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BLM LIBRARY 




88027001 




IDAHO BLM 



TECHNICAL BULLETIN 



Riparian Communities 

An Annotated Bibliography of Ecosystem and 

Management Topics with Emphasis on the 

Intermountain West 

by 

Helen M. Fisher 
and Allan E. Thomas 



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TECHNICAL BULLETIN 90-7 
NOVEMBER 1990 

BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 

IDAHO STATE OFFICE 

3380 Americana Terrace 

Boise, Idaho 83706 



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RIPARIAN COMMUNITIES 

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An Annotated Bibliography of Ecosystem and Management Topics 
with Emphasis on the Intermountain West. 

BLM LIBRARY 
kC-653, BLDG *n 

Helen M. Fisher 

Bureau of Land Management 

Idaho State Office 

Boise, ID 83702 

and "' 

Allan E. Thomas 

Bureau of Land Management 

Idaho State Office 

Boise, ID 83702 



United States Department of the Interior 

Bureau of Land Management 

Idaho 

Technical Bulletin 90-7 

November 1990 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Introduction ii 

Citations 1 

Species List of Animals Appearing in Cited Papers 61 

Author Index 62 

Topic Index 72 



INTRODUCTION 



This technical bulletin updates and expands earlier bibliographies of riparian 
topics (Thomas and Wentzell , 1986; Clifton and Thomas, 1988). Sources of 
literature for this bibliography include published workshop and symposia 
proceedings (60 citations); reports issued by the U.S. Forest Service (29 
citations), Fish and Wildlife Service (22 citations), Bureau of Land Management 
(14 citations), Soil Conservation Service (3 citations), Environmental Protection 
Agency (2 citations), and other Federal Government bodies (3 citations); reports 
issued by Institutes and Associations associated with seven western Universities 
(14 citations); reports published in scientific and technical journals (79 
citations from 35 journals; a thesis; and several miscellaneous documents. Of 
230 references, 187 were published since 1987. 

Year of Reference # References 

1968-1985 18 

1986 7 

1987 18 

1988 65 

1989 80 

1990 42 

The primary focus of this bibliography is the ecology, description and management 
of riparian wetlands in the intermountain west (150 citations). In response to 
demands that riparian wetlands be characterized, recent research has addressed 
methods for classifying riparian areas (14 citations) . The classification 
systems relate to existing and potential plant communities, soils, hydrology and 
geomorphology . A majority of wildlife species in the western rangelands require 
resources provided by riparian wetlands. Studies relating to biological 
diversity (28 citations), community ecology (20 citations), mammals (22 
citations), riparian plant communities and vegetation (32 citations), and grazing 
(33 citations) reveal a limited understanding of complex species-habitat 
interactions in riparian wetlands. Human activities, past and present, in the 
western rangeland are threatening biological diversity. Watershed degradation 
and habitat fragmentation reduce the resilience of animal and plant populations 
to large environmental changes (global warming, 1 citation). Landscape inventory 
techniques, including computerized mapping techniques, are discussed in 7 
citations . 

Topics Relating to Riparian Wetlands # References 

Grazing 33 

Biological Diversity 28 

Mammals 22 

Forested Riparian 22 

Plant Communities 21 

Community Ecology 20 

Management 15 

Classification 14 

Soils 10 



ii 



Topics Relating to Riparian Wetlands Cont. . . # References 

Ecosystems 9 

Enhancement 8 

General Riparian 8 

Inventory 7 

Restoration 6 

Creation 3 

Vegetation 3 

Mitigation 3 

Habitat Mitigation 2 

Monitoring 2 

Recovery 1 

Conservation Policy 1 

Habitat 1 

Policy Evaluation 1 

Global Warming Effects 1 

Historical Uses 1 

Evaluation 1 

Fire Effects 1 

The bibliography also includes general topics relating to streams (41 citations), 
non-riparian wetlands (34 citations), hydrology (33 citations), land use 
management (23 citations), water quality and resources (19 citations), soils (17 
citations) , watersheds (12) , fisheries (12 citations) , and geomorphology (3 
citations). References are arranged alphabetically by the first author's name 
and each reference is assigned from one to six topics for cross referencing. The 
references included in this bibliography will be compiled with Thomas and 
Wentzell (1986) and Clifton and Thomas (1988) and will be adapted for use on a 
personal computer. Most of the references are on file in the Idaho State Office. 



in 



1. Alexander, E.B. (ed.). 1989. Proceedings of watershed *89: a conference on the stewardship 
of soil, air and water resources: Juneau, AK, March 21-23, 1989. U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, AK. 215 pp. 

TOPICS: watershed hydrology, biological diversity 

COMMENTS: Some papers relevant to riparian issues included in this bibliography. 

2. Alexander, E.B., E. Kissinger, R.H. Huecker and P.Cullen. 1989. Soils of southeast Alaska 
as sinks for organic carbon fixed from atmospheric carbon dioxide, p. 203-210. In: E.B. 
Alexander (ed.), Proceedings of Watershed '89: A Conference on the Stewardship of Soil, Air, 
and Water Resources. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, 
AK. 215 pp. 

TOPICS: wetland soils, soil development 

COMMENTS: Discusses the organic carbon (C) storage in histosols and other wet-soil 

orders, indicating a possible increase in organic C storage as glaciers recede. 

3. Allen, E.O. 1968. Range use, foods, condition, and productivity of white-tailed deer in 
Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 32(1):130-141. 

TOPICS: white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: The study area included 20 bottoms and three islands of the Missouri 
River floodplain, Montana. Forty and 33 percent of summer deer (white-tailed deer, 
Odocoileus vigirJanus) observations, and 22 and 35 percent of fall deer observations 
were made in the meadow vegetation type (distributed generally throughout the 
floodplain) and alfalfa fields, respectively. Fifty percent of winter and 19 percent of 
spring observations were in the Cottonwood type (adjacent to the river). Weed-infested 
fields accounted for 26 and 53 percent of winter and spring observations, respectively. 
Western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis), occurring in the Cottonwood 
vegetation type, was the most important food type. 

4. Amaranthus, M., H. Jubas and D. Arthur. 1989. Stream shading, summer streamflow and 
maximum water temperature following intense wildfire in headwater streams, p.75-78. In: 
Proceedings of the Symposium on Fire and Watershed Management; 1988, Sacramento, CA. 
Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-109. Berkeley, CA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 164p. 

TOPICS: streamwater temperature, riparian forest, fire effects 
COMMENTS: Adjacent headwater streams were monitored for postfire shade, summer 
streamflow and maximum water temperature following the Silver Complex fire in 
southern Oregon. Variation in maximum water temperature increase was strongly 
correlated to stream flow and percent total streamside shade. Dead vegetation provided 
the most shade. 



5. Anonymous. 1986. Beaver management program for the Wood River Resource Conservation 
and Development Area. A report sponsored by the Blaine, Camas, Wood River, and Gooding 
Soil Conservation Districts. Wood River R.C. and D. Project assisted by the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 

TOPICS: beaver, riparian management 

COMMENTS: A beaver management committee has been formed by public and private 

land managers within the Wood River Resource and Conservation and Development 

Project Area. The report outlines the goals of this committee and its beaver management 

policy. 

6. Anonymous. 1987. Montana Riparian Association bibliography. Montana Riparian 
Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: bibliography, riparian habitat, riparian management 
COMMENTS: Alphabetically arranged by author, without annotation. 

7. Anthony, R.G., E.D. Forsman, G.A. Green, G. Witmer, and S.K. Nelson. 1987. Small 
mammal populations in riparian zones of different-aged coniferous forests. The Murrelet 68:94- 
102. 

TOPICS: small mammals, biological diversity, riparian forest 

COMMENTS: Small mammals were trapped in riparian zones in young, mature, and 

old-growth coniferous forests in spring and summer of one year. More species, but 

fewer individuals, were captured on the streamside transects in comparison to the riparian 

fringe transects, 15-20 m from the stream. No species was solely dependent on riparian 

zones in old-growth forests, however, additional studies are needed, (from authors 

abstract) 

8. Auble, G.T., D.B. Hamilton, J.E. Roelle, J. Clayton, L.H. Fredrickson. 1988. A prototype 
expert system for moist soil management, p. 137-143. In: Mutz, K.M., D.J. Cooper, M.L. 
Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). Restoration, Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian 
Ecosystems in the American West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky 
Mountain Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: soil moisture, management 

COMMENTS: A computer program that suggests management regimes for a set of moist 
soil impoundments. The program meets a series of ranked habitat objectives by 
assigning management regimes to particular units, and considers unit characteristics such 
as vegetation and hydrologic constraints. 



9. Baad, M.F. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations within the riparian zone of Butte Sink in the 
Sacramento Valley of northern California. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88(25). 48 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian plant communities, riparian soils 
COMMENTS: The study tests a system for delineating wetlands by correlation of 
vegetation indices with soil types. Each plant was assigned a wetland indicator number, 
based on prepared plant lists or a provisional number for species not previously listed for 
the area. Vegetation indices included the wetland indicator and either the plant density 
or percent cover. 

10. Bain, M.B. and J.T. Finn. 1988. Streamflow regulation and fish community structure. 
Ecology 69 (2):382-392. 

TOPICS: aquatic habitat, stream flow regulation, fishery, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: An abundant (>90% of all fish) and diverse (nine species) group of 
small-fish species and size classes were restricted to microhabitat that was characterized 
as shallow in depth, slow in current velocity, and concentrated along stream margins 
(tributaries of the Connecticut River, Vermont). This group of fish was reduced in 
abundance in the regulated river and absent at the study site with the greatest flow 
fluctuation. Another fish group included species and size classes that used either a broad 
range of habitat or a microhabitat that was deep, fast, or both, and was concentrated in 
midstream areas. The density of fish in this group was higher in the regulated river and 
peaked at the sites with the greatest fluctuations in flow. Highly variable and 
unpredictable flow regimes appear to bs a high-frequency disturbance that affects fish 
differently depending on the way they use stream habitat and acts to reduce community 
complexity, (from authors' abstract) 

11. Baker Jr., M.B. 1988? The diversity in streamflow response from upland basins in Arizona, 
(citation incomplete: author's address. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky 
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Arizona State 
University, Tempe, AZ.) 

TOPICS: stream flow response, soil depth 

COMMENTS: Soil depth was used to explain hydrograph differences for study areas in 

Arizona during a wet year. 

12. Baker, W.L. 1989. Classification of the riparian vegetation of the montane and subalpine 
zones in western Colorado. Great Basin Naturalist 49:214-228. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian forest, riparian plant communities 
COMMENTS: A classification of relatively undisturbed riparian vegetation, remnant 
from pre-settlement vegetation, in western Colorado. Plant associations include montane 
riparian forests, subalpine riparian forests, lower subalpine willow carrs, upper subalpine 
willow carrs and a subalpine wetland. 



13. Baldwin, M.F. 1987. Wetlands: fortifying federal and regional cooperation. Environment 
29(7): 17. 

TOPICS: wetland protection, wetlands policy implementation 

COMMENTS: Reviews the basis for federal government involvement in the protection 

of wetlands, recommends the strengthening of local and state programs by implementing 

an effective efficient wetland regulatory program under Section 404 of the Clean Water 

Act and by focussed planning to protect valuable and vulnerable wetlands in cooperation 

with other federal, state and local agencies, private groups and the public, (from author's 

introduction) 

14. Barclay, J.S. 1980. Impact of stream alterations on riparian communities in southcentral 
Oklahoma. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services 
Program: FWS/OBS-80/17. 91 p. 

TOPICS: stream channelization, biological diversity, riparian vegetation, birds, 
mammals, amphibians, reptiles 

COMMENTS: Evaluates the effects on bird, mammal, amphibian, and reptile populations 
of stream channelization and stream impoundment in the southern grasslands region, 
Oklahoma. Two channelized streams and one impounded stream, all major tributaries 
of the Washita River, were studied. Present day land use was usually the most apparent 
factor determining vegetation differences between sites. Altered flood patterns reduced 
productivity on channelized or impounded streams, however. Bird, amphibian, reptile 
and small mammal species richness was reduced on channelized sites. Impoundment 
effects tended towards lower species diversity and higher relative abundance on 
downstream sites. 

15. Beaudry, P.G. 1989a. Hydrology of the Skeena River floodplains I: Implications to herbicide 
use. p. 165-171. In: E.B. Alexander (ed.), Proceedings of Watershed '89: A Conference on the 
Stewardship of Soil, Air, and Water Resources. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest 
Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, AK. 215 pp. 

TOPICS: water quality, herbicide fate, floodplain hydrology 

COMMENTS: Based on the annual groundwater regime, stratigraphy of deposits, soil 

characteristics, soil and air climates, and chemical/physical properties of herbicides, 

inferences were made about the probable herbicide fate in the coastal alluvial 

environment. 



16. Beaudry, P.G. 1989b. Hydrology of the Skeena River Floodplains II: Rood hazard 
classification for silviculture, p. 173-178. In: E.B. Alexander (ed.), Proceedings of Watershed 
'89: A Conference on the Stewardship of Soil, Air, and Water Resources. U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, AK. 215 pp. 

TOPICS: floodplain hydrology, planting, aerial photography 

COMMENTS: A flood hazard classification system based on flood level for planting of 

sitka spruce. 

17. Bezanson, C.E. and L.E. Hughes. 1989. A riparian zone-one story. Rangelands ll(2):56-57. 

TOPICS: grazing systems, riparian enhancement, southwestern desert streams 
COMMENTS: A brief case study of riparian vegetation enhancement by grazing 
management in "The Strip" of northwestern Arizona. 

18. Blakesley, J. A. and K.R. Reese. 1988. Avian use of campground and noncampground sites 
in riparian zones. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(3):339-402. 

TOPICS: bird communities 

COMMENTS: Shrub, sapling and tree densities; cover of residual stems and deadwood; 
and litter depth were all lower in campground than noncampground plots. Differences 
in avian community composition appeared related to nesting substrate, cover, and 
foraging substrate. 

19. Bledsoe, S. 19SS. An alternative approach to ihe regulation of riparian management. In: 
Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions, p. 239-244. University 
Washington, Institute of Forest Resources, no. 59: Seattle, WA. 

TOPICS: wetlands policy implementation 

COMMENTS: A forest industry proponent, bureaucrat, regulator and legislator 
comments on regulatory approaches to riparian management with the conclusion that 
regulations are best designed to support site-specific decision making process and that 
monitoring is essential. 

20. Boggs, K. 1990. A site classification with management information for riparian and wetland 
sites in northwest Montana. In: Montana Riparian Association. Management of Riparian and 
Wetland Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association 
Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in Whitefishf3faT: Montana Riparian Association, School of 
Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian plant communities 

COMMENTS: Serai plant communities (community types ) have, theoretically, not 
reached a steady state condition and, thus, some species are still being replaced by 
others. Serai communities may, however, remain stable for time frames relevant to land 



management decisions. Major serai communities are included in the riparian/wetland 
classification scheme. See Boggs et al.(1990) and Hansen et al. (1989) for complete 
riparian and wetland classification scheme with habitat types defined for Montana. 

21. Boggs, K., P. Hansen, R. Pfister, and J. Joy. 1990. Classification and management, of 
riparian and wetland sites in northwestern Montana. Draft Version 1. Montana Riparian 
Association, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, University of Montana, 
Missoula, MT. 217 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian plant communities, riparian soils, riparian 
management 

COMMENTS: A key for identifying riparian site types, i.e., areas occupied or 
potentially occupied by a specific riparian association (plant community type 
representing the latest succession^ stage attainable on a specific hydrologic site). 
Community types which represent disclimax or serai communities that are stable for 
time frames relevant to land management decisions are described. Habitat types are 
described for specific communities. Soils, adjacent communities and management 
information is provided for each habitat type. 

22. Bohn, C. 1989. Management of winter soil temperatures to control streambank erosion, 
p. 69-71. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.), Riparian Resource 
Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 193 pp. 

TOPICS: streambank erosion, soil temperature, streambank vegetation 
COMMENTS: Freeze-thaw cycles in soil are of greater magnitude without vegetation 
than with vegetation cover. Soil frost reduces soil strength. Hypothesizes that vegetation 
insulates the streambank soil and so may improve bank stability. Different vegetative 
cover affects freeze-thaw cycles and so may also affect bank stability. 

23. Boring, K.K., L. Boring, T. Harris, and F. Cubbage. 1988. Section 404 Federal Wetlands 
Regulation: defining wetlands and corps jurisdiction. TOPS (spring 1988): 18-21. 

TOPICS: wetlands regulation 

COMMENTS: Review of federal law that has evolved regarding the waters of the United 
States that fall under the 404 permit requirements administered by the COE (Corps of 
Engineers) and comparison of the scientific concept of wetlands with the current method 
of wetlands delineation employed by the COE. 



24. Boule, M.E. 1988. Wetland creation and enhancement in the Pacific Northwest p. 130-136. 
In: J. Zelazny and J.S. Feierabend (eds.). Increasing Our Wetland Resources. National Wildlife 
Federation Proceedings, Oct. 1987, Washington D.C. 

TOPICS: wetlands creation, project management 

COMMENTS: Management and assessment of a wetland creation project. 

25. Braasch, S., and G.W. Tanner. 1989. Riparian zone inventory. Rangelands, 11 (3): 103-106. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory, beaver 

COMMENTS: Qualitative observations of beaver and grazing impacts, Pfankuch 
bank/channel stability evaluation and plant habitat classification of mountain stream 
riparian zones. 

26. Brinson, M.M. 1980. Riparian and floodplain ecosystems: functions, values, and 
management. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services 
Program, Eastern Energy and Land Use Team, Kearneysville, WV. 7 p. 

TOPICS: riparian, floodplain management 

COMMENTS: A synopsis of functions, values and management of riparian floodplain 

ecosystems. 

27. Britton, CM. and F.A. Sneva. 1979. Effects of haying and non-use on flood meadow 
vegetation, p. 5-7. In: Research in Rangeland ManLL^-nent, Oregon State University, Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Special Report 549: Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR. 39 p. 

TOPICS: management, meadow vegetation 

COMMENTS: Comparison of herbage yield and plant species composition for hayed and 
adjacent uncut meadow areas. See Britton et al. (1980), referred to in the 1986 
bibliography (Thomas and Wentzell, 1986), for subsequent results. 

28. Brown, C.R. 1990. Avian use of native and exotic riparian habitats on the Snake River, 
Idaho. M.Sc. Thesis. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 60 pp. 

TOPICS: wildlife habitat, bird communities, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: Avian use in 5 riparian habitat types (willow, Russian olive, willow- 
Russian olive mix, river birch and hackberry; was inventoried during the winter and 
breeding seasons, 1989. Twenty-two species were observed during winter inventories 
and 36 species observed during the breeding season of which 21 species bred in the study 
area. Willow sites had higher species richness and density than the exotic Russian olive 
sites. 



i 



29. Burke, I.C., W.A. Reiners, and D.S. Schimel. 1989. Organic matter turnover in a 
sagebrush-steppe landscape. Biogeochemistry 7: 11-31. 

TOPICS: soil processes 

COMMENTS: Compares organic matter accumulation and N in surface soils of 

sagebrush steppe vegetation and in different micro-topographic positions. 

30. Cale, W.G., G.M. Henebry, and J. A. Yeakley. 1989. Inferring process from pattern in 
natural communities. Can we understand what we see? BioScience 39(9):60O-605. 

