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A Weekly Review 
of Literature, The Arts and Public A ffairs 

Friday, December 20, 1935 

Michael O’Shaughnessy 

G. K. Chesterton 

An Editorial 

Other articles, reviews and poems by Felix Timmermans, 
Katherine Brégy, Charles Willis Thompson, Grenville Vernon, 
Anne Ryan, Kurt Frank Reinhardt and James P. Cunningham 


Price 10 Cents 


The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

The New Catholic Dictionary 





ieee, This new dictionary, in one volume, of 1100 pages and 
F 747 maps and illustrations, contains 8500 articles on: 

1. Every subject in Religion, Scripture, Doctrine, Morals, Worship. 

2. The Church in every country, dioceses, centers, missions; the 
hierarchy, clergy, religious orders; Church societies; lay organizations, 
sects, the various Churches, false religions. 

3. Historical events and persons, saints, popes, prelates, priests, 
celebrated men and women, showing what they have done for civiliza- 
tion, and correcting many errors. 

4. Popular explanation of subjects in philosophy, psychology, edu- 
cation, ethics, sociology and political science, with which religion is 

5. Arts which have served and derived inspiration from, religion: 
painting, architecture, sculpture, music, literature, artists and authors. 

6. The relation of science with religion through notable Catholics 
and other Christians prominent as scientists. 

After years of labor, assisted by 200 writers and 36 editorial assist- 
ants, the editors produced this Dictionary which is unlike anything 
of the kind previouly attempted in any language, a work of interest to 
Catholics and to men and women of every creed, or of none. 

A valuable feature of the Dictionary is its reference in each article 
to the best available book on the subject and a list of 4000 books. 

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A Weekly Review of Literature, The Arts and Public Affairs 

Epitor1AL Boarp 
MicHAeEL Editor 
Georce N. Suuster, Managing Editor 
Mary Korars, Assistant Editor 
Frepertc THompson, Assistant Editor 

Joun F. McCormick, Business Manager 

Published weekly and copyrighted, 1935, in the United States, by the Calvert Publishing Corporation, 386 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 
Entered as_ second-class matter, February 9, 1934, at the post office at New York, N. Y., under the Act of March 3, 1879. 
Unitel States: $5.00; Canada: $5.50; Foreign: $6.00. Single copies: $.10. 


EpiroriaL CouNCcIL 
Car_ton J. H. Hayes 
T. Lawrason Riccs 
James J. WALSH 



Cardinal Hayes Speaks Out.............00. 197. The Campaign Lines Up............. aod 
Charles Willis Thompson 209 

Santa Claus and Science..... G. K. Chesterton 201 Kurt Frank Reinhardt 211 
AAA and the Constitution................. Communic 212 
Michael O’Shaughnessy 202 Seven Days’ Survey..........eceeceeeeeees 214 
Triptych of the Three Kings................ Fhe Vernon 218 

Felix Timmermans 204 
Tyrol Christmas (verse)......... Anne Ryan 208 

Previous issues of THz ComMMONWEAL are indexed in the Readers’ Guide and the Catholic Periodical Index 

Friday, December 20, 1935 


The James P. Cunningham 219 
és The Editors, Katherine Brégy 219 


ae CORE to the press accounts given of 
the affair, the mass meeting conducted under 
the auspices of the American Birth Control 
League, in Carnegie Hall, New York, on Decem- 
ber 2, endorsed unanimously by a rising vote of 
the 2,500 men and women making up the audi- 
ence, a resolution “that all agencies administering 
family relief inform mothers on relief where they 
may secure medical advice as to family limita- 
tion in accord with their religious convictions.” 
Speaker after speaker, described as “religious and 
social work leaders,” pleaded for dissemination 
among the needy of knowledge of sources of birth 
control information. ‘Ranks of the needy had 
been swollen by the depression, with the result 
that 250,000 Yahies were born each year to 
mothers on relief, it was said.” Therefore, so it 
would seem, the thing to do, in the judgment of 
these “religious and social work leaders” is not 
to help the needy parents to care for their chil- 

dren, but rather to use their poverty as a club to 
teach them how to prevent babies being born to 
them. And in case the poor parents “were too 
dull to be taught birth control’’—in other words, 
if the poor parents were normal human beings, 
believing, as normal human beings always do, that 
children are desirable, as life even when difficult 
is always preferable to death, especially suicidal 
death—why, then, such stupid people should be 
taught how to mutilate and degrade their man- 
hood and womanhood by “voluntary steriliza- 
tion.” It is to be presumed that when they refuse 
to do so, compulsory sterilization will be the next 
step to be urged by the birth prevention zealots. 

Another speaker, Rabbi Goldstein, chairman 
of the Commission on Social Justice of the Cen- 
tral Conference of American Rabbis, “deplored 
the refusal of the Catholic Church to participate 
in the conference’’—which, so the Herald Tribune 
reported, filed into Carnegie Hall as “the organ 



The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

softly played ‘Kiss Me Again,’ and ‘I’m in the 
Mood for Love.’” But if the Catholic Church 
refused to be represented in the Manichean sym- 
posium in Carnegie Hall, the most authoritative 
spokesman for the Catholic Church in New York, 

ardinal Hayes, the Archbishop of the diocese, 
lost no time in accepting the challenge flung at his 
Church, by preaching from his cathedral pulpit 
on the Sunday following the birth prevention 
demonstration a sermon which most justly ex- 
posed the perversion of morality, and the insolent 
treatment of the victims of the depression, and 
the topsy-turvy economic remedy advocated by the 
birth controllers. The Cardinal changed the regu- 
lar assignment of preachers to occupy the pulpit 
himself. He denounced as “effrontery” the action 
of ‘a smug Carnegie Hall audience.” Speaking 
‘as one who gives place to no man in love for his 
country,” he denounced the proponents of birth 
control as ‘‘Prophets of Decadence” who ‘would 
fly in the face of God and bring ruin and disaster 
to the land and to the civilization that some 
among us, at least, still cherish. 

“Who are these people that sit in soft garments 
and offer affront to the poor? Are they a race 
apart, superior beings with a special commission 
to order the lives of others less fortunate in 
worldly goods than themselves? And the women 
among them, who would enjoin the poor from 
motherhood, are they taking over from the poor 
the responsibilities of motherhood because they 
are the better able to bear the burden? You 
know that they are not. The true lover of the 
poor today,” he asserted, “and the true social 
scientist, knows that the right approach to the 
whole problem is not to keep people from having 
children, but is so to pi our economic and 
social structure as to make it possible for people 
to have children and to rear them in keeping with 
their needs. Therein lies true social leadership; 
in birth prevention lies social degradation. 

“In the deliberate frustration of the marriage 
rivilege the Church sees an act intrinsically evil. 
t is wrong not because of ill effects that may fol- 

low in its train, not because of any conceivable set 
of circumstances that might attend it. It would 
be equally wrong even though in a particular in- 
stance it might be thought to effect material good. 
Evil is not to be done that good may come of it, 
as Saint Paul wrote to the Christians of Rome. 

“For the preservation of the race God has 
given man the natural faculty of reproducing his 
kind. The exercise of this faculty for pleasure 
alone, with the natural result prevented by arti- 
ficial means, is a perversion of this faculty, and 
he who does so is as the liar, the glutton and the 
drunkard. He misuses a gift of God, he offends 
against nature, and so performs an act which is 
condemned by God and by His Church, and which 
nothing can make right. 

“This teaching of the Church does not mean, 
as sometimes those ignorant of the Church’s doc- 
trine or hostile to her assert, that Catholics are 
required to have as many children as they can, 
nor that husband and wife must, each time they 
make use of the marital privilege, intend that 
relationship solely for the purpose of procreation. 
Canon law recognizes a secondary end to mar- 
riage, that of mutual love and assistance. It re- 
quires only that the primary end, which is the 
procreation of children, never be excluded, nor 
means be taken to prevent the natural conse- 
quence of the marriage act from ensuing. It is this 
positive interference with the normal processes of 
nature that constitutes birth control, or more ac- 
curately birth prevention, as condemned by the 
Church. President Theodore Roosevelt called 
birth control by its right name, race suicide. His- 
tory bears testimony to the part that the refusal 
of parenthood has played in the decline and fall of 
great civilizations. Today in our own country the 
same process is already well under way. Our 

opulation is no longer reproducing itself. If 
judged by this standard, the United States is 
already a dying nation. Yet these Prophets of 
Decadence call for fewer and fewer births. As 
one who gives place to no man in love for his 
country, I regard such as false prophets.” 

Once again the Cardinal stressed the fact 
that this nation is under the patronage of the 
Blessed Virgin, fountain of purity and exemplar 
of motherhood. 

In a recent publication entitled, ‘Population 
Trends and the National Welfare,” by O. E. 
Baker and T. B. Manny, issued by the federal 
government, the rapid decline of the population 
of the United States is startlingly proved. Since 
1924 there was a decrease of 55,000 births a year 
until 1930, when the depression effects lowered 
the figures about 100 percent; that is, from 1930 
to 1933 there was a yearly decrease of 100,000. 
For 1934 there was a slight increase in births, 
because of the greater number of marriages in 
1933 over those of the worst depression years. 
In 1934 itself, however, while the births were 
slightly more, marriages again declined, so that 
births are unlikely to have increased in 1935. 
The declining “cae diol first began, of course, in 
an industrial region, Southern ta England, and 
“gradually spread, with the development of in- 
dustry and commerce,” throughout the land. The 
birth prevention advocates, no doubt, have aided 
the Moloch of materialistic industrialism; but, as 
the Catholic Church steadfastly has taught, and 
as the Cardinal Archbishop of N ew York now so 
powerfully proclaims, not birth prevention but 
the reconstruction of our economic and social 
structure is the only true and just method of aid- 
ing the poor and stemming the tide of national 
decadence which has already so menacingly begun. 



= Pity | 
















December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal 

Week by Week 

gtk na skies were gloomy as the London 
Naval Conference opened.. In Africa an old 
native kingdom was fighting for its life, as thou- 

sands of bombs tumbled from the 
The sky upon men, women and chil- 
Trend of dren. Another section of ancient 
Events China was being entered in the 

credit side of the cayasiring ledger. 
These facts—and they are not the only facts of 
the same kind—indicated that the diplomatic 
policy of the past fifteen years has not managed 
to check even rampant imperialism. Reliance 
upon war as the sole effective international instru- 
ment is manifestly spreading, and the last-minute 
stand by the League of Nations is all that has 
prevented the application of the principle of terri- 
torial expansionism to Europe. Under circum- 
stances like these, it is scarcely to be hoped that 
so vital a matter as the regulation of naval arma- 
ment should be easily disposed of. The three 
major sources of disagreement are: first, the un- 
willingness of Japan to accept less than absolute 
parity with the {nited States; second, the per- 
mission accorded Germany by Great Britain to 
construct a navy rivaling those of France and 
Italy; third, the dissatisfaction of other countries 
with the status of German sea power. It is only 
too probable that a race for domination may be 
just around the corner, limited only by the will- 
ingness of the several nations to raise large sums 
for construction. The effect of such a finale to the 
debates now in progress upon the peace and pros- 
perity of world society might well be incalculable. 

SEVERAL declarations by Mr. Roosevelt indi- 
cate that he considers the offensive taken by the 

New Deal to be complete. The 
Mr. Roosevelt legislation enacted is to form the 
on the charter of an America conscious of 
Defensive having outgrown the horse-and- 

buggy days, and determined to 
master social problems according to the recipes 
laid down. It must be admitted that in bulk the 
new laws are impressive, and that understanding 
them is hardly yet a popular pastime. Neverthe- 
less the consequence of reaching a halt is to find 
oneself on the defensive. The present is a time 
when almost every enactment is Bein challenged, 
either by those who resent the administration’s 
experiments in collectivism or by those who feel 
that not enough has been achieved. We are in- 
clined to think that in many respects the chal- 
lengers will triumph. The New Deal was by and 
large in too great a hurry, governed as its ex- 
ponents were by the fear that resistance would 
eventually prove insurmountable. But whatever 
else may fall by the wayside, the following dis- 

coveries will surely remain. The nation has found 
out that the information about its basic economic 
activities is insufficient, and that regulating some- 
thing one does not fully understand is precarious. 
Doubtless it was for this reason that NRA, in 
numerous ways the best part of the Roosevelt 
program, was fated to fail. The nation has like- 
wise found out that its fundamental constitutional 
law is still unexplored, and that its courts badly 
require a fresh interpretation of attitudes quite 
legitimate though not inherited from Marshall 
and Taney. Finally the nation has learned—and 
this is at the moment so impressive—that the 
question of the administrative function of govern- 
ment is an exceedingly complex and difficult one. 
Sound principles of engineering practise must be 
applied to the federal system as a whole, if 
yg is not to break down at critical moments 
(as it has been breaking down) or if inter- 
lapping powers are not to indulge in constant 
an fam quarreling. Should the Roosevelt ad- 
ministration concentrate on these matters, the job 
of being on the defensive would be far less haz- 
ardous and immensely more interesting. 

WE WERE considerably surprised that those 
who oppose participation in the Berlin games of 
1936 mustered so much strength 

The at the convention of. the Amateur 
Olympics Athletic Union of the United 
Decision States. What the convention did 
was to adopt by a margin of two 

and a half votes a resolution expressing “hope 
and desire”’ to participate in the games, but recog- 
nizing that “conditions still exist in Germany 
under which it would be difficult for the Olympic 
Games to be held in accordance with the funda- 
mental principles thereof.” It voted down a pro- 
posal to send an investigating commission of three 
to Germany for the purpose of ascertaining 
whether conditions favored American participa- 
tion. With these decisions, we find ourselves 
reasonably content. A ringing refusal to under- 
write the trip was out of the question, since in 
athletic circles unanimity toward Hitler does not 
exist. To have pushed through a non-participation 
policy by a narrow margin would have created a 
reat deal of bitterness which can now be avoided. 
We have every reason to believe that the antis 
will not give up the fight, but will devote their 
impressive energies toward promoting rival 
games. ‘Thus they will avoid giving offense to 
those who feel that in accordance with American 
ideals freedom of choice should be granted. To 
this last we dedicate ourselves anew. We believe 
that the Catholic cause is aided primarily by the 
sacrifices made for it. And we are convinced that 
if one Catholic athlete renounces the opportunity 
accorded him there will be more reason for re- 
joicing than if a dozen others win athletic laurels. 


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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

‘In accordance with this philosophy we shall de- 
vote ourselves during coming weeks to demon- 
strating as effectively as we can that solidarity in 
the Faith is the remedy for ills like those which 
Catholic Germany is experiencing in such over- 
flowing measure. 

WE REGRET that it is not possible to issue 
“The Triptych of the Three Kings,” our Christ- 

mas “feature’’ for this year, in one 

A Man instalment. But though the reader 
Worth will have to piece the two parts 
Knowing together with a week hoe 

we believe that he will feel amply 

rewarded for the trouble. Felix Timmermans has 
appeared once previously in American print, the 
occasion being ‘Peter Brueghel,” a biographical 
novel. Unfortunately few read the book, despite 
its quality and interest. We believe that fate will 
be kinder to the present tale, which the translator 
hopes to issue soon in book form. At any rate, 
Timmermans is one of the genuinely impressive 
among living Catholic creative writers. Flemish 
is his language, and the circumstance that it is 
relatively unused—that its nouns and adjectives 
have not been worn smooth by constant use— 
doubtless helps to give his prose the extraordinary 
colorfulness and magic which it keeps for all who 
read the original. He resembles his countryman 
Rubens in a flare for the sheer joy of living, but 
is as careful of detail and as fond of symbolism 
new style as Van Gogh himself. The world he 
summons up is different from that in which we 
live. It retains a peasant flavor, but is rich in 
the beauty of our earth and in the beauty not of 
earth. But one would be mistaken in fancying 
that Timmermans ever relinquishes his allegiance 
to Brueghel, whose thought plunges upon occa- 
sion like a cork. We are grateful for the chance 
to introduce him to readers who, we hope, will be 
the nucleus of a future audience of generous size. 

