STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Chief — Meriel Groves, Craven County
Christine Rutledge . • • Gaston County Sadie Rice Craven County
Gertrude Griffin Wayne County Margaret Mann Hyde County
lone Grogan .... Rockingham County Hattie Motzno Wayne County
Fannie Mitchell. New Hanover County Eleanor Morgan Wayne County
Alice Robbins Caldwell County Pattie Groves Richmond County
AdelpMan and Cornelian Societies — Secret Organizations
Kate R. Styron President Meriel Groves Vice-President
Pattie Groves Secretary
Ethel Bolinger President Nellie Johnston Secretary
Sallie Sumner Vice-President Ruth Deans Treasurer
Ethel Keeter Critic
Irene Robbins President May McQueen Secretary
Elsie House Vice-President Louise Jones Treasurer
Willie May Stratford Critic
Eunice Sinclair President Fannie Hunt Secretary
Sarah Kornegay Vice-President Vera Klutz Treasurer
Freshman Class Unorganized
Y. W. C. A.
Pattie Spurgeon President Mary Worth Secretary
Carrie Gill Vice-President Bertha Stanbury Treasurer
Alice Morrison President Louise Bell .... V-Pres., Sophomore
Fay Davenport V-Pres., Senior Edith Haight .... V-Pres., Freshman
Mary Tennent V-Pres., Junior Corrina Mial Secretary
Jessie Gainey Treasurer Margaret Mann Critic
state IRormal flUagasine
Vol. 1 7 NOVEMBER, 1912 No. 2
The Spirit of Autumn (Poem) —
Li/liati G. Crisp, '13, Adelphian 40
The Junior Partner (Sior}) — Hazel Biack, Vj, Cornelia?i . 41
The History of the Capital of North Carolina (hssay) —
Alice Rogers, Adelphian 52
A Sunset (Poem) — Edith Avery, '75, Adelphian 59
A Red Sunset, or, Tomorrow (Story) —
Eleanor Morgan, '/^, Cornelian 60
The Problem of Forestry in the United States (Essay) —
Fanny Burke Hunt, ' i^. Cornelian 66
Over the Back Fence (Story) —
Ethel Bo/ linger, '/j, Cornelian 71
Sketches from Chaucer's Prologue 78
Introduction, The Squire, The Clerk, The Nonne —
Sarah Per r in Shu ford.
Tl:e Wife of Bath— /^. B. Hunt.
The Monk— y>/. Sparger.
The Friar, The Poure Persoun, The Knight —
Eleanor JMoi gan.
Points of View —
A Normal Day — Ethel Bollinger, '/j 84
Good Housekeeping — Lillian Turner, ^ i^, Adelphian 86
Choice of Course of Study— W. T., '14, Adelphian . . 86
Cheerfulness— y. iM . C, '/j, Cornelian 87
Study Hour — B. iM., '75, Cornelian 88
Athletics— i^. D 89
Anticipation and Realization — R. G., ^16, Adelphian 90
Y. W. C. A. Notes — Eleanor Morgan, '/^, Corneliati ... 93
Society Notes —
With the Adelphians — Mildred Rankin,' 13, Adelphian 94
Cornelian Society Notes — Verta L. Idol., '/j, Corneliati 95
Among Ourselves — Lillian Goihani Crisp, Vj, Adelphian 96
Exchanges — Lila Melviii, '/^, Adelphian 98
In Lighter Vein — Sarah Perrin Shuford, '14, Cornelian . . 100
Ul}t spirit of Autumn
Lillian Crisp, '13, Adelphian
ii am tl|^ spirit oi Autumn,
Witif j^Bcl} nf itB sprites at mg rail,
®n rom^ amtftlg at istjj htd&tug,
Au£i trausforsn tl?^ irountrij, all.
J?r0m far anii nrar tl?ry gatlyrr,
3(n l?aste, to ausmrr me;
At tt?r tourl? at tljrtr skillful fmgrrs,
Clfangra mrBugljt as bg magtr tljry sr^r.
STljr tall ^stlhsn-rah Is flaming
®o ltgl|t il^B dark roaSstJi^,
5ri|r blark-rgrJs Jsatstrs ar^ staring
ler^u^r tb^ small brnoks gli^r.
3ri|rrr^*s a mtrarlr mrougljt in tl|^ forr^stsT
Ulrigljt rrJi, jjrllnm, anJi gr^rn,
^Ir^ndi tl?rtr rotors in brautiful lyar monies.
As uton&rous as rnr^r stvn^
^ra, mg sprites Jsrrk tljr rartl?
Un all Ijrr gala attirip,
STo mait for tl?^ d^atlj tl^at is roming
Un tl?^ srmblanrie of IHint^r, its sir^.
^n l?oliJiau garments tl|ry rob^ Ijrr,
A sign of tl|r |ojj in l|i?r breast
At tijouglyt of tl|r life in ttjr springtiJie,
After tlje brief &eatlj-rest.
•tat^ formal Mu^nzint
GREENSBORO, N. C. NOVEMBER, 1912
The Junior Partner
Easel Blacl-, '13, Cornelian
"Mary, I believe yon had better go over to mainland
tonight, it looks like there is going to be a blow, and no one
can predict with certainty how the water is going to cut np
around this island. It has behaved alright for two years I
know, and it helps me to rent cottages when the settlers see
that I leave my wife and child over here all of the time,
but remember — you are all that I have and I don't want to
leave you in any danger. I promised to protect you, you
know, as well as to love you," he ended teasingly.
"You are only afraid because that old fisherman just
told you it was going to storm, but he has stood at our back
door every morning for a week with the fish and predicted
how 'a sou'wester war a comin' up an' that this islan' war
agoin' to be washed away because all the beeg fish Avar acomin'
in th' bay!' However, I am not afraid in the least, though
goodness knows, I would be in a storm ! ' '
"Well, pack up and go spend the night with me," he
urged again. "I tell you I just feel that I must not leave
you here — I would feel much more satisfied if you would go
"Say, Jack, wait until a storm comes before you get so
worried," she answered lightly again. "If it is bad tomor-
row, I will go. I wish you didn't have to run off and leave
me so often, but never mind, in three weeks we will have a
whole month's vacation together."
"There is the last whistle, so you see your chance is lost!"
After bidding her goodnight the young man leaned over
the sleeping baby in the carriage and kissed it lightly.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
' ' Don 't worry about us, Jack. We will be alright, ' ' Mary
called after him.
Mrs. McDonald watched her husband as he walked briskly
down the long shell path to the car station. His light spring-
ing step and cheery whistle belonged to a boy, but his clear
brown eyes that could become sharp and penetrating and his
slightly gray hair showed his full thirty years. Jack McDon-
ald's face indicated that his life so far had been a singular
success, and, indeed, this was true. At fourteen he had been
compelled to start to selling tickets on the cars of the Public
Transfer Company in the afternoons and at night to help his
invalid mother. At twenty, after his mother's death, he took
a short but thorough business course. He entered the offices
of the transfer people, with whom he had been growing in
favor for years, as stenographer. A short while after he had
been made private secretary to the president. And so raise
after raise came until the year before he had reached his goal
— he had become junior partner of the firm. The way of
obtaining this last honor was rather odd.
The Transfer Company, in addition to controlling the car
service of Plympton, a rather larger seaport town situated on
the edge of a large bay, also controlled a line running over
Shell Island. Plympton Bay was nearly enclosed by long
sand bars which ran up and down the coast and kept the
ocean waves from coming in the small bays, but made them
affected by every tide. Shell Island was much larger than
any of these bars and, running perpendicularly to them,
stretched nearly across the center of Plympton Bay and to
within five miles of the city harbor. At the further end was
another and much more beautiful island almost three miles in
diameter. This island, Paradise it was called because of its
beauty, was truly a charming spot. Tall palms and old water
oaks, covered with long gray moss, made it wonderfully pleas-
ant and lovely. On the northern and western shores the ocean
waves beat, beat, beat continually like a never ceasing or tired
guard and who ever sent his minions, the ripply, flowing little
wavelets, far ahead to carefully sweep and polish the white
sands for a dancing floor for the mermen and maids to have
their nightly frolics on, and who then stood by to see that
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
everything went well with his charges. And never did
nymphs have a more charming spot to sport in than here on
a warm summer night with a full moon casting her clear
beams over all !
But the heart of man is ever desirous of possessing the
whole earth for his habitation. And that was the reason why
beautiful Paradise was rudely snatched from the possession of
her rightful owners and spoiled by the erection of cottages
and pavilions for pleasure seeking men. It had long been a
cherished desire of the Public Transfer Company to have a
settlement over on this island, with their car line extend-
ing over it just as they had on Shell Island. The traffic there
had payed splendidly and once they could get a good resort
on Paradise, they felt their fortunes would be made. There
were several objections to this plan though. In the first place,
that five miles of bay which had to be crossed to reach Plymp-
ton from Shell Island looked terribly far and dangerous to
a timid ' ' highlander ' ' when confronted with the thought of a
supposable storm approaching. Therefore for a long time
only the most daring would consent to spend their nights
over there, but when they found out that, apparently it was
reasonably safe, the island was soon so thickly settled that
those who wished more seclusion began to talk of going to
the mountains for their summer. But so far no thought of
going on to Paradise had entered the public's mind — it was
entirely too dangerous and inaccessible.
It was at this time that McDonald's most important com-
mission that the firm had so far felt enabled to trust to him
had been given him. He was assigned the task of building
cottages on Paradise and renting them to the most promising
of the people on Shell Island — to build an exclusive settlement
for exclusive people and by winning their patronage make
great gains for his company.
For a long time McDonald hesitated before he accepted
' ' Mr. Townsend, ' ' he said, ' ' I hesitate to do this because if
I undertake it I will feel that whatever happens I will be
personally responsible for the lives of everybody on Shell
Island and doubly so for those on Paradise. ' '
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
He finally agreed, though, and went to work. Wonders
were accomplished in a short time, the company became jubi-
lant, patted him on the back and made him junior partner.
The second year and this far in the third everything was
proceeding equally as nice. Not a day since Paradise had
been opened had there been any need for the young manager
to worry about the weather conditions until the last week ;
since then it had been cloudy and the weather man had pre-
dicted a little storm at sea, but that was all.
On this particular afternoon Mrs. McDonald assigned
Jack's uneasiness to be the results of overwork and began to
worry a little over his business strain and wish eagerly for
the time for their vacation to come. She had noticed for
several days how the clouds hung loweringly over in the south-
east and that the sun had failed to shine through the chill
atmosphere. But she attributed the uneasy, expectant feeling
that had taken possession of her to only the impatience for
October to come when she. Jack, and the baby were to start
for the mountains. As she watched him board the car that
afternoon she thought of those long walks they would have in
the autumn-decked mountain woods, and in contemplation
of this treat all thoughts of the approaching storm vanished.
That night, being lonely without Jack, who, because of
business had to spend the night in the city, she retired early.
At the unusually rapid beating of the waves she murmured
to herself, "The guard is keeping a rather vigilant watch
tonight. ' ' She was hardly aroused when her brother came in
a little later and called down the hall to her :
"Say, sis, there's going to be a little storm tonight. Don't
be uneasy, it won't be much!"
Jack, also, went to bed that night very early. He was to
go out early the next morning with some surveyors of the
company and he knew he would need a good night's sleep
to fit him for the hard day's work. He had taken a long
swim that afternoon and his tired body soon fell into a sound
About one o 'clock that night an unusual disturbance awak-
ened him. At first he thought it was a burglar and reached
for his pistol. The movement brought him to consciousness
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
and he immediately supposed from the way the shutters were
rattling and doors banging that it must be an earthquake.
Just then his 'phone set up a violent ringing.
' ' Have all the furies turned loose, or what is the matter 1 ' '
he exclaimed. A bright flash of lightning followed by a
violent crash of thunder answered him only too conclusively.
' ' Merciful heavens, the storm ! " he gasped.
Trembling he seized the telephone receiver, but could
hardly stand still long enough to get the message.
' ' Say, Jack, ' ' the president was asking in an excited voice,
"are you deaf or dead? There is a terrible storm and the
people on the island are frightened to death and must be
brought to mainland. Come down to the wharf at once, will
"The people on the island are frightened to death!" he
whispered again to himself, ' ' and he — he alone — was to blame ;
he had left them there with no protection and not even a
guard when he had almost known a storm was coming. Surely
there was no excuse, no pardon for such consummate care-
lessness as he had displayed," he ended reproachfully. Ter-
rible visions of the islands flooded, the cottages washing away
and the people in all degrees of suffering rose before him.