TOPICS: ecosystem processes 

COMMENTS: Thesis: predictions must derive from analysis of fundamental processes, 

not from analysis of biological patterns. 

31. Carson, R.G. and J.M. Peek 1987. Mule deer habitat selection patterns in northcentral 
Washington. J. Wildl. Manage. 51(1):46-51. 

TOPICS: mule deer, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: Mule deer (northcentral Washington) used the riparian cover type for 

thermal protection, security and browsing (Saskatoon serviceberry). 

32. Chadwick, D.H. 1990. The biodiversity challenge. By linking protected habitats, America 
can aid the survival of nature's richness. Defenders Magazine Special Report, Defenders of 
Wildlife, Portland, OR. 14 p. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, gap analysis, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: The essay introduces concepts of island biogeography and applies these 
to wildlife survival on islands of natural habitat created by human conversion of 
landscapes. Wildlife conservation is discussed in terms of conservation of habitat types, 
the areal extent and continuity of habitats. 

33. Chaney, E., W. Elmore, and W.S. Platts. 1990. Livestock grazing on western riparian 
areas. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 45 p. 

TOPICS: grazing effects, riparian enhancement, management 
COMMENTS: A glossy presentation with photographs addressing riparian functions, 
values and issues, documenting cases^ of successful riparian enhancement studies 
throughout the west. 



8 



34. Cheng, J.D. 1989. Streamflow changes after clear-cut logging of a pine beetle-infested 
watershed in southern British Columbia, Canada. Water Resources Research 25(3):449-456. 

TOPICS: stream flow, logging effects 

COMMENTS: In response to clear-cut logging over 30% of a watershed, annual and 
monthly water yields and annual peak flows increased, and annual peak flow and half 
flow volume occurrence dates arrived earlier than for pre-logging conditions and for a 
no-cut control watershed. 

35. Ciliberti, V. 1990. Small scale placer mining on Bureau of Land Management (BLM) 
administered land. In: Montana Riparian Association. Management of Riparian and Wetland 
Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 
September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, 
University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: placer mining management 

COMMENTS: In Montana, regulation of placer mining operations under 5 acres in area 
is achieved by negotiation with the operator. The BLM has few powers to compel 
compliance by operators. Water quality violation is a possible avenue for obtaining 
compliance (from author's abstract). 

36. Clary, W.P. and D.E. Medin. 1990. Differences in vegetation biomass and structure due 
to cattle grazing in a northern Nevada riparian ecosystem. Res. Pap. INT-427. Ogden, UT: U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8 p. 

TOPICS: riparian plant communities, grazing effects, grazing exclosure 
COMMENTS: The study area is on the West Fork of Deer Creek in northeastern 
Nevada. Plots are located within an 11-year grazing exclosure and on the adjacent 
grazed riparian zone. Cattle grazing effects were concentrated in the riparian, not in 
adjacent uplands. Positioning of the exclosure fence across the narrow Deer Creek 
canyon probably reduced cattle access to the unfenced riparian, resulting in similar aspen 
stands upstream of the exclosure and within the exclosure. Below the exclosure, grazing 
had a major impact on aspen regeneration and stand structure. Greatest vegetation 
biomass differences between the grazed and fenced areas occurred among graminoid 
species. Willow stands were extremely variable, masking biomass differences. There 
were no significant differences between sites for biomass of small shrubs, but large 
shrubs other than willow had significantly greater biomass in the grazed areas. 



37. Clary, W.P. and B.F. Webster. 1989. Managing grazing of riparian areas in the 
Intermountain Region. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-263. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, lip. 

TOPICS: grazing management 

COMMENTS: Riparian grazing management recommendations for planning and 

implementing riparian grazing on National Forest System lands in the Intermountain 

Region. 

38. Clary, W.P., and B.F. Webster. 1990. Riparian grazing guidelines for the Intermountain 
Region. Rangelands 12:209-212. 

TOPICS: grazing management 

COMMENTS: Grazing practices which intend to reduce impacts on the herbaceous plant 
community, the woody plant community and streambank morphology are recommended. 
Criteria of minimum season-end stubble heights and an emphasis on early grazing are 
aimed at the maintenance of the woody plant community and streambank morphology. 

39. Clifton, C. 1989. Effects of vegetation and landuse on channel morphology, p. 121-129. In: 
R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.), Riparian Resource Management. An 
Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of Land Management. Billings, Montana. 193 pp. 

TOPICS: hydrology, channel morphology, streambank vegetation 
COMMENTS: Variability of channel morphology within a drainage is high and depends 
on factors such as vegetation, associated land uses, and organic debris. Increased 
channel roughness reduces erosional energy and promotes sedimentation. Vegetation- 
responsive channel parameters include channel width, wetted perimeter, channel shape. 

40. Clifton, C. and A.E. Thomas. 1988. A bibliography of riparian and related topics with 
emphasis on the Intermountain West. Technical Bulletin 88-2. U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Land Management, Idaho State Office, Boise, ID. 69 pp. 

TOPICS: BLM, bibliography, riparian 

COMMENTS: Lists recent publications up to 1988 (322 references) that address riparian 
topics. Copies of that bibliography in both booklet and diskette form are available from 
A.E. Thomas at the Idaho State Office, BLM. 



10 



41. Colby, B.G. 1990. Enhancing instream flow benefits in and era of water marketing. Water 
Resources Research 26(6): 11 13-1120. 

TOPICS: water rights, instream flow, policy 

COMMENTS: This article examines current instream flow policies in the western states 
and outlines the economic values generated by stream Hows. The author argues that 
instream values are high enough to compete in the market for water rights with offstream 
uses when important recreation sites and wildlife species are involved. The paper 
suggests how western state policies might be altered to accommodate instream flow 
protection within the context of water marketing, with the objective of improving the 
efficiency of water allocation among instream and consumptive uses, (from author's 
abstract) 

42. Compton, B.B., RJ. Mackie, and G.L. Desek. 1988. Factors influencing distribution of 
white-tailed deer in riparian habitats. Journal of Wildlife Management 52(3): 544-548. 

TOPICS: white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: Evaluation of factors influencing distribution of white-tailed deer 
(Odocoileus viginianus) along the lower Yellowstone River in eastern Montana during 
winter, summer and fall, 1985. The amount of riparian forest and shrubland cover was 
the most important factor influencing deer distribution and accounted for 70% of the 
variation observed in relative deer abundance among sections of the river bottom. Cattle 
distribution and amount of island area also influenced the distribution of deer (from 
Abstract). 

43. Cooperrider, A.Y. 1990, Conservation of biological diversity on western rangelands. In: 
Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 55th Annual 
Meeting, March 16-21, 1990, Denver, CO.: Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, ecosystem processes 

COMMENTS: Biological diversity - diversity at the community/habitat, species and 
genetic levels - is threatened by our activities on the western rangelands. The paper 
reviews programs that currently address these losses and recommends further research, 
expanded inventory taking and new programs that focus on semi-natural areas that 
surround preserves. 



<r 



ii 



' 



44. Corn, P.S., and R.B. Bury. 1989. Logging in western Oregon: responses of headwater 
habitats and stream amphibians. Forest Ecology and Management, 29:39-57. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, amphibians, biological diversity 

COMMENTS: Compared the occurrence and abundance of amphibians between streams 
flowing through uncut forests and streams in logged stands where second growth has 
reestablished the canopy. Pacific giant salamanders (Dicampton ensatus), Olympic 
salamanders (Rhyacotriton otympicus), Dunn's salamanders (Plethodon dunru), tailed 
frogs (Ascaphus truei). 

45. Comwell, J. 1990. Developing grazing management plans for riparian areas. Idaho Range 
News, April (1990), Soil Conservation Service (Boise). 

TOPICS: grazing strategies 

COMMENTS: Suggestions to managers for developing plans for management of riparian 

grazing (a generalized view). 

46. Crance, J.H. 1988. Relationships between palustrine wetlands of forested riparian floodplains 
and fishery resources: a review. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88(32). 27 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, fishery, floodplain hydrology, ecosystem processes 
COMMENTS: Palustrine wetlands of forested riparian floodplains were defined as 
freshwater wetlands that are coupled to upland watersheds and to adjacent streams. 
Hydrology, nutrient transport, productivity and fish species structure were reviewed. 

47. Crisco, W. 1990. Riparian vegetation analysis with low altitude aerial photography. A case 
study report, BLM Vale District, Oregon. BLM Remote Sensing Section, Denver, CO. 

TOPICS: riparian monitoring, aerial photography, BLM 

COMMENTS: Infrared aerial photographs of 11 riparian sites were obtained during two 
periods, 1981-1982 and in 1987, at scales from 1:1,790 to 1:3,570. Vegetation and 
channel characteristics were characterized and acreages of each category determined. 
Significant vegetation changes were observed. 

48. Cummins, K.W., M.A. Wilzbach, D.M. Gates, J.B. Perry and W.B. Taliaferro. 1989. 
Shredders and riparian vegetation. Bioscience 39(l):24-30. 

TOPICS: stream invertebrates, riparianfecosystems, stream organic debris 
COMMENTS: Synthesis of a conceptual model that links riparian litter with stream 
shredders which, as a group, convert large organic plant substrates such as leaf litter into 
smaller particles. 



12 



49. Davis, GJ. and M.M. Brinson. 1980. Responses of submersed vascular plant communities 
to environmental change: summary. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, 
Biological Services Program: FWS/OBS-80/42. 15 p. 

TOPICS: aquatic plants, water quality 

COMMENTS*. Condensation of a more comprehensive, technical publication by the same 
authors entitled RESPONSES OF SUBMERSED VASCULAR PLANT COMMUNITIES 
TO ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE, FWS/OBS-79/33. Environmental parameters 
include: light transmission, fluctuating water levels, wave action, sedimentation, 
nutrients, and seasonal effects. Potential impacts of various developmental activities are 
discussed briefly, (authors' abstract) 

50. Davis, R.K. 1989. The benefits of riparian development: a report to TGS Technology Inc. 
on procedures for the economic evaluation of riparian protection projects of the U.S. Bureau of 
Land Management. 

TOPICS: BLM, riparian management 

COMMENTS: An economic analysis of riparian improvement projects. 

51. De Meo, T.E., and W.D. Loggy. 1989. Development of wetlands mapping procedures for 
forest planning in southeast Alaska, p. 57-72. In: E.B. Alexander (ed.), Proceedings of 
Watershed '89: A Conference on the Stewardship of Soil, Air, and Water Resources. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, AK. 215 pp. 

TOPICS: wetland classification, geographical information system 

COMMENT: Wetland boundaries were generated using a geographical information 

system (GIS), hydric soil information and wetland plant associations. 

52. De Roo, A.P.J. , L. Hazelhoff, and P. A. Burrough. 1989. Soil erosion modelling using 
'ANSWERS' and geographical information systems. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 
14:517-532. 

TOPICS: erosion models, soil erosion, geographical information system 
COMMENTS: A model that simulates surface runoff and erosion was linked to a 
Geographical Information System. Model output is very sensitive to small changes of 
several input variables, such as infiltration, antecedent soil moisture, and soil roughness. 
Detailed information about rainfall intensities during an event is needed. Sensitivity and 
insufficient input data make the validation of ANSWERS difficult, (from abstract) 



13 



53. DeBano, L.F. and W.R. Hansen. 1989. Rehabilitating depleted riparian areas using channel 
structures, p. 141-148. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.), Riparian 
Resource Management. An Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of Land Management. 
Billings, Montana. 193 pp. 

TOPICS: channel restoration, in-stream structures, riparian enhancement 
COMMENTS: Case studies of watershed-riparian rehabilitation. 

54. DeBano, L.F., and L. Schmidt. 1989a. Interrelationship between watershed condition and 
health of riparian areas in southwestern United States, p. 45-52. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. 
Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). Riparian Resource Management. An Educational Workshop. 
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management Billings, Montana. 193 p. 

TOPICS: riparian management, watershed rehabilitation, riparian enhancement 
COMMENTS: A review of relationships between the whole watershed and riparian zones 
with watershed management suggestions for improvement of the riparian. 

55. DeBano, L.F., and L.J. Schmidt. 1989b. Improving southwestern riparian areas through 
watershed management. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-182. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 33 pp. 



TOPICS: watershed rehabilitation, riparian enhancement, soil erosion, in-stream 
structures, channel dynamics, streambank protection structures 
COMMENTS: This paper reviews opportunities and watershed restoration techniques 
available for rehabilitating and enhancing riparian ecosystems in southwest environments. 
As such, it is intended to serve as a state-of-the-art report on riparian hydrology and 
improvement in both naturally occurring and man-made riparian areas throughout the 
Southwest (from Abstract). 

56. DeLaune, R.D., W.H. Patrick, and S.R. Pezeshki. 1987. Forseeable flooding and death of 
coastal wetland forests. Environmental Conservation. 14(2): 129-133. 

TOPICS: soil, Cs 137 

COMMENTS: Of interest is the technique of dating sediment layers in forest soils by 
measuring 137 Cs activity in soil. x37 Cs is a product of nuclear-weapon testing and does 
not occur naturally. Fallout levels first appeared in 1954 with peak levels occurring in 
1963 and 1964. v / 



14 



57. Deusen, M.S., and P.W. Adams. 1989. Riparian areas; fish and wildlife havens. Woodland 
Fish and Wildlife Project, June 1989: World Forestry Center, Portland, OR. 7 p. 

TOPICS: riparian ecosystems 

COMMENTS: This publication tells how riparian areas provide essential fish and wildlife 
habitat, how land use can affect this habitat, and briefly describes management practices 
that protect or enhance the habitat (from Introduction). The publication is aimed to serve 
as a practical guide to woodland owners. 

58. DeVelice, R.L. 1990. Potential effects of global climate change on riparian forests. In: 
Montana Riparian Association. Management of Riparian and Wetland Forested Ecosystems in 
Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in 
Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, 
Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: global wanning effects, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: Abstract of a spoken presentation. Recommends broad-scale monitoring 
for early detection of ecosystem change in response to global warming, establishment of 
migration corridors to enable species movement to favorable environments, and natural 
areas designation to attempt to maximize landscape diversity so that suitable habitats will 
remain available for most species. 

59. Dickson, J.G. and J. Howard. 1989. Small mammals in streamside management zones in 
pine plantations, p, 375-378. In: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in 
North America. Proceedings of the symposium, July 19-21, 1988, Flagstaff, AZ: Gen. Tech. 
Rep. RM-166. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and 
Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 

TOPICS: small mammals, streamside management zones, riparian forest 
COMMENTS: The study quantified captures of small mammals in mature hardwood or 
pine-hardwood strips along streams that flow through pine plantations in Texas. More 
small mammals were captured in the narrow streamside management zones (tree canopy 
absent and dense brushy vegetation) than in medium or wide zones. 

60. Dieter, CD., and T.R. McCabe. 1989. Habitat use by beaver along the Big Sioux River in 
eastern South Dakota, p. 135-140. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). 
Riparian Resource Management. An Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Land Management. Billings, Montana. 193 p. 

TOPICS: beaver 

COMMENTS: Species and diameter of trees evaluated for grazed and ungrazed riparian 
areas utilized by beaver. Ungrazed, beaver-utilized areas were dominated by many 
young trees with small DBH, < 7.5 cm, many stems the result of sprouting. In such 
areas, beaver cut selectively, choosing trees near to the stream and favoring particular 

15 



species. There was apparently less beaver damage in the grazed areas, because of lesser 
availability of small-diameter trees close to streams. No evidence that beaver degraded 
the ungrazed areas, despite the greater evidence of damage to trees. 

61. Dobyns, H.F. 1989. Historical Perspective. A workshop presentation: Practical approaches 
to riparian resource management. An educational workshop. D'Arcy McNickle Center for the 
History of the American Indian, The Newberry Library, Chicago. IL. 

TOPICS: riparian, historical riparian uses 

COMMENTS: A history of use of riparian resources in North America from paleoindian 
times (8000 BC) to present. Thesis is that riparian "management" by human 
communities occurs only within the priorities for selective riparian resource use defined 
by the social structure. 

62. Douglas, AJ. 1989. Annotated bibliography of economic literature on wetlands. U.S. Fish 
Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 89(19). 67pp. 

TOPICS: bibliography, economics of wetland protection 

COMMENTS: Annotated bibliography of recent, post-1965, economic literature on 

wetlands. 

63. Dusek, G.L. 1990. Use of riparian areas in Montana by white-tailed deer. In: Montana 
Riparian Association. Management of riparian and wetland forested ecosystems in Montana: 
Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990, in Whitefish, 
MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: In eastern Montana hardwood draws containing green ash and adjacent 
prairies are an important habitat type for white-tailed deer, particularly when interspersed 
with croplands. Highest deer density is along the river bottoms. 

64. Eicher, A.L. 1988. Soil-plant correlations in wetlands and adjacent uplands of the San 
Francisco Bay estuary, California. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88 (21). 35 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian soils, riparian plant communities 
COMMENTS: The study tests a system for delineating wetlands by correlation of 
vegetation indices with soil types. Each plant was assigned a wetland indicator number, 
based on prepared plant lists or a provisional number for species not previously listed for 
the area. Vegetation indices included the wetland indicator and either the plant density 
or percent cover. 



16 



65. Filip, G.M. , L.D. Bryant, and C.A. Parks. 1989. Mass movement of river ice causes severe 
tree wounds along the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon. Northwest Science 
63(5):21 1-213. 

TOPICS: river ice, streambank vegetation 

COMMENTS: Lateral movement of river ice across the floodplain caused large wounds 

on tree stems (mountain alder) and direct mortality of shrubs or indirect mortality 

through wounding and subsequent infection by canker fungi. The ages of wounds 

indicated a 20 to 30 year period between events of lateral ice movement across the 

floodplain. 

66. Finch, D.M. 1988. Bird-habitat relationships in subalpine riparian shrublands of the central 
Rocky Mountains, p. 167-172. In: C.A. Troendie, M.R. Kaufmann, R.H. Hamre (tech. 
coords.). Management of Subalpine Forests: Building on 50 Years of Research. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-149. 

TOPICS: bird communities, biological diversity, wildlife habitat 
COMMENTS: Examined associations between bird abundance, habitat structure 
measured at random sites, and habitat measured at bird locations in subalpine riparian 
shrublands. The subalpine riparian avifaunas were depauperate with only four abundant 
species- song sparrow, white-crowned sparrow, Lincoln's sparrow and Wilson's 
warbler. Habitat requirements overlapped among these species but differed significantly 
from randomly-sampled habitat in the same areas. Results indicated that species 
preferred densely-foliated ground and shrub layers, and higher effective vegetation height 
(from abstract). 

67. Finch, D.M. 1989. Habitat use and habitat overlap of riparian birds in three elevational 
zones. Ecology 70(4): 866-880. 

TOPICS: riparian ecosystems, bird communities, biological diversity, riparian habitat 
COMMENTS: The low elevation riparian habitat provides a broader more complex 
resource base than higher elevation riparian habitats. Over all sites, zone-independent 
bird species were generalists and zone-dependent species were more often habitat 
specialists. On a site-by-site basis, however, some high elevation specialists were 
generalists for their sites, and some zone generalists were in fact specialists within a 
particular site. Avifauna diversity in western and Rocky Mountains riparian sites is not 
saturated, indicating that the Great Plainsregion still offers a barrier to western dispersal. 



