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Full text of "The Surveyor and municipal engineer Jan. 5, 1963 - June 29, 1968"

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The  Surveyor  and  Municipal  and  County  Engineer,  Fdtnuinj  l,  l'JLS. 


County  Engineer. 


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JULY  6  to  DECEMBER  28,  19  17 


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The  ST.  BRIDE’S  PRESS,  Ltd., 

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The  Surveyor  and  Municipal  and  County  Engineer,  February  1,  1918. 


INDEX. 


A 

Abattoirs,  Public,  106,  202 
Aberdeen,  Water  Supply  at,  278 
Activated  Sludge  Process,  10, 40,  45,  51, 
67,  87, 137,  140,  252,  445,  471,  527,  528 
Administrative  Questions  in  Relation  to 
Water  Supplies,  243 
“  A  Glorified  Foreman,”  2 
A  Hard  Case,  23 
Air  Lift  Pumping,  441 
Amateur  Well  Sinkers,  61 
Ambulance  ’Buses,  61 
American  Tests  of  Road  Materials,  120 
Annual  Reports 
Aberdeen,  278 
Bedfordshire,  424 
Belper,  156 
Berkshire,  99 
Birmingham,  168 
East  Stirlingshire,  63 
East  Suffolk,  144 
Essex,  38,  57 
Johannesburg,  337 
Kent,  474 
Middlesex,  100 
Northamptonshire,  167 
Nottinghamshire,  361 
Renfrewshire,  128 
Sheffield.  312,  324 
Somerset,  371 
Tiverton,  423 
Warwickshire,  127 
Worcestershire,  189 
Yeovil  (Rural),  496 
Architecture,  A  Censor  of,  167 
Are  Sprinkling  Filters  Objectionable  ? 
404 

Association  of  Managers  of  Sewage 
Disposal  Works  : 

Annual  General  Meeting  in  London, 
539,  552 

Annual  Summer  Meeting  atWorcester, 
39,  51,  67 

Presidential  Address,  39 
Association  of  Municipal  Authorities  of 
Ireland,  243 


B 

Barwise  and  Consulting  Engineers,  Dr., 
47,  56,  88,  109,  130,  169,  210 
Beckenham  Waste  Paper  Scheme,  103 
Bedfordshire  Petrol  Lorry  and  Steam 
Wagon,  Costs,  422 

Bedfordshire  Road  Maintenance,  424 
Belfast  Electrics,  239 
Berkshire  Roads,  99 
Bills  in  Parliament,  546 
Birmingham,  Development  of,  334,  353 
Birmingham,  Road  Work  in,  168 
Birmingham,  Tame,  and  Rea  District 
Drainage  Board,  200 

Bituminous  Materials,  Methods  of 
Applying,  196 

Blast  Furnace  Slag  as  Concrete  Aggre¬ 
gate,  379 

Bognor’s  “  Tank,”  190 
Bombay,  Drainage  of,  501 
Bonus  Schemes,  81,  86,  151, 192,  338,  367, 
414 

Breaks  in  Water  Mains,  265 


Bridge  Paints,  Service  Tests  of,  167 
British  Fire  Prevention  Committee, 
483 

Building  after  the  War,  411 
Building  By-laws,  Proposed  Modifica¬ 
tion  of,  515 

Building  By-laws  Tribunals,  Pro¬ 
posed,  462 

Building  Stagnation,  Causes  of,  353,  373 
Built-in  Furniture,  311 


C 

Camp  Sanitation,  40 

Cardiff  Reservoir  Contract,  20 

Carnarvonshire  and  Motor  ’Bus  Traffic, 

68 

Causes  and  Prevention  of  Dry  Rot,  11 
Cement  Gun,  The,  259 
Certified  Occupations,  23,  63;  207,  475, 
518 

Cheltenham,  Sewage  Disposal  at,  234 
Chloramine  Sterilisation  of  Water,  309, 
335 

Church  and  Housing,  266 
Cistern  Question  in  London,  98 
Clay  Subsoils,  Road  Construction  on, 
471 

Cleansing  Work  at  Nottingham,  48 
Cleansing  Work,  Electric  Vehicles  in, 
24 

Cleansing  Work,  Notes  od,  321,  452 
Cleveland,  Ohio,  Sewage  Disposal  at, 
342,  367 

Clinker  Asphalt  Macadam,  294,  323 
Clinker  Mexphalte,  43 
Coal  Concreted  from  Dust  or  Ashes,  118, 
125 

Coal  Distribution,  Local  Authorities 
and,  62 

Coal  Storage,  375 
Coal,  Synthetic,  398 
Coal  Tar  Products,  83 
Colour  Measurement  of  Water,  A 
Standard  for,  1,  6 

Concrete  Aggregate,  Blast  Furnace 
Slag  as,  379 

Concrete  and  Associated  Materials, 
Research  od,  460 
Concrete,  Rapid  Delivery  of,  225 
Concrete  Roads,  68,  130,  237,  251,  336, 
354,  376,  384,  408,  424,  467 
Concrete  Sewers,  Experience  with,  19 
Concrete  Slab  Making  Plant,  48 
Contracts,  War  and,  12,  482 
Corrosion  of  Iron  in  Ferro-Concrete,  549 
Conference  Delegates’  Expenses,  414 
Control  of  Omnibus  and  other  Motor 
Traffic,  74,  76 

Cork,  Street  Pavings  in,  426,  541 
Cork,  Water  Waste  Prevention  in,  82,97 
Cornwall  Main  Roads,  57 
Country  Roads  Drainage,  507 
Correspondence  : — 

Activated  Sludge,  471 
Barwise,  Dr.,  and  Consulting  En¬ 
gineers,  56,  88,  109,  130,  169,  210 
Clinker  Asphalt  Macadam  at  Houn 
slow,  323 

Concrete  Roads,  130,  251,  384,  408,  424 
Damp,  The  Danger  of,  323 
Decimal  Systems,  The  :  Is  there  any 
need  for  them  ?  384 


Correspondence  ( continued ) :  - 

Decimal  Weights,  Measures,  and 
Currency,  19,  299 

Design,  New  Materials  and  Methods 
as  Influencing,  170 

Extraordinary  Traffic,  Mr.  Wakelam 
and,  35,  56,  109 
Garden  City  Houses,  344 
Government  and  Publicity,  The,  192 
House  Refuse,  88 
House  Refuse  Collection,  108 
House  Refuse,  Manure  from,  110, 131 
Housing  the  Working  Classes,  299 
“  Keep  to  the  Left,”  385 
Machine  Trenching  and  Ramming, 
110 

Monetary  System,  The  British,  322, 
385,  385,  408 

Municipal  and  County  Engineers’Ex- 
amination,  The,  108,  130,149,  235,  299 
Osiers  for  Sewage  Works,  149, 170, 171, 
193 

Professional  Classes  and  War  Relief 
Council,  The,  409 

Professional  Examinations,  251,  278 
Publicity,  The  Government  and,  192 
Reconstruction  after  the  War,  56 
Refuse  as  Fuel,  323" 

Reinforced  Concrete  Roads  and  Wheel 
Tracks,  192,  299 

Road  Construction  and  Quarrying 
Companies  :  An  Appeal,  555 
Road  Stone  Control,  130 
Salary,  A  Question  of,  235 
Sewage  Works,  Management  of,  492 
Surveyors’  Petrol  Allowances,  344 
Tar,  The  Storage  of,  345 
Utilisation  of  Waste  Food  in  Towns’ 
Refuse,  409 
War  Bonuses,  192 

Waste  Products,  Collection  and  Utili¬ 
sation  of,  345 
Water  Charges,  492 
Water  Fittings,  Corrosion  of,  513 
Water  Mains  in  the  Trench,  Testing, 
365 

Welsh  Slate  Industry,  The,  424 
Working  Classes,  Housing  the,  299 
322 

Covered  Reservoir  of  Reinforced  Con¬ 
crete,  143 

Culverting  of  Streams,  The  Law  in 
Regard  to  the,  216 


D 

Damp,  Danger  of,  183,  323 
Dearest  Gas,  The,  514 
Decimal  Weights,  Measures,  and  Cur¬ 
rency,  19,  74,  89,  274,  299,  343,  384,  546 
Deficiencies  in  Water  Accounts,  309, 
329,  383,  484 

Deputation  or  Postcard  Inquiry  P  547 
Desert,  Water  Finding  in  the,  213 
De-Tinning,  317 
Dimensions,  210 
Ditches,  Cleansing  of,  419 
Documents,  Inspection  of,  22 
Dry  Rot:  Its  Causes  and  Prevention, 
11, 152 

Dublin  Rebuilding,  75 


IV 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


February  1,  1918. 


E 

Easing  ton,  Housing  at,  355 
Eastbourne  Municipal  Motor  Buses,  111 
East  Suffolk  Main  Roads,  144 
Economy  and  Efficiency,  380 
Education  of  the  Public,  373 
Effect  of  War  on  Municipal  Engineering 
and  Public  Health,  363,  377 
Electricity  and  National  Welfare,  460 
Electricity  Charges,  117 
Electricity,  London,  311 
Electricity  Supplies,  Linking  up  of,  139 
Electric  Power  Supply,  430 
Electrolysis  Troubles  and  Remedies, 
181,  187,  397 

Ellon  Burgh  Surveyor’s  Resignation, 
229 

Engineer  in  Fiction,  461  _ 

Engineering  as  a  Profession,  455 
Engineers  and  the  Public,  429 
Engineers,  Better  Training  of,  310 
Essex,  Main  Road  Maintenance  in,  38 
Examinations,  78,  93 
Extraordinary  Traffic  and  Excessive 
Weights  on  Highways,  13,  32,35 


F 

Farmhouses,  Roads  to,  95 

France,  Water  Power  in,  529 

Fruit  Trees  for  Shading  Highways,  407 


G 

Garden  City  Houses,  344 
Gas  as  Motor  Fuel,  5,  38,  207,  211,324, 
346,  365,  398,400,  446,  493,  505,  510,  527, 

551 

Gas,  A  Thousand  and  One  Uses  for,  387 
Gas,  Economy  in  the  Use  of,  547 
Gas  Supply,  Municipal,  195 
Gipsies  and  Road  Obstruction,  259 
Glasgow  Experiments  with  Gas-driven 
Lorries,  211 

Glycerine  from  Kitchen  Waste,  139 
Goods  Clearing  House  System,  12 
Government  and  Publicity,  192 
Government  and  Tramways,  422 
Grease  from  Sewage,  Extraction  of,  131 
Greenock  Flooding  Case,  115 


H 

Hackney,  Motor  Sweeping  at,  50 
Hastings  Sea  Defences,  193 
Haywards  Heath,  Dust  Collecting  at,  75 
Hexham,  Housing  at,  47 
Highway  Charging  Stations,  226,  250, 
346,  374,  493.  505,510,513 
Horse  Hire,  Cost  of,  110,  547 
Horsforth,  War  Time  Economy  at,  313 
Hounslow,  Clinker  Asphaltic  Macadam 
at,  294 

Housing  and  Town  Planning :  — 

Accommodation,  233 
Accommodation  in  Industrial  Areas, 
427 

Acquisition  of  Building  S,tes,  518 
After-the-War  Scheme,  300 
A.M  C.  Council’s  Suggestions,  468 
Barrow,  325,  498 
Built-in  Firrniture,  311 
Canada,  463 


Housing  and  Town  Planning 

( continued ) .• — 

Church  and  Housing,  266 
Control  of  House  Building,  175 
Cost  of  Cottage  Building,  232 
Cottages  or  Tenements  ?  225,  228 
County  Councils  and  Housing,  506, 509 
County  Councils  Association  Resolu¬ 
tions,  392 

Departmental  Committee  on  Building, 
111 

Dublin  Inquiry,  119 
Easington,  355 
Erpingham,  290 
Garden  City  Houses,  344 
Grants  for  Local  Authorities,  111 
Great  Britain,  195 
Hexham,  47 

Housing  Shortage,  3,  229 
Ireland,  392 
Lanarkshire,  5 
L.G.B.  Annual  Report,  172 
L.G.B.  Circular,  206,  229 
Local  Authorities’  Schemes,  498 
London, 10 
Liverpool,  88 
Monmouthshire,  134 
Municipal  Engineers  and  Architects, 
518 

National  Conference,  134 
National  Housing  Schemes,  66 
Neglect  of  Housing  Possibilities,  206 
Post-War  Problems,  38,  470,  497 
Public  Utility  Society  Resolutions,  311 
R.I.B.A.  Competition,  406,  459,  514 
Rural  Architecture,  381 
Rural  Housing  Association’s  Pro¬ 
posals,  498 

Scottish  Authorities’.- Schemes,  538 
Scottish  Commission’s  Report,  274, 
314,  486 

Scottish  L.G.B.  Circular,  156 
Scottish  Sanitary  Inspector  and 
Housing,  555 
Scottish  Scheme,  368 
Slum  Demolition,  543 
Smethwick  Scheme,  293 
Some  Aspects  of  the  Housing  Problem, 
339 

Standardisation,  482 
State  Assistance,  205,  214,  238,  453 
State  Policy,  399,  427 
Structure  in  Municipal  Housing,  420, 
444 

Styles  of  Architecture,  453 
Suggested  Modifications  of  Act,  356 
Taunton,  267 

Technical  Conference,  301,  447 
Tenants  as  Owners,  284 
“  Tied  ”  Rural  Houses,  162 
Town  Planning  and  Reconstruction  of 
Towns,  547 
Type  of  Cottage,  368 
Types  of  Small  Scottish  Dwellings,  480 

"WhIpq 

Well  Hall  Scheme,  269 
“  Humic, ”90 


Inland  Waterways,  171,  509 
Inspection  of  Documents,  22 

Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  : — 
Canadian  Visitor’s  Impressions,  451 
Institute  of  Cleansing  Superin¬ 
tendents  : — 

Annual  Conference  at  Nottingham, 

48,  58,  84 

Presidential  Address,  59 
Stockport  Meeting,  386 

,  Institution  of  Municipal  and 
County  Engineers  :— 

Annual  Meeting  at  Hastings,  11,  13, 
32,  78,93,  106, 152 

Examinations,  78,  93,  96,  108,  130,  149, 
235, 251,  278,  299 
Hounslow  Meeting,  295 
London  Meeting,  493,  510 
Neath  Meeting,  515 
New  Officers,  453 
Orphan  Fund,  3,  15 
Porthcawl  Meeting,  101,  104 
Visit  to  Westminster  Hall,  247 
Ystradf elite  Meeting,  81,  122,  146 


Institution  of  Municipal  Engi¬ 
neers  :— 

Council  Meeting,  127 
Leighton  Buzzard  Meeting,  280 
March  Meeting,  257 
Newcastle-on-Tyne  Meeting,  116 
Institution  of  Water  Engineers  : — 
Summer  Meeting,  1,  6,  27 
Winter  Meeting,  535,  550 
Invalid  By-law,  An,  418 
Ireland,  Notes  from,  62,  426,  510 
Ireland,  Steam  Rolling  in,  382 
Iron  and  Steel,  Corrosion  of,  464 


Johannesburg,  Municipal  Engineering 
Work  in,  337 


K 

Kent,  Experimental  Sections  of  Con¬ 
crete  Roads  near  Gravesend,  376 
Kent,  Road  Maintenance  in,  474 


1. 

Laboratories  for  Small  Waterworks,  135 
Laboratories  in  Time  of  War,  Public 
Health,  513 

“’Lacre”  Motor  Road-sweeping  Machine, 

166 

Lancashire  Bridge  Damage,  414 
Law  Notes:— 

By-laws,  454 

Damage  to  Road  by  Steam  Lorry,  454 
Damage  to  Public  Right-of-Way,  454 
Dangerous  Wall,  454 
Drainage,  454 

Electric  Lighting :  “  Differentiation  in 
Charges  ”  :  Electric  Lighting  Act, 
1882,  Sections  19  and  20,  411 
Highway  :  Accident  :Claim  for  Damages 
against  Highway  Authority,  344 
Highway  :  Accident  :  Projecting 
Guards  Round  Trees  :  Liability  of 
Local  Authority  :  Public  Health 
(Amendment)  Act,  1890,  Sec,  43, 129 
Highway  Boundary :  Private  Street 
AVorks:  AATdth  of  Street,  277 
Highway  Diversion:  Notice  of  Appli¬ 
cation  to  Quarter  Sessions :  Change 
of  Date  of  Sessions  :  Highway  Act, 
1835,  Sections  85  and  118, 191 
Housing,  Town-Planning,  &c..  Act, 
1909,  and  Building  By-laws,  454 
Private  Street  Works:  Invalid  Notice 
to  Frontagers:  Public  Health  Act. 
1875,  Sec.  150, 175 
Law  Queries  and  Replies:— 
Appointment  of  Sanitary  Engineer,  129 
Boundary  Hedge  :  Building  Line,  517 
Building  By-laws  :  Rear  Air-space,  367 
Building  By-laws  :  Rural  District,  517 
Building  Line  :  Addition  to  Building, 
129 

Combined  Drainage,  61 
Conversion  of  Privies  into  Water- 
closets,  The,  61 

Defence  of  the  Realm  Regulations  : 

Public  Motor  Stands,  302 
Easement  of  Light  :  Substituted 
Building,  503 

Extraordinary  Traffic,  344,  367 
Fire  Engines,  The  Provision  of  Horses 
for,  302 

Footpath  Cross  Troughs,  517 


Frbiuary  1.  1918. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


v. 


Law  Queries  and  Replies  (con¬ 
tinued)  : —  , 

Highway  By-water  :  Obstruction  : 

Storage  of  Paraffin,  191 
Highway  :  Discharge  of  Surface 

WfltAl*  101 

Highway  ‘Fall  of  Wall,  175 
House  Drainage  :  Connection  with 
Sewer  in  Neighbouring  District,  411 
Omnibus  Route  :  Local  Government 
(Emergency  Provisions)  Act,  191(5, 344 
Overflow  from  Sewer:  Liability  of 
Local  Authority,  302 
Pail  Closets,  Emptying.  503 
Police  Station-House:  Nuisance,  517 
Private  Estate  Roads :  Roads 
Damaged  by  War  Department 
Traffic,  41 1 

Railway  Bridge  Over  Main  Road,  129 
Surveyor  to  Rural  District  Council : 

Payment  for  Extra  Work,  129 
Water-closet  Accommodation,  191 
Water  Supply:  Domestic  Purposes, 
191 

Water  Supply  :  Stop-Cock,  129 
Litherland  Sewer  Fatality,  111 
Liverpool  Housing,  88 
Local  Government  Board  Annual  Re¬ 
port  (191G-17),  172 
London  Electricity,  311 
London’s  Health,  73 
London’s  Motor  Ambulance  Service,  50 
London’s  Sewage  Outfall  Works,  26 
Lower  Thames  Valley  District 
Surveyors’  Association  :— 
Meetings,  321,  415,  504 


M 

Machine  Trenching  and  Ramming,  73, 
110 

Maintenance  and  Cleansing  of  Water¬ 
courses,  66 

Management  of  Sewage  Works,  462,  473, 
492 

Manchester  University,  162 
Manure  from  House  Refuse,  110,  131 
Marketable  Sewage  Products,  310 
Mechanical  Traction 
Ambulance  ’Buses,  61 
American  Municipalities’  Vehicles, 
212 

Bedfordshire,  422 
Belfast  Electrics,  239 
Croydon,  522 

Coal  Gas  as  Motor  Fuel,  5,  38,  207, 
211,  324,  346,  365,  398,  400,  446,  493, 
505,  510,  527,  551 
Drivers’  Licences,  43 
Electric  Vehicles,  4,  21,  24,  84,  212, 
239,  522 

Gas  Traction  Commission,  495 
Glasgow  Costs,  251,  522 
Hackney,  50 

Highway  Charging  Stations,  226,  250, 
346,  374,  493,  505,  510,  513 
Manchester,  4 

Motors  and  Town  Roads,  45 
Motor  Street  Washing  and  Gully 
Cleaning,  381 

Motor  Traffic  Committee’s  Report,  409 
-  Newcastle,  212 

New  Type  of  Battery,  285 
Nottingham,  212 
Nottinghamshire,  357 
Petrol  Lorries,  422  • 

Petrol  Supplies,  68 
Roadside  Depots,  237 
Sheffield,  24,  60,  8 1 
Steam  Wagons,  357  ,  422 
Surveyors’  Petrol  Allowances,  341 
Methods  of  Teaching,  182 
Metric  Street  Numbering,  154 
Middlesex,  Road  Maintenance  and 
Repair  in,  100, 119 

Military  Service,  Public  Officials  and,  63 
Minimum  Road  Widths,  545 
Ministry  of  Health,  2,  99 
Ministry  of  Health,  The  Proposed,  236, 
549 

Minutes  of  Proceedings:  — 

Activated  Sludge  Process,  The,  137, 
527 

Activated  Sludge  Treatment  at 
Worcester,  45 
After  the  War,  138 
Air-lift  Pump,  The,  441 
Air-raids,  291 

America,  Road  Stone  Control  in,  526 
Appeal,  An,  546 


Minutes  of  Proceedings  (con¬ 
tinued)  : — 

Architects  after  the  War,  442 
Architecture,  418 

Barwise,  Dr.,  and  Consulting  Engi¬ 
neers,  47 

B.E.O.  and  the  Municipal  Services, 
The,  183 

Birmingham  Arterial  Road  Scheme, 
The,  353 

Birmingham,  The  Development  of, 

334 

British  Fire  Prevention  Committee, 
483 

Building  By-laws  Tribunals,  Pro¬ 
posed,  462 

Building  Materials,  Scarcity  of,  443 
Building  Stagnation,  The  Causes  of, 

353,373 

Built-in  Furniture,  311 
By-law,  An  Invalid,  418 
By-law  Modification,  546 
Canada,  Town  Planning  in,  463 
Certified  Occupations,  23,  207 
Charging  Stations  on  Highways,  374 
Charing  Cross  Bridge,  22 
Chloramine  Sterilisation  of  Water, 
309 

Church  and  Housing,  The,  266 
Cistern  Question  in  London,  The,  98 
Coal  Gas  or  Petrol  P  207,  398,  505 
Coal  Prices,  267 
Coal  Storage,  375 

Colour  Measurement  of  Water,  A 
Standard  for,  1 

Concrete,  Rapid  Delivery  of,  225 
Contracts,  The  War  and,  482 
Cottages  or  Tenements  P  225 
Damp,  The  Danger  of,  183 
Devon  County  Council  and  Housing, 
506 

Ditches,  Cleansing,  419 
Documents,  Inspection  of,  22 
Dublin  Housing  Inquiry.  The,  119 
Dublin  Rehousing— A  Hopeful  Out¬ 
look,  335 

Dry  Rot  in  Timber,  22 
Easington,  Housing  at,  355 
Education  of  the  Public,  The,  373 
Electricity  Charges,  117 
Electricity  Supplies,  Linking  Up  the, 
139 

Electric  Lorries,  21 
Electrolysis  of  Pipes,  181 
Electrolysis  Troubles  and  Remedies, 

397 

Engineer  in  FietioD,  The,  461 
Engineering  Profession,  The,  226 
Engineers,  Better  Training  for,  313, 

398 

Erpingham  and  Rural  Housing,  290 
Examinations,  98 

Footpath,  The  Rule  of  the,  266,  46.3 
Foreman,  A  Glorified,  2 
Fuel,  A  New,  118 

Glycerine  from  Kitchen  Waste,  139 
Hard  Case,  A,  23 
Hastings  Meeting,  The,  3 
Haywards  Heath,  Dust  Collecting  at., 
75 

Health  of  Great  Britain,  The,  355! 
Highway  Case,  An  Interesting,  354 
Highway  Charging  Stations,  226 
Housing  After  the  War,  98, 118,419, 442 
Housing  and  Private  Enterprise,  205 
Housing  at  Hexham,  47 
Housing  at  Taunton,  267 
Housing  in  Scotland,  334 
Housing — Minimum  Accommodation , 
311 

Housing  Possibilities,  The  Neglect  of, 
206 

Housing  Shortage,  The,  3 
Housing,  State  Aid  for,  226 
Housing,  Structure  iD,  418 
Housing,"  Technical  Conference,”  291 
»  Housing,  The  Church  and,  266 
Housing— The  L.G.B.  Circular,  206 
Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers, 
The,  441 

Irish  L.G.B.  and  Assistant  County 
Surveyors,  The,  417 
Kent,  Heavy  Motor  Traffic  in,  74 
Kitchen  Waste,  Glycerine  from,  139 
Law  Cases,  Recent,  461, 139 
Leeds  and  Doncaster  Water  Scheme, 
The,  397 

Lines,  Behind  the,  23 
Local  Government  Board  Annual 
Report,  162 

London  Electricity,  311 
London  Motor  Omnibus  Traffic,  442 
London,  The  Health  of,  73 
Lord  Clifford  and  a  Water  Supply, 
The  Late,  374 

Machine  Trenching  and  Ramming,  73, 
525 

Manchester  University,  162 
Metric  System,  Against  the,  74 


Minutes  of  Proceedings  (con¬ 
tinued)  : — 

Metric  Systom,  The,  546 
Middlesex,  Road  Maintenance  in,  119 
Ministry  of  Health,  A,  2,  99,  227 
“  Motor  Car,”  What  is  a  ?  21 
Motors  and  Town  Roads,  45 
Municipal  Engineer  and  the  Public, 
The,  163 

Municipal  Engineering  and  the  War, 
375 

Municipal  Engineers,  The  Status  of, 
266 

Municipality  and  Politics,  The,  183 
-  Municipal  Officers  and  the  “  Volun¬ 
teers,”  335 

Municipal  Tramways  Association,  265 
Nuisance  Case,  A,  483 
Orphan  Fund,  The,  3 
Percolating  Filters,  Objectionable 
Odours  from,  507 
Petrol  Allowances,  419 
Plans,  Use  for  Old,  419 
Poplar,  The  Health  of,  291 
Porthcawl,  Municipal  Work  at,  97 
Portsmouth,  The  Cleansing  Question 
at,  247 

Power,  Water  Supplies  as  Sources  of, 
505 

Private  Bills  in  Parliament,  546 
Private  Enterprise,  Housing  and,  205 
Private  Street  Works—"  Common 
Form  ”  Notice  to  Frontagers,  161 
Procedure,  Technicalities  of,  205 
Professional  Associations,  431 
Professional  Classes  and  the  War,  399 
Public  Abattoirs,  291 
Rating,  The  Incidence  of,  290 
Rebuilding  Dublin,  75 
Reinforced  Concrete  and  Fire,  119 
Reinforced  Concrete  Progress,  182 
Reinforced  Concrete  Roads,  354' 

Road  Board,  The,  245 
,  Roads  and  Reconstruction,  245 
Road  Stone  Control,  181,  399 
Road  Widths,  Minimum,  545 
Rosyth,  267 

Royal  Sanitary  Institute,  War  Work 
of  the,  334 

Rural  Housing  Schemes,  227 
Rural  Settlement,  290 
St.  Winifrede’s  Well,  99 
Salary,  A  Question  of,  207 
Sanitary  Inspector  as  Analyst,  267 
Sanitary  Inspectors’  Qualifications, 
247 

Sanitation  in  the  .Army,  525 
Science  and  Education,  182 
Scottish  Housing,  334,  418 
Semi-permanent  Building,  227 
Sewage  Disposal  Works,  The  Manage¬ 
ment  of,  462 

Sewage,  Preliminary  Treatment  of : 

Chemical  Precipitation,  289 
Sewage,  Preliminary  Treatment  of: 

Fine  Screens,  333 
Sewage  Products,  Marketable,  310 
Silvertown  Reconstruction  Scheme, 
The,  2 

Staines  Rural  Council  and  the 
Uxbridge  Bench,  482 
Standard  Houses,  482 
State  Aid  for  Housing,  226 
Steel  Mains  Reinforced,  481 
Street  Paving  Charges,  47 
Structure  in  Housing,  418 
Studs  and  Road  Surfaces,  207 
Surveyors’  Institution,  The,  417 
Swindon  Borough  Surveyor,  An 
“Open  Letter”  to  the,  46 
Swindon,  Food  Production  at,  310 
Synthetic  Coal,  398 
Teaching,  Methods  of,  182 
Technicalities  of  Procedure,  205 
“Tied”  Rural  Houses,  The  Question 
of,  162 

Trade  After  the  War,  506 
Trade  Wastes,  The  Treatment  of,  246 
Tram  car  v.  Motor  Omnibuses,  483 
Tramway  Congress,  A,  22 
Tramways  and  Reconstruction,  266 
Tramway  Supplies,  443 
Tramways,  The  Future  of,  75 
Trees  in  Streets,  117,  527 
Trenches,  Machine-made,  525 
“Uuitate  Fortior,”  163 
United  States,  Effects  of  the  War  in 
the,  507 

Universities,  Municipal  Engineering 
and,  138 

Wales,  Housing  in,  526 
War  Damage  and  Compensation,  545 
War,  Municipal  Engineering  and  the, 
375 

Waste  Utilisation,  375 
Water  Accounts,  Deficiencies  in,  309 
Water  Charges,  461 

Water,  Chloramine  Sterilisation  of, 
309 


VI. 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


February  1,  1918. 


Minutes  of  Proceedings  (con¬ 
tinued)  : — 

Water  Mains,  Breaks  in,  265 
Water  Questions,  355 
Water  Supplies  as  Sources  of  Power, 
505  v 

Water  Waste  Prevention,  97 
Westminster  Hall,  247 
Women’s  Labour  Conference,  West¬ 
minster,  23 

Municipal  Engineering  and  Public 
Health  ,  Effect  of  War  on,  363,  377 
Municipal  Engineering  and  the  Univer¬ 
sities,  138 

Municipal  Engineers,  Status  of,  2G6 
Municipality  and  Politics,  183 
Municipal  Officers’  Salaries,  522 
Municipal  Profit-sharing  Scheme,  63 
Municipal  Tramways  Association  : 

Annual  Meeting,  265,  268. 
MunicipalWaterworks Association : 
Annual  Meeting  in  London,  318 


N 

National  Health,  355,  362 
Neglect  of  Housing  Possibilities,  206 
Newcastle  Electric  Vehicles,  212 
“Non-Pressure  ”  Hot  Water  Supply,  201 
Northamptonshire,  Road  Maintenance 
in,  167 

Notes  from  Ireland,  62,426,  540 
Nottingham,  Cleansing  Work  at,  48 
Nottingham  Electric  Vehicles,  212 
Nottinghamshire,  Road  Maintenance  in, 

361 


O 

Odours  from  Percolating  Filters,  404, 
507 

“  Open  Letter  ”  to  the  Swindon  Borough 
Surveyor,  46 

Organisms  in  Water  Supplies,  Control  of 
Microscopic,  423 

Overhanging  Rocks  on  Highways,  355 


P  / 

Paints  for  Metal  Surfaces,  331 
Parliament,  Private  Bills  in,  546 
Petrol  Allowances,  419 
“Pioneer  ”  Road  Sweeping  and  Loading 
Machine,  150 
Plans,  Use  for  Old,  419 
Poplar,  Health  of,  291 
Porthcawl,  Municipal  Work  at,  95,  101 
Power,  Water  Supplies  as  Sources  of, 
505,  508,  535,  550 

Practical  Application  of  Modern  Sani¬ 
tation,  258 

Precipitation  of  Sewage:  Further  Ex-  ! 
periments,  358 

Private  Bills  in  Parliament,  546 
Procedure,  Technicalities  of,  205 
Professional  Associations,  481 
Professional  Classes  “VV  ar  Relief  Council ,  ! 
41 

Public  Abattoirs,  106,  292 

Publications  : 

Bognor,  Homeland  Handbook  of,  280 
Concrete,  Plain  and  Reinforced,  151 
Draughtsmanship,  A  Guide  to,  302 
Electrical  Engineering  Practice,  302 
Experimental  Building  Science,  368 
Health  in  Camp,  280 
Hydraulics,  Treatise  on,  90 


j  Publications  ( continued ) 

Laboratory  Manual  of  Bituminous 
Materials  for  the  Use  of  Students  in 
Highway  Engineering,  179 
Levelling,  Lectures  on,  302 
Mechanical  Drafting,  368 
Municipal  Engineering  Practice,  469 
Parks  and  Park  Engineering,  280 
Portland  Cement  Industry,  The,  20 
Practical  Sanitation,  20 
Preservation  of  Wood,  The,  169 
Report  on  Street  Improvements,  151 
Road  Construction  and  Maintenance 
in  the  Tropics,  485 
Stresses  in  Structures,  328 
Student’s  Catechism  on  Bookkeeping, 
Accounting,  and  Banking,  328 
Watt  and  the  Steam  Age,  328 
Public  Health,  Effect  of  War  on  Muni¬ 
cipal  Engineering  and,  363,  377  - 
Public  Health  Powers,  553 
Public  Officials  and  Military  Service,  63 
Public  Works  Loan  Board,  86 


Q 

Qualifications  of  Sanitary  Inspectors, 
247,  255 

Quantities  and  Estimates,  164 
Question  of  Salary,  A,  207,  235 


R 

Rand,  Water  Supply  on  the,  465 
Rapid  Delivery  of  Concrete,  225 
Rapid  Sand  Filtration,  341 
Rating,  Incidence  of,  290 
Reconstruction,  115 
Reconstruction  After  the  War,  56 
Refuse  Collection  and  Disposal 
Bags,  88,108 

Baling  of  Waste  Paper,  331 
Beckenham  Waste  Paper  Scheme,  103 
Cleansing  Notes,  321,  452 
Disposal  by  Feeding,  407 
Disposal  of  Tins,  49 
Dublin,  168 

Dust  Collecting  at  Haywards  Heath, 
75 

Electric  Vehicles  in  Cleansing  Work, 
24,  60, 84 

Glycerine  from  Kitchen  Waste,  139 
Horsfortb,  313 

Manure  from  House  Refuse,  110, 131 

Nottingham,  48 

Profitable  Dust  Bin,  485 

Reduction  Processes,  428 

Refuse  as  Fuel,  323 

Sheffield,  24,  60,  84,  382 

Singapore,  208 

U  tilisation  of  Destructor  Clinker,  452 
Utilisation  of  Waste  Food,  &c.,  388 
War  Effects,  516 
Waste  Metal  and  Paper,  463 
Reinforced  Concrete  and  Fire,  119 
Reinforced  Concrete  at  the  Front,  184 
Reinforced  Concrete  Bridge,  London 
County  Council’s,  401 
Reinforced  Concrete,  Corrosion  of  Iron 
and  Steel,  with  Special  Reference  to, 
464 

Reinforced  Concrete,  Corrosion  of  Iron 
in,  549 

Reinforced  Concrete,  Deteriorating 
Action  of  Salt  and  Brine  on,  538 
Reinforced  Concrete  Floor  Slabs,  403 
Reinforced  Concrete  Pipes  for  Gas,  450 
Reinforced  Concrete  Progress,  182 
Reinforced  Concrete,  Strength  of  Plain 
and,  190 

Reinforced  Concrete  Tar  Storage  Tank, 

230 

Reinforced  Concrete  Wheel  Tracks  for 
Roadways,  179,  192 
Renfrewshire  Highways,  128 
I  Repair  of  Concrete  Roads,  41 


Roads  and  Streets:— 

Aldershot  Failure,  471 

American  Tests  of  Road  Materials,  120 

An  Interesting  Case,  354 

Army  Council  Order,  219 

Avoidable  Damage,  475 

Bedfordshire,  424 

Belper,  156 

Berkshire,  99 

Birmingham,  168 

Blowing  Dust  from  Macadam,  232 
By-laws  Modification,  515 
Canadian  Roads,  83 
Carnarvonshire  and  Motor  ’Bus 
Traffic,  68 

Cleansing  at  Leicester,  298 
Clinker  and  Mexphalte,  43 
Clinker  Asphaltic  Macadam,  294,  323 
Concrete  Roads,  68,  130,  237,  251,  336, 
354,  376,  384,  408,  424,  467 
Construction  on  Clay  Subsoils,  471 
Control  of  Heavy  Motor  Traffic,  74,  76 
Cornwall,  57 

Damage  by  Timber  Haulage,  249 
Drainage  of  Country  Roads,  507 
Dublin  Street  Widening  Schemes,  148 
Dundee  Experiment,  371 
Dust  Laying  in  Lincoln,  133 
East  Stirlingshire,  63 
East  Suffolk  and  Road  Subsidies,  200 
Economy  of  Direct  Labour,  62 
Effects  of  Traffic  on  Roads  and  Tram¬ 
way  Tracks,  275,  297 
Essex,  38 

Extraordinary  Traffic  and  Excessive 
Weights,  13,  32,  35,  56,  109 
Fruit  Trees  for  Shading  Highways,  407 
Gipsies  and  Road  Obstruction,  259 
Glasgow  Street  Cleansing,  251 
Government  and  Oils,  50 
Grants  in  Aid,  62 

Hounslow  Clinker  Asphaltic  Macadam, 

294,  323 

Improvement  Association’s  Activities, 

338 

Ireland,  62,  426,  541 

Irish  Maintenance  Difficulties,  540 

Kent,  474 

Kent  Experimental  Sections,  376 
Kildare  County,  221 
Labour  in  Roadstone  Quarries,  38 
Lincoln, 133 
London  Pavings,  219 
Maintenance  Costs  in  Ireland,  62 
Methods  of  Applying  Bituminous 
Materials,  196 
Middlesex,  100, 119 
Minimum  Road  Widths,  545 
Motors  and  Town  Roads,  45 
Motor  Sweeping  at  Hackney,  50 
New  Sweeping  and  Loading  Machine, 
150 

Northamptonshire,  167 
Nottinghamshire,  361 
Omnibus  Contributions,  38,  387 
Overhanging  Rocks  on  Highways,  355 
Private  Streets  Works  Cases,  161 
Rapid  Sprinkling,  193 
Reconstruction,  246 
Reinforced  Concrete  Wheel  Tracks, 
179,  299 

Renfrewshire,  128 
Repair  of  Concrete  Roads,  41 
Road  Board  Annual  Report,  245,  248 
Roadside  Advertising  Schemes,  305 
Roads  to  Farmhouses,  95 
Roadstone  Control,  35,  128,  130,  149, 
181, 185,  399 

Roadman’s  “  Soft  Job,”  63 
Roadmen  in  France,  546,  549,  555 
Rule  of  the  Footpath,  266,  313, 385,  430, 
463 

Salt  as  a  Road  Material,  335 
Sand-Hay-Tar  Experiments!  Road, 

534 

Sheffield,  312,  336,  372 
Sheffield  Darkened  Streets  Case,  51 
Side  Forms  for  Concrete  Roads,  237 
Somerset,  371 
Spain,  317 

Steam  Rolling  in  Ireland,  382 
Stirling,  371 

Street  Paving  Charges,  47,55 
Street  Pavings  in  Cork,  426,  541 
Streets  of  the  Future,  121 
Studs  on  Road  Locomotive  Wheels, 
16,  376 

Studs  on  Tractiofi  Engine  Wheels,  195 
Tale  of  a  Newly-made  Road,  250 
Tar-painting  and  Tar-grouting,  537 
Tarred  Granite,  111 
The  Type  of  Road,  197 
Trees  in  Streets,  117,  527 
United  States  Roads,  410 
Use  of  Timber  for  Road  Work,  20 
Wakelam  and  Extraordinary  Traffic, 
Mr.,  109 

War  Traffic,  186 
Warwickshire,  127 


Febuuary  1,  1918. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


Vll. 


