of  little  importance,  but  well  supplied  with 
water.  In  front  of  the  city,  to  the  east,  is  the  little  island  of  Mactan, 
where  the  illustrious  Magellan,  a  victim  of  his  valor,  terminated  his 
days.  Just  outside  of  the  town  are  located  a  fine  cemetery;  a  large 
leper  hospital  and  an  artillery  fort,  with  a  garrison  of  troops  (see 
plate  27).  The  towns  included  in  this  district  are  Alcantara,  Alcoy, 
Alegria,  Aloguinsan,  Argao,  with  34,252:  Asturias,  Badian,  Barili, 
Balangbang,  Bantayan,  Bago,  Boljoon,  Borbon,  Carcar,  34,096;  Car- 
men, Catmon,  Compestela,  Consolarion,  Cordoba,  Daan,  Bantayan, 
Dalaguese,  20,257;  Danao,  Dumanjug,  El  Pardo,  10,007;  Gintalin, 
Liloan,  Madrilejos,  Malaboyoc,  Mandane,  Medellin,  Moalboal,  Ming- 
lanilla,  10,767;  Naga,  16,519;  Nueva  Caceres,  Oslob,  Pilar,  Pinamun- 

§ajan,  Poro,  Ronda,  Samboan,  Santander,  San  Fernando,  18,811; 
anta  Fe,  San  Francisco,  San  Nicolas,  Sogod,  San  Renugio,  Sibongan, 
24,934;  Tagobon,  Tudela,  Talamban,  Talisay,  19,229;  Toledo,  and 


The  forests  in  the  mountains  produce  excellent  building  woods. 
Birds,  reptiles,  deer,  and  wild  hogs  abound  in  them.  The  principal 
products  are  rice,  excellent  chocolate,  corn,  a  fair  grade  of  sugar, 
cotton,  vegetables,  and  fruits,  but  the  scarcity  of  rains  and  of  land 
suitable  for  cultivation  prevents  the  development  of  agriculture  to 
the  same  degree  as  in  other  districts.  In  the  waters  along  the  coast 
are  found  the  celebrated  regadera  de  Cebu  (euplectella,  glas  sponge, 
or  Venus  flower  basket),  the  only  one  of  its  genus,  and  the  rare  and 
much  sought  shell  gloria  maris.  Coal  beds  were  discovered  here  in 
1827,  before  they  were  found  in  any  other  part  of  the  archipelago. 
The  principal  deposits  are  those  of  Alpaco,  Uling,  Guylaguyla,  Noga, 
Dapano,  and  Campostela.  The  numerous  experiments  made  with  this 
coal  render  it  certain  that,  although  it  is  inferior  to  English  coal,  it  is 
quite  suitable  for  the  use  of  steamboats  and  industries,  it  being  con- 
sidered superior  to  that  from  Australia.  Gold  and  silver-bearing  lead 
ores  are  found  in  the  central  part  of  the  island  at  Panapag,  Consalacion, 
Acsubing,  and  Budtam.  There  is  also  some  auriferous  soil  which  still 
shows  traces  of  ancient  washings. 

The  industries  of  Cebu  are  limited  to  the  manufacture  of  sugar,  of 
cocoanut  wine,  salt,  pottery,  fabrics  of  silk,  and  sinamay  hemp,  and 

Hosted  by 



cotton  and  sugar  sacks.  The  cake  and  cheese  of  Cebu  are  also  well 
known.  Cebu  carries  on  important  domestic  commerce  with  Manila, 
Camaguin,  Bohol,  Negros,  Surigao,  and  Cagayan  de  Misamis.  The 
most  important  ports  are  Bago,  Carmen,  Danao,  Cebu,  Carcar  and 
Argao,  on  the  east,  and  Bantayan,  Tuburan  Balangbang,  and  Barila,  on 
the  west.  Along  the  eastern  coast  there  is  a  highway  that  unites  21 
towns  with  the  capital,  and  on  the  west  an  excellent  road  uniting  the 
various  towns. 


On  the  east  coast  is  the  little  island  of  Capitancillo,  situated  2i  miles  to 
the  east  of  Point  Saac;  it  is  circular  in  form  and  has  some  trees  grow- 
ing on  it.  The  little  island  of  Calangaman  is  situated  12  miles  east 
northeast  of  Point  Nailon  and  almost  west  northwest  of  the  entrance 
of  Port  Palompon,  in  the  island  of  Leyte,  and  has  a  fixed  white  light 
situated  on  Point  Bagacay. 


This  island,  famous  in  history,  is  situated  in  front  of  the  city  of 
Cebu;  it  is  very  flat  and  almost  entirely  covered  with  mangrove 
swamps,  which  are  flooded  during  high  tide,  so  that  but  little  land  is 
above  water.  It  is  covered  with  cocoanut  groves.  On  this  island  is 
the  town  of  Opon,  with  a  population  of  12,745.  The  inhabitants  are 
engaged  in  fisheries  or  in  the  manufacture  of  salt. 


Is  a  small  kland  east  of  Mactan  of  little  importance. 

This  island  is  situated  3  miles  to  the  east  northeast  of  Point  Tanon, 
and  about  U  miles  from  the  mainland;  it  is  about  two-thirds  of  a  mile 
in  length  and  about  54  meters  high.  It  is  clean  and  rugged,  having 
sandy  beaches  and  rocky  bluffs  along  the  coast. 


Bmtman.— This  island  is  situated  west  of  the  northern  point  of 
Cebu  and  more  than  17  miles  to  the  northwest  of  the  northeastern  point 
of  Negros;  it  is  rather  low,  the  highest  part  being  about  the  middle  of 
the  eastern  coast;  it  is  lOi  miles  long  from  north  northwest  to  south 
southeast,  and  about  4  miles  broad.  The  nine  islands  which  compose 
the  group  about  Bantayan  are  surrounded  by  shoals,  which  are  dry  at 
low  tide  and  permit  a  passage  on  foot  from  one  to  the  other.  Ihe 
Gilantagnan  islands  are  two  in  number,  the  largest  of  which  is  situated 
2i  miles  to  the  north  of  Point  Ogton,  and  the  smaller  between  this  and 
the  coast.  The  town  of  Bantayan  is  the  most  important  on  the  island 
and  is  situated  on  the  southwestern  coast  on  a  little  tongue  of  sandy 
land;  including  the  inhabitants  of  the  villages  of  Ogton  and  Lams,  it 
has  a  population  of  14,400,  all  of  whom  are  engaged  m  the  collection 
of  pearls,  mother  of  pearl,  tortoise  shell,  sea  cucumbers,  gumalon,  and 

Hosted  by 



The  Doong  Island^,— These  islands  extend  for  10  miles  to  the  south- 
west from  Point  Pasil  de  Bantayan  in  the  direction  of  Point  Sagal,  on 
the  island  of  Negros.     They  are  of  little  importance. 


Guiantacan,— This  island  is  situated  between  Lanis,  the  northern 
extremity  of  the  island  of  Bantayan,  and  Point  Candaya.  It  is  covered 
with  trees,  and  is  low,  narrow,  and  long,  being  6i  miles  from  north  to 
south.  . 

TihiniL— This  island  is  situated  a  mile  in  front  of  Point  Canit.  it  is 
of  medium  height  and  about  2  miles  in  length  from  north  to  south. 

Malapascua.— This  island  is  called  by  the  natives  ''Lugon."  It  is 
situated  3  miles  to  the  northeast  of  Point  Bulalaqui.  Sea  cucumbers 
and  tortoise  shells  are  abundant  along  the  coast.  The  shores  are  covered 
with  juniper  trees,  known  in  this  country  by  the  name  of  ^'agojos." 


This  island  belongs  to  the  Visayan  group,  and  is  situated  between 
Cebu  on  the  west  and  Leyte  on  the  northeast. 


The  interior  of  the  island  is  mountainous.  The  coasts  are  low  and 
sandy,  and  as  a  general  rule  do  not  offer  security  to  ships,  although 
there  are  some  good  ports  or  bays,  which  will  not,  however,  admit  ships 
of  much  draft.  The  caves  of  the  center  of  the  island  are  worthy  of 
mention.  They  are  very  large,  with  great  subterranean  galleries 
adorned  with  fanciful  stalagmites  and  stalactites. 

United  to  the  district  of  Boholare  the  islands  of  Siguijorand  Dams. 


The  area  of  the  district  is  2,380  square  kilometers. 


The  number  of  people  in  the  district  is  260,000.  The  Bohol  people 
are  quite  active  and  initiative,  being  distinguished  from  the  rest  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  archipelago.  The  skill  of  these  people  m  the  use 
of  the  lance  is  as  famous  as  that  of  the  Moros  in  the  use  of  the  campi- 
lan.     The  Moros  have  at  all  times  held  their  valor  in  great  respect. 


Visaya  is  spoken,  although  there  are  so  many  local  modifications  that 
it  has  been  called  Boholano  or  Bohol- Visayan. 


The  capital,  Tagbilaran,  situated  in  the  southwestern  part  in  front  of 
the  island  of  Panglao,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  narrow  strait, 
has  a  population  of  9,471.     The  other  towns  are:  Anda,  Antequera, 

Hosted  by 



with  11,254;  Badayon,  Balilijan,  Batuanan,  Calapa,  with  10,100;  Can- 
dijay,  Carmen,  Catigbian,  Cosella,  Corres,  Danis,  Duniao,  Duero, 
Garcia,  Hernandez,  Getafe,  Guinduhnan,  Inabanga,  with  10,543;  Ipil, 
Jagna,  with  12,700;  Lila,  Loay,  Loboc,  with  10,900;  Loan,  with 
19,006;  Maribojoc,  with  10,700;  Manglao,  Sevilla,  Sierra  Bullones, 
Talibong,  Tubigan,  with  14,272;  Ubay,  Valencia,  and  Villar. 


The  soil  is  not  very  fertile,  but  with  good  care  produces  considerable 
quantities  of  rice,  coffee,  tobacco,  cotton,  corn,  millet,  sweet  potatoes, 
and  other  useful  agricultural  products.  Building  woods  are  quite 
abundant.  There  are  indications  of  the  existence  of  phosphate  and 
iron,  copper,  and  coal.  Many  mineral  springs  are  found.  The  indus- 
tries are  confined  to  the  weaving  of  various  fabrics,  such  as  silk,  pine- 
apple, and  cotton,  and  the  making  of  very  serviceable  blankets  and  nap- 
kins, and  of  sinamay.  Valuable  mats  are  made  from  the  rush  called 
"ticay."  They  manufacture  most  delicious  bread  and  biscuits.  The 
exports  are  cocoanuts,  sea  cucumbers,  wax,  seashells,  and  pearls.  The 
towns  of  the  interior  communicate  with  one  another  by  means  of  paths. 
All  of  the  others  are  united  by  cart  roads  suitable  for  carriages. 



In  front  of  this  coast  are  situated  Pandan  and  Cabulan,  to  the  north- 
northwest  of  Point  Lanis;  Manacan,  Bahanay,  and  Tambu,  and  a  very 
large  number  of  little  islands,  rocks,  and  reefs. 

Toward  the  northeast  is  the  island  of  Lapinig  or  Minoc,  separated 
from  Bohol  by  a  narrow  channel.  It  is  very  low,  covered  with  scrubby 
brush,  and  is  about  8  miles  long.  Timibo  is  a  little  island  situated 
southeast  of  its  northern  end.  Lapinig  Chico  is  almost  united  to  the 
larger  island  on  the  southwest  coast. 


The  little  islands  of  Tintiman,  Lumites,  and  Tabon  are  situated  on 
this  coast, 


This  coast  is  very  much  cleaner  than  the  northern  coast,  having  but 
one  island,  Pamilacan,  toward  the  southeast  channel  of  Tagbilaran. 


Panglao.—Th\^  is  a  little  island  very  close  to  the  southwestern 
coast  of  Bohol,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  the  channel  of  Tagbila- 
ran. During  low  tide  one  can  pass  on  foot  from  one  island  to  the 
other  in  the  southeastern  part  of  the  channel.  It  contains  two  towns, 
Panglao,  on  the  eastern  coast,  with  a  population  of  6,865,  and  Danis, 
on  the  western,  with  a  population  of  7,985.     The  coast  is  unprotected, 

Hosted  by 




and  has  no  place  where  boats  may  anchor.  To  the  southeast  of 
Panglao  rises  the  little  island  of  Balicasag.  The  little  islands  of  bandi- 
gan,  Cabilao,  and  Capalape  are  situated  along  the  coast  between 
Loon  and  Calape. 

Seguijor,-— This  island  is  the  most  important  and  populous  ot  those 
around  Bohol.  It  is  situated  southeast  of  the  lower  part  of  iSfegros 
and  almost  south  of  the  strait  which  separates  Cebu  and  Bohol,  a  dis- 
tance of  23  kilometers  southeast  of  the  southern  entrance  of  Tanon 
Strait.  The  island  is  of  but  little  altitude,  very  much  broken  and  is 
formed  of  the  central  mountain,  from  whose  sides  flow  m  all  direc- 
tions the  little  streams  which  fertilize  the  island.  Northeast  of  the 
central  mountain  is  Mount  Gudringan,  whose  sides  on  the  north  and 
east  form  Points  Sandugan  and  Daquit.  This  island  measures  27  kilo- 
meters from  west-northwest  to  east-southeast  and  20  kilometers  from 
north  to  south.  v^.        • 

The  products  of  the  island  are  tobacco  of  excellent  quality,  rice, 
corn  (scarcely  sufficient  for  the  wants  of  the  people  of  the  island), 
hemp,  and  chocolate,  which  is  exchanged  for  wax  and  cotton.  A  con- 
siderable amount  of  rough  hemp  cloth  is  exported.  Tortoise  shell, 
sea  cucumbers,  and  birds'  nests  of  inferior  quality  are  collected. 

The  principal  towns  are  Sequijor,  on  the  best  port  of  the  island, 
with  a  population  of  11,695;  Canoan,  with  10,695;  Lasay,  with  7,629; 
San  Juan,  with  6,171,  and  Maria,  with  5,556.  This  is  the  most  densely 
populated  island  of  its  size,  it  having  88  inhabitants  to  the  square 

Hosted  by 




[Maps  Nos.  18,  19,  and  30  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 


This  large  island,  formerly  called  Iba.bao,  is  the  most  eastern  of  the 
Visayas.  It  is  situated  southeast  of  the  eastern  part  of  the  island  of 
Luzon,  from  which  it  is  separated  by  the  Strait  of  San  Bernardino. 
Toward  the  southwest  it  is  separated  from  the  island  of  Leyte  by  the 
narrow  Strait  of  San  Juanico,  which  runs  from  north  to  south,  lying 
between  the  southwestern  coast  of  Samar  and  the  northeastern  coast  oi 
Leyte,  and  uniting  that  arm  of  the  sea  called  the  Western  Sea  of  Samai 
on  the  north  and  the  bay  of  San  Pedro  and  San  Pablo  on  the  south. 
The  Western  Sea  of  Samar  is  the  body  of  water  lying  between  the 
western  coast  of  the  island  of  Samar,  the  northern  coast  of  Leyte,  and 
the  eastern  coast  of  Masbate.  In  it  are  situated  the  islands  of  Biliran, 
IParesan,  Buad,  Maripipi,  Canahahuan,  Libucan,  Mesa,  Sibugay  Taga- 
pula,  and  others  of  lesser  importance.  It  is  a  part  of  the  sea  not  well 
known,  and  is  still  quite  dangerous  to  navigate.  In  general  the  coasts 
of  Samar  still  require  detailed  exploration,  in  particular  the  eastern 
coast,  which  is  irregular,  mountainous,  and  bordered  with  small  islands 
and  large  rocks. 

The  district  of  Samar,  in  addition  to  the  island  of  this  name,  includes 
the  small  islands  adjacent  to  its  coast,  among  which  may  be  mentioned 
as  most  important  Bolicuatro,  Bateg,  Capul,  Dalupiri  or  Puercos, 
Jomayol  or  Malhon,  Laguan  or  Lavang,  or  Calamutanay,  Manican, 
Parasan,  Buadlos,  Nazanjos,  Mesa,  Tagapula,  and  Limbacanayan. 

The  shape  of  this  island  is  that  of  an  oblong  square,  but  is  very 
irregular  in  the  southwestern  part.  It  is  about  20  leagues  long  in  a 
straight  line  from  north  to  south,  and  about  20  leagues  wide  in  the 
northern  part  from  east  to  west.  The  country  is  mountainous,  although 
there  are  many  fine  valleys  under  cultivation. 


The  area  of  the  island  of  Samar  and  the  adjacent  islands  is  estimated 
to  be  13,471  square  kilometers,  and  its  population  185,386.  In  the 
mountains  there  are  about  10,000  native  refugees  who  live  an  inde- 
pendent and  almost  savage  life. 

Hosted  by 



About  the  middle  of  the  western  coast  of  the  island  is  the  town  of 
Catbalogan,  the  capital  of  the  district.  It  is  a  much  frequented  port. 
Its  population  is  6,072.  Other  towns  are  Balangiga,  with  4,130;  Basey , 
with  12,852;  Bobon,  Borongan,  with  12,663;  Calbayog,  with  20,725; 
Calviga,  Capul,  Catarman,  with  9,495;  Catubig,  with  11,517;  Gandara, 
with  11,101;  Guiuan,  with  12,872;  Ilernani,  Jiabon,  La  Granja,  Lanan, 
Oras,  Palapag,  Pambujan,  Palanes,  Paric,  Pinabigdao,  Qumapundan, 
San  Julian,  Saliedo,  San  Sebastian,  Santa  Rita,  Sutat,  Taranguan, 
Tubig,  Villareal,  Tumarraga,  Santa  Margarita,  Santo  Nmo,  and  Weyler. 


The  products  of  the  island  are  such  as  are  found  in  all  the  archi- 
pelago. There  are  many  fine  kinds  of  wood,  especially  those  suitable 
for  shipbuilding,  many  varieties  of  wild  fruits,  various  kinds  of 
bamboo,  roots  suitable  for  food,  rattan,  game,  and  fish.  Wax  and 
honey,  abundant  in  the  extensive  forests,  are  much  prized  by  the 
inhabitants;  cocoanuts  are  abundant,  and  many  of  the  inhabitants  are 
engaged  in  extracting  the  oil,  particularly  in  the  vicinity  ot  Guman. 
At  the  present  time  the  three  most  important  products  are  rice,  cocoa- 
nuts  and  hemp.  Among  the  medicinal  plants  grown  m  this  island  the 
most  famous  is  the  seed  called  ^'isigud"  or  the  fruit  of  San  Ignacio 
known  also  as  Catbalogan  seed,  because  it  is  grown  in  the  vicinity  ot 
that  town.  It  has  many  excellent  properties  and  is  claimed  by  some 
to  be  an  antidote  for  certain  kinds  of  poisons.  (1)  Father  Murillo,  b.  J . , 
in  his  historical  geography,  speaking  of  these  seeds,  says  that  m 
Peking  they  are  much  sought  after  by  the  Chinese,  because  they  proved 
so  efficacious  in  an  epidemic  of  cholera,  no  one  dying  who  took  this 
remedy.  There  are,  besides,  many  other  plants  having  well-known 
medicinal  value. 


There  are  perhaps  300  islands  bordering  Samar,  of  which  only  the 
most  important  will  be  mentioned. 


The  Balicuatro  Islands,  situated  on  the  northern  coast  of  Samar,  lie 
between  Points  Balicuatro  and  Babon,  about  18  miles  to  the  east  ot  the 
former.  They  form  two  groups  with  Viri  on  the  west.^  composed  ot  4 
islands,  and  the  group  of  Cabauan  Grande  on  the  east. 

Viri  group.— The  principal  island,  Viri,  is  situated  3i  miles  from 
Balicuatro  Point.  It  is  about  4  miles  long  and  3  miles  broad  Its 
two  towns  are  Enriqueta  and  Viri.  Quimagaligan  Island  is  situated 
between  Viri  and  Samar,  and  has  one  town  of  the  same  name  as  the 

Oabaulan  Grande  group  is  situated  to  the  east  of  Viri  and  near  to 
the  coast  of  Samar.     The  principal  island  of  the  group  is  Oabaulan 

Alon^  the  same  northern  coast  are  found  the  islands  of  Laguan 
Bata^,  and  Cahagayan,  which  form  and  shelter  the  famous  port  ot 
of  Paiapag.     The  island  of  Bacan  is  about  3  miles  to  the  east  ot  Port 

Hosted  by 



Palapag  and  very  near  to  the  coast  of  Samar.  In  general  the  northern 
coast  of  Samar  is  bordered  with  islands,  shoals,  and  rocks,  which  render 
navigation  very  difficult. 


Caput. — This  island  lies  southeast  of  the  Ticlines  group,  with  which 
it  forms  the  Strait  of  San  Bernardino.  It  is  of  medium  altitude,  the 
highest  lands  being  in  the  vicinity  of  Abac,  which  lies  on  the  western 
coast,  2J  miles  from  the  southern  point  of  the  islands.  The  town  of 
Abac  has  a  population  of  6,834.  In  the  northern  part  of  the  island 
is  the  bay  known  as  Puerta  de  Galeras.  Copper  is  found  in  the 


This  group,  composed  of  three  islands,  called  Calintan,  Tuac,  and 
Ticlin,  forms,  with  the  coast  of  Luzon,  the  Strait  of  Ticlines,  which 
runs  from  northeast  to  southwest. 

Calintan.-^IMi^  island  lies  about  5  cables'  length  to  the  southeast 
of  Point  Culasi;  it  is  the  most  southern  of  the  Ticlines  and  about  a 
mile  in  length.     Its  forests  abound  in  ebony. 

TuoM.^  an  island  near  to  and  south  of  Calintan,  having  a  length  of 
\\  miles  from  north  to  south  and  a  breadth  of  one-half  a  mile  from 
east  to  west,  is  likewise  mountainous  and  covered  with  ebony  trees. 

Ticlin, — This  island  is  situated  two-thirds  of  a  mile  from  Point 

JSFaranjos  Islands. — This  group,  situated  7  miles  to  the  south  of 
Tajiran  on  the  coast  of  Luzon,  is  formed  by  the  six  little  islands  called 
San  Anreas,  Rosa,  Del  Medio,  De  la  Darsena,  De  la  Aguada,  and 

Datupiri^  or  Hog  Island^  is  situated  between  the  island  of  Capul  and 
the  western  coast  of  Samar;  it  is  low,  covered  with  trees,  and  sur- 
rounded by  a  rock-strewn  beach.  It  has  two  towns  or  villages,  Dalupiri 
and  El  Pilar.  Game  is  very  abundant,  especially  wild  hogs.  In  the 
central  part  there  is  a  lake  containing  large  numbers  of  crocodiles. 

Tagapula. — This  island,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  Naranjos  group, 
is  mountainous  and  has  but  one  small  village. 

Mesa^  a  small  island  southeast  of  Tagapula,  is  also  mountainous. 

Limhancanayan  is  situated  east  of  Mesa  or  Talajit;  it  is  quite  flat 
and  has  one  town,  Santo  Nino,  with  a  population  of  5,640,  and  one 

Camandag  {Sihugay)^  an  island  to  the  east-northeast  of  Mesa,  is  cir- 
cular in  form,  of  medium  elevation,  and  about  2  miles  in  diameter. 

Libucan  group. — This  is  a  little  group,  composed  of  three  islands 
and  various  isles,  4^  miles  west  of  Point  Traguan. 

Lihitcan-Daco^  about  2  miles  in  length,  is  the  largest  of  the  group 
and  has  a  good  anchorage. 

Tangad-Libiocan  is  a  small  island  1  mile  northwest  of  Libucan-Daco. 
To  the  southwest  of  the  principal  island  of  the  group  are  the  little 
islands  of  Maraquit-Daquit,  and  to  the  southeast  the  Lalaya  isles. 

Buri. — This  island  is  2f  miles  to  the  northwest  of  Ca.balogan;  it 
has  two  anchorages,  one  to  the  east  and  the  other  to  the  north. 

In  some  of  these  former  islands  there  are  villages  or  hamlets. 

Canahammy  Islands. — These  islands  are  situated  near  the  western 
coast  of  Samar,  8  miles  to  the  southwest  of  Catbalogan.     They  include 

Hosted  by 



various  islands  and  isles,  as  follows:  Timpasan,  Canalinan-daco,  Canali- 
nan-gutiay,  Boloang,  Cavantiguianes,  Balading-daco,  and  Batgongon. 
These  islands  lie  in  the  form  of  an  ellipse,  4i  miles  long  in  the  direction 
west,  northwest,  south,  southeast,  and  2i  miles  in  breadth,  in  the  center 
of  which  is  a  fine  anchorage,  protected  against  all  the  monsoons. 

The  great  Bay  of  Maqueda  is  formed  by  the  coast  south  of  Catbalo- 
gan  and  the  islands  of  Parasan  and  Buad. 

Parasan.— This  island,  lying  at  the  entrance  of  the  Bay  of  Maqueda, 
is  10  miles  long  from  north  to  south,  5  miles  wide,  very  low,  and  has 
some  sandy  beaches.     It  has  one  town,  of  the  same  name  as  the  island. 

Btcad,  an  island  lying  to  the  east  of  Parasan,  at  the  entrance  of  the 
Bay  of  Maqueda,  is  almost  circular  in  shape,  about  4i  miles  in  diameter, 
and  has  but  little  elevation.  The  town  of  Buad  is  of  little  importance. 
The  town  of  Zumarraga,  on  the  west  coast,  has  a  population  of  6,404. 
There  are  several  villages. 

Baran.— This  is  the  largest  of  the  islands  bordering  Samar,  and 
extends  irregularly  from  north  to  south,  forming  two  peninsulas  of 
almost  equal  size.  It  is  low  and  has  extensive  mangrove  swamps.  It 
is  situated  west  of  Parasan  and  Buad  and  is  surrounded  by  little 
islands.  Along  the  shore  there  are  some  villages  and  hamlets  of  little 

Lintarcaii  is  an  island  to  the  south  of  the  bay  of  Maqueda,  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  entrance  to  the  strait  formed  by  the  island  of 
Daran,  on  the  coast  of  Samar.  It  has  a  few  villages  or  hamlets  along 
the  coast. 

Canal  de  Tanatabas  is  in  the  west,  northwest  extremity  of  the  strait 
of  San  Juanico,  which  separates  Samar  and  Leyte. 

Tanaban  and  Tanabaay. —Th^s^  island  are  situated  in  the  middle  of 
the  channel. 

Talualla,— This  island  is  situated  above  the  rounded  point  which 
terminates  the  narrow  entrance  of  the  channel  on  the  north  coast. 

Tanahon  lies  southeast  of  Jabualla  and  Tanabaay;  it  is  triangular  in 
shape  and  elongated  from  northwest  to  southeast.  Many  rocks  lie 
along  the  coast.  At  the  northern  entrance  of  the  famous  channel  of  San 
Juanico  is  the  so-called  strait  of  Santa  Rita,  the  name  being  that  of 
a  town  of  3,014  inhabitants,  situated  on  the  western  coast  of  Samar. 


This  strait  is  one  of  the  most  attractive  natural  scenes  in  the  archi- 
pelago. It  has  an  average  width  of  6  cables  length,  but  in  certain 
places  is  not  over  2  cables  in  width.  It  is  neither  regular  in  depth 
nor  in  the  character  of  the  bottom,  the  soundings  varying  from  9 
meters  to  20  meters  in  the  middle  of  the  channel.  In  general,  the  bot- 
tom is  covered  with  shells  in  the  north  and  sand  in  the  south,  some 
places  being  rocky.  Many  little  islands  and  shoals  render  this  pic- 
turesque channel  still  narrower.  The  currents  in  the  channel  and  the 
character  of  the  coasts  render  navigation  very  difficult.  In  the  low 
caves  in  the  bluffs  along  the  coasts  on  the  Samar  side  of  this  channel 
the  remains  of  human  skeletons  have  been  found  which  in  size  are 
much  superior  to  those  of  the  actual  inhabitants  of  the  neighboring 
islands.    .• 

Hosted  by 



BAY   Oi^   SAN   PEDRO    AND    SAN  PABLO. 

The  strait  of  San  Juanico  terminates  on  the  south  in  the  bay  of  San 
Pedro  and  San  Pablo.  The  town  of  Guintuhan  is  at  the  head  of  this 
bay,  on  the  most  western  of  the  two  arms,  into  which  the  Cadann  or 
Vasey  Eiver  enters. 


The  tide  water  of  this  river,  as  indicated  by  the  nipa  groves,  reaches 
several  miles  inland ;  from  there  the  river  is  very  shallow  and  rapid, 
presently  passing  a  natural  arch  formed  by  two  fallen  rocks  support- 
ing each  other  and  surrounded  by  limestone  rocks  from  10  to  12 
meters  high.  In  front,  and  opening  like  a  mouth,  rises  a  sort  of 
portal  of  rocks  of  beautiful  appearance ;  they  are  8  or  10  meters  m 
height,  and  through  the  opening  a  part  of  the  river  may  be  seen.  In 
the  wall  on  the  left  of  this  oval  court,  11  meters  above  the  water,  a 
cave  opens,  guite  easy  of  access.  This  cave  is  about  28  meters  in 
depth  and  terminates  in  a  narrow  part,  where  a  species  of  table  or 
altar  is  formed  of  the  limestone  rock.  There  is  found  an  open  space, 
and  the  grouping  of  the  rocks  shows  them  to  be  the  remains  of  a 
stalactite  cavern,  whose  roof  has  fallen  in.  This  is  the  place  called 
"Cuevas  de  Sojoton." 

In  a  little  indentation  to  the  east  of  the  bay,  about  5  miles  from  the 
Vasey,  is  the  little  town  of  Pansignican,  and  about  a  mile  and  a  half 
south  of  this  town  is  Basiao.  Between  them  is  a  series  of  picturesque 
rocks,  reaching  an  altitude  of  28  meters ;  they  are  rounded  and  their 
summits  covered  with  vegetation,  and  worn  away  on  their  bases  by 
the  action  of  the  water,  appearing  to  rise  as  gigantic  mushrooms 
above  the  waves.  In  ancient  times  the  inhabitants  buried  their  heroes 
and  .old  people  on  these  rocks,  placing- in  the  coffins  all  of  the  objects 
which  were  most  valued  during  life. 


This  little  island,  situated  at  the  head  of  the  bay  and  in  front  of  the 
river  Vasey,  is  regular  in  outline,  high,  and  formed  on  a  table. 


Manicani,— This  island  is  situated  4i  miles  to  the  southwest  of  the 
town  of  Guinan;  it  is  almost  circular,  2i  miles  in  diameter,  and  has  a 
central  mountain  of  medium  height.  It  is  surrounded  on  all  sides, 
except  the  northwest,  by  a  reef  about  3  cables  in  length.  ^  It  has  a 
roomy  anchorage  between  the  bluflfs  on  the  north  of  this  island  and 
the  coast.  Various  small  islands  extend  in  all  directions  in  front  of 
this  anchorage.  The  point  south  of  Samar  terminates  in  a  little 
island  very  close  to  the  shore. 


This  coast  is  very  little  known.  While  on  an  expedition  to  the 
southern  part  of  Samar  we  had  occasion  to  admire  the  magnificent  nat- 
ural port  of  Pambujan,  which,  in  our  opinion,  is  the  best  in  all  the 
islands.     It  is  situated  between  points  Maritiano  and  Buri,  and  is  easy 

Hosted  by 



of  entrance,  clear  and  deep,  having  in  its  interior  a  channel  called 
Tangbab,  which  is  well  protected  from  all  winds.  It  is  formed  by  a 
series  of  small  islands  extending  parallel  to  the  coast  between  Pambu- 
jan  and  Hernani. 

A  few  miles  to  the  north  of  Pambujan  is  the  famous  port  of  Boron- 
gon,  at  the  entrance  of  which  are  the  islands  of  Audis  and  Davinnbo. 

To  the  north  of  Salat  are  the  islands  of  Catalaban  and  Anchao. 

More  to  the  north,  in  front  of  the  port  or  bay  of  Oray,  lie  the 
islands  of  Hilaban  and  Tubabao.  To  the  south-southeast  of  Hilaban 
there  extends  a  series  of  islands  in  the  form  of  a  semicircle,  terminat- 
ing in  the  little  island  of  Pasig,  in  front  of  the  town  of  Dolores. 


The  important  islands  here  are  as  follows: 

Laguan. — This  island  forms,  with  the  island  of  Samar,  a  narrow  chan- 
nel, which  unites  the  bay  of  Lagnan  with  the  strait  of  Calomatan. 
The  town  of  Lagnan,  situated  in  the  southwestern  part,  has  a  popula- 
tion of  7,773.     There  are  several  villages  on  this  well-populated  island. 

Batag.—Thi^  island  is  situated  to  the  north- northeast  of  Lagnan.  It 
is  rather  low,  and  aids  in  sheltering  Port  Palapag.  There  are  but  few 
inhabitants,  the  only  important  village  being  Mahinog. 

Cahagayan. — This  is  the  smallest  of  the  islands  which  form  the  port 
of  Palai3ag;  it  is  surrounded  by  rocks. 

Bacon. — This  island  lies  3  miles  east  of  the  port  of  Palapag,  and 
very  near  to  the  coast  of  Samar;  it  is  formed  of  high,  rocky  land. 
All*  the  coast  of  the  north  offers  but  little  security  to  shipping,  on 
account  of  the  reefs  and  little  islands  which  rise  close  to  it. 



This  island,  belonging  to  the  Visayas,  is  situated  between  Samar, 
Dinagat,  and  Mindanao  on  the  southeast,  Bohol  on  the  southwest,  and 
Masbate  on  the  northwest.  It  is  elongated  in  shape,  very  irregular,  and 
much  wider  on  the  north  and  south  than  at  the  center.  It  has  a  length 
of  160  kilometers  from  north  to  south,  and  is  76  kilometers  wide  at  its 
broadest  part.  On  the  northern  extremity  of  Leyte,  forming  with  it 
a  little  channel,  is  the  island  of  Gingantagan.  To  the  south  of  the  bay 
of  Ornoc  lie  the  Camotes  Islands,  and  near  to  the  coast,  and  in  front 
of  Mount  Sacripante,  lies  a  group  of  four  little  islands.  The  eastern 
coast  of  Leyte  is  separated  on  the  northeast  from  the  island  of  Samar 
by  the  narrow  strait  of  San  Juanico,  this  island  being  almost  united 
to  it  by  a  tongue  of  land,  which  forms  the  northwestern  point  of  Leyte. 
To  the  east  of  the  island  is  the  island  of  Biliran,  with  which  it  forms  a 
narrow  channel  of  the  same  name.  Toward  the  east  exists  the  channel 
of  Tanabatas  in  the  west-northwest  extremity  of  San  Juanico,  formed 
by  the  islands  of  Jabualla,  Janabon,  and  Tanabaay. 

To  the  north  of  the  bay  of  Guinatungan  lie  the  little  islands  of 
Cabugan.  In  the  southeast  the  sharp  point  in  which  this  island  termi- 
nates forms,  with  the  adjacent  island  of  Panaon,  the  strait  of  this 
name  and  the  port  of  Liloan.  The  interior  of  the  island  is  mountainous, 
there  being  a  number   of   craters  of   extinct  volcanoes.     In  these 

Hosted  by 



mountains  are  found  large  numbers  of  shells,  which  indicate  that  great 
physical  disturbances  have  been  suffered  by  this  island.  At  one  time 
the  water  dominated  its  mountains,  and  probably  caused  the  separation 
of  this  land  from  Samar,  with  which  it  undoubtedly  in  ancient  times 
was  joined.  The  large  valleys  of  the  island  are  cultivated  by  the 
natives.  There  are  two  lakes,  one  called  Bito,  and  the  other,  a  small 
one,  in  the  region  of  Jaro,  to  the  north,  this  comi^unicating  with  the  sea 
through  the  Leyte  River. 


The  province,  including  the  adjacent  islands,  has  an  area  of  9,976 
square  kilometers  and  270,491  registered  inhabitants. 


Visaya  is  the  language  spoken. 

The  capital,  Tacloban,  is  a  beautiful  town,  situated  at  the  entrance 
of  the  strait  of  San  Juanico,  on  the  bay  of  San  Pedro  and  San  Pablo. 
It  is  a  well-known  port.  The  town  has  some  fine  buildings,  both  pub- 
lic and  private.  Other  towns  of  importance  are:  Abuyoc,  with  9,534 
inhabitants;  Alanggalang,  with  2,038;  Albuera,  Bato,  Babatungan, 
Barugo,  with  12,755;  Baybay,  Buranen,  with  21,200;  Cabalian,  Capoo- 
can,  Cajaguaan,  Carigara,  13,099;  Caibiran,  Dagami,  with  12,220; 
Dulag,  with  13,557;  Hitongos,  Hinunangan,  Hindang,  Inopacan,  Jaro, 
with  10,422;  Hinimdayan,  Leyte,  Ma-asim,  Macrohon,  Malibago,  Mal- 
itbog,  Maripipi,  Matalom,  Merida,  Ormoc,  Palos,  with  18,297;  Palom- 
pon,  Pastrana,  Quiot,  San  Isidro  de  Campo,  San  Miguel,  Sogod  Tan- 
anan,  with  17,046;  Tolosa,  Tabonstabon,  and  Villaba. 


The  mountains  are  covered  with  forests;  from  these  are  obtained 
pitch,  honey,  sugar,  and  many  varieties  of  building  woods.  There 
are  mines  of  gold,  lead,  and  silver,  and  mines  of  sulphur.  The 
exports  of  the  island  are  important,  among  these  being  hemp  of  the 
value  of  15,000,000,  sugar  of  the  value  of  $50,000,  and  chocolate, 
cofl'ee,  oil,  corn,  cattle,  horses,  and  hogs  to  the  value  of  $63,000. 
Wax,  honey,  bird's  nests,  shells,  sponges,  and  pearls  are  exported  in 
small  quantities.     The  most  important  product  is  hemp,   no  other 

Erovince  being  able  to  compete  with  Leyte,  because  its  plantations 
ave  been  under  cultivation  for  forty  years.  These  plantations  require 
very  little  work,  the  crop  being  permanent,  abundant,  and  of  excel- 
lent quality.  There  are  but  four  interior  towns.  The  important 
ports  are  Tacloban  and  Carrigari  on  the  east  coast,  and  Ormoc, 
Baybay,  Uongos,  Ma-asim,  and  Malitbog  on  the  west  coast.  The 
land  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  province  is  572,000  hectares,  of 
which  250,000  are  under  cultivation,  the  remainder  of  the  land  being 
mountain  or  grazing  land.  In  some  of  the  towns  of  the  eastern  coast 
the  women  are  very  skillful  in  the  manufacture  of  fabrics  and  in 
embroidering.  The  eastern  coast  of  Leyte  has  many  good  roads  suit- 
able for  carriages  at  all  times  of  the  year.     The  western  coast  has  but 

Hosted  by 



few  such,  and  others  suitable  for  horses.  Communication  by  sea  is 
more  frequent,  as  the  large  number  of  gulfs  and  bays,  although  they 
may  cause  breaks  in  the  roads,  furnish  good  interior  waterways. 



Mari/pipi. — This,  the  most  northern  island,  is  a  rounded  mountain^ 
covered  with  vegetation,  and  having  an  elevation  of  911  meters  above 
sea  level. 

Samhabuas. — These  are  small  islands  or  rocks  very  close  together  and 
surrounded  b}^  a  sandy  shoal. 

Balizan. — This  important  island  lies  to  the  extreme  northwest  of  the 
island  of  Le3^te,  and  has  approximately  a  length  of  20  miles  from  north- 
west to  southeast  and  a  breadth  of  10  miles.  It  is  mountainous,  quite 
high,  and  in  the  north  is  seen  the  beginning  of  the  small  mountain  chain 
which  divides  it  longitudinally.  The  highest  peak  of  this  chain  is  in  the 
western  part.  The  most  important  towns  are  Almeria,  Naval,  and 
Bilizan  on  the  western  coast,  and  Caibizan  on  the  eastern  coast.  There 
is  a  multitude  of  little  villages  along  the  coast.  This  island  is  noted  for 
the  sulphur  springs  in  the  mountains. 

Calwnpijan. — This  little  island  lies  about  a  mile  from  the  shore,  east 
of  the  sharp  mountain  peak  called  Pacduhuuan.  The  little  islands  of 
Polo  and  Calajit  lie  in  the  middle  of  the  little  channel  formed  by  the 
island  of  Bilizan  on  the  north  coast  of  Negros. 


Gigantangan. — This  island  lies  li  miles  from  Point  Taglanigan,  north- 
west of  Leyte,  and  is  2  miles  long  from  north-northwest  to  south-south- 
east and  1  mile  wide. 

Calangaman, — This  is  a  little  island  7  miles  west  of  Vantay.  From 
Villaba  to  Ormoc  nothing  but  very  small  islands  and  reefs  are  found. 

Camotes. — This  is  the  name  given  to  some  small  islands  which  form 
a  group  united  by  little  reefs.  They  are  called  Pacijan,  Poro,  and 
Poson,  there  being  a  little  island  to  the  north  of  Poicajon  called  Talong. 
They  are  situated  to  the  north  of  the  Bay  of  Ormoc  and  of  Pozios, 
which  is  the  most  northern  of  the  group,  and  5^  miles  from  Point 
Catunangan,  which  forms  a  wide  and  deep  pass.  The  islands  are 
inhabited  and  have  some  small  towns  and  villages. 

Cuatro  Mas  group, — These  are  about  the  only  islands  found  near 
the  coast  between  Ormoc  and  Inopacan.  The  most  northern  of  the 
islands  is  the  smallest,  and  is  called  Duquio.  The  largest,  south- 
southwest,  is  Mahabas;  another,  nearer  the  coast,  Apit,  and  that 
faithest  to  the  south,  Himaquitan. 

Canigao. — This  is  an  island  of  little  importance,  and  is  about  the 
only  one  found  between  Inopacan  and  Ma-asim. 


Lamasana, — This  island  is  situated  2  miles  southeast  of  the  south- 
ern point  of  Leyte,  is  long  and  narrow,  4^  miles  from  north  to  south 
and  1  mile  in  breadth.  It  has  two  little  towns,  San  Bernado  and 

p  c— VOL  3—01- 12 

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Pauaon, — This  island  is  separated  from  the  southeastern  part  of 
Leyte  by  the  little  strait  of  the  same  name;  it  is  mountainous,  long 
and  narrowband  extends  over  I7i  miles  from  north -northwest  to  south- 
southeast.  It  is  5  miles  wide  in  the  northern  part.  The  eastern  coast 
has  a  picturesque  appearance,  presenting  from  time  to  time  beautiful 
cascades  and  large  numbers  of  little  creeks.  It  is  well  populated,  the 
principal  towns  being  Silvan  in  the  north  and  San  Ricardo  in  the  south. 
Gold  is  found  near  Point  Pinutan. 

There  are  no  islands  of  importance  on  the  eastern  coast,  except  those 
already  mentioned  in  connection  with  Samar. 

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[Maps  Nos.  26,  27,  and  28  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 



The  island  of  Mindanao,  the  most  southern  in  all  the  archipelago, 
is  situated  between  the  parallels  of  latitude  5^  36^  and  9*^  49^  north  and 
longitude  125^  30'  and  130^  east  from  Madrid.  It  is,  next  to  Luzon, 
the  largest  island  in  the  archipelago.  According  to  the  data  of  the 
Institute  of  Geography  and  Statistics,  its  area,  including  the  small 
adjacent  islands,  is  99,450  square  kilometers,  which  is  a  little  less  than 
that  given  by  Fathers  Buceta  and  Bravo  in  their  dictionaries  of  the 


The  population,  according  to  the  census  of  1887,  was  209,087,  but 
this  figure  did  not  include  the  natives  of  the  interior. 


The  following  languages  are  spoken:  Spanish,  somewhat  corrupted; 
Moro  and  its  dialects,  Joloano,  Samal,  Yacam,  Maguindanao,  and  the 
dialect  of  the  coast  of  Davao,  Visaya,  Cebuano,  and  Bagobo,  Tagaca- 
olo,  Bilan,  Montes,  Mamanna,  Tiruray,  Tagabili,  and  Dulangan. 


The  great  island  of  Mindanao  is  divided  into  seven  districts,  as  fol- 
lows: First,  Zamboanga;  second,  Misamis;  third,  Surigao;  fourth, 
Davao;  fifth,  Catobato;  sixth,  Basilan,  and  seventh,  Lanao.  Ecclesias- 
tically, one  part  of  it  belongs  to  the  bishopric  of  Jaro  and  the  other  to 
that  of  Cebu. 


The  mineral  products  of  the  island  of  Mindanao  are  not  well  known^ 
For  many  years  the  natives  have  gathered  some  gold,  which  they  pre- 
sent for  exchange  in  the  provinces  of  the  north,  where  some  experi- 
ments have  been  carried  on.  For  many  years  the  auriferous  deposits 
of  the  district  of  Misamis  have  had  great  renown.  According  to  Don 
Enrique  Abella,  the  auriferous  zone  is  situated  between  the  Caturan 
River  to  the  east  and  the  Iligan  River  on  the  west,  and  along  the  beds 
of  the  Bulalacao  Iparan,  Cagayan,  Bigaan,  and  Catman  rivers.  Coal 
deposits  exist  in  the  vicinity  of  Sibugney,  Surigao,  and  Mati.     Sul- 


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phur  is  plentiful  in  the  vicinity  of  the  various  volcanoes  of  the  island, 
and  mineral  waters  are  abundant  at  Catobato  and  other  points. 

On  account  of  the  excellent  quality  of  the  soil,  the  abundant  rains, 
and  the  influence  of  the  climate  the  entire  island  is  covered  with  veg- 
etation, generally  by  forests.  Many  kinds  of  wood  are  found  in  the 
forests,  those  useful  for  naval  construction  and  building  purposes 
being  abundant;  among  these  may  be  mentioned  guijo,  molave  narra, 
ipil,  malatumbaga,  lanan,  camagon,  manconi  or  ironwood,  camuning, 
mangasinoso,  palo-maria,  teak,  pagatpat,  mangachapuy,  sibucao,  ban- 
cal,  etc.,  and  other  similar  plants,  such  as  grasses  and  the  sun  juniper, 
and  some  cypress  and  cogan  or  reed  grass.  The  bamboo  known  as 
boja,  rattan,"^  and  other  trailers  form  impenetrable  jungles.  The  cocoa- 
nut,  the  betel  nut,  the  betel  pepper,  and  bananas  grow*  abundantly. 
Hemp  is  grown,  and  the  chocolate  and  coffee  bushes  grow  very  lux- 
uriantly and  very  rapidly.  Other  products  are  cabonegro,  cotton, 
indigo,  pineapple,  sugar  cane,  rice,  and  tobacco.  Cloves  and  nutmegs 
are  found  on  the  Bay  of  Sibuguey,  where  the  cinnamon  tree  spon- 
taneously grows.  Corn,  sweet  potatoes,  nami,  ube,  gabe,  and  analo- 
gous products  grow  abundantly  in  all  districts,  as  well  as  all  kinds  of 
fruits,  among  them  the  delicious  mangosteen.  Gums  and  resins  are 
obtained  from  the  forests  of  the  interior.  In  short,  the  vegetable 
wealth  of  Mindanao  not  only  equals,  but  surpasses,  that  of  Luzon  and 
the  Visayas,  although,  in  truth,  not  so  extensively  exploited. 

Nor  is  Mindanao  behind  the  other  islands  in  the  animal  kingdom. 
All  kinds  of  monkeys  are  found  in  every  part.  There  are  large  num- 
bers of  cattle,  horses,  and  buff'alos,  the  most  of  these  being  domesti- 
cated or  owned  b}^  some  known  individual.  Domestic  hogs  are  found 
and  wild  hogs  are  more  abundant,  because  the  Mohammedan  inhabitants 
do  not  use  them.  On  the  other  hand,  deer,  which  are  found  in  all  the 
forests,  are  much  sought  after.  Many  reptiles  and  insects,  some  of 
them  poisonous,  are  found,  such  as  snakes,  scorpions;  lizards,  and  large 
numbers  of  leeches  are  found  in  the  rivers  and  on  the  trees.  A  large 
species  of  lizard,  called  the  ''iguana,"  sometimes  reaches  a  length  of 
2  meters  Snakes  of  the  boa  family  attain  extraordinar}^  size.  Croco- 
diles of  large  size  are  found  in  the  rivers.  A  large  variety  of  birds 
is  found,  the  calao  or  horn  bill  being  abundant  in  the  forests.  There 
are  many  varieties  of  pigeons  and  doves,  among  these  being  the  so- 
called  punalada,  on  account  of  a  bright  red  spot  which  is  on  its  breast. 
Parrots,  cockatoos,  jungle  fowd,  kingfishers,  etc.,  are  very  numerous. 
Among  animals  should  be  mentioned  monke3^s  and  the  caguang,  an 
animal  somewhat  resembling  a  monkey  and  somewhat  resembling  a  bat. 
Among  the  birds  may  be  mentioned  the  salangana,  which  makes  the 
valuable  nests  found  in  the  caves  of  Mindanao  and  the  adjacent  islands. 



This  district  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  Point  Maraleg,  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Misamis;  on  the  east  by  the  district  of  Cottabato;  on  the  south 
by  the  island  of  Basilan,  and  on  the  west  by  the  sea  of  Celebes.  It 
has  an  area  of  29,846.96  square  kilometers,  the  greater  part  of  which 
is  forest  land,  with  the  exception  of  the  country  around  the  capital 
town,  where  the  inhabitants  cultivate  some  rice. 

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Concerning  the  rest  of  the  country  but  little  is  known,  though  it  is 
supposed  that  in  the  region  of  Sibuguey,  which  has  a  population  of 
80,000,  there  are  extensive  areas  of  land  under  cultivation. 


According  to  the  general  statistics  of  the  bishopric  of  Jaro  f  or  1897, 
there  are  19,903  Christian  inhabitants  in  Zamboanga  and  the  surround- 
ing towns,  8,000  Mohammedans,  and  in  the  unexplored  region  of  Sibu- 
guey there  is  a  population  of  90,000  pagan  Subanos. 


The  following  languages  are  spoken:  Spanish,  Moro,  Samal,  Subano, 
and  Chavacano  (which  is  a  mixture  of  Spanish),  Tagalog,  Visayan,  and 


Zamboanga  is  the  capital  town  of  Mindanao.  It  is  beautifully 
situated  on  an  extensive  plain  covered  with  cocoanut  groves  and 
innumerable  rice  fields.  Many  of  its  buildings  are  of  masonry,  and 
others  of  boards,  with  galvanized  zinc  or  nipa  roofs.  Prominent 
among  these  are  the  church  and  convent,  the  government  house,  the 
house  of  the  governor  of  the  district,  and  those  of  the  naval  commander 
and  of  the  chief  of  engineers.  The  military  hospital  is  a  commodious 
and  elegant  building  recentty  constructed.  The  Fortress  of  Pilar,  with 
its  strong  stone  walls,  barracks,  storehouses,  etc. ,  constructed  under 
the  direction  of  P.  Melehoz  de  Vera,  S.  J.,  was  of  the  greatest  value 
during  the  invasions  of  piratical  Moros  in  ancient  times.  The  port, 
although  open  to  the  sea  if  the  wind  is  from  the  south  or  southwest,  is 
protected  against  the  winds  from  the  north  and  east;  while  in  the  river 
of  Masinlog,  3  miles  to  the  southeast,  there  is  an  anchorage  protected 
against  all  winds.  There  is  a  beautiful  quay,  and  a  light-house  of  the 
sixth  class  (starry)  showing  a  fixed  red  light.  Belonging  to  the  town 
of  Zamboanga,  which  has  a  population  of  7,634,  are  the  villages  of 
Santa  Maria,  Gusu,  and  Tipong,  or  San  Roque.  The  towns  belonging 
to  this  province  are  Tetuan,  and  the  villages  of  Putig  and  Talontalon, 
with  a  population  of  5,572;  Mercedes,  with  the  villages  of  Manicahan, 
Catumbal,  and  Boalan,  with  a  population  of  3,839;  Bolong,  with  the 
villages  of  Curuan,  Taguite,  and  Tamion,  with  a  population  of  1,144; 
and  lyala,  with  the  villages  of  Talisayan,  Erenas,  or  Malayal,  with  a 
population  of  1,655,  Sinonong,  and  the  penal  colony  of  San  Ramon. 


This  district  includes  the  northern  part  of  Mindanao,  the  island  of 
Camiguin,  Silina,  and  various  smaller  islands.  It  is  bounded  on  the 
north  by  the  sea,  which  bathes  the  coast  of  Negros,  Siquijor,  and 
Bohol;  on  the  south  by  the  interior  of  Mindanao;  on  the  east  by  the 
district  of  Surigao;  and  on  the  west  by  the  district  of  Zamboanga.  The 
coast  line  from  the  li'arcielagos  Islands  to  Point  Dimata  is  102  leagues 
in  length.     It  has  an  area  of  about  1,136.95  square  kilometers. 

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The  population,  according  to  the  census  of  1887,  is  116,024,  but 
considering  the  number  of  unknown  villages  in  the  interior  it  is  prob- 
ably much  greater.  According  to  the  general  statistics  of  the  bish- 
opric of  Cebu,  published  in  1897,  the  number  of  inhabitants  in  this 
district  is  169,256. 


The  languages  are  Visaya-Cebuano,  Montes,  and  Malay-Moro. 


The  capital  town  is  Cagayan  de  Misamis,  which,  with  the  adjoining 
village  of  Gura,  has  a  population  of  11,029.  It  is  situated  on  level  land 
on  the  bank  of  the  river  of  the  same  name.  Its  public  buildings,  and 
some  of  the  private  buildings,  are  well  constructed.  The  towns  of  this 
district  are  Tagoloan,  with  a  population  of  8,498,  and  with  the  village 
of  Agusan,  situated  on  the  northern  coast  on  the  Bay  of  Macajalar,  or 
Macabalan;  San  Martin,  Minsoro,  Malitbog,  Pamploma,  Siloo,  Santa 
Ana,  Jasaan,  which,  with  the  villages  of  Canajanan,  Solana,  Villanueva, 
Patrocinio,  Claveria,  and  Bubuntigan,  have  a  population  of  4,564;  and 
Baliiigasag,  with  the  villages  of  Casulag,  Canal,  San  Roque,  Rosario, 
Lagonlong,  Salay,  and  Concepcion,  has  a  population  of  9,330.  Talisayan 
has  a  population  of  5,877,  and  adjoining  it  the  hamlets  of  Balinguan, 
Quinugeritan,  Santa  Inez,  San  Miguel,  and  Portolin.  Gingoog  has  a 
population  of  4,615,  and  adjoining  it  the  hamlets  of  Medina,  Minlagas, 
Odyungan,  Linugus.  San  Juan,  Consuelo,  San  Roque,  and  Asturias. 
Other  towns  are  Guinsilitan,  Sagay,  Catarman,  Manbajao,  Mahinog, 
Iponan,  Opol,  Molugan,  Salvador,  with  a  population  of  6,640;  Alubijid, 
Initao,  Naanan,  Iligan,  with  a  population  of  2,466;  and  Misamis,  with  a 

Eopulation  of  6,313.  The  latter  town  is  situated  on  the  west  shore  of  the 
iay  of  Panguil,  having  an  anchorage  included  between  Point  Fuerte, 
on  the  north,  and  Point  Pubut,  the  eastern  termination  of  Mount 
Bucayan,  which  is  situated  1  mile  southwest  of  Point  Fuerte.  It  is 
a  land-locked  port,  protected  against  wind  and  sea.  It  is  suitable  for 
all  kinds  of  shipping,  and  all  kinds  of  boats  can  tie  up  close  to  the 
shore  in  front  of  the  old  town,  a  single  plank  serving  to  make  connec- 
tion with  the  land.  For  a  distance  of  8  miles  the  bottom  is  sandy. 
The  town  is  situated  on  the  northern  side  of  the  port  on  a  little  tongue 
of  land  cut  by  a  canal,  which  empties  to  the  northwest  of  the  fort. 
Other  towns  are  Loculan,  Jiminez,  Aloran,  Oroquieta,  with  a  popula- 
tion of  12,200;  Layanan,  Langaran,  with  a  population  of  12,219;  Bali- 
angao,  and  Sumilao,  with  a  population  of  4,122.  There  are  also  the 
hamlets  of  Tagmalusag,  Calipayan,  Sancanan,  Tanculan,  Balao,  Guila- 
bong,  San  Juan,  Maluco,  Impasugong,  and  Silipon,  the  town  of 
Sevilla,  with  a  population  of  4,145,  and  the  hamlets  of  Calasungay, 
Linabao,  Bugcaon,  Valencia,  Covadonga,  Monserrat,  Oroquieta,  and 

Pertaining  to  this  district  is  the  comandancia  of  Dapitan,  which  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  Visayan  Sea,  on  the  east  by  Misamis,  on 
the  south  by  Zamboanga,  and  on  the  west  also  by  the  Visaya  Sea.  It 
has  an  area  of  about  1,056  square  kilometers.  Among  its  towns  are 
Dapitan,  the  capital,  with  a  population  of  7,627,  having  as  adjacent 

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villages  La  Conquista,  Barcelona,  Dampolan,  Ilaya,  and  Libay;  Dipo- 
log,  with  a  population  of  5,090,  with  its  dependent  villages  Polanco 
and  Sianib;  and  Lubungan,  having  a  population  of  4,556,  and  the 
dependent  villages  of  Duhinop,  Langitian,  Manocan,  Matan,  Miatan, 
Labao,  Toocaan,  apd  Sera. 


This  province  is  situated  in  the  northeastern  and  eastern  part  of  the 
province  of  Mindanao,  and  includes  the  islands  of  Bucas,  Binagat, 
Ginatuan,  Gipdo,  Siargao,  Sibunga,  and  various  small  islands.  It  is 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  strait  of  Surigao,  on  the  east  by  the 
ocean,  on  the  south  by  the  district  of  Davao,  and  on  the  west  by  the 
district  of  Misamis.  It  is  124.25  kilometers  in  length  from  north  to 
south  and  97.98  kilometers  in  breadth  from  east  to  west  m  its  widest 
part,  its  area  being,  according  to  official  figures,  1,070,190  hectares,  of 
which  less  than  10,000  are  under  cultivation. 


The  official  census  of  1887  gives  a  population  of  67,760;  the  official 
guide  for  1898,  85,125.  According  to  the  official  statistics  of  the 
Bishopric  of  Cebu,  published  in  1897,  the  number  of  inhabitants  m 
this  district  reaches  113,105. 


The  languages  are  Visaya,  Mamama,  Manobo,  and  Mandaya. 


The  capital  town,  Surigao,  with  the  village  of  Ananaon,  has  a  pop- 
ulation of  9,251.  It  is  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  river  in  the 
extreme  northern  part  of  the  island  of  Mindanao,  four  miles  southeast 
of  Point  Bilaa.  This  district,  until  1858  called  Caraga,  was  the  site  of 
the  first  Spanish  mission  in  these  islands.  The  important  towns  m  this 
district,  not  enumerating  small  villages,  are:  Dinagat,  with  6,228 
inhabitants;  Cantilan,  with  12,210;  Placer  and  Taganaan,  with  4,713; 
Gigaquit,  with  9,997;  Nuinancia,  with  4,328;  Cabuntog,  with  5,129; 
Tanday,  with  8,345;  Lianga,  with  5,350;  Bislig,  with  7,217;  La  Esper- 
anza,  with  2,4G0;  Talacogon  with  3,560;  Prosperidad,  with  3,144; 
Veruela,  with  4,597;  Tativa,  with  1,343,  and  Maynit,  with  a  popula- 
tion of  4,607.  Pertaining  to  this  district  is  the  comandancia  of  Butuan, 
situated  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name  in  the  northern  part  of  Min- 
danao, and  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  bay  and  district  of  Surigao, 
on  the  east  and  south  by  the  aforesaid  point,  and  on  the  west  by  the 
district  of  Misamis.  It  is  one  of  the  finest  districts,  and  has  a  popula- 
tion of  12,013.  In  1872  a  monument  of  Hernando  de  Magallanes  was 
erected  to  commemorate  the  place  where  the  first  mass  was  said  in  the 
Philippines.  It  is  of  stone,  in  two  parts,  and  surmounted  by  a  trun- 
cated pyramid.  The  inscription  is  in  gold  letters  on  an  Italian  marble 
slab.  Besides  Maynit  and  its  villages,  all  of  the  towns  and  villages 
situated  on  the  banks  of  the  river  Agusan  belong  to  this  comandancia. 

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This  district  or  province  is  situated  in  the  southeastern  part  of  Min- 
danoa.  It  occupies  the  territory  formerly  known  as  Nueva  Guipuzcoa, 
and  extends  from  the  Bay  of  Ma^^o,  on  the  Pacific  Ocean,  to  Point 
Malaluna,  near  the  Gulf  of  Tuna,  on  the  south  coast  of  Mindanao.  It 
is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  district  of  Surigao,  on  the  south  by 
Cottabato,  between  these  two  bein^  Lake  Buluan  and  the  country 
called  BoaA^en,  or  Buha^^en;  and  on  the  southeast  by  the  Pacific  Ocean, 
where  the  port  of  Balete  and  the  Bay  of  Pujaga  are  found.  The  islands 
of  Samal,  Talicud,  Pujaga,  Saranginas,  Sirangan,  Moleron,  Limbal, 
and  the  little  islands  of  Malipano  and  Sigabo}^  belong  to  this  district. 
The  distance  from  Point  Tagobon,  south  of  the  Bay  of  Mayo,  to  Cape 
San  Augustin  is  48.23  kilometers;  from  the  center  of  the  bay  north- 
west to  the  tQwn  of  Rosario,  at  the  mouth  of  the  River  Hijo,  102.09 
kilometers,  and  from  this  town  to  Point  Sarangani,  on  the  east  coast 
of  the  district,  161.53  kilometers.  The  widest  part  of  the  western 
coast  from  Point  Gorda  to  the  interior  is  57.70  kilometers. 


Although  this  is  a  very  fertile  district  it  has  but  few  inhabitants,  the 
oflicial  census  of  1897  giving  3,966.  According  to  the  ofiicial  register 
of  the  Bishopric  of  Jaro,  to  which  this  district  belongs,  and  which  was 
published  in  1895,  the  population,  excluding  Caraga,  Catel,  and 
Bazanga,  was  4,810. 


The  languages  are  Bisaya,  Bagobo,  Guianga,  Tagabana,  Tagacaolo, 
Ata,  Calagan,  Manobo,  Moro,  Tagabili,  Bilan,  and  Sanguil. 


The  town  of  Davao,  the  capital,  has  broad,  well  laid-out  streets.  The 
parish  house  is  one  of  the  best  in  Mindanao.  There  are  many  other 
large,  well-built  houses.  Santa  Cruz  and  Malalae  are  situated  on  one 
of  the  finest  ports  in  the  archipelago.  It  is  of  good  depth,  sheltered 
from  all  winds,  and  easy  of  entrance  even  in  bad  weather. 

Among  the  principal  towns  of  this  district  are  Davao,  the  capital, 
with  a  population  of  13,874,  which  has  a  large  number  of  small  towns 
dependent  upon  it,  and  Penaplata,  with  a  population  of  1,848,  which 
also  includes  a  large  number  of  small  hamlets. 

Pertaining  to  this  district  is  the  comandancia  of  Mati,  which  has  the 
largest  area  of  any  in  the  archipelago,  9,034  square  kilometers.  The 
principal  towns  are  Mati,  with  a  population  of  2,475;  Sigaboy,  with  a 
population  of  2,217;  Caraga,  with  a  population  of  4,054;  Nanay,  with 
a  population  of  2,649,  and  Cateel,  with  a  population  of  6,561.  ^  There 
is  a  large  number  of  small  villages  and  hamlets. 

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F  C— VOL  3—01 -13 

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This  district  is  bounded  on  the  north  by  the  great  mountain  ranges, 
which  separate  it  from  Misamis  and  Surigao;  on  the  east  by  the  Bay 
of  liana  and  Zamboanga  from  Point  Fleches;  in  the  interior  by  the  dis- 
trict of  Davao,  and  on  the  south  and  west  by  the  Sea  of  Celebes.  As 
the  interior  of  this  province  is  almost  entirely  unknown,  it  is  almost 
imDossible  to  determine  its  exact  area.  It  is  estimated  to  be  about 
28,293.97  square  kilometers. 


The  census  of  1887  gives  a  population  of  4,148,  and  the  records  of 
the  diocese  of  Jaro,  published  in  1895,  of  but  3,014. 


The  languages  spoken  are  Spanish,  Moro-Maguindanao,  Tiruray, 
Dulangan,  Manobo,  Ata,  Bilan,  and  Tagabili. 


Cottabato,  the  capital,  has  a  population  of  1,012.  It  is  situated  on 
the  left  bank  of  the  Pulangui,  or  Rio  Grande,  whose  banks  are  inhab- 
ited by  Moros.  There  is  a  magnificent  fort,  or  castle,  situated  on  the 
hill,  and  here  is  established  a  semaphore  for  the  guidance  of  boats 
crossing  the  bar  at  the  entrance.  Part  of  the  town  is  flooded  during 
high  tide.  The  commerce  is  in  the  hands  of  a  large  number  of  Chinese, 
who  have  established  themselves  here.  Polloc,  with  a  population  of 
472,  is  situated  on  the  south  coast,  east  of  the  great  bay  of  Illana.  Its 
port  is  well  sheltered,  clean,  and  deep,  and  although  open  on  the  west, 
it  is  protected  by  the  island  of  Bongos,  which  lies  just  in  front  of  the 
entrance.  It  is  a  military  comandancia,  belonging  to  Cottabato,  and 
has  a  naval  station  established  in  the  aforesaid  town.  It  has  a  dry 
dock  for  the  use  of  gunboats.  At  Tamontaca,  which  has  a  population 
of  2,420,  there  is  an  orphan  asylum  for  Moro  children,  under  the  care 
of  the  Jesuit  priests.  In  the  bay  of  Illana  there  is  a  military  station 
at  Parang-parang,  on  the  other  side  of  the  bay  of  Polloc.  The  forts 
of  Malabang,  Baras,  and  Tucusan  are  under  the  command  of  the  chief 
military  officer  of  Parang-parang.  A  military  hospital,  and  a  supply 
depot  are  located  at  Parang-parang.  There  is  a  fort,  and  a  fine  church 
of  gothic  architecture.  The  town  is  abundantly  supplied  with  clear, 
cool  water.  The  notable  Reina  Regente  fort  is  situated  in  the  center 
of  the  Moro  country.  (See  Pis.  XL VI,  XLVII,  and  XLVIIL)  At 
Point  Pola,  within  the  jurisdiction  of  Cottabato,  is  the  military  station 
of  Lebac,  established  to  restrain  piracy,  and  the  insolence  of  the 
Moros.     (See  PI.  XLIX.) 


The  beautiful  island  of  Basilan  is  situated  in  the  extreme  southern 
part  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago.     It  is  bounded  on  the  north  by 

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the  strait  of  Basilan,  on  the  south  and  west  by  the  sea  of  Jolo,  and  on 
the  east  by  the  sea  of  Celebes.  It  is  12  leagues  long  from  east  to  west 
and  8  broad  from  north  to  south. 


The  official  census  gives  a  population  of  1,119;  the  records  of  the 
bishopric  of  Jaro  for  1895,  1,424. 


In  the  capital  town  Spanish  is  spoken,  the  natives  usinp-  their  own 
languages,  Moro,  Samal,  and  Moro-Jacan. 


The  capital  town  is  Isabela.     At  the  naval  station  there  is  a  dry 
dock  lor  gunboats,   a  crane   capable  of   lifting    20    tons,    carpenter 
and  iron  shqps,  an  iron  and  bronze  foundry,  a  magazine,  and  machin> 
ery  worked  by  steam.     The  port  is  a  beautiful  strait,  3i  miles  Ioup- 
having  an  average  width  of  600  meters,  and  is  formed  by  the  islands 
ot  Basilan  and  Malamaui.     It  is  capable  of  sheltering  a  good-sized 
fleet.     On  the  island  of  Malamaui,  in  front  of  the  quay,  is  a  larg-e 
coaling  station,  which  is  used  by  all  of  the  ships  of  the  naval  division 
of   the   south.     A  small   stream   called   the   Chorrillo   furnishes   an 
abundance  ot  cool,  healthful  water,  which  is  carried  to  the  station  by 
a  pipe.     At  the  most  strategic  point  of  the  town  there  is  a  fort  called 
Isabel  11      It  IS  composed  of  4  bulwarks,  occupying  the  4  angles  and 
is  entirely  surrounded  by  a  moat.     This  fort  not  only  dominates  the 
narrow  channel,  but  serves  as  a  defense  against  the  Moros,  who  mi^ht 
come  down   from   the   mountains  or  along  the  river  Pasajan      The 
^avy  has  a  hospital   situated  at  the   mouth  of  the  Pasaian,  iust  in 
front  of  the  station.  (See  PL  LXI.)     Six  small  villages  are  included 
in  the  town  of  Isabela.     The  Pilas  Islands,  situated  to  the  west  of 
Basilan,  are  the  following  :     Pilas,  Mamangat,  Balug,  Calug,  Sangboy, 
Tinga,    Mataja,    Dasalan,    Caludlud,    Cujangan,    Palajanfan,    Minis 
Mamanac    and  Pasig-Posilan.     Other  adjacent  islands  are  :  Bubuan 
balupin,  Lalanan,  Tapiantana,  and  Buentua.  ' 


This  district  includes  all  of  the  territory  of  Lanao,  extending  on  the 
north  as  far  as  Lumbayanequi,  and  on  the  south  as  far  as  the  watershed 
between  the  laguna  and  the  bay  of  Illana. 


As  this  district  has  been  but  recently  created,  and  as  it  has  not  been 
completely  dominated  by  Spanish  arms,  it  has  not  been  possible  to  form 
towns  nor  to  take  a  census  of  its  inhabitants,  the  floating  population 
being  composed  of  those  in  camp.  There  are  large  numbers  of  pa^an 
Moros,  of  the  Malanaoc  tribe,  the  town  of  Bato  alone  having  a  popu- 
lation of  4,000.  All  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  towns  and  villages  about 
the  lake  number  more  than  100,000. 

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The  lang-uagc  spoken  in  this  district  is  Moro,  of  the  Melanao  dialects. 


There  are  no  organized  towns  or  villages — only  garrisons  and  forts — 
the  principal  of  these  being  Marahui.  The  most  noticeable  feature  of 
this  district  is  the  lake  from  which  it  has  taken  its  name — Lanoa.  The 
extreme  northern  part  of  this  lake  lies  at  about  the  eighth  degree  of 
north  latitude,  and  the  center  about  124°  19'  east  longitude  from 
Greenwich — that  is  to  say,  about  the  meridian  of  Iligan.  It  is  there- 
fore in  the  eastern  and  widest  part  of  the  isthmus,  which  separates  the 
bays  of  Iligan  and  Illana.  The  principal  Moro  towns  on  the  lake  are 
Ganasi  and  Taraca,  on  the  eastern  shore.  The  lake  is  quite  deep,  in 
some  places  from  3  to  5  fathoms.  The  lake  is  about  8  leagues  in  length 
and  contains  6  islands,  on  the  larger  of  which — Nuza — there  are  more 
than  500  houses.  The  lake  is  surrounded  by  towns  and  little  villages, 
these  being  more  than  60  in  number.  The  lake  empties  by  a  waterfall 
into  the  river  Iligan. 


Something  has  alread3M)een  said  of  the  adjacent  islands,  particularly 
of  the  most  important  one  Basilan.  Others  of  some  importance  are 
on  the  south  coast. 


Olutanga, — This  island  forms,  with  the  coast  of  Mindanao,  a  channel 
which  connects  the  bays  of  Sibuguey  and  Dumanquilas. 

Qiddahun  Group. — This  group  is  composed  of  the  islands  of  Muda, 
Bacula,  and  Baya. 

Ticala  and  Sagarayan. — These  islands  are  situated  south  of  the 
point  north  of  the  bay  of  Dinas. 

Bongo. — This  island  is  situated  in  f ront  Qf  the  port  of  Polloc,  its 
northern  extremity  being  li  miles  to  the  west-southwest  of  Point 
Tugapangan.  It  is  covered  with  forests  and  is  rather  low.  It  is  not 

Timaco. — This  island  is  formed  of  a  hill  entirely  covered  with  for- 
ests, the  trees  reaching  to  the  water.  It  is  situated  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Rio  Grande,  scarcely  a  mile  to  the  south.  This  hill  of  Timaco  and  that 
of  Pico,  Cogonal,  more  to  the  south,  serve  as  excellent  landmarks  to 
the  mouth  of  the  river. 

Sarangani. — This  is  the  name  given  to  two  islands  and  a  little  isle 
situated  6  miles  south  of  the  point  of  Mindanao.  The  natives  call 
the  larger  one  Balut-marila  and  the  smaller  one  Balut-parida.  Balut- 
marila,  which  is  quite  high  and  covered  with  vegetation,  is  inhabited 
by  a  considerable  number  of  Sanguiles  and  Bilanes.  In  the  center  of 
the  island  is  a  volcano,  from  which  smoke  occasionally  rises. 

In  the  interior  of  the  bay  of  Davao  is  found  the  island  of  Tres 
Arbores,  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  Hijo;  the  islands  of  Pandasan 
and  Copiat;  the  Cruz  Islands,  near  the  coast  of  Samar;  the  island  of 
Sigaboy  and  the  island  of  Samar,  the  largest  and  most  important, 
which  has  a  perimeter  of  42  miles.     The  land  is  quite  fertile  and  pro- 

p  c— VOL  3—01 — 14  ;  '  ^ '  ?    ;» 

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duces  excellent  chocolate,  which,  if  cultivated  on  a  lar^e  scale,  would 
prove  a  source  of  great  wealth.  The  principal  towns  are  situated  on 
the  western  coast. 

Malipano  is  a  picturesque  little  island  to  the  east  of  Samar. 

Taliout^  or  Guisoc^  is  situated  to  the  southwest  of  Samar.  It  is  low 
and  covered  with  forests,  having  some  marshy  spots,  and  is  uninhab- 
ited, as  no  fresh  water  is  to  be  found.  According  to  the  Samales, 
excellent  tobacco  can  be  raised  there. 

On  the  east  coast: 

This  is  a  little  island  situated  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay  of  this  name, 
in  front  of  the  town  of  Mati. 

To  the  south-southwest  of  Point  Batiano  is  a  little  semicircular  island 
with  this  Qxpressive  name.  From  Point  Cauit  there  is  no  island  of 
importance.  Davis  lies  in  front  of  the  bay  of  Bislig.  Arangasa  lies 
just  beyond  the  bay  of  Lianga,  and  Macangoni  and  other  little  islands 
to  the  northeast  of  Tandag. 

Beyond  Point  Cauit,  northeast  of  the  peninsula  of  Surigao,  are  sev- 
eral  larger  and  more  important  islands. 

On  the  north  coast: 


This  island  lies  10  miles  south,  38  degrees  east  of  the  southern  point 
of  Samar.  It  is  a  little  island  about  a  mile  long,  rather  elevated,  and 
quite  bold  in  outline. 

This  island  is  situated  9  miles  west  of  the  southern  point  of  Samar, 
and  is  also  called  Tomonjol.  It  is  irregular  in  outline  and  of  but  slight 

This  island  is  situated  north  of  the  northern  point  of  Mindanao, 
from  which  it  is  separated  by  a  narrow  channel.  It  is  long  and  nar- 
row, and  extends  36i  miles  from  north  to  south  from  Point  Desola- 
cion  to  the  point  south  of  Gabo,  and  is  12i  miles  in  greatest  breadth. 
It  is  traversed  by  a  little  mountain  chain,  and  is  well  settled  along 
the  coasts.  Above  the  point  south  of  Dinagat,  and  very  close  to  the 
western  part,  there  are  two  islands,  from  5  to  6i  miles  long,  separated 
from  each  other  and  from  the  main  island  by  two  narrow  channels. 
The  inhabitants  of  Dinagat  are  occupied  in  the  collection  of  gold  and 
also  in  the  collection  of  natural  products,  such  as  wax,  honey,  etc. 

This  narrow  island,  having  an  altitude  of  314  meters,  is  situated  5 
miles  southwest  of  the  point  near  the  town  of  Dinagat. 

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This  island  is  situated  3^  miles  east  of  the  northern  extremity  of 
Gipdo,  and  5i  miles  north  of  Point  Bilaa. 


In  front  of  the  bay  which  opens  southwest  of  the  island  of  Dinagat 
lies  the  Onip  Group,  composed  of  Sibanag,  Unip,  Tabucaya,  and  vari- 
ous smaller  islands. 

The  northern  coast  of  this  island  is  about  9i  miles  west  of  Point 

This  island  is  southeast  of  Dinagat,  to  which  it  seems  to  be  united  by 
a  submerged  bank.  It  lies  16  miles  north  of  the  nearest  coast  of  Min- 
danao, is  irregular  in  outline,  and  18  miles  long  from  north  to  south. 
A  little  mountain  chain  runs  from  north  to  south.  There  are  various 
small  towns  and  little  ports.  About  Siargao  are  various  small  islands 
and  isles,  all  of  little  importance,  with  the  exception  of  the  Bucas 
Group.  This  is  situated  south-southwest  of  Siargao,  and  is  composed 
of  three  small  islands  lying  close  together.  To  the  west-northwest  of 
this  group  is  Guinatuan  and  the  island  of  Cabusuan  to  the  south  of  it. 

CAMIGUIN     (plate   LXlIl)  . 

This  island  lies  5i  miles  north  of  Point  Bagacay,  and  has  a  length  of 
12  miles  from  north  to  south,  and  a  breadth  of  8  miles  from  east  to 
west,  being  very  mountainous  and  rugged.  It  is  formed  of  a  central 
mountain  which  reaches  an  altitude  of  1,627  meters  above  sea  level. 
The  island  produces  rice,  good  tobacco,  wax,  and  chocolate  in  abun- 
dance. It  has  a  population  of  24,122,  most  of  them  engaged  in  agricul- 
ture or  fishing.  Along  the  rest  of  the  coast  from  Point  Bagacay  to 
Point  Gorda  only  shoals  and  little  islands  are  found.  Two,  however, 
are  worth  mentioning:  Sipaca,  a  little  island  formed  by  a  conical 
mountain,  and  the  island  of  Lapinag,  which  forms  channels  with  the 
coast  and  which  is  very  picturesque.     (See  Plate  LXIV.) 

This  island  is  situated  almost  east  of  the  southern  point  of  Zambo- 
anga,  and  extends  from  east-northeast  to  west-southwest  a  distance  of 
2i  miles.  It  is  low,  covered  with  vegetation,  and  bordered  on  the 
southwest,  south,  and  east  by  coral  reefs. 

This  island  lies  a  short  distance  northeast  of  the  preceding,  and 
extends  for  7  miles  from  northwest  to  southeast,  being  widest  and 
highest  at  the  northern  end. 

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These  islands  are  3i  and  2f  miles,  respectively,  from  the  northeast- 
ern extremity  of  Sacol.  They  are  quite  small,  the  former  being-  quite 


This  island  is  situated  south  of  Sacol  and  north  of  the  eastern  entraiu^e 
of  the  strait  of  Basilan. 


That  which  is  called  the  Basilan  Group  is  composed  of  various 
islands,  the  most  of  them  scattered  over  the  region  south  and  west  of 
Isabela.     The  principal  ones  are  as  follows : 

This  is  the  most  northern  island  of  the  group;  lies  18  miles  north- 
west of  Basilan,  and  is  small,  low,  and  covered  with  trees. 


This  is  the  most  southern  of  the  group  and  lies  south  of  the  most 
southern  point  of  Basilan. 


^  This  is  the  largest  of  the  islands  adjacent  to  Basilan,  and  has  a  con- 
siderable number  of  Moro  inhabitants,  as  do  all  the  important  islands 
of  this  group.  West  of  Pilas  there  are  various  small  islands,  which 
form  with  it  good  anchorages. 


These  islands  are  8  miles  south-southwest  of  Teinga,  and  have  an 
elevation  of  178  and  256  meters,  respectively.  The  islands  are  quite 
notable,  especially  the  mountain  on  the  southern  island.  This  appears 
like  a  cupola,  from  which  the  flat  lands  extend. 

This  island  rises  in  front  of  the  western  coast  of  Basilan,  northwest 
of  Tatcantana. 


This  island  is  situated  north  of  Tatcantana,  and  is  very  similar  to  it. 


This  island  is  very  near  the  north  coast  of  Basilan,  with  which  it 
forms  an  excellent  anchorage  suitable  for  large  ships.  It  lies  in  front 
of  the  town  of  Isabela,  and  forms  with  the  coast  of  Basilan  the  famous 
strait  of  Isabela. 

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[Maps  Nos.  2G  and  28  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines.] 


Authors  have  not  been  entirely  in  accord  in  regard  to  the  boundaries 
and  area  of  the  Archipelago  of  Jolo.  The  Derrotero  del  Archipielago 
Filipino  (Nautical  Guide  to  the  Philippines)  considers  as  belonging  to 
it  the  long  chain  of  islands  which  extends  for  180  miles  and  divides  it 
into  three  principal  groups — Basilan  on  the  east,  Jolo  in  the  center, 
and  Tawi  Tawi  on  the  west.  The  official  guide,  following  Antonio 
Garin,  limits  the  group  to  the  islands  lying  between  Balanan,  in  longi- 
tude 121^  52'  east  of  Greenwich,  and  Tumindo,  on  the  west,  lying 
119^  15'  east  of  Greenwich.  This  excludes  the  island  of  Basilan  and 
its  adjacent  islands,  including  in  the  archipelago  those  islands  lying 
between  the  parallels  of  4^^  iW  and  6^  25'  north  latitude.  This  seems 
to  be  the  most  acceptable  boundary,  although  in  reality  Basilan  and  its 
adjacent  islands  form  a  separate  province  of  the  Jolo  Archipelago. 
The  seas  bathing  the  coasts  of  the  Jolo  Archipelago  are  those  of  Jolo 
or  Mindoro  on  the  north  and  Celebes  on  the  south.  The  islands  con- 
stituting the  Archipelago  of  Jolo  may  be  divided  into  four  groups. 


The  Balanguingi  Group  is  situated  between  the  parallels  of  latitude 
5^  59'  and  Q''  17'  north,  and  longitude  121°  29'  and  121  ^  51'  east  froni 
Greenwich.  It  is  composed  of  eighteen  islands,  of  which  seven  are  of 
medium  size  and  the  rest  only  isles.  The  most  northern  are  Balauan 
and  Buartia,  which  are  separated  from  each  other  by  a  very  narrow 
channel.  To  the  east  are  the  two  islands  called  Dipsilut,  which  has 
close  to  it  the  little  isle  of  Mamud,  and  Tonguil.  To  the  southwest 
are  the  islands  of  Mamanoc,  Tarol,  Tuncolan,  Sipal,  and  the  principal 
island  Balanguingi,  the  famous  pirate  resort.  Between  this  island  and 
the  eastern  extremity  of  Jolo  are  the  little  islands  of  Bongao  and 


The  Jolo  Group  is  situated  between  the  parallels  of  latitude  5°  46' 
and  6^  14'  north,  and  longitude  120°  50'  and  121°  17'  east  from  Green- 
wich. The  principal  island  is  Jolo.  North  of  the  eastern  extremity 
of  Jolo  is  Capual,  with  an  area  of  20  square  kilometers,  and  Bitinan. 
To  the  northeast  lies  the  low  level  island  of  Tulayan,  which  forms  with 
the  coast  of  Jolo  the  port  of  this  name.  Farther  to  the  west  lie 
Gujanjan  and  various  small  isles.     North  of  the  anchorage  of  eJolo  lie 


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the  island  of  Tulian  and  the  group  composed  of  the  islands  of  Pan- 
gasinan,  Marongas,  Cabmuan,  Biibuan,  Hegad,  Mimo,  Pantocunan, 
and  Termabal.  The  islands  of  Salude,  Termabal,  Patian,  Lumbian, 
and  Pata,  with  an  area  of  58  square  kilometers,  lie  to  the  south. 


The  Tapul  Group  lies  between  the  parallels  of  latitude  5^  24'  and 
5°  46'  north,  and  longitude  120  '  liV  and  120°  4'  east  from  (Greenwich. 
It  is  composed  of  the  islands  of  Tapul,  with  an  area  of  84  square  kilo- 
meters and  circumference  of  28  kilometers;  Lugus,  a  low  island  cov- 
ered with  trees  and  having  an  area  of  51  square  kilometers;  the  Cobin- 
gan  Islands;  Siassi,  the  most  important  of  the  group,  covered  with 
forests  and  with  an  area  of  82  square  kilometers;  Lapac,  very  similar 
to  Lugus  in  size  and  shape;  Tara,  Lamenusa,  Selim,  Manubot,  and 


The  Tawi  Tawi  Group  lies  between  the  parallels  of  latitude  4°  47' 
and  5^^  29'  north,  and  longitude  119^43'  andl280  33'  east  from  Green- 
wich. It  includes,  besides  the  island  of  Tawi  Tawi,  about  forty  others, 
of  which  fourteen  are  of  some  size.  Tawi  Tawi  is  situated  about  50 
kilometers  southeast  of  the  peninsula  of  ITsang,  on  the  island  of 
Borneo.  It  extends  from  east-northeast  to  west-southwest  for  a  dis- 
tance of  55  kilometers,  and  is  about  25  kilometers  wide  at  the  broadest 
part  near  the  eastern  end.  The  general  appearance  of  the  island  is 
much  varied,  there  appearing  among  masses  of  clear  green  a  multitude 
of  groves  with  trees  close  together  or  widely  separated. 