17 



68. Floyd, D., P. Ogden, B. Roundy, G. Ruyle, and D. Stewart. 1988. Improving riparian 
habitats. Rangelands 10(3): 132-134. 

TOPICS: grazing strategies, riparian enhancement, southwestern desert streams 
COMMENTS: Briefly describes two Arizona grazing allotments where the author claims 
that rotational grazing and sensitivity to the riparian habitat values has resulted in greatly 
enhanced riparian habitats. 

69. Foote, A.L. 1988. Effects of wave energy on plant establishment in shallow lacustrine 
wetlands, p. 115-119. In: Mutz, K.M., DJ. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). 
Restoration, Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American 
West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of 
Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: lacustrine sediment transport, emergent wetland plants, seed bank 
COMMENTS: Studies address affects of wave action on sediment resuspension, seed 
bank redistribution and survival of tubers in shallow wave-washed wetlands. 

70. Fox, J.D. 1989. Simulating vegetation-water yield relations in interior Alaska, p. 179-189. 
In: E.B. Alexander (ed.), Proceedings of Watershed '89: A Conference on the Stewardship of 
Soil, Air, and Water Resources. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska 
Region, Juneau, AK. 215 pp. 

TOPICS: watershed hydrology, watershed models 

COMMENTS: A model for predicting spring runoff in cold climates. The model 
incorporates interactions among snowmelt and soil infiltration capacity. The former is 
affected by all factors influencing the snowpack energy balance and the latter is affected 
by soil texture, autumn soil moisture, snowpack depth and air temperature, all of which 
determine soil freezing and thawing. The study hypothesized that runoff will increase 
after timber harvest, not only due to increased snowmelt rates and decreased 
transpiration, but also due to fall soil moisture and subsequent formation of concrete frost 
(from the abstract). 

71. Gebhardt, K.A., C. Bonn, S. Jensen, and W.S. Platts. 1989. Use of hydrology in riparian 
classification, p. 53-59. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton, and J.L. Kershner (eds.), Riparian 
Resource Management, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 193 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, hydrology 

COMMENTS: Presents a general classification scheme for riparian zones based on 
hydrologic and geomorphic features. Recognising the dynamic nature of the riparian, 
a concept of 'state' is introduced as a unit of classification to indicate the responses of 
a site type to physical impacts. Physical processes that affect soil water regime and 
erosion resistance can effect 'state' changes. The relative vulnerability and resilience of 
riparian vegetation may be described in terms of the 'state' of the riparian and the 

18 



physical processes occurring within. 

72. Gebhardt, K.A., J. Gebhardt, G. Koonce, B. O'Brien, S. Sweet, and R.B. Tiedmann. 1988. 
Creating wildlife and wetland amenities in an urban environment, p. 157-161. In: Mutz, K.M., 
D.J. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Mflkx (eds.). Restoration, Creation, and Management of 
Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, 
Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian creation, mitigation 

COMMENTS: Description of wetland-wildlife habitat creation in association with an 

urban housing project. 

73. Genter, D.L. 1990. The role of riparian habitat in maintaining rare and endangered species. 
In: Montana Riparian Association. Management of Riparian and Wetland Forested Ecosystems 
in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in 
Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, 
Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, riparian 

COMMENTS: Abstract of spoken presentation. Summarizes numbers of animal species 

dependent on or heavily dependent on riparian habitats in Montana. 

74. Goldner, B.H. 198?. Riparian restoration efforts associated with structurally modified flood 
control channels. ???? In: California Riparian Systems. Sept. 1981, Davis, CA. 

TOPICS: riparian restoration, planting 

COMMENTS: Methods used to vegetate flood control channels. Discussed were plant 

species selection, planting, irrigation and maintainance. 

75. Grant, G. 1986. Assessing effects of peak flow increases on stream channels: a rational 
approach, p. 142-149. In: Proceedings of the California Watershed Management Conference, 
November 18-20, 1986, West Sacramento, CA.: (citation incomplete: Author's address: Pacific 
Northwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Corvallis, OR) 

TOPICS: watershed, cumulative effects, streamflow 

COMMENTS: Criticizes employment of arbitrary limits to the basin drainage area 
affected by forestry activities. Recommends a procedure using the magnitude of flow 
increases that can be accommodated by downstream channels before channel instability 
occurs to determine the upper limit for basin area compaction. Discusses the physical 
factors which affect channel stability and ways to determine this component of the 
cumulative watershed effects of forest practices. 



19 



76. Grant, G. 1988. The RAPID technique: a new method for evaluating downstream effects 
of forest practices on riparian zones. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-220. Portland, OR. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 36p. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory, aerial photography, channel adjustments 
COMMENTS: The RAPID technique (riparian aerial photographic inventory of 
disturbance), uses aerial photographs to evaluate changes in channel conditions through 
time and links such changes with their possible stream causes. 

77. Green, D.M. and J.B. Kauffman. 1989. Nutrient cycling at the land-water interface: the 
importance of the riparian zone. p. 61-68. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner 
(eds.). Riparian Resource Management. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land 
Management. Billings, Montana. 

TOPICS: saturated soils, soil redox 

COMMENTS: Sedge and grass colonization of the riparian varies as redox potential of 
the surface soil. Subsurface flow of aerated water produces more oxidized conditions at 
depth than in the surface above the water table. 

78. Gresswell, R.E., B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). 1989. Riparian Resource 
Management. An Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land 
Management. Billings, Montana. 193 p. 

TOPICS: symposium, riparian management, hydrology, grazing effects 
COMMENTS: Symposium papers and extended abstracts on topics relating to riparian 
management. Some individual titles are included in this bibliography. 

79. Griggs, J. 1990. Trout in small woodland areas. Woodland Fish and Wildlife Project, 
August 1990: World Forestry Center, Portland, OR. 

TOPICS: salmonid habitat 

COMMENTS: Information bulletin for small-area land owners interested in stocking 

farm ponds with trout. 

80. Gutzwiller, K.J. and S.H. Anderson. 1987. Multiscale associations between cavity-nesting 
birds and features of Wyoming streamside woodlands. The Condor 89:534-548. 

TOPICS: bird communities, wildlife haoitat 

COMMENTS: Riparian habitat use by cavity-nesting birds was studied at 3 scales: (1) 
nest trees, (2) nest sites (vegetation surrounding nest trees), and (3) disjunct fragments 
(0.1 to 32.3 ha) of floodplain forest. Features of Wyoming streamside woodlands on all 
three spatial scales influence habitat use and are important in structuring communities of 
cavity-nesting birds. Some patterns of habitat use on the scales of nest trees and habitat 
fragments were not predictable from habitat associations observed elsewhere for the same 

20 



species. Bird-habitat relations on one scale were (or were not) predictable from relations 
on other scales, depending on the species. 

81. Hall, F.C. 1985. Management practices and options. In: J.W. Thomas and C. Maser (eds.), 
Wildlife habitats in managed rangelands— the Great Basin of southeastern Oregon. U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-189. Pacific and Northwest 
Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR. 17 p. 

TOPICS: wildlife habitat, grazing 

COMMENTS: Deals primarily with livestock management in relation to wildlife and 
wildlife habitat. Included are discussions of ecological status (range condition), livestock 
management, multiple-use options for each species featured in previous chapters (trout, 
sage grouse, pronghorn, mule deer, and bighorn sheep). Concludes with a discussion of 
diversity (from abstract). 

82. Hancock, J.L. 1989. Selling a successful riparian management program. A public land 
managers viewpoint, p. 1-9. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). 
Riparian Resource Management. An Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Land Management. Billings, Montana. 193 p. 

TOPICS: riparian management 

COMMENTS: Goals of a successful riparian management program: identify and 
demonstrate the benefits of good riparian management; create a motivated group of 
landusers and managers to set goals; monitor progress. 

83. Hansen, P.L. 1990a. Alternative approaches for inventory and mapping of riparian and 
wetland areas. In: Montana Riparian Association. Management of Riparian and Wetland Forested 
Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 
September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, 
University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory 

COMMENTS: A brief summary of planning vegetation mapping projects. 

84. Hansen, P.L. 1990b. The development of a site classification with management information 
for riparian and wetland areas - its applicability and use. In: Montana Riparian Association. 
Management of Riparian and Wetland Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana 
Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian 
Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian classification 

COMMENTS: Summarizes the classification scheme developed for riparian and wetland 
areas in Montana by the Montana Riparian Association. Suggests ways in which the 
habitat-type classification can be applied. See Boggs et al.(1990) and Hansen et al. 

21 



(1989) for complete riparian and wetland classification scheme with habitat types defined 
for Montana. 

85. Hansen, P.L., S.W. Chadde and R.D. Pfister. 1987. Riverine wetlands of southwestern 
Montana. Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, 
MT. 39 p. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory, riparian plant communities 

COMMENTS: The study describes dominant plant species and major riparian dominance 

types occurring along major rivers of southwestern and west central Montana. 

86. Hansen, P., R. Pfister, J. Joy, D. Svoboda, K. Boggs, L. Myers, S. Chadde, and J. Pierce. 
1989. Classification and management of riparian sites in southwestern Montana. Draft version 
2. Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, Univ. Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian soils, riparian plant communities, riparian 
management 

COMMENTS: A key for identifying riparian site types, i.e., areas occupied or 
potentially occupied by a specific riparian association (plant community type 
representing the latest successional stage attainable on a specific hydrologic site). 
Community types which represent disclimax or serai communities that are stable for 
time frames relevant to land management decisions are described. Habitat types are 
described for specific communities. The classification system was developed from 1071 
riparian sample plots. Soils, adjacent communities and management information is 
provided for each habitat type. 

87. Heede, B.H., M.D. Harvey, and J.R. Laird. 1988. Sediment delivery linkages in a chaparral 
watershed following a wildfire. Environmental Management 12(3):349-358. 

TOPICS: watershed erosion, sediment transport, wildfire 

COMMENTS: Temporal and spatial sediment delivery to and within the stream network 
following a wildfire on a chaparral watershed in Arizona, U.S.A., was studied. Methods 
included interpretation of channel processes (aggradation, degradation) from sequential 
aerial photographs, field measurements of sediment delivery, and overland flow from ten 
microwatersheds having different vegetation cover (erosion pavement-no vegetation, 
erosion pavement with vegetation buffer strips, open chaparral cover). The 
watershed/stream response to fire was complex. The bulk of the sediment was stored in 
colluvial deposits before the 1959 fire, was eroded from hillslopes into the channels 
immediately following the fire, and was still not exported from the basin 33 years after 
the fire. Relatively rapid vegetation recovery led to the reestablishment of chaparral 
buffer strips on most channel banks. The vegetation strips greatly reduced sediment 
delivery from the hillslopes to the channels. 



22 



88. Higgins, D.A., S.B. Maloney, A.R. Tiedemann, and T.M. Quigley. 1989. Storm runoff 
characteristics of grazed watersheds in eastern Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin, 25:87-100. 

TOPICS: watershed hydrology, stormflow, grazing effects 

COMMENTS: Quantified storm flow responses to summer convective storms, producing 
single-peak hydrographs, for forested and meadow watersheds subject to low-to-moderate 
degrees of grazing in the Blue Mountains, eastern Oregon. 

89. Higgins, D.A., A.R. Tiedemann, T.M. Quigley, D.B. Marx. 1989. Streamflow 
characteristics of small watersheds in the Blue Mountains of Oregon. Water Resources Bulletin 
25(6): 1131-1 149. 

TOPICS: watershed hydrology 

COMMENTS: Streamflow data for water years 1978-84 were evaluated to identify 
streamflow characteristics for 13 small watersheds (0.46-7.00 mi 2 ) in the Blue Mountains 
of eastern Oregon and to determine differences among grazing intensities and vegetation 
types. Two classes of vegetation were evaluated: (1) western larch-Douglas-fir (nine 
watersheds) and (2) other (four watersheds representing fir-spruce, lodgepole pine, 
ponderosa pine, and mountain meadow. 

90. Hogan, D.L. 1989. Channel response to mass wasting in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British 
Columbia: Temporal and spatial changes in stream morphology, p. 125-142. Jn: E.B. Alexander 
(ed.), Proceedings of Watershed '89: A Conference on the Stewardship of Soil, Air, and Water 
Resources. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Alaska Region, Juneau, AK. 215 
pp. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, woody debris, channel morphology 

COMMENTS: Debris jams cause sedimentological, morphological and hydraulic changes 

upstream and downstream. The effects of these are described morphologically, 

temporally and spatially. 

91. House, R., and V. Crispin. 1990. Economic analyses of the value of large debris as 
salmonid habitat in coastal Oregon streams. Technical Note, OR-7-6512. Portland OR: U.S. 
Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Oregon State Office. Portland OR. 
lip. 

TOPICS: in-stream structures, salmonid habitat, riparian forest, riparian management 
COMMENTS: Management scenarios which involved stream rehabilitation with large 
woody debris additions and rehabilitation combined with conifer harvest from the riparian 
zone showed greater short-term fishery benefits than leaving a stream under a low debris 
loading level. However, the best Jong-term economic alternative to maintain salmonid 
productivity in coastal streams is through maintainance of mature coniferous riparian 
zones under continuous high debris loading (from Abstract). 



23 



92. Hunter, B.A., M.S. Johnson, and DJ. Thompson. 1989. Ecotoxicology of copper and 
cadmium in a contaminated grassland ecosystem. IV. Tissue distribution and age accumulation 
in small mammals. Journal of Applied Ecology 26:89-99. 

TOPICS: small mammals, metal contamination 

COMMENTS: In order to assess the potential toxicological significance of accumulated 
metals in wild small mammals, both the tissue distribution and dynamics of age 
accumulation of metals in populations of animals from contaminated environments were 
established. This paper examines both these issues in small mammals inhabitating 
grasslands contaminated by metal refinery emissions, (from authors' introduction; study 
located in Great Britain) Species examined: common shrew (Sorex araneus L.), field vole 
(Microrus agrestis L.), wood mouse (Apodemus sysvaticus L.) 

93. Interagency Wetlands Coordinating Body. 1989. Wise use and protection of federally 
managed wetlands: the federal land management agency role. Workshop proceedings, October 
18-20, 1989, Harpers Ferry, WV. 

TOPICS: wetland management 

COMMENTS: Nine federal agencies participated in a workshop concerning policy, 
coordination and cooperation on wetland land management issues. This somewhat 
preliminary report of the results of the workshop includes materials presented by each 
of the agencies and point-form summaries of discussions. 

94. Isabelle, P.S., L.J. Fooks, and P.A. Keddy. 1987. Effects of roadside snowmelt on wetland 
vegetation: an experimental study. Journal of Environmental Management 25:57-60. 

TOPICS: water quality 

COMMENTS: Contaminants in roadside snowmelt may have toxic effects on individual 
species and affect community structure of roadside wetlands. De-icing agents are of 
particular concern. 

95. Ischinger, L.S., and K. Schneller-McDonald. 1988. Wetland restoration and creation in the 
west: what do we really know? p. 29-42. In: Mutz, K.M., DJ. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. 
Miller (eds.). Restoration, Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in 
the American West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of 
the Society of Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: bibliography, wetland restoration, wetland creation, lacustrine, riparian 
COMMENTS: Analysis of articles collected and documented in the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service wetland creation/restoration data base. Of 1000 records in the data 
base, 79 deal with non-coastal freshwater wetlands in the west. Of the 79 records, 30 
are concerned with the restoration of riparian areas, and 34 cite the creation or 
restoration of fish or wildlife habitat as a major objective. The availability of quality data 
from baseline studies, qualitative or quantitative measurements of wetland functions, and 

24 



monitoring efforts are discussed. Research needs are addressed. 

96. Jackson, S.G., and J. A. Kadlec. 1988. Recent flooding of wetlands around Great Salt Lake, 
Utah. p. 120-125. In: Mutz, K.M., DJ. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). 
Restoration, Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American 
West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of 
Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: lacustrine wetlands 

COMMENTS: Discusses affects of temporary water-level rise in the Great Salt Lake on 

salt marshes. 

97. Jackson, W., T. Martinez, P. Cuplin, W.L. Minckley, B. Shelby, P. Summers, D. 
McGlothlin, B. Van Haveren. 1988. Assessment of water conditions and management 
opportunities in support of riparian values: BLM San Pedro River Properties, Arizona. Proj. 
Compl. Rep. 88/004+7200. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 
Service Center, Denver, CO. 180 pp. 

TOPICS: BLM, groundwater, riparian vegetation, geomorphology, water rights 
COMMENTS: Presents information on the condition of water resources and the riparian 
vegetation in the San Pedro River Management Area. Justifies the quantification of 
instream-dependent uses identified in the area and examines and recommends strategies 
for protecting o: enhancing the water-related values. 

98. Jatnieks-Straumanis, S.A., and L.E. Foot:. 1988. Wetland mitigation banking: how it 
works in Minnesota. Rangelands 10:120-123. 

TOPICS: wetland mitigation banking 

COMMENTS: Short review of Minnesota Dept. of Transport experiences with mitigation 

banking. 

99. Jenkins, K.J., and R.G. Wright. 1987. Simulating succession of riparian spruce forests and / 
white-tailed deer carrying capacity in northwestern Montana. West. J. Appl. For. 2(3): 80-83. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, population models, white-tailed deer 
COMMENTS: Successional modelling demonstrated the effects of two timber harvesting 
strategies on white-tailed deer populations. Simulated populations declined following two 
timber harvesting schedules, but recovered after cessation of harvest. Gradual but 
continuing decline was predicted by alteration of the hydrologic regime of the river 
resulting in increased runoff and erosion. 



25 



100. Johnson, K.L., C. Moseley, J.C. Moseley, and J. O'Laughlin. 1990. BLM riparian policy 
in Idaho: analysis of public comment on a proposed policy statement. Report No. 2, Idaho 
Forest, Wildlife and Range Policy Analysis Group, June 1990. Idaho Forest, Wildlife and Range 
Experiment Station, University of Idaho, Moscow ID. 28 p. 

TOPICS: BLM, riparian policy evaluation 

COMMENTS: Analysis of public comment on the proposed BLM riparian policy for 

Idaho. 

101. Johnson, S.R. 1990. Protecting riparian values during timber harvest and related activities: 
Kootenai National Forest experience. In: Montana Riparian Association. Management of 
Riparian and Wetland Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian 
Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, 
School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, woody debris, SMZ, streamside management zone 
COMMENTS: In the Kootenai National Forest, northwestern Montana, large woody 
debris is a particularly important factor in detennining the physical and biological 
characteristics of small and intermediate-sized streams. A task force effort to address 
inadequacies in the national forest plan regarding timber harvests in forested riparian 
zones is discussed. Includes stream classification and management recommendations for 
streamside management zones (SMZ). 

102. Jones, K.B. 1988. Comparison of herpetofaunas of a natural and altered riparian 
ecosystem, p.222-227. In: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North 
America. Proceedings of a symposium, July 19-21, 1988, Flagstaff, AZ. 