THE PRINCIPLE of punishment in kind has 
a good deal to commend it. Of course its use 

must be adjusted to the present 
“To Make thelevel of law and accepted tradition. 
Punishment It is no longer morally, let alone 
Fit the Crime” legally, possible, for example, to 

cure the thief by cutting off his 
hand—if, indeed, that drastic measure ever did 
cure him, collectively speaking. But, considering 
the matter in terms of the present, there are other 
interesting things which may be done with the 
idea; as has been demonstrated more than once 
in late years by the experiments of this or that 
judicial mind. Graver examples might be cited, 
but our present interest lies in the increasing appli- 
cation of the principle to the problem of the un- 
inhibited motorist. The chief punishment, of 
course, is the temporarily revoked or the perma- 

nently canceled driving license; and while it is not 
so widespread as we ourselves should like to see 
it, still it is a definitely recognized expedient, and 
will probably be more generally applied in the 
future. A lesser penalty, which yet should effec- 
tually supplement fixed legal punishments, is the 
requirement laid by certain magistrates upon 
those guilty in motor crashes to visit and observe 
their victims. And now one of the municipal 
judges of Los Angeles has devised a treatment 
for drivers whose strange mentality prompts 
them to run through stop signals. ‘They must 
stand in a dunce cap before a court blackboard 
and write out their promise of amendment a thou- 
sand times. This, in its suitability, is worthy of 
“The Mikado.” It may not be productive of ‘‘in- 
nocent merriment” in the non-stop maniacs under 
correction; but it is on the level which they under- 
stand, and is probably the only conceivable method 
which can produce salutary results with them. 

MUCH time has been spent diagnosing the 
athlete, but little progress has been made toward 
curing him of a major ill. “We 
are,’ said Dr. Wilson Ferrand re- 
cently to a convention of profes- 
sors and teachers, “reluctantly 
forced to the conclusion that it is 
not feasible to enforce the standard we have set 
up, against the evident belief on the part of a 
number of colleges that the subsidizing of ath- 
letes is a proper procedure.” That statement is 
as plain as day. The colleges have stated that 
their teams are amateur aggregations of students 
who, since Jack would not be a dull boy, have 
staged contests between hours devoted to hard 
study. But in the realm of plain fact, they have 
found out that the stadium is their best promo- 
tion medium. It not only advertises and sells the 
institution, but actually pays money into the 
treasury. The teams are professional excepting 
that a blanket of decency enfolds the goings on. 
Morally speaking, frank and free hiring or firing 
would doubtless be preferable to the careful! 
evasions which so often characterize the remarks 
of prexies on the topic. Why shouldn’t the cam- 
pus hero capitalize on his punting ability, or get a 
raise if he cracks the line harder? Yet one must 
not unduly simplify the problem. Few college 
athletes (excepting a number of genuine ringers) 
look upon themselves as professionals. They 
have a touching willingness to be taught, and are 
generally animated by an ardent love for Alma 
Mater. “Gifts” are to them not pay, but forms 
of first aid. To alter their status would mean 
depriving them of a great educational oppor- 
tunity. Why should it not be possible to come 
clean, put the actual facts down in print, and see 
what could be done thereafter? Why give the 
impression that a skeleton dwells in the closet? 



December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal ‘ai 




article could be discussed in a big book, or 
a long series of books. I rather fancy that, 
if it could really be reduced to its elements, we 
should find the elementary truth about Catholi- 
cism and Protestantism and the present problem 
of our civilization. It would perhaps explain 
why, in the coming Christmas, many millions of 
our mature fellow creatures, so far from hang- 
ing up their stockings to have them filled, will 
rather hang up their hearts and heads and find 
them empty; and why they will continue to enact 
a fable for children to believe in, and for chil- 
dren who do not believe in it. For the sake of 
brevity, let me sum up such a scientific monograph 
under the heads of three or four questions. 
First, who was Santa Claus or who was he sup- 
posed to be? Why do we actually describe this 
domestic and Phare: i figure by a name in a for- 
eign language that few of us know? Why should 
a sort of uncle or grandfather so intimate that 
he is allowed to enter by the chimney, instead of 
the front-door, have on his visiting-card the 
rather florid name of a distinguished foreigner? 
The answer is important. It is because in my 
country the saints really have crept back again 
like spies. Saint Nicholas of the Children may 
not come through the chimney like a burglar; 
but he was really admitted through the front- 
door only as a foreigner. It is part of a para- 
dox, that Protestant England satisfied its intense 
insularity mainly by the use of foreign words. 
For instance, men cannot do without the image of 
the Mother of God; the veritable Queen of 
Hearts, with every sort of lovers in every sort 
of land. But the Victorians got over her omni- 
presence in all art by calling her “a Madonna,” 
whatever that may mean. As it was British to 
talk of Mary only in Italian, so it was British to 
talk of Saint Nicholas only in German. So we 
could tap all the traditional poetry of Christen- 
dom, without calling it Catholic or even Chris- 
tian. It was a sort of smuggling; we could im- 
port Nicholas without paying the tax to Peter. 

Second, everybody could then dispose them- 
selves in elegant attitudes of sad sympathy and 
patronizing pity; over a mere fairy-tale for chil- 
dren, which children themselves must soon aban- 
don. Santa Claus has passed into a proverb of 

I WISH the subject I discuss here in a short 

illusion and disillusion. A man wrote a poem 
about how he had ceased to believe in Santa Claus 
at the age of seven and in God at the age of sev- 
enteen; and explained how he really regretted 
God not much more than Santa Claus. 


notion that the thing had ever had any relation 
to any religion, or that that religion had ever 
had any relation to any reason, or that it had been 
a part of a real philosophy with a fringe of popu- 
lar fancies but a body of moral fact, never oc- 
curred to anybody. And I startled some honest 
Protestants lately by telling them that, though 
I am (unfortunately) no Coe a child, I do 
most definitely believe in Santa Claus; though I 
prefer to talk about him in my own language. I 
believe that Saint Nicholas is in heaven, acces- 
sible to our prayers for anybody; if he was sup- 
posed to be specially accessible to prayers of chil- 
dren, as being their patron, I see no reason why 
he should not be concerned with human gifts to 
children. I do not suppose that he comes down 
the chimney; but I suppose he could if he liked. 
The point is that, for me, there is not that com- 
plete chasm or cutting off of all relations with the 
religion of childhood, which is now common in 
those who began by starting a new religion and 
have ended by having no religion. 

Third, do our contemporaries really know even 
the little that there is to know about the roots, or 
possible origins, of such romances of popular re- 
ligion? I myself know very little; but a really 
complete monograph on Santa Claus might raise 
some very interesting questions. For instance, 
Saint Nicholas of Bari is represented in a well- 
known Italian picture of the later Middle Ages, 
not only as performing the duty of a gift-bringer, 
but as actually doing it by the methods of a bur- 
glar. He is represented as climbing up the grille 
or lattice of a house, solely in order to drop little 
bags of gold among the members of a poor fam- 
ily, consisting of an aged man and three beautiful 
daughters who had no money for their wedding 
dowries. That is another question for our con- 
temporaries: why were celibate saints so fright- 
fully keen on getting other people married? But 
anyhow, I give this only as an example out of 
a hundred, which might well be followed up if 
only grown-up people could be induced to take 
Santa Claus seriously. It looks as if it might be 
the root of the legend. To see a saint climbing 
up the front of our house would seem to most of 
us as odd as seeing a saint climbing down our 
chimney. Very probably neither of the things 
happened; but it might be worth while even 
for scientific critics to find out what actually 
did happen. 

Fourth, what do our great modern education- 

ists, our great modern psychologists, our great 
makers of a new world, mean to do about the 

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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

breach between the imagination and the reason, 
if only in the passage from the infant to the man? 
Is the child to live in a world that is entirely fan- 
ciful and then find suddenly that it is entirely 
false? Or is the child to be forbidden all forms 
of fancy; or in other words, forbidden to be a 
child? Or is he, as we say, to have some harmless 
borderland of fancy in childhood, which is still 

a part of the land in which he will live; in terra 
viventium, in the land of living men? Cannot the 
child pass from a child’s natural fancy to a man’s 
normal faith in Holy Nicholas of the Children, 
without enduring that bitter break and abrupt 
disappointment which no wmarks the passage of 
a child from a land of make-believe to a world 
of no belief? 



T HAS not escaped the notice of the ‘‘man 
on the street” that the owners and managers 
of capital, as an economic group in our 

population, oppose the power of government to 
regulate the conduct of individuals in the conduct 
of the nation’s business. They oppose social leg- 
islation of every type. Their chief reliance in 
maintaining this anti-social attitude, strange to 
say, is the Constitution of the United States. 

This highly privileged class stresses the ‘“‘due 
process” as against the “welfare” clause of the 
Constitution, the letter against the spirit; in effect, 
they maintain that property rights are superior 
to Seite rights, unmindful of the fact that the 
maintenance of property rights depends upon the 
protection afforded the individual citizen by 
the Constitution. They seek to circumscribe the 
powers of the federal government under the com- 
merce clause to the regulation of the transport of 
merchandise and commodities from one place to 
another across state lines. Every effort by the 
federal government, under the commerce clause 
of the Constitution, to regulate the business rela- 
tions of the citizens of one state with the citizens 
of another, is met by the smug reference to the 
pronouncement by the Supreme Court that “‘pro- 
duction is not commmerce.” This is self-evident, 
but methods of production within a state can be 
such as to retard or destroy interstate commerce, 
in which case the Congress, in our opinion, has 
the power to exclude goods so produced from in- 
terstate commerce without in the least abridging 
the rights of citizens of any state to conduct pro- 
duction in any manner permitted by the laws of 
such state, provided of course that the goods are 
for consumption within that state. 

The principal difficulty seems to be in agreeing 
upon a definition of commerce. The Supreme 
Court in its Cecision in the case of Gibbons v. 
Ogden (9 Wheaton, page 68), gives a definition 
p? commerce of paramount importance in the de- 
bate over the reciprocal powers and duties of the 
federal government and the states in the matter 
of interstate commerce. The Court’s definition 
in part is as follows: “Commerce, undoubtedly, is 

traffic, but it is something more: it is intercourse. 
It describes the commercial intercourse between 
nations, and parts of nations, in all its branches, 
and is regulated by prescribing rules for carrying 
on that intercourse.’ 

It is clear that in the mind of the Supreme 
Court, at least in the above decision, interstate 
commerce is business intercourse between citizens 
of the several states in the Union. It would follow 
that Congress has the power under the Constitu- 
tion to prescribe rules for carrying on business 
intercourse among the citizens of the several states 
to promote and preserve interstate commerce. 
Such rules perhaps could be most effectively pre- 
scribed by the Congress requiring federal char- 
ters for corporations doing an interstate business. 

The statement was frequently made in the 
lowest depths of the depression in 1932, by many, 
even the most reactionary financiers and captains 
of industry, that the system of distribution (of 

oods and services) had broken down in the 

nited States. It had broken down because the 
owners of capital insisted upon so large a propor- 
tion of the national income that the purchasing 
power of workers and farmers had been curtailed 
to the point that the exchange of goods and ser- 
vices between the citizens of the various states 
(interstate commerce), was so obstructed that 
the economic machinery of the nation had all 
but collapsed. 

The preservation of commerce between the 
several states depends upon the workers and 
farmers, the major consuming groups in our 
population, receiving a larger proportion of the 
national income to maintain purchasing power at 
a level at which capital can be profitably employed 
in industry. It is clear that the preservation of 
interstate commerce depends upon the establish- 
ment of a just relation in the income of the num- 
erically small group of owners of capital and the 
vast majority of the population, as represented 
in the worker and farmer groups. The power to 
regulate interstate commerce most certainly in- 
cludes the power to “prescribe rules” of business 
intercourse to establish this just relation. 






then i 
















December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal 


We further conclude from the above that the 
power of the federal government to regulate in- 
terstate commerce must necessarily include the 
power to regulate business intercourse among the 
citizens of the various states by enunciating social 
standards for production in industry and agricul- 
ture that are necessary to preserve interstate com- 
merce. The attempt to raise the purchasing 
power of the worker group through the NIRA 
was found unconstitutional by the Supreme Court 
principally because it did not enunciate social 
standards. The result is that business is getting 
better, profits increase faster than real wages, 
unemployment continues to be our paramount 
social and economic problem and no progress is 
made in attaining a wider distribution of the 
national income to increase purchasing power. 

The Court of last resort will, within a com- 
paratively short time, render a decision as to the 
constitutionality of the Agricultural Adjustment 
Act. This was emergency legislation to rescue 
agriculture from the collapse which overtook it 
in 1932. The original Act was amended in the 
last session of Congress to meet Constitutional 
objections. The increased purchasing power 
among the farmers since its enactment has con- 
cededly been a determining factor in recovery 
through an increased demand for the products of 
industry. The AAA was an attempt to raise the 
prices of agricultural products to a parity with 
the prices of products of industry, so that the 
farmer would receive for his product a price com- 
parable to that which he paid for the products 
of industry. 

It should be remembered that through tariff 
protection the federal government imposes a duty 
on imported manufactures, theoretically to pro- 
tect American labor from the lower wage scales 
for labor in foreign countries. It is a tax levied 
by the federal government on the consumer 
through the maintenance of artificial prices, the 
greater proportion of which, however, has been 
taken by the owners of capital instead of being 

assed on to labor. The principle of the AAA 
is the same. The government levies a tax on con- 
sumers through processing taxes, which is paid to 
the producers of agricultural products to bring 
their prices up to a parity with prices for the 
products of industry. There are differences in 
detail in the application of the protective tariff to 
benefit industry and labor and the AAA to benefit 
farmers, but the principle is the same. If the 
former is justified it would seem that the latter is 
necessary. It is worth considering what might 
be the effect if both were gradually abolished. 

Should the AAA, as amended in the last ses- 
sion of Congress, be found unconstitutional b 
the Supreme Court, it is conceivable that agri- 
culture may again sink to the depths of its posi- 
tion in 1932, when the farmers had no incentive 

to feed the nation as their products were selling 
substantially below the cost of production. 

It is inconceivable that the small group repre- 
sented by the owners of capital, insist upon the 
perpetuation of its privileges at the expense of 
workers and farmers, which will eventually de- 
stroy it. In the effort to preserve their unjust 
privileges the owners of capital are “killing the 
goose that lays the golden egg.” Half a loaf is 
better than no bread, particularly when the loaf 
is twice as large as it ever had any right to be. 

It is certainly within the power of Congress, 
acting under the commerce clause of the Consti- 
tution, to regulate “‘business intercourse” between 
the citizens of the various states in a manner to 
insure a more equitable distribution of the national 
income as between the owners of capital, workers 
and farmers to prevent the collapse of the eco- 
nomic life of the nation. This cannot be accom- 
plished by increasing the national debt to pay 
doles to the unemployed as government thereb 
engages itself to pay interest indefinitely on suc 
borrowings to the owners of capital on unproduc- 
tive loans. It cannot be accomplished by con- 
stantly increasing taxes which diminish the na- 
tional income, eventually to the detriment of 
workers and farmers. It can be to a considerable 
extent accomplished (1) by Congress enunciating 
social standards, nationally, in establishing living 
wages by the year, of a stipulated number of 
work days, for workers engaged in the production 
of goods, adequate to provide consumption needs, 
that are destined to move in interstate commerce; 
(2) by abolishing tariff subsidies to industry; and 
(3) by creating a federal agency to provide con- 
sumers with continuous and accurate information 
on demand and supply, production costs, prices, etc. 

Minimum wages by the hour for a fixed num- 
ber of hours per day is a cruel delusion. Subsidies 
to industry aggravate the maldistribution of 
wealth and the ignorance of consumers breeds 
fraud and social injustice. Increased purchasing 
power for workers with equality established be- 
tween industry and agriculture and consumers 
intelligently informed, would go a long way to- 
ward creating a commodity price structure in 
which all classes of the citizenry would receive 
just rewards for the contribution each makes to 
the welfare of the people as a whole. Somewhere 
between the extremes of the unregulated profit 
urge and “production for use,” a compromise is 
possible, which may retard the disintegration of 
our social and economic order until such time as 
a fundamental solution could be attained. 

Unless an equitable distribution of the national 
income, envisaged above, can be brought about 
by congressional action, the Union of forty- 
eight states in the United States of America will 
eventually be destroyed by sectional greed and 
class strife. 



The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 



I. Centerpiece 

HE DAY before, toward dusk, a creaky 
little kermis wagon passed down the street. 
It was drawn through the falling snow 
by an old man and a dog. Through the window 
pane, one saw the pale face of a young, slender 
woman. Her eyes were large and troubled. They 
had gone by, and those who had seen them 
thought no more about it... . 