Of Paradise he refused to think, and of Mary ! He scarcely
realized when he finished dressing and started to the wharf.
It seemed to him as if he had taken ages to dress, but that
time seemed as if seconds in comparison with the hours that he
was taking to walk that short distance — he had been walking
such a long time — he thought he remembered distinctly that
it was only five blocks, but he had been mistaken surely. The
time dragged so that he imagined that the president must
have telephoned so long ago that both islands would be gone
entirely by now. With violent eft'ort he would quicken his
pace and urge on those lagging feet which almost ceased to
Hatless, coatless, and drenched to the skin he raced on
toward the dock. "Are the people on Paradise safe?" he
gasped twenty yards away.
The president noted his deep agitation and tried to calm
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
"Why, it is not as bad as that. All of the people have
come over from Paradise and the cars have brought them down
to this end of Shell Island — a fishing smack came over to tell
us to come get them at once. The trouble is, however, that
we can't get a pilot to run the boat over this high sea, and it
is absolutely dangerous to leave them over there any longer."
"Was the president really talking to him, or was it some
evil spirit trying to get his thoughts away from Mary and
that mass of people who, swarming all over the two islands,
seemed in every imploring attitude to be pleading for him to
come to their aid? Involuntarily, as if some outside power
had possession of his tongue, he muttered :
"I have steered her often — I can take the place."
The look of relief on the president's face faded away as
he looked again at McDonald.
' ' Think you can do it ? Are your nerves steady enough ? ' '
he asked doubtfully.
Again that outside power made him reply as he started
on board :
"Yes, but let's go!"
The vision of Mary's gray eyes, and then a train of a
thousand other pairs all tilled, he imagined, with reproach
for his carelessness and looking accusingly at him, followed
him on the boat and filled the whole air.
The boat was hurriedly started on its perilous way. The
drawn-faced, sunken-eyed man at the wheel pulled contin-
ually at the "full speed ahead" bell cord. "If the boat could
only be made to go a little faster, maybe in the chase after him
those terrible eyes would lose some of their reproach", he
thought and jangled the bell again wildly.
And so the first half of the hazardous journey approached
its end. Time and again it seemed to the two men standing
by and watching as if nothing but a heavenly power could save
them as the boat seemed certain to smash on projecting reefs,
but each time an apparently invisible hand turned the wheel
just enough to let her graze the rocks undamaged. Finally
the senior member turned around to the president and said :
"The Ancient Mariner's pilot is surely guiding us. Don't
be alarmed if you find yourself presently in the South Sea."
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Nearer and nearer they approached that dark, low coast,
lighted up every now and then by vivid flashes of lightning.
The deep reverberation of the thunder mingled with the rush
and roar of the winds, and that swirling, splashing, black
water about them. Away off the quickened pounding of the
waves made one feel as if the old ocean had a fever and fear
what he might do in his delerium. An indefinable fear came
over McDonald as it grew louder. He was glad of the thunder
tones, of the lightning, and of everything which alleviated
that heart thrilling sound for a moment. Alternate waves of
doubt and of terrified recoil from such thoughts and fears
flooded over him. When the surf beat loudest he would start
thinking : " If by any chance Mary and the baby had been
left over there — " but before he could finish it he would
assure himself that "the fisherman had said everybody was
on Shell Island" — he would not let himself think of anything
As they drew near the coast and the voices of the people
began to reach him, he began to listen intently for her. By
the time the boat reached the pier he was frantic with fear;
he had not heard her voice and he felt positive again that she
was not there.
Somehow the boat drew alongside the landing. He was
conscious of having turned the wheel backwards and forwards
numberless times and entirely unnecessarily he thought, but
that power which had possession of him impelled him to do so.
In frenzied haste he ran from the pilot's room and started
for the platform. The blood beat and pounded in his temples,
the veins of his neck and forehead stood out like cords, and
when he walked he stumbled and reeled like he was drunken.
' ' McDonald, will you stand at the gate and make every one
come over the pier singly?" The president's calm voice
called him back from his mad rush.
As he took his place quietly at the small turngate a ter-
rible stupid despair took the place of that unreasonable fear.
The hot blood almost stood still. But there he stood as
family after family passed, trembling mothers with frightened
crying children in their arms and hanging to their skirts,
overwatched by serious and alarmed fathers.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
While the crowd was passing every now and then a woman
would look at him very pityingly and, seeing his immovable
face, would let their expression harden. The men looked
around inquiringly and hesitated as they passed him. At
last he heard distinctly the words of a woman who was
unmistakably looking at him :
"Poor man, I w^onder if he doesn't know?"
"She was surely looking at him," he thought, "but the
fisherman had said everybody had come over to Shell Island.
j\Iary must be in that crowd — he would not believe she was
not." The blood was released once more from its frozen
stupor and rushed madly through his veins. Every bit of
antagonism in him rose to deny the woman's assertion.
As soon as he could command himself well enough he
called to an old acquaintance in a very matter-of-fact and
casual tone :
"James, Mary and the baby got over alright, didn't they?
I know they did, but I haven't seen them yet and, of course,
I will have a little foolish fear until I am certain." He
gave a strained laugh to hide his deep anxiety. Never did a
gladiator of old wait more tensely for the raising or lowering
of the thumbs than he did for that answer. Almost his very
life depended upon it!
"Why, man, hasn't anybody told you yet?" Horror at
having to tell McDonald what he saw he must, filled the friend
and made him stand aghast for a second.
' ' For heaven 's sake, tell me everything ! ' ' McDonald im-
Gathering up his courage, the man started in a light but
hollow tone :
"Well, I am glad they haven't, so that I can tell you that
you have the bravest wife in this state."
"Why wouldn't those waves cease their interminable
pounding just long enough for him to hear how they had
destroyed his wife and child," he thought savagely to him-
self. "Could they never be satisfied?"
Mr. Townsend, along with many others, drew around to
hear the conversation.
"Jack, I am sorry to tell you, but Mary is still on Para-
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
dise. You see it was this way : Only three cars w^ere left
on Paradise last night and when the summons was given to
leave, it was seen at once that everybody could not get over.
Your wife took command at once and prevented the stampede
that was about to take place. She saw that everybody on the
island was sent for and that every car was packed as heavily
as possible. Before she would let a single one leave she would
send a man ahead over the trestle to see that it was perfectly
safe. Finally, the last car was filled till it could hardly move,
but about twenty men and your wife were still off. I was
just ready to go on before the car to see that everything was
safe when the men picked her up by force and set her on the
car. She protested vigorously and said, 'Jack says he is
personally responsible for everybody over here. And when he
is not here it rests upon me to see that each of you get over
safely. I cannot disgrace him by leaving when a single per-
son remains behind ! '
' ' She had hardly finished when we saw old crippled Cindy
hobbling down the hill. We men motioned to the motorman
to start before your wife could see her and I hurried on ahead,
but it was too late. Jumping down she rushed to help the old
woman to the step, crying, 'You had better hurry or you will
be left ! ' And then I had to go on testing the trestle and
leave her standing there in the midst of those men, guarding
your honor and crying to us to tell you, after you had seen
e'very one of these people safe at home, to come to their aid.
She would always end by saying you would have plenty of
All shades of expression passed over Jack McDonald's
face, as he heard this jerky story, — anxiety, love, admiration
and anguish ; w^hile cheers for the brave, loyal little woman
rose about him, led by the president.
Somehow he could not take it all in at once — those waves
would not be still for him to think. Snatches of his friend's
speech came into his brain backwards and muddled crazily
together. After infinite thought he finally resolved the whole
thing into the simple fact that Mary had put her life and the
life of her child into jeopardy to protect what she was pleased
to call his honor. The thought cut through his brain like a
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
knife. The throbbing blood ceased its wild rush and his dulled
brain became acutely active; every little thought cut its own
trench. He must go to her at once, he resolved, she had
said he would come and he must.
' ' Has 't any of the cars gone back yet ? Were none of you
willing to try to save them?" he asked scornfully, and turn-
ing to a motorman he inquired, "Is the power station still
running and can the cars go over the tracks? I must go to
them at once ! " he exclaimed a little impatiently to Mr. Town-
send, who stood by bewildered and speechless.
"Why, Jack, you can't just now. You are surely going
to take these people over first. You forget that you are
* ' Leave Mary in that dangerous position any longer while I
take these people over?" he thundered and then sarcastically
added, ' ' They saw only too well to their safety a little while
ago — let them see to it a little longer. Mr. Townsend, you for-
get that she is a woman and doesn't realize the danger she
is in — it is my duty to go to her at once."
"Look here, McDonald, be sensible." Seizing the young
man's shoulder he felt it shaking as with an ague. "I am
sorry you are in this bad position, but you must not forget
that you are doubly responsible for these people now. This
pier might give way at any moment and they can't be left
here while you go to Paradise. No one else can steer the
boat. And besides, remember that she stayed to save your
honor. You won 't disgrace it and her 's too, will you ? ' ' The
older man's voice was insistent and his words a little rough,
but there was an under note of deep kindness and love for
the boy. Besides the responsibility he felt for landing the
people safely, he had a great desire to see Jack McDonald
prove the manhood in him that he had always felt was there.
"If only he will win this fight," his older friend thought
and prayed silently.
McDonald looked at him in blank astonishment when he
realized that the speech had been given in perfect seriousness.
He really couldn't believe that Mr. Townsend meant that —
that he could want him to go on spending his time in saving
useless lives while his brave wife was left waiting — ^his own
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
wife. He clenched his hands in anger that anyone should
dare suggest that he would leave her in danger — be faith-
less to his wife. ''Yet," he thought, "how foolish she had
acted ! but it was just this unselfishness that made her so lov-
able, staying there to protect his honor, as if she need
imperil her safety in any such manner. But if she con-
sidered it her duty to help him in this manner she would
surely expect him ! ' ' He cast the thought angrily aside, but
he staggered at her announcement of his duty.
The men caught at the swaying figure, but he caught him-
self and leaned heavily against the gate. Not a word was
spoken in the crowd — everybody waited for the final decision
of the man who held their safety so perfectly in his own
hands. He, unconscious of everybody around him, contin-
ued his own train of thoughts. He had realized long before
that Mary had decided for him, but it took a long time for
him to conquer that terrible desire to flee to her rescue.
With a perfectly steady voice he finally turned and said:
"The boat will be ready to return to Plympton in three
minutes. ' '
Not only relief, but admiration as well, filled the faces of
everybody present. Each man realized fully the cost of his
decision and out of consideration for his feelings enforced
quiet on all that crowd as they hurried on board. Again the
boat was hastily prepared for its trip, and this time the con-
trolling spirit had changed from a feverish excitement to a
The last mooring was being unfastened when a shout was
heard on the island — something was coming down the car line ;
voices were heard shouting to them and a lantern was seen
dangling in the air. Everybody rushed to the side of the
boat to see what it was, except one person — the man at the
wheel kept rigidly at duty bringing the boat back to place by
When at last he felt free to rush down stairs there sat
two rusty old handcars on the track filled with men and one
woman with a baby in her lap sitting high on the first one.
"You see we just couldn't let you run off and leave us in
any such manner," she cried gaily, "so we just got out our
private cars and followed!"
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
The History of the Capital of North Carolina
Alice Bogers, AdelpMan
In order to sketch briefly the history of the seat of gov-
ernment of North Carolina, it is necessary to go back to the
early colonial days. We find that, during those early days,
the government was ambulatory. The Governor resided at
his own home and called the Assembly to meet at any place
most convenient. Some place in the northeastern counties
was usually chosen, as that section, during the early days,
was the center of population in the colony. Dr. Kemp Battle
says that the earliest of these meeting places for the Assembly
which we have handed down to us, was in Perquimans County,
at the home of Capt. John Hecklefield. However, we find
in the Colonial Records, a copy of the instructions of the
Lords Proprietors to the Governor and Assembly in 1676,
bidding them build three towns, one on Roanoke Island
"which shall be the chief e towne and where the Assemblie
shall convene". Whether these instructions were carried out
and the seat of government established on Roanoke Island, we
are uncertain. However, we find no record of any such pro-
cedure. In 1722 the aristocratic little town of Edenton, on
Chowan Bay, became the seat of government. But later, as the
center of population drifted southwest, steps were taken to
establish the seat of government at New Bern as being nearer
the center and therefore more convenient. This move-
ment was bitterly opposed by the Albemarle section ; but at
a meeting in Wilmington in which that section was not well
represented, the act was carried fixing the seat of government
at New Bern. This act was never recognized by the king,
but from 1740 until the rising of revolutionary movements,
New Bern retained the honor of being almost exclusively
the meeting place for the General Assembly.
