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Full text of "A review of Science 10 as a course in integrated physical science with special reference to its background, purposes, implementation and classroom presentation"

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University of Alberta Libraries 



The undersigned hereby certify that they have 
read and recommend to the School of Graduate Studies 
for acceptance, a thesis entitled A REVIEW OF SCIENCE 
by Douglas Haig Jardine in partial fulfilment of the 
requirements for the degree of Master of Education. 





August, 1956 

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To the teachers who were kind enough to fill in the 
questionnaire .... 

To the officials of the Department of Education, 

Mr. J.C. Yates, LIr. A.B. Evenson and Mr. H.G. Sweet, who 
readily supplied information requested by the writer .... 

To the members of the thesis committee, 

Mr. E.C. Melsness, Dr. H.^. MacGregor, Mr. H.T. Sparby, and 
Mr. G. Hampson, who gave patient and sympathetic guid¬ 
ance .... 

To these, and to all others who assisted in the 
preparation of this work, the writer sincerely acknowledges 
his debt. 













1. Teachers of Science and Their 

Qualifications . 40 

2. The Science Classroom and Laboratory 

Facilities . 50 

3. The Textbook -- Its Structure and Use 55 

4. Experimentation and Demonstration .... 65 

5. Evaluation in Science .. 75 


A. Review of the Literature. 85 

B. Implementing Physical Science in 

Alberta .. 92 

C. Science 10 -- Nature and Aims . 96 


Teachers^ Qualifications . 108 

Facilities Available for Science Teaching 110 

Purposes of Teaching Science .. 116 

The Authorized Text and Its Use . 125 


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Experimentation and Demonstration.. 131 

Evaluation... 137 

Comments on Course in General . 143 




A. Tlie Q,uestionnaire .. 160 

B. Covering Letter to Questionnaire . 171 



table page 

!• Experience of Teachers . 105 

II. Training of Teachers Beyond Grade XII . 106 

III. Xuniber of Teachers in Schools of 

Various Sizes . 106 

IV. Degree of Specialization in Science . 107 

V. The Science Room and Its Facilities. Ill 

VI. Location of Laboratory Facilities . 113 

VII. Have You Enough Materials and Equipment to 
Demonstrate and Experiment Frequently/ and 
Effectively? . 114 

VIII. Is Mastery of Content the Prime Concern in 

Science Teaching? . 116 

IX. Do You Teach for Intangible Outcomes 

Deliberately and Definitely? . 117 

X. Reasons for Hot Teaching Deliberately 

for Intangible Outcomes .. 118 

XI. Intangible Outcomes Sought in 

Order of Importance . 119 

XII. Methods of Teaching fcr Intangibles ......... 120 

XIII. Number of Teachers Evaluating 

Intangible Outcomes . 121 

XIV. Methods of Evaluating Growth in the 

Intangible Outcomes . 122 

XV. How Teachers Use the Basic Textbook. 126 

XVI. Opinions of the Basic Textbook . 127 

XVII. Opinions Upon Certain Aspects of the Basic 
Textbook by Teachers Deliberately Concerned 
with Intangible Outcomes .. 128 



table page 

XVIII. Extent to V/hich Teachers Experiment 

and Demonstrate . 132 

XIX. Extent to Vi/hich Pupils Are Able to Experiment 

and Demonstrate by Themselves . 132 

XX. Reasons for Pupil Eon-Participation in 

Experimental Work . 133 

XXI. Purposes of Laboratory Activities . 134 

aJ.11. Do You Regard Constant Testing As A Vital 

Part of Your Program? ... 137 

XXIII. Frequency of Foriaal Testing ... 137 

XXrv. Do You Give Comprehensive Tests? . 138 

XXV. Purposes for Which Tests Are Given .. 138 

aJMI. Relative Importance of Various Types of 

Questions in Testing Mastery of Content . 139 

XXVII. Extent to Which Marks Are Given for Work 

Other Than Performances on Formal Tests. 140 

XXVIIL Sources of Marks Other Than Formal Tests .... 141 

XXIX. Computation of the Final Mark for the 

Year’s Work .. 141 

XXX. Opinions of the Integrated Course .. 145 

XXXI. General Opinions of the Course by Specialized 

and Experienced Science Teachers .. 146 

iCXXII. Opinions of the Integrated Course by 

Specialized and Experienced Science Teachers . 146 




Science was not always considered an acceptable 
school subject and *^systems of education have been slow to 
recognize the value of science.”^ Nevertheless, with its 
increasing importance in human affairs during the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries, science inevitably found a certain 
place in the schools of the time. Its position became in¬ 
creasingly secure a hundred years ago when such eminent 
thinkers as Spencer and Huxley championed its claim to edu¬ 
cational recognition and, today, few people will question its 
validity as a school subject. 

It is now an integral part of our high school curri¬ 
culum, and ®there is wider interest and increased enrolment 
in science courses.” 

Nor is the reason for its present prominence difficult 
to find. The modern industrial world was created by science 
and the implications of scientific knowledge influence the 

^G.W. Hunter, Science Teaching at Junior and Senior 
High School Levels , p. 15. 

National Society for the Study of Education, Science 
Education in American Schools, 46th Yearbook, p. 294. 

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daily lives of each one of us. The resulting challenge to 
our schools seems a clear one: that scientific discoveries 
be intelligently understood and their applications be used 
to worthy ends. Thus, ”as educational opportunities for all 
and for longer periods are used more widely, more effectively, 
there is imperative need for increase in education by means 


Of science and for spread of scientific knowledge.« As our 
scientific society becomes more conplex, science teachers 
can reasonably anticipate continued emphasis upon their sub¬ 
ject. The 46th Yearbook states this fact very clearly: "The 
alternative to omitting, reducing, or failing to improve and 

increase science education is to deny the achievements and 


impact made by science in modern living." 

But while the validity of science as a high school 
subject remains unchallenged, the aims and methods of science 
instruction have caused much concern to educators. Bor the 
past few decades, the purposes of science teaching have been, 
as have the aims of many other subjects, under persistent 
criticism from dissatisfied educators. These attacks have 
been answered by vigourous re-statements of the traditional 
positions or by re-assessments and revisions. liow to keep 
the aims of science teaching consistent with the aims of 
modern education, as defined in each period, has taken the 

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energies of many concerned with an optimum development of the 
possibilities of science as a school subject. Even today 
the matter is not settled# fhe modern teacher, no longer 
concerned with the question, "Shall we teach science in our 
high schools?", still faces its sequel, "How are we going 
to teach it, and to what end?" 

Evidence of this concern with educational aims is 
seen also in Alberta# In 1952 a new science course was 
introduced into grade ten in the provincial high schools. 
Science 10, as this course is called, represented the first 
step in a general revision of the entire high school science 
program# Its significance, however, does not end here# It 
is not just another science course, re-arranged and brought 
up-to-date factually# Science 10 acquires an additional 
importance in that it is the culmination of many trends 
which have influenced our educational thinking. In the aims 
of this course, science teachers will note a decided change 
of emphasis; they cannot be neglectful of its implications. 


Many teachers will welcome the newer approach; others 
will be antagonistic to it; more may be uncertain of just what 
is involved# But, in any case, a study of the new course, its 
background and practicability is an important task for all 
science instructors# Whether they will agree or not with its 

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aims is, at present, beside the point; disagreement or con¬ 
formity must be intelligently directed. Thus, a need to 
examine carefully the important phases of Science 10 is im¬ 
perative. This thesis has been v/ritten in an attempt to 
meet this need* 

This study in its attempt to evaluate the Science 10 
program must consider fully the aims behind the course, but 
any appraisal would be inadequate if it concerned itself with 
these alone* For a more balanced view, two other factors 
must be considered as well* These are the classroom teacher 
and the facilities with which he has to work* As ”the major 

- 5 

factor in gaining improvement in science education” the 
teacher has a great responsibility. No matter how well- 
founded the aims of any course may be, their implementation 
could come to nothing if the teacher is ignorant of or un¬ 
sympathetic to these aims, if he is poorly qualified as an 
instructor, or if his facilities are unduly restricted* If 
this be true in an established course, how much more vital 
is the teacher’s role in a new course which purports to 
alter many of the traditional objectives of the subject? 

In the light of the above, the purposes of this study 
are as follows: 

. p. 295. 

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1. To review, by reference to authoritative studies in the 

field, educational opinion on the nature and aims of the 

modern high-school science program. This task is at¬ 
tempted by: 

a. surveying historically the relevant trends and 
noting their influence upon present-day concepts 
of science teaching. 

b. determining the principles basic to the physical 
science and the integrated physical science 

e. reviewing opinion on many factors (use of text, 
training of teachers, etc.) inherent in the 
presentation of a modern course in science. 

S. To gain specific insight into the nature of Science 10 by: 

a. discerning the influence of the above trends and 
principles upon the construction of this course. 

b. reviewing the actual steps in its implementation. 

c. analysing the Curriculum Guide for an official 
declaration of aims and purposes. 

3. To determine by means of a questionnaire: 

a. teacher reaction to the aims of Science 10. 

b. teacher opinion on the value of the present 
Science 10 course as an effective high-school 

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c* the conditions under v/hich it is being taught, 
(teachers’ qualifications, equipment, etc.) 

4. To assess from the above what may be the strong and 
weak points of Science 10. 

5. To suggest means of improvement wherever shortcomings 
appear to exist either in the construction of the course 
or in its presentation. 


The writer is aware that several factors may restrict 
the effectiveness of the study in its appraisal of the actual 
teaching of Science 10. A questionnaire, at best, enjoys 
only a limited circulation; its construction may be defec¬ 
tive in certain respects; furthermore, some teachers complete 
it thoughtlessly. 

Again, much of the data may be difficult to appraise 
accurately. It is difficult to evaluate the effectiveness 
of any teacher’s presentation of the course by merely indica¬ 
ting his years of training and some of the conditions under 
which he works. 

It is hoped, however, that the diversity of replies 
has revealed a representative picture, that the careful con¬ 
struction of the questionnaire has given much pertinent data, 
and that the teachers on the whole have answered with care. 

The writer is confident that the information collec- 


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ovt'jo r:oi^ -nx j i: 1 o. . t£..t J.xGoXtooo at ‘xg::,Li.v oot 


ted can serve as a source of valid generalizations when con¬ 
sidered in the aggregate. These generalizations, in turn, 
will serve to direct attention to any strengths and weak¬ 
nesses in the construction and teaching of the course. 

-noo itoi'v,' 3:iol-ji/siL*to so'iuoe e 
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■ilb o:t O'.n’aa IXtw. 
[00 adt al asaaori 





That our conception of the purposes of science in¬ 
struction has changed greatly is evident after even a casual 
reading of the literature on the subject. «The purpose of 
teaching physics is to teach physics — what more?’»^ — that 
succinct question and answer of the 1930*s can no longer 
satisfy the thoughtful present-day science teacher if he has 
done some reading in his field. He cannot avoid being aware 
of newer orientations and trends — trends which seem to be 
drastically altering the once conventional aims of his chosen 

The word ’trends* suggests some sort of continuity. 

In educational thought, as in most other fields, newer ideas 
have arisen progressively to challenge and modify the older 
ones. Indeed, some dissatisfaction with current aims of 
science education seems to have been evident for almost as 
long as people have looked critically at the conditions of 
public instruction. The importance of science in human 

^National Society for the Study of Education, A Pro ¬ 
gram for Teaching Science , 31st Yearbook, p. 346. 

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': io^;iol on ftBO 3' tS9I aii;^ to "iov/ena nnB HOidasjLrp toniooua 

m 0:1 U -^snonoo oor'ojoa '!^:'3£>“d-rxeeenq iutxr::SiX;ond' ^xiu vteid-aa 
c-ii^\i£ MTiocf rxove foxnrno s'!-: .bloXt six! nt edoo onob 

: a 

# , 

OfC od- ::o:-5a n'r-Inv; abne'iy -- abne'id-r .bxiB Sii^vitBd-neXio 'revxen to 
::ea-j:^o axif to, axiio Xer'oxtnevnoo ooxxo sxft ijllsoitasib 

:.■ I'Cr ’\ ^. ~~ 

^ -.teatdun 

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'lev.-jn /s'blert n^rluo d-com nf'e.p ^Inxxoi.taox/be nl 

’- % _ .?i 

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t* •• xB dno‘i-iiJD rxoxd-enteid-Baali) o^oa .boebrZ . dano 

d iOflilc -xot dfioj;:v9 BeaX ever:* ut BiiEooa :icj:dBox;be tionetoa 
to x;.:j lu tonoo ailt de vtlaoid't'xo neijlool evnn alcoei ao gnci 
nsr.'jj.i ni 3:.ii;:»Ioo to ooned'ioqxix arfx .riot toxoid ant otXcfL'q 

< b‘ to yil.; *I0t • "Jd-c tooc; 13/10X^6,.“^ 

* ^‘ ' * t-looo’iea . . go net o s ri no T xfot ,a. 


affairs helped secure science a place in the high school 

curriculum; the increasingly cogent effect of science upon 

the modern world has created steady demands that scientific 

understandings be made a more vital factor in our every day 

lives. In many important studies unfavourable appraisals of 

current programs have formed a consistent theme. A common 

criticism of traditional aims is set dom concisely by the 

31st Yearbook as "none of these is being effectively attained, 

and, as commonly conceived, none is worthy of the potential- 


ities of the subject." 

Criticism, however, has not been entirely destruc¬ 
tive; with great vigour newer aims and concomitant methods 
have been proposed to replace the old. The question, "What 
is wrong with the older aims and what better aims can we use 
in their place?" would seem to be the concern of the authori¬ 
tative investigators. To any student in the field of science 
teaching, the answers to this question provide an enriching 

Although this thesis is primarily concerned with the 
effectiveness of the Science 10 course, that effectiveness 
must be measured against the aims of the course, and these 
aims, in turn, cannot be properly understood v/ithout some 
knowledge of the trends which have influenced them. It is 

loyiloa orlJ' ni 3 ooiisxya 3'ij;oeB i>9ql0ii; 

ood^i'o:: 'lo ooy’ils d-n9::j,09 .Yigrtloae'-xoiti: &sit ^;p 

lii.*:-JHaJ: oe ai:>rff3i5i6£j ■^^jsocJ'a ibud’sq'iQ 3Bi^ bl^iow a’x^bom 'Bdf 

vjur. -/iavs MBO rii 'iguCBl: iBj'lv a OPiXi S3axf;>xia4va'xg]:)£m 

* . ’■"SvSfv 

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noi^oo A . j493'Gi:enoo e Xiagv'xe'i evBd axaBT-o^iu 

^ ® 

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beiilBj:U vXsvxu ga‘i‘19 :^nxo<f aX ©3&xf;J ,.ia -^rcon** as iood^xaaX JalS' 

-xBxJrie^foq axlu lo ai enoa ,iDSYlaoxroo '^Xnoi^oa aa jbMB 

a '- ■ 'd '.- oe[,cfi;a ©xiu lo aaitl 

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ig, s 

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adl laiv; benneon^o zi axaenx etd^ it -MiltIk 


889r:y\rx^o-lie led;)-- , ^o'xjjoy qx oorreXoI 5)xfi‘' lo oaano’xiloolla 
jOO^o Bn t OB" odd lu v^-Ib edJ be^xuasem ed jfajjj!: 

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8l .aorlt beenexfl'nil evsh ..oxiiw abito'il Oder lo e^bolv/on^ 


the purpose of this chapter, then, to survey the literature 
on the aims of science instruction, to note the emergence 
of important newer ideas, to discover the nature of the more 
established ones they attempted to modify, and, finally, to 
set out a few of the more prominent attempts to orientate 
the curriculum towards ’modem’ aims in science education. 


In the latter half of the nineteenth century, the 
university exerted an increasingly stringent control over not 
only the content of the high school courses but over their 
methods of presentation as well. ”What fits for college, 


fits for life,” seemed to be the slogan. Nevertheless, this 
influence was viewed uneasily by many who succeeded in adding 
a number of ’practical* courses whose aims v/ere directed 
toward preparation for life rather than toward a direct 


preparation for college. Although many of these newer sub¬ 
jects, history, modern languages, etc,, are common today, 
their inclusion into the curriculum of the 70*s and 80*s was 
not entirely welcome. They were **the modern and practical 
subjects at which the college looked askance and mental dis- 
ciplinists openly cast scorn and ridicule.” Yet, despite 

%orth Central Association, Hi^h School Curriculum 
Re-organization , p. 7, 



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this disdain, these courses did receive a measure of support: 

The idea of a high school that should frankly and with¬ 
out unnecessary indirection steer toward the more im¬ 
mediate demands of citizenship, occupation and local 
leadership was too well-suited to the ambitions of our 
practical minded citizens and too much in accord with 
out ever developing notions of democracy to be sub¬ 
dued. ° 

In an attempt to set the educational house in order, 
the National Nducational Association set up a committee in 
1892 one of whose tasks, in reviewing the high school scene, 
was to set forth the proper aims of instructions in the 
secondary schools. The committee, composed largely of col¬ 
lege teachers and established educational leaders, published 
its findings in 1893 as the Report of the Committee of Ten * 
This report is valuable as a declaration of authoritative 
opinion at the turn of the century. 

Its conclusions are interesting. Preparation for the 
duties of life was considered to be the major purpose of the 
high school but only for *Hhat small proportion of all chil¬ 
dren ... who show themselves able to profit from an educa- 


tion prolonged to the eighteenth year.” The case for an 
exclusive high school is clearly implied. The reference to 
’preparation for life’, therefore, despite its modern ring, 
has a far from modern connotation. Capable pupils were to 
be prepared for life through the intellectual training they 

. p. 8. 

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received in mastering academic subjects. The method was the 
thing and the value derived from any subject ?ms measured 
against the criterion of the intellectual discipline it 
afforded. Instruction should be ”intellectually thorough, 


consecutive and disciplinary^. As the v/ell-established 
subjects, such as Latin, Greek and mathematics best provided 
this discipline, they viere to be preferred to the nev/er 
practical or life-centred ones v/hose study ^^lacked the more 
venerable, the surer training derived from long-continued 


Greek, Latin and mathematics." Yet the latter v/ere not 
entirely valueless; within a conservative range they could, 
provided they were properly taught, even be accepted for 
college entrance. "What fits for life will also fit for col¬ 
lege if it is academic and rightly taught.It would 
appear that intellectually rigourous methods were presumed to 
have a double value: they made certain subjects worthy of col¬ 
lege acceptance, and they provided intellectual training 
which in its own right was preparation for life. 

In 1932 the 31st Yearbook of the National Society 
for the Study of Education neatly summed up the older aims 
as they applied particularly to training in physics and 
chemistry. "The traditional support for physics and chemis- 


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try has been stated in terms of il) formal discipline, [2] 
knowledge, (3) college preparation,”^^ 

It would appear that the high school of the time 
sought to provide training for the mind — a training most 
effectively acquired by a thorough academic study of certain 
traditional subjects. Having received this training, the 
student v/as not only intellectually disciplined but prepared 
for college as well. 

These three aims were deemed complementary, each im¬ 
plied to a degree in the others. The first formal discipline, 
is of decided interest because it reflects a psychological 
conception formerly used to support the rigourously academic 
presentation of a subject, "The common interpretation of the 

disciplinary, or training, objective is one which has develop- 


ed from faculty psychology” which held that the mind is com¬ 
posed of certain discrete faculties each of which could be 
trained through a definite type of mental activity, ’Thus, 
for example, the faculty of xmemory could be developed by 
memorizing detailed data, and the power of observation by 
meticulous laboratory ?/ork. Intellectually-thorough subject 
matter became revered as an indispensable tool in education 
because mastering it provided the required exercise for the 

31st Tearbook, p. 24. 

^^ Ibid ,, p. 26. 

.. '■ ,v.'.' • '■ 

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mental faculties; ”its very difficulty was valuable as a 


For this purpose, the logical organization of speci¬ 
alized science with its quantity of involved data was held 
to be ideally suited: 

...It was held that the study of the sciences 
possessed particular merits ...; they provided 
unique opportunity for mental discipline by training 
the faculty of observation, promoting the concentra¬ 
tion of thought and energy and providing sense train¬ 
ing through the manipulation of cBterials.^^ 

Indeed, if the theory cf mental discipline be valid, 

the exacting methods of college science ?/ere most appropriate 

in the high school science program. The statement, ^^If the 

subject matter is given in a thorough way, then the child 


is bound to get out of it as much as he puts in would 

appear, in the light of the above, to be a reasonable con¬ 
clusion. It readily follows, then, that objectives that 
express the disciplinary claiias have invariably had largest 
recognition” in many older surveys of teacher opinion. 

In surveying the period from 1880 to 1910 w^hich it 


Progressive ilducation Association, Science in 
General Education , p. 9. 

^ ^Ibid ., p. 8. 

l^G.W. Hunter, Science Teaching at Junior and Senior 
High School Levels , p. 60. 

1%.3.3.E., 31st Yearbook, p. 24. 

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regards as "the heyday of forraal disciplinethe Progres¬ 
sive Education Association noted seme of the effects of 
faculty psychology on the science program. Subject matter 
was highly formalized, involving a great deal of detailed 
classification and systemization. It v/as technical and dif¬ 
ficult. There was no distinction made between instruction 
for college-bound students and instruction for others because 
the discipline suitable for college entrance was in itself 
valuable to all as mental training. Detailed laboratory work 
was stressed for the training it gave in careful observation, 
neatness and precision. As all students ?/ere assumed to have 

the same mental faculties, little regard was held for indivi- 


dual differences of particular needs. 


Criticism of the Disciplinary Aim . To the extent that 

they depended upon the theory of mental discipline for 
justification, the traditional methods suffered as the vali¬ 
dity of this psychological foundation was questioned. The 
academic emphasis was belittled because it found "justifica- 
tion on a theory of mental gymnastics” and because of "the 

^'^Progressive Education Association, op. cit ., p. 8. 

^Q lbid . 

^^North Central Association, op. cit ., p. 9. 



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fallacy of mental discipline,^ In evaluating methods of 
science instruction as late as 1938, a writer states: 

Though modern psychology has given experimental 
proof that the conception of mental discipline is 
inadequate, much of current science teaching is not 
only congenial to this outmoded theory, but can only 
be justified in terms of it. The all too prevalent 
practice of requiring the memorization of fixed 
quotas of factual materials, the assigning of prob¬ 
lems selected primarily for their difficulty ... are 
evidence of the persistence of the faculty theory of 
mind and its correlative education aim, mental 


Criticism of the Preparatory Aim . Concomitantly with the 
notions of formal discipline, the traditional aims and 
methods had been strengthened through their college orien¬ 
tations. T'irst of all, the subject matter of high-school 
science was more or less prescribed for no student could be 
admitted to advanced training without a foundation in college- 
approved preliminary subject matter. Secondly, examination 
and laboratory requirements established by the university 
combined to force the rigourous university methods upon the 
high-school teaching procedures — methods often justified 
in terms of the formal discipline theories now out of favour. 
Speaking of college domination of chemistry teaching, Hunter 

In 1872 standards began to be set by the colleges 
for acceptance of chemistry as a college entrance 

^O lbid . 

'Progressive Iducation Association, op. cit . , p. 9. 

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requirement the result was to emphasize the 
techniques of laboratory procedures, to make the 
memorization of factual material the chief aim of 
the student and to deaden initiative by requiring 
a certain nuraber of exercises, all of which had to 
be submitted as evidence of having satisfactorily 
completed the requirements for college. 

husk, considering the same influences on physics teaching 

from 1872 to 1905, notes: 

During the first twenty years, the influence 
was a markedly beneficial one, but during the 
remainder of the period, the aim of formal dis¬ 
cipline, the introduction of too much mathematics, 
and the neglect of the directly useful things led 
to the re-organization 

Many critics complained that all students were receiv¬ 
ing the training designed for the specialist and that the 
other important values of science instruction were being 
neglected. Much of the activity in science education 

had been in support of subjects and the question of educa¬ 
tional values for children in the elementary and secondary 


schools has not been given the prominence it deserves,” 
declares the 31st Yearbook in the introduction to its com¬ 
prehensive study. Morris F. Stubbs in 1927 noted that a 
frequent objection against the chemistry teaching of the time 
was that ”it aims to turn out chemists rather than intellig- 

^%unter, op. cit * , pp. 42-43. 
^^Ibid., p. 44. 

^^h.S.S.S. , 31st Yearbook, p. ix. 

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ent citizens.” And the 46th Yearbook of the National 
Society for the Study of Education discussing this situation 
as late as 1947 declares: 

We have prepared our students for a variety of 
professions in which scientific knowledge and scien¬ 
tific methods are put to work ... we have failed, 
however, to educate through our science, the boys 
and girls who are not going to be scientists. We 
have not prepared a generation of adults to find 
their bearings in an age of science.2^ 

The validity of this preparatory aim was under attack 
for another, but unrelated, reason. The greatly increased 
enrolment in the high school provided one of these. This 
increase greatly lessened the proportion of pupils planning 
to enter college. The 31st Yearbook uses this fact to fur¬ 
ther depreciate the preparatory aim. ”A large proportion of 
pupils who study high school science do not enter college, 

and, of those who do, a relatively small proportion will 


specialize in a field of science.” and adds a further 

general condemnation, ^Available data suggest at once that 

much of the support for this objective is of doubtful valid- 

ity.” To add support to this statement, the 31st Y'earbook 

Stubbs, ”The Place and Problems of Chemistry 
in the High School Curriculum,” School Science and Mathematics , 
(October, 1927), XXVII, p. 742. 

^^National Society for the Studs'" of Education, Science 
Education in American Schools , 46th Yearbook, pp. 248-249. 

^"^N.S.S.E., 31st Yearbook, p. 25. 


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quotes ’’available data»» from the studies of Noll, Carnog and 
Colbert — all of which failed to detect any advantage for 
the pupil on the basis of college achievement for having 
taken specialized science in the high school.Thus em¬ 
phasis upon the preparatory objective ”has, in current 
practice, resulted in a large amount of wasted effort. 
Criticism of the Informative Aim . These objections to 

the purely preparatory aims were also, in part, attacks upon 
the informative one as well. But to this third aim of tra¬ 
ditional instruction another criticism was directed. The 
desire to impart to the students a broad knowledge of the 
field far too often resulted in a pre-occupation with facts 
for their own sake. The subject matter had become too com¬ 
plex, too detailed for effective mastery, and ’*the texts in 


use have become encyclopedias of information.’* ”We shall 

attempt in vain to teach all the factual material that has 

been outlined under the special divisions commonly recog- 

nized,” continues the 31st Yearbook. Often the student was 
so entangled in a maze of facts that he failed to get an over¬ 
view of the essential concepts. In discussing high school 
chemistry, the North Central Association study of 1933 des- 

^^ Ibld . . pp. 25-26. . p. 26. 

51 Ibid .. p. 24. ^^ Ibld .. p. 26. 

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cribed this subject as ”a confused mass of abstract technical 
facts and principles, bearing few discernible relationships 
to actual life, but only those internal relationships which 
are of interest to trained scientists.To this, after con¬ 
sidering high school science in general, Hunter adds his con- 
demnationj "The chief difficulty with science as it is taught 

today seems to be that factual information is amassed for its 


own sake and not for what it will do." The 31st Yearbook 
comments, "Current practices in science teaching and in other 
fields have been severely and justly criticized for overemphas¬ 
is on memory work for the purpose of enabling the pupil to 


reproduce unrelated facts." 

Furthermore, much of this subject matter so labouri- 
ously acquired was soon forgotten. Hurd in 1928 dealt with 
this matter and put forth a reason which suggests a basis for 

..."Why is it true that three months, or six months 
or a year, or two years, after having studied science ... 
the average student knows very little about the material 
covered in the course?" ... Some teachers might say, it is 
because the material was not learned to the point of 
mastery. Others might say that it is because the 
material is not closely enough associated with the 
daily life experiences or the needs of the pupils; 
the subject matter does not tie up with life; it doesn^t 
function; therefore, it is soon forgotten. 

^%orth Central Association, op. cit ., p. 239. 

^%lunter, op. cit . , p. 225. 

31st Yearbook, p. 59. 

^^A.W. Hurd, "Present Inadequacies and Suggested Remedies 
in the Teaching of High School Science," School, Science and 
Mathematics, XIYII (June, 1928), p. 638. 



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Hurd’s comments suggest a reason for the defect as 
well as a criticism of it. Indeed, criticism cannot be long 
separated from proposals for reform. Although many critics 
have consistently attacked the conventional aims of high 
school science education, they have been no less active in 
emphasizing the need for newer ones which, in their opinions, 
must be better adapted to the requirements of twentieth cen¬ 
tury society. The essential point of most of the persistent 
attacks on the older aims is the charge that they had little 
functional bearing on actual life. They had become out of 
date, it was claimed, and their persistence reveals "evident 

discrepancies between the best thought in education and current 


practices in the teaching of science." 

Accordingly, the Committee of Ten Report of 1893 did 

not remain unchallenged for long. There were "dissatisfaction 


and remonstrance from the various groups" in touch with high 
school pupils. Awareness of "the fallacy of mental discipline 
and the actualities of life"^^ caused criticism to grow in 

An early significant pronouncement on this natter was 

^'^N.S.S.S., 31st iearbook, p. ix. 

^%orth Central Association, op. cit . , p. 9. 


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issued in 1918 as The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Edu ¬ 
cation by the National Education Association. In direct op¬ 
position to the Committee of Ten Report , this study put forth 
direct life preparation as the keystone of all effective 
teaching. Here the main aims of education v/ere itemized 
under several functional categories: (a) health, (b) command 
of fundamental processes, (c) worthy home membership, (d) 
vocation, ie) citizenship, (f) worthy use of leisure time, 

(g) ethical character. To prepare the pupil for immediate 
and mundane aspects of living is the concern of the school. 
Attention is abruptly turned from values implied in the mas¬ 
tery per ^ of a subject to values contingent upon using 
knowledge for solving life’s problems. 

The 1918 report was followed two years later by 
another entitled Re-organization of Science in Secondary 
Schools in which the same association attempted to set out 
science’s peculiar values in this preparation for life. 
Science could, it was here stated, make particular contri¬ 
bution to six of these ’life’ aims. These pertained to 

health, worthy home membership, vocation, citizenship, use 


of leisure, and ethical character. 