The  islands  bordering  it  are  but  little  inhabited,  and  in  inaccessible 
corners  in  them  the  most  incorrigible  pirates  have  their  hiding  places. 
^  Among  other  islands  may  l)e  mentioned  Manicolat,  Bubuan,  Cinatusan, 
Cacataan,  Sigboye,  Tambagan,  Basbas,  Panjumojan,  Tabulunga,  Dalu- 
man,  Tancan,  Tandubato,  Tarue,  Simaluk,  Luran,  Banaran,  Bilatan, 
Simonos,  Manue,  Manca,  Laa,  Sanga-Sanga,  Buan,  Sibutu,  Tuul, 
Usada,  Cunilan,  Pangutarang,  Panducan,  Laparan,  Bilanguan,  Bam- 
banan,  Mamanuk,  and  the  small  group  of  islands  of  Tataan,  which 
extend  for  8  miles  from  northeast  to  southwest  almost  parallel  to  and 
at  a  distance  of  li  miles  from  the  coast  north  of  Tawi  Tawi. 

Among  the  principal  ports  of  the  Archipelago  of  Jolo  may  be  men- 
tioned Jolo,  between  points  Dinangapit  and  Belan  on  the  northwest, 
which  has  a  depth  of  18  to  20  fathoms,  Luban,  on  the  southeast; 
Punungan,  on  the  southwest,  south  of  Cabunant  on  the  southern  part 
of  Lubbac;  Itua,  on  the  north  of  this  island;  the  anchorage  of  Caron- 
dong,  and  the  Bay  of  Patogo,  between  Sang  and  Point  Tandican,  on 
the  southeast  of  the  island.  On  the  northwestern  coast  is  the  island 
of  Kapual,  with  which  it  forms  a  narrow  strait. 


According  to  the  official  guide  of  the  Philippines  for  1897  the  popu- 
lation of  this  archipelago  is  22,630,  but  considering  how  little  is  known 
of  many  of  the  islands,  and  of  the  population  of  innumerable  little 
villages  on  them,  this  number  is  probably  only  approximate.  Accord- 
ing to  Ferreiro  the  number  of  men  in  the  various  groups  of  islands 

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governed  by  Datos  or  Panlimanes,  serviceable  for  war,  is,  in  Balan- 
guingui,  335;  Jolo,  14,415;  Tapul,  1,300;  Tawi  Tawi  and  Pangutaran, 
1,815,  making  a  total  of  17,865.  It  would  therefore  seem  reasonable 
to  suppose  that  the  population  is  not  less  than  200,000  in  all  the  archi- 

lelago.     According  to  the  general  registry  of  the  diocese  of  Jaro,  pub- 

ished  in  1895,  there  are  1,424  Christians. 

Four  races  having  different  customs  may  be  distinguished  in  the 
archipelago:  First,  the  Quinbajanos,  or  inhabitants  of  the  mountains, 
who  are  the  indigenes;  second  the  Mala}^  and  Visayan  slaves,  whose 
descendents  have  intermarried  with  the  other  inhabitants;  third,  the 
the  Samales,  an  inferior  race,  though  not  slaves;  and  fourth,  the  true 
Moros,  who  trace  their  origin  from  the  Mohammedan  invaders,  and 
who  dominate  the  other  inhabitants. 


The  languages  of  the  inhabitants  are  Moro-Joloano  and  Moro- 
Samal,  the  latter  containing  many  Visayan  words. 


The  points  occupied  by  the  Spaniards  are  Jolo  and  the  military  gar- 
risons of  Siassi,  Bongao  (Tawi  Tawi),  and  Tataan. 

Jolo,  situated  on  the  island  of  this  name,  was  the  ancient  residence 
of  the  sultans.  It  has  wide,  straight,  and  well-shaded  streets,  being 
without  doubt  the  cleanest  town  in  the  archipelago.  The  houses  are 
all  painted  or  whitewashed  on  the  outside,  not  one  having  the  nipa 
roof  so  common  in  the  rest  of  the  archipelago.  It  has  a  large  hos- 
pital and  a  good  barracks  for  infantry.  There  are  beaches  and  gar- 
dens, and  a  water  supply  to  both  private  and  public  buildings.  Its 
newly  constructed  market  is  of  fair  size  and  well  arranged  for  the 
large  number  of  neighboring  Moros,  who  come  here  with  fruits  and 
other  merchandise.  A  brick  wall  surrounds  the  town,  thus  making 
it  a  fortiiied  place.  The  defenses,  Alfonso  XII  blockhouse  and 
Puerta  Espagna,  and  the  forts  of  Torre  de  la  Reina  and  Princesa  de 
Asturias  on  the  neighboring  hill,  serve  for  offensive  and  defensive 
purposes.  On  account  of  being  a  free  port  it  is  in  direct  communi- 
cation with  Singapore  by  means  of  two  English  steamers,  each  one 
of  which  makes  a  round  trip  every  twenty-eight  days,  and  it  is  like- 
wise in  communication  with  Manila  by  means  of  the  bimonthly  mail 
steamers.  A  stone  pier,  extending  for  a  considerable  distance  out, 
facilitates  loading  and  unloading.  On  this  pier  is  a  light-house  of  the 
sixth  class,  with  a  fixed  red  light.  Pertaining  to  Jolo  are  the  three 
garrisons  already  mentioned,  which  are  constituted  in  the  form  of 
politico-military  comandancias.  Jolo  belongs  to  the  bishopric  of  Jaro. 
There  is  a  Liissionary  priest  there  who  has  charge  of  the  villages  of 
Siassi,  Tataan,  and  Bongao. 


The  flora  of  this  archipelago  is  similar  to  that  of  Mindanao.  There 
is  an  abundance  of  teak,  camuning,  molava,  narra,  mangachapuy,  ipil, 
cedro,  palohierro,  and  other  equally  prized  woods^  as  well  as  cocoanut 
groves,  the  cabonegro,  burl  and  nipa  palms.    Gum  mastic,  all  kinds  of 

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resins,  and  other  analogous  products  are  found.  Rice,  corn,  hemp, 
saffron,  indigo,  sesamo,  cotton,  the  magosteen,  the  jack  fruit,  etc.,  are 
all  produced.  Coffee  and  chocolate  grow  well  on  the  shaded  hillsides 
and  hemp  grows  without  cultivation  on  the  lowlands.  Horses,  cattle' 
buffaloes,  and  goats  are  abundant.  Many  species  of  birds  are  found. 
Ihe  Jolo  people  manufacture  chisels  (patu),  long  knives  with  sharp 
edges  and  points  (lagut),  ordinary  hatchets  (capa),  and  gauges  (licut). 
Ihe  pearl  fisheries  are  very  important  in  this  archipelago,  althougli 
ot  greater  importance  on  account  of  their  intrinsic  value,  greater  abun- 
dance, and  better  market  are  the  conch  shells  (mother-of-pearl),  which 
sell  well  m  the  markets  of  Singapore  and  Manila. 



The  island  formerly  called  Palawan,  and  bv  the  Spaniards  called 
Paragua,  is  situated  between  the  parallels  of  latitude  S''  22'  and  11  ^  25' 
J'.^S^.  Vl'l  1^^'^^t^^^  117^  8'  and  119^  40'  east  from  Greenwich. 
(Umcial  Catalogue  of  the  Exposition  of  Madrid.) 

On  the  northeast  is  the  island  of  Mindoro.  On  the  east  are  the 
islands  ot  Panay,  Negros,  and  Mindanao.  On  the  southeast  is  the 
Jolo  archipelago,  and  on  the  south  the  island  of  Borneo.  The  China 
Sea  separates  it  on  the  west  from  southern  Indo-China.  It  is  con- 
sidered the  third  largest  of  all  the  islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago. 
In  shape  it  js  very  long  and  relatively  narrow,  having  the  greatest 
length  from  northeast  to  southwest,  445  kilometers,  and  an  average 
width  of  22  kilometers.  Its  total  area,  including  the  adjacent  islands 
IS  14,534  square  kilometers.  ' 


^    According  to  the  official  census  of  1887  the  population  of  Paraima, 
in  the  towns  ot  Danlig,  IXunaran,  Puerto  Princesa,  Tatindan,  luid 
laytay,  is  5,985.     According  to  Seiior  Canga  Arguelles,  who  was  form- 
erly governor  of  this  province,  the  Christian  inhabitants  occupying 
the  northern  part  of  the  island  do  not  exceed  10,000,  and  the  Moham- 
medans dwelhng  on  both  coasts  of  the  southern  part,  number  less  than 
b,O00.     Other  authors  give  a  total  population  of  from  28,000  to  30,000. 
.ihe  native  population  can  be  divided  into  four  well-defined  groups- 
i^irst,  the  lagbanuas,  the  most  numerous  of  all,  who  are  distinguished 
on  account  of  their  sociable  and  peaceful  natures.     They  live  in  ham- 
lets along  the  banks  of  the  rivers,  and  somewhat  resemble  the  Moham- 
medan Malays  of  Mindanao,  though  not  professing  the  same  religious 
beliets.     They  inhabit  the  part  of  the  island  between  Inagahuan  and 
Dalig  on  the  eastern  coast  and  that  between  Uluagan  and  Apusahuan 
on  the  western  coast.     They  are  about  6,000  in  number.     Second,  the 
JNegritos,  who  can  be  distinguished  on  account  of  their  darker  com- 
plexion, curly  hair,  and  better  physical  development.     They  inhabit 
the  mountainous  regions  lying  between  Babuyan  and  Bubacan  on  the 
eastern  coast,  and  number  about  1,500  individuals.     Third  the  Man- 
guianes,  a  little-known  people,  who  inhabit  the  territory  of  the  Moros 
and  prevent  them  from  trading  with  the  outside  world.     Physically 


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they  are  more  like  the  Tagbanuas,  but  in  matters  of  custom  more  like 
the  Moros.  They  number  about  4,000  individuals.  Fourth,  the  Tan- 
dulanos,  who  inhabit  the  eastern  coast  between  the  bays  of  Malampaya 
and  Caruray.     They  are  believed  to  number  about  1,500. 


Spanish  is  spoken  only  by  the  few  Spaniards  living  in  the  island. 
Moro-Joloano  is  most  generally  used  in  Paragua,  though  each  one  of 
the  four  groups  cited  has  its  own  special  language. 


There  are  three  towns  in  this  comandancia:  Puerto  Princesa,  Taytay, 
and  Dumaran.  Puerto  Princesa,  with  a  population  of  3,181,  is  the 
capital.  Its  port,  called  in  the  English  nautical  chart  Port  Royalist, 
is  a  magnificent  natural  port,  well  sheltered  and  easy  of  entrance. 
The  deep  water  is  about  1}  miles  across.  On  the  eastern  coast,  very 
near  to  the  shore,  there  is  a  depth  of  from  10  to  12  meters.  A  light- 
house of  the  sixth  class,  with  a  fixed  white  light,  is  situated  at  the 
entrance  of  the  bay.  There  is  a  little  dockyard  for  the  use  of  small 
gunboats.  There  is  a  penal  colony  at  Puerto  Princesa  composed  of 
convicts  of  both  sexes  and  of  deported  individuals.  On  account  of  the 
forced  labor  of  this  penal  colony  it  has  been  possible  to  beautify  the 
town  and  better  its  sanitary  conditions  by  cutting  off  the  mangrove 
swamps.  Rain  water  is  used,  as  the  town  lacks  a  good  water  supply. 
During  the  rainy  season  some  people  use  well  water,  in  spite  of  the 
fact  that  it  is  very  poor,  while  others  bring  water  from  the  Iguahit 
River  just  across  the  bay.  There  are  24  villages  and  hamlets  belong- 
ing to  the  towns  of  Puerto  Princesa,  Taytay,  and  Dumaran. 

This  island  pertains  to  the  diocese  of  Jaro.  The  following  are  clas- 
sified as  active  missions:  Puerto  Princesa,  with  3,121  parishoners; 
Tinitian,  with  1,197;  Dumaran,  with  2,128;  Taytay,  with  1,733; 
Inignan,  with  279,  and  Baenit,  with  1,257. 


On  account  of  its  geographical  position,  Paragua  is  one  of  the  most 
important  islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago.  It  is  not  less  impor- 
tant from  a  commercial  view  point,  as  it  forms  with  the  island  of 
Balabac  the  strait  of  the  same  name,  through  which  at  certain  times  of 
the  year  sailing  ships  are  compelled  to  pass.  The  island  has  the 
following  ports:  Puerto  Princesa  and  Bininsulian,  on  the  eastern  coast; 
Ulugan,  on  the  bay  of  the  same  name;  and  the  Bay  of  Malinpaya, 
which,  according  to  some  authorities,  has  no  rival  in  the  world. 

A  great  mountain  chain  extending  from  northeast  to  southwest 
divides  the  island  of  Paragua  into  two  halves.  Its  terminal  peaks  are 
Mount  Montalingahan,  with  an  elevation  of  2,080  meters,  on  the  south, 
and  Mount  Victoria,  with  an  elevation  of  1,372  meters,  on  the  north. 
Among  the  mountain  ranges  which  arise  from  the  principal  one  are 
the  Malanit  Range,  which,  beginning  near  Tagbayu^,  extends  to  the 
south;  the  Pulote  Range,  which,  arising  about  the  middle  of  the  pre- 
vious range,  extends  perpendicularly  to  it  for  a  distance  of  20  miles  to 
the  south,  after  which  it  inclines  to  the  west,  and  the  Bulanjao  Range, 

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which  arises  near  Coral  Bay  and  extends  to  the  northeast  a  distance  of 
more  than  40  kilometers.  On  account  of  the  peculiar  shape  of  the 
island  the  rivers  are  all  short,  but  are  of  much  importance,  as  they 
furnish  ways  of  communication  between  the  two  coasts.  The  Iguahit 
River,  which  probably  has  its  source  on  the  slopes  of  the  Aldea  Range, 
passes  through  the  village  of  the  same  name  and  empties  into  the  bay. 
The  Cururay,  having  its  source  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  central 
mountains,  empties  into  the  China  Sea  near  the  Bay  of  Magdanan. 
The  Campan  River  empties  into  the  bay  of  the  same  name,  and  the 
Pirata  River  into  the  Bay  of  San  Antonio. 


All  of  the  mountain  sides  are  covered  with  abundant  vegetation, 
forming  extensive  forests,  which  contain  large  numbers  of  excellent 
building  woods.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned  narra,  calandas  (a 
species  of  cedar),  ipil  (which  attains  great  size),  camagon,  molave, 
banaba,  alopai,  amuguis,  arsonan,  apiay  (unknown  in  Luzon),  cisbi, 
mansalanguin,  and  many  others.  The  Fragosa-peregrina,  known  to 
the  natives  under  the  name  of  uring,  from  which  gum  mastic  is 
obtained,  was,  until  a  short  time  ago,  unknown  in  the  Philippines. 
The  forest  wealth  of  this  island  is  very  great,,  and  many  species  of 
trees  not  found  in  the  rest  of  the  archipelago  grow  here.  ^  There  are 
many  mangrove  swamps,  of  which  the  natives  utilize  the  three  princi- 
pal species — the  bacanan,  the  tangal,  and  the  langhoray.  The  produc- 
tion of  rattan  on  this  island  is  truly  astonishing,  an  uninterrupted 
trade  in  this  article  being  carried  on  between  Puerto  Princesa  and 
Manila.  The  nipa  palm,  so  useful  and  necessary  to  the  natives,  com- 
pletely covers  the  banks  of  the  rivers  and  estuaries.  The  cocoanut 
palm  grows  well.  An  abundance  of  gum  mastic,  copal,  and  other 
resins  exist.  Excellent  tobacco,  rice,  and  all  kinds  of  fruits  and 
vegetables  can  be  grown.  The  island  of  Paragua  is  second  to  none 
in  the  wealth  of  its  vegetable  kingdom.  The  fine  pasture  lands  of 
the  island  sustain  large  numbers  of  cattle,  buffaloes,  goats,  and  hogs. 
The  famous  nests  made  by  the  little  swift  (called  salangana)  are  found 
in  abundance  in  the  deep  caves  around  the  coast.  These  nests  are  so 
highly  prized  by  the  Chinese  that  they  have  at  times  paid  as  much  as 
14,000  a  picul  for  them;  that  is  to  say,  twice  their  weight  in  silver. 

As  this  island  has  not  been  well  explored,  its  mineral  wealth  is  not 
known.  Lead  and  antimony  are  found  in  the  form  of  pyrites,  and 
there  are  indications  of  iron  and  copper.  The  hard,  even  slate  shows 
some  indications  of  iron  and  sulphur.  Granite  is  found  in  abundance, 
but  is  soft  and  porous.  Coral  rock,  which  the  natives  utilize  in  the 
manufacture  of  lime,  is  found  in  abundance. 


This  island,  situated  south  of  Paragua,  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  the 
Jolo  Sea  and  on  the  west  by  the  China  Sea.  On  the  south  there  is  a 
strait  having  the  same  name  as  this  island,  which  separates  it  from  the 
islands  of  Banguey  and  Balanbagan,  bordermg  Borneo.  It  is  36  miles 
in  length,  8  or  10  in  breadth,  and  has  an  area  of  370  square  kilometers. 

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According  to  the  official  census  of  1887  there  are  2,110  inhabitants, 
of  whom  but  408  are  Christians.  According  to  the  general  registry 
of  the  Recoleto  Friars  for  1897  the  natives  are  Moros,  living  in  the 
villages  of  Dalanan,  Pasig,  Catagupan,  Sabos,  Agutayan,  Tucanigalo, 
Pancan,  Cabulaigan,  Carandurin,  and  Singalo. 

Language. — ^The  ordinary  language  in  this  island  is  Moro-Joloano. 


Balabac  is  the  only  town.  It  has  an  excellent  port  during  the  south- 
west monsoon.  There  is  one  other  port,  at  Calandaran.  At  the  entrance 
of  the  port  of  Balabac  there  is  a  light-hous.e  of  the  sixth  class,  show- 
ing a  fixed  white  light.  At  Point  Melville,  at  the  southern  extremity 
of  the  island,  there  is  a  light-house  of  the  first  class.  The  only  parish 
in  the  island  is  that  of  Balabac. 


As  in  the  neighboring  island  of  Palawan,  there  are  many  excellent 
tropical  woods,  gums,  resins,  dyestutfs,  fibers,  and  medicinal  plants, 
wax,  honey,  etc. 

The  peculiar  little  mouse  deer  called  pelandoc,  which  is  unknown  in 
the  rest  of  the  archipelago,  is  found  here. 

There  is  an  abundant  deposit  of  coal  of  excellent  quality  11.14  kilo- 
meters from  the  town.  It  is  said  that  in  the  territory  occupied  by 
the  Moros  there  is  a  deposit  of  native  mercury. 


This,  the  largest  island  of  the  Balanguingui  group,  which  formerly 
was  a  part  of  the  Jolo  Archipelago,  was  a  short  time  ago  attached  to 
the  comandancia  of  Balabac.  It  is  situated  45  leagues  to  the  north- 
west of  Tawi  Tawi,  has  a  perimeter  of  41  kilometers  and  an  area  of 
68  square  kilometers.  It  has  two  peculiar  lakes — one  of  fresh  water 
and  the  other  of  salt  water. 



This  low-lying  island,  covered  with  scrub,  is  situated  6  miles  north 
of  Cape  Buliluyan,  about  a  mile  from  the  shore. 


These  islands  are  situated  southwest  of  the  Bay  of  Marasi  and  in 
the  same  parallel  as  Puerta  Princesa.  They  are  surrounded  by  little 
islands,  reefs,  and  rocks. 


This  island  is  situated  3  miles  west  and  one-fourth  of  a  mile  south- 
west of  Point  Hununock,  and  li  miles  from  the  coast  of  Paragua.  It 
is  of  medium  height  and  covered  with  forests. 

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The  coast,  2i  miles  from  Point  Hununock,  forms  a  little  bay,  in 
which  are  the  islands  of  Manglar  and  Hierba.  They  are  low  and  of 
little  area.  The  most  northern  of  these  has  to  the  northeast  of  it  a 
little  island  called  Macoda,  which  terminates  in  a  little  conical  cape. 
Near  this  cape  rises  the  little  island  of  Sepulero. 


These  names  are  given  to  several  scattered  islands  lying  in  front  of 
the  bay,  just  north  of  Mount  Hersechel. 


This  island,  also  called  Camungyan,  lies  li  miles  north -northeast  of 
the  cape,  on  the  northwestern  extremity  of  Paragua. 

An  island  west  of  the  Bay  of  Ulugan. 


A  little  island  situated  at  the  entrance  of  the  Bay  of  Cruz  de  Mayo. 

An  island  situated  3i  miles  northeast  of  Caanipa.  It  is  very  irregu- 
lar in  outline,  5  miles  long  from  east  to  west  and  3i  miles  wide  from 
north-northeast  to  south-southwest. 

There  are  innumerable  small  islands  found  between  the  Bay  of  Cruz 
de  Mayo  and  the  northern  point  of  Paragua. 

This  island  is  situated  at  the  entrance  of  the  port  of  Malambaya. 


An  island  in  front  of  the  Bay  of  Bolalo. 


Situated  just  inside  of  the  Strait  of  Bloqueo. 


This  island  has  the  most  vegetation  on  it  of  any  of  the  Calizas  Esca- 
brosas  group. 


This  island  is  situated  east  of  Tapintan. 


This  island  lies  just  northeast  of  Masmloc. 

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P  C — YOL  3 — 01 15 

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This  island  forms  a  group  with  several  others  of  little  importance 
just  at  the  entrance  of  the  Bay  of  Bacnit. 

This  island  is  situated  on  the  eastern  coast  ofthe  Bay  of  Bacnit. 


On  the  western  coast  of  the  same  bay. 


Situated  northwest  of  the  peninsula  of  Bacnit. 


These  islands  are  north  of  Cadlao. 


This  island  is  situated  east  of  the  channel  between   Canayan   and 

Cadlao.  ,      .  ,      i       <.    r        i       r^- 

Near  the  northern  end  of  Paragua  are  the  islands  of  Jemelos,  JJia- 

pila,  Calitan,  and  Cabidi. 



A  little  island  near  the  northern  point  of  Bugsuc. 


A  little  island  east  of  Bowen. 


An  island  northwest  of  Urzula. 

BAHIA    I)E    LAB   ISLAS    (18LAND    BAY)  . 

Called  thus  on  account  of  the  multitude  of  islands  which  border  :t 
on  the  east. 


An  island  situated  east-northeast  of  Point  Divaque. 


This  island,  very  similar  to  Rasa  and  of  the  same  size,  lies  south- 
east of  the  bay  of  A  Idea. 


A  little  island  in  front  of  the  larger  bay  north  of  Puerta  Princesa. 

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These  islands,  together  with  a  large  number  of  small  islands  in  rocks, 
lie  in  front  of  Honda  Bay,  north  of  the  bay  of  Puerta  Princesa. 


A  group  of  islands  south  of  Point  Flecha  is  called  Verdes. 


This  is  the  largest  of  all  the  islands  adjacent  to  Paragua.  It  is  42 
miles  in  circumference,  and  its  mountains  rise  to  a  height  of  182 
meters  above  sea  level.  It  is  quite  irregular  in  form,  well  peopled, 
and  has  a  good  deal  of  arable  land;  goats  and  hogs  are  abundant,  and 
all  kinds  of  Philippine  fruits  are  produced. 

From  Dumaran  to  the  northern  point  of  Paragua  there  is  a  very 
large  number  of  islands  and  of  isles.  Among  these  may  be  mentioned 
Mayabacon,  Pales,  Dala,  Ganem,  Carandaga,  Icadambamcan,  or  Tay- 
tay,  famous  for  its  bay;  Silongas,  Malabuctin,  Bagamdagan,  Busuml- 
bulan,  Bunul,  and  many  others. 


In  the  strait  north  of  Balabac  are  the  following  islands:  Secam,  at 
the  western  entrance  of  the  strait;  Bancalan,  5  miles  northeast  of 
Secam;  Matangul,  3  miles  southeast  of  Bancalan;  Pandanan,  8i  miles 
northeast  of  Bancalan.  It  is  6i  miles  in  length  from  northeast  to 
southwest  and  2i  miles  wide. 

This,  the  largest  of  all  the  islands  about  Balabac,  is  situated  east  of 
the  island  of  Pandanan. 

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PAPER    NO.  II. 




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Situated  at  the  east  of  the  Asiatic  Continent  there  arises  from  the 
sea  a  large  group  of  islands  known  by  the  name  of  the  Philippine 
Archipelago,  a  name  which  was  given  to  them  by  Ruiz  Lopez  de  VU- 
lalobos,  who  was  one  of  the  first  discoverers  and  who  gave  the  name 
in  memory  of  the  Prince  of  Asturias,  afterwards  King  Philip  of  bpam. 

These  islands  form  one  of  the  richest  groups  of  islands  i^  the  i^ar 
East,  and  are  situated  between  the  meridians  116^  t^  ^"^  126  34  ot 
longitude  east  of  Greenwich  and  between  the  parallels  of  north  lati- 
tude 4^  40'  and  21^  e^',  counting  from  the  extreme  southern  point  ot 
the  small  island  of  Sarangani  (to  the  south  of  Mindanao)  to  the  most 
northerly  point  of  the  island  Batanes.  The  distance  from  this  south- 
ern point  to  the  northern  is  320  leagues,  whereas  that  from  east  to 
west  is  180.  This  archipelago  is  bounded  on  the  north  and  west  by 
the  China  Sea,  on  the  south  by  the  Sea  of  Celebes,  and  on  the  east 
by  the  Pacific  Ocean.     (See  maps  Nos.  1  and  2  of  the  Atlas  ot  the 

Philippines.)  ,    „    i       ^  ^x     x- 

Omitting  those  islands  of  small  area,  we  shall  devote  our  attention 

principally  to  the  islands  of  Luzon,  Mindoro,  Marinduque,  Polillo, 

Tablas,   Romblon,    Burias,    Masbate,   Ticao,   Catanduanes,    Batanes, 

Paragua,  Panay,  Negros,  Cebu,  Samar,  Leyte,  Bohol,  and  Mindanao. 
In  another  paper— that  on  chorography  -the  geographical  conditions 

of  these  several  islands  are  treated.  ,  .     i     -x     x- 

The  following  is  a  table  setting  forth  the  geographical  situation, 

together  with  the  superficial  area  in  kilometers  of  each  of  the  islands, 

given  in  the  order  of  their  size: 

Names  of  islands. 






Mindoro  (2).. 












Extreme  lati- 
tudes north. 

Extreme  longi- 
tudes east  of 

12. 5  to  18. 7 

















12, 246 

10, 167 












Maps  in 
Atlas  of  the 



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Add  to  the  superficial  area,  as  given  in  the  preceding  table,  the  area 
of  the  many  small  islands  of  the  archipelago,  there  results  a  total  area 
of  some  290,437  square  kilometers,  amounting  to  about  two-thirds  of 
the  extent  of  area  of  the  peninsula  of  Spain.  The  total  number  of 
the  islands  exceeds  1,400. 

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Plate  I. 

/^/ r^'/i^     r/iAl     (   BATA NGAS.  L UZOfif) 


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The  mountain  system  of  Luzon,  the  most  important  island  of  the 
whole  Philippine  archipelago,  is  composed  principally  of  three  large 
ranges,  whose  springs  form  the  sources  of  four  full  rivers,  which, 
flowing  through  the  island  in  various  directions,  irrigate  it  so  richly 
and  so  fertilize  it  with  their  abundant  waters  that  there  is  scarcely  a 
province  which  does  not  produce  in  abundance  the  fruits  natural  to  it. 
The  nucleus  of  this  mountain  system  is  called  Caraballo  8ur,  whose 
highest  peak  (1,400  meters)  is  situated  at  latitude  16^  9'  north,  longi- 
tude 12r^  4:'  east  from  Greenwich. 

C(M'iil)aU(>s  Occident  ales. ---Thid  first  of  these  ridges,  called  Caraballos 
Occidentales,  runs  approximately  north  and  is  divided  into  two  parts, 
that  of  the  central  range,  which  runs  three-fourths  of  its  length  before 
it  separates  between  the  provinces  of  Abra,  Ilocos  Norte,  and  Caga- 
yan,  and  that  of  the  north  range,  which  runs  from  the  division  men- 
tioned to  the  most  northern  part  of  Luzon,  called  Point  Pata.  Its 
total  length  is  about  50  leagues.  It  separates  the  provinces  of  Pan- 
gasinan.  Union,  Abra,  and  the  district  of  Benguet  from  those  of  Nueva 
Viscaya,  Isabela,  and  Cagayan.  Departing  from  Cabalisian,  near 
Caraballos  Sur  toward  the  north,  the  district  of  Benguet,  in  which 
rise  the  ridges  of  Pinos  and  Bayabas,  is  left  to  the  west  of  the  prin- 
cipal range. 

In  one  range  of  hills  of  little  importance  there  rise  the  rivers  Abra 
and  Agno  Grande,  which,  taking  opposite  directions,  flow,  the  former 
toward  the  north,  the  latter  toward  the  south. 

The  mountains  Biumaca,  Tapan,  Cabuman,  Tonglon  (2,261  meters), 
Lugsen,  and  the  peak  of  Bayabas  (1,520  meters)  are  the  most  important 
of  the  heights  between  Union  and  Benguet.  To  the  north  of  Cara- 
ballos Sur  and  at  a  distance  equal  to  one-half  that  from  this  mountain 
to  the  Gulf  of  Casiguran  is  found  Mount  Data  (2,500  meters),  one  of 
the  most  conspicuous  of  the  whole  region.  Its  branches  run  in  the 
general  direction  of  north  and  south.  Among  them  rises  the  range 
of  mountains  Sabagan,  which  extends  toward  the  district  of  Bontoc 
to  the  east,  and  also  the  chain  called  Polls,  the  highest  region  of  all 
that  country.  From  the  ridge  of  Polis,  giving  place  to  the  valley  of 
Sapan,  there  arise  in  turn  other  branches,  which,  with  a  northeastern 
trend,  extend  to  Bontoc  and  Cagayan,  and  unite  with  the  second  prin- 
cipal range.     In  this  range  are  the  sources  of  several  tributaries  to 


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the  river  of  the  same  name.  At  the  western  boundary  of  the  district 
of  Lepanto,  and  forming  the  division  between  it  and  the  province  of 
llocos  Sur,  there  extend  the  ranges  of  Tila  and  Malaya,  which  run 
southeast,  entering  the  district  of  Benguet,  where  they  join  a  spur  of 
the  Data.  The  boundary  between  the  provinces  of  Abra  and  llocos 
Sur  consists  of  a  range  which  runs  parallel  to  the  principal  one  from 
south  to  north,  thus  holding  the  province  of  Abra  between  two  large 
ranges.  On  account  of  the  roughness  and  wildness  of  these  two  ranges 
numerous  tribes  of  Igorrotes  find  safe  shelter  in  them.  From  the 
Caraballos  Norte,  which  forms  the  extreme  northern  point  of  the  great 
range,  there  starts  toward  the  west  a  branch  called  the  Caraballo  Chico. 
From  these  last  extend  two  ranges  of  mountains,  which,  running 
parallel  toward  the  south,  enter  the  province  of  llocos  Sur,  and  give 
to  it  a  varied  scenery. 

Sierra.  Madre. — The  important  range  called  Sierra  Madre  begins  at 
the  Caraballos  de  Baler,  situated  southeast  from  the  Caraballos  Sur. 
It  extends  in  the  general  direction  of  northeast,  and  altogether  forms 
a  continuous  chain  of  mountains  which  extend  from  the  Caraballos 
de  Baler  to  the  cape  Engano,  in  the  northern  point  of  the  island, 
crossing  the  district  of  Principe  and  the  provinces  of  Isabela  and 
Cagayan.  Its  length  is  somewhat  greater  than  that  of  the  Caraballos 
Occidentales.  The  length  of  this  range,  the  largest  of  the  archipelago, 
is  not  known,  nor  has  it  been  possible  to  determine  the  height  of  its 
principal  mountains.  One  smaller  branch  runs  to  the  bay  of  Palanan, 
the  principal  one  continuing  parallel  to  the  coast  and  very  near  it. 

From  the  Caraballos  Sur  and  from  the  countries  between  the  Cara- 
ballos Occidentales  and  the  Sierra  Madre  springs  another  branch 
called  Mamparan,  which,  running  toward  the  north,  extends  to  the 
province  of  Nueva  Viscaya.  The  branches  of  this  mountain  range 
extend  to  the  right  from  the  point  of  deviation  from  the  two  main 
ranges,  while  farther  south  several  branches  of  the  Caraballos  de  Baler 
extend  into  the  province  of  Nueva  Ecija. 

Range  of  the  east  and  southeast. — The  third  important  range, 
beginning  at  the  Caraballos  Sur,  presents  less  height  than  the  two 
others;  also  its  direction  is  more  irregular,  and  its  length  twice  that 
of  the  Caraballos  Occidentales.  It  extends  from  the  Caraballos  de 
Baler  to  the  Strait  of  San  Bernardino.  Its  trend  from  its  point  of 
separation  to  the  boundary  of  the  provinces  of  Laguna  and  Tayabas  is 
north  and  south. 

From  Banahao  the  range  turns  to  the  southeast,  which  direction  it 
maintains  invariably  until  near  Guinayangan,  in  the  province  of  Taya- 
bas, where  it  divides  into  two  spurs,  which  extend,  respectively,  one 
more  toward  the  south  into  the  above-mentioned  province  to  Point 
Bondog,  where  it  ends,  and  the  other  toward  the  northeast,  only  to 
turn  later  again  to  the  east  in  the  end  of  Calagua,  cross  the  province 
of  Camarines  Norte,^  turn  again  toward  the  southeast,  enter  the  prov- 
inces of  Camarines  Sur  and  Albay,  until  it  ends  in  the  spurs  of  the 
volcano  Bulusan  facing  the  Strait  of  San  Bernardino. 

Among  the  branches  of  this  great  range  there  merit  special  atten- 
tion, besides  the  division  of  Tayabas,  which,  separating  from  the  Cara- 

^  Although  for  several  years  the  provinces  of  Camarines  Norte  and  Camarines  Sur 
have  constituted  only  one  province,  called  Ambos  (both)  Camarines,  still  in  describ- 
ing the  mountain  ranges  we  adhere,  for  greater  clearness,  to  the  division  into  two 

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hallos  de  Baler,  takes  the  direction  of  northeast  until  it  ends  in  the 
point  Encento,  on  the  south  side  of  the  bay  of  Baler,  those  which 
extend  through  the  province  of  Bulacan  and  the  district  of  Morong, 
and  those  of  Colasi  and  Bacaray,  in  the  province  of  Camarines  Norte. 

The  most  vmportant  mouMaims. — The  most  impoi'tant  mountains  of 
the  system  of  the  Caraballos,  aside  from  the  Caraballos  Sur,  are  the 

In  the  range  of  the  northwest,  or  Caraballos  Occidentales,  the  peaks 
of  Sagsig  Cabalisian,  Salacsa,  Dalandem,  Mingolit,  and  Saluan,  between 
the  provinces  of  Nueva  Viscaya,  Nueva  Ecija,  Pangasinan,  and  the  dis- 
trict of  Benguet;  those  of  Data  (2,500  meters),  Tila  (1,355  meters), 
Mitra  (1,737  meters),  and  Tantaguan  (1,914  meters),  in  the  district  of 
Lepanto;  those  of  Caburtanga,  Gabaon,  Dilaso,  Danao,  Dayos,  Narapi- 
jan,  and  the  craggy  Andang,  in  the  province  of  Ilocos  Norte;  those 
of  Posdey  (1,430  meters),  Mamagued,  Mabulusa,  Liputen,  Abra, 
Colango,  Bumuragan,  Balatinan,  Molinga,  Pico,  and  Calos,  within  the 
limits  of  Abra;  those  of  Balago  (1,606  meters),  Cabatingan,  Diablo, 
Maguinalem,  Tibangran,  and  Burnay  (1,913  meters),  within  the  prov- 
inces of  Abra  and  Ilocos  Su. ;  and  in  the  ridges  of  Ilocos  Norte,  from 
the  extreme  south  to  Point  Pata  on  the  northern  coast,  those  of  Agau- 
mala  (1,410  meters).  Pan  de  Azucar  (762  meters),  Bimungan  (1,183 
meters),  and  that  of  Quebrada  (927  meters),  with  the  line  of  heights 
which  form  the  Caraballos  Norte. 

The  elevation  of  the  peaks  of  the  Sierra  Madre  is  estimated  as  fol- 
lows: The  Dos  Cuernos  (1,204  meters),  the  Morses  (1,283  meters),  the 
volcano  Cana  (1,195  meters),  and  several  others  whose  elevation,  like 
that  of  others  which  we  have  mentioned,  it  has  not  yet  been  possible 
to  determine. 

Following  the  range  of  the  east  and  of  thti  southeast  are  the  Cara- 
ballos de  Baler  and  Subani,  in  the  province  of  Nueva  Ecija;  Silas, 
Angat,  Pahalang,  Orion,  and  Tayabasan,  in  that  of  Bulacan;  Simuten, 
Camunay,  and  Duyo,  in  the  district  of  Morong;  Malagion,  Malang, 
Maquiling  (1,133  meters),  and  San  Cristobal,  in  Laguna,  until  we 
reach  the  Banahaa.  And  from  the  Banahaa  to  the  district  of  San  Ber- 
nardino those  of  Masalacay  and  Bondog,  in  the  province  of  Tayabas; 
those  of  Colasi,  Calungun,  Bayabas,  Sabro  (1,552  meters),  Baao, 
Puliamey,  Paratucan,  and  Caramuan,  in  those  of  the  two  Camarines; 
and  in  that  of  Albay  those  of  Buhi  or  Malinao,  Masaraga  (1,354  meters), 
Mayon  or  volcano  of  Albay  (2,522  meters),  Pocdol,  Calangalan,  and 
of  the  volcano  Bulusan. 


Head  of  the  system. — Taking  as  the  point  of  origin  the  mountain 
Hal  con  (2,700  meters),  situated  in  the  northern  part  of  the  island  at 
an  equal  distance  from  the  eastern  and  western  cor  's,  the  system  is 
divided  into  three  large  ranges,  which  run,  one  in  tiie  direction  from 
northwest  to  southeast  and  the  other  two  from  the  north  to  the  south. 

The  northern  range  is  nearly  perpendicular  to  the  other  two.  The 
latter  ranges,  on  account  of  being  parallel  not  only  to  the  coast  but 
also  to  each  other,  make  room  for  a  large  central  plane,  which  extends 
between  them,  running  north  and  south.  This  interior  portion  of  the 
island  is  very  little  known  as  yet,  on  account  of  the  absolute  lack  of 
communication  across  the  mountains  between  the  fishing  villages  on 
the  opposite  coasts. 

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The  noTthern  range. — The  northern  range,  which,  as  has  already 
been  stated,  runs  northwest  and  southeast,  is  probably  the  most  impor- 
tant of  the  whole  system.  From  Mount  Halcon  to  the  hill  Calavite, 
situated  at  a  very  short  distance  from  the  point  of  the  same  name,  it 
changes  its  direction  many  times  and  numerous  spurs  extend  not  only 
to  the  north  toward  the  coast  but  also  toward  the  interior  of  the  island. 
There  are  many  peaks.  Among  the  highest  are  Calavite,  Abra  de 
Hog,  and  those  of  Bacoo.  In  the  neighborhood  of  the  town  of  Nanjan 
there  is  a  large  spur  or  chain  of  mountains,  which  at  first  follows  the 
direction  of  the  principal  range,  but  later  turns  toward  the  south  and 
joins  the  range  of  the  eastern  coast. 

77^6^  eastern  range. — From  the  spur  of  Nanjan,  above  mentioned, 
extends  another  range,  running  to  the  west  from  a  lake  called  also 
Nanjan.  It  turns  to  the  southeast  to  the  series  of  mountains  which 
run  between  the  towns  of  Nanjan  and  Pola.  It  changes  its  direction  to 
the  south  and  forms  the  hills  of  Bamtat,  Bahaynatubig,  and  Natabang, 
between  the  towns  of  Pola  and  Socol;  those  of  Tangot,  Bongabon,  and 
Batangan,  betyreen  Socol  and  Tiding;  and  those  of  Mabajo,  Agun,  and 
Taitican,  between  Mamalay  and  Bulalacao,  and  finally,  in  the  southern 
part  of  the  island,  joins  the  western  range. 

The^  imstern  ra?^ge.— The  Abra  de  Hog,  near  the  Halcon,  is  the  point 
at  which  rises  the  chain  of  mountains  running  parallel  to  the  western 
coast.  With  numerous  and  important  branches  extending  to  the  west, 
until  they  are  lost  in  the  sea,  it  encounters  in  its  course  the  town  of 
Sablayan,  in  whose  vicinity  it  is  interrupted,  to  reappear  in  the  neigh- 
borhood of  Trurum  and  continue  in  the  same  direction,  from  north  to 
south,  until  it  ends  in  the  point  Rumban,  to  the  northeast  of  Point 
Bugsanga,  one  of  those  which  forms  the  bay  of  Mangarin. 


The  moimitain  system  of  Negros. — The  frame  of  the  mountain  system 
of  the  island  of  Negros  is  formed  by  a  large  range,  which  crosses  the 
island  from  the  northwest  to  the  southwest,  and  by  various  spurs, 
separating  from  it  and  running  in  opposite  directions,  ending  on  both 
eastern  and  western  coasts  of  the  island.  The  situation  of  this  range 
causes  the  general  division  by  which  the  island  is  div'ded  into  eastern 
and  western  Negros,  the  former  being  the  part  on  the  east  of  the 
range  toward  Cebu,  and  the  latter  all  that  region  on  the  west  toward 
Panay.  Of  the  branches  of  this  central  range  there  merit  special 
attention  those  of  eastern  Negros,  which  extend  toward  the  east  and 
end,  respectively,  in  the  points  of  San  Jose  and  Manjuyoc,  and  the  one 
running  toward  the  west,  which  ends  in  the  point  Sojoton.  The  peaks 
most  notable  on  account  of  their  height  are  Solitario,  facing  Silay; 
the  volcano  Canlaon,  or  Malaspina,  whose  height  is  more  than  1,200 
meters,  situated  at  about  the  middle  point  of  the  range;  Tipasi,  toward 
the  south,  and  the  ridge  of  Dumaguete,  in  the  southeastern  extremity 
of  the  island. 

The  principal  range  of  Panay. — It  can  be  said  that  there  is  only  one 
mountain  range  in  the  island  of  Panay.  This  range  runs  north  and 
south  from  the  little  peninsula  of  Buranga,  in  the  extreme  northwest 
of  the  island,  to  the  point  Siaran  in  the  southwest,  and  separates  the 
district  of  Antique  from  those  of  Capiz  and  Iloilo.  The  highest 
point  of  the  range  is  undoubtedly  the  mountain  Madia-as,  which 
reaches  the  altitude  of  2,180  meters.     It  is  situated  east-southeast 

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from  the  town  of  Colasi,  in  latitude  ll"^  24'  north  and  longitude  122° 
10'  east  from  Greenwich.  From  the  Madia-as  to  the  point  of  Pucio, 
in  the  peninsula  of  Buruanga,  this  chain  runs  with  many  variations  in 
direction  and  altitude.  At  first  its  direction  is  north  until  it  reaches 
latitude  11'^  45'  north,  after  which  it  runs  east  and  west  until  it  ends 
in  Point  Pucio.  During  its  course  to  the  west  it  serves  as  the 
boundary  between  the  provinces  of  Capiz  and  Antique.  In  the  north 
this  range  becomes  merely  a  large  number  of  low  alkali  hills,  and  ends 
in  the  points  Sabongcogon,  Naisog,  and  Pucio.  Like  all  hills  of  this 
formation,  they  are  very  irregular. 

From  the  mountain  Madia-as  the  range  runs  toward  the  south,  tak- 
ing the  general  direction  south-southeast  until  it  reaches  the  mountain 
Llorente,  in  latitude  10°  59'  north  and  longitude  122°  19'  east,  from 
which  point  it  takes  the  direction  south-southwest  to  the  mountain 
Nagsucubang,  situated  in  the  extreme  southwest  of  the  island,  where 
it  ends.  It  reappears  as  four  spurs  riuming  to  the  points  Sagdam, 
Ani-ui-y,  Cadugdula,  and  Naisog.  This  part  of  the  range  also  descends, 
but  not  so  aljruptly  as  the  northern  part.  In  this  whole  chain  of  moun- 
tains it  may  be  observed  that  the  western  sides  are  nmch  more  craggy 
than  those  of  the  east,  especially  so  in  that  part  in  which  are  situated 
its  highest  peaks.  Finally  from  the  Madia-as  to  the  mountain  Baloy, 
in  latitude  11°  9'  north,  it  marks  the  boundary  between  the  provinces 
of  Capiz  and  Antique,  and  from  the  Baloy  to  Point  Naisog  it  sepa- 
rates that  of  Antique  from  that  of  Iloilo. 

Character  of  its  hranchcs.—N dLviova^  are  the  branches  which  run  off 
from  the  range  of  Panay.  There  are  two  principal  ones:  One,  start- 
ing from  the  mountain  Madia-as,  extends  through  Antique,  in  the 
direction  southwest,  to  the  town  of  Tibiao  on  the  western  coast.  The 
other  starts  from  Baloy  and  crosses  the  whole  island  in  the  direction, 
first  from  west  to  east,  and  later  from  southwest  to  northeast,  to  the 
mountains  Lating  and  Alapasco,  which  are  the  last  spurs  of  this  branch, 
in  the  extreme  northeast  of  the  island.  It  serves  along  its  entire  length 
as  the  boundary  of  the  provinces  of  Capiz  and  Iloilo.  The  others  are, 
in  general,  of  slight  elevation  and  serve  onl}^  to  determine  the  source 
of  the  tributaries  which  go  to  form  the  three  principal  rivers  of  the 
island,  Aclan,  Jalauz,  and  Panay. 

In  the  north,  between  Batan  and  Capiz,  there  is  also  a  group  of  sev- 
eral mountains  in  the  form  of  a  semicircle,  opening  toward  the  north 
and  forming  the  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  Sapian.  Altogether  they  form 
a  watershed  for  the  springs  of  the  rivers  Aclan  and  Panay. 

The  most  notable  peaks, — We  have  already  indicated  that  the  most 
notable  peak  of  the  principal  range  is  the  Madia-as  (2,180  meters). 
Besides  that  mountain  there  deserve  special  mention  among  those  sit- 
uated to  the  north  of  the  Madia-as,  Usigan  (1,290  meters),  Balabac 
(1,300  meters),  Agotay  (1,130  meters),  and  the  mountains  Toctocon 
(1,400  meters).  Among  those  situated  to  the  south  there  appear  the 
Nangtud  (2,050  meters),  the  Baloy  (1,730  meters),  the  Tuno  (1,110 
meters),  the  Igbanig  (1,303  meters),  the  Llorente  (1,340  meters),  the 
Tiguran  (1,470  meters),  the  Congcong  (1,070  meters),  and  the  Ticbayat 
(1,010  meters). 

In  the  branches  of  this  range  there  rise  the  following  mountains: 
Lacaon,  Nansang,  Nacuran,  Lating  and  Alapasco.^ 

^See  "  Descripcion  Fisica,  Goiogica  y  Minera  en  Bosquejo  de  la  Made  Panay,"  by 
D.  Enrique  Abella  y  Casariego. 

P  C— VOL  3—01 16 

Hosted  by 




DiviHion  of  the  system  into  ranges. — The  iiioiintain  system  of  Min- 
danao, on  account  of  the  ^reat  changes  which  that  island  has  experi- 
enced through  the  eruption  of  volcanoes  and  the  destructive  action  of 
earthquakes,  is  not  easily  defined.  The  mountains  Apo  and  Matutum 
constitute,  among  others,  the  nucleus  from  which  rise  two  of  its  prin- 
cipal ranges.  Apart  from  the  rest  of  the  system,  which  is  not  clearly 
defined,  there  can  be  distinguished  four  ranges  called,  on  account 
of  the  position  which  they  occupy  with  relation  to  the  island,  eastern, 
central-eastern,  central-western,  and  western.  Altogether  they  give 
rise  to  rich  rivers,  which,  flowing  through  the  island  in  all  directions, 
fertilize  it  w^ith  the  tribute  of  their  waters. 

Easterii  range,— The  first  of  the  ranges  indicated  and  the  one  best 
defined  of  all  is  that  running  from  Lurigao,  in  the  most  northern  part 
of  the  island,  to  the  cape  San  Agustin,  in  its  southern  extremity. 
This  range  runs  from  its  origin  at  no  great  distance  from  the  coast  in 
the  direction  south-southeast,  until  it  meets  the  mountain  Agtunganon. 
It  takes  later  a  trend  to  the  south,  always  in  a  direction  parallel  to  the 
coast,  to  the  mountains  of  Manuligao.  In  these  mountains  it  under- 
goes another  change  to  the  direction  south-southeast  and  forms  on  one 
side  the  spurs  of  Mandadagsa,  and  oa  the  other  those  of  Tagdalit, 
Campalili,  and  Tapas,  containing  the  sources  of  the  rivers  Guinonoan 
and  Buguan.  It  ends  at  the  mountains  of  Magsubay,  Tagopo,  and 
Capungunan,  where  rises  the  river  Agusan.  It  suddenly  turns  from 
here  to  the  south  and,  forming  the  mountains  of  Mayo,  Amiguitan,  and 
Sigaboy,  ends  in  the  promontory  of  San  Agustin,  after  having  run, 
throughout  its  whole  length,  more  than  80  leagues. 

Padre  Pablo  Pastello,  from  whom  we  have  taken  the  preceding 
data  about  the  eastern  range,  says  in  his  explanatory  note  of  the  map 
of  the  mountains  of  Mindanao,  published  May  20,  1887,  the  following: 

The  eastern  range  gives  rise  to  the  rivers  of  the  eastern  coast  of  the  island,  to  those 
flowing  to  the  right  of  Agusan,  and  the  httle  rivers  of  Qiiinquin,  Matiao,  and  Lumhig, 
which  deposit  their  waters  in  the  eastern  side  of  the  Gulf  of  Darao.  Their  sources 
are  found  in  the  opposite  sides  of  the  mountains,  which  give  rise  to  tlie  same  Agusan. 
There  are,  besides  this  range,  hranches  whose  many  spurs  extend  toward  both 
sides,  sending  their  waters  to  the  streams  that  empty  into  the  Pacific,  and  to  those 
running  into  the  Agusan  from  its  right  bank. 

The  central  eastern  range, — The  central  eastern  range  runs  from  the 
point  Dinata,  facing  the  bay  of  San  Butuan  and  the  mountain  of  Gin- 
goog,  on  the  west  of  the  mouth  of  the  river  Agusan  on  the  northern 
coast.  With  a  direction  almost  entirely  parallel  to  the  eastern  range, 
it  runs  to  the  south-southwest  and  separates  the  watershed  on  the  left 
of  the  Agusan  from  that  on  the  right  of  the  Tagoloan,  and  turns  to- 
ward the  south  until  it  meets  Mount  Apo,  after  having  run  two-thirds 
of  its  course,  in  about  latitude  7^^  north,  and  at  the  height  of  Davao,  not 
very  distant  from  the  lake  Liguasan.  At  the  Apo  it  divides  into  two 
branches,  the  principal  one  running  to  the  southeast  and  ending  in  the 
southern  extremity  of  the  island,  in  point  Sarangani;  the  other  turns 
gradually  to  the  west  and  ends  in  the  western  part  of  the  bay,  called 
also  Sarangani.  The  general  direction  of  this  range  is,  as  we  have  indi- 
cated, parallel  to  the  eastern  range,  although  it  undergoes  several 
depressions  and  elevations.  Among  the  most  important  elevations  is 
the  volcano  Apo,  whose  height,  more  than  3,300  meters,  is  the  greatest 

Hosted  by 



of  the  whole  archipelago.  It  is  also  the  watershed  of  the  Pulangui 
or  Rio  Grande  and  of  the  Agusan,  following  for  the  greater  part  of  its 
course  very  near  the  former. 

The  two  eastern  ranges  and  central  eastern  are  united  in  the  form 
of  an  angle,  which,  separating  from  the  mountains  that  give  rise  on 
one  side  to  the  Agusan  and  on  the  other  to  the  Libaganon,  has  for  its 
highest  point  the  peaks  of  Oloagusan.  The  angle  formed  by  these  two 
ranges  forms  a  perfectly  marked  system  of  waters.  That  which  rises 
in  the  eastern  chain  runs  into  the  river  Hijo  and  the  tributaries  on  the 
left  of  the  Agusan  and  of  the  Salug,  and  that  which  proceeds  from  the 
central  eastern  to  the  tributaries  on  the  right  of  the  Salug  on  one  side, 
and  on  the  other  to  those  on  the  left  of  the  Agusan,  especially  to  the 
Manat  and  to  the  Baobo. 

Finally,  from  the  central  eastern  range  there  extends  a  very  impor- 
tant branch,  considered  by  some  a  distinct  range.  It  runs  from  the 
Matutum,  facing  the  Bay  of  Sarangani,  and  taking  the  direction  gen- 
erally from  east  to  west,  afterwards  turns  from  the  southeast  to  the 
northwest,  continues  parallel  to  the  southern  coast  of  the  island  to 
Cotabato,  forming  part  of  the  right  water  shed  of  the  Pulangui  and 
those  of  the  rivers  which  empty  directly  into  the  sea  between  the  bay 
Ulana  and  the  Gulf  of  Sarangani. 

77^6'  cerdral  western  range. — The  third,  which  ought  to  be  called  a 
group  rather  than  a  range  of  mountains,  is  exceedingly  difficult  to 
describe.  In  the  first  place,  its  origin  is  not  easily  determined.  Some 
suppose  it  to  come  from  the  volcano  Apo,  but  that  supposition, 
although  it  at  first  sight  seems  acceptable,  is  not  correct.  The  great 
difficulty  is  that  it  encounters  the  Pulangui,  or  Rio  Grande,  which 
with  its  swift  current  opposes  a  serious  obstacle  to  the  continuance  of 
the  range.  Let  its  origin  be  whatever  it  may,  it  is  certainly  not  far  from 
the  Apo,  and  on  the  side  opposite  the  Pulangui  it  becomes  a  range  of 
not  insignificent  mountains,  which,  dividing  and  subdividing  into  very 
many  branches,  give  rise  to  numerous  tributaries  that  on  the  western 
slope  go  to  enlarge  with  their  waters  the  broad  current  of  that  great 

Three  chains  of  this  range  of  mountains  rvm  to  the  northwest.  The 
nearest  to  the  central  eastern  range  is  that  which  ends  on  the  north 
side  of  the  bay  of  Macajalar,  in  tbc  point  Lipaca.  Its  most  notable 
mountains  are  the  Balatocan,  facing  the  Balingasac,  Sobrac,  Numanlog, 
and  Quimanquil.  The  second,  whose  direction  inclines  more  to  the 
west  than  the  former  and  which  is  not  so  high,  ends  in  Cagayan  de 
Misamis,  its  principal  mountains  being  the  Quitanglag  and  the  Musuan. 
The  last  and  most  important  of  the  former  runs  from  the  southwest  to 
the  northwest,  with  a  still  more  open  angle  than  the  preceding  ones  of 
the  central  eastern  range,  passing  on  the  north  of  Lake  Lanao  and 
ending  to  the  northwest  of  the  bay  Macajalar,  in  point  Salanang. 

The  fourth  range  of  the  same  series  runs  from  the  north  of  Lake 
Liguasan,  not  far  from  the  three  which  we  have  just  described  in  Piquit, 
and  with  direction  west-northwest.  It  passes  to  the  south  of  the  Lake 
Lanao  and  ends  in  the  bay  of  Panguil,  with  branches  to  the  bay  lUana. 

Western  range, — The  fourth  range  of  Mindanao,  better  defined  than 
those  preceding,  takes  its  origin  in  the  spurs  of  the  mountain  Malin- 
dang  in  the  comandancia  p.  m.  of  Dapitan.  It  runs,  with  two  short 
ranges,  to  the  northwest  and  northeast.  From  the  mountain  Malin- 
dang  this  range  extends  to  the  south,  turns  toward  the  west,  and  runs 

Hosted  by 



parallel  to  the  coast  to  the  shore  of  the  Gulf  of  SiiidaDgan  to  the 
mountain  Sibuyan.  There  it  returns  to  its  first  direction  of  north  and 
south,  runs  to  the  central  part  of  the  peninsula,  where  it  extends  from 
the  Gulf  of  Libuguey  to  the  China  Sea,  ending  in  the  place  where  was 
the  ancient  fort  of  the  Caldera,  near  Ayala  in  Zamboanga. 

The  higher  mountains, — The  mountains  which  reach*  the  greatest 
height  in  Mindanao  are  divided  according  to  their  ranges  in  the  fol- 
lowing order: 

In  the  eastern  range  there  are  the  Dinata,  Atunganan,  Bayombong, 
Bungadon,  Lucatan,  Tagdilit,  Campalili,  Tapao,  Tagopo,  Capungunan, 
and  Magsuibay;  in  the  central-eastern,  besides  Apo  (3,300  meters),  are 
those  of  Sinalayao,  Lagsadon,  Panambuyan,  Bululanan,  and  Matutum; 
in  the  central-western,  following  the  order  of  its  four  branches,  are 
the  Balatocan,  the  Sobrac,  the  Numanlog,  and  the  Quimanquil;  the 
Quitanglag,  and  the  Musuan;  those  of  Panisian,  Col  col,  Calatungan, 
and,  and  those  of  Tiniptiban,  Palanabahay,  Pinangayonan, 
Sugut,  Picos  de  Ganasi,  Guran,  Dagambal,  Caromata,  and  Masibay; 
and  m  the  western  those  of  Silingan,  Tres  Reyes,  and  Malindang  (2,609 

Hosted  by 


MouisrTAiiy  KAi^oEs  OF  tiie:  skcokb  akj>  third  order. 



•  Next  in  importance  to  the  Caraballos  system,  already  described, 
is  the  Zam bales  range,  in  the  western  part  of  the  island  of  Luzon. 
Starting  at  Cape  Bolinao,  in  latitude  16°  23'  north  and  longitude  119° 
40'  east  from  Greenwich,  the  range  runs  north  and  south  close  to 
and  parallel  with  the  western  coast.  It  serves  as  the  boundary  between 
Zambales  and  Pangasinan,  then  as  the  boundary  between  Zambales 
and  Tarlac,  and  finally  divides  Pampanga  and  Zambales.  Then  it 
enters  the  province  of  Bataan,  running  its  entire  length  from  north 
to  south,  and  disappears  in  front  of  the  island  of  Corregidor  at  the 
entrance  of  the  Bay  of  Manila.  It  is  divided  into  three  principal 
ranges,  that  of  Zambales  proper  in  the  north,  that  of  Cabusilan  in  the 
central  part,  and  that  of  Mariveles  in  the  province  of  Bataan,  in  the 
south.  Among  other  peaks  of  some  elevation  are  Iba,  Masiloc,  Lanad, 
Sual,  and  Calvario,  in  the  Zambales  range;  Agudo  (1,038  meters), 
Alto  (1,127  meters).  Lingo  (1,659  meters),  Abu  (1,662  meters),  and 
Pinalobo  (1,811  meters),  in  the  Cabusilan  range,  and  Binlana  and 
Butilao  (1,324  meters)  in  the  Mariveles  range. 


The  range  of  this  name,  Tagaytay,  traverses  the  province  of  Cavite 
along  the  boundary  which  separates  Cavite  and  Batangas,  first  from 
northwest  to  southeast,  and  then  from  east  to  west.  If  it  is  considered 
as  forming  a  single  system  with  the  Maquiling  range,  it  is  of  equal 
importance  with  the  Zambales  range.  Considered  thus  as  a  single 
range  the  directions  taken  are  very  capricious.  Beginning  at  Point 
Restinga,  the  last  of  the  Pico  de  Loro  hills,  which  extend  as  far  as 
the  entrance  to  the  Bay  of  Manila,  this  range  runs  from  northwest  to 
southeast,  with  various  ramifications  on  both  sides,  as  far  as  the  south- 
ern boundary  of  the  province  of  Cavite,  where  the  Masalaysay  moun- 
tains are  situated.  It  then  curves  to  the  northeast  until  it  meets  the 
Sungay  range,  serving  throughout  this  distance  as  the  boundary 
between  the  provinces  of  Cavite  and  Batangas.  Here  the  Laguna 
range  begins  and  runs  north  and  south  until  it  unites  with  the  Maquil- 
ing range,  which,  continuing  in  the  same  direction,  north  and  south, 
between  the  provinces  of  Batangas,  Laguna,  and  Tayabas,  forms, 
with  the  Sosomcambing  and  Malarayat  ranges,  various  chains  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  province  of  Batangas.  The  most  important  peaks 
between  Cavite  and  Batangas  are  Masalaysay  (842  meters)  and  Sungay 
(764  meters);  between  Batangas  and  Laguna,  Maquiling  (1,435  nifeters), 
Sosomcambing,  and  Malarayat;   in  the  southern  part  of  Batangas, 


Hosted  by 



Toinbol,  Loboo  (1,052  meters),  and  others.  Among  these,  although 
widely  separated  from  them,  is  the  Macalod  peak  (960  meters),  situated 
in  front  of  the  Taal  volcano  on  the  western  coast  of  Lake  Bonbon. 


The  Batanes  and  Babuyanes  are  two  groups  of  small  islands,  situ- 
ated north  of  Luzon,  which  are  separated  from  each  other  by  the 
Balintang  Channel.  In  the  Batanes,  the  most  northern  islands,  are 
the  peaks  of  Batan  and  Itbayat.  In  the  island  of  Bataan  is  Mount 
Irada,  which  rises  to  a  height  of  1,100  meters  above  sea  level,  and 
appears  to  be  an  extinct  volcano.  To  the  west  of  this  is  Mount 
Inaya.  Itbayat,  14  miles  north  northwest  of  Bataan,  has  two  peaks 
of  medium  height — Santa  Rosa  (206  meters),  situated  in  the  extreme 
northeast,  and  Riposet  (243  meters),  in  the  extreme  southeast.  The 
other  mountains  in  these  islands  are  of  little  importance. 

Camiguin,  having  an  altitude  of  838  meters,  is  the  only  peak  in  the 
Babuyanes  group  worthy  of  mention. 


The  mountain  system  of  this  island  consists  of  a  principal  range 
running  from  north  to  south  along  the  eastern  coast,  from  the  most 
northern  part.  Point  San  Andres,  to  Dumali,  in  the  extreme  southern 
part.  From  Mount  San  Antonio,  situated  in  the  center  of  the  range, 
there  are  A^arious  spurs  running  east  and  west,  one  of  which  termi- 
nates at  the  Ba}^  of  Sayao.  The  principal  peaks  are  Marlanga,  or 
Tablazo,  Catala,  Gasan,  Picos,  Tapian,  and  Pubun. 

This  island  has  a  central  mountain  chain  running  its  entire  length 
from  northwest  to  southeast — from  Point  Cueva  on  the  north  to  the 
most  southern  extremity.  About  the  middle  of  this  range  r'ses  the 
cloud-covered  peak  called  Enganoso. 

The  land  of  this  island  is  much  broken.  The  axis  of  its  principal 
range  takes  the  form  of  a  semicircle,  which,  beginning  at  the  extreme 
southwest,  runs  north  and  terminates  in  the  southeast.  The  numerous 
and  tortuous  spurs  thrown  off  from  this  range  terminate  near  the 
shore,  the  only  region  in  the  island  having  level  land  suitable  for  culti- 
vation. The  highest  peaks  of  the  main  range  are  Bagasimbahan, 
Cavanan,  and  Bagalayag. 

This  island  is  traversed  from  northwest  to  southeast  throughout  its 
length  by  a  mountain  chain,  somewhat  broken  by  gaps. 

From  the  central  elevation  of  this  island  spurs  radiate  in  all  direc- 
tions* The  most  notable  peaks  are  found  in  the  central  part  and  are 
called  Malalod  and  Capote. 

Hosted  by 




The  mountain  system  of  this  island  consists  of  three  ranges  starting 
from  the  center.  These  run  respectively,  one  toward  the  north,  as 
far  as  Point  Yot;  another  toward  the  southeast,  as  far  as  Point  Nagum- 
buayan,  and  the  third  toward  the  southeast,  as  far  as  Points  Agoto  and 


These  islands  are  in  general  mountainous  and  rugged,  this  being 
especially  true  of  Busuanga.  The  two  principal  peaks  on  Busuanga 
are  Culion  and  Tundalara  (65  meters). 


Although  the  orographic  system  of  the  island  of  Samar  is  some- 
what similar  to  that  of  Panay,  or,  at  least,  to  that  of  Negros,  so  that 
its  description  might  form  a  part  of  the  preceding  chapter,  neverthe- 
less it  seems  advisable  to  treat  it  separately,  as  it  is  not  yet  well  known. 
In  general,  it  is  known  that  the  island  is  very  rough,  especially  in  the 
central  part.  A  mountain  chain  traverses  its  length  from  northwest 
to  southeast,  although  this  is  divided  by  the  valley  of  the  river  Ulut, 
which  traverses  it  from  the  Bay  of  Maqueda,  on  the  west,  to  its  mouth 
near  Tubig,  on  the  eastei'n  coast.  Apart  from  this  chain  there  is  in 
the  northwest  a  group  of  mountains  concentrically  arranged  and  situ- 
ated near  the  Panros  Mountains,  which  separate  the  western  branches 
of  the  river  Hibatan  from  those  which  empty  to  the  north  between 
Lavezares  and  Mondragon.  The  most  notable  peate  of  the  central 
chain  are,  Curao,  Capotoan,  Palapa,  toward  the  north  in  the  vicinity  of 
Catubig,  and  Matiganao,  near  the  Ungajon,  toward  the  south.  Mount 
Nabubusog,  near  the  town  of  Paranas,  may  be  seen  for  a  long  distance, 
because  of  the  whiteness  of  its  rocks,  the  same  being  true  of  the  Vasey 
Mountains,  situated  farther  to  the  south. 

Leyte  is  also  very  rugged.  In  the  center  of  the  island  there  is  a 
mountain  chain  running  its  entire  length  from  northwest  to  southeast, 
which  is  at  the  same  time  the  watershed.  There  is  another  chain  of 
minor  importance  in  the  northeast,  between  the  Strait  of  San  Juanico 
and  the  valley  of  the  Cabayungan  and  Palo  rivers.  This  chain  extends 
from  Point  Baluarte,  in  the  extreme  north,  to  the  mouth  of  the  river 
Palo  in  front  of  the  bay  of  San  Pedro  and  San  Pablo,  on  the  eastern 
coast.  The  highest  mountains  in  these  islands  are:  In  the  north,  Culasi; 
in  the  west,  Magsanga,  near  Palompon;  Mandirin,  Caprocan,  Aslum, 
and  Sibugay,  almost  in  the  center.  The  volcanic  peak  Caolangojan  is 
in  Burauen,  to  the  east,  while  in  the  south  is  Sacripante.  Southeast  of 
Leyte,  and  but  little  separated  from  it,  is  the  island  of  Panaon,  in  whose 
southern  extremity  is  found  Mount  Malangcauan,  which  has  an  altitude 
of  706  meters  above  sea  level. 

The  mountain  system  of  this  island  begins  in  the  north,  where  two 
peaks  of  considerable  altitude  arise — Panamao  and  Mabuy.     These, 

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with  others  of  minor  importance,  form  a  chain  throughout  the  length 
of  the  island,  as  far  as  point  Pauican,  in  the  extreme  southeast.  This 
chain  forms  the  watershed  of  the  island. 

The  orography  of  this  island  is  very  simple.  A  mountain  chain  runs 
from  northeast  to  southwest,  somewhat  nearer  the  eastern  than  the 
western  coast,  throughout  the  entire  length  of  the  island.  This  chain 
becomes  wider  or  narrower,  according  to  the  configuration  of  the 
island.  These  mountains  are  of  little  altitude,  and  do  not  prevent 
communication  between  the  two  coasts.  The  principal  peaks  are  Tesu- 
big,  Mangilao,  Uling,  Balila,  Nagtagug,  Moaangid,  Ungas,  and  Tanaoan 
(458  meters). 


The  mountain  chain  traversing  the  length  of  this  island  is  much  more 
noticeable  in  the  south  than  in  the  north,  where  the  country  is  quite 
flat.  The  highest  peaks  are  Alimario  and  Bunucan,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Tobigan;  Mahanguin  and  Lunday,  in  the  vicinity  of  Giiindalman; 
Carabahol  and  Caloyhuan,  in  the  vicinity  of  Nagua,  and  Campusa  and 
Canlobo,  m  the  vicinity  of  Catigbian.  The  highest  mountain,  Copton 
having  an  elevation  of  e309  meters,  is  in  the  northeast.  ' 


This  island  is  very  rugged  in  character.  Northeast  of  the  central 
mountain  is  Mount  Cudtingan,  which  terminates  in  two  peaks,  Sandu- 
gan  and  Daquit.    • 


The  principal  peaks  lie  along  the  eastern  coast  of  the  island.  They 
are  Zaljat,  Pandan,  and  Acdan. 

Two  ranges  almost  parallel  to  the  coast  and  to  each  other  traverse 
this  island  from  northeast  to  southwest.  In  the  northern  part  of  the 
eastern  chain  is  Mount  Cabeza  de  Tablas,  having  an  elevation  of  738 
meters,  and  in  the  central  part  the  peak  called  Palaopao. 


A  single  central  mountain  range  traverses  the  island  of  Romblon 
from  north  to  south,  from  Point  Tongo  to  Point  Apunan.  From  this 
range  various  spurs  are  thrown  off  to  the  right  and  left,  the  most 
important  being  that  which  terminates  at  Point  Sablayan.  The  prin- 
cipal peaks  are  Romblon,  Santiago,  and  Tagaytay. 


This  island  is  quite  mountainous.  Among  other  peaks  in  the  central 
part  IS  Sibuyan,  having  an  altitude  of  1,958  meters,  which  dominates 
the  island. 

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From  Point  Desolacion,  in  the  extreme  north,  to  a  point  south  of 
Gabo  the  island  is  traversed  throughout  its  length  b}^  a  mountain 
range,  which  runs  nearer  to  the  eastern  coast  than  to  the  western. 
Some  of  the  peaks  are  of  medium  elevation.  The  highest,  Mount 
Kedondo,  lying  in  the  northern  part  of  the  island,  has  an  elevation  of 
1,017  meters.  Other  mountain  peaks  are  Cumbre  (730  meters),  Picudo 
(526  meters),  Caballette  (546  meters),  and  Tristan  (632  meters).  The 
eastern  slope  of  this  mountain  forms  Point  Penascales. 

This  island  is  traversed  by  a  little  range  running  from  north  to  south. 


This  island  is  very  mountainous  and  rugged,  having  a  central  peak 
rising  to  a  height  of  1,627  meters  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 

In  the  island  of  Basilan  there  are  several  mountains  more  or  less 
connected  with  each  other  which  form  a  mountain  system  of  little 
importance,  Mount  (luibanan  or  Lamutun  ])eing  the  most  important. 
It  extends  from  Avest  to  east,  l:)eginning  near  the  capital  town,  Isabela, 
nearly  to  Mount  Panocol)on.  Mount  Matangal,  which  is  situated  in 
the  extreme  pastern  part  of  the  island,  serves  as  a  landmark  for  ships 
running  from  Cotobato  to  Davao.  I'oward  the  west  are  the  peaks 
called  Tres  Picos,  which  serve  as  a  landmark  to  ])oats  leaving  the  port 
of  Zamboanga. 


Among  the  islands  which  form  the  Jolo  group  the  only  one  worthy 
of  mention  is  the  island  from  which  the  group  takes  its  name.  Three 
chains  of  mountains  almost  parallel  to  each  other  traverse  the  island 
in  the  general  direction  east-northeast  to  west-southwest.  The  most 
elevated  of  these  chains  is  that  which  begins  at  Point  Tuctuc,  on  the 
northern  coast,  and  extends  to  Point  Silangan,  on  the  western  extrem- 
ity of  the  island.  Its  highest  peaks  are  Bahu  (813  meters)  and  Tuma- 
tanguis  (882  meters).  The  second  chain  of  importance  is  the  central 
range,  which  runs  tirst  parallel  to  the  southwestern  coast,  then  turns 
toward  the  east,  and  terminates  in  the  western  part  of  the  island  in  a 
mountain  called  Tumahu,  which  has  an  elevation  of  472  meters.  Other 
peaks  in  this  range  are  Tulipan  (632  meters),  Mabintan  (492  meters), 
and  Mahuja  (337  meters).  The  peaks  of  the  third  range,  which  runs 
parallel  to  the  southeastern  coast,  are  of  little  importance. 


Tawi  Tawi,  the  largest  of  the  group  of  this  name,  has  a  mountain 
chain  running  from  east-northeast  to  west-southwest  throughout  its 
length.     Mount  Santiago,  rising  in  the  southeast,  has  an  elevation  of 

Hosted  by 



354  meters,  and  Mount  Dromedario,  rising  in  the  center  of  the  island, 
has  an  elevation  of  568  meters.  One  of  the  spurs  of  this  mountain 
terminates  in  Point  Balimbin. 


This  island  is  traversed  by  various  mountain  ranges  of  considerable 
elevation,  which  cross  it  in  all  directions,  principally  in  the  direction 
of  its  greatest  length,  which  is  from  northeast  to  southwest.  The 
highest  peak  is  Mantalingahan,  which  has  an  elevation  of  2,080  meters. 
Other  peaks  are  Landargun  (1,040  meters),  Gantuang  (1,783  meters), 
Victoria  (1,726  meters),  and  Calibugon  (544  meters). 

This  island  is  quite  mountainous,  especially  in  the  southern  part. 
The  highest  peak  is  Balabac,  which  has  an  elevation  of  575  meters. 
The  range  called  Sierra  Empinada  is  in  the  form  of  a  semicircle,  hav- 
ing its  convexity  toward  the  sea. 

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Judging  from  the  geologic  and  orographic  appearances  seen  in  many 
regions  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  volcanoes  with  their  great 
dynamic  force  have  exercised  a  marked  influence.  Thus  it  is  easy  to 
understand  why,  in  addition  to  the  numerous  rocks  of  pure  volcanic 
structure,  there  should  appear  so  many  mountains  purely  conical  in 
form,  which  are  found  in  almost  all  of  the  mountain  ranges,  and  why 
seismic  disturbances,  more  or  less  violent,  are  so  frequent.  But  to 
what  point  does  this  influence  extend?  Geologically  speaking,  what 
regions  are  purely  volcanic  ?  What  belong  to  other  formations  ?  What 
areas  do  they  occupy  ?  The  science  of  geology  has  not  been  able  to  solve 
all  these  problems  with  regard  to  the  Philippines.  For  the  present 
we  know  but  some  isolated  facts,  with  which  as  a  basis  the  two  volcanic 
systems  of  Taal  and  of  Mayon  have  been  outlined. 


According  to  some  authors,  this  system  begins  in  the  chain  called 
Caraballos  Occidentales,  passing  by  lakes  Mangabol,  Canaran,  and 
Candaba,  all  of  which  were  probably  of  volcanic  origin,  crosses  by 
Mount  Arayat,  the  mountain  in  Pampanga,  following  along  the  Sierra 
de  Mariveles,  the  island  of  Corregidor,  and  the  mountain  called  Pico 
de  Loro,  until  it  reaches  the  nucleus  of  the  system,  which  is  the  active 
volcano  Taal,  where  it  unites  with  Mount  Banaho  and  other  peaks  of 
volcanic  origin.  On  leaving  Taal  and  the  adjacent  peaks,  Tombol  and 
^  alarayat,  the  volcanic  formation  disappears  beneath  the  waters  of 
the  Mindoro  Sea,  to  appear  again  in  the  island  of  Negros,  in  the 
center  of  which  rises  Canlaon,  or  Malaspina.  It  then  continues  in 
Camiguin  and  terminates  in  Mindanao,  at  the  end  of  the  lUana  chain, 
among  whose  western  peaks  is  found  the  volcano  of  Macaturin. 


The  second  volcanic  system  is  that  of  Mayon,  which  is  of  much 
greater  importance  than  the  preceding,  as  containing  the  most  impor- 
tant volcano,  that  of  Mayon,  or  Albay,  from  which  it  takes  its  name. 
This  system  runs  in  a  direction  approximately  parallel  to  that  of  the 
preceding.  It  contains,  besides  Mayon,  all  of  the  extinct  volcanoes 
in  the  provinces  of  Ambos,  Camarines,  and  Albay.  It  disappears 
beneath  the  sea  between  the  islands  of  Masbate  and  Samar,  manifests 
itself  by  large  deposits  of  sulphur  in  Leyte,  and,  continuing  on  to 


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Mindanao,  communicates  by  means  of  Mount  Apo  and  Matutum  with 
the  volcano  of  Sanguir,  and  through  this  with  the  remaining  volcanoes 
in  the  southern  islands. 


The  theory  which  introduces  these  two  systems  of  volcanoes  in  the 
Philippines  is  not,  according  to  certain  authors,  sufficiently  well 
founded.  They  maintain  that  the  Mayon  system  does  not  hold  the 
parallelism  which  is  claimed  for  it,  but  that  on  the  contrary  the  one 
begins  where  the  other  leaves  off,  and  that  there  is  no  difference  except 
that  the  Taal  system  begins  in  the  northwest,  and  runs  presently  to 
the  east,  where  it  encounters  the  Mayon  system,  thus  forming  united 
with  each  other  a  single  system,  which  wjth  various  inflexions  traverses 
the  different  lands  which  form  the  Philippine  Archipelago. 


There  are  23  volcanoes  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  11  of  these 
bemg  more  or  less  active.  They  are  as  follows:  In  the  island  of  Luzon, 
Mayon,  Taal,  Bacon,  and  Bulusam;  in  the  Babuyanes  Islands,  Babuyan' 
Camiguin,  and  Diclica;  in  the  island  of  Negros,  Canlaon  or  Malaspina; 
in  the  island  of  Camiguin,  just  off  the  north  coast  of  Mindanao, 
Camigum;  and  in  the  island  of  Mindanao,  Apo  and  Macturin.  The 
others  are  considered  as  extinct  and  are  as  follows:  Cana,  Arayat^ 
Maquilmg,  Banahao,  and  Irasog,  in  the  island  of  Luzon;  Acudining' 
in  the  island  of  Leyte;  Magaso,  in  the  island  of  Negros;  Dinata' 
Calayo,  Matutum,  and  Butulan,  in  the  island  of  Mindanao,  and  Saran- 
ganin,  which  rises  southwest  of  Davao. 



The  volcano  of  Mayon  or  Albay  is  situated  in  the  southeastern  part 
of  the  island  of  Luzon,  in  the  northern  part  of  the  province  of  Albay 
Its  geographical  location  is  latitude  13^  15'  30''  north  and  longitude 
123^  40'  18"  east  from  Greenwich.  It  is  the  most  notable  of  all  the 
volcanoes  of  the  archipelago,  rising  from  the  center  of  a  great  plain  to 
a  height  of  2,734  meters  above  sea  level.  It  is  almost  constantly 
crowned  by  a  great  cloud  of  vapor  which  is  emitted  with  extraordinary 
ability  and  abundance  from  the  crater. 


The  second  volcano  in  importance  is  Taal,  situated  in  Lake  Bonbon 
in  the  province  of  Batangas.  It  rises  from  an  island  22  kilometers  in 
circumference.  Its  geographical  situation  is  between  the  parallels  13- 
52'  4"  and  14°  7'  42"  north  latitude,  and  longitude  120^^  53'  and  121°  5' 
east  from  Greenwich.  It  is  composed  mainly  of  lava  and  volcanic 
rocks.  The  crater  of  this  volcano  is  oval  in  form  and  measures  in  its 
greatest  diameter  from  east  to  west  2,300  meters,  and  in  its  lesser  diame- 
ter from  north  to  south  1,900  meters.  Its  greatest  height  on  the 
southwest  IS  320  meters  above  the  level  of  the  lake.  From  this  point 
It  descends  on  both  sides  to  a  heig-ht  of  150  meters  on  the  northwest 

Hosted  by 



and  east-southeast,  and  again  rises  to  a  height  of  234  meters  on  the  north. 
The  walls  of  the  crater  are  quite  steep  and  the  floor  extends  in  the  form 
of  an  elliptical  plane  destitute  of  vegetation.^ 

This  volcanic  peak,  called  also  Pocdol,  rising  1,400  meters  above  sea 
level,  is  situated  in  the  province  of  Albay,  near  the  eastern  coast 
between  May  on  and  Bulusan  volcanoes.  Trustworthy  persons  say  that 
at  times  smoke  rises  in  considerable  quantities  from  Bacon. 


The  volcano  of  Bulusan  is  situated  at  latitude  12^  46'  40''  north  and 
longitude  124^  2'  east  from  Greenwich.  Seen  from  the  east  it  appears 
to  be  a  single  peak,  which  is  the  crater  of  the  volcano,  and  which 
appears  to  have  an  altitude  equal  to  that  of  Mayon  as  seen  from  the 
northwest.  Seen  from  the  south-southwest  it  appears  to  have  two 
peaks,  and  very  much  resembles  Vesuvius.  It  is  almost  extinct,  but 
at  times  emits  an  abundance  of  watery  vapor  and  sulphurous  fumes. 

The  volcano  of  Babuyan  is  situated  in  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
island  of  the  same  name,  in  the  Babuyanes  group.  On  account  of  its 
appearance  and  its  great  eruption  the  island  is  completely  deserted. 


The  island  of  Camiguin  is  very  mountainous  and  high.  The  south- 
ern part  is  formed  by  a  mountain  736  meters  in  height,  which  takes 
the  name  of  the  island.  This  is  the  volcano  of  Camiguin,  which, 
according  to  the  testimony  of  persons  who  have  passed  that  way,  is 
constantly  burning. 

The  Didicas  rocks  are  reefs  lying  east  of  Camiguin.  To  the  north- 
west and  forming  a  group  with  them  is  a  little  island  60  meters  high 
and  a  mile  in  circumference,  which  has  on  its  north  coast  the  crater  of 
an  active  volcano.  The  common  report  is  that  this  crater  was  formed 
in  1856,  and  that  the  following  year  there  was  a  violent  eruption  accom- 
panied with  small  earthquakes. 


Canlaon  or  Malaspina  rises  from  the  central  mountain  chain  of  the 
island  of  Negros  about  latitude  10^  24'  35"  north.  It  has  a  height  of 
1,400  meters,  throws  out  smoke  continually,  and,  according  to  report, 
has  been  in  eruption  in  recent  times. 


"    This  volcano  appeared  the  30th  of  April,  1871,  in  a  little  island 
situated  north  of  Mindanao,  340  meters  southwest  of  the  town  of 

^A  historical  account  of  the  eruptions  of  Taal  and  Mayon  may  be  found  in  the 
treatise  on  seismic  foci. 

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Catarman.     It  is  situated  on  the  western   part   of  the  island.     Its 
appearance  was  accompanied  by  a  violent  eruption.^ 


This  is  the  principal  volcano  existing  in  Mindanao.  It  is  situated 
15  miles  west  of  the  shore  of  the  Bay  of  Daval,  and  is  a  high  moun- 
tam  which  slopes  gradually  from  its  highest  point  to  the  shore.  On 
its  summit  are  three  peaks,  the  highest  of  which,  that  to  the  south- 
west, has  an  altitude  of  3,300  meters  above  sea  level  and  is  the  one  con- 
taining the  crater.  Long  before  reaching  this  crater  deafening  and 
intermittent  subterranean  sounds  are  heard,  which  increase  as  the 
distance  diminishes.  They  finally  become  so  great  that  it  seems  as 
though  the  earth  would  disappear  from  under  the  feet,  and  that  an 
eruption  would  soon  begin.  Two  expeditions  have  succeeded  in 
reaching  the  top  of  this  famous  volcano,  that  of  D.  Joaquin  Raial 
governor  of  Daval,  in  1880,  and  that  of  the  two  German  naturalists' 
Alexander  Schamdemberg  and  Otto  Koch,  in  1882. 


This  is  the  highest  point  of  the  elevated  Rangaya  Mountains  in  the 
bugut  Range,  situated  in  the  territory  of  Buhayen  about  40  kilometers 
troin  Pollok.  Macaturin  in  former  times  gave  evidence  of  prodigious 
activity,  throwing  out  enormous  masses  of  ingneous  rock  such  as  are 
now  seen  in  the  port  of  Pollok. 


Caua  IS  a  volcanic  promontory  situated  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
bierra  Madre  Range  near  Cape  Engano.  It  is  1,195  meters  in  height. 
It  IS  commonly  considered  to  be  extinct,  but  Dr.  Semper  claims  to  have 
seen  from  Aparri  a  cloud  of  smoke  issuing  from  this  crater. 


In  the  middle  of  the  great  plain  of  Pampanga,  latitude  15^  13'  28" 
north,  the  solitary  peak  of  Arayat  rises  in  the  form  of  a  majestic 
cone  to  a  height  of  1,069  meters.  Because  of  its  situation  its  form  and 
the  character  of  the  rocks  which  constitute  it,  it  is  clearly  of  volcanic 


Northeast  of  the  Taal  volcano,  in  the  Tagaytay  Range,  which  divides 
the  provinces  of  Batangasand  Laguna,  this  peak  rises  to  a  height  of 
1,135  meters.  On  its  top  is  the  crater  of  an  old  volcano,  the  inside  of 
which  presents  very  abrupt  walls  most  marked  toward  the  north,  where 
they  are  almost  vertical  and  have  an  elevation  of  500  meters. 