TOPICS: reptiles, amphibians, biological diversity, wildlife habitat 
COMMENTS: Reptile abundance and diversity were greater on an unaltered riparian 
ecosystem than on an altered site. Two streams; one having no major water 
impoundments and the sampling site located in a mature gallery-type stand of cottonwood 
and willow (unaltered), the other river having major impoundments, regulated flow, 
reduced flooding and the sample site located in a poorly developed tree gallery with no 
evidence of tree reproduction (altered). The distribution and abundance of certain 
microhabitats appear to account for differences in reptile abundance and diversity on the 
two sites. In conserving riparian ecosystems, attention needs to be given to protecting 
more habitat components, including microhabitats such as surface Utter found important 
to herpetofauna. *"/ 



26 



103. Keigley, R.B. 1988. Developing methods of restoring vegetation communities while 
preserving genetic integrity. In: Proceedings of the High Altitude Revegetation Workshop No. 
8: Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO: Colorado Water Resources Research Institute, 
1988, Information Series no.59. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, revegetation 

COMMENTS: An applied paper outlining concepts and methods used in revegetating 

steep slopes to produce a target plant community that reflects local genetic integrity. 

104. Kenna, J., W. Devaurs, D. Troutman, G. King, W. Street, B. Cannon, D. Simontacchi, 
and V. Modrell. 1990. Warner Wetlands area of critical environmental concern (ACEC) 
management plan. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Lakeview, 
OR. BLM-OR-PT-90-28-1792. 

TOPICS: BLM, grazing, lacustrine management, meadow 

COMMENTS: A BLM management plan for Warner Wetlands, ACEC, OR. 

105. Kindschy, R.R. 1989. Regrowth of willow following simulated beaver cutting. Wildlife 
Society Bulletin 17:290-294. 

TOPICS: simulated beaver herbivory, willow 

COMMENTS: Measured the responses of willow to cutting treatments that simulated 
beaver herbivory during different seasons. Red willow (Salix lasiandra) is the most 
susceptible to cutting during hot summers conditions. 

106. King, J.G. 1989. Streamflow responses to road building and harvesting: a comparison with 
the equivalent clearcut area procedure. Res. Pap. INT-401. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 13 p. 

TOPICS: hydrology, stream flow, logging effects 

COMMENTS: Increases in annual streamflow and peak streamflows were determined on 
four small watersheds following timber harvesting and road building. The measured 
hydrologic changes are compair j to those predicted by a methodology commonly used 
in the Forest Service's Northern Region, the equivalent clearcut area procedure. 
Increases in peak streamflows are discussed with respect to their potential to modify the 
channel system. 

107. Kirby, R.E., S.J. Lewis, and T.N. Sexson. 1988. Fire in North American wetland 
ecosystems and fire-wildlife relations: an annotated bibliography. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Biol. 
Rep. 88(1), 146 pp. 

TOPICS: bibliography, wetlands, fire effects 



27 



108. Knopf, F.L. 1986. Changing landscapes and the cosmopolitism of the eastern Colorado 
avifauna. Wildlife Society Bulletin 14:132-142. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, bird communities, floodplain forests 
COMMENTS: The development of a riparian forest on the Great Plains has provided a 
corridor for the movement of forest birds across those grasslands that have historically 
served as an ecological barrier to dispersal. The corridor has resulted in secondary 
contact of many congeneric species which currently hybridize on the Great Plains; the 
hybridization may be interpreted either as reversing 10,000 years of speciation, or 
alternatively as promoting hybrid vigor within populations. Natural resource 
management agencies need to develop formal positions on the issues of cosmopolitism 
and hybridization of wildlife species which occur with broad changes in native 
landscapes, (from authors summary) 

109. Knopf, F.L., R.R. Johnson, T. Rich, F.B. Samson, and R.C. Szaro. 1988. Conservation 
of riparian ecosystems in the United States. Wilson Bull. 100(2): 272-284. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, riparian ecosystems, bird communities, riparian 
conservation policy 

COMMENTS: Avian diversity on a continental scale, particularly the western North 
American region, is jeopardized by the decline of riparian ecosystems. The authors 
summarize the positions or non-positions of public agencies in regards to riparian 
management and recommend government-wide changes. Their recommendations reflect 
the importance of riparian ecosystems relative to surrounding uplands as wildlife habitats 
throughout the west and indicate the need for co-ordinated management of geographic 
regions and habitat corridors for dispersal of avian species. 

110. Knopf, F.L., J. A. Sedgwick and R.W. Cannon. 1988. Guild structure of a riparian 
avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing. J. Wildl. Manage. 52(2):280-290. 

TOPICS: bird communities, grazing effects, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: Avian guilds have been proposed as an approach to evaluating impacts 
of land-management programs on public lands. It has been recommended that guild 
delineations based on functional and structural criteria, should be replaced by guilds 
based on similarities among species' responses to a given perturbation. The present 
study provided information on the response of summer birds to grazing of a shrub-willow 
vegetation at Arapaho NWR. Three response guilds were delineated: (a) eurytopic, 
habitat generalists, (b) stenotopic, habitat specialists, and (c) mesotopic, intermediate 
habitat specialists. Authors hypothesized that the response-guild structure primarily 
reflects the impact of cattle upon the horizontal patterning of the vegetative community. 



28 



111. Kozel, S.J., W.A. Hubert, and M.G. Parsons. 1989. Habitat features and trout abundance 
relative to gradient in some Wyoming streams. Northwest Science 63(4): 175-182. 

TOPICS: salmonid habitat, channel gradient 

COMMENTS: Low-gradient reaches (0.1-1.4%) were found to have deeper nearshore 
water depths, more undercut banks, and more trench pools than moderate-gradient 
reaches (1.5-4.0%), while moderate-gradient reaches had more cobble substrate, dammed 
pools formed by woody debris, and plunge pools. The mean standing stock of trout was 
267 kg/ha in low gradient reaches and 102 kg/ha in moderate-gradient reaches. Habitat 
features correlated with trout standing stocks differed between the two gradient classes, 
(from authors' abstract) 

112. Krasny, M.E , K. A. Vogt, and J.C. Zasada. 1988. Establishment of four Salicaceae species 
on river bars in interior Alaska. Holarctic Ecology 11:210-219. 

TOPICS: river bar vegetation, willow, riparian plant communities 
COMMENTS: In general, seed germination was not useful in explaining the patterns of 
plant distribution on river bar site. Vegetative reproduction can be important in both 
initial establishment and survival on river bar sites. Seed reproduction was important on 
mesic sites and vegetative reproduction was important on sites favorable to seed 
germination. Once established on mesic sites, however, expansion does not take place 
by root sprouting. 

113. Kulla, A. 1990. Transitional forest grazing and compatible grazing systems for forested 
riparian and weiiand sites in western Montana. In: Montana Riparian Association. Management 
of Riparian and Wetland Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian 
Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, 
School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: grazing strategies, riparian forest 

COMMENTS: All riparian compatible systems proposed to date have in common the 
prescription of less total grazing in the riparian area 'either through rest, season 
adjustment, number adjustment, livestock management, or structural improvement'. 
Whether the allotment can handle the same or increased stocking will depend on the 
availability and condition of the non-riparian upland areas. 

114. LaFayette, R.A. and D.W. Paweleck. 199jD. New revetment design controls streambank 
erosion. U.S. Forest Service, Engineering Fielcf Notes, 22(July-Aug):23-31. 

TOPICS: streambank stabilization, streambank erosion, riparian restoration 
COMMENTS: Describes successful use of porous-fence revetment to prevent streambank 
failures on a deeply entrenched stream. 



29 



115. LaGrange, T.G. and J.J. Dinsmore. 1989. Plant and animal community responses to 
restored Iowa wetlands. Prairie Naturalist 21(l):39-48. 

TOPICS: wetland restoration 

COMMENTS: This study demonstrates that a high-quality wetland, with a plant and 
animal community very similar to unaltered Iowa wetlands, can be restored by removing 
or blocking tile lines. This is and easy and cost-effective way to restore wetland 
complexes where there are none or to add wetlands to an existing wetland complex, 
(from authors' abstract) 

116. Lane, L.J., A.D. Nicks, J.M. Laflen, M.A. Weltz, WJ. Rawls, and D.I. Page. 1989. The 
water erosion prediction project: model overview, p.487-494. In: Proceedings of National Water 
Conference, IR and WR Divisions of the American Society of Civil Engineers. Newark, DE, 
July 17-20, 1989. 

TOPICS: soil erosion, erosion models 

COMMENTS: Overview of a soil erosion model developed by the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture's Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP). Model user requirements, 
model structure, and experimental program for WEPP are summarized. 

117. Larson, J.S. 1988. Wetland creation and restoration: An outline of the scientific 
perspective, p. 73-79. In: J. Zelazny and J.S. Feierabend, eds. Increasing Our Wetland 
Resources. Nat. Wildlife Fed. Proceedings, Oct. 1987, Washington D.C. 

TOPICS: hydrology, soil development, wetland creation 

COMMENTS: General. Addresses the importance of understanding hydrologic and soil 

processes in relation to vegetation responses when creating wetlands. 

118. Legge, T.A., D.J. Herman, and B. Zamora. 1981. Effects of cattle grazing on mountain 
meadows in Idaho. Journal of Range Management 34(4): 324-328. 

TOPICS: grazing effects 

COMMENTS: Vegetation changes which occurred during 12 years of protection from 
grazing were documented in mountain meadows of north-central Idaho. Plant 
composition changes were evident on five sites studied, whereas herbage production was 
significantly less on the grazed than ungrazed areas at two of the sites. On average, the 
percent of bare ground and moss-covered areas were greater on grazed than ungrazed 
sites. Litter accumulation was greater, on average, on the ungrazed sites. 



30 



119. Leaninger, W.C. 1988. Non-chemical alternatives for managing selected plant species in 
the western United States. U. S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service and 
University Cooperative Extension, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO. 48 p. 

TOPICS: weed management 

COMMENTS: A summary of literature on Don-chemical plant control for 14 plant 
species, arranged by species specifically for land managers. The species include wild 
oats (Avenafatua), diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa), sported knapweed (Centaurea 
maculosa), Russian knapweed {Centaurea repens), musk thistle (Carduus nutans), 
Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis), leafy spurge 
(Euphorbia esula), St. Johnswort (Hypericum perforjrum), tall whitetop (Lepidium 
latifolium), giant foxtail (Setaria faberi), yellow foxtail (Setaria glauca), green foxtail 
(Setaria viridis), common cattail (Typha latifolia). 

120. Leopold, L. 1990. Ethos, equity and the water resource. The Abel Wolman Distinguished 
Lecture, presented to the National Research Council, Feb. 15, 1990, National Academy of 
Sciences Auditorium. 14 p. 

TOPICS: water resources, water policy 

COMMENTS: Discusses an ethos, or an unwritten guiding belief in the maintenance of 
the hydrologic continuum (i.e., the effective operation of forces in the drainage basin that 
maintain a balance among processes of weathering, soli formation, water and sediment 
delivery to stream channels and the exit of water and sediment from the basin) in the 
administration of water resources. Evidence of how management fails to follow such an 
ethos and the effects of catastrophic change to the hydrologic continuum were explored. 
Discusses equity in administration - a dedication to fairness, to consideration of various 
interests and treatment of all with some measure of equality. 

121. Lienkaemper, G.W. and F.J. Swanson. 1987. Dynamics of large woody debris in streams 
in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17:150-156. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, woody debris 

COMMENTS: Reports the dynamics of woody debris in streams, based on 7 to 9 years 
of observations in five stream reaches in old-growth Douglas-fir forests. Additions of 
woody debris is widely scattered in time and space and comes mainly from single trees 
rooted away from the streambank. Wind appears to be the major agent of wood entry 
into streams. Downstream movement is strongly related to length of individual pieces; 
most pieces that moved were shorter than bankfull width, (from authors' abstract) 



31 



122. Lowe, C.H., R.R. Johnson, and P.S. Bennett. 1986. Riparian lands are wetlands: the 
problem of applying eastern American concepts and criteria to environments in the North 
American southwest, p. 119-122. In: Hydrology and Water Resources in Arizona and the 
Southwest. Vol. 16. Proceedings: Glendale, AZ, April 19, 1986. American Water Resources 
Association, Arizona Section, Arizona-Nevada Academy of Science, Hydrology Section, and the 
Arizona Hydrological Society. > 

TOPICS: riparian classification, southwestern desert streams, hydrology 
COMMENTS: The paper argues that riparian lands are wetlands relative to the 
surrounding uplands. By this definition, the driest wetlands are ephemerally watered 
riparian scrub systems supported by infrequent water and sometimes by flow of surface 
water only once or less during a year's time. Periodic wetlands support riparian systems 
that are also watered by subsurface flow or sheet flow from higher areas. 

123. Majors, J.E. 1988. Opportunities to protect in-stream flows and wetland uses of water in 
California. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 89(10). 76 pp. 

TOPICS: instream flow, water rights 

COMMENTS: The purpose of this report is to encourage cooperative and innovative 
thinking by all persons interested in in-stream flows, fish, wildlife, and watershed 
management at Federal, State, or local levels of government, as well as private 
individuals and wildlife organizations (from Introduction). Examples include riparian 
rights; wild and scenic rivers; stream evaluation programs; California Endangered 
Species Act; acquisition of land and water, including rights; wetlands preservation; and 
protection and enhancement. 

124. Manci, K.M. 1989. Riparian ecosystem creation and restoration: a literature summary. 
U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Biol. Rep. 89(20). 59 pp. 

TOPICS: bibliography, riparian ecosystems, riparian restoration, riparian creation 
COMMENTS: Annotated bibliography addressing riparian functions (fish and wildlife 
habitat, hydrologic flow, erosion control and water quality improvement); planning for 
projects; techniques (planting, fencing, landforming, installing instream devices, and 
treating soil); monitoring; evaluation; and case studies. 

125. Marks, J.S. and V. Saab Marks. 1988. Winter habitat use by Columbian sharp tailed 
grouse in western Idaho. J. Wildl. Manage. 52(4): 743-746. 

<7 

TOPICS: sharp-tailed grouse, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: Habitat use by Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus 
columbianus) was studied during three winters in western Idaho. Grouse were closely 
associated with mountain shrub and riparian cover types, the only cover types that 
provided food and escape cover regardless of snow depth. Fruits of Douglas hawthorn 
{Crataegus douglassf) and buds of Saskatoon serviceberry {Amelanchier alnifolia) and 

32 



common chokecheny (Primus virgijiiana). (from Abstract). 

126. Marlow, C.B. 1988. Mitigating livestock impacts to streambanks within northern Rocky 

Mountain foothills riparian zones, p. 147-150. In: Issues and Technology in the Management of 
Impacted Wildlife, Proceedings ID, Nov. 2-4, 1987, Colorado Springs, CO. Boulder, CO: 
Thome Ecological Institute, 1988. 177 p. 

TOPICS: grazing strategies, grazing effects, streambank erosion 
COMMENTS: The length of grazing time in riparian zones and soil conditions at the 
time of grazing appear to have greater impact on streambanks than the total numbers of 
cattle grazing. 

127. Marron, D.C. 1989. Physical and chemical characteristics of a metal contaminated 
overbank deposit, west-central South Dakota, U.S.A. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 
14:419-432. 



TOPICS: water quality, sediment transport 

COMMENTS: Overbank deposition of arsenic and other mine-tailing metals is discussed 

in relation to sediment transport. 



128. Marzolf, G.R 1978. The potential effects of clearing and snagging on stream ecosystems. 
U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services 
Program:FWS/OBS-78/14. 32 p. 

TOPICS: bibliography, aquatic habitat, woody debris 

COMMENTS: Reviews the biological and hydrological processes affected by stream 

obstruction/debris and the effects of removal of those obstructions on stream functions. 

129. McAdoo, J.K., G.N. Back, M.R. Barrington, and D.A. Klebenow. 1986. Wildlife use of 
lowlands meadows in the Great Basin, p. 310-319. In: Transactions of the North American 
Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference: 51st Annual Meeting, 1986: Wildlife Management 
Institute, Washington, D.C. 

TOPICS: rr^mmals, small mammals, bird communities 

COMMEN, : Documents the use of wetlands, riparian areas and marshes by bird and 

mammal species for the period 1978-80 (inventory phase) and for 1981-85 (research 

phase). 



33 



V, 



130. McCluskey, D.C., J. Brown, D. Bomholdt, D.A. Duff, and A.H. Winward. 1983. Willow 
planting for riparian habitat improvement. Tech. Note 363, U.S. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Land Management 21 p. 

TOPICS: planting, riparian enhancement, willow 

COMMENTS: A technique is described for the planting of willow stem cuttings in 

riparian areas. Considerations before planning willow plantings are suggested. 

131. McKee, A., J.E. Means, W.H. Moir, and J.F. Franklin. 1987. First-year recovery of 
upland and riparian vegetation in the devastated area around Mount St. Helens, p. 168-187. In: 
D.E. Bilderback (ed.), Mount St. Helens 1980: Botanical Consequences of the Explosive 
Eruption. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA. 

TOPICS: riparian recovery, riparian plant communities 

COMMENTS: A study with goals: to document first-year patterns of revegetation in the 
major habitats created within the devastated area around Mount St. Helens; to compare 
vegetative recovery in forested areas clearcut prior to the eruption, in blown-down 
forests, and in standing dead forests; to investigate the effects of snowpack in the blown- 
down forests on plant recovery; to compare recovery of riparian vegetation on sites in 
the devastated area with that on sites receiving only ashfall; and to establish a network 
of plots for the study of vegetative recovery in the future. 

132. McLemore, C.E., and W.R. Meehan. 1988. Invertebrates of Meadow Creek, Union 
County, Oregon, and their use as food by trout. Res. Pap. PNW-RP-394. Portland, OR: U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 13 p. 

TOPICS: stream invertebrates, aquatic habitat, salmonids 

COMMENTS: From 1976 to 1980, invertebrates were collected from several reaches of 
Meadow Creek in eastern Oregon. Five sampling methods were used: benthos, drift, 
sticky traps, water traps and fish stomachs. A total of 372 taxa were identified, of which 
239 were used as food by rainbow trout (steelhead; Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Of the 
taxa found in trout stomachs, 71 (29.5%) were terrestrial. 

133. Medin, D.E. and W.P. Clary. 1989. Small mammal populations in a grazed and ungrazed 
riparian habitat in Nevada. Res.Pap. INT-413. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 6p. 

TOPICS: small mammals, grazing effects, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: Community composition and relative abundance of small mammal 
populations in grazed and exclosed riparian zones at 6200 ft, northeastern Nevada, were 
monitored in late summer. The numbers of species trapped and the total numbers of 
individuals trapped were greater inside the protected areas than in the grazed areas. 
Species observed: deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculams), western jumping mouse (Zapus 
princeps), least chipmunk (Tamias minimus), Great Basin pocket mouse {Perognathus 

34 



parvus), golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis), vagrant shrew (Sorex 
vagrans), long-tailed vole (Microtus longiclaudus), montane vole (Microtus momanus), 
Townsend's ground squirrel (Spermophilus townsendii), northern pocket gopher 
(Thomomys talpoides), and bushy-tailed woodrat (Neotoma cinerea). 

134. Medin, D.E. , and W.P. Clary. 1990. Bird and small mammal populations in a grazed and 
ungrazed riparian habitat in Idaho. Res. Pap. INT-425. Ogden, ITT: U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 8p. 

TOPICS: bird communities, small mammals, grazing exclosure, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: A survey of bird and small mammal populations (spring and later 
summer, respectively, in 1988 and 1989) in two 9 ha plots, one placed at the upstream 
end of a 122 ha grazing exclosure (grazing excluded from 1975), the other placed in the 
adjacent upstream grazed riparian zone. The Summit Creek study area is located in 
Custer County, ID, in the Little Lost River drainage. In 1989, there was little difference 
between grazed and ungrazed habitats in total breeding bird density, but presence of 
shorebirds in the grazed area caused the tendency for greater species richness, bird 
biomass and bird species diversity in the grazed habitat as compared with the ungrazed 
habitat. Small mammal populations were higher on the grazed than the ungrazed plots 
but species richness and diversity of the small mammal communities were higher in the 
ungrazed habitat. 