It was Christmas day and the air stood frozen 
crystal clear, pale blue over the wide world be- 
decked with white fur. " 

The lame shepherd Suskewiet, the eel-fisher 
Pitjevogel with his bald head, and the blear-eyed 
beggar Schrobberbeeck went from house to house 
dressed as the three Holy Kings. With them 
they carried a cardboard star which turned on a 
wooden pole, a stocking to hold the money which 
they collected and a double-sack for food. They 
had turned their shabby coats inside out. The 
shepherd had on a high hat, Schrobberbeeck wore 
a crown of flowers left over from the last pro- 
cession, and Pitjevogel, who turned the star, had 
smeared his face with shoe blacking. 

It had been a good year with a fat harvest. 
Every peasant had a pig in brine, and now they 
sat pufing at their pipes with their paunches be- 
fore the warm stoves and, carefree, awaited the 
coming of spring. 

Suskewiet, the shepherd, knew such lovely 
pious songs of olden days, Pitjevogel turned the 
star with such regularity and the beggar made 
such pitiful, convincing beggar’s eyes, that when 
the red moon came up, the foot of the stocking 
was filled with money and the sack was blown 
up like a bellows. It was full of bread, ham 
bones, apples, pears and sausage. 

They were in the best of spirits and nudged 
each other with their elbows. They could already 
taste the long swigs of “vitriol” they would enjoy 
later in the evening in the Water Nymph. They 
would round out their empty bellies with the good 
tasty food and make them so taut that one could 
squash a flea on them. 

It was not until the peasants had put out their 
lamps and had gone yawning to bed, that they 
stopped their singing and began to count their 
money in the clear moonlight. Boy, O boy! Gin 
for a whole week! And they could even buy some 
fresh meat and tobacco as well. 

With the star on his shoulder the black Pitje- 
vogel stamped quickly ahead and the other two 
followed, their mouths watering. Gradually a 

strange feeling of oppression came over their 
rough souls. They were silent. Was it because 
of all the white snow on which the pale moon 
stared down so fixedly? Or was it the mighty 
ghost-like shadows of the trees? Or was it be- 
cause of their own shadows? Or was it this 
silence, the silence of moonlit snow, in which not 
even an owl was heard nor a dog’s bark from 
near or far? 

But these lovers and loafers of out-of-the-way 
streets and unfrequented river banks and fields 
were not easily frightened. They had seen much 
that was wonderful in their life. Will-o’-the- 
wisps, spooks and even real ghosts. But this was 
something different. Something like the choking 
fear at the approach of some great happiness. 
It closed in around their hearts. 

The beggar took courage and said, “I am not 

“T’m not either,” said each of the others at the 
same time. Their voices trembled. 

“Today is Christmas,” comforted Pitjevogel. 

“And God will be born anew,” added the shep- 
herd with childish piety. 

“Ts it true that the sheep will then stand with 
their heads turned toward the East?’ asked 

“Yes, and the bees will sing and fly.” 

‘And you will be able to see right through the 
water,” said Pitjevogel, “but I have never 
done it.” 

Again there was this silence, which was dif- 
ferent from silence. It was as if one could feel a 
soul trembling in the moonlight. 

“Do you believe that God will really come to 
earth again?”’ the beggar asked timidly, thinking 
of his sins. 

“Yes,” said the shepherd, “but where, no one 
knows. . . . He only comes for one night.” 

Their hard shadows now ran before them and 
increased their fear. Suddenly they noticed that 
they had lost their way. It was the fault of the 
endless snow which had covered over the frozen 
streams, the roads and the entire countryside. 
They stood still and looked around; all about was 
snow and moonlight, and here and there trees 
but no house, and even the familiar mill was 
nowhere to be seen. They had gone astray, and 
in the moonlight they could see the fear in each 
other’s eyes. 

“Let us pray,” begged Suskewiet, the shepherd, 
“then no evil can happen to us.” 

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December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal iia 

The beggar and the shepherd mumbled a Hail 
Mary. Pitjevogel began to mutter, for since his 
First Communion he had forgotten how to pray. 

They went around a clump of bushes and it was 
then that Pitjevogel saw a stream of friendly light 
in the distance. Without saying a word, but 
breathing more easily, they went toward it. And 
suddenly a miracle happened. All three saw and 
heard it but ~~ did not dare to speak of it. 
They heard the humming of bees and under the 
snow, where the ditches were, it was as light as if 
lamps were burning there. And against a row of 
dreaming willows there stood a lame kermis 
wagon and candle-light shone from its window. 

Pitjevogel climbed up the small steps and 
knocked. A friendly old man with a beard 
opened the door. e did not seem astonished 
at their strange dress, the star or the black face. 

“We have come to ask you the way,” Pitje- 
vogel stammered. 

“The way is here,” said the man, “come in.” 

Amazed at this answer they followed obed- 
iently and in the corner of the cold empty wagon 
they saw a young woman. She wore a blue hooded 
mantle and held a very small new-born babe at 
her breast. A large yellow dog lay at her side 
with his faithful head on her lean knees. Her 
eyes were dreaming in sadness but, as she saw the 
men, they filled with friendliness and confidence. 
Even the little child, whose head was still covered 
with down and whose eyes were like little slits, 
laughed at them and seemed particularly pleased 
with the black face of Pitjevogel. 

Schrobberbeeck saw the shepherd kneel down 
and take off his high hat. He too knelt down and 
took the procession crown from his head and sud- 
denly began to regret the many sins that were on 
his conscience. And then Pitjevogel bent his knee 
as well. And as they knelt sweet voices swelled 
about them and a heavenly happiness, oe 
than any joy, filled them. And none of them 
knew why. 

In the meantime the old man tried to start a 
fire in the small iron stove. Pitjevogel seeing 
that it would not work, asked eagerly: “May I 
help you?” 

“Tt is no use, the wood is wet,” the man replied. 

“But have you no coals?” 

“We have no money,” said the old man sadly. 

“What do you eat then?” asked the shepherd. 

‘“‘We have nothing to eat.” 

Filled with confusion and compassion, the 
Kings looked at the old man and the young 
woman, at the child and the bony dog. Then 
they looked at each other. Their thoughts were 
as one and lo, the stocking with its money was 
emptied into the lap of the woman, and the sack 
of food was turned inside out and all that was in 

it was laid on the shaky little table. Eagerly the 
old man reached for the bread and gave the young 
woman a rosy apple. She turned it before the 
laughing eyes of the child before she bit into it. 

“We thank you,” said the old man. “God will 
reward you.” ... 

Once again they were under way on the road 
which they now knew so well and which led direct 
to the Water Nymph. But the stocking was 
rolled up in Suskewiet’s pocket and the sack was 
empty. They hadn’t a cent or a crumb. 

“Do you know why we gave all of our earnings 
to these poor people?” asked Pitjevogel. 

“No,” said the others. 

“TI don’t either,” Pitjevogel replied. 

A little later the shepherd said, “I think I know 
why. Couldn’t the child have been God?” 

“What are you thinking of?” laughed the eel- 
fisher. ‘God wears a white mantle with borders 
of gold, and He has a beard and wears a crown, 
like in church.” 

“But formerly He was born in a stable at 
Christmas,” asserted the shepherd. 

“Yes, formerly,” said Pitjevogel, “but that was 
a hundred years ago and even longer.” 

“But why did we give everything away then?” 

“I’m breaking my head about that, too,” said 
the beggar whose stomach began to rumble. 

Silently, with lips that thirsted for a generous 
swallow of gin and longed for meat thickly spread 
with mustard, they passed by the Water Nymph. 
It was still lighted and they Scan singing and the 
sounds of a harmonica. 

Pitjevogel gave the star to the shepherd, whose 
task it was to keep it, and without saying a single 
word, but with contentment in their hearts, they 

arted at the crossroads, each one going to his 
bed. The shepherd went to his sheep, the beggar 
to his hut of straw, and Pitjevogel to his garret 
into which the snow drifted. 

II. Left Wing 

Today it was again Christmas. Suskewiet, the 
shepherd, who each year with Pitjevogel and 
Schrobberbeeck had made the rounds dressed as 
the three Holy Kings, going from house to house 
with a cardboard star and singing lovely old 
songs, lay stretched out, sick in bed, and over him 
was the shadow of death. In the corner, leaning 
against the wall, was the pole with its colored 
star and there also hung a crown made of tin. 

He lay, where he always lay, in the sheep stall. 
Through a little window next his bed he could 
look out far over the snow-covered country, over 
which the half-moon like a silver shuttle wove the 
lovely star dress. It was the first time that he 
could not accompany his comrades at Christmas. 
Now the two of them were under way but still 

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si The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

they sang, “We are the three kings with their 

Since the miracle of last year, when they had 
come upon a sm@]J kermis wagon on their rounds, 
and had found there a poor man, a young woman, 
and a new-born child, and for some unknown 
reason, and in a spirit of reverence they had never 
known before, they had knelt down and offered 
all the money and food they had collected, since 
that time Suskewiet had become a different person. 
For he had felt certain that this little child had 
been God, Who came anew to the world each year 
at Christmas for one day. O, he remembered so 
well how they had lost their way in the holy 
hour, how they had seen light, like burning lamps 
under the snow, and how they had heard bees 
singing in the air. How afraid they had been 
and what a heavenly sweetness had come over 
him and the others as well, when they saw the 
little child. How suddenly and with great emo- 
tion, without consulting one another, they had 
offered up their hard-earned food and pennies. 

And had they not heard the poor man say, as 
Pitjevogel had asked him for the way, “The way 
is here”? Surely it had been the Holy Family. 
He had told the priest about it, but he had chased 
him out of doors and the sexton had said disdain- 
fully that the shepherd was only a foundling and 
that his brains had frozen. Wherever he tried to 
tell that he had seen the Holy Family, the 
laughed at him, and his two comrades had al- 
ready forgotten the impression of that hour. 
When they did think of it, they merely said, 
“T'was strange, t’was strange.” But beyond that 
they did not bother about it and they sinned more 
each day in order to get money and gin. 

But Suskewiet had changed his life from the 
ground up. There had always been a faint spark 
of piety smouldering in his heart, but now it 
‘ flamed up to a white heat which filled him with 
heavenly transport and lovely sweet feelings, so 
that his body was hardly on earth. He neglected 
his body and forgot to tend his sheep. He knelt 
before the wayside shrines for hours on end, sang 
pious songs, and prayed childish prayers. He did 
penance, as well, to atone for his former sins, 
and allowed nothing to stop him, when it froze, 
from chopping open the ice and standing with 
his bare feet in the bitter cold water. And as he 
dragged his lame leg behind his herd, he con- 
stantly said his rosary. When he spoke with the 
peasants he no longer talked of the weather and 
the potatoes, but of the Mother of God and the 
Christ Child and of the blackness of sin. People 
who formerly had called him simple now thought 
him fully mad and avoided him. His stories, they 
said, were good enough for the priest but not for 
one who ran about in ordinary clothes. 

With great longing old Suskewiet awaited the 
new Christmas feast. It had been his duty to take 

care of the star and to freshen it up each year. 
This time, too, he had pasted it over with col- ° 
ored paper and chocolate tinfoil and decorated 
it with little golden roses that had been left over 
from a golden wedding. He did not wish to wear 
the high hat any longer, for he had found a piece 
of tin which the tinsmith had made into a pointed 
crown. He would look much better in that. He 
was pottering around with these, when his two 
friends came to talk with him, for they had heard 
that three other Kings would make the rounds 
and that they had a star with a little bell and for 
this reason they would probably earn more pennies. 

But Suskewiet looked at them suspiciously and 
said, “I will only go with you with the star 1f you 
agree to give all the money and food we collect 
to the poor.” 

‘Are you mad?” cried Pitjevogel, the cel-fisher. 

“Are we not poor enough?” asked Schrobber- 
beeck, the beggar with the bleary eyes. 

“No,” said Suskewiet, “all that you have you 
must give to God. And whether we give it to God 
or to the poor is all the same.” 

“Then we will stay home,” said Schrobber- 
beeck. “Do you think that I am going to sing 
myself hoarse for others? One does that once 
and not again.” 

“TI know something better,” said the sly Pitje- 
vogel. “‘We will make a star of our own. Or do 
you think we can’t? ’Bye, mad Sus.” 

“Do what you want to,” the shepherd called | 
after them, but with this star, with which we 
found God, you won’t beg any money in order 
to sin.” 

The heavens painted the first snow over the 
earth and Suskewiet felt himself filled with spir- 
itual ecstasy. He alone would now go from house 
to house to collect money for the poor. But Sus- 
kewiet became ill and could no longer get up from 
his straw sack. 

Christmas approached. The shepherd received 
the Last Sacraments. He had seen the priest with 
his surplice of gold come and go. It was evening 
and the moon came up to look at the white world. 
The tears ran down Suskewiet’s stubbly cheeks 
because he could not celebrate Christmas for the 
benefit of the poor. For forty-four years the star 
had heard him sing his songs. Now death had 
come to him. His heart was barely alive but now 
and then his little reason flickered up. The peo- 
ple from the farm had sat with him for a while, 
but when he had fallen asleep they had gone back 
to the house where the yule log burned and waffles 
were baking. Sadly he heard their joyous noise. 
A clarionet was playing and songs were being 
sung. He had but two hours to live and he begged 
Heaven to allow him to see the holy hour pass. 

His pale thin face lay at an angle so that he 
could see the moon in the sky and the star that 

4 if 

December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal wa 

gleamed in the corner. His hands lay bare, large 
and shrivelled. The fingers were without life. 
Lost as he had come to earth, a foundling, now 
he was to die alone and forsaken. Only the good 
sheep remained with him and lifted their heads 
from time to time over the side of their stall. 
The moon climbed higher and higher and con- 
stantly became smaller but clear as silver. Sus- 
kewiet asked for but one thing, the grace to be 
allowed to go through one more Christmas hour. 

He lay there for a long time. Finally he saw 
here and there by the mill, women in heavy 
hooded mantles with lanterns in their hands, go- 
ing toward the village. The noise from the farm 
house had subsided. Later he heard the chiming 
of bells and the toning of an organ. At first he 
could not believe his ears, for the church was 
three-quarters of an hour away! But it was not 
an illusion. An organ was playing! Soft, sus- 
tained, singing tones swelled up, increasing with 
emotion and deep reverence. He had never heard 
anything so Frei in all his life. Before he could 
recover from his astonishment, he heard the sheep 
begin to bleat and, in the moonlight, he saw that 
they had turned their heads to the East. 

“It is the holy hour,” murmured Suskewiet, 
trembling with excitement. “‘God, God, my star.” 

He wished to get up and fetch the star, but 
he could not. He exerted all his strength, pressed 
the cover with his feet against the foot of the 
bed, and then pulled himself up by means of 
the sheet which was stretched taut. He broke 
forth into a racking cough, and as it subsided, 
with the sweat pouring from his forehead, he 
made a slight headway and put his lean legs over 
the side of the bed. He burst into another fit of 
coughing but without waiting for it to cease, he 
stood upright, leaned against the wall, and then 
step by step, with bent knees, he went toward the 
star. At last he sat on his bed again, the tin 
crown on his head and the star in his arm. 

When he had rested a short while, he took hold 
of the string and looking out into the moonlit 
night he sang in a monotone, accompanied by the 
soft tones of the mysterious organ: 

We are the three kings with their star, 
Who have come here from lands afar, 
We went and searched over hill and dale, 
Over mountains, valley, glens and vale, 
And where the star stood still, 

We entered with good will. 

The tears ran down his cheeks, his body shook 
with spasms and now and again the flame of his 
transfigured soul gleamed from his dim eyes. 

But what or who was that in the distance? A 
stream of light came over the moonlit snow, 
nearer and nearer it came, straight ahead without 
swerving to right or left. Astonished, Suskewiet 
held his breath and thoughtlessly continued to 

pull at the string and turn the star round and 
round. It came nearer and nearer. Finally it 
seemed to be a small child in a little white shirt 
with bare feet. He carried a terrestrial globe in 
his hand, and his sweet blue-eyed face and golden 
hair were surrounded by a sort of rainbow-col- 
ored dawn. 

“Who is that?” murmured Suskewiet. “It 
seems to me I have seen the little child before.” 