\  Details  concerning  the  eruption  of  Camiguin  and  of  expeditions  made  to  the 
volcano  of  Apo  may  be  found  m  the  treatise  of  seismic  foci,  chap.  4 
^  See  map  27  of  the  Atlas  of  the  Philippines. 

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To  the  east,  and  not  far  from  Maquilin|^,  is  Banahao,  which  rises  to 
a  height  of  2,230  meters  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  Its  crater,  having 
a  diameter  of  5  kilometers,  is  entirely  covered  with  vegetation.  Its  last 
eruption  in  1750  buiied  the  town  of  Sariaya  and  part  of  the  surround- 
ing country  in  ashes. 

Isarog,  situated  northeast  of  Mayon,  in  the  province  of  South  Cama- 
rines,  is  also  an  extinct  volcano.  It  is  in  the  form  of  a  cone,  rising 
1,966  meters  above  the  level  of  the  sea. 


Under  this  name  are  included  some  volcanic  peaks  in  the  Sierra 
Dagami  and  Danan  ranges,  near  Burauen,  in  the  island  of  Leyte. 

This  is  a  volcanic  mountain  in  the  Sierra  de  Dumaguete  range,  near 
the  town  of  Bacon,  in  the  southern  part  of  Negros. 

The  volcanic  peak  Diuata  forms  part  of  the  eastern  range  of  Min- 
danao, and  is  situated  between  the  towns  of  Lianga  and  Hinatuan. 

Calayo,  called  also  Sugut,  lies  east-southeast  of  Macaturin,  about 
80  kilometers  from  the  sea. 

Matutum,  situated  north  of  the  Bay  of  Sarangani,  not  far  from  the 
sea,  is  undoubtedly  the  crater  of  an  ancient  volcano. 

Butulan  is  another  volcanic  mountain,  situated  north  of  Point  Pan- 
guian,  in  the  southern  part  of  the  district  of  Daval. 


In  the  island  of  Balut  Grande,  the  largest  of  the  Sarangani  group, 
6  miles  from  the  southern  point  of  Mindanao,  is  the  volcano  called 
Sarangani.  It  has  an  elevation  of  930  meters.  Seen  from  the  north- 
west it  appears  to  have  two  peaks.  In  the  extreme  southwest  of  the 
island  there  is  another  volcanic  peak  much  smaller  than  this. 

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In  this  small  treatise  on  hydrography  we  do  not  pretend  to  present 
an  accurate  work  regarding  the  maritime  and  terrestrial  hydrography 
of  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  but  only  to  give  a  general  idea  of  the 
hydrographic  conditions  of  these  islands,  since  a  complete  and  ade- 
quate work  on  this  subject  in  the  actual  state  of  the  hydrographic 
works  that  have  been  accomplished  by  sea  and  land  in  the  archipelago 
would  be  little  less  than  impossible  without  counting  on  much  time 
and  on  large  and  costl}^  means. 

We  have  confined  ourselves  to  collecting  and  setting  in  order  some 
data,  taken  for  the  most  part  from  the  ''Derrotero  del  Archipielago 
Filipino"  (collection  of  sea  charts  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago),  so 
far  as  concerns  the  maritime  hydrography,  and  to  picking  out  what 
refers  to  terrestrial  hydrography  from  maps  and  geographical  works 
that  have  been  published  up  to  date,  adding,  as  the  complement  of 
terrestrial  hydrography,  a  brief  study  of  the  minero-medicinal  waters, 
based  on  the  reports  published  by  scientific  commissions  appointed  to 
examine  said  waters.  Therefore,  this  treatise  comes  to  be  a  more 
circumstancial  amplification  of  what  is  said  in  the  ''Guia  Oticial  de 
Filipinas  "  (Official  Guide  of  the  Philippines)  regarding  the  hydrogaphy 
of  these  islands. 

Manila,  December  S\  1899, 


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The  most  important  ^ulf  of  Luzon,  and  the  onl}^  one  properly  such, 
is  that  of  Lingayen,  situated  on  the  western  coast.  The  entrance 
opens  toward  the  north-northwest,  and  is  comprised  between  the 
island  Santiago,  on  the  west,  and  the  point  of  San  Fernando,  on  the 
east.  Its  width  in  this  part  is  some  20  miles,  with  soundings  of  100  to 
117  meters,  on  an  average  sand  and  mud  bottom.  Hence  the  gulf 
extends  for  28  miles  to  the  south-southeast.  The  eastern  coast  is 
formed  by  the  high  mountains  of  Union  and  dominated  by  the  peak  of 
Santo  Tomas.  The  western  coast  is  of  moderate  height  and  quite  alike 
up  to  Mongosmongos,  then  it  rises  by  successive  steps  up  to  an  enor- 
mous mountainous  mass,  which  runs  toward  the  south. 

Mcmila  Bay. — The  principal  bay  of  Luzon,  and  perhaps  of  the  whole 
archipelago  as  to  its  extent,  is  that  of  Manila,  which  occupies  an  unim- 
provable position  for  domestic  and  foreign  trade  with  the  nations  and 
colonies  of  the  Far  East.  It  is  situated,  approximately,  in  the  middle 
of  the  western  coast  of  Luzon.  It  is  beautiful,  extensive,  clear,  and 
good  anchoring  ground.  At  its  end  there  is  situated  the  city  of  Manila, 
capital  of  the  archipelago,  and  on  its  southeastern  side  the  town  and 
arsenal  of  Cavite.  Rivers  as  important  as  the  Grande  de  la  Pampanga, 
the  Pasig,  the  Orani,  and  the  Imus,  all  navigable,  empty  into  it. 

The  exterior  elevation  of  the  points  of  Hornos  on  the  north  and 
Limbones  on  the  south  marks  distinctly  the  great  ravine  which  the 
mountain  ridge  of  Mariveles  and  that  of  Tagatay  near  the  peak  of 
Lore  form  between  them.  It  has  a  depth  of  32  miles  to  the  northeast, 
and  has  a  width  of  30  miles  at  its  eastern  extremity  and  only  10  miles 
at  its  mouth,  which  is  divided  into  two  channels  or  passages  formed  by 
the  islands  of  Corregidor  and  Pulo  Caballo.  The  passage  two  miles 
wide,  comprised  between  Corregidor  Island  and  the  northern  shore  of 
the  entrance  of  the  bay — that  is,  the  Mariveles  coast — is  called  the 


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''Boca  Chica"  (small  mouth),  and  the  passage  five  miles  wide,  formed 
by  Corregidor  Island  and  the  southern  shore  of  the  entrance  of  the 
bay,  is  called  the  ''Boca  Grande"  (large  mouth).  The  "Derrotero 
del  Archipielago  Filipino  "  (collection  of  sea  charts  of  the  Philippine 
Archipelago)  says  the  following  regarding  this  bay: 

The  lands  which  surround  the  interior  of  the  bay  are  generally  low,  liable  to  be 
overflowed,  and  cut  up  by  innumerable  small  rivers,  creeks,  and  lakes  formed  by 
the  overflow  of  the  tide,  Avhich  toward  the  east  usually  communicate  with  the 
Laguna  de  Bay,  and  toward  tlie  west  with  the  marshy  lands  which  drain  into 

Lapog. — On  the  western  coast  of  Luzon,  to  the  north  of  the  Gulf  of 
Lingayen,  is  the  bay  of  Lapog,  incomparably  smaller  than  that  of 
Manila.  It  is  situated  10  miles  to  the  north-northeast  of  Dile  Point, 
and  is  comprised  between  Darrena  Point  on  the  north  and  the  island  of 
Santo  Domingo  on  the  south,  and  is  some  two  miles  wide  1)}^  one  in 
depth.  Its  southern  part  is  called  the  bay  of  Magsingal,  and  the  north- 
ern part  the  bay  of  Lapog,  between  which  is  found  the  anchorage  of 
Lapog  or  So^otsolot.  The  northern  and  southern  shores  of  this  bay 
project  reefs  for  a  quarter  of  a  mile,  but  in  the  middle  and  at  the  end 
of  the  baj'  they  are  wholly  absent,  and  these  make  an  anchorage  of 
from  10  to  18  meters  depth,  sand  bottom,  up  to  near  the  shore.  This  is 
in  the  province  of  Ilocos  Sar. 

Dim  gal  a. — The  ba}^  of  Dingala  is  found  on  the  eastern  coast  of 
Luzon,  situated  84  iniles  to  the  southwest  of  the  cape  of  San  Ildefonso 
and  18  miles,  approximately  in  the  same  direction,  from  the  sound  of 
Baler.  Its  entrance  inclosed  ])etween  the  points  Sua  to  the  north  and 
Deseada  to  the  south  is  Of  miles  wide;  it  is  open  to  the  winds  from 
the  northeast  to  the  southeast  by  the  east,  and  it  has  a  depth  of  8  miles 
long  toward  the  west.  Both  points  at  the  enti'ance  are  very  clean  and 
the  water  is  deep  in  their  proximity,  although  that  on  the  south  has 
several  rocks  very  near  it  on  that  side. 

Lanion, — The  bay  of  Lamon,  oi'  the  small  gulf  included  between  the 
point  Inaguican  on  the  northwest  and  the  lands  of  Mambulao  on  the 
southeast,  is  also  worthy  of  special  mention.  It  is  -15  miles  wide  at  the 
mouth  and  extends  more  than  35  miles  to  the  south,  so  narrowing  the 
island  of  Luzon  at  this  point  (province  of  Tayabas)  that  it  reduces  it  to  a 
true  isthmus  some  5  miles  wide,  which  joins  the  large  upper  body  of  the 
island  to  the  lower  one,  in  which  are  the  provinces  of  Ambos  Camar- 
ines,  Albay,  and  Sorsogon.  Before  the  entrance  of  the  bay  is  found 
the  island  of  Polillo,  and  to  the  southeast  of  it  that  of  Jornalig  with 
two  small  islands  on  its  eastern  side  which  protect  it  from  the  winds 
from  the  north.  Within  the  bay  there  is  the  little  island  of  Balesin,  and 
further  in  those  of  Cabalete  and  Alabat  and  neighboring  small  islands, 
which,  extending  from  the  west-northwest  to  the  east-southeast,  form 
with  the  shore  at  the  end  of  the  bay  a  sheltered  port  with  good 

San  Miguel, — Almost  in  the  middle  of  the  northern  coast  of  the 
province  of  Ambos  Camarines  is  the  bay  of  San  Miguel,  open  toward 
the  north  and  formed  by  the  points  Sagcadoc  and  Sapenitan.  It  is 
circular  in  shape,  some  10  to  12  miles  in  diameter,  clear,  and  sur- 
rounded by  high  mountains,  offering  a  safe  shelter  to  all  kinds  of 
ships  after  avoiding  the  reefs  which  run  out  from  the  points  at  the 

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There  are  many  and  very  important  ones  in  the  island  of  Luzon. 
We  shall  enumerate  the  principal  ones: 


Sisiman. — At  the  entrance  of  Manila  Bay,  between  points  Gorda 
and  Aguaguan,  on  the  coast  of  Mariveles,  is  the  bay  of  Sisiman,  which 
extends  toward  the  northeast,  with  a  sandy  shore,  where  very  good 
water  is  found.     Its  depth  is  from  3  to  13  meters,  sand  bottom. 

Patungan, — Also  at  the  entrance  of  Manila  Bay,  on  the  southern 
coast,  is  the  bay  of  Patungan,  included  between  the  small  islands  Lim- 
bones  and  Carabao,  between  which  the  soundings  give  from  42  to  50 
meters  of  water.  It  extends  2  miles  to  the  south-southeast,  toward 
the  mountain  peak  of  Loro,  and  is  protected  from  the  winds  from  the 
second  and  third  quarters. 

Oancicao, — Within  the  ba}^  between  the  point  of  sand  called  Sangley, 
in  which  the  peninsula  of  Cavite  ends,  and  the  tongue  of  sand  on  which 
the  town  of  Cavite  is  located,  is  the  bay  of  Canacao.  It  is  7  cables 
wide  at  the  entrance  and  extends  for  8  cables  to  the  southwest.  It  is 
only  5  to  6  meters  deep.  It  is  sheltered  from  the  winds  from  the  west 
and  southwest  and  exposed  to  those  from  the. first  quarter. 

JSacoor, — Besides  the  bay  of  Canacao,  there  is  that  of  Bacoor,  which 
penetrates  some  2  miles  toward  the  southwest  into  the  province  of 
Cavite,  and  has  on  its  southern  shore  the  important  towns  of  Cavite, 
Viejo,  and  Bacoor.  It  would  be  a  magnificent  harbor  if  it  were  not 
choked  with  loose  mire,  which  covers  it  to  such  an  extent  that  no  other 
craft  than  the  very  light  ones  of  the  country  can  navigate  it. 


Sailing  along  the  western  coast  of  Luzon,  from  Ilornos  Point  to- 
ward the  north,  the  following  bays  or  coves  are  found  successively  in 
the  order  named: 

Guay, — Between  Guay  Point  on  the  north  and  Hornos  on  the  south 
is  this  small  bay,  which  is  a  good  anchorage  during  the  northeast 

Bagac, — Beyond  Point  Luzon  is  found  the  bay  of  Bagac,  3  miles  wide 
and  1  deep,  open  to  the  southwest. 

Cagumi, — Within  the  port  of  Subic  is  found  the  cove  of  Caguan, 
toward  the  northwest,  included  between  point  Cabangan,  which  is 
situated  at  the  bottom  of  it,  and  that  of  Manisbasco. 

Silanguin^  JVazasa^  Tilisain^  omd  Calaguaguin, — Are  four  clear  and 
deep  bays  that  penetrate  the  high  and  accessible  coast  of  Capones,  open 
to  the  west  and  southwest  at  the  northern  exit  of  the  port  of  Subic, 
near  the  southern  extremity  of  the  province  of  Zambales. 

Palauig. — Following  the  coast  toward  the  north  is  found  the  cove  of 
Palauig,  inclosed  between  the  points  Bulubutu  and  Nuglubilac.  It  is 
open  toward  the  northwest,  and  extends  1  scant  mile  toward  the  south- 
east. Its  depth  diminishes  from  25  meters  at  the  entrance  to  8  near 
the  shore  at  the  end. 

Masinloc. — A  bay  comprised  between  points  Palanguitin  on  the 
south  and  Bani  on  the  north,  5  miles  distant  from  each  other. 

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Dasol, — To  the  north  of  the  small  island  Raton  there  extends  a  large 
bay  called  Dasol,  embraced  between  points  Caiman  on  the  north  and 
Bayamban  on  the  south.  It  has  before  it  several  rocks  or  barren  islands 
which  make  the  entrance  dangerous,  and  contains  within  it  two  prin- 
cipal coves. 

Agno  Grande.— Raving  passed  the  bay  of  Dasol  and  doubled  the 
point  of  Agno  Grande,  the  cove  of  this  name  is  found,  of  a  circular 
form  and  sheltered  from  the  winds  from  the  first  quarter,  with  a  sandy 
bottom  and  a  depth  of  10  to  13  meters. 

Abagata,— Near  Agno  Grande  is  the  cove  of  Abagata,  with  a  bad 

JVamagpaean,— Haying  passed  the  gulf  of  Lingayen,  to  the  north 
of  San  Fernando,  between  point  Darigayos  and  the  point  located  south 
of  Bangar,  there  is  the  cove  of  Namagpacan,  which  took  the  name  of 
the  town  located  on  it. 

Solbec.—The  bay  of  Sol  bee  is  very  small  and  is  situated  some  6  miles 
north  of  the  town  of  San  Esteban. 

Ourrhnao.— The  cove  of  Currimao  is  inclosed  between  points  Sugot 
on  the  south  and  Arboledan  on  the  north,  and  is  divided  in  two  by  the 
point  Gabot,  one  of  which  is  the  cove  of  Gan,  to  the  north  of  Solod 

Dirique.—Yerj  near  Cape  Bojeador  is  the  bay  of  Dirique,  with  fair 
conditions  as  to  depth  and  shelter. 


Bangui— Doubling  Cape  Bojeador,  the  large  bay  of  Bangui  is  found, 
embraced  between  points  Negra  and  Dialao. 

Some  other  small  bays  are  found  on  the  north  coast  of  Luzon,  which 
are  lacking  in  importance,  if  we  except  the  great  angle  which  extends 
from  Point  Pata  to  the  strait  which  the  island  Palaui  forms  with  Luzon, 
an  angle  which  might  well  merit  the  name  of  bay  and  even  of  gulf  of 
Aparri,  although  we  do  not  find  it  under  either  name  on  the  maps,  nor 
so  mentioned  by  any  author. 


Dtvdacan  and  ^(^/(^tz,^^.— Doubling  Cape  Engano,  at  some  73  miles 
b.  50  E.  of  the  northeastern  extremity  of  Luzon,  is  found  the  so-called 
fronton  Moises.  This  headland  forms  on  its  northern  side  the  bay  of 
Divilacan  and  on  its  southern  side  the  cove  of  Palanan,  semicircular  in 
shape  and  very  deep.     Both  belong  to  the  province  of  Isabela. 

Dtldsac— Following  the  coast  toward  the  south  there  is  found  at 
some  60  miles  from  the  Fronton  Moises,  the  cove  of  Dilasac  or  port  of 
iumango,  between  the  points  Dinapiqui  and  Tarigtig  in  the  province 
of  Isabela. 

(^siguran.— This  magnificent  bay  is  found  a  few  miles  to  the  south 
ot  Point  Tarigtig,  formed  bv  a  great  tongue  of  land  which  extends 
trom  the  north-northeast  to  the  south-southwest  and  ends  in  the  cape 
or  point  ban  Ildefonso,  in  the  district  of  Principe. 

^f ^^•— In  ^^be  same  district  of  Principe,  a  short  distance  to  the 
south  ot  Cape  ban  Ildefonso,  extends  the  spacious  bay  of  Baler,  between 
the  j)oints  Delgaga  and  Encanto. 

Dibut.— The  bay  of  Dibut  opens  between  the  points  Diotoring-  and 
Jbncanto.  ^ 

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Apat  mid  Sogod, — Are  two  open  bays  on  the  northern  coast  of  Taya- 
bas  and  Camarines,  respectively. 

Lagonoy. — This  broad  ba}^,  formed  to  the  south  of  the  peninsula  of 
Caramoan,  penetrates  some  18  miles  to  the  west- northwest,  and  is 
some  22  miles  wide. 

Tabaco. — The  bay  of  Tabaco  extends  to  the  south  of  Lagonoy.  It 
is  elliptical  in  shape,  some  6  miles  in  extent  on  its  Qiajor  axis,  which 
runs  from  northwest  to  southeast.  It  is  formed  by  the  cove  which 
indents  the  coast  of  Luzon  between  Natunaguan  and  the  tongue  of 
land  which  projects  toward  the  east  as  far  as  Point  Sula  and  the 
islands  of  San  Miguel  and  Cacraray.  It  has  from  10  to  15  meters  of 
water  very  near  the  shore. 

Alhay, — The  bay  of  Albay  is  found  in  the  northern  part  of  the 
southeastern  extremity  of  the  peninsula  in  which  the  island  of  Luzon 

/SW,^(9^.— Doubling  Point  Cauit,  in  the  bay  of  Albay,  there  is  found 
toward  the  east  the  cove  of  Sugot,  which  opens  to  the  east  of  the  town 
Bacon.     It  is  of  little  importance. 

Guhat. — This  cove  is  found  some  12  miles  to  the  north  of  the  town 
of  Bulusan. 

Matnog, — The  cove  of  Matnog  opens  between  the  reefs  which  sur- 
round the  coast  from  Caranhan  to  Point  Pandan. 

Dunol  and  Bahulgan, — Are  two  small  coves  located  in  the  extreme 
southeast  of  Luzon. 

Milaghiga, — Before  passing  Point  Tajiran,  which  is  the  most  west- 
erly of  the  southeastern  extremity  of  Luzon,  in  the  Strait  of  San 
Bernardino,  is  found  the  cove  of  Milagbiga,  inclosed  between  a  head- 
land of  pebbly  sand  covered  with  trees,  called  Coroncoron,  and  the 
next  point  to  the  east  Suae,  of  small  extent,  but  veiy  deep. 


Tajiran^  Canomalag,  Cabaranan^  and  Jform^j^.— Beyond  Point 
Tajiran  are  found  the  coves  of  Tajiran,  Canomalag,  Cabaranan,  and 
Marinap,  embraced  between  points  Tajiran  and  Barugo.  That  of 
Marinap  is  good  for  ships  of  any  tonnage. 

Bulag.—To  the  southeast  of  Point  Bulag,  between  points  Angil  and 
Barugo,  extends  the  bay  of  Bulag,  of  good  depth  and  with  conditions 
favorable  for  craft. 

Palatuan.—F^i^^mg  the  port  of  Sorsogon,  traveling  toward  the 
west,  is  the  cove  of  Palatuan,  to  the  east  of  the  port  of  Putiao,  of  little 
depth  and  formed  by  the  points  Calcut  and  Bantique. 

Macoto  a7id  C^a^maAafe.— Beyond  Point  Cadburanan  or  Panga- 
niran  the  coast  deviates  toward  the  north  to  form  the  great  bay  of 
Ragay.  Between  said  point  and  that  of  Bondog,  in  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  peninsula  of  Tayabas,  some  43  miles  distant  from  one 
another.  Various  minor  coves  are  found.  The  first  is  that  of  Macoto, 
between  points  Macoto  and  Badian,  clear  and  with  a  good  depth,  which 
varies  from  10  to  42  meters,  although  the  shore  is  accessible. 

f/^mi^m^???..— Thecoveof  Jamuraon  comprised  between  points  Sibono 
and  Sirumaor  Caurusan,  is  formed  of  a  headland  of  high  lands,  having 
33  meters  of  water  in  their  vicinity.     It  is  7  miles  wide  and  li  long. 

Caima.—llo  the  southeast  of  the  small  island  Saboon  the  bay  of 

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Gaima  opens,  8  miles  long  by  3  deep,  ending  toward  the  south  at 
Fomt  Galvaney.     It  is  obstructed  with  large  reefs. 

Iiagay,—T\iQ  end  of  the  bay  formed  by  the  province  of  Tayabas  and 
that  of  Ambos  Camarines  is  properly  called  the  bay  of  Ragay,  although 
some  give  this  name  to  the  whole  extent  of  sea  inclosed  between  the 
two  above-mentioned  provinces. 

OatahangcL—]^^y  to  the  northwest  of  that  of  Ragay,  inclosed 
between  Point  Quilbait  and  that  of  Bagutayoc,  distant  3i  miles  from 
one  another. 

Talcauayan,—E2iY  formed  by  points  Ausan  and  Mambulao. 

Catimag,—T\iQ  bay  of  Ragay  ends  in  a  little  cove  called  Catimag, 
mto  which  the  small  river  Vinas  empties. 

P(^m.— Following  along  the  western  coast  of  the  great  bay  of 
Ragay  there  is  found  the  cove  of  Peris,  some  13i  miles  to  the  north- 
west of  Point  Gorda,  inclosed  between  points  Lian  on  the  north  and 
Guihalinan  on  the  south. 

Somhocogon.—P^i^i^mg  by  Point  Gorda  and  the  port  of  Pusgo  there 
is  found  the  cove  of  Sombocogon,  3i  miles  to  the  north-northwest  of 
Point  Arena,  "which  is  very  much  frequented  by  the  small  native 

Pinamuntangan.—Ro\xnAmg  the  point  of  Bondog,  in  which  the 
headland  called  Head  of  Bondog  ends,  the  cove  of  Pinamuntangan  is 
found,  embraced  between  the  haven  of  Aguasa  and  the  point  Pina- 
muntangan.    It  is  small  and  open  toward  the  west. 

Aguasa,— ThQ  haven  of  Aguasa  is  found  to  the  north-northeast  of 
the  preceding  one. 
Ayo7il— The  harbor  of  Ayoni  opens  near  the  previous  one. 
Oatanagua7i.~-FiYe  miles  to  the  east-southeast  of  Point  Tuquian 
extends  the  cove  of  Catanaguan,  some  2  miles  wide  and  1  deep.     It  is 
good  and  sheltered  from  the  winds  from  the  first  and  fourth  quarters. 
/V^^^^^^^^-— Following  along  from  Point  Taquian,  coasting  toward 
the  northwest,  is  the  haven  of  Pagbilao,  between  points  Bocboc  or 
Bantigui  to  the  west  and  the  south  point  of  the  island  Capulaan  or 
Pagbilao  Grande  to  the  east.     It  is  2  miles  wide.     The  entrance  is 
difficult  and  the  space  for  anchoring  limited. 

Camdami, — The  cove  of  Capulaan  is  found  to  the  southwest  of  the 
island  of  this  name. 

Domond(m,~~K  small  cove  formed  to  the  northeast,  and  at  a  short 
distance  from  the  river  and  point  Tayabas. 

BuenlL~~~Kwo\hex  small  cove  formed  by  the  low  point  of  Tayabas 
on  its  western  side. 

Great  lay  of  Tayahas^—AW  the  small  coves  included  between  points 
Bondog  and  Bantigui  are  found  within  the  so-called  bay  of  Tayabas 
between  the  provinces  of  Tayabas  and  Batangas. 

IUjan,—ThQ  haven  of  Ilijan  opens  next  the  point  of  that  name 
toward  the  east.  It  has  an  extent  of  one  mile  and  ends  in  the  flat  and 
clear  coast  point  called  Arenas. 

Burijan.—P^Bsmg  through  the  northern  passage  of  Verde  Island  to 
the  west,  there  is  found  the  small  elbow  or  cove  of  Burijan.  It  is 
obstructed  and  has  little  importance. 

Jf^mm.— Near  the  preceding  elbow  is  found  the  haven  of  Marara, 
which  unites  good  conditions  of  depth  and  shelter. 

Pinagcnrusan.—^^ilmg  past  Point  Tubunan  toward  the  west,  in  the 
space  of  half  a  mile  the  coast  presents  two  headlands  of  rock,  inter- 

Hosted  by 



posed  with  sandbanks,  from  which  the  coast  of  beach  and  woods 
extends  to  form  the  cove  which  the  natives  call  Pinagcurusan. 

Tingloy, — This  cove,  just  as  the  preceding  one,  is  found  on  the 
northeastern  coast  of  the  island  of  Maricaban.  The  headland  Putin- 
Bujanin  and  the  point  Tubunan  form  it.  It  is  small  and  is  almost 
unused  on  account  of  its  many  reefs  and  shoals. 

Batangas, — The  bay  of  Batangas  is  inclosed  between  Point  Cazador 
to  the  west,  and  that  of  Matocot  to  the  east-southeast,  distant  9  miles 
from  each  other.  It  has  a  clear  coast  and  is  very  deep,  and  the  haven 
of  Mainaga  is  included  in  it. 

Janaojanao, — Is  found  to  the  south  of  the  cove  of  Taal. 

Taal. — The  cove  of  Taal  is  on  the  northeastern  coast  of  the  bay  or 
haven  of  Balayan.  It  is  some  5  miles  in  extent  and  is  bounded  on  the 
south  by  the  point  and  small  pointed  islands'  of  Janaojanao. 

Balayan. — This  harbor  opens  immediately  to  the  north  of  Point  San 
Pedrino;  it  penetrates  a  little  more  than  2  miles  to  the  northwest,  and 
ends  in  the  river  and  town  of  Balayan,  some  6  miles  north  of  said 

San  Pedrino  or  Pagapas. — The  cove  of  San  Pedrino  is  inclosed 
between  the  northeast  headland  of  Cape  Santiago  and  Point  San  Pedrino, 
extending  some  3i  miles  to  the  northwest. 

Bay  of  Balayan  or  Taal. — This  broad  bay  extends  between  Point 
Benagalet  on  the  east  and  Cape  Santiago  on  the  west,  which  are  13 
miles  distant  from  each  other.  It  enters  some  14  miles  toward  the 
north;  is  a  clear  coast,  without  depth,  and  with  very  accessible  shores. 


%Zm.-— Rounding  Cape  Santiago  the  cove  of  Talin  is  found,  formed 
by  the  points  San  Diego  and  Talin.  It  is  3f  miles  wide  and  1^  miles 
deep  in  the  southwestern  part;  it  is  exposed  and  has  an  uneven  bottom. 

Namujhii, — Sailing  along  the  coast  from  Point  San  Diego  toward 
the  north  is  found  the  cove  of  Nasugbu,  formed  by  said  point  and  that 
of  Nasugbu.  It  is  formed  of  low  land  with  a  beach  of  dark  sand,  and 
is  accessible,  with  trees  up  to  a  very  short  distance  from  the  edge. 

Looc. — The  cove  of  Looc  opens  immediately  to  the  south  of  the 
point  and  small  barren  island  of  Buri,  and  is  embraced  between  this 
point  and  that  of  Fuego  or  Calayo  on  the  south,  which  are  2  miles 
distant  from  each  other.     It  is  a  very  poor  anchorage. 

Passing  by  the  cove  of  Looc  and  following  the  coast  in  the  direction 
of  Manila  Bay,  is  the  cove  of  Patungan,  already  described  in  the 



Manila, — Naturally  the  port  of  Manila  is  nothing  more  than  an 
anchoring  ground.  Some  craft  of  great  burden  can  enter  into  the 
Pasig  River  and  anchor  in  it  when  they  can  pass  the  bar  of  the  river, 
which  is  quite  a  difficult  passage  at  low  tide.  An  artificial  port  is  being 

Camte, — The  port  of  Cavite  is  located  to  the  south  of  Manila  Bay 
and  one-third  of  a  mile  to  the  southeast  of  the  town  of  Cavite.  It  is 
the  port  and  arsenal  of  the  navy,  and  arranged  solely  to  make  the 

Hosted  by 



necessary  repairs  to  the  ships  of  the  military  station.  The  anchorage 
of  Cavite  is  small  and  has  a  depth  of  only  5  to  5i  meters.  Tt  is  exposed 
to  winds  from  the  east  and  sheltered  from  those  from  the  west. 

Oorregldor, — On  the  north  coast  of  Corregidor  there  is  a  small  port 
for  minor  craft,  of  good  depth  and  excellent  anchoring  ground,  shel- 
tered from  the  north  wind. 

Mariveles.  — The  port  of  Mar iveles  is  on  the  south  coast  of  the  province 
of  Bataan,  to  the  northwest  of  Corregidor.  The  points  Lechones  and 
Gorda  define  the  entrance.  It  is  a  good  port  in  which  ships  of  any 
tonnage  can  anchor. 


Binanga  or  Minangas. — At  a  short  distance  to  the  north  of  the 
entrance  of  Manila  Bay  and  to  the  southeast  of  that  of  Subic,  is  the 
port  of  Binanga,  very  small  and  protected  from  all  winds  excepting 
those  from  the  west  and  west-southwest. 

Subic. — The  port  of  Subic,  one  of  the  best  in  the  archipelago,  is 
located  at  a  short  distance  to  the  northwest  of  the  preceding  one. 
It  consists  of  a  spacious  bay,  within  which  there  are  very  well  sheltered 
and  safe  coves  with  good  anchorages,  such  as  that  of  Olongapo. 

Iba. — On  the  same  coast  of  Zambales,  some  40  miles  to  the  north  of 
Subic,  is  the  anchorage  of  Iba,  commonly  called  Hoya  de  Iba,  in  the 
center  of  the  cove  formed  by  points  Guay  and  Iba. 

Matalm. — The  port  of  Matalvi  is  the  one  which  the  island  of  this 
name  forms  with  the  south  coast  of  the  bay  or  cove  of  Masinloc. 

Salvador, — The  island  of  this  name  has  a  fair  anchorage  on  its 
western  coast,  which  is  near  the  previous  port. 

Santa  6Vms.— The  anchorage  of  Santa  Cruz  is  a  small  cove  formed 
by  the  point  of  this  name  on  the  south  and  Balibago  on  the  north. 

Dasol. — To  the  east  of  point  Caiman  is  the  cove  of  Dasol,  which 
contains  two  anchorages  of  good  depth. 

BoUnao. — The  island  of  Santiago,  n\  the  gulf  of  Lingayen,  and  the 
peninsula  of  cape  Bolinao  form  a  narrow  channel,  open  towards  the 
northwest,  with  a  depth  varying  from  14  to  22  meters,  called  the  port 
of  Bolinao. 

Cien  Mas. — The  anchorage  of  Cien  Islas  is  found  south  of  the  group 
of  islands  of  this  name  on  the  western  coast  of  the  gulf  of  Lingayen. 

Sual.—ThQ  port  of  Saul  is  the  second  cove,  2  miles  south  of  the 
island  of  Cabalitian.  The  interior  of  this  port  is  divided  into  two 
anchorages,  separated  by  a  bank  of  coral  which,  running  out  from  the 
west  coast,  extends  for  more  than  half  its  distance  towards  point 

Santo  Tornas. — The  port  of  Santo  Tomas,  in  the  province  of  Union, 
is  formed  by  a  bank  which  runs  from  point  Sahto  Tomas  for  approxi- 
mately 2  miles  toward  the  south,  over  which  there  are  from  3  to  10 
meters  of  water. 

San  Fern/Mido. — In  the  same  province  of  Union,  a  small  peninsula 
to  the  north  of  Santo  Tomas  forms  with  the  adjacent  coast  two  small 
anchorages;  in  the  southern  one  there  is  a  depth  of  11  to  12  meters, 
and  in  the  northern  one  is  the  port  of  San  Fernando. 

Santiago. — The  small  port  of  Santiago  is  situated  4i  miles  N.  i  NE. 
of  point  Candon,  in  the  province  of  Ilocos  Sur. 

San  Esteban. — The  port  of  San  Esteban  is  also  small  and  accessible. 
It  is  found  2i  miles  from  that  of  Santiago. 

Hosted  by 



Caucvyan. — The  aiicliorage  of  Cauayan  is  '1\  miles  to  the  southwest 
of  Vigan. 

Salomague. — The  port  of  Salomague  is  a  small  haven  surrounded 
with  reefs.     It  is  safer  and  more  sheltered  than  that  of  Lapog. 

Lapog. — Is  an  anchorage  at  the  foot  of  the  baj^  of  this  name. 

Cahugao, — Between  the  islands  Salamogue  and  Badoc  is  the  anchor- 
age of  Cabugao,  some  11  to  13  meters  deep. 

Currknao, — The  port  of  Currimao,  in  the  province  of  Ilocos  Norte, 
is  a  small  circular  haven  formed  to  the  east  of  point  Arboledan. 

Dirique.^ — The  anchorage  of  Dirique  is  found  in  the  bay  of  this 
name  and  is  from  11  to  20  meters  deep. 


Bangui. — The  anchorage  of  Bangui,  situated  neai  the  northeastern 
extremity  of  Luzon,  is  in  the  bay  of  the  same  name.  Formerly  it  was 
a  good  port,  but  it  was  closed  by  an  earthquake. 

Ajxirri. — The  port  of  Aparri,  if  it  may  be  called  such,  is  obstructed 
and  is  opposite  the  southeastern  point  of  the  entrance  of  the  large 
river  of  Cagayan.  The  bar  of  the  river  has  very  little  water  over  it 
and  at  certain  seasons  of  the  year  large  ships  can  cross  it  with  difficulty. 

San  Vicente. — The  port  of  San  Vicente  lies  between  the  northeast- 
ern extremity  of  Luzon,  the  little  island  of  San  Vicente,  and  the  south- 
eastern part  of  the  mountainous  and  rugged  island  of  Palaui.  It  can 
hold  several  ships  perfectly  protected  from  all  winds,  aiid  is  5  to  10 
meters  deep,  with  a  nmd  bottom.  Before  the  mouth  of  the  port  there 
are  some  good  anchoring  grounds,  but  more  exposed  than  the  port. 


Dinialansan  and  BicoJnan, — Are  small  ports  which  open  in  the  har- 
bors of  Divilacan  and  Palanan. 

Timiango. — The  port  of  Tumango  is  found  in  the  ba}^  of  Dilasac. 

Lamjoon. — The  port  of  Lampon  is  situated  in  the  northwestern 
extremity  of  the  bay  of  Lamon.  It  is  small,  but  well  sheltered.  It 
is  celebrated  in  history  because  it  was  for  several  years  during  the  six- 
teenth centur}^  the  depot  of  the  galleons  and  wealth  of  Manila,  called 
the  Royal  Port.     It  is*  located  in  the  district  of  Infanta. 

Mainhulao. — Is  found  to  the  northeast  of  the  end  of  the  bay  of 
Ragay,  on  the  opposite  coast,  inclosed  between  points  Pinandunguan 
and  Dajican. 

Slsiran. — The  port  of  Sisiran  is  remarkable  because  it  is  the  one 
which,  at  the  end  of  the  last  century,  was  considered  the  onl}^  one  on 
the  opposite  coast  of  Luzon  to  receive  the  ships  which  arrived  late 
from  Acapulco  or  to  hold  hidden  and  ready  a  ship  for  carrying  state 
papers  to  New  Spain  or  Mexico.  It  is  formed  by  the  island  Quina- 
layag,  on  the  west,  and  the  point  Pambuan,  on  the  east,  and  is  sheltered, 
clear,  and  of  good  depth. 

Tabaco. — The  anchorage  of  Tabaco  is  in  the  bay  of  the  same  name. 

Stda. — The  port  of  Sula  is  formed  in  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
narrow  channel  which  separates  the  island  of  Cacraray  from  the  main- 
land.    It  is  very  sheltered  and  good  anchoring  ground. 

p  c—voL  3—01 18 

Hosted  by 




Sorsogon. — Rounding  point  Tajiran  toward  the  west  is  the  magnifi- 
cent port  of  Sorsogon,  considered  as  the  best  of  all  those  which  are 
found  in  the  passage  from  the  strait  of  Verde  Island  to  that  of  San 
Bernardino.  (Described  in  the  Treatise  on  Chorography,  Chapter  V, 
p.  79.) 

Putiao, — The  port  of  Putiao  is  a  bay  of  little  depth,  which  the 
coastwise  ships  are  accustomed  to  enter  at  high  tide.  It  lies  between 
points  Dumaquit,  on  the  west,  and  Cutcut,  on  the  east,  and  is  sur- 
rounded with  reefs. 

Pantao, — The  anchorage  of  Pantao  is  to  the  southeast  of  point 
Simura,  near  the  cove  of  Jamuraon. 

Fasacao, — The  anchorage  or  bar  of  Pasacao  is  between  two  little 
flat-topped  hills,  near  point  Sibono. 

Ptisgo, — The  port  of  Pusgo  is  found  to  the  north-northwest  of  point 
Arena.     It  is  long  and  narrow. 

Miilanay. — The  anchorage  of  Mulanay  is  located  on  the  western 
coast  of  the  "peninsula  of  Tayabas,  south  of  the  bay  of  Catanauan. 

Pltogo. — The  anchorage  of  Pitogo  is  2  miles  to  the  east-northeast  of 
Point  Mabio. 

Calaylayan. — The  anchorage  of  Calaylayan  is  an  elbow  which  is 
formed  to  the  west  of  Point  Silancapo. 

Lagidmanoc, — The  port  of  Laguimanoc  is  inclosed  between  the  east 
coast  of  the  island  Pagbilao  Chico  and  the  coast  of  Laguimanoc. 

Bay  of  Tayahas, — ^ Along  the  whole  coast  comprised  between  the 
river  Tayabas  and  the  river  Nayun  it  is  possible  to  anchor  in  the  depth 
of  water  that  may  be  suitable,  because  at  a  little  more  than  half  a  mile 
from  the  shore  there  is  a  depth  of  18  meters. 

It  is  also  possible  to  anchor  on  that  part  of  the  coast  comprised 
between  the  river  Nayun  and  the  small  cove  situated  to  the  northwest 
of  Point  Bantigui.  From  Point  Bantigui  up  to  that  of  Malabrigo 
there  are  quite  a  number  of  elbows  and  sites  suitable  for  anchoring, 
especially  beyond  Point  Sigayan.  Likewise  along  the  coast  which 
runs  from  Point  Malabrigo  to  the  cove  of  Ilijan  or  Matocot  ships  of 
any  tonnage  can  anchor, 

Snr  de  Batangas. — The  deep  and  narrow  channel  Avhich  is  formed 
between  the  islands  of  Maricaban  and  Caban  is  a  good  anchorage  for 
all  kinds  of  ships.  Such  is  the  case  also  with  the  one  found  on  the  coast 
comprised  between  points  Bauan  and  Pinamucan,  which  terminates  in 
beaches  of  sand. 

Taal, — The  best  anchorage  in  the  bay  of  Taal  is  to  the  north  of  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Pansipit. 

Balayan. — The  best  anchorage  in  the  harbor  of  this  name  is  found 
to  the  east  of  the  river  Balayan. 


Talin. — Rounding  Cape  Santiago  and  following  along  toward  the 
north  is  the  cove  of  Talin,  and  in  it  an  anchorage  with  fair  conditions. 

Nasughii, — To  the  northwest  of  Talin  is  the  anchorage  of  Nasugbu, 
in  the  cove  of  the  same  name. 

Jamelo. — Finally,  2i  miles  south  of  Point  Limbones,  the  cove  of 
Jamelo  opens,  and  to  the  southeast  of  it  is  situated  the  port  called 
Jamelo,  with  a  clear  coast  and  good  anchoring  ground. 

Hosted  by 




The  capes  of  Luzon  are:  Bojeador,  in  Ilocos  Norte;  Engano,  on  the 
island  of  Palaui,  extreme  northeast  of  Luzon;  San  Ildefonso,  at  the 
entrance  of  the  cove  of  Casiguran,  district  of  Principe;  Santiago,  on 
the  southwest  of  the  bay  of  Balayan,  province  of  Batangas;  and  Boli- 
nao,  at  the  entrance  of  the  gulf  of  Lingayen,  province  of  Zambales; 
to  which  should  be  added,  according  to  some  authors,  that  of  Baluagan, 
located  on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  ba}^  of  San  Miguel. 

As  to  the  points,  we  have  already  enumerated  almost  all  the  princi- 
pal ones  in  Luzon  in  locating  the  various  bays  and  coves;  nevertheless, 
in  order  that  they  may  be  recognized  with  greater  facility  on  the  maps, 
we  shall  cite  them  here  in  their  order,  especially  the  most  important 
ones,  commencing  from  Manila  Bay  and  passing  round  the  island  of 
Luzon  by  the  northeast  and  south  until  we  reach  the  entrance  of  the 
same  bay  from  the  south. 


In  the  interior  of  Manila  Bay  point  Sangley,  of  the  province  of 
Cavite,  juts  out,  and  on  the  northwest  coast  of  this  same  prov^ince 
point  Restinga.  On  the  east  coast  of  the  province  of  Bataan  are  found, 
successively,  points  Malabaton,  Pandan,  Linao,  Lamao,  Limay,  Real, 
San  Jose,  and  Lasisi,  and  on  the  south  coast  those  called  Gorda,  Talayo, 
and  Hornos. 


Batami.— Points:  Guay,  Luzan,  Canas,  Caibaba,  Saisain,  Napo, 
Alinin,  and  Nabasan. 

Zmnbales.—Foints:  Biniotican,  Silanguin,  Capones,  Botolan,  Casila- 
gan,  Palauig,  Oyon,  Bani,  Arenas,  Santa  Cruz,  Bunop,  Bavamban, 
Dauh,  Caiman,  Tambobo,  Arena,  Piedra,  Balingasag,  Encarnad^, 
V  erde  y  Pastora. 

I^angfasinan.— Points:  Portuguesa  and  Many  a. 

Union.— Points:  Santo Tomas,Baoang,  San  Fernando,and  Darigayos. 

Ilocos  xS'^/n— Points:  Candon,  Dile,  and  Santo  Domingo. 

Ilocos  JVorte.— Points:  Solod,  Culili,  Blanca,  Negra,  and  Dialao. 


Ilocos  JVorte,— Points:  Mayraira,  Buagan,  and  Lacaylacay. 
Cagayan.—Points:  Cabicungan,  Pata,  Batulinao  Pont,  and  Diur. 
Island  of  Palaui, — Points:  Nordeste  and  Cogon. 


Cagayan.—Points:  Escarpada,  Quijada,  Padnanungan  e  Higan. 

Isaljela.~-Points:  Dimalansan,  Aubarede,  Disumangit,  Dibinisa, 
Dmatadmo,  Dinaj)iqui  y  Tarigtig. 

Destrito  del  Principe, —Points:  Delgada,  del  Encanto.  Dicapilarin, 
Dibayabay,  Diotoring  y  Dicapinisan. 

Mieva  ^"q;^.— Points:  Sua,  Sapio  y  Deseada. 

Distrito  de  la  Infanta.— Points:  Inaguican  y  Tacligan. 

Tayalas^—P^ixits:  Piapi,  Saley,  Malazos,  Pilisan,  Majabibujaguin, 
i^angao,  Maguigtig,   Minanucan,   Camu,   Roma,   Panjan,   Pangao  y 

Hosted  by 



Amhos  (7amarmes,—Fomt8:  Mapinjor,  Palapinuhuajan,  Jesus,  Pi- 
nagdtingan,  Calibigaho,  Malugnon,  Buluagan,  Manin,  Sauan,  Longos, 
Tanoban,  Buncalon,  Sagcadoc,  Manuse,  Pambuan,  Taron,  Sihan,  Colasi, 
Sapenitan,  Qainabucasan,  Dagdagun,  Tambang,  Tinajuagan,  Pana- 
honga,  Pandanog,  Batabato,  Rungus,  Maulao,  Asuang  y  Sibauan. 

Alhay. — Points:  Gorda,  Entilan,  Misibis,  Mainonon,  Bato,  Cana- 
gaayan,  Cogbali^ay,  Pinagbucan,  Cauit,  Paran,  Calaocalao,  Bongo, 
Jesus  y  Gajo. 

Ma  Cacraray. — Points:  Tumaras,  Sauras,  Cabadia,  Cacrai'ay  y 

Ma  Batdn.—Pomta:  Camisog,  Calanagan,  Naualangpalay,  Bucton 
y  Binalbagan. 

Ma  BamirrapiL—Fomts:  Acal,  Mamanao,  Talisay,  Ungay  y  Baba- 
yon,  en  el  extremo  mas  occidental. 

Sorsogo?i. — Points:  Paguiriran,  Bingay,  Montufar,  Dancalan,  Banga 
o  Cagan,  Tang,  Dongon,  Binorongan,  Talagio,  Pacahan  o  Habang, 
Pandan  y  Caranhan. 

iSOUTir    COAST. 

Sorsogon, — Points:  Babulgan,  Langao,  Sual,  Tajiran,  Anambogon, 
Cabaranan,  Lipata,  Barugo,  Marinap,  Angil,  Saban,  Nungay,  Quina- 
lapan,  Inacanan,  Ibalong,  Mantag,  Bagalao,  Macugil,  Caguayan, 
Tubiajon,  Roja,  Alimpayo,  Bantique  y  Dumaquit. 

Alhay, — ^Points:  Marigondon,  Cadburanan  o  Panganiran,  Badian, 
Tobian,  Naga,  Cananhalan,  Sinlian  y  Palo. 

Amhos  Camarines, — Points:  Caurusan  o  Siruma,  Tongon,  eJamuraon, 
Sibono,  Tanuan,  Buri,  Bagulayo,  Galvaney  y  Octoc. 

Tayahas, — Points:  Cabasbatan,  Manibulao,  Cabunganan,  Quilbait, 
Ausan,  Balogo,  Calimu,  Capuluan,  Lian,  Guihalinan,  Gorda,  Pusgo, 

Pinacapulan,  Palaspas,  Angat,  Bocboc  y  Tayabas. 

Batangas. — Points:  Bantigui,  Locoloco  o  Sigayan,  Malagundi  o 
Galban,  Punas  o  Loboo,  Malabrigo,  Rosario,  Talajib,  Arenas,  Mato- 
cot,  Pinainucan,  Pangot,  Mapilio,  Mainit,  Cazador,  Azufre,  Boncte, 
Malatanguit,  Magallanes,  Ligpo  y  San  Pedrino. 


Batangas, — Points:  Talin,  San  Diego  y  de  Fucgo  o  Calayo. 




Santo  Domingo, — This  bay  is  situated  on  the  west  coast  of  the  island 
of  Batan.     It  has  good  anchoring  grounds  of  tine  sand  and  coral. 

Sonson  and  Mananion. — On  the  northeast  coast  of  the  same  island 
there  are  also  two  very  deep  and  probably  very  sheltered  bays  called 
Sonson  and  Mananion. 

Hosted  by 




Matacon, — ^The  cove  of  Matacon  is  formed  almost  in  the  middle  oi 
the  north  coast  of  the  island  of  Polillo. 

Pinamsagan. — This  is  another  small  bay  on  the  north  coast  of  Polillo, 
situated  a  little  more  to  the  east  than  the  previous  one. 


Carao  or  Carabao, — The  larger  of  the  two  small  bays  which  are 
formed  to  the  northwest  of  the  island  of  Catanduanes,  between  points 
Carabao  and  Caramuan,  is  called  Carao  or  Carabao. 

Cabugao, — Is  another  small  bay  which  opens  on  the  south  of  the 
same  island. 



Fuga, — The  port  of  Fuga  is  situated  between  the  western  extremity 
of  the  island  of  this  name  and  two  small,  low  adjacent  islands  called 
Bari  and  Mabac. 


Bar  as. — The  little  port  of  Baras  is  found  on  the  southwest  coast  of 
the  island  of  Catanduanes,  some  9  miles  to  the  northeast  of  the  point 



The  principal  points  of  the  island  of  Polillo  are  those  of  Panam- 
palan,  Banta,  and  Agla. 


In  the  island  of  Catanduanes  there  are  worthy  of  mention  points 
Pandan  and  Carao  on  the  north,  Anajao  and  Pandaran  on  the  east, 
Nagumbuayan,  Taguntum,  and  Agojo  on  the  south,  and  those  of  Sialat, 
Cogon,  and  llacaong  on  the  west. 



^  Ahra  de  Hog, — The  cove  of  Abra  de  Hog  has  a  low  shore  and  a  semi- 
circular form. 

Balateros  Grande, — The  bay  of  Balateros  Grande  is  found  1  mile  to 
the  east  of  the  little  port  of  Minolo. 

Balateros  Chico, — This  cove  is  found  immediately  to  the  east  of  the 
preceding  one. 

Varadero, — The  cove  of  Varadero  is  2  short  miles  to  the  southwest 
of  point  Escarceo. 

Hosted  by 



Suhaang .—The,  cove  of  Subaang  lies  to  the  west  of  the  point  of  this 

Calwpan. — The  cove  of  Calapan  extends  between  points  Baliti  to  the 
southwest  and  Calapan  or  Tibao  on  the  northeast,  and  is  some  3  miles 
in  extent. 

Pola. — The  cove  of  Pola  is  formed  to  the  northwest  of  Mount 
Dumali,  between  points  Anahaoan  and  Dayap. 

Dayaj). — Is  an  elbow  situated  at  some  6  cables  to  the  southwest  of 
the  point  of  this  name. 


Mansalay, — The  small  ba^^  of  this  name  is  found  10^  miles  to  the 
north  of  Point  Bu3^allao. 

Pmamalayan, — The  bay  of  Pinamalayan  is  located  south  of  the 
northeast  extremity  of  the  island,  between  points  Balete  and  Dumali. 


Pandarochan. — The  bay  of  Pandarochan  is  inclosed  between  the 
clear  and  accessible  point  of  Buruncan,  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
island,  and  the  southeast  point  of  Ylin. 

Bulalacao. — The  cove  of  Bulalacao  opens  between  point  Tambilambi, 
to  the  west,  and  the  peninsula  of  Pandan  to  the  south  southeast. 

Loguicay, — The  bay  of  Loguicay  lies  between  the  peninsula  of 
Pandan  and  the  south  coast  of  Point  Buyallao. 


Paluan.—ll\ie  cove  of  Paluan  is  situated  south  of  Mount  Calavite, 
between  points  Pantocomi  and  Marigil.  It  has  a  good  depth  at  the 
entrance  and  better  in  the  interior  up  to  a  half  mile  from  shore. 

Tuhile, — The  small  bay  of  Tubile  is  found  north  of  the  point  of  the 
same  name. 

Mmnbiirao. — There  is  a  little  elbow  toward  the  left  within  the  mouth 
of  the  river  of  this  name. 

Pandan. — The  cove  of  Pandan  is  north  of  the  point  of  this  name. 

Dongon. — Some  7  miles  south  of  Sablayan  is  the  prominent  point  of 
Dongon,  and  to  the  east  and  northeast  of  it  the  coast  forms  the  little 
bay  of  the  same  name  which  can  shelter  all  kinds  of  ships. 

Iriron. — The  cove  of  Iriron  is  inclosed  between  points  Iriron  and 

Lalangan  or  Gomez. — ^The  cove  of  this  name  is  formed  near  the 
middle  of  the  channel  of  Ylin. 


Several  small  bays  are  found  on  the  coast  of  Marinduque  near  San 
Andres,  Santa  Cruz,  and  Trapichihan,  opposite  the  small  barren  islands 
of  Engano. 

Loog. — The  bay  of  Loog  is  within  the  harbor  called  Port  of  Bana- 
calan  or  San  Andres. 

Marlanga. — The  small  bay  of  Marlanga  lies  between  the  point  of 
this  name  and  that  of  Salomague. 

Calanca7i  and  Sayao. — The  cove  of  Sayao  is  on  the  western  coast 
and  that  of  Calancan  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Point  Trapichihan. 

Hosted  by 




Balaqicias, — The  cove  of  Balaquias  is  situated  to  the  west  of  the 
island  of  Ambil  and  ends  on  the  east  at  Point  Tagbanan. 

Ancagiiayan. — The  little  bay  of  Ancaguayan,  situated  on  the  east 
coast  of  Lubang-  and  formed  by  points  Napula  and  Antipolo,  is  shel- 
tered from  all  winds  but  those  from  the  east  northeast  to  the  west 
southwest  and  is  protected  from  the  sea  by  several  reefs. 

Loog. — The  cove  of  Loog  is  situated  near  the  southeastern  end  of 
the  island  of  Lubang,  inclosed  between  points  Panican  on  the  south 
and  Tumbaga  on  the  north,  and  looks  like  a  beautiful  bay,  but  it  is 
very  dangerous  on  account  of  the  many  ledges  of  rock  hidden  in  it.^ 

Tahag, — The  small  bay  of  Tabag  is  1  mile  to  the  northeast  of  Point 


The  west  coast  of  the  island  of  Semerara  forms  some  bays  up  to 
Point  Taboan.     There  is  another  cove  to  the  southeast  of  said  point. 

The  bay  formed  on  the  west  coast  of  the  island  of  Caluya  is  worthy 
of  notice. 


Baquit, — The  bay  of  Baquit,  which  opens  on  the  south  coast  of 
Busuanga,  the  largest  island  of  the  group,  deserves  to  be  mentioned. 

Liwayan, — Next  to  the  bay  of  Baquit,  to  the  W.,  is  formed  the  cove 
of  Lucayan. 

CoTOii, — The  name  Bay  of  Coron  is  given  to  the  extensive  bay  formed 
by  Coron  on  the  east,  Busuanga  on  the  north,  Culion  on  the  W.,  and 
the  small  islands  Dunaun,  Tempel,  and  Bulalacao  on  thesouth.  It  is 
some  13  miles  wide. 


There  is  scarcely  any  bay  of  importance  in  the  Cuyos  group,  because 
all  the  islands  of  this  group  are  small. 



Cal(wite.—To  the  north  of  the  point  of  this  name  is  a  good 

AmUL—To  the  south  of  Point  Binuanga  there  is  formed  an  elbow 
or  bay,  in  front  of  which  is  one  of  the  best  anchorages  on  this  coast. 

Minolo. — The  anchorage  of  Minolo  opens  immediately  to  the  east  of 
the  point  of  this  name. 

(rafcm.-— The  so-called  port  of  Galera  opens  If  miles  to  the  west  of 
Point  Escarceo. 

VaradeTO,—T\i(d  cove  of  Varadero  is  some  2  miles  to  the  southwest 
of  Point  Escarceo  and  opens  toward  the  southeast.  It  is  an  excellent 
anchorage  in  all  weather,  except  in  the  case  of  a  severe  storm  passing 
very  near  on  the  south.     It  is  much  preferable  to  the  port  of  Galera. 

Naujan.—'l^o  the  southeast  of  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  this  name 
there  is  an  anchorage  for  all  sorts  of  craft. 

Hosted  by 




Mmi. — Opposite  the  river  Masi  there  is  an  anchorage  in  the  angle 
which  Point  Bongabon  forms  to  the  northwest.  It  is  excellent  in  all 
weather  and  for  all  sorts  of  ships. 


This  coast  has  neither  ports  nor  anchorages  of  sufficient  importance 
to  be  worth  mentioning,  unless  there  are  some  for  small  boats. 


Mamlmrao. — A  fair  anchorage  opposite  the  mouth  of  the  river 

SaUayan, — The  anchorage  of  Sablayan  lies  to  the  east  of  Point 
Pan  dan. 

^  Mangarin, — The  port  of  Mangarin  is  found  north  of  the  strait  of 
Ylin  and  some  3  miles  to  the  southeast  of  Point  Busuanga.  It  is  very 
sheltered  and  quite  deep. 


^an.  Andres  or  Banacalan, — The  port  of  San  Andres,  open  toward 
the  west,  lies  between  points  Antagtacan  on  the  north  and  Panumitan- 
gan  on  the  south. 

8a7ita  Or  113.— The  port  of  Santa  Cruz  is  to  the  southeast  of  the  point 
of  the  same  name. 

Markmga. — The  anchorage  of  Marlanga  is  in  the  bay  of  the  same 

Boac. — The  anchorage  of  Boac  is  near  the  viver  of  this  name,  to  the 
southwest  of  the  fortress  of  Boac. 


YUn. — The  anchorage  of  Ylin  is  in  front  of  a  reef  which  surrounds 
the  coast  of  Ylin. 


Cahtya, — Anchor  may  be  cast  to  the  north  of  the  island  of  Caluya, 
in  the  large  cove  of  this  name. 

The  other  ports  and  anchorages  of  the  group  are  not  especially 


Borac, — The  port  of  Borac,  in  the  island  of  Busuanga,  is  extensive 
and  sheltered. 



Calavite, — Cape  Calavite  is  well  known  among  mariners,  because  it 
is  on  the  point  of  the  island  which  extends  farthest  into  the  China  Sea. 

Following  the  coast  from  Point  Calavite  toward  the  east  there  are 
found  successively  the  points  of  Binuangan,  Monte  or  San  Tomas, 

Hosted  by 



Bagalayag,  Bacto,  Baguio,  Minolo,  Escarceo,  Boaya,  Calupan,  Bisayan, 
Lubang,  Baleto,  Calapan,  Anaganahao,  Tagusan,  Balingauan,  Ana- 
haoan,  Dayap,  and  Dumali. 


From  Point  Dumali,  situated  to  the  northeast  of  the  island,  going 
down  toward  the  south  there  are  to  be  mentioned  points  Pinamalayan, 
Balete,  Mayllague,  Bongabon,  Dayagan,  Ticlin  or  Alaya,  Mansiol, 
Colasi,  Bayallao,  and  Pandan. 


Points  Buruncan,  Canimanet,  and  Tambilambi. 


Points  Pantocomi,  Marigil,  Tubile,  Caranisan,  Manburao,  Talabasi, 
Sablayan,  Dongon,  Lumintan,  and  Busuanga. 


The  following  are  the  points  of  Marinduque:  San  Andres,  Silangan, 
Panumitangan,  Datinuana,  Cauit,  Catalo,  Suban,  Marlanga,  Panique, 
Cabuyoc,  Cagpoc,  Salomague,  Tasa,  and  Trapichihan. 


Tilig,  Naguionca,  Pinagdagayan,  Nanoc,  Tumbaga,  and  Antucao  are 
the  principal  points  of  this  group. 


In  the  Ylin  group,  those  of  Ylin  and  Calan3^anan. 


Points  Tungao,  Tabonan,  Macapdos,  Talisay,  Pasal,  and  Alimanda. 

In  the  canal  which  extends  between  Burias  and  Busin  there  are  some 
bays  which  afford  good  anchorage.  The  bay  which  opens  upon  the 
eastern  coast,  south  of  Point  Tinamandagan,  5  miles  from  the  port 
of  Busainga,  is  worthy  of  mention.  The  small  bay  of  Alimango, 
which  is  quite  deep,  is  on  the  western  coast. 


The  northern  coast  of  Masbate  has  a  number  of  bays  affording  good 

Asid. — The  bay  of  Asid,  situated  between  Point  Pulanauta  on  the 
west  and  Point  Bary  Chico  on  the  east,  is  the  most  important  one  of 

Hosted  by 




Taguan, — The  cove  of  Taguan  lies  7i  miles  southeast  of  Punta  del 
Diablo  (Devil's  Point). 

Ticao, — The  bay  of  Ticao  is  5i  miles  south  of  the  port  of  San 

JBiton. — The  cove  of  Biton  opens  3  miles  south  of  the  bay  of  Ticao. 



Bimn, — The  port  of  Busin  is  formed  by  the  northern  end  of  Burias 
and  the  island  of  Busin;  it  is  merely  a  deep  channel. 

Bimiinga, — The  port  of  Busainga  opens  3i  miles  southeast  of  the 
port  of  Busin,  and  is  also  formed  by  a  channel. 

Barrera. — The  port  of  Barrera  is  very  large,  and  affords  safe 

Magdalena, — The  port  of  Magdalena  is  situated  9  miles  south  of  the 
foregoing  one. 

Palanog — The  port  of  Palanog  opens  0  miles  southeast  of  the  port 
of  Magdalena;  it  is  small,  but  deep,  and  is  protected  against  all  winds. 

San  Miguel. — The  port  of  San  Miguel  is  situated  at  the  northern 
end  of  the  island. 

San  Jacinto. — The  port  of  San  Jacinto  is  situated  3  miles  south  of 
the  cove  o^  Taguan,  and  opens  eastward  with  good  anchoring  ground. 
In  the  times  of  Acapulco  this  port  was  a  stopping  place  for  vessels. 


Among  other  points  there  are  on  the  island  of  Burias  the  following: 
Norte  or  Colorada,  Cueva,  Guinduganan,  Sur,  Tinamandagan,  and 


On  the  island  of  Masbate  there  are  the  following  principal  points: 
Bugui,  Unutat,  Mariveles,  Camasusu,  Jintotolo,  Pulanauta,  Pangca- 
nauay,  Jangan,  Bato,  Balabao,  Bary  Chico,  Naindain,  Nauco,  Cadu- 
ruan,  del  Este,  Malibago,  Tiguijan,  Tabunan,  Marintoc,  Sagausauan, 
Bagubaud,  Capandan,  and  Colorada. 


Ticao  has  the  following  points:  San  Miguel,  Noroeste,  Talisay,  Nil- 
adlaran,  Lagundi,  San  Rafael,  Lagan,  and  Tasiran. 

Hosted  by 





The  principal  islands  of  the  Rorablon  Archipelago  are  the  islands  of 
Romblon,  Tablas,  Banton,  Maestre  de  Campo,  and  Sibuyan. 


From  the  islet  of  Bagud,  southwest  from  the  port  of  Romblon,  the 
coast  runs  2^  miles  southward,  forming  three  small  coves,  of  which 
the  first  two  are  of  no  importance,  and  the  most  southerly  one  is  fairly 
good.  From  this  last  the  coast  runs  in  a  south-southeast  direction  and 
forms  two  other  coves. 

Magallanes, — The  cove  of  Magallanes  is  comprised  between  the  points 
of  Consumala  and  Cang-ouac,  the  river  Nailog  pouring  into  its  center. 
Lubug, — The  bay  of  Lubug  is  situated  northeast  of  the  island. 

The  island  of  Banton  possesses  three  good  coves,  one  on  the  eastern 
coast,  one  on  the  northeastern,  and  another  small  one  on  the  western 

On  the  island  of  Tablas,  from  Point  Origon  to  the  cliffs  on  the  side 
of  Mount  Noroeste,  two  coves  are  formed,  and  also  another  south  of 
said  cliffs. 

Calaton, — The  cove  of  Calaton  is  formed  by  the  point  bearing  the 
same  name,  by  the  islets  lying  2  miles  south-southwest,  and  by  a  small 
point  of  hidden  rocks  on  the  north. 

Taholotan, — The  cove  of  Tabolotan  is  situated  directly  south  of  the 
northeastern  point  of  Tablas. 



The  port  of  Romblon,  one  of  the  best  of  Bisayas,  is  situated  north- 
east of  the  island  bearing  the  same  name.  The  island  of  Lugbung, 
situated  at  a  short  distance  from  this  port,  defends  its  two  sheltered 
and  deep  anchoring  grounds. 

Odiungan, — The  harbor  of  Odiungan  is  situated  southeast  of  the 
cove  which  is  formed  by  Point  Bagulayan  on  the  western  coast. 

Hosted  by 



Loog, — On  this  same  western  coast  is  the  port  of  Loog,  between 
two  points  which  are  very  close  to  each  other  and  are  on  the  same 

Sabang. — Sabang  is  a  small  port  situated  north  and  west  of  Calaton 
Point  on  the  western  coast. 


Southwest  of  the  island  of  Maestre  de  Campo  there  is  a  sheltered 
harbor  protected  against  all  winds  except  the  southwesterly  ones. 



The  following  points  are  to  be  found  on  the  island  of  Romblon: 
Tongo  and  Lantian  on  the  north;  Cabog,  Naya,  and  Sablayan  on  the 
east;  Apunan  on  the  south,  and  San  Pedro  and  Bombon  on  the  west. 

On  the  island  of  Tablas  there  are  the  following  points:  Calaton,  Cer- 
vera,  del  Este,  and  Pineda  on  the  east;  Origon  on  the  north;  Sangilan, 
Bagulayan,  Cabaccongan,  and  Inanayan  on  the  west,  and  el  Sur  or 
Cabalian  on  the  southern  end  of  the  island. 


The  point  of  La  Concepcion  on  this  island  is  worthy  of  mention. 

The  principal  points  on  the  island  of  Sibuyan  are:  Ipil,  Bayarin, 
Cang-ouac,  Canglonbog,  Consumala,  and  Padulog,  all  along  the  south- 
ern coast;  on  the  eastern  coast,  Majiuat,  Cambulayan,  Cambijan,  and 
Canjalon;  on  the  southern  end  of  the  island,  Point  Cauit;  and  on  the 
western  coast,  Cansapal,  Apiat,  Bolabos,  and  Agutaj". 



Naisot, — The  cove  of  Naisot  is  comprised  between  points  Ibajay  and 
Sigat  or  Mabgaran. 

Pontiid, — The  so-called  bay  of  Pontud  is  situated  opposite  the  bank 
of  Pontud  and  is  comprised  between  points  Sigat  and  Apga-Sapian. 

Sapian, — The  cove  of  Sapian  opens  between  Point  Baquiao  and  the 
land  strait  of  Sapian. 

Gapiz, — The  cove  of  Capiz,  also  called  Capiz  Harbor,  is  comprised 
between  Point  Nailon  on  the  west  and  Point  Colasi  on  the  east. 

From  Point  Nagtig  to  Point  Bulacaue  a  large  bay  of  more  than  18 
miles  in  length  and  9  miles  in  width  is  formed  toward  Mount  Agudo. 

Hosted  by 




BancaL — The  cove  of  Bancal  runs  from  the  cliffs  of  Cambaloton 
south-southeast  of  point  Bulacaue  to  point  Gogo,  which  is  situated  4i 
miles  more  to  the  south. 

There  are  various  unimportant  coves  to  be  found  from  point  Gogo 
to  the  Tugil  "  Silanga." 

BalacL — The  cove  of  Balad  would  be  the  principal  one  of  these  were 
it  not  obstructed  by  hidden  rocks. 

The  bay  which  is  formed  to  the  west  of  the  island  of  Tagubanhan/ 
on  the  coast  of  Panay,  is  an  important  one. 

The  bay  of  Canas  is  the  most  important  one  of  those  which  are  to  be 
found  on  the  eastern  coast  of  Panay. 


South  of  Point  Dalipe  there  is  a  cove  of  fair  conditions. 

Pandan, — The  cove  of  Pandan  is  almost  the  only  one  which  may  be 
called  such  on  the  western  coast  of  Panay.  It  is  formed  south  of  the 
promontory  of  Naso,  and  is  situated  between  points  Pucio  and  Lipata; 
it  is  clear,  has  steep  banks,  depth  of  waters,  and  is  not  sheltered. 


Igan, — The  bay  of  Igan  opens  south  of  the  port  of  Santa  Ana  and 
contiguous  to  it,  on  the  island  of  Guimaras,  and  is  situated  between 
Point  Ganga  on  the  north  and  Point  Guinad  on  the  south,  and  is  the 
most  important  one  on  this  island. 



Batan, — The  port  of  Panan  is  situated  10  miles  southeast  of  the  bar 
of  Acdan;  it  is  deep,  but  the  entrance  to  it  is  bad. 

Capk.—Th^i  harbor  of  Capiz  may  be  either  the  one  which  is  oppo- 
site to  the  church  of  the  village  of  Capiz,  or  the  one  which  is  opposite 
to  the  bar  of  the  river. 


Estancia. — The  harbor  of  Estancia  is  situated  north  of  the  Bay  as. 
Iloilo. — The  harbor  of  Iloilo  is  situated   between  the  two   bends 
formed  by  the  river  at  its  mouth. 

weste:rn  coast. 

Buruanga. — On  the  coast  comprised  between  points  Naisog  and 
Pucio  there  is  another  point  called  Point  Batuit,  which  separates  two 
small  harbors;  that  of  Buruaga  is  the  better. 

San  Jose  de  Buenavista, — The  harbor  of  San  Jose  de  Buenavista  is 
situated  south  of  Point  Dalipe. 

island  of  guimaras. 

Santa  Ana, — The   port  of  Santa  Ana  is  a   small  port,  clear  and 
deep,  opening  to  the  west. 

Hosted  by 





All  along'  the  northern  coast,  from  west  to  east,  are  to  be  found  in 
succession  points  Naisog-,  Tabun,  Saboncogon,  Tabicu,  Ibajay,  Sigat 
or  Mabgaran,  Apga,  Aclan,  Nailon,  Colasi,  Mpa,  Pirara,  Pinalabroa, 
and  Bulacaue  on  the  northeastern  end  of  the  island. 


On  the  eastern  coast  points  Gogo  and  Tabunan  are  worthy  of   men- 


On  the  southern  coast  points  Mulactin,  Bugnayon,  Caducdula,  and 
Siaran  are  worthy  of  mention. 


Commencing  at  the  southwestern  end  of  the  island  and  continuing 
toward  the  north  the  following  points  are  to  be  found  in  the  order  as 
named:  Naso,  Aniniy,  Jagdan,  Mapatag,  Tubigon,  Dalipe,  Lipata, 
Picol,  and  Pucio. 


On  the  island  of  Guimaras  the  following  points  are  worthy  of  men- 
tion: Cabugao  on  the  north,  Lusaran  on  the  south,  and  Ginad,  Ganga, 
Bondulan,  and  Cabulic  on  the  west. 



On  the  northern  coast  of  Negros  there  is  scarcely  any  cove  worthy 
of  being  mentioned.  The  so-called  Saco  de  Negros  is  formed  on  the 
north  of  the  island,  and  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  the  group  of  the 
island  of  Pan  de  Azucar  and  the  southern  part  of  the  group  of  Gigantes, 
and  on  the  east  by  the  island  of  Bantayan  and  the  chain  of  small  islands 
which,  starting  from  the  last  named,  runs  southwest  to  the  northeastern 
end  of  Negros. 


A  cove  of  fair  depth  extends  from  Point  Ocre  to  Point  Ticlin.  At 
a  distance  of  U  miles  north  from  Point  Ticlin  the  coast  forms  another 
small  cove,  with  an  islet  in  front  of  it. 

Bais— The  cove  of  Bais— that  is  to  say,  the  one  which  is  opposite 
the  Bais  islands— is  comprised  between  Points  Teca  on  the  north  and 
Canamay  on  the  south. 

Oapeap  and  Tutuban,— The  coves  of  Capcap  and  Tutuban  are  sit- 
uated on  the  southern  end  of  the  island.  They  are  small,  but  possess 
good  conditions. 

Hosted  by 




Tolon, — The  spacious  cove  of  Tolon  runs  between  points  Cauitan 
and  Cansilan. 

Oompomanes. — The  cove  of  Compomanes  opens  south  of  Point  Matu- 
tindog  and  next  to  it. 

W(3)ulao. — The  cove  of  Nabulao  is  situated  south  of  the  preceding 
one,  at  the  mouth  of  the  river  of  the  same  name. 

CatiThon, — The  bay  of  Catmon  is  situated  between  points  Catmon 
and  Bacuyangan. 

Sipahiy  and  Cartagena. — The  coves  of  Sipaluy  and  Cartagena  are 
situated  next  to  that  of  Saban. 

Linaon. — The  bay  of  Linaon  opens  between  points  Sojoton  and 


Only  the  large  bend  formed  on  this  coast  south  of  the  island  of  Gui- 
maras  and  which  ends  at  Point  Sojoton  is  worthy  of  mention. 



There  are  on  the  northern  and  eastern  coasts  of  Negros  some  unim- 
portant harbors. 


Siyt. — The  port  of  Siyt  is  situated  on  the  southern  end  of  the  island; 
it  is  small,  but  clear,  with  good  anchoring  grounds,  and  sheltered. 

Bomhonon. — The  port  of  Bombonon  opens  at  about  2  miles  south- 
west of  the  port  of  Siyt,  on  the  southern  end  of  the  island. 

Tolon. — In  the  river  or  cove  of  Tolon  vessels  of  light  draft  can 
anchor  at  high  tide. 



The  principal  points  on  the  northern  coast  are:  Points  Guimugahan, 
Talisay,  Sagay  or  Carey,  and  Panagsagon,  on  the  northwestern  end  of 
the  island. 


On  the  eastern  coast  there  are  the  following  points:  Bito,  Mucabog, 
Ocre,  Ticlin,  Tabon,  Jilaitin,  Panay,  San  Jose,  Tayasan,  Manjuyod, 
Palompon,  Canamay,  Amblan,  Tayba,  Sibulan,  Dumaguete,  Bacong, 
Dauin,  Magabo,  Zamboanguita,  Liza,  Siyt,  and  Bombonon. 


On  the  southern  coast  are:  Point  Siaton,  the  southernmost  one  on 
the  island;  Cauitan,  Cansilan,  Matutindog,  Sanque,  Taliptipan,  Bala- 
tong,  Doog,  Bolila,  Catmon,  Bacuyangan,  Luinbia,  and  Obon. 


On  the  western  coast  are  Points  Manoban,  Maguiliquian,  Sojoton, 
Gabambalang,  Bula,  Bilad,  Calasian,  Bacong,  Magsalin,  Maquiliquili, 
and  Tomanton. 

Hosted  by 






Bago. — The  cove  of  Bago  is  situated  18  miles  south-southeast  of 
Point  Bulalaqui.  It  is  formed  by  a  bend  made  by  the  coast,  which 
runs  toward  the  east  with  Point  Nailon. 

There  are  also  to  be  found  inflections  of  the  coast  on  the  north  of 
Point  Bantolinao,  between  Points  Sacaan  and  Catmon;  north  of  Point 
Danao,  between  Points  Cotcot  and  Bagacay  or  Liloan;  on  the  north- 
west of  the  island  of  Mactan,  south  of  Cebu,  between  Points  Carcar 
and  Sibonga,  and  south  of  Point  Dalaguete. 


Daijagon, — The  bay  bearing  this  name  is  comprised  between  Point 
Daijagon  on  the  north  and  Point  Magtulinog  on  the  south. 

Tvburmi, — The  cove  of  Tuburan,  of  little  importance,  is  h\  miles 
distant  south-southwest  of  the  cove  of  Batauan. 

Langiiyon. — The  bend  or  small  cove  of  Languyon  is  1  mile  south  of 
Point  Tuburan. 

Balamban, — The  cove  of  Balamban  opens  south  of  the  Point  of 

Calavera, — The  cove  of  Calavera  is  a  small  cove  south-southwest  of 
the  cove  of  Balamban. 

Pinaimmgajan. — The  small  cove  of  Pinamungajan  is  halfway  between 
Points  Tajao  and  Gorda. 

Barili, — The  cove  of  Barili  is  3i  miles  south-southwest  of  Point 

Badian. — The  cove  of  Badian  is  situated  between  the  peninsula  of 
Copton  and  another  point  of  land  which  advances  about  2  miles  also 
to  the  north,  called  Point  Badian. 

Matutinao.- — The  cove  of  Matutinao  is  situated  between  Point  Badian 
on  the  north  and  Point  Guiuanon  on  the  south,  the  distance  between 
these  being  6  miles. 



Bugtit, — The  small  port  of  Bugut  is  nearl}^  on  the  north,  3  miles 
distant  from  Point  Caladman. 

Cebu.—ThiQ  harbor  of  Cebu  is  situated  south -southwest  of  the  fort 
of  Cebu. 

Cmiit, — The  port  of  Cauit  opens  on  the  cove  of  Cauit  toward  the 

Tinaan, — The  harbor  of  Tinaun  is  situated  11  miles  southwest  of 

Carcar, — At  the  bend  of  Carcar  there  is  a  fairly  good,  small  port. 

Boljoan.—ThQ  port  or  harbor  of  Boljoon  is  situated  at  the  bend  of 
this  same  name. 

Canaan . — The  port  of  Canoan  is  formed  at  the  cove  of  Canoan.  It 
is  sheltered  from  all  wiftds  except  the  winds  from  the  northwest  to 
the  west. 

Hosted  by 




Batauan,-— The  port  of  Batauan  is  a  little  more  than  2  miles  distant 
south  of  the  river  Jaligue. 

Ruenahrlgo, — On  the  southern  side  of  the  point  of  this  name  ves- 
sels can  find  sufficient  shelter  when  at  anchor. 

Calavera, — Vessels  can  also  find  anchorage  in  the  cove  of  this  name. 

Badian. — There  is  an  anchorage  south  of  the  island  in  the  cove  of 
the  village  of  Badian. 


Along  the  eastern  coast,  from  the  northern  end,  there  are  the  fol- 
lowing points:  Bulalaqui,  Campatoc,  Malontod,  Tindug,  Nailon, 
Maitum,  Ulud,  Pamoboan,  Bantulu  or  Bantolinao,  Manayaosayao, 
Jinmguit  Sacaan,  Catmon,  Panalipan,  Binuncalan,  Danao,  Lusun- 
sacatao,  Bandiloan  Cotcot,  Bagacay  or  Liloan,  Cauit,  Lipata,  Pan- 
guian  (island  of  Mactan),  Tinaan,  Minaga,  Carcar,  Sibonga,  Simala, 
Argao,  Balatic,  Dalaguete,  Bugo,  Ilijan,  Samang,  Cayangon,  Landu- 
gan,  Oslob,  and  Tanon,  southwestern  end  of  the  island. 


The  principal  points  on  the  western  coast,  commencing  at  the  north, 
are:  Tapilon,  Bantique,  Cauit,  Isabel,  Mancao,  Aniningan,  Tagjalique 
or  Jaligue,  Batauan,  Bagasaue,  Languyon,  Carmelo,  Jinampangon, 
Bagacaua,  Buenabrigo  or  Guinabasan,  Uag,  Balamban,  Buanoy,  Jino- 
lauan,  Tajao,  Gorda,  Japitan,  Palalon,  Jacbas,  Minalos,  Bitoon,  Tan- 
guil,  Dumanjuc,  Copton,  Tongo,  Badian  (Bilambilam),  Guiuanon, 
Bulalacao,  Malboc,  Looc,  Colasi,  and  Liloan,  on  the  southern  end  of 
the  island. 



The  northern  coast  of  this  island  is  very  dangerous,  as  it  is  nearly 
all  obstructed  by  the  coral  banks  of  Dana j on. 


Tintiman. — The  cove  of  Tintiman  is  formed  west  of  the  island  bear- 
ing this  name. 

Cohlon.—The  cove  of  Coblon  opens  north  of  the  peninsula  of  Puga- 
tin  and  contiguous  to  it. 

Guiiidulimmi. — The  small  peninsula  of  this  name  forms  at  its  south- 
ern part  the  cove  of  Guindulman. 


On  the  southern  coast  there  are  formed  at  the  mouths  of  the  rivers 
small  coves,  which  are  of  no  importance. 

Guinagiianan.  — This  cove  is  formed  by  the  western  point  of  the 
mouth  of  the  river  Loav. 

p  c— VOL  3—01 19 

Hosted  by  VrrOOQiC 



MarihojoG. — The  cove  of  Maribojoc  is  formed  by  a  bend  of  the  east- 
ern coa^t  of  Point  Cruz. 

Cataghacan. — The  cove  bearing  this  name  is  formed  by  the  islands 
of  Cabilao,  Sandingan,  Calape,  and  part  of  the  coast  of  Bohol. 


Panglao. — The  cove  of  Panglao  is  situated  southwest  of  the  island  of 


Canoan, — The  cove  of  Canoan,  on  the  island  of  Siquijor,  which  we 
consider  as  the  group  of  Bohol,  is  situated  3  miles  south  of  Point  San- 
dugan.     It  is  the  principal  one  of  this  island. 



Calape, — The  small  port  of  Calape  is  situated  on  the  most  southerly 
part  of  the  cove  of  Catagbacan,  formed  by  the  islands  of  Calape  and  of 

Laon, — Vessels  can  anchor  at  the  so-called  Muelle  de  Laon,  in  the 
cove  formed  by  said  Muelle  together  with  the  island  of  Sandingan. 

The  southern  coast  of  Bohol  has  many  bends  which  can  serve  as 
anchoring  grounds,  although  the  entrance  thereto  is  difficult.  Vessels 
can  also  anchor  in  the  coves  of  Guindulman  and  Coblon. 



The  following  are  the  principal  points  in  the  island  of  Bohol:  Corte, 
Tabigui,  Amol,  and  Acha  on  the  north;  Libas,  Namuco,  Agio,  Quinal, 
and  Napacao  on  the  east;  Cabantian,  Nauco,  Campao,  Cantagay, 
Gorda,  Magay,  and  Loay  on  the  south,  and  Cruz  and  Lauis  on  the 


On  the  island  of  Panglao  the  most  noteworthy  points  are:  Catadman, 
Biquin,  Bolud,  Tahuruc,  and  Duljo. 


^  The  most  noteworthy  points  on  the  island  of  Siquijor  are:  Canoan, 
Sandugan,  Lumancapa,  and  Lumango  on  the  north:  Tubintin,  Daquit, 
and  Minatulan  on  the  east;  Tonga  and  Basigajen  on  the  west,  and 
Cambalaguio,  Bagacay,  and  Canaba  on  the  south. 



Tinagutman.--T.\):\^  cove  is  situated  2  miles  from  the  river  Mobo. 

Balicuatro.—ThQ  cove  of  Balicuatro  is  formed  between  the  point 
bearing  that  name  on  the  west  and  the  point  surrounded  by  hidden 
rocks,  which  is  7  miles  distant  to  the  East. 

Hosted  by 



Laguan. — The  cove  of  Laguan  is  situated  between  Point  Libas  and 
the  western  coast  of  the  island  of  Laguan. 


Giimay, — The  so-called  cove  of  Gumay  is  situated  between  points 
Lila  on  the  north  and  Alibangbang  on  the  south. 

Oras, — The  cove  of  Oras  is  west  of  Point  Tiguias. 

Ipil, — Near  the  place  called  Ipil  a  small  bay  opens,  formed  by  points 
Casangayan  on  the  north  and  Tambadon  on  the  south. 

Sulat, — The  cove  of  Sulat  is  6  miles  distant  from  the  foregoing  one. 

San  Julian, — Near  the  south  of  Sulat  is  the  cove  or  bay  of  San 

Borongan, — The  cove  of  Borongan  is  south  of  the  foregoing  one. 

Bayacan. — The  cove  of  Bayacan  is  some  3  miles  south  of  Borongan. 

Pamlmjan, — The  splendid  bav  of  Pambujan  is  situated  between 
points  Bura  and  Matarinao. 


There  are  several  bends  at  the  end  of  the  island,  the  most  remark- 
able of  which  is  that  of  Guiuan.  In  the  direction  of  the  west-north- 
west there  are  others  of  less  importance  as  far  as  the  Bay  of  San 
Pedro  and  San  Pablo. 


Beyond  the  strait  of  San  Juanico,  toward  the  north,  are  the  bays  of 
Laguin,  Villareal,  and  Cambutatay,  the  harbor  of  Maqueda,  and  the 
cove  of  Calbayog. 

Laguin, — The  bay  of  Laguin  opens  east  of  the  southern  end  of  the 
island  of  Daram. 

Villareal, — The  bay  of  Villareal  extends  toward  the  northeast  of  the 

Maqueda, — The  bay  of  Maqueda  extends  into  and  toward  the  north- 
east or  the  island  of  Buad. 

Camhutatay, — Northwest  of  Catbalogan  is  the  bay  of  Cambutatay. 

Calbayog, — South  of  this  village  there  is  a  bend  or  cove  northeast  of 
the  island  of  Limbancauayan. 