135. Medin, D.E., and K.E. Torquemada. 1988 Beaver in western North America: An 
annotated bibliography, 1966 to 1986. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-242. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 18 p. 

TOPICS: beaver, bibliography 

COMMENTS: This annotated bibliography of 206 references is provided as a working 
tool for natural resource specialists, land-use planners and others charged wife managing 
beavers and their habitats (from Abstract). 

136. Medina, A.L. and S.C. Clark. 1988. Stream channel and vegetation changes in sections 
of McKnight Creek, New Mexico. Great Basin Naturalist 48(3):373-381. 

TOPICS: channel morphology, riparian vegetation, grazing exclosure 
COMMENTS: The effects of grazing on stream channel morphology and riparian 
vegetation were insignificant compared with channel adjustment; caused by wildfire in 
the headwaters, high amounts of sedimentation in the upper channel and storm events. 
This result exemplifies the importance of overall watershed condition to channel stability 
and plant communities in the riparian zone. 



i 



35 



137. Megahan, W.F. 1987. Increased sedimentation following helicopter logging and prescribed 
burning on granitic soil. p. 259-260. In: Erosion and sedimentation in the Pacific Rim: 
proceedings of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences, 3-7 August, 1987, Oregon 
State University, Corvallis, OR. IAHS publication; no. 165). 

TOPICS: soil erosion, watershed 

COMMENTS: A brief summary of a paired watershed study in a steep granitic 

landscape. 

138. Michael, J.L., D.G. Neary and MJ.M. Wells. 1989. Picloram movement in soil solution 
and streamflow from a coastal plain forest. J. Environ. Qual. 18:89-95. 

TOPICS: water quality, herbicide fate, riparian forest 

COMMENTS: A study of the movement, on- and off-site, of the herbicide picloram and 
its residues, following aerial application of picloram to four forested watersheds. 
Movement was monitored in the mineral soil, soil solution, groundwater and streams. 

139. Miller, L.K., and K. Schneller-McDonald. 1988. Wetland bibliographic data bases, p. 43- 
48. In: Mutz, K.M., DJ. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). Restoration, Creation, 
and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American West. Symposium, Nov. 
14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Denver 
CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: bibliography 

COMMENTS: The paper is an overview of the structure of the Wetland Values Citation 

Data Base (WVCDB), the Wetland Creation/Restoration Data Base (CREATE). 

140. Minckley, W.L. and J.N. Rinne. 1985. Large woody debris in hot-desert streams: An 
historical review. Desert Plants 7(3): 142-153. 

TOPICS: woody debris, southwestern desert streams 

COMMENTS: Large-particulate organic debris is denied to present-day desert streams 
because of interception by impoundments and as a result of decimation of formerly 
extensive riparian vegetation. Historical records indicate a substantial, but sporadic, input 
of coarse debris (from high-elevation forests), which was reduced to finer particles 
through molar action in canyon-bound reaches of desert rivers. Historical changes, 
functions of large debris in the systems, and probable future conditions are reviewed. 



36 



141. Minshall, G.W., S.E. Jensen, and W.S. Platts. 1989. The ecology of stream and riparian 
habitats of the Great Basin region: a community profile. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 
85(7.24). 142 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, hydrology, geomorphology, riparian soils, riparian 
ecosystems 

COMMENTS: Proposes a hierarchical framework for classification of riparian 
ecosystems of the Great Basin hydrographic region: hydrologic unit, e.g., region, 
subregion, basin, subbasin and tributary basin; geomorphic valley form, e.g., glacial 
valleys, fluvial canyons, alluvial valleys and lacustrine basins; water regime, e.g., 
permanently flooded, semi-permanently flooded, saturated, seasonally flooded and sub- 
irrigated; physiognomy of the community, e.g., forest, shrub, herb and moss/lichen, and 
non-vegetated physiognomic classes are cobble, gravel, sand and silt bars; community 
type, based on floristic similarities in both the overstory and understory; and descriptors, 
based on the functional attributes of riparian ecosystems. 

142. Molloy, D.P. and R.H. Struble. 1988. A simple and inexpensive method for deterniining 
stream discharge from a streambank. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 4(4):477-481. 

TOPICS: stream flow 

COMMENTS: Describes a flotation method for measuring stream discharge small to 

moderate-sized streams without entering the stream. 

143. Montana Riparian Association. 1990. Management of Riparian and Wetland Forested 
Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 
September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, 
University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian forest management, wetland management 

COMMENTS: Abstracts of twelve presentations. Topics relate to fisheries, forestry, 
streamside management zones, biodiversity, global warming effects, riparian 
classification and inventory. 

144. Moore, D.R.J., P.A. Keddy, C.L. Gaudet and I.C. Wisheu. 1988. Conservation of 
wetlands: dc infertile wetlands deserve a higher priority? Biological Conservation 47:203-217. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, wetlands 

COMMENTS: Infertile wetlands had higher species richness and many more rare species 
than fertile wetlands. Further, infertile wetlands had a greater range of vegetation types 
than did fertile wetlands. 



37 



145. Morganweck, R. 1989. Status and trends of wetlands in the coterminous U.S. Renewable 
Resources Journal 7(3): 6-7. 

TOPICS: wetland management, wetland losses 

COMMENTS: A summary of wetland area, ownership, conservation and losses. 

146. Murphy, M.L. and K.V. Koski. 1989. Input and depletion of woody debris in Alaska 
streams and implications for streamside management. North American Journal Fisheries 
Management 9:427-436. 

TOPICS: salmonid habitat, riparian forest, woody debris 

COMMENTS: Natural rates of input and depletion of large woody debris (LWD) in 
southeast Alaska streams studied to provide a basis for managing streamside zones to 
maintain LWD for fish habitat after timber harvest 

147. Mutz, K.M., D.J. Cooper, M.L. Scott, and L.K. Miller (eds.). 1988. Restoration, 
Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American West. 
Symposium, 14-16 Nov, 1988, Denver, CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of Wetland 
Scientists, Denver, CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: symposium, riparian restoration, riparian creation, wetlands management, 
wetland mitigation, wetland policy, wetland water rights, water quality, wildlife habitat 
COMMENTS: Plenary addresses were: Public policy and Colorado Wetlands; Wetlands 
protection and water rights; A stream classification system; The influence of 
riparian/wetland systems on surface water quality; Riparian wildlife habitats: more, worth 
less, and under invasion; Mountain wetland vegetation dynamics. 

148. Myers, L.H. 1989. Grazing and riparian management in southwestern Montana, p. 117- 
120. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). Riparian Resource Management. 
An Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. 
Billings, Montana. 193 p. 

TOPICS: grazing systems, grazing management 

COMMENTS: Standardized approaches to riparian grazing management are not practical. 
The results of 34 grazing systems in riparian zones are analyzed in terms of riparian 
recovery and important factors that apply to Montana are discussed. 

149. Nachlinger, J.L. 1988. ^ oil-vegetation correlations m riparian and emergent wetlands, Lyon 
County, Nevada. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88(17). 39 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian soils, riparian plant communities 
COMMENTS: The study tests a system for delineating wetlands by correlation of 
vegetation indices with soil types. Each plant was assigned a wetland indicator number, 
based on prepared plant lists or a provisional number for species not previously listed for 

38 



the area. Vegetation indices included the wetland indicator and either the plant density 
or percent cover. See Hcher (1988) and Baad (1988) for similar studies in California 
and explanation of methods. 

150. Naiman, R.L, C.A. Johnston, and J.C. Kelley. 1988. Alteration of North American 
streams by beaver. BioScience 38(ll):753-762. 

TOPICS: beaver, hydrology, wetland creation 

COMMENTS : A review of changes in the structure and dynamics of streams and related 

wetlands as beaver recolonize their historic habitat. 

151. Neary, D.G., and J.L. Michael. 1989. Effect of sulfometuron methyl on ground water and 
stream quality in coastal plain forest watersheds. Water Resources Bulletin, 25: 617-623. 

TOPICS: water quality monitoring, groundwater, herbicide fate 
COMMENTS: An evaluation of off-site movement of a herbicide to streamflow, with 
sediment transport and by leaching into ground water on a sandy lower coastal plain 
flatwoods site. 

152. Neg"!, S. 1989. The San Pedro riparian area. Arizona Highways, April 1989, 18-33. 

TOPICS: riparian, southwestern desert streams 

COMMENTS: Travelogue, including prehistoric and cultural histories. 

153. Nilsson, C, G. Grelsson, M. Johansson, ar.d U. Sperens. 1989. Patterns of plant species 
richness along riverbanks. Ecology 70(l):77-84. 

TOPICS: riparian plant communities, biological diversity, riparian ecosystems 
COMMENTS: Total species richness along two rivers increased with substrate 
heterogeneity and was at a maximum at intermediate levels of substrate fineness. 
Observation coincides with the hypothesis that species diversity and environmental 
heterogeneity should be closely related along rivers. On the rivers studied, ice scour was 
most likely a cause of substrate heterogeneity, causing patchiness by erosion, transport 
and deposition of soil material, by affecting bank height (flood height) and channel width. 

154. Noon, K.F. 1989. Major implementation issues in protection of nation's wetlands. 
Renewable Resources Journal 7(3): 14-15. 

TOPICS: wetland policy implementation 

COMMENTS: Brief discussion of six major wetlands protection implementation issues 

in Michigan. 



39 



155. O'Malley, R. 1989. Wetlands Protection: perspective of the states in long- term policy 
direction. Renewable Resources Journal 7(3):8-ll. 

TOPICS: wetland policy, wetland protection 

COMMENTS: Spoken presentation from the perspective of the New Jersey experience. 

156. O'Toole, R. 1988. Economic protection for riparian forests. Streamside management: 
riparian wildlife and forestry interactions. Seattle, WA: University of Washington, Institute of 
Forest Resources, 1988: p. 259-269. 

TOPICS: economics of wetland protection 
COMMENTS: Pricing natural resource values. 

157. Oakley, A.L. 1988. Riparian management practices of the Bureau of Land Management. 
In: Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions, p. 191-196. 
University of Washington, Institute of Forest Resources, no. 59: Seattle, WA. 

TOPICS: wetland policy implementation, BLM 

COMMENTS: Policies for preparing plans and managing BLM lands and resources are 

based on applicable federal laws, Executive Orders, regulations, manuals, policy 

statements and other guidance from the Director and State Director for Oregon and 

Washington. 

158. Odum, W.E. 1988. Predicting ecosystem development following creation and restoration 
of wetlands, p. 67-70. In: J. Zelazny and J.S. Feierabend (eds.). Increasing Our Wetland 
Resources. National Wildlife Federation Proceedings, Oct. 1987, Washington D.C. 

TOPICS: wetland creation, ecosystem development 

COMMENTS: Suggests research questions addressing the development of plant 

communities, soil conditions and hydrology in created and restored wetlands. 

159. Ogle, D. 1990. Willow poles help restore streambanks. Idaho Range News, April (1990), 
Soil Conservation Service (Boise). 

TOPICS: streambank protection structures, riparian soils, channel morphology 
COMMENTS: Willow cuttings and willow poles were planted to stabilize streambanks 
in the Henry's Lake area. Vertical banks on straight stream sections and meanders were 
planted. Snow-drift melt causing bank failure appeared to maintain the steep angles of 
unvegetated banks. Willow establishment reduced failures and resulted in shallower bank 
angles. 



40 



160. Olson, T.E., and TJL. Knopf. 1988. Patterns of relative diversity within riparian small 
mammal communities, Platte River watershed, Colorado, p. 379-386. In: R.C. Szaro, K.E. 
Severson, and D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small 
Mammals in North America: proceedings of the symposium; 1988, July 19-21; Flagstaff, AZ. 
Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, 
Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 

TOPICS: small mammals, wildlife habitat, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: Focus of the study was to analyze patterns of small mammal similarity 
within and between riparian and adjacent upland sites in the same watershed and across 
the elevational gradient. In accordance with avifaunal studies in the same watershed 
(Knopf, 1985), riparian sites at the higher elevations contributed substantially to the 
regional diversity of small mammal populations. In order to conserve regional integrity 
in native small mammal faunas, the authors recommend that land uses allowed in and 
adjacent to high elevation riparian zones should be considered as carefully as those in 
lowland floodplains. 

161. Padgett, W.G., A.P. Youngblood, A.H. Winward. 1989. Riparian community type 
classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. R4-Ecol-89-01. U.S. Department of Agriculture, 
Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 191 p. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian soils, riparian plant communities, riparian 

management 

COMMENTS: A community type classification system (no indication of successional 

status), based on approximately 600 sample stands. Distribution, vegetation composition, 

soils and successional status are discussed. 

162. Pfister, R.D. 1990. Streamside management zones (SMZ)- Delineation criteria and 
management guidelines. In: Montana Riparian Association. Management of Riparian and 
Wetland Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth Annual Montana Riparian Association 
Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: Montana Riparian Association, School of 
Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: streamside management zone, SMZ, riparian forest 
COMMENTS: Abstract from a spoken presentation. The Montana Riparian Association 
Management Guidelines Working Group has been working on a matrix of soil erosion 
hazards relative to management practices. SMZ width guidelines for substrates of high, 
medium and low erodibility classes, and for various slope classes presented. 



41 



1 



-7 



163. Pfister, R.D. and K.W. Boggs. 1990. Methodology for riparian inventory and streamside 
management zone delineation on the Kootenai National Forest. In: Montana Riparian 
Association. Management of Riparian and Wetland Forested Ecosystems in Montana: Fourth 
Annual Montana Riparian Association Workshop. 5-7 September, 1990 in Whitefish, MT: 
Montana Riparian Association, School of Forestry, University of Montana, Missoula, MT. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory, riparian forest 

COMMENTS: A brief overview of a study to develop and demonstrate techniques for 
mapping wetlands and streamside management zones (based on Montana's BMPs, best 
management practices, and criteria being developed by a Montana Riparian Association 
Working Group) in heavily forested areas. 

164. Platts, W.S. 1986. Managing riparian stream habitats, p.59-62. In: Proceedings of the 
Wyoming Water 1986 and Streamside Zone Conference, April 28-30, 1986, Casper, WY: 
Wyoming Water Research Center, University of Wyoming Agricultural Extension Service, 
University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY. 

TOPICS: aquatic habitat, grazing strategies 

COMMENTS: Recommends improved grazing management strategies. Describes 
riparian pasture and stream-corridor fencing methods for managing the riparian zones and 
discusses the effects of grazing time and species on riparian vegetation and stream health. 
Resilience to rare hydrologic events is an attribute of 'healthy' riparian zones. Riparian 
management should anticipate the rare event, particularly given the rapid climate changes 
predicted for the next century. 

165. Platts, W.S. 1989. Compatibility of livestock grazing strategies with fisheries, p. 103-1 10. 
In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). Riparian Resource Management. An 
Educational Workshop. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Billings, 
MT. 193 p. 

TOPICS: grazing systems, fishery 

COMMENTS: Reviews effects of grazing on the stream condition and practiced 

strategies for grazing in the riparian. 

166. Platts, W.S., and R.L. Nelson. 1989a. Characteristics of riparian plant communities and 
streambanks with respect to grazing in northeastern Utah. p. 73-81. In: R.E. Gresswell, B.A. 
Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.). Riparian Resource Management: An Educational Workshop. 
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. Billings, Montana. 193 p. 

TOPICS: plant communities, streambank stability, grazing effects, grazing exclosure 
COMMENTS: A study of plant communities in grazed and ungrazed riparian zones. 
Streambank stability was related to the community type and grazed condition. Root 
systems, sod formation, horizontal rooting and depth extent affect the stability of 
vegetated streambanks. 

42 



167. Platts, W.S. and R.L. Nelson. 1989b. Stream canopy and its relationship to salmonid 
biomass in the Intermountain West. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 9:446- 
457. 

TOPICS: salmonid habitat, streambank vegetation 

COMMENTS: Salmonid biomass and stream canopy characteristics that affect thermal 
input were measured for streams in the Rocky Mountains and Great Basin. Relationships 
between salmonid biomass and overstory attributes differed between streams of the two 
regions. Salmonid biomass was strongly correlated with canopy density (+ve), light 
intensity (-ve) and sun arc (-ve) in the more productive Great Basin streams, but the same 
correlations were weak for the Rocky Mountain streams. Insolation is likely to be a 
limiting factor in ths Great Basin streams studied, whereas other factors moderate its 
effect in the Rocky Mountain study streams. 

168. Platts, W.S., RJ. Torquemada, M.L. McHenry, and C.K. Graham. 1989. Changes in 
salmon spawning and rearing habitat from increased delivery of fine sediment to the South Fork 
Salmon River, Idaho. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 118:274-283. 

TOPICS: salmonid habitat, sediment characteristics 

COMMENTS: Levels of surface and subsurface fine sediment (<4.75 mm in diameter) 
were measured annually from 1965 to 1985 in spawning and rearing areas for Chinook 
salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha and steelhead O. mykiss (formerly Salmo gairdneri) 
in the South Fork Salmon River, Idaho. A logging moratorium initiated in 1965, coupled 
with natural recovery and watershed rehabilitation, led to significant decreases in the 
amounts of fine sediments delivered to and stored in the South Fork Salmon River; this 
reduction led to a limited resumption to logging operations within the watershed in 1978. 
By 1985, surface and subsurface sediment levels in Chinook salmon spawning areas 
averaged 19.2% of the surface area and 25.4% of the volume, respectively. However, 
additional recovery to pre-logging fine sediment levels is probably contingent on both 
further watershed recovery and the occurrence of flood flows capable of transporting 
material downstream. An equilibrium between incoming sediment from the watershed 
and outgoing sediment from the river appears to have been reached under flow regimes 
that have occurred since 1975 (from Abstract). 

169. Platts, W.S., FJ. Wagstaff, and E. Chaney. 1989. Cattle and Fish on the Henry's Fork. 
Rangelands 11:58-62. 

TOPICS: grazing, management 

COMMENTS: A synopsis of the historic uses of the Henry's Fork of the Snake River, 
Idaho, and of present uses, and a summary of a streambank rehabilitation project along 
approximately 6 miles of the Henry's Fork. The study employs a stuttered deferred 
grazing rotation with selected rest. Electric fencing technology was employed. Data 
describing streambanks and vegetation for 1985 (grazed) and 1986 (rested) indicates 
potential for vegetation improvement with rest from grazing but does not yet indicate 

43 



changes in streambank characteristics. 

170. Price, K.P. and M.K. Ridd. 1983. Riparian habitat on the Humboldt River, Deeth to 
Elco, Nevada. Univ. of Utah Res. Instil., Salt Lake City, UT. CRSC Rep. 83-3. 48 p. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory, riparian management, remote sensing. 
COMMENTS: Not complete copy. Infrared and conventional B/W photographs of the 
riparian zone were interpreted, vegetation maps produced and compared with historical 
maps. Lengthy review of river geomorphology and management impacts on the riparian. 