These two reports represent a long step in removing 

"^^R.S.S.E., 31st learbook, p. 18. 

^^ Ibid . , p. 19. 

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high school science from the influence of mental discipline 

and college preparation. Iheir program was a significant 

attempt to make the subject ”more functional and effective 


in the every day life of students.” According to the 
31st Yearbook: 

The recognized achievement of the Commission has 
been to shift emphasis in thinking concerning educa¬ 
tional problems from values assumed to be associated 
with mastery of subjects to values which are more 
directly associated with human relations. 

Indeed the need for functional objectives in science 
instruction appears to be a main principle in recent educa¬ 
tional literature. In this connection, a 1933 study states 
that "attention is now being directed mainly to the con¬ 
struction of curricular units of a more directly functional 

nat^ore.” Hunter in 19 34 asks this question, "The child 
of today is brought up in an atmosphere of practical science, 
and yet how many of us are explaining to him the problems 
with which he comes in contact in his daily life?” and con¬ 
tinues by contending that "courses in science should first of 
all interpret the environment of the pupils so that they may 
best prepare themselves for a sane and healthy life in that 

^^Progressive Education Association, op. cit *, p. 11. 
31st Yearbook, p. 19. 

^%orth Central Association, op. cit ., p. 4. 

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environment In discussing a new physics course in 

1933, the North Central Association Committee stated their 

belief that "the subject material should bear upon his j^e 

pupil^ necessities and his experiences in daily life *. 

A co-operative project carried on in seventeen 
secondary schools under the supervision of the Bureau of 
Educational Research of feachers College, Columbia Univer¬ 
sity held the view that "curricular materials and methods of 
teaching consciously selected because of immediate signifi¬ 
cance to human living will better serve young people than 

those in which such a significance, if present at all, is 

incidental." Their aims in science teaching were clearly 
set "to lead young people to a clearer understanding of 
society, of the social function of science and of their 
individual needs and interests.""^® Both the 31st and 46th 
Yearbooks of the N.3.S.E. have approved the newer objectives. 
In the 31st Yearbook we read: "This committee, then, recog¬ 
nizes the aim of science teaching to be contributory to the 

4:5iiunter, op. cit *, p. 13. 

^^North Central Association, op. cit . , p. 274. 

^"^Bureau of Educational Research in Science, New 
Directions in Science Teaching , p. 2. 

^Q lbid ., p. 4. 

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aim of education; viz., life enrichment.” The 46th Year¬ 
book, in considering the social values of science teaching 
states the following: 

It is becoming increasingly more important that 
the science teacher seek out the social implications 
of his materials of instruction and deal with them 
in such a way that they give promise of having more 
carry-over values to aid the pupil as he attempts 
to adjust to the problems encountered in his daily 


For their adequate fulfillment the newer ideas re¬ 
quired two things: first, an acceptance of their validity 
by educators, and second, a complete overhaul of the subject 
matter and curriculum to guide and facilitate their implement¬ 

That the newer concepts were gaining acceptance is 

noted in many places. Speaking of general science in the 

decade preceding 1930, Hunter notes a ^noticeable, gradual 

emphasis on material of civic or social value, indicating 

that the philosophy of education for citizenship was the 

keynote of the decade.Although physics and chemistry 

up to 1933 have in his view ”gone placidly along reflecting 


the college domination in content and method,” Hunter 

^^N.S.S.E. , 31st Yearbook, p. 57. 

^%.3.S.E., 46th learbook, p. 141. 

<"1 52 

^■^iiunter, op. cit . , p. 39. Ibid . , p. 150. 

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concedes that '^even the raore static courses in chemistry and 

physics are beginning to shov; signs of meeting life conditions 


Of pupils more than college entrance requirements.^^ 

In comparing the results of two similar questionnaires 

sent out to a great number of high school teachers in 1930 

and in 1941, hunter and Spore found the overall picture quite 

favourable to the newer objectives. These questionnaires 

presented a long and varied list of objectives from which 

teachers were requested to indicate their preferences. "In 

1930 at the senior high school level the propaedeutic function 

stood first on the list of science objectives given by science 


teachers .... In 1941 it stood as twenty-third on a list." 

This difference in preference for one of the v/ell-intrenched 

’traditional* objectives, Hunter and Spore ccnsider most 

striking. They continue: 

Evidently many of the state supported schools are 
saying to the college and universities, ’you must 
take our products as we prepare them for life for v/e 
are not interested in training for college examina¬ 
tions as such.^^ 

And the 46th Tearbook in summarizing the trends to 
1945 states in referring to biology, that "during the past 

^^ Ibld ., p. 112. 

iiunter and L. Spore, "Objectives of Science in 
the Secondary Schools of the u.S.A.", School Science and 
Mathematics aLIII (Oct., 1943J, p. 640. 


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ten years, particularly, the trend has been tov/ard focusing 

attention less on the organization of subject matter and more 

on the results in the lives of the learners.For science 

instruction in general, ’’The fact that so much attention is 

being directed tavard education for effective adjustment 

carries a significant implication for secondary school 

science." It would appear that the traditional em_phasis 
upon college preparation and upon ’facts for their ovm sake’ 
was lessening while a concept of science instruction with a 
bearing upon the concerns of everyday life was gaining in¬ 
creasing favour. 

^%.S.S.E. , 46th Yearbook, p. 184. 

Ibid ., p. 141 



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Although teachers of secondary science have become 
increasingly sympathetic «to the need for transferring a 
subject from a scholastic discipline or a formal college pre¬ 
requisite into a means of direct education for the activities 

of life^’^j they have often lacked guidance in revising the 


subject matter to this end. 

Indeed, making the curriculum effectively life- 
centred is no easy task. In contrast, the construction of 
traditional courses was relatively clear-cut and direct. 

Under the standards set up by the university the purpose of 
instruction was clear and the methods of schieving it rela¬ 
tively precise. With the aid of a logically-organized text 
the subject matter was covered nethodically and rigourously, 
the prescribed number of experiments were performed, and the 
student was examined to see if he had mastered the knowledge 
and techniques set out. 

^North Central Association, High School Curriculum Re ¬ 
organization , p. IE. 

^ Ibld .. p. 11. 

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As long as education could be conceived as con¬ 
sisting mainly in the training of the faculties, the 
purpose of science instruction was clear. Science 
information was organized in systematic and logical 
fashion, and laboratory work was carried out with 
meticulous detail in order to train the faculties 
of observation, memory, reasoning and the like.3 

Finally, formal examinations and laboratory tests could 

indicate quite clearly hov/ effective the teaching of the 

materials of the course had been. 

Lacking these more or less definite criteria of tra¬ 
ditional science, the creators of functional courses, on the 
other hand, had to find answers to many basic questions before 
an adequate course could appear. The outcomes sought, the 
organization of subject matter, the program of evaluation, 
provision for specialist-minded students, and the like re¬ 
quired attention. It is one thing ”to assent to the need” 
for a change in emphasis in science teaching, ”but another 
thing to effect this.”^ 

Nevertheless, many attempts have been imde to lay 
at least the broad foundation for a curriculum of functional 
science. A general review of some of the more important of 
these follows. The reader v/ill note that although the ap¬ 
proach may vary, the need for making science bear directly on 
everyday living is the basic justification for each program. 

^Progressive Education Association, Science in Q-eneral 
Education , pp. 15-16. 

%orth Central Association, op. cit ., p. 12. 



The 1918 and 1920 reports of the Committee on the 
Re-organization of Secondary Education, in attempting a 
wholesale revision of the aims of education, proposed many 
changes in the science program. Some of the more note¬ 
worthy were: that science instruction be continuous and 
progressive iiiroughout the entire school, that greater at¬ 
tention should be given to individual abilities, and that 
a revision of the old-fashioned disciplinary functions of 


science should be undertaken. Perhaps its greatest con¬ 
tribution was an attempt to make science instruction bear 
more directly on the pupil’s life by outlining those areas 
of everyday living where science instruction could be par¬ 
ticularly fruitful. These were: health, worthy home mem¬ 
bership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure, and 
ethical character. To constitute these six areas as basic 
objectives cf science instruction was a determined break 
from traditional thinking with its stress on disciplinary 
and preparatory values.^ 

The next step in such a program was clear. The edu¬ 
cator had to determine those specific facts, experiences, and 
skills needed by high school pupils to live most effectively. 

^National Society for the Study of Education, A Program 
for Teaching Science , 31st Yearbook, pp. 18-19. 


and then construct a curriculum that would best provide 
them. Unless an item of subject matter made effective con¬ 
tribution to one or more of the six fields chosen as objec¬ 
tives it would be excluded. All parts of the curriculum must 
”be submitted to the test of social and personal relevancy in 
a modern democratic society.” 

51st and 46th YEARBOOKS OF THE N.S.S.E . 

The National Association for the Study of Education 
is an important body whose pronouncements are considered 
highly authoritative. The 31st and 46th Yearbooks of this 
group, after evaluating previous and current trends in this 
field, attempt to set forth a cocprehensive science program. 

The 31st Yearbook, published in 1932, considers that 
the basic aim of all education is to enable the individual 
”to participate intelligently and with satisfaction in the 


experiences of living.” To this end of enriched living, 
science instruction shares with all other types of instruc¬ 
tion the task of contributing as effectively as possible. 

Indeed, science has a i^ecial contribution to make 
because we live in a world so greatly altered by scientific 
discoveries that a knowledge of their implications is needed 


North Central Association, op. cit . , p. 11. 

%.3.S.E., 31st Yearbook, p. 43. 

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for an understanding of society itself, i'urthermore, seien- 
tific attitudes wliicli should arise with the study of science 
are themselves valuable in dealing with many of the problems 
of everyday life. In short, both an understanding of the 
environment and the ability to use the scientific method in 
dealing with it can contribute to the goal of ’life enrich- 


ment* by helping the student live more intelligently. They 
are, therefore, valid objectives of science instruction. 

This understanding of the environment can best be 
achieved, in the Yearbook’s view, by presenting to the pupil 
the most useful principles of science and by presenting them 

so effectively that their nature and implications are 


thoroughly grasped. Yor this purpose, all instruction, 
even that of the highly specialized sciences, must be or¬ 
ganized around tliese generalizations. 

From all the generalizations of science, which ones 
must the educator choose for his purpose? A basis for select¬ 
ing the best ones must be established. The Yearbook’s cri¬ 
terion is this: Educators must carefully choose ’’the princi¬ 
ples and generalizations that ramify most widely into human 
affairs.The reader will note the emphasis upon social 
values, the need for ’functional’ science. 

^ Ibia .. p. 43. . p. 44. 

^^ Ibld .. p. 43. 



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The school will contribute to life enrichment if 
its activities are of the kinds from v/hich ideas may 
be developed and if tiie ideas may in turn be associated 
into principles and generalizations that are inter¬ 
woven into human experience.12 

When the most useful principles have been selected 

by this standard, they must be broken up into component ones, 

and these in turn into still simpler ideas. In this way, 

something suitable, even for the most elementary grades, can 

be found. This is a vital task. The school must start in 

the lavest grades and year by year build up ever-enlarging 

understandings so that "each grade level shall present an 


increasingly mature development of the objectives." In 
this process of building up a generalization from simple 
facts we follow the scientist as he has progressed along the 
same path. Thus the pupil "is taken through the experiences 
of a discoverer, and these experiences are clarified so that 
he may come, in as large a measure as possible, to an 
appreciation of the methods of thought and action used by a 
scientific worker. 

Indeed, this progressive enrichment of an idea lends 

itself admirably to the grov/th of scientific attitudes which 

the Yearbook defines as "those of respect for tested tmth 


and the methods by which it is revealed" and considers 

^^ Ibld ., p. 42 
^ ^Ibld ., p. 47 

^^ Ibld .. p. 44 
^^ Ibid ., p. 27 



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collectively a concomitant aim of science education. The 
related skills which together constitute *the scientific 
method’ can also become a valuable part of the student’s 
thinking if care is taken to nourish them.^^ Since they are 
useful tools in life adjustment, their acquisition is like¬ 
wise a valid outcome of science instruction. 

This twofold purpose of science education is em¬ 
phasized in the following statement: 

... The attainment of an objective means the 
attainment of understanding, together with the 
development of mental attitudes that may be 
associated with understanding, and it means the 
development of ability to use tec^iques and 
methods of working and thinking.^' 

The 46th Yearbook, entitled Science Education in 
American Schools and coming fifteen years later than the 
31st, reaffirms, in the main, the outlook of its predecessor. 
It agrees with tbe concern for social and personal goals 
because all the objectives of science teaching ’’are means 
to the end of more effective adjustment.”"^ It views 
favourably the two-fold general statement of the 31st, that 
science iraterials must be organized for understanding around 
worthwhile generalizations and that the acquiring of scienti¬ 
fic skills and attitudes should be a valid concomitant out- 

^^ Ibid . , p. 50. ^*^ Ibid . , p. 41. 

l^National Society for the Study of Education, Science 
Education in American Schools , 46th yearbook, p. 150. 

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come of mastering the subject matter. 

The 46th Yearbook and its predecessor have itemized in 
great detail several sets of specific component objectives 
under the following headings: 

A. (irowth in the functional understanding of facts. 

B. Development of functional concepts. 

C. Growth in functional understanding of principles. 

D. Growth in basic instrumental skills . 

D. Grov/th of skill in the use of elements of scienti¬ 
fic method. 

F. Development of scientific attitudes. 

G. Growth in development of appreciations. 

H. Growth in the development of interests.^^ 

The word ”functional” which appears several times in 

the above outline receives considerable emphasis throughout 

the entire yearbook. "Science concepts and principles must 


also be taught so that they will be functional." To ensure 

this, "once concepts and principles have been meaningfully 

developed, they should be used and used over and over again 

...." Indeed, the same criterion applies likev^ise to the 
remaining objectives. "Learning outcomes in science educa- 

^^ Ibld ., pp. 23-29. ^° Ibid .. p. 26. 

21lMd., p. 27. 


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tion shall function in changed behaviour. We attack mere 
verbalizations and ciechanical skills.” 

This learbook stresses particularly the validity of 
the more ”intangible" objectives of science teaching. Such 
outcomes as ’’open-mindedness", "problem sensitivity", "sus¬ 
pended judgment" and the like, v/hich, though less concrete 
than the ’information’ aspects of the program, are worthy 
and indeed capable of attainment. 

The development of competence in use of the 
scientific method of problem-solving and the incul¬ 
cation of scientific attitudes transcend in import¬ 
ance other objectives in science instruction.^^ 

However, as worthy outcomes of science instruction 
they cannot be taken for granted; they will not develop as 
a natural concomitant of knowledge. 

If these so-called ’intangibles’ are to be realized as 
objectives, they must be sought as vigourously in the 
classroom as is the functional understanding of facts, 
principles and concepts. 

To reach this end, the Yearbook gives considerable space to 
appropriate methods. 


The Progressive Education Association’s study entitled 
Science in U-eneral Education published in 1938 is "another 

SS ibid ., p. 26. ^^ Ibld .. p. 20. 

p. 150. 


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comprehensive statement of the purposes of science in general 
education*” This report considers the needs of youth in a 
democratic society as the realistic foundation of a modern 
science program.'" To this end, the authors have set down 
four basic areas of living under v/hich student needs may con¬ 
veniently be categorized. These areas are: 

1. Personal living. 

2. immediate personal-social relationships. 

3. Social-civic relationships. 


4. iiconomic relationships. 

"They are intended to serve as convenient centers of 
reference for identifying v/orthy interests and needs and for 

o o 

selecting and organizing appropriate learning experiences." 

The study analyzes specific needs appropriate to each 
aspect and attempts to relate science insti*uction to their 
fulfillment. Indeed, this matter of determining valid stu¬ 
dent needs is vital. "Understandings will be most fruitfully 
developed by students when, as has been pointed out, they are 
built in response to needs, problems, inquiries of the stu¬ 
dent himself. 

^^ Ibid ., p. 23. 

^^Progressive Education Association, op. cit ., p. 444. 

^'^ Ibld .. p. 27, ^^ Ibid . 


Ibid . , p. 449. 

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Yet, in the Committee’s vie?^, merely meeting these 
needs may not be enough. They "should be met in such ways 
as to contribute to the progressive reconstruction and re~ 


finement of the democratic way of life." In this fashion, 
science instruction is not only related to life but to our 
modern conception of a democratic one. 

To organize a curriculum upon this proposed basis of 
needs, the Committee, as did certain preceding studies, 
resorts to the generalization of science: 

The Committee has adopted the relatively simple 
method of formulating the most important generaliza¬ 
tions in the field as material suggestive to the 
science teacher in planning his program. 

In suggesting sources of worthwhile generalizations 
the report sets down several guiding principles. The science 
teacher is urged to choose interpretative generalizations be¬ 
cause these "apply the results of science to the elucidation 


of problems of wide and rather common human concern." He is 
cautioned to make certain that the degree of comprehension of 
each generalization be suited to the purpose of his instruc¬ 
tion "The most comprehensive generalizations would be the 
result of the reconstruction of experiences over a period of 
years.” Finally, he must evaluate all generalizations 
carefully "to see whether they do actually have promise of 

^^ Ibid ., p. 444. ^^ Ibid ., pp. 449-50. 

52 lbld .. p. 451. ^^ Ibid .. p. 452. 

. I i 


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meeting real student needs 

So far, this hook has indicated that student needs 
should be the basis for choosing science materials and that 
these materials, if formulated as important generalizations, 
give the best chance of effective learning. Yet there is 
still the matter of specific teaching methods. ”... it is 
important to notice that this content can rarely be separated 
from teaching methods.The science teacher must take 
pains to organize his learning experiences carefully. 

The science teacher must keep in mind not only the 
potential science understandings which may grow out 
of a given learning experience, but also the need 
for organizing learning so as to achieve the habits, 
attitudes, specific abilities and skills important 
in realizing the educational values of a democratic 

Although the report suggests a variety of suitable 
learning experiences, it warns that they may be ineffective: 

...If they are not set in an education frame¬ 
work that will give every adolescent at his own 
level repeated opportunity to think reflectively, 
to act on the basis of his o\m tentative judg¬ 
ments, to behave in ways that he realizes are 
socially sensitive, eo6perative, tolerant, and 
all the rest.^"^ 

. p. 450. 

36ihid. 2'^Ibid. 


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That the basis for a functional science program is a 
course of subject matter carefully organized to facilitate 
the aims of such a program is made clear in the representa¬ 
tive studies just reviewed. However, as there is more to 
a building than the foundation, there is more to a science 
program than its subject-matter organization. Each of the 
previous studies, as well as many others in the field, gives 
attention to various other factors whose importance in science 
teaching cannot be neglected. If this study is to give a 
clearer picture of the field under consideration, a sur¬ 
vey of opinion in these matters is essential. 

Accordingly, this chapter attempts to snyopsize cur¬ 
rent viev/s on the following: the qualifications of teachers, 
the equipping of science classrooms, the construction and use 
of the textbook, the place of experimentation and demonstra¬ 
tion, and the scope and purposes of evaluation in science. 


That any successful science teacher must have desir- 

VI aarvAiiU 


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able personal qualities can be pretty well taken for granted• 

Along with his colleagues in other subjects, he should have 

intelligence, patience, energy, understanding of children, 

good personality, ability to maintain discipline and to 

co-operate.^ Hunter, after stressing leadership, enthusiasm 

and personality as the "outstanding qualities of a great 

teacher" admits that no college training can make these 
qualities; they are part of personality. This study, there¬ 
fore, concerns itself with those qualifications which a 
period of training might well be expected to develop. 


Mastery of Subject Matter 

All the sources chosen for this study placed consider¬ 
able stress upon direct subject-matter mastery as a major 
basis of teaching competence. "The primary requisite for 
teaching any course is a sound subject matter background for 
that course," declares the 46th Yearbook and goes on to 
deplore the number of teachers inadequately qualified in 
this respect. Its predecessor, the 31st Yearbook, likewise 

%.N. Holl, Teaching of Science in Elementary and 
Secondary Schools , p. 197. 

^G.W. Hunter, Science Teaching at Junior and Senior 
High School Levels , p. 526. 

^H.S.S.E., Science Hducation in American Schools , 

46th Yearbook, p. 58. 

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.• ^A-..X.XXrxIII .11^ 



! 't;... 


has supported this view: »»It is impossible to teach any 
subject well without an adequate background of subject- 
matter training. 

Professional draining 

Hunter urges that the subject-matter background be 
oriented toward high school teaching situations. He points 
out a danger in traditional university science courses. All 
college science courses are alike for those going into re¬ 
search, medicine, engineering or teaching, uonsequently, 
teachers have to make adjustments to the pupil’s point of view. 
Although this author is skeptical about the value of tradition¬ 
al subject matter courses in themselves, his objection does 
not arise from a disbelief in the teacher’s need for adequate 
knov/ledge. He is concerned with the lack of courses in science 
organized from the teacher’s viewpoint at our college levels. 
"...Subject matter courses given should provide special train¬ 
ing in the teaching of science as well as in the subject 
matter itself."^ 

Hunter’s comments point to a basic concern in the 
preparation of teachers -- the need for professional courses, 
i.e. definite training for teaching. This matter is resolved 
into three aspects; 

%.S.^.E., A Program for Teaching Science , 
book, p. 333. 

^Hunter, op. cit ., pp. 513-14. ^ Ibid . 

31st Year- 

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> ij .J. 3 Q'X-'iii^ 


!• Teaching Techniques . Tlie first of tiiese concerns 

mastery of teaching techniques or methods. "Other things 

being equal, the more a teacher knows about the teaching 


process tbe more effective his teaching should be." The value 
of a knowledge of the principles of educational psychology 
and the need for applying them in the classroom is stressed 
in the 46th Yearbook: 

On the side of instructional techniques, the pros¬ 
pective teacher of science needs an understanding of 
human growth and of the learning processes, some 
knowledge of acceptable procedures for measurement 
and evaluation, some command of the principles of 
educational guidance, a good deal of help in methods 
of organizing and presenting the materials of in¬ 
struction, and as much pre-service experience under 
competent supervision in actually conducting class¬ 
room and laboratory work as can be provided.® 

This point of view with its insistence upon practical 
preparation is generally supported by other writers. Holl, 
notably, suggests a program of training which includes 
general psycholog 3 ^ and professional courses and considerable 
practice teaching.^ Hunter deplores the fact that rela¬ 
tively few teachers have had adequate teacher training 
opportunities.^^ Webb as quoted by Hunter "advocates that 


E.D. Heiss, E.S. Obourn and O.W. Hoffman, Modern 
Science Teaching , p. 41. 

^N.S.S.H., 46th Yearbook, p. 285. 

^Noll, op* cit ., p. 211. 
^^liunter, op. cit ., p. 518. 

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at least forty per cent of the time of the undergraduate 
course be spent in specific preparation for teaching. 

2. Background in Science . The second aspect of 
teacher training is not concerned with the techniques of 
teaching but with the broad background that any competent 
teacher may require. To what extent should a teacher be 
liberally educated? To what extent should he specialize, 
and to what extent should he have a grasp of the other branches 
of science? Each of these questions is answered with varying 

The first of these questions, "To what extent should 
a teacher be liberally educated?” receives a degree of atten- 
tion in certain studies. The 31st Yearbook proposes to be¬ 
gin its suggested program of teacher training with a course 
"built around those generalizations and principles of science 

that relate most immediately to the needs and interests of 


liberally educated people." The National Committee on 

Science Teaching proposes a schedule in which electives such 


as philosophy and sociology are well represented, and Curtis 
and Eoll recommend some work in the social sciences as provid¬ 
ing a suitable ^liberal** background.^"^ 

^^ Ibld . , p. 514. ^%.S.S.E., 31st Yearbook, p. 340. 

^^N.S.S.E., 46th learbook, p. 280. 

^^ Ibid ., p. 279. 

U ’.rj 


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The matter of degree of specialization is also de¬ 
serving of attention. That a teacher should know his subject 
well is clearly implied in all studies and several opinions 
have already been given on this matter in our review of 
subject-matter mastery. The basic problem seems to be in 
reconciling extreme specialization ViTith breadth of training 
within the sciences themselves, and may to a degree be con¬ 
sidered apart from the broader implications of a ’liberal 
education’. After noting the need for thoroughness, the 
31st Yearbook continues: 

Another convincing argument for breadth of train¬ 
ing is emphasized by the fact that biology, physics 
and chemistry are so closely related, qualifications 
for success in one major field are greatly streng¬ 
thened by training in related sciences. 

Noll states that ’’the prospective teacher needs both"^^ 

specialization and breadth of training, and continues: 

It appears then, that prospective science teachers 
should have some training in all the natural sciences 
commonly taught in the secondary schools and that some 
training in a related field like mathematics is also 
highly desirable.l'^ 

The Cooperative Committee on Science Teaching in 
speaking of teachers in smaller high schools notes a particu¬ 
lar need for teachers who are broadly trained, yet suffic- 


iently specialized to teach with authority. 


N.S.S.iii., 31st Yearbook, p. 335. 

op. Pit ., p. 208. , p. 198. 

^^Cooperative Committee on Science Teaching, ”The Pre¬ 
paration of iii^-School Science Teachers,” School Science and 
Mathematics, XLII (Oct., 1942;, p. 638. 

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Indeed we may detect two considerations at work in tiiis 
matter of specialization: the practical need for breadth of 
training which enables a teacher Ho turn his hand^ to any 
science if he must, and an idealistic need for breadth vi^hich 
helps ensure a wider appreciation of the whole field of 
science. In short then, the science teacher must *know his 
stuff’ as the pupils would say, but not to the point of ex¬ 
cluding some knowledge of sciences other than tiB one he 
expects to teach. 

3. Appreciation of Aims of Science reaching . The 
third aspect in the field of professional training relates to 
the aims of science teaching and the teacher’s conception of 
them. ‘The teacher should have an adequate notion of vrhat 
science teaching is trying to do; this seems an abvious requis¬ 
ite. lhat the new emphasis in science teaching makes this 
doubly true is recognized by the 46th iearbook: 

The tendency is away from strictly subject-matter 
bounded courses toward organization around functional 
areas in the lives of the pupils. This trend is 
decisive.... and it is important in relation to plan¬ 
ning for the education of science teachers. 

Modern Science Teaching states, ”It makes for clarity in 

science teaching when the teacher understands the major goals 


of science teaching...!’ Hunter may have had something of 

^^N.S.S.E., 46th Yearbook, p. 276 

^^Keiss, Obourn and iioffman, op. cit . , p. 42. 


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the same in mind in his criciticms, previously given, of 
traditional university courses. He continues, "The univer¬ 
sities deal with the subject matter of the specialist^ the 
courses of study deal with tiie subject matter of the child, 
and proposes that college science courses taken by teachers 
be arranged "from a unitary standpoint rather than that of 
the logical science of the university," and that these 
courses be taught by high school methods designed to "pro¬ 
duce specific habits, skills and attitudes”^^ — those 
qualities which teachers themselves should seek to develop 
in their own pupils. In short, he advocates professionalized 
science courses designed for teachers and their work; no 
longer should the prospective teacher be compelled to study 
a science organized to train engineers or chemists. 

The 46th Yearbook apparently thinks along the same 
lines for its authors propose in their teacher-training pro¬ 
gram that "all the science courses suggested, including the 
survey courses, should provide abundant opportunity to use 
the scientific method in dealing with important issues and 


problems.” Indeed, this yearbook declares that training 


Hunter, op. cit ., p. 511. 

p p S3 

^^ Ibid ., p. 513. Ibid . 

^%.S.S.E., 46th Yearbook, op. cit . , p. 286. 

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programs have tended to be too narrov/. And, like Hunter, it 

deplores the frequent practice of teachers taking the sane 

science courses as future chemists and physicists and adding 

units of psychology and education — all done "without much 

or any planning of a program with teaching as an objective 


of first importance." 

In summarizing its comraents upon the education of 
science teachers, this same work lists as two of the three 
important areas in which science teachers should be competent 
as; "(a) functional understanding subject matter ... and (c) 

P ft 

a social philosophy of science teaching." 

These comments suggest that merely mastering subject 
matter may not be enough for adequate training; the teacher 
also must acquire definite ideas of what he is expected to 
do w'ith it. 

Length of Training 

No discussion of teacher training Vi«:uld be complete 
without some mention of length of the training period. As 
this matter is receiving much attention in Canada at present, 
the opinions of educational writers should prove of interest. 

If the type of training mentioned in this discussion 
is to be adequate, one could assume that the training period 
must be fairly lengthy; the authors consulted speak directly 

. p. 281. . p. 28V. 

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or tacitly of a four or five year training period. Koll 

P *7 

intimates that even four years may be too short a time. 

This author, at any rate, finds agreement among many ot iters 

”on the requirement of a bachelor^s degree for all teachers 


of science in secondary schools.The 46th Yearbook quotes 

an American Association for the Advancement of Science report 

which considers **a five- 3 ^ear program for the preparation of 


of science teachers as a desirable future goal.” 


In summarizing the opinions gathered from many modern 
studies, the student of educational trends would note the fol- 
lov7ing major points as receiving substantial support: 

1. The teacher of science must have appropriate personal 

2. He must know his subject matter well, yet have receiv¬ 
ed training that provides a balance between over¬ 
specialization in one branch of science and superfic¬ 
ial knowledge of many. 

3. He must be trained to understand children, and to 
best present his subject to them in the classroom. 

^'^Noll, op. cit ., p. 208. 

, p. 204. 


N.S.S.H. , 46th Yearbook, p. 281. 

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4. He must have some elements of* a liberal education 
which acknov/ledges the important social implications 
of science. 

5. He must be aware of tiie aims of a functional science 

program and of the means of implementing these aims. 

To teach effectively one must know. But knowing 
carries far more subtle implications than just knov/- 
ing science. It means knowing something of the art 
of teaching, something of the social and economic 
implications of science; something of the nature of 
child development and many other things. 