From  west  to  east  there  are:  Points  Sacalagayan,  Simoga,  Balicu- 
atro,  Malubaroc,  Bugtu,  Oot  or  Lauigan,  Caradapat,  Ocan  or  Binay, 
Maujud,  Sila,  Pagsanhan,  Alibangbang,  Pangpang,  Binugayan,  and 
the  cape  of  Espiritu  Santo. 


From  north  to  south  there  are  the  following  points:  Tiguias,  Ugbun, 
Casangayan,  Tambadon,  Tugasan,  Sulat,  Cambista,  Paninihian,  Anito, 
Sorongon,  Guinanuc,  Capines,  Anitagipan,  Tabay,  Haba,  Panadlihan, 
Bura,  Matarinao,  Burac,  Asgad,  Pinanamitan,  Hognaya,  Bagton,  Bauas, 
and  Sungi,  at  the  southern  end. 

Hosted  by 




From  east  to  west  the  following  points  are  worthy  of  mention: 
Banago,  Pamanpangon,  Cabanian,  Baras,  Bobon,  Cabarasan,  Higoso, 
Sua  or  Dapo,  Paglalaongan,  Capines,  Amangbuale,  Cabalagnan,  Odoc, 
Panay,  Guintulan,  and  Tingib. 


From  the  southern  entrance  of  the  strait  of  San  Juanico,  in  a  north- 
erly direction,  are  points  Binuntuan,  Cabugauan,  Dalugdug,  Manalumo, 
Binatac,  Cujao,  Irong-irong,  Hibatan,  Tactac,  Malay oc,  Maglalabon, 
and  Polauit,  near  the  northwestern  end. 


The  most  important  points  on  this  island  are:  Guindauan  on  the 
north;  Cauayan,  Madang,  Tanagon,  Catangdan,  Amantarong,  Asug, 
and  Campilipa  on  the  east;  Remintao,  Bacjao,  Halaba  Guinlatuyan, 
Cabadiancan,  and  Cananyong-Daco  on  the  west. 



Pmialamin. — The  ])eautiful  cove  of  Panaluran  is  formed  by  the 
northern  coast  north  of  the  small  peninsula  of  Tacloban. 

Ca7ical)af().~--^\\^.  cove  of  Caucabato  is  south  of  Tacloban. 

San  Pedro  and  San  PaMo. — The  great  harbor  of  San  Pedro  and 
San  Pablo  is  one  of  the  most  capacious  of  the  archipelago.  It  is 
formed  by  the  southwestern  coast  of  Samar  and  the  eastern  coast  of 

Cart'dris. — The  cove  of  Camiris  is  situated  north  of  Tanauan. 

Jaclugan, — The  bay  of  Jaclugan  is  formed  by  the  coast  and  a  small 
peninsula  which  extends  from  south-southwest  to  north-northeast,  east 
of  Tanauan. 

Himmangan. — The  cove  of  Hinunangan  opens  south  of  the  islands 
of  Cabugan  Grande  and  Cabugan  Chico. 


Sogod, — We  call  by  this  name  the  deep  and  spacious  cove  which 
opens  south  of  Leyte,  between  points  Taancan  or  Ninipo  on  the  west 
and  Mangayao  on  the  east,  on  the  Strait  of  Panaon. 


Tahin  Chico  and  Tahin  (rvande. — The  small  coves  of  Tabin  Chico 
and  Tabin  Grande  are  separated  by  a  small  tongue  of  land  which  lies 
9  miles  south  of  the  northwestern  end  of  Leyte. 

Tabango  and  Cmnpopo. — The  bays  of  Tabango  and  Campopo  are  at 
a  distance  of  about  6  miles  south  of  the  foregoing. 

Dupo7i. — The  Bay  of  Dupon  is  situated  between  Point  Sacay-Sacay 
on  the  northwest  and  Point  Catiyoman  on  the  southeast. 

Siapon. — The  cove  of  Siapon  opens  1^  miles  east  of  the  bay  of 

Hosted  by 



From  Siapon  the  coast  runs  southward  without  any  noticeable  inflex- 
ions, with  the  exception  of  the  bends  of  San  Agustin,  Bay  bay,  Ino- 
pacan,  Hilongos,  and  Cajagnaan,  and  that  of  Maasim  on  the  southwest. 


The  bays  and  coves  of  importance  in  the  island  of  Biliran,  situated 
north  of  Leyte,  are  those  of  Biloan,  Baganito,  Inansugan,  and  Capalis. 



Liloan. — The  port  of  Liloan  is  formed  by 'the  northern  point  of  the 
island  of  Panaon  and  the  southeast  of  Leyte. 

The  harbors  and  ports  which  are  to  be  found  on  the  cove  of  Pana- 
luran  or  port  of  Tacloban  are  very  good,  as  are  also  those  on  the  cove 
of  Cancabato,  on  the  cove  of  Hinunangan  and  specially  so  the  one  on 
the  large  cove  of  Sogod. 


Palompon. — The  port  of  Palompon  opens  14  miles  south  of  Point 

Dupon. — There  is  good  anchorage  m  the  bay  bearing  this  name. 
Siapon. — There  is  also  good  anchorage  in  the  bay  of  Siapon. 
Bello, — Port  Bello  opens  on  the  western  part  of  the  bay  of  Ormoc. 


The  northern  coast  of  Leyte  has  been  very  imperfectly  surveyed. 
It  is  probable  that  there  are  good  anchoring  grounds  in  the  various 
bends  of  the  large  bay  of  Carigara. 


Bilwan. — Vessels  can  anchor  ofl'  this  island  at  a  distance  of  half  a 
mile,  opposite  to  the  village  of  Biliran  Nuevo. 



All  along  the  northern  coast  from  west  to  east  there  are  the  foUow- 
hig  points  in  succession:  Rabin  or  Caruyucan,Villalon  or  Sugboncogon, 
Uson,  Manoc,  Bacjao,  Bulacahui,  Talairan,  Pinagmupuan,  Antipolo, 
Canumbao,  Halaba,  Baluarte,  Odbo,  Can  apug,  Calugupan,  Calbayogos, 
and  Majinasu. 


On  the  eastern  coast  the  following  are  noteworthy,  from  north  to 
south:  Canotoc,  Uban,  Cauayan,  Panirugan,  Cataisan,  Camiris,  Amban, 
Marigatdan,  Vigia,  Liberanan,  Tagbuc,  Salacot,  Taytay,  Hinunucan, 
Udiong,  Laguma,  Patyacan,  Bandan,  Malagusan,  Sua,  Hitumnog,  and 

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The  southern  coast  is  the  one  which  most  abounds  in  points.  Among 
them  are  specially  worthy  of  mention  Points  Mangayao,  Bantigui, 
Naglon,  Malatag,  Lubo,  Mayuga,  Cauayan,  Jubas,  Cataluan,  Calapo- 
can,  Magalo,  Hoangon,  Sahuaon,  Tamulayog,  Taancan  or  Ninipo, 
Cantutuy,  Higanligam,  Bato,  and  Ubay. 


On  the  western  coast  there  are  worthy  of  being  mentioned,  goin: 
from  south  to  north,  Points  Panno,  Taguus,  Cantoto,  Uman,  Ponto<\ 
Calinauan,  Cauampit,  Bitanjuan,  Panalian,  Biasong,  Nabanoc,  Pagtail, 
Baglit,  Bari,  Sacay-Sacay,  Bislutan,  Duljugan,  Binagmaan,  Canauayan, 
Linganay,  Pamangpangon,  Quiohag,  Can-apug,  Blanca,  Liglio,  Baga- 
jupi,  Tugas,  Sangubon,  Matungo,  Daja-Diotay,  Daja-Daco,  Bagorayray, 
and  Dungun. 


The  island  of  Biliran  has  the  following  points:  Pontado,  Himbucgan, 
Mapuyo,  Anas,  Mambajab  or  Amangbahan,  Mariquit,  and  Tanjas  on 
the  northern  coast;  Jabujab,  Gamay,  and  Pauican,  or  Masog,  on  the 
eastern  coast;  Nuluncan,  Matuntun,  or  Macogtong,  and  Magbugun,  on 
the  southern  coast,  and  Catmon,  Sabang,  Bagonbog,  Acta,  and  Sulung, 
on  the  western  coast. 


The  island  of  Panaon  has  also  some  remarkable  points,  such  as  Cala- 
pina,  Caligangan,  Bahag,  Maoyo,  Quinanad,  Pinaghaua,  Pinutan, 
Cainguin,  Buhisan,  Bilatan,  and  Botobolo,  on  the  eastern  coast;  Cay- 
biran,  Dinid,  and  Inolinan,  on  the  southern  coast,  and  Cogon,  Panaon, 
Mabauha,  llihan,  Maclayauas,  Bahay,  and  Cado-Ocan,  on  the  western 




Butuan, — The  bay  of  Butuan  i-s  a  spacious  bay,  opening  to  the 
north.  It  is  21  miles  wide  and  is  situated  between  the  lands  of 
Madilao  and  Point  Dinata.     It  is  one  of  the  best  bays  of  Mindanao. 

Maeajalar. — That  of  Macajalar  is  a  vast  open  bay  on  the  northwest, 
and  is  situated  between  Points  Gorda  and  Sulauan. 

Iligan, — ^The  magnificent  bay  of  Iligan  is  a  gulf,  rectangular  in 
shape,  and  opens  exactly  to  the  north. 

Pcmguil, — That  of  Panguil  runs  inward  toward  the  southwest  of  the 
gulf  or  ba}^  of  Iligan. 

Great  Bay  of  I  liana. — The  Great  Bay  of  Illana  extends  from  Point 
Flechas  as  far  as  Point  Quidapil,  southwest  of  Cotabato.     It  is  the 

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largest  bay  of  Mindanao.  It  comprises  the  bays  of  Matubug,  Paga- 
dian,  Sigayan,  Marga,  and  Caromata  on  the  north,  and  those  of  Barras, 
Matimus,  Lusayen,  and  Paranparan  on  the  east. 

Saramgani. — The  bay  of  Sarangani  runs  southward  into  the  south- 
ernmost peninsula  of  Mindanao. 

Pujaga, — The  bay  of  Pujaga,  one  of  the  best  of  the  whole  archi- 
pelago, is  situated  some  35  miles  north  of  the  Cape  of  San  Agustin. 
It  has  about  10  miles  in  its  greatest  length  from  southeast  to  northwest, 
and  is  about  5  miles  at  its  widest  part. 



Murcielagos. — The  cove  of  Murcielagos,  which  is  very  deep,  opens 
between  Point  Bombon  on  the  east  and  Point  Silla  on  the  west. 

Dapitan.—ThQ  bay  of  Dapitan  is  situated  between  Point  Tagolo 
on  the  north  and  Point  Sicayab  on  the  south.  It  is  2  miles  wide  at 
its  entrance  and  runs  inward  about  3  miles  in  a  southwesterly  direction. 

(rran  Ensenada. — This  name  is  given  to  the  cove  comprised  between 
Points  Sicayab  and  Blanca. 

Dcmigmi, — The  cove  bearing  this  name  is  comprised  between  Points 
Dauigan  and  Tabonan. 

Sindangmi. — The  bay  of  Sindangan  is  bounded  on  the  east  by  Point 
Dauigan  and  on  the  west  by  Point  Sindangan. 


An  important  bay  opens  between  Points  Dulunquin  and  Piacan, 
about  17  miles  south  of  the  port  of  Santa  Maria. 

Sihuco. — The  bay  of  Sibuco  extends  between  Simbaguan  and  Pang- 
man,  about  25  miles  north  of  Zamboanga. 


Mamngloc. — After  turning  the  peninsula  of  Zamboanga  toward  the 
east  and  going  along  the  coast  of  said  peninsula,  one  finds  south  of 
Manicahan  or  Manicaan  the  small  cove  of  Masingloc,  west  of  the 
islands  of  Malanipa  and  Saccol.  Inside  of  this  bend  is  situated  the 
small  island  of  Vilanvilan. 

Sihuguey, — From  the  small  bay  of  Masingloc  the  coast  of  Mindanao 
runs  53  miles  to  the  north-northeast,  and  then  turning  it  advances 
about  30  miles  toward  the  south,  forming  the  spacious  bay  of  Sibuguey , 
which  ends  on  the  southeast  at  the  island  of  Olutanga.  The  coasts  of 
this  bay  are  formed  by  a  great  many  islands,  and  its  points  contain 
small  ledges  of  hidden  rocks. 

This  bay  has  various  bends  or  partial  coves  which  are  little  known. 
Vitali  or  Bung (10, — North  of  Point  Vitali  there  opens  a  cove,  wbich 
we  call  Vitali  or  Bungao,  toward  the  middle  of  the  eastern  coast  of 
the  peninsula  of  Zamboanga. 

Dimianqiiilas. — The  bay  of  Dumanquilas  is  comprised  between  the 
southern  extremity  of  the  island  of  Olutanga  and  Point  Flechas  or 
Baganian,  about  30  miles  east  of  the  bay  of  Sibuguey.  The  most 
important  bay  it  contains  is  that  of  Igat. 

Tantauang, — The  bay  of  Tantauang  is  situated  south  of  the  penin- 
sula which  is  formed  between  the  bays  of  Sibuguey  and  Dumanquilas. 

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lumalung, — The  bay  of  Tumalung  opens  north  of  the  island  of 
Olutanga.     It  is  sheltered  and  has  a  good  depth. 

Malicay, — The  bay  of  Malicay  is  formed  by  Point  Dumanquilas  and 
the  peninsula  which  ends  at  Point  Flechas. 

Matuhug. — The  bay  of  Matubug  is  formed  by  Point  Tambulian  on 
the  south  and  Dapulisan  on  the  north. 

Linao. — The  bay  of  Linao  extends  from  Point  Quidapil  to  Point 

Tuna. — The  cove  of  Tuna  opens  at  about  6  miles  south  of  Point 

Cdsilaran. — The  magnificent  bay  of  Casilaran  is  situated  on  the  west- 
ern coast  of  the  large  bay  of  Davao,  after  turning  Point  Calungan. 

JDavao. — ^The  large  bay  of  Davao  is  comprised  between  Point  Calian. 
on  the  eastern  coast  of  the  peninsula  of  Sarangani,  and  Point  or  Cape 
San  Agustin,  on  the  southern  extremity  of  the  peninsula  of  this  name. 
It  contains  various  coves  or  bends,  among  which  is  specially  worthy 
of  attention  the  one  which  opens  on  the  western  coast  of  the  island  of 
Samal,  situated  in  the  center  of  said  bay. 


After  turning  Cape  San  Agustin  and  going  along  the  eastern  coast 
of  Mindanao  in  a  northerly  direction  one  finds  several  bays,  among 
which  the  following  are  worthy  of  special  mention: 

Mayo. — The  bay  of  Mayo  is  situated  near  the  bay  of  Pujaga,  on  the 
northeast,  between  Point  Lamigan  on  the  south  and  Point  Tugubum 
on  the  north. 

Yucatan. — In  the  interior  of  the  bay  of  Mayo  and  near  Point  Tugu- 
bum the  cove  of  Yucatan  opens. 

Caraga. — The  cove  of  Caraga  is  found  after  turning  Point  Pusan. 

Baganga. — The  cove  of  Baganga  runs  inward  from  Point  Daguet  to 
Point  Lambajon. 

Bislig. — The  cove  of  Bislig  is  comprised  between  Point  Tagtaba  on 
the  south  and  Point  Maslic  on  the  north.  The  islet  of  Masaburon 
divides  the  entrance  of  the  cove  into  two  channels. 

Lianga. — The  cove  of  Lianga  is  comprised  between  Point  Baculin 
on  the  south  and  Point  Umanun  on  the  north,  which  points  are  at  a 
distance  of  8  miles  from  each  other.  Other  coves  open  south  of  Point 
Lambillon  and  between  Tandag  and  Point  Cauit,  but  they  are  of  no 


Bilanhilmi. — The  harbor  of  Bilanbilan  is  1  mile  south  of  Point 
Surigao.  This  is  a  very  small  port.  A  cove,  opened  at  the  north 
and  comprised  between  Point  Bilanbilan  and  the  most  northerly  point 
of  Mindanao,  can  also  serve  as  anchoring  ground. 

Nasipit.—lL\i^  small  port  of  Nasipit  is  situated  south  of  the  Bay  of 
Butuan,  near  the  river  of  the  same  name. 

Bal'mgasag. — The  harbor  of  Balingasag  is  north  of  Point  Gorda 
and  next  to  it. 

Cabulig. — The  harbor  of  Cabulig  opens  south  of  Point  Gorda  and 
north  of  the  town  of  Jasaan,  on  the  Bay  of  Macajalar. 

Cagayan., — The  harbor  of  Cagayan  is  northeast  of  the  mouth  of  the 
River  Cagayan,  at  a  distance  of  half  a  mile. 

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OpoL— The  harbor  of  Opol  is  5  miles  west  of  the  bar  of  the  River 

AhiMjit.--Thehs.rhov  of  Ahibijit  is  7  miles  northwest  of  the  harbor 
of  Opol. 

Misaniis. — The  port  of  Misamis  opens  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay  of 
Panguil,  southwest  of  the  bay  of  Iligan. 

Loctdan.--ThehRThoY  of  Loculan  is  situated  between  the  two  mouths 
of  the  river  Loculan  in  the  bay  of  Pan^'uil. 

DapUwti. — The  port  of  Dapitan  is  opposite  the  town  of  this  name, 
on  the  bay  called  also  Dapitan. 

Talaguilong. — The  port  of  Talaguilong-  is  situated  between  the  town 
of  Dapitan  and  Point  Tagolo. 

El  Canicol. — The  Caracol  is  a  small  port  in  .the  shape  of  a  snail,  north 
^of  the  river  Dapitan  and  close  to  it. 

Dauigan, — ^The  harbor  of  Dauigan  is  on  the  bay  of  this  name. 

Baniga7i, — That  of  Banigan  is  situated  south  of  Point  Banigan. 


Santa  Maria. — The  well-sheltered  port  of  Santa  Maria  is  situated 
south  of  Point  Bulangolan  and  close  to  it. 

Caldera. — The  port  of  Caldera  is  situated  near  the  town  of  Ayala, 
on  the  southern  extremity  of  the  peninsula  of  Zamboanga;  it  is  small 
and  of  little  depth,  but  very  well  sheltered. 

pan  Mateo. — The  harbor  of  San  Mateo  is  situated  between  the  port 
of  Caldera  and  Zamboanga. 


/jirihhoayiga. — The  harbor  of  Zamboanga  is  one  of  poor  conditions  on 
account  of  its  bottom  being  formed  of  large  rocks.  It  extends  north 
of  the  islands  of  Santa  Cruz. 

'MaHhigloG. — The  excellent  harbor  or  port  of  Masingloc  goes  inward 
about  3  miles  north  of  Point  Mariqui.  It  affords  excellent  shelter  when 
high  seas  are  feared,  due  to  the  northern  hurricanes  peculiar  to  the 
Philippine  Islands. 

Banga.^-The  port  of  Banga  lies  back  of  the  cove  of  this  name. 

Bolong  and  Coruan. — There  are  anchoring  grounds  opposite  the  two 
towns  named,  the  better  being  that  of  Coruan,  which  is  very  well  shel- 
tered by  the  islands  of  the  Panubigan  group. 

Smnhnlaua/n,. — The  port  of  Sambulauan  lies  beyond  Point  Tambatan, 
on  the  cove  of  Matubug. 

Sangwrayan. — The  island  bearing  this  name,  lying  south  of  the 
northern  point  of  the  cove  of  Matubug,  together'wifli  some  hidden 
rocks  at  the  entrance  of  said  cove,  afford  fair  anchoring  grounds. 

Tucnran. — The  harbor  of  Tucuran  is  west  of  the  mountain  of  this 
same  name. 

Ba/ms. — The  harbor  of  Baras,  on  the  cove  of  this  name,  is  formed 
by  the  island  of  Ibus  and  the  coast. 

There  are  also  anchoring  grounds  between  points  Matimus  and 

Polloc. —The  magnificent  port  of  Polloc,  situated  east  of  the  bay  of 
Illana,  is  comprised  between  Point  Mariga-bato  on  the  south  and  Point 
Tagapangan  on  the  north.  It  runs  5  miles  in  to  the  east,  and  together 
with  the  northern  coast  it  forms  the  bays  of  Quidancaco  and  Sugut, 

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while  with  the  southern  coast  it  forms  a  still  larger  bay,  within  which 
is  situated  the  naval  establishment  of  Polloc.  That  of  Paran-paran  is 
on  the  western  part  of  this  bay.  Sounding  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay 
shows  a  depth  of  over  70  meters,  and  inside  of  it  there  is  a  depth  of 
from  30  to  50  meters. 

Cotabato,—T\iQ  harbor  of  Cotabato  is  situated  on  that  part  of  river 
Pulangui  which  is  opposite  the  town  of  this  name.  It  has  5  meters  of 

Linao. — The  harbor  of  Linad  is  in  the  bay  of  this  name. 

Mati.—T\\^  harbor  of  Mati  is  in  the  bend  formed  by  the  cliffs  of 
Point  Tabunao,  11  miles  nort  of  Port  Lebac. 

Lehac. — This  port  is  formed  by  points  Lebac  and  Nara. 

Basiauang. — The  harbor  or  harbors  of  Basiauang,  which  are  sit- 
uated between  the  cove  of  Lebac  on  the  north  and  the  cove  of  Tuna  on 
the  south,  are  the  best  in  this  part  of  the  coast. 

Tirmtto, — The  harbor  of  Timuto  is  north  of  Point  Baluluan  and 
close  to  it,  and  west  of  the  entrance  to  the  bay  of  Sarangani. 

Maear. —Th^  harbor  of  Macar  opens  to  the  northwest  of  the  bay 
of  Sarangani  and  contiguous  to  it. 

MluG.—T\\Q  harbor  of  Mluc  is  north  of  point  Dimpao,  also  on  the 
bay  of  Sarangani. 

Marapatang.—T\\Q  harbor  of  Marapatang  is  east  of  the  bay  of 
Sarangani.     Its  conditions  are  poor. 

Sapo. — The  small  port  of  Sapo  opens  south-southwest  of  the  harbor 
of  Marapatang. 

Glan-Masila. — The  harbor  of  Glan-Masila  is  situated  about  3  miles 
north  of  Point  Sumban,  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  bay  of  Sarangani. 

Balangunan.— The  harbor  of  Balangunan  lies  beyond  Point  Tinea, 
in  the  direction  of  the  east-northeast. 

JVuin. — The  harbor  of  Nuin  opens  li  miles  north  of  Butulan. 

Cahiran. — The  harbor  of  Caburan  is  north  of  Point  Caburan. 

Bung, — The  harbor  of  Dung  is  at  the  island  of  Sarangani,  Grande, 
or  Balut-Marila. 

7thal. — This  harbor  is  also  situated  in  the  same  island,  after  turning 
Point  Vay  toward  the  west. 

Minic. — Minic  is  a  bay  and  anchoring  ground  at  the  end  of  the  same 

Pahtco. — The  port  of  Patuco  is  the  best  in  the  island  of  Sarangani- 
Chica  and  is  situated  at  the  northern  end  of  same,  1  mile  south  of 
Point  Catoan. 

TumMnao. — The  port  of  Tumanao  is  situated  about  1  mile  south  of 
Point  Tian. 

Boay. — The  port  of  Boay  opens  south  of  the  port  of  Tumanao. 

Matalag, — The  port  of  Malalag  is  situated  in  the  cove  of  Casilaran, 
southwest  of  the  bay  of  Davao. 

Bavao, — The  harbor  of  Davao  is  situated  at  more  than  a  cable's 
length  from  the  coast,  beyond  the  bar  of  the  river  toward  the  north. 

MadoAim. — The  harbor  of  Madaum  is  situated  near  the  mouth  of 
the  river  of  this  name  within  the  bay  of  Davao. 

Pandasan  and  Cojpia. — There  is  a  good  anchoring  ground,  sheltered 
and  protected  from  all  winds  between  the  islands  of  Pandasan  and 
Copia,  situated  near  the  south-southeast  of  the  mouth  of  the  river 

Matiao, — Five  miles  S.  i  E.  of  Point  Lahi  is  the  small  cove  and 
anchorage  of  Matiao. 

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Sigaboy, — The  harbor  of  Sigaboy  is  opposite  the  town  of  this  name. 

Lanigan—T^No  miles  before  reaching  Cape  Augustin  is  the  small 
port  of  Lanigan,  good  only  for  small  craft. 

Other  anchorages  can  be  found  in  the  coves  and  bends  of  the  bay  of 

Malipano. — The  harbor  of  Malipano,  a  naval  station  in  the  bay  of 
Davao,  is  situated  between  the  small  island  of  Malipano  and  the  island 
of  Samal.  Its  conditions  are  good  and  it  is  protected  by  the  island  of 


Luban,—WQ  call  harbor  of  Luban  the  one  which  is  met  before  sail- 
ing past  Point  Camamauan  coming  from  the  South,  and  is  formed  by 
the  islet  and  Point  Luban. 

Pujaga.—T\iQ  bay  of  Pujaga  is  one  of  the  best  ports  of  Mindanao. 

Macamhol.—T\iQ  harbor  of  Macambol  is  situated  inside  of  the  bay 
of  Pujaga. 

Oaraga, — The  harbor  of  Caraga  is  situated  East  of  the  river  which 
bears  its  name,  and  it  can  give  shelter  to  small  craft. 

Tuhu. — Within  the  cove  of  Caraga,  toward  the  south,  is  the  harbor 
of  Tubu,  a  good  shelter  from  the  southeast  to  southwest  winds. 

Baganga, — East  of  the  town  of  Baganga  is  the  harbor  of  this  name. 

There  are  to  be  found  other  harbors  in  the  various  coves  and  bends 
formed  by  this  coast  as  far  as  the  strait  of  Surigao.  They  have,  how- 
ever, never  been  surveyed,  neither  do  they  appear  to  be  of  any 


There  are  two  capes  worthy  of  notice  in  Mindanao.  That  of  Saran- 
gani  or  Point  Tinaca,  at  the  southern  end  of  the  island,  and  that  of  San 
Agustin  at  the  end  of  the  western  coast  of  the  bay  of  Davao. 


From  Point  Cauit,  the  most  easterly  one  of  the  peninsula  of  Surigao, 
along  the  coast  toward  the  west,  there  are  the  following  points  in  the 
order  named:  Tugas,  Bilanbilan,  Nanoc,  Bilaa,  Bolobolo,  Diuata, 
Sipaca,  Gorda,  Bagacay,  Sulauan,  Binuni,  Biani,  Labo,  Tabu,  Divalan, 
Layauan,  Polo,  Bombaon,  Silk,  Balalo,  Tagolo,  Botong,  Sicayab, 
Blanca,  Dauit,  Tabonan,  Sindangan,  Dauigan,  Banigan,  Quipit,  Mada- 
log,  Panganuran,  Gorda,  and  Coronada. 


The  principal  points  on  this  coast,  commencing  with  the  most  north- 
erly one,  are:  Bulangonan,  Dulunquin,  Siocon,  Siraguay,  Cauit,  Pia- 
can,  Nanga,  Batotindoc,  Litangan,  Alimpaya,  Batalampon,  Dumalun, 
and  Caldera. 


The  most  important  points  on  the  coast  of  Mindanao,  which  extends 
from  Zamboanga  through  the  bays  of  Sibuguey,  Illana,  and  Davao,  are 
the  following:  Coruan,  Lutangan,  Taguisian,  and  Arenas  (island  of 
Olutanga),  Lapat,  Flechas,  Tambulian,  Tambatan,  Dapulisan,  Pora, 
Caliban,  Semaruga,  Selungan,  Lapitan,  Salauan,  Matimus,  Tagapan- 

p  c— VOL  3—01 20 

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^an,  Marigabato,  Tapian,  Maiiangula,  Lugus,  Liiput,  Liriao,  Tabuiiao, 
Quidapil,  Lebac,  Nara,  Pitas,  Basiauang,  Tuna,  Polo,  Bacud,  Bui,  Balu- 
than,  Panguian,  Tinaea,  at  the  southern  end  of  the  island;  Vay  and 
Tiain  on  the  islands  of  Sarangani;  Sagal,  Pampat,  Cabusa,  Banos, 
Calian,  Lubalan,  Tibungoy,  Cakmgan,  Pagquiputan,  Santana,  Bayagua, 
Lasang,  Parara,  Lalu,  Arenas,  and  others,  from  the  Bay  of  Davao  to 
Cape  San  Agustin. 


Sailing  past  Cape  San  Agustin  and  along  the  coast  toward  the  north 
one  meets  the  following  points:  Baluc,  Camamauan,  Luban,  Salasada, 
Nagas,  Masala,  Macaoran,  Alo,  Tumadgo,  Tataidaga,  Camainsi,  Batiano, 
Taganilao,  Lamigan,  Uguis,  Gorda,  Flaca,  Tugubum,  Maglubun,  Buan, 
Bunga,  Pusan,  Sancol,  Baculin,  Lamigon,  Daguet,  Lambajon,  Quin- 
ablayan,  Bagoso,  Tonquil,  Catel,  Catarman,  Sanco,  Tagtada,  Maslic, 
Lamon,  Baculin,  Unianun,  Lambillon,  Tandag,  and  Cauit,  from  the 
latter  of  which  the  eastern  coast  of  the  Peninsula  of  Surigao  starts. 



The  bay  of  Maluse,  situated  on  the  western  part  of  the  Isabela  de 
Basilan,  is  a  remarkable  one.  It  is  the  most  important  bay  of  the 
whole  group  of  Basilan. 



The  harbor  of  Catarman,  in  the  island  of  Camiguin,  and  that  of 
Malamaui,  in  the  island  of  Basilan,  are  good  anchorages. 


The  principal  points  of  Dinagat  are:  Desolacion  and  Berrugosa  on 
the  north.  Peninsula  and  Penascales  on  the  east,  and  Gabo  on  the  south. 


Points  Agojo,  Maquinog,  Cubuang,  and  Parol  are  the  best  known 
on  the  island  of  Camiguin. 


The  same  may  be  said  of  Points  Calabaza,  Matangal,  and  Mangal  as 
regards  the  island  of  Basilan. 

Hosted  by 









There  are  not  in  this  group  any  coves  or  bays  worthy  of  special 
mention,  on  account  of  its  being-  composed  of  'small  islandsand  various 
islets.  Navigation  between  the  islands  of  this  group  is  rather  danger- 
ous, on  account  of  the  strong  currents  which  are  to  be  found  in  its 
little-known  channels. 

(iKOrP    OF    JOLO. 

In  this  group  the  most  important  bays  are  Jolo,  Maibun,  Tutu,  and 

Jolo, — The  bay  or  harbor  of  Jolo  is  comprised  between  points 
Daingapit  and  Belan  on  the  southern  extremity.  Its  coasts  are  clear, 
and  its  bottom,  slightly  shelving,  is  generally  of  thick  sand. 

Between  points  Belam  and  Candea  there  are  formed  two  small  coves, 
which  are  separated  by  Point  Bulangsi. 

Maibun. — The  cove  of  Maibun  is  comprised  between  points  Cabalian 
on  the  west  and  Putic  on  the  east,  distant  from  each  other  8  miles.  It 
runs  in  about  2  miles  northward  on  the  coast  of  the  island  of  Jolo. 

Tuhu. — The  bay  of  Tubu  opens  east  of  that  of  Maibun  and  close  to 
it,  between  points  Putic  and  Carangdato,  distant  from  each  other  13 

Pitogo. — The  clear  and  rock-bound  bay  of  Pitogo  extends  11  miles 
to  the  northeast  from  point  Carangdato,  and  is  comprised  between  this 
point  and  Point  Landican. 


Although  there  are  no  important  bays  in  the  group  of  Tapul,  there 
are  various  bends  which  may  serve  as  anchorages,  especially  in  the 
islands  of  Siasi,  Tapul,  Lapag,  and  Lugus. 

(tRoup  of  tawi-tawi. 

Among  the  bays  of  the  group  of  Tawi-Tawi,  only  those  of  Basbas, 
Tawi-Tawi,  and  Chongos  are  worthy  of  notice. 

Basbas. — The  bend  or  small  bay  of  Basbas  is  situated  on  the  island 
of  this  name. 

Tawi-Tawi. — There  are  on  the  island  of  Tawi-Tawi,  the  largest  one 
of  the  group,  four  bays  or  bends,  sheltered  and  distributed  at  almost 
equal  distances  around  the  coast. 

Aguada.—Th^  cove  of  Aguada  is  situated  south  of  the  island  of 

Chongos. — The  cove  of  Chongos  is  situated  northeast  of  the  same 
island  of  Bongao. 

Hosted  by 





There  are  some  unimportant  harbors  in  this  group,  especially  in  the 
island  of  Balanguingui,  which  is  a  center  of  piracy. 


Tulayan, — The  harbor  of  Tulayan  is  the  best  of  the  whole  group, 
although  its  depth  of  sounding  water  is  irregular.  It  is  situated  north- 
east of  Jolo.     South  of  Tulayan  there  is  a  deep  cove. 

Jolo. — The  anchorage  of  Jolo  is  in  the  bay  or  harbor  of  this  name. 

Pata. — There  is  a  fair  harbor  in  the  island  of  this  name. 

There  are  also  fair  anchoring  grounds  in  the  bays  of  Maibun,  Tubu, 
and  Pitogo. 


Tapaam.-^There  is  good  anchorage  at  the  pass  of  Tapaam,  between 
the  island  of  this  name  and  that  of  Lapag. 

Basbas. — North  of  the  channel  of  Basbas  there  is  a  very  well-shel- 
tered harbor  and  anchoring  grounds  for  all  kinds  of  craft,  and  it  is 
easily  accessible. 

^Bos  Amigas. — The  port  of  Dos  Amigas  is  situated  on  the  northern 
coast  of  Tawi-Tawi,  9|  miles  west  of  the  harbor  of  Basbas. 

Uhian. — Vessels  can  anchor  in  the  channel  which  runs  east  of  the 
island  of  Ubian.  There  are  good  anchorages  of  13  to  20  meters,  over 
sand,  opposite  to  the  northern  extremity  of  Ubian,  and  of  15  to  18 
meters  in  the  placer  which  extends  east  of  Pandana. 


The  islands  of  the  archipelago  of  Jolo  being  mostly  small,  this  archi- 
pelago is  unimportant  from  a  hydrographic  point  of  view  so  far  as  the 
survey  of  its  points  is  concerned.  We  shall,  however,  mention  a  few 
of  the  principal  ones. 

The  best  known  are  on  the  island  of  Jolo,  and  they  are  the  following: 
Tuctuc,  Igasan,  Daingapit,  Belan,  Candea,  Silangan,  Cabalian,  Putic, 
Carangdato,  and  Ludican. 

Point  Balimbin,  on  the  island  of  Tawi-Tawi,  is  also  known. 


There  are  various  bays  and  coves  of  importance  on  this  island.  We 
will  confine  ourselves  to  mentioning  a  few  of  the  most  important  ones. 


Going  along  the  western  coast,  starting  from  the  south,  one  finds 
the  following  bays  and  coves: 

Canipan, — ^The  bay  of  Canipan,  formed  by  Points  Alimudin  on  the 
south  and  Cape  Siacle  on  the  north,  derives  its  name  from  a  river 
which  flows  into  it. 

Hosted  by 



Limapug, — The  bay  of  Limapug  runs  north  from  Cape  Siacle  and 
ends  at  Point  Coreti  on  the  north. 

SepangoiD. — ^The  bay  of  Sepangow  opens  5i  miles  northeast  of  Cape 

Marasi, — The  bay  of  Marasi  extends  from  Point  Roca  to  opposite 
the  island  of  Litalita. 

Etom. — The  bay  of  Eran  or  Cran  opens  north  of  the  point  of  this 
name  and  contiguous  to  it. 

Nacoda. — The  cove  of  Nacoda  is  formed  by  the  island  of  this  name 
and  the  coast  of  Paragua. 

Taghayug. — The  bay  of  Tagbayug  extends  east  of  Cape  Albion. 

Traidora. — The  Traidora  Bay  opens  12  miles  from  Cape  Albion. 

Apuranan, — The  harbor  or  bay  of  Apuranan  is  5  miles  distant  from 
the  cliff  of  Moorsom,  south  of  Point  Larga. 

Ulugan. — The  aborigines  call  the  bay  of  Banog  '^bay  of  Ulugan." 
It  runs  inward  8  miles  to  the  south,  and  almost  divides  the  Paragua  in 
two  halves.  Its  entrance  is  2  miles  wide,  between  Point  Corneria  and 
Point  Cabeza  Rota. 

Taguipa. — The  cove  of  Taguipa  opens  next  to  Cape  Dean. 

Ostras. — The  cove  of  Ostras  is  situated  between  Points  Coral  and 

San  Pablo. — The  bay  of  San  Pablo  extends  east  of  Point  Sangbonen. 

Botalon — The  bay  of  Botalon  is  formed  on  the  northern  coast  of 
Point  Promontorio. 

Cruz  de  Mayo. — The  bay  of  Cruz  de  Mayo  is  east  of  the  islands  of 
Catalat  and  Cacbolo  and  contiguous  to  them. 

Reinas. — The  bay  of  Reinas  runs  inward  between  Point  Bubon  and 
Point  Ostras. 

Pagdanan. — The  bay  of  Pagdanan  is  comprised  between  Point  Bet- 
bet  and  Cape  Pagdanan. 

ImuryAin.—ThQ  bay  of  Imuruan  is  formed  by  Cape  Pagdanan  toward 
the  south  and  Point  Emergencia  toward  the  north. 

Inlutiitoc. — The  bay  of  Inlututoc  is  formed  by  Cape  Capoas  and  Point 
Del  Diente. 

Bolalo. — The  bay  of  Bolalo,  north  of  Point  Del  Diente,  is  comprised 
between  this  point  and  Point  Barmidiaran. 

Malampaya. — The  bay  of  Malampaya,  situated  on  the  opposite  coast 
of  Taytay,  is  perhaps  the  best  in  the  Philippines. 

Pirata. — Pirata  Bay  is  the  best  of  the  three  bays  which  are  formed 
at  the  entrance  of  the  port  of  Malampaya  and  the  narrows  which  are 
4  miles  to  the  north. 

Caiman. — The  bay  of  Caiman  is  the  northern  one  of  the  two  which 
occupy  the  southern  side  of  the  strait,  contiguous  to  Pirata  Bay. 

Malipu, — The  bay  of  Malipu  is  separated  from  the  bay  of  Caiman 
by  Point  Balulu. 

Bamiit. — The  bay  of  Bacuit  is  a  deep  bay,  formed  by  a  series  of 
islands  and  by  the  coast  of  La  Paragua,  near  its  northern  extremity. 


Going  along  the  eastern  coast,  from  south  to  north,  one  meets  the 
following  bays  and  coves: 

Pied/ras. — The  bay  of  Piedras  runs  inward  and  near  the  Mantalingajan 
mountain  range. 

Hosted  by 



fslas, — The  bay  of  Lslas  is  on  the  same  parallel  as  that  of  Tagbayug 
on  the  western  coast. 

Aided. — The  bay  of  Aldea  opens  '2,  miles  north  of  the  island  of 

Honda. — Seamen  call  Bahia  Honda  (Honda  Bay)  that  part  of  the  coast 
which  extends  about  25  miles  to  the  southwest  of  Point  Acantilada.  It 
corresponds  to  the  bay  of  IJlugan  on  the  western  coast. 

IdasVerdeH, — The  bay  of  lslas  Verdes  is  formed  northeast  of  the 
Verde  Islands. 

Dwrria/ran, — The  bay  of  Dumaran  opens  toward  the  north  of  Point 

Taytay. — The  magnificent  ba}^  of  Taytay,  10  miles  wide  and  6  miles 
deep,  extends  on  the  opposite  coast  corresponding  to  the  interior  of 
the  port  of  Malampaya. 

Silanga. — The  bay  of  Silanga  is  formed  by  the  island  of  Maitiaguit 
and  the  coast  of  La  Paragua. 

Aletas  de  Tihuron. — The  bay  of  Aletas  de  Tiburon  runs  inward  north 
of  Maitiaguit^and  contiguous  to  this  island. 

Santa  Monica. --^^ ^  call  bay  of  Santa  Monica  that  small  cove  which 
opens  near  to  the  northern  extremity  of  La  Paragua,  and  on  which  is 
situated  the  town  of  this  name. 

DaroGotan. — The  cove  of  Darocotan  opens  north  of  the  point  of  this 



Evan. — There  is  good  anchorage  east  of  Point  Eran,  in  the  bay  of 
this  name. 

Nacoda. — The  anchoring  grounds  of  Nacoda  are  in  the  cove  of  this 

Taghayug. — The  anchoring  grounds  of  Tagbayug  are  in  the  ba}"  of 
this  name. 

Apuranan. — The  anchoring  grounds  of  Apuranan  are  west  of  the 
cliflf  of  Apuranan. 

Vlugan. — The  anchoring  grounds  of  Ulugan  are  at  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  island  of  Santa  Rita. 

Barton. — The  port  of  Barton  comprises  the  space  of  sea  between 
the  islands  of  Albaguen  and  Cacnipa  and  the  promontory  which 
advances  toward  the  east  of  the  latter  island. 

Capsalay. — There  is  an  anchorage  north  of  the  island  of  this  name. 

Imuruan. — There  is  also  an  anchorage  in  the  bay  of  this  name. 

Malampaya. — The  magnilicent  port  of  Malampaya  is  on  the  eastern 
part  of  the  peninsula  of  Capoas.  It  is  without  a  doubt  the  best  in  the 

Cadlao. — We  call  the  harbor  of  Cadlao  the  one  which  is  situated  on 
the  northern  side  of  the  island  of  this  name. 


Port  Princesa  or  Port  Yuahit. — This  port  is  4^  miles  northeast  of 
Point  Tabla  and  its  entrance  is  between  this  point  and  Point  Saboruce. 

Cana. — We  call  the  harbor  of  Cana  the  one  which  is  situated  between 
the  ridge  of  Point  Cana  and  Point  Bateria. 

Dumaran. — The  island  of  Dumaran  has  good  anchoring  grounds 
toward  the  south-southwest  of  the  bay  of  this  name. 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 




The  principal  capes  and  points  of  the  western  coast  of  Paragua  are: 
Cape  Buliluj^an,  on  the  southern  extremity.  Points  Reposo,  Panimu- 
san,  Alimudin,  Providencia,  Pinos,  and  Lean;  Cape  Washington ;  points 
Jervois,  Townsend,  Pampandugang,  Eran  or  Cran;  capes  Albion  and 
Tajado  or  Point  Steep;  points  Larga,  Mesa,  Del  Noroeste,  Piedras, 
Promontorio,  Pagdanan,  Macaguit,  Tabonan,  Del  Diente,  Parmidiaran, 
Del  Esfnerzo,  De  la  Columna;  Cape  of  La  Cuna;  points  Baluluk, 
Cabuli,  and  Darocotan,  on  the  northern  extremity  of  the  island. 


The  principal  points  on  this  coast  are:  Rawrisley,  Madropora,  Decep- 
cion,  Marantow,  Okyan,  De  la  Iglesia,  Segyam,  San  Juan,  Sir  James 
Brook,  Filantropia,  De  la  Nariz,  Del  Pescado,  Eustasia,  Scolt,  Separa- 
cion,  Casuarina,  Tabla,  Binunsalian,  Briyoon,  Del  Castillo,  Acantilada, 
Flechas,  Bay,  Tinactactan,  and  Negra. 


The  principal  bays  and  coves  of  the  island  of  Balabac  are  those  of 
Calandorang,  Dalauan,  Clarendon,  and  Puerto  Ciego. 

Calandora7ig ,—T\iQ  bay  of  Calandorang  extends  toward  the  north- 
ern part  of  the  island. 

Daloman. — The  bay  of  Dalauan  is  on  the  eastern  coast  near  the 
southern  end  of  the  island. 

Clarendon. — The  bay  of  Clarendon  opens  toward  the  northeast  of 

Puerto  Ciego. — The  bay  known  b}^  the  name  of  Puerto  Ciego  opens 
toward  the  northwest,  and  is  obstructed  by  coral  reefs. 


Although  anchor  may  be  dropped  all  along  the  channel  or  northern 
strait  of  Balabac,  there  is  a  bend  west  of  a  rather  long  ledge  of  rocks 
which  is  formed  in  front  of  the  mouth  of  a  wide  creek  and  which  is 
more  or  less  half  a  cable's  length  distant  from  the  eastern  entrance  of 
the  channel  on  the  southern  coast,  where  there  is  an  anchorage  of  10 
meters  in  depth  with  a  mud  bottom. 

Port  of  Principe  Alfonso. — There  is  a  good  anchorage  in  the  bay  of 
Calandorang,  sheltered  and  protected,  especially  against  the  winds  and 
seas  from  south  to  west,  called  Port  of  Principe  Alfonso. 


Capes  Desastre  and  Melville,  the  former  on  the  northern  extremity 
of  the  island  and  the  latter  on  the  southern  end,  are  worth  mentioning 

Hosted  by 




SKA8,  CHA:NKT^]I.8,  straits,  passages,  AKT)  ''SII.A]SrOAS." 


As  it  was  not  easy  to  include  in  the  division  which  we  have  followed 
in  this  treatise  the  seas,  channels,  straits,  passages,  and  silangas  of  the 
Philippine  Archipelago  on  account  of  their  large  number,  and  it  being 
on  the  other  hand  very  useful  to  know  where  they  are  situated,  we 
have  thought  it  proper  to  devote  this  chapter  to  the  enumeration  and 
location  of  same. 

Although  there  is  apparently  no  essential  difference  between  a  chan- 
nel, a  strait,  a  passage,  and  a  ''silanga,"  we  shall  still  adopt  the  names 
given  by  seamen  acquainted  with  these  islands,  or  which  have  been 
used  in  the  hydrographic  maps  hitherto  published. 


The  seas  which  wash  the  Philippine  Archipelago  are  the  Pacific 
Ocean  on  the  east,  the  China  Sea  on  the  north  and  west,  the  Celebed 
Sea  on  the  south,  and  the  Sea  of  Jolo  or  Mindoro,  comprised  between 
the  islands  of  Borneo,  Paragua,  Calamianes,  Mindoro,  Panay,  Negros, 
Mindanao,  and  the  archipelago  of  Jolo. 

The  portion  of  sea  which  extends  from  the  southern  part  of  Luzon 
to  the  northern  coast  of  Mindanao,  between  the  Visaya  Islands,  is 
known  by  the  names  of  Interior  Sea,  Interinsular  Sea,  and  Visayas  Sea. 


The  most  important  channels  in  the  Philippines  are  the  following: 

Channel  of  Baschi^  between  the  island  of  Formosa  and  the  group  of 
Batanes,  north  of  Luzon. 

Channel  of  Balingtan,  between  the  Babuyanes  Islands  and  the 
Batanes,  north  of  Luzon. 

Channel  of  Isla  Verde,  between  Luzon  and  the  island  of  Mmdoro. 

Channel  of  Lubang,  between  the  group  of  the  Lubang  Islands  and 

Channel  of  Mindoro,  between  Mindoro  and  the  Calamianes  group. 

Channel  of  Ylin,  between  the  Ylin  and  Mindoro  islands. 

Channel  of  Ambolon,  between  the  Ylin  and  Ambolon  islands. 

Channel  of  Biliran,  between  the  northwestern  point  of  Leyte  and 
the  southwestern  coast  of  Biliran. 

Channel  of  Buad,  between  the  bay  of  Maqueda  and  the  Parasan  and 
Buad  islands. 

Channel  of  Janabatas,  on  the  west-northwest  end  of  the  strait  of 
San  Juanico. 

Channel  of  Malapascua,  between  the  Malapascua  and  Chocolate 

Channel  of  Tictauan,  at  the  eastern  entrance  to  the  strait  of  Basilan. 

Channel  of  Binitosa,  in  the  Basilan  group. 

Channel  of  Salipin,  in  the  Basilan  group,  to  the  south. 

Channel  of  Tapiantana,  in  the  Basilan  group,  to  the  south. 

Hosted  by 



Channel  of  Siasi,  in  the  Tapul  ^roup. 

Channel  of  Basbas,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  del  Norte,  northeast  of  the  island  of  Balabae. 

Channel  of  Comiran,  east  of  the  island  of  Balabac. 

Channel  of  Lumbacan,  east  of  the  island  of  Balabac. 

Channel  of  Simanahan,  east-southeast  of  the  island  of  Balabac. 

Channel  of  Enmedio,  southeast  of  the  island  of  l^alabac. 

Channel  of  Mangsee,  southwest  of  the  above. 

Channel  of  Noche  Buena,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  La  Verbena,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Maipat,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Cambacamba,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Sipungut,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Tandubas,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  the  west  of  Banaran,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  the  west  of  Basibuki,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Balseiro,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Bambulin,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Channel  of  Pasco,  in  the  Verde  Islands. 

Channel  of  Dumaran,  between  the  islands  of  Duiuaran  and  Paragua. 


The  principal  straits  are: 

Strait  of  San  Bernardino,  between  the  Southern  end  of  Luzon  and 
the  northwestern  end  of  the  island  of  Samar. 

Strait  of  the  Isla  Verde,  between  Luzon  and  the  Island  of  Min- 
dora.     (Also  called  Channel  of  the  Isla  Verde.) 

Strait  of  Los  Ticlines,  between  Luzon  and  the  islands  of  Calintan, 
Juac,  and  Ticlin,  southeast  of  the  province  of  Sorsogon. 

Strait  of  Mindoro,  between  Mindoro  and  the  Calamianes  Island. 
(Also  called  Channel  of  Mindoro.) 

Strait  of  San  Juanico,  between  the  islands  of  Samar  and  Leyte. 

Strait  of  Coron,  in  the  Calamianes  group. 

Strait  of  Iloilo,  between  the  islands  of  Panay  and  Negros. 

Strait  of  Tanon,  between  the  islands  of  Negros  and  Cebu. 

Strait  of  Surig-ao,  between  the  southern  ends  of  Samar  and  Leyte 
and  the  northern  coast  of  Mindanao. 

Strait  of  Basilan,  between  the  islands  of  Mindanao  and  Basilan. 

Strait  of  the  Bloqueo,  toward  the  south  of  Tuluran  (Paragua). 

Strait  of  El  Esfuerzo,  toward  the  east  of  Tuluran  (Paragua). 

Strait  of  Balabac,  between  the  islands  of  Balabac  and  Banguey. 

Strait  of  the  north  of  Balabac,  between  the  islands  of  La  Paragua 
and  Balabac. 


The  passages  between  the  various  islands  are,  as  it  will  be  easily 
understood,  innumerable.  We  shall  only  mention  some  of  those 
specially  known  as  being  the  most  frequented  by  vessels: 

Passages  of  Boca  Chica  and  Boca  Grande,  at  the  entrance  of  the  bay 
of  Manila. 

Passages  of  Ambil,  in  the  group  of  the  Lubang  Islands. 

Passages  north  of  the  Verde  Island,  between  the  Verde  Island  and 

Passages  soutti  of  the  Verde  Island,  between  the  Verde  and  Mindoro. 

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Passage  north  of  Maricaban,  between  the  island  of  Maricaban  and 

Passage  south  of  Maricaban,  between  the  islands  of  Maricaban  and 

Passage  of  Mompog,  between  Point  Tuginan  (Luzon)  and  the  island 
of  Mompog. 

Passage  of  Sibuyan,  between  the  islands  of  Sibuyan  and  Mas  bate. 

Passage  of  Masbate,  between  this  island  and  that  of  Ticao. 

Passage  of  Ticao,  between  this  island  and  that  of  Luzon. 

Passage  of  Tablas,  between  this  island  and  that  of  Komblon. 

Passage  of  Bocaboc,  at  the  entrance  of  the  Strait  of  Tanon. 

Passage  east  of  Ginatuan,  between  the  northeastern  coast  of  Min- 
danao and  the  islands  of  Dinagat  and  Bucas. 

Passage  of  Tapaam,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 

Passage  of  Pangutaran,  in  the  Tawi-tawi  group. 


The  most  frequented  "silangas"  are  the  following: 

"Silanga"  of  Golo,  in  the  Lubang  group. 

"Silanga"  of  Cabra,  in  the  Lubang  group. 

"Silanga"  of  Rapurrapu,  between  the  islands  of  Rapurrapu  and 

''Silanga"  of  Sula,  between  Luzon  and  the  island  of  Cacraray. 

' '  Silanga  "  of  Pitogo,  between  Luzon  and  the  island  of  Pitogo. 

"Silanga"  of  Casolgan,  between  the  islands  of  Cacraray  and  San 

''Silanga"  of  Cacraray,  between  the  islands  of  Cacraray  and  Batan. 

"Silanga"  of  Cebu,  between  the  islands  of  Cebu  and  Mactan. 

"  Silanga"  of  Tagbilaran,  between  the  islands  of  Bohol  and  Panglao. 

"  Silanga  "  of  Gabo,  between  Dinagat  and  the  islands  of  the  Ginatuan 

''Silanga"  of  Dapa,  between  the  southwestern  coast  of  the  island  of 
Sirgao  and  the  island  of  Bucas. 

"Silanga"  of  La  Isabela,  between  the  islands  of  Malamaui  and 

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CHAPTER  I.    . 



There  are  four  principal  rivers  in  the  island  of  Luzon,  which  run  in 
opposite  directions  nearly  the  whole  length  of  the  island,  namely:  The 
Grande  de  Cagayan,  the  Agno  Grande,  the  Abra,  and  the  Grande  de 
la  Pampanga.  Their  basins  are  determined  by  the  three  great  moun- 
tain ranges,  which,  as  we  said  in  the  Treatise  on  Orography,  belong  to 
the  system  of  the  Caraballos. 


Among  the  rivers  of  Luzon  the  Grande  de  Cagayan,  likewise  called 
Tajo  by  the  Spaniards,  holds  the  first  place,  not  only  on  account  of  its 
great  length  but  also  on  account  of  the  great  volume  of  its  waters. 
Compared  with  all  the  rivers  of  the  archipelago  it  is  second  to  none, 
unless  it  be  the  river  Grande  de  Mindanao.  The  territory  drained  by 
it  embraces  all  the  region  lying  between  the  Western  Caraballos,  the 
Sierra  Madre,  and  the  Southern  Caraballos,  with  a  total  area  or  extent 
of  38.52  square  kilometers.  The  source  of  this  great  river  is  on  the 
northern  slope  of  the  Southern  Caraballos,  to  the  east  of  the  starting 
point  of  the  Mamparan  mountain  range. 

At  first  it  follows  a  northeasterly  direction,  and  after  receiving  the 
waters  which  come  from  the  eastern  slope  of  the  above-mentioned 
Mamparan  range  and  those  which  come  from  the  western  slope  of  the 
Sierra  Madre,  it  continues  in  the  same  general  direction  for  a  distance 
of  more  than  20  leagues  until  it  reaches  Tumauini,  which  is  about  half- 
way of  its  course,  having  received  by  its  left  bank,  in  the  neighbor- 
hood of  Gainu,  the  largest  of  its  affluents,  the  River  Magat.  Passing 
by  Ilagan  and  Tumauini,  it  continues  its  course  in  a  northerly  direction, 
and  having,  with  great  windings,  fertilized  the  towns  of  Cabagan, 
Nuevo,  Iguig,  Amulung,  Alcala,  Gattaran,  and  Lal-lo,  it  reaches,  with 
a  broad  and  navigable  current,  the  town  of  Aparri,  located  near  its 
mouth,  where  it  yields  up  its  tribute  of  waters  to  the  China  Sea,  which 
bathes  the  northern  coast  of  Luzon. 

Numerous  tributaries  pour  into  the  Cagayaan  on  both  sides,  those 
deserving  special  mention  being  the  Magat,  the  Bangag  or  Chico,  and 
the  Siffu  or  Sibbu,  which  enter  into  it  by  the  left  bank. 


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The  Magat  is  approximately  25  leag-ues  long,  and  rises  in  the  south- 
west corner  of  the  province  of  Nueva  Vizeaya,  among  the  mountains 
Mingoht,  Salaesa,  Dalandem,  and  Ugu  or  Lugsen,  at  the  junction  of 
the  Western  Caraballos  and  Mamparan  mountain  ranges.  It  runs  first 
toward  the  north,  passing  by  Aritao;  it  waters  the  boundaries  of  Bam- 
bang,  Bayombong  and  Bagabag;  then  it  turns  toward  the  east,  passing 
by  Reina  Mercedes,  and  empties  its  waters  into  th<3  Cagayan  near  the 
town  of  Gamu.  The  affluents  of  the  Magat,  within  the  province  of 
Nueva  Vizeaya,  are:  the  Mingolit,  Caraballo,  Abual,  Matumut,  Ibulao, 
Ahnit,  Mayoyao,  and  other  less  important  ones  on  the  left  bank,  and 
the  Abian,  Angadanan,  and  Salinan  on  the  right. 

The  Bangag  orChico  empties  into  the  Cagayan  on  its  left  bank  in 
the  township  of  Alcala,  and  near  the  town  of  Nagsiping.  It  gathers 
its  waters  from  numerous  tributaries,  which  descend  in  different  direc- 
tions from  the  rugged  mountains  situated  on  the  west  of  the  divide  of 
Itaves,  and  those  from  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Central  Caraballos, 
where  it  rises  near  the  valley  of  Banano.  Its  length  is  some  17  leagues', 
and,  although  at  the  beginning  it  flows  from  west  to  east  as  far  as  near 
Piat,  it  turns  thence  toward  the  northeast  until  it  reaches  the  Cagayan. 
While  passing  through  the  provinces  of  Cagayan,  Albra,  and  Bon  toe 
it  receives  its  most  important  tributaries,  which  are  the  Saltan,  Nab- 
buangan,  and  Sable. 

The  Siff'u  or  Sibbu  gathers  all  the  waters  of  the  region  west  of  the 
district  of  Bontoc  and,  flowing  toward  the  east,  passes  through  part  of 
Isabela  until  it  joins  the  Cagayan  between  Ilagan  and  Tumauini. 


From  the  western  slopes  of  the  Sierra  Madre,  crossing  districts 
inhabited  only  by  savages,  there  descend  many  other  tributaries  of  the 
Cagayan,  which  ]oin  it  on  its  right  bank;  the  principal  ones  being  the 
Disabungan  Ditulay,  Catalangan,  Tarretic,  Masagan,  Pinacanauan  de 
lumauini,  1  macanauan  de  Cabagan,  and  Pinacanauan  de  Tuguegarao. 
ihey  are  all  short,  the  longest  not  exceeding  10  leagues  in  length. 


The  Agno  is  the  second  in  importance  among  the  rivers  of  Luzon. 
It  rises  on  the  southern  slope  of  Mount  Data,  near  the  boundary 
between  the  districts  of  Benguet  and  Lepanto  and  the  province  of  Nueva 
V  izcaya.  Its  length  is  about  32  leagues.  It  crosses  the  district  of  Ben- 
gmet  trom  north  to  south  and  the  province  of  Pagasinan  in  a  direction 
trom  northwest  to  southeast  at  first,  and  between  San  Nicolas  and 
layug  It  begins  to  form  a  great  sweep,  which  continues  in  the  direction 
trom  northeast  to  southwest,  passing  through  Rosales,  Alcala,  and 
Bayambang,  and  after  having  received  the  waters  of  the  river  Tarlac  a 
little  further  south,  inclines  toward  the  northwest,  watering  the  bound- 

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aries  of  Urbiztondo  and  Aguilar,  and  dividing  into  two  branches  near 
Salasa,  one  flowing  toward  the  northeast  and  ending  in  Dagupan,  while 
the  other  flows  toward  the  west,  and  after  having  received  near  San 
Isidro  the  waters  of  a  branch  of  the  first,  which  passes  by  the  town  of 
Lingayen,  it  pours  its  waters  into  the  western  part  of  the  Gulf  of 


There  are  many  tributaries  to  the  Agno  Grande,  on  account  of  the 
broken  country  it  runs  through,  but  those  which  carry  the  most  water 
are  the  ones  received  in  the  second  half  of  its  course,  and  the  principal 
ones  among  them  are  the  Tarlac  and  the  Camilung,  which  empty  into 
it  on  the  left  in  the  vast  plains  of  Pangasinan.  The  other  tributaries 
on  the  left  are  the  Angbayabang,  Matabla'n,  Nibobon,  Agra,  Olo, 
Julaguit,  Soboc,  Salamague,  and  Dumulo.  Of  those  on  the  right  bank, 
which  are  not  so  numerous,  the  only  ones  that  deserve  mention  are  the 
Agno  Chico,  the  Catablas,  the  Macalang,  and  the  Sinuncalan. 


The  third  of  the  rivers  of  Luzon  is  the  Abra,  which,  descending  from 
the  northern  slope  of  the  Data,  in  the  district  of  Lepanto,  in  the  oppo- 
site direction  to  the  river  Agno  Grande,  gathers  in  the  beginning  the 
waters  of  the  northern  and  western  slopes  of  the  Data,  and  those  of  its 
tribuary,  the  Sayuc,  which,  having  its  source  on  the  southern  declivity 
of  the  same  mountain,  forms  a  great  curve  toward  the  south,  then  runs 
toward  the  north,  and  empties  into  the  Abra  between  the  towns  of 
Mancaj^an  and  Cervantes,  the  volume  of  water  being  then  considerable. 
Its  general  direction  from  Cervantes  to  Angaqui,  near  the  mountain 
range  of  Tila,  and  in  the  eastern  part,  is  from  south  to  north  as  far  as 
Tayum,  in  the  province  of  Abra;  there  it  describes  a  semicircle  in  a 
southerly  direction  and  soon  continues  in  a  southwesterly  course,  passes 
through  the  mountain  range  which  separates  Abra  from  Ilocos  Sur,  and, 
having  watered  the  boundaries  of  Bangued,  Pidigan,  and  San  Quintin, 
divides,  within  Ilocos  Sur,  near  Santa,  into  two  branches,  which  not 
far  from  Vigan  empty  at  different  points  into  the  China  Sea.  Its 
length  is  some  25  leagues. 


Besides  the  Suyuc  it  receives  as  tributary  the  Tinog,  which  is  formed 
by  the  union  of  the  Anayan  and  Caluan,  which  gather  the  waters  from 
the  southern  slopes  of  Pagsan.  It  flows  from  northeast  to  southwest, 
to  increase  its  volume,  near  La  Paz,  with  the  waters  of  several  rivers 
which  rise  in  the  mountains  Liputen,  Mabulusan,  Cusa,  Balatinao,  and 
Maonayud,  until  between  Dolores  and  San  Gregorio  it  joins  the  main 
branch  of  the  Abra.  Other  less  important  tributaries  are  the  Mala- 
nao,  Baay,  Abas,  Mamebel,  BuUoc,  Damunil,  Ulip,  Balasian,  andDica- 
pen,  all  on  the  right  bank,  which  gather  the  waters  from  the  western 
slope  of  the  central  Caraballos. 


The  river  Grande  de  la  Pampanga  has  its  source  in  several  rivers 
which  drain  the  waters  from  the  southern  slopes  of  the  Southern  Cara- 
ballos range,  in  mountains  Lagsig  and  Mingolit,  and  therefore  on  the 

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opposite  slope  to  that  of  the  river  Magat,  which,  as  we  have  just  seen, 
belongs  to  the  basin  of  the  river  Grande  de  Cagayan.  Its  general 
direction  is  from  north  to  south,  and  it  flows  through  the  provinces  of 
Nueya  Eeija  and  Pampanga.  In  the  lirst  part  of  its  course  and  before 
receiving,  near  Arayat,  the  river  Chico  de  la  Pampanga,  it  waters  the 
boundaries  of  Bongabon,  Santos,  Cabanatuan,  Jaen,  San  Isidro,  and 
Cabiao,  all  in  Nueva  Ecija.  From  Arayat  it  turns  toward  the  east, 
and,  passing  near  4he  shores  of  Lake  Candaba,  it  continues  through 
San  Luis,  San  Simon,  and  Calumpit,  always  toward  the  south,  until, 
having  divided  into  numerous  branches,  it  forms  a  complicated  net- 
work of  channels  and  marshes,  which  empty  their  waters  into  Manila 


The  river  Chico  de  la  Pampanga  rises  in  Lake  Canaron,  province  of 
Tarlac,  and,  taking  a  southeast  course  between  the  boundaries  of  Nueva 
Ecija,  Tarlac,  and  Pampanga,  after  having  fertilized  the  boundaries  of 
La  Paz  and  Zaragoza,  near  Arayat,  province  of  Pampanga,  contributes 
its  waters  to  the  voluminous  river  which  from  said  confluence  to  its 
mouth  is  properly  called  the  river  Grande  de  la  Pampanga. 


The^  principal  tributaries  of  this  great  river  are  the  Barat,  Calun- 
gan,  Carranglan,  Tuntumin,  Santor,  Gapan,  San  Jose,  and  Parudo. 



The  Cauit  traverses  the  province  of  Ilocos  Norte,  and,  passing  between 
Laoag  and  San  Nicolas,  over  the  bar  of  its  name,  pours  its  waters  into 
the  China  Sea.  Its  tributaries  are,  among  others,  the  Gant,  the  Guisi, 
the  Baybay,  the  Pagsan,  and  the  Pagsambaran,  which  descend  from 
the  western  slopes  of  the  northern  Caraballos. 

The  Pasig,  which  flows  out  of  the  Laguna  de  Bay  through  five 
branches  and  is  its  outlet,  empties  into  the  magnificent  bay  of  Manila. 
It  has  several  tributaries,  those  which  it  receives  from  the  right  bank 
being  the  only  important  ones,  among  which  may  be  mentioned,  on 
account  of  their  great  volume  of  water,  the  Cainta,  Grande  de  San 
Mateo,  and  San  Francisco  del  Monte.  Those  which  unite  with  it  on 
the  left  bank  are  nothing  more  than  small  streams  and  creeks,  short  in 
length  and  carrying  little  water.  The  river  Pasig  is  the  principal 
means  of  communication  between  Manila  and  the  interior  of  Luzon, 
especially  between  Manila  and  the  Laguna  de  Bay,  which  is  only  18  miles 
distant.  Its  width  is  from  100  to  2,000  meters,  and  its  depth  is  also 
variable,  ranging  from  2.28  to  6.13  meters. 


The  Bicol  is  the  principal  river  of  Southern  Luzon.  It  rises  on  the 
slopes  of  Mount  Isarog,  province  of  Ambos  Camarines,  and  flows 
toward  the  southwest,  dividing  into  two  branches,  the  smaller  one  taking 

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a  southeastern  course  until  it  empties  into  the  lake  of  Bato,  while  the  main 
branch  follows  a  southwestern  direction,  and,  passing  through  Nueva 
Caceres,  San  Nicolas,  and  Panon,  empties,  after  a  course  of  178  kilo- 
meters, through  its  mouth  at  Cabusan,  into  the  bay  of  San  Miguel. 
Its  tributaries  on  the  left  bank  rise  in  the  Colasi  Mountains  and  in 
Mount  Amtig.  This  river  forms,  with  the  Quinali  and  the  Lipocot,  the 
basis  of  the  hydrography  of  the  province,  and  is  of  no  small  importance 
to  the  geology  of  Am  bos  Camarines. 

The  Imus  also  deserves  special  mention  because  it  empties  into 
Manila  Bay,  and  it  is  navigable  up  to  the  town  which  gave  it  its  name. 


The  rivers  of  the  coast  ai"e  of  little  importance.  Those  which  rise 
on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Sierra  Madre  pour  their  waters  into  the 
Pacific  Ocean.  They  are  the  Degollirin,  in  Isabela;  the  Casignan, 
which  empties  into  the  bay  of  Baler,  district  of  Principe;  the  Baler, 
which  has  several  tributaries  (the  principal  ones  being  the  Dicaniti,  the 
Dimanalepe,  the  Malanis,  the  Dinmnaglan,  and  the  Caliselan),  empties 
into  the  bay  of  the  same  name;  the  Tbonan  runs  into  the  cove  of  Din- 
gala;  the  Taborgon,  into  the  cove  of  Sogod;  the  Cal)ibijan  and  the 
Calabanga,  into  the  bay  of  Nagay;  the  Simol  and  the  Tinuiragat,  into 
the  bay  of  San  Miguel;  the  Malaquing  and  the  Hog,  which  descend 
from  Mount  Malarayat,  into  the  bay  of  Tayabas;  the  Batangas,  formed 
by  the  Tabla,  and  others  which  empty  into  the  bay  of  Batangas. 


The  lake  of  Bay,  situated  between  the  provinces  of  Manila,  Morong, 
Cavite,  and  Laguna,  is  undoubtedly  the  most  important  in  the  island 
of  Luzon.  It  is  some  200  kilometers  in  circumference,  with  an  island 
in  the  center  called  Talim,  Avhich  forms  the  strait  of  Quinabulusan, 
besides  several  other  small  islands,  such  as  those  called  Pulo  Insan, 
Pulo  Olgipan,  Pulo  Calamba,  and  Pulo  Bay.  On  the  north  there  are 
three  gulfs  and  two  peninsulas,  and  on  its  shores  are  found  the  capitals 
Morong  and  Santa  Cruz  de  la  Laguna.  It  communicates  with  Manila 
Bay  through  the  Pasig  River,  and  it  receives  the  waters  of  15  rivers. 
It  has  all  the  appearance  of  a  small  sea  of  fresh  water,  and  among 
the  fish  caught  in  it  those  called  ''corvinas"  (a  kind  of  conger)  are 


The  lake  of  Taal  or  Bombon,  situated  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the 
province  of  Batangas,  is  second  in  importance  among  the  lakes  of 
Luzon.  It  has  a  perimeter  of  120  kilometers,  approximately,  its 
diameters  from  north  to  south  and  from  east  to  west  being,  respec- 
tively, 28  and  20  kilometers.  It  communicates  with  the  sea  through 
the  river  Pansipit,  which  has  a  very  slight  inclination,  and  this  clearly 
proves  that  there  is  very  little  difference  between  the  level  of  the  lake 
and  the  sea  level.  In  spite  of  its  small  size  the  depth  of  this  lake  is 
quite  considerable,  measuring  as  much  as  106  fathoms  at  a  very  short 

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distance  from  the  shore  in  some  places,  as  has  been  proved  b}^  various 
soundings  taken  in  it.  In  the  midst  of  it  is  the  volcano  of  Taal,  which 
we  mentioned  in  the  Treatise  on  Orography,  Chapter  III,  page  439. 


Besides  those  of  Bay  and  Bombon,  there  are  also  worthy  of  mention, 
in  the  territory  of  Luzon,  those  of  Candaba  and  Canaren,  in  the  prov- 
ince of  Pampanga;  that  of  Hagonoy,  in  Bulacan;  that  of  Mangabol, 
between  the  towns  of  Paniqui  and  Bayambang,  in  the  province  of  Tar- 
lac,  more  than  25  kilometers  in  circumference;  that  of  Cagayan,  in 
the  northeastern  region  of  the  province  of  that  name,  with  a  length  of 
16  kilometers  by  11  in  width;  that  of  Talavera,  in  Nueva  Ecija,  with 
a  perimeter  of  22  kilometers;  that  of  Paoay  or  Danum,  10  meters 
deep  and  more  than  10  kilometers  in  extent,  in  the  province  of  Ilocos 
Norte;  the  lake  Bato,  among  whose  tributaries  are  found  the  rivers 
Bicol,  Naga,  Libon,  and  others,  which  irrigate  its  surroundings,  a 
deep  lake,  veij  rich  in  fish;  that  of  Buhi,  large  and  beautiful,  whence 
start  several  rivers,  among  them  the  important  one  which  takes  its 
name,  and  that  of  Baao,  no  less  extensive,  all  of  them  belonging  to 
the  province  of  Ambos  Camarines. 


According  to  the  Official  Guide  of  the  Philippines  more  than  sixty 
rivers  in  the  island  of  Mindoro  are  known,  and  there  must  be  many 
more  in  the  interior  that  have  not  yet  been  explored.  Among  the 
former  the  principal  ones  are  the  "^  Malay  lay,  between  Bacoo  and 
Subaang;  the  Nabuluan,  Magasauangtubig,  Navotas,  Naujan,  Pola, 
Macaulit,  Bansod,  Masaguisi,  and  Bongabon,  between  Pola  and  Ticlin; 
the  Basig,  Bumbusan,  and  Manjao,  between  Ticlin  and  Bulalacao; 
the  Lambangan,  in  Mangarin;  the  Pagbajan,  which  empties  into  the 
bay  of  Paluan,  and  the  Tabinay,  in  Puerto  Galera. 

The  Santo  Tomas,  Maasim  Arnay,  Santa  Cruz,  and  Mamburao 
should  also  be  cited. 


This  lake  is  located  in  the  northeast  part  of  the  island.  It  is  some 
25  kilometers  in  circumference,  and  the  river  Naujan  flows  from  it 
and,  passing  the  town  of  the  same  name  on  the  south,  runs  directly 
into  the  sea. 


Of  all  the  rivers  of  this  island  only  the  Lauang,  the  Asid,  and  the 
Grumotaban  are  worthy  of  special  mention.  The  first  descends  from 
the  mountains  of  Bagasimbahan  and  runs  from  south  to  north  to  its 
mouth  in  the  port  of  Barrera.  The  second  comes  down  from  the  oppo- 
site side  of  the  same  mountains,  takes  a  contrary  course,  and  ends  in 
the  bay  of  the  same  name.  The  third  is  important  only  on  account  of 
the  auriferous  sands  which  it  brings  down  with  it. 

Hosted  by 




Among  its  small  rivers  the  principal  ones  are  the  Himoto  and  Sinago, 
which  empty  on  the  east  coast,  and  the  Batoo,  whi(?h  empties  on  the 
south  coast,  near  the  town  of  the  same  name,  and  is,  perhaps,  the 
longest  and  the  one  which  has  the  most  water  of  all. 


The  rivers  Upala  and  Bonleo  and  several  other  less  important  ones 
descend  from  the  central  mountains  of  the  island. 



Three  great  rivers,  which  may  well  be  called  of  the  first  order,  con- 
stitute the  drainage  system  of  Panay.  They  are  the  Panay,  Jalaur, 
and  Aclan.  There  are  other  less  important  ones,  among  which  the 
most  prominent  are  the  Salug,  the  Ibajay,  and  the  Sibalon. 

The  Panay,  which  is  the  principal  one,  rises  in  the  northern  slopes 
of  Mount  Baloy,  which,  as  we  have  seen  in  the  Treatise  on  Orography, 
constitutes  the*dividing  line  between  the  provinces  of  Capiz,  Antique, 
and  lloilo.  From  its  source  the  Panay  takes  the  direction  f  rom^  east 
to  west  as  far  as  Capas,  whence,  with  numerous  and  marked  windings, 
it  turns  toward  the  southeast,  irrigates  the  boundary  of  Dumalag,  and 
before  reaching  the  boundary  of  Cuartero  its  vohune  is  augmented 
with  the  waters  of  the  Babbarad,  with  numerous  tributaries,  and  turn- 
ing toward  the  south  it  passes  through  Dao,  and  receives  two  large 
tributaries,  the  Mambusao  and  the  Mayon,  which  so  increase  its 
volume  that  from  Panitan  to  its  mouth  it  attains  an  approximate 
width  of  100  meters.  After  the  Mayon  joins  it  it  turns  toward  the 
north,  waters  the  territories  of  Panitan  and  Loctugan,  and  divides 
near  Agbangbang  into  two  branches,  the  main  one  of  which,  flowing 
toward  the  east,  passes  through  the  town  of  Panay,  and  empties  into 
the  sea  by  three  main  mouths,  called  Jumulao,  Paua,  and  Guibuangan- 
Daco,  while  the  other  takes  a  course  from  south  to  north  until  it  again 
divides  into  two  forks  in  the  ward  of  Sansasud,  one  of  the  two  branches 
taking  the  name  of  the  river  Banicaa,  and  being  lost  in  the  marshes  of 
the  mouth  Guibuangan-Daco,  and  the  other  continuing  as  far  as  Capiz, 
capital  of  the  provincial  district,  whence  it  takes  the  general  course  of 
west-northwest,  and  empties  into  the  gulf  which  is  formed  south  of 
Point  Nipa. 


The  Jalaur  also  rises  in  Mount  Baloy,  receives  innumerable  although 
small  tributaries  on  both  sides,  and  takes  its  course  toward  the  south- 
east. In  Alibunan  the  river  of  this  name  joins  it.  It  turns  toward 
the  southeast,  waters  the  confines  of  Calino  and  Passi,  where  the 
Lamunang  unites  with  it,  a  river  with  a  considerable  volume  of  water 
which  it  gathers  from  many  affluents,  the  principal  one  being  the 
Maliao.  It  waters  the  confines  of  San  Enrique,  on  the  south,  and  not 
very  far  from  Duenas  receives  the  waters  of  the  Ulian,  formed  by 

Hosted  by 



many  aiiluents  from  the  main  mountain  range,  and  continues  in  a  south- 
east direction  as  far  as  Dingle,  taking  in  this  township  a  southerly 
course.  In  Jalaur  it  increases  its  volume  of  water  with  the  Abangay 
and  the  Suague,  from  the  same  source  as  the  Ulian,  and  waters  the 
boundaries  of  Fototan  and  Barotac  Nuevo  on  the  south,  and  having 
received  the  waters  of  the  Janipaan  it  empties  at  Colongcolong  into 
the  strait  of  Iloilo. 


The  Aclan  has  the  same  source  as  the  Panay,  but  not  the  same  direc- 
tion, which  is  from  soutn  to  north  with  few  windings.  It  receives  its 
main  tributaries  on  the  left  from  the  western  slopes  of  the  mountains  of 
the  main  range,  traverses  Libacao,  Madalag,  and  Malinao,  irrigates  the 
boundary  of  Cab'vo,  and  in  Camansi,  near  the  northern  coast,  it  divides 
into  two  branches,  forming  the  little  island  of  Bacao.  Its  principal 
tributaries  are  the  Dalagnan,  Cabarsana,  Dumalaylay,  Tingbaban, 
Bukbot,  and  Malinao,  on  the  left  bank.  Those  on  the  right  bank  are 
less  important,  among  them  the  Manicaa  and  the  Pangpangon,  which 
has  several  tributaries,  and  the  Calancan. 

The  Salug,  proceeding  from  a  depression  in  the  eastern  slopes  of 
mounts  Llorente  and  Inaman  of  the  main  mountain  range,  follows  a 
course  from  northwest  to  southeast,  and  waters  the  boundaries  of 
Maasin,  Cabatuan,  Santa  Barbara,  and  Pavia,  where  the  Agauan  unites 
with  it,  until  near  Iloilo,  where  it  empties. 

It  is  some  60  kilometers  long  and  receives  the  waters  of  the  Titong, 
which  also  rises  in  the  eastern  valleys  of  Mount  Inaman  and  in  the 
opposite  ones  of  Tiratid,  and  after  a  course  of  22  kilometers  empties 
into  the  Salug  by  its  right  bank,  near  Maasin.  The  Agauan  descends 
from  Mount  Tiguran  in  an  easterly  course  and  lower  down  changes  its 
direction  toward  the  south,  and,*  flowing  through  the  town  of  San 
Miguel,  twists  toward  the  east,  where,  after  a  course  of  some  52  kilo- 
meters, it  empties  into  the  river  Salug,  also  by  the  right  bank,  near 

The  Ibajay  has  its  source  among  the  Toctocon  and  Sanasico  moun- 
tains, at  a  considerable  height,  and  descends  toward  the  northwest, 
with  many  turnings,  until  it  reaches  its  confluence  with  the  Garot.  It 
has  many  tributaries,  among  which  may  be  named  the  rivers  Dalanao 
and  Garot.  The  Garot,  which  is  the  most  notable,  rises  on  the  north- 
ern slope  of  Mount  Panancaban,  in  the  district  of  Antique. 

The  Sibalon,  which  descends  from  the  western  slope  of  Mount  Llo- 
rente, on  the  opposite  side  to  the  river  Salug,  follows  a  course  from 
northeast  to  southwest,  passes  through  San  Remigio,  and  fertilizing 
the  boundaries  of  Sibalon  and  San  Pedro,  near  this  town,  pours  its 
waters  into  the  sea  by  the  western  coast.  Its  chief  tributaries  are  the 
Tangday,  Maninila,  which  is  formed  by  the  Dungaron  and  Maliao, 
the  Banayan  and  the  Tigpuluan.  The  latter,  which  has  the  greatest 
volume  of  water,  unites  with  it  in  the  town  of  Sibalon. 

Hosted  by 




Finally,  although  not  so  important  as  the  preceding,  there  are, 
however,  several  rivers  in  the  central  region  worth  mentioning,  regard- 
ing which  Don  Enrique  Abella,  in  his  Descripcion  Fisica  de  Panay 
(physical  description  of  Panay),  says  the  following: 
^  ''The  rivers  Timagboc,  Uyungan,  Sinaragan,  Bacauan,  Bayonan, 
Tiolas,  Lanigan,  and  Hibog,  which  empty  on  the  south,  and  those  of 
Tagalan,  Jalo,  Habalili,  and  Ibisan,  which  empty  on  the  north  of  the 
island,  may  also  be  mentioned  as  very  notable.  In  the  western  region, 
to  the  north  of  the  basin  of  the  river  Sibalon,  there  are  three  others 
which  aJmost  attain  the  same  size,  namely,  the  rivers  Cangaranan, 
Paliuan,  and  Dalanas,  and  they  are  the  ones  which,  on  account  of  their 
importance,  should  be  classed  next  to  the  Sibalon.  Then  to  the  north 
and  south  of  these  four  most  noteworthy  streams  in  Antique,  there  are 
other  rivers,  which  decrease  in  size  as  the  distance  from  the  former 
increases.  Among  them  should  be  mentioned,  on  the  north,  the  Cai- 
rainan,  located  between  Dalanas  and  Paliuan,  the  Tibiao,  the  Bacon,  the 
Bacalan,  and  the  Ipayog,  and  on  the  south,  the  Antique,  the  Asluman, 
and  the  Dao.  In  the  eastern  region  the  most  notable  rivers  are: 
Balantian,  Bangun,  and  Pamian  or  Estancia,  which  flow  through  the 
plain  of  Balasan  and  Quiasan,  and  which  empty  into  the  sea  through 
great  salt  lakes  of  great  depth  up  to  the  bars;  the  Bunglas  and  its 
numerous  tributaries  from  the  beautiful  plain  of  Sara  and  Ajuy;  the 
Barotac  Viejo,  on  whose  banks  auriferous  exploitations  have  been 
made,  and  the  Aglacaigan,  which  empties  into  Banate." 


The  principal  rivers  of  this  island  are  those  which  empty  on  the  west 
coast,  the  Ginigaran,  Himamaylan,  and  Hog  being  the  most  prominent. 
The  Danao,  200  meters  wide  and  15  deep,  which  flows  from  west  to 
east  between  Calatrava  and  Escalante,  and  the  Marinas,  300  meters 
wide  and  20  deep,  its  great  branch,  called  the  Tanao,  being  noteworthy, 
empty  on  the  north  coast.  Other  minor  rivers  are  the  Bunglas,  Cadiz 
Nueyo,  Manapla,  Toreno,  Talabe,  Mandalagan,  Siluban,  Macaribao, 
Marianas,  Pontevedra,  Siaton,  San  Enrique,  and  some  others. 


The  rivers  of  this  island  are  of  little  importance,  because  they  are 
all  short,  on  account  of  the  mountain  range  which  divides  the  island 
into  two  very  narrow  parts.  The  one  which  has  the  longest  course  is 
the  Baliguigam,  which,  descending  from  the  central  mountains,  flows 
with  all  the  characteristics  of  a  torrent  toward  the  northeast,  until, 
after  crossing  an  extensive  zone  of  calcareous  lands,  it  empties  into  the 
sea  through  a  channel  300  meters  wide.  The  Cotcot,  belonging  to  the 
same  eastern  slope,  is  almost  as  large,  and  likewise  resembles  a  torrent. 
Located  to  the  south  of  the  preceding  on  the  same  slope  is  the  longer 
river  of  Mananga.  In  conclusion,  there  are  worthy  of  special  mention 
the  Danao,  which  descends  from  Mount  Mangilao  and  runs  to  the 
north  of  the  Cotcot;  the  Alpaco,  Minaga,  Carcar,  Catmon,  Bao,  and 
some  others. 

Hosted  by 




The  majority  of  the  tributaries  of  the  principal  rivers  of  this  island 
are  unknown,  because  its  central  part  is  so  rugged  and  therefore  its 
interior  hydrography  unfamiliar.  The  main  rivers^,  which  fertilize  it 
in  various  directions,  are  the  Oras,  which,  starting  from  the  extreme 
north  of  the  central  mountain  range,  flows  at  first  toward  the  southeast, 
and  then  to  the  east,  pouring  its  waters  into  the  bay  of  Uguis,  on  the 
Pacific,  having  traversed  some  57  kilometers;  the  Suribao,  which,  ris- 
ing in  the  same  mountains,  soon  turns  toward  the  east,  emptying  on 
the  same  coast  as  the  preceding;  the  Vlut,  which  starts  from  the  cen- 
tral range,  takes  its  course  toward  the  northeast,  then  deviates  to  the 
east,  and,  after  a  course  of  some  25  kilometers,  ends  in  the  Pacific; 
the  Laguan,  which  has  its  source  on  the  same  central  divide,  flows  con- 
stantly toward  the  north,  passes  through  Catubig,  and  drains  into  the 
bay  of  the  same  name;  the  Bato,  which  originates  from  the  northern 
slopes  of  mounts  Salta  and  Sangley,  and  flows  in  a  north -northeast 
direction,  emptying  on  the  north  coast,  near  the  bay  of  Laguan;  the 
Timonini,  with  the  same  source  and  running  parallel  to  the  Bato.  Other 
less  important  rivers  are  the  Antiyao,  Basey,  Balangiga,  Opong,  Pag- 
babangunan,  Calbayog,  and  Bagajon,  which,  with  many  others,  water 
the  fertile  plains  and  thick  forests  of  this  island. 