171. Quigley, T.M. 1981. Estimating contribution of overstory vegetation to stream surface 
shade. Wildlife Society Bulletin 9(l):22-27. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, aquatic habitat, stream shading 

COMMENTS: A method for estimating the contribution of forest overstory to stream 
surface shade is presented. Characteristics measured are stream width, distance from 
vegetation to stream, orientation of stream, height of overstory, density of vegetation, 
crown measurement, location, date, and time. Examples given, (form authors abstract) 

172. Ratliff, R.D., M.R. George, N.K. McDougald. 1987? Managing livestock grazing on 
meadows of California's Sierra Nevada. A manager-user guide. Cooperative Extension Leaflet 
No. 21421: Cooperative Extension University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural 
Resources, University of California, Berkeley, CA. 

TOPICS: management, grazing, meadows 

COMMENTS: A management guide with recommendations for herbage productivity, 

timing, and length of grazing period for mountain meadows. 

173. Reed, P.B., Jr. 1988a. National list of plant species that occur in wetlands: Intermountain 
(Region 8). U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88(26.8). 76pp. 

TOPICS: wetland plant species 

COMMENTS: This plant list for the Intermountain Region (Region 8) is a subset of the 
National Lisl. Plant species that occur in wetlands, as used in the National List , are 
species that have demonstrated an ability to achieve maturity and reproduce in an 
environment where all or portions of soil within the root zone become, periodically or 
continuously, saturated or inundated during the growing season (from abstract). 

<*7 



44 



174. Reed. P.B., Jr. 1988b. National list of plant species that occur in wetlands: national 
summary. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88(24). 244 pp. 

TOPICS: wetland plant species 

COMMENTS: Plant species that occur in wetlands, as used in the National List, are 
species that have demonstrated an ability to achieve maturity and reproduce in an 
environment where all or portions of soil within the root zone become, periodically or 
continuously, saturated or inundated during the growing season (from abstract). 

175. Reichmuth, D.R. 1990. Salmon River habitat structures evaluation of past work and 
proposals for future work. Report prepared by GEOMAX, Bozeman, MT. 

TOPICS: in-stream structures, channel dynamics 

COMMENTS: Recommends alternative to riprap treatment where channel is eroding 
highway and a sediment-separating structure to separate bottom water with high sediment 
load from low-sediment top water. 

176. Ribaudo, M.O., and C.E. Young. 1989. Estimating the water quality benefits 

from soil erosion control. Water Resources Bulletin, 25:71-78. 

TOPICS: non-point pollution, soil erosion 

COMMENTS: A conceptual model for estimating water quality benefits from the control 

of soil erosion and results of such modelling is discussed. 

177. Rickard, W.H., L.E. Rogers, B.E. Vaughan, and S.F. Liebetrau (eds.). 1988. 

Shrub-Steppe Balance and Change in a Semi-Arid Terrestrial Ecosystem. 
Developments in Agricultural and Managed-Forest Ecology Series, v. 20. 
Elsevier Science Publishing Company Inc., New York, NY. 272 p. 

TOPICS: bibliography, riparian soils, hydrology, plant communities, bird communities 
COMMENTS: Includes eight bibliographic chapters which focus on research conducted 
at the Arid Land Ecological Reserve, at the Hanford Site of the Lower Columbia River. 
1. Introduction: Shrub-Steppe Lands; 2. Climate of the Hanford Site; 3. Soils: Carbon 
and Mineral Cycling Processes; 4. Water Balance; 5. Springs and Streams; 6. Plant 
Communities: Characteristics and Responses; 7. Terrestrial Animal Habitats and 
Population Responses; 7. Theoretical Perspective on Ecosystem Disturbance and 
Recovery. Topics covered which are relevant to the riparian include bird populations, 
hydrology of springs and streams and associated vegetation, and effects of land-uses on 
the sagebrush-bunchgrass uplands. 



45 



178. Rinne, J.N. 1988a. Effects of livestock grazing enclosure on aquatic 
macroinvertebrates in a montane stream, New Mexico. Great Basin Naturalist 48(2): 146-153. 

x " 

TOPICS: stream invertebrates, grazing effects, aquatic habitat, experimental design 
COMMENTS: Based on a limited literature and this study, authors conclude that aquatic 
macroinvertebrates are useful biological indicators of grazing impacts on stream 
ecosystems. The authors emphasize the importance of collecting baseline data and of 
defining the variability of factors within study areas prior to implementing treatments. 
Linear changes in stream habitat may affect water quality and biota in the stream quite 
apart from the affects of grazing and exclosure. 

179. Rinne, J.N. 1988b. Grazing effects on stream habitat and fishes: research 
design considerations. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 8:240-247. 

TOPICS: glazing effects, fishery, experimental grazing design 
COMMENTS: A 4-year study of a montane stream from which cattle grazing had been 
excluded for 10 years indicated that stream bank vegetation and stability were markedly 
improved and that stream substrate fines were somewhat reduced, but it indicated that 
fish populations were unaffected. Shortcomings of this case history study are common 
to similarly designed studies of grazing effects on fishes and their habitats. Three major 
deficiencies in research design are (1) lack of pretreatment data, (2) improper 
consideration of fishery management principles, and (3) linear positioning of treatments 
along a stream. Future research on riparian grazing effects must address these factors 
in addition to designs of long-term (10+ years) ecosystem (watershed) studies, (author's 
abstract) 

180. Robertson, D., R. Garcia, and K. Piwowar. 1987. Comparison of wetland habitat in 
undisturbed and reclaimed phosphate surface-mined wetlands, p. 180-193. In: Proceedings of the 
Fourteenth Annual Conference on Wetlands Restoration and Creation, May 14-15, 1987: 
Hillsborough Community College, Institute of Florida Studies, Plant City, FL. 

TOPICS: wetland creation, reclamation 

COMMENTS: Assessment of aquatic development in two reclaimed wetlands, one two 
years old and one year old. The reclamation methods are described briefly. 
Macroinvertebrate sampling and species richness results provided. 



46 



181. Samson, F.B., F.L. Knopf, and L.B. Hass. 1988. Small mammal response to the 
introduction of cattle into a cottonwood floodplain. p. 432-438. In: R.C. Szaro, K.E. Severson, 
and D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in 
North America: proceedings of the symposium; 1988, July 19-21; Flagstaff, AZ. Gen. Tech. 
Rep. RM-166. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky 
Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 

TOPICS: small mammals, grazing effects, biological diversity 
COMMENTS: Examined small mammal communities and vegetation structure before, 
during and after grazing (1 and 5 months following grazing) and between grazed (winter) 
and ungrazed (control) communities on South Platte River floodplain. Each small 
mamma] species exhibited different habitat use compared to availability and few habitat 
variabiles differed on grazed versus ungrazed pastures. 

182. Schultz, T.T., and W.C. Leininger. 1990. Differences in riparian vegetation between 
grazed areas and exclosures. Journal of Range Management 43(4):295-299. 

TOPICS: plant communities, grazing effects, grazing exclosure 
COMMENTS: Differences in vegetation structure were examined in a montane riparian 
zone in north-central Colorado after 30 years of cattle exclusion and continued, but 
reduced, grazing pressure. Total vascular vegetation, shrub, and graminoid canopy cover 
was greater in the exclosures as compared to grazed areas, while forb canopy cover was 
similar between treatments. Exclosures had nearly 2 times the litter cover, while grazed 
areas had 4 times more bare ground. The mean peak standing crop over the 2 years of 
the study in the exclosures was about 5 times that in the grazed areas. Cattle utilized 
about 65 % of the current years growth of vegetation, (from authors abstract) 

183. Schumann, R. 1989. Morphology of Red Creek, Wyoming, an arid-region anastomosing 
channel system. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 14:277-288. 

TOPICS: channel dynamics, sediment characteristics 

COMMENTS: Describes formation mechanisms of an anastomosing stream. Lateral 

channel migration is inhibited by the high cohesion of the silt and clay channel sediment. 

184. Scott, J.M., B. Csuti, J.D. Jacobi, J.E. Estes. 1987. Species richness. A geographic 
approach to protecting future biological diversity. BioScience 37(ll):782-788. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, geographical information systems 
COMMENTS: The thesis is that the most efficient and cost-effective way to retain 
maximal biological diversity in the minimal area is to focus efforts on species-rich areas. 
A geographical information systems mapping approach has identified unexpected 
inequities in present-time wildlife/nature preserves and the extent of protection of species- 
rich habitats. 



47 



185. Scott, J.M., ct al. 1990. Gap analysis: protecting biodiversity using geographic information 
systems. A handbook for a workshop held at the University of Idaho, October 29-31, 1990, 
Moscow, ID. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, gap analysis 

COMMENTS: Chapters included are: (1) Introduction to biodiversity and conservation 
planning. (2) Mapping actual vegetation to predict regional biodiversity. (3) GIS data 
layers and mapping of biodiversity. (3) Interpreting the data. A section on the mapping 
of wetland and aquatic habitats (riparian areas) indicates the difficulties of dealing with 
small but species-rich land areas. 

186. Sedell, J.R., F.H. Everest, and D.R. Gibbons. 1989. Streamside vegetation management 
for aquatic habitat, p. 115-125. In: Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: 
Silviculture for All Resources. Sacramento, CA, May 11-14, 1987. Wash, DC: U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Timber Management; March 1989. 322 p. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, management, stream shading, woody debris 
COMMENTS: The authors discuss three aspects of silvicultural management of Riparian 
Management Areas (RMA): effects of extended timber rotations or permissible rates of 
entry into RMAs; organic debris standards and RMA width and shading requirements. 

187. Sedgwick, J. A., and F.L. Knopf. 1987. Breeding bird response to cattle grazing of a 
cottonwood bottomland. J. Wildl. Manage. 51(l):230-237. 

TOPICS: bird communities, grazing effects 

COMMENTS: Habitat use by migratory bird species utilizing the grass-herb-shrub layer 
of vegetation in a riparian community (South Piatt River, CO) subjected to late fall, early 
winter cattle grazing. Breeding bird populations on ungrazed control plots and fall- 
grazed plots (16 ha) were censused over a 10-day period in spring of 1982, 1984, and 
1985. Ordination of six species on axes of forb cover and mid-level shrub density cover 
suggested different susceptibilities to grazing. 

188. Sedgwick, J. A., F.L. Knopf. 1990. Habitat relationships and nest site characteristics of 
cavity-nesting birds in cottonwood floodplains. Journal Wildlife Management 54(1): 112-124. 

TOPICS: bird communities, biological diversity, riparian forest 
COMMENTS: Lack of regeneration of^cottonwood, decline in the dead limb lengths, 
trees with more than 1 m length of dead limb (> 10 cm dia.), and snag density along 
the South Platte River will probably result in the decline in cavity-nesting birds. Red- 
headed woodpeckers and American kestrels have the most particular cavity requirements 
for nesting. An aging overstory with a lower percentage of small trees and a lack of 
regeneration, resulting in lower small tree densities, could adversely affect chickadees. 
A mosaic of sites of differing age structures in cottonwood floodplains accommodates a 
greater variety of cavity-nesting species. 

48 



189. Sheeter, G.R., and E.W. Claire. 1981. Use of juniper trees to stabilize eroding 
streambanks on the South Fork John Day River. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of 
Land Management, Tech. Note:OR-l. 4 p. 

TOPICS: streambank protection structures 

COMMENTS: Streambank revetments created by anchorage of cut junipers on nearly 
vertical eroding streambanks were successful in stabilizing banks. Silt deposited in the 
revetments reduced bank slope. Lower energy of stream water in reaches with 
revetments favored rcvegetation. 

190. Shepard, B.B. 1989. Evaluation of the U.S. Forest Service "COWFISH" model for 
assessing livestock impacts on fisheries in the Beaverhead National Forest, Montana. In: R.E. 
Gresswell, B.A. Barton and J.L. Kershner (eds.), Riparian Resource Management, U.S. 
Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, pp.23-33. 

TOPIC: COWFISH model, grazing effects, fishery 

COMMENTS: Use of the "COWFISH" model increases awareness of effects of livestock 
grazing on aquatic resources, but does not replace the need for sampling fish populations 
in grazing-impacted streams. 

191. Sidle, R.C. 1990a. Overview of cumulative effects concepts and issues, p. 103-107. In: 
Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American Foresters Annual 
Convention. Bethesda, MD. 

TOPICS: watershed, cumulative effects, water quality, sediment transport COMMENT: 
Activities within a watershed and natural processes interact in a cumulative way to affect 
downstream water quality. Major emphasis of the paper is on water quality, nutrient 
cycling and chemical transport. 

192. Sidle, R.C. 1990b. Cumulative effects of forest practices on erosion and sedimentation, p. 
108-112. In: Forestry on the Frontier, Proceedings of the 1989 Society of American Foresters 
Annual Convention. Bethesda, MD. 

TOPICS: erosion, sediment transport, compaction 

COMMENT: Topics linked were onsite mass erosion, onsite surface erosion, sediment 

transport and routing, and downstream effects of these. 



49 



193. Sidle, R.C. and M.C. Amacher. 1990. Effects of mining, grazing and roads on sediment 
and water chemistry in Birch Creek, Nevada, p. 463-472. In: Watershed Planning and Analysis 
in Action, Symposium Proceedings of American Society of Civil Engineers, Durango, CO, 9-11 
July, 1990. 

TOPICS: sediment transport, water quality, cumulative effects, woody debris 
COMMENTS: Assessment of the cumulative effects of mining and other land uses on 
water quality of Birch Creek showed that mine dumps and roads increased fine sediment 
deposits in some reaches. Fine sediments were trapped by woody debris, (from 
Abstract). 

194. Slaughter, C.W., and J.W. Aldrich (compilers). 1989. Annotated bibliography on soil 
erosion and erosion control in subarctic and high-latitude regions of North America. Gen. Tech. 
Rep. PNW-GTR-253. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific 
Northwest Research Station. 234 p. 

TOPICS: bibliography, erosion, hydrology 

COMMENTS: Emphasizes the physical processes of upland soil erosion, prediction of 
soil erosion and sediment yield, and erosion control. The bibliography is divided into 
two sections: (1) references specific to Alaska, the Arctic and subarctic, and similar high- 
latitude settings; and (2) references relevant to understanding erosion, sediment 
production, and erosion control. Most of the cited works were published prior to 1981. 
(from abstract) 

195. Smimow, E. 1988. Water resources analyses: flow category analysis for flow duration 
curves. Unpublished report prepared for U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Grand 
Mesa, Uncompahgre and Gunnison National Forest, Delta, CO. 

TOPICS: hydrology 

COMMENTS: Outlines a procedure for flow category analysis, intended to provide 
investigators with a tool to expedite and refine the generation of flow duration 
curves/tables, flow regime frequencies, and sediment yields. 

196. Snyder, W.D. 1988. Stem cutting propagation of woody phreatophytes in eastern Colorado. 
p. 151-156. In: Mutz, K.M., D.J. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). Restoration, 
Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American West. 
Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of 
Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. Pf 

TOPICS: planting, riparian restoration 

COMMENTS: Plantings of six native woody phreatophytes and one exotic species 

evaluated. Techniques and survival discussed. 



50 



197. Speaker, R.W., KJ. Luchessa, J.F. Franklin, and S.V. Gregory. 1988. The use of plastic 
strips to measure leaf retention by riparian vegetation in a coastal Oregon stream. The American 
Midland Naturalist 120(1):22-31. 

TOPICS: riparian forest, organic debris 

COMMENTS: Plastic strips, rather than leaves, were tested in studies estimating the rate 
of removal of coarse particulate organic matter from low-order forested streams. 
Processes involved in the retention of organic debris, both instream and on bank, are 
discussed in relation to the results of an experiment comparing the debris retention by 
streams sections with manipulated bank vegetation densities. 

198. Stem, D.H. and M.S. Stem. 1980. Effects of bank stabilization on the physical and 
chemical characteristics of streams and small rivers: an annotated bibliography. U.S. Department 
of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services Program: FWS/OBS-80/12. 78 



TOPICS: bibliography, streambank protection structures, water quality 
COMMENTS: An annotated bibliography. Included papers vary from technical 
documents to general discussions addressing the physical and chemical changes that result 
from bank stabilization techniques. 

199. Stevens, M. 1990. Between land and Water: the wetlands of Idaho. Nongame wildlife 
leaflet # 9. Idaho Wildlife, 10(4): 13-24. 

TOPICS: wetlands, wetland plant species 

COMMENTS: Essay introducing Idaho wetlands; history, soils, vegetation and wetland 

protection. 

200. Stromberg, J.C., and D.T. Patten. 1988. Total protection: one management option, p. 61- 
62. In: Mute, K.M., DJ. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). Restoration, Creation, 
and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American West. Symposium, Nov. 
14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Denver 
CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: plant communities, floodplain management, floodplain hydrology, seed 

dispersal 

COMMENTS: Flood timing in relation to seed dispersal may affect community structure. 



51 



hMBBBH 



201. Stuber, PJ. (coord.). 1988. Proceedings of the national symposium on protection of 
wetlands from agricultural impacts. April 25-29, 1988. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of 
Interior, Fish and Wild. Serv. Biol. Rep. 88(16). 221 pp. 

TOPICS: symposium, wetlands, wetland management, wetlands policy implementation 
COMMENTS: Formal papers focused on four main topics: (1) Agricultural Impacts on 
Wetlands, (2) National Legislative Wetland Protection Strategies, (3) State/Regional 
Wetland Protection Strategies, and (4) Management Protection Strategies (from abstract). 

202. Suring, L.H., and P. A. Vohs, Jr. 1979. Habitat use by Columbian white-tailed deer. J. 
Wildl. Manage. 43:610-619. 

TOPICS: white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: Study area was the Columbian White Tailed Deer (Odocoileus viginianus) 
National Wildlife Refuge, on the Washington shore of the Columbia River. The climate 
was wet (245 cm) and mild, promoting continued growth of forage throughout the year. 
Communities providing both cover and forage were more heavily utilized than were 
communities providing cover or foliage alone. Browse was not used, apparently because 
of the year-round availability of green forage. 

203. Swanson, S. 1989. Priorities for riparian management. Rangelands, ll(5):228-230. 

TOPICS: grazing management, riparian enhancement 

COMMENTS: Outlines general processes of stream channel erosion, floodplain 
functions, and the effects of vegetation on channel/floodplain interactions. Suggests 
criteria for prioritizing stream reaches for management activities. 

204. Swenson, E.A. 1988. Progress in the understanding of how to reestablish native riparian 
plants in New Mexico, p. 144-150. In: Mutz, K.M., D.J. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller 
(eds.). Restoration, Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the 
American West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the 
Society of Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: planting, riparian restoration 

COMMENTS: Reports on the development of a dormant pole planting technique and 

several operational projects. Guidelines for successful pole planting. 

205. Szaro ; R.C. 1989. Riparian and scrubland community types of Arizona and New Mexico. 
Desert Plants 9(3-4):69-124. 

TOPICS: riparian classification, riparian plant communities 

COMMENTS: Discusses the role of disturbance in riparian systems and presents the 
framework of a plant community classification system (commmunity type concept) for 
Arizona and New Mexico based on actual site data for existing vegetation. 

52 



206. Szaro, R.C. and S.C. Beifit 1986. Herpeiefdunal use of a desert riparian island and its 
adjacent scrub habitat. Journal of Wildlife Management 50(4):752-761. 