With the dawn of the Revolution, the government again
became unsettled. The Assembly was called to meet at any
place which seemed most convenient, being afi:'ected mainly
by the "exigencies of war". During the period of the war
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
and the period immediately following, we have record of the
Assembly's convening at Halifax, Hillsboro, New Bern, Wil-
mington, Smithfield, Salem, Tarboro, Fayetteville, and Wake
However, after peace was restored and the new govern-
ment well launched, the farseeing leaders of North Carolina
realized that a permanent seat of government was necessary.
It was plainly evident that much evil had resulted from the
lack of a permanent place for the Governor and other state
officers to reside, and from the lack of a state house in which
public papers, records, and documents should be kept safely
instead of being scattered about over the state and lost.
Indeed, the Assembly of 1789 acknowledged that North Caro-
lina suffered a grave injustice in the settlement with the
general government after the war, on account of the loss of
the papers which would have shown the state's expenditures
in the war. She not only suffered in money, but also suffered
sorely in reputation from losses among her archives.
So in the face of this great need, the Assembly of 1787, in
calling a convention for the adoption of the constitution of the
.United States, recommended the people to "fix on a place for
the unalterable seat of government". In accordance with
this suggestion the convention of 1788, which met in Hills-
boro, took up the question of a permanent capital. After
much discussion, it was decided that it should be established
as near the geographical center of the state as possible, but it
was left to the General Assembly to decide the exact spot,
which, however, must be within ten miles of Isaac Hunter's
plantation in Wake County. It was James Iredell, of Chowan
County, who introduced the ordinance to locate the capital in
Wake, while it was Governor Alexander Martin who first
suggested that it would be appropriate to call the new city
"Raleigh" in honor of Sir Walter Raleigh. But even after
this first step was taken, the Assemblies were slow to carry
out the ordinance. There was fierce opposition to the location
in Wake, Fayetteville being the most formidable opponent.
However, after an intense and heated controversy, the Gen-
eral Assembly which met at New Bern, 1791, passed an act to
carry out the ordinance of the convention of 1788. It pro-
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
vided that nine commissioners be appointed to locate and lay
off the capital city within ten miles of Isaac Hunter's planta-
tion in Wake County, and that five persons be appointed
*'to cause to be built and erected a State House sufficiently
large to accommodate with convenience both Houses of the
General Assembly, at an expense not to exceed ten thousand
pounds". The act provided for one commissioner of location
from each of the eight judicial districts, and a ninth from the
state at large. The following were elected :
For Hillsboro, Thomas Pearson ; for Salisbury, James
Martin; for Morgan, Joseph McDowell (the elder) ; for Hal-
ifax, Thomas Blount; for Edenton, William Johnston Daw-
son; for New Bern, Frederick Hargett; for Fayetteville,
Henry William Harrington ; for Wilmington, James Blood-
worth; the ninth from the state, Willie Jones.
These commissioners were allowed two dollars per day and
expenses. The five members on the building committee were
as follows: Richard Benehan, John Macon, Robert Goodloe,
Nathan Bryan, and Theophilus Hunter.
The historic tract of Isaac Hunter lay along the great
highway from the north to the south by way of Petersburg,
Warrenton, Louisburg, Wake Court House, to Fayetteville,
Charleston, and other points. Within ten miles is a stretch
of the Neuse River and many thought the new city would
have wharves and be connected with the ocean. There was a
good deal of speculation in navigation companies. Such was
the locality in which the new city was to be founded.
On Tuesday, March 20, 1792, five of the nine commission-
ers, that is, Hargett, Dawson, McDowell, Martin, and Blount,
assembled at the house of Isaac Hunter, but adjourned at
once to the house of Joel Lane at Wake Court House, where
Willie Jones joined them on the 22nd. Sixteen tracts were
offered to the commissioners for consideration. For several
days they rode about viewing the lands offered as suitable
sites, and on the 27th they took a second view of the land of
Joel and Henry Lane. On March 29th, after eight days of
inspection, they organized into a board with Hargett chair-
man, and proceeded to ballot for the place most desirable
and proper. The Hinton tract received three votes, the Lane
tract two votes, and the Jones tract one vote, but at a second
ballot on March 30th, the Lane tract was unanimously chosen.
The Assembly had directed that not less than 640 acres be
purchased and not more than 1000 acres. So the board pro-
ceeded to purchase 1000 acres, the maximum allowed by the
law, at three dollars per acre for woodland, and two dollars
pr acre for old field. The price of the whole was $2,756.
William Christmas, of Franklin, was employed as surveyor
R T H
L A N E
J O N K S
E D K N
C A S W E I, I,
I A S H
M O R
M O O K
C A B A
M R R U S
L E N
O I R
I^ T H
A rough sketch of the early plan of tlie City of Raleigh, showing the
names given the streets and public squares.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
The Assembly had directed that a city of not less than 400
acres should be layed off, and that 20 acres should be set
apart for the state house and other public buildings. It
also required the main street to be ninety-nine feet wide and
the other streets sixty-six feet wide.
The work of the survey occupied four days and the plan
Avas adopted April 4th, the commissioners assigning names
to the streets and public squares. Capitol square, which is
nearly six acres in extent, they named Union. Four other
public squares surrounding Union Square they named Cas-
well, Nash, Burke, and Moore, in honor of the first three
Governors and Attorney-General Moore. In naming the
streets the commissioners first honored the eight judicial dis-
tricts into which the state was divided, viz. : Edenton, New
Bern, Wilmington, Hillsboro, Halifax, Salisbury, Fayette-
ville and Morgan. The remaining streets, with the exception
of the four boundary streets which they called North, South,
East, West, respectively, were called after the commissioners,
except four which were named in honor of Lenoir, Speaker of
the Senate, and Cabarrus, Speaker of the House, Lane, former
owner of the land, and W. R. Davie. The commissioners
reported their plan to the General Assembly of 1792, and it
was adopted. It is said that this plan remained unchanged
for over sixty years, but by acts of the Assembly of 1856- '57
the corporate limits were extended a quarter of a mile each
The commissioners who laid the plan for the city held
the first sale of lots, one acre each. Nearly all the important
men of the state became purchasers, not so much with the
intention of becoming citizens of the new city, as in specula-
tion. To prove that it was in speculation mostly, we find
that in 1834 nearly all the lots had changed owners. To give
some idea of what price the lots brought. General Davie
bought a square of four acres for $254. The proceeds of this
first sale were used to build the "State House," as the act
of the Assembly called it. It was not until 1832 that the
name capitol replaced the old term state house.
Rhody Atkins was employed as architect of the new
building, which was completed in two years. It was a
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
plain, barnlike, brick structure much smaller than the pres-
ent capitol, but modeled very much on the same plan in the
interior. It looked eastward in the oriental style as preva-
lent at that time. Although it was an unpretentious structure,
"it is doubtful if any building in our state ever served so
many uses, or gave as much genuine pleasure." It not only
served for governmental purposes, but in the lack of other
public buildings, it was used by the public for Fourth of
July dinners, theatrical performances, balls, and religious
services of all denominations. "It was the people's house and
the people were allowed to use it."
In 1813, there was a second sale of lots, the proceeds of
which were used to build the Governor's Mansion. Just so,
the proceeds of a third sale in 1819 went as a fund to be
used in improving the state house. Captain Williams was
secured to supervise these improvements. The plain ugly
red-brick exterior was covered with a stuccoed imitation of
granite. Porticoes erected over the east and west doors,
and a shapely dome constructed on the center of the roof,
added much to its outward appearance. The interior was
also much improved with touches of ornament here and there.
The committee even went so far as to order a statue of
Washington from the chisel of the great Canova, which was
placed in the rotunda immediately beneath the dome. It,
together with the other changes, made a great improvement
in the appearance of the old state house.
But the old state house was destined not to stand very
long after it was improved, for June 21, 1831, the citizens
of Raleigh were startled by the cry of "Fire at the state
house!" The fire, which had caught from the roof, might
have easily been extinguished if there had been a fire quip-
ment like that of today. But the weak fire engines of that
day were inadequate and powerless. The fire was so slow
that there was ample time to have saved almost everything
of any importance. I\Iost of the state papers, except the acts
of the Assembly, were saved, but the beautiful Canova statue
was too ponderous to be removed by an excited crowd. Men
stood by in horror and helplessly saw it crack and crumble
at a red heat. Before this time the question of putting rollers
STATE NOEIMAL MAGAZINE
on the statue so that it might be easily removed in ease of
fire had been discussed, but had been neglected. So the
state lost one of its grandest possessions. It is interesting
to note here, that recently the North Carolina Historical
Commission discovered the original cast in Italy and that
the Italian government presented a replica of the cast to the
Historical Association as a gracious gift. It arrived in Ral-
eigh January 3, 1910, and was placed on a temporary pedestal
in the east corridor of the new capitol, where it now stands.
It is hoped that it will soon be replaced in marble in the
rotunda and become again the state's "pride and glory".
"The narrow escape from losing the archives of the state,
experienced in the burning of the old state house, deter-
mined the leaders of public opinion to provide the present
noble fire proof structure of granite. ' ' There was some oppo-
sition in the Assembly to a liberal appropriation and there
was even some discussion of changing the capital to Payette-
ville. However, an act was finally passed providing that the
"general plan of the said capital shall be the same as the
former building, with an extension of length and height as
may be deemed necessary for the better accommodation of
the General Assembly, the lower story of which shall at least
be built of stone and the roof covered with zinc or other fire-
proof material." The amount appropriated was $50,000,
but additional appropriations were made later, until when
the capitol was completed in 1840, the total cost amounted to
$530,684.15. David Paton, the architect, describes the struc-
ture as being 160 feet in length from north to south, by 140
feet from east to west. The whole height in the center is
97I/2 feet. The columns and entablature are Grecian Doric,
copied from the Temple of Minerva, commonly called the
Parthenon. The octagon tower which surrounds the rotunda
is ornamented with Grecian cornice and its dome is decorated
with ornaments similar to those of the Lauthom of Demos-
thenes. The first floor consists of ten rooms, eight of which
are offices; the other two, committee rooms. The vestibules
are decorated with columns similar to those of the Ionic
Temple near the Acropolis of Athens. The second story con-
sists of senatorial and representative chambers, two com-
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
mittee rooms and several other rooms besides the presses,
stairs, lobbies, colonnades, etc. The Hall of Representatives
is modeled after the plan of the Greek theatre, the columns
and antae being those of the octagon Tower Andronicus Cyu-
hestes, while those of the senatorial chamber are modeled
after the Temple of Minerva. The third or attic story con-
tains rooms appropriated to the Supreme Court and the
Library. When the capitol was completed in 1840, it was the
most elegant and imposing structure of its kind to be found
in any state, and the hearts of loyal North Carolinians right-
fully swelled with pride when they compared its classic dignity
and beauty with the other capitols of that day.
It would be interesting to follow the history of the growth
and development of the new capital city, but that would be
beyond the scope of this paper. Suffice it to say that it has
gradually grown and developed until today the "City of
Oaks" is the center of the state, financially, industrially,
socially and educationally, as well as civilly.
Edith Avery, '15, Adelpliian
The purple clouds by the rays of sun
Gold-glittering, when the storm is done.
Hang o'er the mountain's jagged peak,
Cleft by one lingering, fiery streak.
Half veiled by the clouds of light,
The sun at length dips down from sight,
Yet leaves a golden sign of tryst
Upon the ever-deep 'ning mist.
IS TATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
A Red Sunset, or, Totnorro^v
Eleanor Morgan, '14, Cornelian
"Fairmont!" shrilled the porter. Startled, Janet waked
to interest. But, peering out the car window, she saw only
a few scattered hovels and one or two darky children stand-
ing on the porches waving frantically at the passing train.
In a moment, however, the town was reached. Janet looked
out over the heads of the crowd to discover which of the many
strange faces might be searching for hers. But how could
she tell in all that crowd? for it seemed if all the young
people in the town had turned out to meet the train, they
were crowding around the car steps, laughing and talking
and having a jolly good time in general. "I didn't know
there were that many people on the train," Janet thought.