Besides,  the  island  of  Samar  has  four  large  lakes,  viz,  Somotoc, 
Calbiga,  Ganoy,  and  Sampinit,  among  which  that  of  Calbiga  is  remark- 
able for  its  extensive  borders,  all  of  rock,  which  make  it  resemble  a 
great  boiler. 


The  chief  rivers  of  this  island  empty  on  the  eastern  coast  into  the 
Pacific.  Among  them  are  Dao,  or  Burauen,  which  comes  from  the 
central  mountains,  flows  toward  the  east,  and  empties  into  the  sea  a 
little  below  Dulag;  the  Binahaan,  which  proceeds  from  lake  Amandi- 
uing,  passing  to  the  north  of  the  town  Dagami;  the  Palo,  which,  formed 
by  the  Dapdap  and  other  tributaries,  empties  into  the  bay  of  San  Pedro 
y  San  Pablo,  and  the  Bito,  which  originates  in  the  lake  of  its  name 
and  ends  a  little  above  Abuyog,  The  Maasim,  proceeding  from  the 
mountains  in  the  southern  part  of  the  island,  runs  some  40  kilometers 
from  northeast  to  southwest  and,  bathing  the  boundary  of  Maasin, 
ends  at  point  Gigantigan  on  the  south  coast.  The  Leyte  empties  on 
the  north  coast.  It  originates  in  a  lake  located  to  the  west  of  Jaro, 
flows  from  south  to  north,  and  ends  near  the  town  of  its  name.  Other 
smaller  rivers  are  the  Bao,  Tanauan,  Malburay,  Cabayungan,  Caloan, 
Cauliling,  Masayac,  Bayongbong,  Cabalasan,  Panilahan,  Bayoc,  Bulac, 
Mantitinao,  Anilao,  and  Mansanga. 

Lake  Bito  is  of  considerable  extent  and  depth,  especially  during  the 
rainy  season,  when  it  attains  a  circumference  of  more  than  30  kilome- 
ters. Lake  Jaro  has  a  circumference  of  25  kilometers  and  communi- 
cates with  the  sea  through  the  river  Leyte,  which  empties  into  the 
port  of  the  same  name. 

Among  the  notable  lakes  are  Aslum,  5.57  kilometers  long  by  1.39 
wide,  with  a  depth  of  15  fathoms;  Cabalian,  which  measures  2.86  kilo- 
meters; Polo,  3  kilometers  long  from  northwest  to  southeast,  and  500 
meters  wide  from  north  to  south. 

Hosted  by 




In  spite  of  its  small  extent  the  island  of  Bohol  contains  a  number  of 
rivers,  although  all  are  short  and  are  dry  after  the  rainy  season  is 
over.  Those  that  deserve  special  mention  are  the  Maasin,  Muguid, 
Manaba,  Napo,  Gulayan,  Cabidian,  Lagumay,  Soca-Vilar,  Fragata, 
Taginting,  and  Inabanga. 


There  are  three  principal  rivers  in  Sibuyan,  the  Mabolog,  which 
rises  in  the  highest  peak,  located  in  the  center  of  the  island;  the  Cam- 
bulayan,  which  has  its  source  on  the  eastern  slope  of  the  peak  of 
Sibuyan  and  empties  on  the  east  coast  of  the  island  at  a  very  short 
distance  from  Point  Cambulayan;  the  Nailog,  which  has  its  source 
half  wa}^  up  the  peak  of  the  same  name. 


The  river  Grande,  or  Pulangui,  deserves  the  first  place  in  the  hydrog- 
raphy not  only  of  Mindanao,  but  also  of  the  whole  archipelago,  on 
account  of  its  volume  of  water  and  its  length.  This  large  river  rises 
on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  mountains  Sobrac  and  Quimanquil  of  the 
central- western  range  and  on  the  western  slopes  of  the  central-eastern 
range  in  the  northeast  part  of  the  island,  in  the  district  of  Misamis, 
and  at  a  height  of  approximately  l,500imeters  above  the  level  of  the 
sea.  It  descends  by  successive  falls  over  the  broken  landings  from 
which  said  ranges  resemble  a  stairway;  it  flows  among  enormous  rocks 
heaped  up  in  its  bed  toward  the  south  until  after  a  course  of  80  kilo- 
meters it  joins  the  Tigua  on  its  left  bank.  Then  it  turns  toward  the 
west,  passes  near  Linabao,  waters  the  boundaries  of  Sevilla  (Mailag), 
at  the  same  time  receiving  the  waters  of  the  Sauaga  and  Malupali  on 
its  right  bank,  twists  with  a  slow  and  broad  current  toward  the  south- 
east on  the  confines  of  Valencia  and  Lepanto  (Salagapon),  receives  the 
waters  of  the  Culaman  and,  a  little  after,  those  of  the  Marama  on  the 
same  right  bank;  again  takes  its  course  toward  the  south,  and  with 
various  windings  another  Culaman  joins  it  on  the  left  bank  not  far 
from  the  confluence  of  the  Mulita,  which  is  the  boundary  of  the  Mon- 
teses,  Moros,  and  Manobos.  Up  to  this  dividing  line,  about  half  of 
its  course,  it  is  called  Palangui,  and  the  remainder  to  its  mouth  is 
called  the  river  Grande,  which  is  navigable  in  a  gunboat.  From  said 
dividing  line  the  rivermakes  a  sweep  from  northeast  to  southwest,  where 
is  found  what  was  the  military  post  of  Catituan,  and  at  the  end  of  the 
bend  it  receives  on  the  right  bank  the  waters  of  the  Marurugao,  the  one 
of  all  its  tributaries  which  carries  the  most  water.  After  its  confluence 
with  the  Marurugao  it  again  turns  toward  the  south,  with  marked 
windings,  receiving  some  small  tributaries,  and  passes  by  the  military 
post  of  Piquit  until  it  reaches  the  vicinity  of  Lake  Liguasan.  Its  vol- 
ume being  increased  by  the  waters  of  this  great  lake,  it  turns  suddenly 
toward  the  northwest,  then  almost  perpendicular  to  its  general  direc- 
tion, which  is  from  south  to  north,  waters  Tinucup  or  Eeina  Regente, 
receives  several  tributaries  of  slight  importance,   and  on  reaching 

Hosted  by 



Tumbao  divides  into  two  branclies,  the  larger  of  which  passes  through 
Libungan,  where  the  river  Caimanes  or  Libungan  joins  it,  turn^  toward 
Cotabato,  capital  of  the  district  of  this  name,  and  with  few  deviations 
empties  its  waters  into  the  sea  at  Illana  Bay  through  the  smooth  and 
broad  north  mouth.  The  left  branch,  which  is  somewhat  smaller,  runs 
from  Tumbao  to  Tabiran,  passes  through  Tamontace,  and  empties  into 
the  8ame  bay  by  the  south  mouth.  Between  the  two  mouths  Mount 
Timaco  is  situated.  It  is  celebrated  for  its  monke3^s,  which  approach 
travelers  who  visit  its  slopes. 

During  the  course  of  some  470  kilometers,  the  last  two-thirds  of 
which  is  calm,  there  is  found  the  cascade  of  Logsocan,  near  Valencia, 
and  that  of  Salagapon,  a  little  lower  down,  in  the  township  of  Lepanto. 
In  this  river  and  in  most  of  its  tributaries  there  are  a  great  many  alli- 
gators, or,  more  properly  speaking,  crocodiles. 

The  tributaries  which  pour  their  waters  into  this  powerful  river  on 
both  sides  are  very  numerous,  the  most  important  on  the  right  bank 
being  the  Sauaga,  Malupali,  Mulita,  Marurugao,  and  Tigua,  and  on 
the  left  the  Culaman  and  the  Cabacan. 


The  Sauaga  rises  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Quitanglag  range, 
within  the  boundary  of  Calasungay,  on  the  divide  of  the  waters  of  the 
basins  of  the  Pulangui  and  the  Tagoloan.  Leaping  by  great  rocks  in 
the  bottom  of  a  deep  channel,  from  Calasungay  its  course  is  toward 
the  southeast,  with  several  marked  bends,  until  it  reaches  Oroquieta 
or  Balaybalay.  Continuing  in  the  same  direction  it  irrigates  the 
boundary  of  Linabo,  and  after  joining  with  the  Malupali  contributes 
its  waters  to  the  Palangui  near  Sevilla. 


The  Malupali  orignates  in  the  western  slopes  of  the  Quitanglag  and 
in  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Calutangan,  in  the  divide  of  the  waters  of 
the  Palangui  and  the  Cagayan.  At  iirst  it  follows  a  southeast  course, 
and  in  Covadonga  or  Alanip,  where  the  river  of  this  name  joins  it,  it 
changes  its  direction  toward  the  east,  and  near  Sevilla  unites  with  the 
Sauaga,  as  has  been  said,  and  empties  into  the  Grande  River. 


The  Marurugao  is  the  most  voluminous  of  the  affluents  of  the  Palan 
gui.  It  descends  from  the  western  slopes  of  the  Pinangayonan,  follows 
a  direction  from  northwest  to  northeast,  with  few  deviations  in  its 
whole  course,  which  is  sometimes  rapid  and  among  rocks  and  at  others 
quiet,  and  passing  through  several  settlements  of  Moros  empties  its 
waters  into  the  Kio  Grande  at  Dumalasag,  alongside  of  Mount  Tinip- 
tiban.  It  receives,  in  its  course  of  some  70  kilometers,  the  Malitbog, 
Piratan,  Lalayan,  and  other  smaller  streams. 


The  Mulita  is  formed  from  the  waters  that  rush  from  the  eastern 
slope  of  Mount  Dagumban.  It  flows  through  a  small  plain,  and  with 
a  course  toward  the  east  passes  below  Mount  Colcol,  whence,  receiving 

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P  c— VOL  3—01 22 

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on  its  left  bank  the  river  Liimag-us,  it  traverses  the  southern  slope  of 
Panicsican,  soon  after  uniting  with  the  Palangui.  Its  length  is  some 
40  kilometers.  Its  confluence  is  the  division  between  the  Monteses, 
Manobos,  and  Moros.  The  Monteses  inhabit  the  northeast,  the  Manobos 
the  northwest,  and  the  Moros  extend  toward  the  south. 


The  Tigua  has  its  source  in  the  central-eastern  range,  follows  a 
direction  from  southeast  to  northwest,  through  a  broken  country 
inhabited  by  Manobos,  and  after  a  short  course  empties  into  the 
Palangui,  a  little  lower  down  than  the  Bubunanan,  a  small  tributary 
on  the  right  of  the  same. 

OULAMAN.       ' 

The  Culaman  rises  in  the  western  slopes  of  the  central-eastern  range, 
takes  an  opposite  direction  to  the  preceding  from  northeast  to  south- 
west, and  after  a  short  course  empties  into  the  Pulangui,  a  little 
higher  up  than  the  Mulita,  on  the  opposite  bank,  in  front  of  Mount 


The  Cabacan  rises  on  the  northern  slopes  of  Apo,  receives  tributa- 
ries from  the  north  and  south,  such  as  Bacat,  Balanan,  Maleput,  and 
Malebol,  and  with  considerable  volume  of  water  empties  into  the 
Palangui,  near  Catituan. 


The  Agusan  is  the  second  river  of  Mindanao  and  the  third  in  the 
whole  archipelago  because  of  its  length  and  volume  of  water.  Its 
basin  is  formed  by  the  main  mountain  ranges  of  the  island,  almost 
parallel  to  each  other,  and  it  is  fed  by  numerous  tributaries,  some  of 
them  with  considerable  volume  of  water.  This  river  rises  to  the  east 
of  the  bay  of  Davao  and  on  the  western  slopes  of  mountains  Tapao, 
Tagdalit,  and  Campalili,  of  the  eastern  mountain  range.  Its  general 
direction  is  from  south-southeast  to  north-northwest,  a  course  which 
is  parallel  to  the  two  mountain  ranges  between  which  it  runs,  and 
which  ends  in  the  bay  of  Butuan,  near  the  town  of  this  name.  From 
its  source  it  passes  through  Compostela,  Moncayo,  Jativa,  and  Patro- 
cinio,  settlements  of  Christianized  Manobos.  In  the  first  part  of  its 
course  it  receives  various  small  tributaries,  the  principal  one  among 
them  being  the  Manat,  which  joins  it  at  Moncayo.  At  Patrocinio 
it  turns  toward  the  west,  passes  through  Veruela,  makes  a  curve 
toward  the  east,  and  at  the  extreme  of  the  bend,  near  Clavijo,  the 
Ihanan  empties  its  waters  into  it  on  the  left  bank,  and  it  forms  the 
lakes  Cadagun,  Dagun,  and  Sinanat,  the  Humayan  uniting  with  it  on 
its  left  bank.  A  little  below  the  last  lake  the  Gibon  pours  its  abun- 
dant waters  into  it  from  the  right  bank.  The  Agusan,  augmented  by 
the  Gibon,  inclines  a  little  toward  the  northwest,  passes  through  Tala- 
cogon,  San  Luis,  Guadalupe,  and  San  Estanislao,  where  it  makes  many 
turns,  and  a  little  lower  down,  on  the  left  bank,  the  Lubang  empties 
into  it,  which  river  rises  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  mountain  of  the 
same  name,  and  at  half  a  day's  journey  farther  on  it  makes  a  sweep, 

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and  the  Ujut  empties  into  it  on  the  same  bank  as  the  preceding*  tribu- 
tary, opposite  Esperanza.  From  Esperanza  to  its  month  in  Bay 
Butuan  the  Agusan  follows  a  south-southeast  to  north -northwest 
course,  with  fewer  windings  than  in  its  middle  course,  passes  by 
Nieves,  and,  having  received  the  waters  of  the  Bugubas  on  the  left 
bank,  waters  the  townships  of  Amparo  and  Butuan.  After  a  course 
of  403  kilometers  it  empties,  not  far  from  said  town,  into  the  bay  of 
Butuan.  In  its  course  there  are  several  widenings  of  the  channel  that 
resemble  lakes  and  that  prevent  passage  along  its  banks. 

The  tributaries  of  this  river  are  very  numerous,  as  in  the  case  of 
the  Palangui,  and  some  of  them  have  considerable  volume  of  water. 
The  principal  ones  on  the  right  bank  are  Simulao  and  Gibon,  and  on 
the  left,  Ihanan,  Humayan,  Arganan,  and  Ujut. 


The  Simulao  rises  in  the  western  slopes  of  the  eastern  mountain 
range,  on  the  side  opposite  to  Bislig.  Very  turbulent  at  the  begin- 
ning, and  augmented  with  several  tributaries,  such  as  the  Miaga, 
Bayayan,  Bunanan,  after  watering  the  villages  of  San  Isidro,  Tudela, 
and  Trento,  it  reaches  San  Jose  with  a  direction  from  southeast  to 
northwest.  At  this  village  it  divides  into  two  branches,  one  of  which, 
turning  toward  the  west,  subdivides  into  two  branches,  which  after  a 
short  course  join  the  Agusan,  while  the  other  continues  its  course 
toward  the  northwest,  and  a  little  below  the  lakes  also  empties  into 
the  Agusan. 


The  Gibon  is  the  largest  tributary  of  the  Agusan,  and  descends  from 
the  same  range  as  the  preceding  one,  gathering  the  waters  from  the 
western  slopes  of  Mount  Diuata,  on  the  side  opposite  Jinatuan.  Its 
general  direction  is  from  northeast  to  southwest.  It  crosses  Navas 
and  Prosperidad,  continues  in  the  same  course  to  Borbon,  where  it 
describes  a  very  marked  curve  toward  the  southeast,  and  at  the  other 
end  of  the  same  it  receives  the  waters  of  the  Suribao,  of  considerable 
volume,  which  passes  through  Novele,  and  together,  taking  a  westerly 
direction,  they  empty  a  little  below  the  Simulao  into  the  Agusan,  after 
a  course  of  more  than  120  kilometers. 


The  Ihanan  flows  with  many  windings  from  the  eastern  slopes  of  the 
central  eastern  range  and  receives  many  tributaries  in  a  very  broken 
country,  such  as  the  Anahanan,  Tignaunan,  Sampinit,  and  others.  Its 
course  is  from  southwest  to  northeast  as  far  as  the  confluence  of  the 
Sampinit,  where  it  turns  to  the  east  and,  passing  through  Gracia, 
empties  into  the  Agusan  a  little  lower  down. 


The  Humayan  has  its  origin  in  the  same  range  as  the  preceding 
river,  but  more  toward  the  north.  Its  direction  is  from  west  to  east, 
with  a  great  many  large  curves.  It  receives  the  waters  of  many  trib- 
utaries on  both  sides,  passes  through  Loreto  and,  directing  itself 
toward  the  northeast,  soon  after  empties  between  two  lakes. 

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r^     ij 










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The  Arganan,  although  it  is  shorter  and  has  less  volume  of  water 
than  the  preceding  rivers,  gathers  its  waters  from  the  eastern  slopes 
of  the  same  range  as  the  other  two.  It  takes  a  direction  from  west  to 
east,  waters  the  villages  of  Asuncion,  Sagunto,  and  La  Paz,  where  it 
turns  to  the  northeast  and  empties  into  the  Agusan  at  the  same  place 
as  the  Gibon,  but  on  the  opposite  bank. 


The  Ujut  comes  from  the  same  mountain  range  as  the  preceding,  in 
a  northeast  direction.  It  receives  the  waters  of  the  Agsabo,  and  at 
Remedios  the  Pusilao,  which  is  of  equal  volume,  joins  it,  after  having 
irrigated  the  boundary  of  Milagros,  and  together  they  empty  into  the 
Agusan  opposite  Esperanza. 


After  the  rivers  which  we  have  just  described  the  Tagoloan  and  the 
Cagayan,  which  empty  into  the  sea  on  the  north  coast,  are  worth}^  of 
special  mention. 

The  Tagoloan  has  its  source  on  the  boundary  of  Oroquieta  (Balay- 
balay),  on  the  side  opposite  the  Palangui,  and  follows  a  course  directly 
contrary  to  the  latter,  in  a  south  southeast  to  north-northwest  direc- 
tion. Its  most  important  tributaries  are,  on  the  right  bank,  the  Quina- 
puntan,  Dumalagui,  Amusic,  Silo,  Malibog,  and  Quimaya,  and,  on  the 
left,  the  Dila,  Ulugan,  Culaman,  and  the  Manguina,  proceeding  from 
Mount  Quitanglag.  After  a  course  of  some  90  kilometers  it  empties 
into  the  bay  of  Macajalar  at  the  town  of  its  name. 

The  Cagayan  rises  on  the  opposite  slopes  of  Mount  Quitanglag  and 
Mount  Calutangan,  both  belonging  to  the  central  western  range.  It 
follows  a  direction  parallel  to  the  Tagoloan  and,  with  a  course  similar 
to  that  of  the  latter,  pours  it  waters,  which  carry  with  them  auriferous 
sands,  into  the  same  bay  as  the  Tagoloan.  Its  chief  tributaries  are  the 
Cocina  and  the  Tigalan. 


Among  the  remaining  rivers  of  Mindanao  there  are  still  to  be  men- 
tioned, on  account  of  their  relative  importance,  the  following:  Gapay, 
Agus,  Sintogo,  Dapitan,  Dipolog,  Lubungan,  Davao,  Tagum,  Hijo, 
and  some  others  on  the  Pacific  coast. 

The  Gapay  rises  near  Lake  Lanao  and  takes  the  same  direction  as 
the  Cagayan.  It  has  several  tributaries,  such  as  the  Mamanga, 
Samagon,  and  Dulama,  and  empties  into  the  bay  of  Macajalar  at  Point 
Sulauan.  Its  length  is  70  kilometers.  The  Agus  comes  from  Lake 
Lanao,  runs  from  southeast  to  northwest,  and  empties  into  the  bay  of 
Iligan.  Its  course  is  much  shorter  than  that  of  the  preceding  river, 
and  its  tributaries  are  of  slight  importance.  The  Sintogo  rises  on  the 
southern  and  eastern  slopes  of  Mount  Malindang,  follows  a  course  from 
west  to  east,  and,  after  receiving  the  waters  of  the  Salag,  its  principal 
tributary,  empties  into  the  bay  of  Panguil.  The  Dapitan,  Dipolog, 
and  Lubungan  have  their  source  on  the  northern  and  western  slopes  of 

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the  above-mentioned  Mount  Malindang,  and,  with  a  course  toward 
the  northwest,  empty  into  the  sea  near  the  towns  of  the  same  names. 
The  Davao  empties  into  the  bay  of  the  same  name.  Its  small  tribu- 
taries rise  on  the  eastern  slopes  of  Apo.  The  Tagum  is  more  impor- 
tant, and  has  as  tributaries  the  Libaganon  and  the  Salug,  whose  affluents 
connect  with  those  of  the  Agusan,  which  flow  in  an  opposite  direction. 
The  short  river  Hijo  ends,  as  do  the  other  two,  in  the  same  bay  of 
Davao.  On  the  Pacific  coast  there  are  worthy  of  special  mention,  on 
account  of  their  extent,  the  Casauman,  Manay,  and  Caraga,  which, 
rising  in  the  mountains  of  Tagdalit,  Campalili,  and  Tapao,  respectively, 
pour  their  waters  into  the  Pacific  near  the  towns  of  the  same  names. 
Near  Tago,  on  the  northern  coast,  the  river  of  the  same  name  empties. 
It  has  a  wide  mouth  and  no  mean  volume  of  water. 


The  principal  lakes  of  Mindanao  are  the  following:  Lanao  orMalanao, 
Buluan,  Liguasan,  Mainit  or  Sapongan,  Linao,  and  Panguil. 

The  lake  of  Lanao  or  Malanao,  located  in  the  territory  of  the  same 
name,  is  inclosed  by  high  mountains,  which  do  not,  however,  prevent 
there  being  some  plains  between  them  and  the  lake.  It  is  divided  into 
three  principal  regions,  namely,  that  of  Bagabao,  which  includes  the 
northeastern  and  part  of  the  western  shore;  that  of  Masco,  which 
embraces  all  the  southern  part,  and  that  of  Unoyon,  which  extends  to 
the  southwest.  Its  only  outlet  is  the  river  Agus,  and  in  exchange  it 
receives  on  the  southeast  the  waters  of  the  Digosan.  Its  shores  are 
inhabited  by  hordes  of  Moros  (Mohammedans). 


Liguasan  and  Buluan  are  two  lakes  situated  between  the  Volcano 
Apo  and  the  boundary  of  Catabato,  which  join  and  form  but  one  lake 
during  the  rainy  season,  and  notably  increase  with  their  waters  the 
volume  of  the  river  Grande. 

Mainit  or  Sapongan,  in  the  district  of  Surigao,  measures  8  miles 
from  north  to  south  and  6  from  east  to  west.  It  empties  through  the 
river  Tubay ,  with  a  rapid  descent,  into  the  bay  of  Butuan.  It  is  very 
deep  and  it  is  supposed  to  be  the  crater  of  an  extinct  volcano. 


The  lake  of  Linao  forms  part  of  the  river  Agusan.  It  increases 
extraordinarily  in  circumference  as  soon  as  the  rainy  season  sets  in. 


Finally,  the  lake  of  Panguil,  in  the  territory  of  Misamis,  has  a 
length  from  north  to  south  of  7i  miles  and  from  east  to  west  of  6i 
miles  and  empties  into  the  bay  of  Misamis. 

Hosted  by 






As  we  stated  in  treating  of  Orography,  volcanic  action  has  had  such 
a  great  influence  in  the  formation  of  the  Philippine  soil  that  it  is 
readily  understood  that  there  must  be  in  it  a-multitude  of  minero- 
medicinal  springs,  as  is  in  reality  the  case,  although  many  of  them 
still  remain  unknown  from  a  scientific  standpoint. 


Before  the  year  1885  there  had  not  yet  been  made  any  classification 
of  the  Philippine  springs.  In  1890  the  report  of  the  work  of  the 
first  commission  was  published  in  Madrid,  and  in  1893  that  of  the 
second  and  last.  From  an  attentive  reading  of  both  volumes  it  is 
inferred  that  the  physical,  chemical,  and  therapeutical  examination  of 
some  60  springs  is  the  most  complete  and  thorough  that  can  be  made 
in  a  country  in  which,  as  in  the  Philippines,  traveling  is  so  difiicult 
and  laborious  on  account  of  the  absolute  lack  at  times  of  good  means 
of  communication.  Notwithstanding,  there  are  a  great  many  springs 
that  have  not  yet  been  analyzed.  We  shall  place  here  first  those 
whose  analysis  is  known,  and  afterwards  add  the  others  as  they  are 
supposed  to  be  constituted.  The  first  are  taken  from  the  reports  of 
the  above-mentioned  commissions  and  are  indicated,  because  it  seemed 
to  us  most  convenient,  according  to  the  alphabetical  order  of  the 
provinces  in  which  they  are  found. 

Hosted  by 




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Hosted  by 




Besides  the  50  springs  that  have  been  analyzed,  there  are  117  more, 
well  known,  although  they  have  not  yet  been  analj^zed,  which  we 
enumerate  below: 

Springs  ivJiose  waters  have  not  yet  been  analyzed. 





Province  or  island. 





Ilocos  Norte  . 
Ilocos  Norte  . 
Ilocos  Norte  . 
Ilocos  Norte  . 














Nueva  Vizcaya . 
Nueva  Vizcaya . 

Nueva  Vizcaya . 

Nueva  Vizcaya . 
Nueva  Vizcaya . 
Nueva  Vizcaya . 

Binatangan  . 


Nueva  :^cija 

Nueva  ]^cija 

Nueva  l^cija 

Nueva  j^cija 

Nueva  Ecija 









Batadn  . 








Ambos  Camarines  . . . 
Ambos  Camarines  . . . 














Aparri , . . . 



Al  S.  de  la  punta  Escarpada . 



yintar  (Bisaya)  

A  tres  kil6metros  deTBisava  . 
San  Guillermo  (en  el  rio)' . . . 

Rio  Yenin 

Balatoc  (rio  Pascil) 





Buguias  (Padungay) 

Buguias  (Asin) 

Buguias  (al  Oeste) 

Dacldn  (al  ONO.) 

Dacldn  (Asin) 

Buyanbuydn  (en  el  monte  al  Oeste j . 

Bayombong  (en  la  loma) 

Bambang  ( Amigui  No.  1) 

Bambang  (Amigui  No.  2) . 

Monte  Blanco  (Asin). 
Ihin  . 


Amsac6n  (rio  Bued). 

Quelingdn  (rio  Dicasigndn) . . . 
Baler  (rios  Baler  y  Caliselan)  . 


Pantagambdn  (Cabuyao)  . 
PantagambAn  (Cadacldn). 
Cuyapo  (cerro  Bancay)  ... 

Santor  (Camaboy) 

San  tor  (arroyo  Dagudn) . . . 




Cabangdn  (Calumejan)  ... 


Moriones . 

San  Rafael  (camino  de  Daang-Partida) 

Porac  (hacienda  de  Pias) 

Morong  (origen  del  rio  M6rong)  . 

Tanay  (rio  Lanatin) 

Calamba  (Bocal) 

Indang  (Arzobispo) 



Lipa  (Taton) 

Ibadn  ( Pangao) 

Taysdn ] " 

San  Juan  de  Bocboc ] 

Caramoan " 

San  Fernando  (Mainit) .!.!!]!!... 

Daraca  (Budiao) 

Camdlig ''_ 

Legaspi  (Marisbiris) .., 

Manito  (punta  Cduit) 

Buldn  (Lalisaga) 


Naujdn  (entre  el  mar  y  la  laguna  Naujdii j '. 

Bulaldcao  (Damagdn) 

Boac  (Sabang) 

Gasdn  (Buenavista) 


Supposed  class. 

Calbdyog !!.'!!.'[!!  j  Termales, 




Saladas  y  termales. 

Saladas  y  termales. 

Saladas  y  termales. 

Bicarbonatadas,  mixtas. 

Saladas  y  termales. 

Bicarbonatadas,  mixtas. 

Bicarbonatadas,  mixtas. 

Bicarbonatadas,  mixtas. 

Saladas,  deposito  ferrugino- 
so  con  olor  sulfhidrico. 

Saladas  con  olor  sulfhidrico. 

Saladas  con  olor  sulfhidrico, 


Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 


Cloruradas,  s6dicas, 



Hipertermales,     bicarbona- 
tadas, cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Hipertermales,     bicarbona- 
tadas, cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  s6dicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Hipertermales,  sulfhidricas, 
cloruradas,  sulfatadas. 

Hipertermales,  sulfhidricas, 

cloruradas,  sulfatadas. 
Hipertermales,  sulfhidricas, 

cloruradas,  sulfatadas. 
Bicarbonatadas  sodico-mag- 

Bicarbonatadas,      cdlcicas, 

cloruradas,  sodicas. 
Sulfurosas,  bicarbonatadas. 
Cloruradas,  s6dicas. 
Cloruradas,  s6dicas. 
Cloruradas,  s6dicas. 
Cloruradas,  s6dicas. 

Hosted  by 



Springs  whose  waters  have  not  yet  been  analyzed — Continued. 




Province  or  island. 






Antique  . . 
Anticiue  . . 
Antique  . . 













Cebii , 

















Isla  de  Panglao  . 
Isla  de  Siquijor.. 
Isla  de  Siquijor.. 
Isla  de  Siquijor.. 
Isla  de  Siquijor. . 











Guiadn  (en  la  playa) 

Isla  Busuanga  (al  pie  del  monte  Tundalara) 

Ibajay  (rio  Panacuyan) 


Antique  (arroyo  Apdo) 

Aniniy  (punta  Siardn)  

Passi  (Maasin)  




Caibiran  (rio  Calambis) 


Biliran  (punta  Tinogdayan) 

Ormoc  (cerca  de  Dolores) 

Burauen  (monte  To-od) 

Laguna  Jaruanan 

Cabalian  (rio  Guintuluc) __ 

Tagobon  (Mabuli-Romero) 

Asturias  (Aguas  Calientes) 

Dumanjuc  (NagbatA) 




Bago  (barrio  de  Zaragoza,  en  4  parajes) 

La  Carlota 



Sibulan  (al  Noroeste)  

Sibulan  (San  Antonio) 

Nueva  Valencia  (Mainit) 

Nueva  Valencia  (Magano) 

Dauin  (Lagit) 

Dauin  (origen  del  rio  de  este  nombre). 

Guindulman  (Boboc) ' . 

Tagbilaran  (Dduit) 

Dauis  (Bingan) 

San  Juan  (monte  Condoon ) 





Placer . 

Mainit  (Mapaca)  . 





Supposed  class. 








Termales,  sulfhidricas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 

Cloruradas,  sodicas. 







Termales,  sulfurosas. 

Termales,  sulfurosas, 

Hipotermales,  sulfhidricas. 

Hipotermales,  sulfhidricas, 

Hipotermales,  sulfhidricas, 

Hipotermales,  sulfhidricas. 

Hipotermales,  sulfhidricas. 




Termales,  sulfurosas. 




Hipertermales,     sulfatadas, 

cloruradas,  sodicas. 


From  the  ''^Memoria  Geologico-Minera  de  las  Islas  Filipinas"  of 
the  inspector -g-eneral  of  mines,  Mr.  Centeno,  we  take  the  following: 

We  have  already  briefly  indicated,  in  treating  of  volcanoes,  the  existence  of  sul- 
phurous thermal  springs  in  the  settlements  of  Magangan  and  Buguias  in  the  district 
of  Lepanto.  In  the  distance  which  separates  the  settlement  of  Magangan  from  that 
of  Acaal,  there  are  a  multitude  of  jets  of  sulphurous  water  wdth  a  strong  smell 
ot  rotten  eggs  and  with  temperatures  varying  from  16°  to  50°  C.  One  of  these 
sprmgs  is  remarkable,  because  it  throws  oiit  almost  constantly  a  great  quantity  of 
black  mud,  which  has  the  same  odor  as  the  waters,  and  of  the  composition  of  which 
we  are  ignorant.  In  the  proximity  of  all  these  springs  a  great  quantity  of  sulphur 
has  been  deposited,  which  on  account  of  being  of  no  use  there,  no  one  has  taken  the 
trouble  to  exploit.  From  Acual  one  can  go  to  Amblimay,  5  leagues  distant,  by  a 
good  and  pleasant  road,  passing  by  the  settlements  of  Lutap  and  Cabayan,  noted  for 
their  agricultural  wealth  and  fisheries,  and  from  the  latter  point  Buguias  may  be 
reached  by  following  the  course  of  the  river  Agno,  which  must  be  crossed  many 
times  in  the  short  distance  of  half  a  league  which  separates  the  two  towns.  The 
village  of  Buguias  is  located  on  the  side  of  the  mountain,  in  which  the  springs  appear 
i5  X^^y  short  distance  from  it  and  a  little  higher  up.  The  water  from  the  37  jets 
which  appear  within  a  very  short  distance  is  very  salt  and  of  such  a  high  tempera- 

Hosted  by 



ture  that  the  skin  can  not  stand  it  more  than  two  or  three  seconds.  From  these 
waters  the  natives  extract  the  small  quantity  of  common  salt  they  need  for 

*,.  ^  *  *  *  ¥r  * 

The  province  of  Batangas  is  also  very  rich  in  mineral  waters,  for,  besides  the  sul- 
phuric waters  of  the  volcano  of  Taal,  of  which  we  shall  speak  further  on,  there  are 
several  important  springs  in  it.  In  the  township  of  San  Luis,  at  a  place  called 
Mainit  (hot),  some  jets  of  hot  water  gush  from  the  ground,  which  leave  an  abun- 
dant ferruginous  sediment.  The  waters  of  the  brook  Panipil,  near  the  town  of 
Lemery,  are  very  sulphurous  and  are  used  with  good  results  by  the  natives  for  cuta- 
neous diseases.  In  the  territory  of  the  same  town,  on  the  road  which  leads  to 
Calacd,  at  a  place  called  Matasnabayan,  there  are  also  some  springs  which  are  little 
known  and  used.  In  the  mountains  of  Taypan  also  there  are  hot  springs  whose 
composition  is  unknown  to  us,  but  which  are  used  by  the  natives  with  good  results 
for  diseases  of  the  bladder  and  cutaneous  diseases.  Besides  the  water  is  used  as  an 
efficacious  purgative  in  many  cases.  Finally,  to  the  southeast  of  Bauan,  near  Point 
Cazador,  there  is  another  small  spring,  to  which  all  afflicted  with  rheumatism  and 
paralysis  resort  in  search  of  relief  from  their  sufferings,  and  which  they  usually  find. 

The  volcano  of  Taal  is  found  in  this  same  province,  in  the  crater  of  which  there  is 
a  small  lake  of  water  charged  with  sulphuric  acid. 

■5«-  -x-  -x-  -x-  -x-  *  ^ 

Very  near  this  interior  crater  and  toward  the  east  a  small  lake  is  seen,  w^hose  dark- 
green  waters  emit  <douds  of  sulphurous  vapors,  and  whose  shores  are  formed  of  lava 
and  salts,  which  must  be  magnesia,  lime,  and  soda,  as  we  shall  soon  see  from  the 
analysis  which  we  shall  present  of  said  waters.  The  extent  of  this  interior  lake 
varies  frequently,  but  it  is  hardly  ever  less  than  60  meters  in  diameter. 

*  ^  -x-  *  ^  ^    .  ^ 

The  interior  crater  has  a  circumference  of  80  meters,  approximately,  and  in  the 
bottom  is  seen,  when  one  descends  by  the  walls  of  the  old  crater,  a  yellowish  liquid 
in  a  state  of  violent  ebuUition,  which  with  subterranean  noises  appears  and  disap- 
pears with  marvelous  rapidity,  presenting  points  of  lively  combustion  and  occasion- 
ing the  column  of  vapors  which  ascend  into  the  atmosphere  from  the  center  of  the 
large  crater. 

The  water  of  the  interior  lake  has  the  following  composition: 

a    A    I.      •         '  1  Per  cent. 

bulphuric  acid 2.  98 

Hydrochloric  acid 3^  X6 

Ferruginous  oxide l'  00 

9^y---. ]1""1111]""1[]]11]]];     i!o4 

Magnesia 0  20 

Lime [l[[]""[[[  0^08 

feoda 1^  02 

Water 90. 52 

100. 00 
Of  the  2.98  parts  of  sulphuric  acid,  2.47  were  found  free,  or  not  combined. 
In  the  province  of  Albay  near  the  town  of  Tivi,  and  at  a  place  called  Jigabo,  there 
are  several  thermic  springs  of  different  temperatures,  some  containing  a  large  quan- 
tity of  sulphur,  which  is  precipitated  when  the  sulphureted  hydrogen  decomposes, 
and  others  have  a  gelatinous  silica  in  solution,  which  the  waters  on  cooling  deposit 
on  objects  dipped  into  them,  incrusting  them  in  a  short  time  with  remarkable 

The  sulphurous  springs  appear  at  several  points  along  the  channel  of  a  small  stream, 
whose  waters,  of  the  ordinary  temperature,  conveniently  mixed  with  the  water  from 
the  hot  springs,  make  baths  of  any  temperature  that  may  be  desired.  Underneath 
the  round  stones  which  make  the  bed  of  the  brook  there  are  found  small  deposits 
of  sulphur  sublimate,  and  at  certain  places  in  a  pasty  state  and  colored  by  metallic 
oxides,  which  are  used  in  that  locality  for  paint.  The  second— that  is  to  say,  the 
siliceous  springs— appear  some  200  meters  from  the  first,  and  are  much  more  remark- 
able, nut  only  on  account  of  the  greater  space  they  occupy,  but  also  on  account  of 
their  very  high  temperature  (108°  centigrade)  and  the  very  beautiful  siliceous  con- 
cretions they  produce,  sometimes  consisting  of  flattened  cones  with  cylindrical  ter- 
minations, perfectly  joined  and  with  bands  of  different  colors,  sometimes  forming 
small  cylindrical  and  semi-spherical  hollow  crystals,  wholly  filled  with  quiet  and 
transparent  hot  water.  In  these  waters,  with  a  little  care,  the  purest  siliceous  incrus- 
tations can  be  obtained  by  simply  putting  the  molds  in  them  for  a  few  days. 

Hosted  by 



These  theriiio-iiiineral  waters,  which  have  not  been  known  very  long,  have,  how- 
ever, begun  to  be  used  with  astounding  success  for  certain  infirmities,  and  we  have 
seen  cases  of  chronic  rheumatism  and  paralysis  completely  cured  in  a  short  time. 



The  spring  of  Lanot  is  in  the  village  of  Colasi,  township  of  Daet, 
province  of  Ambos  Camarines. 

Therapeidic  application. — The  large  quantity  of  free  carbonic  acid 
which  these  waters  contain  deprives  them  completely  of  the  disagree- 
able taste  characteristic  of  all  ferruginous  waters,  and  as  such  there 
may  be  treated  by  them,  with  great  probability  of  success,  especially 
those  morbid  states  which  are  characterized  by  the  diminution  of  red 

Assisting  the  action  of  the  carbonic  acid,  the  bicarbonates  of  lime 
and  magnesia  will  have  a  favorable  effect  on  various  diseases  of  the 
digestive  organs,  especially  those  which  are  caused  by  a  defect  in  their 
regular  action. 

Special  indiccitions.~--^G^stv^\gm^,  dyspepsias,  gastric  and  intestinal 
catarrhs,  anaemia,  and  chlorosis. 

ITse. — Drink. 



^  The  spring  of  San  liaimundo  (Calauan)  is  located  in  the  ward  of  Sim- 
sian,  town  of  Lemery,  province  of  Batangas.  When  the  natives  of  this 
neighborhood  began  to  use  these  waters  for  the  treatment  of  their  dis- 
eases, they  gave  them  such  a  reputation  that  from  300  to  400  individ- 
uals bathed  in  them  daily,  and  in  their  ignorance  they  attributed 
marvelous  cures  to  them. 

It  is  preferable  to  use  these  waters  in  baths,  rubbing  the  skin  a  great 
deal  with  the  mud  from  the  bottom  of  the  spring,  the  diseases  treated 
by  it  being  so  different  that  it  is  possible  there  is  not  a  single  one  that 
has  not  been  submitted  to  the  test  of  its  efficacy.  The  indication  of 
arsenic,  which  the  analysis  shows,  gives  these  waters  great  value,  because 
they  are  the  only  ones  of  their  class  that  the  commission  was  able  to 

Special  indications. — Chlorosis,  anaemia,  chronic  metritis,  gout,  uric 
diathesis,  and  catarrhs  of  the  genito-urinary  mucus. 

Common  ^W//m?^v>>?^.^.— Neuralgias,  menstrual  disturbances,  neuro- 
pathic effects,  and  gastro-intestinal  catarrhs. 

Use. — Drink  and  bathe  in. 

Season. — From  November  to  May. 

Taken  from  the  ''Estudio  descriptivo  de  algunos  manantiales  minerales  de  FiU- 
pnias,  '  issued  by  the  commission  composed  of  D.  Enrique  Abella  y  Casariego 
inspector-general  of  mines;  D.  Jose  de  Vera  y  Gomes,  physician,  and  D.  Anacleto 
del  Kosario  y  Sales,  pharmacist.     Manila.     Tipo-Litograffa  de  Chofre  y  Cfa.,  1893. 

Hosted  by 




The  spring  of  San  Mariano  of  Nagtanglan  is  in  the  town  of  Pozor- 
rubio,  province  of  Fangasinan. 

Special  indications, — Scrofula,  tabercaiosis,  goat,  diabetis,  rickets, 

Common  indications. — Gastro-intestinal  catarrhs,  dyspepsias,  and 
catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  and  genito-urinary  organs. 

Use, — Drink  and  bathe  in. 

Season. — From  December  to  May. 


The  spring  of  Gapas  is  in  the  town  of  Balayan,  province  of  Batangas. 

Special  indications. — Rheumatism  of  slight  intensity,  gout,  and 

Common  indlcatio'ris. — Catarrhs  of  the  stomach  and  dyspepsias,  with 

Use. — Drink  and  bathe  in. 

Season. — From  November  to  May. 



The  spring  of  Mainit  is  in  the  town  of  Bosoboso,  district  of  Morong. 

Special  indications. — Herpetism,  catarrhal  affections  of  the  respira- 
tory organs,  and  habitual  costiveness. 

Common  indicutions. — Lymphatism,  visceral  rheumatism,  syphilis, 
and  scrofula. 

Use. — Drink  and  bathe  in. 

Season. — From  February  to  May. 



The  spring  of  Candaguit  is  found  in  the  town  of  Naga,  district  of 

Special  indications. — Dermatosis,  chronic  catarrhs  of  the  genito- 
urinary organs,  infarctions  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  and  menstrual 

Common  indications. — Chronic  catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
dyspepsias,  and  gastralgias. 

Use. — Drink  and  bathe  in. 

Season. — From  November  to  May. 


The  spring  of  Casipitan  de  Inamblan  is  in  the  town  of  Malabuyoc, 
district  of  Cebu. 

Special  indications. — Rheumatism,  gout,  neuralgia,  paralysis,  pul- 
monary tuberculosis,  chronic  bronchial  catarrh,  chronic  catarrhs  of 
the  genito-urinary  organs,  infarctions  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  uric 
diathesis,  menstrual  disturbances,  and  leucorrhoea. 

Hosted  by 




This  is  in  the  town  of  Carcar,  district  of  Cebu. 

Sjjecial  ifidications. — Dermatosis,  chronic  catarrh  of  the  genito- 
urinary origans,  infarctions  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  menstrual  dis- 
turbances, and  leucorrhoea. 

Coimnon  iruUcations. — Chronic  catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
dyspepsias,  and  gastralgias. 


TA(4JiA(;    SFKING. 

The  spring  of  Tagbag  or  Bolocboloc  is  in  Barili,  town  of  Cebu. 

Special  indkatlom. — Dermatosis,  chronic  catarrhs  of  the  genito- 
urinary organs,  infarctions  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  gout,  uric  diathe- 
sis, menstrual  disturbances,  and  leucorrhcjea. 

Convnwn  indications. -~Q]xyo\\\q,  catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
dyspepsias,  gastralgias,  and  hysteria. 

Season, — S'rom  February  to  May. 


The  spring  of  Tanon  (Mainit)  appears  in  the  town  of  Santander, 
district  of  Cebu. 

SjjeGlcd  l7idlxMtlons, — Dermatosis,  rheumatism,  gout,  uric  diathesis, 
chronic  catarrhs  of  the  genito-urinary  organs,  and  infarctions  of  the 
abdominal  viscera. 

Common  indicatlons.~Y)y^^id^^v<x.^  with  pyrosis,  chronic  gastro- 
intestinal catarrh,  catarrhal  and  chronic  ulcers  of  the  stomach,  neu- 
ralgias, and  hysteria. 



The  spring  of  Quensitog  is  in  the  settlement  of  Amamasan,  com- 
mand of  Tiagan. 

Special  indlc(itlons,--OiiYO\)XQ.  catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
hemoptysis,  incipient  tuberculosis,  rheumatism,  paralysis,  herpetic 
and  scrofulous  dermatosis,  and  habitual  costiveness. 

Common  m(^/(?<^2^^:(;;i^\--Verniinous  affections  and  visceral  infarctions. 

TIse. — To  drink,  bathe  in,  and  inhale. 

Seaso7i. — From  November  to  April. 


The  spring  of  Cabad  is  in  Tiquen,  district  of  Lepanto. 

SjjeciM  indlcatlo7is.-~C\irom(d  catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
hemoptysis,  incipient  tuberculosis,  rheumatism,  paralysis,  herpetic 
and  scrofulous  dermatosis,  and  habitual  costiveness. 

Common  indlcatlo7is,-~N ^vmmoxx^  affections,  visceral  infarctions, 
and  polysarcia. 

Use, — To  drink,  bathe  in,  and  inhale, 
p  c— VOL  3—01 23 

Hosted  by 




This  is  in  Dilog,  district  of  Lepanto. 

General  indications. — Clironic  catarrhs  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
hemoptysis,  incipient  tuberculosis,  rheumatism,  paralysis,  herpetic 
and  scrofulous  dermatosis,  and  habitual  costiveness. 



This  is  found  in  the  district  of  Benguet. 

Special  indications.- — Constitutional  diseases  of  the  skin  and  mucoas 
membranes,  herpetic  and  scrofulous  dermatosis,  bronchio-pulmonary 
catarrhs,  rheumatism,  paralysis,  and  h^^drargyrism. 

Common  indications.- — Visceral  infarctions,  syphilis,  and  chronic 
catarrhs  of  the  digestive  and  biliary  passages. 


The  spring  of  Meabe  is  in  the  town  of  Itogon,  district  of  Benguet. 

Special  indications. — Constitutional  diseases  of  the  skin  and  mucous 
membranes,  herpetic  and  scrofulous  dermatosis,  bronchio-pulmonary 
catarrhs,  rheumatism,  paralysis,  and  hydrargyrism. 

Common  indications. — Visceral  infarctions,  syphilis,  and  chronic 
catarrh  of  the  digestiye  and  biliary  passages. 


The  spring  of  Bolaboran  appears  in  the  town  of  Cardona,  district  of 

Special  indications. — Herpetic  and  scrofulous  dermatosis,  catarrhal 
affections  of  the  respiratory  organs,  arthritism,  syphilis,  and  visceral 

Cominon  indications — Hemorrhoids,  chronic  catarrhs  of  the  digest- 
ive and  biliary  passages,  traumatic  diseases,  wounds,  and  atonic  ulcers, 



The  spring  of  Cotabato  is  in  the  town  of  this  name,  capital  of  the 
fifth  district  of  Mindanao. 

Special  indications. — Herpetism,  scrofula,  and  lymphatism  in  their 
different  manifestations  in  the  skin  and  mucous  membranes,  goiter  and 
indurations  of  the  cellular  and  glandular  tissues. 

Common  indications.— Secomln^vj  and  tertiary  syphilis,  muscular 
and  articular  rheumatism,  infarctions  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  espe- 
cially of  the  liver  and  spleen,  and  abdominal  plethora. 

use. — To  drink,  bathe  in,  and  inhale. 



The  spring  of  Binobresan  is  found  in  Lian,  a  town  of  Batangas. 

Special  indications. — Chronic  gastro-intestinal  catarrh,  ulcers  of  the 
stomach,  acid  dyspepsia,  visceral  infarctions,  and  anorexia. 

Co7nmon  indications. — Catarrhal  states  of  the  respiratory  organs, 
hemoptysis,  and  the  initial  stage  of  tuberculosis. 

Hosted  by 





This  spring  is  in  the  town  of  O'Donnell,  province  of  Tarlac. 

Special  indicatio7is,—W^idv.mdX\mi,  gout,  uric  diathesis,  catarrhs 
of  the  genito-urinary  organs,  neuropathic  diseases,  hysteria,  and 

Common  m(^^'mz^^W^.— Lymphatism,  scrofula,  chronic  gastro-intes- 
tinal  catarrhs,  infarctions  of  the  abdominal  viscera,  acid  dyspepsia, 
wounds,  and  ulcers. 

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PAPER    NO.    IV. 



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By  Geo.  F.   Becker,  U.  8.  (Teologist. 

Nothing  approximating  to  a  complete  geological  reconnaissance  of 
the  Philippines  has  ever  been  made.  There  were  earnest  men  among  the 
Spanish  geologists,  however,  and  Messrs.  Centeno  and  Abella  deserve 
much  credit  for  what  they  accomplished  with  small  appropriations  and 
little  encouragement  f  i^om  the  Spanish  Government.  Visiting  geolog- 
ical explorers  have  also  contributed  importaai^  observations,  in  par- 
ticular Messrs.  Richthofen,  Semper,  and  Drasche.  The  conditions  are 
not  all  favorable  to  rapid  work.  The  enormous  coast  line,  estimated 
by  the  Coast  and  Geodetic  Survey  at  11,444  miles,  would  indeed 
afford  great  facilities  to  a  geological  expedition  properly  equipped 
with  a  steam  vessel  and  launches;  but  none  such,  I  believe,  has  ever 
been  organized.  In  the  interior  of  the  islands  roads  are  few  and  bad; 
the  vegetation  is  so  dense  and  matted  that  it  is  often  impossible  to 
leave  the  regular  trail  excepting  by  cutting  a  new  path,  and  the  damp, 
motionless  atmosphere  in  the  jungle  is  precisely  like  that  of  a  hothouse. 
Under  such  circumstances  progress  in  geological  mapping  must  inevi- 
tably be  slow. 

The  additions  which  it  has  been  possible  for  me  to  make  to  the 
geology  of  the  islands  are  small,  in  spite  of  a  residence  of  fourteen 
months.  I  was  not  allowed  to  do  any  work,  except  within  the  mili- 
tary lines  of  the  United  States  forces,  without  a  special  escort  of  sol- 
diers, which  events  proved  to  be  anything  but  unnecessary.  Moreover, 
it  was  only  occasionally  that  the  situation  justified  the  authorities  in 
placing  an  escort  at  my  disposition,  for  deliberate  exposure  of  soldiers' 
lives  for  the  purpose  of  gaining  geological  information  was  not  to  be 
thought  of,  although  volunteers  for  such  service  could  have  been 
obtained  in  any  number.  1  made  examinations  at  various  points  on 
Manila  Bay,  as  well  as  along  the  railway  from  Manila  to  San  Fernando, 
and  cruised  about  Laguna  de  Bay,  touching  at  many  points.  I  also 
spent  a  month  in  Negros  and  another  in  Cebu,  passed  some  time  at 
lloilo,  touched  at  Guimaras,  visited  Jolo,  and  coasted  along  the  island 
of  Mindanao,  though  without  being  able  to  land. 

A  report  is  in  preparation  in  tne  office  of  the  Geological  Survey 
which  is  intended  to  embody  all  that  is  at  present  known  on  the  geology 
and  mineral  resources  of  the  archipelago.  In  the  meantime  an  out- 
line is  presented  here  in  the  form  of  brief  memoranda.  That  on  the 
mineral  resources  was  prepared  in  Manila  in  September,  1898,  at  the 
request  of  Admiral  Dewey  and  as  a  report  to  him.^     It  is  reproduced 

^  This  memorandum  appears  in  the  Nineteenth  Annual  Report,  Geological  Survey. 


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here  with  one  or  two  uniinportaiit  chari^-es.  A  supplcmentMl  note 
embodies  some  pertinent  faets  extracted  from  a  report  to  the  commis- 
sion recently  made  by  the  J(\siiit  fathers.  The  memorandum  on  the 
general  geology  was  addressed  to  (xeneral  Otis  in  September,  18J)1),  at 
the  close  of  held  work  in  the  island/ 


This  brief  memorandum  probably  covers  all  the  main  discoveries  in 
the  geology  of  the  Philippines  which  are  of  economic  interest.  It  is 
drawn  up  from  data  recorded  in  the  Spanish  mining  bureau  (Inspec- 
cion  de  Minas),  but  not  published;  manuscript  mine  reports  by  the  late 
William  Ashburner ;  verbal  information  obtained  in  Manila,  and  various 
technical  publications  of  Semper,  Santos,  Roth,  Drasche,  Abella,  and 

Only  about  a  score  of  the  islands  are  known  to  contain  deposits  of 
valuable  minerals.  These  are  arranged  below  in  the  order  of  their  lati- 
tude, to  give  an  idea  of  their  geographical  distribution  and  to  facilitate 
finding  the  islands  on  the  map.  The  latitude  of  the  northern  end  of 
each  is  taken  as  that  of  the  island.  The  character  of  the  valuable  min- 
erals stated  in  the  table  will  afford  a  general  notion  of  the  resources 
of  the  islands. 

M'meral-hear'mg  islands  and  their  resources. 
























































(?)    1 



Character  of  mineral  resources. 


























Sulu  Archipelago 

Coal,  gold,  copper,  lead,  iron,  sulphur,  marble, 

Coal,  gold,  iron. 

Gold,  copper,  lead. 
Lead,  silver. 
Coal,  gold,  copper. 


Coal,  copper. 
Coal,  gold. 

Coal,  oil,  gas,  gold,  copper,  iron,  mercury  (?). 

Coal,  oil,  mercury  (?). 
Coal,  oil,  gas,  lead,  silver,  iron. 


Coal,  gold,  copper,  platinum. 

The  distribution  of  each  mineral  or  metal  may  now  be  sketched  in 
somewhat  greater  detail.  In  many  cases  the  information  given  in  this 
abstract  is  exhaustive,  so  far  as  the  available  material  is  concerned. 
The  coal  fields  of  Cebu,  however,  have  been  studied  in  some  detail  by 
Mr.  Abella,  and  in  a  few  other  instances  more  extended  information 
has  been  condensed  for  the  present  purpose. 

1  Printed  in  the  Twentieth  Annual  Report  of  the  Geological  Survey. 

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Ooal.—^o  far  as  is  deliriitcly  known,  the  coal  of  the  Philippine 
Islands  is  all  of  Tc^rtiary  ai^e,  and  might  ])etter  be  characterized  as  a 
highly  car})onized  lignite.  It  is  analogous  to  the  Japanese  coal  and 
to  that  of  Washington,  })ut  not  to  the  Welsh  or  Pennsylvania  coals. 
Such  lignites  usually  contain  considerable  combined  water  (8  to  18  per 
cent)  and  bear  transportation  ill.  The}^  are  also  apt  to  (contain  much 
sulphur,  as  iron  pyrite,  rendering  them  subject  to  spontaneous  com- 
bustion and  injurious  to  boiler  plates.  Nevertheless,  when  pyritous 
seams  are  avoided  and  the  lignite  is  properly  handled  it  forms  a  val- 
uable fuel,  especially  for  local  consumption.  In  these  islands  it  would 
appear  that  the  native  coal  might  supplant  English  or  Australian 
coal  for  most  purposes.  Lignite  is  widely  distributed  in  the  archipel- 
ago; some  of  the  seams  are  of  excellent  width,  and  the  quality  of 
certain  of  them  is  high  for  fuel  of  this  class. 

Coal  exists  in  various  provinces  of  the  island  of  Luzon  (Abra, 
Camarines,  Bataan,  Sorsogon).  The  finest  beds  thus  far  discovered 
appear  to  be  those  in  the  small  island  of  Bataan,  lying  to  the  east  of  the 
southern  portion  of  Luzon,  in  latitude  13^  WY .  These  seams  vary 
from  2  feet  6  inches  to  14  feet  8  inches  in  thickness.  Analyses  have 
been  made  in  the  laboratory  of  the  Inspeccion  de  Minas,  and  the 
mean  of  seven  analyses  gives  the  following  composition : 

Analyst  of  coal  from  Bataan,  one  of  the  Philippitu'  Islands, 


Per  eent. 



Volatile  matter 


Fi xed  enrbon                      . .   .          


Ash                                                                                                                               -         - 




One  pound  of  this  coal  will  convert  6.25  pounds  of  water  at  iO^  C. 
into  steam  at  100°  C.  The  heating  effect  is  about  three-fourths  that  of 
Cardiff'  coal.  The  same  beds  are  known  to  exist  in  other  small  adjacent 
islands,  Carraray  and  Rapu-Rapu.  A  number  of  concessions  for  coal 
mining  have  also  been  granted  on  the  main  island  of  Luzon  just  south 
of  Bataan,  at  the  town  of  Bacon.  No  doubt  the  beds  here  are  either 
identical  or  at  least  closely  associated  with  the  coal  seams  in  the  little 

The  coal  field  of  southern  Luzon  is  said  to  extend  across  the  Strait 
of  San  Bernadino  into  the  northern  portion  of  Samar.  Here  coal  is 
reported  at  half  a  dozen  localities,  but  I  have  been  able  to  ascertain  no 
details  as  to  the  thickness  or  quality. 

In  Mindoro  there  are  large  deposits  of  coal  in  the  extreme  southern 
portion  (Bulacao)  and  on  the  small  adjacent  island  of  Semirara.  This 
fuel  is  said  to  be  similar  to  that  of  Bataan. 

The  islands  of  Masbate  and  Panay  contain  coal,  the  deposits  of  which 
thus  far  discovered  do  not  seem  of  much  importance.  Specimens  from 
the  southwestern  portion  of  Leyte,  analyzed  in  the  laboratory  of  the 
Inspeccion  de  Minas,  are  of  remarkably  high  quality,  but  nothing 
definite  about  the  deposit  is  known  to  me. 

The  first  discovery  of  coal  in  the  archipelago  was  made  in  the  island 
of  Cebu  in  1827.     Since  then  lignitic  beds  have  been  found  on  the 

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island  at  a  great  variety  of  points.  The  most  important  croppings  are 
on  the  eastern  slope  within  some  15  or  20  miles  of  the  capital,  also 
named  Cebu.  Though  a  considerable  amount  of  coal  has  been  extracted 
here,  the  industry  has  not  been  a  profitable  one  hitherto.  This  is,  at 
least  in  part,  due  to  crude  methods  of  transportation.  It  is  said,  how- 
ever, that  the  seams  are  often  badly  faulted. 

At  Uling,  about  10  miles  west  of  the  capital,  the  seams  reach  a 
naaximum  thickness  of  15i  feet.  Ten  analyses  of  Cebu  coal  are  at  my 
disposal.  They  indicate  a  fuel  with  about  two-thirds  the  calorific 
effect  of  Cardiff  coal,  and  with  only  about  4  per  cent  ash.  Large 
quantities  of  the  coal  might,  I  suspect,  contain  a  higher  percentage 
of  ash. 

The  island  of  Negros  is  nearly  parallel  with  Cebu  and  appears  to  be 
of  similar  geological  constitution,  but  it  has  been  little  explored,  and 
little  of  it  seems  to  have  been  reduced  to  subjection  by  the  Spaniards. 
There  are  known  to  be  deposits  of  coal  at  Calatrava,  on  the  east  coast 
of  Negros,  and  it  is  believed  that  they  are  of  important  extent.  In 
the  great  island  of  Mindanao  coal  is  known  to  occur  at  eight  different 
localities,  but  no  detailed  examination  of  any  kind  appears  to  have 
been  made.  Seven  of  these  localities  are  on  the  east  coast  of  Minda- 
nao and  the  adjacent  small  islands.  They  indicate  the  presence  of 
lignite  from  one  end  of  the  coast  to  the  other.  The  eighth  locality  is 
in  the  western  province,  called  Zamboanga,  on  the  Gulf  of  Sibuguey. 

Petroleum.—\vL  the  island  of  Cebu  petroleum  has  been  found  asso- 
ciated with  coal  at  Toledo  on  the  west  coast,  where  a  concession  has 
been  granted.  It  is  also  reported  from  Asturias,  to  the  north  of  Tol- 
edo, on  the  same  coast,  and  from  Algeria  to  the  south.  Natural  gas 
IS  said  to  exist  in  the  Cebu  coal  fields.  On  Panay,  too,  oil  is  reported 
at  Janinay,  in  the  province  of  Iloilo,  and  gas  is  reported  from  the  same 
island.  Petroleum,  highly  charged  with  paraflin,  is  also  found  on 
Ley te,  at  a  point  about  4  miles  from  Villaba,  a  town  on  the  west  coast. 

Gold, — Gold  is  found  at  a  vast  number  of  localities  in  the  archipel- 
ago, from  northern  Luzon  to  central  Mindanao.  In  most  cases  the 
gold  is  detrital,  and  is  found  either  in  existing  water  courses  or  in 
stream  deposits  now  deserted  by  the  current.  These  last  are  called 
aluviones"  by  the  Spaniards.  It  is  said  that  in  Mindanao  some  of 
the  gravels  are  in  an  elevated  position  and  adapted  to  hydraulic  min- 
ing. There  are  no  data  at  hand  which  indicate  decisively  the  value  of 
any  of  the  placers.  They  are  washed  by  natives,  largely  with  cocoa- 
nut  shells  for  pans,  though  the  batea  is  also  in  use. 

In  the  province  of  Abra,  at  the  northern  end  of  Luzon,  there  are 
placers,  and  the  gravel  of  the  river  Abra  is  auriferous.  In  Lepanto 
there  are  gold  quartz  viens  as  well  as  gravels.  Gold  is  obtained  in 
this  province  close  to  the  copper  mines.  In  Benguet  the  gravels  of 
me  river  Agno  carry  gold.  There  is  also  gold  in  the  province  of 
Bontoc  and  in  Nueva  Ecija.  The  most  important  of  the  auriferous 
provinces  is  Camarines  Norte.  Here  the  townships  of  Mambulao, 
Paracale,  and  Labo  are  especially  well  known  as  gold-producing  locali- 
ties. Mr.  Drasche,  a  well-known  German  geologist,  says  that  there 
were  700  natives  at  work  on  the  rich  quartz  veins  of  this  place  at  the 
time  of  his  visit,  about  twenty -five  years  ago.  At  Paracale  there  are 
parallel  quartz  veins  m  granite,  one  of  which  is  20  feet  in  width  and 
contains  a  chute  in  which  the  ore  is  said  to  assay  38  ounces  of  gold  to 
the  ton.     One  may  suspect  that  this  assay  hardly  represented  an  aver- 

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age  sample.     Besides  the  localities  mentioned,  many  others  in  this 
province  have  been  worked  by  the  natives. 

The  islands  of  Mindoro,  Catanduanes,  Sibuyan,  Samar,  Panay,  Cebu, 
and  Bohol  are  reported  to  contain  gold,  but  no  exact  data  are  accessible. 

At  the  south  end  of  the  small  island  of  Panaon,  which  is  just  to  the 
south  of  Leyte,  there  are  gold  quartz  Vv3ins,  one  of  which  has  been 
worked  to  some  extent.  It  is  6  feet  in  thickness  and  has  yielded  from 
16  to  $7  per  ton. 

In  the  island  of  Mindanao  there  are  two  known  gold-bearing  dis- 
tricts. One  of  these  is  in  the  province  of  Surigao,  where  Placer  and 
other  townships  show  gravels  and  veins.  The  second  district  is  in  the 
province  of  Misamis.  Near  the  settlement  of  Iponan,  on  the  Gulf  of 
Macajalar,  there  are  said  to  be  many  square  kilometers  of  gravels  car- 
rying large  quantities  of  gold,  with  which  is  associated  platinum. 
The  product  of  this  district  was  estimated  some  years  since  at  150 
ounces  per  month,  all  extracted  by  natives  with  bateas  or  cocoanut- 
shell  dishes. 

Copper. — Copper  ores  are  reported  from  a  great  number  of  locali- 
ties in  the  Philippines.  They  are  said  to  occur  in  the  following  islands: 
Luzon  (provinces  of  Lepanto,  Benguet,  and  Camarines),  Mindoro, 
Capul,  Masbate,  Panay  (province  of  Antique),  and  Mindanao  (province 
of  Surigao).  Many  of  these  occurrences  are  probably  uniniportant. 
The  great  island  of  Mindanao,  being  practically  unexplored,  is  full  of 
possibilities,  but  as  yet  no  important  copper  deposit  is  known  to  exist 
there.  An  attempt  was  made  to  work  the  deposit  in  Masbate,  but  no 
success  seems  to  have  been  attained.  On  the  other  hand,  northern 
Luzon  contains  a  copper  region  which  is  unquestionably  valuable. 
The  best-known  portion  of  this  region  lies  about  Mount  Data,  a 
peak  given  as  ''2,500  meters T'  in  height,  lying  in  latitude  16^  53'  N., 
longitude  120°  58'  east  of  Greenwich,  or  124°  38'  east  of  Madrid.  The 
range  of  which  Data  forms  one  peak  trends  due  north  to  Cape  Lacay- 
Lacay,  and  forms  a  boundary  for  all  the  provinces  impinging  upon  it. 

Data  itself  lies  in  the  province  of  Lepanto.  In  this  range  copper 
ore  has  been  smelted  by  the  natives  from  time  immemorial,  and  before 
Magellan  discovered  the  Philippines.  The  process  is  a  complicated 
one,  based  on  the  same  principles  as  the  method  of  smelting  sulpho- 
salts  of  this  metal  in  Europe  and  America.  It  consists  in  alternate 
partial  roasting  and  reduction  to ''matte"  and  eventually  to  black 
copper.  It  is  generally  believed  that  this  process  must  have  been 
introduced  from  China  or  Japan.  It  is  practiced  only  by  one  peculiar 
tribe  of  natives,  the  Igorrotes,  who  are  remarkable  in  many  ways. 

Vague  reports  and  the  routes  by  which  copper  smelted  by  natives 
comes  to  market  indicate  that  there  are  copper  mines  in  various  por- 
tions of  the  Cordillera  Central,  but  the  only  deposits  which  have  been 
examined  with  any  care  are  those  at  Mancayan  (about  5  miles  west  of 
Mount  Data),  and  two  or  three  other  localities  within  a  few  miles  of 
Mancayan.  The  deposits  of  Mancayan  are  described  as  veins  of  rich 
ore,  reaching  7  meters  in  width  and  arranged  in  groups.  Mean  assays 
are  said  to  show  over  16  per  cent  of  copper,  mainly  as  tetrahedrite 
and  allied  ores.  The  gangue  is  quartz.  The  country  rock  is  described 
as  a  large  quartzite  lens  embedded  in  a  great  mass  of  trachyte.  An 
attempt  has  been  made  by  white  men  to  work  these  deposits,  but  with 
no  considerable  success.  The  failure  does  not  seem  to  have  been  due 
to  the  quality  or  quantity  of  ore  found. 

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Lead  and  silver, — A  lead  iiiine  has  been  partially  dovolopod  near  the 
town  of  Cebu,  on  the  island  of  the  same  name. 

,,  'i'he  most  important  deposit  of  argentiferous  galena  is  said  to  he  at 
Torrijos,  on  the  small  island  of  Marinduque  (latitude  13'^  (>').  A  metric 
ton,  or  1,000  kilograms,  is  said  to  contain  96  grams  of  silver,  6  grams 
of  gold,  and  505.5  kilograms  of  lead. 

In  Camarines,  a  province  of  Luzon,  lead  ores  occur,  but  are  worked 
only  for  the  gold  they  contain. 

/t^^^.— There  is  iron  ore  in  abundance  in  Luzon,  Cebu,  Panay,  and 
doubtless  in  other  islands.  In  Luzon  it  is  found  in  the  provinces  of 
Laguna,  Fampanga,  and  Camarines  Norte,  but  principally  in  Bulacan. 
The  finest  deposits  are  in  the  last-named  province,  near  a  small  settle- 
ment named  Camachin,  which  lies  in  latitude  15^  T,  and  longitude 
124^  47'  east  of  Madrid.  A  small  industry  exists  here,  wrought  iron 
bemg  produced  in  a  sort  of  bloomery  and  manufactured  into  plow- 
shares. The  process  has  not  been  described  in  detail,  so  far  as  I  know. 
It  would  appear  that  charcoal  pig  iron  might  be  produced  to  some 
advantage  in  this  region.  The  lignites  of  the  archipelago  are  probably 
unsuitable  for  iron  blast  furnaces. 

Quickdlmr.—^wwLOV^  of  the  occurrence  of  this  metal  in  Panay  and 
Leyte  have  failed  of  verification.  Accidental  losses  of  this  metal  by 
prospectors  or  surveyors  sometimes  lead  to  reports  of  the  discovery 
of  deposits,  and  ochers  are  not  seldom  mistaken  for  impure  cinnabar. 
.Nonmetallic  siibstanGes,—'^\A^\mY  deposits  abound  about  active  and 
extinct  volcanoes  in  the  Philippines.  In  Luzon  the  principal  sulphur 
deposits  are  at  Daclan,  in  the  province  of  Benguet,  and  at  Colasi,  in 
Camarmes.  The  finest  deposit  in  the  archipelago  is  said  to  be  on  the 
httle  island  of  Biliran,  which  lies  to  the  northwest  of  Leyte. 

Marble  of  fine  quality  occurs  on  the  small  island  of  Romblon  (lati- 
tude 12°  6').  It  is  much  employed  in  churches  in  Manila  for  baptismal 
fonts  and  other  purposes.  Marbles  are  also  quarried  at  Montalban,  in 
the  province  of  Manila,  and  at  Binangonan,  in  the  province  of  Morong. 
There  are  concessions  for  mining  koalin  at  Los  Banos,  in  Laguna 

Pearl  fisheries  exist  in  the  Sulu  Archipelago,  and  are  said  to  form 
an  important  source  of  wealth. 


The  elesuit  Fathers  report  the  sulphide  of  antimony  (stibnite)  as 
occurring  at  Paracale,  in  the  province  of  Camarines,  and  as  found 
also  m  Zambales  province.  It  does  not  appear  whether  in  either  case 
the  mineral  is  sufiiciently  abundant  to  be  regarded  as  an  ore  deposit. 
So,  too,  zinc,  both  as  the  sulphide  and  as  silicate,  exists  at  Paracale 
seemingly  in  connection  with  lead  ores  and  gold.  Such  information 
as  I  have  would  point  to  the  conclusion  that  the  zinc  ores  are  to  be 
regarded  rather  as  metallic  gangue  minerals  than  as  separate  deposits 
but  my  information  is  insuflScient  to  decide  this  question  definitely.     ' 

Deposits  of  rock  salt  occur  in  Mount  Blanco  and  Bamban  (Nueva 
Lci]a),in  Calamba  (Laguna),  and  in  Placer  (Surigao,  Mindanao).  As 
might  be  supposed,  the  natives  extract  much  of  their  salt  from  the 
sea  water.  Niter  is  found  in  caves  at  some  points  in  the  Philippines 
very  probably  originating  in  the  dung  of  bats  and  other  animals.  It 
has  been  collected  by  the  insurgents  for  the  manufacture  of  gunpow- 

Hosted  by 



der.  Among  the  localities  where  it  is  known  are  the  small  island  of 
Masapilit  and  the  town  of  Placer,  in  Mindanao. 

Beautiful  serpentine  is  found  in  Santa  Cruz  (Zambales),  and  the 
same  mineral  is  widely  distributed  in  the  islands.  Gypsum  is  plentiful 
in  the  eastern  part  of  the  central  range  of  Luzon.  Opal  is  said  to 
occur  at  Binangonan  (Morong)  and  at  Catbalogan,  in  the  island  of 
Samar.  This  mineral  is  a  very  common  one  in  volcanic  regions;  but 
the  valuable  variety,  fire  opal,  is  rare.  Lithographic  stone  is  found 
at  San  Mateo,  province  of  Manila.  Should  this  turn  out  to  be  of  good 
quality  and  in  large  blocks,  the  deposit  would  be  a  treasure. 

The  clays  of  Los  Banos  (Laguna)  and  of  Maunrigao  (Surigao,  Min- 
danao) are  said  to  be  comparable  with  the  best  Chinese  and  Japanese 
kaolins.  If  this  is  true,  it  would  be  eas}^  to  import  expert  potters 
from  those  countries.  Asphalt  is  reported  in  Luzon  in  Camarines, 
between  Lakes  Buhi  and  Bato,  as  well  as  in  Mindanao  at  Hinatuan,  in 
the  province  of  Surigao. 


Much  office  work  must  be  done  on  the  specimens  collected  and  much 
literature  abstracted  before  all  of  the  information  at  my  command  on 
the  geology  of  the  Philippine  Islands  can  be  systematically  presented. 

So  far  as  my  observation  or  my  information  goes,  the  geological 
history  of  the  whole  group  is  similar.  I  have  seen  that  the  Post- 
Tertiary  gradual  upheaval,  presently  to  be  described,  is  common  to 
Jolo,  Mindanao,  Luzon,  and  the  intermediate  islands;  and  descriptions 
leave  little  doubt  that  the  Philippines  belong,  and  have  long  belonged, 
to  a  single  geological  and  biological  province. 

Prior  to  the  Tertiary  epoch  the  Philippines  consisted  of  slates  and 
igneous  masses,  the  age  of  which  is  as  yet  unknown,  no  fossils  having 
been  detected  in  these  ancient  rocks.  They  are  now  to  be  found  chiefly 
in  the  northern  and  eastern  ranges  of  Luzon,  but  appear  to  be  repre- 
sented also  by  some  limited  occurrences  in  Cebu,  and  seem  to  form  the 
walls  of  the  gold-bearing  quartz  veins  of  the  province  of  Surigao,  in 
the  northeastern  portion  of  Mindanao.  They  are  doubtless  in  reality 
widely  distributed,  but  in  most  localities  are  buried  beneath  more 
recent  formations. 

During  the  Eocene,  or  earliest  Tertiary,  the  archipelago  must  have 
consisted  largely  of  swamps  and  shallow  seas,  perhaps  not  very  dif- 
ferent from  those  now  existing  in  the  same  region.  Limestones  were 
formed  at  some  distance  from  the  coasts,  shales  and  sandstones  were 
laid  down  near  the  shores,  and  accumulations  of  vegetable  matter 
grew  in  the  swamps.  These  last  were  covered  by  mud,  and,  in  the 
almost  total  absence  of  free  oxygen,  they  were  gradually  converted  into 
lignite,  probably  the  most  valuable  mineral  asset  of  American  India. 

At  the  close  of  the  Eocene  a  great  crumpling  and  upheaval  took 
place,  which  was  felt  from  Switzerland  to  the  Philippines,  and  perhaps 
most  of  all  in  the  Himalayas,  where  marine  Eocene  beds  now  stand  at 
an  elevation  of  16,i)0()  feet  above  the  sea.  In  these  islands  the  Eocene 
strata  are  frequently  thrown  into  a  nearly  vertical  position  and  some- 
times are  actually  overturned.  In  the  Visa3^as  the  axis  of  upheaval 
trended  a  little  east  of  north,  corresponding  to  the  direction  of  greatest 
extension  of  the  islands  of  Cebu  and  Negros.  These  disturbances  were 
accompanied  by  much  faulting  and  it  is  believed  by  somemetamorphism. 
Intrusions  and  extrusions  of  igneous  rocks  seem  to  have  accompanied 

Hosted  by 



this  upheaval,  but  no  satisfactory  study  has  yet  been  made  of  the 
phenomena,  good  exposures  being  rare. 

During  the  remainder  of  the  Tertiary  the  islands  appear  to  have 
been  above  water.  Miocene  and  Pliocene  strata  have  not  been  detected 
with  certainty,  though  some  traces  of  such  beds  will  probably  be 
discovered  in  future  investigations.  Near  Jolo  I  found  strata  which 
appeared  to  be  younger  than  the  Eocene  and  older  than  the  Recent 
period.  In  the  main,  the  area  of  the  Philippines  was  probably  then 
continental,  and  there  is  zoological  evidence  of  a  land  connection  with 
the  Asiatic  continent,  probably  by  way  of  Borneo,  during  the  Middle 
Tertiary.  This  connection  did  not  persist  to  the  close  of  the  Tertiary, 
however,  and  to  its  rupture  are  ascribable  the  extraordinary  peculiari- 
ties of  animal  life  in  these  islands,  evolution  here  having  been  left  to 
take  its  own  course  undisturbed  by  invasions. 

The  subsidence  which  cut  off  immigration  of  the  lower  animals  con- 
tinued, seemingly,  till  somewhere  about  the  close  of  the  Tertiary,  and 
long  after  Homo  sapiens  had  made  his  appearance  in  the  Malay  Archi- 
pelago. This  group  also  was  very  probably  alreadv  inhabited  during 
the  Pliocene,  possibly  by  the  ancestors  of  the  Negritos.  This  is  a  mat- 
ter which  requires  careful  investigation,  for  in  the  opinion  of  my  late 
famous  colleague,  O.  C.  Marsh,  this  archipelago  is  likely  to  have  been 
one  of  the  earliest  haunts  of  the  human  species. 

When  the  elevation  was  at  its  minimum  the  archipelago  was  reduced 
to  a  group  of  small,  hilly  islets,  four  of  which  existed  within  the  area 

now  occupied  by  the  island  of  Luzon.     Cebu  was  almost  completely 


At  or  before  the  period  of  maximum  subsidence,  began  a  series  of 

eruptionswhich  has  not  yet  closed.    Mayon  Volcano,  in  southern  Luzon, 

had  a  violent  eruption  in  1897.     It  is  probably  the  most  beautifully 

symmetrical  volcanic  cone  in  the  world,  and  the  truncation  at  the  top, 

due  to  the  crater,  is  scarcely  sensible.^     The  work  done  in  fusing  lavas 

and  ejecting  ash  is  probably  a  manifestation  of  the  energy  involved  in 

the  mighty  earth  throes  which  bring  about  regional  upheavals  with 

incidental  subsidences.     The  earlier  of  the  eruptions  under  discussion 

were  largely  submarine,  and  vast  additions  were  made  to  the  super- 

hcial  material  of  the  archipelago  by  these  outflows,  especially  in  the 

central  and  southern  portions  of  Luzon.     The  ejecta  include  andesites, 

rhyolites,  basalts,  and  probably  other  less  common  rock  species. 
The  period  of  upheaval,  once  initiated,  does  not  seem  to  have  been 

interrupted  by  any  era  of  subsidence,  and  the  modern  coral  reefs  give 

evidence  that  it  is  still  in  progress.     It  is  said  that  uplifts  accompany- 
ing earthquakes  have  actually  been  observed  by  the  Spaniards,  and  the 

earthquakes  themselves  are  spasmodic  jars  in  the  process  of  elevation. 

The  elevation  has  not  been,  properly  speaking,  catastrophic,  however, 

for  the  tremors  which  may  wreck  a  cathedral  are  insignificant  from  a 

terrestrial  standpoint.     On  the  whole,  the  uplift  has  been  very  gradual, 

so  that  even  the  coral  polyp  has  been  able  to  adjust  himself  to  the 

changing  conditions,  building  outward  into  deeper  water  as  his  old 

home  was  raised  too  high  for  his  welfare.     In  this  way  nearly  the  whole 

ot  Cebu,  to  a  height  of  over  2,000  feet,  has  been  covered  with  a  nearly 

continuous  sheet  of  coral  which  can  be  followed  seaward  into  living 

reefs.     Much  of  Negros  has  been  clothed  with  a  similar  mantle.     On  a 

J  The  radius  of  any  horizontal  section  is  the  hyperbolic  sine  of  the  distance  from 
this  section  to  the  summit. 

Hosted  by  VrrOOQiC 


small  scale,  also,  off  the  coasts  of  these  islands,  and  particularly^  about 
Mactan,  reefs  can  still  be  studied  in  every  stage  of  upheaval,  all  those 
portions  being  dead  which  are  exposed  to  the  air  even  at  the  lowest 
tides.  In  southern  Luzon  and  to  the  northward  of  Lingayen  Bay 
similar  phenomena  can  be  observed. 

Although  upheaval  does  not  appear  at  any  time  since  the  close  of 
the  Tertiary  to  have  given  way  to  subsidence,  there  have  been  repeated 
pauses  in  the  uplifting  process.  On  exposed  coasts  these  pauses  are 
marked  by  benches  eaten  into  the  land  by  the  action  of  the  waves. 
Thus  the  southern  ends  of  Cebu  and  Bohol  are  terraced  from  top  to 
bottom,  each  terrace  being  an  old  bench  cut  out  of  the  rock  mass  by 
stormy  seas.  Pauses  in  the  uplifting  process  are  also  marked  by  a 
rude  stratification  of  the  corals.  Even  in  the  interior  of  the  islands  ter- 
races indicative  of  uplifts  are  frequently  visible.  Some  of  them  repre- 
sent base  levels  of  erosion,  others  are  ancient  coral  reefs  which  Have 
been  checked  in  their  upward  growth  by  reaching  the  surface  of  the 
water.  In  short,  terraces  constitute  one  of  the  most  prominent  topo- 
graphical features  of  the  archipelago. 

The  slowness  of  the  uplift  is  emphasized  by  the  stupendous  accumu- 
lation of  coral  in  these  islands.  Coral  is,  of  course,  mainly  composed 
of  calcium  carbonate,  and  this  is  formed  by  the  coral  polyp  from  the 
lime  salts  dissolved  in  the  sea.  Now,  the  sea  contains  a  very  minute 
proportion  of  lime  salts  (chiefly  the  sulphate,  or  gypsum),  say  a  tenth 
of  1  per  cent,  and  corals  are  necessarily  of  slow  growth  because  of  the 
scantiness  of  the  material  with  which  they  build.  The  sheets  of  coral 
on  uplifted  areas  seem  to  have  a  tendency  toward  a  nearly  uniform 
thickness,  approximating  to  100  feet.  This  is  explicable  from  the 
habits  of  the  coral  animal,  which  does  not  grow  at  a  greater  depth 
than  15  or  20  fathoms.  Unlike  merely  sedimentary  strata,  the  coral 
follows  the  topography  of  the  rising  surface  along  a  contour  of  which 
it  grew.  Where  muddy  waters  or  frequent  eruptions  befoul  the  sea 
there  are  no  coral  reefs. 

When  the  uplift  began,  say  ten  or  twelve  thousand  years  ago,  the 
island  shores  were  steep  and  the  sea  about  them  was  relatively  deep,  so 
that  an  upheaval  of  100  feet  added  but  little  to  the  area  of  the  islands. 
As  the  amount  of  uplift  increased  to  something  approaching  the  mean 
depth  of  the  circumambient  sea,  the  area  of  the  land  increased  in  a  far 
greater  ratio  to  the  increment  of  upheaval.  The  last  rise  of  100  feet 
has  rescued  from  the  seas  the  most  valuable  part  of  the  archipelago. 
Examination  of  the  charts  will  show  that  a  fresh  rise  of  100  feet  would 
add  a  further  area,  which,  though  important,  would  be  less  important 
than  the  actual  lowlands  of  the  Philippines.  The  plateau  on  which  the 
island  stands  is  now  mostly  above  sea  level. 

Area  has  been  added  to  the  land  by  the  formation  of  deltas  at 
the  mouths  of  the  rivers,  a  process  which  has  been  greatly  assisted  by 
the  mangrove  trees  and  the  nipa  palms.  These  grow  in  the  water  in 
all  favorable  situations,  and  hold  back  the  solid  contents  of  the  streams, 
adding  their  own  debris  to  the  accumulation.  Along  the  eastern  shore 
of  Manila  Bay  the  so-called  "estero"  or  ''bayou"  country  consists  of 
the  confluent  deltas  of  the  various  rivers  flowing  into  the  bay. 

To  the  eastward  of  the  estero  country  the  ground  passed  over  by 
General  MacArthur's  army  from  Manila  to  San  Fernando  consists  of 
low,  base-leveled  terraces,  all  more  or  less  dissected  by  water  courses. 
These  almost  always  have  somewhat  high  and  steep  banks.     They  are 

Hosted  by 



in  fact  engorged,  as  is  characteristically  the  case  in  a  country  under- 
going upheaval;  for  upheaval  increases  the  potential  energy  of  the 
flowing  water  and  leads  to  erosion  of  the  stream  beds. 

In  my  published  memorandum  on  the  nuneral  resources  of  the  Phil- 
ippines,^ I  hav^e  briefly  noted  the  distribution  of  valuable  minerals. 
The  distribution  of  gold  deposits  indicates  that  this  metal,  when  in 
place,  is  associated  with  the  older  rocks,  and  it  will  probably  be  found 
that  the  last  great  addition  to  the  auriferous  deposits  was  an  incident 
of  the  Post-Eocene  upheaval.  In  some  parts  of  the  world  gold  is 
found  in  neo-volcanic  rocks,  as  at  Bodie  in  California,  and  elsewhere. 
I  have  learned  of  no  such  occurrence  in  these  islands.  Where  streams 
in  the  Philippines  cut  into  the  older  rocks  they  seem  nearly  always  to 
carry  a  little  gold,  which  the  natives  have  been  exploiting  time  out 
of  mind. 