The child came straight toward him and dis- 
appeared for a moment under the window. Then 
the door opened. Before him stood the little 
child, clean and fresh as a wild rose. Suddenly 
the stall was filled with the scent of roses. 

‘Good day, Suskewiet,” said the little child, 
smiling kindly. ‘Since you can no longer come to 
me, I have come to you. Do you remember me?” 

A look of strange wonderment came over Sus- 
kewiet, and his smile revealed his two black 
broken teeth. He nodded joyfully, but could not 
say a single word, so great was his emotion, while 
tears hung from the grey stubbly hairs of his 

“Do you?” said the child. “Then keep on with 
your song. I love to hear it.” 

And Suskewiet, filled with awe, took hold of 
the string and sang while his eyes blinked with 
heavenly ecstasy: | 

Maria she was sore afraid, 

When she had heard the noise; 

She thought that Herod now had come, 
To seek her little child, 

She thought that Herod now had come 
To snatch her sweetest lamb. 

__ And lo, the black apple tree which stood out- 
side was not white with snow but white with deli- 
cate apple blossoms. And all the sheep stood 
there and looked over the side of the stall, and 
those in the rear, stood up on the backs of those 
in front. 

“Come,” said the little child, “will you come 
to our house ?” 

“O yes, yes,” laughed Suskewiet. Suddenly he 
felt himself well again. He wanted to put on his 
trousers but it did not seem to be cold and what 
is more he was in a great hurry. He took the star 
and followed the child. But he turned once more 
to look at his sheep who were bleating sadly. 

‘“‘May they not come along?” he asked. “I am 
a shepherd.” 

“The more the merrier,” said the child. 

“Then come along, my little ones, come.” 

Suskewiet opened the gate and all followed, 
one pressing against the other. And they went 
out into the silvery white night. In his little warm 
hand the child held that of the shepherd, and led 
the old man through the untrodden snow. He 
carried the star which gleamed in the moonlight, 

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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

and behind him came the sheep with heads bent 
in reverence. 

“Tt is back there,” said the little child, and 
pointed in the distance to a golden palace that 
reared its towers and domes high over a garden 
filled with spring flowers. 

“O how lovely, how lovely,” said Suskewiet, 
transported, and turning to his sheep. “There the 
grass will be much better, my little ones.” 

And then they entered in... . 

Schrobberbeeck and Pitjevogel returned from 
their rounds. They were drunk with the many 
glasses of gin they had had on their way. Their 
crown was crooked and the star was bent. Arm 
in arm they staggered along singing popular 
songs. Their way led them past the farm yard. 

“QO,” shouted Pitjevogel, “let us shake our 
money in his ears. Not giving us his star.” 

But as they looked through the window, they 
saw Suskewiet sitting on his bed, dead. The tin 
crown was on his head and over it shone the lovely 
star. And the two men ran away in fright, leav- 
ing their broken star behind them... . 

The next day they found Suskewiet. All the 
sheep were grazing in the field. In the stall one 
smelled the scent of roses. 

(The concluding part of this story will appear next week.) 

Tyrol Christmas 
Not like any other night is this! 
It is black, crépy black 
In the room 
Where the mother’s heavy hand rouses children in the 
Of their dark enormous bed, 
And her candle’s light is spread 
Along the rafters as she goes 
To the cattle in the stall 
Just beyond the smoky wall 
Of her kitchen. 
And the door 
Opens more, 
Creaking on its iron hinge 
Near the beasts. 
Then the children hear the hoofs’ little fall 
In the house... . 
In their house. 

Not like any other night, 

For the warm earthy house is awake and astir, 
And the sleigh standing there before the white 
Frosted panes 

Has its bells in a whir 

Of dancing sound. 

The children do not speak, 

Huddled under thick fur 

On the straw of the sleigh 

And they creep, and they creep, and they creep 
To make place for their mother. 

The bells run bright and faint 

From the last clanking door, 

Round and round, round and round, 
Through the turns and the bends 

By the crests and the fens 

And the road running over iced bridges. 

In the low sky the magnified stars 

Shaft the cold black with gold bars 

That reach from the heights to the manger. 
And the space by the church is alive 

With the bells and the lamps in between 
The gnarled trees, 

And the sheen 

From the vapor of so many moving 

Gives the vision of flown gauzy wings 

Of a low floating swings 

Of heavenly robes through the branches; 
As through down a black stair, 

Like globes in black air 

Of vanishing light 

All the angels 

Melt and return 

Tangle and burn 

Through, the stark brittle twigs of the forest. 

From the sharp, stone house by the river 

The charity house by the river 

Walks slowly, one after the other 

The poor of this place. 

Three women, old and how muffled, 

Safe and unruffled, 

Waiting in age. 

They are first through the oaken, arched doorway, 

With their thick candle’s glow on their faces, 

And their stiff hands slow at the places 

Where the iron sconce for the tapers bracket the ends 
of the benches. 

And the children gaze at the manger. 
Straight and unveiled is the mother, 

White as a reed, unafraid. 

They see the figures of oxen 

Look over a mossy wall 

To warm with their patient breathing 

The chill enswaddled One. 

They see straw that is crisp as the new bed, 
So slippery and yellow that their mother had spread 
In the house for those beasts of their own— 
And they think 

“Not so different, not so far.” 

All this in the midnight forest— 
The children, the three poor women, 
The blown candles like small flags unfurled, 
The rugged voice singing, singing, 
All this in the midnight forest 
Wrapped in the midnight forest 
Of the world. 
ANNE Ryan. 

















December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal 



TIAL campaign 
of 1936 has be- 
n at last—very belat- 
edly. A presidential cam- 
paign has four stages, 
the first and longest be- 
gins in the year before 
the conventions, and is 
the growth, development 
and finally the flowering 
of the decision on who shall be the candidates and 
what shall be the issue. The second is the fight 
for the nominations at the conventions. ‘The 
third is the interlude after the nominations, in 
which the parties merely shadow-box and are busy 
behind the scenes organizing for the fight; an 
extremely busy period for the actors, but produc- 
tive of no thrills for the audience. The fourth is 
the battle proper, and this stage is the shortest of 
all, usually not beginning until September and not 
getting down to the punches until October. 

We have now entered on the first stage, and 
did so on November 6, the day after the election 
of 1935. This is an unprecedentedly late start, 
unprecedented since the campaigns took their 
present shape. A hundred years ago they were 
much longer and began much earlier. The 1832 
campaign, for instance, was officially started in 
December, 1831, when the National Republican 
Convention—in later years called the Whigs— 
nominated Henry Clay and John Sergeant. Clay’s 
opponent, Andrew Jackson, had been nominated 
in 1825 to be elected in 1828. The Democratic 
Convention of 1836 met in May, 1835, and nom- 
inated Van Buren. The Whigs that year thought 
it foxier politics to hold no conventions and to 
side-track from the all-conquering Jackson hosts 
as many electoral votes as possible by nominating 
several candidates, each a favorite in his own 
locality. ‘This, too, was done in 1835 and, with 
some of the candidates, even earlier. 

The Civil War brought a change, and the Con- 
vention which renominated Lincoln was held in 
June of the election year. The Republicans have 
held June as the convention month ever since ex- 
cept in 1868, the Democrats usually but not in- 
variably waiting until July. After the nomina- 
tions there is a time of furious but not much 
publicized work organizing the two armies, and 
the fight, so far as the public sees it, begins when 
that organization is perfected, which is never any 
earlier than September. Even then so much re- 
mains to be done that the real cannonading does 

ing the coming months. 

For several years past, Mr. Thompson has analyzed 
campaign issues for readers of "THE COMMONWEAL. 
He is a veteran writer on the subject, having to his 
credit a great deal of newspaper experience as well as 
several important books. It is a source of gratification 
to us that Mr. Thompson will be back at his post dur- 
Two initial articles, of which 
the second will appear next week, describe the back- 
ground and opening phases of the battie. Of course Mr. 
Thompson’s views are strictly his own.—The Editors. 

not begin before Octo- 
ber, when the candidate 
—not formerly, but since 
1896—takes the stump. 
If he is already Presi- 
dent, he never does; it is 
against tradition. 

The reason why the 
ante-convention cam- 
paign cannot begin until 
the year before the elec- 
tion is that until then there is no possible way of 
knowing along what lines the fight is to be made. 
That discovery is made—or has been, prior to 
this campaign—in November, two years before 
the presidential election. In that year the people 
elect a new Congress and a number of governors, 
and for the first time express their satisfaction or 
displeasure with the sitting President. The study 
of these election returns not only shows whether 
the country approves him or not, but gives a line 
on its reasons. The opposition immediately 
shapes its course on the issues so disclosed, and 
candidates who do not typify that course are dis- 
carded and others come forward. The party in 
power corrects its course in the light of the mid- 
administration election and prepares its campaign 

This has been the history of the past seventy 
years. Each time the mid-administration election 
of a Congress and state governors has presaged 
the presidential result two years later. For ex- 
ample, in 1930 the election of Democratic gov- 
ernors and a Democratic Congress foretold 
President Roosevelt’s landslide in 1932. By this 
rule the election of 1934, repeating that land- 
slide, should foretell another landslide for him 
in 1936. But for the first time since 1864 the mid- 
administration barometer is not an infallible in- 
dication, because of the unprecedented conditions 
resulting from the crisis of 1929-1936. For the 
first time the parties were cable to decide their 
strategy with certainty from that mid-administra- 
tion election, and made no move to plan it until 
the election held on November 5 this year. 

This resulted from the complete political break 
with the past in 1933. All landmarks were oblit- 
erated, and the old charts were useless. In the 
paralysis of the American economy which was 
most spectacularly presented to the imagination, 
just as Roosevelt was entering office, by the clos- 
ing of the banks, the country looked to Washing- 
ton for emergency legislation. It was ready to 
trust the captain. It did not become converted 


a The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

overnight to new economic ideas, but held all 
traditional opinions in abeyance while he righted 
the ship. is measures were all experimental, 
and some worked well and some did not. When 
the crisis was over, the emergency past, the coun- 
try had leisure to take its bearings and see how 
far it had cruised and whether it liked the port 
it was making for. This was the moment for 
which the politicians of both parties were wait- 
ing, in order to get the country’s temper and 
determine their line-up accordingly. 

Precedent would have made the mid-adminis- 
tration election of 1934 the time for taking stock. 
In any previous case it would have been. But the 
general fecling in the country was that the emer- 
gency was not yet over and that the blank check 
given the President was still running. That elec- 
tion, instead of being the decisive test and the 
barometer for 1936, was simply and solely the 
continuation of the temporary carte-blanche given 
Roosevelt in 1932. 

It was so recognized in both parties, and 
neither proceeded to form the battle-lines with 
the confidence and precision customary in such 
cases, or really to form them at all. The parties 
marked time. The Republicans, having still no 
star to guide them, remained undecided whether 
to attack the New Deal or to adopt a middle 
course. The much-advertised regional confer- 
ences gave more or less encouragement to the 
latter idea, but hesitatingly and doubtfully. 

Then came the first indication of a possibly 
profitable policy for them—and, it follows, for 
the Democrats. In Rhode Island a vacant seat 
in Congress was filled at a special election, and 
the issue was the New Deal. The Republicans 
won a sounding victory. About the same time 
municipal elections in Connecticut reinforced that 
hint. This might indicate only that the East was 
turning against the New Deal. So, to get a wider 
showdown, the Republicans proposed a similar 
trial in the Midwest. There were vacant con- 
gressional seats in Ohio and Illinois, and the Re- 
publicans urged that they be filled by elections 
there as the Rhode Island seat had been filled. 
But the Democrats refused the trial, and the 
Republicans assumed—doubtless correctly—that 
they feared the same result as in Rhode Island. 
The moral effect of that refusal was to strengthen 
Republican confidence. 

However, all there was to go on, so far, was 
Rhode Island and, to some extent, Connecticut. 
In November there were state elections in New 
York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Kentucky, 
and a notable city election in Philadelphia. All 
these states had been counted as Democratic next 
year by Mr. Farley, and not claimed with any 
assurance by the Republicans. New York, 
Roosevelt’s state, had gone overwhelmingly not 
only for him in 1932 but also necdomanty for 

Governor Lehman in 1934, and the most stren- 
uous efforts were made by the Democrats to re- 
peat those results. New Jersey also had been 
Democratic in 1932. Pennsylvania, in 1934, had 
abandoned its record as the banner Republican 
state and elected a Democratic governor. He 
and Senator Guffey, backed by the power of the 
federal administration, were building up a power- 
ful organization there. 

The result in New York was that the Repub- 
licans recaptured the State Assembly by a com- 
fortable majority. They had made the New Deal 
the issue, and Mr. Farley had had the poor judg- 
ment to accept it openly as such. The total Demo- 
cratic vote was still much larger than the Re- 
publican, but had fallen off tremendously from 
the relative strength of 1932 and 1934. New 
Jersey went Republican by a total vote which 
nearly doubled the majority it gave Governor 
Hoffman in 1934. Pennsylvania, which a year 
ago elected a Democratic governor, went Repub- 
lican this year, and the high Democratic hopes of 
adding Philadelphia to the cities captured in 1932 
were dashed by Mayor Wilson’s election. 

In all these elections, as in the Rhode Island 
one earlier, the New Deal was either the main 
issue Or a very prominent one. In Pennsylvania 
it was attacked by the Republican candidate, 
though he was only a candidate for a state judge- 
ship. In addition, the municipal elections in Ohio 
resulted in the capture of mayorships formerly 
held by Democrats, and this was taken by the 
Republicans as an indication that the Democratic 
refusal to allow a congressman to be voted for in 
that state was based on a fear that the tide was 

Only in Kentucky was there any comfort for 
the Democrats. Governor Chandler was elected 
by an immense majority. But the general moral 
of the elections was not changed by that incident; 
it was, if anything, reinforced. For Kentucky 
was the only state in which the New Deal was 
not an issue. Not only did the Republican candi- 
date, Judge Swope, refuse to attack it or to say 
anything about it, but Republican speakers who 
were hostile to it were kept out of the state. In 
other words, the two proposed Republican policies 
were tried out; and wherever the policy of assail- 
ing the New Deal was tried there were gains. 
In the only state where the middle-of-the-road 
policy was tried the Republicans were worse 
beaten than usual, even for Kentucky. 

Three major suggestions to the politicians of 
both parties were made by the election. First, 
that the Republican party, which for three years 
has appeared dying if not dead, is again alive and 
able to fight. Second, that the country regards 
the time of emergency and experiment as over, 
and is back in its former mood of weighing and 
considering governmental acts. Third, that east 



bls As, i 


the +73 t 




December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal 

of the Mississippi there is not only a strong dis- 
approval of the New Deal, but a growing one. 

On this last point it must be remembered that 
the change, while not yet actually threatening to 
the Democrats, is a change since this time a year 
ago, which is a very short time. Last year the 
East was as strong for Roosevelt as the West; 
the returns of 1934 show it. The question, there- 
fore, is whether this change—which undoubtedly 
began with the Supreme Court’s decision against 
the NRA—will continue to grow at its present 
very obvious rate. 

What does “the East” mean? Maryland is a 
hotbed of anti-New Deal sentiment, and as for 
the states north of it, their citizens are usually 
moved by about the same considerations as those 
in the states that voted this year. So is the Mid- 
west as far as the Mississippi and the indications 
in Ohio and Illinois, slight as they have been, give 
no sign that this year will be an exception. 

The Democratic high command are as capable 
of sizing up this situation as the Republican, prob- 
ably more so. They are, therefore, preparing to 
meet a possibly hostile East with a friendly trans- 
Mississippi, reinforced by the historically solid 
South. The AAA is relied on for that, much 
more than any supposed Western radicalism. 
From Bryan’s time down it has been repeatedly 
proved that reliance on Western radicalism is a 
reed, not a staff. 

The strategy of 1936, therefore, was defined 
on November 5. Kentucky is the unanswerable 
proof that the Republicans can win nothing by 
pussyfooting, cannot win even such a respectable 
vote as would make them a formidable minority 
party. They must hold what they won in the 
East; gain those Eastern states, like New York, 
which are showing discontent but not yet giving 
Republican majorities; and, since this is not 
enough to elect a President, pick up what Western 
states they can. For this purpose they must nom- 
inate a Western candidate; and, since the stimu- 
lated booms of Colonel Knox and others are scat- 
tered by the November returns, the outstanding 
candidate in their ranks now is Governor Landon 
of Kansas, whose administration has been such as 
to result in his being called ‘the inheritor of the 
Coolidge tradition.” The political meaning of 
that, to be explanatory to the uninitiated, is that 
though he is not radical, there is no “taint” of 
Hooverism on him. 