"I wonder whom so many have come to meet." And when
she saw that evidently they had come for no business at all,
she wondered what strange sort of social function the gather-
ing could be. As she passed through the crowd, she heard
one girl say to another, "Who is that? Look quick, who is
"Oh, she's the yankee librarian that's going to fix up the
"Just look at that hat!"
"Hush, she'll hear you."
Just then, to Janet's great relief, a lady and gentleman,
members of the board of directors of the library, came for-
ward and claimed her.
It was as the girl had said. Janet was the "yankee
librarian" who had come to "fix up" the town library. She
was the daughter of wealthy, doting parents and she had
come south "for the sake of experience", as she herself put
it, to become acquainted with the people and their life. All
her life she had gone her own independent way. When her
parents would have sent her to a finishing school, she had
gone to college and taken heavy work; when they would
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
have sent her to Europe, she had taken a course in library
training; when they would have kept her at home in a life
of luxury, she had come south to work. She worked because
she believed it wrong not to work and because she loved it;
she came south because she had read and heard so much of
this land of song and romance that she was eager to taste
its warmth and hospitality.
Now that she was safe in her prosaic room at her prosaic
boarding house, she made a grimace at her first dose of hospi-
tality and took off "that hat". She had never troubled her
brain over styles before. At supper she struggled manfully
over strange cookery which the other boarders seemed to
enjoy immensely and as soon as the meal was over, with
unspeakable thankfulness that it was over, went again to her
For a long time, then, she sat looking out the window
where, over the distant outline of tree tops, the full southern
moon was rising, mellow, wonderful. At last she went to
bed and tried to sleep, but the katydids with their incessant
drumming gave her little peace. It seemed as if she had
only just fallen asleep when a low, gutteral cawing stirred
her dreams, then a loud, dignified crow brought her wdde
awake. A pert little rooster answered from somewhere in
the distance. Then from all sides the challenge was taken up
and such a racket began as poor Janet had never before
heard. "I didn't know this w^as a chicken farm," she
moaned. Again she slept, but immediately, it seemed, she
was awakened by a long drawn out moo, a forlorn and mourn-
ful low. "Cows, too? Where am I?" And then the spar-
rows began. The magnolia tree just outside the south win-
dow was infested with the chattering, quarreling, impudent
little upstarts and now that they had begun their twitter-
ing, it seemed never to cease — while helpless Janet lay watch-
ing the light dawn. She was really enjoying the sun rise,
when a door slammed in the house next door, childish foot-
steps pattered up and down the porch. "Come on, Tom!"
a shrill voice yelled and then pandemonium was let loose. A
rapid and long continued tattoo on a tin pan, finally cut
short by a clatter of falling crockery, the inevitable tin horn,
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
and the screams of a half dozen children added considerably
to her peace of mind. Oh ! at last one imp was crying. A
man 's deep voice called out over the tumult and all was silent
for a moment, then it broke out twice as strong.
Unable to bear it longer, Janet dressed and went out for
a walk in the cold morning air. But the dew on the grass-
grown sidewalks that had looked so quaint and old-fashioned
yesterday, made her skirts draggled and wet her feet. She
stooped to pluck a beautifully-shaped leaf from a tall plant
growing by the side of a fence ; it was a jimson weed. As
she neared the gate, returning, the same Tom who had dis-
turbed her so sadly a short time before, almost knocked her
off her feet as he rushed by, roaring, "Look out for the loco-
motive engine, lightnin ' express ! ' ' Too much astonished and
discomfited to be amused, Janet went into the house.
Later in the morning she went down to the library. And
the library turned out to be merely one room, and that small.
As she entered the dim, stuffy, half shadow, a mouldy,
musty, smell oppressed her ; she looked about her and saw
rows on rows of shelves, books piled almost to the ceiling
around all four walls, books piled on the window sills, books
piled in the corners, and she was told that there were "a
few more in the garret". She reached out her hand and
picked up a volume. The dust on it had not been disturbed
in a year. And it was so with all the books. "The library has
l)een closed for a short time," she was told. "How can I
ever breathe in here?" she gasped, but turned resolutely to
As she passed a group of girls on her return to dinner that
day she heard a murmur that sounded suspiciously like "flat
heels", and accordingly she hastened her steps. And so the
people of Fairmont were hardly enthusiastic over the new
librarian. They were slow and conservative ; they could not
understand quite what the stranger was. She kept her own
counsel, and therefore they tried themselves to discover who
she was and who her ancestors were and who she might some
day be. Some made her out the daughter of a multi-million-
aire ; others, a penniless orphan ; others a famous author pass-
ing under an assumed name, who had come south to get
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
material for her next novel; and still others had different
stories. And so very few of the people even called on the
stranger. One old lady who did come went away indignant
that the girl knew nothing of that famous general in the war,
the old lady's son-in-law's great uncle. "She's a yankee
out and out," the people said.
Thus a little less than a month passed by. And not yet
had Janet succeeded in adapting herself to the boarding
house life nor to the everlasting noise kept up by the children
next door. Tom, especially, seemed to take delight in annoy-
ing her ; he was always in her way. And with the coming
warm weather, the work grew daily more irksome. And she
knew that there was still many a weary week before the
library could possibly be in good shape. She looked forward
to the summer in that box of a room with dread.
One April morning she rose at the early call of the vege-
table vender and went down to her work before breakfast.
She worked steadily until two o'clock and so she was ready
enough for dinner. But a strange new dish appeared upon
the table. It was "turnip greens", she was told, and she
"must try some". She tried some and tried no more.
Feeling rather disconsolate, she went back to her work
again. This afternoon she was going to paste the card pock-
ets in some of the books. Just as she had gotten well into the
work and her hands all "mussed up" with the paste, the
paste gave out. Then she started to print book cards, but she
was so nervous; her pen shook and blotted a number of the
cards ; she made small errors that exasperated her and caused
her to lose time. She kept this up about an hour and then —
there were no more cards. "How provoking. It will be
days before the new supplies can get here," and she was so
worried with herself that she grew still more nervous. But
she sat down determinedly to her typewriter and began to
pound away. This work was going smoothly and she was
getting on at a comparatively rapid rate, when she looked up
and saw a visitor entering the open door. "Oh, don't get
up, Miss Moore. I only came to watch you work. Keep
right on, don't stop for me." And the lady, who was another
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
of those nuisances known as directors, came and stood beside
"Excuse me, Miss Moore," she interrupted, "but you've
already made one card for that book. I thought I'd better
tell you before it was too late."
Janet stifled a sigh as she said, "Thank you, Mrs. Wil-
liams, but you see this card is a little different from the other.
You know there are three cards — " and then had to go
through the whole explanation of the catalogue, as carefully
weeding her words of technical phrases as if she spoke to a
Thus it continued all the rest of the afternoon, Janet, as
she strained patience and tact, to say nothing of conscience,
to keep the idle visitor from seeing her own ignorance, all
the time inwardly counting the precious moments she was
wasting. When at last Mrs. Williams did leave, Janet was
ready to scream with fatigue and strain. Knowing that it
would be useless to try to work longer, she shut up the
typewriter, closed the library and went — I almost said home
— to her boarding house. Discouraged and disappointed
through and through, she sat down and wrote a letter, tell-
ing her mother to expect her in two days. "It's not as if I
really had to work", she silently excused herself. And then
holding the letter tight in her hand, she put her head down
on the desk and closed her eyes.
A light shower came up, the rain beating in upon her,
but still she did not stir. The rain was soon over and sud-
denly, from somewhere very near, a bird began to sing, a
mockingbird. The merry notes swelled out into a flood of
teasing, yet happy mimicry. On and on the bird sang ; Janet
lifted her head ; there before her, perched on a twig just
outside the window, was the bird. The joy of living was in
his song ; the joy of living was in his breast. And the rose
vines glistened from their bath ; the grass had taken on a new
green ; and a strange light was over the earth ; a holiness
breathed in the air ; and still the little bird sang. Breathless,
Janet watched and listened. At last she put her head down
on the desk and began quietly to cry. "0 Southland, you
have your mockingbirds as well as your sparrows," she wept.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Soon she rose and went out for a walk. The town looked
fresh and cool and even kind ; the glow was still over the
earth, the peace and calm of the air filling the girl's heart.
As she turned back to the house, a song was on her lips.
And there at the gate stood the imp, Tom, clutching in his
hot little fist a sprig of yellow jasmine, broken and bruised,
but jasmine still. Without a word the little fellow held out
to Janet his peace offering. She knew better than to kiss
the child, though she longed to ; she merely took the spray
of flowers and said gravely, "Thank you, Tom, it is so pretty.
Thank you ever so much. ' '
And the little fellow, after one long, open-mouthed stare,
turned and darted away. "And the Southland has its jas-
mine as well as its jimson weed," Janet whispered, and hold-
ing the flowers to her lips, looked up at the sunset.
As she wondered at the new glory of the sky, she remem-
bered what Aunt Mandy, the cook, had said a day or two
before. "Naw mam, hit 'taint 'gwine rain termorrow. Naw
mam. Case hit's a red sunset terday, don't you see? An'
hit don't never rain next day arter a red sunset. A red sun-
set am a shore sign o' fair weather. Don't you worry no
mo' 'bout dat, case hit taint gwine rain termorrer."
"No," with a smile Janet murmured, "it won't rain to-
morrow, and I won't worry any more. I'll keep that letter
to remind me. It will not be rain, but jasmine and a mock-
ingbird's song tomorrow."
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
The Problem of Forestry in the United States *
Fanny Btirke Hunt, '15, Cornelian
One of the most important problems concerning the people
of the United States today is that of forestry. It has been
the general opinion among American people that their forests
are inexhaustible. It seems almost incredible that Americans
should hold this opinion when fifty million acres of forests
have been consumed yearly by fire and when one hundred
thousand acres have vanished yearly under the woodman's
axe. The cutting away has been three times as fact as pro-
Americans have seemed blind not only to the great de-
crease of forest area but even to the value of the forests.
Large lumbering companies and sheep-herders have been
allowed to monopolize large tracts of forest lands which
should be used for the welfare of all of the people. "We can
well see what a great monopoly the lumber industry is when
we remember that it is the fourth great industry of the
United States. Lumber companies have been in possession
of vast forest tracts from which they have cut timber in a
most haphazard and wasteful manner. It seems doubtful
if it has ever occurred to even the best educated of lumber
men that there really is a scientific way of cutting timber.
Sheep-herders also have brought about much damage to the
forests by allowing overgrazing in them, which destroys
foliage plants and lays open the soil to erosion.
Forest fires, as I have said, have in the past destroyed
fifty million acres yearly. These fires have been caused in
three ways, namely: by the carelessness of campers, by
sparks from locomotives, and by lightning. Smouldering
fires left by campers ignite dry leaves or pine needles and in
that way start damaging fires. Sparks from locomotives start
fires in the same way. Lightning sets dead pine trees on
fire and often causes in this way great forest fires.
* This paper was wrilten in 1911.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
If these damages continue, the United States, like Spain,
Syria, and China, will be stripped of its timber and will be
subject to great floods which now sometimes occur in parts of
the southern Appalachians. If we had no timber the price
of coal and the prices of tools as well as other prices would
rise greatly. Without forests the flow of streams would be
so irregular that the streams could not be depended upon
for water supply, and would be of no use for running fac-
tories. The efi:ect of forests on the flow of streams is most
important. In forests the ground is covered v/ith a thick
spongy carpet formed of decayed wood, dead and moldy
leaves, moss, and roots. This material is called humus and
affects the flow of water in this way : the humus catches the
rain water and holds it like a sponge, gradually letting a little
flow at a time, in this way giving streams a regular flow and
eliminating danger of floods. By causing snow to melt
slowly, the forests again serve as regulators.
Not only would we suffer material loss if our forests were
destroyed, but we would suffer from an artistic standpoint.
Without forest-clad mountains what would the poet write of
or the artist paint?
For all these reasons, because of Americans' lack of fore-
sight, because of monopolies, because of the destructive for-
est fires, because of aesthetic value of forests, it is of the
greatest importance that there should be in the United States
a complete system of forestry to protect the forests for the
benefit of all the people.