Rooms in which science are taught are unusual because 

**so much attention is given to the physical environment in 


which effective teaching and learning can proceed.” A 
functional science room, then, is not just another classroom, 
but one requiring arrangement and equipment governed by the 
peculiar aims of science instruction. In one representative 
modern view, science rooms are places ”where students may re¬ 
ceive educational experiences which are to serve purposes of 


problem solving and for forming generalizations.” It is 

^^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit . , p. v. 

31st Yearbook, p. 281. 

^^ Ibld .. p. 291. 

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inevitable then, that modern studies on science teaching are 
concerned mth the efficient planning and equipping of science 


"In the past the place of science has demanded a 

special type of room or rooms where experiments and laboratory 

work are done and where different types of apparatus ... were 

stored and used." Hunter also states that "we must have 

proper laboratory facilitiesbut whether or not they 

should be separate from the science classroom is now disputed. 

hunter, himself, suggests that laboratories located in separate 


rooms "do not lend themselves to modern teaching 

Indeed, there is considerable opinion favouring a combined 

laboratory and classroom: e.g., 

... A science room should be equipped for general 
classroom activities, demonstration v/ork, and labor¬ 
atory work. Such a room will make it possible for 
teachers and pupils to change quickly from one type 
of activity to another and therehj provide^better co¬ 
ordination betv/een all science activities 

Modern Science leaching also favours a combination 

room because such a room "is a much more flexible place to 

^^Hunter, op. cit ., p. 487. 

^ ^Ibld .. p. 486. . p. 496. 

^%.S.S.3., 46tb iiearbook, p. 240. 

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carry on activities of a problem solving nature because it 


enables the class work to be shifted at any time 

The adaptability which such a room affords measures up 
to one of the criteria demanded by the 31st Yearbook: ^^The 
plan and design of a science room must provide elements of 


With science classrooms ^^beginning to assume the 

appearance of general workrooms^^^^ which serve ”as workrooms, 

study rooms, classrooms, laboratory rooms and lecture rooms”"^^ 

the flexibility required makes it "advisable to have science 

rooms equipped with a type of furniture which will provide 

for all types of classroom activities, demonstration work, 


and laboratory work." 

At any rate, whether laboratories are separate or not, 

science rooms "should be planned to comfortably and efficient- 


ly take care of the optimum class size for instruction." 

They must be capable of handling all types of learning activ- 

^"^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op* cit *, p. 248. 
^%*S.3.S. , 31st Yearbook, p* 293. 

^^Hunter, op. cit . , p. 493. '^^ Ibid * 

"^^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op* cit . , p. 248. 

^^ Ibid >, p. 249. 


ities and the furnishing of the room should be directed to 
this end. 

Furniture should be sturdy and arranged to prevent 
crowding. Experimentation requires good plumbing, gas out¬ 
lets, plenty of drawer and storage space, fume closets, etc. 
Book cases and cabinets for supplementary reading materials 
are desirable. A filing cabinet for storing display materials 

is also helpful as is a display space for student projects. 


A large bulletin board and blackboard are necessary. 

Besides an efficiently designed working space the 
science teacher requires certain materials v/ith which to 
carry on his instruction, particularly in relation to the 
needs of experimentation and demonstrations. 

Modern Science Teaching suggests that the materials 
obtained should be governed by: 

1. Needs for demonstration work. 

2. Needs for laboratory work. .. 

3. General laboratory needs, such as tools etc. 

The effectiveness of instruction is also enhanced by the 


. pp. 249-252, , p. 271. 

"^^.S.S.E. 46th Yearbook, pp. 240-2. 

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As well as serving as valid tools in instruction, wall 
charts, display posters and the like serve at least to give 
a scientific atmosphere to the room, 

A microscope and even a telescope are well-nigh 
indispensable in some phases of science teaching. The opaque 
projector is proving a valuable tool in instruction, and with 
the ready supply of films and film strips now available, 
movie and slide projectors are likev/ise proving their worth. 

Science displays with objects, specimens and models 
are proving valuable in many places. Indeed, any such 
object that is pertinent to a phase of science being taught 
should be included. An outstanding example of such devices 
is the aquarium, a coirimon feature in our science rooms. 

V/ith the current emphasis upon pupil reports and com¬ 
mittee work, some sort of library is necessary. In addition, 
a collection of interesting books encourage v/ider reading of 
science materials. It is likely, of course, that facilities 
will vary greatly in this respect. A few supplementary texts, 
pamphlets and a good encyclopedia can be readily obtained. 


In summarizing the discussions of a number of studies 
on this matter of classrooms and their facilities, the follo?/- 
ing points have received a measure of agreement: 

1. Science classrooms should be roomy and readily adapt- 

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able to all kinds of valid instruction. 

2. They should contain materials adequate for purposes 
of experimentation and demonstration. 

3. They should contain sufficient display and storage 

4. They should have charts, models and similar materials 

5. They should contain adequate items of major equipment 
such as a microscope, scales, projectors etc., and 
provide facility for their use. 

6. They should have a good supply of reference materials 
v/ith convenient facilities for their display and 



One has only to note the space given to question of 

textbook construction, selection, and use in many studies on 

science education to realize the important place the textbook 

holds in educational thinking. ”It is true that in this 

country ... the textbook has come to play a very important 

part in secondary education,” says Iiunter yUio continues, ”In 

science, although other ways of learning have been considered 

of more value, tiie textbook has been and continues to be the 


basic guide of both teachers and pupils.” A recent profes- 

^^nunter, op. cit ., pp. 231-2. 

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sional book written for science teachers considers that ^^the 
textbook is, in the final analysis, the most important factor 
in determining what is to be taught in any science.”^"^ And 
Reudiger in 1932 has stated, "Textbooks are not inherently out 
of harmony with v/holesome educational conceptions, when pro¬ 
perly used, and to follow a textbook is not necessarily evid- 


ence of educational incapacity." 

The intimation "v/hen properly used" suggests the pos¬ 
sibility of a degree of misuse. It may, then, be profitable 
to consider just v;hat modern authorities consider by proper 
use. ¥e must also be concerned with the matter of suitable 
and unsuitable textbooks and wliat makes them so. Consequently 
two questions require consideration: ylhat are the qualities 
of a good textbook? liVTiat is the proper use teachers are to 
make of it? As our modern goals in science teaching seem to 
be orientated to ^’functional ends", the standards for textbook 
selection and use may be likewise related. 


mechanical Qualities 

The durability of the book represents a practical 
consideration which most authors note without extensive 

'^'^iieiss, Obourn and iioffman, op. cit . , p. 66. 

'^^Eunter, op. cit ., p. 245. 

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elaboration. Mechanical construction, including such things 
as: size of print, clarity of illustrations, quality of paper, 
and attractiveness of format, serves to stimulate interest in 
the contents, and for this reason receives mention in lists 
of desirable qualities. 

Subject-matter Treatment 

The factual information in the book is, of course, 
a primary consideration. That it should be accurate and up- 
to-date is generally taken for granted. Accordingly, authors 
pay more attention to tv;o related factors: the amount of con¬ 
tent and the organization of content. 

1. Amount of Content . Hunter detects a trend to in¬ 
flated texts. ^’Encyclopaedic texts in science seem to be 
much in vogue just now.”^^ The 46th Yearbook concurs with 
this statement. ”It is probably time that every modern text¬ 
book of science contains more material than can be effectively 
tau^t to any class within the time and with the facilities 

Hunter’s comment upon this trend and its results 
is pertinent. ”... Authors have attempted to meet the demands 
of already overcrov/ded courses of study, and in this attempt 

^^Hunter, op. c it . , p. E46. 


46th Yearbook, pp. 48-9. 


r ■ 

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have filled their texts with a surplus of factual mater- 

Hunter’s criticism is taken up by others. The amount 

of material is often unwieldy and, cannot be effectively 


taught in the allotted time. Attempting to do so "can 
result only in the stressing of factual material to the neg- 
lect of the important objectives of the course.” From the 
vievi/point of functional science this is a serious fault. 

Too much content and its result are thus deprecated as nul¬ 
lifying the aims of modern science teaching. 

2. Organization of Content . The question of the 
organization of material is likewise an important one. A 
text written from a definite point of view and with material 
organized in accordance with it is preferred. "No text in 


science has a right to be simply a compendium of facts ....” 
The subject matter in any science text must be organized to 
encourage development towards those goals the w’^riter considers 
important. In traditional texts, written to encourage mast¬ 
ery of the facts and the logical structure of science, we can 
readily note the influence of the older aims of science 

^^Hunter, op. cit . , p. 246. 

®%.S.S.S., 46th Yearbook, pp. 48-49. 

KrZ 54 

Ibid . Hunter, op. cit ., p. 246. 

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teaching. As many authors have criticized these traditional 
aims so do they criticize texts v/hich reflect them. In Hun¬ 
ter we read, ^Naturally so long as testing programs and par¬ 
ticularly college entrance requiraments demand facts just so 

long will textbooks be written v;hich encourage this wrong 

point of view.'^ In this regard, Noll is concerned with 
lack of emphasis upon scientific concerns of every day 
interest I 

These are sacrificed to the inculcation of the 
fundamental principles of science, the rock-ribbed 
postulates that constitute the framework of the 
subject and which the scientist holds to be the 
really important things ..., such principles as 
now presented are often of little interest or 
value to the high school pupil ..... After all, 
science instruction that does not function in the 
lives of most persons is for them a Vi/asted effort. 

Noll deals at length with this matter. In discussing 
physios texts he states that one reason for failure of this 
subject to interest pupils, is *’its slowness in follaving the 


lead of the newer science subjects in textbook organization.” 

Noll seems to favour the inclusion into physics courses of 

more material of definite interest to high school students 


for ”the amount of dead material is large.” 

In biology he commends ”a functional treatment with 

. p. 247. op. clt .. p. 146. 

. p. 137. ^^ Ibld . . p. 139. 

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increased emphasis upon the problems arising out of the re¬ 
lationships of living things and especially of man to the 

environment.” Modern Science leaching also notes favour¬ 
ably the appearance of science texts organized about problems 
which the pupils are encouraged to solve. ^ After analysing 
a wide variety of printed material, Pruitt found 135 general¬ 
izations, any number of v/hioh could be used as a basis for a 
vitalized high school chemistry course. This investigator 
suggests that all high school science materials be organized 

around the most significant of these generalizations. With 


this point of view Noll seems to concur. The implications 
of Pruitt’s proposal on textbook reorganization are obvious. 

Hunter considers all texts as being written from 
either the logical or the psychological point of view and 
strongly favours the latter! 

In the psychological organization there will 
be no logical sequence of the various items studied 
for they will be presented in the order in which the 
child naturally uses them in attempting to solve any 
new problem which is interesting to him. In the 
logical method of organization we force the mind 
to follow certain definite steps which result in 
the memorization of principles or definitions which 
have little or no application in the lives and 

. p. 145. 

®®Helss, Obourn, rioffman, op. cl t ., p. 123. 
®%oll, op. Pit ., p. 133. 


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thought of young people v;orking in science. 

Johnson, writing in feachers College Hecord, considers 

”a well-defined educational viewpoint in accordance with 


accepted educational aims^^ as one of five basic criteria 

for selecting a text. 

Miscellaneous Considerations 

There are other, perhaps minor, features that a good 

text should possess besides those just discussed. 

1. Style of Writing . Interest in scientific matter 

can be encouraged by an author who presents the material 

compellingly. One has only to note the wide appeal of many 

books on popular science to realize the truth of this. If 

the materials can be written engagingly v/ithout sacrificing 

anything to superficiality, the cause of science teaching 

has gained, hunter supports this view: ”Any texts in science 

written for the age levels of the junior or senior high school 

have no reason for existence if they are dull or uninterest- 


ingly written ....^^ So does Modern Science Teaching which 
considers ”the appeal for pupils of the author ^s style*’^^ 
as one of the factors in textbook selection. 

^^hunter, op. cit *, p. 249. 

S ^Ibld .. p. 252. ^^ Ibid .. p. 246. 

^^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit . , p. 66. 

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2. Aids to Learning . Learning devices rnay do much to 
enhance the value of a text and most authors comiaend their 
inclusion. I'hese devices involve illustrations, graphs, 
diagrams clarifying demonstrations and experiments, and 
additional exercises and problems. In addition we may find 
more difficult problems and supplementary subject matter 
together v;ith reference lists as a stimulus to the more in¬ 
telligent and energetic pupils. Blany texts include a glossary 
of scientific terms and several have summaries or outlines 
containing the salient points of each chapter. This latter 
practice, however, is deplored by Hunter who considers such 

summaries as ^*easy means for the pupils to memorize the im- 
ft 7 - * 

portant facts” for examinations. 

Vocabulary . Noll contends that ”there is clear 

indication that the vocabulary burdens of textbooks are unnec¬ 
essarily large.The 31st Tearbook quotes a number of 
studies which support this view, and notes a trend toward 

simplification which ”should be fully encouraged by adminis- 

“ 69 

trators and teachers.” 

^'^Hunter, op. cit . , p. 248. 
^%oll, op. cit . , p. 145. 

^^K.S.S.E., 31st Yearbook, pp. 78-9. 

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What do modern writers consider *^tiie very definite 


place in the education process” ^ which the textbook posses¬ 

The 46th Yearbook values the use of a good text because 
it provides ”a foundation of minimum essaitials common to all 
the class..., also a definiteness of sequence and of contin¬ 
uity which a course based on miscellaneous reference mater- 


ials rarely possesses.” 

Hunter has put down a number of reasons why texts are 

Texts are followed because they organize materials, 
because they give basic knowledges^ because they help 
to illustrate syllabi or courses of study, because 
they make for a certain amount of uniformity in school 
work .... In addition nev/er texts supply means of 
motivation, give the students and teachers helps to 
classify and apply knowledge, and in better books, 
they set up problematic situations for the pupil so 
that he may be habituated in the methods of thinking 
needed in problem solving as it applies to science.”^ 

Teachers, however, are cautioned against the exclusive 
and slavish use of a single text: 

When a single basal text is the only reference 
source, there is, of course, the danger that the 
pupils will come to think of the text as the only 
source of material and will thus have a distorted 

'^%Iunter, op. cit . , p. £33. 


N.S.3.E., 46th xearbook, p. 
'^^Hunter, op. cit . , p. 232. 





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conception of its true value 


To overcome this danger, the 46th Yearbook proposes a 
compromise method ”which seems likely to prove most satis- 



It urges teachers: 

•«« To select a basic textbook that provides a 
good general outline of the course and primary text 
materials which all the class may be expected to 
study and then to supplement this foundational 
material with a variety of materials from other 
textbooks, periodicals, and reference works, 

This use of the text as the focal point of the course 

is viewed favourably elsewhere. Mediger, while noting 

that the experienced teacher may ^become superior to any text- 

book”, continues that he may still ”get the best results by 


using a published book as the backbone of his course .” 

Italics not in the original*! 

Modern Science Teaching approves of this approach be¬ 
cause it encourages ^better learning habits on the part of 

"^^ileiss, Obourn and hoffman, op. ci t . , p. 122 
46th Yearbook, p. 48. 


’^^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit . , p. 123 




Like the other important phases of science teaching, 
laboratory work has been recently subjected to considerable 
scrutiny. A great number of educational writers, in attempt¬ 
ing to put down a set of aims to which laboratory activities 
should be directed, have critically reviewed the methods, 
facilities and purposes associated with current laboratory¬ 
teaching methods. As vrell as pointing out shortcomings as 
they saw them, they have suggested aims and techniques to 
replace the ones they considered inadequate. 


The 31st Yearbook in a comprehensive statement 
declares that laboratory instruction should have the follow¬ 
ing goals 

1. The development of simple laboratory techniques, 
such as weighing, glass bending, microscope manip¬ 
ulation, etc. 

2. Proving and establishing for the pupil himself 
principles which have long since been well 
established and generally accepted. 

3. Using the laboratory as an instrument for object, 
or ’thing* teaching .... 

4. Using the laboratory for the purpose of developing 
better understanding and interpretations of the 
principles of science, as a means of better 

5. To produce training in the scientific method. 

6. As a means of possible training in the experimental 

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solution of the pupil*s own problems. 

7. The use of the laboratory as a workshop for the 
study of science problems which arise in the 
science class or in the life of the pupils.'^ 

This list of aims is quoted ?/ith approval by hunter®^ 

and by Koffman, Obourn and Heiss in their books on current 

problems in science teaching. 

In more general terms, many authors have stated their 

views on the function of laboratory work. ”The laboratory” 

states Hunter, "should be a place where teachers and pupils 


together ask questions of nature." This emphasis upon 

asking questions is maintained by others. "The laboratory 

should be a place where a pupil may take a question or a 


hypothesis and test them under controlled conditions." 

Science in General Education continues with, "Laboratory vrork 

is valuable to the extent that it gives the student a chance 


to exercise Judgment in the solution of problems." This 
concern with solving problems under scientific conditions 
suggests that in such activity, laboratory ?;ork receives 

31st Yearbook, p. 270 

^^Hunter, op. cit ., p. 171. 

Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit . , pp. 118. 
^^Kunter, op. cit . , p. 171. 

®^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. clt . , p. 117. 

^"^Progressive Education Association, Science in G-eneral 
Education , p. 52. 

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much of its Justification and that any other outcome may be 

somewhat ancillary to this. ^’Problem-solving activities are 

an integral part of science teaching and learning, and the 

sciences laboratory is a natural place for pupils to engage 


in these activities.” 


Thus concerned v/ith problem-solving as the heart of 
laboratory work, many writers attack much of our actual 
laboratory practice as lacking in vitality and purpose. 

Too often laboratory work degenerates into mere 
busy work on the part of the pupils. Laboratory 
directions are followed slavishly and wmthout thought 
and "there is little evidence of controlled experiment¬ 

Noll contends that, ”In many cases, the pupil becomes 

so involved in a mass of detail that he is completely befogged 


when the laboratory period ends.” This criticism echoes 
Eunter v\rho declares: 

... Often problems are lost in a maze of mimeo¬ 
graphed directions which concerned the making of 
certain definite measurements or the putting together 
of certain chemical materials in order to obtain 
definite reactions.88 

In such cases, he continues, ^Because the relation to the 

®®K.S.S.L., 46th Yearbook, p. 225. 

®^Heiss, Ob our n and Eoffnian, op. cit . , p. 117. 


®'^Noll, op. cit . , p. 48. 

'Hunter, op. cit . , p. 173. 

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larger problem was not given, all incentive was lost in such 


work and the values became purely values of techniques.” 

More specifically, nunter has indicated four objections to 
much current laboratory practice: 

1. Often ’unled’ by the teacher. 

2. Written observational work often degenerates into 
’busy vjork’ which leads nowhere. 

3. Much copying by inferior students. 

4. Work is often ’cooked’ to meet predetermined re¬ 


To vitalize problem solving in laboratory work, to 
make it more spontaneous and purposeful, would appear to be 
the major task of the science teacher. 

To this end, ’’pupils need to be given practice in 
discovering problems, setting hypotheses, and in devising 
controlled experiments as a basis for verifying or rejecting 
proposed hypotheses.This is not a vain hope: 

Experience had demonstrated that by -wise questioning 
and suggestion the teacher can get students to state 
the purpose of an experiment, to suggest the experi¬ 
mental factor, and to plan necessary controls to make 
the results conelusive. 

This source continues:’’Using such a co-operative scheme of 

Q^ Ibid . ^^ Ibid ., p. 171. 

^^Heiss, Obourn and ixoffman, op. cit . , pp. 167-8. 

Ibid ., p. 169. 



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planning experiments with the class will take much of the 
*cook book* out of laboratory v/ork and revitalize it 

Likewise concerned with training in scientific think¬ 
ing, Noll advocates a somewhat similar method. He suggests: 

... That the teacher present a variety of problems 
to the class; that the individual pupils choose chal¬ 
lenging ones; that the pupil and teacher together 
formulate the problem and the methods for its solu- 
tion without written or printed directions, and that 
the initiative rest largely v/ith the pupil rather 
than with the teacher. 

Noll justifies this method with the belief **that the 
problem method, if properly administered, provides stimulation 
and motivation to the pupil 

The 46th Yearbook sets dovm a four-point set of 
criteria designed **to avoid the *cook book-recipe* type of 
laboratory work**.^^ The follov/ing problem solving approaches 
are suggested: 

1. Use laboratory work to give the pupils practice 
in raising and defining worthwhile problems 

2. Conduct laboratory work in such a way that pupils 
will learn the meaning and use of controls in 

3. Use laboratory work to test hypotheses and inter¬ 
pret data. 

4. Maintain a proper balance between student explor¬ 
ation and teacher guidance.^" 

. pp. 169-170. 

^%oll, op. cit . . p. 53. ^^ Ibld . 
®%.S.S.S. 46tli learbook, p. 235. 

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Accordingly, the purposeful solving of problems may 
serve to both enliven laboratory work and give practical 
training in the scientific method, hut, if we are to heed 
points six and seven in the list of goals quoted beforehand 
from the 31st Yearbook, problem solving must do even more 
than this. 

In this regard, Science in General Education charges 
science teachers with the task of helping ”the student see 
how reflective thinking, as practised in the science labora- 


tory, is applicable to other areas of living.^* To this end, 

laboratory activity directed toward the solving of problems 

has value **in the attitudes and habits of reflective thinking 

it encourages.** 

The curriculum guide for Science 10 likewise emphasizes 

this need; it is not enough to know the scientific method; 

students must also be trained to use it ”in new and meaningful 

situations.** **This is one major objective of science educa- 

tion.** Teachers are urged to nave it clearly before them. 
Any laboratory program v/hose values do not extend beyond the 


Progressive Sducation Association, op. cit ., p. 49. 

, p. 317. 

lOO^lberta Department of education, Curriculum Oulde 
for Science 10 , p. 15. 


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schoolroom, can he considered functional only in the narrov;- 
est sense. 


The Curriculum Guide, although failing to illustrate 
specific techniques useful in vitalizing experimental work, 
does provide a succinct statement regarding the place of 
laboratory work in the Science 10 program. This statement 
is an effective condensation of the list of objectives pre¬ 
sented before in this work and taken from the 31st Yearbook. 
For this reason, it sums up comprehensively much of v/hat has 
gone before in this chapter to form a worthwhile declaration 
of the laboratory’s function in a modern science course. 

Laboratory work must be vital and purposeful. It has 
the best chance of being so men used to solve pertinent pro¬ 
blems. In this process laboratory techniques can be learned, 
ideas and concepts clarified, the scientific method revealed 
and extended to the lives of the pupils. With a coupetent 
teacher in charge — one who steadily and vigourously directs 

his work to these ends —■ these purposes ’’above and beyond 


the activity itself" can be effectively attained. 


Ibid ., p. 15. 

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Much discussion has taken place regarding the relative 
merits of each of these methods. The demonstration, with its 
saving of time and expense, had lead many teachers to viev/ 
this method with considerable favour. ”Because it is time 
saving and because it is the least expensive method of util¬ 
izing laboratory activities, it is being more widely used in 


science teaching than ever before.” It has, in addition, 

an element of expediency. "Employed in conjunction v/ith the 

lecture it may very well become a most efficient method for 


covering a given section of content in a limited time." 

It has other claims to recognition. It is an ideal 

method of * thing’ or ’object’ instruction reinforced by teacher 

explanation. It can prove very effective ”as a device for 

developing understandings in the pupil for facts, concepts 


and principles ...." furthermore, while using the demon¬ 
stration method, ’’the teacher is in control of the situation 
and can thus see to it that the pupil makes all the essential 

The 46th Yearbook urges use of the problem-solving 

^^%.S.S.E., 46th Yearbook, p. 236. 

10%-ieiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit ., p. 116. 

. p. 116. 

Ibid ., p. 117. 








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approach in demonstrations as in all laboratory v^/ork to the 

end that "not only will the pupils learn facts and principles 

of science, but they will also develop an understanding of 


how a scientist works and thinks." 'i‘his Yearbook mentions 
specifically four ways in which the problem-solving approach 
may be implemented in demonstration work. Ihese are: 

1. Demonstrations may be used to raise and define 
worthwhile problems. 

2. Demonstrations may be used in collecting data and 
developing skill in interpretation of data. 

3. Demonstrations may be used to test out pupils* 

4. Demonstrations may be used to illustrate the 
applications of principles.^^Q 

Yet, despite the great value of the demonstration method, 
its alternative, the individual laboratory method, has a worth¬ 
while place in a modern science program, ‘ihe demonstration 
method, for example, is not so readily adaptable to the 
development of laboratory manipulative skills. Horton, who 
investigated this matter, indicates that "where laboratory 

techniques are concerned individual laboratory work is 

essential." And Curtis, as quoted in the 31st Yearbook, 
agrees: "... It is difficult to believe that he |the pupi^ 
will acquire any considerable degree of manipulatory dexter¬ 
ity and skill except through the individual laboratory 

, 46th Yearbook, p. 238. 


108 Ibid ., pp. 237-8. Hunter, op. cit ., p. 184. 

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• As V/ebb*s studies have shown, the individual method 
may be superior in the development of resourcefulness pre¬ 
sumably because the student is to a great extent working on 
his ovm.^^^ finally, on the matter of remembering what has 
been done, Van norne’s investigation tended to show "that 

although the d^onstration is better for immediate retention, 


the laboratory is better for permanent retention." 

The question of absolute superiority of either Biethod 

may, thus, prove impossible to answer. After considering 

the research on this matter, nunter writes, "One end result 

of these researches is to show us that individual laboratory 


v/ork and demonstration each have a place ...." After 
surveying studies on this matter, Struitt and Englehart con¬ 
cluded, "No method can be considered to be best in every case. 
Objectives of teaching, nature of pupils, and facilities of 
the school, will largely determine which method should be 
used."^^"^ The 31st Yearbook acknowledges that "each method 

offers training in certain knowledges, skills and habits not 


Offered by the other." In particular, it stresses the need 

31st iearbook, p. 100. 

^^%unter, op. cit . , p. 184. 

^^^ Ibid . ^^^ Ibid . 

^^^Heiss, Obourn and noffman, op. cit . , p. 162. 
31st iearbook, p. 106. 

iO. . Ji . ,:,3 j.:"; :. 

^ j0 '* , j ^ y. ., j 


for demonstrations where economy and safety are involved (in 

the case of dangerous or expensive experiments} or v/here 

expediency is a concern (in the case of involved and difficult 

experiments}; the value of individual work for acquiring 

techniques, and the opportunities provided by time-saving 

demonstration to engage in projects, reading exercises, etc.^^^ 

Perhaps the most fitting judgment comes from Modern 

Science Teaching : ^^It is likely, however, that science 

teachers will continue to find both laboratory v/ork and 


demonstrations necessary for good teaching,” 



”Like teaching, evaluation must begin with a considera- 


tion of the outcomes to be sought.” If these outcomes 

emphasize mastery of facts, then we can assume that testing 
devices will concentrate upon this aspect of teaching. Like¬ 
wise, if other outcomes besides mastery of facts are sought 
in science teaching, the testing devices should attempt to 
evaluate them as w^ell. This observation is ?>rell borne out in 

^^"^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, on. cit ., p. 163. 
46th Yearbook, p. 251. 


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the follov;ing statement: 

Any attempt ... to evaluate without regard for 
the purposes, content and methods of teaching — 
any such attempt is artificial, and the conseq.uences 
are almost certainly misleading. 


As authors have criticized the emphasis upon facts in 
our science courses so do they attack testing programs v/hich 
select knov/ledge of facts alone for appraisal. 

In addition to the mere knowledge of facts gained 
from the study of science, a large number of other 
outcomes are usually claimed for it, that constitute 
a fruitful field for research in testing. 

In short, if other aims of science have vailditjr — and 

raodem writers claim they do — then they too, must be 

appraised. Hunter*s comment is pertinent: 

Most of the testing programs measure the 
acquisition of facts and for such purposes the 
tests are valid. But is this acquisition of 
Imowledge the chief end cf science teaching?^^! 

If this is not so, continues Hunter, ”our testing 

program is not valid, for there has been little or no emphasis 

on testing for power. Should not our entire concept of a 


testing program be changed?” 

op. p. 154. 

^^%unter, op. cit . , p. 412. 

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It seems logical indeed, that demands to change our 
testing program should be made concomitantly v/ith demands for 
newer emphasis in the objectives of science teaching. Accord¬ 
ingly, Modern Science Teaching sets forth the following as 
the obligations of an effective, modern program of evaluation: 

... first, to devise tests and measures that 
will reveal not only the mastery of facts and 
principles of a given area, but also a functional 
understanding of the concepts and generalizations 
involved; and, second, to devise tecliniques for 
revealing grov/th in certain other outcomes such 
as the elements of reflective thinking, attitudes, 
creativeness^ personal interest, and social 

That this is a complex task the same book does not 

deny. To appraise growth towards less specific goals ”is 

a far more subtle and involved task than measuring the degree 

to which a student has mastered the facts of biology or chemis 

try.” ^ Yet, despite this difficulty the task has to be done 
for ^evaluation must be comprehensive enough to include all 
outcomes and not merely those outcomes in which learning is 
more easily assessed (e.g., factual knov/ledge and mechanical 

123He iss, Oboum and lioffman, op. ci t . , p. 187. 
, p. 187. 

, 46th Yearbook, p. 251. 



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An adequate testing program must include v/ithin its 
scope all the outcomes of science instruction even the more 
intangible ones. But has evaluation any values to offer 
beyond this? An inspection of several studies of this matter 
reveals that it has! 

A further obligation of an adequate evalua¬ 
tion program, equally as important as the 
appraisal of achievement, is that of detecting 
as early as possible, the strengths and weaknesses 
of students with res 
goals of the course. 

In this connection. Modern Science Teaching states that 

testing may ^enable the teacher to judge the completeness 

of learning and to be in a better position to prescribe re- 

medial work. 

This diagnostic function-of testing is also noted 


by Noll, who lists ‘‘diagnosis of weaknesses" as one of 
the chief uses of tests as does mnter in his list of import¬ 
ant values of testing. The latter stresses the diagnostic 
purpose as being the pupil‘s responsibility as well as the 
teacher‘s. liie validity of tests as motivating devices is 
also recognized here by the same author,as is the way in 

126]ieiss, Obourn and Loffman, op. cit ., p. 188. 
^^'^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit . , p. 189. 
^^%oll, op. cit . , p. 174. 

