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Sunni: Muhammad was followed by the first Caliphate called the Rashidun “Successor” 
Caliphate in 632 made up of men related by marriage and a Companion to Muhammed. 
They were elected based on merit and were not monarchs. It was foretold in a hadith it 
would last 30 year and be followed by a hereditary monarchy. There were 4 righteously 
guided caliphs with Ali’s son Hasan sometimes added as a fifth; he was almost 

immediately killed: 
1. The father of his wife Aisha — Abu Bakr 632 — 634; 
2. The father of his wife Hafas - Umar 634 — 644; 

3. The husband of his daughters Ruqayya 
& Umm Kulthum — Uthman 644 — 656; 

4. The husband of his daughter Fatima — Ali 656 — 661. 
Shia: Muhammad was followed by the first caliph Ali from 632 to 661. 
The second caliphate was the Umayyad Caliphate 661 — 750 

(white flag) descends from Umayya, the son of Abd Shams who was the brother of 
Hashim. Umayya’s son Harb was the father of Abu Sufyan. He was the father of the first 
Umayyad caliph Muawiyah I. 

The third caliphate was the Abbasid Caliphate 750 —c86l 

(black flag) descends from Al-Abbas, an uncle of Muhammed, i.e. the brother of his 
father Abdullah. Al-Abbas was the son of Abd al-Mutalib and the father of Abdallah. 
Abdallah’s son Muhammed was the father of the first two Abbasid caliphs: al-Saffah and 
al-Mansur. From 861 on there were more than one caliphate as factions broke off from 
the Abbasids. 

Hashim and Abd Shams were sons of Abd Manaf. 

Hashim’s son was Abd al-Mutalib; he was, as mentioned, the father of Al-Abbas, the 
father of Abdalluh; Abdalluh, the father of Muhammed; and Abu Talib, the father of Ali. 

Thus Abdallah, Muhammed, and Ali were first-cousins. 
1 a 

Bla we A 


Abd al-Muttalib 

Abu Talib 

whe +! 

Abu Bakr Umar 
5 si 

The Abbasids started losing territory almost immediately — an escaped Umayyad prince 
established a second Umayyad caliphate in al-Andalus; the Aghlabids broke away in the 
Maghreb with the Zayyanids in Tlemcen and the Hafsids in Tunis supplanting them. The 
Fatimids took Egypt. Preliminary research reveals that both the Zayyanids and Hafsids 
are cadet branches of the Umayyads so their rise in Ifriqiya may be better described as an 
Umayyad resurgence; it also explains the assistance given to the Umayyad prince in his 
escape to al-Andalus. Morocco fell to the Idrisids — in the 8" & 9" centuries who 
successfully thwarted the Abbasid attempts to eliminate them. The principalities 

of Sijilmasa (inland, supra-Saharan), Barghawata (coastal Salé to Safi) and Nekor 
(coastal Mediterranean) which remained outside their control. 

The Aghlabids ruled in the 9" century under the Abbasids initially: 
Ibrahim I ibn al-Aghlab ibn Salim (800-812) 

Abdallah I ibn Ibrahim (812-817) 

Ziyadat Allah I ibn Ibrahim (817-838) 

al-Aghlab Abu Iqal ibn Ibrahim (838-841) 

Abu 'l-Abbas Muhammad I ibn al-Aghlab Abi Affan (841-856) 
Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Aghlabi (856-863) 

Ziyadat Allah II ibn Abil-Abbas (863) 

Abu 'l-Gharaniq Muhammad II ibn Ahmad (863-875) 

Abu Ishaq Ibrahim IT ibn Ahmad (875-902) 

Abu 'l-Abbas Abdallah II ibn Ibrahim (902-903) 

Abu Mudhar Ziyadat Allah IT ibn Abdallah (903-909)