Roads  and  Streets  ( continued )  : — 
Work  in  the  War  Zone,  121,  279, 431 
Yeovil,  496 

Royal  Sanitary  Institute  : — 

War  Work,  334 
Rule  of  the  Footpath  ,  266,  313 
Rural  Architecture,  381 


S 

Salaries  of  Municipal  Officers,  522 
Salt  as  a  Road  Material,  335 
Sanitary  Inspector  as  Analyst,  267 
Sanitary  Inspectors’  Qualifications,  247, 
255 

Sanitary  W ork  in  the  Army,  525,  530,  554 
Sanitation,  Practical  Application  of 
Modern,  258 

Scavenging  Costs  at  Ossett,  296 
Science  and  Education,  182 
Scottish  Dwellings,  Types  of  Small,  486 
Scottish  Notes,  145 
Sea  Defences  at  Hastings,  193 
Sewerage  and  Sewage  Disposal:— 
Activated  Sludge  Process,  10, 40,  45,  51, 
67, 87,  137,  140,  252,  445,  471,  527,  528 
Air  Diffusers  and  Dewatering  Devices, 
528 

Birmingham,  200 

Bombay  Drainage,  501 

Camp  Sanitation,  40 

Cheltenham,  234 

Cleveland,  342,  367 

Chemical  Precipitation,  289 

Drop  Manholes,  548 

Electrical  Purification,  10 

Experience  with  Concrete  Sewers,  19 

Grease  from  Sewage,  131 

Greenock  Flooding  Case,  115 

Inadequate  Provision  and  Neglect,  516 

Liquid  Trade  Wastes,  507 

Liverpool  Action,  527 

London,  280 

London  Outfall  Works,  26 
Marketable  Sewage  Products,  310 
Middlesex  Effluents,  107 
Milwaukee  Experiments,  445 
New  York,  124 

Osiers  for  Sewage  Works,  149, 170,  193 
Objectionable  Odours  from  Percolating 
k  ilters,  404,  507 
Petrol  in  Sewers,  414 
Precipitation  Experiments,  358 
Preliminary  Treatment,  289,  333 
Revolving  Screens,  124 
River  Pollution  in  the  West  Riding, 
553 

Sheffield,  324 
Sludge  Disposal,  553 
Staffordshire  Trade  Wastes,  451 
Stream  Pollution  in  the  West  Riding, 
77 

Tannery  Wastes  Purification,  337 
Trade  Waste  from  Creameries,  119 
Treatment  of  Trade  Wastes,  246,  252 
Treatment  in  1870,  250 
War  and  Sewage  Disposal,  39 
Worcester,  10,  40,  45,  51,  67,  87 
Works  Management,  462,  473,  492 
Sheffield,  Highway  Work  at,  312 
Sheffield,  Refuse  Collection  and  Disposal 
at,  382 

Sheffield,  Reinforced  Concrete  Roads  in, 
336 

Sheffield,  Sewage  Disposal  at,  324 
Side  Forms  for  Concrete  Roads,  237 
Silvertown  Reconstruction  Scheme,  2 
Singapore,  Collection  and  Disposal  of 
Refuse  in,  208 
Slate  Industry,  Welsh,  424 
Sludge  Disposal,  553 
Smethwick  Housing  Scheme,  293 
Snow  Removal,  168 
Soft  Timber,  Sales  of  Imported,  66 
Soldiers,  Re-employment  of  Discharged, 
259 

Somerset,  Road  Maintenance  in,  371 
Spain,  Road  and  Street  Work  in,  317 


Staffordshire  Sewage  Effluents,  451 
State  and  Housing,  399 
Status  of  Municipal  Engineers,  266 
I  Steel  Mains  Reinforced,  481 
Storage  Cisterns,  98,  200 
Streams,  The  Law  in  Regard  to  the 
Cul verting  of,  216 
Street  Lighting  Contracts,  12 
Structure  in  Municipal  Housing,  420, 
444 

Studs  on  Road  Locomotive  Wheels,  16, 
376 

Studs  on  Traction  Engine  Wheels,  195 
Subsidies,  East  Suffolk  and  Road,  200 
Superannuation  Allowances,  483 
Surveyors’  Institution 
Presidential  Address,  417 
Swindon,  Food  Production  at,  310 
Synthetic  Coal,  398 


T 

Tale  of  a  Newly-made  Road,  250 
Tannery  Wastes,  Purification  of,  337 
Tar  Storage,  230 
Technicalities  of  Procedure,  205 
Things  One  Would  Like  to  Know,  19, 
31,  57,  83, 110,  131,  145,  171,  189,  213,  232, 
257,  273,  293,  300,  325,  341,  362,  385,  405, 
432,  450,  472,  503,  514,  536,  551 
“  Tied  ”  Rural  Houses,  162 
Timber  in  Road  Work,  Use  of,  20 
Tiverton,  Municipal  Work  at,  423 
Town  Planning  (See  Housing  and  Town 
Planning) 

Town  Planning  Institute:— 

Presidential  Address,  356 
|  Training  of  Engineers,  Better,  310 
j  Tramcar  v.  Motor  Omnibus,  483 
j  Tramway  Paving  and  Repairs,  410 
Tramway  Rails  Renewal,  201 
Tramways  and  Light  Railways  Associa¬ 
tion,  3,  22 

Tramways  and  Reconstruction,  266 
Tramways,  Development  of,  268 
Tramways,  Future  of,  75 
j  Tramways,  Government  and,  422 
Trees  in  Streets,  117,  527 
Trenches,  Machine-Made,  525 
Tribunals,  41,  63,  115,  124,  168,  185,  220, 
235,  247,  259,  323,  362,  504,  518 
Trumpery  Litigation,  392 
j  Type  of  Road,  The,  197 


U 

Ultra-Violet  Sterilisation  of  Water,  405 
Unauthorised  Connection,  107 
United  States  Roads,  410 
Universities,  Municipal  Engineering 
and  the,  138 

Utilisation  of  Waste  Food,  &e.,  in  Towns 
Refuse,  388 


V 

|  Volunteer  Fire  Brigades,  99 


W 

Wakefield  Water  Supply,  455 
Wales,  Housing  in,  526 
Wandsworth,  De-Tinning  at,  317 

War:- 

Army  Sanitary  Work,  525,  530,  554 
Bonus  Schemes,  81, 86,  151, 192,338,367, 
414 

Building  Materials,  411 
Certified  Occupations,  475, 518 
Contracts,  482 

Damage  and  Compensation,  545 
Effects  in  the  U.S.,  507 
Employers  and  Employees,  371 
Municipal  Officers  and  the  “Volun 
teers,”  335 

Petrol  Allowances,  419 
Professional  Classes  War  Relief 
Council,  399, 409 

Public  Officials  and  Military  Service, 
63,  207,  518 
Reconstruction,  56 

Re-employment  of  Discharged  Sol¬ 
diers,  259 

Reinforced  Concrete  at  the  Front,  184 
Street  Lighting  Contracts,  12 
Trade  and  Employment,  138 
Tramway  Paving  and  Repairs,  410 
Woman  Labour,  23,42 
Water  :— 

Aberdeen,  278 

Administrative  Questions,  243 
Air  Lift  Pumping,  441 
Amateur  Well  Sinkers,  61 
Breaks  in  Mains,  265 
Cardiff  Reservoir  Contract,  20 
Certified  Occupations,  475 
Charges,  461,  466, 492 
Chloramine  Sterilisation,  309 
Colour  Records  Applied  to  Potable 
Water,  1, 6,  27 
Corrosion  of  Fittings,  513 
Covered  Reservoir  of  Reinforced  Con¬ 
crete,  143 

CowlydLake  Works,  298 
i  Deficiencies  in  Water  Accounts, 309, 
484 

Desert  Water  Finding,  213 
Electrolysis  Troubles  and  Remedies, 
181,  187,  397 
j  Hastings,  231 
i  Irish  Water  Power,  421 
Keighley,  186 

Laboratories  for  Small  Waterworks, 

135 

Leeds  and  Doncaster  Scheme,  397 
Leighton  Buzzard,  273 
Liverpool,  75 

Machine  Made  Trenches,  525 
Machine  Trenching  and  Ramming,  110 
Microscopic  Organisms  in  Water,  423 
“Non-Pressure”  Hot  Water  Supply, 
201 

Northampton,  77 
Rand  Water  Board, 

Rapid  Sand  Filtration,  341 
St,  Winifrede’s  Well,  99, 183,  279 
Storage  Cisterns,  98,  200 
Ultra-Violet  Sterilisation,  405 
Use  of  Copper  Sulphate,  423 
Sources  of  Power,  505,  508, 535,  550 
Steel  Mains  Reinforced,  481 
Useful  Life  of  Units  in  Waterworks 
Plants,  142 
Wakefield, 

Waste  Prevention  in  Cork,  82,  97 
Water  Power  in  Ireland,  63 
Worcester,  316 
Ystradf elite  Works,  122,  146 
Warwickshire  Roads,  127 
)  Well  Hall  Housing  scheme,  269 
Westminster  Hall,  247 
!  West  Riding,  Stream  Pollution  in  the,  77 
What  is  a  “  Motor-Car”  ?  21 
Women’s  Work  for  Local  Councils,  23, 42 
Wood  Preservation,  425 
Worcestershire  Roads,  189 
I  Worcester  Water  Supply,  316 


Y 

Yeovil  Rural  District  Roads,  496 
Ystradfellte  Waterworks,  122, 146 


V111. 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


February  1,  1918- 


AUTHORS  OF  PAPERS,  ARTICLES  AND 

ADDRESSES. 


Abbott,  E.  R.,  356 
Adshead,  S.D.,470,  497 
Albert,  H.,  513 
Allen,  H.  A.,  428 
Anderson,  J.  H.,  237 
Ardern,  E.,  140 
Asher,  W.,  555 
Barwise,  S.,  39 
Beckett,  J.  J„  388 
Boulnois,  H.  P.,  363,  377 
Brown,  R ,  358 
Caink,  T.,  51 
Campbell,  D.,  255 
Chapman,  H.  T.,  76,  376,  474 
Coales,  H.  G  ,  229 
Cockerlyne,  E.  W.,  275,297 
Collins,  A.  H.,  12 
Crandell,  J.  S.,  534 
Creighton,  H.  J.,  538 
Cunliffe,  H.,  89 
Davies,  D.  M.,  122 
Delany,  J.  F.,  82 
Drummond,  R ,  128 
Eccles,  W.  H.,  380 


Edwards,  A.  G  ,383 
Edwards,  L.  N.,  190 
Ellis,  A.,  268 
Friend,  J.  N.,  464 
Fyfe,  P.,  233 
Goodacre,  E.  J.,  11, 152 
Hadfield,  W.  J.,  337 
Haine,  W.,  423 
Haller,  J.  C.,  361 
Hatcher,  F ,  101 
Henzell, D.  G.,  329 
Holmes,  F.  G  ,  258' 
Holroyde,  J.,  339 
Honey,  R.  L.,  292 
Ivy,  J.  W.,  187 
James,  C.  C  ,  501 
Johnson,  G.  A.,  341 
Lambie,  R.,  284 
Lees,  E.  A.,  484 
Lloyd,  J.  H.,  318 
Lochhead,  A.  F.,  236  > 
Lovell,  R.  G„  125 
Martin,  A.  J.,  530,  554 
Miller  .  G.  F.,  193,  231 


Mole,  J.  H.,  420,  444 
Morris,  C.  S.,  167 
Mourant,  C.  O.,  164 
Murray,  J.,  243 
Parker,  G.  C  ,  196 
Paton,  A.  W.,  238 
Pearce,  S.  L.,  6 
Pickering,  J.  S.,  1 
Priestley,  J.  A.,  24 
Roberts,  C.  H.,  508 
Rodda,  E  C.,466 
Stilgoe,  H.  E  ,  168 
Symonds,  W.  K  ,  208 
Terry,  J.,  58 
Thomson,  J.,  223 
Wakelam,  H.  T.,  100 
Weir,  W.  J.,  431 
Werner,  R.  C.,  135 
Whittemore,  I.  W.,  548 
Willis,  E.,  93 
Wilson,  J.,  486 
WordiDgham,  C.  H., 430, 455 
Zimmele,  G.  B.,  252 


1 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 


A 

Activated  Sludge  Process,  Design  for 
Aeration  and  Settling  Tanks,  53 
Asphalt  Surface  on  B.R.C,  Foundation 
at  Sheffield,  336 


B 

Bognor’s  “  Tank,”  190 
Burnettized  Wood,  Certificate  Awarded 
for,  425 


C 

Concrete  Roads,  Side  Forms  for,  237 


D 

De-tinning  at  Wandsworth,  317 
Drop  Manholes  for  Sewers,  548 


H 

Hazen’s  Colorimeter,  9 
Hennebique  Ferro-Concrete  Reservoir 
at  Roye,  184 


K 

Keighley  Gas  Supply  Station  for  Motor 
Vehicles,  250 


L 

“Lacre”  Motor  Road-sweeping  Ma¬ 
chine,  166 

L.C.C/s  First  Concrete  Bridge,  401,  102, 
403 


M 

Metropolitan  Asylums  Board  Ambu¬ 
lance  Car.  61 


N 

“  Non-Pressirre  ”  Hot  Water  Supply, 

201 

“Non-Such”  Tar-painting  and  Tar- 
grouting  Machine,  437 


P 

“Pioneer”  Road  Sweeping  and  Loading 
Machine,  The,  150 
Portraits : — 

Brown,  A.,  477 
Chilvers,  G.  B.,  178 
Davies,  D.  M.,  114 
Elford,  E.  J.,  472 
Hatcher,  F.,  155 
Hayward,  T.  W.  A.,  453 
Lawson,  G.  W.,  261 
Mead,  Late  J.  R.,-557 


R 

Refuse  Reduction  Processes,  428,  429 


S 

Sand-Hay -Tar  Experimental  Road,  531 
Scottish  Dwellings,  Types  of  Small,  486- 
91 


T 

Texas  Activated  Sludge  Plant,  252 
Tilbury  Pier,  1906,  425 

W 

Wasfe  Water  Prevention  in  Cork,  82,  83 
Well  Hall  Housing  Estate,  269,  270,  271, 
272 


Y 

Ystradf elite  Storage  Reservoir,  122 


The  Surveyor 

Rn&  flDunldpal  anb  County  Engineer. 


Vol.  LII.  JULY  6,  1917.  No.  1,329. 


Minutes  of  Proceedings. 


A  Standard  for 
Colour  Measurement 
of  Water. 


In  the  opinion  of  Dr.  J.  H. 
Garrett  the  estimation  of 
colour  in  water,  when  it  depends 
upon  a  coloured  organism  like 
crenothrix,  constitutes  a  ready  and  instant  means 
of  estimating  the  effect  of  filtration  of  water  upon 
numbers  of  bacteria,  and  it  seems  possible  that 
the  estimation  of  colour  might  take  the  place  of 
the  more  laborious  method  of  making  plate  cul¬ 
tures.  Mr.  J.  S.  Pickering  made  out  an  excellent 
case  for  the  desirability  of  the  general  adoption  of 
a  suitable  standard  for  determining  and  recording 
the  colour  of  potable  waters  in  a  paper  on  “  Colour 
Records  Applied  to-  Potable  Waters,”  read  before 
the  Institution  of  Water  Engineers  on  the  22nd  ult. 
The  colour  records  relating  to  the  Cheltenham 
supply  formed  thei  basis  iof  the  paper,  and  refer¬ 
ences  made  to*  similar  work  done  in  the  cases  of 
Leeds,  Birmingham,  London,  the  State  Depart¬ 
ment-  of  Health  of  Massachusetts,  and  the  LTnited 
States  Geological  Survey  illustrated  the  subject. 
As  stated  by  the  author,  it-  is  not  within  the 
province  of  the  engineer  to  lay7  down  a  standard 
of  measurement  which  should  be  generally  recog¬ 
nised  as  a  means  of  affording  a  comparison  of  the 
colour  values  of  different  waters,  but  it  is  dis¬ 
tinctly  within  his  province  to  draw  attention  to  the 
confusion  caused  in  recording  results  by  different 
methods  of  measurement  (not  only  for  colour 
values,  but  in  other  matters)  with  which  chemists 
and  bacteriologists  may,  and  often  do,  produce 
figures  and  statements  which  cannot  be  easily 
compared  or  fixed.  It  would,  for  instance,  be 
difficult  to  fix  the  relative  intensity  and  character 
of  odour.  Who — without  some  such  standard  as 
that  advocated  by  the  author — shall  distinguish 
between  or  compare  samples  of  water  freely 
described  as  being  “.dark  or  dull  brown,” 
“brown,”  “dull  brown,”  “yellow  or  brownish 
yellow,”  “yellowish  brown  or  dull  brown, 

“  yellowish  green,”  “  yellowish,”  “  less  yellow,” 
“slight  yellow,”  all  of  which  expressions  appear 
in  papers  recently  submitted  to  the  Institution  of 
Water  Engineers,  to  which  fact  the  author  drew 
attention.  Also  one  hears  of  the  removal  of  a 
certain  percentage  of  discoloration  from  raw  water 


without  having  any  comparative  figure'  for  the 
colour  of  the  raw  water.  Other  vague  require¬ 
ments  as  to  the  colour  of  water  were  described, 
upon  the  fulfilment  of  which  great  differences  of 
opinion  might  arise  for  want  of  a  standard  of 
measurement  which  could  actually  be*  put  into 
■  figures.  The  author's  attempt  to  provide  such  a 
standard  is  therefore  very  important  and  very 
praiseworthy. 

Working  with  a  tintometer,  Mr.  Pickering  has 
produced-  colour  tables  which  could  certainly  be 
compared  with  other  results  prepared  upon  the 
same  basis.  By  means  of  a  tintometer  the'  colour 
of  a  sample  of  water  may  be  matched  exactly  by 
the  use  of  a  large  number  of  coloured  glasses, 
which  are  placed  one  in  front  of  the  other- — 
through  the  whole  of  which  the  observer  looks. 
The  tintometer  possesses  a  graded  series  of  glasses, 
numbered  according  to  their  depth  of  -  colour,  by 
means  of  which  any  possible  shade  may  be 
matched.  Only  three  classes  of  colour  shades  are' 
necessary — viz.,  red,  yellow  and  blue- — as  com¬ 
binations  of  these  give  the  three  other  colours  of 
the  spectrum — viz.,  orange,  green  and  violet.  It 
is  reasonably  clear  that  if,  in  order  to  match  the 
colour  of  a-  certain  water,  red,  yellow  and  blue  had 
to  be  mixed  in  certain  proportions — that  is  to  say, 
if  glass  plates  each  possessing  a  certain  known 
.  and  numbered  degree  of  colour  intensity  had  to  be 
used,  such  numbers  could  be  recorded,  and,  the 
colour  of  that  sample  of  water  being  fixed,  it  could 
always  be-  compared  with  any  other  sample  in  the 
future.  But  Mr.  Pickering  finds  it  advantageous 
to  go  a-  stage-  further.  Seeing  that  a-  combination 
'  of  those  glasses,  red,  yellow  and  blue  respectively, 

’  of  an  equal  standard  shade,  will  produce  neutral 
tirft ,  and  that  a  similar  combination  of  yellow 
and  blue  will  produce  green,  the  author  finds  it 
possible  by  means  of  subtraction  to-  simplify  the 
figures.  Finally  he  produces  tables  showing  the 
colour  records  of  the  water  samples  in  figures  upon 
various  plates  and  diagrams  upon  which  the 
same  results  are  shown  in  the  actual  colours, 
neutral  tint,  green,  yellow,  &c.,  in  the  form  of 
curves,  so  that  one- can  see  at  a  glance  the  colour 
of  a  water  upon  any  particular  day — not,  of  course, 


B 


2 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  ]917. 


its  actual  colour,  but  the  proportions  of  neutral 
tint,  green  and  yellow,  &c.,  present,  according  to 
the  tintometer  standard.  It  is  probable  that 
greater  use  will  be1  made  of  the  colour  estimation 
of  water  in  the  future,  and  Mr.  Pickering  has  done 
very  good.work  drawing  fresh  attention  to-  its  value 
and  to  the  desirability  of  adopting  a  general 
standard  for  colour  measurement-  of  water.  An 
abstract  of  his  paper  appeal's  in  the-  present  issue-. 


A  Ministry  of 
Health. 


In  a  recent  issue-  we  pointed 
out  the-  great  interest  which  is 
being  taken  by  the  official 
organisation  of  the-  medical  profession  in  the*  pro¬ 
posed  establishment  of  a  Ministry  of  Healt-h,  and 
w-e  urged  that  municipal  officers-  who  may  be 
affected  by  the  scheme  should  watch  its  progress 
very  carefully  with  a  view  to  safeguarding  their 
own  legitimate  interests.  From  a  note  which 
appears  in  the  current-  issue  of  the  Sanitary 
Journal ,  it  is  evident  that  the  Sanitary  Inspectors  ’ 
Association  do  not  intend  to  let  the  grass-  grow 
under  their  feet-.  Their  council  has  already 
appointed  a-  small  special  committee  to  watch 
developments,  and  to-  look  after  'thex  interests'  of 
their  constituents.  Meanwhile,  we  have  not  yet 
heard  what  action,  if  any,  is  being  taken  by  the 
official  representatives  of  organised  municipal 
engineers.  The  latest  indications  are  that-,  owing 
to  the  transfer  of  Lord  Rhondda  from  the  office-  of 
President  of  the  Local  Government-  Board  to  that 
of'  Food  Controller,  and  to  other  causes,  the  Bill 
for  the  establishment  of  a  Ministry  of  Health  will 
probably  not-  be  proceeded  with  during  the-  present- 
session  o-f  Parliament.  In  our  view  this  postpone¬ 
ment  is  not-  altogether  a  bad  thing,  as  it  will  leave 
a  little  more  time  for  the.  formation  of  a  sound 
opinion  among  the  bodies  of  men  most  nearly 
affected.  As  showing  the  need  for  watchfulness 
on  the  part  of  municipal  engineers,  w-e  may  per¬ 
haps  quote  from  our  contemporary,  which  sets' 
out  a  resolution  of  the  North  Middlesex  Division 
of  the  Metropolitan  Counties  Branch  of  the 
British  Medical  Association,  who,  while  generally 
approving  of  the  recommendations  of  the  council 
of  that  body,  suggest  that  if  a  board  of  health  is 
not  formed,  the  Minister  of  Health  should  have  a 
“statutory  consultation  council,  consisting  of 
representatives  of  such  other  Government-  depart¬ 
ments  as  are  dealing  with  matters  associated  with 
the:  work  of  the  new  Ministry  (for  example,  the  Local 
Government-  Board,  Board  of  Education,  Home 
Office,  &c.),  of  the  Universities,  General  Medical 
Council,  the  British  Medical  Association,  the 
Society  of  Medical  Officers  o-f  Health,  the  Society 
of  Civil  Engineers,  the  Institute  of  Chemistry, 
and  similar  bodies  in  numbers  propor  tion  ate-  to  the 
importance  of  their  work  in  connection  with  public 
health ;  and  that  this  consultative  body  should 
have  the  right,  whenever  it  thought  desirable,  to 
present  its  views,  not  only  to  the  Minister  of 
Health,  but  also  to  Parliament.”  That-  such  a. 
general  consultative  council  so  composed  would  be 
highly  influential  and  respectable  goes  without- 
saying,  although  the  definite  connection  with 
public  health  of  some  of  the  specified  constituent 
bhdies  may  appear  somewhat  problematical.  The- 
omissions  from  the  list  are  even  more  remarkable 
unless  under  the  vague  term  of  “  similar  bodies  ” 
it  be  held  possible  to-  include  such  insignificant 
organisations  as  the  Association  of  Municipal  Cor¬ 
porations,  Urban  and  Rural  District  Associations, 
the-  Society  of  Public  Analysts,  the-  Institution  o-f 
Municipal  and  County  Engineers,  the-  Sanitary 
Inspectors-’  Association,  and  the-  Association  o-f 
Women  Sanitarv  Inspectors  and  Health  Visitors. 
We  certainly  agree  that  if  any  such  consultative 
council  were-  formed,  municipal  engineers,  much 
of  whose  work  has  a-  direct-  influence  on  the  public 
health;  should  be  directly  represented. 


The  Silvertown 
Reconstruction 
Scheme. 


The  case  of  the  rebuilding  of 
the  area-  of  Silvertown  damaged 
in  the-  explosion  of  last-  January 
ha-s  been  attracting  attention, 
and  not-  without  cause,  for  it-  is  an  example  of  the 
necessity  for  the-  reform  of  the  London  building 
laws,  or  alternatively  for  authoritative-  intervention 
by  the  public  authorities  on  behalf  of  an  elastic,  or 
even  a  liberal,  interpretation  of  the  building  regula¬ 
tions.  The  district,  being  low-lying,  is  liable  to 
floodings,  and  any  preventive-  measures  for  dealing 
with  these-  visitations  have  probably  been  sus¬ 
pended  owing  to-  t-he  war.  We-  know,  at  all  events, 
that  similar  works  in  the  North,  West  and  South- 
West-  districts,  which  were  visited  by  floods  during 
last-  week-end,  owing  to  an  abnormal  rainfall,  are 
at  a  standstill  from  this  cause.  At  Silvert-own  a 
partial  r  emedy  might-  be  obtained  by  a  reconstruc¬ 
tion  o-f  the  foundations  of  the  damaged  pro-perty, 
but  this  is  a  matter  in  which  the  local  authority 
are  powerless,  except  in  respect  of  new  buildings, 
in  which  case  t-hey  could  insist-  upon  concrete-  being 
placed  under  the  floors.  This  would,  of  course, 
involve  a  further  requirement  t-o  order  the  con¬ 
struction  of  damp-proof  courses  in  the  walls  of  the" 
houses.  Noj  such  damp-proof  courses  existed,  and 
to  attempt-  to-  put  them  in  in  this  particular  class  of 
property  would  ha-v-e  practically  meant-  the  demo¬ 
lition  and  rebuilding  of  the  houses-.  No  private 
owners  who  hate  t-hemselves  undertaken  the  re¬ 
construction  of  their  pwn  property  have  inserted 
concrete-  under  floors.  In  a  large  number  of  cases 
rebuilding  is  being  undertaken  by  t-he  Board  of 
Works,  and  in  these  instances  also  the  work 
is-  proceeding  according  to  the  old  plans. 
High  officialism  is  not  prone  to  make  new 
departures,  but  in  these  exceptional  times  when 
the  old  order  of  things  in  other  directions  is  merci¬ 
lessly  thrown  overboard  it  might  have  been  hoped 
that-  some  serious  attempt-  would  have  been  made 
t-o-  effect-  improvements  upon  the-  foundations  of  the 
Silvertown  properties.  It-  is  a-  matter  of  sanitation 
which  ought-  t-o  have  appealed  with  force  to  the 
Board  of  Works.  In-  the  circumstances  we  have- 
to  rest-  content-  with  the  thought-  that  in  many 
respects  the  properties  in  the  area  will  be  consider¬ 
ably  improved  by 'the-  rebuilding  operations,  so 
much  so,  indeed,  that-  financially  the  owners  will 
be  gainers  in  the  end.  Wherever  owners  of  pro¬ 
perty  desired  to-  effect-  improvements  or  alterations 
the  work  has  been  carried  out  by  the-  department 
o-n  the  agreement  of ;  the  owners  to  contribute 
towards  the  cost.  But,  after  all,  a.  fundamental 
scheme  of  improvement  is  lacking,  and  this  is 
certainly  a  matter  for  regret. 


A  Clorified 
Foreman.” 


At-  a  recent  meeting  of  the 
Alnwick  Urban  District  Council 
that  authority  had  under  con¬ 
sideration  a-  proposal  for  a  temporary  amalgama¬ 
tion  of  the  offices-  of  the  surveyor  and  inspector  of 
nuisances  for  the  period  of  the-  war.  ,  Some  of  the 
phrases  used  by  members  in  the  course  of  a  rather 
lengthy  discussion  throw  a  lurid  light  upon  the 
attitude  of  a  certain  type  of  council  member 
towards  the  officials.  For  instance,  one  member, 
in  speaking  of  the  temporary  character  of  t-he  pro¬ 
posed  duplication  of  offices,  stated  boldly  that,  in 
his  opinion,  -every  appointment  made  by  the 
council  was  temporary,  inasmuch  as  it  could  be 
cancelled  at  the  will  of  the  council.  Apart  from 
the-  inaccuracy  of  this  view,  so  far  as  it  was. 
intended  to  apply  to  the-  appointment  of  inspector 
of  nuisances,  the  public  expression  o-f  such  a  senti¬ 
ment  in  open  council  surely  affords  the  strongest 
possible  argument-  for  some  measure-  of  security  of 
tenure  as  a  protection  t-o  officials  against  those  who 
hold  their  livelihood  at  such  a  chea-p  rate.  Again, 
a,  proposal  to-  relieve  the  surveyor  of  a-  certain 
amount  of  the-  clerical  work  which  had  hitherto 


July  6,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


o 

O 


boon  performed  by  him  was,  in  the  opinion  of  one 
member,  at  least  equivalent,  to  malting  him  a  kind 
of  “glorified  foreman.”  The  implication,  of 
course,  was  that  the  surveyor’s  clerical  duties  were 
(he  most  important  part  of  his  work,  and  that  a 
foreman's  training  was  sufficient  for  the  outdoor 
Supervision.  It  is  satisfactory  to  record  that  the 
proposed  temporary  amalgamation  was  agreed  to 
by  a  majority,  and  that  more  than-  one  member 
spoke  in  appreciation  of  the  surveyor’s  past 
services.  It  is  a  pity  that  the  discussion  was 
marred  in  the-  manner  indicated. 


*  *  * 


The  Hastings 
Meeting. 


dealing 


with  road 
relied 


Gapers 

questions  can  always  be 
upon  to  secure  a  full  measure 
of  attention  at  a  gathering  of  municipal  and  county 
engineers,  and  it  is  not  surprising,  therefore,  that 
at  last  week’s  meeting  at  Hastings  the  whole  of 
the  first  afternoon  was  occupied  by  the  discussion 
of  Mr.  Wakelam’s  excellent  paper  on  the  subject 
of  extraordinary  traffic  and  excessive  weights  on 
highways,  which  was  reproduced  in  our  last  issue. 
The  consequence  was  that  on  the  following 
morning  there  remained  three  instead  of  two 
papers  to  be  considered.  As  it  happened,  how¬ 
ever,  the  time  proved  ample  for  a  thorough  dis¬ 
cussion  of  all  three  contributions ;  the  exhaustive 
paper  of  Mr.  Willis  on  the  subject  of  examinations 
resulted  in  a  debate  of  exceptional  interest,  and 
information  of  a  most  useful  character  was  im¬ 
parted  by  many  of  the  speakers  in  the  subsequent 
discussion  of  the  questions  of  abattoir  design  and 
.  dry  rot  in  timber.  Of  the  meeting  as  a  whole  it 
has  only  to.  be  said  that  the  arrangements  worked 
with  the  utmost  smoothness  throughout,  and  Mr. 
Palmer,  the  president,  was  certainly  voicing  the 
feelings  of  all  present  when,  before  the  separation 
of  the  members  on  Friday  night,  he  observed  that 
success  which  had  attended  the 
was  very  largely  due  to  the  untiring 
efforts  and  admirable  organising  powers  of  the 
acting  secretary,  Mrs.  Dudley  Robinson.  When 
it  is  remembered  that  Mrs.  Robinson — in  the 
absence  of  her  husband  at  the  Front. — .was  con¬ 
fronted  with  the  problem  of  providing  for  an 
assembly  which  numbered  nearly  three  hundred, 
the  magnitude  of  her  task  will  be  appreciated,  and 
it  will  be  agreed  that  she  is  fully  entitled  to  the 
words  of  praise  bestowed  on  her  by  the  president. 


the  gratifying 
gathering 


'p 

T-  It  is  satisfactory  to  note  that 

.  .  _  the  claims  of  the  Institution 

Orphan  Fund.  ~  ^  ,  ,.  ,  , 

Orphan  I  und  continue  to  be 

brought  to  the  notice  of  members.  Last,  year’s 
record  in  this  connection  will  be  found  set  out  in 
the  list  of  subscriptions  and  donations  which 
appears  in  another  column  of  this  issue ;  and  an 
eminently  successful  start  has  been  made  with  the 
present  year’s  campaign  by  the  collection  on 
Friday  last  of  no  less  a  sum  than  fifty  pounds. 
This  is  a  decidedly  welcome  addition  to  the  fund, 
and  one  that  should  gladden  the  heart  of  the  lion, 
secretary  and  treasurer,  Mr.  Robson.  It  is 
probably  safe  to  say  that  never  since  the  inaugu¬ 
ration  of  the  fund  has  the  need  for  its  beneficent 
activities  been  more  urgent  than  at  the  present 
time,  when  so  many  of  the  members  of  the  insti¬ 
tution  are  risking  life  and  health  in  the  service  of 
their  country.  For  this  reason  it  is  cordially  to1 
be  hoped  that  the  effort  that  is  being  made  to 
broaden  the  basis  of  the  fund  by  obtaining  a 
representative  body  of  members  in  each  district 
for  the  organisation  of  an  extended  system  of  col¬ 
lection  may  meet  with  every  success.  There  is 
certainly  room  for  such  an  extension,  as  is  shown 
by  the  fact  that  only  231  of  the  1,767  members  of 
the  institution  are  direct  subscribers  to  the  fund. 