^^^Hunter, op. cit ., p. 418. 

)eet to the objectives or 


which tests in themselves can ”aid in a review of factual 

130 131 

material” and act as ”an aid in thinking,” 

Furthermore, teachers as well as pupils may be eval¬ 
uated by a good testing program. Conscientious teachers can 

learn from test results ”the efficiency of their own teach- 

ing.” frequent testing program is a stimulus both to 


teacher and pupils.” 

fhus, the well-balanced evaluation program has several 
functions. It provides the ’mark^ which school administration 
renders necessary; it records mastery of science content and 
appreciation of principles and concepts; it measures grovv^th 
tov/ard the intangible outcomes of science instruction; it has 
diagnostic value for pupil and teacher, acting as a stimulus 
to both. 


Any discussion on the general theme of evaluation 
v;ould be inadequate if it failed to consider those devices 
or procedures which authoritative writers consider valuable. 
Different purposes will, of course, require different tech¬ 
niques . 

^^O lbld .. p. 414. 

1 3P 

-hunter, op. cit ., p. 414. 

^^^Heiss, Obourn and hoffman, op. cit . , p. 190. 

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A, Paper-and-Pencil Tests . 

There are two types of these. 

1. Objective Tests . General forms of these are 
classified as completion, true-or-false, multiple response, 
matching answers, and so on. These all have the advantage 
of being clear-cut, readily understood and easily marked. 

Hunter considers the use of this type as a means of motivation 


as ^one of the latest valid uses of this device,” " In 
addition, ”the multiple choice and matching types may be made 
to require some generalizations.Generally speaking, 
however, objective tests are used for testing facts and ”for 
such purposes the tests are valid. 

2. Essay Tests . This type has the advantage of 

giving the pupil ^opportunity to organize and integrate his 

137 138 

knov/ledge.” It may ”test for thinking as well as facts.” 

However, it also encourages cramming; it is difficult to mark 


objectively and involves much drudgery for the teacher. 

Paper and pencil tests have apparently been misused 

*] rz / 

iiunter, op. cit . , p. 418. 

, p. 421. . p. 412. 

^^'^Noll, op. clt .. p. 156. 

^^®Eunter, op. cit ., p. 416. 



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so greatly in the past that many authors caution against 
indiscriminate use of them. These tests have frequently con¬ 
stituted the entire evaluation program either on the assump¬ 
tion that learning facts was the primary outcome of science 
teaching or that mastery of facts automatically indicated 
growth in the other outcomes of science instruction. We have 
already presented opinions that decry the first of these 

beliefs; as for the latter, that ^Hhere is considerable 


evidence to the contrary” is the comment of Science in 

General Education . This book continues: 

It is quite clear that written examinations, whether 
of the essay type or of the objective or ’new* type 
are not adequate for obtaining all the evidence on 
the basis of which evaluation should be made.^'^^ 

The 46th Yearbook approves the addition of other devices ”for 

are able 

by the use of other procedures they 

to extend considerably and profitably the scope of their 



A review of some of the suggested * other procedures 

may, then, be profitable. 

B. Supplementary Devices . 

These are designed **to evaluate other outcomes, such 

as aspects of thinking and desirable attitudes,” ^ and they 

140px.o gressive Education Society, op. cit ., p. 395. 

141 ‘ 1 4P 

Ibid ., p. 394. IJ.S.S.E., 46th Yearbook, p. 252 

^^^Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit . , p. 187. 

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reflect ”the possibilities of measuring such things as ability 


to apply principles in new situations of a science nature,’^ 
Noll continues, "It has been shown that skills acquired in the 
laboratory, ability to solve problems, attitudes of a scientif¬ 
ic worker, and skill in using the scientific method may be 

measured also," as well as retention of facts. 

The 46th Yearbook lists several of these methods all 

of which enable the teachers "to extend considerably and 


profitably the scope of their evaluation." This yearbook 
considers the following valuable: 

1. Hating scales and check lists. 

2. Analysis of work products according to accept¬ 
able criteria (apparatus set-ups, notebooks, 
student collections, committee reports, etc.) 

3. Classroom questioning and discussion. 

4. Observation of significant behaviour; either 

(a) informal, as in day-to-day classroom or 
laboratory activities, or 

(b) systematic, as in situations specifically 
planned to elicit known types of behaviour. 

5. Conferences or interviews with individuals or 
with small groups.147 

This yearbook also presents a great variety of examples 
of each t3rpe — examples which "are capable of adaptation to 
any classroom or laboratory by the teacher V7ho is interested 
in measuring growth of his pupils with respect to each of the 

144t^o 11, op. cit . , p. 162. ^"^ ^Ibld . 


h.S.S.H., 46th iearbook, p. 252. 

. pp. 252-3. 

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various objectives of science ins traction. 

Modern Science Teaching follo^vs the lead of the 46th 
Yearbook to the extent of presenting lists of nev;er teclmiq- 
ues and illustrative examples. Ihis book, as.v;ell, elaborates 
a great deal on the need for measuring subjective items as 
ability to recognize and evaluate assumptions, to distinguish 
facts from theory, to develop logical proof, etc. In each 
case the book presents clear examples of appropriate devices. 

Science in General Education presents a partial list 
of procedures which it considers of value; 

1. Anecdotal Records by teachers, parents and 

2. Records by trained observers. 

3. Questionnaires. 

4. Interviews. 

5. Study of student creative products. 

6. Students’ diaries of reading and other 

Like the other studies in this matter, this book 

presents extensive examples of those types which ’’have proved 

... useful in measuring progress towards the ’non-information- 


al’ objectives of science teaching ....” 

All studies on evaluation seem to recognize, tacitly 

^^8 lbid ., p. 271. 

O’oourn and Hoffnian, on. cit ». pp. 195-221. 
grassive jiiducation Society, op. cit .. p. 394. 
^^^ Ibid ., p. 394. 

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at least, that their lists of supplementary devices are in¬ 
complete and that much work has still to he done in this 
matter. "Teachers, curriculum specialists, and specialists 
in the study of adolescents should cohperate with test tech¬ 
nicians in devising examinations and other methods of 



Ibid . , p. 39 5 

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aa ail ’xi-axlt crorfcl' .tsfial 

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Background and Definition . 

It has been felt by many that growth toward the newer 
aims of science teaching can be encouraged by suitable organ¬ 
ization of the materials of instruction. This concern with 
subject-matter re-organization has already been dealt with 
in Chapter III. It is pertinent, however, to revie'w a 
significant development in this field. 

Certain attoupts, designed to make science ’^more 
practical and functional in the lives of boys and girls'^^, 
have involved a trend towards "generalized courses planned to 
meet the more immediate science needs of the common users of 
science." Noll detects a decreased emphasis upon "special- 


ized science courses in the senior high school" accompanied 

by efforts to extend "the general science point of viev/ to 


the upper grades." 

^E.D. Heiss, S.S. Oboum and C.W. Hoffman, Liodern 
Science Teaching , p. 24. 

National Society for the Study of Education, Science 
Education in American Schools , 46th Yearbook, p. 139. 

^Y.N. Noil, Teaching of Science in Elementary and 
Secondary Schools , p. 118. 

^Ibid ., p. 145. 

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- IC . jllo"; 

,.‘11 . . t yrc a 6 no Q 96 


The many forms these attempts have taken are noted 
by the 46th Yearbook in a reviev/ of generalized science 
courses in the high school. In some cases, the newer course 
is orientated around the theme of consumership, health and 
safety, etc. In others, each branch of science is reviewed 
in turn as in traditional general science. Most highly 
favoured by this Yearbook, however, are those attempts 
which, drawing upon two or more of the sciences, integrate 
into one course worthwhile and relevant facts and ideas of 

A fused or integrated course in physical science, 

then, is one that selects its CBterials from tvjo or more of 

the specialized sciences. In the view of those responsible 

for the Alberta physical science coijrses, such a course 

’’implies a reorganization of subject matter and concepts 

dravm from the whole science field, rather than rejection of 

the contents of the more familiar specialized science courses-- 


chemistry, physics and geology.” 

Claims Made for G-eneralized Courses 

The value of these general courses would appear to 
lie in their attempt to make science more Afunctional in the 


every day life of the student.” Modern Science Teaching 
%.S.3.E. , 46th Yearbook, p. 192. 

^Alberta Departm.ent of Education, Curriculum Guide for 
Science 10 , p. 5. 

, 46th Yearbook, p. 190. 

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after reviewing many physical science courses concludes that 
such a composite course "seems to he much more functional 


than either of the other specialized physical sciences." 
Indeed, it may be that when the technical requirecBnts of 
specialized science are removed, there is more scope for 
dealing with practical or social problems and for giving 
attention to the more personal or intangible outcomes of 
science teaching. In this regard, Modern Science Teaching 
notes in some instances an "emphasis placed on training in 
the abilities of problem-solving and in the development of 


desirable attitudes." Noll coimnends the opportunity such 
courses give to encourage a broader point of view "in place 
of that of the chemist, zoologist, or physicist. 

The 46th Yearbook recognizes "the superior possibil¬ 
ities of a composite physical science over the separate 
traditional chemistr 3 ^ and physics courses in contributing to 
the aims of general education.The Curriculum Guide also 
implies a concern with general education in stressing the 
need "to ignore the artificial boundary between physics and 
chemistry, for example, whenever related facts and principles 


Hiess, Oboum and Hoffman, op. cit . , p. 69. 

^ Ibid ., p. 24. 

^%oll, op. cit . , p. 145. 

, 46th Yearbook, p. 191. 

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may be drawn from both to develop a topic being studied,” 
and justifies this procedure as being ”in keeping with the 
contribution which science education may make to all 

Organizing and Selecting the Materials of Physical Science 

Educators are still left with the problem of finding 

the most effective method of integrating various science 

materials into one coherent course. Ihe 31st Yearbook proposes 

to organize them about the major principles of science.Koll 

agrees: *’It seems likely that the plan of organizing science 

content around major generalizations of science has the great- 


est possibilities of success.” Further support for this 
method comes from the 46th Yearbook: ”The content should be 
planned so as to develop concepts and principles important 
not only in physics and chemistry but also in other branches 
of physical science, namely, geology, astronomy and meteor- 
ology.” The Curriculum Guide for Science 10 likewise 
views physical science as containing "elementary facts, 

^^Alberta Department of Education, op. cit . , p. 6. 

^^ Ibid . 

^%oll, op. cit . , p. 119. 

^^ Ibid ., p. 120. 

^%.S.S.E., 46th Yearbook, p. 45. 

' '* ■* " 

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gathered from physics, chemistry, geology and meteorology, 

1 7 

and organized to develop important concepts.^’ 

respecting the selection of subject matter, the 46th 

Yearbook which approves integration ”for the purpose of 

helping young people gain competency in solving their pro- 


blems of adjustment in the world of today,issues a 
double warning* Firstly, the standard for selecting mater¬ 
ials is their ability to aid adjustment in *’the experiences 
and felt needs of daily life.”^^ ”No subject matter can be 
justified solely on the ground that it is ’good science* of 

a traditional sort or because it can be *presented* in the 


classroom with a minimum of effort and planning.** Secondly, 

the course must not be made too easy* Sorae previous courses, 

particularly;^ those which have omitted laboratory v/ork, have 


been merely ”on the level of effortless entertainment.** 

In short, physical science must not become a watered- 
dovm *snap course*; if it is to fulfill its task, care and 
skill are needed both in its construction and implementation. 
This Yearbook does not minimize the difficulties of this 
undertaking: "There are obviously grave difficulties in the 



Alberta Department of Education, 

N.S.S.E., 46th Yearbook, p* 192. 


Ibid * ^ Ibid* 

op. cit . , 

p. 6. 

Ibid ., p* 46. 

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way of organizing a course in physical science which vi^ill 

prove simple enough for ready comprehension by pupils of 

limited abilities and still retain the unique intrinsic values 


attainable within this area.” It is confident, however, 
”that a course of this nature can be evolved which can achieve 
its desired objectives. 

Place of Physical Science in the School Science Pro.g;ram 

Designed to the end that science instruction may be¬ 
come ^feore functional in the everyday life of the student”, 
the physical science course has nevertheless raised doubts 
over its suitability for students planning to enter college. 

For those undertaking non-scientific university w^ork, 
integrated science courses are considered of unquestioned 
value. The Harvard Report of 1945 implies ”that the general¬ 
ized physical-science course can be just as valuable for the 
college-bound student with nonscience interests as for those 
high-school students for whom secondary education is terminal^ 
This assurance is strengthened by the "disposition of colleges 
to recognize the physical-science course as a bona-fide 
college-entrance unit for the nonscience major. 

As a preparation for university specialization in 

^^ Ibid > 

^^ Ibid ., p. 190. 

^^Ibid., p. 191. 





Ibid . , p. 191. 


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;; ay ‘ -, 


science, such courses in physical science are not in themselves 
always considered wholly adequate, l/Vhile praising '’the move¬ 
ment toward the science education of the masses in the gener- 


alized science courses," the 46th Yearbook cautions that 

"adequate provision for early specialization of selected 

individuals is also a ’must’." Modern Science Teaching 

notes a tendency in some quarters: 

... to believe that the courses in physics and 
chemistry should be retained much in their present 
form but offered only to those pupils irho plan to 
go on in some field of science as a profession. 

I'his would tiBn leave the course in physical science 
to take care of the functional needs of the youngp 
people not interested in specializing in science, 

With this scheme the Iducation Policies Commission of the 

National Education Association implies agreement. 

There is indication, however, of a compromise. Tower 

Hill School, Wilminton, Delaware, uses a plan in which the 

fused physical science course is used as a basis for special- 

- 31 

ized grade XIi courses in physics and chemistry. The 

tw’elfth year consists of tv/o equal sections — one of chem¬ 
istry and the other of physics. As prepa3?ation for this, 
the fused course is taken in grade XI. This compromise scheme 

^’^Ibid.. p. 140. 


Heiss, Obourn and Hoffman, op. cit ., p. 69. 


N.H.S.H., 46th Yearbook, p. 191. 

^^Progressive Education Association, Science in General 
Education , p. 477. 


"prepares students for college entrance with the same general 
background in science as would be obtained from one full 
year*s work in physics and another in chemistry. 

In Alberta we will notice the same practice of using 
fused courses as a foundation for subsequent specialization 
in the high schools. 

Such programs are interesting as attempts to meet the 

challenge of the 46th Yearbook: "If, however, physical science 

is to realize its full potentialities, it must be made to 

serve both as a ^college-preparatory^ and as a terminal 




Science 10 does not represent the first attempt to 
introduce generalized science into grade X. In 1944, a 
composite course in science had been planned and placed in 
grade X, only, however, to be v/ithdrav/n after its first year. 

Despite this earlier venture, Science 10 majr be con¬ 
sidered as the first major step towards a realization of a 
functional science program for two principal reasons. Firstly, 
it was designed to replace entirely the traditional special- 

32 Ibid . 

33ij,3.s.e. , 46th Yearbook, p. 46. 

,©Qaa“0.: A:;:;. 



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ized sciences of grade X, (chemistry 1 and physics 1). Second¬ 
ly, it was the initial step in a proposed, consistent revision 
of the entire high-school science program. 

Some insight into the construction and aims of the 
generalized courses in science is obtained by reviewing the 
stages of their development. As Science 10 is part of a 
larger program, we have sketched, in general outline, the over¬ 
all picture without losing sight of Science 10 itself as a 
major concern. I'he information used was taken from the official 
minutes of both the x-iigh School Curriculum Committee and the 
Sub-Committee on High School Science. 

Implementation of Integrated Program in the Alberta 


In November of 1947 a sub-committee of the High 
School Curriculum Committee, set up for the purpose of 
reviewing the aims and organization of secondary science, 
was directed to prepare a plan for a sequence of units in 
high-school science. This sub-coramittee arranged for discus¬ 
sions among teachers regarding the nature of any proposed 
changes. In 1949, encouraged by "evidence of a more receptive 
attitude toward integrated science courses in the high 
school"^^ among many groups of Edmonton teachers, the sub¬ 
committee went on record as favouring: 

^ %iinutes of Meetings of Sub-Committee on High School 
Science , February 25, 1949. 

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1. The principle of integrated courses in science as 
best meeting the needs of most students in grades 
X and XI. 

2. The possibility in Grade XII of either continuing v;ith 
a fused course, or of branching into the specialized 
fields of physics, chemistry or biology. 

3. The planning of courses to develop concepts and 
principles important to all branches of science. 

At this point, the sub-cornmittee anticipated future 
difficulties. The major problems of organizing materials, and 
of gaining teacher and public acceptance for the revised courses 
were recognized. The important part which the basic text plays 
in the success of any course vms stressed along with the vital 
need for a text which incorporates the ideas of fused science. 

Vifith these danger points in mind, the sub-committee 
laid plans for the tentative organization of a ne?/ course. 

By April of 1950, a proposed plan for the reorganiza¬ 
tion of all high-school science was ready. Composite courses 
in physical science were proposed for grades X and XI, to 
lead to either a third fused course in grade XII, or to the 
specialized courses in physics and chemistry. Separate 
courses in biology were proposed for grades X and XI as a 
prerequisite to the grade XII composite course only. 

Justification was found for these nevir physical science 
courses in their purpose acquaint the student with the 

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concepts and principles necessary to his understanding of the 


world in which he lives.'’ They v/ere to stress the attitudes 
and skills of science useful in daily living for meeting the 
demands of intelligent citizenship. 

At this point, a trial course, organized on the unit 
plan was taking definite shape. The units had been tentative¬ 
ly named, and their outlines were under way. After com¬ 
pletion, this course was introduced into the grade A classes 
of several schools on an experimental basis. 

By February 1951, the sub-committee was also concern¬ 
ing itself with the construction of an integrated grade XI 
course, as well as with the matter of implementing both the 
grade X and XI courses officially. The securing of an ad¬ 
equate basic text, the preparation of a booklet on the aims 
of generalized science, and the gaining of teacher support 
were problems receiving attention. 

V/hen the trial course for grade X came up for review 
in October 1951, favourable response from several of the 
trial schools was noted. A new unit, "The Nature of Matter", 
was added as background for grade XII chemistry. The search 
for a basic textbook ended with the selection of Physical 
Sciences for Canadian High Schools v/hich v^as deemed suitable 
after suggested revisions. 

. April 1, 1950. 



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By December of the same year, after provision had 
been made for continued evaluation and revision, the trial 
course v/as authorized for schools beginning in September of 
1952. At this time, too, the proposed grade XI course v/as 
outlined in rough for its trial. 

The integrated course designed for grade ZII, having 
received university opposition, has not been instituted. 


It is interesting to note the following; 

1. The attempts to gain teacher opinion and approval 
for any new course. 

2. The concern with the basic textbook as an important 
foundation for the successful teaching of a course. 

3. The desire to create a functional course, i.e. one 
related to the conceimis of citizenship. 

4. The concern ?/ith important principles and concepts 
as a focal point for the organization of materials. 



The Curriculum ^Tuide for Science 10 is the official 
publication regarding the nature and aims of the course. In 
addition, it acts as a handbook for teachers to the extent 
of listing important concepts and understandings, suggesting 
teaching procedures, giving directions regarding the scope 


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of experimentation, of evaluation, and the use of audio¬ 
visual aids. 

A close inspection of this booklet not only gives us 
a clear picture of the organization and objectives of Science 
10, but reveals as well the extent to which this course has 
incorporated the philosophy of functional science set out 
previously in a reviev^^ of the literature. 

Objectives of Science 10 and Organization of Materials 

1. Science 10, as course in physical science, "implies a 
re-organization of subject matter and concepts drawn 
from the whole science field." ^ This procedure is 
justified because "in keeping with the contributions 
which science education may make to all students, 
this organization of subject matter is deemed most 

2. Science 10, as a functional course, proposes to link 
the facts of science with the concerns of life in 

a modern society. "The education of youth must provide 
a basis, not only for understanding and attacking pro¬ 
blems within our society, but also for developing 

some insight into the role of science in the lives of 

young people." 

^^Alberta Department of Education, op. cit ., p. 5. 

^'^ Ibid « , p* 6. Ib id ., p. 5. 

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3. To this end, the materials of Science 10 are 


^organized to develop important concepts” from 
various specialized sciences to form an integrated 

4. Science 10 considers facts important, but they must 

be used to ^achieve all the objectives of science 

education,” of which factual knowledge is only one. 
"Science education must develop habits, attitudes and 


understandings, over and above the facts of science.” 
More specifically, experiences in science must help 
the pupil: 

a. To acquire useful facts and information concerning 
the environment and to develop functional concepts 
and an understanding of scientific principles. 

b. To acquire an appreciation of the scientific, or 
problem-solving method, and to develop an ability 
to use it. 

c. To acquire instrumental skills. 

d. To develop desirable attitudes, interests and 

The Teaching of Science 10 

1. Science 10 consists of six units, each one dealing 
■with a basic theme. 

The units are: 

(1) The Nature of Things. 

^^ Ibid . , p. 6. ^^^ Ibid .. p. 5. 

^^Ibid * "^^ Ibid ., pp. 6-7. 

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(2) Ihe Earth 

(3) Temperature and Heat. 

(4) Weather. 

(5) Eire and Euels. 

(6) Power Trorn Combustion. 

2. The materials of each unit have been selected to 
contribute, when properly presented, to a major con¬ 
cept. As a guide to teachers, a great number of 
specific procedures are suggested as a means of 
developing a nuraber of related understands, whose co¬ 
ordination will result in several generalizations 
basic to each major concept. "The unit is not complete 
when the understandings have been achieved. It still 
remains to draw from the understandings clear enun¬ 
ciations of the Generalizations, and in turn, the 


central theme, or Major Concept." 

A list containing understandings, generalizations, and 
the major concept, is clearly presented for each unit. 

3. Laboratory work is considered to have several functions. 
Making the student familiar with materials and equipment, 
and enabling him to gain skill in their use is one; 
clarifying facts and principles is another. Special 
emphasis, however, is placed upon the suitability of 

. p. 12. 


experimentation for developing problem-solving 
abilities. Teachers are urged to give these abilities 
special concern in their laboratory v^ork, and to en¬ 
courage their transfer to "new and meaningful situa- 

tions." Thus, experimentation and demonstration 

are directed "to achieve some purposes above and 


beyond the activity itself." 

4. Teachers are directed to give attention to the use of 
clear and precise expression througii regularl^^ assigned 
and corrected written work. 

5. i^valuation in Science 10 has a broad scope. It should 
act as a corrective to the teacher in the sense that 
it indicates how effective his teaching has been. 

For the pupil, it must appraise his groY/th in all dir¬ 
ections consistent with the objectives of the course. 
Teachers are cautioned against testing for mastery of 

facts alone. They must not neglect the "more diffi- 


cult, but equally important" task of testing 

"habits, skills, understandings of concepts and 


principles, and attitudes." As a guide in this 
activity, they are referred to neiss^ Modern Methods 
and Materials for Teaching Science . 

. p. 15. 







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6* No specific directions regarding tlie use of the basic 
textbook are given. A fairly extensive list of refer¬ 
ences is presented, however, of which the basic text 
is considered primary. It is thus implied tliat 
teachers will feel free to use one or more sources, as 
the occasion demands. 

7. Using audio-visual aids is considered a practice ^*of 


considerable merit under favorable circumstances", 
and teachers are urged to build up filmstrip librar¬ 
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Place of Science 10 in Alberta High School Science Program 

The physical science courses in grades X and XI are 
deemed to have a two-fold function in that together they are 
designed to provide the following: 

1. A two-year science education of a type suited to 
all students. 

2. A basis upon which any student may undertake grade 
XII science courses, and thereby satisfy university 
entrance requireraents. 

Such an arrangement is designed "to provide science 

education suited to all, as well as to equip those vath special 


ability to proceed v/ith more advanced science education.*^ 

^S lbld .. p. 16. . p. 6. 

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As a primary purpose of this study required on evalu¬ 
ation of the classroom situation, a number of Science 10 
teachers had to be questioned on numerous aspects of their 
aims and procedures. To secure essential data, the writer 
used the most expedient device available, the questionnaire.^ 

The questionnaire was designed to reveal both explicit 
and implicit information. Hirst of all, it supplied directly 
a great deal of factual data on a variety of matters. These 
extended from such items as training and experience of the 
teacher, or adequacy of classroom facilities to the teacher^s 
use of the text, and his attitudes tov/ards the newer aims. 
From these, a total picture can be readily obtained by mere 
tabulation of replies. Consequently, the writer v/as able to 
answer quite directly such questions as: What number or per 
cent of teachers have adequate equipment? What number or per 
cent of teachers stress vigorous testing? — and so on. 

^Appendix A. 

IV i.lLT'iAHO , ■■■. 

<5-L vl : IA- C..J 4 . 11:01 a:a^:t4^ mr 



!■ Vxj :iv v^biRtu ulxi& 7o oc.oc^Xijq x^BStittq b Da 


.onsloc: Jo •£3a:non b , ao-i;)'>fij;^xa i;ioo‘'i^ajBio ^xiy to n^l^B 
x1ct 4' to c:y.O:;c:SB a- j^.br.iun no osrioiw^aufiip '©cf ot bBXi'urt^doeoJ 
erJ , sd'Bl) ^Eld^noaao- ©TOoses-^ix' . 5rtB amto' 

. :>*i: B 

ii..; ^.. - t: 

o:rp ©fij . i XdiSllB^B ij-noxouqx© :ra':>is ©xi^ £)oaxi 

r^^oci Loev7‘z ox 'bari?-.1 ob obw exl aniioi^EOiip oxl!i: 

v.I5oo--.:b .„ oa \^Ib lo d-atX;^ nxoix^ajriOxXti tlollqml brm 

^ >' ■ : , m-' S' 

s:^3rit . .. iafx “xo vdox'ra^ Btt-ax iaiisi’cat lo Ioob s. 

. -v ^ ' 'IJ 

■j o-;. to. ^orioi‘xoqxs iinr'vaiB’Xl a© axaSu i: xloi>a, sig'H Batestx© 

’ *ioii osoj ^■ ' o V- a a i if i 11 0 -1 r<-.o ox a ^ a I o' lo '^o joVn sbB . lo . z Si.n) BSu 

ill ^b'xBwol aotelillfj ..aixi Ban oril lo ©oj; 

■eilxo'i lo noxltsljxdou 


...n-A- 1,^ ‘^1[1oOB‘£ 3dl iToO 'D*X>iloiq XbioI B ^oasill mo'x'l 

31.0 OO';; -^^djin^: exil ^ ■':il::o':ooai:ci^ 

'V':C ' 

':. r "lo TO lx: .- lP.:i':oa onox li.f np. xloBS ;\:Iloeo:l... oxiiijp iov/Bne 
xec xo *xo : .-.-n Isrl. . 0 ■'’/:i'i.'>o o?f: poBB ovB,:' c'xoilocal lo^lnao 
. ..a -- -:xoo;o;5xv aBaxlo axeiloaGu lo ln©o 

xlteo; qA' 


Although much can be learned in this way by totalling 
raw facts, a broader appraisal of many factors may be obtained 
by comparing or synthesizing pertinent data from related tables. 
A broad view of evaluation, for example, could be secui’ed only 
by using several tabulations bearing on individual aspects of 
this complex factor. In situations like this, the question¬ 
naire’s second use was found. 

The earlier chapters of this vrork reviewed current 
opinion on many salient aspects of modern science teaching. 

In considering the results of the questionnaire, the invest¬ 
igator strove wherever expedient to set forth teacher attitude 
and procedure in the light of this opinion. At all times he 
attempted to delve beneath superficial statistics without 
going beyond ?/hat the results actually warranted. 


For an adequate reviev; of the classroom situation, a 
wide variety of questions must be answered. For this reason, 
the questionnaire deals v/ith the teacher’s bacl^ground, the 
school organization, the school’s equipment, the teacher’s 
ideas of the purposes of science instruction, his methods 
of teaching and evaluation, his treatment of experiments, and 
his use and appraisal of the authorized text. In addition, 
provision was made for frequent personal comments and suggest¬ 



u.. % 



ri I ;o o ‘ ':£» £V'; a i ^ v' r? i i>e nia oX ^$4 . nao ifo it<i if 3 ix)jld" lA 

ZjhKtiatt’d’o &(> *:!!(: p.*iouDxrj. B ^ad'oE'i v/a-i 

,:'fEt fiij'ix bXoi) c?-x3iriu-rsq fini3:Xasi^^ *10 ^^niTraqiiio^. ^;cl '-■< 

i-aufysa '>>r: ^'iExs ’lOX «ftoIXjBi^iB'V's to bBor^d ^‘* 

•I.. ^oi-jca& XE..’Xi:v;;br'i: ijo 3n-i:xBsd‘ a^Xi&X'J'eXi/dB;^ Is-iovae ^nXait Vii 
-.. :^aoi;o or-J-“ , ^aiTiX .^anuttsi-^xa. irX .'iQjaal xolc^oo axtid^ 1 

b'ltcosa e’exxarx 

Dov/Oiva-^ il'xovi cfirft axlt ■, 

P iV, - ., ' ■'A'. '. ' ' ■ 

.'"k;.-ioaaX oox’wIBa jxie'£)O.T: ''iM afasqaa oxsilaa .ao noxixXqo 

-o ^ vx; arf: , axi onriGi Xaoxyg to aXXuaax’eriX ?^rrlxoixiaxxoo hI 
r '- x: JJ-i xoiioo,.:;* 4c^xoJ ^©a oX drtsix^eC}:© ‘lovoxoxfw ovoxd's TOtB^l S 

x;;; GG/rrij IXr 

xoXn. qo aXxx^. to ori^xil enX ixi 9ii;£)9oo'iq £»a6. 

r "*'X- ' ■ 

•vionXlv; aoLxaitBta iBioil'i©gj;a riXsensd ©vIoXi oX i!)'©Xqi::l©.tc^0 

^ .oodfio'^'xr.'^v ''IlQixros aXlBsaa ©ilj o©riw Jbnc'^ocf 

ey? uc loiTDiataiiGQ 

;'>■ ‘. 