The Democratic strategy, being of course de- 
fensive, needs less space. It is, like all defensive 
strategy, to meet the attack, and the election has 
shown Democracy at what points to meet it. The 
rest is tactics, not strategy; and the tactics will 
consist in playing up the AAA even more than 
before, and in such congressional proposals—or 
enactments—as will best counter Republican tac- 
tics. The coming session will be a political session. 


CHOLASTIC PHILOSOPHY, it seems, is coming 
into its own in this part of the country, and the sev- 
eral institutions of higher learning, Catholic and non- 
Catholic alike, that are located in the San Francisco Bay 
Region, are contributing their share in making the prin- 
ciples of the Philosophia Perennis live and breathe. The 
completion of the new College of St. Albert the Great, 
the future home of the Dominican Fathers now in the 
process of construction in the city of Oakland, will add 
new vigor to the spirit of scholastic research, and the 
daughters of St. Dominic, working at Dominican College 
across the bay, are engaged in carrying to new heights 
a venerable philosophical and liturgical tradition. 

Two years ago, the first Pacific Coast Regional Con- 
vention of the American Catholic Philosophical Associ- 
ation was held at the University of San Francisco, under 
the auspices of Most Reverend Edward J. Hanna, at 
that time Archbishop of San Francisco, and Most Rev- 
erend John J. Mitty who was then Coadjutor Archbishop 
and has in the meantime become Archbishop Hanna’s 
successor. The convention had not proven entirely suc- 
cessful, partly because the program had attempted to take 
in too much territory and because it had staked its hope 
and ambition on a broad popular appeal. The realization 
of serious defects in the preparations, the offerings and 
the proceedings led afterward to the formation of a stand- 
ing association of priests and laymen under the presidency 
of Reverend Charles Baschab, professor of philosophy at 
Dominican College, San Raffael, California. This group 
of approximately thirty men, actively engaged in the teach- 
ing of philosophy or related professional work, were to 
meet on the third Monday of each month to listen to a 
specially prepared paper on scholastic philosophy and to 
discuss the problems involved. 

During the first year of its activity, the Philosophical 
Association attempted to clear the ground for a fruitful 
cooperation of its members, the topics of discussion were 
picked rather at random, and no hard and fast rule was 
adhered to. At the end of the first year, however, a 
committee was appointed to work out a well-integrated 
program for future research. The result was a definite 
plan which called for a series of sixteen papers dealing 
generally with the problem of knowledge, developed from 
the viewpoint of psychology. Among others, the follow- 
ing topics are to be dealt with: the Nature of Life 
(Mechanism, Vitalism, Scholasticism); the Nature and 
Genesis of Sense; the Nature and Genesis of Intellect; 
the Genesis of Fundamental Ideas; Locke, Berkeley, 
Hume, and Sense Knowledge; Scholastic Theories of In- 
tellectual Knowledge; Descartes, Kant, Hegel, Bergson 
and Intellectual Knowledge; Neo-Realism, Critical Real- 
ism and Knowledge. 

In addition to this internal cooperative effort of the 
association, special attention was given to a careful prepa- 
ration of the Second Pacific Coast Regional Convention 
of the national association which was held on October 25 

He = 
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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

and 26 of this year under the auspices of Archbishop 
Mitty at the Fairmont Hotel in San Francisco. ‘“Schol- 
astic Ethics and Modern Society” had been chosen as a 
general topic, and papers were presented on “Ethics and 
Economics,” “Ethics and the State,” “Ethics and Edu- 
cation,” “Ethics and the Family,” “Ethics and Art,” 
“Ethics and Religion.” There were four major sessions 
in all, each consisting of the presentation of one or more 
papers and formal as well as informal discussions from 
the floor. The Friday morning session was preceded by 
a solemn High Mass (Coram Pontifice) in St. Mary’s 
Cathedral, Gregorian music being provided by the Schola 
Cantorum under the direction of Reverend Edgar Boyle, 
Archdiocesan Director of Music, and a sermon suited to 
the occasion being preached by Monsignor Ramm of St. 
Mary’s Cathedral. At the concluding luncheon Brother 
Leo, the former chancellor of St. Mary’s College, pro- 
fessor of English literature and most popular speaker in 
the West, addressed a large audience on “The Sleeping 
Beauty.” His speech will not be forgotten because it 
symbolized and illustrated the theme and objective of the 
convention by giving emphasis to the vitality of philo- 
sophic thought and by combining simplicity with supreme 
lucidity and profundity. It might be worth mentioning 
that some individual representatives of the leading secu- 
lar universities attended and took an active part in dis- 
cussions from the floor. 

Komoka, Canada. 

O the Editor: On March 7, 1935, Exarch Leonid 

Theodoroff, head of the Russian Catholic Church 
and Protonotary Apostolic, died in exile near Vyatka, 
U.S.S.R. He had embraced Catholicism while studying 
in the Orthodox Theological Academy in St. Petersburg. 
Later he completed his theological studies at the Gre- 
gorian University in Rome and became a monk. Return- 
ing home, he was soon exiled by the imperial government 
to Tobolsk—for spreading Catholicism. Early in 1917, 
Father Theodoroff was named Exarch of Russia by 
Metropolitan Andrew Sheptitsky, Archbishop of Lviv. 
(Metropolitan Andrew had been empowered previously 
by Pope Pius X with practically patriarchal jurisdiction. ) 
After the 1917 Revolution, Monsignor Leonid was able 
to exercise a fruitful apostolate for some time, but in 1923 
the Soviet government arrested him, along with Mon- 
signor Cieplak and Monsignor Budkievich, and con- 
demned him to prison for ten years. ‘This term was spent 
first in Moscow, then on the Solovetsky Islands, and, 
finally, at Vyatka. 

On March 24, 1923, at the trial of Archbishop Cieplak 
in Moscow, Exarch Leonid spoke as follows to his Bolshe- 
vist judge: 

“My whole life has been based on two principles: love 
of the Roman Church with which I am united, and love 
of my country, which I venerate. If I do not care whether 

I am sentenced to ten years’ imprisonment or to be shot, it 

is not because I am a fanatic. Sometimes the innocent 
must be killed in order that the guilty may not escape. 
Since I became a Catholic, my one object has been to re- 
concile my country with that Church, which I believe to 
be the only true Church. Under the old government 
[czarist] I was imprisoned in Tobolsk for two and a half 
years. . . . If we believe Holy Scripture, that all power 
comes from God, then as a Catholic priest I must admit 
that this your power also comes from God and perhaps 
it is sent us as a punishment for our sins. . . . Authority is 
one thing, atheistic propaganda quite another. I have al- 
ways fought atheism and proved its impotence. I have 
often spoken at meetings in Petrograd where politics was 
excluded, and no one present could be found to accuse me 
of having even touched on politics in my speeches.” 

When Latin Catholics pray after non-parochial low 
Mass for Russia, let them of their generosity remember 
this confessor of Christ: that God may grant rest, re- 
freshment and the light of His countenance to His servant 
Leonid where there is no suffering, sorrow or sighing, but 
everlasting peace. “In paradisum deducant be Angeli; 
in tuo adventu suscipiant te Martyres, et perducant te 
in civitatem sanctam Jerusalem’’! 

On March 24, 1927, Pope Pius XI said: 

“Every day, without exception, every day now for a 
long time, immediately after waking, we remember Russia 
at Holy Mass—all its priests, all its confessors, and all its 
faithful, Catholic and non-Catholic. At every Eucharist 
we penetrate Russia with our Lord Jesus Christ. Every 
day He travels with us from Minsk to Vladivostok, from 
Tiflis to the Solovetsky Islands. We bless, we pray, we 
hope together, and above all we suffer with them—with 
them all.” 

The Russian Byzantine Catholic Church dates its be- 
ginning only from the 1905 ukase of liberty. Who can tell 
the future? How inappropriate one petition of the Byzan- 
tine Anaphora must seem to Russian priests: “We offer 
Thee this spiritual worship . . . for our pious and Christ- 
loving rulers, for their court and army. Grant them, 
Lord, a quiet reign, that we, too, in their peace, may lead 
a calm and tranquil life in all devotion and honesty.” 

M. Gray. 

Spring Hill, Ala. 

O the Editor: Your editorial of October 25 on 
“Mexico’s War on Religion” was a convincing con- 
firmation of its title, especially its citations from the re- 
port issued by the deputation of the American Committee 
on Religious Rights ; but the conclusions of both seem lame 
and ineffective. Diffusion of the facts irrefutably sus- 
taining their judgment, that the Mexican government “is 
seeking the abelition of religion itself in substantially the 
same way as the Soviet government of Russia,” is most 
commendable; but when the American public have re- 
ceived this further enlightenment on an already obvious 

fact, what will you have them to do about it? 

At this moment Mexico’s children are being atheized, 
its church, clergy and Catholic laity, robbed, banned, jailed 


ARS & 


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December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal 


and filched of all liberty, and Christ and all Christian 
sanctities are being made anathema, by all the forces of 
this government in its war against God. Cardenas has 
outstripped even Calles in conscience-catching and religion- 
killing decrees and devices, and after their issue our Mr. 
Daniels took occasion to eulogize Cardenas before his 
fellow ambassadors and the diplomatic corps as a model of 
courage, ability and social progressiveness. No wonder 
the Mexican government could then afford to scoff at the 
united Bishops’ petition for fundamental liberty. And 
President Roosevelt’s equally absolute rejection of the de- 
mand of the Knights of Columbus and of countless other 
citizens that he permit congressional inquiry into denial 
of American rights in Mexico and demand justice in the 
matter, would confirm the opinion that our Ambassador’s 
frequent utterances and gestures in favor of Mexico’s 
rulers and their persecuting policy were made and sus- 
tained by his government’s sanction. - 

For us, then, it is more than a question of religious per- 
secution in a foreign country. I have shown and proved 
by incontrovertible documents in the little book “No God 
Next Door” that for over a century our administrations 
have, by armed force and by diplomatic and financial and 
other influences, put and kept in power the persecuting 
minorities in Mexico. I have shown, too, that the Supreme 
Masonic Councils in Mexico and the Supreme Council of 
the Scottish Rite 33rd degree in Washington have power- 
fully furthered or directed the operation; and it is sig- 
nificant that just before President Roosevelt’s blank re- 
fusal to apply to Mexico the action of himself and his 
predecessors against persecution elsewhere, he, as a 32nd 
degree Mason, initiated his two sons into Masonry, the 
first achievement of the kind by an American President. 

Whatever significance this may have portended, it is 
clearly a civic American duty to repair the injustices we 
have inflicted or are inflicting upon Mexico and direct our 
government’s servants to that end. This is a religious 
duty in as much as it is binding on the conscience of every 
citizen by vote and influence to direct his representatives 
aright; and it is only more incumbent on Catholics in so 
far as Catholics happen in this instance to be the sufferers. 
How we may fulfil this duty I have tried to show in 
readable as well as reachable form in “No God Next 
Door,” a 200-page book, which Hirten of New York 
has issued at $.25 and at large discount for quantities. 
A large first edition has been sold. Its still wider circula- 
tion by pastors and societies would demand more urgent 
commendation than a pamphlet, however valuable in its 
facts, that defers the remedial action to a distant and 
doubtful tribunal. 

Meanwhile, the National Board of the Knights of Co- 
lumbus have set an inspiring example of courageous civic 
action to American citizens of all classes, whether lay or 
cleric. The similarly American and most practically 
helpful action of the entire hierarchy should silence all 
dissentious whisperings and ensure a united citizenry reso- 
lute to exact, by demand and protest and voice and vote, 
the fullness of American justice in all our dealings with 
the suffering nation at our doors. 

Rev. Kenny, S.J. 

New York, N. Y. 

O the Editor: This Christmas the Marquette League 

for Catholic Indian Missions, with offices at 105 
East 22nd Street, New York City, is making a special 
appeal in behalf of the Alaskan Missions in response to 
the touching plea of His Excellency Most Reverend 
Joseph R. Crimont, S.J., D.D., Vicar-Apostolic of 
Alaska. Bishop Crimont writes: 

“As I look at you closely, my friends, I discover, fur- 
rowing your brows, the still bleeding wounds of the worst 
economic depression. In such hard circumstances, how 
can I be justified in making a special appeal of my own? 
Ah, friends, necessity has no law. Here is my pleading: 

“We have four boarding-schools with 500 Eskimo and 
Indian children to support. Last year there was serious 
question of closing two of these schools; and as for the 
surviving ones, of sending home the greater part of the 
pupils, because means were lacking to further feed and 
clothe them. But how could we cast out on the streets 
(i.e., the bleak Alaskan tundra) these helpless innocent. 
children to starve body, mind and soul, and become the 
sure prey of the wolves of earth and hell? 

“At Holy Cross, our main boarding-school, a new 
house needs to be built for our little tots, if we do not 
want to rise one sad morning, and behold with horror 
that these precious little things have been crushed out of 
existence by the fallen roof and walls and buried under 
the ruins of the poor, rotten structure wherein they are 

“Above all, it is daily bread that we want for the chil- 
dren of our four boarding-schools. We have resolved 
not to cut down their number, as for the greater part of 
them, there is no home to be found except that of our 

“Who will not find it in his or her heart to come to 
our assistance and experience the blessedness of giving 
to Christ in His children?” 

I should like very much to have our Catholic people 
give the venerable and saintly Bishop of Alaska a sub- 
stantial sum for the needs of his many missions—enough, 
at least, to buy food and fuel for his four boarding-schools 
for the coming winter. 

Bishop Crimont is now seventy-eight years of age, and 
has spent forty-two years in the missions of Alaska. He 
has just completed a visitation of all the missions in his 
vast vicariate, which covers over 600,000 square miles. 
Our Holy Father has pronounced it the poorest and 
hardest mission country in all the world. 

In return for their charity in answer to the heroic and 
zealous Bishop’s appeal, the Christ Child will reward 
them abundantly with spiritual and temporal blessings. 

Rr. Rev. Msocr. WitiiaM J. Fiynn, P.A., 
Director General, Marquette League. 

We regret that in last week's issue, page 178, the Mas- 
ter Record used in Electrical Transcription was erroneous- 

ly spelled Moser Record—The Editors. 


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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

Seoen Days’ Suroey 

The Church.—The National Broadcasting Company 
has announced Christmas broadcasts from two famous 
European abbeys. On Christmas Eve the midnight ser- 
vices at the Buckfast Benedictine Abbey at Devon, En- 
gland, will be heard on American radio sets from 5:15 to 
5:30 p. m., Eastern Standard Time; from 6:15 to 6:30, 
midnight services from the Benedictine Abbey of Solesmes, 
France, will be broadcast. * * * The Catholic Times of 
London confirms the discovery of a small fragment of a 
papyrus of the first half of the second century, containing 
a Greek text of a portion of Saint John’s Gospel, which 
is believed to be the earliest extant text of the Gospel. 
* * * The Lactario of Coimbra, Portugal, recently cele- 
brated its twelfth anniversary. This group of Catholic 
medical students distributes more than 2,000 gallons of 
milk annually to the poor, conducts a free clinic for 
physiotherapy and X-ray treatment and a pharmacy which 
is supplied with free medicine. They also provide food, 
clothing, fuel and other necessities. * * * The Dramatic 
Union of Our Lady of Lourdes of New York has under- 
taken to perform each month for the benefit of subscribers 
a good play “compatible with Catholic principles and 
ideals and the canons of good taste.” * * * The S.S. Albert- 
ville which sailed from Antwerp some weeks ago carried 
77 Catholic missionaries to the Belgian Congo, 50 of 
them priests. * * * The Journal of the American Medical 
Association has commended for physicians and nurses a 
pamphlet entitled “Baptism of the Infant and the Fetus,” 
by Reverend John Bowen and published by M. J. Knippel 
of Dubuque, Iowa. * * * On a visit to his birthplace the 
Most Reverend Marcelino Olaecha, S.S., the new Bishop 
of Pamplona, Spain, received a tremendous ovation from 
the factory workers. The son of a mechanic, Bishop 
Olaecha has devoted his life to the sons of laborers and is 
known as the “Labor Bishop.” His congregation, the 
Salesians, have 50 houses in Spain, where in the last few 
years they have educated more than 300,000 sons of the 
workers. * * * Reports from the Philippines indicate that 
there is still a dire shortage of priests. Some parishes with 
a single priest comprise from 20,000 to 50,000 people. 