The  report  of  the  committee  shows  that  during  the 
past  year  the  number  of  children  wholly  or  partly 
dependent  upon  the  grantees  of  the  fund  was 
fifteen ;  while  the  child  for  whom  a  presentation 
to  the  British  Orphan  Asylum  was  purchased  in 
May,  1915,  now  leaves  the  school  with  a  bright 
prospect  in  life,  largely  due  to  the  excellent  train¬ 
ing  he  has  received.  There  must  surely  be  many 
members  of  the  institution  who  have  not  hitherto 
subscribed  to  whom  this  good  work  will  not  appeal 
in  vain,  and  in  order  to  maintain  its  representa¬ 
tive  character  it  is  preferable  that  the  income 
should  be  derived  from  a  wide  constituency  of 
small  subscribers  rather  than  from  a  few  larger 
contributions  from  the.  more  well-to-do. 

v  ^  ^ 

The  Housing  U  is.  °°““on  knowledge  that 
Shortage  there  is  at  the  present  time  an 
unprecedented  shortage  of  hous¬ 
ing  accommodation  throughout  the  country,  but 
in  certain  places  the  situation  is  so  acute  that  it 
is  difficult  to  see  how  an  attempted  solution  can  be 
delayed  until  after  the  war.  In’Birmingham,  for 
example,  in  order  to  cope  with  the  normal  increase 
of  population,  about  2,000  new  houses  are  required 
every  year.  Even  before  the  outbreak  of  war, 
building  by  private  enterprise  had  practically 
ceased,  owing  to  the  difficulty  of  securing  a  reason¬ 
able  return  on  the  capital  employed  upon  the  rents 
that  could  be.  obtained.  From  that  time  to  this 
the  position  has  become  steadily  worse,  and  at  the 
present  moment,  it  is  estimated  that  no  fewer  than 
20,000  houses  are  required  to  meet  the  normal 
demand  and  the  special  needs  of  munition  workers. 
A  certain  proportion  of  the  latter  are  solving  the 
question  of  accommodation  for  themselves  by  pur¬ 
chasing  houses  over  the  heads  of  existing  tenants 
and  then  giving  them  notice  to.  quit.  This,  of 
course,  occasions  great-  hardship.  The  whole 
situation  is  under  the.  consideration  of  the  Town 
Planning  Committee,  who  are  formulating  certain 
proposals  for  submission  to  the  city  council.  One 
member  of  the  council  has  suggested  that  when 
the  scarcity  of  houses  lias-  reached  a  certain  point 
the  Ministry  of  Munitions,  will  be  compelled  to 
undertake  the  erection  of  cottages  for  munition 
workers.  Another  suggestion  is  the  conversion  of 
some  of  the  larger  houses  into  tenements,  but  to 
this  it  has  been  objected  that  Birmingham  people 
would  not  be.  likely  to  take  to  the  notion  of  living 
in  flats.  The  situation  is  certainly  acute,  and  it 
will  be  interesting  to  see  what  proposals  the  Town 
Planning  Committee  make  for  meeting  it. 


Tramways  and  Light  Railways  Association.  —  The 

Tramways  and  Light  Railways  Association  held  their 
ninth  annual  congress  on  Friday  last  at  the  Institution 
of  Civil  Engineers,  Great  George-street,  S.W.,  under 
the  chairmanship  of  the  president,  Viscount  Chilston. 
From  the  report  it  appeared  that  arrangements  are 
being  made  with  a  view  to  bringing  about  an  agree¬ 
ment  upon  conditions  of  labour  and  wages,  conformable 
to  local  circumstances,  and  the  negotiations  with 
respect  to  this  scheme  were  stated  to  have  reached  a 
hopeful  stage.  A  paper  of  high  technical  value, 
entitled  “  The  Manufacture,  Life  and  Maintenance  of 
Tramway  Car  Tyres,”  was  read  by  Mr.  Arthur  Norton, 
assoc. m. inst. c.e.,  ASSOC.M.i.MECH.E.  “  Return  Fares  ” 
were  discussed  in  a  paper  by  Mr.  A.  V.  Mason, 
m.i.e.e.,  general  manager  and  engineer  of  the  South 
Metropolitan  Electric  Tramways  and  Lighting  Com¬ 
pany,  and  “Standardisation  of  Conditions  of  Labour  and 
Rates  of  Pay  ”  was  dealt  with  by  Mr.  E.  H.  Edwardes, 
a. m.i.e.e.,  general  manager  of  the  Lancashire  United 
Tramways  Company.  “  Women  Drivers  ”  was  the 
subject  of  a  paper  by  Mr.  A.  Robertson,  general 
manager  of  the  Greenock  and  Port  Glasgow  Tramways 
Company,  who  reported  favourably  upon  the  spirit  and 
efficiency  of  women  as  drivers  of  cars.  The  annual 
dinner  of  the  association  took  place  in  the  evening  at 
the  Trocadero  Restaurant. 


0 


4 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


Electric  Vehicles  in  Municipal  Service. 

YEAR’S  WORK  OF  A  1-TON  “  EDISON  ”  LORRY. 

By  S.  L.  PEARCE,  m.inst.C.e.,  m.i.e.e.,  m.i.mech.e.,  f.amer.i.e.e.,  Chief  Engineer  and  Manager, 

Manchester  Corporation  Electricity  Department. 


[The  subjoined  report  deals  with  the  results  obtained  by  the  Manchester  Corporation  Electricity 
Department  with  a  1-ton  "  Edison  ’’  lorry  from  April  1st,  1916,  to  March  31st  last.  The  vehicle,  some  informa¬ 
tion  with  regard  to  which  was  given  in  our  issue  of  October  20th  last,  is  equipped  with  a  3-horse-power 
motor  {capable  of  200  per  cent  overload  for  short  periods)  and  a  standard  “Edison”  battery.] 


The  following  information — which  has  been  com¬ 
piled  by  Mr.  H.  A.  Ratcliff — is  mainly  of  a  statistical 
nature,  but  it  should  help  to  demonstrate  the  com¬ 
mercial  possibilities  of  electric  vehicles,  particularly 
for  municipal  service.  The  actual  results  un¬ 
doubtedly  justify  the  original  estimates  of  the  work¬ 
ing  costs. 


PRINCIPAL  TOTALS. 


Number  of  miles  run 

Number  of  hours  in  com¬ 
mission  ... 

Number  of  clays  in  com¬ 
mission  ... 

Days  out  of  commission 
other  than  Sundays  and 
public  holidays 


Weekdays. 

Sundays. 

Total. 

10,376 

110 

10,486 

2,988 

48  5 

3,0364 

305 

7 

312 

_ 

Nil. 

Total  costs  for  the  twelve  months,  exclusive  of 
tyres  and  current:  — 


£ 

S. 

d. 

Wages 

•  •• 

115 

14 

11 

Material  ... 

Capital  charges  on  the  basis 

of 

the 

24 

16 

3 

figures  given  in  my  report 
June,  1916 

of 

21st 

124 

9 

0 

£265 

0 

2 

The  first  charge  includes,  in  addition  to  the  drivers’ 
wages,  the  cost  of  the  labour  spent  on  maintenance 
and  repairs,  as  the  two  items  have  not  been  kept 
separately;  but,  as  will  be  seen  from  the  analysis 
below,  it  is  possible  to  arrive  at  a  fairly  close  estimate 
of  the  correct  sub-division  of  this  charge. 

The  cost  of  material  appears  to  be  rather  high,  but 
it  includes  an  item  of  £6  10s.  for  a  duplicate  set  of 
chains,  which  should  strictly  be  a  capital  charge; 
chain  renewals  would,  of  course,  be  charged  to  run¬ 


ning  costs. 

Other  outstanding  items  are  :  — 

£  s.  d. 

Lubricants  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  6  7  11 

Paraffin  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...13  0 

Rags  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1  5  11 

“  Perodo  ”  brake  lining .  ...  ...  2  13  2 

Distilled  water  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  1  7  11 


Average  miles  per  hour  maintained  during  the  year, 
based  on  the  total  hours  in  commission,  and  including 
all  loading  and  unloading  time,  in  addition  to  the 
actual  hours  on  the  road:— 

10,486  „..c  , 

=  — - -  =  3  45  miles  per  hour. 

3,036-5 


ANALYSIS  OF  COSTS. 

Total  costs  as  above  =  £265  0  2  =  63,602  pence. 

Therefore  cost  per  mile  run  =  63,602  _  g.Qyj 

10,486 

To  this  figure  has  to  be  added  the  cost  of  tyres  and 
current.  The  tyres  have  now  completed  the  guaran¬ 
teed  “  life  ”  of  12.000  miles,  and  they  cost  £25  the  set. 

The  cost  per  mile  therefore  =  x  240  _  Q.gg 

12,000 

The  current  consumption  during  the  winter  months 
was  rather  higher  than  the  figure  given  in  the  pre¬ 
vious  reports  on  the  work  of  the  lorry;  but  the  aver¬ 
age  for  the  twelve  months,  including  motor-generator 
losses,  was  only  1-08  units  per  mile,  which  at  0'5d.  per 
unit  =  0'54d.  per  mile. 

The  total  costs  per  mile  run  are  therefore:  — 

d. 

Wages  and  capital  charges,  &c.  ...  ...  ...  6'07 

Current  .  .  ...  ...  0'54 

Tyres . . . O' 50 


And  the  total  costs  for  the  year  are:  — 

Capital  charges,  insurance,  &c. 

Wages  ... 

Material 

Current — 10,486  miles  at  0’54d. 

Tyres — 10,486  miles  at  0'50d. 


£  s.  d. 
124  9  0 
115  14  11 
24  16  3 
23  11  10 
21  16  11 


£310  8  11 


The  total  cost  of  7' lid.  per  mile  run  may  now  be 
analysed  in  rather  more  detail. 

For  the  period  in  question  the  average  rate  of  pay 
to  the  drivers  may- be  taken  as  approximately  74d. 
per  hour.  (It  is  now  considerably  higher.) 

Then  since  the.  average  speed  over  the  whole  year 
was  3-45  miles  per  hour. 


7.5 

The  cost  of  driving  =  — —  =  2T7d.  per  mile, 

3'45 

The  capital  charges  =  £124  9  0  =  29-868d., 

And  therefore  the  proportion  per  mile  =  =  2-85d. 

10,486 

The  sum  of  these  two  items,  together  with  the  cost 
of  tyres  and  current  =  606d.;  therefore  the  difference 
between  this  amount  and  7'lld.  obviously  represents 
the  cost  of  maintenance. 

The  complete  analysis  then  becomes:  — 

Cost  per 

Item.  mile. 

d. 

Capital  charges,  insurance,  and  drivers’  licences...  2'85 
Drivers’  wages  ...  ...  ...  .  ...  2T7 

Maintenance  of  vehicle  and  f  material  0-57 
battery,  including  lubricants  ^  labour  0'48  ) 

Current  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  0'54 

Tyres  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  0'50 


7T1 

These  figures  are  based  on  interest  at  4^  per  cent 
and  0'5d.  per  unit  for  current;  but  in  order  to  provide 
a  better  comparison  with  results  obtained  elsewhere 
and  with  present-day  conditions,  a  set  of  alternative 
costs  have  been  prepared,  based  on  5  per  cent  interest 
and  Id.  per  unit:  — 


d. 


Capital  charges,  &c.  ... 

.  2-93 

Drivers’ wages 

.  2-17 

.  ,  (  material  0’57d.  ) 

Maintenance  UabQur  Q.48d  j 

.  1-05 

Current 

.  1-08 

Tyres  ... 

. 050 

This  figure  of  7'73d.  per  mile 

773 

compares  very  favour- 

ably  with  the  cost  of  petrol  vehicles. 

It  is,  moreover,  based  on1  annual  capital  charges 
amounting  to  £127  16s.  7d.,  or  approximately  18  9  per 
cent  of  the  original  cost  of  the  vehicle. 

This  figure  of  £127  16s.  7d.  includes  £10  for  insur¬ 
ance  and  10s.  for  drivers’  licences.  The  total  amount 
of  the  interest  and  repayment  charges  is  therefore 
£117  6s.  7d.,  and  is  equal  to  17'4  per  cent  of  the  cost 
of  the  vehicle. 

At  44  per  cent  interest  the  corresponding  amounts 
are :  — 

£  s.  d. 

Total  charges  ...  ...  ...  ...  ...  113  19  0 

Percentage  of  purchase  price  ...  ...  16-86 

The  estimated  cost  of  maintenance  was  Id.  per  mile, 
and  there  is  no  doubt  that  this  figure  would  not  have 
been  exceeded  had  it  not  been  for  the  trouble  ex¬ 
perienced  with  the  defective  chains  and  sprockets. 

The  high  cost  of  lubricants  is  also  to  a  large  extent 
due  to  the  same  cause. 

All  cleaning,  overhauling,  and  repairing  has  been 
done,  as  a  rule,  on  Saturday  afternoons,  and  occa¬ 
sionally  at  night  and  on  Sundays.  The  consequent 


7-ll 


July  6,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


5 


overtime  has  naturally  increased  the  maintenance 
costs ;  but  had  the  vehicle  been  out  of  commission 
during  normal  working  hours  the  resulting  loss  and 
disorganisation  would  have  been  a  more  serious 
matter. 


ADDITIONAL  STATISTICAL  PARTICULARS. 


As  the  public  holidays  were  the  only  days  (other 
than  Sundays)  on  which  the  vehicle  was  not  actively 
employed,  the  full  year  has  been  taken  as  the  equiva¬ 
lent  of  fifty-one  weeks.  The  normal  working  week 
has  been  taken  as  5"5  days.  This  is  a  very  reason¬ 
able  allowance,  as  five  days  is  frequently  regarded  as 
a  full  week  for  a  motor  vehicle:  — 


Neglecting  Sunday  work,  the 
average  miles  run  per  woek 


And  the  average  miles  per  day 

The  average  hour  per  week  per 
week  the  vehicle  was  in  commis¬ 
sion,  again  neglecting  Sunday  ... 


10,376 

203-4 

5l 

203-4  _ 

37 

55 

2,988 

586 

51 

or  5'6  hours  more  than  the  normal  working  week  of 
fifty-three  hours. 

The  average  of  3'45  miles  per  hour  given  above  in¬ 
cludes  all  standing  time  whilst  in  commission.  The 
actual  speed  on  the  road  has  averaged  almost  exactly 
eight  miles  per  hour,  being  slightly  more  during  the 
summer  and  slightly  less  during  the  winter  months. 

In  this  connection  it  should  be  noticed  that  the 
greater  portion  of  the  mileage  is  run  within  the  city 
area,  and  consequently  a  much  higher  speed  would 
not  be  permissible,  even  if  possible. 

Despite  the  exceptionally  severe  winter,  the  vehicle 
has  never  been  kept  off  the  road  on  account  of  weather 
conditions,  and  it  has  actually  gone  out  after  heavy 
snowfalls  when  horses  were  unable  to  make  headway. 
This  and  the  total  number  of  days  in  commission  are 
a  sufficient  indication  of  the  reliability  factor. 

The  average  load  on  “  outward  ”  journeys  was  133 
cwt.,  and  on  “  inward  ”  journeys  61  cwt.,  giving  an 
average  of  9'7  cwt.  for  “  outward  ”  and  “  inward  ” 
journeys.  This  figure,  however,  takes  no  account  of 
loads  carried  between  intermediate  points:  — 


The  total  average  ton  miles 
per  week  ... 

And  the  average  cost  per 
ton  mile  ... 


— 7  x  203-4 
20 

711  x  20 
97 


98-65 

14'66d. 


COMPARISON  OF  ELECTRIC  AND  HORSE  COSTS. 

Up  to  January  last  the  charge  for  a  light  one-horse 
lorry  and  driver  was  Is.  6d.  per  hour,  but  since  then 
it  has  been  increased  to  Is.  8d.  per  hour.  The  lower 
value  has,  however,  been  taken  for  the  purpose  of  the 
following  comparison. 

Previous  estimates  assumed  an  average  speed  of  two 
miles  per  hour  for  the  horse  lorries,  and  it  is  therefore 
interesting  to  observe  that  this  figure  has  since  been 
confirmed  in  a  recent  comprehensive  paper  on  electric 
vehicles  {“  Self-propelled  Electric  Vehicles  and  their 
Application,”  by  Mr.  L.  Broekman). 

On  a  mileage  basis  alone,  therefore,  the  electric  has 

been  the  equivalent  of  =  173  horse  lorries;  but 

a 

in  addition  there  is  the  further  saving  resulting  from 
the  organisation  possible  with  a  centrally-controlled 
electric  vehicle.  This  is  represented  by  tne  “  Organi¬ 
sation  Factor,”  the  average  value  of  vhich  for  the 
year  has  been  F58— i.e.,  T58  departments  have  been 
represented  on  every  journey  the  vehicle  has  under¬ 
taken. 

The  electric  should  therefore  be  the  equivalent  of 
173  -f  1'58  =  2"73  horse  lorries;  but  as  the  several  de¬ 
partments  concerned  may  not  have  been  represented 
on  the  whole  of  the  miles  run  per  journey,  and  admit¬ 
ting  the  possibility  of  a  slight  amount  of  organisation 
with  the  horse  vehicles ;  this  ratio  has,  in  order  to 
be  on  the  safe  side,  been  reduced  to  2"5. 

This  is  the  comparative  figure  given  in  my  report 
of  June  21,  1916,  and  in  the  opinion  of  those  competent 
to  judge,  it  is  a  very  reasonable  estimate  of  the  rela¬ 
tive  values  of  the  electric  and  horse  vehicles. 

The  cost  of  the  electric  per  hour  =  3’45  -f  711 
=  24’5d.,  and  on  the  above  basis  the  relative  costs 
per  week  are  therefore:  — 

£  s.  d. 

Horse,  58  6  x  25  x  18d . =  10  19  10 

Electric,  58’6  x  24"5d.  ...  ...  ...  *=  5  19  7 


Saving  due  to  electric  ...  ...  £5  0  3 


For  a  working  year  of  fifty-one  weeks  the  saving 
due  to  the  electric  therefore  =  51  +  5  =  £255. 

The  first  cost  of  the  electric  vehicle  was  £675  15s. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  this  saving  has  actually  been 
effected,  and  further  confirmation  of  it  may  be  ob¬ 
tained  from  the  following  figures. 

The  cost  of  the  equivalent  horse  lorries  has  been 
shown  to  be  equal  to  £11  per  week,  which  for  a  work¬ 
ing  year  of  fifty-one  weeks  gives  a  total  of  £561,  and 
this  amount  should  equal  the  reduction  on  the  carting 
account  as  compared  with  the  previous  year — other 
conditions,  of  course,  being  equal. 

The  actual  figures  (exclusive  of  ash  carting  from  city 
stations)  for  the  years  ended  March  31,  1916  and  1917 
respectively,  were:  — 

Total  amount  of 
carting  contractors’ 

Year  ended  accounts. 

£  s.  d. 

31st  March,  1916  .  1,715  17  10 

31st  Maroh,  1917  .  1,185  1  11 


Giving  a  reduction  of  ...  £530  15  11 

or,  roughly,  £531,  which  is  in  very  close  agreement 
with  ^the  above  estimate. 

It  may  possibly  be  argued  that  there  was  not  as 
much  carting  work  during  the  second  year  as  during 
the  first,  but  such  does  not  appear  to  have  been  the 
case  to  any  great  extent,  and  any  decrease  in  the 
ordinary  carting  has  been  partly  counterbalanced 
by  the  increased  amount  of  ca’ting  to  and  from  the 
railway  stations  necessitated  by  the  inability  of  the 
railway  companies  to  handle  material,  and  possibly 
more  than  -counterbalanced  by  the  fact  that  the  con¬ 
tract  price  for  the  year  ended  March,  1917,  was  2d. 
per  hour  mere  than  during  the  year  ended  March, 
1916,  and  consequently  the  actual  reduction  of  £531 
is  less  than  it  otherwise  would  have  been. 

It  may  also  be  observed,  as  a  matter  of  interest, 
that  when  in  commission  the  “  standing  ”  cost  of  the 
electric  has  been  legs  than  that  of  the  horse  lorries. 
The  actual  costs  being:  — 

Horse  lorry  and  driver  ...  ...  =  18d.  per  hour. 

Electric  lorry  and  driver 

(2  85  x  2T7)  x  3  45  . .=  17  32d.  per  hour. 

In  conclusion,  it  is  obvious  from  the  total  hours 
worked  and  miles  run  that  the  vehicle  has  been 
actively  employed,  with  the  result  that  our  carting 
methods  have  been  revolutionised. 

Much  more,  however,  still  remains  to  be  done,  and 
no  doubt  the  five-ton  wagon  now  on  order  will  enable 
further  economies  to  be  effected,  but  there  are  oppor¬ 
tunities  in  other  directions.  These,  however,  are 
matters  which  may  well  form  the  subjects  of  future 
reports. 


Coal  Gas  as  Motor-Car  Propeller. — The  Sunderland 
Gas  Company  has  been  using  coal  gas  for  the  propul¬ 
sion  of  one  of  its  motor  cars-  for  the  past  three-  months, 
and  the  experiment  has  been  a  complete  success.  The 
saving  of  petrol  is  at  the  rate  of  50  gallons-  per  month, 
and,  reckoning  the  price  of  the  gas  at  2s.  per  1,000  ft., 
the  cost  of  running  the  car  on  gas  is  equivalent  to 
petrol  at  only  6d.  per  gallon,  an  economy  being  effected 
which  will,  in  three  months,  pay  for  the  cost  of  adapt¬ 
ing  a  car  for  the  use  of  gas. 

Welsh  Water  Supplies.— Reporting  to  the  Abertil- 
lery  and  District  Water  Board  last  week,  the  engineer, 
Mr.  Jupp,  said,  with  respect  to  the  application  from 
the  Mynyddislwyn  Council  to  lay  a  4-in.  main  at 
Ynysddu,  that  the  cost  of  the  proposed  scheme  would 
be  £300.  With  regard  to  the  proposal  from  the  Abei-- 
carn  Council  to  augment  their  supply  by  tapping  a 
spring  at  the  head  of  the  Cwmcarn  Valley,  the  scheme 
was  quite  a  simple  one  from  an  engineering  point  of 
view.  It  would  involve  the  collecting  of  the  spring 
water  into  a  service  reservoir  having  a  capacity  of 
100,000  gallons.  The  cost  would  bp  £8,030. 

Lanarkshire  Housing.— <n  reply  to  a  question  in  the 
House  of  Commons,  the  Secretai-y  for  Scotland,  Mr. 
Munro,  stated  that  the  Mid-Lanarkshire  public  health 
authorities  were  in  communication  with  the  Local 
Government  Boai’d  for  Scotland  with  regard  to  sugges¬ 
tions  for  the  early  provision  of  additional  housing  in 
areas  where  it  was  most  required.  He  was  informed 
that  the  details  of  a  proposed  scheme  had  not  yet  been 
officially  laid  before  the  board.  When  the  scheme  was 
submitted  to  him  he  would  be  ready  to  give  full  con¬ 
sideration,  in  consultation  with  the  board,  and  also  to 
consider  any  request  to  receive  a  deputation  in  the 
matter. 


C* 


6 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


Colour  Records  Applied  to  Potable  Water.* 

By  J.  S.  PICKERING,  m.inst.c.e.,  Borough  and  Water  Engineer,  Cheltenham. 


The  object  of  the  author  is  mainly  to  give  the  re¬ 
sults  of  a  few  colour-tests  made  of  water  containing 
the  organism  crenothrix,  and  incidentally  to  suggest 
the  desirability  of  generally  adopting  some  suitable 
standard  for  determining  and  recording  the  colour  of 
potable  waters. 

The  water-supply  of  Cheltenham  is  derived  from 
three  sources,  of  which  the  supply  from  the  head 
waters  of  the  Chelt  is  stored  in  an  impounding  reser¬ 
voir  at  Dowdeswell,  having  a  capacity  of  100,000,000 
gallons,  and  is  rendered  difficult  of  treatment  owing  to 
its  periodical  pollution  by  crenothrix  and  kindred 
organisms.  Marked  discoloration  of  the  whole  of 
the  contents  of  this  reservoir  occurred  in  the  year 
1896,  owing  to  an  overgrowth  of  crenothrix.  This  re¬ 
markable  visitation,  which  lasted  about  six  weeks, 
has  not  recurred,  but  the  growth  has  taken  place  in 
the  distributing  mains  every  year,  causing  a  good  deal 
of  trouble.  Not  infrequently  in  the  summer  months 
the  filaments  detach  them.selves  from  the  surface  of 
the  mains  and  completely  block  the  service-pipes. 

The  discoloration  of  the  water  by  crenothrix  was 
strikingly  brought  to  notice  in  July,  1912,  when  a  new 
swimming-bath  was  made  use  of  by  one  of  the  col¬ 
leges.  This  has  a  capacity  of  100,000  gallons,  and  is 
lined  throughout  with  white  glazed  tiles.  The  water 
was  warmed  by  circulation  through  a  Lancashire 
boiler,  which  no  doubt  added  to  the  activity  of  the 
organism  by  imparting  to  it  an  additional,  although 
infinitesimal,  quantity  of  dissolved  iron.  Upon  the 
bath  being  filled,  the  water  was  bright  and  clear,  and 
presented  an  entirely  satisfactory  appearance  of  a 
pale  bluish-green  colour.  After  two  or  three  days, 
although  not  in  use  for  bathing,  it  became  dull  in 
appearance  and  turned  to  a  darker  shade.  Towards 
the  end  of  a  week  it  became  decidedly  of  a  dark- 
greenish  tint,  and  then  passed  through  still  deeper 
shades,  ultimately  turning  within  a  fortnight  to  .a 
dark  brown  of  a  most  objectionable  appearance.  Un¬ 
fortunately,  no  colour-tests  were  available  at  the  time, 
otherwise  the  change  of  colour  might  have  been  pro¬ 
perly  recorded,  and  a  mere  description  conveys  but 
an  inadequate  idea  of  what  took  place.  The  deterio¬ 
ration  of  the  water  has  now  been  overcome  by  an  in¬ 
stallation  at  the  baths  of  a  continuous  aeration  and 
filtration  plant,  combined  with  the  use  of  a  small 
quantity  of  chloros. 

The  rapid  growth  of  the  organisms  in  the  swimming 
bath  suggested  to  the  author  the  desirability  of  test¬ 
ing  the  colour  of  the  water  immediately  after  its  pas¬ 
sage  through  the  slow  sand-filters  at  Dowdeswell,  with 
the  object  of  ascertaining  the  effect  of  filtration  before 
the  water  passed  into  the  distributing  mains.  These 
tests  were  made  with  a  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer. 
Before  describing  them  it  may  be  of  interest  to  give  a 
brief  description  of  the  apparatus,  and  to  offer  a  few 
remai'ks  on  the  principle  on  which  this  is  based. 

The  instrument  itself  is  submitted  to  the  meeting 
for  the  benefit  of  members  who  have  not  used  it.  It  is 
illustrated  in  Fig.  1,  and,  as  will  be  seen,  is  extremely 
simple  in  construction. 


It  consists  of  a  shallow  metal  trough  A,  with  glass 
ends  in  which  the  water  to  be  tested  is  placed,  a  white 
reflector  B,  and  an  optical  instrument  C  divided 
longitudinally  by  a  vertical  partition.  The  optical 
instrument  is  fixed  so  that  the  light  transmitted 
through  the  water  passes  through  one  of  the  divisions 
to  the  observer.  In  the  other  division  coloured 

*  Paper  read  at  the  summer  general  meeting  of  the  Insti¬ 
tution  of  Water  Engineers. 


glasses  D  are  placed  to  exactly  match  the  colour  of 
the  water  under  test. 

The  principal  feature  of  the  instrument  is  the 
graded  series  of  glasses  numbered  according  to  their 
depth  of  colour  by  means  of  which  any  possible  shade 
may  be  matched.  Only  three  colour  scales  are  neces¬ 
sary — viz.,  red,  yellow  and  blue,  as  combinations  of 
these  give  the  three  other  colours  of  the  spectrum — 
viz.,  orange,  green  and  violet.  The  coloured  glasses 
are  divided  into  units,  1,  2,  3,  &c.,  up  to  20,  according 
to  the  depth  of  colour,  and  each  unit  is  subdivided 
into  a  hundred  graduated  tints.  For  ordinary  prac¬ 
tical  purposes,  however,  comparatively  few  glasses 
are  required,  and  ten  divisions  of  a  unit  are  all  that 
are  necessary.  The  set  used  by  the  author  consists  of 
fifty  glasses.  A  combination  of  three  glasses,  red, 
yellow  and  blue,  of  an  equal  standard  shade  produces 
a  neutral  tint,  and  if  the  standards  used  are  deep 
enough  black  is  produced. 

Assuming  the  total  of  the  standard  glasses  used  to 
match  a  sample  of  water  to  be : 

Red.  Yellow.  Blue. 

4-7  +  7-4  +  4-9 

these  are  transcribed  into  the  colour  sensation  trans¬ 
mitted  as  follows :  The  lowest  reading,  red  4’7,  is  de¬ 
ducted  from  the  other  two,  as  three  tints  (red,  yellow 
and  blue),  each  of  4  7  value,  transmit  neutral  tint; 
therefore  the  4  7  is  described  as  neutral  tint  and  the 
red  colour  disappears,  leaving  a  balance  of  2'7  yellow 
and  '2  blue,  thus : 

Neutral  tint.  Yellow  Blue. 

4-7  +  27  +  '2 

But  as  '2  of  blue  and  "2  of  yellow  transmit  green,  this 
figure  is  described  as  green,  leaving  a  balance  of  2'5 
yellow.  The  original  readings  are,  therefore,  trans¬ 
cribed  into: 

Neutral  tint.  Green.  Yellow. 

4-7  +  '2  +  2'5 

[The  author  submitted  with  his  paper  a  number  of 
diagrams  showing  the  actual  condition  of  the  water 
by  means  of  neutral  tint,  green,  yellow  and  blue 
colouring.] 

The  normal  quantity  of  water  filtered  per  day  at 

Dowdeswell  is  about  1,000,000  gallons,  giving  an 

average  rate  of  filtration  of  5  in.  per  hour.  This 
speed,  however,  frequently  has  to  be  increased  to 
6  in.  per  hour  during  the  summer  months,  and  also 
when  more  than  one  filter  is  out  of  use  for  cleaning 
purposes.  It  is  realised  that  the  rate  of  filtration  is 
too  great  for  water  of  this  character,  and  the  results 
of  the  colour-tests  confirm  this. 

The  first  series  of  tests  on  the  Dowdeswell  water  was 
made  from  June  10tli  to  July  5th,  1915,  a  sample  of 
water  being  taken  every  day  from  each  of  the  seven 
filters  when  working  under  normal  conditions.  Nearly 
200  samples  were  examined  and  the  readings  recorded. 
The  results  varied  somewhat  according  to  the  condi¬ 
tion  of  the  filters,  but  on  the  whole  they  were  unsatis¬ 
factory.  In  nearly  every  case  the  water,  after  stand¬ 
ing  a  few  days,  deepened  in  colour,  and  then  passed 
through  the  various  stages  into  the  objectionable 
brown  tint  observed  in  the  swimming-bath  referred  to. 

It  was  then  decided  to  ascertain  more  definitely  the 
effect  on  the  keeping  qualities  of  the  water,  having 
regard  to  the  speed  of  filtration,  and  one  of  the  filters, 
after  being  cleaned,  was  specially  set  apart  for  this 
purpose.  The  quantity  of  water  passing  was  gauged 
over  a  V  notch  fixed  at  the  filter  outlet.  The  samples 
were  taken  over  a  period  of  sixteen  days,  commencing 
on  July  10,  1915,  each  sample  being  examined  every 
day  for  three  weeks. 

[The  actual  readings  of  the  first  and  last  samples, 
together  with  the  colour  transmitted,  are  given  in 
Table  No.  1.] 

On  the  tables  and  diagrams  submitted  with  the 
paper  the  neutral  tint  indicates  the  greatest  degree  of 
discoloration,  being  composed  of  equal  standard  tints 
of  yellow,  red  and  blue.  The  yellow  shows  an  excess 
of  this  colour  o'ver  the  neutral  tint,  and  where  it 
occurs  may  be  taken  to  indicate  the  prevailing  colour 
of  the  water.  The  green  shows  the  prevailing  colour 
of  the  water  after  filtration  before  the  organisms  have 
become  active. 

On  the  first  day,  although  the  water  was  passing 
through  the  filter  at  the  exceedingly  low  rate  of  -39  in. 


July  6,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEEE. 


7 


per  hour,  the  sample  showed  great  discoloration  as 
the  test  proceeded. 

On  the  second,  third  and  fourth  days  the  flow  was 
increased  to  -71,  l-8,  and  L63  in.  per  hour  respec¬ 
tively,  and  a  slight  improvement  is  shown  on  each 
succeeding  day.  The  sample  taken  on  the  fifth  day, 
when  the  rate  of  filtration  was  2'21  in.  per  hour, 
showed  a  much  higher  discoloration,  which  de¬ 
veloped  even  more  rapidly  than  in  the  sample  taken 
on  the  first  day.  This  result  was  due  to  a  workman, 
who,  not  understanding  the  object  of  the  tests,  greatly 
increased  the  flow  through  the  filter  just  previous  to 
the  sample  being  taken  in  order  to  fill  up  the  pure- 
water  reservoir.  This  proceeding,  although  some¬ 
what  annoying  at  the  time,  actually  added  to  the 
value  of  the  test,  as  it  showed  how  readily  a  filter  may 
be  prejudicially  affected  by  an  excessive  flow  when 
the  surface  film  has  not  been  properly  formed. 

On  the  sixth  day  the  flow  was  increased  to  3'02  in. 
per  hour,  when  the  sample  taken  assumed  a  colour 
very  similar  to  that  on  the  fourth  day.  In  other 
words,  the  action  of  the  workman  in  unduly  increasing 
the  flow  appears  to  have  retarded  the  maturity  of  the 
filter  film  by  at  least  twenty-four  hours. 


slow  sand-filter  fails  to  eliminate  the  organisms  from 
the  water,  for  no  sooner  has  the  intercepting  barrier 
been  formed  than  it  has  to  be  removed  for 
cleaning  purposes,  and  the  filter  then  loseg  its  effi¬ 
ciency.  The  difficulty  can,  it  is  believed,  be  over¬ 
come  by  aeration  and  the  installation  of  mechanical 
pre-filters  in  combination  with  a  coagulating  tank  and 
the  use  of  alumina,  and  this  remedy  is  proposed  to  be 
adopted  in  the  case  of  the  Dowdeswell  supply.  Pos¬ 
sibly  the  use  of  a  coagulant  may  not  be  necessary,  but 
this  is  a  matter  for  further  consideration. 