TOPICS: reptiles, amphibians, biological diversity, riparian mitigation, riparian habitat 
mitigation 

COMMENTS: The restriction of water flow in 1959 in Queen Creek in Whitlow Ranch 
Dam, Pinal County, Arizona, has caused the development of a 15-ha riparian island 
upstream behind the dam. The herpetofaunas of the riparian interior, riparian edge, 
desert wash, and upland habitats were sampled to assess the value of this type of 
development for mitigating con'inued losses of riparian habitat. Total species richness 
was 4 in the riparian interior, 7 in the riparian edge, 14 in the desert wash, and 15 in the 
desert upland. Many of the locally expected species were absent The lack of invasion 
by typic:-j riparian species probably results more from biogeographic considerations and 
flooding patterns than from structural and physical conditions of this newly formed 
riparian habitat. Regression models for species abundance emphasize the importance of 
using floristic information rather than summary variables in developing animal-habitat 
relationships, (from author's abstract) See also Szaro and Beifit (1987) for analysis of 
small mammal populations on the same riparian island. 

207. Szaro, R.C. and S.C. Beifit 1987. Small mammal use of a riparian desert riparian island 
and its adjacent scrub habitat. Research Note RM-473: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest 
Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO. 

TOPICS: small man rials, riparian habitat mitigation, riparian mitigation 
COMMENTS: A 15 ha riparian island was created upstream of a dam built in 1959. 
Small mammal populations in the riparian interior, riparian edge, desert wash and upland 
habitats surrounding the island were sampled to assess the value of this type of 
development (water flow restriction by dam) for mitigating continued loss of riparian 
habitat. The riparian island had few small mammals; more were recorded in the adjacent 
desert washes and desert upland habitats. Habitat models were developed for the desert 
shrew, Arizona pocket mouse, and Bailey's pocket mouse, (from author's abstract). The 
author concludes that potential is limited for using the development of a dense willow 
gallery forest resulting from changes in hydrologic regime to mitigate the loss of more 
structurally diverse riparian habitats. Canopy opening to increase development of shrub 
and herbaceous layers and import of riparian fauna from similar islands might improve 
the value of the mitigation riparian island as small mammal habitat. Species studied: 
desert shrew (Noriosorex crawfordf), Arizona pocket mouse (Perognathus amplus), 
Bailey's pocket mouse (Perognathus bnUeyi) 



53 






208. Szaro, R.C., S.C. Belfit, J.K. Aitkin, and ILD. Babb. 1988. The use of limed fixed-area 
plots and a mark-recapture technique in assessing riparian garter snake populations, p. 239-246. 
In: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Proceedings 
of a symposium, July 19-21, 1988, Flagstaff, AZ: Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166. U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort 
Collins, CO. 

TOPICS: reptiles, wildlife habitat, grazing exclosure 

COMMENTS: Wandering garter snake populations along a thin-leaf alder riparian 
community in northern New Mexico were sampled using timed fixed-area plots and a 
mark-recapture method. Both methods served to determine yearly differences and relative 
magnitude of snake density between years. Timed fixed-area plots enabled quantification 
of dramatic differences in snzke abundance between exclosures and the grazed area. This 
sampling method yielded significant differences in exclosure population estimates for 
1985 indicating that the spatial distribution of snakes might not be random. The more 
labor-intensive mark-recapture estimators are recommended for assessing impacts of 
riparian management regimes on snake populations. 

209. Szaro, R.C. and J.N. Rhine. 1988. Ecosystem approach to management of southwestern 
riparian communities, p. 502-511. In: Transactions of the North American Wildlife and Natural 
Resources Conference: 53rd Annual Meeting, 1988: Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, 
D.C. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, community ecology, grazing exclosure, grazing 
management 

COMMENTS: The paper exemplifies common problems with ecosystem studies: riparian 
area responses to grazing exclosure, geographic variation and water impoundment. The 
response to grazing on riparian areas can vary depending on the populations measured, 
whether birds, reptiles, fish, small mammals, etc. Researchers and managers need to act 
cooperatively in study design so that testable hypotheses are addressed and proper 
controls applied. Sufficient preliminary data is often lacking. 

210. Thomas, A.E., and C. Wentzell. 1986. A bibliography of riparian topics with emphasis 
on the intermountain west. Technical Bulletin 86-4. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of 
Land Management, Idaho State Office, Boise, ID. 69 pp. 

TOPICS: BLM, bibliography, riparian 

COMMENTS: This bibliography will be available on request from A.E. Thomas at the 

Idaho State Office, BLM. 



54 



211. Thomas, J.W., C. Maser, and J.E. Rodiek. 1979. Edges. In: Wildlife habitats in managed 
rangelands — the great basin of southeastern Oregon. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest 
Service, Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-189. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, 
Portland, OR. 17 p. 

TOPICS: biological diversity, wildlife habitat management 

COMMENTS: Edge can be a measure of overall diversity of any area. Diversity is 
considered as inherent (community/community) edge, induced (successional 
stage/successional stage) edge and total edge. Size of stands are related to expected 
wildlife diversity (from abstract). 

212. Tiedemann, A.R., D.A. Higgins, T.M. Quigley, and H.R. Sanderson. 1989. Stream 
chemistry responses to four range management strategies in eastern Oregon. Research Paper 
PNW-RP-413. Portland, OR. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest 
Research Station. 9 p. 

TOPICS: water quality, riparian forest 

COMMENTS: Four grazing management strategies, implemented as part if the Oregon 
Range Evaluation Project. Nitrate-N, P0 4 , Ca, Mg, K and Na levels and pH were 
monitored in streamwater. Grazing systems/strategies included season-long/no 
distribution management (8.2 ha/AUM), deferred rotation/uniform pasture use (7.7 
ha/AUM), deferred rotation/intensive management with pasture improvement (2.8 
ha/AUM), and rest rotation /intensive management with pasture improvement (2.8 
ha/AUM). 

213. Tiedemann, A.R., T.M. Quigley, T.D. Anderson. 1988. Effects of timber harvest on 
stream nutrient chemistry and dissolved nutrient losses in northeast Oregon. Forest Science 
34(2):344-358. 

TOPICS: water quality, riparian forest 

COMMENTS: Study examined streamwater nutrient levels before and after partial 
clearcut of Pacific Northwest watersheds. The maximum treatment was clearcut of 41 % 
of the watershed area in two blocks (3.6 and 8.5 ha), machine piling and burning of slash 
with machine scatter of unburned slash. For another watershed, 17% of the area was 
clearcut in two small blocks (0.8 and 2.4 ha). A selective harvest was performed in a 
third watershed and no harvest in the fourth control watershed. 

214. Tung, Y.K. and W.E. Hathhorn. 1989^ Determination of the critical locations in a 
stochastic stream environment. Ecological Monitoring, 45: 43-61. 

TOPICS: water quality monitoring 

COMMENTS: Discusses the location of critical points for dissolved O2, i.e., minimum 

dissolved 2) in streams best described by stochastic rather than deterministic models. 



55 



215. Turner, R.E. 1988. Secondary production in riparian wetlands. In: Transactions of the 53rd 
North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference 53:491-501. 

TOPICS: ecosystem processes, riparian ecosystem 

COMMENTS: Riparian wetlands have high primary production, provide fluctuating 
environments and an aquatic/terrestrial food web or chain, resulting in concentrated 
secondary production. Based on analyses of food chains, riparian ecosystems have more 
trophic species per number of trophic links than do nonwetland ecosystems. The 
vegetation canopy of riparian wetlands adds to maximum ecosystem dimension, which 
probably results in relatively longer food chains compared with other wetland ecosystem 
types. 

216. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1988. Public rangelands. Some riparian areas restored 
but widespread improvement will be slow. GAO/RCED-88-105: Report to congressional 
requesters. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington D.C. 85 p. 

TOPICS: wetland policy evaluation, wetland policy implementation 
COMMENTS: Examines federal efforts to restore degraded riparian areas on public 
rangelands, achievements to date, the extent of the problem remaining, and the factors 
that will impede more widespread progress in the future. 

217. U.S.D.A.-Forest Service. 1990. Integrated riparian evaluation guide. Intermountain Region. 
Ogden, UT. 102 pp. 

TOPICS: riparian evaluation, management, monitoring 

COMMENTS: The guide provides an approach to stratify and classify riparian areas by 
integrating geomorphologic, hydrologic, aquatic, soil and vegetation information. Three 
levels of evaluation, management applications and interpretations, monitoring strategies 
suggested and several classification appendices supplied. 

218. U.S.D.I.-Bureau of Land Management. 1989. Wyoming riparian management activity guide 
- 1989. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming State Office, 
Cheyenne, Wy. 58 p. 

TOPICS: BLM, wetland policy implementation 

COMMENTS: Presents thr Wyoming riparian strategy for BLM lands. Provides a 
breakdown of riparian projects, mcludingjolanned actions, projects, monitoring, research, 
training, information transfer and funding options. 



56 



219. U.S.D.L-Bureau of Land Management 1990. Fish and Wildlife 2000. Annual progress 
report, fiscal year 1990. U.S. Department of the Interior, BLM, Washington, D.C. 29 p. 

TOPICS: BLM 

COMMENTS: Summary of projects implemented under the BLM "Fish and Wildlife 

2000 - A Flan for the Future" and of future fish and wildlife projects. Includes habitat 

management. 

220. U.S.D.I.-Fish and Wildlife Service. 1980. Riparian ecosystems: a preliminary assessment 
of their importance, status and needs. Eastern Energy and Land Use Team, National Water 
Resources Analysis Group, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Kearneysville, WV. 13 p. 

TOPICS: riparian ecosystems 

COMMENTS: A preliminary assessment reflecting the perspective which led to the 

development of a Fish and Wildlife Service riparian program. 

221. U.S.D.I.-Fish and Wildlife Service. 1990. Wetlands. Meeting the president's challenge. 
U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service: 1990 Wetlands Action Plan. 64 p. 

TOPICS: wetland protection, policy implementation 

COMMENTS: Document describes the role of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 

contributing to the President's goal of "no net loss" of the nation's wetlands. 

222. Valiela, D. and P.H. Whitfield. 1989. Monitoring strategies to determine compliance with 
water quality objectives. Water Resources Bulletin, 25:63-69. 

TOPICS: water quality monitoring 

COMMENTS: Two sampling strategies designed to test for compliance with water 
quality objectives are examined for, (1) objectives based on long-term mean 
requirements, and (2) for objectives based on maximum allowable concentrations. 

223. Vinson, M.R. 1988. Sediment dynamics in meandering and straight sections of a relocated 
stream channel, p.76-87. In: Mutz, K.M., DJ. Cooper, M.L. Scott and L.K. Miller (eds.). 
Restoration, Creation, and Management of Wetland and Riparian Ecosystems in the American 
West. Symposium, Nov. 14-16, 1988, Denver CO: Rocky Mountain Chapter of the Society of 
Wetland Scientists, Denver CO. 239 pp. 

TOPICS: channel hydraulics, sediment transport, sediment storage 

COMMENTS: Sediment dynamics examined for meandering and straight sections of a 

relocated stream channel in coarse alluvium. 



57 



224. Walker, M.D., D.A. Walker, and K.R. Everett. 1989. Wetland soils and vegetation, arctic 
foothills, Alaska. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 89(7). 89 pp. 

TOPICS: wetland soils, wetland plant species 

COMMENTS: Analyses of relationships between hydric soils and wetland plant species 
in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range, Alaska. The site is considered to be 
representative of broad regions of acidic tussock tundra in the foothills. Seven soil 
subgroups identified. Weighted and index averages were calculated for each of 84 
samples by weighing each species according to its wetland indicator status in a published 
list of vascular wetland plants of the U.S. Analysis of variance among soil types using 
averages based on vascular species alone or in combination with cryptogamic species led 
to a highly significant distinction between hydric and non-hydric soils. Cryptogams, 
lichen-moss crusts on the soil surface which have not been reviewed for wetland status, 
did not separate the soil types properly. 

225. Walters, M.A., R.O. Teskey, and T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Impact of water level changes 
on woody riparian and wetland communities. Volume VHI. Pacific Northwest and Rocky 
Mountain Regions. U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological 
Services Program: FWS/OBS-78/94. 46 p. 

TOPICS: riparian plant communities, watertable effects, bibliography 
COMMENTS: Impacts of flooding and drought on riparian zone vegetation, specifically 
mountainous areas, northern California, Washington, Oregon, Montana, Idaho, New 
Mexico and Arizona. 

226. Weber, C.I. et al., 1990. Short-term methods for estimating the chronic toxicity of 
effluents and receiving waters to freshwater organisms. Second Edition. Methods Manual, No. 
PB 89-207 013/AS. Cincinatti, OH: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Environmental 
Monitoring Systems Laboratory. 

TOPICS: water quality monitoring 

COMMENTS: A project summary available in files. Methods for estimating the chronic 
toxicity to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia 
dubia), and a green alga (Selenastrwn capricornutum). 

271. Welling, C.H., R.L. Pederson, and A.G. van der Valk. 1988. Temporal patterns in 
recruitment from the seed bank during drawdowns in a prairie wetland. Journal of Applied 
Ecology 25:999-1007. 

TOPICS: emergent wetland plants, wetlands seed bank 

COMMENTS: Describes seasonal patterns of seedling recruitment, assesses the potential 
impact on recruitment of environmental conditions during drawdowns and compares 
vegetation produced by drawdowns lasting 1 or 2 years. 



58 



228. Wesche, T.A., D.W. Reiser, V.R. Hasfurther, W.A. Hubert, Q.D. Skinner. 1989. New 
technique for measuring fine sediment in streams. North American Journal of Fisheries manag 
ement 9:234-238. 

TOPICS: hydrology, sediment characteristics 

COMMENTS: Evaluation of sediment trapping capabilities of modified Whitlock-Vibert 
boxes under laboratory and field conditions and comparison with sediment trapped in 
adjacent streambed gravels. 

229. West, R. A., S.J. Paustian and J.R. Martin. 1989. A proposed streamside riparian mapping 
system for the Tongass National Forest In: Proceedings of watershed '89: a conference on the 
stewardship of soil, air and water resources: Juneau, Alaska, March 21-23, 1989. Juneau, AK: 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, For, Serv., Alaska Region, 1989, p. 73-85. 

TOPICS: riparian inventory, riparian soils, riparian plant communities, channel 
morphology, geomorphology 

COMMENTS: A hierarchical inventory utilizing GIS technology: Level I, identifies 
watershed boundaries, areas and is used to estimate annual precipitation and compute 
water budgets; Level n, delineates boundaries between the aquatic-riparian ecosystems 
and the surrounding terrestrial environment by overlaying the Soil/Plant Association 
Layer (delineates landform), the Channel Type Layer and the Watershed Layer; Level 
IE, comprises mapping of the aquatic and riparian ecosystems; and Level IV, maps 
specific riparian sites as defined by particular plant associations with specific soils and 
channel types. 

230. Williams, S.E., and P.D. Stahl. 1987. Importance of mycorrhizal fungi in land 
revegetation. p. 72-89. Proceedings Thirty-Ninth Annual Meeting, Great Plains Agricultural 
Forestry Committee, June 22-25, 1987. Vol. 39. 

TOPICS: soH fungi 

COMMENTS: A review of the biology and applications in revegetation of mycorrhizae. 
It seems that loss of mycorrhizal inoculum might be a concern where revegetation of 
degraded riparian areas or range with sensitive species is concerned. 

231. Winward, A.H. and W.G. Padgett. 1989. Special considerations when classifying riparian 
areas, p. 186-192. In: Land Classifications Based on Vegetation: Applications for Resource 
Management. Proceedings: Moscow, ID, November 17-19, 1987. Ogden UT: Intermountain 
Research Station, Gen. Tech. Rep. INT; 257. 

TOPICS: riparian classification riparian plant communities, channel dynamics 
COMMENTS: Uses a concept of riparian complexes, groups of riparian community 
types, to classify riparian zones, their condition and goals for riparian enhancement. 



59 



232. Wood, J.C., and M.K. Wood. 1988. Infiltration and water quality on range sites at Fort 
Stanton, New Mexico. Water Resour. Bull., 24(2):317-323. 

TOPICS: soil infiltration rates, grazing effects 

COMMENTS: Examined soil infiltration rates, sediment concentration and runoff water 
quality for range sites on a mesa top, hillside slopes and on valley bottom with varied 
grazing treatments and fertilization (valley bottom only). Soil infiltrability on grassland 
was susceptible to grazing. Short-duration grazing of pinyon pine-juniper treatments did 
not affect infiltration. Fertilization of bottomlands with soil conditions that favored plant 
growth increased plant biomass and cover. Higher stocking rates can be achieved if plant 
cover and biomass are sufficient to offset adverse effects of increased animal disturbance. 
Fertilized bottomlands have increased chemical nutrient losses. 

233. Zube, E.H. and D.E. Simcox. 1987. Arid lands, riparian landscapes and management 
conflicts. Environmental Management ll(4):529-535. 

TOPICS: riparian, management 

COMMENTS: Reports on a mail survey of the perceptions, attitudes, and opinions of 
the general public and special interest groups toward a riparian landscape in the Sonoran 
Desert. A specific point of enquiry is the relative position of professional resource 
managers compared with other groups on issues such as land use planning, appropriate 
management prescriptions, and appropriate land uses adjacent to riparian areas. 
Discriminant analysis of response data reveals significant differences among several 
special interest groups and the general public, and identifies an important challenge for 
the managers who are more aware of the fragility of arid lands and riparian ecosystems 
and of threats to their continued productivity posed by rapid urban expansion. 

234. Zwank, P. J., R.D. Sparrowe, W.R. Porath, and O. Torgerson. 1979. Utilization of 
threatened bottomland habitats by white-tailed deer. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 7:226-232. 

TOPICS: white-tailed deer, wildlife habitat 

COMMENTS: White-tailed deer (Odocoileus viginianus) were monitored from 1971 to 
1978 to document their utilization of bottomland habitats threatened by water resource 
development (Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge, bottomland in north-central 
Missouri). Data collected support other observations that deer in agricultural areas of 
the Midwest utilize bottomland habitats throughout the year. The destruction of naturally 
vegetated bottomlands constitutes a threat to viable white-tailed deer populations. 