It is fortunate for the American people that a man
appears as their awakener at this time when they seem blind
to the fact that their forests are exhaustible, and when
monopolies seek the sole benefit of these forests. Gifford
PincliOt, the patriot, who "was not called upon to die for his
nation, but to live for it," has given his entire attention,
since entering the service in 1898, to the work of forestry
for the welfare of his nation and of all the people of the
nation. It is Mr. Pinchot's purpose to conserve the national
forests in order that all the people may receive the benefits
of the forests instead of a favored few alone receiving these
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
With this aim Mr. Pinchot began his work. He first
served in the commission that set the boundaries of tlie first
national reserves proclaimed by President Cleveland, and
then served as a special agent to report on all forest reserves.
During the Spanish-American War the government started
a little branch office, in the Department of Agriculture, which
was called the Division of Forestry. Of this division Pinchot
was made chief. At that time there were only eleven persons
in the Division of Forestry ; six of the eleven were clerks,
five were scientists, and two were foresters. There was no
equipment and not a dozen professional foresters in the whole
country. Pinchot began his work bravely and promptly, first
offering practical assistance to forest owners.
Pinchot 's plan is to conserve the forests to act as water-
sheds and as a means to hold the soil and prevent erosion.
The tree roots and humus do both of these things. Streams
regulated by forests do not flood and sweep away the dams
of storage basins or fill the storage basins with sediment
as do those streams that have their rise in treeless regions.
Then also, streams with regular flow can be led off in ditches
for irrigating sterile regions which without irrigation would
be uninhabitable. Phoenix, Arizona, stands in a place that
once was a sagebrush desert. Irrigation changed the desert
into a town with 35,000 inhabitants and with assessed
property valued at $10,000,000. The forest trees prevent
erosion by holding the soil in place with their roots. The
tons of sediment carried annually to the Gulf by the Miss-
issippi is an example of soil waste where streams flow through
Forestry makes it possible for every farm to have from 25
to 100 head of stock without much cost. This is possible, for
the farmers can let their stock graze in the national reserves
if there are foresters to prevent overgrazing. In one year
permits for 600,000 sheep and 100,000 cattle were granted
by the forest service.
It seems that everyone would agree with Mr. Pinchot 's
excellent plans, but some do not, for his bill of 1896 met
great opposition in Congress. This bill recommended setting
aside thirteen forest reserves. Owing to misunderstandings
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
with regard to the purpose of forestry, the bill could not be
carried until 1897. The greatest opposition was by lumber-
men, herders, and miners. The lumbermen wished to cut
timber in as wasteful a fashion as was convenient to them,
the sheep-herders were opposed to any restrictions with
regard to where sheep should graze. And the miners were
greatly disturbed for fear they would be prohibited mining
in the reserves. On the contrary forestry favors mining.
There is a close relation between forestry and mining. For
instance, the Homeslake Mine in the Black Hill Reserve,
South Dakota, requires annually vast supplies of wood to
produce gold from the low grade ore. If forestry does not
protect the forests, wood supplies will fail the mines.
Another objection some people had to the reserves was
that those people who had established themselves within the
reserves suddenly found themselves isolated when the forests
became government property. But these people were allowed
to exchange their lands and claims in the reserves for scrip,
entitling them to an ecjual area of any unclaimed public
lands. The consequence is that large areas of burnt over
lands have been ceded to the government in exchange for
scrip of vastly great value.
As a result of Mr. Pinchot's work the area of the national
reserves has increased from 40,000,000 acres to 194,500,467
acres. The revenues have risen from nothing to $2,000,000
and the annual appropriations from $25,000 to $4,000,000.
During the eleven years of his work Mr. Pinchot has increased
the forest force from eleven to three thousand men. In the
reserves he has stationed well trained rangers whose duties
are, to prevent fire and trespass, to estimate, survey, mark
timber and supervise the cutting of it, to issue minor permits,
to build cabins and trails, to enforce grazing restrictions, to
investigate claims, and to arrest for violation of reserve laws.
These foresters also reforest burnt areas with seedlings and
give information about planting trees. Everything has been
brought to a scientific basis.
Although Mr. Pinchot still has some enemies, he has won
to his side the thinking men of the country by his earnestness
in the work and hy going into the thick of the fight himself.
He has the greatest tact in dealing with the rangers and has
inspired them with enthusiasm for the work.
Because the foresters themselves and because the thinking
men of the country have been brought to feel the spirit of
this great work, we have every reason to believe that in the
future forestry will be carried on successfully. Men are now
being trained in various forest schools. It now remains to
bring the men and the work together.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Over the Back Fence
Ethel Bollinger, '13, Cornelian
It never would have happened had not the Graves been
seized with suburban fever, but everything must have a cause
as well as a result.
Mr. Graves hurried home from the office one Saturday
night fairly bristling with importance. As he hurried up the
driveway, his wife, looking from an upstairs window, saw
nothing but a streak of gray coming towards the house.
"Something must be wrong. Tom seems to be in a
hurry," she said to herself. "I'll see how dinner is," and
she started toward the kitchen.
There she found Nora, in a state of imperturbable calm,
seated on the floor playing with the twins, Robert and Eliza-
"Well of all things, Nora!" Mrs. Graves stopped in the
doorway. "And Mr. Graves here for supper."
"Faith, mum," glancing at the alarm clock, "he's too
early by the whole 'our, and the supper, mum, isn't 'alf
"Well, I'm not surprised. Nora, you must send the chil-
dren away when they come into the kitchen. They hinder
you in your work." Mrs. Graves turned to the front of
"Better thar than over other people's back fences," Nora
mumbled as Mrs. Graves left the kitchen. "Now run out
into the yard, darlints, 'til Nora gits supper for youse, " she
said to the children.
Mrs. Graves met her husband on the front porch. "You
come like a cyclone, Tom! What is it now?"
Mr. Graves did not stop for greetings, but flung him&elf
into a porch chair.
"It is a rich find this time, my dear ! Just read this,
please," and he handed her a copy of the A News, point-
ing to the want column.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
For sale: — 8-room house and lot in W. Good neighborhood. Short
distance from station. Ideal for parties desiring suburban home. Call
80 Burusville Eoad, W.
' ' Oh Tom ! at last our dream has come true after all. ' '
She read the last part of the advertisement a second time.
''Did you notice 'Ideal for parties desiring a suburban home'?
It is too good to be true. ' '
"It sounds like the real thing to me," Mr. Graves beamed
at his wife's enthusiasm. "We will go out tomorrow and see
what it is. Of course you cannot always tell from these
advertisements. ' '
"But just think, Tom! No more worry and fret over
Robert and Elizabeth. They can play out from morning
until night, and too, with a good lot to play in, they won't
want to run into other people's yards."
]Mr. Graves had his doubts, but wisely kept silent.
Mrs. Graves continued: "Why, today, they have given
me no end of trouble. The Grahams won't even speak, and
the Caldwells sent word over, that if the children didn't
stop tearing down their fence, they would notify the police.
You see it is a very old rail fence, and I suppose the children
do break it down playing on it, but what can I do ? I cannot
keep them in the house all the time."
Mr. Graves did not offer any suggestions. He merely
asked if supper were ready, as if to evade the disagreeable
subject. He was a very busy man, and as such, knew very
little about his own home. Of course he knew when things
were comfortable, and when dinner was on time, but beyond
that, he was perfectly innocent. He had never supposed
that the children gave much trouble, for they were always
good at meal time.
Everything was late tonight, however, and Nora was sent
out to find the twins. Soon loud expostulations were heard to
come from the back yard, and simultaneously Nora thrust
her head in at the dining-room door, her face ruddy with
"Beggin' your pardon, mum, but Robert, the spapling,
will not come to his supper on account of his luv for the
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"Nora, are you speaking in riddles? What do you
mean ? ' '
"It's not riddles, mum, but parables I do be speakin' in.
He 'as the back fence stropped up like old Ben, and says
he's playing like he's ariding to the 'ounds. Elizabeth, she's
Mr. Graves looked at his wife understandingly. "That's
what he learned up at the country club with his uncle. I'll
wager I'll bring both of them in, in two minutes," Mr. Graves
Mrs. Graves smiled after he had gone. She knew that the
twins had nothing to fear from their father. "Nora, you'd
better wait. You may have to go after all three of them
this time," she laughed. Then she thought of the advertise-
ment in the paper. "If we do move," she said to herself,
"I hope the neighbors will be more pleasant than these, and
that they will not hold up their hands in horror when they
see ' two children in the yard next door. ' And, mercy me !
I do hope there will not be a back fence."
The next afternoon found Mr. and Mrs. Graves inspecting
the new home. They had finished a tour of the house, and had
just stepped out into the side lawn. "What an ideal place
for the children to play," Mr. Graves was remarking, when
his wife exclaimed :
' ' Tom, Tom ! Look at that horrid old white rail fence at
the back. The children — why that ruins the whole out-
look. We must certainly have that torn down and a hedge
planted instead." She had been about to allude to previous
troubles which they had experienced on account of back
fences and children, but had thought better of it and had
mentioned the "outlook" instead.
"Excuse me, mom, but Mr. Southware wouldn't hear
to nothing like that," interrupted the old servant who was
showing them over the grounds.
' ' And who is Mr. Southware ? ' ' Mrs. Graves looked more
than she gave utterance to. She was not in the habit of hav-
ing her plans interfered with.
"He's just an old bachelor who lives over yonder," indi-
cating a beautiful old colonial place adjoining their side lot.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
"That is certainly an all embracing statement, but still
it isn't quite clear to me why this Mr. Southware could
object to our tearing the fence down, if we replaced it with a
Mrs. Graves looked toward her husband for support in
the discussion. He always liked to leave all such matters
to her to settle, but this time he felt called upon to come to
the rescue, since he had just written a check for eight thous-
and dollars for the place. "When I paid for this place I
considered that everything on it was mine to do with as I
chose," he said.
"But, sor, it's no more on your lot than his'n. It's
between. It's a dividing line."
"Well, we'll see about that. Of course, I'll let him know
of my plans first, but he need raise no objections. I thought
if there was one place where we could get away from all such
unpleasantries, it would be in the country," Mr. Graves
Two weeks after this conversation, Mrs. Graves awaited
anxiously her husband's return from the city. They were in
their new home and were thoroughly satisfied. I said satis-
fied, but I forgot the back fence. Mrs. Graves was reading
a note which she held in her hand, over and over again. "It
is pure stubbornness," she was saying, when Mr. Graves
entered the library.
"Please look at this," was her greeting, and she handed
him the note.
"Another note from old Southware?" he inquired. "I
am thoroughly tired of that. He might just as well give in
gracefully, for I have engaged my workmen to start on the
fence tomorrow." Nevertheless he read rather anxiously.
"Mr. and Mrs. Graves will please refrain from further correspond-
ence relative to the back fence question. I have endeavored to make it
plain that the said fence must not be tampered with, but if action is taken
in that direction, I will be obliged to resort to stringent means to pro-
tect my property. A surveyor will show you that the fence is on my
W. A. Southware. ' '
"Well, I'll bring a surveyor out tomorrow. I do not
believe it's on his land. I guess that will settle him."
S^TATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
"Why do you suppose he is so particular about the fence?
Maybe there is some sentiment attached to it." Mrs. Graves
was rarely ever too excited to be romantic.
"Well, he can at least give us his reasons, and stop this
"But, Tom, people often do not like to parade their most
cherished memories before the unsympathetic eyes of the
' ' Oh, you have gone over to the old gentleman 's side, have
you? You women! Let you once get scent of a romance,
and it is all up. I would advise you to go over and exchange
confidences with the old chap. Maybe he used to play horse
on the fence like Robert and Elizabeth. There's romance for
you ! ' '
"You are very unreasonable, Tom. I refuse to discuss
the matter with you again." Mrs. Graves went out on the
porch just in time to see Robert and Elizabeth crawling
through the much despised fence. They wore an air of
unmistakable guilt, and Robert was urging Elizabeth to "tell
Mrs. Graves summoned all her dignity. "Children, what
does this mean? Did I not forbid you to go into the next
Robert looked appealingly at Elizabeth, but Elizabeth
remained as immovable as the Rock of Gibraltar. "I cer-
tainly ain't not going to tell any 'tories for you, Robert
Graves," she said firmly. "You know what Miff Alice said
Sunday 'bout telling 'tories. ' ' This was final.
"Yes, but you made me go, and 'taint fair. You prom-
ised me your Octagon soap wrappers what you was savin'
to get a pencil box with, if I would." As with Adam, so
"Stop quarreling, children! You may just as well tell
me, for I intend to punish both of you."