The  tests  recorded  above  were  made  at  midsummer, 
when  there  were  many  complaints  from  consumers, 
attributed  to  the  presence  of  crenothrix  in  the  mains, 
.further  tests  have  recently  been  made  with  a  view 
to  ascertain  the  keeping  qualities  of  the  water  at  a 
time  when  the  weather  was  cold,  and  when  the 
organisms  were  believed  to  be  either  absent  or  in¬ 
active.  The  samples  were  taken  over  a  period  of  sixteen 
days  {from  April  11th  to  the  26th  last),  when  the  mini¬ 
mum  temperatures  varied  from  26  deg.  Fahr.  to  45  deg. 
Fahr.,  and  the  maximum  temperatures  from  37  deg. 
Fahr.  to  55  deg.  Fahr.  The  same  filter  was  used  as 
in  the  previous  tests,  the  speed  of  filtration  was  the 


TABLE  No.  1. 

TiNTOMeter  Readings  and  Colour  Records  of  Dowdeswell  Filtered  Water. 


Sample  No.  1.  (See  Diagram  No.  1.) 

Rate  of  filtration  -39  in.  per  hour,  or  44  gallons  per 
square  yard  per  24  hours.  i 


Date. 

Standard 

Glasses. 

Colour  transmitted 
through  2  ft.  of 
water. 

Red 

Yellow 

Blue 

Neutr’l 

Tint 

Yellow 

Green 

Blue 

1915. 

July  10th 

•7 

•8 

■7 

•1 

11th 

— 

•7 

•8 

= 

— 

— 

•7 

•  1 

12th 

— 

•8 

■9 

= 

— 

** — 

•8 

•  1 

„  13th 

1  0 

•6 

•4 

•6 

‘ - 

14th 

1-2 

•6 

= 

— 

•6 

•6 

— 

,,  15th 

•6 

1-9 

•8 

= 

•6 

1  •  1 

•2 

— 

„  16th 

•8 

2-8 

1  -0 

— 

•8 

1 '8 

*.  2 

— 

„  17th 

1  -4 

3-8 

1  -7 

= 

1-4 

2- 1 

•3 

— 

„  18th 

1-5 

3'9 

1  -8 

= 

1-5 

2- 1 

•3 

— 

„  19  th 

1  -5 

40 

1-9 

= 

1-5 

2- 1 

•4 

— 

,,  20th 

2-5 

4-6 

2-7 

= 

2-5 

1  -9 

.  2 

— 

,,  21st 

3-4 

5-6 

3-6 

=r 

3-4 

2-0 

.  2 

— 

„  22nd 

3-7 

6-1 

3-9 

3-7 

2-2 

.9 

— 

„  23rd 

4-0 

6-6 

4-3 

4-0 

2-3 

•3 

— 

24th 

4-4 

7-0 

4-6 

= 

4-4 

2-4 

•  2 

— 

„  25th 

4-6 

7-2 

4-8 

4-6 

2-4 

•  2 

— 

„  26th 

4  •  7 

7-4 

4-9 

= 

4-7 

2-5 

•2 

— 

„  27th 

4-7 

7-4 

4-9 

= 

4-7 

2-5 

•2 

— 

„  28th 

4  •  7 

7-4 

4-9 

4-7 

2-5 

•2 

— 

„  29th 

4-7 

7-4 

4-9 

= 

4-7 

2-5 

-  •  2 

— 

„  30th 

4  •  7 

7-4 

4'9 

= 

4-7 

2-5 

•2 

— 

Sample  No.  16.  (See  Diagram  No.  16.) 

Rate  of  filtration  3:&3  ins.  per  hour,  or  433  gallons 
per  square  yard  per  24  hours. 


Date. 

Standard 

Glasses. 

Colour  transmitted 
through-2  ft.  of 
water. 

Rec* 

Yellow 

Blue 

Neutr'l 

Tint 

Yellow 

• 

Green 

Blue 

1915. 

July  27th 

•8 

•9 

•8 

•1 

,,  28th 

— 

•8 

■9 

= 

— 

~ — 

•8 

•1 

29th 

— 

•8 

•9' 

= 

— 

— 

•8 

•  1 

30th 

— 

•8 

•9 

= 

— 

— 

•8 

•  1 

31st: 

— 

•8 

•9 

= 

— 

— 

■8 

•  1 

Aug.  1st 

— 

•8 

•9 

= 

— 

— 

•8 

•1 

,,  '  2nd 

— 

•8 

•9 

— 

— 

— 

•8 

•  1 

,,  3rd 

— 

■8 

•9 

'  — 

— 

•8 

•1 

4th 

— 

■8 

•9 

= 

— 

— 

•8 

•1 

i,  5th 

— 

•8 

•9 

=r 

— 

— 

■8 

•1 

,,  6th 

•  1 

•8 

•9 

-l 

— 

•7 

•  1 

„  7th 

•3 

1  0 

•9 

— 

•3 

•  l 

•6 

— 

8th 

•4 

1  -2 

•9 

/4= 

•4 

•3 

•5 

— 

,,  9th 

•  5 

1  -3 

•9 

= 

•  5 

•4 

•4  ■ 

— 

,,  10th 

•  6 

1-5 

1  0 

= 

•6 

•5 

•4 

■  - 

11th 

■7 

1-6 

1  -0 

■=. 

■7 

•6 

•3 

— 

12th 

•8 

1-6 

DO 

— 

•8 

•  6 

.  2 

— 

„  13th 

•9 

1-7 

DO 

= 

•9 

•7 

•  i 

— 

,,  14th 

•9 

1-7 

DO 

= 

•9 

•7 

•  i 

— 

,,  15th 

•9 

1-7 

1  -0 

— 

•9 

•  7 

•i 

— 

„  16th 

•9 

1  -7 

DO 

= 

•9 

•7 

•  i 

— 

The  rate  of  filtration  was  increased  on  the  seventh 
day  to  3'85  in.  per  hour,  and  on  the  eighth  day  to 
5'02  in.  per  hour,  the  samples  taken  on  these  two 
days  showing  about  the  same  degree  of  discolora¬ 
tion.  The  filter  wa.s  now  running  at  about  normal 
speed,  but  there  was  no  very  marked  decrease  in  the 
discoloration  of  the  filtrate.  It  was  therefore  de¬ 
cided  to  reduce  the  flow  to  the  speed  of  the  first  day 
and  gradually  to  increase  this,  as  before,  until  the 
normal  flow  was  again  reached. 

Accordingly,  on  the  ninth  day  the  sample  was 
taken  during  a  flow  of  ’39  in.  per  hour,  and  a 
marked  improvement  took  place  in  the  discoloration, 
this  being  only  about  half  that  of  the  previous  day’s 
sample.  The  improvement  was  maintained  on  the 
tenth,  eleventh,  twelfth  and  thirteenth  days,  although 
the  rate  of  flow  was  increased  respectively  to  '71,  108, 
163  and  2’21  in.  per  hour. 

On  the  fourteenth  day  the  speed  of  the  filter  was 
further  increased  to  3'02  in.  per  hour  and  on  the 
fifteenth  and  sixteenth  days  to  3'85  in.  per  hour  (this 
being  the  maximum  quantity  that  could  be  filtered  at 
this  stage),  when  the  samples,  as  indicated  by  the 
green  and  blue,  and  the  absence  of  the  neutral  tint 
and  yellow,  showed  no  discoloration  at  all  over  a 
period  of  ten  to  fourteen  days. 

The  results  of  these  colour-tests  appear  to  show  that 
the  microscopic  spores  of  the  vegetable  growths  which 
produce  the  discoloration  in  the  water  can  only  be 
intercepted  when  the  filter  has  been  brought  to  its 
highest  state  of  efficiency,  or  in  other  words,  when  the 
matter  in  suspension  has  formed  an  almost  impene¬ 
trable  film  over  the  surface.  In  actual  practice  the 


same,  and  each  sample  was  examined  on  twenty-one 
succeeding  days  after  being  taken.  The  average 
colour  of  the  samples  on  the  first  day  was  '9  green 
+  '13  yellow,  and  on  the  twenty-first  day  -9  green  +  ’25 
yellow,  thus  showing  that  practically  no  change  had 
taken  place.  The  average  colour  of  sixteen  samples 
of  raw  water  taken  at  the  same  time  was  1'7  neutral 
tint  -)-  -9  green  +  15  yellow,  and  these  showed  prac¬ 
tically  no  deterioration  upon  being  kept  for  twenty- 
one  days. 

The  results  appear  to  indicate  that,  although  the 
spores  may  be  present  all  the  year  round,  the  warmer 
weather,  as  a  rule,  is  required  for  the  development 
of  the  organisms.  There  are,  however,  exceptions,  as 
the  swarming  of  the  reservoir  in  the  early  spring  of 
1896  illustrates,  and  probably  the  variation  of  the 
amount  of  iron  in  the  water  is  as  much  a  determining 
factor  as  the  temperature. 

In  the  open  reservoirs  at  Hewletts,  storing  water 
derived  from  the  inferior  oolite,  having  a  capacity  of 
30,500,000  gallons,  the  seasonal  growth  of  chara  has  at 
times  rendered  the  water  unfit  for  use.  The  activity 
of  the  plant  has,  however,  been  greatly  diminished 
in  one  of  the  reservoirs  "by  the  covering  of  the  open- 
jointed  brick  floor  with  a  2-in.  layer  of  cement  mortar, 
and  it  is  intended  to  deal  with  the  other  open  reser¬ 
voir  in  a  similar  manner. 

(Jolour-tests  have  been  of  great  practical  value  in 
dealing  with  the  discoloured  water  obtained  from  the 
river  Severn.  Records  are  kept  each  day  of  the 
amount  of  discoloration  in  the  raw  water,  in  the 
water  after  passing  the  pre-filters,  and  in  the  water 
discharged  from  the  slow  sand-filters  respectively. 


8 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  191 7. 


Table  No.  2  shows  the  tests  made  during  a  period 
when,  owing  to  the  rainfall,  the  colour  of  the  river- 
water  changed  very  rapidly  from  day  to  day. 

The  discoloration  in  the  raw  water  shown  in  Table 
No.  2  is  not  wholly  due  to  peat  and  other  vegetable 
stain.  In  times  of  heavy  rainfall  the  river  becomes 
turbid  and  is  charged  with  a  good  deal  of  finely  divided 
argillaceous  matter,  which  remains  in  suspension  for 
a  long  time  and  is  not  entirely  removed  until  it 
reaches  the  pre-filters.  The  tests  would  be  of  more 
value  if  the  discoloration  due  to  turbidity  and  stain 
could  be  separated,  but  this  would  be  somewhat  dif¬ 
ficult  in  practice,  as  there  is  no  sedimentation  reser¬ 
voir,  the  water  being  pumped  direct  from  the  river 
to  a  small  reaction  tank.  The  information  would 
probably  be  mo»e  useful  if  the  raw  water  were  passed 
through  filter-paper,  tests  being  made  before  and  after 
this  process,  and  also  for  turbidity. 

Table  No.  3  shows  the  results  of  the  colour-tests 
during  a  month  when  the  river  was  not  appreciably 
affected  by  the  rainfall.  Over  this  period  the  neutral- 
tint  curve  in  the  raw  water  varied  between  3-4  and  20 


TABLE  No  2. 

Colour  Records  of  River  Severn  Water.* 


'Date  [ 


Raw  Water. 
See  Diagram 
No  17. 


v,After  passing 
Mechanical  Filters 
Sec  Diagjjfim  No.  18 


Colour  transmitted 
through  2ft.  of  water. 


After  pass¬ 
ing  ' 

Mechanical 
filters  and 
slow  sand 
Filters 
See  Dia¬ 
gram 
'  No.  19 


Colour  transmitted 
through  2ft.  of  water. 


Colour 
transmitted 
through 
2ft.  of 
water. 


Neu¬ 

tral 

Tint 

Ot’gc 

Yel¬ 

low. 

Green 

Neu¬ 

tral 

Tint. 

Or’ge 

Yel- 1 
low 

Green 

Yel¬ 

low 

Green 

1915 

Nov  1st 

40 

3o 

180 

2-7 

•5 

3-8 

1-6 

•3 

2nd 

24-0 

5-3 

34-7 

— 

30 

■4 

4-2 

— 

1-7 

♦  3 

3rd 

6-6 

6-9 

13-1 

— 

2-7 

1-2 

1  - 1 

. — 

1-2 

•3 

4th 

4-9 

2  6 

9-4 

— 

1-9 

1-2 

•9 

— 

1-3 

■3 

5th 

3  4 

1-8 

9-2 

4  _ 

10 

1-7 

•3 

— 

•7 

-3 

6th 

30 

i-i 

5-9, 

— .; 

•8 

■  1 

1  -2  . 

— 

•7 

3 

7th 

30 

•5 

5-7 

— 

'  -6 

•  1 

12 

— 

•7 

•3 

■'8th 

2-0 

1-4 

5-1 

— 

- ' 

•4 

2-1 

— 

-7 

■3 

9th- 

1  -.3 

— 

4-5 

1-7 

— 

— 

2-3 

-7 

•8 

.  2 

10th 

10 

— 

3-0 

2  •  0 

— 

— 

1  -9 

•6 

•7 

•2 

11th 

1-5 

_ 

4-0 

1-5 

— 

— 

1-9 

•6 

■8 

•2 

12th 

91 

4-8 

111 

— 

•3 

•3 

4-4 

— 

-7 

•2 

13th 

30-6 

1-4 

48-  3 

— 

10 

•7 

2  -3 

— 

•7 

.  o 

14th 

27-4 

1-9 

26-7 

— 

1-2 

•  7 

2-  1 

— 

-7 

.  2 

,  15th 

22-0 

1-0 

15-0 

— 

1-4 

•  5 

2-  1 

— 

•7 

■3 

16th 

160 

2-0 

16-0 

— 

■7 

— 

20 

•2 

•7 

•3 

17  th 

10-0 

4-0 

16-0 

— 

— 

— 

1  •  1 

•4 

•6 

•3 

18th 

40 

40 

11-6 

— 

— 

— 

1-6 

•4 

•  6 

•3 

,.  19th 

60 

3-6 

14-4 

— 

•4 

.  9 

1  -8 

— 

•5 

■4 

,,  20  th 

7-0 

1-8 

12-2 

— 

•8 

■  1 

2-  1 

— 

•6 

-4 

„  21st 

5-2 

1-8 

10-8 

— 

•4 

.  2 

1-8 

— 

■7 

•3 

.  22nd 

3-7 

1-6 

9-3 

— 

•  6 

•2 

12 

— 

■7 

•3 

.  23rd 

4-0 

1  1 

6-9 

— 

— 

— 

1-3 

.  o 

•6 

•3 

24th 

20 

1-J. 

5-3 

_ 

_ 

— 

1-3 

.  2 

•  9 

— 

,  25fh 

1-9 

1  •  1 

5-0 

— 

— 

— 

1-3 

.  2 

■7 

.  2 

..  .26th 

IS 

10 

4  •  5 

— 

— 

— 

1-3 

.  2 

•  7 

•  2 

,  27  th 

•6 

1  1 

3-2 

— 

— 

1-8 

.  o 

•8 

■2 

.  28tl 

10 

13 

3-7 

— 

•  - 

■7 

.  2 

•7 

.  o 

.  29tl 

15 

■5 

3-5 

— 

'  — 

|  _ 

•8 

.  o 

•  6 

.  2 

. .  30tl 

1  0 

1-0 

3-0 

— 

— 

i  - 

•8 

.  2 

•6 

lb 

: 

units,  and  the  final  effluent  showed  an  excess  of  yellow 
over  green  of  under  one  unit  every  day.  The  average 
quantity  of  alumina  used  during  the  month  was  112 
grains  per  gallon. 

There  is  no  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  fairly  uniform 
colour  in  the  filtrate,  as  the  colour-tests  enable  the 
attendant  to  apply  the  necessary  proportion  of  re¬ 
agent  to  obtain  the  desired  results.  It  is  considered 
quite  satisfactory  to  reduce  the  discoloration  finally 
to  a  standard  of  TO  of  yellow,  as  this  gives  a  water 
which,  from  the  consumer’s  point  of  view,  is  con¬ 
sidered  colourless.  By  using  more  alumina  the 
yellow  colour  can  be  eliminated  altogether  in  the  pre¬ 
filters  alone,  but  there  is  no  practical  necessity  for 
this,  and  it  would  involve  extra  cost  in  treatment. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Mr.  C.  G.  Henzell, 
m.inst.c.e.,  the  author  has  been  supplied  with  the 
“  Lovibond  ”  tintometer  readings  of  the  Leeds  water 
for  the  year  ending  March  last,  as  shown  in  Table 
No.  4.  This  is  a  soft  moorland  supply  having  a  slight 
peaty  stain.  It  is  stored  in  an  impounding  reservoir 
and  filtered  through  ordinary  slow  sand-filters.  The 
results  show  that  an  appreciable  reduction  of  dis¬ 
coloration  take  place  by  filtration  without  the  use 
of  a  coagulant. 


Colour-tests  taken  with  a  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer 
have  been  kept  by  the  City  of  Birmingham  Water 
Department  since  the  introduction  of  the  supply  from 
Wales  in  1904. 

Dr.  A.  C.  Houston  has  adopted  a  standard  colour- 
measurement  in  his  examinations  of  the  London 
waters.  The  results  are  tabulated  with  the  chemical 

_  TABLE  3 

Colour  Records  of  River  Severn  Water 


Raw  Water 

See  Diagram  No  20 

After  passing 
Mechanical 
Filters. 

See  Diagram 
No  21 

After  passing 
Mechanical 
Filters  and; 
S|owr  Sand 
Filter  , 
See  Diagram 
No.  22 

Colour  transmitted 

Colour  trans- 

Colour  transmit- 

through  2  (t 

mitted  through 

ted  through  21t 

of  water 

.  2ft.  of 

water. 

of  w 

ater. 

Neu- 

tral 

Orange 

Yellow. 

Yellow' 

Green 

Yellow. 

Green 

Tint 

1914. 

Oct.  1st 

2-5 

■5 

40 

i  ■  i 

■2 

•7 

-2i 

2nd 

2-0 

7 

4-  1 

•  5 

5 

■7 

•25 

3rd 

2-0 

t- 0 

3-0 

1  •  5 

3 

■7. 

.  O* 

4th 

20 

•  a 

3-5 

1-7 

•  2 

•7 

■2- 

5th 

9 .  o 

•8 

3-8 

1-0 

•3 

■5 

-3- 

6th 

2-5 

•  5 

3-8 

1  0 

3 

•5 

31 

7th 

2-0 

•  5 

3-5 

1  •  0 

2 

■6 

2: 

8th 

3-0 

1  -0 

3-0 

1  0 

2 

•6. 

■2 

9th 

2-5 

•7 

2-1 

1-0 

•  2 

■6 

■2? 

10th 

2-5 

•  5 

4-0 

1  1 

4* 

•6 

•2- 

1 1th 

2-5 

-  5 

4-5 

9 

4 

•6 

2; 

12th 

3-0 

•3 

4-7 

1  0 

5 

■6 

-2- 

-  13th 

2-3 

.  o 

4-4 

16 

5- 

•5 

•2> 

14  th 

3  0 

•3 

4-7 

1  7 

•3 

•7 

•2 

15th 

2-5 

•3 

3-7 

16 

■3 

•5 

r  -2i 

16th 

3-4 

•  6 

30 

7 

3 

•4 

^  G  2,- 

17th 

2-8 

•6 

3-0 

■7 

•3 

•5 

■3 

18th 

3-0 

3 

2-9 

•7 

3 

■5 

-2 

19th, 

2-5 

— 

3-2 

•8 

.  o 

•  5 

20th 

2-5 

— 

3-9- 

1-0 

2 

6 

•2 

21st 

2-5 

— 

3-3 

•8 

2 

6 

•2. 

22nd 

2-5 

•  5 

2  •  2 

■6 

4 

-  5 

•2 

23rd 

2  •  5 

•5 

2-0 

■8 

■2 

•5 

■2 

24th 

2-5 

— 

3-5 

■7 

3 

■5 

•  2? 

25th 

2-5 

•  5 

30 

•9 

4 

-5 

•  2; 

26th 

2-0 

•  5 

2-5 

‘  10 

•3 

•4 

•2? 

27th 

2-5 

— 

2-8 

■7 

•3 

•5 

.9* 

28th 

3-0 

— 

3-0 

1-3 

4 

•5 

•  2? 

s29th 

2-3 

-7 

30 

1-3 

■4 

•  5» 

■2' 

30th 

3  0 

1-0 

4-5 

1  1 

4 

•  5* 

•  2 

31st 

2-0 

1-0- 

5  •  5 

1  1 

•4 

•5 

•2 

( 

analyses  and  form  a  valuable  record  of  the  physical 
condition  of  the  numerous  samples  examined  for  the 
last  ten  years.  In  the  tenth  annual  report  (for  twelve 
months  ended  March  31,  1916)  the  monthly  averages 
of  no  less  than  732  colour  measurements  are  given  in 
connection  with  the  raw  water  examined,  and  2,399 
for  the  filtered  water.  What  seems  of  special  interest 
in  the  tables  is  that  they  show  a  close  parallelism  be¬ 
tween  the  colour  and  “  oxygen  absorbed  from  perman- 

TABLE  No.  4 


Colour  Records  of  Leeds  Corporation  Water 


Water  before  Filtration. 

Sed  Diagram  No.  23. 

Water  after  Filtration 

Sec  Diagram  No.  24 

Colour  transmitted 

through  2ft 

of 

Colour  transmitted  through 

water. 

2ft  of  water 

Date 

Neu- 

Neu- 

7 

tral 

Orange. 

Yellow. 

tral 

Orange 

Yellow. 

Green 

1  int. 

Tint. 

1916 

April 

1-0 

1-2 

4-1 

— 

4 

1-5 

— 

May 

7 

1-3 

3-7 

— 

.  2 

1-6 

— 

June 

7 

•8 

3-5 

-2 

.  o 

12 

— 

July 

•  5 

5 

2-8 

— 

— 

1  0 

3 

Aug. 

•6 

■  i 

2-  1 

— 

— 

•8 

1 

Sept 

•  5 

1 

1-7 

— 

— 

7 

1 

Oct 

•3 

•3 

1-9 

— 

— 

■  8 

1 

Nov 

■2 

10 

3  1 

- . 

— 

14 

1 

Dec. 

.  Q 

10 

3-8 

— 

— 

1-7 

•  1 

1917.  v 

Jan . 

.  2 

1-4 

3-9 

— 

6 

2-8 

— 

Feb. 

•2 

1-5 

4-3 

— 

■8 

2-5 

— 

March  ... 

1-5 

4-5 

' 

— 

•9 

2-8 

— 

ganate  ”  results,  thus  showing  that  the  tintometer 
readings  are  nearly  directly  proportional  to  the 
amounts  of  oxidisable  organic  matter  present  in  solu¬ 
tion.  The  colorimeter  used  by  Dr.  Houston  is  one 
designed  by  Mr.  W.  T.  Burgess. 

The  instrument  is  illustrated  in  Fig.  2.  It  consists 


July  6,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


9 


of  two  parallel  horizontal  glass  tubes  2  ft.  long,  one 
containing  distilled  water  and  the  other  the  sample 
to  be  tested.  A  white  light  is  reflected  from  an  opal 
tili>  through  the  two  tubes  and  upwards  through  two 
short  vertical  cylinders.  One  of  these — that  receiving 
the  light  from  the  tube  containing  the  sample  to  be. 
tested — is  filled  with  distilled  water.  The  other, receiv¬ 
ing  the  white  light  from  the  tube  of  distilled  water,  is 


graduated,  and  a  standard  brown  solution  consisting 
of  one  gramme  of  cobalt  sulphate  and  O' 5  gramme  of 
potassium  bichromate  dissolved  in  one  litre  of  water 
is  run  in  until  the  colour  matches  the  sample.  The 
quantity  of  standard  solution  added  as  indicated  by 
the  scale  in  millimetres  on  the  vertical  cylinder  repre¬ 
sents  the  colour  value  of  the  sample.  The  measure¬ 
ments  recorded  by  this  scale  in  Dr.  Houston’s  tenth 
annual  report  vary  between  a  minimum  of  30  mm. 
and  a  maximum  of  239  mm.  for  the  samples  of  raw 
waters  examined,  and  between  13  mm.  and  40  mm. 
for  the  filtered  waters. 

A  valuable  record  of  the  colour  measurements  of 
potable  waters  is  given  in  a  large  number  of  analyses 
of  public  supplies  published  annually  by  the  State 
Department  of  Health  of  Massachusetts.  The  tests 
are  based  upon  what  is  known  as  the  “  natural  ” 
water  standard,  which  is  a  modification  of  the  Nessler 
standard  of  measurement. 

The  “  Hazen  ”  platinum-cobalt  standard  appears 
to  be  more  generally  accepted.  This  may  be  prepared 
by  dissolving  1246  grammes  of  potassium  platinum 
chloride,  containing  0'5  gramme  of  platinum  and 
one  gramme  of  crystallised  cobalt  chloride  (free 
from  iron),  containing  0'25  gramme  of  cobalt  in 
distilled  water  with  100  c.c.  concentrated  hydrochloric 
acid,  and  making  up  to  1,000  c.c.  with  distilled  water. 
The  brown  colour  of  the  water  under  test  can  be 
closely  matched  by  varying  quantities  of  this  solu¬ 
tion.  Should  the  results,  be  expressed  in  parts  per 
million,  this  solution  is  a  standard  of  500. 

The  United  States  Geological  Survey  use  a  colori¬ 
meter  devised  by  Hazen  and  Whipple,  the  readings 
of  which  are  intended  to  coincide  with  the  platinum- 
cobalt  standard.  In  outline  the  method  consists  of 
the  selection  of  a  standard  glass  colour  disc  having  a 
depth  of  colour  the  same  as  a  200-mm.  column  of 
water  to  be  tested.  The  apparatus  (see  Fig.  3)  consists 
of  four  aluminium  tubes  having  clear  glass  ends.  Two 
of  these  are  200  mm.  long,  one  is  100  mm.,  and  the 


Fig.  3. — Hazen’s  Colorimeter. 


other  50  mm.  One  of  the  long  tubes  is  fitted  at  the 
end  with  a  small  spring  clip  to  hold  one  or  more  of 
the  six  standard  colour  discs.  The  discs  are  of  various 


degrees  of  brown  colour,  each  being  stamped  with  a 
number  corresponding  to  its  value  in  the  platinum- 
cobalt  scale.  The  water  to  be  tested  is  poured  into 
one  of  the  other  three  tubes,  according  to  its  depth  of 
colour,  and  when  held  up  to  the  light  is  matched  by 
the  coloured  discs  placed  in  the  first  tube.  The  sum 
of  the  numbers  on  the  discs  indicates  the  colour 
measurement  of  the  water  in  the  200-mni.  tube.  If 
the  100-mm.  tube  is  used  the  reading  is  multiplied 
by  two,  and  by  four  if  the  50-mm.  tube  is  used.  The 
tube  holding  the  discs  may,  if  desired,  be  filled  with 
distilled  water. 

The  author  is  of  opinion  that  the  examination  of 
potable  waters  for  discoloration  has  not  generally  re¬ 
ceived  the  attention  due  to  its  interest  and  import¬ 
ance.  The  numerous  tables  of  analyses  which  have 
appeared  in  the  Transactions  of  the  institution  do  not 
include  colour-tests  in  actual  figures  even  when  they 
refer  to  waters  from  which  the  removal  of  discolora¬ 
tion  has  been  one  of  the  principal  objects. 

In  papers  recently  submitted  to  the  institution  on 
the  removal  of  discoloration  from  peaty  water  the 
condition  of  the  different  samples  of  the  raw  water 
examined  are  described  as  “  dark  or  dull  brown,” 
“  brown,”  “  dull  brown,”  “  yellow  or  brownish 
yellow,”  “  yellowish  brown  or  dull  brown,”  “yellowish 
green  ”  and  “  yellowish,”  and  the  filtered  water  as 
“  less  yellow,”  “  slight  yellow,”  “  greenish  blue,” 
“  pale  blue,”  and  “  colourless.”  These  arbitrary 
terms  are  not  of  precise  scientific  value.  They  do  not 
give  much  information  to  anyone  unacquainted  with 
the  character  of  the  water,  neither  do  they  enable  a 
comparison  to  be  made  between  the  discoloration  of 
different  waters. 

In  dealing  with  the  filtration  of  water  derived  from 
peaty  moorlands,  Mr.  F.  J.  Dixon  i(Ashton-under- 
Lyne),  among  other  conditions,  required  the  contrac¬ 
tor  to  guarantee  “  the  removal  of  95  per  cent  of  the 
discoloration  present  in  the  raw  water,”  and 
although  not  giving  any  comparative  figures  of  the 
colour  of  the  raw  water,  the  analysts  were  satisfied 
that  this  condition  had  been  fulfilled.  The  author’s 
opinion  is  that  a  percentage  measurement  is  not  alto¬ 
gether  satisfactory,  particularly  when  no  mention  is 
made  of  the  quantity  of  coagulant  to  be  used.  With 
the  use  of  an  excessive  quantity  of  alumina  it  may  be 
possible  to  remove  even  a  higher  percentage  of  dis¬ 
coloration  than  the  standard  given ;  on  the  other 
hand,  it  may  be  found  practicable  to  obtain  a  quite 
satisfactory  filtrate  with  a  much  less  percentage  of 
colour  reduction.  A  better  course  would  be  to  fix  the 
standard  of  colour  required  for  the  filtered  water  apart 
from  any  question  as  to  whether  a  certain  percentage 
of  discoloration  had  been  removed. 

Professor  Delepine,  in  a  paper  submitted  to  the  in¬ 
stitution  in  1914,  laid  down  a  series  of  “  essential  con¬ 
ditions  ”  to  be  observed  in  suitably  treated  water. 
Among  these  he  suggested  that  “  the  water  viewed  in 
a  2-ft.  tube  shall  be  of  a  pale-blue  colour,  or  retain 
not  more  of  any  original  yellow  or  brown  discolora¬ 
tion  than  an  amount  capable  of  giving  to  the  water  a 
greenish-blue  colour.”  This  description  does  not  ap¬ 
pear  to  the  author  sufficiently  definite,  and  its  adop¬ 
tion  would  probably  give  rise  to  a  difference  of  opinion 
as  to  what  particular  shade  of  colouring  constituted 
pale  blue  and  greenish  blue.  It  seems  much  more 
desirable  to  adopt  a  standard  of  measurement  that  can 
be  actually  put  into  figures,  so  that  two  or  more  per¬ 
sons  examining  the  same  water  are  not  likely  to 
arrive  at  appreciably  different  results. 

In  his  work  on  “The  Microscopy  of  Drinking  Water” 
Whipple  says:  “An  important  question,  and  one 
which  is  of  particular  interest  to  water  analysts,  is  the 
relation  between  the  growths  of  organisms  and  the 
chemical  analysis  of  the  water  in  which  the  organisms 
are  found.”  Unquestionably  there  is  a  relation,  and 
we  should  very  much  like  to  be  able  to  take  up  a 
chemical  analysis  and  say,  “This  water  contains  such 
and  such  substances  in  solution,  and  therefore  such 
and  such  organisms  may  be  expected  to  thrive  well  in 
if.  In  other  words,  we  desire  to  know  better  the 
nature  of  the  food  supply  of  the  microscopic 
organisms.”  The  author  suggests  that  a  more  detailed 
study  of  the  colour  of  water  may  be  of  some  assist¬ 
ance  in  the  elucidation  of  this  problem. 

A  systematic  record  of  the  colour  measurement  of 
water  should  prove  useful  to  the  water  engineer,  and 
mgy  enable  him  to  trace  defects  in  his  system  of  treat¬ 
ment  which  might  otherwise  remain  undiscovered.  It 
should  prove  of  much  practical  assistance  where  sand 
filtration  is  in  operation,  as  it  is  more  than  probable 
that  the  ever-varying  condition  of  the  filters  and  the 
consequent  variation  in  the  quality  of  the  filtrate  will 


io 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


be  found  to  bear  some  relation  to  the  colour  of  the 
...  .ored  water. 

Of  late  years  chemists  and  bacteriologists  have  done 
much  towards  standardising  the  methods  of  chemical 
and  bacterial  examinations  of  potable  waters,  and 
there  seems  to  be  no  reason  why  what  may  be  termed 
the  physical  qualities  of  water  should  not  receive 
equal  attention.  Apart  from  satisfying  the  aesthetic 
susceptibilities  of  the  public  as  regards  the  appear¬ 
ance  of  water  delivered  for  their  use,  a  study  of  its 
physical  condition  may  furnish  valuable  information 
jacking  in  the  ordinary  processes  of  chemical  and 
bacterial  examinations. 

it  may  not  be  within  the  province  of  the  engineer 
to  lay  down  a  standard  of  measurement  which  should 
be  generally  recognised  as  a  means  of  affording  a 
comparison  of  the  colour-values  of  different  waters, 
but  he  may  suggest  with  propriety  that  the  confusion 
caused  by  recording  results  by  different  methods  of 
measurement  should,  as  far  as  possible,  be  removed. 

The  author  is  convinced  that  there  is  a  vast  field  of 
research  open  both  to  the  analyst  and  the  engineer 
on  the  colour-measurement  of  potable  waters,  and  he 
agrees  with  the  apt  remark  made  by  Dr.  Kemna  in 
the  only  paper  in  the  Transactions  dealing  with  the 
matter  that  “  a  book — and  a  pretty  thick  one — could 
and  should  be  written  to  deal  adequately  with  the 
subject.” 


LONDON  COUNTY  COUNCIL  HOUSING  SCHEMES. 


SURPLUS  £5,421,  AND  EMPTIES  UNDER  1  PER  CENT. 

The  report  of  the  Housing  of  the  Working  Classes 
Committee  for  the  year  ended  March  31st,  which  was 
submitted  to  the  London  County  Council  on  Tuesday 
last,  states  that  during  the  year  accommodation  for 
620  persons  was  provided  on  the  Tabard-street  area, 
Southwark,  in  60  tenements  of  two  rooms,  50  tene¬ 
ments  of  three  rooms,  and  10  tenements  of  four 
rooms.  On  31st  March,  1917,  dwellings  for  58,896 
persons  had  been  provided  by  the  council,  the 
accommodation  consisting  of  6,540  tenements  in  block 
dwellings,  3,449  cottages  and  cottage  flats,  and  1,874 
cubicles  in  three  lodging-houses.  The  capital  ex¬ 
penditure  incurred  during  the  year  in  respect  of 
dwellings  and  estates  amounted  to  £14,716,  bringing 
the  total  under  this  head  from  the  commencement 
up  to  £3,095,530,  or  £2,351,992  under  the  Housing  Act 
and  £743,538  under  Improvements  Acts.  The  total 
loss  due  to  empty  tenements  is  only  £2,333  2s.  Id.,  or 
slightly  under  1  per  cent  of  the  gross  rent,  as  com¬ 
pared  with  118,  2'59,  and  323  per  cent  in  the  three 
years  immediately  preceding.  Of  this  loss  £1,312  14s., 
or  1687  per  cent,  occurred  at  Carrington  House, 
but  only  in  six  other  cases  has  the  loss  exceeded 
1  per  cent.  The  low  percentage  of  the  total  loss  from 
this  source  and  the  smallness  of  the  amount  irre¬ 
coverable  (£148  5s.  8d.)  are  regarded  as  most  satis¬ 
factory. 

After. making  full  provision  for  all  outgoings,  in¬ 
cluding  debt  charges  and  allowances  amounting  to 
£4,375  to  members  of  the  staff  serving  with  the 
forces,  there  was  a  nett  surplus  on  dwellings  and  on 
estates  in  course  of  development  of  £12,002.  The 
total  financial  results  on  all  dwellings  and  estates 
from  the  date  of  the  opening  of  the  first  block  in 
April,  1894,  up  to  March  31st  last  show  that  a  sum 
of  £126,421  has  been  temporarily  defrayed  out  of  the 
rates  and  £1,213  contributed  from  the  tramways 
account.  Of  the  sum  provided  out  of  the  rates 
£87,576  has  been  required  to  meet  the  deficiency 
in  respect  of  estates  in  course  of  development  under 
Part  III.  of  the  Housing  Act,  1890.  A  sum  of 
£131,842  has  now  been  repaid  to  the  rates  out  of 
revenue  from  the  dwellings,  so  that  the  housing 
operations  as  a  whole  have  yielded  a  nett  contribution 
in  relief  of  rates  of  £5,421. 