, ■oaJ'ejtXa :'o/ixiar-lo to v/oivix OoBi'pooa hb ’io'^ 




-.©'v':::.:b 9g a-2L;i'! enoitaoiig to vj'oX-xBvr ^oi^; 

t 'T. .vo'i; iOC"' ■',''isiioB-.X ©lit OoXv/ alEoX a^ianxsoltaaifp 
•’*' ... e.‘4 . 'liauqiBpo g'I-j:;o 8 o.l-^ 5 noxX©siiie 3 *io looiioa 

a .••^; >. On* Ox 5 If. -.’i^Lirri: eu;ioiu- ':: aeaoq'XBq ©ifo' to ar^^bt 
GiU .'..J..9 .XX©. .>. 4 ; ; j X/TO.’JOfcj'i^' air . :iorxsi;It'!\ i QijixxxOBsX to 

{..ei-j , . _-^.j . i.4 ua e* X to leciB'iqqB bfw oaju exit 

r^i.^ oj.a .. -ji,. JO lofi- B'icq Xnaiipio;! '•lo'i oiioij aav; noXaivo-iq 

. :^.inrOX 




To reveal attitudes v/itiiout prying unduly, to indicate 
a choice of answers without suggesting the appropriate one, 
to be comprehensive yet not over-lengthy, to reduce involved 
questions to succinct ones capable of short, direct answers — 
these were difficulties which the v/riter attempted to overcome. 

Before the final form of the questionnaire was deter¬ 
mined, the investigator drev/ up several tentative drafts; these 
were sent out in turn to various Science 10 teachers, with a 
request for constructive suggestions. Keeping these suggest¬ 
ions in mind, he drew up each time a revised and more realistic 
version. In this progressive way, the final draft -was con¬ 
structed, and copies multigraphed for distribution. 


Through the co-operation of the Department of Education, 
an alphabetical list of 2E0 Science 10 teachers had been 
secured. These names, representing teachers from all parts 
of the province and in all types of schools, provided a 
convenient mailing list for the study. Oopies of the question¬ 
naire, each writh a covering letter, vvere then sent out to 
each teacher as his name appeared on the list. There was no 
conscious attempt to canvas either certain numbers of teachers 
on specific levels of training and experience, or certain 
numbers of schools of specific types, e.g. size, rural, urban. 


V J. 

9^ ii'.j 

oj-^I'oauiw ^j3pLlB3Te*:i; .o'^‘ 

^.. --(‘xqo ,j. o. 2.::op.P'iPW-nB lo soi:Gr:o a 

^;^j.;r>oG: .'^^Ixpi-tei'-xpvo uon , 9/i:exi'9i:la.*tqxtoo o*:|^o:f- 

-- :i-\':?V7=nB oOGxip >0 9lci./*qGG nsxfo d“0i:fPoGija o« ■ anoxd*aeiip 

. =xr-iwOT..vo OX xoxqns^tB '1901 x'v; doJrdw ^aox^liipl e^iew aaaiiJ- 

-•Xc.-xj o^.; &xxsxtnoi^odx Vo otoI'' 

3L_-r:; <aX‘:x‘:>. ev'ij'x^j’nsd’ lo-i^vaE qj..: './drxJi) 'xo^-a^vivtaa'vxti: si(^ .psxrid 

® '■■ ,.f. -' ■. .,; 

xjo:ibX.o":^ ^xxix^^ al ^uo :^^©o S'X©^ 

c i; 
j aS‘V 

. ■3::o:'oaa 

.:xo-. .^ 

rx,:'; ti. 

qse'^-x . 55'?'l:!‘oi;*xd' sxicp u asupeT 

::b xji 

M!&C ' 

oonx'xo*! i 


J.BXti'x oid 

. £cijxf(lira:^3i£^ ao\: .peGqS'ialXIiM mlcob ,bB;^ouT^z 

P o-:.xw xloaa ■ cy;x ws'is. ed ^daisjd nx ax^oi:. 


i’da^xb J.xsxti'x oii^ q'xjvf 'oyiaas^i^TOiq ax^'i^ rxl . oIgxsv. 

.:; xx;io:Xu. *10 

'‘ W/. •' 

.xoiay-'iBqap xo x:Gi;;fa^O0O''«oo 'erix xl^xroxif.' '' ' x 

V'xW.V J' 

^ 3 S wor:s.l‘)d OSS lo d'eil Xbo dcf&cBGqlB hb 


~-i X 

q IXi'. r^oxx axjd 
r Po^.x-ox'^ ,xIo 
-Jx Xo aeiioo.’' 

:. Go X'iXo XxasxqGX ^-s'oxisn oaoxX .doxBooa 

.x)c: '}.o x.t? .\;o II® rx p.‘3 ooxlvo'iq ©ila* lo 

. ', ' ' ■ ' 

:xrXc oi'X xa'i oxll cfaoIneYnop 

Ou o-j, j O..JE sxg^v f'^jo JjI ^.xixXxvoD B Go'Ivv rioB jaxpcn 


cib\/ 01P ..cxI ©.'X no .. .jxawcq/? ;^ lilxt ;:3 xanoead" Pons 
jr.pxi^x •--. :tIPd*xoo X:: ',;-::G 3xv;.?rp o:f Xp.aadxla a'lulpxnoo 

.->0 x" . -Uiio-XPn.’. Xixinloxo’ lo eiGY?,I ol'lljyqa .:o 
jIj'x'i . 2,e{,vo oi'ixaora Xo plooxlaa lo axeiJiiu.n 


*^-l‘ > 


Of the 230 copies sent out (including the earlier 
tentative drafts] ninety-seven v;ere returned. This represents 
a return of 42 per cent. Many were only partially filled in, 
but a great number were not only complete, and shov/ed as well 
the teacher^s sincere concern v^ith the issues involved. 


Tables I, il, III and IV set forth the distributions 
on the bases of: experience of teachers, training of teachers, 
size of schools, and degree of specialization. 

Experience of Teachers 


Years of 










10 or 

Number of 











Per Gent 











1. The largest single group (34 per cent] had 10 or more 
years of experience. 

2. The second-largest single group had 2 years of exper¬ 

3. Of the teachers answering, 11.5 per cent had only 1 
year of experience, ?;hich was the one just concluded 
when they answered the questionnaire. 

Sixty-seven per cent had 4 years or more of experience. 



loni } :j'nea £ Si.vt ^0 

. .:j:r . e‘i \ a^^iBZb BV]::]^s^aeJ- 

:: ,;-..:.:v: :j a'ie\; ’ 4 ..:.'; ' z&q Si- Id iriugt) 

DV' -1, , Ju'-dI ,j;OD ’4X^0 Xd:! e‘iovj U b ;fij'cf 

..-0 ‘X >'./. 9;!'d /:'\DDnc^o ©looni;^ a^-railOBeJ" 



>■ fea-^'o T'-i i*--'t)r;g /'^•xod :'zJ^ V... ,&n0<:i,: . I'l ^aolcfs' 

' •) '. ''■• ■ 

•C I 

'rue jj^'idivi 

: ■ •, . ■..'.i ■ w -^.e £9aDD0j to aDaDx'-Laqxo :to a>jCiSo erlu ao 

., ' ■- , U. • ■ i 

. . ^.Dita'sxlojoo^;D to ^sm .-^loorioa to o::ita 

';":..a:aBot to eo:':tIi:aaxt' 

0 = O-U 

'-;'J tOOTUk^vi. < --. 0 '..jV».\:-”~ *" * .L . 



, 1 

- O'- 


•; : t >r-S f -, - 

: U 0'.’., 

r !: 

to aisoi: 

to TOdiju/H 

: SI i II !, O-TO'iOOBt 

'r r"”.“ 

i i;.J. I it *!, oet 

to, (I 

'•'. j ::j 

; a* :.-i 

I‘:^'tt“ ©rft 

'3: MO* :; ..• to roiesv 

'.u 00 -U.000 .^0 00'^' 


O.. I 

- -iO 001 

••It o'oowcao aouaocot sao tv 
^ ■o v:-; ..;.^.i-tv t .v'-rr.’-;■; to •'r.oa\; 

■ - ro L*-:, . /V _ >.■; , noiivV 

'••-0 I o t ..;o ov' aavot-.i> 


5. ‘rhe average amount of experience for the v/hole group 
was 7.76 years. 

'fraining of Teachers 


Years of 








Number of 








Per Cent 








1. All teachers have grade XII or more. 

2. The average number of years of training is 4.3. 

3. The largest single group had 4 years of training. 

4. The second largest single group had 5 years of 

5. Eighty per cent of all teachers had 4 years or more 
of training. 

Size of Schools 


Number of 

In School 


























Per Cent 













!• Fifty per cent of teachers represent high schools of 
3 rooms and under. 

2. The largest single group consists of teachers in 
3-roomed high schools. 

3. Twenty-five per cent of teachers represent fairly 
large to large schools i.e., those of 7 rooms and more. 

Specialization of Teachers 




















Teachers v^rere classified for Table IV on the following 


A. A "fully-specialized” teacher was considered as one who 
undertook professional training primarily (1) in tv/o 
basic sciences, e.g. chemistry and physics; (2) or in 
one science and mathematics; or (3) in one science ex¬ 
clusively, e.g. chemistry. 

B. A "semi-specialized" teacher v/as considered as one who 
concentrated (1) upon two subjects, one of which is 


ill c-'v■ '■' :^'Oo 'lo'^’ *oo' ^^fa'X>tiX'’''iSwiT' a a 

,,..... .3Xo^rl5'& 

^-i. ■ 

'* .T- ^ " WlLp^- r-:7ViA|H 

vJ-riOi uriij'.xe’iqs': 

”* - ,.- ®-' '' *■ ^ ^d! "■'i!# 

..>.fn:i ar.o:^'-x V 'lo .^t:oXid- ^,....1:' alao.ioa;' 0;^ OB'xaX <v.. Mjsm' 

^ yr' ' ■ " ■■ fe- ‘^'- ■ ' ' ‘ 'Wiiy"'' ''‘■'''' . -' ' ''w 


,S‘--** - 

-- *J 


: , j-MXtrf DSa":. 

i>d . !r S ' 

J. . 

' ?.? 


*1 A ,, < 'V 


life: ■■’' 

- — —-rr 

001 %, 


X s:-;;: I X's i: o 




Ic'i eiitt rro . VI Sldi^x 'xot ■ 

•Qiftf ©cio Sfl Jo- -■'jL.-xi.-:> a^^;v/ 'X'jri'OiV©d tooqa-*Tj:Xii^'l’' A 

, :^?ll::i' : '■'■- " ■ -?ms"2 

OTfu y•;^ { 1 , ":;iiv lie :>ixrij:LiX''Ir.iio > j;^e‘jCo*:q iooXiojitt; 
nt 10 ;;;, ;^:::iJoireoXo .-^.^ .ee'bnsioG olSBCf 
- .n ©'jrrrros o'o » x io ■ sax;tBnor j-:3f*' f)xx;3 son©.i;oa ano ' 1|B||| 

, iV . -'I vj* e i n rt 0 . '■. . , r I ovJ: 3 i;X o 

nsiii wm _ 

ojv* ■an i.x L'ji'o^x.'..; r.-'>7r -lo^iopod A i 

-i- t-xic' 

'U»a 3ff'X itodj ( I ) ,.b0ii'S6ld*ll€fonOO ■'"'vV^;; 

,(l. i . -; V J 


not a science; e.g. chemistry and philosophy; or (2) 
upon mathematics alone; or (3) in a semi-scientific 
field as industrial Arts. 

This group includes, therefore, those vdio, while not 
trained for science exclusively, have had continuous 
scientific or related training at the university level. 
C. A ”non-science^* teacher is one who undertook university 
work in non-scientific fields e.g. history and French, 
mathematics and English. 

From Table lY we note that: 

1. Seventy-seven per cent of teachers have at least 
some continuous training in science at the univer¬ 
sity level. 

2. Twenty-three per cent of teachers have little if 
any training in science at the university level. 

Summary of Distribution of Replies 

On the four important matters of experience, training, 
specialization, and size of school, the questionnaire replies 
represent a wide diversity of conditions. 



Chapter IV set dovm quite definitely the high standards 


which modern educationists set for teachers of science. 

^Ctiapter IV, Sub-Chapter on Teachers of Science and 
Their ‘c^ualif ications , pp. 40-41. 


o 'Ji' 

■ 'O 

0 n’*' 


.. .j 


'Xa i b^iE \z^ 3 l:"edo jooxxeioa- B ^tor: 

•:j:x:-Lx oi-.:. b xtJ: 1:0 'lo Gi;i:craifi 53 xl.^e.m'rioq^ 

.Sir'll! lai'xJ GXibru gb Moil 
. olix.;; ^od:: ;; x. ril . ■■■'■rulo'x^xli . aeji):jIorii ai/lV 

B.:i v.-:co db/i syel;. , G:/.:.ox 9 ooxieioa -..oi i)Dr[iB'Xcl'^ 

d: isif^ bo otliiTcoioa ^ 

;'-oou'leDHi" oiiv^ eno :: t ‘lO.cloBei x^a-non” il 

V. ' 

•■’ :::'r q- .x -s afclaM MlixirfOioa-BO;:: xii 

,-. • , ,,';. Ma aoiJ ^sori^axi 

" ••/■^ OOlS 

■ . ■ ,5.'« rJOiir slon Ov; 'Vx olcfa;.’.' 

''h- ■ . 

3 l i;: vv.;:;: ax: 3 . oca.J lo tnoo;^,'ioq navaa-Yci'u'&ve! .X 

r: sij oB co::xl0o fix i.r:x6s:X sij a.uxiion00 ox^'ca- 
. . . W . levoX yMa 

jXv. Xi,. CVS- xisi-ossi 'lu jnoo s:sq .2 

' Av" ■'’ ■‘'-, > -'f' ‘ V,;!) 

YcX ia*x'jvlr;v.j Xx; ox::aioax:ni axfi..xi.c‘xX ’ .OA 

cox,.Xxj.. 1Q . BO i X .XQ i *1X a iy Xo x*BXd: 

Xt.'xX , . ;j;.ai'iiaqqa Xo L'xaXXjrXx X:;Bv;T oqrni riBoX oXX nO 
'qoY ‘..'TaB’sH'-'X - ai^p arX . Ic 0.x;xa br:s .itoilB^xIai ooca 

jx... 00 lo '.^xxa'XC'Vxx) ODxx; b lx: 9 a 9 *iq 9 T 

..L'.; .X U X.-, vl.L . iii, 

*» 'X-t-. ^ Cij'li.’v.iuv.. *i uXl 

ixi:;^'yOu el.!'.-) 'x.voX VI 'XoicBiIO 
• ■' xx v.. ..-.Oi.osax ‘iioi X-s c.a 2 tiiold’aouii>o n-£3.5on udi^.w 

.02.Xi;xO:.iiOB”^::..„ ‘xocrneiicj^ ^ 

. . "<i.l.i lB il ’xi a; iX 


It may be pertinent to review the questionnaire results 
wherever they have practical bearing on the matter of teacher 
preparation. The previous tables are used for this purpose. 

Length of 'frainin^ 

It has been suggested that at least four years of 
college preparation v;as needed for the proper training of a 
teacher of science. An examination of Table II has revealed 
that one-fifth of our group fail to meet this standard in 
various degrees. 


Considering length of training by itself may be mis¬ 
leading because the training may be in non-scientific fields. 

In this regard it was noted in Table I¥ 23 per cent of the 
teachers had little if any background in science beyond high- 
school level. I'urthermore, these teachers must lack training 
in methods of teaching science as well. 

Summary of reachers^ Q.ualifications 

It appears that the need for teachers v/ith an adequate 

subject-matter background for science teaching as insisted 


upon in Chapter IT is not being met in a substantial number 
of cases. Two circumstances bear on this situation: (Ij the 
presence of teachers trained in non-scientific fields, and, 

(2/ presence of teachers insufficiently trained in an^;" field. 

^ Ibid ., p. 49. " Ibid ., p. 49. 

^'iXE-irrai:-‘d^- wbiyb^i ot ad :x^’'- . ■• 

:'^:;oe9J’ ‘lo 'iaoa 

arid' no :^ni:'iead isoid-OB'xc; ’lav'S'iaxiY^, 

.,;EO.-‘x:'. airivj 'lOi naau ona afrldad- snoxTfe'Xxf axlur .irotd'BTaqaiq 
d^;': VmM lo fjJpiled 

i3&i -r 

d-aBaii-^^a.^d^add fed-aagjir^a cia^d aaxi- ;fl 

I>" , ' ■ <;( ■ .; . ■ m 

■:• ‘•'o ”,nirtxBTi 'xaooicpedd- ^tO'l ^'Oi^aan 'taw, .^oXd'arxBqajq a^alloo' 

, ir* . P Tfc 

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:^iU ' '" P :„.y-S ‘ 

.^r. ■■•inDnBd's -3aid' d'earff oj list tx'G -Io dd-lit-ano' d-sdd” 

.. :' .aaa'Xa^£> ei/oXiav 


n.QX d' o eq8 •■’■'''% 

_::*-^'9r T-sn. tlDad'.r“--v:cf :ivi.inlp/id‘'Kto situ^xel '^%l%sliJ:v.riob 

■ ■ '•! ' :'f/ ‘ ■■ .- . 

^^..jlell oit.i-dxioroa-noa r;.t :)3_^iri arid” aBi^Boad 3rfj;£>BaI 

Oiiiy '. .' dlirro 'le'q VI. aldEW nl Bapoxi saw dx B'lBga'i eXifd rxi 
r^ «*: •■■ . 

, -xl.r.; axio^^ad rcna^oa-ra J^ixro^^doecf i:n© ‘ii: aXcTd-J:! Baxl aiaxtoBad 
^ninXooij- .;o.:I .a'leii^jjSBd aaand , a^Oxnaiidnii/t .laYeX‘looxloa 
' i' d - ■ . ’ '-Xrovv'“’as ^onaxoa ;%ni;iloxad-. to aBond-eiti xiX 

odnndsBa ne nxi-A^ a-xodoasd xot Boan aiid dadd atfBaqqa ' , ' 

S'w/d-. , ' , 

i?d‘cl:a..r be ^iOrrf^oVtf-aerxaxoa Bnno'x^xoi^,. i;atfd-ai,:-d:oe(;diJ8 
'irrOi.;,..: .L,:x^V e ;3 nl wsxrv %i:.i-:;o d-ojptBx ^'vX ':s©d'q0ffD ni aoqif 
' "-'> : i ■^uK'xrdxE p.i d no tbx.'X aaonaJaxx oxId Om'/x^ -hbqbo 'lo 

.OKir- .anlai't oX ir w'ra.-■ l s-xi-'H :vX frandBar aiedoaed I'o ^ ofiaae’iq' 
vfxp ni Dorxand vIw'naxol?::!acnX P’tOuDcaJ- to eomioa-iq ';k; 



Adequate facilities represent one of the major factors 
upon which the effectiveness of a science course depends. Al¬ 
though this factor alone does not guarantee efficient present¬ 
ation, lack of space and equipment could seriously hamper any 
program, no Hotter hov/ skilful the teacher or hov/ enlightened 
the aims. 

Chapter IV in the body of the thesis and the question¬ 
naire have both been concerned with many items which collect¬ 
ively represent important means through which a course of 
instruction is facilitated or hindered. Specifically they 
are: type of room, laboratory facilities, library available, 
major equipment, materials for experimentation and demonstra¬ 
tion, number of bulletin boards and v^all charts. Other re¬ 
lated factors which may affect the teaching situation were 
also included in the questionnaire. These are: size of class, 
and the presence of other pupils. All of these given above 
are not of equal importance, and allowance for this fact should 
be made in any appraisal of them. 

The Science Room 

In Chapter IV of this thesis the science room was set 


apart from the ordinary type of classroom. This distinction 

^ Ibid ., p. 50. 

vilco"'' 'o;-® ". 'I'^izeDiXlu ..■■jd'aTrli.oei ai: ^ 


b ’xia ^j-Rd'^ienxxexxo eljeixdo jx ' ^S'^yjinclijoe xoCs;a : 

. ‘ T.Imv ,Ma xlyisod ruxx.f.CL'u ‘re , rcojx.'- 

-i: .V vj':a ariJ- r orals ■ooixi’iA boael 

, <_ 'r.ioixroJ: 1 ayor- or'u n,i ijelj.'loiti; oaXo 

j.'0':'u ix 'e::r.:.J‘ ‘ti. .....x. . ..Xierx.. lo ;jo. eas'.:c e#xia Xxo 

.Xc. :ros-.: xi. w qo ■ ^;.) x;,.'uX^. • ^ ;X ^ jx.omo oil lex/'X ‘io yon 5xa 

. ,11 ‘Id; Isl.: aiycr^ vi;a al sdB” oc 

;,: JO’ ;£;^•)_:..qi ui. G...:^: 

w-X a X; ; x'".\ oxxo Ij;-, rioxlv lo xl 

'■' ■' -xl. . joxcia a,'o X. z.rinxlf'xo e;ij rxxxi lx a-a 



was justified because of the peculiar nature of a subject 
which requires a physical environment to enhance gro?/th toward 
its particular aims and values. For this reason, then, instruc¬ 
tion carried on in a room given over to science instruction 
exclusively, and containing facilities suited to science learn¬ 
ing, was considered desirable. 

Table V itemizes the answers to questions bearing 
upon the nature of the science classroom and some of its 









1. Is there a special science room? 





E. Can room be arranged for group W'ork? 





3, Have you a good-sized bulletin board? 





4. Have you any wall charts? 





5. have you a film or slide projector? 





6. Have you a microscope? 





7. Have you a suitable science library? 





8. Are other pupils present? 





It would appear that in a small majority of cases, 
science instruction is being carried on in ordinary classrooms. 
This situation may, in great measure, reflect the large num¬ 
ber of small high schools represented in the questionnaire 


•' ‘t 

,:; '::j .'.: 'i:jl^;,;ooq 'lo ^^..-soeu 5^::qivB’q, ^ 

:o;:::..,:j cjo .^iO'xro'i^ //it; .;../C;i^s^j;:.-; i: a j-cJ.x;pe*;L rlo,l;iw 
. a)'- . ,^a.; lav a.r:i;a aa.u,;Di.:f'leq eoi; 

;.uj. u3'*' ‘i.;.-V'0 ^j'V.i.'p^ ?700-‘I 3 H.C fi-J ...■:i iaO iiOio 

^ Ov. a „q; vj':I.f: aaU, v u ^aro . .l^visvivxo 

bo'Xi^J^xGaco 'KEw 

c: . . ../oa' i' OCT aqev/aaa. :;i: -slaBl' 

■' ^ 

la.:: joor:ja:>J.o po a'Ta;iB.n: e:iC noqn 


e':',. -r ■.-, :.>..--.t' aia.c* 


a \ 

rroi: 0 a ajirp 

;^;.:)o'X aaa^ioa laaot^aa a 0'ia;ict‘ 51 . >' 

-a-O:.' *1^^! oa :ao.O'i fiBO 


iv^'aavl ■:J:o 0 ^ 1 .'q •,-a .-..)3 a if jq 8 va.^. 

.a-;?^:;',;:o I:?:ev/ -jaa' jj'..a7 ava.... . .■ 

.■: 1 ob\ ■• _ aaiXd •.l..< :' U.ix e uo’. . 

^ ^ „ . .■ xX .ia,: e '..’j'v. ■-va.: 

■ II- 'll ..o^a::; 01 a aov avav; , 

. . ■ ■ ....;•:■ ali '- r ? 'o la ,. . 

^ ... to xlI i L 
Op : ;‘ i'..lvoi. . : 

■ .L -‘aiici T ,• biftov/ XI 
a gi .’.. . ::opPL>^J‘IP^:^l oa-'aJoi 

X.- ■I," :M'"" a:i I XaaX :c ....iiii 


results, v/liere iialf of the schools reporting were of three 
rooms or less, V/hat attempts are being made to adapt these 
ordinary classrooms to science rooms, and with what success 
may make a worthwhile investigation in itself. At any rate, 
these results indicate a situation v/here teachers may be v/ork- 
ing under difficulties to improvise a proper setting for their 
science instruction. 

Library and reference facilities have been considered 
in Chapter IV as valuable parts of the science room. The 
23 per cent of teachers who report poor facilities in this res¬ 
pect, may be impeded if they ?/ish to encourage project Vvork 
or extensive reading. 

Approximately one-third of this group do not have 

convenient physical facilities for group or related work. In 

this respect at least their rooms lack the degree of flexibil- 


ity required by Chapter lY for modern science teaching. 

Bulletin beards and wall charts are two adjuncts which 
serve not only as teaching aids, but as means for creating a 
scientific atmosphere. Almost one-third of the schools report¬ 
ing are deficient in at least one of these. 

Devices for shov/ing films or slides are not taken for 
granted as valuable parts of our educational equipment. Our 

^Ibid ., p. o4. 
^ lb id * , p. b2 • 

sit)oi,i 08 aii<t lo ®iariv; ^'Soiijas'X 

oJ' 30 ^uL .^ael 1:0 axsoo'i 

'V. ‘V ■ ‘ 

3-2.%.oo B aJ xv; i^xis ,ax:soo'x sGii^-toil qxI B.'^ooiBeBlo ^'lersM^xo 
\'-xa allxiwxU^xow b oxlam 

-/X',,; aj Yc;: B’loit-: no 1700Jio /i 0 vtaoj:fcnl. 

* 1 10:10" -io':; 'isfioiq n 3 b:^vo’%cvu 1 InoiVllb toban ^at 

■ < ’^V ^ '.nai^ox^iXsHl eonal^.'s 

,; * ■:o;-4>., - 

onicrioo raac '$Ta- 0 ;a^i.cJAIxtj ■B-on'&X3'..s*i bim.-%‘iXi^zdLl 

7)L '■' 

oiL .'"ooi: Bon^siofe sroJ* to E?‘xx^i t/IAx^xflsv as VX lacfqsdD ni 

^ :. ■ ?» * : . .<' *' ■.' 
-a“o'r ai-Xo^^xxj: oolJ j-Xxoo^ aooc o\,orQ^x- od%'- xrioaooat to tn-jo leq dC’ 

: ' mm ^ ';»'■• ■/';■. ■ wm:: m • 

•/Xu./ x.‘; 0 ’^ OU'. oaXi'vjjoOiXO-.OX .fiSlW "11 OBb3 iiC t 

. ■ ', ■ ' ..«■■. 

evXanOG'xa ‘xo 

oxjfl ojii o'o cu/ot^ aXad" to vlaoBxxXxo'XqqA 

:m " - 

■ii- . fTov/ aid qooi^ ‘lot aoirtrIIxoBl iBoiaxxiq i^a^lmvaoD 

-.rjjxia'i'i JDT 31) oxid iio.3l e^xoo': tledcf' ;teBaI cla 3‘odqae*x SiXid 

.: 4 I JSl ' 

V - 

.^oax.ooot 0‘)X3X:T0 ?xa3i/oxi 'iot. ¥I locrcadO bo'i.lupQi: 

; . a. .. ' . ■ ' 

ffoluiw 0 i'B. cv.’d' ovia 8J'*i*o.'o Il3w jona BtoiXio ixxit'oiXxfE 

& "* . 

, T > 

c ax:rxjfjo'lu ‘x..‘i ai.O');/ as ^Ix.-u . :.Xvia nn-urloxisd" aa vlao "d’o/x sv'xaa 

A-" 'm - ■ 

‘ <il‘j ..JB to X)*:J;.oJ"i>no .ixa.'qaom;)o oitl^ixa.toe 

. ‘iG onu uoool c% nl '^neiol'ieL> eie 301 

•jot croioa: j ,;i •lO -/....Hi ;. ifXVv'OiIo 'xot aaoJ^vou. 

'*-w .,-fi'. ‘/.t .,i^v,, ly; i/r;::iio -n/o 'lo aw*‘*iO'^ i;.-,C’X)L.Xfiv ob ; X) 9 :l'fifl'i 3 


group of teachers is well equipped in this regard. 

The presence of non-science pupils in the classroom 
while science is being taught, is included in this section, 
because it may have a direct bearing upon the effectiveness 
of teaching. A large number of teachers are con$)elled to 
concern themselves, at least indirectly, with other pupils 
during the science period. This circumstance may often place 
an added strain upon the teacher. 

Laboratory Facilities 

No one can deny hoiv vital laboratory work is in any 
serious course in science. This investigation, therefore, is 
concerned with both the type of space available for laboratory?- 
activities and the adequacy of materials for experimenting 
and demonstrating. 



Numiber of 
Replie s 



As a special room 



Definite part of classroom 









In 68 (or 80 per cent) of the cases recorded, there 
is definite arrangement for laboratory space. In Chapter IV 

. ■ ..y- oe.jqimvo 1/0.: ai: ■‘xq. q^so^t'!^ 

.-Q.',.- ■ -•.'j ■• ■ a''-'^'- ao 7 oio.,.-:ioi: ‘lo ^a.x9ao-x^^ 'ari'-J 

.. ■ ■ ^ 

• ^v! T 'a'. i/IoiTX ..a.i: . a<7 al aa^foioa al.Qxv/ 

;. v:. a .. a7-*x. ; ■■■ ■ a c 'li m. '4' I- a ax^oacf 

OC -j'la. auo . •.,- ;,a.x:iaaait to a.::.: ’■. a^. A Ao 

- " ' * ' iX O . ; •'/ , v.i 0‘S,X : -i X C ,'■ i 'i . : ■' ' ' ''”-X ^■' i' ii'X 

I; -a,,' j;i:o cLa,'.: Do^iaioa oni' g.ui 

,noqx; nxa^ixl'a bebbB r:o 
. ■-ASA.-aA.K aalaa lioa .. Y x Qrf^Ba:oc 

•; -::x /:;■ aL _ ..a cl lav?/ :jcci'\rit*f)- lo: o a‘to oA 

^ • •. •, a.,.,.. ,;:-a(:aa‘; /■ a:a.A - .D-t alas ai, eaaxoo aacl'isa 

.)• ' ■ ‘lot - • tJ a ;: o^'-aqa lo /ava vAJ va; 0 '.' At iw bonzooooo 

■• ;:.'a,aio.:. l/,,.q:70 a. al claret a. :, lo '^aa::.: ■■x.jla o.'u b.iO> bcI/IyUoo 
' .. • ■ ■■ tfyxtznameb bon 

'■'•:io*.A. ..../I.-,A-Aai. a:w. a:. .oiaAv 

’>•:» noilaooa 

.__ ______ 

a...'>'. a a.o,xOB.oz 0 

«1 ' . .u_;‘i:.a'aIo t. . v;Yxa.. otiiAloJ 

ale joa 



' -1 —r 

a. v'A^oa oA yc ! Ac rrl 

.a>:iX •- - V r:a/io-;na'ix,.; o't ?a: '■ ‘. - b Ai: 


of this v;ork many reasons favorable to a ^combination’ room 


were presented, and 22 per cent (Table VI) of our group appear 
to have such an arrangement. 