"Coward!" taunted Elizabeth.
It was like magic. Robert could not endure that, so with
a mighty effort he began an explanation.
"Well, mother, it was like this. Me and Elizabeth was
playing horse on the back fence, just like we used to, and
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
that old gentleman came by, in his yard, and asked us what
we was doing. I told him Elizabeth was the hounds and I was
riding after them. He broke out in a big laugh, just like
Uncle Jack, mother, and told us to come over to his house and
he would show us some live hounds and horses. I didn't
much want to go, but Elizabeth did, so we went. He took
us to some big stables and showed us lots of beautiful dogs
and horses, and told us we could come again and see them,
and may be ride some. That's all."
' ' 'Taint all either, mother. He left out the best part.
When we was fru looking at the doggies and horses, he took
us out to a big swing under the trees, and gave us grapes and
cake, and telled us a pretty story about that old white fence
that we had been playing on."
Mrs. Graves was thoroughly interested now. ''Cannot
you remember it?" she asked.
"Oh, it was about a beautiful lady, like you, mother," —
they had not forgotten the impending punishment — "that
used to live here in this house, and that used to plant flowers
all along the fence until she got sick and died."
"And what do you think, mother?" Robert said. "He
almost cried when he told us, 'cause Elizabeth saw him wipe
one eye. And Elizabeth asked him if he used to give her
cake and grapes. That wasn't polite, was it, mother?"
"It wasn't any worser than what you asked him, Robert
Graves. Mother, Robert asked him if he wasn't awful lone-
some without her, and didn't he wish she'd come back and
plant heaps more flowers."
A wave of tenderness swept over Mrs. Graves, but she
must maintain a firm exterior. "I'm thoroughly ashamed
of you both," she said, "and now you can spend the rest of
the evening in bed. ' ' The twins turned to obey her, and she
heard Elizabeth whisper:
"What's wrong wif mother? It's most always the whole
next day too, ain't it, Robert?" Mrs. Graves smiled at her
That evening there was a long conference in the library
between Mr. and Mrs. Graves, and Mrs. Graves not only
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
won her point, but also had the pleasure of saying, "I told
The next day Mr. Graves brought a florist out from the
city to see the grounds, and he received a handsome order
for flowers, most of which were to be planted along the back
At the close of the day Mrs. Graves sent Nora to call the
' ' They 're over the back fence with Mr. South ware, mum, ' '
she brought word back, and Mrs. Graves answered, "All
right ' '.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Sketches from Chaucer's Prologue
The Squire (
The Clerk /Sarah Perrm Shuford, '14. Cornelian
The Nonne )
The Wife of Bath— F. B. Hunt
The Monk — M. Sparger
The Poure Persoun V Eleanor Morgan
"To live a king with kings, a clod with clods,
To be at heart a bird of every feather,
A fellow of the finch as well as of the lark,
The eqnal of each, the brother of every man."
That was Chaucer.
To such a man it was natural to write poetry that thrilled
with intense humanity and sparkled with kindly humor.
And such poetry is the "Prologue". When we read it, we
forget the present age and find ourselves in the romantic
fourteenth century, that fascinating time when
— "longen folk to goon on pilgrimages,
the hooly blisful martir for to seke."
We join the merry company at the Tabard Inn, and soon,
even as Chaucer himself, so have we
— "spoken with hem every chon
That we are of their fellowship anon."
We listen to the brawls of the stout miller ; we laugh with
the genial squire ; we smile indulgently at the demure prioress,
model of piety and court etiquette. And M'hen we have
finished our reading, we leave the pilgrims not as stray
acquaintances but as old friends whom it will always be a
delight to meet again.
Of all the characters in the Prologue of "The Conterbury
Tales," the Squire is the most charming. He was so young
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
and gay and chivalrous, that even after these hundreds of
years, the picture of him sets us smiling. He was a handsome
figure in the saddle, well built, richly dressed, and perfectly
"Wei coude he sette on hors, and faire ryde." His
youthful buoyance of spirit found expression in whistling
and singing "al the day". His mad devotion to his mistress,
characteristic of a bachelor of twenty, inspired him to deeds
of chivalry and daring, and to the composition of tender
But with all his youth and gayety, he gave promise of
some day possessing the deeper and nobler qualities of his
father, the worthy "knyght", for
"Curties he was, lowely and seryseable,
And carf biform his fader at the table."
The "Clerk of Oxenford" was a typical book-worm — lean
and taciturn and poorly dressed. From Chaucer's descrip-
"And he was not right fat, I undertake.
But looked holme and thereto soberly,"
we can well imagine how hollow-chested and stooped he was
from bending long over books. His coat was worn and
threadbare, for what place have "riche robes" in the scholar's
life ? He did not speak unless he had something worth saying
and then he discharged the matter with as few words as
possible. But, nevertheless, he was always willing to teach
them "that gaf hym wherewith to scoleye, "
"For gladly would be learne and gladly teach."
Chaucer's Nonne is the delightful product of a mingling
of vanity and affectation with sincere tenderness of heart.
She was careful of her personal appearance, for her cloak
was well made, her wimple immaculate, and her nun's attire
STATE NORMAL. MAGAZINE
relieved in its simplicity by a bit of jewelry. Her manner
was copied after that of the court, dignified yet wonderfully
"And peyned hire to counte fete cheere
Of court and been establish of manere.
And silkerly she was of greet desport
And f ul plesaunt and amyable of port. ' '
At the table especially were her dainty affectations notice-
able, for there they were in sharp contrast to the ungraceful
haste of some of her companions. We can almost see the
miller, for instance, stop short in his hearty repast to stare
at a creature who
"No morsel from her lips let falle.
No wette hir fyngers in hir sauce depe."
Yet if the comely little Nonne was laughably affected in
her manner, certainly she was genuine in her kindness of
heart. The sight of a tiny, bleeding mouse was enough to
bring tears to her "greye" eyes. She lavished upon her
little dogs a perfect wealth of caresses and care, and
' ' Sore wept she, if oon of hem were deed.
Or if men smoot it with a yerde smerte,
And al was conscience and tendre herte."
The Wife of Bath
One of the most interesting characters which Chaucer por-
trays in his Canterbury Tales is the wife of Bath, who stands
out in vivid contrast to the modest nun. Her face is bold
and ruddy. Her clothes flashy ; her hose are of brilliant red ;
her shoes with the sharp spurs attached, are new and quite
attractive, her broad-brimmed hat is the truly merry widow
Again she is unlike the nun in that she must have prec-
edence in everything. If anyone takes precedence of her in
the offerings of the parish church, she flies into such a rage
that she is "out of all charite." Perhaps the greatest con-
trast between the wife of Bath and the nun is in the choice
of their expressions. The "worthy wife" never hesitates to
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
use the strongest oaths ; while the nun 's ' ' greatest oath was
but by St. Loy".
But however many faults the wife of Bath possesses,
nevertheless she does have some admirable traits. There is
no woman in all Bath who can surpass her in cloth weaving.
The good wife is accomplished in more than one direction,
for she can ride too. But we must notice just here that with
all her bold daring she does not venture on anything but an
"ambler". Of course the wife is a worthy dame. For has
she not been to the famous cathedrals of Rome, Jerusalem,
Cologne, and to many others? Indeed she was destined from
the first to travel, for her teeth are set far apart, a sure
indication that one is to be a traveler.
The wife has been widowed five times, but she is as gay as
the youngest; she is unfortunately "somewhat deaf", but
this does not detract from her charms.
Her many matrimonial ventures made her an authority
on "remedies of love".
' ' For she coude of that art the olde daunce. ' '
The monk was a fine fellow, jolly, full of spirit, and fond
of fishing and hunting. For he did not think the saint
inspired when he said :
"Hunters beth not hooly men."
Why indeed should he be always studying or why should
he work with his hands, as Augustine bade? Could he not
serve the world in his own way? That was what our monk
said. So he continued to have his fine horses, his expensive
clothes, and his "roast swan".
Can you not see the Friar today? That remarkable com-
bination of the present day politician, corrupt judge, and
book agent all in one ? He was a diplomat, slyly enlisting the
fair sex on his side, for
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
"His typet was ay farsed full of knyves
And pynnes, for to yeven faire wyves."
This unscrupulous grafter spurned the poor, fawned before
the rich, and dared to traffic in the holy things of heaven.
Yet the handsome scoundrel with his "plesaunt in principio"
was a good talker and a jolly companion ; but selfish to the
core and therefore dangerous. With this hypocrite our part
was no " f elaweship ".
The Poure Persoun
A broad contrast we find here to the Friar. This is a
shepherd and not a mercenary. Our Poure Persoun is the
great, great grandfather, shall we say, of that parson who
made life delightful in "sweet Auburn". We say that our
ideas of Christian living have changed since the days of the
Crusades, but surely this man lived by as true a standard
as any ideal we hold today. His was a simple, humble.
Christlike life. With a heart all charity he ministered to
the needs of his flock, and, without a thought of self, he gave
his all — career, substance, love, to his poor people. Teaching
by example rather than precept, he mingled among men, not
despising poor sinners but rebuking the haughty, "drawing
men to heaven by his fairnesse" — an honest, pure, and Chris-
tian soul. Now and then, in the day's work, it is our priv-
ilege to meet such characters. A benediction lives in their
"He was a verry parfit, gentil knight."
This brown, veteran knight makes a manly beginning to
a manly tale. The keynote of the man is in the description
of his horse, ' ' goode but nat gay, ' ' strong, powerful, but with
no useless show of spirit, no false grandeur, but plain sim-
plicity, undisplayed sincerity. From his youth a servant of
honor, truth, all chivalric virtues, he was known afar and
loved wherever known. A veteran in war, he had fought
in far countries, received victory without ostentation, and
brought back to England a mind and heart enriched by wide
experience. In distant lands his superiority was instinct-
ively recognized, the head of the table was yielded to him
silently. And yet, despite the homage paid to him, he as-
sumed no lofty air, but bore himself ever as "meeke as is a
mayde". A great-souled man was this, a knight in the truest
sense of the word, standing for the highest, unconsciously
radiating among his fellowmen a spirit of brotherly love and
sincerity. Chaucer's ancient knight lives today in the "old
time southern gentleman," veteran of war and chivalry.
Published every month, October to June, by a Board of Editors elected
from the Adelphian and Cornelian Literary Societies, under the direction of
an Advisory Committee' chosen from the Faculty.
Terms: $1.00 per year, in advance. Single copy, 15 cents.
Miss Martha E. Winfield Miss Eleanor Elliott
Miss Emma King
Board of Editors
Ethel Bollinger, '13, Chief Mildred Rankin, ']3, Asst. Chief
Verta Idol, '13 Lillian G. Crisp, '13
Sarah Perrin Shuford, '14 Lila Melvin, '14
Ethel Keeter, '13, Chief Willie May Stratford, '14, Assistant
Points of View
How often do we hear the old saying, ''It is the little things
in life which count, ' ' and yet, how frequently
do we disregard it. This is especially true
of our college life. Let us look for a moment,
at the average school day, and see what a great number of
so-called "little things" arise. We will begin at the early
morning rush for breakfast. How much better it would look
if we would go in an orderly manner to the table, instead of
rushing along breathless, at the last moment, pinning our
collars and belts on the way.
Now that we are inside the dining-room, we simply have
to speak to somebody before the blessing is asked. The result
is that we are often away from our own tables when the bell
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
is tapped. As soon as we are seated at the table, we begin
complaining about the day's work before us. Is this the
right spirit with which to face it, even though the work does
We start out to our classes with little thought of the
condition in which we are leaving our rooms. On the way
to class we pass many persons on the walks and steps, and
how many times do we remember to go to the right? There
is only one way and that is the right way.
And now it is mail time ! At this period, there is no
such thing as order in the postoffice. We simply mow people
down in our mad rush to see if we have any mail. If the
mail is not up, we plant ourselves firmly in front of our own
box to wait, and thus get in the way of everyone else. Why
could we not pass on out until the next period, if the mail is
not up? It would relieve the congestion which occurs in
the postoffice at those periods.
Chapel is the next event of the day. Although we have
been asked not to talk upon entering the auditorium, we
cannot refrain from just a few words. In the first place, we
should not have to be asked. As we leave the hall, if it
is raining, we take any umbrella that happens to be near at
hand. Of course "we thought we had our own".