Any  surpluses  must  be  applied  to  the  relief  of  rates 
each  year  as  they  may  arise,  the  general  county 
rate  being  relieved  by  any  surplus  on  dwellings  pro¬ 
vided  under  Improvements  Acts,  and  the  special 
county  rate  in  the  case  of  a  surplus  from  dwellings 
provided  under  the  Housing  Act.  It  may  be  men¬ 
tioned,  however,  that,  although  the  combined  opera¬ 
tions  have  for  the  first  time  yielded  a  surplus,  there 
is  still  a  nett  deficiency  of  £21,454  18s.  2d.  to  be  met 
in  respect  of  dwellings  and  estates  in  course  of 
development  under  the  Housing  Act.  The  nett 
surplus  of  £4,206  19s.  5d.  on  the  combined  operations 
is  derived  from  an  aggregate  surplus  of  £25,661 
17s.  7d.  which  has  accrued  from  dwellings  provided 
under  Improvements  Acts. 


ELECTRICITY  FOR  SEWAGE  PURIFICATION. 


By  T.  Chalkley  Hatton.* 

There  is  a  popular  impression  that  electricity  will 
accomplish  about  everything  except  the  generation  of 
human  life,  and  a  great  many  scientific  investigators 
have  spent  time  and  money  to  adapt  electricity  to  the 
purification  of  sewage,  but  so  far  with  little  practical 
result. 

Men  with  but  little  knowledge  of  the  vast  com¬ 
plexity  of  sewage  purification  have  developed  appara¬ 
tus  and  processes,  upon  which  they  have  secured 
patent,  for  treating  sewage  electrically. 

To  assist  them  in  introducing  their  goods  to  the 
public  they  have  associated  with  them  very  able  pro¬ 
moters  who  have  been  energetic  in  presenting  the 
efficiency  and  economy  of  the  process  to  many  com¬ 
munities.  The  subject  has,  therefore,  become  too 
public  to  be  altogether  ignored. 

The  Electro  Sanitation  Company  of  Los  Angeles, 
Cal.,  has  introduced  an  electrolytic  process  which 
consists  of  passing  crude  sewage  through  a  trough 
partly  filled  with  electrodes  placed  at  right  angles 
to  the  line  of  flow  and  connected  in  parallel  with  a  low 
voltage  electric  current. 

In  brief,  the  theory  is  that  the  applied  sewage,  con¬ 
taining  table  salt,  and  other  electrolytes  is  rapidly 
decomposed  by  the  passing  electric  current,  forming 
caustic  soda,  nascent  chlorine,  hydrogen  and  oxygen, 
l’art  of  the  chlorine  thus  set  free  combines  with  the 
soda,  lime  and  iron,  thrown  off  from  the  electrodes, 
forming  hypochlorites  which  attack  the  organic  matter 
and  destroy  the  bacteria. 

This  process  has  been  installed  in  several  small 
communities  in  Texas  and  California.  The  Milwau¬ 
kee  station  experimented  with  it  for  some  months, 
but  abandoned  it  as  unsuitable  to  Milwaukee  condi¬ 
tions. 

A  few  years  ago  Mr.  C.  P.  Landreth,  of  the  city  of 
Philadelphia,  invented  an  apparatus  for  the  purifica¬ 
tion  of  sewage  by  electrolysis.  This  machine  has  re¬ 
cently  been  tried  at  Elmhurst  sewage  disposal  plant 
in  the  borough  of  Queens,  New  York,  the  Chicago 
stockyards,  and  at  Decatur,  Ill. 

It  differs  essentially  from  the  apparatus  previously 
referred  to  in  that  a  rapidly-moving  paddle  is  intro¬ 
duced  between  each  electrode  to  keep  its  face  well 
secured  and  sewage  agitated,  but  the  theory  of  treat¬ 
ment  is  the  same,  .so  far  as  the  electrolysis  is  con¬ 
cerned. 

In  order  to  attain  the  standard  of  purification 
sought  by  those  interested  in  introducing  this  appa¬ 
ratus,  large  quantities  of  lime  are  added,  and  whether 
it  is  the  lime  or  the  electrolysis  which  is  the  most  in¬ 
fluential  agent  is  a  matter  of  disagreement  among 
engineers ;  but  whichever  way  this  discussion  may  be 
finally  settled,  the  cost  of  such  treatment,  so  far  as 
reliably  published,  has  not  attracted  the  public  to 
any  extent. 

The  author,  however,  wishes  it  understood  that  in 
spite  of  the  negative  results  so  far  obtained  in  treat¬ 
ing  sewage  by  electricity,  he  believes  that  this  force 
will  eventually  give  more  positive  and  encourag¬ 
ing  results,  but  he  does  not  look  for  such  until  the 
expert  electrician,  sanitary  chemist  and  engineer  get 
together  upon  a  serious  study  of  the  problem. 


Worcester  Activated  Sludge' Experiment. — At  a  recent 
special  meeting  the  ‘Worcester  City  Council  adopted  a 
report  of  the  Water  and  Sewerage  Committee  recom¬ 
mending  that  they  should  purchase  and  take  over  from 
Messrs.  Jones  &  Attwood,  Limited,  Stourbridge,  the 
plant  installed  by  the  latter  for  the  purification  of  the 
city’s  sewage  by  the  activated  sludge  process. 

Charing  Cross  Bridge. — At  the  sitting  of  the  Select 
Committee  of  the  House  of  Lords  on  the  Charing  Cross 
Bridge  Bill  on  Wednesday  the  chairman,  Lord  Kintore, 
informed  counsel  for  the  railway  company  that  the 
committee  would  not  allow  any  widening  scheme. 
With  respect  to  any  public  improvement  of  the  station 
site  being  authorised,  involving  the  removal  of  the 
station  and  bridge  within  fifteen  years  without  any  re¬ 
imbursement  to  the  company  for  the  strengthening  of 
the  bridge,  the  chairman  intimated  that  to  guard 
against  the  possibility  of  this  not  being  carried  into 
effect  there  might  be  a  provision  that  the  promoters 
of  such  a  Bill  must  give  notice  to  treat  within  a  year. 
The  Bill  was  then  passed. 

*  From  a  paper  read  before  tlie  Western  Society  of  Engineers. 


July  0,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


11 


Dry  Rot :  Its  Causes  and  Prevention/ 

By  E.  J.  GOODACRE,  a.m.inst.c.e.,  Assistant  Borough  Surveyor,  Shrewsbury. 


The  prevalence  of  dry  rot  in  this  country  is  caused 
by  the  growth  of  fungi  which  are  responsible  for  the 
rotting  and  eventual  destruction  of  structural  timbers 
in  buildings,  &c. 

Dry  rot  fungi  are  of  domestic  growth,  and  are  not 
found  in  living  trees,  but  the  disease  may  possibly 
originate  when  the  trees  lay  fallen  in  the  forest. 

There  are  known  at  present  to  be  three  different 
species  of  fungus  causing  dry  rot — viz.,  Merulius  lacry- 
mans,  Coniophora  cerebella,  Polyporus  vaporarius. 

The  following  is  a  short  description  of  the  respective 
fungi  which  are,  however,  seldom  found  in  existence 
as  isolated  specimens  : — 

Merulius  lacrymans  derives  the  former  part  of  its 
name  from  Merula  (black  bird),  due  to  its  eventual 
discoloration,  and  the  latter  part  being  appropriate 
because  of  the  ‘  ‘  tears  ’  ’  often  observable  in  conj  unc¬ 
tion  with  it. 

This  is  the  most  malignant  form  of  dry  rot ;  it 
thrives  in  moderate  climates  and  over  clayey  subsoils 
— this  is  important  in  drafting  building  by-laws  in 
such  districts  for  the  prevention  of  dry  rot ;  when  once 
established  it  will  develop  and  destroy  the  driest 
timbers,  owing  to  the  property  which  it  possesses  of 
producing  its  own  “tears”  or  moisture. 

Infection  of  wood  is  due  to  spores,  which  are  pro¬ 
duced  in  large  dark-brown  rust-like  undulating  patches 
with  white  margins,  and  are  known  as  fructifications, 
which,  when  facing  upwards  on  horizontal  supports 
are  usually  sterile,  and  fertile  when  facing  downwards. 
The  spores  of  Merulius,  when  kept  dry,  retain  then- 
vitality  for  many  months,  which 'thus  increases  the 
infectiousness  of  the  disease. 

Spores  are  also  formed  on  the  hyphae,  which  are 
long,  slender,  tube-like  formations,  which  weave  them¬ 
selves  into  strands  or  cushions  known  as  the  myce¬ 
lium.  This  characteristic  is  very  important,  as  it  is 
prima  facie  evidence  of  dry  rot.  These  fungal  cords 
possess  great  powers  of  resisting  drought  and  enable 
the  fungi  to  spread  very  rapidly  over  innutritious 
surfaces,  such  as  glass,  brick  walls,  mortar  joints  and 
iron  pipes,  for  considerable  distances  to  other  wood¬ 
work. 

The  old  idea  that  Merulius  lacrymans  requires  an 
alkali — such  as  ammoniacal  exhalations — to  promote 
the  development,  has,  according  to  later  research, 
proved  to  be  erroneous. 

Merulius  is  capable  of  destroying  the  sapwood  and 
heartwood  of  most  woods,  especially  coniferous 
timbers.  Hardwoods  are  not  immune  from  the 
malady. 

Coniophora  cerebella  is  very  similar  in  appearance 
to  Merulius,  in  conjunction  with  which  it  is  so  often 

found. 

Moisture  is  absolutely  essential  for  the  growth  of 
Coniophora.  Absolute  dryness  therefore  is  a  direct 
safeguard  against  this  fungi,  and,  of  course,  indirectly 
against  Merulius  lacrymans. 

The  mycelium  of  Coniophora  is  in  the  form  of  slender 
black  threads  in  great  profusion. 

Polyporus  vaporarius  (often  known  as  “Red  Rot  ”). 
The  fructifications  of  this  variety  are  white,  and  easily 
distinguished  from  those  of  Merulius.  The  fungal 
cords  of  Polyporus  differ  from  the  hyphae  of  Merulius, 
for  they  become  very  tough  in  the  former  case  instead 
of  brittle  when  dry  and  old  as  in  the  latter  case. 

Polyporus  causes  the  red  decayed  patches  in  deal. 

CAUSES  OF  DKYT  HOT. 

The  cause  of  dry  rot  is  dii-ectly  attributable  to  in¬ 
fection — chiefly  by  direct  contact — accompanied  by 
conditions  favourable  to  the  germination  of  the  spore. 
The  spores  are  microscopic  in  size.  It  is  computed 
that  there  are  9,000,000  spores  to  a  square  inch,  there¬ 
fore  on  an  average-sized  plant  there  are  roughly 
100,000,000  spores,  each  capable  of  much  harm  ;  and 
their  small,  brown,  dust-like  nature  enables  them  to 
float  a  long  distance  in  the  air  before  setttling.  Should 
this  resting-place  prove  to  be  congenial  to  its  growth, 
then  infection  is  assured. 

The  conditions  required  for  fertility  are  moisture 
and  moderate  temperature. 

The  i-ate  of  decay  is  dependent  upon  the  relative 
humidity — the  ratio  of  the  amount  of  moisture  to 
saturation  point  at  a  given  temperature  (10  to  20  deg. 

*  Paper  presented  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Institu¬ 
tion  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  at  Hastings. 


Cent.).  No  doubt  the  prevalence  of  dry  rot  in  this 
country  is  due  to  this  fact. 

Moisture  is  therefore  essential  to,  the  activity  of  dry 
rot  fungi  in  a  greater  or  lesser  degree,  according  to  the 
species ;  but  it  must  be  noted  that  the  degree  is  fairly 
constant  to  the  respective  fungus. 

I’ or  instance,  Coniophora  demands  a  good  deal  of 
moisture,  and  is  most  frequently  found  in  cellars;  so 
great  is  the  affinity  which  this  fungi  has  for  moisture 
that  its  growth  is  primd  facie  evidence  of  a  damp 
building  ;  it  is  often  found  growing  on  a  rafter  under 
a  leaky  roof.  On  the  other  hand,  Merulius  and  Poly¬ 
porus,  when  once  established,  can  grow  on  the  driest 
wood,  depending  on  their  own  power  for  the  production 
of  moisture.  This  fact  renders  Merulius,  which  pos¬ 
sesses  this  function  to  a  much  greater  degree  than 
Polyporus,  the  most  insidious  source  of  dry  rot. 

Chemical  analysis  of  rotted  wood  shows  that  it  con¬ 
tains  relatively  less  hydrogen  than  carbon  than  the 
sound  wood.  This  would  appear  to  indicate  that 
moisture  is  produced  by  oxidation.  Authorities  differ 
as  to  whether  these  fungi  can  be  grown  in  water. 

Temperature  affects  the  fungi,  causing  dry  rot. 
Merulius  lacrymans  thrives  at  a  moderate  tempera¬ 
ture.  The  mycelia  are  rapidly  killed  by  exposure  to 
a  temperature  of  40  deg.  Cent.  ;  so  that  infected  wood 
can  be  easily  sterilised  by  heat  that  does  not  burn  the 
timber.  Spores  and  the  fungi  themselves  are  quickly 
killed  by  steam,  but  the  resistance  to  lower  tempera¬ 
tures  is  greater,  and  frost  does  not  affect  it. 

Dry  rot  progresses  much  faster  in  summer  than  in 
winter  in  an  ordinary  building  which  is  heated,  and 
thus  has  its  air  made  relatively  dry  during  the  winter 
months. 

PREVENTION  OF  DRY  ROT. 

In  examining  a  building  affected  by  dry  rot  the  fungi 
should  be  carefully  and  minutely  examined  with  a 
view  to  identifying  the  species. 

The  extent  of  the  rotting  can  generally  be  estimated 
approximately  by  boring  test  holes  in  the  timber  at 
frequent  intervals.  If  the  material  is  badly  rotted  the 
borings  brought  out  will  be  in  the  form  of  brown 
powder. 

Hammering  on  the  timber  with  a  hammer  is  another 
method  frequently  adopted,  a  dull  sound  denoting 
probable  rotting  internally.  The  presence  of  dry  rot 
fungi  can  often  be  detected  by  the  familiar  unpleasant 
odour. 

The  first  obvious  preventive  measure  is  to  guard 
against  contact  with  infected  wood,  including  sjiores. 

Fungi  are  frequently  carried  in  lumber  and  spread 
by  placing  it  in  large  piles  with  scant  ventilation. 
This  no  doubt  accounts  for  the  fact  that  original  infec¬ 
tion  of  timber  in  the  majority  of  cases  in  contracted 
in  the  timber  yard  or  builder’s  stores.  Lack  of  sani¬ 
tation  and  bad  methods  of  stacking  sawn  wood  aggra¬ 
vate  the  disease.  It  would  appear  advisable  that  the 
whole  of  a  timber  yard  should  be  well  paved  in  tar¬ 
macadam  and  thoroughly  drained. 

The  next  means  of  prevention  is  to  deprive  the  fungi 
of  the  conditions  favourable  to  growth.  In  the  first 
place,  then,  the  timber  should  be  thoroughly  dry  and 
well  seasoned  ;  in  fact,  it  would  be  well  to  have  all 
timber  such  as  floor  joists,  &c.,  dessicated  or  “  stoved  ” 
to  a  temperature  of  50-60  deg.  Cent. 

The  seasoning  is  rendered  more  important  nowadays 
owing  to  the  amount  of  timber  felled  before  maturity. 

The  timber  should  be  protected  from  wet  during 
building  operations,  and  afterwards  protected  by  ade¬ 
quate  ventilation  and  suitable  methods  of  construction. 

To  secure  these  measures,  then,  in  practice  the  fol¬ 
lowing  methods  should  be  adopted  to  prevent  the 
development  of  Coniophora  cerebella,  that  require 
definitely  moist  wood,  and  also  to  decrease  the  suscep¬ 
tibility  of  the  timber  to  Merulius. 

The  wood  should  be  brought  direct  on  to  the  job  and 
placed  under  cover;  the  floor  joists,  especially  the 
ground-floor  joists,  should  be  creosoted ;  the  objection 
to  the  smell  of  this  treatment,  of  course,  is  against  it, 
but  it  is  more  apparent  than  real,  especially  after  some 
months’  exposure. 

All  vegetable  earth  should  be  removed  from  under 
floors,  as  ammoniacal  exhalations  are  certainly  favour¬ 
able — though  not  essential — to  the  growth  of  the  fungi 
causing  dry  rot. 

The  building  site  should  be  covered  with  at  least 


12 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


4  in.  of  cement  concrete,  asphalted  on  the  upper 
surface.  This-,  however,  is  an  expensive  method,  and 
it  is  suggested  that  4  in.  of  tar-macadam  would  be  a 
very  effective  substitute. 

The  ventilation  underneath  floors  should  be  care¬ 
fully  designed,  because  if  it  is  not  thorough  it  will  do 
more  harm  than  good.  For  instance,  you  will  possibly 
be  supplying  moisture  and  oxygen — two  essentials  to 
the  growth  of  fungi.  The  best  method  therefore  is 
to  fix  fresh-air  inlets  on  all  sides  of  the  under  floor 
space,  with  an  extraction  flue  taken  up  the  chimney 
breast  alongside  the  smoke  flues.  Should  there  be  a 
solid  floor  adjacent  to  any  side  of  an  open  floor,  through 
currents  of  air  should  be  ensured  by  laying  ducts 
through  the  solid  floors. 

The  ends  of  all  joists  should  be  fixed  in  such  a 
manner  that  there  is  a  passage  of  air  all  round  the  end 
of  the  joist  as  far  as  possible.  A  good  method  of 
attaining  this  is  to  let  the  joists  take  a  bearing  on  a 
2-in.  by  g-in.  flat  bar  of  iron  laid  on  the  supporting 
wall. 

Fugging  should  be  avoided  in  floors. 

Immunity  from  dry  rot  is  encouraged  by  laying  the 
concrete,  &c.,  under  the  floors  at  an  early  stage  of  the 
erection,  and  delaying  the  laying  of  floors  until  the 
latest  possible  moment,  when  the  house  is  compara¬ 
tively  dry.  Needless  to  say,  the  floor  bpards  should 
be  stored  in  a  dry  place  before  use. 

Care  should  be  taken  that  no  shavings  are  left  under 
the  floors  by  the  carpenters,  as  this  practice  is  fre¬ 
quently  the  origin  of  dry  rot.  In  cases  where  boards  or 
wood  blocks  are  fixed  directly  on  the  concrete,  they 
should  be  bedded  on  some  bitumastic  compound  ;  the 
concrete  and  the  screeding  also  must  be  thoroughly 
dry.  On  no  account  should  wooden  pegs  driven  in  the 
ground  be  used  as  concrete  screeds. 

Linoleum  and  other  similar  floor  coverings  aggravate 
the  activity  of  the  fungi  causing  dry  rot,  but  floors 
should  be  so  constructed  as  to  obviate  any  ill  effects 
from  their  use. 

Skirtings  and  other  wall  mouldings  should  on  no 
account  be  fixed  until  the  walls  are  quite  dry.  The 
practice  of  rendering  walls  behind  skirtings  with 
cement  is  to  be  commended,  but  it  must  be  perfectly 
dry  before  the  skirting  is  fixed. 

Studded  partitions  should  be  plastered  with  ordinary 
plaster,  which  is  somewhat  porous  and  admits  of  ven¬ 
tilation. 

Special  attention  should  be  given  to  dampcourses 
with  a  view  to  minimising  the  risk  of  dry  rot.  The 
more  extensive  use  of  vertical  dampcourses  would  be 
a  step  in  the  right  direction.  Horizontal  dampcourses 
are  frequently  fixed  only  just  above  the  ground  level 
and  just  below  the  joist  level,  with  the  result  that  the 
bricks  are  continuously  soaked  with  moisture,  and 
therefore  form  a  reservoir  from  which  fungi  may  draw 
their  “  life  blood.”  Lead,  asphalt  bitumastic  com¬ 
pounds  on  fabric  and  slates  in  cement  are  all  satis¬ 
factory. 

Hollow  walls  suitably  ventilated  is  a  system  of  con¬ 
struction  especially  to  be  recommended  from  this 
standpoint.  In  this  system  the  ends  of  floor  joists 
should  be'  open  to  and  not  project  into  the  cavity. 
Lead  and  asphalt  flats  on  a  wooden  sub-structure  are 
very  prone  to  dry  rot,  and  where  the  underside  of  the 
joists  are  ceiled  the  preventive  measures  present  diffi¬ 
culties.  Reinforced  concrete,  however,  has  enabled 
us  to  overcome  the  use  of  timber  in  such  cases. 

It  is  necessary  to  take  particular  care  that  no  timber 
should  be  painted  which  is  immaturely  seasoned  or 
rot  dry. 

In  dealing  with  cases  where  the  presence  of  a  serious 
attack  of  dry  rot  has  been  established,  more  drastic 
action  is  necessary.  The  infected  wood  should  be  oiled 
to  keep  down  the  spores,  and  carefully  removed  and 
burned,  and  not  deposited  in  a  builder’s  yard.  The 
carpenters’  tools,  especially  the  saw,  used  on  the  work 
should  be  sterilised.  This  may  appear  to  some  to  be 
rather  too  stringent,  but  the  advisability  of  such  a 
precaution  is  undoubted.  The  adjoining  woodwork 
should  be  carefully  tested,  as  previously  stated,  and 
removed  if  there  are  the  least  signs  of  the  fungi.  The 
brickwork  or  stonework  should  be  sterilised  by  a  blast 
flame,  and  the  woodwork  should  be  dried — not  by  a 
gas  jet,  which  forms  moisture  as  a  product  of  combus¬ 
tion — and  treated  with  a  wash  of  dilute  formalin, 
which  is  a  safe  and  most  effective  antiseptic,  although 
it  must  be  noted  that  through  evaporation  this  treat¬ 
ment  is  purely  temporary.  Carbolic  acid  is  also  a 
valuable  antiseptic  for  this  purpose. 

Hot  limewash  is  very  useful  for  a  mild  attack,  and, 
in  fact,  most  antiseptics  are  more  or  less  effective. 


It  must,  however,  be  strongly  urged  that,  owing  to 
the  difficulty  of  completely  eradicating  the  fungi  when 
once  established,  preventive  measures  are  of  para¬ 
mount  importance. 

In  conclusion,  it  is  necessary  to  say  that  the  present 
knowledge  of  fungi  causing  dry  rot  is  immature,  and 
the  results  of  research  are  often  very  eccentric  and 
sometimes  contradictory.  The  author  has  endeavoured 
to  compile  the  generally  accepted  results  of  the  valu¬ 
able  work  already  accomplished  by  experts  in  this  and 
other  countries,  together  with  a  few  practical  sugges¬ 
tions. 

The  annual  loss  in  this  country  alone  through  dry  rot 
must  be  alarming,  and  in  view  of  the  diminishing 
timber  supplies  this  also  renders  the  subject  one  of 
extreme  national  importance. 


THE  GOODS  CLEARING  HOOSE  SYSTEM. 


By  Arthur  E.  Collins,  m.inst.c.e.. 

City  Engineer  of  Norwich. 

I  have  read  the  reports  of  the  late  Sir  William 
Preece,  f.r.s.,  k.c.b.,  and  also  those  of  Mr.  James 
Swinburne,  f.r.s.,  m.i.c.e.,  and  of  Dr.  II.  S.  Hele- 
Shaw,  f.r.s.,  ll.d.,  n. sc. .  m.i.c.e.,  m.t.m.e.,  and  finally 
the  recent  report  of  Sir  John  Purser  Griffith,  m.i.c.e., 
ex-chief  engineer  of  the  Port  of  Dublin,  on  the  proposals 
of  the  above  New  Transport  Company,  Limited,  and  in 
giving  my  full  endorsement  to  all  of  the  above,  1 
desire  to  express  the  opinion,  in  corroboration  of  that 
of  the  Rt.  Hon.  Lord  Headley,  m.t.c.e.i.,  that  the 
adoption  of  the  Goods  Clearing  House  System,  as 
proposed  by  the  company,  would  greatly  lengthen  the 
life  of  our  road  surfaces,  and  would  thus  relieve  the 
Koad  Board  of  a  very  heavy  proportion  of  its  present 
out  la  j . 

I  am  further  of  the  opinion  that,  with  the  ever- 
increasing  relative  inefficiency  of  our  railways,  more 
and  more  road  traffic  in  the  shape  of  heavy  auto¬ 
mobile  lorries  will  be  thrust  upon  the  roads,  and 
therefore  a  very  great  increase  in  the  expenditure  of 
the  Road  Board  and  highway  authorities  must  take 
place.  ’ 

When  it  is  borne  in  mind  that  road  transport  must 
be  in  itself,  irrespective  of  road  wear  and  tear,  far 
more  costly  than  railway  transport  would  be  under 
goods  clearing  house  conditions,  it  will  be  seen  that 
the  adoption  of  the  New  Transport  Company’s  system 
must  be  what  the  late  Sir  William  Preece  nearly  ten 
years  ago  declared  it  to  be,  “  a  great  national 
economy.” 

As  I  have  already  publicly  stated,  the  transport 
rates  for  goods  in  this  non-mountainous  country, 
amply  supplied  with  coal  and  iron,  should  be  the 
cheapest,  rather  than  the  dearest,  in  the  world,  and 
I  am  strongly  of  opinion  that  the  reforms  advocated 
by  the  New  Transport  Company  would  undoubtedly 
make  them  so. 


STREET  LIGHTING  CONTRACTS. 


COMPANY'S  ACTION  ACAINST  CORPORATION. 

Mr.  Justice  Bailhache  gave  judgment  for  the 
Wycombe  Borough  Electric  Light  and  Power  Com¬ 
pany,  Limited,  on  Tuesday,  in  an  action  for  £1,290 
claimed  under  a  lighting  contract  with  the  Mayor  of 
the  borough  of  Chipping  Wycombe.  The  case  arose 
out  of  the  Lighting  Restriction  Order,  the  effect  of 
which  was  to  reduce  largely  the  number  of  lamps 
allowed  in  the  town.  The  corporation  of  Chipping 
Wycombe  contended  that  they  should  be  relieved  of 
their  obligation  to  pay  considerable  sums  to  the  plain¬ 
tiff  company  for  the  full  and  complete  lighting  of  the 
town. 

His  Lordship  (the  Times  reports)  held  that  the 
diminution  in  the  lighting  was  not  due  to  any  cause 
over  which  the  plaintiffs  had  control,  and  that  the 
case  was  indistinguishable  from  the  Leiston  Gas  Com¬ 
pany  v.  Leiston  Urban  District  Council. 


Institution  of  Water  Engineers  Summer  Meeting. — 

Elsewhere  in  this  issue  we  reproduce  the  paper  en¬ 
titled  “  Colour  Records  Applied  to  Potable  Waters,” 
which  Mr.  J.  S.  Pickering,  of  Cheltenham,  presented 
at  the  recent  summer  meeting  of  the  Institution  of 
Water  Engineers  in  London.  A  report  of  the  discus¬ 
sion  will  appear  in  our  next  issue. 


July  6,  191?. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


13 


Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers. 

ANNUAL  MEETING  AT  HASTINCS  :  DISCUSSION  OF  PAPERS. 


The  first  paper  to  receive  consideration  at  the 
annual  meeting  of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  and 
County  Engineers  last  week  was  that  of  Mr.  H.  T. 
YVakelam,  county  engineer  of  Middlesex,  dealing  with 
the  subject  of 

EXTRAORDINARY  TRAFFIC  AND  EXCESSIVE 
WEIGHTS  ON  HIGHWAYS. 

The  paper  was  reproduced  in  our  last  issue. 

Mr.  Wakelam  read  a  letter  from  Mr.  E.  Worrall 
(Stretford),  in  which  he  regretted  that  being  detained 
m  London  on  Private  Bill  woi'k  would  prevent  him 
speaking  on  this  very  informing,  paper.  The  list 
which  he  offered  as  a  guide  to  procedure  in  the  matter 
of  contributions  was  a  useful  table  of  data,  but  he  re¬ 
garded  the  smaller  rates  indicated  as  a  contribution 
to  the  extra  cost  of'  superior  pavements  than  as  a 
charge  for  their  maintenance.  The  author’s  view  that 
“  as  the  revenue  of  the  operating  companies  improves 
so  should  their  contribution  to  maintenance”  im¬ 
pressed  him  as  an  argument  of  expediency  more  than 
of  principle.  Whether  any  particular  company  could 
or  could  not  afford  out  of  its  profits  to  spare  a  contribu¬ 
tion  towards  road  maintenance  seemed  to  him  a  thing 
ajiart  from  the  basic  principle.  The  illustration  in 
the  paper  might  not  clearly  reproduce  his  photograph. 
It  certainly  did  not  exaggerate  the  obvious  damage 
which  motor  omnibus  traffic  could  inflict  on  macadam 
roads.  He  had  a  series  of  such  photographs  taken 
in  1914  on  roads  adjacent  to  his  district,  where  the 
damage  by  such  traffic  was  in  question,  and  as  they 
might  serve  to  illustrate  the  feature  very  clearly  he 
sent  a  set  to  the  author.  He  believed  there  were  sub¬ 
stantial  exceptions  to  the  conclusions  noted  as  to 
greater  tractive  effort  of  waterbound  metalling  which 
hold  good  only  for  light  vehicles  and  low  temperature. 
Some  experiments  carried  out  by  Mr.  J.  Walker  Smith 
and  tabulated  in  his  book  on  “  Tar  Macpdam,”  pub¬ 
lished  in  1909,  showed  that  with  heavier  vehicles  and 
higher  temperatures  the  tractive  effort  on  tar 
macadam  was  considerably  higher  than  on  water- 
bound  metalling  The  instances  given  of  the  com¬ 
bined  effect  of  speed  and  weight  were  interesting, 
and,  to  his  mind,  quite  conclusive,  and  he  quite 
agreed  with  the  recommendation  that  speed  was  the 
factor  which  should  be  revised. 

Mr.  W.  J.  Hadfield  (Sheffield),  in  moving  a  vote  of 
thanks,  said  the  paper  marked  a  step  forward  in  the 
attitude  towards  the  motor-bus.  The  author  said 
-there  should  be  no  attempt  made  to  throttle  industry 
or  trade.  In  Sheffield  motor-’buses  were  run  by  the 
corporation,  not  by  a  company,  and  any  profits  made 
went  to  the  rates.  They  were  run  not  as  a  commercial 
speculation  but  to  get  people  to  and  from  the  out¬ 
lying  parts  of  the  city.  He  did  not  think  large  profits 
were  made  by  the  running  of  motor-’buses  anywhere 
outside  London.  Therefore  he  did  not  think  it  was 
much  use  asking  the  motor-’bus  people  to  make  large 
contributions  towards  the  rates.  In  the  paper  they 
came  to  much  more  moderate  figures  than  he  had  pre¬ 
viously  seen.  To  talk  of  three-eighths  of  a  penny  to 
a  penny  per  ’bus  mile  was  different  to  talking  of  3d. 
per  ’bus  mile.  In  their  case  at  Sheffield,  though  the 
petrol  consumption  was  very  low,  there  was  not  much 
margin  between  the  total  receipts  and  expenses ;  cer¬ 
tainly  nothing  to  allow  of  a  contribution  of  3d.  per 
’bus  mile  to  the  costs  of  the  roads.  Mr.  Wakelam  was 
of  opinion  that  the  steel  tyres  of  heavy  motor  lorries, 
travelling  with  authorised  loads  and  at  regulation 
speeds,  were  no  more"  destructive  to  road  surfaces  than 
the  indiarubber  tyres.  Perhaps  the  roads  mentioned 
were  of  macadam  or  wood,  but  when  they  came  to  a 
place  like  Sheffield,  where  there  was  a  good  deal  of 
sett  paving,  the  steel  tyre  was  the  most  destructive. 
The  tyre  caught  the  end  of  the  sett  and  it  broke  up. 
Macadam  roads  on  which  motor  ’buses  had  been  run¬ 
ning  for  four  years,  eighty  journeys  a  day,  showed  no 
signs  of  damage.  Where  they  bad  got  an  undulating 
road  the  greatest  damage  wa.s  where  the  ’buses  got 
up  speed  at  the  bottom  level.  He  had  no  doubt  that 
was  due  to  the  excessive  speed  at  that  point.  He  had 
water-bound  roads  and  tar-bound  roads  over  which 
motor  omnibuses  had  run  for  four  years  without  com¬ 
plaint.  There  were  water-bound  roads  and  water- 
bound  roads,  and  he  could  not  think  the  photographs 
were  a  fair  average  of  the  damage,  done  by  motor 
'buses.  He  could  not  agree  with  the  remarks  of  Mr. 


Worrall  as  to  the  tractive  effort  being  higher  on  tar- 
bound  macadam  than  on  water-bound. 