It is interesting to note that 20 per cent of report¬ 
ing schools have to improvise their laboratory facilities. 

This may represent a discouraging situation for the teacher, 
though if the class is extremely small, the hardship involved 
may be largely theoretical. 

Materials and Equipment for Laboratory Activities 

Space in itself would be of little value to laboratory 
work if materials and equipment are lacking. The questionnaire 
asked the teachers to state conditions in his classroom in 
this regard# 



Number of 













Thus one-fifth of the teachers reporting consider 

their equipment inadequate for frequent and effective labor- 

^ Ibid *, p. 


T:.. . . ' v oc l ai4V:i-ia9T -iiim if-iov/ ai/i^ lo 

O’!* \i.J 

■^: ' ■ “ •. 

0.0 i'l0|/a ©vad-.c-t 

-V \ ■ qe*i; 10 d'Hoq 'XI-''’ Oi.: «.X ^ nC00 ax :fl ' ^ 

. :.QX,'I liosi oiCu.'Sio&i 'ix.;! o o-vt avaii glooaoti ^ni ,, 

. ■-■-.^iOe-^w olvT at;?iqea', vaia aiii'i' 

■ ■' :^. ' ^ ■'%‘i 

DO . lovix.!: 'O'X-' Dd^ : iia^ux ■ 'x ax? vaaalo" 1 1 xCiXfOild" 

■ ^ ' ■^' ^ -: ■■ ' ■ A „.^ 

a -.;ol ;;■ • o>;^ 0 0 , 1 ^ .alaiTSC^BM 


':3’ioO0l^^ : 0.^ 0l ©0 'bqQ 

^-w ...0j,, oXB .Oit&qii-iO'-e p^a alBii:9>}'8x5 *11 :-v^ow 

jIo l;x-^ 'U .B.itllxu. 0.00 e&B^z Oc xr.mxioaait exixf £59 >:b.0 

31 ■ aixld*' 

'“y^ ' . ^' *'xii ' . „ «« 

/*. . ..-.,i_u;';.* J.:;,. k',t'u:.;:. v 5 Y aV;lS--.fIV maAS:' 

c-;;i"--'" ::::.:,.-k ■j-i^.ajrcaca u;.../. aS.'i..M'rc;; 

V\ , 

V a ' 'vvX-.VliS. 


atory work. 

Summary of facilities Available 

In tiie above cases v/e have noticed that in almost 
every instance there is a sizable minority of classrooms re¬ 
porting a deficiency. More specifically, these deficiencies 
in per cent of total replies are listed below. 

Lack of special science room 




Inadequate library 



Inadequate facilities for committee v/ork 




Lack of bulletin boards 




Lack of wall charts 




Lack of projector 




Lack of microscope 




Improvised laboratory 




Inadequate laboratory materials 




Presence of non-science pupils 




Just hOYv” serious any one of these 


any combination 

these may be in any individual school 


only be 


determined by a thorough appraisal of 




school. A poor library, for example, may be compensated for 
by excellent laboratory facilities or^ the lack of a project¬ 
or by a stimulating emphasis upon some other aspect of instruc¬ 
tion. \i[hat is more, the qualities of a resourceful teacher may 
make up for many an inadequacy in space or equipment. Never- 

.:zl‘XOW Y'lo/a;■ 

.: j. i. :^loi\^^ ".: , vll.^oi'j:o3v|a l'xo< .vru/o.loi'lef) sni;:l"20'^^ 

;^■::^■/MI:; nl -oo~i. J'o:! avor: v/V; ©Taas' nl ' 

I,;j 10 vj-1'xoK.^w ^ 3 r" rv'x6.:J evns^tarxi: vTiavs 

?;__ ^ 

.v'oI:k: |>;>J'aii wi'Xt: aailqe- lo oHOo j 

laoo'X eonolou laloeqe lo 

wOcTd'i:j.a4)ioo qa.o etEirpebanZ 

oiriBocl iai'w eJ'.Ii/cf lo >fusJ 

; ILmr 'lo "iodx 

w'.:ao ':^ 

U: f»v''t. ■ i:. 


fl t! 


’’ ot: 

oiq 'io '■■obJ 

aqGoao'roi:Y ‘lo iIobJ 

Y'lo^fB'iocfsX l>^ai:vo‘XqiaI 

II (I 


:I ai'iaJ'Ba 'e'loXB'^^cfai- 0:^6!:?'o©f)BxtI 

quq ooi2ei:ca»j-;o;j: \ q - 

H•: : "u oiio Y:>a at/oiloa \/mi’^rVl''; 


' ' l<iiO"q,itoo looaoc. [.'-Xi ;:7l bni Yr.c ni aaorl:^ lo 

^' ■ ' ■ , /'I 

J :i:. a.-.oj:^;. '.a DO 'ic ic??.’• •d'i-'p :fqj:.'0*]L0jl;j’ b vq l-ie/ri-iioifo.o yI 

o< ‘0 O'! ’'o:'' 

ij 'a>‘.' ;il ':ooq 

. loorloa 

[ 0 

lo 010cJ. or'c , ' 

DOiJ :, 

-Di'-j. : . ^ .^. 

J" 0 0 c a D i Oi. ..r.' f>ia: L-, 

r.o 'D' 

DDl 'CoiT 

J'' . 1 © 0 a ,L' O B 0 'I B ‘10 

o^lJ X 


0 "Irpc '1. soBCfa 

ni ^ 


the less, the deficiencies do indicate areas v/here the ^cutting 
down’ of any science program may occur. 

This ’cutting down’ may be most serious in the field 
of laboratory work v;here, in each instance, one-fifth of the 
teachers reported an improvised laboratory or a lack of labor¬ 
atory materials. 


As much of the recent literature on the modern aims 
of science teaching has placed a vigorous en^hasis upon the 
intangible outcomes of instruction (Chapter ill), the attitudes 
of any representative group of teachers upon this matter 
should be of interest. 

Content Ys. Intangibles 

Teachers were asked to indicate their opinions regard¬ 
ing priority given to content in their teaching. 






Per Cent 











Siicl' nos'xs o:^2o-.mi oh oolo~'ol: o I7eb ed'i' 

.'^.;jooo x_^::i ooribioa yhb "ro 

bl..x? 3i1j r:i auol'xo:^ jax:\ ocl vQix xE^rop pn.l:}:fuo' aixlT ^;W 
r;;;r 'IQ .aoxiB^arri j oau ni , 3'r:l‘i3’.v x^o^B'scdsI ‘io. 

-': : ;n^ ‘X-v- a v’xc-d-miouBl Dsaivo^x/;^:^'! ire i^jJ'-roqo'X 

• c-Xi2i.-i©^3X'i 

OiXi a :.‘XoI}3:. crfu .fio 33.';d-:'-:3«J xI cf-n^o^'X sriu ‘lo iiosm aA 

> -■'■ ' ■ ■ ■ 

osjouj^It dbvbIc sbiI ^::ldoBOo opnojipa To 
a3Xj;xiw>^'1: ay.x 'x^Xq-viO; ;ix'icl’Oixxuvtanx ‘lo aaxotxjx/o Q.rdJ:;^3nBTr,ii 

aX:;.x iioqu. 3'isiIo;X;xX ^0 g; o ’.3 avx j£iux'aaO''xqa'i yhb ho 

' 1 "w' - 'S: 

.Xau^iaJ-ni lo sd bluoda 
. -V .;XnoO 

-j'lx* 01 a::-j.L f:£'.:; .') b:Tp o hh, T ck boil-cp oa.avv pioyiosv'h 

. lioi'J xx-i Ciii.aj'xioo .;c)'jloXiq 3111 


.'. x;:;v/:::;o to v''i:Lj;a.i:. _,^--.iriY 

I . ..... , ,. . .,. , . 

i . i.Xv 3 


OOX X ' . 


■ rj .. 



alp, lo‘ 


It would appear that in theory, at least, a majority 
(56 per cent) do not give mastery of content, priority in 
their teaching. 

Table IX dealing with a related question presents a 
majority of teachers actively concerned with the non-factual 
products of their instruction. The results in Table IZ were 
compiled from ansv/ers to a question which followed a list of 
coimnon intangible outcomes. 



Number of 

Per Cent 










As the majority here is greater than in the preceding 
question, it may be assumed that among the teachers v/ho stress 
content primarily, there are many who regard 'Hhe intangibles^’ 
important enough to warrant active, if secondary, interest. 

Reasons for Disregarding the Intangible Outcomes 

Those teachers who declared that they do not teach 
deliberately for the non-factual outcomes, represent about 
one-third of the entire group. As their reasons are, there- 


fore, worthy of attention, they have been itemized below. A 
number of teachers marked two or more of the items. 



Number of 


Take up too much time for deliberate 



Too nebulous for effective teaching 
or evaluation 



Intangibles are superfluous: 



Will best develop as an adjunct to 
effective factual teaching; therefore, 
concentrate on content 



Their growth is so slow that one year’s 
grov/th is hardly noticeable 



Any other reason? 




A little fev/er than one-half of the replies indicated 
at least an indirect concern with the intangibles in their belief 
that «they (the intangibles) will best develop as an adjunct to 
effective factual teaching; therefore, concentrate upon under¬ 
standing of content*’. The remainder intimate a possible lack 
of sympathy with their purpose of practicability. 

Teaching and Evaluation 

Those who taught deliberately for the intangibles, 
were asked a series of three related questions. This series 


..■V ritio. j rro.1'V'i'Ou'o'‘xj v< 'Zo\/ , 

i):.v: •. O 0*: . > ‘Xu u.X ■^;0, 'X;3Ci';^X: 

U ---..i ^ ^ , ,'X .., 


Xrv’ ' ■' ':^ 

0'^ x-i'-B ‘xo'r 0 ij iiarif-f oob qi; exfe'.’ 

" . ■•''XO.'ilt) 

: ...i ■ 0 7ij'-'liu'r arvljc^Xu oo'l' 

“■:;i;o 'xo 

3i.«:^rx'x':;c'; B ■■‘X:-' XuIo'J::bii3u .ixl 

^ JX Jo7ur,uB uX ■ i^Q 1:.'} ■>'0i> uf'secf ’ IX.'.'V; 

.;:*i:t>‘.:or., ■ ot^cu: I,xxXo:jX joo‘ 

■ . . 

X ';: 9 : .9' ‘ 9 . ■ O 0. •■ 7 -X.. d 9 9. U 9 

;u-,: O'.. . .-..xX ml::: ai o ••;/•.■ 7,.,Ox oXlT 

oXox 0 ji::.’ 9 ,!. '/j.x'icxi ox r^xouO'., 

MiiBiMlMi '.'.OJOGSO OOX.Xo 

■-. ooX '... ■. ..loXu-v::9 oow^.! olxjxl A 

IXiiOv::.. :0:..:‘ ,'Ow9xjO Aooox...:..;. l l‘:'.n,pl 1.) 

;l3V0t Ac.;: lA'., . x xi - iX' ox; Aox c— : A u.J‘ 

' '9 . •CuXoo^r.A : oAAonoA ImiJ oi^A Q7u.At)0'..'. x 

:)13 -':^: lUJ. 'i'^. jv'i 6:A. .' , ooAx'f.o 'xo X'OIJ.Ii.C'oA3 

- ■■ x;;.:X Oi-'Ov ’.r,; p " ‘'A'uo;"^ ,0 Ao 


was designed to reveal the outcomes sought, the methods used 
to achieve them, and, finally, the procedures used in evaluat¬ 
ing growth in their direction. 

A. Outcomes Sought . An inspection of the tabulated 
replies in Table XI reveals that in the first choices ^^pro¬ 
blem-solving ability (scientific method)” headed the list of 
desired outcomes, followed by ”open-mindedness”. An "under¬ 
standing of the value of science” was third. The remaining 
choices, namely "problem sensitivity”, "critical and suspended 
judgment”, and "scientific interests”, are all lov/ as first 
choices. If we consider the aggregate of the first three 
choices, "critical and suspended judgment” occupies third place 
replacing "understanding of value of science”. These results 
are based on a three-fold choice, in order of importance. 









Problem-solving ability 
(scientific method) 






Problem sensitivity 












Understanding of value 
of science 






Scientific interests 






Critical and suspended 






Any other? 


eb ■ i: 

-J w 

.. J: r0;; 'li b "C.' eii^ nl i' 

!f' .'j ja\d'.. erJ' /::: .„Z eld.r^^ ni c-i.-; 

i Lf, i ■, V - 0 .:■. A .. 'i / 1 i: i ,■ ■*. ak ,L Vi fjj V ,i. O’ j 

■ .:l:J:.j u.'- ..•^■:J.i*u o^'d .v d:'j ;ji: 

. " d ^./^: j-.i:^:t3a •.' ^Ido^Si'" /Io:n3X,i ^ j.oj’o' 

w-v’A -.r:.d. ../.:.y 0\:r. . ■' ^ ' 

!v' wH-:::.': j bo 9o':'^/u:‘:.:. „ ''xebxo.oo o ‘XI 

I-.: .'ry /y •i^i':: .'j :'-o,::oI)X'\ ■':':-;::o x.. iLOx^i'to'' ^at^oi' ^o 

v..:.'ao'.: oo^Jb . ^'^aoIob o > lox' ‘ic r^ni'V.Xix. c.U:Ob/x;^‘' ox; I ..'‘C 
. ' .. *■■ ' • & ' 

.-•Oi...j too: ;-■; '., D t-z.oto :ti; . t--x': ^ilo .oX:.'„:-a^‘;::vt a n6 I)OEi?cr . ■ :a 

. ■.' ■ .. ^ :l- 

-.^ ■ ...;:■■■ .:c;.| 

^ X- ...tuTROl 


r \ 






■-. • 4 'v ,i. 0 L ■” f".J.;. j ''‘la, 

1 -■ f^Kt i) 1 'ill TO J: or; ' 

' V i J- i: ,„ ■:o:: ' loXdo'i-i 
aOCI'r " oX '. .. 

. ■'■ j 


O ' . ■" ■ ■ ::. ' Ab 7 7 ,.( ;.rr.^. 

O:o:: : -x-vu 'lo 

v-X;-v7.. -rhiX oi: ‘.:X.i teioo 
ootfo -... „ , ,: : I 'U.’ X "oO 

0 >jjr 

% .1. w *, .} o \ 1 !-■ *w 




Ilethods of Teachinf^ for intangibles . Table XII 

shows that, of the methods used, three of the five choices 
were almost equally favoured as first choice. These were 
"trying to develop them through routine teaching", "organiz¬ 
ing the course to provide methods of discovering principles 
and concepts", and, "relating facts to the outside world and 
the students* place in it". 

Also in field of first choices, the device "of adapt¬ 
ing experimental work to stress the scientific method" made a 
lesser, yet creditable showing, while the "giving of projects 
involving student research and thought" was well down on the 









Using routine teaching 






Stressing the scien¬ 
tific method in exper¬ 
imental work 






Using thought-provok¬ 
ing projects 






Discovering concepts 
through methods using 
research, critical 
Judgment, etc. 






Relating facts to out¬ 
side world 






Any other? 


■ .,.10 •' 


. .Uuxrut^v vTa- 


■ .:;:^':'-v 3vi': T:o -b^^:.' .Ai^ai; -to .iBd^ modi 

1:.: .. .tr.. xono aB '^ilBup© taomla 

-.■■ 'ot' . c"'-- Qt .Bv^vJO’o edt'^M 

-**'*'" ^ ^' I' : ' '■■!,.■ 

b.- n.['to..v eu- '.jJ 8o‘0b 1 ^,iii,i'i»lea'^' , Mif.^ . 

.■••ft. ;il BO'alq 


-3 aye. - ■■•:; -k -.O'. etd .Btn.lodo £1^^ oi^Ik ■ :-y. 

^ ■•■ -j. * -' ■' . ^’i'. 

g:'9f^ '■ ■.'ir:>)-&;; oij r^>^»aoc ‘Miv sB.3-i!is 6^ i^'tf-csmiisijxs>-®a£j 

\ % ' ’ -‘fi ’ k’’* slif' ':' ^,r<tt!0&B ®LiSei-lb9iQ i&x .isuaflj 

.-‘^. -"* 'Si' /• ‘i ■ ''•! 

He# g^cilTlomi 

■ ■> .Jai.'i' 'M a,v!UK”i--i:t:x Ziat'jz 

r -'■ 

! S.r4a 

L .v-c’lJ... 


Sii V 

batfdo^i §nia'U i 

L ‘ -■ 

H ■ 




pi'v X B w' ;i Binl 
::uXa:’ rirlaO (o) 

I -..JV x’ :.UX.- laiLBa 
ijr^'i;' aXOB;^':y'iq '^al 

oj qpo0.00 /, X ■:©Vc ;a iCi i r> 
* • tXa, k^boid ijt .ix\.,:fo*irfi3‘ 

0 .HoXw-kD 


’■d. '. 

. "jnXJrJCeh (o) 
Bliovr eblB 

; 'I "’liJ'O (*i ) 

■ ■< 

1 . 4 ; 


If we consider the aggregate of the three choices, 
in each case v/e find that "relating facts to outside v/orld" 
is the most popular with the others receiving fairly substan¬ 
tial support. One must note as well, that experimental work 


which is stressed in the Curriculum Guide as a most effect¬ 
ive means of encouraging problem-solving abilities is given 
no exceptional preference here. As this intangible outcome 
is one of those most highly valued by our group of teachers 
(Table XI), it may be that the potentialities of laboratory 
work in this regard are not being fully utilized. 

G. Evaluation of Intangibles . The number and per 
cent of teachers who indicated concern with deliberate evalu¬ 
ation of intangible outcomes are set dovm below: 



Per Cent 




Not indicated 






^Alberta Department of Education, Curriculum Guide for 
Science 10 , p. 15. 

. o:i^ ‘lo acreae-xj^sB axicr leJDi'exiao aw II 

ex-^c:.:r.,fc< qj E7om :^£[xo:aXe'i'’'' Ijrdl aw saaa cioaa ti:' 

' ' w ’ ‘ 

-;.-d’ae,'e ''<,iiiB‘i j-iiivisss'i aie-IJo sSJ fi;Jxw laj^qo^ JeofC'erfj- 8; 

ov; ^eJn.Si .’ifri.,s3 J's-riy- , j-I^v/’a/s o^ori jBiaa eaO .stioqai:? ieij 
--■ ■j'sViij ii..,:v. fi ae'‘, •£,;& exi* r'l BsEaa'iJ’e ai JloBriv/' 

■ . , ...%.V .'s..,«1, W 

iXS',-.:. i,,c esxSilxoi- ■>ff.iyios--v.tUfiO’ia.'snl5si‘iJxoaxi@ Ic enasjRa- bv^ 
onooi- 'c , ai'iij aA v'3%B*>>%oca'is't«q**XiBx:3i:Jqsors oS 
aiaXoKfit lo ./,;oig ax;o, ^aaffi. &so^i^ -xo sko si 

eei, ts« S’! a, (IX: eldw )? 

,.. '-r^ V 

’ I.. • . .? 

•j .^..nled cran s*ir, sl;iu ni ^-'lowJ 

' '^T’" . ■' ^ 

T^r'x x;xxib Tt-cfiiiiUiji aa'r 


:w^Iad iTwO',;.} xas ;;,'xa ail.;:-3fusel’ni: ‘ic iiplei''. 

fj ■• ,.*. X.' lx .'. 1 la Hu ■ 

'■' ‘ '■ ■''* ■'' 'A V 

;,, aL'..uO'irJO 

X X XX XvXi i ^. 


raj y„aX 

■f a 0 r)i-uT'I 



'45rr .t ersi>Xi:7v'. 




kill in III 


It is interesting to note that the number who attempt 
to evaluate intangible outcomes is larger than the number v/ho 
teach for them deliberately. 

The questionnaire also asked teachers to indicate a 
preferential choice from a list of evaluating methods. Their 
replies are tabulated in rable XIV. 








(a) Personal observation of 
pupil^s day-to-day work 
and attitude 





(b) Use of rating scales 





(c) Use of special thought 





(d) Observing pupil when 
given responsibility 





(e) By considering marks on 
formal tests as indica¬ 





(f) Any device of your own? 


This table reveals that of the procedures listed 
"personal observations of the pupil^s day-to-day v^ork and 
attitude" was the most \?idely used. The related method of 
"observing pupil v/hen given responsibility" received fair 



TSdi/rrc'^ cTt-'-civV £);ro-xx tl 

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c->X<f0..'-ixi sxa Bailee t:^ 


IS w 

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d2-!!K’T1K) mMi , 



i l;7aB>.' 


e -r"'tl 


•.,T . 





;.;'^r " 

Mi . 

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xlTo^., ^<1 

i if'iB ,l)ilB 

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cTff^.ciQ^^ iK^.|oo(|ai^o eai? {o} 
mm^ "" arroxf aa^'p 

...■:■. .' . :a" 

aui^w^.XXBec ^nlviaecfO (,5) 
^iXtlXulBBo^aoe ixevis ..x 

.„ ■> 

vex *1051 an oo yS (o) 
."-'BoxjbfiX' 3# Ismeol 

' " .a, .^i." etl'^- ■ ,;,^ 

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h6i3^1I -37. .^eooeo Olh.X Xu alaxy^v ©idecT sieT 

r'w ..; O',/ ‘/Ba-oX“'',*7 0 aV£x(;"'o 3xicf lo B.TQixte'Biasd’o XBnOBi^f];'' 

. ■'VJ'ocr,^u9jDf^T .*^-? v ^;Xoxx’// iaoi,; eili bbw ^’ 95 . 1 /-;/Iwi.s' 
‘C.l:: "y j XI icPi ar:^-: see aovI^ eexlviif lj;ei.'q ^-ni: vie ado”! 

, ia'oq,qi.i,& 

^ ■ Mm 



Summary of Purposes of ‘Teaching Science 

An overall inspection of the above tables reveals the 
following facts: 

1. A small majority of teachers (56 per cent) do not con¬ 
sider mastery of content as the prime goal of science 

2. A larger number (69 per cent) teach deliberately for 
intangible outcomes. ¥i/e must assume, therefore, that 
many of those teachers stressing content are, neverthe¬ 
less, actively concerned ¥/ith encouraging growth to¬ 
ward intangible outcomes. 

3. liany of the 31 per cent who do not teach deliberately 
for intangibles, believe that they ¥/ill develop as an 
automatic concomitant of good academic teaching. These 
teachers, therefore, display at least an indirect con¬ 
cern with them. 

4. The largest group, (76 per cent) evaluate growth 
toward intangible values. This number presumably 
includes those of group 3, attempting to evaluate what 
they believe would develop without direct and con¬ 
scious teaching. 

Those teachers v/ho consciously neglect the teaching 
of intangibles appear to represent two opinions. One of these 
believes ordinary good teaching will encourage their growth; 

iQi., to £;e8oc ruu '..o 

o. . ■•; Id t:*\ ju ,j; j. x" 'iu. noi^oeqar:! IX'B'xaV’p' n^i 

ipru^oQ‘1 gxiiwollol: 

V„v":;;,';, I' ■■ 

.1 ;^:i5o •i;3(; di.j B-.::^ioescr lo ter;? llomp. ... 

bix.').:?,:o;:; ‘Ij lao?: eiid' a:" aYfiOTnoo lo T'xa^BBm ‘:c©dXa 

,,I9J 2‘i5ci_t;i. .:ic-a9u ^OT'rj; 'iscfjTfxjr: r * 

'' ' 

^ , O'lo . ....ijX.'c aa • ^B^iQDtvQ sfdXxxr.ed'ni 


‘■IB d-. 

n Sv a j 0 :v ai ass "lO' e a ‘;;c' Xj. o o su sa o d S Tto \ /is. i 
"' a ;^r/x:, rr./j'„ron9 doirieortoo YXsVJ.d’Ss ^ «5asl 

^amoo^m ald',:;^i^£xs^/xl I)'Ibvx 


vIo.'lG'iadi lof; rrjs-ad- uoi‘: of) nnv; d.. :9o isq sjiu lo \.n3 
■'c. e.3 x^ol^vs.; ij i\v J.,' :r. dsiio svsilx^d jssl‘xol 
d^i^. . :cirl 089 d- ox c:Sf:/OS 0003 ‘is XXIOOOOO OidBXtOu ITS 

--:roo JO 

ria. iassl' Js ■,-;Bl,:-ci3 ^ S’lO ie-xsilo .e^isdoBsi 


o, »'!iS)ld' /<d'Xv'f iO*iso 

dd'A'O'X;;} sc's■, u\:eo ‘ucj oV j .cxjoTv -tss",xoi o:iX 
\±<> .sobIb"'/ sXcfijvnBdoxJ. Lxirsv^od' 
do.,:-.; cJ-sxx./o-j o«t orxjdq. /yds ,0 01 x 0 x 3 xo ss jxid- sebaloni 
'/ i-. 18 jOX XXX) d'i/QiOJO/ qOl^YOi) 3IJJO"\r SYSilsJ YSifj 

.oniitosoj' a,!.'oi:os 

■-■-'.OB;.,, j. ,■ .ooloe,: Yda/jo xosiioo w,.\; S‘X9 ;:,oBl 3' oao/i.; 

U..;. .,. : t ....'■X X:.vCO':t.,o-x o.i •iwac'cre at.xJiafistfnj, Id 

' ' ‘'■ ■" .xo SiX’i.'.oesX :.DO.-;; v-ienlfi-io aavsiled 


the other seems somewhat critical of their value altogether. 

Both are contrary to advice in the current literature. Here 

the validity of the intangible values is forcibly set forth, 

together with the w’arning, that they will not be attained 


without deliberate teaching. 

An educator who believes in the paramount importance 
of non-factual values in a science course may be disheartened 
by the large minority of our group who value mastery of con¬ 
tent more highly. Some reassurance may be offered, hov/ever, 
by the many included in this number who concern themselves 
enough with intangibles to teach for and evaluate them. 

The sub-chapter on ^^Bvaluation in Science^^ of Chapter 
IV lists many devices useful in evaluating non-factual out¬ 
comes.These include rating scales, appraisal of the re¬ 
sults of projects, evaluation of reports, questioning, con¬ 
ferences, and observation both systematic and informal. 

Table XIV has revealed that the deliberate evaluation 
of intangibles relies heavily upon teacher observation, though 
”thought*^ questions are used fairly often. Very little use 
was made of rating scales, a relatively formal device. 

Most teachers, however, do use reports, experimental 
work, projects and the like as supplements to formal tests 

^^Chapter III, Making the Science Curriculum Functional , 

p. 36 • 

^^Chapter IV, Sub-Chapter on Evaluation in Science , 
pp. 81-3. 

; ocriB 'xi. Hiu la arid*/ 

.j-M aiCj rri aoi.Tf?E od* '^^CB'id'noo b'Xb xid'o© 

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oci uoii ilxv. J:3ii:;' , ftxmew or:;?- dtm 'xailoB'lov; 

OX£aj 'aja-iadiisl) tuodt. 

.rjSLaC’Loqril ill ao"/<^ix^Q oifvr aiOuBojibe ak 

■o. ® 

DunaJ'XaaXii ■■& \yA:i : o'.:xO‘j eui;oI:jgi a nl asuXav XBi/d'osl-non 
jo la ■^:'’:ad'C3i:., a.jiBv aijOT. ‘xUO'^^la rttxoulm. aatal ©dd; 

KS:-, ' ' i 

,^jV£>v;jX , :0’io'l‘Yh ad • axa aouc^xi;^ xea'i af:oO .yXff?^.t£i ©ion d'f^oX 

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sa 'i,. 

107 3 :..J 10 ^ eo:Lei.o> '.*i not Xo.'X jbvX^' no i^d’<^Gr;o-Xna eilT 


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^ ''■ " ' ' ' ' - IX '■ 

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1 ,' ' ... . 

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.Xo-nolni b-:£ xav;a id-od nol^iviaacfo tee .loortsio' 

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©177x1 -'-O' 
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'j.i. rfovU'oIei e 5 ,©.[:.' 0 a : nx^ai 'io ©bain ar/^V: 

XgJ aq;c0 ...^ 10 ^©'^ oo-.- .'' Y-ov©/:©:' ^^isiios'oi 7aoK 

r. t:: a0 Xbwio’: o 7 adxidi .oI rX ©X iX ail7 bite p 7 0a?; 01a ^ vx 

■ii: “r? i:r' 

sci orv e^''^ : ai: 

^l^Z leoqGxfO^*^ 

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for the purpose of obtaining a student’s mark (Table XXVIII). 
These activities could also represent valid means of apprais¬ 
ing the non-informative outcomes. 

It is interesting to note that the results of formal 
tests are used to a relatively small extent in the deliberate 
evaluation of intangibles. This practice is in agreement ?dth 

1 p 

the advice given in the current literature. 


The chapter on ”The Textbook” in this work puts down 

the opinions of various wTiters regarding the textbook’s 


place in modern science education. Despite the many 
criticisms of construction and mis-use, it was clear that the 
text holds no mean position as a factor in science instruct¬ 
ion. For this reason, the regard in which the present Science 
10 text is held by the teachers, and, equally important, the 
ways in which it is used, are pertinent matters. 

Use of the Text 

The questionnaire listed three principal methods of 
textbook use. These are listed below in Table ]CV, with the 
number of teachers who indicated each method as being his o?/n. 

^^ Ibid ., p. 76. 