The Nation.—The United States capital spilled over 
into Baltimore when Secretary Ickes could not find office 
space in Washington for new bureaus. * * * The Federal 
Housing Administration announced that its business had 
passed $500,000,000. It predicted that next year 175,000 
new homes would be built. Regularly there are more 
than 1,000,000 marriages a year in the country, and just 
before the depression one new home was constructed for 
about every three marriages. Senator Wagner is said to 
have a bill ready to present in January which would pro- 
vide an appropriation of $800,000,000 for federal housing 
during the new year. * * * In New Jersey the State 
Cleaning and Dyeing Board took an action radically 

opposed to the most publicized present actions of business 

when it voluntarily set up a most inclusive “NRA” code 
to govern the local industry. * * * President Green of the 
A. F. of L. refused a queer invitation of John L. Lewis 
to join the group of industrial unionists who are trying to 
make industrial unionism dominant over craft. The 
horizontal-vertical contest continues, and most observers 
concede the vertical forces headed by Lewis the best 
chance of victory. This would make John L. Lewis one 
of the very few most powerful men in the country. * * * 
In Georgia a Superior Court declared unconstitutional 
the state anti-sedition law of 1866 by which Angelo 
Herndon, Negro Communist organizer, was held under 
arrest. His case has been publicized as nearly like the 
Scottsboro, Mooney and Sacco-Vanzetti cases as radicals 
have been able to make it. * * * When the United States 
Treasury made no bids for silver two days in a row, the 
great silver markets had to cease giving quotations on the 
white metal. The effort of China to join the “sterling 
bloc” is said to have changed the Treasury policy. * * * The 
second anniversary of the repeal of prohibition occurred on 
December 5. Only eight states are now dry, although a 
new dry movement is growing more powerful. Con- 
sumption of alcoholics in 1934 was 70 percent as great 
as in 1917. * * * On December 14 the Literary Digest poll 
stood 274,830 or 42.76 percent for the New Deal and 
367,881 or 57.24 percent against it. Seven states, all 
Southern, favored, while nineteen were against it. The 
farm belt, strangely, was running 3 to 2 in opposition. 

The Wide World.—On December 4, Premier Laval 
communicated to the Italian government a proposal to 
effect a compromise between Italy and Ethiopia. It was 
indicated that Italy was slated to acquire substantial por- 
tions of territory, while Emperor Haile Selassie’s “desire” 
for a port was to be satisfied by the cession of a strip of 
land ending near the town of Assab. The terms of the 
proposal evidently secured the endorsement of Sir Samuel 
Hoare; and the press stated that Paris, annoyed by Musso- 
lini’s truculent attitude, was prepared to stand solidly 
behind Britain in case efforts to effect a peaceful settle- 
ment of the war in Africa failed. Details of the plan 
were made public on December 9, and it was obvious that 
Italian demands had made a deeper impression than pre- 
viously. Indignation was rife in London, and there were 
rumors that the House of Commons would oppose the 
Hoare-Laval step in a stormy session and that Sir Anthony 
Eden would resign. His Majesty’s government was said 
to have accepted the proposed peace terms, with certain 
modifications. More optimism was reported from Italy, 
but the alternative to acceptance of the offer remained the 
invocation of sanctions against the sale of oil to Italy. 
The tightening of all regulations affecting commerce and 
money, as well as a still more rigid censorship of the 

news, revealed the tension in I] Duce’s own back yard. . 

* * * The principal military episode was the bombing of 


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December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal — 


Dessye on December 6, with a resultant toll of killed and 
wounded. A field hospital conducted under American 
auspices was the target for some of the firing, though the 
inmates had previously been removed. ‘The headquarters 
of the Emperor are at Dessye, but he escaped injury. 
Skirmishing was also reported from the southern front. 
*** The London Naval Conference opened on Decem- 
ber 9, after the delegates had been informed of a Japanese 
demand for full parity. A statement incorporating the 
Nipponese stand was said by the Associated Press to have 
been presented to the British Admiralty. When the Con- 
ference met, Mr. Norman H. Davis read a letter from 
President Roosevelt, suggesting that a reduction of 20 
percent in the naval armament of the world be sought. 
Any reduction, the President opined, would be better than 
none at all; but at least the existing treaties ought to be 
renewed. ‘This stand was supported in part by Mr. 
Stanley Baldwin, who advocated in particular the drastic 
curtailment of submarine warfare. * * * Discussion of the 
fate of North China continued. On December 7, re- 
ports indicated that a compromise had been effected, under 
which the sovereignty of Nanking would be recognized 
in a measure. Later on some Chinese resistance to the 
proposal was indicated. Both the British and the United 
States governments protested in statements against Jap- 
anese policy in North China. * * * ‘The Laval government 
was saved from defeat, by a vote of 351 to 219, when 
Jean Ybarnegaray, member of the Croix de Feu, moved 
that all political groups be disarmed. This conciliatory 
gesture stirred the Chambre, which adopted the laws 
effecting disarmament as proposed by M. Laval. * * *-In 
a speech at Nuremberg, Chancellor Hitler opposed the 
views concerning the beneficence of capitalism which had 
been voiced some weeks previous by Dr. Hjalmar Schacht. 
He did not, however, mention Schacht by name, and the 
general assumption was that Hitler was merely trying to 
placate radical groups. 

* * * 

Industrial Cooperation.—In Washington, on Decem- 
ber 9, Coordinator for Industrial Cooperation George L. 
Berry, under the most trying circumstances, opened an 
industry-labor round table conference which had been 
planned to give a program for reemployment and stabili- 
zation of prosperity to take the place of the defunct NRA. 
Only four days previously, the National Association of 
Manufacturers, which represents 75,000 business enter- 
prises estimated to employ from 12,000,000 to 15,000,000 
workers, had adopted a militant program pledging the 
members to political action to defeat “President Roose- 
velt’s new economic order.”” Major Berry planned to 
conduct the general conference quickly through discussion 
of thirteen topics selected from the innumerable ones sug- 
gested. He then hoped that the conference would break 
up into forty-eight industrial groups and thirteen labor 
groups and that each of these groups would select a rep- 
resentative to become a member of a new Industrial 
Council. The council would be a permanent organ to 
accomplish the purposes of cooperative effort for better- 
ment. ‘The group meetings would also clarify sugges- 

tions about what should be done. But opposition to the 
coordinator’s idea developed powerfully even before the 
conference, as reported last week, and only about 2,000 
of the 5,200 invitations to the conference were accepted 
at all. Then, on the first day, when Major Berry tried 
to adjourn the general meeting into group conferences, 
such violent opposition developed that a large police squad 
had to come in and keep the peace. It was at first be- 
lieved that the whole conference was ruined completely, 
but on succeeding days some order and clarification came 
about. All 109 national and international unions of the 
A. F. of L. supported the proposal for an Industrial 
Council. A sufficient number of industrial groups imme- 
diately chose members for the council, or indicated that 
they would refer back to the businesses they represented 
for members, to keep things going. Other groups, refusing 
to designate members, still contributed plans for the relief 
of unemployment and economic recovery. But the new 
Industrial Council still must face great hostility from 
those business men who heartily dislike the whole concep- 
tion of the government “interfering” in business. 

The Berlin Olympics.—The function of the Amateur 
Athletic Union, which convened in New York on De- 
cember 6, is to certify the amateur standing of American 
athletes. It was called upon, however, to consider a num- 
ber of resolutions concerning participation in the 1936 
Berlin games. Previously Mr. Avery Brundage had 
pointedly declared that regardless of the decision reached 
by the A.A.U., a team would be sent by the American 
Olympic Committee. The first resolution urged athletes 
to refrain from making the trip, and requested the Amer- 
ican Olympic Committee to convene a meeting “for the 
purpose of reconsidering the question of American par- 
ticipation in the games.” An executive committee vote 
on this resolution ended in a tie. The delegates then 
agreed, by a slender majority, to table this solution of the 
problem. Another proposal, to send an_ investigating 
commission of three to Germany for the purpose of secur- 
ing data about the status of the Olympic contestants, was 
beaten by the slender majority of 2% out of 114 votes, 
the deciding factor being the strength of fifteen organiza- 
tions allied with the A.A.U. ‘Thereupon the convention 
adopted viva voce a resolution offered by Gustavus T. 
Kirby, which recognized that “conditions still exist in 
Germany” which render enforcement of the Olympic code 
difficult, urged that the authorities “investigate with vigi- 
lance” the situation obtaining, and stated that “it is the 
hope and desire of the A.A.U. that America be repre- 
sented in all Olympic contests.” The future tactics of the 
non-participation group were indicated when Judge Jere- 
miah T. Mahoney, stressing his dissatisfaction with the 
Kirby resolution, withdrew as a candidate for the presi- 
dency of the A.A.U. and was followed by all others on 
his slate. Those who favored the solution reached there- 
upon elected Avery Brundage to succeed Judge Mahoney. 
Leaders of the “Move-the-Olympics” movement averred 
their intention of pushing ahead with plans and propa- 
ganda, while it became obvious that to find money to 
finance the trek across the water might be difficult. 


j 4 d 




The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

Decent Procedure. — At a special convocation over 
which Cardinal Archbishop Mundelein presided, Notre 
Dame University conferred the honorary degree of Doc- 
tor of Laws on President Roosevelt and on Sefior Carlos 
P. Romulo, Philippine editor and educator. The special 
convocation, third in the history of the university, was 
called to celebrate the independence of the new Common- 
wealth of the Philippines. Cardinal Mundelein spoke 
approvingly of the President and his social policies and 
praised his “indomitable persevering courage.” The 
President spoke of the due regard for fundamental human 
rights expressed by the Philippine people in their new 
Constitution and emphasized that supreme among these 
were the rights of freedom of education and freedom of 
religious worship. The Reverend John F. O’Hara, presi- 
dent of Notre Dame University, in referring to the 
Philippines said, “If it be not unique, it is at least remark- 
able for a nation to take the final step to sovereignty with- 
out bloodshed, and it is indeed eminently fitting that 
when we mark this event and bless the spirit behind it, 
we have an opportunity to thank personally the statesman 
most responsible for it, President Franklin D. Roosevelt.” 
Mr. Romulo dwelt on the determination of his people to 
maintain their freedom without calling on the people of 
the United States to shed their blood to defend the Fili- 
pino people, and he described, from a Catholic point of 
view, their social and economic aspirations. 

Senate of the Pope.—The consistory of December 16 
was to be one of the most remarkable in history for the 
number of cardinals created (the most regular business 
of consistories). Leo X’s consistory of 1517 produced 
the greatest number of new cardinals, 31; in modern times 
only the 1911 consistory of Pius X has created as many 
as the present one. Before December 16 there were 49 
cardinals, 23 Italian and 26 non-Italian. There were 
also two names held in pectore, that is, two persons 
selected as cardinals but not publicly appointed, since the 
consistory of 1933. Now the College of Cardinals has 
69 members, 37 Italian and 32 non-Italian. Of the 
twenty new members, four are diplomats, six officers in 
the Roman congregations and court, three high Vatican 
dignitaries, one Jesuit, one rector of the Catholic Insti- 
tute of Paris, and five members of the episcopate, one of 
them being Patriarch of Antioch, a bishop in the Syrian 
The word consistory is derived from consistorium, 
the Latin designation of the sacred council of the Roman 
emperors before the Christianization of the empire. The 
historical root of the present consistories is in the old 
Roman presbyterium of the deacons in charge of ecclesi- 
astical temporalities, the priests, or tituli, of the principal 
churches in Rome, and (at least by the eighth century) 
the bishops of near dioceses. The Popes conferred with 
the presbyterium as they now confer with the cardinals in 
consistories. ‘There are still cardinal deacons, priests and 
bishops. In modern times there have been three sorts of 
consistories: secret, like the present one, to which only 
cardinals are admitted ; semi-public, which include certain 
bishops who are in Italy as well as the available cardinals ; 
and public, which can include any sort of ecclesiastic or 

lay person. The first type is the most common now and 
has the most functions. ‘The others are held chiefly in 
connection with the beatification of saints. 

William D. Guthrie.—The death, on December 8, of 
Mr. William Dameron Guthrie, removes from the bar 
of New York and the nation one of its most illustrious 
members. Perhaps none of the many cases pleaded by 
him attracted the attention accorded the Supreme Court 
hearings on the Oregon School Law, which ended when 
the highest tribunal in the land declared in part: “The 
fundamental theory of liberty upon which all govern- 
ments in this Union repose excludes any general power 
of the state to standardize its children by forcing them to 
accept instruction from public teachers only. The child 
is not the mere creature of the state; those who nurture 
him and direct his destiny have the right, coupled with 
the high duty, to recognize and prepare him for addi- 
tional obligations.” Mr. Guthrie also drew up for the 
Ordinary of the Archdiocese of New York a voluminous 
report on the religious laws of Mexico, which he declared 
to be in conflict with the principles of justice and of inter- 
national law. More recently he was among the chief 
antagonists of the proposed Child Labor Amendment to 
the Federal Constitution, and was instrumental in con- 
vincing the Assembly of the State of New York to vote 
against ratification. Mr. Guthrie was likewise one of 
the stanchest enemies of the Eighteenth Amendment, and 
a resolute defender of the good name of the legal pro- 
fession. Born in San Francisco, February 3, 1859, Mr. 
Guthrie was educated in New York and received admis- 
sion to the bar in 1884. Gradually he built up a secure 
reputation as a constitutional lawyer. Numerous honors 
were conferred upon him, including several Papal decora- 
tions. The funeral Mass was sung in St. Patrick’s Cathe- 
dral, Cardinal Hayes giving the absolution. 

Catholics of the Right.—Evidence of the extent to 
which France is torn today between the Fascist National 
Front of the Right and the anti-Fascist, Socialist- 
Communist Popular Front of the Left appears in several 
places in the current issue of the alert weekly, Sept. The 
“prayer for France” which opens the issue is an ardent 
plea for peace within its borders as well as peace with 
other nations. Excerpts from a recent speech by Father 
Gillet, Master General of the Dominican Order, are also 
quoted to the effect that what is needed in France is a 
government that really governs. But the reflections of 
P. Henry Simon on the struggle since the war between 
French radicals and conservatives on the issues of nation- 
alism, capitalism and parliamentarianism may be suscepti- 
ble of far wider applications, “. . . Considerabie study is 
not needed to point out that on these three points the 
principal Catholic forces—please note that I do not say 
the Church—have acted with the Right. . . . It must be 
admitted that in their most official organizations and in 
their great majority French Catholics think, feel and vote 
with the Right. This is not the place to reproach them on 
the question of principle; I wish even to commend them 
for it in so far as there are virtues of the Right which 

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December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal 


are eminently honorable: family spirit, patriotism, religious 
fidelity; but still it is necessary to call to their attention 
the sins of their party and to urge them to dissociate 
themselves from them. . . . Who do not recognize that 
the people exist? Why all those who, confusedly calling 
‘traditions’ the abuses by which they profit and the privi- 
leges that they do not wish to relinquish, have kept back 
for a hundred years, by a petty rearguard action, under 
the pretext of wisdom and fidelity, the progress of liberty 
and justice. . . . Among these defenders of a false order 
must we always see so many professed Catholics?” 