Mr.  E.  J.  8ilcock  !(Westminster)  said  he  had  much 
pleasure  in  seconding  the  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr. 
Wakelam  for  his  very  interesting  and  good  paper; 
and,  at  the  same  time,  he  would  like  to  congratulate 
the  institution  on  being  able  to  place  upon  its 
minutes  a  communication  dealing  with  this  very 
intricate  subject  of  extraordinary  traffic.  It  was  no 
doubt  a  subject  on  which  there  was  a  great  deal  of 
difference  of  opinion,  and  it  was  one  which  closely 
affected  the  work  of  all  municipal  engineers.  The 
great  complexity  of  the  subject  was  illustrated  by 
what  often  appeared  to  the  layman  the  contradictory 
judgments  given  on  cases  which  had  been  carried  to 
the  courts.  Take,  for  instance,  the  Abingdon  case 
referred  to  by  the  author.  There  the  judgment  was 
given  by  one  of  our  most  capable  judges,  and  he  said 
distinctly  that  the  motor  omnibus  traffic  in  this  par¬ 
ticular  instance  was  extraordinary  traffic,  and  that 
it  would  no  doubt  become  ordinary  traffic,  but  Mr. 
Justice  Sankey  did  not  give  the  slightest  indication 
when  the  time  would  arrive  wherr  the  motor  omni¬ 
buses  on  that  particular  route  would  pass  from  one 
category  to  the  other.  As  throwing  some  light  upon 
the  subject,  he  might  refer  to  the  case  of  the  Wors- 
borough  Urban  District  Council  against  the  Barnsley 
Co-operative  Society.  It  was  held  in  that  case  that 
the  traffic  was  not  less  extraordinary,  because  it  might 
be  expected  by  the  highway  authority,  and  that  it 
remained  extraordinary  until  the  road  was  made  fit 
to  bear  it.  Now  apparently  if  the  highway  authority 
refused  to  carry  out  its  duties  to  make  the  road  fit  to 
carry  the  traffic,  that  kind  of  traffic  would  remain 
extraordinary,  and  the  users  of  that  traffic  would  have 
to  be  mulcted  in  damages  for  using  the  road.  Of 
course,  there  were  a  great  many  classes  of  traffic  about 
which  there  could  be  no  question.  For  instance, 
where  large  public  works  were  being  carried  out,  and 
traffic  of  an  entirely  new  character  was  being  brought 
into  the  district.  He  did  not  think  there  was  much 
doubt  about  that  traffic  being  extraordinary.  There 
was  a  good  deal  of  equity  about  that,  because 
ultimately  the  new  works  would  become  rateable,  and 
provide  income  for  the  extraordinary  traffic  which 
they  introduced  into  the  neighbourhood.  On  the 
other  hand  there  were  many  trades  which  developed 
in  extraordinary  ways.  For  instance,  a  colliery  might 
get  rid  of  the  whole  of  it’s  coal  by  rail,  and  by  reason 
of  new  industries  coming  into  the  neighbourhood  the 
bulk  of  that  coal  might  be  carted  over  roads  in  the 
neighbourhood.  There  they  got  no  increase  of  income 
to  make  up  for  this  extra  traffic,  and  the  question  was 
whether  it  was  extraordinary  traffic  or  not.  All  these 
things  had  to  be  taken  into  consideration.  Then  there 
was  the  mode  in  which  the  traffic  was’ carried.  A 
string  of  carts  following  behind  each  other  in  the  same 
track  would  cause  more  damage  than  if  the  same  amount 
of  traffic  was  carried  in  single  carts  and  the  traffic 
distributed  more  evenly  over  the  surface  of  the  road. 
There  was  another  element  in  the  paper  which  ap¬ 
plied  to  exceptionally  heavy  loads,  and  that  the  in¬ 
terval  of  time  between  the  loads.  They  might  have 
a  very  heavy  load  taken  over  a  road  which  caused  the 
same  deformation  of  the  road.  If  the  load  was  not 
repeated  a  good  deal  of  the  deformation  would  be  cor¬ 
rected  by  the  other  traffic  on  the  road.  The  early 
lenewal  of  this  traffic  might  cause  a  good  deal  more 
damage  than  if  spread  over  a  longer  period  of  time. 
These  and  other  exceptional  circumstances  must  all 
be  taken  into  account  in  forming  an  opinion  as  to  the 
extraordinary  character  of  traffic  beside  its  volume, 
excessive  weights  and  unusual  vehicles.  It  was  not 
inequitable  that  motor  omnibuses  should  contribute 
to  upkeep  of  roads.  Tramways  cost  was  about  fth 
of  a  penny  per  car  mile.  The  suggestion  that  as  the 
cost  of  running  went  down  more  could  be  paid  for 
road  maintenance  seemed  illogical.  Provincial  areas 
should  not  pay  more  than  metropolitan,  because  the 
takings  were  less:  London  was  Is.  2d.  and  Leeds  lid. 
per  car-mile,  although  carrying  more  passengers.  On 
the  question  of  claims  for  damage  for  extraordinary 
traffic  the  surveyor  would  be  well  advised  to  have  his 
certificate  settled  by  counsel.  The  certificate  was  ol 
prime  importance.  The  author  said  it  was  generally 
necessary;  it  was  always  necessary;  and  unless  it  was 
properly  drawn  it  might  let  down  the  whole  case.  It 


14 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


was  therefore  of  the  highest  importance  that  the  certi¬ 
ficate  should  be  submitted  to  counsel  before  it  was 
served.  With  regard  to  the  responsibility  of  the  sur¬ 
veyor  for  the  figures,  he  thought  there  Mr.  Wakelam 
suggested  that  the  surveyor  should  not  assume  any 
responsibility.  It  seemed  to  him,  in  the  last  resort, 
the  surveyor  must  be  the  only  person  who  could  be 
lesponsible  for  the  figures.  He  knew  what  the  road 
had  cost,  and  it  was  up  to  him  to  see  that  counsel  did 
not  put  forward  figures  which  could  not  be  substan¬ 
tiated.  Mr.  Wakelam  said  that  the  surveyor  should 
be  able  to  prove  that  the  traffic  was  practically  con¬ 
tinuous.  He  did  not  know  what  the'  authority  for 
this  could  be.  He  had  never  before  heard  the 
suggestion  made  that  it  should  be  continuous.  It 
might  be  extraordinary,  and  yet  be  caused  by  isolated 
journeys.  The  author  omitted  to  mention  in  the  in¬ 
formation  required  “  the  average  cost  of  the  highways 
in  the  neighbourhood.”  Now  the  meaning  of  that 
expression,  “  the  highways  in  the  neighbourhood,” 
was  settled  in  the  case  of  Morpeth  Rural  District  Council 
v.  Bulloch’s  Hall  Colliery  Company,  in  which  it  was 
decided  that  the  average  cost  of  highways  in  the  dis¬ 
trict  should  be  given  for  a  period  of  five  years,  with 
the  average  cost  for  five  years  of  highways  in  the 
neighbourhood,  but  that  for  the  road  which  had  been 
damaged  (the  road  in  question)  the  cost  of  repairs  for 
one  year  only  need  be  given,  and  not  the  average. 
That  was  an  important  decision,  and  it  might  be  of 
interest  to  the  members  to  know  it.  It  was  in  the 
Biilericay  case,  in  which  it  was  settled.  That  case 
was  taken  to  the  Court  of  Appeal,  and  it  was  held  to 
mean  “  similar  roads  in  the  neighbourhood  of  a 
similar  character.”  That  information  must  be  pre¬ 
pared  by  the  surveyor  to  substantiate  his  case.  It 
was  also  held  that  the  highway  rate  of  the  district 
mukt  be  substantially  increased  by  the  cost  of  the 
damage  done  by  tire  extraordinary  traffic.  That  was 
a  very  important  decision.  He  did  not  know  whether 
that  case  was  taken  to  the  Court  of  Appeal.  It  seemed 
to  him  to  place  a  very  important  limitation  upon  the 
sort  of  case  which  could  be  successfully  carried  for¬ 
ward  by  the  road  authority.  These  cases  were  of 
such  a  complicated  character  that  it  seemed  to  him 
as  far  as  possible  surveyors  were  well  advised  to  try 
and  arrange  terms  with  road  users  for  damage  rather 
than  to  carry  cases  into  court.  The  amount  of 
damage  which  was  sustained  by  the  roads  varied  in 
such  wide  degrees  that  it  was  most  difficult  to  get  any 
sort  of  basis  to  arrive  upon;  that  it  was  better  to 
arrive  at  a  settlement  by  negotiation  rather  than  to 
carry  the  case  into  court. 

Mr.  H.  Percy  Boulnois  (Westminster)  said  he 
had  been  engaged  in  a  great  number  of  these  extra¬ 
ordinary  traffic  cases  in  the  courts.  The  whole  thing 
bristled  with  difficulties.  They  never  knew  until 
the  judgment  was  given  which  way  it  was  going. 
The  greatest  care  had  to  be  taken  by  everybody  that 
there  should  be  no  loophole  for  the  other  side.  Mr. 
Wakelam  did  well  to  draw  attention  to  the  drawing 
up  of  the  certificate,  which  had  a  bearing  on  the 
whole  case.  With  regard  to  the  Abingdon  case,  it 
was  true  that  the  roads  were  not  quite  country  roads, 
but  they  were  not  main  roads.  There  was  a  shorter 
main  road  to  Oxford,  but  it  got  into  such  a  deplorable 
condition'  that  the  ’buses  had  to  use  this  other  road, 
and  he  thought  Mr.  Justice  Sankey’s  judgment  was 
biassed  by  that  fact.  Mr.  Justice  Sankey  said  he 
would  as  soon  meet  a  mastodon  on  a  road  as  a 
motor-’bus.  There  was  a  large  population  at  Boar 
Hill,  and  these  omnibuses  were  to  some  extent 
serving  that  population  as  well  as  Oxford.  They 
must  not  rely  too  much  upon  this  judgment,  as  judg¬ 
ments  were  being  constantly  altered.  It  was  true 
that  there  was  an  appeal,  and  that  the  appeal  failed, 
but  he  must  draw  attention  to  that.  Although  he 
was  in  private  practice,  and  drew  his  fee  in  these 
cases,  he  advised  them,  as  Mr.  Silcock  did,  to  make, 
if  possible,  private  arrangement  with  the  user  of  the 
traffic.  Unless  they  were  absolutely  sure  of  their 
facts  it  was  well  to  compromise.  As  to  comparable 
roads  there  was  a  great  difficulty.  In  many  cases  it 
was  extremely  difficult  to  find  a  road  which  was 
comparable  with  the  road  with  which  they  were 
dealing.  There  was  the  great  pitfall.  It  was  diffi¬ 
cult  to  find  a  road  which  was  exactly  comparable 
and  cost  the  same  for  maintenance  over  a  period 
of  five  years.  Any  slight  difference  was  at  once 
seized  hold  of  to  make  the  best  of  it.  With  the  table 
of  proposed  road  contributions  for  omnibus  traffic, 
given  in  the  paper,  he  did  not  know,  and  perhaps  Mr. 
Wakelam  would  tell  them,  how  he  arrived  at  the 
figure  of  -j^d.  per  ’bus  mile  for  a  granite  sett  or 


Hurax  paved  road  on  concrete,  and  fd.  for  a  specially 
constructed  wood  paved  or  asphalted  road  on  rein¬ 
forced  concrete.  He  should  have  changed  the  figures. 
That  led  him  to  another  point.  What  was  the  traffic 
going  to  be  in  the  future?  It  was  all  very  well  to 
go  for  these  omnibus  companies  and  other  people 
for  extraordinary  traffic.  He  'might  not  live  to  see 
it,  but  after  the  war  there  would  come  back  any 
number  of  motor  lorries,  and  his  impression  was  that 
before  many  years  were  over  the  roads  would  have 
to  carry  ten  to  twenty  times  more  traffic— greater 
weights,  greater  speeds.  There  would  be  a  proces¬ 
sion  of  motor  lorries  going  along  the  roads.  Manu¬ 
facturers  would  not  be  content  to  load  up  lorries, 
send  the  goods  to  railway  stations,  unload  them 
there,  load  them  on  goods  trains,  then  load  them 
again  on  lorries  for  delivery.  With  mechanical 
advance  there  was  no  limit  to  the  weight  and  speed 
of  the  traffic  on  the  road.  All  these  things  would 
be  laughed  to  scorn.  He  did  congratulate  Mr. 
Wakelam  upon  having  brought  it  before  that  meet¬ 
ing,  and  he  hoped  it  might  be  the  means  of  assisting 
all  of  them  who  had  occasionally  to  take  up  these 
very  intricate,  troublesome,  and  awkward  cases  of 
extraordinary  traffic. 

Mr.  A.  E.  Collins  (Norwich)  said  this  was  not 
entirely  a  question  of  road-making.  He  thought  the 
people  who  used  the  roads  ought  to  give  proper 
attention  to  the  vehicles  they  put  upon  the  roads. 
To  his  mind  it  was  impossible  to  make  roads  to 
stand  the  traffic  of  which  Mr.  Boulnois  spoke.  With 
unlimited  money  they  could  do  it;  but  they  had  not 
unlimited  money.  They  ought  to  be  able  to  limit 
the  weight  going  over  the  roads,  determine  how  the 
weight  should  be  distributed,  and  whether  the  vehicle 
should  have  steel  or  rubber  tyres.  It  appeared  to 
him  that  it  was  not  outside  the  powers  of  engineers 
to  design  vehicles  so  as  to  decide  the  weight  upon 
each  wheel.  In  regard  to  the  legislation  upon  the 
manner  in  which  the  weights  of  traffic  should  be 
placed  upon  the  roads,  this  paper  was  a  most  valu¬ 
able  one,  showing  as  it  did  the  pitfalls  of  the  Act. 
For  instance,  it  looked  as  if  everything  had  been 
done  in  the  way  of  putting  obstacles  in  the  path 
of  the  highway  authorities.  He  did  not  consider  it 
was  the  business  of  highway  authorities  to  put 
obstacles  in  the  way  of  trade,  but  he  did  think  it 
was  their  business  to  prevent  people  who  were  using 
the  roads  for  profit  doing  destruction  to  those  roads. 
He  thought  their  efforts  should  be  devoted  to 
securing  the  proper  construction  of  vehicles  for 
users. 

Air.  A.  Dryland  (Surrey)  said  the  points  to  which 
he  was  going  to  call  attention  were  small  points,  but 
of  much  importance.  In  the  course  of  his  paper  Mr. 
Wakelam  referred  to  new  omnibus  services.  He 
thought  what  he  intended  to  write  of  there  was  new 
omnibus  routes.  There  was  no  control  over  a  new 
omnibus  service  if  it  was  over  a  route  which  was 
already  used.  He  had  no  doubt  Air.  Wakelam  had 
that  in  his  mind.  The  expression  might,  however, 
mislead  people  who  were  not  familiar  with  the  terms 
of  the  provision.  Then  Mr.  Wakelam,  describing  a 
photograph  of  the  typical  kind  of  destruction  set 
up,  says  “  it  shows  the  kind  of  road  corrugation 
inherent  to  motor  omnibus  traffic,  and  it  is  practi¬ 
cally  impossible  to  prevent  this  where  such  vehicles 
travel  over  waterbound  metalling,  on  which  a  greater 
tractive  effort  is  required  than  upon  any  other  kind 
of  road  surfacing.”  He  very  much  questioned 
whether  that  was  correct.  A  good  water-bound  sur¬ 
face  needed  less  tractive  effort  than  a  tar-macadam 
surface  under  certain  condition.?  of  temperature — viz., 
in  hot  weather.  Alany  owners  of  motor  lorries  com¬ 
plained  of  tar-bound  roads  in  hot  weather.  It  was 
quite  true,  probably,  taking  the  year  all  round,  that 
the  tractive  effort  might  be  less.  But  it  was  not 
absolutely  conclusive  under  all  conditions  that  the 
tractive  effort  was  greater  on  the  water-bound  sur¬ 
face  than  on  other  surfaces.  Corrugation  was  greater 
on  water-bound  surfaces,  not  because  of  the  greater 
tractive  effort,  but  owing  to  water-bound  surfaces 
being  more  disturbed  by  the  traffic.  The  reason  was 
that  the  water-bound  surface  was  more  easily  dis¬ 
placed  than  the  surfaces  of  some  of  the  more  closely 
binding  materials.  He  quite  agreed  with  the  author 
that  speed  was  an  important  element  as  to  damage. 
He  had  a  case  of  motor  ’buses  doing  considerable 
damage  when  running  up  to  thirty  miles  an  hour, 
but  on  turning  round  on  a  gravel  road  at  low  speed 
doing  no  damage.  When  the  weight  was  equal  as 
the  speed  increased  the  damage  effected  was  enor¬ 
mously  increased  far  more  in  proportion  than  the 
actual  increase  of  speed.  He  thought,  taken  gene- 


July  6,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


15 


rally,  it  was  a  very  useful  paper,  and  he  agreed, 
largely  with  the  tenor  of  it.  Mr.  Wakelam  pointed 
out  the  importance  of  the  certificate  in  extraordinary 
traffic  because  it  had  been  a  great  pitfall  to  many 
people  bringing  extraordinary  traffic  cases.  Pie 
hoped  this  paper  would  not  encourage  people  to  bring 
extraordinary  traffic  cases,  because,  as  Mr.  Boulnois 
said,  “  it  is  far  better  to  agree  with  your  adversary 
than  to  take  him  into  court.”  They  would  find 
that  generally  the  costs  amounted  to  more  than  the 
claim. 

Mr.  W.  Nisbet  Blair  (St.  Pancras)  said  it  was 
questioned  whether  the  damage  could  be  greater  to 
a  granite-paved  road  than  to  a  wood-paved  road.  It 
could,  unquestionably;  and  Mr.  Wake-lam’s  conten¬ 
tion  was  proved  that  speed  had  a  great  deal  to  do 
with  the  damage  done.  There  was  another  element 
in  it,  the  character  of  the  wheel,  which  caused 
damage.  A  rubber-tyred  wheel  did  not  do  so  much 
damage  to  a  granite-paved  road  as  a  steel-tyred 
wheel,  which  caused  immense  damage.  He  had  had 
hundreds  and  thousands  of  setts  crushed  by  steel- 
tyred  vehicles  going  at  high  speed.  On  a  material 
like  granite  setts  the  steel  type  set  up  a  grinding  and 
crushing  action. 

(To  be  continued.) 


Among  those  present  at  the  meeting  were  : — 
Members — .Messrs.  H.  E.  Anderson  (Lambeth), 
J.  A.  Angell  (Beckenham),  G.  Ball  (Bexhill),  P.  A. 
Benn  (Lichfield),  R.  H.  Bicknell  (Westminster),  J. 
Birch  (East  Ham),  W.  N.  Blair  (St.  Pancras),  E.  W. 
Booth  (Wallington),  H.  Percy  Boulnois  (Westminster), 
J.  Bowen  (Reading),  W.  L.  Bradley  (Tonbridge), 

O.  A.  Bridges  (Bognor),  J.  H.  Brierley  (Richmond, 
Surrey),  0.  Broomridge  (Birkenhead),  J.  A.  Budge 
(Birmingham),  T.  Bull  (Thurnscoe),  T.  F.  Bunting 
(Maidstone),  S.  E.  Burgess  (Middlesbrough),  1. 
Caink  (Worcester),  W.  Louis  Carr  (Ruislip-North- 
wood),  C.  Chambers-Smith  (London),  A.  E.  Collins 
(Norwich),  H.  T.  Chapman  (Kent  C.C.),  H.  Collins 
(Colchester),  C.  H.  Cooper  (Wimbledon),  G.  Cowan 
(Portsmouth),  C.  Day  (Chatham),  W.  F.  Dennis 
(West  Hartlepool),  P.  Dodd  (Wandsworth),  J.  H. 
Drew  (Grantham),  A.  Dryland  (Surrey  O.O.),  D. 
Edwards  (Taunton),  W.  Fairley  (Richmond,  Surrey), 
H.  J.  Farmer  (Christchurch),  W.  Fowlds  (Keighley), 
S.  S.  P.  Frye  (Hastings  Rural),  J.  Gammage  (Dudley), 
C.  F.  Gettings  (Worcester),  S.  S.  Gettings  (Dorking), 
W.  J.  Goodwin  (Salisbury),  A.  T.  Goose-man  (Wigan), 

F.  T  Grant  (Gravesend),  A.  D.  Greatorex  (West 
Bromwich),  W.  H.  Grieves  (Sutton),  W.  J.  Hadfield 
(Sheffield),  J.  R.  Harrison  (Chepstow),  F.  Hatcher 
(Porthc'awl),  T.  W.  A.  Hayward  (Battersea),  J.  R. 
Heath  (Swansea),  F.  Hill  (Lancaster),  S.  A.  Hill- 
Willis  (Tilbury),  F.  G.  Holms  (Glasgow),  H.  H. 
Humphries  (Birmingham),  D.  M.  Jenkins  (Neath), 
W.  M.  Jones  (Chester),  J.  D.  Kennedy  (East  Retford), 
A.  M.  Ker  (Warrington),  H.  J.  Kilford  (Ilkeston), 

P.  G.  Killick  (Finsbury),  G.  W.  Lacey  (Oswestry), 

G.  W.  Lawson  (St.  Anne’s-on-the-Sea),  W.  R.  Locke 
(Hemel  Hempsted),  R.  A.  MacBrair  (Lincoln),  L.  S. 
McKenzie  (Bristol),  F.  Mansfield  (Abergavenny), 
C.  W.  Marks  (Wokingham),  F.  Massie  (Wakefield 
Rural),  B.  A.  Miller  (Seaford),  G.  F.  Miller 
(Hastings),  G.  C.  Mitchell  (Stockton-on-Tees),  T. 
Moulding  (Exeter),  T.  H.  Negus  (Meriden),  A.  E. 
Nichols  (Folkestone),  T.  Nisbet  (Glasgow),  J.  Parker 
(Hereford),  E.  J  Parkinson  (Wallasey),  J.  S.  Picker¬ 
ing  (Cheltenham),  W.  Plant  (Stafford),  W.  H.  Pres¬ 
cott  (Tottenham),  J.  C.  Radford  (Wandsworth),  W.  S. 
Raine  (Hungerfo-rd),  J.  M.  Redfern  (Gillingham), 
O.  IE.  Rivers  (Harrogate),'  F.  Roberts  (Worthing), 
J.  A.  Settle  (Bury,  Lancs),  E.  S.  Silcock  (West¬ 
minster),  J.  F.  Smillie  (Tynemouth),  J.  P.  Spencer 
(Tynemouth),  F.  W.  Spurr  (York),  H.  E.  Stilgoe 
(Birmingham),  J.  Sutcliffe  (Woolwich).  J.  E.  Swindle- 
hurst  (Coventry),  W.  Terrill  (Ashford),  J.  R. 
Thackeray  (Eastbourne),  H.  Tillstone  (Brighton), 
W.  H.  Travers  (Wallasey),  J.  P.  Wakeford  (Wake¬ 
field),  H.  T.  Wakelam  (Middlesex  C.C.),  J.  A.  Webb 
(Hendon  R.D.C.),  H.  G.  Whyatt  (Grimsby),  C.  F. 
Wike  (Sheffield),  F.  Wilkinson  (Deptford),  E.  Willis 
(Chiswick),  F.  J.  Wood  (East.  Sussex),  F.  Woodward 
(Stourbridge),  and  E.  Worrall  (Stretford). 

Visitors — Messrs.  O.  K.  Anstead  (East  Ham),  R. 
Bainbridge  (Stockton-on-Tees),  W.  Bean  (Longl>enton), 

H.  Blackman  (Battle  R.D.C.),  W.  -S.  Body  (Birming¬ 
ham),  T.  Booth  (Wallington),  J.  J.  Brown  (Chisle- 
hurst),  P.  0.  Bulwell  (Hastings),  W.  J.  Burnham 
(Rye),  J.  A.  Capon  (Chislehurst),  J.  Cartwright 
(Loughborough),  W.  H.  Dawson  (Bradford),  G.  R. 
Eyre  (St.  Anne’s-on-the-Sea),  R.  F.  Ferguson  (Hast¬ 


ings),  S.  Fielding  (Blackpool),  F.  W.  Fitt  (Norwich), 
J.  H.  French  (Maidstone),  F.  S.  Gibbs  (Birmingham), 
J.  Golden  (Tilbury),  A.  J.  Grove  (Worcester), 
J.  D.  Haworth  (Roads  Improvement  Association), 

E.  N.  Henwood  (Hastings),  W.  H.  Hopwood  (Aber¬ 
gavenny),  W.  Jenkins  (Cardiff),  A.  C.  Lee  (Cheshunt), 

S.  C.  Lloyd  (Dudley),  J.  Locke  (Hemel  Hempsted), 

T.  Merrells  (Swansea),  J.  C.  Mewsham  (Sheffield), 

F.  W.  Morgan  (Hastings),  Vernon  Parker  (London), 
W.  Perrins  (Hastings),  T.  Reed  (Hastings),  W.  A.  W. 
Riley  (Birmingham),  W.  Roberts  (Cardiff),  C.  E. 
Skinner  (Chatham),  F.  Smith  (Bury,  Lancs),  A. 
Spence  (Dundee),  R.  Stephenson  (Jarrow-on-Tyne), 
J.  Stewart  (Glasgow),  A.  L.  Thornton  (East  Sussex 
C.C.),  W.  Walker  (Eastbourne),  F.  G.  Wallis  (Maid¬ 
stone),  J.  Ward  (Blackpool),  C.  Warren  (Exeter),  E. 
Weybourne  (Rye),  and  J.  E.  Williams  (Birmingham). 


THE  INSTITUTION  ORPHAN  FUND. 

In  reporting  last  week  the  annual  meeting  of  sub¬ 
scribers  to  the  Institution  Orphan  Fund  we  printed  a 
brief  summary  of  the  report  of  the  Committee  of 
management  dealing  with  the  work  of  the  past  year. 
Owing  to  pressure  on  our  space  we  were  compelled  to 
omit  the  following  list  of  the 


SUBSCRIPTIONS  AND  DONATIONS 


received  during  the  period  covered  by  the  report. 


Name. 


East  Midland  District. 


Annual 


Donation.  Sub¬ 
scription. 


£  s.  d.  £  s.  d. 


Baxter,  J.  G.  It.,  Grimsby 

Bennett,  E.  H.,  Derby 

Brown,  A.,  Nottingham 

Burn,  W.,  Sutton-in-Ashfield 

Clare,  J.,  Sleaford 

Clare,  S.  F.,  Sleaford 

Clark,  W.  G.  J.,  Wigston  Magna 

Clark,  R.  E.,  Arnold 

Clews,  0.  A.,  Derby 

Coales,  H.  G.,  Market  Harborougb 

Cook,  F.  P.,  Mansfield  Woodhouse 

Cordon,  ft.  C.,  Belper 

Crump,  E.  H.,  Hinckley 

Fenn,  T.,  Belper 

Henry,  T.,  East  Retford 

Horton,  J.  W.,  Derby 

Kennedy,  J.  D.,  East  Retford.. 

MacBrair,  R.  A.,  Lincoln 

Mason,  S.  M.,  Grimsby 

Mawbey,  E.  G.,  Leicester 

Maylan,  S.,  Basford 

Oakden,  R.,  jun.,  Newark 

Parker,  S.  W.,  Gainsborough  . . 

Rawson,  G.,  Worksop 

Ross,  A.  J.,  Lutterworth 

Ryman,  F.  R.,  Stamford.. 

Ward,  J.,  Derby 
Whyatt,  H.  G.,  Grimsby 
Wright,  W.,  Grantham 


0  2  6 
0  5  0 
110 
0  5  0 
0  5  0 
0  10 
0  2  6 
0  5  0 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
110 
0  5  0 
0  10  6 
0  2  6 
0  5  0 
110 
0  5  0 
0  10  6 
0  2  6 
110 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  5  0 
0  5  0 
110 
110 
0  3  0 


Eastern  District. 


Barrett,  E.  J.,  Staines  . .  . .  . .  . .  — 

Brown,  R.,  Southall-Norwood  . .  . .  . .  — 

Carver,  W.,  Melford  . .  — 

Coales,  H.  F.,  Sunbury-on-Thames  . .  . .  — 

Cockrill,  J.  W.,  Great  Yarmouth  . .  . .  — ■ 

Cockrill,  O.  H.,  Great  Yarmouth  . .  . .  — 

Collins,  A.  E.,  Norwich  .  .  . .  — 

Collis-Adamson,  A.  C.,  Highgate  — 

Cooper,  L.  A.,  Chiswick  . .  — 

Cooper,  W.  W.  Slough  . .  . .  . .  — 

Croxford,  C.  H.,  Wood  Green  . .  — 

Dunn,  J.,  Chesterton  . .  . .  — 

Elford,  E.  J.,  Southend-on-Sea  . .  — 

Farrington,  W.,  Woodford  Green  — 

Fisher,  R.,  Willesden  . .  — - 

Gladwell,  W.  W.,  Norwich  — 

Hamby,  C.  L.,  Beccles  . .  . .  — 

Harrison,  G.  F.  P.,  East  Stow  . .  — 

Harrison,  P.  T„  Chelmsford  . .  .  — 

Haylor,  B.,  Willesden  . .  — 

Hedges,  H.  N.,  Berkhampstead  — 

Impey,  L.  R.,  Ipswich  .  .  . .  . .  — 

James,  A.  C.,  Grays  Thurrock .  — 

Jones,  W.,  Thetford  .  — 

Julian,  J.,  .Cambridge .  — 

Lavender,  W.  A.,  Swaffham  .  - 

Leeper,  L.,  Great  Yarmouth  .  — 

Lingwood,  G.  W.,  Stowmarket .  — 

Lovegrove,  E.  J.,  Hornsey  .  — 

Mead,  J.  R.,  Ipswich  .  — 

Miller,  H.,  East  Suffolk .  — 

Morley,  E.,  Walthamstow  .  — 

Neave,  J.,  Walthamstow  .  — 

Perkins,  R.  S.  W.,  Isle  of  Ely  . .  . .  — 

Robson,  O.  C.,  Willesden  .  — 

Shaw,  H.  •  •  •  •  ■  .66 

Siddons,  J.  M.,  Oundle .  — 

Smart,  F.  W.,  Bedford .  — 

Smith,  F.  Hall,  Sheringham .  — 

Smith,  T.  R.  Kettering  . .  — 

Smyth,  J.  H.,  Willesden .  — 

Thomas,  R.  J.,  Buckingham 

Thompson,  W.  H.,  Willesden  .  .  — 

Wakelam,  H.  T„  Middlesex  .  — 

Webb,  J.  A.,  Hendon  .  — 

Willis,  E.,  Chiswick  .  — 

Wilson.  R.  E.  Leiston .  — 

Collection  at  Great  Yarmouth  Meeting,  per 

Mr.  H.  Collins  .  0  5 

Collection  at  Sheringham  Meeting,  per  Mr. 

J.  R.  Mead . ,  ■  •  1  0 

Collection  at  Stowmarket  Meeting,  per  Mr. 

J.  R.  Mead  . 1  0 


0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  2  6 
0  5  0 
110 
0  2  6 
110 
0  5  0 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  5  0 
0  10  6 
110 
110 
0  5  0 
0  2  6 
0  2  6 
0  2  6 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
0  5  0 
0  5  0 
110 
0  2  6 
0  10  0 
0  2  6 
0  2  6 
0  2  6 
110 
0  2  6 
0  2  6 
0  10  0 
0  5  0 
0  2  6 
110 

0  5  0 
0  5  0 
0  5  0 
0  10  6 
0  10  6 
110 
0  5  0 
110 
0  10  6 
1  1  0 
0  2  6 


0 

0 

0 


16 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


Annual 

Name.  Donation. 

Sub 

- 

scription. 

£ 

8. 

d. 

1 

s. 

d. 

Collection  at  Watford  Meeting,  per  Mrs. 

M.  B.  Robinson  . . 

3 

17 

4 

West  Midland  District. 

Burton,  A.,  Stoke-on-Trent 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Clarry,  W.  A.  H,.  Sutton  Coldfield 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Clarson,  If.  J..  Tamworth 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Cook,  F.  C.,  Nuneaton 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Currall,  A.  E.,  Solihull  . . 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Eayrs,  T.  W„  Birmingham 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Fiddian,  W.,  Stourbridge 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Gettings,  C.  F.,  Worcester 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Greatorex,  A.  D.,  Weat  Bromwich 

Green,  G.,  Wolverhampton 

— 

1 

1 

0 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Howell,  A.  P.,  Birmingham 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Jack,  G.  H.  Hereford 

— 

0 

10 

0 

Jackaway,  A.,  Hereford 

King,  J.  Stuart,  Birmingham 

— 

0 

5 

0 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Lacey,  G.  W.,  Oswestry 

Negus,  T.  H.,  Meriden 

— 

0 

10 

6 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Perkins,  J.,  Birmingham 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Plant,  W.,  Stafford 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Richardson,  H.,  Birmingham 

Rogers,  W.  E.,  Rugeley . 

— 

0 

5 

0 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Stilgoe,  H.  E..  Birmingham 

— 

1 

1 

.0 

Tavlor,  J..  Walsall 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Watson,  J.  D.,  Birmingham 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Willcox,  J.  E.,  Birmingham 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Willmot,  J.,  Warwickshire 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Woodward,  F.,  Stourbridge 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Metropolitan  District. 

Barber.  J.  Patten,  Islington 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Bicknell.  R.  H.,  Westminster 

1 

1 

0 

Blair,  W.  N„  St.  Pancras  . 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Boulnois,  II.  Percy,  Westminster 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Dodd,  P.,  Wandsworth 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Finch,  A.  R.,  Kensington 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Hayward,  T.  W.  A.,  Battersea 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Higgens,  T.  W.  E.,  Chelsea 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Killick,  P.  G.,  Finsbury 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Killick,  J.  S.,  Kensington 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Silcock,  E.  J.,  Westminster 

— 

2 

2 

0 

Van  Putten,  E.,  Lewisham 

\ 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Willcocks.  G.  Waller,  Roehampton 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Winter,  O.  E.,  Hampstead 

— 

0 

10 

6 

North-Eastern  District. 

Anonymous 

2 

2 

0 

Anonymous  .  . 

0 

5 

0 

Beaumont,  T.C.,  Driffield 

— 

0 

10 

fi 

Bryning,  W.  G.,  Northallerton 

— 

2 

0 

0 

Burton,  W.  E.  H.,  Wakefield 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Collinge,  T.  P.,  Rotherham 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Dickinson,  R.,  Berwick-on-Tweed 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Foster,  H.  P.,  Leeds 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Frank,  T.  P.,  Stockton-on-Tees 

Green,  W..  Castleford 

— 

n 

10 

6 

— 

n 

5 

0 

Hadfield,  W.  J..  Sheffield 

— 

i 

1 

0 

Hailstone,  T.  II.,  Birstall 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Hart,  G.  A.,  Leeds  .  . 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Haseldine,  W.  S.  T.,  Wath-upon-Dearne 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Ives,  L.,  Wakefield 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Kirby,  T.  O.,  Doncaster 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Lancashire,  W.  T.,  Leeds 

Massie,  F.,  Wakefield 

— 

1 

1 

0 

0 

5 

0 

1 

1 

0 

Parkin,  J.,  Dewsbury 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Rivers,  C.  E.,  Harrogate 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Roseveare,  L.,  South  Shields  . . 

— 

0 

10 

0 

Rothera,  A.,  Spenborough 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Spurr,  F.  W.,  York 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Steele,  W.  J..  Newcastle-on-Tyne 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Thackray,  F.  J.,  Hoyland  Nether 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Thompson,  G.  W.,  H-ipperholme 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Tonge.  J.  A.,  Rawmarsh 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Wakeford,  J.  P.,  Wakefield 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Wike,  C.  F.,  .Sheffield 

Collection  at  Doncaster  Meeting,  per  Mr. 

— 

1 

0 

0 

W.  E.  II.  Burton  . 

o 

6 

9 

Collection  at  Hull  Meeting,  per  Mr.  W.  E. 
II.  Burton 

Collection  at  Wath-upon-Dearne  Meeting, 

1 

9 

9 

per  Mr.  W.  E  .H.  Burton 

2 

17 

0 

North-Western  District. 

Brodie,  J.  A.  Liverpool 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Brodie,  J.  S.,  Blackpool 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Davies,  S.  H.,  Wirrall 

— 1 — 

1 

1 

0, 

Diver,  D.  J.,  Marple 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Gooseman,  A.  T.,  Wigan 

Heath,  J.,  Urmston 

— 

0 

10 

6 

— 

n 

5 

0 

Hellawell.  O.,  Withington 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Martin,  E.  B.,  Salford 

Meade,  T.  de  Courcy,  Manchester 

— 

0 

10 

6 

_ 

l 

1 

0 

Platt,  S.  S.,  Rochdale 

— 

l 

1 

0 

Price,  A.  ,T.,  Lytham 

0 

10 

6 

Travers,  W.  H.,  Wallasey 

Wilding,  J.,  Runcorn 

— 

0 

10 

6 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Wiles,  J.  W..  Manchester 

_ 

0 

10 

6 

Worrall,  E.,  Stretford 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Southern  District. 

Frost,  H. 

_ 

0 

10 

6 

Goodwin,  W.  J.,  Salisbury 

_ 

0 

10 

6 

Guilbert,  T.  J.,  Guernsey 

— 

1 

0 

6 

Hawkins,  J.  F.,  Reading  .  . 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Hooley,  E.  Purnell  Oxford 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Jones,  Lieut.-Colonel  A.  S.,  Finehampstead 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Lemon,  Sir  J..  Southampton 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

McKenzie,  L.  S.,  Bristol 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Phipps,  F.  R.,  Basingstoke 

_ 

0 

10 

0 

Pickering,  J.  S.,  Cheltenham 

Stallard.  S.,  Oxford 

_ 

0 

10 

6 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

White,  W.  H.,  Oxford  . 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Wrigley,  G.  E.,  Banbury 

_ 

0 

5 

0 

Yabbicom,  T.  H.,  Bristol 

Collected  at  Bristol  Meeting,  per  Mr.  F.  R. 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Phipps 

o 

14 

6 

South-Eastern  District. 

Anonymous 

_ _ 

0 

2 

6 

Andrews,  S.  Percy,  Faversham 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Bridges,  O.  A. 

i 

1 

0 

Bushridge,  T.  A.,  Maidstone 

_ 

0 

10 

6 

Chapman,  H.  T..  Kent  .  . 