60 



SPECIES LIST OF ANIMALS APPEARING IN CITED PAPERS 

Mammals 

Arizona pocket mouse Perognmhus amplus 

Bailey's pocket mouse Perognmhus baileyi 

bushy-tailed woodrat Neotoma cinerea 

deer mouse . Peromyscus maniculatus 

desert shrew Notiosorex crawfordi 

golden-mantled ground squirrel Spermophilus lateralis 

Great Basin pocket mouse Perognathus parvus 

least chipmunk Tamias minimus 

long-tailed vole Microtus longiclaudus 

montane vole Microtus montanus 

mule deer Odocoileus nemionus 

northern pocket gopher Thomomys talpoides 

Townsend's ground squirrel Spermophilus iownsendii 

vagrant shrew Sorex vagrans 

western jumping mouse Zapus princeps 

white-tailed deer Odocoileus viginianus 

Birds (non-game birds not listed) 

Columbian sharp-tailed grouse Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus 



Fish 

Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytscha 

steelhead Oncorhynchus myJdss, formerly Salmo gairdneri 

Reptiles and Amphibians 

Dunn's salamanders Plethodon dunni 

Olympic salamanders Bhyacotriton oTympicus 

Pacific giant salamanders Dicampton ensatus 

tailed frogs Ascaphus truei 



61 






AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Adams, P.W 57 

Aitkin, J.K 208 

Aldrich, J.W 194 

Alexander, E.B 1, 2 

Allen, E.0 3 

Amacher, M.C 193 

Amaranthus, M 4 

Anderson, S.H 80 

Anderson, T.D „ 213 

Anthony, R.G 7 

Arthur, D. 4 

Auble, G.T 8 

Baad, M.F 9 

Babb, R.D 208 

Back, G.N 129 

Bain, M.B 10 

Baker Jr., M.B 11 

Baker, W.L 12 

Baldwin, M.F 13 

Barclay, J.S 14 

Banington, M.R 129 

Barton, B.A 22, 39, 53, 54, 60, 71, 77, 78, 82, 148, 165, 166, 190 

Beaudry, P.G 15, 16 

Belfit, S.C 206, 207, 208 

Bennett, P.S 122 

Bezanson, C.E 17 

Blakesley, J.A 18 

Bledsoe, S 19 

Boggs, K 20, 21, 80, 163 

Bohn, C 22 

Boring, K.K 23 

Boring, L 23 

Bomholdt, D , 130 

Boule, M.E 24 

Braasch, S ^ 25 

Brinson, M.M 26 

Britton, CM 27 

Brown, C.R 28 

Brown, J 130 

Bryant, L.D 65 

Burke, I.C 29 

Burrough, P.A 52 

62 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Bury, R.B - 44 

Cale, W.G 30 

Cannon, B. 104 

Cannon, R.W. . . 110 

Carson, R.G. 31 

Chadde, S.W 85, 86 

Chadwick, D.H. 32 

Chaney, E 33, 169 

Cheng, J.D 34 

Ciliberti, V 35 

Claire, EW. 189 

Clark, S.C 136 

Clary, W.P 36, 37, 38, 133, 134 

Clayton, J . 8 

Clifton, C 39, 40 

Colby, B.G 41 

Compton, B.B 42 

Cooper, DJ 8, 69, 72, 95, 96, 139, 147, 196, 200, 204, 223 

Coopenider, A.Y 43 

Corn, P.S . . 44 

Comwell, J 45 

Crance, J.TJ 46 

Crisco, W 47 

Crispin, V 91 

Csuti, B 184 

Cubbage, F 23 

Cullen, P 2 

Cummins, K.W 48 

Cuplin, P 97 

Davis, G.J 49 

Davis, R.K 50 

De Meo, T.E 51 

De Roo, A.PJ 52 

DeBano, L.F 53-55 

DeLaune, R.D 56 

Desek, G.L 42 

Deusen, M.S 57 

Devaurs, W 104 

DeVelice, R.L 58 

Dickson, J.G 59 

Dieter, CD 60 

Dinsmore, J.J. 115 

63 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Dobyns, H.F 61 

Douglas, AJ - 62 

Duff, D.A .... 130 

Dusek, G.L 63 

Eicher, A.L 64 

Elmore, W 33 

Estes, J.E 184 

Everest, F.H '. 186 

Everett, K.R 224 

Filip, G.M 65 

Finch, D.M 66, 67 

Finn, J.T 10 

Floyd, D 68 

Fooks, L.J 94 

Foote, A.L 69 

Foote, L.E 98 

Forsman, E.D 7 

Fox, J.D 70 

Franklin, J.F 131, 197 

Fredrickson, L.H 8 

Garcia, R 180 

Gates, D.M 48 

Gaudet, C.L 144 

Gebhardt, J 72 

Gebhardt, K.A 71, 72 

Genter, D.L 73 

George, M.R 172 

Gibbons, D.R 186 

Goldner, B.H 74 

Graham, C.K 168 

Grant, G 75, 76 

Green, D.M 77 

Green, G.A 7 

Gregory, S.V 197 

Grelsson, G 153 

Gresswell, R.E 78 

Griggs, J 79 

Gutzwiller, K.J 80 

Hall, F.C 81 

Hamilton, D.B 8 

Hancock, J.L 82 

Hansen, P.L 21, 83, 84, 85, 86 

64 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Hansen, W.R 53 

Harris, T 23 

Harvey, M.D 87 

Hasfurther, V.R 228 

Hass, L.B 181 

Hathom, W.E 214 

Hazelhoff, L 52 

Heede, B.H 87 

Henebry, G.M 30 

Herman, DJ 118 

Higgins, D.A. 88, 89, 212 

Hinckley, T.M 225 

Hogan, D.L 90 

House, R 91 

Howard, J 59 

Hubert, W.A Ill, 228 

Huecker, R.H 2 

Hughes, L.E 17 

Hunter, B.A 92 

Interagency Wetlands Coordinating Body 93 

Isabella, P.S 94 

Ischinger, L.S 95 

Jackson, S.G 96 

Jackson, W 97 

Jacobi, J.D 184 

Jatnieks-Straumanis, S.A 98 

Jenkins, KJ 99 

Jensen, S.E 71, 141 

Johansson, M 153 

Johnson, K.L 100 

Johnson, M.S 92 

Johnson, R.R. 109, 122 

Johnson, S.R 101 

Johnston, C.A 150 

Jones, K.B , 102 

Joy, J C7. 21, 86 

Jubas, H 4 

Kadlec, J.A 96 

Kauffman, J.B 77 

Keddy, P.A 94, 144 

Keigley, R.B 103 

Kelley, J.C 150 

65 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Kenna, J 104 

Kershner, J.L 22, 39, 53, 54, 60, 71, 77, 78, 82, 148, 165, 166, 190 

Kindschy, R.R 105 

King, G 104 

King, J.G 106 

Kirby, R.E 107 

Kissinger, E 2 

Klebenow, D.A 129 

Knopf, F.L 108, 109, 110, 160, 181, 187, 188 

Koonce, G 72 

Koski, K.V 146 

Kozel, SJ Ill 

Krasny, M.E 112 

Kulla, A 113 

LaFayette, R.A 114 

Laflen, J.M 116 

LaGrange, T.G 115 

Laird, J.R 87 

Lane, L.J 116 

Larson, J.S 117 

Legge, T.A 118 

Leininger, W.C 119, 182 

Leopold, L 120 

Lewis, SJ 107 

Liebetrau, S.F 177 

Lienkaemper, G.W 121 

Loggy, W.D 51 

Lowe, C.H 122 

Luchessa, K.J 197 

Mackie, R.J 42 

Majors, J.E 123 

Maloney, S.B 88 

Manci, K.M 124 

Marks, J.S 125 

Marlow, C.B 126 

Marron, D.C 127 

Martin, J.R 229 

Martinez, T 97 

Marx, D.B 89 

Marzolf, G.R 128 

Maser, C 81, 211 

McAdoo, J.K 129 

66 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Schimel, D.S 29 

Schmidt, LJ 54, 55 

Schneller-McDonald, K 95, 139 

Schultz, T.T 182 

Schumann, R 183 

Scott, J.M 184, 185 

Scott, MX 8, 69, 72, 95, 96, 139, 147, 196, 200, 204, 223 

Sedell, J.R 186 

Sedgwick, J.A 110, 187, 188 

Sexson, T.N 107 

Sheeter, G.R 189 

Shelby, B 97 

Shepard, B.B 190 

Sidle, R.C 191, 192, 193 

Simcox, D.E 233 

Simontacchi, D 104 

Skinner, Q.D . 228 

Slaughter, C.W 194 

Smimow, E. 195 

Sneva, F.A 27 

Snyder, W.D 196 

Sparrowe, R.D 234 

Speaker, R.W 197 

Sperens, U 153 

Stahl, P.D 230 

Stern, D.H 198 

Stem, M.S 198 

Stevens, M 199 

Stewart, D 68 

Street, W 104 

Stromberg, J.C 200 

Struble, R.H 142 

Stuber, PJ 201 

Summers, P 97 

Suring, L.H 202 

Svoboda, D 86 

Swanson, FJ 121 

Swanson, S 203 

Sweet, S 72 

Svenson, E.A 204 

Szaro, R.C 109, 160, 181, 205 

Taliaferro, W.B 48 

69 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Tanner, G.W 25 

Teskey, R.0 225 

Thomas, A.E 40, 210 

Thomas, J.W 211 

Thompson, D.J 92 

Tiedemann, A.R 88, 89, 212, 213 

Tiedmann, R.B 72 

Torgerson, 234 

Torquemada, K.E 135 

Torquemada, R.J 168 

Troutman, D 104 

Tung, Y.K 214 

Turner, R.E. 215 

U.S. General Accounting Office 216 

U.S.D.A.-Forest Service 217 

U.S.D.I.-Bureau of Land Management 218, 219 

U.S.D.I.-Fish and Wildlife Service 220, 221 

Valiela, D 222 

van der Valk, A.G 227 

Van Haveren, B 97 

Vaughan, B.E 177 

Vinson, M.R 223 

Vogs, P.A., Jr 202 

Vogt, K.A 112 

Wagstaff, F.J 169 

Walker, D.A 224 

Walker, M.D 224 

Walters, M.A 225 

Weber, C.I 226 

Webster, B.F 37, 38 

Welling, C.H 227 

Wells, M.J.M 138 

Weltz, M.A 116 

Wentzell, C 210 

Wesche, T.A 228 

West, R.A 229 

Whitfield, P.H 222 

Williams, S.E 230 

Wilzbach, M.A 48 

Winward, A.H 130, 161, 231 

Wisheu, I.C 144 

Witmer, G 7 

70 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

McCabe, T.R 60 

McCluskey, D.C 130 

McDougald, N.K. . 172 

McGlothlin, D. 97 

McHemy, M.L 168 

McKee, A 131 

McLemore, C.E 132 

Means, J.E 131 

Medin, D.E 36, 133, 134, 135 

Medina, A.L 136 

Meehan, W.R. 132 

Megahan, W.F. 137 

Michael, J.L 138, 151 

Miller, L.K 8, 69, 72, 95, 96, 139, 147, 196, 200, 204, 223 

Minckley, W.L 97, 140 

Minshall, G.W 141 

Modrell, V 104 

Moir, W.H 131 

Molloy, D.P 142 

Montana Riparian Association 6, 20, 21, 35, 58, 63, 73, 83, 84, 85, 86 

101, 113, 143, 162, 163 

Moore, D.R.J 144 

Morganweck, R 145 

Moseley, J.C 100 

Murphy, M.L 146 

Mute, K.M 8, 69, 72, 95, 96, 139, 147, 196, 200, 204, 223 

Myers, L.H 86, 148 

Nachlinger, J.L 149 

Naiman, R.J 150 

Neary, D.G 138, 151 

Negri, S 152 

Nelson, R.L 7, 166, 167 

Nicks, A.D 116 

Nilsson, C 153 

Noon, K.F ,. 154 

O'Brien, B r J. 72 

O'Laughlin, J 100 

O'Malley, R 155 

OToole, R 156 

Oakley, A.L 157 

Odum, W.E 158 

Ogden, P 68 

67 



AUTHOR INDEX 



REFERENCE NUMBER 



Ogle, D 159 

Olson, T.E 160 

Padgett, W.G 161, 231 

Page, D.I 116 

Parks, C.A 65 

Parsons, M.G Ill 

Patrick, W.H 56 

Patten, D.T 200 

Paustian, S.J 229 

Paweleck, D.W 114 

Pederson, R.L 227 

Peek, J.M 31 

Perry, J.B 48 

Pezeshki, S.R 56 

Pfister, R.D 21, 85, 86, 162, 163 

Pierce, J 86 

Pinowar, K 180 

Platts, W.S 33, 71, 141, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169 

Porath, W.R 234 

Price, K.P 170 

Quigley, T.M 88, 89, 171, 212, 213 

Ratliff, R.D 172 

Rawls, WJ 116 

Reed, P.B., Jr 173, 174 

Reese, K.R 18 

Reichmuth, D.R 175 

Reiners, W.A 29 

Reiser, D.W 228 

Ribaudo, M.0 176 

Rich, T 109 

Rickard, W.H 177 

Ridd, M.K 170 

Rinne, J.N 140, 178, 179, 209 

Robertson, D 180 

Rodiek, J.E . 211 

Roelle, J.E fP, 8 

Rogers, L.E 177 

Roundy, B 68 

Ruyle, G 68 

Saab Marks, V 125 

Samson, F.B 109, 181 

Sanderson, H.R 212 



68 



AUTHOR INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Wood, J.C 232 

Wood, M.K 232 

Wright, R.G 99 

Yeakley, J.A 30 

Young, C.E 176 

Youngblood, A.P . . 161 

Zamora, B 118 

Zasada, J.C 112 

Zube, E.H 233 

Zwank, PJ. 234 



71 



TOPIC INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Aouatic habitat 10, 128, 132, 164, 171, 178 

plants 49 

Bibliography 6, 40, 62, 95, 107, 124, 128, 135 

139, 177, 194, 198, 210, 225 

Biological Diversity 1, 7, 10, 14, 28, 32, 43, 44, 66 

67, 73, 102, 103, 108, 109, 110, 133, 134 
144, 153, 160, 181, 184, 185, 188, 206, 209, 211 

1LM 40, 47, 50, 97, 100, 104, 157, 218, 219 

Community Ecology 209 

amphibians 14, 44, 102, 206 

birds 14, 18, 28, 66, 67, 80, 108, 109, 110 

129, 134, 177, 187, 188 

floodplain forests 108 

reptiles 14, 102, 206, 208 

shaip-tailed grouse 125 

Ecosystem Processes 30, 43, 46, 215 

Fishery 10, 46, 165, 179, 190 

channel gradient Ill 

salmonids , 132 

salmonid habitat 79, 91, 111, 146, 167, 168 

sediment characteristics 168 

COWFISH model 190 

Geomorphology 97, 141, 229 

Crazing 81, 104, 169, 172 

effects 33, 36, 78, 88, 110, 118, 126, 133 

166, 178, 179, 181, 182, 187, 190, 232 

exclosure 36, 134, 136, 166, 182, 208, 209 

management ., 37, 38 

strategies f[, 45, 68, 113, 126, 164 

systems 17, 148, 165 

experimental design 178, 179 



72 



TOPIC INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Hydrolog y 39, 71, 78, 106, 117, 122, 141, 150, 177 

194, 195 

channel adjustments . 76 

channel dynamics 55, 175, 183, 231 

channel hydraulics 223 

channel morphology 39, 90, 136, 159, 229 

channel restoration 53 

floodplain 15, 16, 46, 200 

lacustrine sediment transport 69 

sediment characteristics 183, 228 

sediment storage 223 

sediment transport 127, 191, 192, 193, 223 

stormflow 88 

Inventory 

aerial photography 16, 47, 76 

remote sensing 170 

gap analysis 32, 185 

geographical information systems 51, 52, 184 

Mammals 14, 129 

beaver 5, 25, 60, 135, 150 

habitat mitigation 207 

metal contamination 92 

mule deer 31 

population models 99 

small mammals . .7, 59, 92, 129, 133, 134, 160, 181, 207 

white-tailed deer 3, 42, 63, 99, 202, 234 

Management 27 

floodplain 26, 200 

riparian forest 91, 143, 186 

grazing , 37, 38, 148, 169, 172, 203, 209 

wildlife habitat 8, 211 

lacustrine 104 

meadows 104, 172 

placer mining .T 35 

project 24 

wetland 93, 143, 145, 147, 201 

weed 119 



73 



TOPIC INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

Plant communities 177, 200 

grazing effects 36, 166, 182 

riparian 9, 12, 20, 21, 36, 64, 85, 86, 112 

131, 149, 153, 161, 205, 225, 229, 231 

seed dispersal 200 

watertable effects 225 

Riparian 26, 40, 61, 73, 95, 152, 210, 233 

classification 9, 12, 20, 21, 64, 71, 84, 86, 122 

141, 149, 161, 205, 231 

conservation policy 109 

creation 72, 124, 147 

ecosystems 48, 57, 67, 109, 124, 141, 153, 215, 220 

enhancement 17, 33, 53, 54, 55, 68, 130, 203 

evaluation 217 

forest 4, 7, 12, 44, 46, 59, 90, 91, 99, 101 

113, 121, 138, 146, 162, 163, 171, 186, 188 

197, 212, 213 

fire effects 4 

global warming effects 58 

habitat 6 

habitat mitigation 206, 207 

historical uses 61 

inventory 25, 76, 83, 85, 163, 170, 229 

management 5, 6, 21, 33, 50, 54, 78, 82, 86, 91 

143, 161, 170, 217, 233 

mitigation 72, 206, 207 

monitoring 47, 217 

policy evaluation 100 

recovery - 131 

restoration 74, 114, 124, 147, 196, 204 

soils 9, 21, 64, 86, 141, 149, 159, 161, 177, 229 

vegetation 14, 97, 136 

Soil xf. 56 

Cs" 7 <X 56 

compaction 192 

depth 11 

development 2, 117 

erosion 52, 55, 116, 137, 176, 192, 194 

erosion models 52, 116 

fungi 230 

74 



TOPIC INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

seed bank 69, 227 

soils 2, 224 

water rights 147 

wetland losses 145 

Wildlife habitat 3, 28, 31, 32, 42, 58, 63, 66, 80, 81 

102 125, 147, 160, 202, 208, 211, 234 



<7 



11 



TOPIC INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

infiltration rates 232 

moisture 8 

processes 29 

redox . . 77 

saturated 77 

temperature 22 

Streams 

channelization 14 

in-stream structures 53, 55, 91, 175 

invertebrates 48, 132, 178 

organic debris 48, 197 

shading 171, 186 

southwestern desert 17, 68, 122, 140, 152 

water temperature 4 

woody debris 90, 101, 121, 128, 140, 146, 186, 193 

Stream Flow 34, 75, 142 

in-stream flow 41, 123 

logging effects 34, 106 

regulation 10 

response . . 11 

water rights 41, 123 

Streambank 

erosion 22, 114, 126 

protection structures 55, 159, 189, 198 

stability 166 

stabilization 114 

vegetation 22, 39, 65, 167 

river ice 65 

Streamside Management Zones 59, 101, 162 

SMZ 101, 162 

Symposium 78, 147, 201 

Vegetation 

emergent wetland plants 69, 227 

meadow 27 

planting 16, 74, 130, 196, 204 

revegetation 103 

75 



TOPIC INDEX REFERENCE NUMBER 

river bar 112 

simulated beaver heibivory 105 

streambank 22, 167 

wetland plant species 173, 174, 199, 224 

willow 105, 112, 130 

Water Quality 15, 49, 94, 127, 147, 191, 193, 198, 212, 213 

groundwater 151 

herbicide fate 15, 138, 151 

monitoring 151, 214, 222, 226 

non-point pollution 176 

Water Resources 120 

groundwater 97, 151 

water policy 41, 120 

water rights 41, 97, 147 

Watershed 75, 137, 191 

cumulative effects 75, 191, 193 

erosion 87 

hydrology 1, 70, 88, 89 

rehabilitation 54, 55 

sediment transport 87, 192, 193 

models 70 

wildfire 87 

Wetlands 107, 144, 199, 201 

classification 51 

creation 24, 95, 117, 150, 158, 180 

economics of protection 62, 156 

ecosystem development 158 

fire effects 107 

lacustrine 95, 96 

mitigation 147 

mitigation banking 98 

policy 155 

policy evaluation 216 

policy implementation 13, 19, 154, 157, 201, 216, 218, 221 

protection 13, 155, 221 

reclamation 180 

regulation 23 

restoration » 95, 115 

76 






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