Chapter IV, Sub-Chapter on the Textbook ■— Its 
Structure and use , pp. 54-63. 

.. ^iv:c. 

0.1 gMifiachfo :io oaoq'iuc- 'lol 

0*0 :;,;-;ja:^« olIr;v ;j'n^Pie'XC0^i ohXn bljjQo aoltivivloB aa^rf-i? 

, c'taoo 0 a7;o tv7'l’;J'BJir''£o'inJ;-“noii 9x13* 3n.i' 
liO’O..: ‘j.o .-vj .Caas-i O'-or d-Briit oa on'od' rxii.d'ao'Xodni; ai j'l - 
.:^d ..xod‘i:.rj.. o .7 :ti; dxvoJ-xo a od" £>98 ,l exa sd'ead" 

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. S'.ia/Bxo.'i;I Unu-xisjt) oil/ nJ: fravi:.^ acivda eiiu 

i " ' a.:J T '-ST •■JSI.lOaTC A ii-iT 

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9 ’/iood/x9d ^wiidxaaoo axa/.txx- Siioixav lo ?uioi0i:qo ©rid 

' f 

.XXBin sod coic'aod . noi J ooi/ba aoiiaioa rxTedora nl aoalq 
Ofw /ai'd- ojolo a.,.:0'. J X i;;:i'.i:;ni5 noiw oox:lanoo Xo ao:D:oi:dixD 

- j'‘i-j .'?0;/: 9;..'ii9.-oa x£.i: oOuOo’j: B ao -loixisoq’ riB©xi an a<5Xo7t /xq/ 

-voOv. J- :0a./ ' j- r'oiiiw ni 5 xbo 9 x 3 ifd .noaoex aiitd" xo''i 
ond ^j 'cdTooni /-po . •xadoBB/ add v;d idloxi ai uxod ijl 

. j/B."! cixx9r:i":x jg &m:: , 50 ai:-c.t wi; doi.dv; ni e7;BW 

'to Cook'd’./’ 
odd .-dio /■; 
.•.> roiiii 


.’oq/ondJ: Q 0 Xii\j ox'oyiiioidoenp ^)dT 

o.'.ur; ;i: '.VO • tm1 .bodail oxn oaoiL .037; dooddxad 
a. n/o.j dodo*;^/"! oj-v,, oxodoBai lo xadmnn 

dv. . .‘‘.1 /OJdr 

• a/ 

•'.:/ Xn'' enodo; oic! 



Method of Use 

Humber of 



Exclusively and unchanged: 



Re-organized for own convenience: 



As a main point of reference among 






It is interesting to note that 89 per cent felt free 
to adapt, re-organize and supplement the text in varying 

Opinions of the Text 

But what of the textbook itself? How do the teachers 
appraise it? The questionnaire gathered teacher reactions to 
various aspects of the authorized text. Table aVJ. gives the 
totals for each of twelve relevant sub-questions. 



X/XX'.' XXXAt 

' ‘■ . O .. ; 

./ J. i.^i..G.. . - ^ 

‘5X'X‘"' XXX.' — ! ■ 

XX j 

XX -: 

1 j 




. . 1 



XV • ^ ^ 

: b.'..- '-.lev:: ^j.-Xuru. 

: ^ 0 j i. -: £#"v*n: 0 o .i wy 'i o ‘1 ..b s x xi r":'X o ~ x u 

:jr:3 soxis'iyXx'! ‘y,: J'nioc rjlBiti l 34 

: ■^3I3x1;5'0 


'X aX) 'x^' ^ . 0 :; /' , v>'.ux, o3i:x X X' a s'i©;t xX a X :x I 

: f 

3‘i . ‘ . • 

' XHO. 

:vyey 4^ Xrxex^Ixoya Xiix asXxx3X'i-:-»el XXqx.£)y oX- 

' .^eo.33b 

XIxa'Xi "aoo5x:i;ox erIX /to joxXi Xx€ 

''043^:^ 'laXoaed* e*'. iBixnoxxaai/p ?#x o:53ioyqqi3 

.-, :" ■' y 
oxiX oi>' 

"^Tr" c,-Xo;- . T xr^orioiOitXi/jS '■‘^X ' Xo!.^qec oodi/cxv 

■ V a-j-GiJa XyavoXa-i oviyvy) Xo nO/0 •lOX alaXoX 








a. Avoids superficiality. 



b. Challenging to the student 



c. Qiuestions and problems are 



d. Diagrams are pertinent. 



e. Previev/s and summaries are good. 



f. Demonstrations are good. 



g. Unit organization is helpful. 



h. Integration is effective 



i. Stresses formal experimentation 
enough for grade 10. 



j. Vi<ell-adapted for instruction in 
intangible outcomes. 



k. Well-adapted for developing major 
concepts from subject matter. 



In the opinion of our teachers, then, the favourable 
features of the text are: 

1. Diagrams are pertinent. 

2. Previews and summaries are good. 

3. Demonstrations are good. 

4. unit organization is helpful. 

That the text has many favourable features is indicated 
by the strong support given to the above qualities. 


'i'he unfavourable features are: 

1. Does not avoid superficiality. 

2. ’Questions and problems are not adequate. 

3. Does not challenge the student. 

It may be interesting to segregate the replies of 
those who state that they deliberately teach for intangible 
outcomes. This group v/as thought to be more readily receptive 
to a text whose subject matter may be organized to emphasize 
values other than an academic and technical mastery of scien¬ 
tific facts. Table XVll gives a compilation of the group’'s 
opinions upon certain pertinent aspects of the text. 





1. Avoids superficiality. 



2. Challenges the student. 



3. Integration is effective. 



4. V/ell-adapted for instruction in intang¬ 

ible outcomes. 



5. Well-adapted for developing major con¬ 

cepts from subject matter 



It will be noted that the charges of superficiality 
and lack of challenge are well sustained by this group as well. 
This group shows a larger degree of satisfaction with integra- 

. om .jdi.b tp’roX^faar. 

e Bd& ^fiaXI:oX j Xon af>t);.. 
I^•:■ %^iX « OT’- 9oX n.tXap'i w O'xiX ad XXT 

QtBJB o.avy’ oaai'j ' 
(,;.;iOT'-^ Bid.. ,aa:iT6'J^I'>J0 '« 

Lib 9 '- ao, af feiioax o.^ 


::’, ■,::- ;/x3 3d Y8r:! .:to B aaarht t'xad^ 0^, 

I,;o.L.i:'0 3#'•di:^3 olfeo&BOc vi/,-, narlx^ 'larido, sa'.Iav 

vX,-' ', . 

sad" do ..ojd0lXo;:oi) a ■E9Yi“Jx^ 1X\... aldB’f' * .;doxvd oi'd'd 
:.:ad -jxrd >:.^ ad a a; r. a uat;,-- envUiXiqo: 

- d >>d d L..SX’,dx'Xd .d Xlvl’^O'’" - ^ ..-Jwiidd 

■-i _ I:. .. ., i .. t,.j, t .A 3,-v'^‘,3 .. ■ .. ... V ? i-'v^X^A- 

v3/XXx:. .':Xc'd /dV. :.^.X .:\X d.d) 

? , , ' Ai' 

; .■.■:d,t£ai:oi‘::d:^ rd'a adioViX *.[ 

TL'L'L"] dL'' 

; V.. d-, .CX.a: X'0 '.-i ;;d ■ :'C>;3 J. I.G’X'X’ ' , ?. 

^ . ', ' ; d"';,; dr.) 9‘.Vd',' rjJ: 

f"' d'"'' 

‘ - .,■ a - ■ -a r.'ri ..V 2 ‘3. ... beL:cbB-i.U\. . > 

d.-'X'V: *-.-lOOjMO Addi 

I -- M,m ,.,r;alrv •f) •■■//I. ‘vj- .•:r:o-.[l3d .J 

.•.'j ; .-.y -j ;■. 


.XIa;.o do .Xoal .daa 

o oo: 


tion in the text than does its parent group, while the text’s 
adaptability for growth in major concepts, receives fairly 
general approval. A most significant point is presented by 
item 4, where a slight majority here, as in the larger group, 
do not consider the text entirely suitable for instruction in 

Summary of Authorized Text and Its Use 

It would appear, hov^ever, that if the authorized text 
can be fairly charged with any deficiency, lack of challenge 
v^ould be one. A substantial majority of the teachers deplore 
the superficiality of subject matter, its failure to challenge 
the student, and the simplicity of the problems. Indeed, a 
general implication that treatment of subject matter, the heart 
of the textbook, ma3r be unworthy of a grade A. science cooirse 
can scarcely be avoided. 

Indeed, this criticism may be related to the opinions 
of the course in general, as revealed at the end of the 
questionnaire, v/here provision was made for such an appraisal. 
Here, it will be seen, strong reference to the superficiality 
of the course, and to the repetition of grade IX materials, 
holds the day. To the extent that an authorized text is 
”the raost influential factor in determining what is to be 
taught in any science”^"^ these unfavourable opinions may, to 

^%eiss, H.D., Obourn, E.S. and Hoffman, G.V/. , 
Modern Science Teaching, p. 66. 

o*.,./, t E>^ob mU^J' ni noit 

.'t ^3'l ■3'3VX:vO0t£ , ifia ElX d^J’V^OIC^ *XOl tXicf0't^Sil>0 

.; r'.r'.j-O'r- ni-'X.rriO';^ X£:BoXtl:Vi^ tcioir?-A lBa:s;^nea 

^ ■: ‘-rX ‘r^:P.1l3l esls il- 3*.' { e’C'?-.' -^4'|:*XOtiSJi S 

" ■'loi ,ti>lirjfr.JI 'Vj>^xi:v;n^ eit T©&!anoo iton o!) 

’■; .,, ^aelclxsrrs^iti; 

M. xoiUish to 

■.xxex i:^v::-.‘X o:i:4. X'X. .v;.,.,,/ 

'‘'-l^i'vrXX.rjr.u' lo /viiX *\cX‘XXeX 3d nso 

o-^oIcjX, 2*xeX033J' I 3c: dluoi^ 

3:^'J''0 ..X-Xt.'o ot S^XX'I'A.. 8,Ti ©XfX 

t;■ , .o33brI , mBlQomi t'lfj olI.qmX i bna,. 

'■' 'im ■■ 

X3^:cAf'fa'''Xo mUi^olxqml iB'ianea 

^ /was . ■■ ‘ ,si5J. : 

-.o ©ori3'tD?x X 9i>'«*:^; aXit;*, x«;xiXtuvTn'iJ sd- ^^siti odX Xo 

- \^3^i . ■ ■' ■« . 

' . D^btovBj 3d ''tl3ox,3oa n.C'O 



.V^"' *•' i-'Xw'X '3‘v>i' sxiiu .bbiiDiX. 

edJ- ^ro -5i.0 9dd ^ r: ydixx, ^''©x£.• a3 

.-■X^'V: ' iX.; ' 

qs r£B ,->3o ;.:oX- v>5b.:;!. a^v; x..‘3X;4iiiva‘xct ox3<.lv/ ; 3tl«M-u‘*aaifp 
Lh-’t^xl’l^J^UQ y::.' Od .^XTU-XaSi , r.33£i 3J LIXw 41 , 3*X3H 

-xe4*a:;' XI 3b:H'r: ''dici-xva ,-o'X avw o4' ,.oi;'XJjoo edd* ‘io 

4 ' od 0O..X ■c..)r o'./a 3r:i4 oX ©rid' sMod 

3"' '-'vT :.x .rr-Ml,/ aXr.'A^-J‘3.3 lud'OGx d'aom 


ac a'"' .3:-o.ii.i.i-.’ -o 1.: sa^rid "sori^ioa ’jub nl d'llgx/jiif 

.-. a 00 

; ,^r.v. .oais^r''' 

: OO f iC ~0- -^ rirrafi oU 


a considerable degree, be indirect reflections upon the basic 
textbook as well. 

V/ith the exception of sub-item i in Table XVI, where 
a fair surplus of teachers approve the degree of stress upon 
formal experimentation, the remainder of the sub-items do 
not show a great deal of opinion one way or the other. This 
may indicate that the text is fair or mediocre in these respects, 
and thus avoids a concensus of opinion entirely favourable or 

The fact that 89 per cent of the reporting teachers 

are re-organizing and supplementing the text in varying degrees, 

may indicate that a great many are attenipting to follov^/’' the 

method which the 46th Yearbook considers ^*likely to prove 


most satisfactory”. In this connection, a basic text is 
supplemented with a variety of mterials from other sources, 
to create the science course. This method, however, may ov;e 
much of its success to the basic text. V/ith so many teachers 
critical of certain important qualities of the present Science 
10 basic textbook, it may well be that it is not the best 
possible choice. 

The text may be considered from yet another important 
aspect, that is, organization and point of viev;. This task 

^^ITational Association for the Study of Science, 46th 
Yearbook, p. 48. 


..:u o'sIdB'xel)i a:ioo ^3 

. £Iov; :Iood^>' ad' 

O'f V" , ■ #4- oS. ' 

ao :: 'j.^ 

u:> !'.'■ .'■ 

r:.;. i. :'d;M-dji-a do ■■.(Gid-qeore? Si'o lioAVi' 

■:dr.oi) e:d o-zodqqe sdOiIoBod do aTilq’TiXG ilol' fi 
od.; do dOGris-.od^ odd,^, .rroioi^d.GSi.ii'iaq:::^ Igo-iox 

odrii- . u'o &i.iJ '10 dev; oiio ncdoloo do Is©!;) b v/oile don 

..ov^.osn eaoiid n.L ■ oooo,Ldan no nlod aidt;^E©d orld dadd ^Csotbrii y»» 

'.n. odJsi ; ■...■ G"-‘j. vl^‘.d:;iO noin-iqo do eo^nao .,oo e od-i:ovB oorld ^ns 

.,.,..,.■..,.0; . 

. .-.‘ti*.1'iiMlOi;0 0- 

, ■. .'■, t Y- ■■ ■ '■ 

onxo,' w’ -jc•■■ f■: ■ to' o:: e - 1 " erd Ic dneo n aq ■ OS drnf <r ■ d 0 ad eild , :r,' 

; 0 ^^’ qndv'ioT ni 'dGod and v..cii driox.,u;:Iqqi;a • £):ie ^inxnxnsano-on oie 

add .v'jllo'^ od dqiiTBddo onr 
avj'if od xledii^' Gno 5 i:fun)o 
j::ad odood s' , noi:doaiinoo 

vra^xs do ana dexid ©dBodlini YBitt 
vdoocfnoad xl^ddid' odd doiih; Doddoxa 
e,i;id nl 'AYnodoe iBidBo daofn 

, aonojo -xoiijo x:on‘x oI.;:d‘ioJa:: d:o qdai'iov b :;di:;v^ badnoMolqque 

.-' ■ voO" ’.-dn; ■ 

^ ,n qi> ■ . . -'Oi-dO'. c..d..j' .oenooo ©o.naxoe arid odO'snD od 

exo .jood .>0 00 d.. .t 9 d odooc)' odd od eciao at'?^ odd 'la^ddonm 

ooiiOj.©., drrooo-..; ado ■ v nledieo do 

d jal :^ld d-n o’; d,’ de.ld od t.Iov/ o. o .. .^ioocdxxd OxZBc dl 
,v: . .aodi j slodoooq 

djn.doo' . X nn-,.d-.; i, j©v; '"^o..'. dov'^-’^io.i;.jD ©4 vsa: o.ood end •. 

' ' ■ 

■ •' . Cv do . jois nodjBJ^ineono : od J ■:;.. . 

i i w — u S j, vX.J 

J ' • d d 


• a. C 


becomes more pertinent when we consider the emphasis placed 
in Chapter IV upon the value of having a text written from 
a ”well-defined educational viewpoint.In the relevant 
matters of effectiveness of integration and of adaptability 
for evolving major concepts, the text received fair but 
not overly substantial support. Regarding its adaptability 
for the teaching toward intangible outcomes it does not fare 
so well, receiving only minority approval from both the group 
as a whole and for the segregated group. This latter circum¬ 
stance, in view of the stress upon non-factual aims in the 
current literature, may indicate yet another possible short¬ 


Extent of Use 

The important place that experimentation and demon¬ 
stration have in the science program is reflected in the 
results of this survey as shown in Table XVIII. Here it is 
indicated that 91 per cent of the teachers polled utilize 
these two related aspects of laboratory v/ork to a substantial 

^^Chapter IV, Sub-Chapter on The Textbook and its Use , 
pp. 58-61. 


■-'f. -XJ. 

■; ■... /’Ts 

f ■ ' 


o s aiiv;' 9W nexiw QHOi:: 

: ■d" -j J. ■. ■>>■:; 6 ^ c : ixii: v ;,ii ‘1 c- oi j I v 9 xt;i' no ^* ITI•:; sri D ii.t 


L'j xii' ^ ,-..i:o:w9‘i:v ii5aoinnroy,o;i I)Dxii:loD'“iXov?'’* B 

" :J- rnxOS xo o;,.:.: annr::nv\Lno X v) n'XSit 

c/iu nx; ^aivlo'To loX 


'icxn;i.jii. ....ei:JXiBonnnn ton 

.-X>.0 t i 

yj olx: i:;^:noJ\rtlr nnliiooot, sdt ^o‘i 

■ « •, ;..' t X 

n:j nooo -^07‘v .Inn.:- vnio^aca "■^.xno ^^:lTi;oo o.;. n.: Is'o^ oa' 

I j 0 ■ O.i, 

,’DTA OoO'3t7'if sa 'tiriX 'ig'i Bna 


lii '0.0o'Inix;xioca oaooOa ©at to ^ .oxxeta 

■ xt”-'.. ..w Pontons , joT .JOBofi.l 7001:7' n 


■ ■. >, M-” “ ^ , _ 

:wXn'.'O'i. ''^7 ^''■■' 'iSy* ■^' 

'vOXi 7,,f- OoV: to 

f' :nt.’ oo.j. 7'x'*':'.v;'Xo cpc:.o ooiili, ;n'n;'Xoq.:;ix ent' 


:7- n: n. :0, ■ ’ :.r^\': .o%q, x^oxiO-t'o nl ■ ovo.u, xxoltaiuo 

■ c-'-.-f i,;/:. a.'.'.Ox'; .1: :o:.-:ia bq x^‘■'■■■ ■" ati-7 ‘xo ntl.i,f00i 

. ..n. , no ,>s'pnuv ett to trjaa nox, toflf ix-o x aoJ:onx 
n o7' ./\; ,,nOv)',x•, lxo' i .: 0 ;>x^.xo X'Ot'.'ioi ow*J oaoilt 






Degree of Activity 

Number of 
Rep lie s 















For the 9 per cent v;ho answered ♦^rarely” a reason v/as 
sought from the remainder of each qiest ionna ir e. Here definite 
impediments such as lack of time, inadequate facilities or 
equipment were found to be present in almost all cases. 

Pupil Participation 

The following table tabulates the results of ninety- 
three replies to the question which dealt with tnis matter. 


Extent of Participation 

Number of 



















.‘c; .( • ' O-^ 

■tH. ' ) 

~~^T - 

M-' ’ ' ■ ,. 

■’■■ ■.> ... 

r'>r^3v-r d jH^o txoc: € siIj ‘xo'i; 


.j:!- 0x0:1 . 0'ix^fTfrtii 0000 lO ‘xaBxXiji.x©'! Difo no*!*', ud^i/oa 

.'»*.■ , , 

'Xo 00rd ^£10 31 0J , o^'lcr-Xro :,Da£ :'ol'c cd'na.;: Jcijs^i^i.t; 

.■r:0Go lie joJi'lGTii Jit^ao'xq od uc' .ferxiiol' o^rovv d'K8tT:qi:o.p0 

' f' ', ,“ 

^-x - 'v/'\ 1 ' cplJB/'l oix^'X^i - Ij:q:J/v; 

~*;J a^:I'': ‘l oocr I;;g sa Oucl" axai" .■a'.:d.od’ aid 07 onivfollo'j., oIT 

■■ ^ 

.•/..laa:- cl.'^ i'di.v; v.Idafr^oiVvr ixaividoup ad:: oj caxrpo'i ao'xr:^ 

vX. ’id'.a-i-Oi-i....’■ . .vdXi. k.t!^;j,4'i,J. 

ii-'w. VXidl,,-. 


. JI£Jil sqJ; 0 jda- 

'ilu n 3 ;;pcM; X 

‘ ' ' .IS‘I£d. 

■a V0 X 



. j 

..:. '■ (‘i 

■' ■•V ^ 


Altogether, it will be observed, 57 per cent of the 
number permit pupils to participate to a fair extent or 
better, while 43 per cent permit participation rarely or 
never. In an attempt to discover the reasons behind this 
latter figure, the questionnaire of each teacher so answering 
was examined. The follotving table sets down the results of 
this investigation* 


Inadequacy of space -- 
equipment — materials 

No Physical 







One can only surmise v/hy the 19 teachers curtail 
pupil experimentation and demonstration. Perhaps many feel 
that these activities are too awkward and time consuming; 
others may be faced with some insufficiency in facilities 
which the questionnaire does not directly reveal. 

Purposes of Laboratory Work 

The writer attempted to learn what purposes our group 
of teachers have in mind while undertaking laboratory work. 
Provision was made for an indication of relative choice among 
a group of common outcomes. Table XXI sets forth the results. 

VJ ; -;:j 

- o Ov.' v .« - 

J':,:., ■.xx;3M ,£ jo" x o Ov ‘X;)C'rajJXi 

Z^y^c-:. u'"60 U9C S.;> ei:.;: 

"o .b''X xr'v^;,../. fxxi' -rx)vx;xccT na ■„.:. .■:.:::T0 ^x 

£ •:' ox •.;o:'oxoj“ Joa^: 'io o-:xa.ianox^Oiaxp er';:; , .acn,,,I tsi 
x'aoaoa a:.:J rxvc‘0 cssa .oIJa;!- ?Xiix-yollo'- oxV *.toii.u;;£xa aiiW 

' . .noi'TPXl^o :'vrfx oi:a^ 

: ' ^tciTaa^-'iOa JiqU'f ;x:Jc:.aT 

'aiOv* ;j...a4aiv’:..BlS..,;.'..'3..- .. ■ 

lGoi*\;i'-, oB — so/ivO iO aix..elfiT^ 

d'i:-jx:;: ,:a... . aial'iod' em —, Jj;a ■ v;i.aj.) o 

€i BI -i 

' '■il'-aro B‘„ BI oriB ex:. ;'xaa \:l£io iixx ora. 

a- . a- i:Baa:B3i::o,x;:,.xx- XiCiB;'o: v xiiraa; 

B. ::-.-o o.alB .bxa xx^^xaiVTE o;./:t £rx:£ ax.'xixBxiBox exe;;u Bofll 
Lil ;.x/:e,;o xx-BiJoax ,;„exa‘" xcf ■>. ;. / x.xllo 

.XaxvG’x ' ■. Boa Bxa6 x-xirB'atoxox wax sloi Ba 

■aajX'i/^ U xa. r-x.. wO' x..B_xjX'x^/.a'a, .. 

.: :••...: BaJx }... . xa.B..,. iB:xx.;. ■ I -vx-:: ...x: . iX. Xc.a 1.0 

-~x ja-;.!- I'- 4.V, a^,;. .^.Bai,: na axB exaj-; xav. .: i ■ ■ B. J. v 

B'xB aa.a B'B" ::..:.c .. ., a .xoa"... no ■'oo Bo c/;xa.B b 










to establish scien¬ 
tific principles. 






to illustrate prin¬ 
ciples already taught. 






to give pupils mani¬ 
pulative skill. 






to enable pupil to do 
work on his own. 






to illustrate ^formal^ 
method of scientific 






to train pupil in 
orderly v;ork. 






to present a method of 
investigation to carry 
over into life 






as one good means of 
getting a mark. 






to train pupil in care¬ 
ful observation. 





As a means of illustrating and enriching scientific 
principles, experiments and danonstrations find their most 
common use. This is shov/n in tiie relatively great support 
given to sub-items (a) and (b). Both receive support as 
first and second choices. ”To train pupil in careful observa- 







1; jt/J. 



- : c" 

, , . .0.0 i 

. xrv ■ ■ ^ v ] rj.6’! 

';a JV 0 'r„ . o i 

, l; :j 

' -* f ? u i. il 3-i'X <il ;> 

■ . .c;i>Xcv.;:•c^^O:^ oiliv 

w;; o:.XXX oj 
^ . 0 . 0;;jBo V, J.: JXJXi . o xXui u 

; ".L/ii..:: 8_..tcj::c avi;;. oX 

: ..l,.;i;:XE 0 Y.LO;xljjc; 

0 jD o V 11 )! c- 0 ,L" o u j' 

I v(k" : . 

; " ..r.Wv.; 8 8--. liO :.x.uO.,7 

^ Mi-.riox' t-0 ,'„X8xX.Li oO 
; oI.Xi;;xt;o8 Ooiic: e:r 

■ . jGViii 

nX I'i'T jjg a.XixX oJ 
: . ;'Xo7i^ xl^iebr:o 

' 'io Oo.: X0n' oX 

s ".'‘iXiJD ..X xoXXoVvi^X bgvxX 
j 8'iIX oXn.1; -18 vj 

I X,. ^';t3 0 r:; 9no C3 

1 . o nnXXXe^; 

-•onJO li Xiv nr; oX 

..o :. .0 jXj'oni i.oivo .ooJO.J 
: 0 oX 0 • X._ . . c..: u 

, , , o . n o'.;: •-. gX 

oX" .n£0l..i;- .;.f0 0 08 o 


tion*^ is favored as a third choice. Tbe useful purpose of 
"getting a mark" is scarcely recognized, overtly at least, 
as a valid primary outcome. 

Summary of hx-perimentation and Demonstration . 

It may be interesting at this point to refer back to 

Chapter IV of the body of the thesis in lAiiich v;e quoted 

seven comprehensive goals of laboratory work as conceived by 


the 31st Yearbook. Two of these goals were concerned 
with the forming and enriching of scientific principles. 

That a great number of teachers polled share these goals is 

T^vo other of these goals may possibly be taken for 
granted in experimental work. These are the ones concerned 
v/ith "object" instruction and "manipulative" skill. In view 
of the large per cent of teachers engaging in laboratory 
work and in many cases permitting their pupils to participate, 
it may be assumed that these tv^o related goals are, incident¬ 
ally at least, receiving a measure of attainment. 

The remaining goals in the 31st Yearbook's list deal 
with training in the scientific method and its'application 
to problems both scientific and personal, using laboratory 

^"^Chapter IV, Sub-Chapter on experimentation and 
Demonstration, pp. 65-66. 


activities ”to illustrate the formal method of scientific 
investigation’* does not make a creditable shov;ing until the 
third choice, and, even here, it is outranlced by other 
items. The related ”to present a method of investigation to 
carry over into life” is likewise pretty well disregarded 
until the third choice where it places second. One must 
assume, then, that outcomes relating to problem-solving ability 
are of secondary concern in most laboratory work. 

This contention is strengthened by a reference to 
is shown that experimental work is not a primary means used 
for encouraging growth tov/ard intangible outcomes among those 
teachers actively concerned with these aims. Yet these same 
teachers esteem the ability ”to solve problems scientifically”; 
this is indicated by this purpose’s leadership in Table XI 

Possibly many teachers, involved in ’’routine” ex¬ 
perimentation, are ignoring or taking for granted Y;hat con¬ 
tribution the laboratory can make toward training in vital 
problem solving ability; others, as intimated in Table 
may be too impeded by restrictions of materials, space and 
time to make effective use of laboratory work for this pur¬ 

pose . 

‘lo ©u-s'ld a/: Ili 

,J S o-';;:ua Ci'on aoob 

^T::j '-j .v:,;.v:iex^:U u , x.'ii'.'': aIj-td ^-^oxorlo 5^J:xiu’ ■ lO j. »i C' 

‘.^J XI 

xiOiiJvXx £i ■ od" ■’■ ,6i?d’sl0'X eax 

Z. ZD ^t X' 


■zi:dez.^X ai: oX-it z.evo Y'i*X£:o 

ail sa- 

:xQosa ai^ozXr. xi eoi^.bo i'xxLsf oiUi' lioair 

,L:.i'.' : -:ii 

yI.j ;.- ,aiioic. od’ ;v. i jBla'X axxxQOuro Xiir.d .neLd* ,er:ifB33 

1 \ 


00 r:o":3X 

.:ovx '"lod’BtiiQbal o ao;x ;/ii;--i34.aonoo v-oBjxooea' ‘to e^xa 
zz’B "^i^xo.,i:l'zj::3Z[XB ^ti£ aolV£i5^z'ioD eiil'A^ 

/: G'X3:‘"- .. ^x-uij;iix]’i'gX;ow oyriokL:: Zi aSBU &iLoisi:: lu. eida’i 


3i jHwf uvz Meqxe^ X.azZ rf^/ona ai: 
Dao;rj' iZtozLB zoncoSuo oXo .xiv*\;o'i:a ^^ifxxT'C'iaoo^a 'lol 

0 jxxa xiaara .ro’,' .a' ia &3 .'d^i,w i-^n'ivo^oo 'i^Ie axiaJosao 

■:I.r^‘Di'jid’''re: *)x a.-.o rcfo-i^;^ zvloa oX-^ v:XsIzcb odz^ roooao aaisdoa^t 
I.. 3 '-.iB-. xiarre-bBoJ ■ '• 9 au<''''xirq axTlJ- •■.'‘a ^)eoBOjLl)x:i ai. 's^^dd' 

. ^Ai ft j,:.:® u7^o -iA-X:! 

'• .:j ‘'e:;i ::;'al osvioV'n,.'’ vI^:j a 

~z:zp Z-.^z^: z:zlz:jT:q i£'X S-xTiaa x bzb ^ r .zXzXzbzX^zzc 

Izyilz zl ’'zdzXz^zz aiaar-.v zzim hbo V‘ZoXb% 0 (jb 1 BdX zcd:z;::'s:z:X 
bS izz .jzjzzztnl 'Zz .^zzJiZ'O :xXlXiJo :)zzv 1 oei raolao'xq 
b':'' czr>'z . •'lal'racT ":: ‘T" ar'.;.to Ox'ijao*! q'..: oou Sti^Yen 

~'xx. -ii • a: .X dz. -}.: -./..od’aa_ , aI Va eaxr e\'id’oe’x'Xc a,;::!. oX 




Importance of Testing . 