_ 

1 

1 

0 

Cooper,  C.  H.,  Wimbledon  . 

2 

2 

o' 

Annual 

Name.  Donation.  Sub¬ 

scription. 


£ 

s. 

d. 

£ 

s. 

d. 

Jeffes,  R.  H.,  Malden 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Jones,  H.  O.,  Folkestone 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Nichols,  A.  E.,  Folkestone 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Norris,  J.  H.,  Godaiming 

Palmer,  P.  H.,  Hastings 

— 

0 

10 

6 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Scott,  H.  H.,  Hove 

— 

1 

1 

0 

WeBton,  G.,  Bognor 

— 

2 

2 

0 

Wilkinson,  F.,  Wimbledon  . 

Collection  at  Worthing  Meeting,  per  Mr. 

— 

0 

5 

0 

J.  L.  Redfern 

4 

6 

4 

South-Western  District. 

Braggins,  A.  D.,  Newquay 

Hutton,  S.,  Exmouth 

— 

0 

5 

0 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Saunders,  E.  Y.,  Barnstaple 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Seels,  G.  M.,  Dorchester 

0 

8 

6 

Stephens,  R  ,  Chard 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Stone,  R.  N.,  Barnstaple 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Welsh  District  (North). 

Jones,  W.,  Colwyn  Bay 

Morgan,  R.  P.,  Towyn 

— 

0 

10 

0 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Welsh  District  (South). 

Bell,  G.  H.,  Swansea 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Karpur,  W.,  Cardiff 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Harpur,  W.  L.,  Brecon 

Holden,  L.,  Llandaff  and  Dinas  Powis 

— 

0 

5 

0 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Hybart.  F.  R.,  Barry 

Jones,  D.  L.,  Merthyr  Tydvil 

— 

0 

5 

0 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Priestley,  C.  H.,  Cardiff 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Read,  F.,  Gellygaer  •  . 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Rirnell,  H.  C-,  Cardiff 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Shellard,  I.  F.,  Newport,  Mon. 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Scottish  District. 

Campbell,  A.  H.,  Edinburgh 

— 

1 

1 

3 

Dunbar,  W.,  Kilmarnock 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Ellacott,  W.  H.,  Mid-Lothian 

— 

0 

5 

0 

Ross,  G.,  Clydebank 

— r 

0  10 

6 

Smith,  J.  D.,  Kirkcudbright- 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Smith,  J.  W.,  Edinburgh 

5 

5 

0 

Smith,  P.  C.,  Dunfermline 

— 

0 

2 

6 

Stevenson,  A.,  Ayr 

Collection  at  Edinburgh  Meeting,  per  Mr. 

0 

10 

6 

D.  A.  Donald 

2 

10 

0 

Irish  District. 

Gullan,  H.  F..  Belfast 

— 

1 

1 

0 

McGahon,  J.  F.,  Carrickmacross 

— 

0 

10 

6 

Indian  District. 

Jarman,  G.  E..  Amritsar. 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Salkield.  T.,  Delhi 

— 

1 

1 

0 

A  broad. 

Bush,  W.  E„  Auckland  N.Z. 

— 

1 

1 

0 

Miscellaneous. 

County  Surveyors’  Society 

Lower  Thames  Valley  District  Surveyors’ 

10 

10 

0 

Association 

5 

5 

0 

2 

2 

0 

Non-Members  of  Institution. 


Anonymous  ••  —  110 

Bigg's,  Mrs.  R.,  Richmond  .  —  0  10  6 

Carpenter,  F.  G.,  Wakefield  —  0  10  6 

Cole,  T.,  Westminster  —  110 

Giles,  H.  A.,  Westminster  .  050050 

Mansergh  &  Sons,  J.,  Westminster  —  110 

Public  Works  Magazine,  per  Mr.  C.  S. 

Mason  .  .  .  .  .  .  ..326 

Robinson,  J.  W.  Dudley,  Westminster  —  110 

Renwick,  R.,  Horsham  . .  . .  .050 

Editor,  The  Surveyor  .  —  550 


SOUTH  WALES  MEETINGS. 

On  Saturday,  the  14th  inst.,  a  South  Wales  District 
Meeting  of  the  Institute  of  Municipal  and  County 
Engineers  will  be  held  at  Ystradfellte.  • 

It  has  also  been  arranged  to  hold  an  Institution 
meeting  at  Porthcawl  on  Saturday,  the  28th  inst. 


September  22nd  has  been  fixed  as  the  date  of  a  pro¬ 
posed  visit  to  the  Crossness  Outfall  Works  of  the 
London  County  Council. 


Afforestation. — On  Monday  in  the  House  of  Commons 
Mr.  Bonar  Law  stated  that  the  Afforestation  Sub- 
Committee  of  the  Reconstruction  Committee  had  pre¬ 
sented  its  report,  which  was  now  under  consideration, 
but  he  was  unable  to  say  when  the  contents  would  be 
communicated  to  the  House. 

Studs  on  Road  Locomotive  Wheels. — With  respect  to 
an  inquiry  from  the  Secretary  for  Scotland  as  to  the 
effect  of  the  Locomotives  on  Highways  Order,  1917, 
authorising  the  use  of  studs  on  wheels  of  traction 
engines  drawing  threshing  machines  on  frost-bound 
roads,  the  road  surveyor  to  the  Lanarkshire  County 
Council  reported  recently  to  the  effect  that  studs  were 
used  on  various  roads  throughout  the  district  during 
frosty  weather  last  winter  with  practically  little  damage 
to  the  roads,  the  indentations  made  on  the  surface 
passing  away  in  a  few  days  with  the  ordinary  traffic. 
In  reply  to  a  question,  the  surveyor  said  that  his  report 
referred  solely  to  the  effect  of  studs  on  frost-bound 
roads,  and  that  the  use  of  studs  on  wheels,  except  when 
there  was  sufficiently  hard  frost,  would  undoubtedly 
damage  the  roads  and  should  not  be  allowed. 


July  6,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


17 


Municipal  Work  In  Progress  and  Projected. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Survbyor  readers  with  a  view  to  makina  the  information  given  under  this 

head  a3  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


The  following  are  among  the  more  important  pro¬ 
jected  works  of  which  particulars  have  reached  us 
during  the  present  week.  Other  reports  will  be  found 
on  our  “Local  Government  Board  Inquiries”  page. 

BUILDINCS. 

Goole  U.D.C. — It  is  proposed  after  the  war  to  erect 
four  houses  at  the  sewage  pumping  station,  to  con¬ 
struct  sanitary  conveniences,  and  to  lay  a  gas  main  to 
the  sewage  pumping  station. 

Halifax  T.C. — It  has  been  decided  by  the  Highways 
Committee  to  build  a  four-stall  stable  and  harness- 
room  at  Stannary  depot,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £200. 

Ilford  U.D.C. — The  council  have  appointed  a  com¬ 
mittee  to  report:  on  a  proposed  extension  of  the  town 
hall,  which  is  estimated  to  cost  £26,000. 

HOUSING  AND  TOWN  PLANNING. 

Dublin  T.C. —In  addition  to  the  housing  schemes 
already  mentioned,  the  city  council  have  agreed  upon 
the  erection  of  eighty-eight  cottages  in  the  Bowne- 
street  area,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £22,075.  Petitions 
for  Provisional  Orders  in  respect  of  other  proposed 
schemes  have  been  submitted  to  the  Local  Government 
Board. 

Glasgow  T.C. — In  connection  with  the  scheme  for  the 
laying  out  of  ground  at  Garngad-road,  the  Special  Com¬ 
mittee  on  Housing  and  General  Town  Improvement 
have  approved  generally  of  a  report  by  the  city  engi¬ 
neer,  Mr.  Thomas  Nisbet,  with  plans  showing  sixty- 
four  houses  of  two  apartments  and  twenty-eight  of 
three  apartments,  thirty-six  of  the  former  and  twelve 
of  the  latter  being  in  three-storey  buildings  and  the  re¬ 
mainder  in  two-storey  buildings.  All  the  houses  are 
to  be  provided  with  scullery  and  bath-room.  The 
number  of  houses  is  thirty  per  acre,  and  the  centre  of 
the  site  is  laid  out  as  a  children’s  playgi'ound,  contain¬ 
ing  about  1,221  sq.  yds.,  exclusive  of  street. 

Hull  T.C. — The  city  architect  has  been  instructed 
to  proceed  with  the  preparation  of  preliminary  sketch 
plans  of  a  housing  scheme,  and  these  will  be  submitted 
to  the  Local  Government  Board.  Negotiations  are  to 
be  entered  into  for  the  conditional  purchase  of  75 
acres  of  land  for  the  purposes  of  the  scheme,  which  will 
involve  an  expenditure  of  approximately  £329,596. 

Hythe  T.C  . — The  borough  surveyor,  Mr.  C.  Jones,  is 
engaged  on  the  plans  of  industrial  dwellings,  and  hopes 
shortly  to  submit  them  to  the  town  council  before 
forwarding  them  to  the  Local  Government  Board. 

MOTOR  TRANSPORT. 

Bolton  T.C. — The  electrical  engineer  has  received 
instructions  to  obtain  tenders  for  an  electrically  pro¬ 
pelled  vehicle  for  the  use  of  the  department. 

Hampstead  B.C. — The  Works  Committee  have  pre¬ 
pared  a  report  on  the  subject  of  motor  vehicles  in 
which  they  state  that  for  general  haulage,  slopping  and 
watering,  the  most  suitable  vehicle,  in  their  opinion, 
would  be  one  of  3g-tons  capacity.  They  had  received 
tenders  for  electrically  driven  vehicles,  the  lowest 
being  an  Orwell,  at  £1,077.  After  consulting  the 
electrical  engineer  and  obtaining  the  views  of  the  engi¬ 
neers  of  other  authorities  who  had  experience  of  Orwell 
vehicles,  they  advised  the  purchase  of  such  a  vehicle 
on  the  grounds  that  they  were  of  British  manufacture, 
and  that  they  show  a  large  saving  of  cost  over  the  other 
type.  Upon  this  the  council  agreed  to  purchase  from 
Messrs.  Ransomes,  Sims  &  Jefferies,  of  Ipswich,  a 
3g-ton  Orwell  vehicle  for  £1,077. 

Jarrow  T.C. — The  council  have  agreed  to  purchase 
a  motor  ambulance. 

REFUSE  COLLECTION  AND  DISPOSAL. 

Boetle  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  corporation 
were  collecting  120  tons  of  refuse  per  day,  and  that  the 
existing  destructor  had  a  capacity  for  only  70  tons. 
An  enlarged  destructor  was  therefore  necessary,  and 
Alderman  Hanlon  said  the  town  council  must  not  be 
surprised  if  the  Sanitary  Committee  submitted  a 
scheme  “  for  something  in  the  tens  of  thousands.” 

Boston  T.C. — The  chairman  of  the  Sanitary  Com¬ 
mittee  stated  that  they  had  revived  the  project  of  a 
refuse  destructor,  which  was  stopped  by  the  war,  and 
hoped  to  bring  it  to  a  successful  completion. 


Uxbridge  U.D.C. — The  appointment  of  an  engineer 
to  prepare  a  scheme  for  a  refuse  destructor  is  being 
considered  by  a  sub-committee. 

ROADS  AND  MATERIALS. 

Amesbury  R.D.C. — It  was  reported  that  negotiations 
were  in  progress  with  the  Southern  Command  for  the 
employment  of  German  prisoners  on  district  road  work 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  camp. — The  surveyor,  Mr. 
J.  T.  Huxham,  has  prepared  for  the  Ministry  of  Muni¬ 
tions  a  schedule  of  the  roads  of  national  importance  in 
the  rural  area,  accompanied  with  a  request  for  autho¬ 
rity  to  obtain  700  tons  of  road  materials. 

Croydon  T.C. — It  is  proposed  to  resurface  the  motor- 
’bus  routes  from  Croydon  to  Woolwich,  at  an  estimated 
cost  of  £6,615.  Towards  this  sum  the  Road  Board 
have  promised  a  contribution  of  £1,662. 

Doncaster  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  Board  of 
Trade  had  sanctioned  the  reconstruction  of  the  tram¬ 
way  track  in  St.  Sepulchregate,  but  that  the  Minister 
of  Munitions  had  declined  to  grant  a  certificate  for  the 
manufacture  of  the  manganese  steel  required,  and  the 
work  had  had  to  be  postponed. 

Littlehampton  U.D.C.— Owing  to  the  difficulty  of 
obtaining  materials  for  road  repairs,  the  council  have 
approved  an  expenditure  of  £226  for  additional  tar¬ 
ring,  and  for  this  purpose  it  has  been  decided  to  pur¬ 
chase  a  revolving  sprinkler. 

Newark  R.D.C. — A  scheme  has  been  approved  for  the 
widening  of  Lincoln-road  to  18  ft.,  at  an  estimated  cost 
of  £5,050. 

Stanley  U.D.C. — The  council  have  approved  plans 
for  the  construction  of  a  new  street. 

Stroud  R.D.C.— The  council  have  called  the  atten¬ 
tion  of  the  Highways  Committee  of  the  county  council 
to  the  condition  of  the  road  at  Cainscross  and  Cuckold’s 
Brook. 

Wallsend  T.C. — Plans  are  before  the  town  council 
for  the  construction  of  several  new  streets. 

Whitby  R.D.C.— The  surveyor,  Mr.  J.  Emerson,  has 
received  instructions  to  make  a  claim  in  respect  to  the 
damage  by  extraordinary  traffic  on  the  district  roads. 

SEWERAGE  AND  SEWAGE  DISPOSAL. 

Clutton  R.D.C. — A  letter  has  been  received  from  the 
Local  Government  Board  in  reference  to  the  proposed 
sewerage  scheme  for  Hobbs  Wall,  Farmborough  and 
Rotcombe,  High  Littleton,  in  which  it  is  suggested  that 
the  capacity  of  the  works  should  be  reconsidered  in 
view  of  Recommendation  5  of  the  report  of  the  Royal 
Commission  on  Sewage  Disposal.  The  council  em¬ 
powered  the  clerk  to  see  the  board’s  engineer  upon  the 
matter  when  he  is  next  in  London. 

Goole  U.D.C  •—As  soon  as  circumstances  permit  the 
council  will  submit  to  the  Local  Government  Board 
particulars  of  the  proposed  scheme  for  the  reconstruc¬ 
tion  of  sewers. 

Hornsey  T.C. — The  town  council  have  decided  not  to 
proceed  at  present  with  the  schemes  for  the  reconstruc¬ 
tion  of  the  outfall  sewer  and  the  provision  of  a  public 
convenience  at  Muswell  Hill. 

WATER,  GAS,  AND  ELECTRICITY. 

Barrow  T.C. — The  Corporation  Water  Bill  has  been 
sent  for  third  reading  in  the  House  of  Lords. 

Belfast  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  Gas  Com¬ 
mittee  would  from  the  profits  of  the  gas  undertaking 
last  year  pay  £5,000  in  aid  of  the  rates,  and  after  pro¬ 
viding  for  the  sinking  fund  and  other  contingencies 
carry  forward  £14,081. 

Bermondsey  B.C.- — The  borough  council  have  made 
a  further  increase  of  20  per  cent  on  the  pre-war  charges 
for  power  and  10  per  cent  on  electric  lighting,  making 
a  total  increase  of  50  per  cent  on  the  former  and  40  per 
cent  on  the  lighting. 

Glasgow  T.C. — Owing  to  the  increase  in  wages  and 
in  cost  of  material  the  price  of  gas  to  the  ordinary 
consumer  will  be~about  2d.  per  1,000  cubic  ft.  higher 
than  the  rate  charged  last  year,  which  was  2s.  6d. 

Newport  (Salop)  R.D.C. — A  committee  has  been 
appointed  to  go  into  the  question  of  the  Lilleshall 
water  supply. 


18 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


Wirksworth  U.D.C. — In  consequence  of  the  waste  of 
water,  the  surveyor,  Mr.  R.  C.  Bryan,  has  received 
instructions  to  make  an  inspection  of  all  taps,  and  he 
has  also  been  asked  to  inquire  the  price  of  a  machine 
to  discover  the  whereabouts  of  the  covered-in  stop-taps. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Birkenhead  T.C. — The  Tramways  Committee  have 
agreed  to  transfer  a  sum  of  £2,820  to  the  borough  fund 
in  aid  of  the  rates  out  of  the  surplus  income  for  the 
year  ended  March  31st  last,  to  place  £5,000  to  the 
reserve  fund,  and  the  balance  of  £5,832  to  the  renewals 
fund. 

Rowley  Regis  U.D.C. — The  council  are  making  re¬ 
presentations  to  the  Local  Government  Board  for  per¬ 
mission  to  provide  further  burial  accommodation. 

Walton-on-the-Naze  U.D.C. — The  surveyor,  Mr. 
M.  W.  Gladwell,  recommends  the  construction  of 
timber  groynes  to  the  east  of  East-terrace. 


LOCAL  GOVERNMENT  BOARD  INQUIRIES. 

The  Editor  invitee  the  co-operation  of  Sdbvbyob  readers 
with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 
head  os  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


APPLICATIONS  FOR  LOANS. 

Ilford  U.D.C. — £5,800  for  plant  for  the  utilisation 
of  steam  at  the  refuse  destructor. 

Llandudno  U.D.C. — £7,980  for  gasworks  extensions. 

LOAN  SANCTIONED. 

Cork  R.D.C. — £1,500  for  the  Passage  water  supply 
scheme. 


EOR  OTHER  ADVERTISEMENTS 

See  End  of  Paper. 

ANGOR  (CO.  DOWN)  URBAN  DISTRICT 

COUNCIL. 

TOWN  SURVEYOR  WANTED. 

The  Bangor  (Co.  Down)  Urban  District  Council 
invite  applications  for  the  position  of  Town  Surveyor, 
at  a  salary  of  £250  a  year. 

Applicants  to  state  age  and  experience  and  be  pre¬ 
pared  to  attend  an  examination  on  subjects  pertaining 
to  the  duties  of  the  office. 

The  person  appointed  will  require  to  devote  his 
whole  time  to  the  duties  of  the  office  and  reside  within 
the  urban  district. 

Applications,  enclosing  copies  of  not  more-  than 
three  testimonials,  and  stating  date  on  which  duties 
could  be  undertaken,  will  be  received  by  me  up  to 
Tuesday,  17th  instant. 

Canvassing  members  of  the  Council,  either  directly 
or  indirectly,  will  be  considered  a  disqualification. 

J.  MILLIKEN, 

Clerk  to  the  Council. 

Town  Hall, 

Bangor,  Co.  Down. 

July  4,  1917.  (3,456) 

SOUTH  STAFFORDSHIRE  WATERWORKS 
COMPANY. 

Applications  are  invited  for  the  position  of  Chief 
Engineer  of  the  above  Company.  Applicants  are  re¬ 
quested  to  state  previous  experience,  and  to  send 
copies  of  testimonials  to  the  Secretary,  at  the  Office 
of  the  Company,  Paradise^street,  Birmingham,  not 
later  than  21st  July,  1917.  (3,455) 

TO  MUNICIPAL  ENGINEERS. 

WANTED,  position  as  Junior  Assistant.  Appli¬ 
cant  has  good  knowledge  of  sanitary  work  and  of  sur¬ 
veying  and  levelling,  and  is  not  liable  for  military 
service. — Apply  Box  1,613,  Offices  of  The  Surveyor, 
24  Bride-lane,  Fleet-street,  London,  E.C.  4.  (3,454) 

B EDDINGTON  AND  WALLINGTON  URBAN 

DISTRICT  COUNCIL  require  immediately  a 
Temporary  Assistant,  to  prepare  maps  of  water  distri¬ 
bution  areas,  and  to  take  water  pressures  at  hydrants. 
—Applications,  stating  salary  required,  to  be  sent  to 
the  undersigned, 

E.  WITTON  BOOTH,  assoc. m.inst.c.e.,  p.a.s.i.. 
Acting  Engineer  and  Surveyor. 

Council  Offices, 

19,  Belmont-road, 

Wallington,  Surrey.  (3,457) 


PERSONAL. 


Mr.  H.  W.  Longdin,  surveyor  to  the  Penge  Urban 
District  Council,  has  been  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
Major,  Royal  Engineers. 

Mr.  R.  O.  Baldwin,  traffic  superintendent  of  the 
Bournemouth  tramways,  has  been  appointed  general 
manager  of  the  Exeter  tramways. 

Mr.  D.  W.  Rees,  articled  pupil  to  Mr.  J.  O.  Parry, 
has  been  admitted  as  a  student  of  the  Institution  of 
Municipal  and  County  Engineers. 

Mr.  A.  C.  Madge,  sanitary  surveyor  to  the  Rochford 
Rural  District  Council,  has  been  elected  a  member  of 
the  Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers. 

Mr.  J.  Johnson,  assistant  engineer,  Public  Works 
Department,  Northern  Nigeria,  has  been  elected  a 
member  of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  afid  County 
Engineers. 

Mr.  N.  D.  Preston,  surveyor  to  the  Mayfield  Rural 
District  Council,  has  been  transferred  to  the  class  of 
associate  members  of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  and 
County  Engineers. 

Mr.  C.  O.  Baines,  surveyor  to  the  Paignton  Urban 
District  Council,  has  received  from  his  official  col¬ 
leagues  on  the  council  staff  a  case  of  pipes  and 
tobacco-pouch  on  the  occasion  of  his  marriage. 

Stanley  Thersher,  an  employee  of  the  Bath  Sewage 
Disposal  Sub-Committee,  has  been  recommended  for 
the  Distinguished  Conduct  Medal,  and  the  committee' 
have  passed  a  resolution  congratulating  him  upon  his 
achievements. 

Mr.  C.  W.  Leney,  surveyor  to  the  East  Preston 
Rural  District  Council,  has,  with  the  consent  of  his 
council,  accepted  the  position  of  deputy  inspector  of 
nuisances  to  the  Southwick  Urban  District  Council, 
at  £25  per  annum. 

Mr.  J.  S.  Madge,  surveyor  to  the  St.  Thomas  Rural 
District  Council,  has  had  his  salary  increased  by  £50 
per  annum,  and  in  addition  has  been  granted  a  bonus 
at  the  rate  of  £25  per  annum  for  the  duration  of  the 
war  in  consideration  of  the  increased  cost  of  petrol. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Bressey,  surveyor  to  the  IV an  stead  Urban 
District  Council,  who  is  serving  in  the  Army,  has  re¬ 
ceived  his  commission  as  Captain,  and  on  the  propo¬ 
sition  of  the  chairman  (Mr.  W.  R.  Prylce,  j.p.),  the 
council  have  forwarded  him  a  letter  of  congratulation 
upon  his  promotion. 

Mr.  W.  P.  Puddicombe,  surveyor  to  the  Oystermouth 
Urban  District  Council,  who  was  reported  to  have  been 
called  to  the  Colours,  has  been  allowed  by  the  military 
authorities  to  carry  on  his  official  duties  for  the  present, 
though  he  is  liable  to  be  called  up  for  further  medical 
examination.  The  clerk  to  the  council  has  therefore 
been  instructed  to  acknowledge  the  letters  of  applicants 
for  the  post  and  explain  the  situation. 


The  late  Sir  Alexander  Binnie  left  £10,335. 

The  late  Mr.  A.  E.  White,  city  engineer  of  Hull,  left 
nett  personalty  £13,277,  gross  £13,423. 

Premiums  for  papers  read  before  the  Institution  of 
Municipal  and  County  Engineers  in  1916-17  have  been 
awarded  as  follow:  First  premium  of  £5  5s.  to  T.  W. 
Arnall  for  his  paper  021  “  Destruction  of  a  Macadam 
Road  ”  ;  second  premium  of  £4  4s.  to  Mr.  D.  Water- 
house  for  his  paper  entitled  “  The  New  Water  Supply 
and  other  Municipal  Works  at  Watford  ”  ;  third  pre- 
mium  of  £3  3s.  to  Mr.  H.  A.  Brow2i  for  his  paper 
entitled  “Public  Abattoirs:  with  Special  Reference 
to  the  Buildings  Recently  Erected  at  Weston-super- 
Mare.  ’  ’ 

KILLED  IN  ACTION. 

Mr.  P.  T.  Lovejoy,  an  assistant  in  the  engineer’s 
depaitment  of  the  Walthamstow  Urban  District  Coun¬ 
cil,  has  been  killed  in  action. 

OBITUARY. 

Mr.  John  Adams,  of  Llys  Meiron,  who  was  for  many 
years  surveyor  and  inspector  to  the  Barmouth  Urban 
District  Council,  died,  we  l’egret  to  state,  on  Saturday 
last  at  Bannouth. 


Sunderland  Electricity  Charges. —  The  Sunderland 
Electricity  a2id  Lighting  Committee  have  had  under 
consideration  a  proposal  to  increase  the  charges  for 
electricity  by  10  per  cent  to  all  consumers  except  the 
tramways  department,  and  the  large  power  consumers 
who  have  agreements  for  a  fixed  period  of  years. 


July  (>,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


19 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

El?  ayr/p  ov  ndl’9'  opa 

(One  man  does  not  see  everything.) 

— Euripides. 

DECIMAL  WEIGHTS,  MEASURES,  AND  CURRENCY. 

To  the  Editor  of  The  Surveyor. 

Sir, — A  letter  from  Messrs.  Scott,  Armstrong,  & 
Company,  57,  Moorgate-street,  E.C.  2,  appears  under 
the  above  heading  in  your  issue  dated  May  18th, 
1917,  and  1  interviewed  Mr.  Scott  Armstrong,  of 
that  firm,  on  June  22nd,  and  was  favoured  with  a 
demonstration  of  the  “  simple  method  ”  advocated 
by  them.  I  satisfied  myself  that  anyone,  with  its 
aid,  can  work  cut  foreign  commercial  calculations  in 
all  parts  of  the  world,  and  that  it  also  includes' the 
fluctuating  rate  of  exchange,  and  is  all  done  by  a 
simple  multiplication  sum.  The  system  is  being  ex¬ 
tended,  and  I  am  absolutely  convinced  will  in  a  short 
time  remove  all  the  objections  of  the  Decimal  Asso¬ 
ciation  and  similar  institutions,  and  stop  for  all 
time  the  agitation  for  a  change  in  our  standard  of 
currency,  weights,  and  measures. 

I  need  hardly  say  I  have  no  pecuniary  or  material 
interest  whatever  in  the  “  simple  method,”  and  look 
at  the  question  entirely  from  my  own  point  of  view, 
as  clearly  expressed  in  my  letter  to  you  and  other 
writings  on  the  subject.  I  went  to  Moorgate-street  to 
see  if  this  firm  could  fulfil  the  undertaking  given  in 
their  letter  above-mentioned,  and  at  the  same  time 
supply  me  with  practical  confirmation  of  the  value 
in  foreign  trade  of  British  weights,  measures,  and 
currency,  and  I  was  not  only  delighted  to  find,  but 
absolutely  convinced,  that  they  could,  and  in  no 
dubious  manner. 

I  have  not  had  previously  any  communication  or 
connection  with  Messrs.  Scott,  Armstrong,  &  Com¬ 
pany,  and  I  hold  no  brief  for  that  firm,  nor  any 
interest  whatever  in  the  “  simple  method,”  or  the 
tables,  or  in  their  business,  beyond  the  general 
patriotic  wish  that  all’ things  British  should  receive 
first  consideration.  The  method  advocated  by  them 
interests  me  as  a  practical  and  simple  demonstra¬ 
tion  of  the  extraordinary  flexibility,  utility,  and  com¬ 
pleteness  of  the  derided  and  much-abused  systems 
of  British  weights,  measures,  and  currency  which  we 
possess,  and  in  the  possession  of  which  we  ought 
to  reckon  ourselves  favoured  and  honoured  above  all 
other  nations  of  tire  earth.  Instead  of  our  falling 
into  line  with  metric  countries,  they  would  do  better 
to  adopt  the  British  metre  of  39-6  inches  and  the 
British  systern.es  usuels. 

As  regards  currency,  I  am  struck  more  than  ever 
by  the  fact'  that  universal  two-shilling  and  one- 
shilling  pieces  would  serve  best,  in  all  respects,  the 
smalt  transactions  of  all  nations,  especially  if  sub¬ 
divided  fractionally  into  pence  and  farthings  like 
ours,  and  in  Eastern  countries  into  additional  half 
and  quarter  farthings.  By  “  universal,”  of  course,  I 
mean  of  an  international  standard  of  weight  and  fine¬ 
ness.  so  that,  when  melted  down  in  bulk,  the  same 
number  of  similar  coins  everywhere  would  represent 
exactly  the  same  weights  of  metal  or  alloy.  I  do 
not  wish  to  be  understood  as  suggesting  that  such 
small  coins  should  have  international  currency.  I 
merely  suggest  that  the  first  step  towards  inter¬ 
nationalism  in  coinage  is  the  standardisation  of  coins 
in  fractions,  which  suit  humanity  generally  in  small 
transactions,  and  beyond  that  I  make  no  suggestion. 
To  argue  that  wholesale  foreign  trade  is  interested 
in  individual  small  coinage  seems  absurd.  It  is 
a  question  only  of  convenience.  The  dollar,  half,  and 
quarter  dollar  are  convenient  coins.  Also  the  rouble 
and  similar  coins  of  about  the  value  of  a  shilling. 
The  franc  is  perhaps  too  small,  the  rupee  too  large. 
Universal  coins  of  the  same  weight  and  fineness  as 
the  florin,  and  its  half  and  perhaps  quarter,  would 
go  a  very  long  way  to  improve  international  trade — 
much  further  than  decimalisation  of  the  pound 
sterling 

All  those  who  are  still  in  favour  of  a  compulsory 
metric  system  and  decimal  coinage  are  recommended 
by  me  to  interview  Mr.  Scott  Armstrong  and  see  for 
themselves  how  valuable  the  British  systems  are  in 
practice  and  how  readily  they  lend  themselves  to 
every  human  need  and  convenience.  After  all,  it 
may  be  assumed  that  a  practical  solution  of  the 
subject  is  the  object  of  ninety-nine  per  cent,  of  the 
persons  engaged  upon  it  ?  No  single  view  can  be 
permitted  to  prevail  and  to  override  the  necessities 
of  others.  The  solution  must  lie  in  something  which 
will  suit  all  men — and  the  British  have  this  solu¬ 
tion  already.  These  British  systems  need  only 


to  be  properly  taught  and  applied  to  secure  inter¬ 
national  respect.  They  are  the  most  practical  and 
comprenensive  in  the  world. — Yours,  &c., 

E.  A.  W.  Phillips,  m.inst.c.e. 
Rawdon  House,  4,  Aymer-road,  Hove,  .June  27th. 


THINGS  ONE  WOULD  LIKE  TO  KNOW. 


(  Contributed.) 

Was  not  the  address  of  the  president  of  the  Institu¬ 
tion  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  a  model  of 
what  such  addresses  should  be  ?  Was  it  not  well  con¬ 
sidered,  well  written,  and  well  read,  and  did  it  not 
contain  some  excellent  advice  on  some  of  the  most 
pressing  problems  of  the  day?  With  such  a  com¬ 
mencement  of  Mr.  Palmer’s  year  of  office,  shall  we  not 
all  look  forward  to  even  more  progressive  action  in  the 
future  by  this  institution  than  in  the  past,  and  is  it  not 
to  be  hoped  that  by  a  genuine  and  unadulterated  desire 
for  a  real  combination  of  interests,  the  institution  will 
become  an  active  and  powerful  organisation? 

*  *  *  * 

Are  there  any  really  practical  formulie  for  the  cal¬ 
culation  of  the  sizes  of  sewers  to  take  rainstorms  of 
exceptional  amount?  Are  not  such  formula)  always 
based  on  data  which  do  not  apply  to  every  locality,  and 
is  it  not  necessary  to  make  exceptionally  careful  obser¬ 
vations  of  the  district  and  obtain  reliable  information 
as  to  the  rainfall  extending  over  considerable  periods 
before  anything  like  accuracy  can  be  obtained?  Did 
not  tlie  rainstorms  which  flooded  various  parts  of 
London  recently  show  that  on  such  occasions  the  sewers 
were  totally  inadequate  to  cope  with  such  a  down¬ 
pour  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Were  not  some  of  us  rather  struck  with  the  hard¬ 
wood  paving  in  Hastings,  which  has  in  some  places 
been  down  for  seventeen  years,  and,  although  some¬ 
what  worn,  appeared  to  have  a  life  still  before  it?  Is 
this  success  due  to  the  fact  that  most  of  it  is  laid 
“  herring  bone  ”  fashion,  or  is  it  due  to  the  excellence 
of  the  concrete  foundation?  Or  are  both  contributing 
factors  ? 

*  *  *  * 

How  will  municipal  authorities  be  able  to  meet  the 
recent  requirement-  of  the  Government  to  be  more 
sparing  in  the  use  of  wood  for  pavements  ?  Are  they 
not  already  fully  alive  to  the  "necessity  for  economy  in 
every  direction?  “  Needs  must  when  the  devil  drives,” 
however,  and  no  doubt  some  other  means  of  road  resto¬ 
ration  will  be  devised  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Was  not  Mr.  Wakelam’s  paper  on  extraordinary 
traffic  very  well  received,  and  was  it  not  an  extremely 
useful  contribution  on  a  subject  which  is  now  very 
much  to  the  front,  owing  to  the  large  amount  of  extra¬ 
ordinary  traffic  which  is  now  occurring  on  our  roads? 
Was  he  not  quite  right  in  emphasising  the  importance 
of  the  surveyor’s  certificate  in  connection  with  the 
necessary  jiroceedings  under  the  Act? 

*  *  *  * 

Is  not  the  Okehampton  Town  Council  entering  upon 
an  orgy  of  extravagance  in  increasing  the  salary  of  their 
acting  surveyor  to  15s.  a  week  as  surveyor,  and  10s.  a 
week  as  sanitary  inspector?  What,  one  is  tempted  to 
inquire,  has  hitherto  been  the  remuneration  attaching 
to  the  dual  office? 

*  * 

Who  was  the  engineer  originally  responsible  for  the 
sewerage  of  the  Irish  town  of  Inniskillen?  Is  it  a  fact 
that  one  of  the  sewers  has  sunk,  that  the  solid  matter 
in  most  of  the  sewers  has  to  be  taken  out  and  carted 
through  the  town,  and  that  the  whole  condition  of 
these  sewers  is  a  menace  to  the  health  of  the  town  ? 
Is  it  not  to  be  hoped  that  in  the  interests  of  the  health 
of  the  community  these  matters  will  be  put  right  at 
once  ? 


Experience  with  Concrete  Sewers. — The  authorities 
of  Chicago  have  obtained  from  thirty-two  towns  in  the 
United  States  information  concerning  their  experience 
with  concrete  sewers.  The  general  conclusion  of  prac¬ 
tically  all  the  engineers  reporting  appears  to  be  that, 
basing  the  conclusions  of  most  of  them  upon  experience 
of  the  past  ten  years  only,  concrete,  if  made  reasonably 
well,  has  proved  itself  satisfactory  under  all  except 
unusual  conditions,  and  is  appreciably  cheaper  than 
brick,  and  also  has  larger  capacity  for  a  given  diameter. 


20 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  6,  1917. 


SOME  REGENT  PUBLICATIONS.* 


Practical  Sanitation.  By  George  Reid,  m.d., 
d.p.h  18th  Edition  revised.  London:  Charles 
Griffin  &  Co.,  Limited.  Price  6s.  nett. 