There  is  a  very  general  impression  that  Mindanao  is  a  rich  aurifer- 
ous region,  though  little  deflnite  information  is  current  on  the  subject. 
The  absence  of  information  seems  to  add  the  attractions  of  the  imagi- 
nation to  the  tales  of  a  few  prospectors.  It  is  a  fact,  to  which  attention 
should  be  called,  that  each  of  the  two  auriferous  provinces  of  Mindanao — 
viz,  Surigao  and  Misamis— has  been  reported  upon  by  a  competent  expert 
and  that  neither  expert  found  anything  to  excite  his  enthusiasm.  There 
is  gold  there,  beyond  a  doubt,  and  the  natives  have  been  extracting  it 
on  a  modest  scale,  yet  with  no  little  skill,  for  centuries.  The  informa- 
tion at  hand  points  to  very  moderate  auriferous  resources,  comparable 
with  those  of  the  Carolinas  and  Georgia  rather  than  with  those  of 
Colorado  or  California. 

Luzon,  so  far  as  I  can  judge  from  reports,  is  as  rich  in  gold  as  Min- 
danao. It  is  probable  enough  that  a  fair  number  of  spots  exist  in  which 
capital  invested  in  gold  mines  will  find  reasonable  renumeration,  but  I 
fear  that  any  ''rush"  to  the  gold  fields  will  involve  great  disappoint- 
ment. The  whole  archipelago  has  an  area  almost  the  same  as  that  of 
Arizona.  There  is  nothing  known  which  indicates  that  the  islands 
contain  more  gold  than  this  Territory. 

The  copper  doposits  of  Lepanto  seem  rich  and  extensive,  but  very 
expensive  roads  will  be  needed  to  render  them  available.  The  high 
quality  of  some  of  the  iron  ores  of  Luzon  is  beyond  question,  but  the 
lignite  of  the  islands  is  not  adapted  to  iron  smelting.  A  moderate 
industry  could  be  based  on  charcoal  smelting,  while  the  pig  iron  could 
be  converted  into  steel  and  manufactured  by  the  use  of  furnaces  burn- 
ing lignite  gas. 

The  so-called  coal  is  a  good  lignite.  Its  heating  efl'ect  is  from  two- 
thirds  to  three-fourths  that  of  the  best  steaming  coal.  There  are  great 
quantities  of  this  fuel,  and  nmch  of  it  could  probably  be  delivered  at  a 
profit  on  vessels  at  |2.50  (Mexican)  per  ton.  The  lignite  is  at  least  as 
good  as  the  Japanese  "  coal,"  which  is  also  lignite.  The  Japanese  fuel 
often  brings  $9  or  |10  (Mexican)  in  Manila,  and  is  now  much  dearer;  so 
that  unless  the  price  of  such  coal  were  to  fall  enormously,  great  profits 
await  the  coal  miner.  The  development  of  a  coal  industry  is  of  great 
importance  to  the  industries  of  the  archipelago,  and  though  our  naval 
vessels  would  prefer  Cardiff  or  Pocahontas  coal,  they  could  use  Philip 
pine  lignite  in  case  of  need. 

^Nineteenth  Ann.  Kept.  U.  S.  Geol.  Survey,  Part  VI  Continued,  1898,  pp.  687-69o. 

Hosted  by 


PAPER    NO.    V. 


i>  c— VOL  3—01- 24 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


IN  1  HOD  IK   1  ION. 

As  the  Philippine  Aivhipelego,  situated  between  5  and  21  degrees 
north  latitude,  is  nrade  up  of  a  large  number  of  ishmds,  has  great  vari- 
ations in  the  elevation  and  composition  of  its  land,  and  is  subject  to 
various  winds,  it  necessarily  presents  marked  variation  in  its  vege- 

In  general  the  flora  is  tropical.  In  the  south  of  Mindanao,  or  in 
the  Jolo  Archipelago,  it  is  beyond  doubt  equatorial,  as  is  shown  hy 
t\m  presence  of  the  durian  {Dario  zthdlflinis)  and  the  niangosteen 
{(jdrcudu  iHi(iHf(>st((n(().  In  Mindanao  this  character  gradually  disap- 
I)ears,  preserving  the  tropical  form  as  far  as  the  north  of  Luzon.  The 
dividing  line  of  these  two  llonis  is  about  at  the  parallel  of  Manila, 
as,  from  there  toward  the  south,  such  tropical  families  as  Myrtaceie, 
Lauraccjc,  lh■ticacea^  Aracea',  and  Orcliidaccje  abound,  while  toward 
the  north  the  pine,  not  found  in  the  south,  covers  consideral)le  areas, 
especially  in  the  northwest  of  Luzon. 

So,  too,  there  are  some  notable  ditl'erences  in  the  vegetation  on  the 
Pacilic  coast  and  that  of  the  China  8(^a.  In  the  former  region  the  rains 
are  more  cox)ious,  while  in  the  latter,  wdiich  is  covered  Avith  compact 
mountain  ranges,  and  which  has  a  more  limited  agricultural  zone, 
there  are  magnihcent  and  splendid  virgin  forests  containing  an  abun- 
dance of  ferns,  orchids,  palms,  aroids,  andMelastomacea),  and  although 
theiir  tree  is  not  found,  others,  such  as  the  alniacigii(/lf/<?/AAv /<//Ym2^/^- 
folia),  various  speci(^s  of  Podocarpus,  and  the  agojos  {(Jdsuarlna  eqwl- 
'setlfolla)  grow  luxuriantly.  So,  too,  in  regions  where  the  Ivind  of 
man  has  not  interfered  with  nature,  two  kinds  of  vegetation  are  seen; 
either  the  land  is  covered  with  extensive  forests  or  with  thick  grass 
of  various  species,  the  greater  part  belonging  to  tlie  genera  Saccharum, 
Anthistiria,  and  Imperata.  And,  tinally,  a  study  of  the  distribution 
of  species  in  relation  to  various  latitudes  and  altitudes  shows  the 
Philippine  flora  (piite  analogous  to  that  of  Sumatra  and  difi'erent  from 
that  of  Java,  there  being  a  less  nund)er  of  species  here  than  in 
Sumatra.  It  is  worthy  of  note,  also,  that  identical  species  are  less 
abundant  on  the  Pacilic  coast  than  on  the  coast  of  the  China  Sea. 

The  acceptable  classification  made  by  D.  Sebastian  Vidal  makes  a 
division  into  two  classes:  Forest  flora  and  agricultural  flora.  The 
flrst  is  divided  as  follows:  (a)  Mangrove  swamp,  (b)  Vegetation  along 
the  seashore,  (c)  Vegetation  in  the  lowlands  of  less  than  200  meters 
altitude,  (d)  Vegetation  of  the  zone  between  200  and  1,000  meters  of 
elevation,  (e)  Of  the  mountain  zone  between  1,000  and  1,800  meters, 
(f)  Of  the  higher  mountain  zone  between  1,800  and  3,000  meters. 
The  second  class  is  made  up  of  various  cultivated  plants  of  commercial 
or  other  uses. 

It  seems,  however,  both  practical  and  convenient  to  leave  this  scien- 
tific classification,  and  to  divide  this  treatise  into  chapters  as  herein- 
after appear.  - 


Hosted  by 




ORAMIlNrKOirS    PliAKTS    (GRA881i:8). 

We  include  in  this  group  species  of  tlie  faniil}^  of  grasses  which  are 
of  great  interest  in  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  serving  as  food  for 
man  and  beast,  and  as  articles  of  common  use  for  the  natives.  Amono- 
these  are  rice  and  corn,  grass  and  reed  grass,  and  the  common  cane  or 

Palay,  ok  lucE  {(h'ij2a  sdtlvalj,). 

This  cereal,  native  to  the  njarshy  regions  of  hot  countries,  is  one  of 
the  most  important  of  this  class  as  a  food  stuff  and  industrial  product. 
It  is  the  principal  food  of  all  Eastern  peoples.  In  the  Philippines  it  is 
the  principal  crop  upon  which  the  sustenance  of  the  indigenous  popu- 
lation depends.  All  the  other  crops  together  would  not  be  sufficient 
to  cover  the  loss  of  this  one,  upon  which  the  poor  chisses  depend.  A 
large  number  of  varieties  exist,  as  was  seen  in  the  coHection  presented 
by  p.  liegino  (nircia  at  the  Colonial  Exposition,  in  Amsterdam,  and 
which  contain  more  than  120  varieties.  The  collection  of  120  varieties 
presented  by  Senor  Garcia  at  the  Exposition  of  Paris  in  1878,  received 
the  only  gold  medal  presented  by  the  judges  to  Philippine  exhibitors. 
Two  main  divisions  are  made,  according  to  the  manner  of  cultivation. 
First,  those  varieties  cultivated  on  the  lowlands  (irrigated  lands),  and 
second,  those  cultivated  on  uplands  (dry  lands),  the  latter  being  more 
numerous.  Rice  is  supposed  to  be  of  Asiatic  origin,  and  is  the  plant 
concerning  whose  cultivation  the  most  ancient  documents  exist.  Its 
introduction  into  the  Philippine  iVrchipelago  was  much  anterior  to  the 
discovery  of  the  islands.  Morisqueta,  or  rice  boiled  in  water  without 
salt,  is  looked  upon  hy  the  natives  in  the  same  way  as  we  look  upon 

The  varieties  of  greatest  importance  are:  Mimis,  greatly  esteemed 
on  account  of  its  white,  transparent  grain  and  exquisite  flavor;  Dumali, 
an  early  variety;  Bontot-cabayo,  and  others  which  may  be  cultivated 
either  on  lowland  or  on  highland. 

The  cultivation  of  rice  is  one  of  the  few  occupations  which  the  native 
pursues  with  care,  although  they  do  not  have  at  their  command  everv- 
thmg  necessary  to  make  the  production  most  profitable.  For  the 
cultivation  of  lowland  rice  the  ground  is  divided  into  little  parcels, 
generally  rectangular,  and  having  a  slight  inclination,  and  which  are 
surrounded  with  little  dikes  called  pilapil,  which  serve  to  retain  the 
water.  The  rice  is  sown  by  hand  in  little  beds  of  moist  earth.  This 
seed  rice  is  selected  during  the  springtime.    While  these  seed  beds  are 

\We  do  not  include  sugar  cane  in  this  group,  considering  it  a  commercial  product 
which  will  be  included  m  the  last  group. 

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sprouting  the  flooded  lands  are  worked,  the  carabao  (water  buffalo), 
which  serves  admirably  for  this  purpose,  being-  used.  In  this  way  the 
soil  is  worked  into  a  soft  mud.  When  the  rice  has  grown  to  a  height 
of  20  centimeters  it  is  pulled  from  the  beds,  formed  into  bundles,  and 
taken  to  the  place  where  it  is  to  be  transplanted.  Regular  lines  of  little 
holes  are  made  in  the  softened  earth,  in  each  of  which  is  placed  a  little 
bunch  of  six  or  seven  stalks.  The  soil  is  not  fertilized,  nor  is  any 
other  care  given  to  the  crop.  When  harvest  time  comes,  which  is 
usually  in  August,  or  from  that  time  on,  according  to  the  variety  of 
rice  and  the  character  of  the  soil,  the  plants  are  cut  one  by  one,  by 
means  of  a  little  sickle,  or  the  yatap.  This  latter  instrument  consists 
of  a  little  blade  of  steel  or  of  tin,  semicircular  in  form,  fixed  into  a 
little  handle. 

This  palay  is  now  placed  in  heaps  called  mandalas.  The  grain  is 
now  separated  from  the  straw  by  thrashing,  in  which  operation  water 
buffalo  play  an  important  part.  At  other  times  this  thrashing  is 
accomplished  by  pounding  the  straw  in  a  large  wooden  mortar,  called  a 
lusong,  or  simply  by  striking  the  bundles  against  a  stone.  When  there 
is  sufficient  wind  the  grain  is  separated  from  the  straw  and  the  dust  by  its 
use.  It  is  finally  separated  from  the  husk  by  pounding  it  two  or  three 
times  in  the  wooden  mortar,  or  by  making  use  of  a  sort  of  handmill, 
called  guilingan. 

On  the  highlands  it  is  necessary  to  go  over  the  ground  two  or  three 
times  and  break  up  all  clods.  The  seed  is  sown  by  hand  after  the 
first  heavy  rains,  and  without  other  care  the  crop  is  finally  collected. 
The  natives  of  the  interior,  and  even  some  of  those  of  the  Christian 
towns,  are  accustomed  to  plant  rice  on  virgin  soil,  in  the  preparation 
of  which  they  are  compelled  to  cut  down  all  trees.  Some  of  these  are 
burned  and  others  are  used  to  make  fences  about  the  field. 

The  rice  plant  has  many  enemies,  the  most  important  of  which  is  the 
locust,  which,  when  it  appears,  totally  destroys  the  crops.  Another 
insect  attacks  the  young  and  tender  grain,  sucking  out  the  juice  and 
leaving  it  completely  empty.  Another  enemy  is  the  maya  {Muiiia 
oryzivora,  L.),  a  small  bird  abundant  in  the  lowlands.  Sometimes 
monkeys  injure  the  crop  in  certain  regions. 

The  production  of  rice  has  diminished  in  the  Philippines  on  account 
of  the  increased  production  which  has  taken  place  in  adjacent  countries. 
The  Chinese  market,  to,  which  formerly  a  large  amount  of  Philippine 
rice  was  exported,  supplies  itself  at  present  with  greater  economy  and 
in  greater  abundance  with  the  rice  from  Cochin  China.  This  latter 
place  even  supplies  the  Philippines  with  rice  whenever  the  crops  are 
short.  Again,  lands  which  formerly  produced  rice  for  export  are  now 
given  over  to  the  cultivation  of  sugar  cane  with  great  advantage  to 
the  general  wealth  of  the  country. 

Corn  {Zea  mays  L.). 

Corn  is  a  cereal  which  sometimes  gives  abundant  crops.  It  is  a 
monoicous  plant  of  great  importance  on  account  of  its  grain,  its  flour 
making  excellent  food.  It  is  used  likewise  as  food  for  cattle,  as  are 
the  leaves  and  young  stalks,  which  make  excellent  fodder.  And,  finally, 
an  alcoholic  drink,  which  the  Bisayans  call  pangasi,  is  made  from  it. 
It  is  of  American  origin,  from  whence  it  was  carried  by  the  Spaniards. 
At  first  the  natives  received  it  with  indifference  until,  on  account  of 
frequent  losses  of  the  rice  crops,  they  became  accustomed  to  its  use, 

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Its  cultivation  has  become  quite  generalized  throughout  the  archi- 
pelago, especially  in  those  regions  where  the  soil  is  not  altogether 
suitable  for  the  cultivation  of  rice,  as  in  Cagayan  and  Isabela.  In 
many  towns  it  has  taken  the  place  of  morisqueta,  being  reduced  to  a 
coarse  granular  flour  by  means  of  the  guilingan,  and  then  boiled  in 
water  without  salt. 

Z  AC  ATE  (Grass), 

Under  this  name  are  included  several  species  of  grasses  which  make 
up  the  forage  of  the  live  stock,  especially  horses.  The  chief  ones 
of  these  belong  to  the  genus  Leersia.  The  fields  where  this  grass  is 
raised  are  the  objects  of  much  care  on  the  part  of  the  native  farmer, 
especially  if  they  are  in  the  vicinity  of  large  centers  of  population,  as 
the  returns  are  excellent.     The  grass  is  cut  several  times  a  year. 

CoGON  {Sacchaimm  koenigii  Eetz). 

This  grass  reaches  the  height  of  2  meters,  forming  a  sort  of  forest 
almost  impossible  to  traverse  without  first  making  a  path,  either  by 
means  of  fire  or  with  a  knife.  The  natives,  with  the  object  of  obtain- 
ing fodder,  are  accustomed  to  set  fire  to  these  grass  fields  in  the  dry 
season.  They  are  thus  able  to  obtain  the  young  shoots,  which  when 
not  more  than  18  inches  in  length  are  much  relished  by  cattle.  In 
regions  where  the  nipa  does  not  grow,  cogon  is  used  for  thatching  the 

Sorghum  or  batad  {IIolcus  saccharatii^  Bl.). 

Although  this  plant  has  given  excellent  results  in  the  United  States 
and  other  places  when  cultivated  for  sugar  or  the  production  of  alcohol, 
in  the  Philippines  it  is  used  only  for  fodder.  This  is  true  of  a  number 
of  other  plants  belonging  to  the  genera  Paspalum,  Milium,  Panicum, 
Sporolobus,  Chloris,  Avena,  Poa,  Bromus,  Agrostis,  etc.,  which  grow 
on  the  pastures  of  the  mountains. 


Under  this  name  are  included  various  species  of  cane  of  the  genus 
Bambusa,  which  are  of  great  importance  in  the  Philippines.  The 
principal  species  are  Bambusa  diffusa  Bl.,  B.  monogyna  BL,  or 
Cauayang  quilang  B.,  pimgeas  BL,  or  Cauayang  to  too,  Bamhusa 
niitis  BL,  or  Taivanse,  Bamhusa  lima  BL,  or  Anos,  and  Bamhusa 
textoria  BL,  or  Calbang.  All  of  these  bamboos  are  used  for  many 
things,  but  the  most  useful  of  all  is  the  Cauayang  totoo,  which  at 
times  reaches  a  diameter  of  more  than  20  centimeters  and  a  height  of 
more  than  12  meters.  It  is  employed  principally  in  the  construction 
of  native  houses,  which  are  often  made  wholly  of  bamboo,  except  for 
the  rattan  used  to  tie  it  together  and -the  cogon  used  as  thatch.  The 
posts,  floor,  rafters,  and  doors  are  all  made  of  bamboo,  and  the  native 
IS  very  skillful  in  working  it.  Either  entire  or  split  into  strips,  it  is 
used  in  the  construction  of  boats,  rafts,  bridges,  aqueducts,  scaflfolding, 
vessels  of  all  kinds,  baskets,  furniture,  fishing  apparatus,  arms,  rope, 
etc.  This  plant,  together  with  the  cocoanut  tree,  the  nipa  palm,  and 
the  rattan,  are  truly  providential  for  these  countries. 

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Plate  X. 


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P*»               ^.    ^- «^      '  ,j^-*,.    J^v.   '■        '  '  1^',  ", 

'  s>v  »i  AW 

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In  this  chapter  are  included  those  plants  of  the  family  Leguminosae 
which  serve  as  food,  those  whose  tubers  are  edible,  those  roots  which 
are  edible,  and,  finally,  the  plants  cultivated  in  the  gardens. 


MoNGO,  Frijol,  and  Others. 

Leguminous  plants  are  of  but  little  importance  in  this  country.  One 
of  the  most  commonly  cultivated  is  the  mongo  {Phaseolus  7nungo  BL), 
smaller  than  the  lentil,  but  of  the  same  flavor,  and  which  is  cultivated 
on  a  large  scale,  as  it  is  the  principal  food  of  many  towns.  The  butingui 
(Phaseohts  vulgaris  L.)  is  the  true  kidney  bean,  which  is  found  in  con- 
siderable variety  in  the  garden.  The  zabache  {Phaseolm  Ivnatus  L.)  is 
also  greatly  prized.  The  sitao  {Phaseolus  caracalla  L.)  produces  a 
vegetable  about  a  foot  long.  The  frijol  from  Abra  {Phaseolus  timhi- 
7iensis  Lour.),  and  the  patani  {Phaseolus  inamornus  L.)  are  both  highly 
prized  by  the  natives.  There  are  also  some  species  of  the  genera 
Dolichos,  Vigna,  Pachyrhizus,  and  Prophocarpus,  which  produce  vege- 
tables or  edible  seeds  less  highly  esteemed  than  those  of  the  genus 


Sweet  Potatoes  (Ipoyncea  batatas  Lamk. ). 

Although  the  origin  of  this  plant  has  been  much  discussed,  it  is 
believed  to  have  come  from  America.  Its  tuber,  which  is  commonly 
called  caniote,  is  very  suitable  for  food,  and  its  cultivation  is  greatly 
favored  by  mountain  races,  which  would  seem  to  favor  the  antiquity 
of  its  introduction.  The  plant  grows  in  five  or  six  months,  extending 
its  shoots  in  all  directions,  completely  covering  the  soil  with  its  abun- 
dant leaves,  which  are  likewise  edible.  When  the  ground  is  given 
over  to  the  exclusive  cultivation  of  this  plant  it  is  allowed  to  take  root 
in  all  directions,  and  as  the  roots  extend  and  grow  the  tubers  continu- 
ally, they  may  be  dug  up  for  use  at  any  time  of  the  year.  When  its 
cultivation  alternates  with  that  of  rice  or  corn  it  is  necessary  to  plant 
anew  each  year,  the  product  usually  being  of  greater  value  than  in  the 
previous  years. 

The  Potato  (Solarium  tuberosum  1j.) . 

This  plant  originally  came  from  the  Andes,  and  was  introduced  into 
Spain  after  the  conquest  of  Peru.     After  that  its  use  extended  over 


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the  rest  of  Europe,  especially  after  the  tests  by  Parmentier,  who  dur- 
ing the  last  century  demonstrated  that  the  potato  was  not  poisonous,  as 
was  believed,  but  that,  on  the  other  hand,  it  was  very  useful  as  a  food. 
These  tubers  have  about  20  per  cent  of  solid  matter,  and  more  than  80 
per  cent  when  desiccated  at  a  temperature  of  120  degrees.  In  Europe 
they  form  the  basis  of  the  food  supply  of  the  lower  classes,  and  are  of 
industrial  value,  especially  in  the  manufacture  of  alcohol. 

In  the  Philippine  Archipelago  this  valuable  tuber  has  not  done  well, 
and  is  only  cultivated  with  success  in  certain  elevated  localities,  such 
as  the  District  of  Benguet. 


Gabe  {Colocami  esculenta  Schott). 

This  plant,  introduced  a  long  while  ago  from  Asia,  is  to-day  exten- 
sively cultivated  in  almost  all  the  islands,  especially  in  the  mountain 
regions.  Its  large  roots  and  young  leaves  make  an  excellent  food  for 
the  natives.  The  badiang,  which  is  cultivated  principally  in  the 
Visayas,  has  the  same  uses.  There  are  three  principal  varieties,  the 
best  known  of  which  is  the  variegata. 

Ube,  Tuqui,  etc. 

Various  species  of  the  same  genus  Dioscorea  are  found  either  grow- 
ing spontaneously  or  being  cultivated  for  their  edible  roots.  Among 
these  are  the  ube  {Dioscorea  alata)^  the  tuqui  {D.  sativa  L.),  the  paquit 
{I),  divaricata  L.),  the  nami-conot  {D.  pentapliyUa  L.),  the  tongo 
{D.  papillaris  L.),  and  others.  They  all  have  large  roots  and  some 
times  attain  enormous  sizes.  They  may  be  eaten  boiled  or  without 
other  preparation  than  leaving  them  in  water  for  some  days.  The 
tuqui  and  the  ube,  being  most  highly  prized,  are  most  extensively 
cultivated.  The  rhizome  of  this  latter  makes  a  healthy  food  of  a 
sweet  taste.  It  is  somewhat  sour  when  raw,  but  is  rendered  sweet 
and  nutritious  by  boiling.  Its  cultivation  is  simple,  somewhat  similar 
to  that  of  the  potato.  It  is  necessary  to  carefully  prepare  these 
tubers  for  eating,  for  when  this  is  not  done  they  are  poisonous. 


PiiiNciPAL  Species  Cultivated  in  the  Philippineh. 

Although  the  natives  do  not  care  much  for  the  cultivation  of  these 
plants,  gardens  are  found  near  the  large  centers  of  population,  gen- 
erally cultivated  by  Chinese,  the  products  being  used  by  Europeans. 
Among  those  cultivated  are  the  following:  Onions,  garlic,  asparagus, 
radishes,  cabbages,  artichokes,  endives,  peppers,  tomatoes,  carrots, 
celery,  parsley,  and  the  haras  {Anethiim  fmniculum),  a  native  plant 
whose  fruit  contains  seeds  having  a  sweet 'flavor  similar  to  anise.  Of 
the  family  Cucurbitaceas  there  are  also  a  large  number  of  plants  which 
are  generally  eaten  boiled.  Among  these  are  the  common  squash,  of 
which  there  are  several  varieties,  the  condol  {Cucurhita  aspera)^  which 
is  oval  in  shape  and  very  suitable  for  making*  sweets.  A  variety  of 
squash  known  to  the  natives  as  calabasang  bilog  {Oucurliia  sulcata)^ 

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which  is  of  a  green  color,  much  prized  and  extensively  cultivated,  and 
the  tabayag  {Lagenarie  rylf/ans),  the  meat  of  which  is  soft  and  smooth 
to  the  touch.  The  geruis  Cvcumis  is  represented  hy  no  less  than  four 
species  in  the  Philippines.  The  tabacog  {Oueuviis  vido),  which  is  the 
true  melon,  and  which,  although  possessing  a  delightful  aroma,  never 
reaches  the  excellent  flavor  of  those  of  P]urope.  The  pepino,  or 
cucumber,  which  is  eaten  boiled  or  pickled.  The  patola  {Oueumis 
acutwiigulus) ^  large  in  size,  and  eaten  green  or  boiled.  The  milondaga 
{Gucunm  luzon'was)^  small  in  size  and  with  a  flavor  similar  to  the 
cucumber,  and  the  w^atermelon,  sandia,  or  pacuan. 

Albay  is  the  only  locality  where  the  strawberry  occurs. 

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The  so-called  textile  plants  are  those  which  furnish  fiber  for  the 
manufacture  of  cloth,  cordage,  etc.  They  are  called  industrial  because 
of  the  large  number  of  hands  employed  in  the  manufacture  of  these 
products  in  the  great  manufacturing  centers.  The  principal  ones 
found  in  the  Philippines  are  hemp,  cotton,  the  pineapple  plant,  ramie, 
agave,  cabo-negro,  rattan,  pandan,  and  palma  buri. 

Manila  Hemp  (Mum  tejiill.^J^.). 

This  plant  is  greatly  appreciated  for  the  excellent  quality  of  its  fiber, 
which  constitutes  one  of  the  chief  articles  of  exportation!  Its  princi- 
pal cultivation  is  in  the  provinces  of  Ambos  Camarines,  Albay,  Sorso- 
gon,  and  Catanduanes,  in  the  islands  of  Samar  and  Leyte,  and  on  a 
smaller  scale  in  Cebu,  Mindoro,  Marinduque,  and  the  north  of  Minda- 
nao. In  Negros  it  grows  well  only  in  the  southern  part,  and  in  Panay 
the  small  quantity  gathered  is  of  inferior  quality.  The  fiber  is 
obtained  from  the  outer  of  the  sheathing  leafstalks,  which  in  these 
plants  forms  the  apparent  trunk,  as  in  bananas.  This  sheath  is  cut  into 
lengths  and  then  into  strips,  which  are  called  sajas.  There  are  many 
varieties  of  hemp,  in  some  places  as  many  as  fourteen.  The  difl'er- 
ences  between  these  consist  in  variations  in'color  in  the  bulb  and  lower 
part  of  the  trunk,  in  the  greater  or  smaller  number  of  shoots,  and  in 
the  development  and  strength  of  the  fiber.  In  Albay  experts  distin- 
guish varieties  according  to  the  size  of  the  stalk,  the  shape  and  size 
of  the  leaves,  and  especially  according  to  the  strength  of  the  fiber  in 
the  sajas.  Even  though  experts  recognize  these  characterist'cs  n  each 
variety,  it  is  very  difiicult  to  do  it  at  first  sight,  as  the  ditferent  names 
given  to  the  difi'erent  varieties  in  the  difi'erent  localities  cause  some 
confusion  in  the  determination  of  them. 

Oultwation.—This  plant  needs  a  moist  climate,  the  lack  of  which  is 
sometimes  supplied  by  planting  trees,  which  furnish  shade  and  prevent 
the  loss  of  water,  which,  by  evaporation,  is  continually  going  on  from 
the  broad  leaves.  These  trees  also  aid  by  drawing  moisture  to  the 
surface  by  means  of  their  long  roots.  Trees  having  high  branches, 
narrow  leaves,  and  deep  roots  are  those  most  serviceable  for  this  pur- 
pose. The  land  should  be  open  and  moist,  but  not  swampy.  Sloping 
lands  having  a  clay  soil,  situated  on  the  hillsides  or  mountain  sides,  are 
suited  to  the  cultivation  of  this  plant.  The  best  fertilizer  is  the  refuse 
of  the  plant  itself  left  after  the  extraction  of  the  fiber,  as  this  contains 
the  same  elements  which  have  been  taken  from  the  soil.  Other  articles, 
such  as  ashes,  or  any  substance  which  contains  potash  and  soda,  may  be 
used.  New  plants  are  grown  from  shoots  or  suckers,  called  by  the 
natives  saja,  which  grow  about  the  base  of  the  plant.     The  plants  may 

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be  grown  likewise  and  with  considerable  economy  from  tubers  and 
from  seed,  but  these  methods  are  rarel}^  used.  For  new  plantations 
recently  cleared  mountain  lands  are  used,  a  few  trees  being  left  for 
shade,  the  trunks  and  branches  of  the  others  being  burned.  After 
the  ground  has  cooled  the  shoots  are  planted  in  little  holes  li  or  2 
meters  apart.  As  the  little  shoots  are  very  slow  in  growing,  some 
other  plant  is  usually  sown  on  the  same  field  to  check  the  growth  of 
weeds  which  might  destroy  the  hemp  plant.  For  this  purpose  the 
sweet  potato  is  most  serviceable.  At  the  end  of  three  years  the  plant 
has  reached  its  full  development,  the  most  suitable  time  for  cutting 
being  when  the  fruit  begins  to  show,  as  the  fiber  is  then  in  the  best 
condition.  The  trunk  is  cut  down  with  a  sharp  machete  or  knife. 
The  lower  part  of  the  trunk  and  the  leaves  are  then  cut  off  and  the 
external  layers  of  the  plant  or  those  containing  the  fiber  are  then 
removed  arid  carried  to  the  workhouse  where  the  fiber  is  extracted. 

Enemies  of  the  hemj)  jplant.—TY^o  insects,  the  larviB  of  which  are 
called  by  the  natives  tamiloc  and  amarog,  pass  through  the  metamor- 
phosis in  the  trunk  of  this  plant.  The  former  of  these  measures  about 
4  centimeters  in  length,  the  latter  \\  centimeters.  A  large  hole  may 
be  observed  somewhere  about  the  lower  part  of  the  plant  attacked, 
which  soon  assumes  a  yellow  color  and  dries  up  before  reaching  half 
its  full  size. 

Production  and  prices, — There  has  been  a  constant  increase  in  the 
area  of  land  devoted  to  the  cultivation  of  hemp.  It  is  estimated  that 
the  annual  production  of  the  archipelago  is  more  than  1,000,000  piculs. 
Hemp  is  classified  in  commerce  in  three  grades — current,  second,  and 
colored.  The  price  of  the  first  grade  between  the  years  1885  and  1894 
varied  between  117.12,  its  highest  price,  and  $6,  the  lowest  price,  per 
kilogram.  The  other  two  classes  sell  at  prices  from  25  to  40  per  cent 
lower  than  the  first.  All  of  these  prices  are  those  of  the  market  of 
Manila,  being  somewhat  less  in  the  provinces. 

The  cultivation  of  hemp  began  to  assume  important  proportions  in 
the  Philippines  in  1855,  at  which  time  it  was  second  in  importance  among 
articles  of  export  from  these  islands.  It  is  exported  principally  to  the 
United  States  and  to  England,  small  quantities  going  to  Spain,  Aus- 
tralia, Singapore,  and  China. 

Cotton  {Gossypium  herhaceum  L.). 

This  plant  is  cultivated  in  the  Philippines  and  the  provinces  of  North 
and  South  Ilocos,  Union,  Pangasinan,  and  Abra.  The  species  cultiva- 
ted are  Gossyphmn  herhaceimi  and  O.  perenne  and  Ceiba  pentandra. 
The  first  two  are  known  to  the  natives  as  capas  and  bobuy,  and  the 
latter  as  capasanglay.  They  are  respectively  herbs,  bushes,  and  trees. 
The  capas  or  herb  is  the  only  one  which  is  really  cvdtivated  and  whose 
product  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  cloth.  The  others  are  found 
growing  wild,  the  cotton  being  used  only  for  making  pillows  and 

Cultivation  and  preparation,— The  soil  should  be  open,  strong,  and 
easy  to  work,  and  should  be  deeply  plowed  and  carefully  prepared. 
It  should  be  planted,  when  there  is  no  danger  of  heavy  rains,  in  fur- 
rows a  meter  apart,  the  plants  being  an  equal  distance  apart  in  these 
furrows.  When  the  fruit  is  ripe  it  is  collected  and  the  cotton  is  passed 
through  a  series  of  manipulations,  rendering  it  suitable  for  the  manu- 
facture of  cloth.     The  first  operation  is  the  separation  of  the  cotton 

Hosted  by 



froni  the  husk,  after  which  the  liber  is  separated  from  the  seed,  to 
which  it  strongly  adheres.  This  operation  is  accomplished  })y  the 
means  of  a  little  hand  machine,  called  laddit,  which  is  composed  of  two 
parallel  wooden  cylinders  revolving  in  opposite  directions.  The  cot- 
ton is  passed  between  the  cylinders  and  separated  from  the  seed.  With 
this  primitive  apparatus  one  man  working  ten  hours  can  obtain  3  or 
4  kilograms  of  clean  cotton.  The  cotton  is  then  spread  on  drying 
tables,  after  which  it  is  ready  for  spinning. 

The  enemies  of  the  cotton  plant  which  menace  production  are 
the  curiat,  or  field  cricket;  a  gray  caterpillar  which  is  the  larva  of  a 
butterfly  (Nochiasuhterranea)',  and  the  larva  of  Melolontha  vulgaris, 
called  by  the  natives  abaleng. 

Pineapple  (Bromelia  ananas  L.,  or  Ananam  saliva  Lindley). 

^  A  plant  of  the  family  Bromeliaceae,  which  is  cultivated  for  its  deli- 
cious fruit  and  for  the  fiber  which  is  obtained  from  its  leaves.  This 
latter  is  similar  to  that  obtained  from  the  agave.  Its  origin  is  tropical 
America,  from  whence  it  was  spread  to  Africa,  Oceania,  and  even  to 
Europe.  The  pineapple  has  about  the  same  geographical  distribution 
as  coffee,  but  is  grown  on  some  mountains  at  an  altitude  not  suitable 
for  coffee.  It  requires  an  even  temperature  which  does  not  fall 
below  18^  C.  It  will  grow  on  almost  any  kind  of  ground,  but 
gives  best  results  in  open,  strong  soil.  It  grows  from  the  seed, 
which  is  sown  in  parallel  lines  li  meters  apart,  the  individual  plants 
being  one-fourth  meter  from  each  other.  In  Culia  it  is  cultivated 
almost  exclusively  for  its  fruit,  which  has  an  exquisite  flavor,  and  is 
sweet,  aromatic,  and  slightly  tart,  on  account  of  the  presence  of  malic 
acid,  which  makes  it  somewhat  indigestible.  In  the  Philippines  it  is  of 
moi-e  importance  as  a  textile  plant. 

3/et/iod  of  r}htahmi(/  thefber.—The  fruit  of  the  plant  is  first  cut  so 
that  the  leaves  may  become  as  long  and  broad  as  possible.  When 
these  leaves  are  well  developed  they  are  torn  off  and  then  scraped  with 
a  fragment  of  glass  or  some  other  sharp  instrument  so  as  to  separate 
the  fleshy  part  and  leave  the  flbers  behind.  It  is  then  washed,  dried 
in  the  sun,  and  combed  out.  It  is  classified  in  four  grades,  according 
to  its  fineness,  and  is  then  employed  in  the  manufactuie  of  fabrics  in 
the  same  way  as  Manila  hemp.  The  finer  filaments  are  woven  in  very 
rough  looms  into  a  most  delicate  cloth.  This  commands  a  high  price, 
and  is  used  for  making  handkerchiefs,  waists,  and  other  garments! 
This  cloth  is  very  highly  prized  in  the  Philippines,  as  much  as  20,000 
reals  having  been  paid  for  a  single  embroidered  suit. 

Ramie  ( Boehmeria  nivea ) . 

This  plant,  of  the  family  Urticacea3,  probablv  has  its  origin  in  Java, 
Sumatra,  or  the  southern  part  of  China.  It  is  a  nettle,  like  those  of 
Spam,  but  without  needles.  It  is  cultivated  for  its  fiber,  which  is 
formed  on  the  outer  part  or  bark  of  the  plant.  It  grows  to  a  variable 
height,  according  to  climate  and  soil,  of  between  1  and  2i  meters. 
Beyond  doubt  the  famous  Canton  linen  is  manufactured  from  this 
excellent  fiber,  which  rivals  flax.  In  spite  of  the  excellent  quality  of 
this  fiber  the  cultivation  of  this  plant  has  not  increased,  on  account  of 
the  difficulty  of  extraction,  which  can  only  be  profitably  done  with 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



special  machinery.     In  the  Philippines  it  is  found  only  in  the  Batanes 
Islands  and  the  north  of  Luzon. 

The  plant  Urtica  arboremenH  Bl.  orDalonot,  whose  fiber  is  employed 
for  the  same  purposes,  also  exists. 

Agave  (Agave  americana  L. ). 

This  plant,  belonging  to  the  family  Amaryllidacese,  comes  originally 
from  America.  Its  fleshy,  sharp  leaves,  bordei'ed  with  a  row  of  spines, 
furnish  a  fiber  from  which  delicate  cloth  called  nipis  is  made.  It  is 
cultivated  on  a  small  scale  in  certain  localities  in  the  Philippines.  The 
Tagalogs  call  it  magui,  or  maguey.  It  is  exported  in  bulk  to  England, 
China,  Japan,  and  Egypt. 

Cabo-negro  {Arenga  sacdiarifera  LabilL;   Caryopa  oimstd  BL). 

This  plant,  called  cauong  by  the  natives,  belongs  to  the  family  of 
palms.  Along  the  edge  of  the  stem  of  the  leaf  are  long,  black,  and 
very  strong  fibers,  which  are  useful  for  the  manufacture  of  ropes  and 
cordage.  These  are  very  durable  and  resist  moisture  and  even  salt 
water.  It  is  used  also  in  making  walls  or  partitions,  and  has  some 
other  uses  which  will  be  mentioned  later. 

Rattan  (Bejuco). 

Of  the  genus  Calamus  there  are  several  species  called  by  the  natives 
dilan,  yantoc,  talola  curag,  and  palasan.  These  spiny,  climbing  plants, 
which  sometimes  attain  a  length  of  200  meters,  furnish  to  the  natives 
a  useful  material  of  most  extended  application.  All  the  framework 
of  the  houses  built  of  bamboo  and  nipa,  and  many  of  those  built  of 
wood,  are  held  together  only  by  strongly  laced  bands  of  rattan,  this 
article  supplying  the  place  of  nails.  These  rattans  are  also  employed 
in  the  rigging  of  all  the  smaller  boats,  and  in  the  making  of  rafts,  etc. 
In  some  of  the  provinces  hats  and  sacks  or  bags  are  made  from  rattan, 
and  in  other  places  chairs  and  other  articles  of  furniture. 

Pandan  (Pand amis  spiralis,  Bl. ). 

This  plant  belongs  to  the  family  Pandanacem.  Its  leaves  are  used 
for  the  manufacture  of  hats  and  sacks,  an  industry  developed  in  Luc- 
ban  and  the  province  of  Tayabas.  The  huge,  wide  leaves  of  the  palm 
called  buri  {Corypha  umhraculifera  L.)  are  also  used  for  this  purpose. 
In  the  same  way  the  split  stems  of  the  leaves  of  the  nito  {Lygodium 
semihastatus  Del.)  are  utilized. 

Hosted  by 




CocoANUT  {Cocas  7iuci/er ah.). 

This  is  one  of  the  most  important  plants  of  the  archipelago,  satis- 
fying as  it  does  with  its  various  products  so  many  industrial,  economic, 
and  medicinal  wants.  It  will  be  discussed  here  simply  as  an  oil- 
producing  plant. 

It  belongs  to  the  family  of  palms  and  comes  from  India.  Man}^ 
varieties  are  found  in  the  Philippines,  especially  in  the  Visayan 
Islands.  The  chief  ones  of  these  are  called  cayumanus.  limbaon,  dah- 
lili,  and  macapuno,  the  chief  points  of  difference  being  in  the  fruit. 

Oultwatioh, — This  plant  will  grow  almost  anywhere  and  does  not 
demand  any  particluar  kind  of  soil.  Nevertheless,  if  a  plantation  is 
to  be  established  it  is  best  to  choose  land  situated  near  the  sea,  having 
a  reddish  soil  mixed  with  sand,  as  the  salt  water  and  the  regular 
winds  seem  to  l)enetit  the  trees.  It  is  not  expedient  to  place  planta- 
tions on  highly  elevated  ground,  as  the  winds  easily  uproot  many 
trees.  Young  trees  grow  from  the  perfectly  ripe  fruit.  In  Cuba, 
where  the  cultivation  of  the  fruit  is  carried  on  with  much  care,  beds 
for  sprouting  the  seed  are  made  in  suitable  soil  and  the  young  trees 
are  carefully  guarded.  \w  the  Philippines  the  nuts  are  placed  with- 
out any  preparation  close  together  iri  beveled  beds,  where  they  are 
exposed  to  the  influence  of  the  air.  In  following  this  procedure  it  is 
a  year  before  the  plant  reaches  a  height  of  a  meter.  Another  and 
shorter  method  is  to  hang  the  nuts  on  trees  in  such  a  way  that 
they  are  partiallv  protected  from  the  sun,  but  exposed  to  atmos- 
pheric influences.  In  this  way  the  plants  will  attain  the  height  of  a 
meter  within  five  months.  The  small  trees  are  now  transplanted  into 
previously  prepared  soil.  The  holes  in  which  they  are  placed  should 
be  not  less  than  1^  meters  in  diameter  in  loose  soil  and  2  to  3  meters 
in  mountain  soil.  The  plants  should  be  from  8  to  12  meters  apart, 
according  to  the  character  of  the  soil,  and  the  transplanting  should  be 
done  just  before  the  beginning  of  the  rainy  season.  After  planting 
they  require  but  little  care.  Weeds  must  be  kept  out,  insects  destroyed, 
the  dry  leaves  cut  away,  and  in  certain  cases,  when  the  dry  season  is 
very  prolonged  irrigation  must  be  resorted  to  during  the  first  few 
years.  It  is  a  good  idea  to  cultivate  some  other  crop,  such  as  corn  or 
the  mungo,  for  the  first  few  years.  On  good  land  the  plantations 
begin  to  bear  fruit  at  the  end  of  seven  years;  on  poor  lands  no  fruit 
is  borne  for  ten  or  twelve  years. 

Diseases, — The  diseases  of  the  cocoanut  tree  are  brought  about  by 
atmospheric  conditions  or  by  animal  or  vegetable  parasites.  Among 
the  first  may  be  mentioned  excessive  humidity,  especiall}^  when  the 
water  lies  about  in  pools,  and  an  unusually  prolonged  dry  season,  very 
strong  winds,  and  earthquakes.  Earthquakes  produce  such  an  effect 
upon  the  vegetative  functions  of  the  tree  that  ordinarily  many  of  the 
nuts  drop  off  within  a  short  time.  Among  animals  may  be  mentioned 

Hosted  by 



crows,  rats,  and  bats,  which  cause  but  little  damage.  Locusts  at  tinies 
devastate  the  plantations,  eating  not  only  the  leaves  but  the  leaf  ribs. 
Hogs  sometimes  destroy  the  young  trees.  The  ])eetles  Rhyncophora 
ochreatus^  Eydana^  and  Rhyncophora  pasch a  Bohem.,  called  by  the 
natives  Bagangan,  penetrate  the  terminal  bud  of  the  tree  and  destroy 
it  in  a  few  days.  These  insects  are  destroyed  by  pouring  into  the 
holes  they  make  ashes,  sand,  or  an  infusion  of  tobacco.  Among  para- 
sitic plants  may  be  mentioned  a  fungus  (  Ur<do  voeivova).  This  micro- 
scopic plant  collects  on  the  terminal  bud  of  the  tree  and  destroys  the 
outer  covering  of  this  organ,  the  fungus  appropriating  the  nutritive 
elements  to  its  own  use.  This  opei'ation  destroys  the  tree  in  a  short 
time,  as  the  fungus  nmltiplies  from  its  spores  witli  great  rapidity.  The 
best  treatment  consists  in  destroying  the  ali'ected  or  suspected  trees 
with  fire. 

The  analysis  of  the  meat  of  the  cocoaiuit,  according  to  Buchwer,  is 
as  follows:'  Water,  31.8  per  cent;  stearin  and  olein,  47  per  cent;  albu- 
men sulphate  of  calcium  and  sulphur,  4.3  per  cent;  potassium  and 
other  salts,  11  per  cent;  insoluble  Vvoody  fiber,  %.^  per  cent. 

The  nuts  are  collected  every  four  months.  They  are  taken  to  mar- 
ket in  such  vehicles  as  are  used  in  the  country  or,  if  possible,  by  water, 
when  a  raft  is  formed  of  the  cocoanuts  themselves,  having  simply  a 
rope  about  them  to  prevent  them  from  separating.  The  owner  rides 
on  top  of  this  raft  of  cocoanuts. 

JJ^es. — When  the  fruit  is  to  be  used  for  the  manufactui"e  of  oil  a  disk 
of  the  outer  husk  called  by  the  natives  bonot  is  first  cut  from  either  end. 
The  rest  of  the  husk  is  then  removed  l)y  means  of  a  conical-pointed 
iron  which  is  fixed  in  a  piece  of  wood.  The  inner  covering,  or  shell, 
is  then  divided  into  two  parts.  The  adherent  meat  is  then  separated 
from  the  shells  by  means  of  a  senricircular  knife  fixed  in  a  wooden 
support,  or  perhaps  by  a  spl  erical  iron  grater,  which  is  fastened  to 
the  end  of  a  wooden  shaft  lying  horizontally  and  which  is  turned  by 
means  of  pedals.  When  extracted  in  this  manner  the  meat  of  the  nut 
is  deposited  in  a  large  wooden  tub  which  has  a  hole  in  the  bottom  for 
the  escape  of  the  oil,  which  flows  from  the  mass  simply  by  exposure 
to  the  sun;  but  this  process  is  very  long,  as  to  extract  all  of  the  oil 
requires  a  month  or  more.  It  is  likinvise  very  imperfect,  as  the 
decomposition  of  extraneous  material  imparts  to  the  oil  a  dark  color 
and  an  almost  insupportable  odor.  A  b(^tter  and  more  general  method  of 
extracting  is  by  means  of  Hre.  The  cocoanut  meat  is  placed  in  suital)le 
receptacles  or  in  specially  prepared  ovens  and  boiled,  or  it  is  placed  in 
large  kettles  having  a  slow  fire  undi-rneath.  During  the  boiling  a 
froth  containing  extraneous  material  is  thrown  away.^  It  is  usual  to 
express  the  oil  from  the  meat,  as  a  much  larger  quantity  is  obtained. 
If  the  nuts  are  good  ones,  and  the  operation  is  done  with  care,  5  liters 
of  oil  should  be  obtained  from  30.  The  natives  use  this  oil  as  a  condi- 
ment, and  while  still  fresh  as  a  purgative.  It  is  greatly  used  for  light- 
ing purposes  and  in  the  manufacture  of  soaps.  Both  in  the  Philippines 
and  Europe  it  is  used  in  the  manufacture  of  porfumery. 

Benne  seed — (Sesama,  or  Ajon.joli)  {Sesamum  orientale  L.). 

This  plant,  belonging  to  the  family  Pedaliaceee,  has  been  known  in 
the  Orient  from  the  most  remote  time,  and  is  to-day  cultivated  in  all 
tropical  countries.  The  seeds  of  this  plant  contain  as  much  as  53  per 
cent  of  fixed  oil.  This  oil,  somewhat  similar  to  olive  oil,  and  often 
mixed  with  it  to  adulterate  it,  has  a  sweet  taste,  although  more  insipid 

Hosted  by 



than  olive  oil,  and  is  very  slow  in  becoming  rancid.  In  Egypt,  Japan, 
and  other  oriental  countries,  it  is  used  in  cooking  in  place  of  lard  or 
olive  oil.  As  it  is  an  excellent  arti(4e  for  making  soap,  it  is  an  impor- 
tant article  of  trade  between  Europe  and  Egypt  and  oriental  countries. 
It  is  also  used  as  a  cosmetic  and  in  the  preparation  of  medicinal  emul- 
sions. The  residue  left  after  the  extraction  of  the  oil  is  used  as  a 
fertilizer,  and  also  as  an  excellent  food  for  fattening  cattle.  Of  that 
cultivated  in  the  archipelago  but  a  small  quantity  is  exported.  For 
perfect  ripening  this  plant  requires  a  temperature  30  degrees  centi- 
grade and  an  even  climate.  It  should  be  planted  in  places  protected 
from  strong  winds,  preferably  on  alluvial  or  clay  soil  of  average  fer- 
tility and  capable  of  irrigation.  The  seed  is  sown  by  hand,  after  which 
the  crop  requires  no  care  except  thinning  a  little  when  the  plants  are 
from  12  to  10  centimeters  in  height.  The  crop  is  harvested  when  the 
stalks  begin  to  fall  and  turn  yellow.  Great  care  must  be  taken  in  har- 
vesting or  the  seed  will  be  lost. 

LuMBANG   (AleurUei^  iriloha  BL). 

This  plant,  of  the  family  Euphorbiacaa,  is  cultivated  for  the  oil 
which  is  extracted  from  its  seeds.  This  oil  is  of  good  quality,  is  used 
for  lighting  purposes  and  for  calking  ships,  and  is  excellent  for  paint- 
ing. The  refuse  left  after  the  extraction  of  the  oil  is  generally 
employed  as  a  fertilizer  for  the  betel  palms.  Lumbang  oil  is  exported 
to  China. 

Ca8Tok  Oil  (Ricino)    {RlcinuH  commuym  h.) . 

This  plant,  a  native  of  India,  belongs  to  the  family  Euphorbiaceie, 
known  also  as  the  Iliguera  infernal  (infernal  fig)  and  to  the  Tagalogs 
as  tafigantangan.  it  is  cultivated  for  its  seeds,  which  produce  about  40 
per  cent  of  a  purgative  oil  much  used  in  medicine  and  which  ma}"  be 
also  used  for  lighting  purposes. 

A  reddish  oil  very  useful  for  illumination  is  extracted  from  the 
seeds  of  a  tree  {Jatropha  curcas)  belonging  to  this  same  family  and 
which  is  known  to  the  Tagalogs  as  tuba,  in  Iloilo  as  casla,  and  in 
Ilocos  as  tavatava. 

The  Peanut  (Manx,  or  Cacahuate)  {Arachis  hypogaeaJj.). 

This  plant,  belonging  to  the  family  Leguminosa?  is  a  native  of  lower 
Guinea,  from  whence  it  was  carried  to  Brazil,  and  is  now  cultivated  in 
all  America,  the  southern  part  of  Europe,  Asia,  and  Oceania  In  the 
Philippine  Archipelago  it  is  cultivated  on  a  small  scale  only  as  forage 
for  cattle. 

The  most  important  use  of  mani  is  the  extraction  of  a  fixed  oil  from 
its  seeds.  This  oil  has  the  important  property  of  not  becoming  rancid 
for  a  long  time.  If  the  climate  is  suitable  and  the  cultivation  care- 
fully carried  on,  the  seeds  will  yield  half  of  their  weight  in  oil,  but  as 
ordinarily  cultivated  they  do  not  yield  more  than  one-third.  It  is  a 
pity  that  in  the  Philippines,  which  has  a  climate  so  well  suited  to  this 
plant,  its  cultivation  is  not  more  carefully  and  extensively  carried  on. 
The  oil  is  fluid,  yellowish  in  color,  without  odor,  and  with  a  decided 
sweetish  taste,  which  makes  it  inferior  to  olive  oil.  It  may  be 
employed  in  the  preparation  of  toilet  oils,  soap,  and  lubricating 
oils.  The  residue  obtained  after  the  extraction  of  the  oil,  mixed  with 
an  equal  weight  of  flour,  is  employed  for  making  bread.  It  may  be 
mixed  with  cacao  for  the  manufacture  of  chocolate. 

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In  this  chapter  are  inchided  two  groups  of  industrial  plants — the 
first  containing  the  dye  plants  found  in  the  Philippines,  and  the  second, 
those  from  which  starch  can  be  obtained. 


Under  this  heading  are  included  those  pli:nts  which  furnish  to  indus- 
try substances  from  which  dyestull's  can  be  made.  The  cultivation  of 
these  plants  has  diminished  greatly  since  the  discovery  of  the  aniline 
dyes  which  are  to-day  so  much  used. 

Indigo  (Anil)  (Indigofera  tinctoria  J^.). 

This  plant,  belonging  to  the  family  LeguminosiB,  is  a  native  of  India, 
where  it  is  found  wild  in  many  places  and  in  others  under  cultivation. 
The  juice  extracted  from  its  leaves  and  young  stalks  furnishes  a  blue 
(iyestull*  known  as  indigo,  which  is  much  used  in  the  industries.  The 
])rincipal  Philippine  provinces  in  which  it  is  produced  are  Bataan, 
Batangas,  Bulacan,  Laguna,  Pangasinan,  Pampanga,  Zambales,  and 
North  and  South  llocos.  The  latter  province,  even  with  a  small  crop, 
produces  more  than  all  the  other  provinces  combined. 

Besides  the  species  already  mentioned  others  are  found  in  the  Philip- 
pines, as  Indigofera  trifollata^  L. ;  Indlgofera  trlta^  L. ;  liidiqofera 
hirsuta^^  L.,  the  first  two  being  cultivated. 

Cultivation, — The  indigo  plant,  called  by  the  Tagalogs  tayum,  has 
small,  slender,  round  leaves,  whose  tips  are  colored.  It  produces  little 
slender  pods  full  of  seeds,  by  means  of  which  it  is  propagated  in  the 
fields.  Although  this  plant  grows  in  temperate  climates,  two  or  three 
crops  a  year  may  be  obtained  in  warm,  moist  climates  as  against  one 
in  the  former.  The  most  suitable  grounds  for  the  cultivation  of  this 
are  those  having  light,  deep  soil,  as  the  roots  of  this  plant  ramify  but 
little,  the  central  long  root  penetrating  deeply  into  the  soil.  For  this 
reason  lands  lying  along  rivers  and  small  streams  and  at  the  foot  of 
mountain  ranges  are  most  suitable  for  its  cultivation,  especially  if 
they  abound  in  alluvium.  The  land  should  be  free  from  trees,  so  that 
the  sun's  ra3^s  are  not  cut  oflf. 

Under  these  conditions  the  juice  of  the  leaves  and  young  stems  is 
more  abundant.  The  soil  should  be  deepl}^  worked  and  fertilized  by 
such  substances  as  the  residue  of  the  indigo  plant  and  others  which 
contain  organic  matter,  alkaline  salts,  phosphates  and  lime,  such  as 
refuse,  ashes,  etc.  The  seed  is  sown  broadcast  or  in  lines,  the  latter 
method  being  preferable,  as  it  saves  seed  and  facilitates  weeding  and 
irrigation.     When  the  young  plants  are  one  month  old  the  ground 


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should  be  cleared  of  weeds,  which  deprive  the  plants  of  sustenance  and 
of  light  and  ventilation,  all  of  which  are  so  necessary  to  them.  As 
the  coloring  matter  is  extracted  principally  from  the  leaves,  these 
should  be  collected  as  soon  as  they  are  completely  formed  and  before 
the  fruit  has  formed.  The  indigo  in  the  leaves  is  without  color  and  in 
solution,  and  forms  a  part  of  the  juice.  When  the  juice  is  extracted 
from  the  plant  it  is  yellowish  white  in  color.  On  being  exposed  to  the 
action  of  the  air  it  changes  successively  to  yellowish  green,  green, 
greenish  blue,  and  finally,  becoming  insoluble,  it  falls  as  a  blue  pre- 
cipitate, in  the  bottom  of  the  vessels  in  which  it  is  contained,  about 
thirty  hours  after  the  extraction  of  the  juice. 

^^'^6.-  -Indigo  is  used  for  dyeing  thread  and  cloth  of  cotton,  silk, 
and  wool  and  for  coloring  wood  paper,  etc.  In  commerce  several 
varieties  of  indigo  are  known,  of  various  values.  Philippine  indigo  is 
of  about  the  same  grade  as  that  of  Coromandel  and  Madras,  which  is 
next  to  that  from  Bengal,  the  most  highly  prized,  but  on  account  of 
adulterations  made  by  speculators,  principally  Chinese,  who  mix  other 
materials  with  it,  Philippine  indigo  is  somewhat  discredited  and  has 
suffered  depreciation  in  price  in  the  markets  of  the  world.  Neverthe- 
less, this  article  is  regularly  exported  to  China,  Japan,  and  Singapore. 

Rattan  (Sibucao)  ( Csesalpinia  sappan  L, ) . 

This  is  a  plant  of  the  family  Leguminosge,  whose  woody  trunk  pro- 
duces a  red  coloring  matter  similar  to  campeachy  or  logwood,  and  which 
is  employed  in  dyeing  cotton  or  wool.  It  is  very  abundant  in  the 
forests  of  the  Philippines,  and  some  excellent  varieties  are  found, 
which  produce  a  color  more  highly  valued  than  that  of  the  Brazil 
woods.  It  grows  naturally  from  the  seeds  which  fall  from  the  pod  on 
the  ground.  Considerable  amount  of  the  dye  is  produced  in  the 
Philippine  Archipelago,  and  it  is  an  important  article  of  export  to 
China  and  England.  The  Chinese  employ  it  in  dyeing  silks,  damasks, 
and  other  fabrics  woven  in  China.  It  is  sometimes  used  in  place  of 
cochineal,  though  the  color  is  not  as  stable. 

S AFFLowp^R  OR  Alazor  ( Cavtluwinus  tinctori'us  L. ) . 

This  is  a  plant  of  the  family  Compositse,  called  also  bastard  saifron 
and  in  the  Philippines  biri.  It  is  valued  and  cultivated  for  its  stamens, 
which  contain  three  principal  coloring  matters,  two  yellow,  soluble  in 
water  and  of  little  value,  and  the  third  red,  soluble  in  the  alkalies  and 
of  greater  importance.     It  is  used  in  the  adulteration  of  saffron. 

Aguisip  (Melastoina polyanthum  Blum.),  and  Bancuro  {Morindatincioria  Roxb.)- 

These  are  two  trees  of  the  family  of  Melastomacese  and  Rubiaceae, 
respectively.  The  natives  extract  from  the  bark  of  the  former  and 
the  root  of  the  latter  a  bright-red  coloring  matter  which  the}^  use  to 
dye  pieces  of  hemp  cloth,  which  are  then  called  pinayusas.  To  obtain 
the  coloring  matter  from  the  bancuro  the  bark  from  the  upper  part 
of  the  large  roots  is  taken  off,  dried,  and  reduced  to  a  fine  powder. 
In  this  condition  it  is  called  nino  or  culit.  The  operation  of  dyeing 
these  pinayusas  is  thus  described  by  Father  Delgado,  S.  J. : 

The  operation  of  dyeing  these  white  squares  on  the  cloth  is  very  compHcated  and 
delicate.     They  are  placed  in  little  piles  upon  one  another  in  a  curious  and  admirable 

Hosted  by 



manner.  Each  one  of  the  Httle  squares  before  being  dyed  is  tied  with  a  thread  of 
hemp,  each  blanket  or  piece  of  cloth  requiring  innumerable  little  threads  or  puyos, 
as  they  are  called  in  the  native  language;  the  little  threads  once  tied  up  in  this  way, 
the  dye  is  applied  to  the  whole  piece,  a  little  lime  is  added,  and  after  the  cloth  has 
taken  the  dye  all  the  little  threads  are  removed.  As  the  dye  has  not  penetrated  the 
little  squares  which  were  tied  up,  these  remain  white,  and  form  on  the  red  back- 
ground figures  which  give  to  the  cloth  the  name  pinayusas.  The  natives  use  this  for 
making  tents,  curtains,  and  for  adorning  their  houses. 

Bacauan  {Hhizophont  tinctoria  L. ). 

Shrub  or  tree  of  the  family  Rhizophoraceie.  These  trees  make  up 
the  mangrove  swaoips  which  are  commonly  found  along  the  coast  and 
near  the  mouths  of  rivers.  They  have  extensive  and  impenetrable 
jungles,  the  refuge  of  mosquitoes,  aquatic  birds,  and  marine  animals. 
From  the  bark  a  reddish  coloring  matter  is  extracted.  The  wood  is 
much  used  as  firewood. 

Balanti    (Homalanthiis  populifolius    R.   Grali.)    and   Cumalon    {Dlospyros    cunalon 

A.  DC). 

These  are  two  trees  of  the  family  of  the  Ebenaceje,  the  bark  of  which 
when  dried  and  reduced  to  a  powder  furnishes  a  black  coloring  mat- 
ter used  by  the  natives. 

Salicsican  (Morhida  iinibellata  L.)  and  othp^rs. 

The  salicsican  is  a  species  of  nino  or  wild  bancuro,  from  whose  roots 
the  natives  extract  a  red  coloring  matter  which  they  employ  in  various 

The  natives  extract  dyes  from  various  other  species  of  wood.  From  the 
bark  of  the  tree  called  bagolibas  a  dye  is  obtained  which  will  give  any 
kind  of  cloth  a  fine,  tawny  color.  The  prepared  bark  of  the  tree  called 
dayagao  makes  a  fine  mordant,  which  imparts  a  fine  luster  and  great 
stability  to  cloth  dyed  black,  yellow,  or  red.  Belolo,  dugna,  and 
hagur  are  very  much  used  by  fishermen  for  dyeing  and  strengthening 
their  nets,  which  take  on  a  dark  brown  color  and  are  rendered  less 
susceptible  to  rotting.  Ananaples  {Alhlzzla  'procerra  Benth.),  of  the 
family  LeguminosiB,  is  used  in  dyeing  hides  which  are  to  be  used  in 
the  manufacture  of  whips,  sole  leather,  and  saddles. 


The  so-called  feculas,  or  starches,  are  carbohydrates  which  exist  in 
plants,  constituting  one  of  the  most  abundant  of  their  proximate  prin- 
ciples.  They  are  found  in  the  seeds  of  cereals,  in  vegetables,  in  tubers, 
in  the  trunks  of  various  palms,  in  the  roots  of  some  plants  of  the  fam- 
ily Euphorbiacese,  and  in  various  organs  of  many  other  plants.  Accord- 
ing to  their  origin  they  take  diflerent  names— that  from  wheat  and 
other  cereals  is  called  starch;  that  from  the  potato  and  other  tubers, 
fecula,  which  is  a  generic  term  and  is  usually  considered  synonymous 
with  starch;  that  from  the  yucca  or  cassava,  tapioca;  and  that  from  the 
palm,  sago.  Here  will  be  discussed  only  those  plants  from  which  some 
one  of  these  proximate  principles  is  extracted.  They  all  furnish  food 
of  great  nutritive  value  and  easy  of  digestion. 

p  c— VOL  3—01 27 

Hosted  by  VrrOOQiC 


Cassava,  Yucca,  or  Oamoting  cahoy  (Jatropha  manihot  L.), 

This  plant  is  an  herb  of  the  family  Euphorbiacese,  a  native  of  tropi- 
cal countries.  It  is  notable  for  its  roots,  which  contain  an  abundance 
of  starchy  fecula  J^nown  by  the  name  of  tapioca,  whose  good  qualities 
are  so  well  known.  In  the  Antilles,  where  it  is  known  as  yucca  it  is 
cultivated  with  great  care.  The  yucca  or  camoting  cahoy,  as  it  is  called 
m  the  Philippines,  grows  well  in  both  temperate  and  hot  regions;  the 
soil  should  be  strong  but  not  low,  sandy  and  loose,  so  that  the  develop- 
ment of  the  root  is  not  restricted;  to  accomplish  this  the  ground  must 
be  plowed  four  or  five  times,  finally  leaving  the  straight  parallel  fur- 
rows one  or  two  meters  apart  in  order  to  allow  the  unrestricted  growth 
of  the  plant.  The  plant  is  multiplied  by  means  of  buds  growing  from 
knots  on  the  woody  trunk,  pieces  of  which  are  planted  horizontally  in 
the  furrows  and  covered  with  nine  or  ten  centimeters  of  earth.  The 
roots  of  the  camoting  cahoy  attain  considerable  size,  and  while  they 
are  still  fresh  they  contain  a  milky  juice  which  is  poisonous,  but  this 
deleterious  substance  disappears  upon  boiling  or  simply  upon  exposure 
to  the  air  for  twenty-four  hours,  leaving  the  residue  of  the  milky  iuice 
quite  inoffensive. 

^  According  to  Chemists  Bontron  and  Henrv,  this  poisonous  principle 
IS  prussic  acid  m  very  small  quantities,  and  in  such  a  diffused  state  that 
it  can  not  produce  an  instantaneous  effect,  but  it  does  when  concen- 
trated. In  order  to  utilize  the  root  of  the  camoting  cahoy  as  food  it  is 
necessary  to  grate  it,  wash  it,  and  subject  it  to  a  considerable  pressure 
to  express  the  ]uice;  the  material  remaining  behind  after  these  opera- 
tions IS  the  flour  or  tapioca.  This  material  after  being  taken  from  the 
press  IS  roasted  on  some  hot  surface,  being  continually  stirred.  The 
fecula  or  tapioca  is  very  nutritious,  some  maintaining  that  a  half  a 
kilogram  a  day  is  sufficient  for  one  man.  It  is  white  or  yellowish 
white  in  color,  sweetish  in  taste,  and  somewhat  insipid.  It  is  much 
valued  m  medicine  on  account  of  its  digestibility,  and  it  is  much  used 
as  an  infant  food. 

Arkow  Root. 

This  is  also  called  maranta,  and  in  the  Philippines  tagbac-tagbac  It 
belongs  to  the  family  Marantace^e,  of  which  two  species  are  known- 
Maranta  indica  L.,  and  M.  arimdmacea,  the  latter  a  name  of  America 
and  the  fornier  of  India.  Both  are  important  on  account  of  their 
roots,  which  produce  the  starchy  feculas  known  as  arrow  root  and 
sago.  The  latter  is  a  herbaceous  plant,  a  meter  in  height,  havino- 
lanceolate  leaves  about  15  centimeters  in  length,  similar  to  those  of 
the  banana  plant,  even  in  the  method  of  growing.  The  part  of  the 
stalk  under  ground  gradually  diminishes  in  size,  to  the  point  of  inser- 
tion,  into  a  long  horizontal,  fleshy-white  tuber,  which  seems  to  be  a 
rhizoma,  and  which  contains  a  considerable  quantity  of  fecula. 

Cidhvatio7i,—lt  is  cultivated  with  success  in  all  loose,  fairly  damp 
soils.  It  IS  planted  from  buds  which  are  placed  separately  in  hole^ 
about  60  centimeters  apart,  as  the  plant  is  very  leafy.  The  crop  can 
be  collected  m  six  or  seven  months  without  further  care. 

BuRi  (  Corypha  umhraculifera  L. ). 

This  plant  is  celebrated  in  all  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  P-ivin^ 
name  to  the  island  of  Burias,  where  it  is  found  in  abundance.  It  is 
tound  in  all  the  other  islands,  although  in  some  not  in  the  same 

Hosted  by  VrrOOQiC 


abundance  as  others.  It  belongs  to  the  palm  family,  grows  to  a  con- 
siderable height,  is  very  beautiful,  the  trunk  being  adorned  with  an 
extended  bunch  of  leaves.  These  are  green  in  color,  the  young  ones, 
however,  being  very  white.  It  grows  spontaneously  in  all  parts,  the 
natives  never  planting  or  cultivating.  The  leaves  are  very  large  and 
are  different  from  those  of  the  cocoanut  tree;  they  extend  from  a  single 
base  in  the  form  of  a  fan.  This  plant  is  of  the  greatest  value  to  the 
natives.  It  does  not  produce  fruit  till  after  many  years,  and  when  it 
does  once  produce  it,  it  dries  up  and  dies.  The  fruit  grows  in  bunches 
from  the  top  of  the  tree,  and  is  filled  with  little  round  nuts  like  hazel- 
nuts.    The  fruit,  however,  is  not  edible. 

Uh6  and  Method  of  preparation, — To  obtain  the  starch,  the  tree  is 
cut  down  at  the  root  and  all  of  the  soft  interior  part  of  the  trunk  is 
taken  out  and  placed  while  moist  in  casks  or  troughs,  while  some  of 
the  naturally  bitter  substances  are  drained  from  it;  it  is  now  pounded 
with  sticks  or  mallets,  when  the  starch  separates  in  the  form  of  very 
fine  grains;  it  is  then  collected  and  dried  and  made  into  Hour,  which 
serves  as  food  for  the  natives,  and  some  of  which  is  sold  in  Manila  and 
other  parts.  It  furnishes  an  excellent,  tasteful,  and  good  food,  which 
is  called  in  commerce  sago.  In  Burias,  Masbate,  Bohol,  and  other 
parts  where  the  tree  grows  in  abundance,  it  takes  the  place  of  rice  as  a 
food  stuff'. 

Bagsang  {Metroxyloti  rmriphii  Mart.). 

This  palm,  called  Bagsang,  is  very  connnon  in  the  Visayan  Islands 
and  very  useful  to  the  inhabitants.  They  neither  plant  it  nor  cultivate 
it,  as  it  grows  spontaneously  from  the  seeds  which  it  produces  or  from 
the  shoots  which  grow  at  its  base.  It  generally  grows  along  the  banks 
of  rivers  and  estuaries,  in  moist  regions,  and  in  places  near  springs. 
This  plant  has  many  uses  in  all  times,  but  especially  if  there  is  a  lack 
of  rice  or  other  food  stuffs.  To  obtain  it,  the  tree  is  cut  down  and 
stripped  of  its  bark,  which  is  called  baje,  and  which  is  utilized  by  the 
natives  in  many  ways.  The  interior  or  heart  of  the  tree  is  then  cut 
into  strips,  which  are  dried  over  a  fire  and  saved  for  further  use.  It 
is  then  pounded  in  wooden  mortars,  being  reduced  to  a  sort  of  flour, 
which  is  of  great  nutritive  value.  It  is  most  frequently  made  into 
cakes  or  fritters,  which,  when  eaten  with  cocoanut  milk,  are  very  good 
and  healthful. 

LuMBiA,  OR  LuMBAY  (Melroylon  silvestre  Mart.). 

This  is  a  palm  very  similar  to  the  preceding  one,  but  taller  and 
larger  and  having  wider  and  stronger  leaves.  It  grows  along  the  shore 
of  the  sea  and  along  the  banks  of  rivers  and  creeks  and  in  other  places 
where  water  is  abundant.  It  grows  from  its  small  fruit,  which  is  not 
edible.  A  species  of  flour  is  obtained  from  the  heart  of  this  palm, 
which  serves  as  a  food  stuff  to  the  poorer  classes,  especially  during 
times  of  famine. 

Cauong  ( Caryota  onusta  Bl. ) . 

This  is  a  palm  similar  to  the  preceding,  from  whose  trunk  a  species 
of  sago  is  obtained.  The  method  of  extraction  is  that  generally  pur- 
sued.    The  tree  is  cut  down  and  the  fibrous  material  removed  from 

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the  interior.  This  is  pounded  and  then  soaked  in  a  cask,  when  a  fine 
white  flour  settles  to  the  bottom.  The  water  is  poured  off,  the  pre- 
cipitate remaining  behind  being  a  sort  of  sago. 

Pag AHAN,  OR  Banga  ( Caryota  urens  L. ) . 

This  pahn,  although  containing  a  poisonous  substance,  furnishes  a 
starch,  or  kind  of  sago,  of  excellent  qualities  and  in  good  quantities. 
It  is  prepared  according  to  the  methods  already  described. 

Hosted  by 





Two  groups  of  plants  are  included  in  this  chapter,  the  saccharine 
plants,  or  those  which  produce  sugar  and  alcohol,  and  those  from  which 
alcoholic  drinks  are  made.  Only  the  species  of  both  groups  cultivated 
in  the  Philippines  will  be  mentioned. 


Sugar  Cane  {Saccharum  officlnarum  L. ). 

This  plant,  known  by  the  name  of  sugar  cane  or  honey  cane,  belongs 
to  the  family  of  grasses.  It  is  a  native  of  India  and  China.  In  the 
Philippines  it  is  one  of  the  agricultural  products  of  greatest  impor- 
tance. The  sugar-producing  provinces  are  Pampanga  and  the  island 
of  Negros,  and  on  a  smaller  scale  the  Laguna  Bataan,  Batangas,  Iloilo, 
Cebu,  Cavite,  Pangasinan,  Capiz,  Antique,  and  Mindanao.  There 
are  many  varieties  of  sugar  cane,  there  being  no  less  than  twenty  in 
the  Philippines.  The  most  important  one  cultivated,  besides  the  ordi- 
nary variety,  being  the  Batavian,  which  is  distinguished  from  the  com- 
mon variety  by  the  violet  color  of  its  stalks  and  the  larger  number  of 
joints  and  its  greater  size;  the  Otaheite,  which  is  taller  and  larger  than 
the  previous  one,  and  has  a  lemon-yellow  stalk;  finally  the  yellow  or 
Creole  variety,  which  has  a  slender  stalk,  and  is  yellowish  white  in 

Cultivation, — This  plant  for  its  full  development  requires  a  climate 
whose  temperature  is  not  less  than  18^  C,  and  which  should  be 
as  high  as  23°  C.  during  the  ripening  period.  The  soil  should  be 
deep  and  of  medium  consistency  and,  preferabl}^,  clayey  loam  or  sili- 
cious.  The  best  fertilizers  are  manure,  ashes,  blood  from  the  slaugh- 
terhouses, lime,  and  green  stuff;  fish,  on  account  of  the  phosphorus 
which  they  contain;  sulphates  and  phosphates  of  potassium,  and,  bet- 
ter than  all  of  these,  the  bagasse,  or  the  refuse  left  after  grinding 
the  cane.  The  ground  should  be  prepared  by  plowing  three  or  four 
times,  and  finally  by  hoeing,  leaving  it  perfectly  soft  and  smooth. 
Little  holes  of  varying  depths  are  then  made  in  the  soil  at  a  distance  of 
a  meter  or  a  meter  and  a  half  from  each  other.  In  these  are  placed 
little  pieces  of  the  stalk,  some  40  centimeters  long,  each  one  of  which 
should  contain  eyes  or  buds.  These  should  be  placed  in  water  twenty- 
four  hours  before  planting.  They  are  then  placed  four  or  five  in  a 
hole,  somewhat  inclined,  and  are  covered  with  4  or  5  centimeters  of 
soil,  and  worked  if  necessary.  Other  care  of  the  crop  is  reduced  to 
irrigation,  hilling,  and  necessary  weeding.  The  cutting  begins  when 
the  cane  assumes  a  yellow  color  on  the  lower  part  of  the  stalk  and 


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when  the  juice  shows  8^  or  9°  on  the  Baume  scale.  The  cane  should 
be  cut  obliquely  and  when  the  earth  is  not  too  moist,  as  when  there 
is  an  excess  of  moisture  the  blow  of  the  machete  or  knife  breaks  the 
root  and  thus  injures  the  plant.  In  the  Philippines  the  cultivation 
of  su^ar  cane  is  generally  carried  on  with  little  care  and  intelligence, 
and  this  is  one  of  the  reasons  why  the  quantity  and  qualit}^  of  the  crop 
has  diminished.  To  increase  the  production,  it  will  be  necessary  to 
perfect  methods  of  cultivation,  selecting  the  best  varieties  of  cane,  or 
those  which  are  best  suited  for  the  existing  conditions,  and  tilling  and 
fertilizing  the  land  with  more  care;  so,  too,  nmch  greater  care  should 
be  taken  in  the  manufacture  of  the  sugar. 

Sorghum  {Sorglimn  mccJiardtum  Pers.,  or  Sacchanmi  koenigii  Hetz). 

This  plant  likewise  belongs  to  the  family  of  grasses,  and  in  its  stalks 
are  sweet  juices  which  sometimes  give  as  high  as  17  per  cent  of  pris- 
matic sugar.  In  the  Philippines  this  plant  is  utilized  only  for  forage, 
although  it  might  well  be  cultivated  for  the  production  of  sugar  in  cer- 
tain regions  where  sugar  cane  does  not  grow  well.  Sorghum  demands 
the  same  kind  of  soil  and  the  same  cultivation  as  corn.  It  is  planted  in 
the  same  manner  and  should  be  weeded  and  hilled  in  the  same  way  as 
corn.  Alcohol  for  industrial  purposes  can  be  obtained  from  sorghum 
as  well  as  from  sugar  cane. 


Under  this  heading  will  be  included  such  vegetables  as  contain  glu- 
cose or  other  substances  which  can  by  means  of  fermentation  be  con- 
verted into  alcohol  or  alcoholic  drinks.  In  the  Philippines  these  plants 
are  nipa,  cocoanut,  buri,  cauong,  pugahan,  maize,  and  others. 

NiPA,  OR  Sasa  {Nipa  littoralis  BL,  Nipa  fructificans  Thunl).). 

The  nipa  is  a  palm  which  grows  to  a  height  of  4  meters,  and  from 
whose  short  stem  rise  large  leaves  composed  of  a  multitude  of  little 
ensiform  leaflets.  The  fruit  consists  of  various  clusters  lying  very 
closely  together,  although  they  are  easily  separated,  which  together 
form  a  large  bunch  hanging  at  the  end  of  a  thick  peduncle  which  arises 
from  the  base  of  the  tree.  It  is  indigenous  to  the  coast  and  grows 
only  in  muddy  regions,  or  those  which  are  liable  to  be  overflowed,  or 
the  mouths  of  rivers  which  communicate  with  the  sea.  It  is  one  of 
the  most  useful  trees  found  in  the  Philippines.  As  a  thatch  it  covers 
a  great  majority  of  the  houses  and  even  some  of  the  churches  in  the 
islands.  Many  of  the  native  houses  have  the  walls  and  partitions  made 
of  nipa,  as  well  as  the  roofs;  but  of  still  greater  importance  than  the 
leaf  is  the  tuba  or  sap  from  which  nipa  wine  or  arac  (arrack)  is  made 
and  which  is  consumed  to  such  a  great  extent  by  the  natives. 

Cultivation, — Nipa  groves  must  be  prepared  by  planting,  which 
usually  takes  place  between  May  and  the  last  of  July.  The  ripe  fruits 
which  fall  to  the  ground  are  collected  and  employed  for  this  purpose. 
Two  or  three  of  these  fruits  are  placed  in  holes  which  are  located  about 
1.7  meters  from  each  other.  As  the  rains  are  very  frequent  during 
these  months  and  the  ground  is  kept  moist  it  is  not  usually  necessary 
to  irrigate.  This  condition  of  moisture  of  the  ground  is  also  favored 
by  the  high  tides.     In  order  to  get  the  best  results  from  the  grove  all 

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dead  leaves,  or  those  which  could  prejudice  the  development  of  the 
fruit,  should  be  removed. 

Method  of  obtaining  the  tuha. — A  grove  becomes  serviceable  at  the 
end  of  five  or  six  years.  In  order  to  obtain  the  tuba  an  incision  is 
made  in  the  peduncle  immediately  below  the  point  of  insertion  of 
the  fruit,  leaving  a  few  of  the  best  developed  fruits  for  purposes 
of  reproduction.  A  liquid  which  flows  from  the  incision  is  collected 
in  bamboo  tubes  or  joints  called  bombones,  which  are  hung  conven- 
iently on  the  plant.  In  order  that  this  sap  shall  flow  with  the  greatest 
facility  several  little  operations  are  gone  through  with.  The  first  of 
these,  called  sicat,  consists  in  striking  the  peduncle  of  the  fruit  several 
blows,  with  the  object  of  loosening  somewhat  the  tissues  and  opening 
the  pores.  This  operation  should  be  done  once  a  week  during  the  five 
months  preceding  the  producing  season.  Siinultaneously  the  process 
called  talog,  which  consists  in  cleaning  the  peduncle  of  all  leaves,  is 
gone  through  with.  When  the  collecting  season  arrives  the  operation 
called  pucao  is  gone  through  with.  This  consists  in  rapidly  rubbing 
the  foot  against  the  peduncle  so  as  to  call  the  sap  toward  the  fruit. 
After  this  comes  patit,  which  consists  in  cutting  the  peduncle  near  the 
base  and  leaving  the  bamboo  joint  attached,  in  which  the  juice  is  col- 
lected as  it  falls  drop  by  drop.  After  this  the  incision  on  the  peduncle 
is  renewed  twice  each  day,  morning  and  evening,  the  tuba  being  collected 
daily.  The  collecting  season  lasts  about  ten  months,  the  production 
increasing  gradually  for  the  first  five  months  and  decreasing  slowly 
from  that  time.  The  average  production  of  a  single  plant  is  about  46 
liters  during  the  season.  When  the  business  is  carried  on  on  a  large 
scale  one-half  the  product  goes  to  the  owner  and  the  other  half  to  the 
workmen.  The  tuba  is  afterwards  distilled  and  then  concentrated  in 
stills,  and  although  the  loss  of  liquid  is  great,  there  still  remains  a  con- 
siderable amount.  This  tuba,  when  much  fermented,  may  be  used  as 
vinegar.  One  hundred  jars  of  this  vinegar,  each  containing  48  liters, 
sells  for  $10  or  %1% 

The  Cocoanut  ( Cocos  nuciferaj  L, ) . 

Method  of  gathering  the  t\iba. — ^To  obtain  the  tuba  from  the  cocoanut 
tree  the  same  is  cut  before  the  flower  is  formed  and  before  it  has 
appeared  externally.  A  bamboo  joint  or  bombone  is  then  attached  for 
the  collection  of  the  liquid.  The  flower  cluster  or  summit  is  bound 
together  with  pieces  of  rattan  so  that  the  bamboo  joint  can  be  easily 
adjusted.  As  one  tree  may  have  several  flower  clusters,  as  many  bam- 
boo joints  as  are  necessary  are  placed  in  position.  A  little  of  the 
powdered  bark  of  the  tongog  (liizophora  longissima^  Bl.)  is  placed  in 
each  bamboo  joint;  this  serves  to  give  strength  and  a  reddish  color  to 
the  wine.  The  wine  is  collected  daily  by  men  who  carry  large  bamboo 
joints  hanging  over  the  back  and  held  in  place  by  a  curved  piece  of 
wood.  Attached  to  this  large  bombone,  which  is  carried  on  the  shoulder 
of  the  workman,  is  a  rounded  receptacle  made  of  a  shell  of  a  cocoa- 
nut,  which  contains  the  powder  already  spoken  of.  Every  time  one  of 
the  small  bamboo  joints  is  emptied  it  is  necessary  to  clean  it  perfectly 
on  the  inside  and  to  renew  the  powder.  This  cleaning  is  done  by  a 
little  brush  or  broom,  which  is  made  of  a  piece  of  the  stem  of  the  leaf 
of  the  cocoanut  tree,  which  is  carefully  pounded  on  the  end  so  as  to 
convert  it  into  a  shorter  brush.  A  small  quantity  of  powder  is  then 
placed  in  the  bombone  and  a  fresh  incision  made  in  the  flpwer  stem. 

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This  cutting  of  the  flower  stem  is  done  with  a  veiy  sharp  little  curved 
knife.  ^  Each  stem  will  produce  wine  for  a  period  of  two  months,  after 
which  it  dries  out.  In  order  to  facilitate  climbing  the  trees  notches  are 
made  on  either  side,  thus  forming  a  sort  of  ladder.  When  a  collection 
of  tuba  is  carried  on  on  a  large  scale,  in  order  to  avoid  the  loss  of  time 
involved  in  climbing  each  tree,  large  bamboos  are  tied  from  one  tree 
to  another  horizontally,  the  two  passing  from  tree  to  tree;  one  of  these 
serves  as  a  foot  bridge  and  the  other  as  a  hand  rail.  Men  frequentlv 
fall  from  them,  often  with  fatal  results.  This  tuba  begins  to  ferment 
within  an  hour,  more  or  less,  after  its  collection,  and  at  the  end  of  a 
day  it  has^changed  to  a  sort  of  vinegar,  fermentation  often  being  facili- 
tated by  the  addition  of  suitable  plants.  The  liquid  is  then  distilled, 
the  distillate  being  known  as  cocoanut  wine. 

BuKi  ( Corypha  umbraculifera  L.) . 

This  plant  also  produces  a  wine  called  tuba.  It  is  obtained  from  an 
incision  in  the  fruit,  from  which  the  juice  issues.  From  this  juice 
wine  is  made;  and  also  a  yellow  honey-like  substance  called  pacascas. 

(/AiTONU  [( hryota  onnda,  B1.)ani)  riTOAFTAN  {CaryoUt  urens  h.). 

A  sweet  liquid  or  tii])a  is  obtained  in  the  same  manner  in  the  fruit 
of  these  plants. 

There  are  also  other  plants  of  less  importance  from  which  the 
natives  obtain  their  favorite  drink,  tuba. 