The importance that testing has in the science programs 
of our group of teachers is indicated by the 90 per cent who 
test constantly. 



Number of 
Rep lies 












Frequency of Formal Testin^^ . 

That consistent formal testing is a ¥\?ell established 
procedure is indicated by the results shown in Table XXIII. 



Number of 



At regular intervals: 



At end of convenient amounts 
of ¥/ork: 










Associated with the above aooe ^comprehensive’ tests 
e.g. those given at Christmas and j-.aster to cover work taken 
over a fairly long period. in this regard, the replies again 
indicate a majority favourable to this practise. (Table XXIYj. 



Number of 












Purposes of Tests . 

After determining the frequency and extent of testing, 
it may be pertinent to learn the reason teachers have for this 
activity. They were asked, therefore, to state in order of 
preference those purposes which guided their testing program. 








To tal 


To get a mark for 
the pupil 








To diagnose difficulty 








To determine mastery 
of content 








To motivate the pupil 








To indicate growth in 








Any other reason? 



An examination of Table yOCV reveals that; 

1. Determining mastery of content appears to be the most 
favoured reason for giving tests, 

2. Diagnosis of difficulties receives considerable 
support as a second choice. 

3. Motivation of pupil is a strong third choice, 

4. Utilitarian purpose of * getting a mark^ is recognized 
as useful only in the latter choices. 

5. Revealing grov/th tov/ard intangible outcomes is con¬ 
sidered of least iiaportance. 

Testing for knowledge of facts is thus the most fre¬ 
quent reason for using tests. It may be well to learn what 
type or t 3 rpes of questions are proving most useful in this 





Type of Question 





a. Short quest ion-and-ansv/er 





b. Fill-in-the-blanks 





c. Cornpleting or drawing 





d. Problems 





e. Multiple choice 





f. Essay type 





g. True-or-false 





f. Any others? 





uX/-;V'v'l J.jlCk'^x Xo .v'-. J [Lh 

; X.::j.;'.:oo Xo "v'xX’r.'.- :X.l . . 

,u ^ /■ i.rij. V I - J-wj Ic*. •■ 4-'"*'^'^ ' ■- ■••■ 

;■■:v'i; v) 'J,.. : J Xx 0i 1^:.X X Xe i x :,xx:-i" Xu, 

.xuXOiX') .br::oos, ax' j'xc 
uX ^ ,:j .. xXXj ;-.ciO'iXa ;j eX ' IJ v xq-Xo xui;Xr^¥,xXo..,. 

,;: ,.u ,, £;■ ;J: Xxx:x^ Xo "xao(;x:.u.^^ Xvx: x;.;XXlxX 

.,;X ,. ;■:) M/jXcfal a;ij I.'X-’X..,.: aa 

■;■'OXi/o 0.Xu.txx?Sv;x.i; a./x$woX'v.'qx . ■ v ;' . X 

, sD neX : :.X X a s ax 'lo b sxei) X x 

... X :i,':X xX v'^Xoax Xx exbali’oxX ^rXXxaX 

: „. uX XXo',: xX va;; ^ .a:;v. 5 X X‘X.laXJ.XoX noaoxX- 

;X '£‘jy.L Xax " :'::xXxo'r c-'0'iXasi;x lo aoqxX xo 

' - * ''■x,::::,9'i 

■ ' ;„: . ' ■; • (?.■■ : ^\ r ■■ ;' ;' I' i a ^ • .'"'A ' ^■" ■ 

. , . J.. . , . ... l - I ,. . ... .. Tit. J. • .. J,:. 

' • ■ ■ ■"," •/"■■ 

. 'v ,- - - •- i' , ■. '.i^y 



The ”short quest ion-and-answer, "problems" , and "f ill- 
in-the-blanks" types are favoured in that order with the remain¬ 
der receiving increasingly less approval. 

Despite the great reliance upon formal tests it may 
be pertinent to learn v/hether or not our group of teachers 
use this device alone or whether some supplementary means are 
also employed in the evaluation program. Table XXVII indicates 
the results of an enquiry. 



Number of 



To a great extent: 



To a limited extent: 









An overwhelming majority (96 per cent] rely, therefore, 
upon other means in various degrees to supplement the results 
of formal tests in determining the pupil’s mark. The follow¬ 
ing table points out tlie relative uses of some important 
’other means’. 

,^j-v\rxqq8 ^iavi&oe*:. teb 


: 2 \;, C> CO J Vo *. 0.'0 ooa 

•iO;^,.jc.i::v/ riv:Bs.r oo Vnovi;|-v:uq ea 

c^-^or YooV:^9^-oI^f^va ^oito‘^1^ DofYoI; aiixiv esu 

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Number of 

a. Reports — individual or committee 


b. Performance on experimental work 


c. No te s 


d. Work done on projects 


e. Attitude towards work in general 


f. Others? 


The computation of the final mark for the year is our 
next concern. Teachers were asked to indicate which one of 
three main procedures they used. The results are as follows: 



Number of 



a. From a single end~of~term test 



b. From several major tests spread 
over the term 



c. From several factors taken to¬ 
gether “• tests - notemaking - 
attitudes - appraisal of student's 
work on projects, etc. 



Tot als 



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It is interesting to learn that not one teacher in 
the group used the ^all-or-nothing’ method of a single test. 
Furthermore, it may be significant that 83 teachers (86 per 
cent) considered other activities as well as test results in 
reaching their final appraisal. 

Sunmiary of Evaluation 

The sub-chapter on "Evaluation” in Chapter IV under¬ 
took to set forth the broad scope that evaluating procedures 
have in the modern science program. More specifically, it 
was stated that an adequate testing program must be concerned 

1. Mastery of content. 

2. Diagnostic opportunities. 

3. Motivation. 

4. Getting a mark. 


5. Growth towards intangible outcomes. 

An inspection of the tables given above reveals that: 

1. Testing is considered of great importance v/ith formal 
tests being given regularly. In these tests a variety 
of questions is used to determine mastery of content. 

2. The first three of the above aims concern teachers 
more often in their formal testing. 

^^Chapter IV, Sub-Chanter on Evaluation in Science , 

p. 79. 


3. ^’Getting a raark’*, is not considered overtly as an aim 
of great importance in routine testing. 

4. Most of the teachers reporting supplement formal tests 
with other means for the purpose of getting marks for 
the pupil. 

5. The final or yearns mark is in most cases computed 
from several factors of which formal testing is one. 
The matter of evaluating growth tow^ard the intangible 

goals was discussed in the section on ^^Purposes of Teaching’’. 
To include this aspect of evaluation in the overall picture 
with the above conclusions we again note: 

1. That a majority of the reporting teachers do attempt, 
in varying degrees, to include the intangibles in 
their evaluating programs. (Table ZIII). 

2. That much of this evaluation may possibly be of a 
casual and informal nature. (Table XIV). 


The teachers were asked at the end of the question¬ 
naire to add any personal comments upon the course in general. 
Fifty-three teachers v/ere interested enough to do this. 

Of these fifty-three, forty-seven presented comments 
which were generally unfavourable. 

Almost all of the favourable comments praised the 
cairse for its value as general background and overvie^w of the 
field of science, particularly for non-college, or non- 

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scientific students. Indeed, beyond this, there is no other 
favourable observation worth recording. 

Among the adverse comments, a v;ide variety of criticisms 
were made, i^'rom a total of 66 individual remarks of this nat¬ 
ure, 47 stated that the course was ”not challenging", v/as "too 
general", and the like. Iilight of these 47 deplored, especially, 
the poor basis it provides for grade XII work. 

A further 12 teachers were concerned with the "needless" 
repetition of grade IX vrork. The remainder v/ere troubled by 
what they considered inadequate treatment of chemistry or 

It may be significant that more criticisms were received 
than marks of approval. Possibly the dissenting teachers felt 
more strongly than the others, who are, perhaps, satisfied or 
partially satisfied. It should be kept in mind, at any rate, 
that almost half the teachers put dovm no general appraisal 
at all. 

As the basic text frequently served as the foundation 
of the course, it is pertinent to note once more the opinions 
of the textbook. One readily?- observes that the major critic¬ 
isms of the text, (”unchallenging", "superficial"), are the 
very ones also m^ost prominent in the general appraisal of 
the course. 

The questionnaire also made provision for a comment 
upon integration in science. The aggregate comments are 

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suELLiarized belov;: 




a. tends to be superficial. 


b. by destroying the logical framework of 
specialized science, it lessens the 
value of science instruction. 


c. is vrell adapted for growth towards the 
intangible ends. 


d. helps in growth of meaningful concepts 
by making the facts more meaningful. 




It is apparent that this group of teachers is critical 
of the integrated course. Whether they oppose integration on 
principle or v/hether they merely are censorous of integration 
as represented by Science 10, is not indicated. At any rate, 
out of 101 comments, 73 are unfavourable. It may be pertin¬ 
ent to note the repetition of the charge of superficiality. 

A question may arise regarding the suitability of 
many teachers in the above group. Does the group not con¬ 
tain many teachers poorly qualified for science teaching and 
thus incapable of a valid opinion? 

Accordingly, those teachers having at least four years 
of training as science specialists and also at least four 

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years of experience in high-school science were taken from the 
larger group. The opinions of this group on both the course 
in general and upon integration are considered in the two 
following tables. 



Type of Opinion 

Numb er of 















Number of 


Tends to be superficial 



By destroying the logical framework of 
specialized science it lessens the 
value of science instruction 



Is ?/ell-adapted for growth towards 
intangible ends. 



Kelps in growth of meaningful concepts 
by making facts more meaningful 


An inspection of the last two tables indicates that a gener¬ 
ally unfavourable view of the present course is taken by the 
more highly-trained and experienced science teachers in our 

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gr oup. 


Although the opinions considered in this chapter come 
from teachers in pretty v^ell every teaching situation, the 
entire group represents only a relatively small number of 
all Science 10 teachers in Alberta, fhe writer, therefore, 
wishes to reiterate the need for a circumspect appraisal of 
the conclusions presented, liiese conclusions are not absolute 
and final, 'ihey may serve, nevertheless, as guideposts to 
possible strengths and weaknesses in the course and in its 
presentation. As such, they may be helpful as starting points 
for: (1) any teacher^s personal evaluation of the course, and 
(2} any official re-appraisal of materials and organization. 

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This study has resulted in a number of conclusions. 
Many of these are already listed in the suminaries which fol¬ 
low each group of tables in the previous chapter; others have 
arisen from other aspects of the study. 

It may be expedient to re-emphasize the more important 
of these conclusions by stating them in generalized form. In 
this manner, they may be seen together freed from detail. 

The validity of each conclusion, of course, depends 
upon the validity of the data upon v/hich it is based. 

Vdierever any conclusion indicates a possible short¬ 
coming in the course or in its presentation, the writer has 
ventured to suggest a possible means of improvement. Accord¬ 
ingly, the list of conclusions is followed by a list of 
related recommendations. 


1. Many attempts have been made during the past few decades 
to free science instruction from its traditional emphasis 
upon rigidly academic and college-preparatory objectives. 
Educational reformers have contended that science, as 





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a school subject, is most worthwhile when teaching is 
directed tavards the development of competent citizen¬ 
ship in its broadest sense. Accordingly, new programs 
of science instruction have appeared. In these, concern 
with the growth of attitudes and abilities directly use¬ 
ful in everyday living has taken the place of concern 
v/ith the training of the specialist. Those programs 
have been designated collectively as "functional 

2. Integrated physical science, in v/hich materials from a 
number of specialized sciences are organized for a pur¬ 
pose other than the mastery of specialized content, is 
an important development in this field. 

2. Developed as a course in integrated physical science. 
Science 10 was the initial and significant step in the 
establishment of a program of functional science in 

4. In attem.pting the difficult task of inaugurating a 

phjT-sical science program for Albertans high schools, the 
creators of Science 10 have been: 

a. aware of those trends in educational thought con¬ 
cerned with making science instruction functional. 

b. concerned v/ith many of the difficulties attendant 
upon the construction and acceptance of such a 


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5. There is evidence that a great manj^ teachers viev/ the 
present course in Science 10 unfavourably. Criticisms 

involving the related charges of generality, lack of 
challenge, repetitiousness and superficiality appear 
persistently, and are not counterbalanced by similar 
expressions of commendation. It is difficult, therefore, 
to ignore the possibility of Science 10 being a somewhat 
weak course in integrated physical science. 

6. The high standards of professional preparation demanded 
by the current literature for teachers of high-school 
science are not being met in a fairly substantial number 
of cases. This situation is especially noticeable where 
Science 10 is being taught by teachers trained in non- 
scientific fields. 

7. V/hile many specific qualities of the basic textbook 
receive general approbation, a large majority of teachers 
consider the text superficial, unchallenging, and poorly 
supplied with stimulating questions and problems. In 
this regard, the principal criticism of the basic text¬ 
book parallels the criticism of the course in general. 

This may be a most significant point in view" of the 
Sub-committee*s concern v;ith the need of a basic textbook 
as the basis for a successful course. 

It is likewise pertinent to note that a small majority 
of teachers do not consider the basic text well adapted 

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for instruction in the intangible outcomes v/hile rather 
large minorities consider ineffective both the integra¬ 
tion of materials and their adaptability for developing 
major concepts, 

8. In general, the basic textbook is not used slavishly. 

Most teachers re-organize and supplement its content in 
varying degrees, 

9. Certain deficiencies in facilities and equipment appear 
consistently. Of these, an inadequacy of laboratory 
facilities and materials may prove the most serious. 

10. Evaluation in Science 10 appears to be particularly vigour- 
ous with regard to formal testing. Most teachers, hoY/- 
ever, supplement formal factual testing in various degrees 
with other means of appraisal vvhose results are included 

in the yearns mark. The conscious evaluation of intang¬ 
ible outcomes concerns three-fourths of the teachers 
although there is some intimation that the methods used 
may lean to the casual and unsystematic. 

11. Most teachers experiment and demonstrate frequently, 
with, a lesser number permitting at least a fair degree 
of pupil participation. Laboratory work is carried on 
for a number of conscious purposes, notably the clarifica¬ 
tion of scientific principles. Perforraance on experi¬ 
mental v;ork also serves as an important supplement to 
formal testing in the evaluating program. There is 


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reason to assume that the potentialities of experimental 
work in the developing of vital problem-solving abilities 
are not being fully utilized and that the laboratory 
programs of certain teachers are somev/hat restricted by 
lack of adequate time or facilities. 

12. There is strong adherence to teaching primarily for 
mastery of content with a large minority of teachers 
taking this position, r.evertheless, over two-thirds of 
all teachers do have some deliberate regard for the non- 
factual outcomes, either as a primary or secondary con¬ 
cern in their teaching. The remainder tend to ignore 
the intangibles as such in their teaching. A good major¬ 
ity of teachers, including many who do not directly teach 
for intangible outcomes, attempt, nevertheless, to eval¬ 
uate their growth. There are indications, therefore, of 
a certain lack of unanimity among teachers regarding the 
place and the practicability of teaching and evaluating the 
non-factual objectives. 


1, Greater efforts should be made to assure that, as far as 
possible, only those properly equipped as teachers of 
science, are placed in charge of Science 10 classrooms. 

2. Greater efforts seem necessary to mitigate many of the 
deficiencies of equipment and facilities. Some, or all. 


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of the follov/ing may be helpful: 

a. An official science-room inventory, to be filled in 

by all science teachers, v/ould pin-point specific short¬ 
comings as a guide for the teachers concerned, as well 
as giving the Department of Dducation an accurate pict¬ 
ure of the situation. 

b. An official catalogue listing suitable equipment, its 
approximate price and availability, v/ould enable teach¬ 
ers or school officials to secure more readily any re¬ 
quired item. 

c. To meet the problem of inadequate libraries, a similar 
catalogue should be prepared for those attempting to 
remedy this deficiency. A system of ^^package deals^^, 
may prove effective. Parcels of suitable books, of 
various sizes and prices, according to the needs of 
each school, could be prepared under the guidance of 
the Department of Education. Each package should in¬ 
clude subscriptions to tv/o or more suitable scientific 

d. A section of the Curriculum G-uide, listing methods of 
creating a scientific atmosphere in the classroom, 
would be a boon to the conscientious teacher, partic¬ 
ularly, if he is using an ordinary classroom. This 
section should include directions for the best use 

of bulletin boards, charts, etc. 

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e. Some sort of specific directions should be given to 
teachers hampered by inadequate laboratory facilities. 
These directions should concern best use of available 
space, effective improvization, and related matters. 

f. Some sort of official science kit may help to over¬ 
come the shortage of laboratory materials. These 
packages would include basic materials for schools 
of various sizes. 

2. attempts to direct teachers somevrhat unconcerned ¥7ith 
clear, deliberate teaching for intangible outcomes 
should be made by: 

a. setting dovim more graphically in the Curriculum G-uide 
the specific nature and value of non-factual outcomes, 
c. stressing more vigourously that these outcomes wall 

most likely appear if they are deliberately taught for 

4. The Curriculum Guide should include a section on definite 
methods of organizing materials for instruction in the 
intangibles. Subject matter from the course might v/ell 
be used for this purpose. 

5. The need for ourooseful evaluation of intangible outcomes 
seems to require emphasis. In addition, a number of 
ready and relatively specific methods of evaluation should 
be listed as a guide to all teachers, and particularly to 
those whose evaluation may be somewhat casual or uncertain 
More specific guidance regarding use of laboratory work 


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as a means of training for problem-solving abilities, seems 
in order. ...etbods of encouraging the use of the scientific 
method in fhe Curriculum Guide ^s nev/ and meaningful situa¬ 
tions would be particularly helpful to those teachers 
having difficulty in this respect. 

7. As the course outline and the basic textbook share respons¬ 
ibility for any charge of weakness made against Science 1C, 
they may be profitably reviewed together in relation to 
the following questions: 

A. The Course : 

1. Is it too long and too general? 

2. Does it repeat too many grade IX materials? 

3. Are many sections too easy? 

4. Is it doing its full share in providing a proper 
basis for grads XII v7ork? 

5. Are its materials selected and organized to best 
provide a higlily effective course in integrated 
physical science? 

B. The Basic Textbook : 

1. Are its materials organized most effectively to: 

a. provide efficient integration of subject 

b. encourage ready development of major concepts? 

c. encourage substantial growth toward the non- 
factual objectives of science teaching? 


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2. Do the problems and questions generally lack 

d. Is its content often presented in too superficial 
and unchallenging a fashion for grade X? 



Alberta Department of Education. Senior iii^h School Curriculum 
Guide for Science 10 ( Interim Edit ion ). Edmonton: 

The Queen's Printer, 1952. 

Alberta High School Curriculum Committee. Minutes of Meetings 
for 1947-1955 . Edmonton: Department of Education, 1947. 

Alberta High School Sub-Committee on High School Science. 

Minutes of Meetings for 1949-1951 . Edmonton: Department 
of Education, 1949-1951. 

Bureau of Educational Research in Science. New Directions in 
Science Teaching . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company 
Incorporated, 1949. 

Co-operative Committee on Science Teaching. "The Preparation 
of High-School Science Teachers,” School Science and 
Mathematics , XLII (October, 1942), pp. 636-50. 

Heiss, E.D., Obourn, E.S., and Hoffmann, C.V/. Modern Science 
Teaching . New York: The MacMillan Company, 1950. 

Hunter, G.W. Science Teaching at Junior and Senior High 
School Levels . New York: American Book Company, 1934. 

Hunter, G.W., and Spore, L. ”The Objectives of Science in 
the Secondary Schools of the United States,” School 
Science and Mathematics , XLIII (October, 1943), pp. 633-47. 

Hurd, A.W. "Present Inadequacies and Suggested Remedies in 
the Teaching of High School Science,” School Science and 
Mathematics , XVIII (June, 1928), pp. 637-39. 

National Society for the Study of Education. Science Education 
in American Schools, 46th Yearbook, Part 1. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1947. 

National Society for the Study of Education. A Program for 
Teaching Sci ence , 31st Yearbook , Part I. Chicago: 
University of Chicago Press, 1932. 

Noll G.V/. The Teaching of Science in Elementary anH Secondary 
Schools . New York: Longmans, Green and Company, 1942. 

North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 
Hig;h School Curriculum Re-organization . Ann Arbor: North 
Central Association, 1933. 


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Education . New York: D. Appleton - Century Company, 1938, 

Stubbs, M.E. *’Tbe Place and Problems of Chemistry in the 

High School Curriculum,” School Science and Mathematics , 
XXVII (October, 1927), pp. 741-48. 

Teachers College, Columbia University. New Directions in 
Science Teaching . New York: Teachers College, Columbia 
University, 1943. 




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a. Years of training beyond G-rade 12 _ 

b. Subjects specialized in _ 

c. Years experience in teaching senior high school 

science _ 

d. Is science your main teaching subject? (yes no) 


a. Number of rooms in the senior high school __ 

b. Average size of your Science 10 classes _ 

c. Time spent per week on Science 10 _ 

d. Are other pupils present when this subject is being 
taught? (yes noj 

e. Is there a special science room? (yes no) 

f. Location of laboratory facilities. (as a special room, 
as a definite part of the classroom, improvised) 

g. How is your science library? (adequate, fair, poor) 

h. can your room be arranged for conmittee and other 
group work? (yes no) 

i. Have you a film machine or slide projector? (yes no; 

j. Have you a microscope? (yes no) 

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k. Please name any other major equipment _ 

l. Have you enough materials and equipment to demonstrate 

or experiment frequently and effectively? (yes no] 

m. nave you a good sized bulletin board? (yes no] 

n. Have you any wall charts? (a lot, a few, none] 


Theoretically the modern trend is away from concern 
v/ith content alone though facts are still important. Many 
authorities^however^claim that mastery of content is merely 
a means for attaining the more intangible aims of science instruc¬ 
tion. These objectives are outlined in the Curriculum Guide and 
include: use of the scientific method in solving everyday pro¬ 
blems, suspended judgment, critical mindedness, and the like. 

1. * The Intangibles^ and The Pacts of Science 

a. Do you consider the mastery of content the prime 
concern in science teaching? (yes no) 

b. Do you teach for these intangibles listed above 
deliberately and definitely ? (yes no) 

c. If YES to (b), please mark the following outcomes 
in order of importance (1, 2, 3) 

a) problem-solving ability (scientific method)_ 

b) problem sensitivity _ 

c) open-mindedness _ 


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d) understanding of value of science _ 

e) scientific interests _ 

f) critical and suspended Judgment _ 

g) any other? _ 

d. If NO to (b) please check your reason: 

a) take up too much time for deliberate effort _ 

b) too nebulous for effective teaching or evalua¬ 
tion _ 

c) mastery of logically-organized content offers 

most to the student. Intangibles are super¬ 
fluous _ 

d) they will best develop as an adjunct to effect¬ 

ive factual teaching] therefore concentrate on 
understanding of content _ 

e) their growth is so slow that one yearns develop¬ 
ment is hardly noticeable anyway _ 

f) any other reason? _ 

e. If you are definitely concerned ?;ith teaching for 

these intangibles please check (1, 2, 3,) the 

methods you find most expedient. 

a) trying to develop them incidently during rout¬ 
ine teaching _ 

b) adapting experimental work to stress the 

»scientific method’ more than is usual in 
fomal v/ork _ 

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c) giving projects requiring individual research 

and thought _ 

d) organizing my course so that principles and 

concepts are discovered by methods requiring 
research, open-mindedness, critical judgment 

e) relating facts to outside world and students* 

place in it _ 

f) Any other? _ 

f. If you are deliberately concerned with evaluating 

growth toward these intangible ends please indicate 

(1, 2, 3) the devices you find most expedient: 

a) personal observation of pupil’s day-to-day work 
and attitude 

b) use of rating scales ___ 

c) use of special ’thought* questions _ 

d) observing pupil when given responsibility _ 

e) by considering the mark on formal tests as 

indicative _ 

f) any device of your own? _ 

g. I believe that these intangibles are worth teach¬ 
ing for but as evaluating them is such a subjective 
business it is better avoided, (yes no) 

h. The Course Bulletin mentions the development of 
meaningful and ’functional’ concepts as a desirable 

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outcome of science teaching. Some people class 
this as an intangible outcome; but many traditional¬ 
ly-minded teachers will list this as one of their 
aims too. Please check your attitude toward this 

a) I think this aim can be best attained by a 
logical presentation of the facts of science 

b) I think this aim can be best attained by re¬ 

organizing our subject matter around these 
concepts _ 

c) Teaching for Afunctional concepts* is too 
indefinite; let*s see that the pupils are 

well grounded in the basic facts of science _ 

i. What is your opinion of the integrated course.^ 
Please check. 

a) tends to be superficial _ 

b) by destroying the logical framework of 

specialized science it lessens the value of 
science instruction _ 

c) is ?/ell adapted for growth toward the intang¬ 
ible ends _ 

d) helps in growth of meaningful concepts by 

making the facts more meaningful _ 

e) any comment of your own? _ 

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2, Teaching and Testing; : 

a. Facts are still important. Please indicate the 
relative importance of the methods you use to 
present the facts of the course: 

a) direct teaching including demonstrations _ 

b) pupil reading v^ith note-taking or reports _ 

c) committee work and reports _ 

d) panel discussions, class discussions _ 

e) using experiments and demonstrations to pre¬ 
sent or clarify ideas _ 

f) developing work through v/ritten or oral 

questioning _ 

g) pupil presentation of parts of the course __ 

h) any method of your own? _ 

b. Do you regard constant testing as a vital part of 
your program? (yes no) 

c. Hov/ often do you give formal tests? (At regular 
intervals; at end of convenient amounts of v/ork; 

d. Do you give ’comprehensive* tests e.g. Christmas 
or Faster tests (yes no) 

e. Please mark in order of importance the purposes 
for v/hich you give tests: 

a) to get a mark for the pupil _ 

b) to diagnose difficulty _ 

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c) to determine mastery of content _ 

d) To motivate the pupil _ 

e) to indicate growth in the intangibles _ 

f) any other reason? ___ 

f. Many types of questions are used to determine 
mastery of content. Please check the following 
(1, 2, 3) in order of their importance to you. 

a) short question and answer _ 

b) fill-in-the-blanks _ 

c) completing or drawing diagrams _ 

d) problems _ 

e) multiple choice _ 

f) essay type _ 

g) true or false _ 

h) any others? _ 

g. Do you make it a policy to give marks for work 
other than performances on formal tests? (to a 
great extent, to a limited extent, never) 

h. Please check those of the following for which you 
give marks: 

a) reports — individual or committee __ 

b) performance on experimental work _ 

c) notes _ 

d) work done on projects _ 

e) attitude tov/ard work in general _ 

f) any others? ___ 

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i. How do you compute the final mark for the year’s 
work? Please check. 

a) from a single end-of-the-term test _ 

b) from several major tests spread over the 


c) from several factors taken together (tests, 

notemarking, attitudes, appraisal of student’s 
work on projects etc.) _ 

j. Do you present a preview of each unit? (yes no) 

k. Do you pay special attention to the acquiring of a 
scientific vocabulary? (yes no) 

l. To what extent eire pupils urged to look beyond the 
classroom for scientific information or for les¬ 
sons in the value of science? (greatly, somewhat, 

m. Do you use the suggested unit outlines in the 
curriculum guide? (consistently, frequently, 

n. To what extent do you find the suggested procedures 
in the Curriculum Guide valuable? (always, often, 

3. Experiments and Demonstrations : 

a. To what extent do you demonstrate and experiment? 
(constantly, often, rarely) 

b. To what extent are the pupils able to demonstrate 

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or experiment by themselves? (frequently, some¬ 
what, rarely, never) 

c. Please check (1, 2, 3) in order, of relative 

importance the purposes for which you use experi¬ 
ments and/or demonstrations. 

a) to establish scientific principles _ 

b) to illustrate principles already taught _ 

c) to give pupils manipulative skill _ 

d) to enable pupil to do v/ork on his own _ 

e) to illustrate 'formal’ method of scientific 

investigation _ 

f) to train pupil in orderly work _ 

g) to present a method of investigation to 

carry over into life _ 

h) as one good means of getting a mark __ 

i) to train pupil in careful observation _ 

4. The Authorized Text : 

a. How do you use the text? (exclusively and un¬ 
changed, reorganized for my own convenience, as 
a main point of reference among others] 

b. Please check the folloY/ing. They refer to the 
authorized text. A -- agree D -- disagree 

a) avoids superficiality _ 

b) challenging to the student _ 

c) questions and problems adequate _ 


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d) diagrams are pertinent _ 

e) previews and summaries are good _ 

f) demonstrations are good _ 

g) unit organization is helpful _ 

h) integration here is effective _ 

i) does stress formal experimentation enough 

for (i-rade 10 _ 

j) well-adapted for instruction in the intang¬ 
ible outcomes _ 

k) well-adapted for developing major concepts 

from the subject matter _ 

l) any observation of your own? ______ 

1. Have you any comments on the course in general which 
you would care to put down? 




2. Vtfould you be interested in a summary of the results 
of this survey? (yes no) 



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11532- 140 Street, 
Edmonton, Alberta, 
May 30, 19 54. 

Dear Fellow Teacher: 

For the purpose of writing an M. Ed. thesis, I am at 
present investigating the new Science 10 course v/ith special 
reference to its background, its objectives and its actual 
classroom presentation. As the essential factor is, of course, 
the classroom situation, the success of the entire project 
depends upon the enclosed questionnaire. For this reason I 
am making a friendly request for a few moments of your time. 

In a pinch, even a partial answer will be welcome. 

The questionnaire is designed to reveal as fully as 
possible the following: training of science teachers, teacher's 
attitude toward the aims of science teaching, school and class¬ 
room facilities, methods used in teaching and evaluation. 

I might add that all information you may reveal will 
be held in strictest confidence. There is no need for a 

Thanking you in advance for any consideration you are 
able to give my request, I remain, 

Very sincerely yours. 

Douglas Jardine, 

(Westmount School, Ediaonton) 


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