A Program for Puerto Rico.—El Mundo, a leading 
Spanish-language daily in San Juan, is now publishing 
serially a report prepared by Father McGowan at the 
request of the Administrative Committee of the National 
Catholic Welfare Conference. ‘The Church and Recon- 
struction in Puerto Rico” is a remarkably comprehensive 
study of the “huge and terrible poverty in both city and 
country” there. The root of the trouble is diagnosed as 
being Puerto Rican “individualism” and in competi- 
tion with the “individualism” of continental United 
States it has “utterly and dramatically failed.” A re- 
ligious revival is needed since much of the difficulty can 
be traced to the attempt to live in a “double culture, 
individualist and Catholic.” ‘To this end religious educa- 
tion must be inaugurated in the schools, scholastic philoso- 
phy in the university. Government funds must be used 
chiefly for economic reconstruction and federal aid must 
be extended to 1940. A permanent technical board should 
be set up to bring about the application of the principles 
of agrobiology. Production almost solely for export must 
give way to production chiefly for domestic use. Owner- 
ship of the sugar industry, “the giant of Puerto Rico,” 
should be so divided among individuals, cooperatives and 
the state as to effect the greatest welfare for the people 
in the industry and the people of Puerto Rico. Within 
the next ten years 100,000 families should be placed on 
small farms devoted to everything but sugar and citrus 
fruits. Federal social insurance, slum clearance and low- 
cost housing should be extended to Puerto Rico as well 
as rural electrification. Distribution of ownership should 
be effected by binding wage and crop contracts containing 
profit-sharing and stock-acquiring agreements. 

* * * 

Farmers Get Attention.—In agricultural affairs, it is 
conceded by Republicans as well as by Democrats, the 
present administration has been so attractive to its con- 
stituents that it sits solidly in nearly all farm areas. It 
has been rather authoritatively hinted that the next Con- 
gress will be asked to pass some further farm laws, prob- 
ably the Bankhead Farm Tenant bill first. Also, the 
administration is ready to introduce substitutes for the 
key AAA law if that is thrown out by the Supreme Court. 
The second day of argument on the constitutionality of 
the AAA and the Bankhead Cotton Control Act was 
dramatically interrupted on December 10 when Solicitor 
General Stanley Reed collapsed. He had been under- 
going questioning by the Justices which boded no good 

for the laws and, apparently overworked in his prepara- 
tions, had to be excused when he almost fainted. Be- 
fore the American Farm Bureau Federation in Chicago 
on December 9, President Roosevelt had delivered a ma- 
jor speech. He told that his administration had met the 
double problem of low prices for farm products and enor- 
mous surpluses. “Parity” has temporarily been the guide. 
He has tried to exert the “organized power of the na- 
tion” (as differentiated from the forty-eight states) in 
favor of farmers and little folk with as much helpfulness 
and liberality as it had been exerted for banks and railroads. 
In his term the relative purchasing power of farmers has 
risen from 50 to 90. With this, farm income has gone up 
$3,000,000,000. Because of the beneficial effects of farm 
prosperity on the rest of the country, “the farm program 
instead of burdening consumers as a group has actually 
given them net benefits.” The President hit out at food 
middlemen and decried violent fluctuations in farm com- 
modity prices. He said: “We are regaining a more fair 
balance among the groups that constitute the nation and 
we must look to the factors that will make that balance 
stable.” He then vigorously applauded the efforts of the 
nation’s “agencies of government” to give the country a 
better life. 

Pathways to Recovery.—The National Association of 
Manufacturers adopted an anti-New Deal “Platform for 
American Industry” at a session in New York, Decem- 
ber 5. This statement branded as “reactionary and coer- 
cive” the administration’s opposition to the “progressive 
American system of voluntary and individual enterprise” 
guaranteed by the Constitution. As impediments to re- 
covery it cited attempts to regulate and control produc- 
tion, regulation of financing, hours and wages, and rela- 
tions between worker and employer. It called for 
curtailment of government expenditures, maintenance of 
a fixed gold standard, limitation of government super- 
vision of banking and credit. The American system of 
free competition was said to offer the greatest promise 
of recovery and social progress. In reply William Green 
of the American Federation of Labor declared the plat- 
form was “entirely negative in character.” He quoted 
Doctor Moulton of the Brookings Institution to the 
effect that “the primary need of the economic system is 
the broad diffusion of the total income among the masses. 
of the people.” Secretary Wallace reiterated his advo- 
cacy of larger imports as the only means of selling Amer- 
ican farm surpluses, together with “a domestic policy 
that maintains a distribution of the national income which 
will enable many potential buyers to become actual 
buyers.” Somewhere between these two camps, opposed 
both to “bureaucratic” and “monopoly” control, was 
candidate William E. Borah, who also cited the impartial 
findings of the Brookings Institution and declared that 
the way out was the abolishing of monopolies, economic 
dictatorships and arbitrary prices. Meanwhile, despite 
convincing studies proving the impracticality of their 
plan, the Townsendites continued their quiet but effective 
campaign to muster truly impressive strength for the 
Seventy-fifth Congress next month. 




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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

The Play 


Eva Le Gallienne 

HE VANISHING of Miss Eva La Gallienne’s 

Civic Repertory Company has been one of the sad- 
dest things in the history of the American theatre. Un- 
like the Washington Square Players, which underwent a 
rebirth in the inauguration of the Theatre Guild, or the 
Provincetown Theatre, which disintegrated when _ its 
vitality had passed, Miss Le Gallienne’s creation passed 
away at the very height of its power and usefulness. The 
Civic Repertory Company was the most gallant venture 
ever undertaken in the New York theatre, the only one 
which ever dared really to carry out the repertory system, 
and in addition to present thé classics of the world’s 
repertory at prices within the reach of everyone. Its 
failure did not lie in the non-response of the public; the 
public rarely failed to fill the house. The reason was 
that the cost of giving plays as well as the Civic company 
gave them was too great, and a Maecenas was necessary. 
While that Maecenas lasted the Fourteenth Street The- 
atre was a Mecca to all who loved what was best in the 
theatre, but when the depression forced him to discon- 
tinue his support, deficits could no longer be met and 
Miss Le Gallienne had to turn northward to Broadway, 
and later to the road. Yet deprived though she has been 
of a permanent home Miss Le Gallienne has never for a 
moment wavered in her artistic integrity; she has given 
only the best, and in the best manner she is able to 
give it. Last year in her New York engagement we had 
“L’Aiglon” and “Hedda Gabler”; this year we have 
“Rosmersholm,” “Camille” and Quintero’s two plays, 
“A Sunny Morning” and “The Women Have Their 
Way.” The last three she has given often before, but 
“Rosmersholm” is a newcomer to her repertory. 

The character of Rebecca West has for some strange 
reason always fascinated actresses, and even today it pos- 
sesses moments of power and intellectual subtlety. But 
the play itself has worn badly. The two first acts with 
their vague discussions of long-past struggles of liberal 
against conservative are today unmitigated bores, and 
even the last act, when the drama becomes more personal, 
is by no means as thrilling as it was in late Victorian 
times. Its morbidity and its glorification of suicide are 
today only rather amusing proofs that Ibsen, the realist, 
was often but a romanticist gone giddy in the head. 
What is interesting in the play today is its admirable con- 
struction, and we marvel as we watch every joint fit 
inevitably into the next. There are no waste speeches, 
no waste movements—but after all that is simply saying 
that it is a play by Ibsen. As a model for playwrights 
“Rosmersholm” is excellent to watch, but the general 
audience finds little meat in it in this year 1935. Need- 
less to say Miss Le Gallienne threw herself into the part 
of Rebecca with all her vigor and intelligence. She gave 
a beautifully articulated and exquisitely subtle perform- 

ance, and there were moments when she even made us 
sympathize with Rebecca’s tortured soul. Yet despite 
her efforts the final result was singularly futile, the fault 
of the play, not the actress. Miss Le Gallienne’s support 
was not always as happy as it has been sometimes in the 
past. Donald Cameron was earnest enough as Rosmer, 
but Hugh Buckler was a very actorish Ulric Brendel, 
and Averell Harris rather colorless as Professor Kroll. 
“Rosmersholm” is not one of Miss Le Gallienne’s more 
successful productions, (At the Shubert Theatre.) 

May Wine 

66 AY WINE?” is in the tradition of Viennese 

operetta, even though its music is by Sigmund 
Romberg, its book by Frank Mandel based on a story by 
Wallace Smith and Eric Von Stroheim, and its lyrics 
by Oscar Hammerstein II. It is also in most respects a 
very charming example of that tradition. It has charm, 
delicacy of sentiment, is practically void of vulgarity, 
though there are one or two equivocal situations, the 
music is gracious if undistinguished, and most of the sing- 
ing excellent. It tells the story of an impecunious Baroness 
who marries a young professor for his money, or rather 
is married to him by an equally impecunious Baron, whom 
she thinks she loves, but who loves the money she will get 
from her husband better than he loves her. In the end she 
realizes that she has learned to love her husband, and sends 
the Baron away. This is a story often told in operetta, 
but Mr. Mandel has given it some novel twists and 
situations, and Mr. Romberg had clothed it in melodies, 
heard perhaps before, but always heard gratefully. And 
since it is the only operetta in town, it ought to do well. 

It ought to do particularly well because of the way it 
is given. Nancy McCord is charming to look at and 
sings well as the Baroness, Walter Woolf King has dis- 
tinction and a voice as the Baron, and Walter Slezak, 
even though he has no voice, makes the Professor pathetic 
and yet sympathetic. ‘There are other excellent artists, 
including Patricia Calvert, the always delightful Leo 
Carroll, this time in a part quite unworthy of his powers, 
and Robert C. Fischer in a part which he makes the most 
of. There is no chorus, but a large cast. The settings 
by Raymond Sovey are excellent. The success of “May 
Wine” will depend on whether or not New York audi- 
ences still respond to a musical play which has for a basis 
neither jazz nor horse-play. The success in the legitimate 
theatre of such plays as “Pride and Prejudice” and “Re- 
member the Day” are at least of good omen. ‘These 
plays have proved that quiet charm can still enthrall a 
New York audience. Indeed such plays have brought 
back to the theatre an audience that was rapidly being 
driven to the movies by the triumph of crude realism on 
the speaking stage. Let us hope that “May Wine” will lend 
its aid in the musical field. (At the St. James Theatre.) 


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December 20, 1935 The Commonweal 219 


The Screen 


Tale of Two Cities 
HE BEAUTY of Dickens’s immortal romance in- 

tensifies, its power becomes more potent, in the 
transition from the printed page to the more expansive 
medium of the screen. 

Historical authenticity following the author’s interpre- 
tation of the French Revolution, climaxed in the storming 
of the Bastille and the tragic death of Sydney Carton 
(Ronald Colman), together with a most remarkable per- 
formance by an illustrious assemblage, fully reflect the 
sincere effort that evidently was expended to mold a 
truly moving reproduction of Mr. Dickens’s classic 
with all its hates and counterplots, tender love and gal- 
lant sacrifice. 

The effectiveness of the suffering, desperation and de- 
structive revenge of the rabbles is great. There is as pro- 
found an emotional incitement as that which flared at the 
beginning of the new France in the rising by the oppressed 
in their rags to turn the crude implements of rebellion 
against their silk-and-satined oppressors, the vortex of 
social upset catching helpless innocents. Dickens’s “Two 
Cities” is a commendable cinema successor to his “David 
Copperfield” of last winter. David Selznick in Holly- 
wood created both. 

I Dream Too Much 

HE MOTION picture debut of petite Lily Pons, 

the fragile diva, will be a pleasant surprise to 
cinema followers, for they will find a sparkling, lovable 
new personality who carries from the stage of the opera 
a great voice that is set on film as naturally and capably 
as the performance of an established cinema comedienne, 
to the music and laughter of a musical comedy bubbling 
with fun. 

The rubber-stamp idea of an operatic triumph at 
any price, which almost invariably has marked the pre- 
vious screen appearances of opera stars, is stressed only 
slightly. Annette (Lily Pons), poor and obscure French 
miss with a rare voice, disregarding operatic tradition, 
sets aside any ambitions for a career in favor of home 
and baby with a young taxicab husband (Henry Fonda), 
who has ambitions to write music. His fame arrives 
through her successful efforts and her voice in his 
musical comedy. 

Miss Pons has full opportunity to display her vocal gifts, 
which especially impress in her rendition of the brilliant 
arias, the “Bell Song” from Delibes’s “Lakme” and the 
“Caro Nome” from “Rigoletto.” ‘These scenes, however, 
are merely highlights that bring into sharper relief the 
yearning of a young girl for the pure joy of living, a joy 
that is felt while she is perched on a merry-go-round sing- 
ing to a small urchin the chanson of “The Jockey on the 



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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 

“A very beautiful, human and tender play” 
Margaret Rawlings 


ETHEL BARRYMORE Theatre, West 47th Street 


Book Clubs 
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Volume XXIII Now Ready 

In response to numerous requests from sub- 
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binders for individual volumes of THE Common- 

The binders are loose leaf with a capacity of 
twenty-six issues. They are handsomely bound 
in red imitation leather with stiff covers, red 
skytogen lined. The backbone of the cover is 
stamped in gold with the number of the volume 
and its inclusive dates. The price of the binder 
is $1.90 postage paid to any address. 

In ordering the binders specify the number 
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386 Fourth Avenue 
New York City 


The Year’s Elite among Books 

OR SOME reason or other it is assumed that edi- 

torial staffs possess the right to effect an annual 
separation of literary wheat from the chaff. We doubt 
not a bit, however, that some of the most interesting and 
worth-while books of the season are missing from the fol- 
lowing and all similar lists. The intention is to provide, 
during this eventful season, a kind of shoppers’ guide to 
the bewildered seeker after an honest tome. No single 
work is guaranteed to be fool-proof in every respect. We 
have tried to eliminate what we consider banal or offen- 
sive, and we have included a somewhat larger number of 
Catholic books than the secular chooser would include. 
If assistance is rendered thereby, we shall be grateful. 
But if we lead some friend on what he eventually con- 
siders a wild goose chase, we shall remind him of the 
ancient diagnosis of taste’s diversity. 

And now for a few novels. Women have certainly 
held their own, with Mary Ellen Chase’s “Silas Crockett” 
(Macmillan. $2.50), Willa Cather’s “Lucy Gayheart” 
(Knopf. $2.00), Ellen Glasgow’s “Vein of Iron” (Har- 
court, Brace. $2.50), and Rachel Field’s “Time Out of 
Mind” (Macmillan. $2.50). The two principal male 
efforts were probably Thornton Wilder’s “Heaven’s My 
Destination” (Harper. $2.50), and Thomas Wolfe’s 
“Of Time and the River” (Scribner’s. $3.00). Votes of 
approval have likewise been cast for R. P. T. Coffin’s 
“Red Sky in the Morning” (Macmillan. $2.50), Mau- 
rice Walsh’s “Green Rushes” (Stokes. $2.50), and 
Francis Brett Young’s “White Ladies” (Harper. $2.50). 
Our choice among translations are ‘““The Wish Child,” by 
Ina Seidel (Farrar and Rinehart. $2.75), and (with 
reservations) “Young Joseph,” by Thomas Mann (Knopf. 
$2.50). Catholic novels of varying interest and merit are: 
Sigrid Undset’s ‘““The Longest Years” (Knopf. $2.00), 
Helen White’s “Not Built with Hands” (Macmillan. 
$2.50), William Thomas Walsh’s “Out of the Whirl- 
wind” (McBride. $2.50) and Lucille Borden’s “White 
Hawthorn” (Macmillan. $2.50). 

If you are interested in poetry, this is a fruitful year. 
From the “Collected Plays” of William Butler Yeats 
(Macmillan. $3.50) to “Murder in the Cathedral,” by 
T. S. Eliot (Harcourt, Brace. $1.50), is a long way, but 
the trip is worth making. ‘There is also the important 
“Unpublished Poems of Emily Dickinson,” edited by 
Martha Dickinson Bianchi and Alfred Leete Hampson 
(Little, Brown. $7.50). Newer books by American 
poets include R. P. Tristram Coffin’s “Strange Holiness” 
(Macmillan. $1.50), Daniel Sargent’s “God’s Ambus- 
cade” (Longmans. $2.00), and Father Leonard Feeney’s 
“Boundaries” (Macmillan. $1.25). From England and 
Ireland come Laurence Whistler’s “Four Walls” (Mac- 
millan. $1.25), Thomas McGreevey’s “Poems” (Viking. 
$1.25), and Elizabeth Daryush’s “Verses: Fourth Book” 
(Oxford. $2.00). 

Of biography and personal record there is so much that 
one can satisfy almost every mood and taste. Were we 

a forc 
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f the 


December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal a 

forced to limit ourselves to three volumes, our choice 
would be: “Thomas More,” by R. W. Chambers (Har- 
court, Brace. $3.75), “God’s Soldier: General William 
Booth,” by St. John Ervine (Macmillan. $7.50), and 
Anne Lindbergh’s “North to the Orient” (Harcourt, 
Brace. $2.50). But other titles race close behind these. 
Derek Patmore’s “Portrait of My Family” (Harper. 
$3.75), Edgar Lee Masters’s ““Vachel Lindsay” (Scrib- 
ner’s. $3.00), Hilaire Belloc’s “Milton” (Lippincott. 