Maize  or  Indian  Corn,  etc.  {Zea  maysJ^.). 

An  alcoholic  drink,  called  in  the  Visayan  Islands  pangasi,  is  obtained 
by  the  fermentation  of  the  starch  of  corn.  Several  families  generally 
unite  to  make  this  drink  and  they  generally  end  up  by  becoming  very 
jo3^ful  and  noisy. 

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Tobacco  {Nicotiana  tahaaim,  L. ). 

Tobacco  is  a  plant  belonging  to  the  famiW  Solanaceae,  having  straight 
cylindrical  stems,  wide  soft  leaves  of  a  dark-green  color,  whitish -green 
funnel-shaped  flowers,  and  numerous  seeds  contained  in  the  two  sides 
of  a  pod  or  capsule.  It  is  an  annual  plant  in  Europe  and  evergreen 
in  South  American  and  other  parts. 

This  plant  is  a  native  of  America.  It  was  introduced  into  the  Philip- 
pines by  missionaries  in  the  last  quarter  of  the  sixteenth  century  by 
means  of  seeds  coming  from  Mexico.  Its  cultivation  spread  rapidly 
on  account  of  the  favorable  conditions  of  climate  and  soil,  and  the 
favor  with  which  the  natives  looked  upon  it.  From  the  Philippines  it 
was  introduced  into  the  south  of  China. 

varieties  are: 

.First,  common  tobacco  {Nicotidna  tahacum  L.),  called  also  tabaco 
macho,  or  male  tobacco,  which  is  the  best  of  all.  It  is  somewhat 
gelatinous  or  viscid.  Its  stalks  reach  a  height  of  1  meter,  its  leaves 
are  oval  or  heart  shaped,  and  its  flowers  purple. 

Second,  ioh2i(^Q.o  hembra  (female),  or  Mexican  tohdo^x^o  {Nicotiana 
rustica  L.),  which  has  rounded  leaves,  and  which  is  cultivated  with 
good  results  in  the  south  of  France. 

Third,  verina,  or  Brazilian  tobacco  {Nicotiana  ]}anicidata  L.).  This 
is  a  small  species,  very  mild,  demanding  a  very  warm  climate.  It  is 
much  used  in  Turkey. 

The  principal  varieties  of  the  first  species  are  the  Virginia  tobacco, 
which  has  sharp  leaves  and  does  not  require  an  especially  fertile  soil, 
and  which  loses  but  little  in  drying;  Carolina  tobacco,  with  shorter  and 
narrower  leaves  than  the  Virginia  tobacco  and  likewise  less  delicate  in 
its  growth.  Tobacco  growers,  paying  little  attention  to  the  botanical 
and  scientific  classification  and  more  to  the  form  and  utility  of  the 
plant,  divide  it  into  two  classes,  wide  leafed  and  narrow  leafed.  The 
qualities  determining  the  price  of  tobacco  in  the  market  are  combus- 
tibility, strength,  aroma,  fineness,  elasticity,  color,  and  uniformity. 
Philippine  tobacco,  which  up  to  a  short  time  ago  was  considered 
second  best  in  the  world,  on  account  of  its  agreeable  aroma,  fine 
veins,  and  notable  elasticity,  has  recently  lost  much  of  its  reputation. 
Tobacco  coming  from  the  province  of  Isabela  de  Cagayan  is  considered 
the  best  in  the  Philippines.  That  from  the  Visayan  Islands  is  coarser, 
more  unequal  in  color,  and  of  greater  strength.  The  tobacco  from 
Nueva  Ecija  is  fine,  but  somewhat  bitter  in  taste  and  yellow  in  color. 
That  from  Union,  Ilocos,  and  the  Igorrotes  is  of  heavy  body,  broken, 
and  frequently  has  but  little  combustibility. 


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Philippine  tobacco  may  be  divided  into  two  groups:  First,  the 
varieties  with  elliptical  or  ovate,  wide,  or  heart-shaped  leaves,  which  is 
called  in  the  provinces  ''tobacco  from  the  old  seed;"  and,  second, 
tobacco  with  lanceolate,  narrower  leaves  than  the  preceding,  which  is 
generally  known  under  the  name  of  "  tobacco  from  new  seed."  The 
former  comes  from  Mexico,  and  the  latter  is  supposed  to  have  been 
introduced  recently  from  the  United  States. 

Cultivation, — Although  tobacco  grows  in  almost  all  climates,  the 
product  is  more  abundant  and  much  better  when  grown  in  hot  climates, 
as  the  heat  has  a  great  influence  in  determining  that  important  quality, 
the  aroma,  which  it  is  impossible  to  impart  artificially.  The  lands 
most  suitable  for  its  cultivation  are  those  of  medium  consistency  and 
depth,  which  are  cooled  during  the  summer  time,  or  such  as  have  a 
sandy  or  silicious  subsoil  covered  with  loam,  which  are  situated  along 
the  banks  of  rivers  which  are  periodically  overflowed,  thus  adding  new 
mineral  and  organic  constituents  to  the  soil.  These  lands  are  called 
vegas  (meadows),  and  in  this  country  the  name  of  vegueros  is  given  to 
the  workmen  on  such  plantation.  As  the  tobacco  plant  is  very  deli- 
cate, it  is  necessary  to  fertilize  the  soil  thoroughly.  Among  fertilizers 
may  be  mentioned  those  which  contain  potassium,  lime,  chloride,  and 
phosphate,  the  best  being  manure  in  an  advanced  stage  of  decomposi- 
tion. The  preparation  of  the  soil,  which  should  be  very  deep  and 
carefully  done,  consists  of  three  plowings  at  intervals  of  several  days, 
and  the  completion  of  the  process  by  grading  and  leveling  and  the 
removal  of  all  injurious  weeds. 

The  tobacco  seed  is  sown  in  hotbeds,  which  are  made  on  level,  clean 
ground,  having  a  carefully  fertilized  soil.  The  seed  is  selected  from 
accredited  sources  and  sown  broadcast,  being  mixed  with  fine  sand. 
These  beds  are  about  a  yard  wide,  space  enough  being  left  between 
them  to  allow  of  the  passage  of  weeders  and  other  workmen.  The 
seeds  are  covered  lightly  with  earth,  which  is  packed  down  a  little  and 
then  irrigated,  this  operation  being  frequently  repeated  until  the  plants 
appear.  These  beds  should  be  fenced  in  and  covered  over  with 
branches,  so  as  to  protect  the  plants  from  the  direct  rays  of  the  sun, 
but  not  interfere  with  ventilation.  When  the  plants  have  four  leaves 
this  cover  is  removed,  so  that  they  may  develop  with  greater  vigor, 
and  transplanting  immediately  begins.  The  plants  are  separated  a  dis- 
tance of  about  60  centimeters  from  each  other.  When  the  flowers  begin 
to  appear  and  10  or  12  leaves  have  developed,  the  buds  are  cut  from  the 
extremities  of  the  stalks,  so  that  the  sap  may  flow  to  the  leaves  and 
nourish  them  with  greater  vigor. 

The  gathering  of  the  leaf  is  begun  when  the  plant  is  in  just  the 
right  condition,  and  the  recognition  of  this  is  of  the  greatest  impor- 
tance for  the  quality  of  the  tobacco.  At  this  time  the  leaves  begin  to 
turn  yellowish,  wrinkle  somewhat,  droop,  and  show  more  or  less  of  a 
sticky  juice,  according  to  the  abundance  or  scarcity  of  rain  during  this 
period  of  ripening.  This  condition  having  been  reached,  the  process 
of  gathering  begins.  This  may  be  done  either  by  cutting  off*  the  stalk 
at  the  base,  which  is  not  a  good  way,  or  by  collecting  the  leaves,  one 
at  a  time,  in  the  order  in  which  they  grow;  or,  beginning  below,  gath- 
ering a  handful  of  two  or  three  at  a  time.  They  are  then  classified 
according  to  size  and  quality,  being  left  on  the  ground  until  they 
have  dried.  The  tobacco  is  then  tied  in  bundles,  which  are  suspended 
by  cords  in  the  tobacco  storehouse.    They  are  thus  protected  from  the 

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sun,  but  are  exposed  to  excellent  ventilation  on  all  sides  by  windows 
and  doors,  which  are  opened  or  closed,  according  to  circumstances. 

Diseases. — The  tobacco  plant  is  subject  to  injury  from  various  kinds 
of  insects  which  attack  it.  Among  these  the  most  dreaded  is  that 
called  cogoUero.  This  is  a  white  butterfly,  which  is  so  called  because 
it  grows  and  develops  in  vegetables,  such  as  cabbage  and  lettuce.  The 
gordo  is  a  large  black  worm  which  eats  the  stems  of  the  leaves,  cutting 
them  and  causing  them  to  fall.  The  cachasado  is  the  larva  of  Iladena 
androgea  Lat.,  which  lives  and  hides  during  the  day  in  the  roots  of  the 
plant.  The  primavera  is  very  voracious,  and  the  babosa  and  other 
small  animals  not  so  much  dreaded. 

Chemical  composition. — The  chemical  composition  of  tobacco  is  very 
complex  and  variable,  according  to  the  kind  and  origin  of  the  sample 
under  examination.  Vauquelin  and  other  chemists  who  have  analyzed 
it  have  found  inorganic  substances,  such  as  silica,  potassium,  magnesia, 
ammonia,  nitric  acid,  hydrochloric,  phosphoric,  and  sulphuric  acids; 
neutral  organic  substances,  such  as  cellulose,  oil,  yellow  and  green 
resins,  and  a  volatile  alkaloid  called  nicotine.  This  is  an  oily,  color- 
less substance  of  pungent  taste  and  odor,  soluble  in  water,  alcohol,  and 
ether.  This  alkaloid  is  found  from  1^  to  9  per  cent,  according  to  the 
kind  of  the  tobacco,  and  it  is  worthy  of  note  that  the  best  tobaccos,  and 
those  having  the  greatest  reputation,  are  those  which  contain  the  small- 
est quantity  of  nicotine.  Dr.  Lebon,  of  Paris,  has  recently  announced 
the  presence  of  a  new  alkaloid  in  tobacco — colidine — which  is  as  pois- 
onous as  nicotine.  Nicotine  is  very  energetic,  and  in  a  short  time 
poisons  small  animals,  but  is  much  less  active  in  the  plant  itself,  as  it 
is  mixed  with  other  less  active  and  inert  substances. 

Coffee  ( Coffea  arabica  L. ) . 

Coflfee  is  a  plant  of  great  importance  in  the  Philippines.  It  belongs 
to  the  family  Rubiacese,  is  a  bush  2  or  3  meters  high,  having  perma- 
nent leaves  and  white,  fragrant  flowers  like  jessamine  in  appearance, 
which  have  five  stamens  grouped  together  near  the  base  of  the  leaves. 
The  fruit  is  an  oval  fleshy  berry,  somewhat  resembling  a  clierr}",  hav- 
ing a  clear,  green  color,  which  changes  to  intense  red  when  the  fruit 

History. — This  valuable  fruit  is  a  native  of  ancient  Ethiopia,  obtain- 
ing its  name  from  the  region  called  Kaffa,  where  it  grows  in  gieat 
abundance.  It  was  brought  to  the  Philippine  Archipelago  by  the 
Spanish  missionaries  toward  the  end  of  the  last  century,  where  it  was 
first  cultivated  in  the  province  of  Laguna.  It  was  afterwards  natu- 
rally propagated  easily  and  rapidly  by  a  little  mammal  {Paradoxwnis 
musanga  L.),  which  fed  upon  the  berries.  Afterwards  its  cultivation 
fell  to  the  lowest  ebb  in  spite  of  premiums  offered  to  cultivators.  At 
the  present  time,  due  to  the  increased  price  of  coffee  and  better  facili- 
ties for  exporting,  its  production  has  begun  to  increase. 

Species  and  varieties  cultivated. — Although  there  are  many  different 
species  of  the  genus  Coffea^  but  four  constitute  the  coffee  of  commerce. 
They  are:  Coffea  arabica^  or  common  coffee;  Coffea  racemosa.^  or  Peru- 
vian coffee,  very  similar  to  the  preceding;  Coffea  laurina.^  or  African 
coffee,  and  Coffea  liberica^  or  Liberian  coffee,  a  more  robust  plant, 
which  has  larger  leaves  than  the  common  coffee  plant.  Almost  all  of 
the  varieties  cultivated  come  from  the  first  species,  which  is  the  one 

Hosted  by 



requiring  most  heat.  In  the  Philippines  the  provinces  producing 
most  coffee  are  Batangas,  Laguna,  Tayabas,  and  Cavite  in  Luzon  and 
the  districts  of  Cotabato  and  Misamis  in  Mindanao. 

Cultivation. — Coffee  requires  a  climate  whose  average  temperature 
ranges  between  16°  and  24°  C,  and,  therefore,  next  to  sugar  cane,  is 
the  plant  requiring  the  greatest  amount  of  heat.  In  localities  having 
both  heat  and  moisture  its  growth  is  stronger  and  more  luxuriant,  as 
is  manifested  in  various  ways.  In  very  hot  climates  the  coffee  plant 
grows  well,  but  should  have  the  shade  of  some  other  suitable  tree, 
whereas  in  cooler  climates  it  thrives  best  without  this  protection. 
The  soil  most  suitable  for  its  cultivation  is  that  which  is  light  and 
moist,  but  not  marshy.  Reddish  soils  somewhat  sandy,  or  black  soils 
without  too  much  clay,  are  suitable  for  its  cultivation. 

If  the  land  is  virgin  soil  it  should  be  thoroughly  cleared,  plowed 
deeply  two  or  three  times,  and  then  harrowed,  and  if  old  land,  it  should 
be  well  fertilized. 

Planting  can  be  carried  on  in  various  ways;  the  best  are  by  means  of 
hot  beds  and  by  transplanting.  These  hot  beds  or  nurseries  are  made  in 
well-shaded  soil,  which  should  be  clean,  well  worked,  and  thoroughly 
fertilized.  The  seed  should  be  ripe  and  fresh,  and  not  taken  from  the 
fleshy  covering.  Transplanting  is  done  when  the  plants  have  three  or 
four  roots,  care  being  taken  not  to  injure  the  delicate  stem,  although 
a  part  of  the  central  root  is  cut  off  at  the  moment  of  transplanting. 
Plants  which  have  reached  a  height  of  40  or  50  centimeters  may  be 
used  by  cutting  off  the  upper  part  of  the  stem  and  likewise  the  vertical 
root,  stamping  down  the  earth  about  them,  and  immediately  watering. 
The  ground  where  this  transplanting  is  made  should  be  previously 
prepared,  holes  being  made  in  parallel  lines  running  north  and  south, 
and  having  a  distance  of  2i  meters  from  each  other.  The  land  should 
afterwards  be  kept  clean  and  other  trees  should  be  planted  for  their 
shade.  The  tree  usually  employed  in  the  Philippines  for  this  purpose 
is  called  madre  cacao  {Galedupa pun^am  BL),  but  there  are  many  who 
advocate  the  use  of  the  balibago  {Ilthiscits  tiliaceus  L.)  as  giving  bet- 
ter protection  to  the  plantations  and  being  more  productive.  Experi- 
ence demonstrates  that  the  pruning  of  coffee  trees  prejudices  the 
production,  as  the  plant  growing  naturally  with  favorable  rains 
produces  at  the  end  of  six  or  seven  years  an  average  of  5  kilograms 
of  berries  for  each  one,  while  those  which  have  been  pruned  do  not 
produce  one-fourth  as  much. 

The  gathering  is  accomplished  either  by  shaking,  if  the  plants  are 
high,  or  by  hand  picking  if  they  are  low.  After  gathering  the  peri- 
carpium  is  removed,  an  operation  easily  accomplished  by  hand,  and  the 
berries  are  placed  in  the  sun,  care  being  taken  to  separate  those  col- 
lected on  various  days.  When  the  berries  are  thoroughly  dried,  the 
husk  is  removed  by  means  of  a  mill  or  other  apparatus.  The  other 
operations  necessary  to  prepare  coffee  for  the  market  are  winnowing, 
to  separate  the  inner  husk  and  all  dirt  from  the  berry,  and  sorting  into 
first  and  second  grades. 

The  coffee  plant  begins  to  produce  in  from  three  to  five  years, 
according  to  climate,  soil,  and  cultivation,  is  in  full  bearing  in  six  or 
seven  years,  and  continues  to  be  productive  for  thirty  years  if  ro  acci- 
dent happens.  Philippine  coffee  compares  well  with  that  of  Java  or 
Martinique,  but  there  are  certain  localities  which  produce  coffee  which, 
according  to  experts,  can  be  compared  only  to  that  of  Mocha. 

Hosted  by 



From  former  times  the  production  of  coffee  in  the  Philippines  has 
fallen  off  greatly  on  account  of  the  destruction  of  the  plants  by  an 
insect  of  the  genus  Xylotrechm  and  by  a  fungus  of  the  genus 

Chocolate  ( Theohroma  cacao  L.) . 

Cacao  or  chocolate  belongs  to  the  family  Sterculiaceae,  and  is  a 
native  of  Mexico  and  South  America.  It  is  a  tree  which  is  distinguished 
for  its  beautiful  appearance,  but  more  for  its  fruit,  which  is  very  highly 
prized,  as  is  shown  in  its  botanical  name  Theobroma  (food  for  the  gods). 
The  seed  of  this  fruit  properly  roasted  gives  out  a  delightful  aroma, 
and  well  ground  and  mixed  with  sugar  and  a  little  cinnamon  it  forms 
chocolate,  a  nutritive,  healthful,  and  agreeable  food.  It  was  intro- 
duced in  the  Philippine  Archipelago  from  America  some  time  between 
the  years  1660  and  1670.  Although  it  has  been  cultivated  for  a  long 
time  in  small  quantities  in  various  provinces  of  Luzon  and  Visayas,  it 
flourishes  best  in  southern  Mindanao,  and  in  the  district  of  Davao  it  is 
produced  in  large  quantities  and  of  excellent  quality. 

The  tree  reaches  a  height  of  from  8  to  11  meters  and  has  straight 
branches.  The  petiolate  leaves,  oblong  or  ovate-oblong,  are  acuminate, 
strong,  and  smooth,  and  of  same  color  on  both  sides.  The  small  flowers 
are  reddish  in  color  and  very  numerous.  The  fruit  is  reddish  or  yel- 
lowish, ovate  or  oblong,  having  ten  ridges,  and  simulates  to  a  certain 
degree  the  shape  of  a  small  cucumber.  The  seeds  are  somewhat  larger 
than  an  almond. 

Cultivation. — This  plant  demands  a  warm  climate  having  an  average 
temperature  of  from  23°  to  29°  C.  and  a  considerable  amount  of  mois- 
ture in  the  atmosphere.  The  soil  should  be  deep  and  light.  Black  and 
reddish  soils,  somewhat  sandy,  with  an  abundant  top  soil  of  muck,  are 

Planting  can  be  done  from  the  seed,  and  to  save  time  this  is  usually 
done  by  planting  the  seed  a  distance  of  from  2^  to  3  meters  from  eacL 
other  in  parallel  lines.  In  the  Philippines  the  seed  is  often  planted  in 
bamboo  joints  or  in  the  forest,  from  whence  they  are  transplanted  to 
ground  shaded  by  banana  plants.  As  the  chocolate  plant  requires 
shade,  the  tree  called  madre  cacao  is  usually  planted.  This  plant 
requires  nmch  more  care  than  the  coffee  plant.  In  its  cultivation  it  is 
necessary  to  remove  all  premature  flowers,  trim  off  dry  branches,  and 
keep  the  ground  well  cleaned. 

The  fruit  is  gathered  when  it  becomes  ripe.  The  life  of  the  choco- 
late tree  is  supposed  to  be  about  thirty  years,  during  which  time  it 
produces  fruit.  It  may  live  to  be  50  years  old  or  more,  but  is  almost 

Nutmeg  {Myristica  fragrans  Houtt. ). 

The  nutmeg  grows  naturally  in  Cebu  and  in  Lagun^i,  province,  and 
will  grow  in  all  parts  of  the  islands  cultivated.  It  is  a  tree  belonging 
to  the  family  Myristicaceee.  In  the  Dutch  possessions  the  tree  reaches 
a  height  of  from  10  to  13  meters.  The  trunk  is  covered  with  rather 
thin  bark,  blackish  and  slightly  mottled,  from  which,  when  incised, 
flows  a  reddish  juice  which  coagulates  on  contact  with  the  air.  The 
fruit  is  about  the  size  of  a  small  peach,  having  a  thick  husk  and  a  hard 
pit  about  the  size  of  an  almond,  inside  of  which  the  nutmeg  is  formed. 
This  is  surrounded  by  an  aromatic  rind,  or  skin,  called  mace.     The 

p  c— VOL  3—01 28 

Hosted  by 



beautiful  flower  of  this  tree  is  aromatic,  and  from  it  a  kind  of  preserve, 
noted  for  its  fragrant  odor,  is  made. 

The  tree  begins  to  produce  at  the  age  of  5  or  6  years,  but  the  crop 
is  very  light  at  first. 

Cinnamon  {Cinnamomum  burmanni  Blume;  Laurus  cinnamomum  Blanco). 

The  cinnamon  tree  is  found  in  these  islands,  especially  in  Mindanao. 
In  Zamboanga,  Caraga,  and  in  the  mountains  of  the  district  of  Misamis 
varieties  of  cinnamon  of  stronger  taste  and  fragrance  than  those  of 
Ceylon  are  found.  The  reason  it  is  not  more  exploited  is  because  it 
seems  to  contain  some  kind  of  bitter  principle,  which  is  noticed  when 
it  is  chewed.  This  tree  should  be  more  highly  prized  in  these  islands, 
as  it  grows  wherever  it  is  planted.  The  cinnamon  comes  from  the  bark 
of  the  branches  which  have  been  stripped  of  their  epidermis,  and  is  an 
aromatic  substance,  having  many  uses. 

Pepper  [Pij^er  nigrum,  L. ) . 

This  plant  belongs  to  the  family  Piperaceae.  Its  cultivation  dimin- 
ishes daily  in  the  Philippine  Islands.  It  is  a  climbing  plant,  which  is 
fastened  to  adjacent  trees  w^hen  cultivated.  Its  fruit  is  a  berry  which, 
when  dried,  is  black  or  white  pepper.  In  the  northern  part  of  the 
islands  the  long  pepper  of  British  India  can  be  cultivated. 

Betel  or  Itmo  {Piper  betel,  L. );  Buyo  de  Anis  {Piper  anworum,  BL). 

The  betel  or  itmo  is  a  climbing  plant,  belonging  to  the  same  family 
as  the  preceding.  It  is  cultivated  very  extensively  throughout  India, 
the  Sunda  xlrchipelago,  all  the  regions  adjacent  to  Asia,  and  the  Phil- 
ippines. In  all  of  these  countries  the  leaves  are  used  in  making  the  prep- 
aration which  is  known  in  the  Philippines  as  "buyo."  This  preparation 
is  composed  of  one  of  the  leaves  of  this  plant,  a  piece  of  lime  the  size 
of  a  pea,  and  a  piece  of  bonga  or  betelnut.  The  object  of  this  mixture 
is  to  mollify  and  render  supportable  the  taste  of  the  pepper  leaf,  which 
otherw^ise  would  be  acrid  and  disagreeable. 

The  buyo  de  anis  has  a  leaf  which  has  an  agreeable  odor  resembling 
anise.  This  leaf  is  used  by  some  natives  to  mix  with  the  pepper  leaf 
in  the  preparation  of  buyo. 

Hosted  by 




The  castor-oil  plant  {Eicmus  communis  L.),of  the  family  Euphor- 
biaceae,  which  is  called  '' tarigan-tangan,"  is  very  abundant  in  these 
islands.  It  is  used  principally  to  alleviate  headaches,  being  applied  on 
leaves  to^  the  forehead,  causing  sweating  and,  consequently,  relief. 
Mixed  with  the  oil  of  sesame  it  is  applied  to  the  stomach  with  good 
effect;  so,  too,  it  is  applied  to  the  feet  of  persons  suffering  with 

Balocanad  {Alevrites  trispennaBi.)  belongs  to  the  family  Euphor- 
biacese.  It  has  a  fruit  a  little  larger  than  the  pomegranate.  This 
fruit  contains  six  or  seven  poisonous  seeds.  The  oil  of  these  seeds 
when  rubbed  into  the  scalp  kills  all  vermin. 

The  leaves  of  the  capanatolet  or  gaudarura,  when  properly  applied, 
improves  and  cures  those  who  suffer  with  pains  in  the  back. 

The  so-called  dacdac  has  medicinal  properties.  Its  stalk  or  stem  is 
about  the  size  of  the  index  finger,  somewhat  flattened,  and  blackish  in 
color.  An  infusion  is  made  from  this  stalk  chopped  up  finely.  When 
the  head  is  bathed  with  this  infusion,  headaches  disappear,  as  does  the 
lethargy  from  which  the  patient  suffers.  This  is  true  when  it  is  used 
in  the  treatment  of  any  other  cephalic  disease. 


The  salibutbut  or  pandacaqui  {Taberim  numtcmd)  belongs  to  the  fam- 
ily Apocynaceas.  An  infusion  of  the  root  of  this  tree  when  given  as 
a  drink  improves  the  stomach  and  bowels  in  cases  of  distention,  cold, 
and  indigestion.  It  is  likew^ise  an  excellent  blood  medicine,  and  is 
used  with  great  benefit  by  women  after  parturition. 

The  leaves  of  the  taguypasin  or  alom  are  of  v^alue  in  any  chronic 
stomach  disease  due  to  inflammation,  overloading,  or  cold.  They 
should  be  applied  hot  or  united  with  oil  used  as  an  unguent.  They  are 
of  great  value  in  reduciiig  inflammation  or  swelling  of  the  limbs  if 
used  m  the  same  way.  They  cause  sweating,  after  which  the  limbs 
should  be  enveloped  in  a  blanket,  dried,  and  the  operation  repeated  if 
complete  relief  is  desired. 

The  leaves  of  the  maisipaisi  ( CTai/^m/^  sp.  Bun.),  of  the  family  Ruta- 
ceae,  have  an  odor  and  flavor  very  similar  to  that  of  anise.  From  these 
leaves  an  oil  of  anise  is  made,  which  is  very  useful  for  diseases  of  the 
stomach.  Made  as  an  infusion  with  cocoanut  wine,  it  furnishes  a 
drmk  much  used  in  the  country. 

The  tree  known  by  the  name  of  ''bacao"  furnishes  a  bark  which, 
when  pulverized  and  mixed  with  water,  furnishes  a  remedy  which  kills 
all  kinds  of  intestinal  parasites.     This  same  property  is  possessed  by 


Hosted  by 



the  fruit  of  a  trailing  plant  called  '^tangulon,"  ''pinoncillo,"  or  "  niog- 
niogan"  {Quisqualis  ^n(liGa  L.)  of  the  family  Combretacese. 

The  tree  called  ''  bahay  "  {Adenanthera pavonina  L.)  produces  a  fruit 
something  like  ordinary  beans  in  appearance,  but  of  a  bright  red 
color.  These  placed  in  cavities  of  teeth  greatly  relieve  the  pain,  the 
same  object  being  accomplished  by  the  root. 

The  grated  bark  of  the  maragaat  {Ficus  radiata  Dec),  of  the  family 
Urticacese,  when  applied  to  the  gums  reduces  swelling  and  strengthens 
the  teeth. 

The  paetan  {Ltmasia parvifolia  Muell.),  of  the  family  Rutaceee,  is  an 
antidote  for  fish  poison.  Taken  as  a  powder,  it  cures  any  stomach  dis- 
order and  is  an  excellent  remedy  for  ulcerating  sores,  which  it  cleans 
and  closes. 

The  sambong  {Bhmiea  halsamifera  DC),  of  the  family  Composita, 
is  an  excellent  sage,  quite  aromatic,  and  having  medicinal  properties. 
As  an  infusion  it  is  much  used  in  diseases  of  the  stomach. 

The  tangulon  {Quisqualis  vridicus  L.),  of  the  family  Combretaceae,  is 
another  species  of  trailing  plant,  which  grows  bountifully  along  the 
seashore,  produces  a  seed  called  '^  pinoncillo,"  which  is  an  excellent 
vermifuge.     It  may  be  eaten  raw  without  danger  of  injury. 

The  cabcaban  {Polypodkum  quercin/wn^  L.)  and  the  balsamina  or 
apalia  {Mouiordica  halsamina  L. )  produce  purgative  medicines. 


The  sibucao  or  Brazil  wood  {Omsalpmia  sappan  L.),  of  the  family 
Leguminosse,  is  medicinal.  An  infusion  of  it  causes  the  absorption  of 
coagulated  blood,  and  it  is  given  in  cases  where  blows  on  the  body 
have  caused  the  extravasation  of  blood  into  the  tissues. 

The  cumalibquib  or  himangcoran  or  otob-otob  are  medicinal.  The 
grated  root  made  into  an  infusion  cleans  and  cures  ulcers  or 
wounds.  An  ointment  is  made  from  this  plant  and  from  the  jalanotan 
and  hagonoy.  This  is  made  by  boiling  the  plant  in  oil,  straining,  and 
adding  a  little  wax.  The  ointment  may  then  be  used  for  the  cure  of 
wounds.  So,  too,  the  leaves  of  a  climbing  plant  grown  in  the  Visayan 
Islands,  and  which  is  called  "  balangon,"  is  useful  for  this  purpose.  The 
pounded  leaves  are  applied  directly  to  the  wound. 


The  tuyucay  is  used  as  a  remedy  for  deafness.  In  the  operation  a 
branch  8  or  10  inches  in  length  is  placed  over  a  slow  fire  until  it 
becomes  quite  hot.  It  is  then  placed  close  to  the  affected  ear  and  air 
is  blown  through  the  hole  which  passes  through  it,  care  being  taken  to 
keep  the  branch  well  within  the  ear.  It  is  claimed  that  the  hot  tube 
has  some  special  virtue,  due  perhaps  to  the  medicated  moisture  thereof; 
when  penetrating  the  ear  restores  it  to  a  healthy  condition. 

The  tree  called  "  haulig"  is  very  useful  for  treating  and  preserving 
the  eyes,  a  solution  in  water  of  the  bark  and  leaves  being  used  as  a  wash. 


The  resin  of  culasi  {Lumnitzera  coccinea  Wight  and  Arn.),  of  the 
family  Combretaceae,  cures  scab  and  itch. 

Hosted  by 



A  resin  which  serves  well  as  a  caustic  is  obtained  from  the  canumay 
and  the  lagnoto  {Diospyros  multiHora  Bl.) 

The  tree  called  panjantolon  {Scae^ola  hoenigii  Vahl.),  of  the  family 
Goodenoviacese,  an  extraordinary  large  tree,  is  useful  in  medicine. 
An  infusion  is  made  from  the  leaves  and  bark  which  is  used  as  a  lotion 
for  those  suffering  with  specific  trouble.  This  cures  the  disease  and 
relieves  the  pain  in  the  bones  which  accompanies  this  terrible  disease. 

The  pila  and  the  root  of  the  trailing  plant  called  mangadlao  are  both 
useful  in  treating  all  kinds  of  wounds. 

All  kinds  of  spots  on  the  skin  are  cured  by  a  lotion  made  from  the 
roots  of  the  tree  called  salac. 

A  lotion  made  from  the  wood  of  the  mampol,  of  the  genus  Loran- 
thus  of  the  family  Lorantacea%  will  cause  the  pustules  of  smallpox  to 
appear  when  they  are  slow  in  presenting  themselves. 

The  leaves  of  the  little  tree  called  alocloc  when  crushed  and  applied 
to  boils  or  other  cutaneous  tumors  quickty  brings  them  to  a  head  and 
causes  the  removal  of  their  contents. 

Sarsaparilla  of  the  genus  Simlax,  called  by  the  natives  banag,  is 
very  common  along  the  banks  of  the  rivers  and  the  coast.  The  root 
is  used  in  medicine  and  is  well  known  as  a  remedy  for  those  who  suffer 
from  specific  ulcers.     It  is  given  as  an  infusion. 

The  trailing  plant  called  bago-bago,  of  the  genus  Garcinia,  family 
Guttiferae,  is  also  used.  It  is  powdered,  and  placed  over  the  fire,  and 
applied  hot  to  patients  suffering  from  inflammation,  as  it  quiets  the 
nerves  and  relieves  the  pain  in  the  joints. 

The  plant  called  busalas  is  likewise  medicinal.  Its  leaves,  when 
reduced  to  ashes  and  mixed  with  a  little  oil,  will  bring  to  a  head  any 
kind  of  an  abscess,  or,  if  these  are  already  in  the  stage  of  suppuration, 
it  will  cause  them  to  open  and  will  cure  them  without  trouble. 


An  infusion  of  the  leaves  of  the  taraje  {Camiarina  equisetifoUa 
Forst.),  of  the  family  Casurinaceae,  will  cure  chlorosis. 

The  leaves  of  the  alagtayo  or  tieala,  when  applied  to  abdomen  of  a 
pregnant  woman,  will  very  quickly  bring  on  parturition. 


According  to  the  opinion  of  experts  the  manungal  {Samadera  indica 
Gaert.),  of  the  family  Simarubaceoe,  is  one  of  the  best  antidotes  found 
in  these  islands.  A  solution  made  by  boiling  is  given  to  anyone  who 
has  eaten  poisoned  substances,  such  as  herbs  or  fish.  The  oil  of 
manungal  is  admirable  for  curing  all  kinds  of  disorders  of  the  stomach, 
as  is  likewise  the  infusion  made  from  marbar  or  cayutana. 

An  infusion  of  the  bark  of  the  palagnigon  is  both  an  antidote  and  a 

An  infusion  of  the  bark  of  the  calasusi  {Plumeria  acutifolia  Poir.), 
of  the  family  Apocynaceae,  is  an  excellent,  mild  purgative,  or  may  be 
used  as  an  emetic. 

The  bark  of  the  root  of  the  tree  called  bagosabac  is  curative  for  the 
bite  of  any  kind  of  poisonous  animal  or  snake. 

Hosted  by 




The  tree  called  tambalaguisa  or  mantala  {Sophora  tomentosa  L.), 
of  the  family  Leguminosse,  has  at  a  certain  season  a  number  of  little 
yellow  flowers,  and  following  them,  long  pods  filled  with  seeds,  some- 
what like  chickpeas.  This  fruit  is  a  febrifuge  having  a  very  bitter 
taste.  One  or  two  of  the  seeds  are  given  to  those  who  suffer  from 
certain  malarial  fever.  The  medicine  is  still  more  valuable  for  those 
having  quartan.  It  is  likewise  an  excellent  stomachic.  From  these 
seeds  an  oil  is  also  made  which  gives  great  relief  to  pains  in  the  bones. 
It  is  also  used  for  intestinal  troubles  and  is  a  remedy  for  chlorosis. 
Another  trailing  plant  having  admirable  qualities  is  called  by  the 
Tagalogs  macabuhay  and  by  the  Visayans  pangianan  (Menhperiimm. 
Twimum  L.).  It  belongs  to  the  family  Menispermaceie.  It  is  very 
bitter  and  very  useful  for  the  stomach  and  the  entire  body. 

The  bark  of  the  tree  called  dita  {Alstonia  seJiolaris  D.  C),  of  the 
family  Apocynace^e,  when  treated  with  acidulated  water,  produces  an 
alkaloid,  ditain,  which  is  employed  in  place  of  quinine  for  all  kinds  of 


An  infusion  of  the  leaves  of  the  tree  called  polotan  or  ulingon  serves 
as  an  excellent  diuretic.  The  juice  of  the  bark  or  an  infusion  of  it  is 
likewise  useful. 

The  palo-santo,  called  by  the  natives  guicos-guicos,  or  hannadao,  of 
the  genus  Abrus,  family  Leguminosse,  possesses  admirable  properties. 
It  is  an  excellent  remedy  for  spasms  and  chills,  from  which  so  many 
suffer  in  these  countries.  An  infusion  of  this  plant  expels  injurious 
humors  from  the  body,  does  away  with  obstructions,  regulates  the 
stomach,  and  is  of  equal  value  with  sarsaparilla  for  specific  trouble. 
It  is  likewise  a  sudorific. 

Naguini  and  languingi  are  trailing  plants  which  cure  muscular  and 
nervous  spasms,  the  leaves  being  applied  as  a  plaster  after  being 
heated  before  the  fire.     The  application  is  made  under  the  arms. 


The  pilipog  is  a  most  bitter  medicine.  It  is  useful  as  a  stomachic, 
and  simply  chewed  and  swallowed  serves  to  cure  any  kind  of  pain. 
It  is  likewise  an  antidote,  and  in  the  form  of  an  mfusion  is  a  febrifuge 
useful  in  tertian  and  quartan  fevers. 

Among  all  the  trailing  plants  found  in  these  islands  that  which  is  of 
greatest  importance  and  most  esteemed  is  called  by  the  natives  igasud, 
{Strychiios  ignatiiBerg.)  of  the  family  Loganiaceae.  The  Spaniards  tak- 
ing up  the  name  which  was  given  to  it  by  the  missionaries  in  the  Visayan 
Islands,  call  it  the  pepita  of  San  Ignacio.  It  abounds  in  all  the  moun- 
tain regions  of  Visayas,  but  is  not  f oimd  in  Luzon.  When  full  grown  it 
is  of  considerable  size,  the  fruit  at  times  being  as  large  as  a  pomegranate, 
though  a  little  longer.  It  has  a  hard  shell,  within  which  is  a  yellowish 
or  slightly  reddish  meat,  and  in  this  is  found  the  seed  so  highly  esteemed 
in  all  parts  of  the  world.  These  seeds  are  grown  principally  near 
Catbalogan.^  They  are  used  for  persons  who  have  eaten  soniething 
poisonous,  in  which  case  a  little  piece  is  eaten  and  immediately  fol- 
lowed by  a  drink  of  cold  water,  the  poison  thus  being  expelled.     So, 

Hosted  by 



too,  taking  it  in  ttiis  manner  it  cures  disturbances  of  the  stomach  or 
intestines.  It  is  likewise  useful  for  paralytics  and  for  women  during 
parturition.  Grated  or  in  the  form  of  powder  it  is  much  used  as 
styptic.  Grated  and  given  with  water  at  the  beginning  of  the  chilly 
stage  will  often  prevent  an  attack  of  malarial  fever.  It  is  also  useful 
for  the  bite  of  the  caterpillar  called  basut,  when  applied  as  a  powder 
over  the  affected  place.  It  is  used  also  as  an  emetic.  Held  in  the 
mouth  and  sucked  it  is  useful  for  rheumatism.  So,  too,  it  relieves 
indigestion.  The  oil  remaining  after  pieces  of  this  seed  have  been 
fried  is  useful  for  contractions  of  the  nerves  and  pains  in  the  body. 

There  are  many  other  medicinal  plants  in  the  Philippines,  as  may 
be  seen  by  consulting  the  General  History  by  P.  Juan  J.  Delgado,  S.  J., 
published  in  Manila  in  1892,  and  others. 

Hosted  by 




Philippine  fruit  trees  in  general  do  not  produce  such  exquisite  and 
highly-prized  fruits  as  do  those  of  Europe.  As  both  wild  fruit  trees 
and  cultivated  ones  are  very  abundant,  only  the  best-known  ones  will 
be  spoken  of;  some  mention  will  be  made  of  their  probable  origin, 
arranging  them  according  to  the  families  to  which  they  belong. 


Among  th<^.  Philippine  species  of  this  family  is  the  mango  {Man- 
gifera  indica  Linn.),  which  is  believed  to  come  from  Macao,  and  which 
grows  well  in  the  provinces  of  Manila  and  Cavite,  and  also  in  the  Vis- 
ayas.  The  fruit  season  begins  in  April.  The  fruit  has  a  delicate 
flavor  and  an  aromatic  odor,  the  largest  of  them  being  from  6  to  7 
inches  in  length;  in  shape  they  are  flattened,  not  round;  the  skin  is 
yellow  and  rather  fine;  the  pit,  which  lies  in  the  center  of  the  fruit,  is 
almost  as  long  as  the  fruit  itself,  but  very  narrow.  The  plant  springs 
from  this  seed.  The  leaves  are  long  and  wide  and  dark  green  in  color; 
an  infusion  of  ^these  is  somewhat  similar  to  tea.  Besides  this  species 
the  following  are  found:  Manga  de  anis  {Mangiferafragans  Maingay) 
and  mani  {M.  cosia  Jack),  which  is  found  in  Mindanao,  of  Asiatic 
origin;  casuy  {Anacardium  occidentale  L.),  of  American  origin;  siruelas 
{Sj}07idias  purpurea  L.),  from  southern  Asia;  albudhod  {Spo7idias 
manmfera  Wild),  found  in  Panay,  also  of  Asiatic  origin. 

The^  mamjpon  on  pqjomanga  {Mangifera  altissima  Blanco). —This 
fruit  is  very  similar  to  the  mango,  and  when  ripe  is  quite  delicious. 
It  is  frequently  preserved  in  brine  in  the  form  of  pickles,  and  is  very 
healthful;  it  is  likewise  made  into  sweetmeats  and  preserves.  There 
are  other  small  varieties  of  this  kind  about  the  size  of  an  olive,  which 
are  used  in  making  pickles  and  preserves. 


Among  this  family  is  found  the  anona  {Ano7ia  reticulata  L.).  It  is 
an  exotic  from  Mexico,  its  flesh  being  white  and  containing  small, 
black  pits.     It  is  sweet  and  fragrant. 

ATES    (anona    squamosa  L.  ) . 

The  fruit  is  juicy  and  aromatic,  very  sweet,  and  so  soft  that  it  seems 
to  melt  in  the  mouth;  it  is  somewhat  peppery.  Another  species  found 
is  Guanabano  {Anona  muricata).    All  three  species  come  from  America. 


But  one  species  of  this  family  is  indigenous  to  the  Philippine  Archi- 
pelago, the  mabalo  {Diospyros  discolor  Wild),  whose  reddish  fruit, 


Hosted  by 



about  the  size  of  a  quince,  contains  a  large  seed;  the  flesh  is  white  and 
sweet,  but  somewhat  indigestible  and  has  a  rather  strong  odor.  The 
sapote  {Diospyros  ehenaster  B>etz.)  and  the  pagsup^t  {Diospyros  kaMLt.) 
are  natives  of  China. 


Of  the  American  family  there  are  two  species,  the  balimbing  {Aver- 
rhora  caramMa  L.),  which  has  the  flavor  of  a  quince,  and  the  camias 
{Averrhora  hilimbi  L.),  whose  fruit  when  green  has  an  agreeable,  sour 
taste,  but  when  ripe  is  sweet  and  fragrant. 


Of  this  family  the  mangosteen  {Garcinia:  mangostana  L.)  is  found. 
It  is  an  exotic,  and  grows  only  in  Jolo  and  some  points  in  the  district 
of  Zamboanga  and  Catabato.  It  is  called  there  the  ''king's  fruit," 
because  it  is  so  highly  prized  by  the  Moro  sultans.  It  is  dark  red  or 
purple  in  color  and  about  the  size  of  an  orange.  The  edible  and  juicy 
parts  of  the  fruit  form  small  white  divisions,  very  soft,  which  are 
found  in  the  interior;  they  are  covered  with  a  double  skin,  reddish  in 
color,  and  which  must  be  removed  before  the  fruit  is  eaten.  The 
fruit  is  sweet  and  very  delicate  in  flavor.  Its  origin  is  the  Indian 


In  this  family  is  found  the  lanzon  or  boboa  [Lansium  domssticum 
Jack).  The  tree  is  beautiful  in  appearance  and  gives  a  cool  shade; 
the  leaves  are  a  beautiful  clear  green;  the  skin  of  the  fruit  is  a  clear 
yellow,  thin  and  fine;  within  it  are  contained  five  divisions,  as  in  the 
lemon,  but  the  flesh  is  crystalline  white,  almost  transparent,  sweetish 
sour,  quite  delicate,  and  very  refreshing.  Each  fruit  contains  a  pit, 
which  is  the  seed  from  which  the  tree  grows;  it  is  more  bitter  than 
gall,  but  is  not  injurious,  on  the  contrary  it  is  something  of  a  carmin- 
ative. One  may  eat  a  hundred  of  these  fruits  without  difficulty  and 
without  danger,  for  they  are  healthful  and  excellent  for  those  who 
suffer  from  heat.     Their  origin  is  the  Malay  Archipelago. 

Santol  {Sandoricxim,  indicmn  Cav.)  is  a  large  tree  having  leaves  6  or 
7  inches  long.  The  fruit  is  bitter  sweet  in  taste;  it  is  used  principally 
for  preserves  and  pickles.     Its  origin  is  southern  Asia. 


Macupa  {Euge7iia  malaccenms  L. )  is  a  fruit  about  the  size  of  a  sweet 
pepper  and  of  somewhat  the  same  shape,  rather  larger  and  quite  red 
in  color;  it  is,  however,  more  lustrous,  being  almost  resplendent.  It  is 
bitter-sweet  in  taste,  somewhat  agreeable,  but  has  no  solid  flesh  which 
can  be  eaten. 

Tampay  {Eugenia  jamhos  L.):  This  fruit  is  about  the  size  of  a  small 
apple,  the  flesh  being  soft,  sweet,  and  having  an  odor  like  roses. 

Duhat  or  limboy  {Eugenia  jamholona  L.):  This  produces  a  wild 
fruit,  dark  purple  to  black  in  color,  about  tne  size  of  an  olive.  It  is 
likewise  a  native  of  the  Malay  Archipelago. 

Guayabo  {Psidiuin  guayaba  L.):  This  exotic  plant  comes  from 
Mexico,  but  grows  so  well  here  that  entire  forests  of  it  may  be  found. 
There  are  three  principal  varieties.     The  fruit  is  yellowish  in  color  and 

Hosted  by 



very  aromatic,  as  are  likewise  the  leaves.  The  interior  of  the  fruit  is 
filled  with  little,  hard  seeds  or  pits,  which  are  embedded  in  the  flesh. 
It  is  a  carminitive,  and  its  astringent  properties  make  it  an  excellent 
preserve.     With  simple  sirup  it  is  much  used. 

The  banana  is  the  most  important  of  this  family.  In  the  Philippines 
there  is  a  large  number  of  species,  varying  greatly  in  their  form  and 
taste.  The  trunk  of  the  banana  tree  is  not  solid,  but  soft  and  full  of 
minute  little  tubes  or  aqueducts,  which  serve  to  conduct  the  sap  which 
sustains  and  matures  the  plant  within  the  short  space  of  one  year. 
Shortly  after  the  fruit  ripens  the  plant  begins  to  decline  and  the  leaves 
dry  up  and  fall.  The  fruit  grows  in  bunches  of  various  shapes,  accord- 
ing to  the  particular  species.  Important  varieties  are  the  saba  {Mesa 
sapientum  L.),  which  is  delicious  and  healthful  when  ripe;  the  hanipa, 
sweeter  than  the  saba,  and  which  is  cultivated  principally  in  Samar 
and  Leyte;  the  tambonan,  a  very  common  and  healthful  species;  the 
camada,  very  large;  the  binalatong,  larger,  more  delicate,  and  more 
fragrant  than  the  preceding;  the  tarip;  the  bungaran,  rather  indigesti- 
ble; the  putian;  the  torlangdato,  called  in  Spanish  ''the  lady  finger;" 
the  pitbitin,  a  small,  sweet,  and  rich  variety;  the  dariao,  a  good  variety; 
the  mungco,  the  talood,  the  tinumbaga,  the  dariyas,  and  others. 
P.  Delgado  enumerates  and  describes  57  varieties,  as  may  be  seen  in 
his  history. 


Of  this  family  there  is  but  one  Pbilipf)ine  species  worthy  of  mention, 
the  papaya  {Carwa  2^apay(^  L.).  There  are  two  sexes,  the  male  and 
female.  The  male  does  not  produce  fruit,  only  some  tubes  filled  with 
small  white  aromatic  flowers;  the  female  produces  fruit.  The  tree  is 
soft  and  yellow,  looks  somewhat  like  a  palm,  and  has  large,  broad 
leaves;  the  fruit  somewhat  resembles  a  small  quash  in  appearance. 
When  it  ripens,  the  skin  changes  from  green  to  a  reddish  color,  as  does 
the  flesh  also.  The  fruit  contains  a  number  of  seeds  somewhat  similar 
to  squash  seeds;  it  is  sweet,  refreshing,  delicate,  and  pleasant  to  the 
taste.     The  tree  is  indigenous  to  America. 

Of  this  family  various  oranges  and  lemons  are  found.  Oranges  of 
various  indigenous  species  are  found.  The  principal  one  is  the  cajel 
{Chtrusaiirantkwi  var.).  Another  variety  is  the  naranjitas  {Oitriw 
aurantmm).  There  are  several  wild  species,  one  of  which  is  called 
''amumimtay "  {Citrm  hystrix  DC).  They  are  very  large,  being  12 
or  13  inches  in  circumference,  have  a  thick  skin,  are  very  juicv  and 

There  are  more  than  seven  varieties  of  lemons.  The  citron,  which 
is  verj^  large,  is  also  found  in  abundance. 


The  chico  sapote  {Achras  sapota  L.)  and  the  chico  mamey  {Lucuma 
mamosa  Gaert. )  belong  to  this  family.  The  fruit  is  about  the  size  of  an 
orange,  green  on  the  outside  and  black  on  the  inside.  It  is  sweet  and 
agreeable  and  makes  excellent  preserves.     It  is  a  native  of  Mexico. 

Hosted  by 




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Hosted  by 


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Belonging  to  this  family  is  the  nangca  or  langca  {Artocarpus  integ- 
rifolia  Willd.).  It  has  been  claimed  that  the  fruit  of  this  tree  is  the 
largest  found  in  the  world,  as  some  of  them  are  as  large  as  a  good- 
sized  water  jar.  The  tree  is  large  and  thickly  branched;  the  leaves 
are  long  and' narrow.  The  fruit  is  produced  alike  from  the  branches 
and  from  the  main  trunk  of  the  tree  quite  close  to  the  ground,  and 
even  from  the  roots,  this  last  being  especially  true  when  the  ground 
is  somewhat  elevated.  The  ripening  fruit  is  recognized  by  its  aro- 
matic and  penetrating  odor;  the  fruit  is  then  cut.  When  opened  along 
the  middle  it  shows  a  large  amount  of  yellowish  or  whitish  meat,  which 
is  not  edible,  and  a  number  of  shells  of  a  golden  color  each  contammg 
a  seed.  It  resembles  in  sweetness  the  date,  but  it  possesses  an  odor 
like  musk.  It  is  somewhat  indigestible,  but  is  quite  nourishmg. 
The  seeds  when  boiled  or  baked  somewhat  resemble  the  chestnut.  The 
wood  of  the  tree  is  yellow,  solid,  durable,  and  very  serviceable  for 
working.  It  is  a  native  of  the  Malay  Archipelago.  Other  species 
are  tigs  {Ficus  carica  L.),  from  western  Asia;  the  rima  {Artocarpus 
inoisa  L.),  from  the  Malay  Archipelago;  the  dalanguian  camansi  {A. 
caniansi  BL),  an  indigenous  plant,  and  the  marang  {A,  polyphema 
Pers.).,  of  Mindanao. 


There  is  a  large  number  of  wild  species  of  fruits  found  in  the  Philip- 
pines. They  are  in  general  sour,  sweet,  and  somewhat  carminitive. 
Among  these  may  be  mentioned  the  doctoyan,  the  pananquian,  the 
durion,  the  abuli,  amahit,  angiap,  amaga,  agononan,  abubunanu,  alnga- 
nisan,  dee  amamampang,  bonano,  barobo  or  marobo,  cabaan,  carong, 
cagos,  gayan,  dalinson,  etc.,  which  are  described  by  P.  Delgado. 

Hosted  by 




There  are  various  trees  in  the  Philippines  from  which  these  essences 
or  essential  oils  may  be  extracted,  but  the  only  ones  utilized  are  the 
ilang-ilang  {Gmimiga  odorata  Hook);  sampaguita  (JasmlTvum  samhcw 
L(.);  champaca  {Ihchelia  Gham^)aca,  L.). 

llang-Uaiig {Caiianga  odorata  Hook,  Unoria  odoratisslma  Bl.)  --This 
tree,  belong-mg  to  the  family  Anonacea3,  produces  ordinary  look- 
ing flowers  of  a  greenish  color,  but  of  great  fragrance.  The  tree  is 
utilized  as  a  shade  tree,  and  from  its  flowers,  especially  those  of  the 
mountain  trees,  a  highly  valued  essence  is  extracted  by  distillation. 
Ihis  essence,  called  '^ilang-ilang,"  has  been  popularized  bv  the  Parisian 
pertumers  This  essence  is  exported  in  small  quantities  to  France 
-hn^land,  Singapore,  and  China. 

^  bampagidta  (Jasmmum  samhac  L.).--Sampaguita  is  a  plant  belong- 
ing to  the  family  OleaceiB.  From  the  white  fragrant  flowers  a  hio-hly 
prized  essence  is  extracted  by  distillation  by  perfumers.  "^ 

ChxMJipaca  {Mlchelia  climnpaca  L.).— The*^  champaca  belongs  to  the 
family  Magnoliaceae,  and  is  a  tree  about  4  meters  in  height,  conical 
m  shape.  The  flowers  are  very  fragrant,  and  about  an  inch  in  length. 
it  IS  much  cultivated  in  gardens,  but  is  not  found  in  the  mountains. 
J5y  distillation  a  well-known  essence  is  extracted  from  the  flowers. 


In  the  Philippines  there  is  a  large  number  of  trees  which  produce 
resin,     home  of   these  are  used  in  medicine,  some  for  illuminating 
purposes,  others  in  the  manufacture  of  varnishes,  others  in  painting 
and  others  for  calking  ships.     The  principal  ones  will  be  indicated  bv 
lamilies:  ^ 

AraliaGe(B,—^\i^  limolimo  [Ileptaplewrmrh  caudatum  Vid.)  furnishes 
a  resin  used  in  the  making  of  varnishes. 

^  BurseracfB  {Ahilo)  {Garuga  Prrihimda  Decne.)  produces  a  resin  used 
in  medicine.  The  antong  or  brea  negra  {Cwnm^vmn  vhiada  Kom)  pro- 
duces a  resin  used  for  illumination.  The  pili  or  brea  blanca  ( Cwnamim 
aibum  131.)  pipduces  a  resin  which  is  used  for  illuminating  purposes 
and  tor  calking  ships.  The  papsaingin  (ftm^r^'^m  Gumi7iqliY.xi^V\ 
produces  a  resm  used  for  the  same  purposes. 

ConifepcB,~l\i^  galagala  or  piayo  {AgatUs  orantifoUa  Salisb.)  pro- 
duces a  resm  which  is  used  for  burning,  for  lighting,  and  for  the 
manufacture  of  varnishes. 

Bipterocarpacew.—ThQ  apitong  {Bwierocarpusgrandiilaims  Bl.)  pro- 
duces a  resm  used  for  illumination.  Balao  or  malapaho  {Bipterocarpus 
vekitmus  Bl.)  produces  a  resin  used  for  calking.  The  mayapas 
{^JJtpterocarpus  turUnatus  Gaert.)  produces  a  resin  similar  to  the  pre- 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



ceding  one,  which  is  used  for  the  same  purposes.  The  duagling 
{Dipterocarmis  sp.)  produces  a  resin  useful  for  illuminating  purposes. 
The  guijo  (Shorea  giiiso  Blume)  produces  a  resin  used  for  the  same 
purposes  as  the  preceding;  as  does  the  yacal  {Hopea  plagata  Vid.). 
The  resin  from  the  \^U2i2in{Anisopeterathurifera  BIT)  is  used  for  burn- 
ing, for  the  manufacture  of  varnishes,  and  for  calking.  The  resin 
from  the  nialaanonang  {Dipterocarpits  sp.)  is  used  for  calking.  A 
resin  used  in  medicine  is  obtained  from  the  mayapis  {Dipterocarpim 
turhinatus  Gaert.),  and  one  useful  for  lighting  purposes  is  obtained 
from  the  paua  {Bipterocarpus  vermiciflims  Bl.). 

Enphorhiacem.—ThQ  resin  from  the  alipata  {Excmcaria  agallocha  L.) 
is  used  as  a  remedy  for  the  bites  of  poisonous  animals;  taken  internally 
it  produces  dysentery. 

A  medicinal  resin  is  obtained  from  the  birunga  {Macamiiga  tanarius 
Muell-Arg.).  The  resin  from  the  togocam  {Claoxylon  waUicJdammi, 
Muell-Arg.)  is  used  for  illuminating  purposes  and  as  a  medicine. 

Guttifera. — The  binucao  {Garcima  sp.)  produces  a  resin  used  in 

Legtimi7i(mB,—T\iQ  adyangao  {Alhizzia  procera  Benth)  produces  a 
resin  used  as  incense.  A  resin  having  medicinal  properties  is  obtained 
from  the  caturay  {Seshania  grandiflora  Pens.).  A  resin  useful  for 
illuminating  purposes  is  obtained  from  the  cupang  {Parkia  roxhurqhii 
G.  Don.).  Another  resin  used  for  the  same  purpose  is  obtained  from 
the  cogontoco  {Alhizzia  sapo7iaria  Blume). 

Mdastofnacew. — A  resin  used  for  illuminating  purposes  and  for 
calking  ships  is  obtained  from  the  bota-bota  {melastoma  obvolutum 

Rutacem—K  resin  used  for  illuminating  purposes  is  obtained  from 
the  cajel  {Citrus  aurantiwn  L.),  orange  tree. 

Sapindacew, — The  balinghasay  {Buchanania  florida  Schau.)  is  used 
for  illuminating  purposes  and  for  calking  ships.  An  illuminating 
resin  is  obtained  from  the  ligas  {Semecarpus perrottetii  March.). 

Urticacew.—A  resin  from  the  breadfruit  or  antipolo  {Artocarpus 
mincisa  L.)  is  used  as  a  medicine  and  as  a  bird  lime  for  catching  birds. 
The  resin  from  the  ambling  {Artocarptis  ovata  Bl.)  is  used  for  making 
varnish.  The  resin  from  the  camansi  {Artocarpiis  camansi  Bl.)  is  used 
as  a  medicine  and  as  a  drier.  Nangca  {A,  integrifolia  Linn,  f.)  pro- 
duces a  resin  used  for  illuminating  purposes. 


In  the  Philippines  the  name  of  almacigas  is  given  to  most  of  the  yel- 
lowish and  aromatic  resins.  The  most  valuable  ones  are  found  in  the 
Calamianes,  while  others  are  found  in  Mindanao,  especially  in  Davao 
and  in  Ilocos. 


The  principal  trees  which  produce  gum  resins  useful  in  medicine, 
painting,  or  the  arts  are: 

Anacardiacem^  the  casay  or  balubad  {Anarcadium  ocddentale  L.), 
which  produces  a  gum  resin  used  in  the  manufacture  of  varnish. 

^ocynew^  the  dita  {Alstonia  scholaris  R.  Br.),  which  produces  a 
medicinal  gum  resin,  as  do  those  of  the  species  Laniti  (Wrightia). 

JSuphorMacem, — Medicinal  resins  are  obtained  from  the  bigabing 
{Macaranga  mappa  Mull.  Arg.)  and  from  the  buta  {Excmaria  sp.). 

p  0— VOL  3—01 29 

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GiMiferw.--The^£L\onmim  or  bitao  {Oalophylhtm  sp.),  the  bitanhol 
{Calophyllum  rmUkh/imia  Planch.),  the  gutagaby  or  tanglananac  {Gar- 
cinia  morella  Derr.),  and  the  gatasan-pula  {brarcinia  venulosa  Choisy) 
produce  gum  resins  used  in  medicine. 

Legmriinosce, — Two  gum  resins  used  in  medicines  are  derived  from 
the  aromo  {Acacia  farnesiana  Wiild.)  and  the  narra  encarnada  {Ptero- 
carpus  indicus  Willd).  . 

Myristicace(B.--lA.'^^\(A\\A  resin  is  obtained  from  the  dugoan  {Myris- 

tica  sp.).  .  J   • 

PaZmi^.— The  bonga  {Areca  catechu  L.)  produces  a  resm  used  m 


Riitacmcem.—ThQ  lucban  or  naranjo  {Citrus  decummia  Mnrr,)  pro- 
duces a  gum  resin  likewise  used  in  medicine. 

l/rticacem.— The  balete  {Ficus  indica  Bl)  and  the  banyan  tree  {I^^cus 
sp.)  produce  gum  resins  used  in  medicine. 

Saj^otacew.— The  notac  {Falaquiu7n  sp.)  produces  a  gum  resin  used 
as  a  glue  and  for  other  industrial  purposes. 


Gutta-percha  is  found  in  considerable  quantity  in  Mindanao,  and  is 
produced  from  the  trunk  and  branches  of  several  trees,  from  those  of 
the  genera  Ficus  and  Falaqiiium.  This  tree  is  called  by  the  Visayans 
solonot.  In  collecting  this  it  is  not  best  to  follow  the  plan  used  by  the 
natives  of  cutting  down  the  tree;  large  trees  only  should  be  selected, 
and  these  should  be  tapped.  Beneath  this  incision  on  the  bark  or  the 
trunk  a  bombon  or  large  tube  of  bamboo  is  placed  to  collect  the  sup- 
ply. This  product  is  then  placed  in  a  batea,  or  dish,  where  it  is  macer- 
ated with  salt  water,  the  dish  being  at  the  same  time  shaken.  In  this 
way  the  gutta-percha  soon  becomes  solid;  the  water  is  then  poured  off 
and  the  gutta-percha  is  formed,  while  still  plastic,  into  a  plate  or  disk, 
but  through  the  edge  of  which  a  hole  is  made,  suspending  it,  and  thus 
exposing  it  to  the  air,  so  that  it  may  dry  perfectly.  This  method  pro- 
duces gutta-percha  of  rather  inferior  quality. 

A  few  years  ago  a  considerable  quantity  of  gutta-percha  was  exported 
to  England,  but  on  account  of  the  many  adulterations  made  by  the 
Chinese  merchants  but  little  is  now  exported. 


Many  plants  produce  a  certain  amount  of  an  oily  material  somewhat 
similar  to  beeswax.  It  is  found  sometimes  as  a  deposit  on  the  surface 
of  leaves,  fruit,  or  on  the  bark.  This  material  is  not  of  the  same 
quality  in  all  vegetables,  although  it  has  not  been  well  studied.  It  is 
obtained  from  the  palm  {Ceroxylon  andicola)  and  from  the  Myrica 
cerifera.  It  is  found  in  the  Philippines,  in  the  Calamianes,  in  Paragua, 
and  in  some  other  parts.  It  is  obtained  from  the  trees  by  scraping 
the  bark. 

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The  magnificent  forests  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago  constitute  a 
source  of  great  natural  wealth,  which  is  as  yet  almost  undeveloped. 
They  yield  woods  valuable  for  a  great  variety  of  purposes,  and  many 
of  these  woods  are  to  be  had  at  present  in  very  great  abundance.  Cer- 
tain of  them  are  unexcelled  for  sea  piling  and  shipbuilding,  not  only 
because  of  their  great  strength,  but  on  account  of  the  fact  that  they 
are  proof  against  the  attacks  of  the  sea  worm  {Teredo  navalis).  Others 
are  particularly  adapted  to  house  construction  in  climates  where  humid 
atmosphere  and  intensely  hot  sun  subject  them  to  the  severest  tests. 
There  are  woods  suitable  for  boat  building,  carriage  building,  and  box 
making,  and,  finally,  there  are  a  considerable  number  of  heavy,  hard, 
fine-grained,  and  beautifully  colored  woods,  which  are  admirable  for 
cabinetmaking,  and  would  make  beautiful  floors  and  inside  finishings 
for  the  houses  of  those  who  could  aflford  to  pay  for  them. 

No  systematic  effort  has  ever  been  made  looking  to  the  exploitation 
of  these  woods,  nor  have  they  ever  been  carefully  studied.  The  lum- 
ber used  for  local  purposes  in  the  archipelago  is  almost  entirely  hewn 
out  or  sawed  by  hand.  So  far  as  we  are  aware,  there  are  at  present 
but  two  steam  sawmills  in  the  Philippines.  This  is  the  more  remark- 
able when  one  remembers  that  the  local  demand  for  lumber  is  steady 
and  good,  while  China  affords  an  excellent  market  for  many  of  the 
better  known  woods. 

An  explanation  of  this  singular  state  of  affairs  may  be  found  by 
taking  into  account  the  conditions  which  have  existed  in  the  past.  It 
was  formerly  a  tremendous  undertaking  to  get  machinery  through  the 
custom-house  at  Manila.  The  Spanish  Government,  more  or  less,  sys- 
tematically interfered  with  the  commercial  development  of  the  archi- 
pelago in  this  and  other  ways,  and  was  especially  hostile  to  all  enterprises 
backed  by  foreign  capital.  While  it  was  easy  under  the  old  laws  to 
obtain  a  license  to  cut  timber  on  government  land  in  one  or  more  prov- 
inces, one  could  not  ship  it  after  it  was  cut  until  it  had  been  surveyed 
by  a  government  official  and  a  tax  paid  upon  it  at  so  much  per  cubic 
foot,  the  rate  varying  for  the  different  classes  of  woods. 

It  was,'  of  course,  easy  for  the  government  officials  to  fail  to  send  an 
inspector  until  lumber  rotted  where  it  lay,  and  in  this  and  other  ways 
it  was  easy  for  the  government  to  control  not  only  the  amount  of  tim- 
ber cut  but  the  places  for  cutting  it.  In  the  early  days  of  the  Philip- 
pine lumber  trade  the  government  seized  an  entire  ship's  cargo  of  very 
valuable  wood  upon  a  flimsy  pretext,  and  this  occurrence,  as  well  as 
the  other  facts  above  mentioned,  served  to  make  capitalists  shy  of 
investing  heavily  in  what  seemed  a  rather  precarious  enterprise. 

Heavy  investment  was  necessary  to  the  successful  carrying  on  of  a 
lumber  business.  It  often  happened  that  wood  cutters  were  not  to  be 
found  near  the  best  forests  and  had  to  be  brought  from  a  distance. 


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This  necessitated  the  making  of  cash  advances  to  them  in  order  that 
they  might  leave  money  behind  for  the  support  of  those  dependent  on 
them.  After  houses  had  been  erected  so  that  they  could  live  with  their 
families,  their  improvident  nature  still  rendered  it  necessary  to  make 
them  constant  advances  against  their  future  earnings.  The  sums 
invested  in  this  way  were  often  considerable,  and  a  heavy  percentage 
of  loss  had  to  be  allowed  for,  as  it  was  impracticable  under  the  old 
judicial  system  to  compel  laborers  to  fulfill  their  contracts. 

It  can  not  be  doubted  that  under  changed  conditions  and  reasonable 
laws  the  lumber  business  in  the  Philippines  will  rapidly  attain  to 
greatly  increased  importance,  while  ebony  and  others  of  the  very  hard 
and  beautiful  woods  will  be  placed  upon  the  European  and  American 
markets.  The  labor  problem  will  continue  serious,  for  the  present  at 
least,  unless  Chinese  are  employed.  The  natives  are  wedded  to  their 
old  customs  and  will  insist  on  the  usual  advances,  but  as  it  is  cus- 
tomary to  pay  them  by  measure  for  timber  cut  and  delivered  at  some 
point  previously  agreed  upon  a  lack  of  industry  on  their  part  does 
not  necessarily  result  in  financial  loss  to  their  employers.  Lack  of 
suitable  means  for  land  transportation  will  continue  more  or  less  of  an 
obstacle  for  some  time  to  come,  and  it  will  at  first  be  necessary  to 
confine  operations  to  forests  situated  moderately  near  the  sea  or  the 
larger  fresh-water  streams. 

The  most  extensive  forests  are  to  be  found  in  Mindanao,  Basilan, 
Tawi  Tawi,  Balabac,  Palawan,  and  Mindoro.  There  are  also  very  large 
areas  in  Luzon  where  no  cutting  has  ever  been  done.  In  Samar, 
Masbate,  and  parts  of  Panay  there  are  still  considerable  quantities  of 
valuable  timber.  This  is  also  true  of  Biliran,  Tablas,  Sibuyan,  and 
many  others  of  the  smaller  islands. 

The  forest  lands  are,  for  the  most  part,  the  property  of  the  Govern- 
ment. On  account  of  their  great  value,  suitable  means  should  be 
promptly  taken  for  ascertaining  their  extent  and  for  preventing  tres- 
passing upon  them.  There  has  been  much  needless  destruction  of 
valuable  timber  in  the  past.  The  plantations  of  the  natives  are  speed- 
ily invaded  by  "cogon^'  and  other  strong-growing  grasses,  which  they 
are  powerless  to  combat  with  the  crude  agricultural  implements  at 
present  in  use,  so  they  simply  clear  more  forest  land  from  time  to 
time,  and  often  burn  the  felled  trees  where  they  lie. 

The  number  of  species  of  woods  found  in  the  archipelago  is  very 
large,  as  will  appear  from  the  subjoined  list,  which  is,  however,  neces- 
sarily very  incomplete.  A  careful  investigation  into  the  properties 
of  these  woods  is  greatly  needed,  and  the  results  obtained  would 
undoubtedly  abundantly  justify  any  reasonable  expense  which  might 
be  incurred. 

For  further  information  concerning  the  lumber  business  in  the 
Philippines  see  the  testimony  of  Mr.  Collins,  volume  of  testimony, 
page  79,  and  of  Mr.  Von  Bosch,  page  108. 


In  preparing  the  subjoined  list  of  Philippine  woods,  use  has  been 
made  of  the  testimony  taken  by  the  commission  and  of  the  list  given 
by  Mr.  John  Foreman  in  his  book.  The  Philippine  Islands,  as  well 
as  of   a  pamphlet  entitled   ''Breve  Descripcion  de  Algunas  de  las 

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Maderas  Mas  Importantes  y  Mejor  Conocidas  de  las  Islas  Filipinas," 
by  Don  Sebastian  Vidal  y  Soler. 

It  was  found  that  a  part  of  the  official  collection  of  woods  belonging 
to  the  ''Inspeccion  de  Montes"  was  in  the  hands  of  former  United 
States  Consul  O.  F.  Williams,  he  having  purchased  it  from  some  pri- 
vate individual.  Consul  Williams  kindly  loaned  this  collection  to  the 
commission,  but  other  work  prevented  a  detailed  examination  of  the 
specimens  before  he  required  it  again.  At  the  last  moment,  brief 
notes  were  taken  on  the  color  and  weight  of  the  blocks.  Some  of  the 
labels  had  been  injured  by  insects,  but  so  far  as  they  were  legible,  the 
names  of  the  woods  in  this  collection  have  been  incorporated  in  the  list, 
with  the  above-mentioned  information. 

It  has  been  found  that  a  number  of  the  woods  are  entered  under 
different  scientific  names  in  different  lists;  in  some  instances  no  scien- 
tific name  is  given;  in  others,  we  find  the  generic  name  only,  or  the 
generic  and  specific  names  without  the  name  of  the  author.  In  general, 
it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  classification  of  the  trees  which  pro- 
duce good  woods  in  the  Philippines  is  in  a  decidedly  chaotic  state, 
and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  some  competent  botanist  will  come  to  the 
rescue  in  the  not  far  distant  future. 

1.  Adang-pwmng  {AlUzzia  sp.).— A  wood  of  medium  weight  and 
dark  ash  color. 

^.  Ade  {Mimosa  ade  Bl.).— A  tree  of  large  size,  giving  logs  up  to  32 
feet  long  by  28  inches  square.  Wood  a  dark,  dull  red.  It  is  strong, 
tenacious,  and  durable  and  takes  a  good  polish.  It  is  difficult  to  burn, 
and  is  much  used  for  house  construction  in  the  Philippines,  as  well  as 
for  shipbuilding.  It  also  affords  an  excellent  charcoal.  It  is  a  hard 
wood  with  wavy  grain  and  small  pores.  It  has  no  perceptible  odor.  It 
})reaks  in  long  splinters  and  gives  a  rough  and  only  slightly  curled 

3,  Alagao  {Premna  sp.). — A  heavy  wood  of  ashy  color. 

^.  Alahan  {Diospyros  sp.).— An  ashy  wood  of  heavy  weight. 

5.  Alrnasiga  or  antang  {Dipterocarpus  sp.).-— A  light  wood  of  ashy 
color.     The  tree  distills  a  valuable  gum. 

6.  Alintatao  {pispyros  philippi7ie8is  F.  Vill.).— A  tree  with  dark, 
hard  wood  like  ebon3\ 

7.  Alupay  or  Lecheas. —Yi^Adi^  a  heavy  wood  of  dark-gray  color. 

■  8,  Amug^ds  ( Oyrtocarpa  qidnqiiestila  Bl.)— Yields  a  moderately  hard 
wood,  light  red  or  flesh  colored,  and  sometimes  marked  with  lead- 
colored  spots,  with  numerous  pores  of  moderate  size.  It  breaks  in 
long  splinters.  It  gives  good  boards,  which  are  employed  in  house 
and  ship  building.  This  wood  would  be  niuch  used  in  the  Philippines 
were  it  not  so  subject  to  the  attacks  of  white  ants. 

9,  Amuyong  {Melodorum  fulgens). — A  light  straw-colored  wood. 

10,  Afiagap,— The  tree  reaches  a  height  of  60  feet,  and  gives  logs 
up  to  18  feet  long  by  16  inches  square.  The  wood  is  a  grayish  yellow, 
of  fine  grain  and  somewhat  brittle.  It  breaks  in  long  splinters.  It  is 
used  for  furniture,  inside  house  trimmings,  and  for  other  purposes 
where  a  light,  durable  wood  is  required  which  need  not  be  exposed  to 
the  sun  or  rain. 

11,  A7iosep  or  Anusep.— Yields  a  wood  of  brownish  or  ashy  red  color 
and  fine  grain,  with  small  pores,  but  somewhat  fibrous.  It  is  used, 
though  not  to  any  great  extent,  for  building  purposes. 

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1^,  Antipolo  {Artocarpits  incisa,  L.).— Tree  of  large  size.  Yields  a 
wood  varying  in  color  from  grayish  yellow  to  canary  yellow,  and  even 
dark  red;  sometimes  marked  with  numerous  white  spots.  Its  texture 
is  fibrous,  and  the  pores  are  strongly  marked.  It  breaks  in  long  splin- 
ters. It  is  highly  prized  for  outside  planking  and  keels  of  vessels,  for 
it  IS  light,  very  strong,  resists  sea  worms  {Teredo  navalis)  entirely,  and 
IS  not  affected  by  climate.  It  does  not  warp  when  once  seasoned,  and 
IS  a  very  valuable  wood.  It  is  even  somewhat  used  for  cabinet  work, 
but  is  not  very  highly  prized  for  this  purpose. 

13,  AnuUng,  or  AnuUong^  or  AnuUn  (Artocarpus  ovata).— Tree  of 
moderate  size.  Wood  a  brownish  yellow  to  dark  red.  Of  fine  texture, 
with  small  pores.  It  breaks  in  short  splinters.  Much  used  for  rafters 
m  the  native  houses. 

^  U.  Apitmi  {Dipterocarpus  grandiflorus  Bl.).~Tree  of  very  large 
size.  It  distills  an  odorous  and  resinous  gum,  similar  to  that  known 
to  commerce  as  malapaho  and  employed  in  varnishing  furniture,  but 
it  does  not  serve  as  a  substitute  for  the  latter  gum.  The  wood  is  a 
light  or  dark  greenish  gray,  with  lighter  or  even  white  spots.  It  is 
ot  fine  texture  and  brittle.  It  has  no  noticeable  odor,  and  breaks  in 
long  splinters.  According  to  Foreman  it  yields  logs  up  to  70  feet 
long  by  24  inches  square.  The  wood  works  well,  and  serves  for  fur- 
niture and  general  joiner's  purposes.  Vidal  rates  it  as  a  wood  of  third 
or  fourth  class. 

15.  Aranga  {Ilomalium.  sp.).— Trees  are  very  large  size,  giving  logs 
up  to  75  feet  long  by  24  inches  square.  The  wood  is  of  reddish  color, 
with  violet  stripes.  It  is  of  compact  texture  and  straight  grain, 
though  somewhat  brittle.  It  is  especially  valuable  for  sea  piling  and 
shipbuilding,  since  it  resists  well  the  attack  of  sea  worms. 

16.  Asac-talo7i,~A  very  heavy  wood  of  dark-red  color. 
Asmia.     See  Narra. 

17.  Bacmmn  {Bruguiera  caryophilloydes  Blum.).— A  very  heavv 
wood  of  dark-red  color. 

18.  Bagarilao  {NoAidea  sp.).— A  light  wood  of  dark-red  color. 

19.  BaJiay  {Lepidopetalum  perrottetii  Blum.).— A  straw-colored 
wood  of  medium  weight. 

W.  Balacat  (Zyzyphus  sp.).— A  light  straw-colored  wood  of  medium 

^1.  Balao,  malapaho,  or  panao  {Dipterocarpus  vernieifluus  B.  L.)— 
Iree  of  medium  to  large  size.  Wood  yellowish  white  or  light  green- 
i^h  gray;  sometimes  with  tints  of  light  rose  and  yellowish  red 
lexture  quite  variable,  from  soft  to  solid.  It  is  fibrous,  sometimes 
breaking  m  threads,  and  at  others  in  short  splinters.  The  pores  are 
slightly  marked.  It  is  commonly  used  in  house  building,  but  less  so 
tor  ship  construction.  Canoes  are  made  from  it,  although  it  is  not 
one  of  the  woods  most  commonly  employed  for  this  purpose.  Some- 
times the  reddish-yellow  variety  of  comparatively  firm  texture  is  sold 
tor  ipil,  to  which  it  is  inferior;  but  upon  careful  examination  it  is 
readily  distinguished  from  the  latter  wood,  especially  if  one  notes  the 
size  and  distribution  of  the  pores.  It  may  be  considered  a  second- 
class  wood.  It  produces  the  resinous  gum  known  as  balao  or  mala- 
paho, which  IS  fluid  and  odorous,  and  is  employed  for  varnishing 
turniture,  picture  frames,  etc.,  as  well  as  for  floors  of  rooms.  Some 
business  is  done  m  it,  but  it  is  not  very  highly  thought  of. 

^^.  BalayoJiod.—k  dark  grayish  wood  of  medium  weight. 

Hosted  by 



^3,   Balihago  {Ilihiscus  tiliaceus  L.) — A  light  white  wood. 

24.,  Batitinan  {LagerstrcmiiahatitiTmii), — Tree  of  large  size,  giving 
logs  up  to  40  feet  long  by  18  inches  square.  The  wood  varies  in  color 
from  an  ashy  red  to  an  intense  olive  brown.  It  is  of  firm  to  very 
firm  texture,  with  numerous  small  pores.  It  is  very  strong,  tough, 
and  elastic,  and  is  commonly  used  for  ships'  planking  above  water. 
When  properly  seasoned  it  stands  the  climate  well,  but  will  not  resist 
burial  in  the  ground  or  exposure  to  sea  worms.  It  is  much  stronger 
than  teak,  and  could  be  used  to  advantage  in  place  of  the  latter  wood 
for  almost  all  purposes.  It  can  also  be  used  for  furniture,  and  may 
be  considered  a  first-class  wood. 

25.  Banaba  {Lagerstrcemina  speciosa  Pers.). — Tree  30  to  50  feet  in 
height.  The  wood  varies  in  cc^or  from  reddish  white  to  dull  red. 
The  fibers  are  longitudinal  and  compressed:  The  pores  are  broad  and 
short,  looking  sometimes  like  tiny  cracks.  The  wood  breaks  in  short 
splinters,  and  its  shaving  is  rough,  porous,  and  little  inclined  to  curl. 
The  white  variety  is  of  coarser  texture  than  the  red,  and  its  qualities 
are  inferior.  The  red  is  the  kind  preferably  employed  for  ship  and 
house  construction.  The  wood  is  highly  appreciated  on  account  of  its 
strength,  and  it  resists  the  elements  well,  lasting  for  a  long  time  under 

26.  Banatanhisan. — A  heavy  wood  of  light  brown  color. 

27.  Bangcal  or  Bancal  {SarcoGephaltcs  cordatm  Mig.,  Naudea 
glaherrima  D.  C). — Tree  of  large  size,  giving  logs  24  feet  long  by  16 
inches  square.  Wood  of  a  golden  yellow  color,  or  sometimes  green- 
ish 3^e]low.  Grain  straight.  Texture  somewhat  fibrous,  but  pores 
little  marked.  It  breaks  in  long  splinters.  The  wood  is  very  easy  to 
work,  and  is  used  in  house  building  and  in  general  joiner's  work,  but 
its  most  important  use  in  the  Philippines  is  for  the  construction  of 
small  canoes. 

28.  Bani. — A  very  light  white  wood. 

29.  Bannin. — A  heavy  white  wood. 

30.  Bansalagui  {Mimusops  elengi). — Tree  is  of  great  size,  giving 
logs  up  to  40  feet  long  by  18  inches  square.  According  to  Foreman 
it  is  known  in  Europe  as  "bullet-tree  wood."  The  wood  is  reddish 
white,  with  ashy  spots,  or  a  uniform  bright  red.  It  is  of  solid  texture, 
fibrous,  with  small  pores,  and  breaks  in  long  splinters.  Pins  of  it  can 
be  driven  like  bolts,  and  from  this  fact,  and  on  account  of  its  durabil- 
ity, it  is  much  used  in  shipbuilding  at  Manila.  It  is  well  suited  for 
making  tool  handles,  and  on  account  of  its  close  grain  is  admirably 
adapted  to  turning,  while  its  strength,  elasticity,  and  durability  mark 
it  as  a  first-class  wood. 

31.  Bansio. — A  whitish  wood  of  medium  weight. 

32.  Bantigui. — A  heavy,  fine-grained  wood,  resembling  rosewood 
in  appearance. 

33.  Banuyo  (Dipterocarjpus  sp.). — A  straw-colored  wood  of  medium 

3J^,.  Barusang. — A  heavy  grayish-yellow  wood. 

35.  BaticuUng  or  BaticuUn  {Milingtonia quddncipinnata  Bl. ) .  — Wood 
of  a  yellowish  white  or  a  greenish  white,  of  soft  texture,  with  numer- 
ous pores,  of  moderate  size,  with  delicate,  but  clearly  visible,  medullary 
rays.  It  is  easy  to  work,  and  takes  a  good  polish.  It  is  employed  for 
joiners'  work.     There  are  many  varieties. 

36.  Batino  {Dipterocarpus  sp.). — Straw-colored  wood  of  medium 

Hosted  by 



37,  Bayucan  {Dipterocarpus  sp.). — A  heavy  wood  resembling  maple 
in  appearance. 

38,  Betis{Azaolahet{sBl,), — Tree  of  large  size,  sometimes  giving 
logs  up  to  65  feet  long  by  20  inches  square.  The  wood  is  brownish 
red  or  light  red,  with  ashy-brown  spots.  Its  texture  is  firm,  with  pores 
small  and  slightly  marked.  It  is  brittle,  and  breaks  smoothly.  It  is  a 
most  valuable  wood,  especially  useful  for  the  keels  of  vessels,  as  it  is 
proof  against  sea  worm.  It  is  also  used  for  salt  or  fresh  water  piling, 
piers,  wharfs,  etc. 

39,  Binayoyo, — A  heavy  reddish  wood. 

Jfi.  Binnang  {Macaranga  mwpjpa^  Mull.  Arg.). — A  very  light  wood 
of  grayish-white  color. 

^i.  Binunga  [Macaranga  tanarius^  Mull.  Arg.). — A  reddish  wood  of 
medium  weight. 

Jfp.  Bitag  {Calophyllum  ^^,). — A  reddish-brown  wood  of  medium 

Jf3,  Bitang  {Calophyllum  spectaMle^  YfiWdi.). — A  grayish  wood  of 
medium  weight. 

^^.  Bitanhol  or  Bitanjol.     See  Palo-Maria. 

JiS.  Bolongita.)  B along eta.^  or  Bolo^nzeta  {Biospyrospilosanthera  Bl . ) .  — 
Wood  a  light- red  color,  or  dark  red,  with  streaks  and  spots  of  black. 
It  is  of  firm  texture,  with  only  slightly  marked  pores,  and  gives  a  deli- 
cate shaving,  flexible  and  curling.  It  breaks  in  short  splinters.  It  is 
very  useful  both  for  building  and  cabinetwork. 

J4.6.  Bayug  {Plerosperinum  acerifolium  Willd.). — A  grayish -yellow 
wood  of  medium  weight. 

^7.  BucbuG  {Strehlus  sp.). — A  heavy  white  wood. 

J4.8.  Bidac, — A  white  wood,  very  light  and  pithy. 

Jf9.  Buna, — A  heavy,  grayish-yellow  wood. 

60,  Oaha  (Fragrma  sp.). — ^A  light  whitish  wood. 

51,  Cahxvy  {Citrus  htstrix  V.  C). — A  heavy  white  wood. 

5'2,  Calamansanay  {Stephegyne  sp.). — Wood  varies  in  color  from 
rosy  white  to  bright  red.  Frequently  of  uneven  color  and  has  more 
intense  spots.  It  is  of  firm  texture  and  brittle,  with  pores  slightly 
marked  or  imperceptible.  When  dry  it  is  odorless,  although  when 
first  cut  it  sometimes  gives  out  an  acid  odor.  It  usually  breaks  in 
long  splinters,  although  this  is  not  always  the  case.  The  wood  is 
useful  for  building  and  construction. 