So it goes on through the day; we borrow and forget to
return, we break or forget important engagements, we often
forget to be even decently polite, and generally, all because
"we didn't think." It is not very soothing to be reminded
that "thoughtlessness is exceeding thoughtfulness of one's
This does not look attractive in print, but it is sometimes
well to stop amid the rush and hurry of things and take a
personal inventory of ourselves.
"More harm is wrought by want of thought,
Than by want of feeling."
Ethel Bollinger, '13.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
The college has employed a housekeeper this year, and it is the
QQQ^ aim of the authorities to keep the Spencer
HOUSEKEEPING l^^i^^ling in better order than it has been
kept heretofore. The housekeeper, Miss
Jowitt, and her assistants, are to have charge of this work
of course, but they cannot undertake to keep so large a build-
ing as Spencer in perfect order and neatness, if the girls are
not willing to do their part. Every week the maids give
each room a thorough cleaning. They sweep the floors, shake
the rugs, and leave the windows and doors open, in order
that the rooms may be well aired. Within the last few days
the floors have been stained, and this makes the rooms much
cleaner and more sanitary. As all these improvements have
been made recently, we can easily see that the matter has
been taken up earnestly. The authorities want a model dor-
mitory in every sense of the word, and in order to have this,
the building must be kept clean and orderly.
Under the present system the girls have very little to do
to keep their rooms in order. With a little care on our part
our floors can be kept clean, and free from dust. If we are
always careful to have a place for everything, and to put
everything in its place, the dressers, and tables, and closets
will look orderly. If we will not allow our rooms to be
overcrowded with pictures and fussy ornaments, it will be
easy to keep the dust away. Our rooms are where we receive
the girl friends who call on us. If we were at home we would
not think of receiving callers in a room which was untidy or
disorderly. Surely with all the help we have, it is possible
for us always to keep our rooms neat, orderly, and clean.
Lillie Turner, '15, Adelphian.
We notice every year at the opening of school the tendency
of the girls to choose the easiest course of
study possible regardless of its value to them.
If a new girls is asked what course she is
going to take, her answer is almost inveriably
this: "I don't know. Which course do you think is the
easiest ? ' ' She never says, ' * Which course do you think best,
or which will be most helpful to me after I leave college."
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Old girls come back early to pass off something so that they
can change their course and still belong to their class. Their
reason for changing is almost always because their course
was too hard last year. This should not be in a college like
ours. After we leave here, we know that we shall have to
shoulder great responsibility; therefore while here we should
prepare ourselves for this. If an easier course is best for us,
then let us take it, but not because it is easy. Let us take
it for its true worth to us. If a harder course is what we
should take, let us not turn away from it because it is hard,
but take it up with a will to conquer. We will be strength-
ened by this determination. We would say, then, that we
should choose our course for its value to us and not from any
unworthy motive. W. T., '14, Adelphian.
There is nothing that is needed in our college life more than
cheerfulness. We have but to notice the
FULNESS tired, discouraged faces and listen to the pes-
simistic conversation of a large number of
our girls in order to realize this. According to my point
of view, we would have fewer discouragements and fewer
spells of the so-called "blues" if we would make an honest
effort to look on the bright side of life. To remember that
"every cloud has a silver lining", would save us many
heartaches. Of course, there are times when we cannot help
feeling discouraged, in spite of all the sermons on cheerful-
ness ; but we can, at least, make an earnest effort to appear
cheerful for the sake of others. Let us consider two types
of girls — the optimistic and the pessimistic. The girl who
goes about her daily tasks willingly and cheerfully and wears
a smile on her face is like a ray of sunshine wherever she
goes. How different the other type of girl is ! She does her
work grudgingly, and often poorly; she grumbles about the
length of the lessons and the privileges she is not allowed.
Thus, she makes herself and everyone around her miserable.
Her associates may sympathize with her for awhile ; but
before long they grow tired of her long face and eternal com-
plaints. The contrast between these two types of girls should
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
be enough to make all of iis resolve to take a cheerful view of
life. Our college days are what we make them- — whether
pleasant or burdensome ; for
' ' The mind is its own place ; and, in itself
Can make a heaven of hell — a hell of heaven."
Why not make them some of the happiest days of our lives,
as they should be, by being cheerful? It seems to me that
we old girls should be especially considerate of this subject
for the sake of the new girls. Are we going to give them the
impression that we regard our college days as days of unpleas-
ant duties, or that we regard them as days of glorious oppor-
tunities? We should remember the fact that we are respon-
sible, to a great extent, for the attitude that our new girls
take toward college life. Cheerfulness is a surprisingly con-
tagious thing. One smile may cause a dozen people to be
happy for a whole day. Girls, let's start an epidemic of
cheerfulness, and see if we do not soon realize the truth of
the old adage, "Laugh and the world laughs with you."
J. M. C, '15, Cornelian.
Hitherto we have been allowed to do what we wish on Friday
nights, but have kept regular study hour on
STUDY HOUR Saturday nights. Shall this regulation be
changed? Shall we observe study hour on
Friday night instead of Saturday? I think that conditions
would be much better if this change were made. As it is,
we do not study on Friday night. On Saturday we go down
town and get our minds away from our work. When we
come home we do not want to study and, furthermore, we are
often too tired to study. Sometimes, too, we have so much to
be done on Saturday night that we cannot get it all done.
On the other hand, if we studied on Friday night while our
hearts are in our work and while the ideas which we received
on class are fresh in our memories we could easily prepare
our lessons. Saturday morning would be left for library
work and Saturday afternoon for recreation. On Saturday
afternoon we could go down town, enjoy our recreation, then
come home and go to the society meetings feeling free from
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
the thought of much work to be done on the morrow. It
seems to me that it would be much better to observe study-
hour on Friday night than on Saturday night.
B. M., '15, Cornelian.
Congratulations to the new girls who are showing so much
athletic spirit ! We hope that many more
ATHLETICS are going to join with us in doing all that
we can for the Athletic Association. We
know that each girl who enters into the active work of the
association will feel benefited beyond measure when the year
is ended. There are good reasons why each one of us should
take an active part as members of this association. First of
all, we should enter into athletics for the exercise it affords.
We each need physical as well as mental and moral develop-
ment. We do have physical training twice each week, but
in order to keep up our work here we need more exercise.
What is better exercise than an exciting game of either
hockey, basket ball, or tennis? A second reason is for the
enjoyment that comes from being an active member. Our
minds are completely rested from the routine of study when
we have gone on a camping trip or have entered into any
game. The relaxation which the pleasure gives our brains
is a decided gain, for we are then able to economize our time
and work in earnest. Finally, when we have taken advantage
of the privilege of using the athletic property, we each
owe it to the association to do our very best in any game in
which we take part. It is the spirit of the individuals which
makes the reputation of the whole body good or bad. Girls,
when the athletic property comes, for our own good and
the good of the association, let's join and be really active
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Ever since The Girl graduated at high school and decided to go
ANTICIPATION off to college, she had lived in anticipation.
AND All during the long hot summer while she
was making her preparations she thought
of her wonderful opportunities. She firmly resolved, after
she had completed her course and gone out into the world,
to make a splendid record. She would show her friends and
relatives what she could do ! Her talents should not be
hidden. As she had no great gift she could not make the
whole world ring with her praises. But she could and would
be a good teacher. She would train up young minds in the
way in which they should go. She would not realize it, but
perhaps she would teach a future President of the United
States ! Who could tell, anyway ? These were her dreams
before the time came for her to go.
When the train pulled out of the station, she had a feel-
ing that if she were to speak a torrent of tears would come.
During- the trip, however, she brightened up when she heard
some girls discussing the joys of college life. But, alas, when
she arrived at the college, passed down a long, long walk,
with a crowd of other new girls, saw strange girls laughing
at them from the windows, was put in a room with strange
girls, went to dinner in a very noisy dining-room where all
the faces were unknown, spent a sleepless night wishing she
were at home, and the next morning was put to work — then
she really though she could never, never stay.
But in a few days her views were entirely changed. She
had, as it were, gotten her "bearings". She had learned the
buildings, arranged her schedule, gotten her books, and was
working hard. Of course the work was hard, but the faculty
were splendid, and the folks at home simply must not be
disappointed. She knew lots and lots of girls now, and she
had found the postoffice and "gotten just lots and lots of
mail already". She joined a society, the Y. W. C. A., and
the Athletic Association. She spent her odd hours in the
beautiful library. In fact she had come down from the ideal
to the real. She no longer thought of her big dreams, but she
threw herself with a right good will into the doing of the
little things required of her.
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
With her homesickness entirely gone she was even able to
say to worried new girls:
"Were I a wizard with a wand,
I'd wave it over you
And all of your troubles
Should turn into bubbles,
And all of your hopes come true."
B. G., '16, Adelphian.
Y. W. C. A. Notes
Elecmor Morgan, '14, Cornelian
Our Association has gone to work this year with an added stimulus
in a new determination and hope for greater things. We have realized
our ambition of many years to have with us a General Secretary; with
the help of Miss Miller we feel confident that we will make great progress
along all lines of Association work.
The Sunday night meetings have been as follows :
September 22nd — Opening meeting. Speaker, Mr. Padgett, State
Secretary of the Forward Mission Movement. Soloist, Mrs. Sharpe.
September 29th — Accession meeting. Address to new members by
Miss Miller. Soloist, Miss Harris. 188 new members received.
October 6th — Mission Study Kally. Speaker, Dr. Clark, of the First
Presbyterian Church of Greensboro. Piano Solo, Miss Virginia Kendall.
October 13th — Bible Study Rally. Speaker, Mr. Abernethy, of
Spring Garden Methodist Church of Greensboro. Trio, Lillian Proctor,
Carrie Stout, Lallah Daugherty.
October 20th — Speaker, Dr. Moseley, teacher of Baraca Class of the
First Baptist Church of Greensboro. Soloist, Miss Amalie Adams.
The programs of the regular Wednesday night meetings have been :
September 2.5 — Subject, Duty of Being Pleasant. Leader, Maude
October 2 — Subject, Systematic Giving. Leader, Miss Strong.
October 9 — Subject, Loyalty. Leader, Miss Porter, Student Secre-
tary for the South Atlantic States.
October 16 — Subject, Business meeting. Leader, Pattie Spurgeon.
Miss Gertrude Griffin elected vice-president of Association.
October 23 — Subject, Secrets of a Beautiful Life. Leader, Fannie
A talk on Social Amenities was to have been given by Miss Kirkland
on the evening of October 11th, but, because the lights failed, to our
regret the talk had to be postponed. While the large audience was
waiting in vain for the lights. Miss Harris graciously rendered several
beautiful and much enjoyed solos.
On Wednesday, October 9th, an afternoon tea was given in honor
of Miss Porter, the Student Secretary for the South Atlantic States.
The tea was given in the Cornelian and Adelphian Committee rooms,
which were attractively decorated in green, and was served by the
social committee of the Association. Miss Virginia Kendall added much
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
to the enjoyment of the occasion by her beautiful piano solos. Those
attending were, the faculty advisers of the Association, the cabinet,
and the Senior and Junior classes. Those who met Miss Porter were
charmed by her delightful personality.
On the afternoons of the 17th and 18th, and on Saturday, the 19th
of October, the Horace K. Turner art exhibit was held in the committee
rooms of the two society halls, under the auspices of the Association.
The collection of pictures was much admired by all who saw them.
The work of the other committees has been equally as successful as
that of the social committee. The student volunteers held an open meet-
ing in the Bailey Memorial Eoom on Sunday, October 13th, at 4:30
p. m., on the subject, "India's Women". Miss Caudle was leader,
and Miss Hughes and Miss Black were the speakers.
The Bible and Mission Study Classes met for the first time Sunday,
October 20th, with 167 enrolled in mission classes and an equally large
number in Bible classes. A most helpful year's work is promised in
The ' ' Eetreat ' ' oj)ened the first week of school under the efficient
management of Pattie Groves. Miss Groves does her buying of only
the best wholesale dealers in Greensboro and the stock of goods is
larger and better each week.
Under the leadership of Louise Goodwin the morning watch services
have been very helpful. The attendance has increased weekly and the
interest is well sustained. Special watch services have been held by
the Bible and Mission Study Committees.