$4.00) and Grant C. Knight’s “James Lane Allen and 

the Genteel Tradition” (University of North Carolina. 
$2.50) are samples of the newer literary biography. 
American subjects are dealt with in Clarence Day’s “Life 
with Father” (Knopf. $2.00), Mari Sandoz’s “Old 
Jules” (Little, Brown. $3.00), Francis X. Talbot’s “A 
Saint among Savages” (Harper. $3.50), and James Weber 
Linn’s “Jane Addams” (Appleton-Century. $3.50). 
From cther climes spring Evelyn Waugh’s “Edmund 
Campion” (Sheed and Ward. $2.50), T. E. Lawrence’s 
“Seven Pillars of Wisdom” (Doubleday, Doran. $5.00), 
Pierre Crabités’s “Benes” (Routledge. 12/6) and Bea- 
trice White’s “Mary Tudor” (Macmillan. $5.00). Our 
selection from the year’s memoirs is: Sir Esme Howard’s 
“Theatre of Life” (Little, Brown. $3.50), David Lam- 
son’s “We Who Are about to Die” (Scribner’s. $2.50) 
and Ernest Dimnet’s “My Old World” (Simon and 
Schuster. $2.50). Douglas Freeman’s monumental 
“Robert E. Lee” was completed during the year (Scrib- 
ner’s. Four volumes: $3.75 each). For good measure 
we add the following: “Roger B. Taney,” by Carl Brent 
Swisher (Macmillan. $5.00), “The Autobiography of 
Michel de Montaigne,” edited by Marvin Lowenthal 
(Houghton Mifflin. $3.00), and “The Cast-Iron Man: 
John C. Calhoun’”’ (Longmans. $3.00). One of the best 
books of the year—perhaps a “classic’”—is Walter de la 
Mare’s “Early One Morning” (Macmillan. $5.00). 

More solidly historical than the average reader re- 
quires for his easy chair, but uncommonly useful none the 
less, are the three published volumes of “European Civili- 
zation,” edited by Edward Eyre (Oxford. $5.25 each), 
the second volume of “A History of the Church,” by 
Philip Hughes (Sheed and Ward. $4.00), and “The 
United States: 1830-1850,” by Frederick J. Turner 
(Holt. $4.50). Three interesting contributions to the 
history of the war period have appeared: “Woodrow 
Wilson: Life and Letters,’’ Volume V, by Ray Stannard 
Baker (Doubleday, Doran. $4.00), “The Campaign of 
the Marne,” by Sewell T. Tyng (Longmans. $3.75), 
and “A History of the Great War,” by C. R. M. F. 
Cruttwell (Oxford. $5.50). We enjoyed Dana C. 
Munro’s “Kingdom of the Crusaders” (Appleton- 
Century. $2.50). 

Of aids to literary study there are many, notably such 
large-scale publications as ““The Letters of Gerard Man- 
ley Hopkins to Robert Bridges; The Correspondence of 
Gerard Manley Hopkins and Richard Watson Dixon” 
(Oxford. $10.00), “The Letters of Charles and Mary 
Lamb,” edited by E. V. Lucas (Yale. $18.00), and 
“Mark Twain’s Notebook,” edited by Albert Bigelow 
Paine (Harper. $4.00). From among the other books 


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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 


Books on Ireland from all publishers 
Historical, Musical and Fiction 

Belleek china, laces, handkerchiefs, table 
linens, steamer rugs, poplin ties, Kapp and 
Peterson smoking pipes make ideal selec- 
tions for early Christmas shopping. 

Complete catalogue on request. 

780 Lexington Ave. near soth st. New York City 

The Maryknoll Sisters 

announce the opening of their 

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New York City 

Books Brasses Dolls 

Linens Handkerchiefs Toys and Novelties 
Lingerie Convent-made Candies, Xmas Cards 

Lacquer Ware Jellies, Fruit Cake, etc. Altar Linens, Vestments 

And a variety of other fascinating articles. 

They invite you to see their wares and 
stretch your holiday budget. 


How the missions plead for quinine! Seven 
hundred million sufferers, or about one-third 
of the whole human race are constantly ill of 
malaria; and quinine is the one specific for this 
dread disease. They suffer, they pray and the 
missionaries have not enough of the little white 

tablets to give them to relieve their sufferings 
| and save their lives. Will you not send some 

quinine to the missions? We will send two- 
grain quinine tablets for the following dona- 

One thousand tablets, $5.00 

Three thousand tablets, $12.50 
Six thousand tablets, $22.50 
Ten thousand tablets, $35.00 
Twenty thousand tablets, $65.00 

You aid souls as well as bodies by thus helping 
the medical missions. Send your donations to 

8 and 10 West 17th Street, New York, N. Y. 

we choose: Richard Dana Skinner’s “Eugene O'Neill: A 
Poet’s Quest” (Longmans. $2.00), Willard L. Sperry’s 
“Wordsworth’s Anti-Climax” (Harvard. $2.50), “The 
Victorians and Their Reading,” by Amy Cruse (Hough- 
ton Mifflin. $4.00), “The Fays of the Abbey Theatre,” 
by W. G. Fay and Catherine Carswell (Harcourt, Brace, 
$3.50), and “Dictionary of Modern American Usage,” 
by H. W. Horwill (Oxford. $3.25). 

The rain patters no more steadily on an April day than 
do publishers’ announcements of new books on various 
aspects of the contemporary American scene. We venture 
somewhat timidly the following selection: “The Road to 
War,” by Walter Millis (Houghton Mifflin. $3.50), 
“A Better Economic Order,” by John A. Ryan (Harper, 
$2.50), “Land of the Free,” by Herbert Agar (Houghton 
Mifflin. $3.50), “The Will to Freedom,” by Ross J. 
Hoffman (Sheed and Ward. $1.50), “The Liberal Tra- 
dition,” by Lewis W. Douglas (Van Nostrand. $1.50), 
“The Citizen and His Government,” by Alfred E. Smith 
(Harper. $2.50), “The Blue Eagle from Egg to Earth,” 
by Hugh S. Johnson (Doubleday, Doran. $3.00), “The 
Formation of Capital,” by Harold G. Moulton (Brook- 
ings Institution. $2.50), “The Du Pont Dynasty,” by 
John K. Winkler (Reynal. $3.00), “Black Reconstruc- 
tion,” by W. E. B. Du Bois (Harcourt, Brace. $4.50), 
“Government in a Planned Democracy,” by A. N. Hol- 
combe (Norton. $2.00), “Our Enemy the State,” by 
Albert Jay Nock (Morrow. $2.25), “America Faces the 
Barricades,” by John L. Spivak (Covici-Friede. $2.50), 
and “The Gay Reformer,” by Mauritz A. Hallgren 
(Knopf. $2.50). 

Anent the foreign scene, we recommend “I Was Hit- 
ler’s Prisoner,” by Stefan Lorrant (Putnam. $2.75), 
“The Russian Revolution,” by William Henry Cham- 
berlin (Macmillan. $10.00), “Like a Mighty Army,” 
by George N. Shuster (Appleton-Century. $2.00), 
“Blood-Drenched Altars,” by Bishop Francis Clement 
Kelley (Bruce. $3.00), “Chaos in Mexico,” by Charles 
S. Macfarland (Harper. $2.00), “A History of Na- 
tional Socialism,” by Konrad Heiden (Knopf. $3.00), 
and—a very scholarly work—“The Diplomacy of Im- 
perialism, 1890-1902,” by William L. Langer (Knopf. 
$7.50). Regretfully enough, we pass by much else of 
interest in this demesne. 

On various aspects of religion and philosophy there is 
also a vast literature. Importance cannot be denied to 
such books as “Man the Unknown,” by Alexis Carrel 
(Harper. $3.00), “Polarity,” by Erich Przywara (Ox- 
ford. $3.00), and “The Two Sources of Morality and 
Religion,” by Henri Bergson (Holt. $3.00). But pos- 
sibly most readers will prefer “Science and the Super- 
natural,” by Arnold Lunn and J. B. S. Haldane (Sheed 
and Ward. $3.00), and “In Quest of Beauty,” by Dom 
Willibrod Verkade (Kenedy. $2.00). We sincerely 
recommend the following also: “A Philosophy of Form,” 
by E. I. Watkin (Sheed and Ward. $3.75); “The 
Mystical Body of Christ,” by Fulton J. Sheen (Sheed 
and Ward. $2.50); “Christian Art,” by C. R. Morey 
(Longmans. $1.75); “Mirage and Truth,” by M. C. 
D’Arcy (Macmillan. $1.75); “The Pilgrim’s Regress,” 





i ( 

















December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal al 

by C. S. Lewis (Sheed and Ward. $2.25), and “The 
Well and the Shadows,” by G. K. Chesterton (Sheed and 
Ward. $2.50). 

Nor must we fail to recall that two reference works 
have been brought to completion during the year: “The 
Columbia Encyclopedia” (Columbia. $17.50), a one- 
volume tout ensemble which has many virtues, and “Der 
Grosse Herder,” a German Catholic general encyclopedia 
of rare merit. 

Don’t forget the poor author! 
Tue Epirors. 

A Starry Sheaf 

God’s Ambuscade. A Book of Poems, by Daniel Sar- 
gent. New York: Longmans, Green and Company. $2.00. 
AMBUSCADE” is in many ways a pro- 

vocative little book, often a very precious little 
book; to have it from the president of the Catholic Poetry 
Society of America augurs well for the good estate of 
contemporary verse and the Catholic mind. 

It is evident the two strongest influences upon Mr. 
Sargent’s poetry have been the Catholic religion and his 
young daughter’s sense of joy in the world about her. 
Nearly all of the verses could be read aloud for her de- 
light—“Hay Lofts” (an irregular sonnet but a charm- 
ing lyric) and “Sparrows,” the songs of “May” and 
“June” and of “Guardian Angels”—although these are 
not what we are accustomed to call children’s poems. 
“Courtesy,” whose title recalls a very different but un- 
forgettable poem by Belloc, is one of the most enchant- 
ing—and most definitely Sargentesque. It begins: 

“Blessed be God who made such pretty birches 

And spent such gold in dandelions’ crowns. 
He made small swallows flying o’er great churches, 
Made little fish that gaze from streams at towns.” 

There are other verses haunted by 

“the darkness in God’s plan, 
His failure, Man:” 
but the dramatic narratives of Cain and of Golgotha are 
scarcely those which themselves haunt when the book 
is laid aside. It is not easy, however, to throw off the 
memory of those verses dealing with death: and “The 
Last Day” is a poem of the resurrection of the body 
quite breathtaking in its simple acceptance of the stu- 
pendous. The same note, its drama and imagery even 
more highly concentrated, sings through Mr. Sargent’s 
superb meditation upon “Magnificence”: 
“Which makes the thunder-cloud mount from the sea, 
And a herd of deer charge suddenly over a hill, 
And in the jungle a python suddenly 
Ripple a coil that lay like a tree-limb still. 
And which shall make the skeletons that have died— 
That long have lain in weltering of the tomb— 
Arise at last dawn-lit, electrified, 
To stand like nine-pins on the Field of Doom.” 
So starry a sheaf of verses, issued just at the Christ- 
mas season, is one of the blessings for which Charles 

Lamb would have wished to offer up thanksgiving. 


Challenges the Marxian theory that modern civiliza- 
tion represents triumph of Capital over Medievalism. 

Views modern democracy as a compromise between 
the prestige of Landed Aristocraey and the power of 

Opposes the current assumption that Capital op- 
presses Labor. 

Urges transfer of taxation from preductive capital 
to ground values, as next step in demecratic evolu- 

New York Investment News: “Non-technical and 
should interest any one who is coneerned with reduc 
ing taxes on industry.” 

Minneapolis Tribune: “A sensible suggestion at a 
time when big business, and small business as well, is 
crying for relief from heavy taxation. . . . Seems to 
fit the picture of what industry needs today.” 

A new approach to the businese problem, by 
LOUIS WALLIS, author of The Struggle for Justice. 
Seventy-five Cents, Booksellers or 

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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 


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Saints Made Human 

Sunshine and Saints, by Daisy H. Moseley. New York: 
P. J. Kenedy and Sons. $1.50. 

TEN short biographies based on an impressive number 
of the authoritative studies of the saints comprise this 
attractive volume. Its authenticity, although unhappily 
nowhere vouched for in the book, is particularly welcome 
because too often in the juvenile religious field popular 
legend and pious fancy have taken the place of ascertain- 
able facts. Thanks to the author’s European travels 
Assisi, Siena, Lisieux and other scenes of action are im- 
bued with a strong sense of actuality. Each of the heroes 
of these glowing pages manifests a marked individuality, 
but almost all of them are alike in their special devotion 
to the Mass and to the Blessed Eucharist. The book is 
filled with warm human touches, and at times, as in the 
sketches of Joan of Arc and Isaac Jogues, with thrilling 
action, but it is most notable for the depth of its spiritual 
feeling. Of all the chapters perhaps the most moving 
sensitively describes illiterate Bernadette Soubirous, to 
whom, at the age of fourteen, the Blessed Mother ap- 
peared at the grotto at Lourdes no less than sixteen times. 
Our Lady “smiled on her with marvellous sweetness” 
and taught her an especially reverent way of making the 
sign of the cross. “Sunshine and Saints” is an excellent 
Christmas gift for children from ten to fifteen; for many 
an adult it would serve as an admirable introduction to 
the lives of the saints. 

Very Clever 

Boundaries, by Leonard Feeney, §.J. New York: The 
Macmillan Company. $1.25. 

LyRICcAL whimseys that are infinitely more than 
whimseys—this slender book. Visualize this poet as one 
whistling gay tunes, yet thinking earnest thoughts; for 
that is he. Serious, yet he never gets serious. What a 
refreshing interlude from the weighty “alases” all around 
us! The motive behind priesthood could not be held up 
in a 1,000-word monograph more graphically than in the 
thirty-two short Anglo-Saxon words of “The Bee.” The 
religiousness of these poems is inevitable, not militant. 
More literally whimsical than the rest, page 35 chuckles 
at the Britisher with a superlative cleverness. An unusual 
book of poems. 

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many books of which the latest is “The Well and the Shallows.” 

Micuaet O’SHavuGHNEssy is a New York business man and the 
editor of weekly and monthly reperts on the oil industry. 

Fev1x Timmermans is a Flemish writer, author of ‘Peter 
Brueghel.” The accompanying piece is translated by H. L 

AnNE Ryan is a poet and essayist, author of “Lost Hills.’ 

Cuartes WILLIS THomPson is a veteran political correspondent 
for New York journals, His latest book is “Presidents I’ve Known 
and Two Near Presidents.” 

Kurt Frank Reinxuarpt is a professor in the department of 
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Katrine Brécy is a critic and poet and the author of “The 
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Jeanne d’Arc,’ 

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December 20, 1935 

The Commonweal ii 


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Four Years of High School 
of Middle States and Maryland az a full, four year 
For Information Avely to the Headmaster. 

Tarrytown-on-Hudson, New York 

Conducted by the Religious of the Sacred Heart of Mary 

An accredited college situated in Westchester County for 
resident and non-resident students. Confers B.A., B.S. De- 

grees. Courses offered in Music, Art, Pedagogy, Journalism, 
Household Arts, Dramatics, Secretarial, Pre-Medical and 
other scientific and literary subjects. Well-equipped build- 
ings, libraries and laboratories. Athletics. Branches in 
Paris and Rome for foreign study and travel. Address Sec- 

Marymount Scheol & Junior College in Wilson Park 
Accredited. Upper and lower Scheols—College Prepara- 
tory. Special advantages for cultural subjects. 

Address Reverend Mother 

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The Commonweal 

December 20, 1935 


FAail Dour Commonweal Christmas Gift Order Today 


Send THe ComMonweEAL for one year to: 

1. Payment attached. 

2. C Bill me January 1st. 

3. C Send gift card to me. 

4. CF Send gift card to recipient. 

THE COMMONWEAL, 386 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y. 

Sent by: 

“he ty