63,  Calantasor  Philippine  cedar  {Ced/rela  odorata  BL). — Tree  of 
great  size,  giving  logs  up  to  40  feet  long  by  35  inches  square.  The 
wood  is  flesh  color,  brick  red,  or,  in  some  varieties,  a  pale,  ashy  red. 
The  pores  are  slightly  marked,  but  the  texture  is  somewhat  coarse. 
It  breaks  in  short  splinters.  Its  odor  is  agreeable  and  insects  attack  it 
very  little.  It  is  used  chiefly  for  the  manufacture  of  cigar  boxes.  It 
also  makes  very  handsome  inside  house  fittings. 

5^.  Calimaidao  {Diospyros  sp.). — A  light  yellowish-white  wood. 

66,^  Calohcub  {Eugema  macrocarpa  Roxb.). — A  very  heavy  wood, 
varying  in  color  from  dark  brown  to  black. 

66,  Oalumpang^  {Stermilia  fcetida  L.). — A  tree  of  very  great  size. 
Its  wood  is  not  highly  valued,  and  is  employed  cut  into  boards.  It  is 
of  brownish-yellow  color,  with  pores  slightly  conspicuous,  but  numer- 
ous. It  is  easy  to  work,  but  lasts  only  a  short  time  in  the  Philippine 

57,  Calumpit  {Pepminalia  edidin  L.). — Tree  of  moderate  size.     Its 

Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 


Hosted  by 



wood  is  of  dull -yellowish  color,  with  ashy  spots,  or  of  a  uniform  ash 
color.  It  is  soft,  with  straight  grain,  and  somewhat  brittle.  Pores 
well  marked  and  very  numerous.  It  breaks  in  long  splinters.  Its 
ripe  fruit,  a  drupe  with  black  skin  and  red  flesh,  is  edible.  Its  bark 
is  used  in  some  localities  for  dyeing  cotton,  which  it  stains  a  dirty 
straw  color. 

58.  Camagon  {Diospyros  pilosanthera  var.). — Tree  of  moderate  size. 
Wood  black,  with  narrow  brown  or  yellowish-red  streaks,  and  some- 
times with  black  spots.  It  is  of  very  solid  texture,  with  straight  lon- 
gitudinally compressed  fiber  and  broad,  short  pores,  slightly  marked. 
It  takes  a  good  polish,  and  breaks  almost  square.  Its  shaving  is  some- 
what rough,  is  compact,  and  does  not  curl  at  all.  The  wood  is  highly 
valued  for  cabinetwork  on  account  of  its  color  and  polish.  It  is 
often  confounded  with  ebony.  It  ordinarily  comes  into  the  market  in 
logs  9  or  more  feet  in  length  up  to  12  inches  in  diameter. 

59.  Camay imn, — Wood  of  very  variable  color.  In  some  samples  it  is 
light  red, in  others  violet,  while  yet  others  are  bright  red  or  brownish  red. 
Spots,  streaks,  and  clouds  of  a  color  different  from  that  of  the  mass  of 
the  wood  are  found.  It  is  probable  that  several  different  woods  are 
known  under  this  name,  which  would  explain  the  fact  that  in  some  sam- 
ples the  texture  is  very  firm  and  compact,  with  almost  imperceptible 
pores,  while  others  are  merely  fine  grained,  not  hard.  Some  have  a 
strong  and  agreeable  odor,  while  others  are  odorless.  It  breaks  in 
short  splinters,  and  is  employed  for  building  purposes,  both  in  the 
form  of  small  pieces  and  in  boards. 

60.  Oamuning  {Muraya  exotica  L.). — Tree  of  small  size,  ordinarily 
12  to  15  feet  high.  Wood  a  bright  ocher  yellow,  uniform  or  with 
wavy  streaks  and  spots  of  brown.  It  is  of  compact  texture,  is  quite 
hard,  and  lasts  extremely  well.  It  is  used  chiefly  for  cabinetwork. 
The  Moros  of  the  southern  islands  use  it  in  making  handles  for  their 
weapons.  It  is  a  beautiful  wood  and  takes  a  fine  polish.  It  is  not 
employed  for  building  on  account  of  the.  small  size  of  the  pieces 

61.  Canaiistula  {Cassia  fistula  L.). — A  medium- weight  wood,  white 
or  light  reddish  in  color. 

6^.  Cani-oi. — A  wood  of  weathered  grayish  color  and  medium 

63.    Caronsan. — A  heavy  grayish- white  wood. 

6Jf.  Catmon  {Dillenia  philippensis  Rolfe). — A  heavy  wood,  resem- 
bling rosewood  in  appearance. 

65.  CoAjantol. — A  heavy  grayish- white  wood. 

66.  Cayatao. — A  heavy  reddish  wood. 

67.  Cay  tan  {Zanthoxylum  oxiphyllum  Edg.).— A  heavy  grayish- 
3^ellow  wood. 

68.  Cuhi. — Wood  yellowish  brown  with  greenish  spots.  Its  texture 
is  moderately  compact.  The  pores  are  numerous  and  of  small  size 
and  are  uniformly  distributed.  It  is  much  used  in  building,  chiefly 
for  joiners'  work,  and  is  said  to  last  very  well. 

69.  Culing-manoc. — The  color  of  this  wood  varies  from  a  rosy  white 
to  brick  red,  sometimes  with  streaks  and  spots  of  lighter  color.  Its 
structure  is  very  compact.  The  pores  are  well  marked  and  show  a 
whitish  color,  which  makes  them  conspicuous.  The  wood  is  brittle 
and  breaks  in  long  splinters.  It  has  no  odor.  It  is  a  good  wood  for 
building  purposes,  although  not  in  common  use  in  the  Philippines. 
It  is  also  somewhat  used  for  cabinetwork. 

Hosted  by 



70    Oulis  {Memeeylpm  edmla  Roxb.).-A  heavy  grayish-yellow  wood. 
biwn?oC^  (^^'^^'^^^^^^^^^^^  G-  Don.).-A  ifght  wood  of  reddish: 

rf  ^^7  (^^^^^t^'^^^^f^™  sp.)  -A  light  wood  of  dark-grayish  color. 

73    Dale  (r^mm^^. -A  reddish-brown  wood  of  meliuin  weight. 

me^umTligl.t.'^      ^""^"^  ^^'''^  'P"^-^  reddish-gray  wood  of 

udTo  o^Xff*,P^*«^~^«^«  Bl.).-Tree  of  good  size,  giving  logs 
VVol/i?         •  r^  ^^^^  "^'^^^^  '1'^^^«'  and  sometimes  even  larger. 
Wood  brown^h  or  ashy  red..    Texture  fine,  with  pores  of  modeS 

Ssects      Tnrpl^l       h  ^fr^'  ^"5  "*^'^  '"^J^«*  to  the  attacks  of 
wsects.     It  IS  employed  m  the  construction  of  edifices  and  ships  and 

anfme^lurwelgr  ^^^^^^^^-^^  ^P-)-^  -^^  of  light-^ray  color 
we^ght^'^''^^^*^'''''''*'''^^'^^^-""'^  grayish-yellow  wood  of  medium 

lo    ^HhT*'  (.^«^^*'«  «P-)— a  heavy  grayish-yellow  wood. 

mJ  lM>at  {Hugenm  sp.).— A  heavy  dark-red  wood. 
T.i'  ff^^''^'  ?^  ^^f'i?'^'^,  or  Dcmgm  {StercuUa  eimUfrmnis  D.  C.)  - 
wood  k  Zf^^^A'-  f -'"^  ^'^^  ^*^  *i"^t  long  by  20  inches  square.  The 
wood  IS  pale  reddish  in  color  and  firm  in  texture.  It  is  cross^rained 
With  inconspicuous  pores.  It  has  an  odor  of  tanned  leather  Its 
shaving  IS  rough  and  only  slightly  inclined  to  curl.  This  wood  L'  veiv 
hard  to  work,  but  lasts  well.     It  is  much  used  both  in  house  and  ship 

1^  reS-od  'Tt"^""'  *^'^  r'*^?^-^  ^'^i'^^^th  ^»d  considerable  lengh 
IS  requiied.  It  is  especially  strong  in  resisting  heavy  transverae 
strams,  and  IS  therefore  much  used  for  roof  timbfr  and  L  the  keek 
of  vessels,  although  it  does  not  resist  the  attacks  of  sea  worm 
.wltr..  J'"'"''  "^  Limyrm  {Dwspyros  nigra  \..).—Ehonfu.—T\im  wood 
differs  from  camagon  in  its  more  intense  and  uniform  black  cXi 
without  brown  or  yellow  streaks.  It  is  very  valuable  for  cabinetwork' 
and  IS  also  employed  in  the  Philippines  in  making  gunpowder  ' 

^J.    0;atasan-pula{0ami7igmna  sp.).~A  heavy  red  wood. 

^J^.    hueijalaa.—K  reddish-brown  heavy  wood. 

85.    Gmjo   Gimo,  or  Guisoc  {Bipterocarpm  guiso  Bl. ).— Tree  of  vorv 

St  reKd3,lT  "P  ?  ^'  ^r\  ^°?.^/y  ^*  inchesVare      WooS 
light  red  to  dark  red  in  color  and  of  solid  texture.     It  is  cross^rained 
with  inconspicuous  pores.     It  has  an  odor  of  tanned  leather.     It  breaks 

fuS     TtThnTdT*"  ^""n  J^'  't^'^^  ''  rough  and  but  sMghtt; 
curled.     It  IS  hard  to  work,  but  very  durable,  and  is  strong  tou^h  and 

Tploved   fo^'"^  1 '',  T^  *"J  r"^^«  ^*^ft«-     In  nfngkong  itt 
&ll     ^^'   '^^^'■^  ^^''•^^  '^"d  floo^ng-     There  are   a   numblr  of 


86.    g^^m.— A  heavy  grajish-yellow  wood. 

oo    Y^y^'~'^  ^^^"^y  reddish-yellow  wood. 

i^'  ^^W^J'~A  very  heavy  red  wood. 

89.  mmlab(w,~K  grayish-yellow  wood  of  medium  weight. 
h^itri^Z  T^^  od<yratissima  L.).-A  tree 

fume  t^^^^^^  from  which  i      roduced  a  valuable  per 

lume,  tnan  tor  its  white  wood,  which  is  soft  and  does  not  last  well 
being  very  subject  to  the  attacks  of  insects.  ' 

Hosted  by 



91,  Ipil,  07'  Tpil  {Eperua  deeandra  Bl.).— Tree  of  very  large  size, 
giving  logs  up  to  50  feet  long  by  26  inches  square.  The  wood  is 
usually  dark  red,  but  in  some  cases  is  ocher  yellow.  The  color  grows 
more  intense  with  age,  especially  in  the  red  varieties.  It  is  a  tough 
wood  with  conspicuous  pores.  It  has  a  slight  but  agreeable  odor.  It 
breaks  in  short  splinters,  and  gives  a  very  rough  and  closely  curling 
shaving.  It  is  a  most  excellent  wood  for  building  purposes  and 
joiners'  work.  It  has  all  the  good  qualities  of  molave,  except  resis- 
tance to  sea  worm,  and  lasts  as  well  under  ground.  It  is  excellent  for 
pailroad  sleepers.  Attempts  are  often  made  by  native  dealers  to  sub- 
stitute balao  or  supa  for  it. 

9^.  Jagud.—A  very  light  whitish  wood. 

93.  Lanaan  {Anisoptera  thwifera).—A  dark  grayish  wood  of 
medium  weight. 

9Jf.  Lemete^  lanate^  or  Unite  {Anasser  laniti  Bl.).— A  tree  of  moder- 
ate size,  giving  logs  up  to  25  feet  long  by  18  inches  square.  Its  wood 
is  bone  white,  or  ashy  white  with  white  spots.  It  is  of  soft  and  com- 
pact texture,  with  inconspicuous  pores.  It  breaks  in  long  splinters 
and  gives  a  delicate,  curling  shaving.  It  is  valuable  for  cabinetwork, 
and  is  used  for  carved  objects,  musical  instruments,  inside  decorations, 
and  turning.     It  has  also  been  used  for  making  match  boxes. 

95,  Lamitah  (IliMsms),— Wood  of  reddish  white  or  light  red  color, 
with  narrow  yellowish  streaks.  It  is  of  fine  texture,  with  straight 
grain  and  small  pores.  It  is  easy  to  work.  It  is  coimnonly  employed 
in  cabinetwork  and  for  inside  finishing  of  houses. 

96,  Lmian,  Imiaan,  or  smidanct  {Dipterocarpus  thurlfera  L.).— Tree 
of  large  size,  giving  logs  up  to  75  feet  long  by  24  inches  square.  It 
yields  a  white  and  hard  resmous  gum,  which  has  a  strong  odor  and  is 
sometimes  used  for  incense  in  the  churches.  The  wood  is  reddish 
white  in  color,  or  ashy  with  brown  spots.  It  is  soft  and  fibrous,  with 
strongly  marked  pores.  Its  principal  use  is  for  the  construction  of 
canoes.  It  is  said  that  the  old  Mexican  galleons  had  their  outside 
planking  made  of  this  wood,  because  it  did  not  splinter  when  struck 
by  cannon  balls. 

97,  Liga,—K  heavy  reddish-gray  wood. 

98,  iJpo  {Eugenia  sp.).— A  heavy  white  wood. 

99,  Loctoh  {Mens  lanrifolia  Blanco).— A  grayish-yellow  wood  of 
light  weight. 

100,  Maholo  {Diospyros  isocolor  Willd.).— A  very  heavy  white  wood. 

101,  Macasim^  macasin^  or  macaasim,— There  are  two  varieties,  the 
red  and  the  white.  The  former  is  very  similar  to  batitinan  in  color, 
but  is  distinguished  by  its  more  compact  texture  and  less  conspicuous 
pores.  It  breaks  square  across  and  is  less  useful  than  batitinan  for 
house  and  ship  building.  The  second  variety  is  of  lighter  color  with 
yellowish  streaks.  It  is  considerably  used  for  inside  housework  and 
flooring.  It  is  somewhat  inferior  to  banaba,  but  longer  and  broader 
boards  can  be  obtained  from  it. 

102,  Macupa,—A  very  heavy  red  wood. 

103,  Mago/ra7nlmlo,—K  heavy  wood  of  grayish-yellow  color. 

10 If,,  Malacmuncmg  {SJwrea  malaanunang  Bl.).— A  light  wood  of 
grayish -yellow  color. 

105,  Malahwyahas,—A.  very  heavy  wood,  dark  brown  or  black  m 

106,  Malabonga  (Laurus  hexandra  Pers.).— Tree  of  moderate  size. 

Hosted  by 



Wood  li^ht  red  with  orange  streaks  and  sometimes  with  lead-colored 
spots.  It  does  not  last  well  in  the  Philippines,  as  insects  attack 
it,  especially  white  ants.  Its  flattened  fibers,  numerous  medullary 
rays,  and  large,  compressed  pores  are  characters  which  make  it  easily 
recognizable.     It  is  esfjecially  used  for  making  common  boxes. 

107,  Malacadms  {Litsea  chinensis  Lam.). — Wood  canary  yellow, 
darkening  with  time,  and  taking  on  greenish-brown  tints.  Texture 
fine,  grain  straight,  pores  inconspicuous.  It  breaks  square  across,  and 
is  odorless.  It  is  used  for  beams  and  ribs  in  shipbuilding,  and  also 
gives  good  boards. 

108,  Malacainote,—K  very  heavy  wood  of  reddish-brown  color. 

109,  Malacatmon, — There  are  several  varieties  of  this  wood  of  differ- 
ent colors,  two  of  which  are  especially  deserving  of  mention.  The  first 
is  brick  red,  with  spots  and  streaks  of  black.  Its  pores  are  only  slightly 
visible,  while  its  medullary  rays  are  numerous  and  well  marked.  The 
second  is  red,  with  a  few  streaks  and  spots  of  lead  color.  Its  pores 
are  abundant  and  conspicuous.  Both  are  somewhat  used  for  building 

110,  Malacumon  {Dillenia  sp.). — A  heavy  straw-colored  wood. 
HI,  Maladujat,,  Malarujat,  or  Malaruhat  {Myrtus  suhrubens  Bl.). — 

Tree  of  large  size.  Wood  of  brownish-yellow  color,  with  streaks  of 
intense  brown  or  ash.  Occasional  examples  are  earth  red,  with  white 
spots.  A  compact  and  brittle  wood,  with  delicate  pores,  which  are 
sometimes  quite  conspicuous.  It  breaks  square  across,  gives  good 
boards,  and  is  also  somewhat  used  in  making  common  furniture. 

11^,  Malagaitrmm — A  heavy  straw-colored  wood. 

113,  Malaiba  {PhyUanthmj^f,),—A.  light  wood  of  whitish  color. 

m.  Malaitmo  {Oeltis  phihppinensis  Blanco). — A  heavy,  light- 
colored  wood. 

115,  MaluUg  {Syzygium  sp.). — A  heavy  wood  of  dark-gray  color. 

116,  Malmiangca, — A  heavy  white  wood. 

117,  Malapalw  {Dipterocarpus  velutina  Blanco). — A  heavy  dark-red 

Malaruhat,     See  Maladujat. 

118,  Malasantol  ( Thespesia  populnea  Corr. ) .  — A  heavy  wood  of  whit- 
ish color. 

119,  Malatalan^  or  Malatalang, — A  somewhat  brittle  wood  of  red- 
dish color,  with  spots  and  streaks  of  black.  Of  fine  grain  with  mod- 
erate sized  pores.     It  is  not  much  used  for  building. 

IW,  Malatapay  {Alangium  octopetalum  Blanco). — A  yellowish  wood 
spotted  with  brownish  black,  the  spots  growing  darker  with  age.  Tex- 
ture very  compact.  It  breaks  in  short  splinters.  Highly  valued  in 
the  Philippines  for  the  construction  of  fine  furniture.  The  tree  is 
small  and  unfortunately  not  abundant. 

Ml,  Malatiaong. — A  heavy  wood  of  grayish-yellow  color. 

12^,  Malato, — A  light  wood  of  reddish  color. 

123,  Malatoob, — A  dark-gray  wood  of  medium  weight. 

12Ji„  Malatumhaga  {Oruaia  spioata  D.  C). — Tree  of  large  size. 
Wood  varies  in  color  from  flesh  red  to  brick  red.  It  is  of  compact 
texture  and  easy  to  work.  It  is  not  at  present  much  employed  for 
building  purposes.     It  gives  very  good  boards  for  box  making. 

126,  Malauhud. — A  straw-colored  wood  of  medium  weight. 
W6.  Malaya, — A  dark-gray  wood  of  medium  weight. 

127,  Mamlog  {Stephengyne  dwersifolia  Hook.).— A  light  wood, 
grayish-white  in  color. 

Hosted  by 



1'28,  Manabang. — A  neavy  wood  of  yellowish-white  color. 

1^9,  Mancalamian. — Wood  of  a  reddish  color  with  lighter  streaks. 
Its  texture  is  fine,  somewhat  fibrous,  with  numerous  inconspicuous 
pores.  Insects  attack  it.  It  is  little  employed  in  building  in  the 
Philippines.  Only  the  natives  use  it  in  Luzon,  and  it  is  not  ordinarily 
to  be  had  in  the  market  at  Manila. 

130.  Manayao. — A  grayish-yellow  wood  of  medium  weight. 

131.  Mancono  {XantJiostemon  verduganiamvs  Nav.). — A  very  hard 
and  heavy  wood  found  in  the  island  of  Mindanao.  It  is  said  to  be  a 
species  of  lignum  vitse.     It  is  of  a  deep  chocolate  color. 

132.  Mangachapuy  or  Mcmigachapoi  {Dipterocarpus  mangachapoi 
Bl.).^ — Tree  of  large  size,  giving  logs  up  to  55  feet  long  by  20  inches 
square.  The  wood  is  of  two  varieties,  called  red  and  white.  The 
latter  of  these  has  compressed  fibers  and  longitudinal  pores,  and  is  of 
compact  texture,  but  brittle,  breaking  square  across  or  in  long  splin- 
ters. Some  specimens  give  off  the  odor  of  linseed.  The  shaving  is 
somewhat  rough,  and  hardly  curls  at  all.  The  red  variety  is  less  com- 
mon, and  is  distinguished  from  the  white  only  by  its  color.  The  wood 
of  both  varieties  is  very  elastic,  and  when  seasoned  withstands  the 
climate  as  well  as  teak.  It  is  used  for  masts  and  decks  of  vessels,  and 
for  all  work  exposed  to  sun  and  rain,  and  is  a  very  valuable  wood. 

133.  Mangasinoro  {Fagroca  vohMlis  Jack.). — Tree  of  y^yj  large 
size.  The  wood  is  ordinarily  an  ashy  yellow,  of  straight  grain,  some- 
what fibrous,  and  of  porous  texture.  It  is  soft  and  not  very  durable, 
and  is  consequently  little  used  in  building. 

13 Jf.  Maiiicnic  or  Manipnij). — Wood  ashy  red  or  light  ashy.  Tex- 
ture solid  to  very  solid.  Fibrous,  with  pores  distinctly  or  very  plainly 
marked,  and  the  fiber  somewhat  twisted.  It  breaks  in  short  splinters. 
It  is  used  in  house  building,  although  not  very  extensively. 

135.  Mapulat  {Pelagimn  sp.). — A  straw-colored  wood  of  medium 

136.  Mara^  Maran.^  or  Marang. — The  wood  is  a  reddish  yellow,  of 
sometimes  a  dirty  greenish  white.  It  is  of  moderately  fine  texture. 
It  breaks  square  across.  It  is  probable  that  several  woods  are  con- 
founded under  the  above  name. 

137.  Mayapl^  or  Ma  yap  is  {^Dipferocarpus  mayapis  ^\.). — Tree  of 
large  size.  Wood  reddish,  with  colored  streaks  and  spots.  It  is  soft 
and  does  not  last  well.  On  account  of  its  lightness  and  the  ease  with 
which  it  can  be  worked,  it  is  consideral)ly  used  for  box  making. 

138.  Mldhid  {Lagerstraniia  ^^.). — A  heavy  wood,  of  reddish  brown 

139.  Molave  {Vitex  geniculata^  BL). — Tree  of  good  size,  giving  logs 
up  to  35  feet  long  by  24  inches  square.  Wood  yellow,  yellowish 
green,  or  ashy,  of  compact  and  fine  texture,  with  small  pores  fre- 
quently almost  imperceptible.  Its  odor  is  slightly  acid,  and  it  stains 
water  yellow.  It  has  a  slightly  bitter  taste.  It  breaks  in  short  splin- 
ters. Its  shaving  is  delicate,  flexible,  and  curling.  Molave  resists  sea 
worms,  white  ants,  and  the  action  of  the  tropical  climate.  It  is  an 
extremely  strong  and  durable  wood,  of  great  value.  It  lasts  well 
under  ground.  E'oreman  characterizes  it  as  ''practically  everlasting," 
and  quotes  Mr.  Thomas  Laslett,  timber  inspector  to  the  British  admi- 
ralty, as  saying  that  ''It  can  be  recommended  to  notice  as  being  fit  to 
supplement  any  of  the  hard  woods  in  present  use  for  constructive 

p  o— VOL  3—01 30 

Hosted  by 



purposes."  It  is  very  highly  valued  in  the  Philippines  for  "building 
purposes,  and  is  called  by  the  natives  "  The  queen  of  woods." 

iXo.  Mulang-ti. — A  heavy  wood  of  dark  gra}^  color. 

i^i.  Narra^  Naga^  or  Agana. — There  are  two  species.  The  first  of 
these  comes  from  Pterocarpus  santalimis  L.  The  tree  is  large,  giv- 
ing logs  up  to  35  feet  long  by  26  inches  square.  The  wood  is  known 
as  the  mahogany  of  the  Philippines,  and  is  much  employed  in  the 
manufacture  of  furniture.  It  varies  in  color  from  scarlet  to  blood  red, 
is  of  solid  texture,  but  very  brittle.  It  easily  takes  a  beautiful  polish; 
it  breaks  in  short  splinters;  it  has  an  agreeable  odor;  it  is  an  admi- 
rable wood  for  cabinet  purposes.  From  the  bases  of  the  trunks  of  the 
largest  trees  magnificent  pieces  are  sometimes  obtained  of  sufficient 
size  to  make  tops  for  large  dining  tables. 

llf,!,  Narra  Blanca^  m^  Narra  Amarilla.,  Naga  Asana^  or  Agana 
(white  or  yellow  Narra). — From  the  species  Ptet'ocarpits  palli(his  Bl. 
Its  wood  is  ocher-yellow  with  brown  streaks.  It  darkens  with  time, 
taking  a  brownish-yellow  color.  There  are  specimens  which  show  a 
color  intermediate  between  that  of  this  and  the  preceding  species. 
The  texture  is  fine  and  the  pores  are  usually  less  conspicuous  than  in 
red  narra.  It  breaks  in  long  splinters.  Both  species  distill  a  resinous 
gum  of  reddish  color.  It  is  very  fluid  at  first,  but  hardens  upon  dry- 
ing, and  is  employed  in  finishing  furniture. 

142.  Nato  {StercuUa  halanghas  L.). — Tree  of  large  size.  Wood  red- 
dish white  with  delicate  spots  of  more  intense  color;  sometimes  it  is 
rosy  and  occasionally  even  brick  red.  It  is  of  compact  texture,  fibrous, 
breaks  square  across,  and  has  no  noticeable  odor.  It  is  used  especially 
for  joiner's  work. 

llfB.    Opac, — A  very  light  wood,  yellowish  white  in  color. 

i^^.  Pagatpat.,  Palopad.^  or  Palatpat  {Sonneratiapagatpat Bl. ) .  — ^Tree 
of  moderate  size,  frequent  along  the  seashore,  growing  with  its  trunk 
partially  submerged  at  high  tide.  Its  roots  send  up  conical  processes 
from  the  sand  for  a  considerable  distance  around  its  base,  producing  a 
singular  appearance.  They  somewhat  resemble  cork  on  account  of 
their  soft,  spongy  structure  and  their  small  weight,  The  natives  use 
them  in  place  of  cork.  The  wood  is  reddish  in  color  and  of  various 
tints.  Its  texture  is  moderately  compact.  It  is  used  somewhat  for 
building,  especial  1}^  for  work  under  water.  It  is  superior  to  the  wood 
of  the  other  mangroves  (species  of  the  genus  Rhizophora),  which  are 
not  here  described  on  account  of  their  small  importance.  It  does  not 
find  a  very  ready  sale  at  Manila. 

llfB,  PaJiuhiitan  {Maiigifera  loiigipes  Griff'.). —A  light  white  wood. 

iXs,  Pait.—A.  very  heav}^  red  wood. 

lJf7,  Paitan, — A  light  white  wood. 

lJf8,  Palayenor  Rohle, — Several  species  of  the  genus  Quercus  occur 
in  the  Philippines. 

lJf.9,  Palms, — Numerous  genera  of  this  extensive  family  are  repre- 
sented in  the  Philippines,  such  as  Cocos,  Arica,  Borassus,  Calamus, 
Caryota,  Coripha,  etc.  From  one  and  another  of  the  species  the 
natives  get  food,  drink,  houses,  clothing,  and  illuminating  oil.  For 
structural  purposes  the  species  known  collectively  under  the  name 
' '  Palma  brava  "  are  most  important.  The  hard  outer  wood  resists 
moisture  very  well,  and  the  natives  convert  their  trunks  into  tubes  for 
conducting  water  by  simply  removing  the  inner  fibrous  portion. 
Palma  brava  is  also  used  for  rafters  in  house  building,  for  piles,  and 

Hosted  by 



for  telegraph  poles.  It  is  well  adapted  to  the  latter  purpose  on  account 
of  its  small  cost  and  great  durability.  Handsome  canes  are  made  from 
the  hard  outer  wood,  and  the  natives  often  fashion  bows  from  it. 

150.  Palo-maria^  or  Bitanjol^  or  Bitanhol  {Callophyllmn  inopJiyL- 
hmi^  D.  C.) — Tree  of  moderate  size;  wood,  light  red;  of  fibrous  tex- 
ture, with  large  pores.  It  breaks  in  long  splinters.  The  shaving  is 
rough  and  strongly  curled.  The  tree  is  said  to  acquire  gigantic  pro- 
portions in  Mindanao.  The  wood  is  exceedingly  tough,  and,  as  it 
often  has  good  crooks,  is  much  used  for  shipbuilding,  though  in  the 
northern  islands  it  can  seldom  be  obtained  in  pieces  of  suitable  size  for 
large  vessels.  It  is  lighter  than  Molave,  and  does  not  corrode  iron 
bolts  as  does  that  wood.  It  is  said  to  produce  ''tar,"  oil,  and  an  excel- 
lent balsam  for  curing  wounds. 

151,  Palo  napuy. — Wood  violet  red  with  blackish  spots.  Texture 
compact,  fine-grained  and  fibrous.  Pores  inconspicuous.  It  gives  off 
a  mild  odor  of  tanned  leather.  It  is  somewhat  employed  for  building 
purposes.  It  is  hardly  known  in  the  Manila  market  and  is  not  exported. 
Nevertheless,  it  is  a  wood  which  is  not  to  be  despised,  and  might  prove 

15^2.  Palsaguyiiguin, — A  grayish -yellow  wood  of  medium  weight. 
153,  Palusapis. — A  light  wood  of  dark  straw  color. 
15 Jf,,  Panao. — A  light  grayish-yellow  wood. 

155,  Panguisan. — The  wood  is  of  an  ashy  yellow  color,  moderately 
porous  and  not  very  durable.    It  is  somewhat  used  for  building  purposes. 

156,  Panayhanay  {Plerospernum  sp. ) . — A  very  heavy  wood  of  grayish- 
brown  color. 

157,  Panosilo, — ^The  wood  known  by  this  name  is  of  a  yellowish- 
white  color  and  of  somewhat  fibrous  texture,  with  large  and  numerous 
pores.  It  is  not  very  beautiful,  nor  is  it  much  used.  It  is  not  ordi- 
narily to  be  met  with  in  the  Manila  market  and  is  not  exported. 

158,  Pasac  {Mirnosops  erytliroxylon  Bos.). — Tree  large;  wood  hard, 
tough,  and  durable,  of  reddish-white  or  flesh-red  color.  Texture  varies 
from  fibrous  to  quite  compact;  pores  plainly  visible;  it  gives  off  no 
odor  and  breaks  square  across.  It  is  employed  for  building  purposes 
like  yacal,  to  which  wood  it  is,  however,  inferior.  This  wood  is  more 
and  molT.  used  as  the  time  goes  by,  and  is  increasing  in  value. 

159,  Pasqidt  {Memeeylon  paniculatum  Jack.). — A  heavy  wood  of 
reddish  color. 

160,  Pili  ( Omiarvumi  sp. ). — A  straw-colored  wood  of  medium  weight. 

161,  Pino  err  palo  pino  {Pirius  iiunlariH  Endl.). — Tree  very  large; 
in  the  mountains  of  Ilocos,  Lepanto,  and  Benguet  specimens  of  tre- 
mendous size  are  seen;  wood  very  resinous.  The  wood  is  not  to  be 
found  in  the  Manila  market  nor  is  it  exported.  The  tree  is  very  abun- 
dant in  the  mountains  of  north  Luzon,  and  it  is  said  that  the  gather- 
ing of  its  resin  would  be  profitable. 

162,  Puso  puso  {Litsea  littoralis  Benth.). — A  reddish-yellow  wood 
of  medium  weight. 

163,  Putat  {Barringtonia  raceinosa  BL). — A  white  wood  of  medium 

16Jf„  Putotan  orpototan, — A  reddish-brown  wood  of  medium  weight. 

165,  SampoG  {Tantarindus  indica  L.). — The  tamarind.  It  acquires 
a  great  growth  in  the  Philippines,  and  its  roots  are  used  for  carpenter's 

166.  Scmtol  or  scmtor  {SandoricuTn  ind^icum  Cav.). — ^The  tree  attains 

Hosted  by 



a  height  of  12  meters,  with  a  diameter  of  1  meter.  Its  wood  is  red- 
dish and  of  strong  texture,  with  undulating  grain  aud  with  the  pores 
but  slightly  visible.  It  breaks  into  short  splinters  and  gives  a  delicate 
and  somewhat  curling  shaving.  It  is  little  employed  for  building  pur- 
poses and  is  not  exported  to  any  considerable  extent. 

167,  Sihucao  or  valo-sapang  {Cesalpinia  sappana). — ^An  orange-red 
wood  of  fine  and  fibrous  texture,  with  pores  of  moderate  size.  Pegs 
made  from  it  are  used  in  the  manufacture  of  small  sailing  craft  in 
place  of  iron  spikes  and  nails.  It  produces  a  red  coloring  matter, 
similar  to  logwood,  which  is  used  for  dyeing  wool  and  cotton.  This 
substance  is  most  abundant  in  the  small  branches,  which  are  exported 
in  considerable  quantities.     The  wood  is  useless  for  building  purposes. 

168,  Sirique, — A  grayish-yellow  wood  of  medium  weight. 

169,  Solipa  or  sulipa  {Sulipa  pseudopsidium  BL). — The  so-called 
"  false  guava"  is  a  tree  of  small  size  which  abounds  in  some  provinces 
of  Luzon.  Its  wood  is  a  canary  yellow  or  greenish  yellow.  It  is  of 
fibrous  texture,  with  numerous  and  conspicuous  pores.  It  has  no  odor. 
It  breaks  in  long  splinters.  It  is  employed  for  cooper's  work,  but  is 
little  used  for  building  purposes. 

170,  Supa  {Dipterocarpus  sp.). — Tree  of  large  size;  wood  yellowish 
or  dirty  ocher,  becoming  brownish  yellow  in  time.  It  sometimes 
shows  reddish  tints.  It  is  very  similar  to  ipil  and  is  employed  in  place 
of  the  latter  wood  for  house  and  ship  building,  but  is,  nevertheless, 
considerably  inferior  to  it.  Persons  buying  lumber  should  familiarize 
themselves  with  this  wood  in  order  to  avoid  fraud. 

171,  Tahigui-itiin. — A  heavy  wood  of  deep- red  color. 

172,  Taboo  {yiJgle  decandra  Naves). — A  heavy  white  wood. 

173,  Talisay  {Terminalia  catappa). — A  dark  straw-colored  wood  of 
medium  weight. 

17 Jf.   Tamauyan-piiti  {Gy'mnosp}oria  sp.). — A  light  white  wood. 

176,  Tangile  or  tang  Hi  or  taiiguili  {DipterocarpuH  'polyspernius  BL ) — 
Tree  of  large  size;  wood  brownish  red  and  of  very  fine  texture,  but 
with  large  and  numerous  pores.  It  breaks  squarely  across.  It  is 
much  used  for  the  construction  of  canoes  and  also  for  joiner's  work. 

176.  Tangisan  {Ficus  sp.). — A  white  wood  of  medium  weight. 

177,  Tapal,—A  very  heavy  wood,  with  black  and  white  stripes. 

178,  Teca  {Tectona  grandw  L.). — The  teak,  which  constitutes  one 
of  the  principal  sources  of  wealth  in  the  Indian  forests,  exists  in  the 
Philippines,  but  is  little  known.  It  has  been  observed  in  Mindanao 
and  is  said  to  exist  in  Negros. 

179.  Tibayos  or  tuhayos. — A  heavy  slate-colored  wood. 

180,  Tihig  {FiciuH  glomerala  Blanco). — A  white  wood  of  medium 

181.  Ti7iaanpantay, — A  light-gray  wood  of  medium  weight. 

182,  Tindalo  {Eperua  rJwmhoidea  BL). — Tree  of  large  size;  wood 
of  light  red,  shading  to  dark  red  when  freshly  cut.  It  grows  darker 
with  age  and  in  time  becomes  almost  completely  black.  Sometimes 
the  color  is  uniform,  sometimes  it  shows  darker  streaks  and  spots. 
The  wood  is  of  solid  texture  and  somewhat  cross-grained.  It  gives  a 
rough  shaving,  very  porous,  and  not  curled.  It  is  used  for  house 
decoration  and  the  manufacture  of  fine  furniture;  occasionally  also 
for  building,  but  not  much,  as  it  is  difiicult  to  get  pieces  of  suitable 
size.     It  is  somewhat  brittle  and  takes  a  high  polish. 

183.  Tingan-tingan  {Pterospermuni  ohliquum  Blanco). — A  dark 
straw-colored  wood  of  medium  weight. 

Hosted  by 



18 4..  Tool)  {Bischofia  ja/vanica  Mull.  Arg.). — A  light-gray  wood  of 
medium  weiglit. 

185.  TooG  or  toog, — A  heavy  dark-red  wood. 

186.  Tucangcalo  {StercuUa  rubiginosa  Vent.  Hook.). — A  heavy 
dark-red  wood. 

187.  Tacal  or  saplungan  {Dipterocarpus  plagatus  BL). — The  trunk 
of  this  tree  reaches  a  height  of  40  to  60  feet,  with  a  diameter  of  2  to  3 
feet.  It  gives  logs  up  to  50  feet  long  by  22  inches  square.  It  is  of 
an  earthy-yellow  color  and  of  solid  and  fine  texture.  It  breaks  in  long 
splinters  and  gives  a  delicate  shaving  closely  curled.  It  is  proof 
against  white  ants  and  has  great  strength  and  tenacity.  It  is  much 
used  in  house  building  as  well  as  in  shipbuilding.  It  is  one  of  the 
heaviest  and  most  enduring  of  the  Philippine  woods. 


The  more  important  and  better  known  of  the  woods  enumerated  in 
the  foregoing  list  may  be  grouped  according  to  the  uses  to  which  they 
are  especially  adapted,  as  follows: 


Ebano,  Camagon,  Bolongita,  Tindalo,  Narra,  Malatapay,  Alintatao, 
and  Camuning,  for  tine  furniture. 

Lanete,  Narra  blanca,  Lanutan,  Malarujat,  Batitinan,  and  Antipolo, 
for  common  furniture. 


Yacal,  Betis,  Dungon,  and  Ipil,  for  keels  and  stern  posts. 

Antipolo,  for  keels  and  outside  planking. 

Molave,  for  futtock  timbers,  stems,  crooks  for  framework. 

Banaba,  for  outside  planking,  beams. 

Guijo,  for  beams,  masts,  and  yards. 

Batitinan,  for  keelsons,  clamps. 

Mangachapuy,  for  waterways,  deck  timbers. 

Amuguis,  for  upper  works,  partitions. 

Palo-maria,  for  futtock  timbers,  masts  and  yards. 

The  last-mentioned  wood  does  not  last  well. 


Tangile,  lauaan,  malaanonang,  balao,  may  apis,  and  many  other  woods 
not  so  well-known. 


Molave,  for  beams,  framework,  doorcasings,  window  casings,  floor 
boards,  etc. 

Ipil,  same  as  molave. 

Supa  and  balao  are  substitutes  for  ipil,  but  very  inferior  to  it. 

Dungon,  for  rafters,  door  and  window  jambs,  clamps,  etc.  In  gen^ 
eral  for  all  parts  that  are  required  to  afford  great  resistance  and  do  not 
involve  much  shaping. 

Banaba,  employed  f o*^  various  purposes.  Excellent  for  all  parts 
exposed  to  the  action  of  moisture,  which  it  resists  excellently. 

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Yacal,  excellent  for  framework. 

Amuguis,  baticulin,  and  malatumbaga,  used  in  form  of  boards  for 
partitions,  ceiling  work,  etc. 


Calantas,  for  cigar  boxes  and  fine  boxes  in  general. 

Tangile,  mayapis,  and  malaanonang,  for  common  boxes. 

There  are  also  many  other  woods  suitable  for  box  making  and  simi- 
lar work  on  account  of  their  abundance  and  the  ease  with  which  they 
are  sawed. 

The  more  important  Philippine  ivoods  arranged  according  to  iveight. 












Camay  uan 






Culing-manoc . 








'[nch      gravity. « 



12. 79 

11. 449 
10. 499 
10. 749 


9. 260 
10. 150 
10. 499 
10. 099 





8. 015 










.  785  (?) 









.  709  (?) 














Malacadiiis . . . 



Palo-napuy . . . 













per  cubic 


gravity,  a 

8. 240 
7. 414 
6. 734 
6.  {.90 
6. 240 

.  641 
.  634  (?) 














a  Should  be  reckoned  over.    Vidal's  table  evidently  full  of  mistakes. 
The  more  important  woods  arranged  according  to  elasticity. 














Calumpang  . . . 













0. 0075 


Palonapuy  ... 




Camay  uan 















Bansalagui . . . 





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The  more  important  woods  arranged  according  to  power  of  resistance. 



Bansalagiii  . . . 


Culing-malo(^  . 




















Calumpang  . . . 

Weight  re- 
quired to 

63. 263 
46. 699 
41. 552 
40. 747 
40. 594 
40. 028 
39. 539 
38. 522 
36. 938 
36. 347 
36. 369 
35. 586 
35. 427 
35. 341 
35. 140 
34. 967 
34. 679 
34. 235 














Mayapis ....... 




Malaeadius . . . 








Weight  re- 
quired to 

33. 127 
29. 820 
29. 676 
28. 526 
27. 375 
27. 145 
26. 915 
26. 829 
26. 312 
25. 765 
24. 845 
22. 602 
21. 394 
21. 222 
20. 705 

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PAPER    NO.    VII. 



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Although  the  zoology  of  the  Philippine  Islands  has  been  more  studied 
than  have  their  botany  and  geology,  still  the  work  may  be  said  to  have 
only  been  fairly  begun,  even  in  the  case  of  those  groups  of  animals 
which  have  been  most  carefully  investigated.  In  general  it  may  be  said 
that  the  Philippines  are  characterized  by  a  scarcity  of  mammals,  by  a 
rich  bird  fauna,  which  includes  a  very  high  percentage  of  species 
peculiar  to  the  group,  and  by  the  enormous  abundance  and  great  variety 
of  the  land  niollusca.  The  distribution  of  the  mammals  and  birds 
within  the  limits  of  the  archipelago  is  a  most  interesting  study,  which 
has  already  thrown  much  light  on  the  probable  past  geological  his- 
tory of  the  group.  The  study  of  zoography  in  the  Philippines  is, 
however,  as  yet  in  its  infancy.  The  results  thus  far  reached  will  be 
briefly  discussed  under  the  chapters  devoted  to  mammals  and  birds. 

In  general  it  may  be  said  that  the  Philippines  politically  speaking, 
and  the  Philippines  zoologically  speaking,  are  not  identical  areas,  for 
Balabac,  Palawan,  and  the  Calimianes  islands  are  strongly  character- 
ized by  the  presence  of  numerous  Bornean  forms  which  are  conspic- 
uously absent  throughout  the  remaining  islands  of  the  archipelago. 
Although  the  Philippines  are  commonly  held  to  form  an  eastern  exten- 
sion of  the  Indo-Malayan  subregion,  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that 
at  least  among  the  birds  and  mammals  there  is  a  large  amount  of  spe- 
cialization in  the  islands  to  the  eastward  of  the  Baladac-Palawan- 
Calimianes  group. 

It  is  not  our  purpose  to  enter  into  a  detailed  discussion  of  the  zool- 
ogy of  the  Philippines,  and  we  shall  content  ourselves  with  briefly 
mentioning  a  few  of  the  more  important  or  interesting  forms  in  the 
various  groups. 


As  already  stated,  the  Philippines  are  very  poor  in  mammals;  and 
this  fact  is  the  more  surprising  when  one  compares  them  with  the 
neighboring  island  of  Borneo  in  this  respect.  They  are  undoubtedly 
well  adapted  to  a  large  and  diversified  mammalian  fauna,  and  the  only 
plausible  explanation  of  the  scarcity  of  forms  is  to  suppose  either  that 
they  have  never  been  connected  with  Borneo  and  the  Asiatic  conti- 
nent or  that,  if  at  one  time  connected,  they  have  since  been  subjected 
to  such  subsidence  as  to  wipe  out  the  greater  part  of  their  mammalian 


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Apparently,  however,  there  has  been  a  comparatively  recent  con- 
nection of  short  duration  between  the  Calamianes  Islands,  Palawan, 
Balabec,  and  Borneo.  This  would  account  for  the  strong  Bornean 
character  so  plainly  to  be  noted  in  the  mammals  of  these  islands. 

There  are  no  marsupials  in  the  group.  The  edentate,  or  toothless 
mammals,  are  represented  by  the  pangalin  (Manis  sp.  ?),  which  is 
abundant  in  Palawan  and  the  Calamianes  group.  This  curious  animal, 
known  to  the  natives  as  balington,  has  its  whole  dorsal  region  protected 
by  thick  scales,  and  when  molested  rolls  itself  up  into  a  ball.  It  feeds 
at  night,  living  largely  on  ants,  which  it  licks  up  with  its  long  protrusi- 
ble  sticky  tongue. 

In  the  seas  of  the  archipelago  we  have  the  dolphin ;  the  cacholet,  from 
which  spermaceti  is  obtained;  whales,  and,  finally,  the  dugong,  or,  as 
the  natives  call  it,  woman  fish.  Beads  are  made  from  its  tusks.  This 
animal  is  said  to  be  constantly  growing  scarcer  in  the  Philippines. 

The  horses  which  exist  in  the  Philippines  were  imported  from 
Mexico,  China,  or  Borneo.  They  are  of  small  size,  but  well  formed 
and  tough.  Little  care  has  been  exercised  in  breeding  them,  and  they 
might  doubtless  be  greatly  improved.  Neither  Australian  nor  Euro- 
pean horses  have  thus  far  done  well  in  the  Philippines.  It  is  said  that 
the  grass,  which  is  somewhat  harsh,  gives  them  intestinal  trouble,  and 
that  the  great  moisture  during  the  wet  season  causes  foot  disease. 
Good  results  have  been  obtained  with  American  cavalry  horses  by 
feeding  them  young  rice  leaves  or  imported  hay. 

Wild  hogs  of  at  least  two  species  occur  in  the  Philippines.  In  some 
of  the  islands,  notably  Tawi-tawi,  they  are  extremely  numerous,  and 
they  often  cause  the  natives  no  little  trouble  and  loss  by  destroying 
their  crops  at  night.  They  are  much  hunted,  both  on  this  account 
and  for  the  sake  of  their  flesh,  which  is  excellent.  The  boars  some- 
times attain  to  immense  size,  and  hunting  them  is  by  no  means  unat- 
tended with  danger.  In  Tawi-tawi,  during  the  season  when  the  dureian 
tree  ripens  its  fruit,  the  wild  hogs  become  so  fat  that  the  natives  insist 
they  die  of  heat  when  hard  pressed  by  dogs. 

The  curious  babyrusa  of  Celebes  has  been  said  to  occur  also  in  Min- 
danao, but  this  statement  is  probably  incorrect. 

Domesticated  hogs  of  black  color  are  to  be  found  in  numbers  in 
every  native  village.  They  cross  more  or  less  freely  with  the  wild 
species.  Few  white  men  who  have  observed  their  habits  care  to  eat 
their  flesh. 

Deer  are  extremely  abundant  in  many  parts  of  the  archipelago,  and 
their  flesh,  like  that  of  the  wild  hog,  forms  an  important  article  of 
food  for  the  natives,  while  their  skins  and  horns  are  put  to  various 
practical  uses.  In  Sulu  there  is  a  beautiful  axis  deer,  which  has  almost 
certainly  been  introduced  there  by  man.  Neither  this  nor  any  other 
species  occurs  on  the  island  of  Tawi-tawi.  In  Basilan,  Mindanao, 
Leyte,  Samar,  Luzon,  Mindoro,  and  the  Calamianes  Islands  there  are 
deer  of  red  or  brown  colors,  without  spots  when  adult.  The  exact 
number  of  species  and  their  respective  ranges  have  never  been  satis- 
factorily determined. 

Finally,  in  Masbate,  Panay,  Guimaras,  and  Negros  there  is  a  beau- 
tiful dark-colored  deer,  marked  throughout  life  with  buff  spots. 

Sheep  and  goats  have  been  imported  into  the  islands  from  China  and 
Mexico.  The  goats  do  well,  but  the  sheep  do  not.  It  is  said,  however, 
that  experiments  made  with  them  in  the  highlands  of  Benguet  have 
resulted  very  successfully. 

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Humped  cattle  are  raised  on  most  of  the  islands,  notably  in  Masbate, 
the  Calamianes  group,  and  some  of  the  small  islands  north  of  Luzon. 
They  are  killed  for  their  flesh,  hides,  and  horns,  and  little  attention  is 
paid  to  milk-giving  properties.  Australian  cattle  have  been  brought 
to  Manila  from  time  to  time,  but  have  suffered  greatly  from  disease. 
The  establishment  of  good  modern  dairies,  within  easy  reach  of  Manila 
and  other  large  cities,  would  seem  to  be  likely  to  prove  a  practicable 
and  remunerative  enterprise.  At  present  cows'  milk  is  difficult  to 
obtain,  while  cream,  fresh  butter,  and  pressed  cheese  can  not  be  had 
at  any  price. 

The  most  important  domesticated  mammal  in  the  Philippines  is  the 
water  buffalo,  or  carabao.  It  occurs  wild  in  Luzon,  Mindoro,  the 
Calamianes  Islands,  Masbate,  Negros,  and  Mindanao,  and  probably 
also  in  other  islands  of  the  group,  but  it  is  believed  that  the  wild  herds 
have  originated  from  domesticated  animals  which  escaped  after  being 
imported  into  the  islands.  It  is  said  that  Mindoro  herds  sometimes 
number  as  many  as  200.  Although  bullocks  are  sometimes  used  as 
draft  animals,  the  carabao  is  par  excellence  the  beast  of  burden  in 
the  Philippines.  They  are  tolerably  strong,  but  are  sluggish  in  their 
movements,  and  can  not  long  endure  the  heat  of  the  tropical  sun  when 
at  work.  If  one  forces  them  on  they  are  likely  to  lie  down  in  the  first 
puddle  or  stream  encountered,  and  refuse  to  get  up.  If  pushed  too 
hard,  they  die  of  the  heat,  and  in  cases  of  emergency  water  should  at 
least  be  poured  over  their  heads  and  along  their  backs  from  time  to 
time.  If  left  to  themselves  they  will  pass  the  greater  part  of  the  day 
in  a  mud  bath. 

They  are  wonderful  swimmers,  and  do  not  hesitate  to  cross  10  miles 
of  open  sea.  When  feeding  in  the  water,  they  frequently  submerge 
their  heads  for  some  time  in  order  to  get  at  the  roots  of  water  plants, 
it  seems  impossible  to  mire  them,  and  on  this  account  they  are 
extremely  useful  during  the  rainy  season.  They  breed  freely,  but 
are  frequently  swept  off  in  great  numbers  by  epidemics  of  disease. 
They  are  often  tended  and  driven  by  small  children,  who  clamber  up 
their  hind  quarters  on  to  their  backs,  supporting  themselves  mean- 
while by  hanging  on  to  their  tails.  In  spite  of  their  apparant  gentle- 
ness they  have  been  known  to  attack  and  kill  their  masters,  and  in  the 
more  remote  towns  they  sometimes  display  a  violent  dislike  for  white 
men,  occasionally  stampeding  at  the  mere^  smell  of  one.  Their  flesh 
is  eaten  by  the  natives,  but  is  tough,  stringy,  and  rather  tasteless. 
Their  hides  and  horns  are  put  to  various  uses.  The  natives  believe  that 
pieces  of  burned  buffalo  horn  will  cure  snake  bite. 

Hunting  the  wild  buffaloes  is  a  much  more  exciting  and  dangerous 
sport  than  one  would  expect.  When  wounded  they  charge  home 
viciously,  and  if  they  once  get  into  close  quarters  it  is  all  up  with  the 
hunter.  They  have  been  repeatedly  known  to  kill  men  after  being 
shot  through  the  heart.  In  hunting  them  the  natives  sometimes  use 
trained  tame  buffaloes  as  decoys.  Success  can  be  hoped  for  only  at 
night.  The  tame  animal  feeds  along,  slowly  approaching  the  wild  one 
up  the  wind,  and  the  hunter  creeps  along  in  his  shadow.  When  close 
alongside  of  his  victim  he  slips  round  behind  him,  and  attempts  to 
hamstring  him  with  two  blows  of  his  bolo.  If  he  fails,  his  carelessness  is 
apt  to  cost  him  his  life.  In  the  Calamianes  Islands  long  fences  are 
sometimes  constructed,  gradually  running  together  and  leading  into  a 
pen,  and  drives  are  held  which  sometimes  result  in  the  capture  of 

p  c— VOL  3—01 31 

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considerable  numbers  of  buffalo.  The  younger  ones  are  readily 
domesticated;  the  older  ones  are  sometimes  brought  to  subjection  by 
the  cruel  method  of  tying  them  up  and  leaving  them  without  food  or 
water  until  they  are  completely  exhausted  and  nearly  starved. 

By  all  odds  the  most  interesting  mammal  in  the  Philippines  is  a 
small  island  buffalo,  called  by  the  natives  timarru,  peculiar  to  the 
island  of  Mindoro.  In  color  it  resembles  the  water  buffalo,  but  it  is 
very  much  smaller  than  that  animal.  Its  short,  strong,  and  sharply 
pointed  horns  run  almost  directly  backward,  somewhat  like  those  of 
an  antelope.  Unlike  the  carabao,  it  never  bathes  in  the  water  or  wal- 
lows in  the  mud.  It  sleeps  during  the  day,  hidden  away  in  the  densest 
jungle.  At  night  it  comes  forth  to  feed,  and  some  time  before  morn- 
ing visits  a  neighboring  water  course  in  order  to  drink.  Hunting  it 
is  both  difficult  and  dangerous,  so  much  so,  in  fact,  that  it  is  only 
within  a  few  years  that  a  series  of  specimens  has  been  obtained  for 
scientific  investigation.  One  must  pick  up  a  trail  along  some  water 
course  and  follow  it  as  best  he  may.  The  timarru  is  short  legged, 
and  in  going  through  the  forests  it  puts  its  nose  close  to  the  ground 
and  burrows  under  the  creepers  and  dense  vegetation  which  slip  along 
its  horns  and  back  and  snap  down  behind  it,  leaving  no  passageway 
at  all.  In  following  such  a  trail  one  is  frequently  compelled  to  work 
his  way  along  flat  on  his  belly,  and  at  the  best  will  frequently  have  to 
go  for  half  an  hour  at  a  time  on  all  fours.  The  timarru's  senses  of 
hearing  and  smell  are  exceptionally  acute,  and  the  snaj^ping  of  a  dry 
twig  or  a  puff  of  wind  in  the  wrong  direction  often  make  half  a  day 
of  killing  work  useless.  When  the  animal  has  once  been  alarmed  one 
might  as  well  abandon  the  trail,  for  it  will  often  run  10  miles  without 
stopping,  tearing  its  way  through  the  forest,  and  exhibiting  an  amount 
of  brute  strength  utterly  out  of  proportion  to  its  small  size. 

Before  lying  down  to  sleep  the  timarru  usually  turns  about  and 
faces  its  own  trail.  The  hunter  must  creep  up  within  30  or  40  feet  of 
his  game  before  he  can  see  it,  and  he  must  then  shoot  for  the  brain. 
The  timarru  is  almost  certain  to  charge  if  not  instantly  killed,  and  at 
sucii  short  range  there  is  little  time  for  a  second  shot.  When  hit 
through  the  lungs  it  will  run  for  miles,  and  it  will  often  go  75  to  100 
yards  after  being  shot  through  the  heart. 

It  is  ordinarily  met  with  singly,  although  it  is  said  to  go  in  herds  in 
the  tall  grass  on  the  west  coast  of  Mindoro.  Fierce  battles  often  occur 
between  the  bulls,  and  in  spite  of  their  inferior  size  they  attack  and 
sometimes  kill  the  wild  water  buffaloes.  The  natives  are  much  afraid 
of  them,  and  not  without  reason.  Repeated  attempts  at  domesticating 
them  have  ended  in  failure.  When  taken  in  snares  or  pitfalls  they 
struggle  until  they  kill  themselves,  and  young  calves,  with  horn  just 
starting,  when  put  to  suck  to  female  carabaos  are  said  to  have 
attempted  to  attack  them  and  afterwards  to  have  refused  all  food. 

According  to  the  English  naturalist,  Mr.  John  Whitehead,  the 
timarru  forsakes  the  wet  lowlands  for  the  mountains  during  the  rainy 

season.  t  •       •      i. 

This  curious  animal  presents  a  zoological  puzzle.  Its  extmction  by 
man  would  be  well-nigh  impossible  so  long  as  a  bit  of  jungle  renaained 
on  an  island;  yet  it  is  not  found  in  Luzon,  which  at  one  point  is  dis- 
tant but  10  miles  from  Mindoro,  nor  does  it  exist  in  any  other  island 
of  the  archipelago.  It  has  been  classified  as  Bubalus  mindorensis 
Haude,  but  it  is  doubtful  if  this  determination  is  correct.     The  Ger- 

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man  collector,  Dr.  Platen,  who  had  successfully  hunted  the  anoa  of 
Celebes,  and  who  secured  four  or  live  specimens  of  the  timarru  in 
Mindoro,  insisted  that  the  two  animals  were  identical. 

Elephants  were  at  one  time  imported  into  Sulu,  and,  it  is  said,  into 
Cebu  also.  It  is  said  that  they  proved  a  nuisance,  and  were  therefore 
killed.     None  exist  in  the  archipelago  at  present. 

Domesticated  rabbits  occur  in  the  islands,  but  there  are  no  wild  ones. 
One  species  of  porcupine  occurs,  but  it  is  confined  to  the  Palawan- 
Calamianes  group. 

The  house  rat,  which  has  been  introduced  by  man,  is  a  common 
nuisance.  There  are  a  number  of  wild  species  of  rats  and  mice,  some 
of  which  occasionally  become  so  numerous  as  to  seriously  damage  the 
sugar  cane  and  rice  fields. 

Squirrels  occur  in  the  eastern  chain  of  islands  from  Luzon  to  Basilan 
and  in  the  Palawan -Calamianes  group.  In  the  southern  islands  there 
is  a  tiny  species  the  size  of  a  mouse.  Very  large  flying  squirrels  are 
found  in  Palawan  and  Mindanao.  They  are  nocturnal  in  their  habits. 
There  are  no  squirrels  in  Cebu,  Negros*^,  Panay,  Masbate,  or  Mindoro. 
Squirrel-shrews  occur  in  the  Palawan-Calamianes  group,  and  true 
shrews  at  various  points  in  the  archipelago. 

Among  carnivorous  animals  may  be  mentioned  the  bintorang  and  a 
species  of  otter,  both  found  in  the  Palawan-Calamianes  group.  Also 
two  species  of  civet  cats  which  range  throughout  the  group,  and  a 
true  wild-cat  of  small  size  which  has  been  found  in  Palawan,  Panay, 
and  Negros,  and  is  said  to  exist  in  Cebu. 

Bats  occur  in  great  numbers,  and  there  are  very  numerous  species, 
a  number  of  which  are  peculiar  to  the  archipelago.  There  are  exten- 
sive bat  caves  in  Guimaras,  Cebu,  and  Siquijor.  The  deposits  in  these 
caves  have  never  been  worked,  but  would  doubtless  be  of  considerable 
commercial  value.  At  numerous  points  in  the  archipelago  there  are 
immense  colonies  of  the  large  fruit  bats,  which  pass  the  day  hanging 
head  downward  in  their  favorite  trees,  which  they  frequent  in  such 
numbers  as  to  fairly  blacken  them.  At  dusk  they  mav  be  seen  rising 
in  a  great  swirling  column  high  into  the  air,  and  then  setting  off  in 
different  directions  to  search  for  food.  Their  skins  have  been  some- 
what used  for  furs. 

The  prosimidee  are  represented  by  Galeopithecm  philippinensis 
Wath.  (the  so-called  flying  lemur),  the  tarsier  {Tarsms  spectrum  Geoff.), 
and  a  small  lemur  {Nycticebus  twrdigradtis  Fisch.).  Tlie  latter  animal 
occurs  only  in  Tawi-tawi.  It  is  known  to  the  natives  as  kokam  and 
to  the  Spaniards  as  el  virgonzoso,  on  account  of  its  curious  habit  of 
hiding  its  head  when  approached  by  man  and  unable  to  escape. 

Galeopithecus  is  found  from  Basilan  to  Luzon,  and  also  in  the  island 
of  Bohol.  It  has  membranes  like  those  of  a  flying  squirrel,  which  not 
only  extend  between  the  legs  but  reach  to  the  tip  of  the  tail.  By  the 
aid  of  them  it  is  able  to  make  immense  leaps  through  the  air,  pitching 
down  sharply  at  first  and  rising  again  as  it  approaches  the  tree  on 
which  it  desires  to  alight.  It  is  nocturnal  in  its  habits.  Its  soft  fur 
is  highly  prized  in  Europe. 

So  far  as  is  at  present  known  the  tarsier,  a  most  curious  little  mam- 
mal, is  confined  to  Basilan,  Mindanao,  Samar,  Leyte,  and  Luzon.  Its 
characteristics  are  perhaps  too  well  known  to  require  description.  The 
natives  in  the  Philippines  insists  that  it  feeds  on  charcoal,  and  this 
curious  belief  occurs  among  the  natives  of  some  other  regions  where 
it  is  found. 

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In  spite  of  all  that  has  been  said  to  the  contrary,  but  a  single  species 
of  monkey  has  as  yet  been  discovered  in  the  Philippine  Islands.  It 
is  known  to  the  natives  as  maching,  or  matsin,  and  its  scientific  name 
is  ikacacas  philippinensis  Geoif.  It  is  of  medium  size,  and  occurs  on 
every  island  of  any  importance  in  the  group.  It  is  very  commonly 
tamed  by  the  natives,  who  use  it  to  rid  their  heads  of  objectionable 
tenants.  It  not  infrequently  inflicts  considerable  damage  on  growing 
rice  and  other  crops.  Its  flesh  is  sometimes  utilized  by  the  natives  as 
an  article  of  food. 

A  black  monkey  {Oynocephalus  niger  Desm.),  of  Celebes,  has  been 
said  also  to  occur  in  Sulu  and  Mindanao.  It  is  undoubtedly  some- 
times brought  to  Sulu  from  Celebes,  but  there  is  no  reason  for  believ- 
ing that  it  occurs  wild,  either  in  that  island  or  in  Mindanao.  The 
various  other  species  of  monkey  which  have  been  assigned  to  the 
Philippines  by  diflerent  authors  are  myths  pure  and  simple. 


No  other  group  of  organisms  has  been  so  thoroughly  studied  in  the 
Philippine  Islands  as  have  the  birds,  which  early  attracted  the  atten- 
tion of  naturalists,  beginning  with  Sonnerat.  Since  his  day  Cuming, 
Meyer,  Steere,  Everett,  Platen,  Moseley,  Bourns,  Worcester,  White- 
head, and  others  have  contributed  more  or  less  extensively  to  our 
knowledge  of  the  avifauna  of  the  archipelago.  The  result  has  been 
to  raise  the  total  number  of  species  to  more  than  590,^  of  which  at 
least  325  are  peculiar  to  the  Philippines. 

With  few  exceptions,  these  peculiar  species  are  land  birds,  and  the 
study  of  their  distribution  has  brought  out  some  interesting  facts. 
Certain  islands,  or  groups  of  islands,  have  been  found  to  have  char- 
acteristic forms  of  their  own  which  do  not  spread  to  other  islands  of 
the  group.  Thus,  the  Balabac-Palawan-Calamianes  islands  have  several 
peculiar  species,  and  the  bird  fauna  of  this  region,  on^  the  whole, 
agrees  with  the  mammalian  fauna  in  showing  strong  evidences  of  a 
Bornean  origin. 

The  deep  water  between  the  Calamianes  group  and  Mindoro  marks 
.  the  northern  extension  of  these  Bornean  forms  into  the  Philippine 
group.  None  of  them  reach  the  latter  island,  which  has  11  peculiar 
species  of  its  own;  although,  as  might  be  expected,  a  number  of  the 
characteristic  forms  have  made  their  way  across  the  few  intervening 
miles  of  sea,  aided,  no  doubt,  by  Isla  Vei-de  and  other  small  islands. 
Many  of  the  most  important  Luzon  forms  are  absent,  however,  and 
these  facts,  together  with  the  occurrence  of  the  remarkable  timarru 
and  the  absence  of  most  of  the  characteristic  Luzon  mammals,  combine 
to  give  Mindoro  a  place  by  itself. 

As  might  be  expected,  the  great  island  of  Luzon,  with  its  high 
mountains  and  might}^  forests,  its  extensive  open  plains,  its  important 
fresh-water  lakes  and  large  rivers,  has  a  very  rich  bird  fauna,  and  it 
has  been  more  carefully  studied  than  has  that  of  any  other  island  in 
the  archipelago.  Two  hundred  and  eighty-six  species  of  birds  have 
been  recorded,  of  which  136  are  peculiar  to  the  Philippines,  and  51  are 
not  known  to  occur  outside  of  Luzon  and  the  small  islands  immediately 
adjacent  to  it. 

^  In  1897  the  number  recorded  was        .     Some  additions  have  since  been  made. 

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A  close  relationship  has  been  shown  to  exist  between  the  eastern 
islands  from  Luzon  to  Basilan.  The  greatest  differences  occur  between 
Luzon,  on  the  one  hand,  and  Samar-Leyte  and  Panaon  on  the  other. 
The  latter  group  of  islands  form  a  well-defined  zoological  area  char- 
acterized by  the  presence  of  22  peculiar  species;  and  while  no  less  than 
63  Luzon  forms  have  not  as  yet  been  found  in  Samar,  we  find  practical 
agreement  between  the  families  occurring  throughout  the  eastern  chain 
of  islands,  while  many  important  and  highly  characteristic  genera  not 
represented  in  the  central  Philippines  range  from  Basilan  or  Mindanao 
to  Luzon,  often  with  different  representative  species  in  the  different 
zoological  areas  into  which  the  islands  in  question  nmst  be  divided. 

Mindanao  is;  next  to  Luzon,  the  largest  island  in  the  Philippines, 
and,  like  the  latter  island,  has  a  diversified  surface,  with  high  mountams, 
extensive  forests,  and  open  plains.  Much-  doubtless  remains  to  be 
done  before  the  study  of  the  birds  of  this  island  will  have  been  com- 

Eleted,  and  its  highland  avifauna  is  as  yet  quite  unknown.  Two 
undred  and  seven  species  of  birds  have  thus  far  been  found  on  the 

The  small  island  of  Basilan  probably  once  formed  an  extension  of 
the  peninsula,  which  at  present  ends  at  Zamboanga.  There  are  17 
species  of  birds  peculiar  to  Mindanao  and  Basilan,  while  13  more  occur 
in  these  islands  and  range  to  the  northward,  but  do  not  extend  into 
the  Sulu-Tawitawi  group.  Apparently,  however,  the  separation 
between  Mindanao  and  Basilan  has  endured  for  a  considerable  time, 
as  5  peculiar  species  have  been  developed  in  the  latter  island  and  8  in 
the  former,  while  a  number  of  species  closely  allied  to  or  identical 
with  Samar-Leyte  forms  occur  in  Mindanao  which  are  absent  in 
Basilan,  apparently  indicating  a  relatively  recent  connection  between 
the  former  islands  and  those  lying  to  the  northward.  With  but  a 
single  exception  every  one  of  the  peculiar  Samar-Leyte  species  is 
known  to  have  a  close  all}^  of  the  same  genus  in  Mindanao. 

It  is  only  within  a  few  years  that  the  birds  and  mammals  of  the 
Sulu-Tawitawi  group  have  been  investigated.  The  result  has  been 
to  show  conclusively  that  these  islands  belong  to  the  Philippines 
zoologically  as  well  as  politically.  Bornean  forms  are  conspicuous  by 
their  absence,  the  mammals  of  that  island  being  represented  only  by  a 
lemur,  and  the  birds  by  a  few  unimportant  forms;  while  53  charac- 
teristic Philippine  species  have  been  accorded  from  Sulu  and  51  from 
Tawitawi.  This  group  has  12  well-marked  peculiar  species  of  its  own, 
and  many  of  the  characteristic  Mindanao-Basilan  forms  are  lacking,  so 
that  it  forms  a  well-marked  area  by  itself. 

It  only  remains  to  discuss  the  central  islands  of  the  archipelago. 
Panay,  Guimaras,  Negros,  and  Masbate  have  been  shown  to  constitute 
another  sharply  defined  area  characterized  not  only  by  the  occurrence 
of  30  peculiar  species  of  birds,  but  by  the  absence  of  important  genera 
and  even  whole  families  which  are  represented  in  the  eastern  chain  of 

As  previously  stated,  they  also  lack  most  of  the  mammals  character- 
istic of  the  region  last  referred  to.  They  have  no  squirrels,  and  Gale- 
opithicecus  tarsius  and  pteromys  do  not  occur.  The  wild-cat  of  the 
central  Philippines  is  not  known  to  occur  in  the  eastern  islands,  and  a 
very  well  marked  species  of  deer  is  peculiar  to  the  former  group. 

Curiously  enough,  the  island  of  Cebu  stands  by  itself,  although  the 
greatest  width  of  the  channel  separating  it  from  Negros  is  hardly  more 

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than  20  miles,  while  at  one  point  it  narrows  to  4.  It  is  very  deep, 
however,  and  has  doubtless  long  existed.  As  a  result,  Cebu  pos- 
sesses no  less  than  nine  striking  species  of  birds  not  known  to  exist 
elsewhere  in  the  world,  and  lacks  not  only  important  genera,  but  even 
whole  families,  which  are  represented  in  the  Panay-Negros-Masbate 

The  zoological  position  of  Bohol  has  never  been  satisfactorily  deter- 
mined, as  naturalists  who  have  attempted  to  work  there  have  not  suc- 
ceeded in  finding  good  forest  land.  Such  facts  as  have  been  ascertained 
indicate  that  this  island  should  be  grouped  with  Samar  and  Leyte,  a 
fact  rendered  the  more  probable  by  the  line  of  shallow  soundings 
which  connects  it  with  the  latter  island. 

Interesting  results  have  been  obtained  from  the  study  of  the  birds 
of  small  islands  like  Siquijor,  Tablas,  Romblon,  and  Sibuyan,  but  they 
can  not  well  be  here  discussed. 

Should  it  be  thought  that  the  facts  as  regards  the  geographical  dis- 
tribution of  birds  and  mammals  within  the  Philippine  group  are  of 
small  importance,  it  may  be  replied  that  they  throw  important  light 
on  the  past  geological  history  of  the  group. 

The  land  birds  are  not  driven  from  north  to  south,  and  from  south 
to  north  again  by  changing  seasons,  as  happens  in  our  own  country, 
and  a  comparatively  small  expanse  of  salt  water  forms  a  barrier  which 
many  of  them  can  not  or  will  not  cross,  while  it  effectually  checks  the 
migration  of  many  of  the  mammals.  The  degree  of  difference  between 
the  birds  and  mammals  of  the  natural  zoological  areas  into  which  the 
islands  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago  fall  may  therefore  be  taken  as  a 
fair  index  of  the  duration  and  completeness  of  the  separation  which 
has  existed  between  them. 

Much  still  remains  to  be  done  in  the  study  of  the  birds  and  mam- 
mals of  the  archipelago.  The  connection  with  Formosa  on  the  north 
has  never  been  worked  out,  while  that  with  Celebes  on  the  south  has 
been  studied  incompletely.  The  highlands  of  many  of  the  larger 
islands  of  the  group  are  still  nearly  or  quite  unexplored,  and  many  of 
the  smaller  islands  are  as  yet  wholly  unknown.  It  is  probably  safe  to 
say  that  nowhere  else  in  the  world  does  nature  offer  a  more  favorable 
opportunity  for  the  study  of  the  vexed  question  as  to  the  relationship 
between  environment  and  species  formation  in  the  case  of  the  higher 

The  islands  abound  in  beautiful  birds,  as  well  as  in  species  which  are 
interesting  on  account  of  their  peculiar  habits,  while  a  number  of  forms 
are  in  one  way  and  another  of  considerable  importance  to  man.  Only 
a  few  of  these  can  here  be  mentioned.  It  should  be  said  in  passing 
that  the  statements  which  have  appeared  to  the  effect  that  birds  of 
paradise,  humming  birds,  and  the  lyre  bird,  occur  in  the  Philippines 
are  utterly  without  foundation.  Instead  of  humming  birds  we  have 
sun  birds,  conspicuous  for  their  beautiful  colors,  and  feeding  from 
flowers,  as  do  the  hummers,  but  quite  without  their  remarkable  powers 
of  flight. 

Among  the  most  remarkable  birds  of  the  group  are  the  mound  build- 
ers {Megapodius  cumingi  Dillwyn),  known  to  the  natives  as  tabon. 
These  singular  birds  burrow  into  the  sand  along  the  sea  beach,  or  the 
soft  earth  of  the  forest,  and  deposit  their  eggs,  which  are  very  large 
and  out  of  all  proportion  to  the  size  of  the  birds,  2  or  3  feet  below  the 
surface  of  the  ground.     The  eggs  are  YQvy  rich  in  yolk,  and  the  little 

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birds  are  highly  developed  when  they  hatch.  They  dig  their  way  to 
the  surface,  take  to  the  brush,  and  shift  for  themselves  from  the  day 
of  their  birth.  A  number  of  pairs  often  frequent  the  same  spot,  to 
which  they  constantly  return.  Each  time  an  egg  is  deposited  the 
parent  birds  scratch  dirt  over  the  place,  and  a  mound  of  steadily 
increasing  size  is  thus  formed,  which  sometimes  attains  to  a  diameter 
of  12  or  15  feet  and  a  height  of  4  or  5.  The  eggs  of  the  tabon  are 
highl}^  prized  by  the  natives  as  an  article  of  food,  and  they  sometimes 
impose  on  the  unfortunate  bird  by  digging  away  the  top  of  a  mound, 
covering  the  base  with  boards,  and  then  heaping  soft  earth  on  them 
again  so  that  after  several  ineffectual  attempts  to  burrow  to  the  bottom 
the  birds  lay  their  eggs  on  the  boards,  thus  saving  labor  for  those  who 
wish  to  rob  them. 

The  jungle  fowl  (Gallv^  gallus  Linn.)  abounds  throughout  the  archi- 
pelago. This  fowl  is  presumably  the  ancestor  of  our  domestic  breeds, 
and  the  cocks  and  hens  somewhat  closely  resemble  red  leghorns.  They 
are  not  infrequently  caught  and  domesticated,  and  the  cocks  are  even 
trained  to  fight,  they  cross  freely  with  the  domestic  fowls  of  the 
Philippines.  The  cocks  are  extremely  pugnacious,  and  the  nativ^es 
obtain  them  in  considerable  numbers  by  the  use  of  individuals  that 
have  been  tamed  as  decoys.  The  tame  cock  is  staked  out  in  the 
brush,  and  its  owner  secretes  himself.  The  crow  of  the  decoy  bird  is 
promptly  answered  by  that  of  the  lord  of  the  territory  thus  invaded, 
who  promptly  appears  to  punish  him  for  his  audacity,  and  is  thereupon 
laid  low  by  the  concealed  hunter. 

This  method  of  procedure  is  often  varied  by  surrounding  the  decoy 
bird  with  a  circle  of  snares,  so  that  when  his  wild  rival  appears  to  find 
him  he  becomes  entangled  and  can  not  escape. 

There  are  no  less  than  35  species  of  pigeons  and  doves  known  to 
inhabit  the  Philippines;  many  of  them  are  most  beautifully  colored, 
and  the  flesh  of  all  of  them  is  edible.  Several  of  the  species  are  of  very 
large  size.  This  is  notably  the  case  with  the  six  representatives  of  the 
genus  Carpophaga,  which  are  collectively  know^n  to  the  natives  as 
balud.  The  splendid  Nicobar  pigeon  (Caloenas  nicobraica  Linn.)  is 
especially  worthy  of  mention  on  account  of  its  beautiful  changeable 
hues,  which  vary  from  deep  green  to  fiery  copper  red.  There  are  15 
species  of  rails,  coots,  and  gallinules.  The  natives  often  eat  their  flesh 
and  sometimes  their  eggs  as  well.  Gulls  and  terns  are  poorly  repre- 
sented. ' 

Snipe,  plover,  turnstones,  and  shore  birds  in  general  are  very  abun- 
dant along  the  coast  during  the  cold  season  in  Asia,  but  the  majority 
of  the  species  migrate  northward  with  the  oncoming  of  the  hot  season. 
The  Asiatic  snipe  makes  splendid  shooting  in  November,  December, 
and  January,  and  the  beautiful  painted  snipe  is  resident  in  the  islands 
throughout  the  year. 

The  herons  and  bitterns  are  represented  by  15  species  of  the  most 
varied  forms,  size,  and  color.  There  is  but  one  stork,  and  it  is  com- 
paratively rare. 

Five  species  of  ducks  are  recorded  from  the  islands.  One  of  these, 
a  fine  mallard,  is  peculiar  to  the  Philippines,  and  this  species,  as  well 
as  Dendrocycna  arcuata  (Cuv.)  often  affords  fine  shooting.  The  latter 
species  breeds  abundantly,  and  its  eggs  are  often  used  by  the  natives 
for  food.  The  birds  of  prey  number  no  less  than  45  species,  of  which 
22  are  peculiar  to  the  Philippines.     In  size  they  vary  from  a  tiny  falcon 

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{MiGTO  hierax)^  the  size  of  a  sparrow,  up  to  the  immense  monkey - 
catching"  harpy  eagle  {Pithecophaga  jefferyi^  Grant),  which  is  so  strong 
and  active  that  it  seizes  monkeys  as  they  leap  from  tree  to  tree.  It  is 
one  of  the  most  difficult  of  birds  to  kill,  and  thus  far  but  two  speci- 
mens of  it  have  been  secured.  The  first  was  obtained  by  the  Menage 
expedition  near  Catbaloban,  Samar,  in  1892.  The  second  was  secured 
by  the  English  naturalist,  Mr.  John  Whitehead,  several  years  later. 

Another  family  well  represented  is  the  kingfishers.  Of  these  there 
are  21  species,  all  but  six  of  which  are  confined  to  the  Philippines. 
Many  of  these  are  most  beautifully  colored,  and  not  a  few  of  them  feed 
on  insects,  larvae,  etc.,  in  the  forests,  never  ''fishing"  at  all. 

There  are  12  species  of  hornbills,  not  one  of  which  occurs  outside  of 
the  Philippines.  These  birds  have  most  singular  breeding  habits,  the 
males  wall  up  the  females  in  hollow  trees  when  the  latter  are  ready  to 
attend  to  their  maternal  duties,  by  filling  up  the  openings  through 
which  they  enter  with  clay,  leaving  only  small  holes  through  which 
they  can  pass  in  food  to  their  imprisoned  wives.  The  hornbills  are 
fruit  eaters,  and  their  flesh  is  excellent.     The  large  species  of  the 

fenus  Hydrocorax  frequent  very  high  trees,  but  can  readily  be  called 
own  within  range  if  one  hides  one's  self  and  imitates  harsh  notes. 
There  are  a  variety  of  frogmouths,  bee  birds,  night  hawks,  and 
swifts.  ^  One  of  the  latter  {Collocalia  troglodytes^  Gray)  is  especially 
interesting,  since  it  constructs  the  edible  nests  so  highly  prized  by  the 
Chinese  for  food.  These  nests,  which  are  composed  of  a  gelatinous 
secretion  from  salivary  glands  in  the  mouths  of  the  birds,  are  usually 
placed  in  the  hollow  of  steep  cliffs  or  in  limestone  caves.  When  quite 
fresh  and  clean  they  sometimes  bring  more  than  their  weight  in  gold. 
The  best  nests  are  obtained  on  the  precipitous  sides  of  the  Pefion  de 
Coron,  between  Culion  and  Busuanga,  where  the  natives  gather  them 
at  no  little  personal  risk.  Good  nests  are  to  be  had  in  Guimaras, 
Siquijor,  and  at  other  points.  When  persistently  robbed  the  birds 
help  out  their  stock  of  secretion  by  using  bits  of  moss,  grass,  etc., 
and  it  is  perhaps  this  fact  which  has  given  rise  to  the  more  or  less 
widespread  belief  that  their  nests  are  made  of  ''sea  moss." 

Among  the  remaining  forms  there  may  be  mentioned  21  species  of 
cuckoos,  1  cockatoo,  19  parrots  and  paroquets,  19  woodpeckers,  bar- 
bets,  broadbills,  starlings,  orioles,  weaver  finches,  larks,  nuthatches, 
24  species  of  beautifully  colored  sun  birds,  and  23  of  flower  peckers, 
titmice,  shrikes  and  swallow  shrikes,  tailor  birds,  thrushes,  fruit 
thrushes,  fairy  bluebirds,  firebirds,  42  flycatchers,  4  swallows,  and  5 
species  of  most  beautifully  colored  pittas,  or  ant  thrushes,  as  well  as 
a  large  number  of  birds  belonging  to  the  Timeliidge,  and  several  other 
families  for  which  English  names  can  not  readily  be  supplied. 

The  breeding  habits  of  the  tailor  bird  are  particularly  worthy  of 
note.  There  are  nine  species  of  the  genus  Orthotomus  in  the  Philip- 
pines. So  far  as  their  breeding  habits  are  known,  they  all  stitch 
together  green  leaves  by  piercing  their  edges  with  their  long,  slender 
beaks  and  passing  thread  obtained  from  spider  webs,  cocoons,  or  other 
sources  back  and  forth  through  the  holes  thus  made.  As  the  leaves 
remain  attached  to  the  branches  and  are  in  no  wise  injured  by  this 
process,  they  form  a  green  sack,  within  which  the  nest  is  so  perfectly 
concealed  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  discover  it.  Although  the 
birds  are  excessively  common,  their  nests  are  extremely  difficult  to 

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The  reptiles  and  batrachians  of  the  Philippine  Islands  have  been 
but  little  studied;  nevertheless  a  large  number  of  forms  is  known,  of 
which  we  shall  mention  only  a  few  of  the  more  important. 

The  largest  snake  in  the  archipelago  is  the  python,  known  to  the 
natives  as  saua.  It  is  not  uncommon  to  see  immature  specimens  oflfered 
for  sale  in  the  larger  towns,  where  they  are  put  in  storehouses  and 
over  the  ceilings  of  rooms  in  dwelling  houses  in  order  that  they  may 
keep  down  the  pest  of  rats.  As  they  grow  larger  they  prey  upon 
chickens  and  pigs,  and  individual  specimens  which  have  developed  a 
taste  in  this  direction  often  cause  much  annoyance  in  the  native  villages. 

In  the  forests  of  the  archipelago  they  sometimes  attain  to  enormous 
size.  These  very  large  specimens  live  on  "wild  hogs,  monkeys,  and 
deer.  They  often  have  fixed  abiding  places,  called  by  the  natives  their 
''houses,"  in  the  shape  of  caves  in  the  limestone  rocks  or  hollows  in 
large  trees,  to  which  they  return  after  gorging  themselves  with  food, 
and  where  they  apparently  spend  the  greater  part  of  their  time. 

The  most  extravagant  tales  are  told  by  the  natives  as  to  their  size, 
and  it  is  not  uncommon  to  hear  of  specimens  "60  feet  long,  with  eyes 
like  saucers  and  heads  as  big  as  demijohns."  Two  specimens  were 
obtained  by  the  Menage  Scientific  Expedition  in  1892,  one  of  which 
measured  22  feet  8  inches  in  length,  the  other  22  feet  6  inches.  Each 
of  these  specimens  had  a  maximum  circumference  of  21  inches  with 
the  stomach  entirely  empty.  Facilities  for  weighing  them  were  not 
at  hand,  but  the  weight  was  estimated  at  about  375  pounds  each. 

Large  pythons  are  particularly  numerous  in  the  Calamianes  Islands, 
Basilan,  Mindanao,  and,  it  is  said,  also  in  Bohol.  Their  abundance  in 
any  given  locality  seems  to  be  largely  a  matter  of  food  supply. 

They  sometimes  occasion  loss  to  cattle  owners  by  killing  their  young 
animals,  and  they  have  been  known  to  attack  and  kill  human  beings. 

The  specimens  kept  in  and  about  the  houses  become  tame  and  are 
entirely  harmless. 

Among  the  nonvenomous  serpents  there  is  a  small  group  of  some 
ten  species,  representing  four  genera,  which  are  exclusively  confined 
to  the  Philippines. 

There  are  numerous  venomous  serpents  in  the  Philippines.  The 
annual  mortality  from  snake  bites  is  said  to  be  great  in  the  little 
island  of  Lubang  to  the  northwest  of  Mindoro,  but  is  certainly  not  seri- 
ous in  any  other  island  of  the  group,  although  tfiere  are  cobras  in  the 
eastern  chain  of  islands  and  in  the  Calamianes  group.  The  genera 
Elaps,  Naja,  and  Erigonocephalus  are  also  represented. 

The  poison  of  some  of  the  venomous  species  is  extremely  active, 
and,  if  fairly  introduced  into  the  circulation,  ends  in  death,  so  that 
only  prompt  and  radical  measures  will  save  life  after  one  has  been 

The  natives  are  firm  believers  in  the  efficacy  of  "  the  snake  stone," 
of  which  the  following  curious  account  has  been  given  by  Father  Del- 
gado,  when  speaking  of  the  snake  known  to  Tagalogs  as  alupon,  and 
to  the  Visayans  as  aguason.     He  says: 

It  is  found  almost  in  the  sea,  as  well  as  in  the  plains,  the  towns,  and