W^ith the Adelphians
Mildred Eankin, '13, Adelpliian
The annual initiation of the Adelphian Society was held on the even-
ing of October 25th. This year one hundred and forty new members
were taken into the society, three of whom, Miss Severson, Miss Ander-
son, and Miss Jowitt, were honorary members.
After the initiation was over, a Grecian banquet was held in the
dining hall of Spencer Building. The tables were arranged in the
form of a diamond, the shape of the society pin, and were decorated in
red and yellow dahlias, the society colors. In the center of the diamond
was the temple — Adelphai 's shrine. Southern smilax fell from the roof
of the temple and twined about its great white columns. The orchestra,
half concealed by palms, sat in one point of the diamond.
While the following menu:
Potato Salad Sandwiches
Orange Ice Cherries
w^as being served by Grecian maidens, a number of toasts were given.
Florence Hildebrand, the toastmistress, expressed the society's two-
fold pleasure in welcoming the new members, and in seeing so many of
the old members, visitors, and friends. Christine Eutledge gave the
toast to the new members, which was responded to by Oetavia Jordan.
Dr. Foust responded to the toast given to him by Meriel Groves. The
toast to the Cornelians was given by Gertrude Griffin and responded to
by Lii?ie Eoddick. Mr. Bradshaw answered the toast to the visitors,
which was given by Lillian Proctor. The society song was the response
to the toast to Adelphai, which w-as given by Louise Goodwin. Kathrine
Eobinson toasted the alumnae, and Clyde Stancill, of the class of 1910,
responded. Miss Washburn responded to the toast given to the faculty
by Mildred Eankin. The response to the toast that Mildred Harrington
gave to -the future is to be looked for in the hereafter.
Just after the banquet, sixteen Grecian maidens danced into the
temple and gave an ancient Grecian ball dance whose grace and rhyth-
mical beauty delighted all. Then Adelphians bade
"To each and all a fair good -night.
And pleasing dreams and slumbers bright. ' '
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
Cornelian Society Notes
Verta L. Idol, '13, Cornelian
The Cornelian Literary Society held its annual initiation on Satur-
day evening, October 26th. 140 new members assembled in the chapel
at seven o 'clock, and were then initiated into the secrets of the society.
After the initiatory exercises, the new members, faculty and friends were
given a banquet in the college dining-room.
Here the tables were arranged in a large triangle, having for cen-
terpieces yellow chrysanthemums. The entire room was decorated with
boughs of autumn leaves, palms and chrysanthemums. In a small
triangle of palms in the center was Brockmann 's orchestra, which fur-
nished the music between toasts. These toasts were given between the
three courses, which were:
Chicken salad Crackers
Orange Ice Sweet Wafers
Coffee Cheese Wafers
Miss Gretchen Taylor very gracefully presided as toastmistress. The
toasts were as follows:
To our new members, Corinna Mial; response, Gertrude Carroway.
To our visitors, Ethel Bollinger; response, Mr. Bradshaw.
To the Adelphians, Carrie Toomer; response, Mary Tennent.
To the alumnae, Mary Worth; response. Miss Edna Forney.
To our mothers, Lura Brogden ; response, ' ' In every mother 's heart
in North Carolina."
To the press, Verta Idol; response, Mr. Capus Weynick.
To the faculty, Margaret Mann; response, Miss Moore.
To our college, Maude Bunn; response, Dr. Foust.
Lillian G. Crisp, '13, AdelpJiian
On October 30th a chorus of one hundred and twenty-tive members
was orgahiied under the leadership of Mr. Wade E. Brown. This will
fill a long felt need in the college. During the year choruses are to be
organi2ed at Burlington and High Point. It is expected that Greens-
boro and other nearby towns will come into this plan soon. Within a
few years, according to present prospects, there can be assembled at
the Normal College a chorus of from five to six hundred voices in a great
music festival. In the meantime this chorus at the Normal will strive
towards excellence in many kinds of work. Its organization is a great
step forward in the advancement of the college.
Students of the Normal College, and especially those in the Science
Department, have heard with much pleasure of an honor which has come
to Dr. Gudger recently. In the September number of the Popular
Science Monthly there was published an article by him entitled, ' ' George
Maregrave, the First Student of American Natural History". The
' ' Zoologiochen Annalen ' ', the foremost scientific publication in Germany,
has asked to be allowed to publish a translation of this article. We
are indeed pleased with the favorable attention his essay has received.
On the 17th of October "The Miscellany", a current topic club for
Juniors, Seniors, and members of the faculty, met and reorganized for
the coming year. Miss Li2zie Eoddick was elected president, and Miss
Sarah Perrin Shuford secretary. That interest in the coming election
might be stimulated in the college, it was decided to organise a mock
presidential campaign for the Juniors and Seniors. The election is
to take place a few days before the national one, and is to be preceded
by stump speeches and all the other characteristic features of a real
political campaign. The girls elected to represent the various candidates
are: Pattie Groves, for Wilson; Lizzie Eoddick, for Eoosevelt; Mar-
garet Smith, for Taft; Meriel Groves, for Debs.
In the last issue of the State Normal Magazine there w-as given an
account of the addition of a new dormitory to our equipment of build-
ings. Other improvements which are not so evident to a casual visitor
at the college, but which are important for the health of the students
and the convenience of the workers, have been made in the kitchen and
In every division of the kitchen more modern arrangements have been
provided. In the dish room the first change noticed is the new hard-
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
wood floor, the boards of which are set obliquely to prevent wear from
the trucks. Last year there were only two washers and four small
sinks placed close together in the middle of the room; now there are
eight steel sinks, placed in the corners of the room, and a third dish-
washer. There are steel tables placed in front of these washers. The
extra room thus provided relieves the congestion which was such a bad
feature of the dining-room work last year. A battery of three urns,
each of fifty gallon capacity, has replaced the two old urns which held
only ten and twenty gallons, respectively. In the kitchen proper there
seems to be a great deal more room than there was formerly. For the
removal of the unsightly meat table, block, and saw to the cold storage,
the placing of the steam jackets, each with its steam pipe, in one cor-
ner, and the arrangement of the ranges against the wall, have left the
center of the room free. In front of the ranges is a steel cook's table,
with shelf, banmaree, and sink. Steel tables have entirely taken the
place of the old unsanitary wooden ones. There are also four large
steel sinks, with steel drain boards, in place of the old ones of tin and
wood. There have been added to the equipment a new steamer, an
electric ice crushing machine, ice cream cans of galvani2ed iron lined
with white enamel, and a "kitchen king". This machine is indeed a
help, for with equal ease it makes butter and mayonaise, beats up all
kinds of batter, mashes potatoes, and makes purees. In the cold storage
new steel sinks have been added. The bake shop boasts a new marble
top pastry table, bread closet, proofing-box with steam connections, two
steel bread troughs, two galvanised sinks, and two iron stands of
shelves for cake. New warming closets are to be added, and a new rat-
proof store room, with galvanised walls and ceiling, has already been
built. In short, by these modern improvements, those who work in
the kitchen can do their work more easily, more efficiently, and more
in accordance with the laws of sanitation.
In the dairy there have also been sweeping changes. Owing to the
fact that the old dairy stood upon a part of the site of the new dormi-
tory, it was necessary to remove it. This building was, to say the
least, very unsightly. So a new, larger, and more convenient one was
built farther from the college buildings. In it are the separator, churn,
ice box, sterilising plant, etc. But the most interesting innovation in
this department is the Sharpless Mechanical Milker which has been
installed. This is run by an electric motor. The work is done by
means of a pump, so arranged as to have air pressure in one side and
a vacuum in the other, a pulsator, and a ' ' milker ' ', connected by brass
and rubber tubes. The ' ' milker ' ' consists of four rubber lined brass
tubes, connected by rubber tubes with the pulsator, and thence with the
engine. It works like a man's hand. The air pressure pushes the
tubes up, the vacuum pulls them down. It is claimed that this way of
milking is really easier on the cow than when it is done by hand.
It is certain that it gets more milk, and saves time. These are the
improvements which have been made in the dairy. Added to the mod-
ern arrangements in the kitchen, they add greatly to the up-to-dateness
and etHciency of the service in these departments.
Lila Melvin, '14, AdeJphian
We are glad to meet our old friends again at the beginning of the
college year. The good beginning made this month by the exchanges
promises much for the future numbers.
One of the best exchanges of the month, considered from all view
points, is the Wake Forest Student. One glance at it tells us that it
is keeping up its former good reputation. The verse is especially good.
"Idle Words" "appeals to the heart as well as the head". The
same may be said of ' ' The Outlook and the Uplook ' '. The subject
matter of the essays is of live interest today, not having been for-
merly exhausted by other writers. ' ' The Moral and Ethical Side of
the Back-to-the-Country Cry" emphasizes a fact which has long needed
to be impressed upon the minds of the city dwellers. ' ' The Full-Peg
Pants" is by far the best of its stories this month, both in subject matter
and in style. Considering everything, we pronounce the October issue
of the Wake Forest Student ' ' good ' '.
The Davidson College Magazine furnishes some good material this
month. The best part of the magazine is the story, "Eggs". Besides
being well written it gives us a study of child nature and the near rela-
tions existing between children and animals. The writer of this story
has chosen a subject he is well acquainted with. We do not especially
like any of the poems except ' ' Scenes on the Shenandoah ' '. The others
border upon sentimentality.
The Ked and White comes to us this month a good number, with
sound common sense essays predominating. The one story, ' ' Sailing
Over the Bounding Main, ' ' is full of humor and cleverly told. Give
us more like it, we say. But one word to you: improve your poetry.
The poems in this number lack deep thought.
Some of the essays of the present issue of the Trinity Archive are
excellent, but the stories do not come up to the usual standard of a col-
lege magazine. The poem, ' ' Memories ' ', is very good.
Though there is a good combination of story, verse, and essay in the
Focus this month, the magazine is, nevertheless, rather thin. The stories
are not suited to a college magazine. We think the writers of the
stories, ' ' A Baggage Bungle ' ' and ' ' The Summer-house by the Lake ' ',
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
miglit have chosen subjects about which students know something. The
very best article in the magazine is the little poem, "In Autumn".
It is short, but full of bright thoughts of autumn. ' ' A Message to the
Seniors ' ' gives some very practical advice to the students of any normal
college. We wish that more alumnae would give us their experiences
before we ourselves become teachers.
Though we have done well this month, let us not cease to strive, but
make our next magazines much better than our first numbers have been.
In Lighter Vein
Sarah Perrin Shuford, '14, Cornelian
A Junior who is fond of quotations, recently asked whether Shakes-
peare or the Bible contained the following: "Consider the lilies of
the field; they care not neither do they spin."
F. W., coming out of the library : "I 've just been reading * The
Rise of Silas Lapham'. "
J. E., interestedly: "Oh, that's the new serial in the Saturday
Evening Post, isn 't it °? "
In answer to a summons from the President, a new student called
at the office one morning. Finding it vacant she was thoughtful enough
to leave her card.
E. J., when asked if she cared for a certain piece of music, replied:
"No, the 'temperature' is too slow."
A diffident little Freshman drew near to the busy librarian and
asked, hesitatingly, if she might smell the roses on the desk.
At 6:45 one Monday morning, D. A. hastily entered a neighbor's
room and exclaimed, ' ' Oh, Emma ! Please give me some laundry
programs. ' '
If anyone wishes to obtain a description of the white ' ' participate ' '
left when acid is applied to iron filings, he should consult J. G.
Two definitions have recently been given which rival those of Swift
and Arnold. A practice school boy says that physiology is ' ' the history
of the bones," and a Freshman, that a paragraph may be called a
' ' bunch of sentences. ' '
Sophomore, discussing college annuals with a visiting friend : ' ' We
were so busy last year with the pageant that we couldn 't get out an
annual. ' '
Visiting friend : ' ' The pageant — er — is that your college maga-
About half an hour before the end of evening study period, a Fresh-
man visited the lady principal with the following request: "I have
STATE NORMAL MAGAZINE
finished studying all my lessons and I'm so sleepy. May I go to bed
The following sentence was extracted from a hygiene examination
paper: "The hair is a bullous plant".
When Juniors go on the history hunt,
Hawks and Martins tease their front.
Sometimes the huntsmen miss their aim,
And then in lieu of better gain,
As Fishers angling long they wait.
But when in vain they've used Moore bait,
They sadly turn and climb the Hill,
And Wheeler bout and lay them still,
And sighing, turn to Ashes.
E. M., '14, Cornelian.