This  “  handbook  for  sanitary  inspectors  and  others 
interested  in  sanitation  ”  has  long  ago  taken  its 
place  as  a 'standard  work,  and  the  continual  call  for 
new  editions  not  only  provides  the  best  possible  evi¬ 
dence  of  its  popularity,  but  also  enables  the  author 
to  keep  the  text  thoroughly  uji  to  date.  The  subjects 
dealt  with  include  water-  supply,  ventilation  and 
warming,  sewerage  and  drainage,  sanitary  appli¬ 
ances  and  plumber's  work,  sewage  and  refuse  dis¬ 
posal,  house  construction,  disinfection,  and  food. 
There  is  also  an  appendix  containing  a  useful  out¬ 
line  oi  sanitary  law.  The  author  would  probably 
be  the  last  to  suggest  that  all  these  topics  can  be 
treated  exhaustively  within  .the  .scope  of  a  single 
volume  of  some  380  pages,  and  he  disclaims  any. 
such  object.  The  book  is  intended  rather  for  the 
general  reader  and  the  technical  institute  student,' 
and  for  these  we  know  of  no  more  suitable  work  on 
the  subject.  The  style  throughout  is  simple  and 
practical,  and  the  illustrations  make  the  meaning 
abundantly  clear.  It  is,  however,  sufficient  to  say 
of  the  present  edition  that  the  revision  makes  it 
even  better  than  its  predecessors. 

The  Portland  Cement  Industry.  By  W.  A.  Brown. 
London:  Crosby  Lockwood  &  Son.  Price  7s.  6d. 
nett. 

In  these  days  it  would  hardly  be  possible  to 
exaggerate  the  importance  of  Portland  cement  as  a 
material  of  building  and  engineering  construction, 
and  it  is  not  .surprising  that  it  has  produced  a  con¬ 
siderable  literature.  The  present  work,  as  its  title 
indicates,  deals  with  the  manufacture  of  cement 
rather  than  its  uses,  and  the  author  properly 
describes  it  as  “  a  practical  treatise  on  the  building, 
'equipping,  and  economical  running  of  a  Portland 
cement  plant,  with  notes,  on  physical  testing.”  In 
the  earlier  chapters  the  development  of  the  in¬ 
dustry — which  now  ranks  eighth  in  the  list  of  great 
extractive  industries— is  treated  historically.  The 
author  then  proceeds  to  a  description  of  the  raw 
materials  used,  and  then  to  deal  with  the  design 
and  construction  of  plant  and  equipment.  Finally, 
the  last  six  chapters  deal  at  length  with  the  subject 
of  physical  testing.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that, 
although  intended  primarily  for  those  engaged  in 
the  manufacturing  industry,  Mr.  Brown’s  book  can 
be  read  with  profit  by  the  buyer  who  desires  to 
assure  himself  that  he  is  getting  the  best  article. 
We  cordially  recommend  this  work  to  municipal 
engineers. 

Sanitation  Practically  Applied.  By  Harold 
Bacon  Wood.  (First  Edition.)  New  York:  John 
Wiley  &  Sons.  Price  12s,  4d. 

The  increasing  interest  in  public  health  in  America 
is  shown  by  the  recent  publication  of  several  notable 
books  on  health  administration.  A  new  one  just 
issued  is  that  by  Dr.  Harold  B.  Wood,  the  Assistant 
Health  Commissioner  of  the  State  of  West  Virginia. 
The  word  ”  practical  ”  which  appears  in  the  title 
is  appropriate,  because  the  subject-matter  is  well 
arranged  for  convenient  use,  yet  it  is  evident  that 
the  author  well  understands  the  modern  theories  of 
hygiene  and  sanitation.  In  fact  the  book  is  un¬ 
usually  well  written,  well  balanced,  and  interesting. 

The  first  chapter  starts  out  by  emphasising  the 
importance  of  the  “  whole  -  time  health  officer,”  the 
need  of  a  properly  organised  department  of  health, 
and  the  varied  work  which  a  health  organisation  has 
to  carry  on.  The  second  chapter  is  excellent.  It 
relates  to  vital  statistics,  and  especially  to  the 
accuracy  of  the  individual  data,  the  need  of  accuracy 
in  the  collection  of  the  facts,  and  the  pitfalls  that 
beset  the  health  officials  in  obtaining  proper  basic 
data.  Very  little  is  said  about  the  mathematics  of 
the  subject,  but  the  most  important  fallacies  are 
pointed  out.  It  is  made  plain  in  this  chapter  that 
one  cannot  be  an  efficient  health  officer  without 
knowing  how  to  collect  and  use  statistics.  The 
last  chapter  gives  a  good  account  of  the  many  kinds 
of  educational  work  now  being  carried  out  by  public 
health  agencies.  In  the  matter  of  disease  control 
the  author  takes  a  conservative  position.  Unlike 
some  .modern  writers,  he  does  not  discard  fumiga¬ 

*  Any  of  the  publications  reviewed,  or  referred  to  as 
received,  will  be  forwarded  by  the  St.  Bride’s  Press,  Limited, 
on  receipt  of  published  price,  plus  postage  in  the  case  of 
nett  boohs. 


tion,  placarding,  &c.,  altogether,  but  endeavours  to 
give  the  old  ideas  as  well  as  the  new  their  proper 
place.  The  book  is  well  printed,  illustrated,  and 
indexed,  reflecting  credit  on  author  and  publisher. 


CARDIFF  RESERVOIR  CONTRACT. 


CORPORATION  S  APPLICATION  IN  HICH  COURT. 

In  tlie  King’s  Bench  Division  last  week,  before 
Mr.  Justice  Bray,  Air.  Bruce  Thomas  renewed  his 
application  for  a  stay  of  execution  with  a  view  to 
appeal  in  the  case  of  Xo/t  v.  The  Cardiff  Corporation , 
which  related  to  a  large  contract  for  the  construction 
of  the  Llwynon  Reservoir  in  Breconshire.  The 
matter  came  before  the  court  in  the  award  of  an 
arbitrator,  who  gave  £12,000  to  the  plaintiffs,  and  the 
court  upheld  this  award. 

The  application  for  a  stay  was  opposed  by  plain¬ 
tiffs  on  the  ground  that  the  Cardiff  Corporation  had 
security  for  about  £45,000  for  the  due  performance 
of  the  contract,  which  was  now  hung  up  owing  to  the 
difficulty  of  getting  1  labour  and  materials.  An 
affidavit  was  now  filed  by  the  Corporation  of  Cardiff 
in  reply  to  plaintiff’s  affidavit,  received  when  the 
application  was  made  on  .  the  previous  Friday,  and 
Mr.  Justice  Bray  commented  that  the  corporation 
had  a  large  sum  in  hand.  Air.  Bruce  Thomas  ad¬ 
mitted  this,  but  said  there  were  no  overwhelming 
assets,  so  that  he  could  not  feel  satisfied  that  if  the 
Cardiff  Corporation  ultimately  succeeded  they  would 
obtain  repayment  of  the  substantial  sum  they  were 
now  asked  to  pay  over.  There  was  over  £100,000 
worth  of  work  still  to  be  done. 

Replying  to  Air.  Justice  Bray,  Mr.  Szlumper  said 
the  plaintiffs  undertook  not  to  charge  their  assets 
before  the  appeal  was  heard. 

Air.  Justice  Bray  said  in  these  circumstances  the 
motion  must  be  refused.  The  Cardiff  Corporation 
were  amply  secured,  and  would  be  able  to  get  the 
money  back  if  they  succeeded  on  appeal. 


USE  OF  TIMBER  FOR  ROAD  WORKS. 


LOCAL  GOVERNMENT  BOARD’S  APPEAL. 

In  a  circular  to  local  authorities  the  Local  Govern¬ 
ment  Board  state  that  their  attention  has  been 
drawn  by  the  Controller  of  Timber  Supplies  to  the 
grave  difficulties  which  now  obtain  in  regard  to  the 
provision  of  timber  to  meet  the  enormous  present 
and  prospective  demands  for  purposes  of  national  im¬ 
portance  and  to  the  urgency  of  reducing  to  a 
minimum  the  consumption  of  timber  for  all  but  the 
most  essential  needs. 

It  is  strongly  urged  that  the  use  of  timber  for  road 
works  should  be  confined  to  the  sole  purposes  of 
repairs,  that  the  relaying  of  all  wood  paving  should 
be  deferred  for  the  present,  and  that  where  works 
for  the  improvement  of  road  surfaces  cannot  possibly 
be  postponed,  the  local  authorities  should  adopt  some 
alternative  method,  such  as  surfacing  with  asphalt 
or  other  bituminous  material,  or  taking  up  a  section 
of  sound  wood  paving,  which  could  be  replaced  with 
setts,  and  using  the  blocks  thus  set  free  for  repairing 
wornout  places. 

Economy  in  the  use  of  timber  has,  it  is  pointed  out, 
a  very  special  bearing  on  the  problem  of  saving 
tonnage  at  the  present  time,  and  in  bringing  these 
suggestions  to  the  notice  of  local  authorities  the 
Board  feel  sure  that  the  latter  will  fully  appreciate 
the  seriousness  of  the  position  and  do  all  in  their 
power  to  give  effect  to  them. 


The  Director  of  Timber  Supplies  has  refused  an  ap¬ 
plication  of  the  Metropolitan  Electric  Tramway  Com¬ 
pany  to  purchase  wood  blocks  for  the  repair  of  the 
paving  in  the  tramway  area. 


The  Shortage  of  Houses. — Replying  to  a  question  in 

the  House  of  Commons,  Air.  Hayes  Fisher,  the  Secre¬ 
tary  of  the  Local  Government  Board,  stated  that  he 
was  not  in  a  position  to  make  any  reliable  estimate 
as  to  the  shortage  of  houses  in  rural  and  urban  areas 
in  England  and  Wales  at  the  end  of  the  war,  but  he 
contemplated  asking  local  authorities  for  information 
which  would,  he  hoped,  make  it  possible  to  obtain 
some  fairly  accurate  estimate  of  the  housing  needs  in 
those  areas. 


\ 


/ 


The  Surveyor 

Hnb  flDunldpal  anb  County  Engineer. 


Vol.  LII.  JULY  13,  1917.  No.  1,330. 


Minutes  of  Proceedings. 


Sheffield  has  played  the  part 
of  a  pioneer  in  the  use  of  elec- 
orr  ®  •  •  trically  propelled  vehicles  in 

municipal  work,  so  that  the  paper  by  Mr.  J.  A. 
Priestley,  the  cleansing  superintendent,  which  was 
read  at  the  annual  conference  of  the  Institute'  of 
Cleansing  Superintendents,  held  at  Nottingham 
this  week,  was  of  peculiar  interest  and  value. 
Recapitulating  the  advantages  of  the  electric 
vehicles  for  town  cleansing  work,  lie  pointed  out 
that  their  motive  power  is  ready  to  hand,  that  there 
is  no  waste  of  power  while  standing,  that  they  are 
noiseless  and  easy  to  start,  and  that  by  reason  of 
the  small  number  of  working  parts  an  unskilled 
man  can  easily  learn  to  handle  them.  In  addition 
to  these  advantages,  he  was  also  able  to  show  by 
detailed  figures  that,  as  compared  with  horse  trac¬ 
tion,  electric  vehicles  possess  the  merit  of  con¬ 
siderable  economy.  Sheffield  purchased  its  first 
electric  vehicle  in  1915,  and  the  result  was  so 
satisfactory  that  four  more  were  delivered  within 
a  year,  while  at  the  present  time  a  fleet  of  ten 
machines  is  in  full  operation.  As  regards  the  col¬ 
lection  of  house  refuse-,  Mr.  Priestley’s  figures 
showed  that  during  the.  year  ending  March  25, 
1917,  oyer  51,000  tons  of  bin  refuse  were  collected 
by  horses  at  a  cost  of  5s.  5’4d.  per  ton,  while  some 
7,000  tons  were  collected  by  electric  vehicles  at  a 
cost  of  4s.  9'8d.  per  ton.  The  saving  effected  on 
the  collection  of  ashpit  refuse  was  even  greater 
than  the  respective  figures,  being  3s.  8'5d.  and 
2s.  2'3d.  per  ton.  A  further  large  economy  resulted 
from  the  use  of  the  vehicles  for  the  removal  of 
clinker  residue  from  destructor  works  to  tips.  In 
short,  to  use  Mr.  Priestley’s  own  words,  the  result 
of  twelve  months’  working  of  electric  vehicles  in 
Sheffield,  considered  on  a  financial  basis  alone,  is 
eminently  satisfactory.  A  report  by  Mr.  S.  L. 
Pearce,  the  chief  engineer  and  manager  of  the  Man¬ 
chester  Corporation  Electricity  Department,  which 
was  reproduced  in  our  last  issue,  tells  a  similar 
story  in  regard  to  that  city.  He.  was  able  to  show 
that  in  Manchester  the  electric  vehicle,  considered 
on  a  mileage  basis,  is  equivalent  to  173  horse 
lorries,  and  that  in  addition  there  is  a  large  saving 
resulting  from  the  organisation  possible  from  cen¬ 
tral  control.  His  report  was-  also  very  convincing 
on  the  important  question  of  reliability,  for  the 
'lorry  was  never  out  of  use  except  on  Sundays  and 
public  holidays.  Moreover,  despite  an  exception¬ 
ally  severe  winter,  the  vehicle  was  never  kept- 'off 
the  road  on  account  of  weather  conditions,  and  it 
has  actually  gone  out  after  heavy  snowfalls  when 
horses,  have  been  unable  to  make  headway.  It  is 
evident  that  the  electric  motor  vehicle  as  a  sub¬ 
stitute  for  horse  traction  in  municipal  work  has 
come  to  stay.  Further,  it  seems  'to  be  more 
adapted  for  certain  kinds  of  work,  particularly  such 
services  as  house  refuse  collection,  in  which  fre¬ 
quent-  stoppings  and  startings  are  inevitable,  than 


the  petrol  lorry.  Both  Mr.  Priestley  and  Mr.  Pearce 
have  rendered  a  useful  service  in  placing  on  record 
the  results  of  their  very  interesting  experience. 


What  is  a 
Motor  Car  ”  ? 


The  recent  decision  of  the 
King’s  Bench  Divisional  Court 
in  the  case  of  Elieson  v.  Parker 
shows  that,  in  the  application  of  the  well-known 
legal  maxim  da  minimis  lex  non  curat ,  much 
depends  on  what  is  to  be  understood  by  “  mini¬ 
mis.  ”  In  this,  as  in  many  other  matters,  the  law 
is  its  own  interpreter,  with  results  that  are  some¬ 
times  disappointing  to  those  who  rely  upon  their 
own  interpretation.  In  the  case  referred  to  the 
appellant,  Mr.  Elieson,  had  been  convicted  and 
fined  10s.  for  using  an  unregistered  “  motor  car,” 
and  for  driving  it  without  a  licence.  The  vehicle 
in  question  was,  in  fact,  as  appears  from  the  report 
of  the  case,  a  kind  of  bath  chair,  designed  to  carry 
invalids,  and  propelled  by  electricity.  Its  weight 
was  about-  24  cwt. ,  and  its  outside  speed  capacity 
was  from  four  to  five  miles  an  hour,  its  average 
speed  being  not  more  than  two  miles  an  hour;  and 
in  the-  case  as  stated  by  the-  magistrates  "it  was 
found  as  a  fact  that  if  the  vehicle  met  with  the 
slightest  obstacle,  for  instance,  if  it  ran  into  or 
were  run  into  by  a  moderate-sized  dog,  it  would 
instantly  stop  without  either  injuring  the  dog  or 
itself  being  injured.  Now  our  readers  will  re¬ 
member  that,  although  the  Locomotives  on  High¬ 
ways  Act,  1896,  has  been  designated  “  the 
charter  of  the  motor  car,”  the  term  “  motor  car  " 
does  not  occur  in  the  Act  itself,  the  expression 
therein  used  being  “  light  locomotive,”  which  is 
thus  defined  :  “  any  vehicle  propelled  by  mechanical 
power,  if  it  is  under  three  tons  in  weight  unladen, 
and  is  not-  used  for  the  purpose  of  drawing  more 
than  one  vehicle  (such  vehicle  with  its  locomotive 
not  to  exceed  in  weight  unladen  four  tons)  and  is 
so  constructed  that  no-  smoke  or  visible  vapour  is 
emitted  therefrom  except  from  any  temporary  or 
accidental  cause.”  This  definition  has  been  cha¬ 
racterised  as  ”  sufficiently  clumsy  nevertheless 
it  is  adopted,  with  a  slight  variation,  by  the  "Motor 
Car  Act,  1903,  in  which  the  expression  “  motor¬ 
car  ”  has  the  same  meaning,  except  that  for  the 
purpose  of  the  provisions  with  respect  to  the  regis¬ 
tration  of  motor  cars,  “motor  car”  is  not  to 
include  a  vehicle  drawn  by  a  motor  car.  So  far  as 
we  can  gather  from  the  report  there  was  no  attempt 
on  the  part  of  the  appellant  to  contend  that  his 
vehicle  did  not  come-'  within  the  statutory  definition 
of  a  “  motor  car,  ”  his  counsel  merely  urging  that 
the  maxim  above  referred  to  should  be  applied. 
But  the  Court  did  not  take  this  view  of  the  matter, 
and  dismissed  the  appeal.  As  pointed  out  by  Vis- 
•  count  Reading  in  delivering  judgment,  such 
vehicles  might'come  into  general  use;  “  and  why,  ” 
said  his  lordship,  “  should  they  not  bear  the 


B 


22 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


burden  of  taxation,  if  they  fell  within  the  definition 
of  the  Act  applying  to  motor  cars  ?  ....  It  was 
impossible  to  say  that  this  vehicle  was  not  a 
vehicle  propelled  by  mechanical  power  according 
to  the  definition  of  ‘  light  locomotive,’  and  there¬ 
fore  it  was  within  the  statute.  ”  Highway  authori¬ 
ties  will  no  doubt  regard  this  decision  with  satis¬ 
faction. 

*  *  * 

At  the  recent  annual  congress 
ramway  ^  £}ie  Tramways  and  Light  Rail- 
ongress  ways  Association  the  principal 
item  in  the  programme  was  a  paper  by  Mr. 
Arthur  JN  ortun,  assoc. m.inst.c.e.,  a.m.i.mech.e.,  on 
tramway  wheel  tyres.  Many  undertakings  carry 
out  the  fitting  and  maintenance  of  tyres  in  their 
own  workshops,  and  the  paper  should  prove  of 
great  assistance  to  their  staffs.  The  author  pointed 
out  the  great  importance  of  making  the  correct 
allowance  for  contraction  when  boring  out  tyres 
for  shrinking  on  to  the  wheel  centres,  of  heating 
the  tyre  to  the  right  temperature  and  no  more, 
and  cooling  the  tyre  when  in  position,  not  by  the 
common  but  primitive  method  of  drenching  it  with 
a  hose-pipe,  but  by  the  use  of  a  perforated  ring 
allowing  the  water  to  play  freely  on  the  whole  cir¬ 
cumference  of  the  tyre  at  once.  By  overheating 
the  tyre  and  quenching  it  irregularly,  unequal 
stress  may  be  left  in  the  tyre,  and  spots  of  varying 
hardness  produced,  which  facilitate  the  develop¬ 
ment'  of  flats  in  service.  The  importance  of  main¬ 
taining  the  flanges  in  good  shape,  without  allowing 
them  to  become  unduly  worn,  was  another  point 
emphasised  by  the  author;  when  taken  in  time 
worn  tyres  and  flanges  can  be  restored  to  shape 
with  far  less  waste  of  material  and  labour  than 
when  the  section  has  been  allowed  to  depart  widely 
.  from  the  correct  jjrofile.  Lubricating  the  rails  on 
sharp  curves  with  water  (and  therefore  mud) 
effects  a  saving  in  wear  on  the  flanges ;  turning 
the  cars  frequently,  so  that  the  wheels  are  not 
always  running  on  the  same  rails,  is  a  valuable 
precaution,  and  the  maintenance  of  the  car  truck 
frames  in  square  diminishes  tyre  wear.  Owing  to 
the  war,  it  is  impossible  to  renew  worn  tramway 
rails,  or  in  some  cases  to  turn  the  tyres,  so  that 
the  conditions  are  at  present  highly  adverse  to 
economical  maintenance.  Excellent  results  as 
regards  reduced  wear  on  tread  and  flange,  and 
greater  uniformity  of  wearing,  have  been  obtained 
by  driving  the  axle  from  both  ends,  a  practice 
introduced  at  Belfast  by  Mr.  Blackburn  some 
years  ago.  Another  means  of  prolonging  the  life 
of  the'  tyres  is  to  subject  them  to  special  heat 
treatment,  which  improves  the  quality  of  the 
metal  to  a . marked  degree,  indicated  by  tests 
quoted  by  the  author.  Incidentally,  the  mainten¬ 
ance  of  the  tyres  in  good  shape  reduces  the  wear  of 
rails  and  rail  corrugation,  as  well  as  the  consump¬ 
tion  of  energy.  In  the  discussion  which  followed 
the  author’s  views  were  supported,  but  it  was  held 
that  water  should  not  be'  used  to  cool  the  tyres 
after  shrinking  them  on.  The  remarkable  results 
obtained  from  heat  treatment  were  also  empha¬ 
sised. 

*  *  * 


Some  progress  was  made  last 
Bridge  week  with  the  scheme  of  the 

South  Eastern  and  Chatham 
Railway  Company  for  the  strengthening  of 
Charing  Cross  Bridge,  when  the  Bill  embodying 
the  proposal  was  under  consideration  by  a  Com¬ 
mittee  of  the  House  of  Lords.  The  chief  engineer 
to  the  company,  giving  evidence  for  the  Bill, 
expressed  the  opinion  that  the  bridge  has  been 
overstrained  for  a  considerable  time;  and  that  in 
view  of  the  enormous'  increase  in  the  maximum 
weight  of  locomotives  since  it  was  constructed,  in 
fifteen  years  from  now  half  the  engines  of  the  com-  • 
pany  would  not  be  able  to  use  the  bridge  in  its 
present  condition.  Opposition  to  the  scheme  was 


offered  by  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Archi¬ 
tects  and  by  the  London  Society.  They  did  not  ask 
that  the  Bill  should  be  rejected,  but  rather  that 
some  guarantee  should  be  given  by  which  there 
would  be  no  obstacle  in  the  future  to  the  removal 
of  Charing  Cross  Station  to  the  south  side  of  the 
river,  and  the  construction  of  a  handsome  road 
bridge  as  an  approach  to  it,  possibly  as  a  National 
War  Memorial.  Mr.  John  Burns  also  opposed  the 
Bill,  and  gave  evidence  of  great  interest.  He 
stated  that  when  the  Channel  Tunnel  was  con¬ 
structed — and  he  believed  that  its  construction  was 
now  inevitable — the  traffic  on  the  South  Eastern 
Railway  would  be  enormously  increased,  with  the 
result  that  the  present  station  and  bridge  would  be' 
miserably  inadequate.  The  chairman,  announcing 
.the  decision  of  the  Committee,  said  that  the  Com¬ 
mittee  would  allow  the  Bill  to  prooeed  upon  the 
promoters  giving  the  undertaking  that  no  expendi¬ 
ture  with  relation  to  Charing  Cross  Station  other 
than  that  required  for  the  strengthening  and 
repairing  of  the  bridge  should  be  incurred  by  the 
company.  The  Committee  had  also  decided  that 
in  the  event  of  any  public  improvement  being 
authorised  involving  the  removal  of  the  existing 
station  and  bridge  within  fifteen  years  the  railway 
company  should  not  be  reimbursed  for  their 
expenditure  on  the  strengthening  of  the  bridge. 
The  Committee  also  required  that  the  company 
should  not  begin  the  construction  of  the  works 
above  water  until  the  expiration  of  three  years 
from  the  passing  of  this  Act  unless  the  Board  of 
Trade,  in  the  public  interest,  should  require  the 
work  to  proceed  earlier. 


Dry  Rot  in  ..  Tbe  ..subject  of  dry  rot  in 
Timber  timber  was  dealt  with  m  a  very 
able  manner  in  the  paper  which 
was  read  at  the  recent  annual  meeting  of  the 
Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  by 
Mr.  E.  J.  Goodacre,  the  assistant  borough  sur¬ 
veyor  of  Shrewsbury.  The  causes  of  this,  insidious 
and  vital  disease  are  broadly  known,  but  scientific- 
knowledge  of  the  actual  fungi  which  produce  it  is 
still  immature.  Eor  practical  purposes,  however, 
the  most  important  thing  for  the.  surveyor  to  know 
and  to  avoid  is  the  state  or  condition  which  is  most 
favourable  to  the  germination  of  the  spore.  It  is 
well  known  that  the  broad  conditions  required  for 
fertility  are  moisture  and  moderate,  temperature, 
but  it  is  perhaps  not  so  generally  realised  that  the 
rate  of  decay  is  directly  proportional  to  the  relative 
humidity  of  the  atmosphere — that  is  the  ratio  of 
the  amount  of  .moisture  in  the  air  to  that  required 
for  saturation  at  a  given  temperature.  Dry  rot 
is  a  disease  in  regard  to  which  it  is  essentially  true 
that  prevention  is  better  than  cure,  for  once  it  has 
attacked  the  timbers  of  a  building  its  total  eradica¬ 
tion  is  no  easy  matter.  Mr.  Goodacre  went  to  the 
root  of  the  matter  in  pointing  out.  that  dry  rot  can 
only  be  prevented  in  one  of  two  ways — namely, 
(a)  by  guarding  against  contact  with  infected  wood, 
including  spores,  or  ( b )  by  depriving  the  fungi  of 
the  conditions  favourable  to  their  development. 
The  chief  value  of  his  paper,  perhaps,  lay  in  the 
very  useful  hints  which  it  contained  as  to  the 
practical  means  to  be  adopted  to  secure  these  ends. 
The  question  is  one  which  has  assumed  a  new  im¬ 
portance  in  view  of  the  present  •restriction  in  the 
supply  of  timber. 


Inspection 

of 

Documents. 


In  commenting  recently  on 
the  decision  of  the  High  Court  in 
the  case  of  Wood-ward  v.  The 
Hampstead  Borough  Council,  we 
drew  attention  to  the  principles  upon  which  the 
rights  of  an  individual  member  of  a  local  authority  to 
the  inspection  of  documents  are  based.  It  will  be 
remembered  that  in  that  case  an  alderman  failed 
in  his  application  for  a  mandamus  to  compel  the 
town  clerk  to  produce  certain  documents  to  him 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


23 


on  the  ground  that,  whatever  his  common  law 
rights  might  be,  the  case  was  not.  one  for  a  man¬ 
damus,  because  the  court  were  satisfied  that  the 
inspection  sought  might  result  in  the  communica¬ 
tion  of  information  to  a  litigant  against  the  council. 
A  similar  question  has  recently  arisen  at  Waltham¬ 
stow,  upon  a  recommendation  of  the  Sanatorium 
Visiting  Committee,  “  that  any  member  of  the 
council  shall  have  the  right  of  access  to  and  inspec¬ 
tion  of  all  documents  and  correspondence  in  the 
different  departments  of  the  council,  except,  at 
the  discretion  of  the  clerk,  those  in  connection  with 
any  pending  action  at  law.”  In  the  course  of  the 
discussion  it  was  suggested  that  the  council  could 
not  by  the  mere  passing  of  a  resolut  ion  confer  upon 
its  members  any  right  which  was  not  already 
theirs  by  law.  Be  this  as  it  may,  it  is  in  our  view 
undesirable  on  broad  grounds  to  extend  the  strict 
rights  of  individual  members  in  the  direction  indi¬ 
cated.  While  no  objection  could  be  taken  as  re¬ 
gards  the  great  majority  of  members,  we  know,  un¬ 
fortunately,  that  there  is  a  minority  who  could  not 
be  trusted  not  to  abuse  any  further  powers  which 
might  be  given  them.  In  making  this  observation, 

,  we  need  hardly  say  that-we  speak  quite  generally, 
and  not  with  reference  either  to  Hampstead  or 
Walthamstow,  of  the  local  circumstances  of  which 
we  have  no  knowledge.. 

*  *  * 


Westminster 
Women’s  Labour 
Conference. 


The  conference  held  at  West¬ 
minster  this  week  formed  the 
initial  step  in  a  general  move¬ 
ment  for  the  co-ordination  of 
the  scheme  under  National  Service  for  utilising 
women’s  labour  in  agriculture  and  in  that  section 
of  municipal  work  administered  by  the  urban  and 
rural  authorities.  It  was  essentially  a  business 
gathering,  and  the  information  which  it  elicited, 
coming  as  it  did  at  first  band  from  the  local  sur¬ 
veyors,  was  of  considerable  practical  value  in  rela¬ 
tion  to  the  scope  of  women’s  service  in  urban  and 
rural  areas.  The  outstanding  feature  of  the  dis¬ 
cussion  was  the  almost  unanimous  testimony  borne 
to  the  usefulness  of  women  in  the  lighter  categories 
of  service,  the  intelligence  they  bring  to  bear  upon 
the  task  they  undertake,  and  their  general  capa¬ 
city  in  an  industrial  field  which  they  have  recently 
entered  for  the  first  time.  In  general  labourer’s 
work,  in  gardening,  scavenging,  tarring,  and  de¬ 
partmental  superintendence  women  are  welcomed 
as  almost  co-equal  in  efficiency  with  men.  On  the 
other  hand  it  was  recognised  that  a  great  deal  of 
the  work  to  be.  performed  in  the  winter  period, 
when  the  women  with  whom  the  conference  was 
concerned  would  be-  released  from  agricultural  pur¬ 
suits,  was  of  a  nature  that  would  be  physically  un¬ 
suitable  to  them,  and  herein,  of  course,  lies  a  diffi¬ 
culty  of  surveyors  in  making  use  of  their  services. 
The  sifting  of  road  materials,  pick  and  shovel  work, 
and  carmen’s  work  involve  a,  call  upon  the  physical 
energies  which  women  obviously  cannot  be.  asked 
to  undertake,  and  in  these  directions  there  is  a 
notorious  shortage  of  labour.  However,  the  note 
struck  at  the  conference  was  decidedly  hopeful, 
and  the  movement  certainly  deserves  all  the  support 
which  Mr.  Wakelam  claimed  for  it,  if  only  because 
it  marks  a.  development  of  the  general  scheme  of 
helpful  industrial  organisation  initiated  by  the  Food 
Production  Department. 


Certified 

Occupations. 


Among  the  changes  effected  by 
the  revised  list  of  certified  occu¬ 
pations  which  has  recently  been 
issued  under  the  authority  of  the  Director-General 
of  National  Service  are  some  which  directly  affect 
the  work  of  local  government  administration.  It 
will  be  remembered  that  local  government  officials 
are  included  under  the  general  heading  of  “  public 
utility  services.”  The  age  limit,  both  for  single 
and  married  men  engaged  in  this  class  of  work,  has 
been  raised  from  twenty-seven  to  thirty-one.  More¬ 


A  Hard 
Case. 


over,  the  consent  of  the  military  representative  is 
no  longer  required  in  order  that  a  local  government 
official  may  be  treated  as  being  in  a  certified  occu¬ 
pation.  In  considering  the  possibility  of  retaining 
members  of  their  staff,  however,  heads  of  depart¬ 
ments  must  remember  that  the  reservation  does 
not  apply  to  officials  of  trading  undertakings  car¬ 
ried  on  by  local  authorities ;  nor  does  it  apply  to 
men  whose  duties  are  merely  clerical  in  character. 
These  new  concessions  will  be  welcomed  not  only 
in  view  of  the  large  numbers  of  officials  who  have 
already  left  their  offices  to  join  the  colours,  but 
also  as  a  recognition  of  the  many  important  new 
duties  that  have  been  undertaken  by  local  autho¬ 
rities  at  the  instance  of  various  government  de¬ 
partments.  We  also,  note  with  satisfaction  that 
men  engaged  in  the  collection  and  disposal  of 
house  refuse  are  now  to.  be  treated  as  being  in  a 
reserved  occupation.  We  have  more  than  once 
urged  that  this  should  be  done  in  the  interests  of 
the  public  health,  and  we  feel  convinced  that  the 
step  now  taken  is  a  wise  one. 

T  T 

It  is  with  great  regret  that  we 
observe  that  at  the  last  monthly 
meeting  of  the  Filey  Urban  Dis¬ 
trict  Council  the  chairman  referred  to  the  fact  that 
Mr.  Robson,  the  surveyor  to  the  council,  had  been 
given  three  months’  notice  to  terminate  his  ap¬ 
pointment.  It  is  clear  that  no  reflection  is  in¬ 
tended  upon  Mr.  Robson’s  character  or  profes¬ 
sional  ability,  for  the  chairman  pointed  out  that 
Mr.  Robson  had  been  a  very  valuable  official  to  the 
town  for  nearly  seventeen  years,  and  the  step 
taken  was  necessary  solely  on  account  of  the 
financial  condition  of  the  town,  which  had  arisen 
through  the  war.  There  can,  of  course,  be  no 
doubt  that  Filey  has  suffered  very  much  through 
war  conditions  owing  to  its  situation.  But  so  have 
many  other  towns ;  and  we  must  say  that  the  total 
dismissal  of  an  old  and  valuable  official  does  not 
seem  to  us  to  go  far  towards  reaching  the  standard 
of  equality  of  sacrifice  which  ought  to  prevail  as  far 
as  possible.  Such  a  case  as  this  affords  a  fresh 
example  of  the  necessity  for  some  form  of  security 
of  tenure.  Treatment  of  the  kind  meted  out  to 
Mr.  Robson  would  be  impossible  in  the  case  of  a 
medical  officer  of  health  or  sanitary  inspector. 

*  *  * 

One  important  factor  that 
Behind  the  Lines,  goes  to  make  the  demand  for 
men  for  the  Army  as’  insistent 
as  ever  is  the  happy  circumstance  that  we  are 
advancing.  It  is  perhaps  not  generally  realised 
what  this  means  in  the  way  of  work.  As  the. 
enemy  falls  back  he  goes  immediately  on  to  ground 
that  has  been  well  prepared  for  him,  whereas  on 
our  side  the  advance  is  of  necessity  on  to  ground 
that  has  literally  been  turned  into  a  wilderness, 
and  which  has  been  deliberately  rendered  sterile 
by  every  device  known  to  man.  Among  other 
things  every  road  is  pitted  with  enormous  shell 
holes,  every  bridge  is  broken  down,  and  every  rail¬ 
way  is  destroyed.  It  is  here  that  the  labour  bat¬ 
talions,  which  are  to  a  considerable  extent  officered 
by  municipal  engineers,  are  rendering  such 
splendid  service-.  Reports'  show  that  the  work  of 
restoration  is  carried  out.  by  a  multitude  of  workers 
with  an  efficiency  and  a  rapidity  that  can  only  be- 
described  as  marvellous.  A  good  deal  of  the.  work, 
too,  is  not  of  such  a  temporary  character  as  might 
have  been  expected.  Special  praise  lias  been 
given  by  more  than  one  correspondent  to  the  work 
of  road  making  that  is  constantly  going  on.  The 
importance  of  this,  of  course,  lies  in  the  direct 
relation  that  it  has  to  the  rapid  bringing  up  of  the 
heavy  guns  behind  the  advancing  infantry. 
Probably  few,  if  any,  of  the  municipal  engineers 
engaged  in  this  wonderful  work  ever  dreamed  that 
their  profession  would  provide  them  with  a  task 
of  such  romance. 


24 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


Electric  Vehicles  and  Their  Use  on  Cleansing  Work 

in  Sheffield.* 


By  J.  A.  PRIESTLEY,  Cleansing  Superintendent,  Sheffield. 


Sheffield,  although  not  the  first  municipality  in  this 
country  to  make  use  of  battery  operated  vehicles  for 
refuse  collection,  was,  I  believe,  second  only  by  a  few 
weeks,  and  now  easily  takes  first  place  as  the  largest 
user  of  this  class  of  vehicle  for  that  particular  work. 
The  “  electric  ”  as  a  type  of  motor  vehicle  always 
appealed  to  me  as  particularly  suitable  for  refuse  col¬ 
lection,  owing  to  its  special  features  which  eliminated 
many  of  the  disadvantages  possessed  by  other  types 
of  motor  vehicles  for  this  work.  In  his  admirable  and 
comprehensive  paper  at  Cardiff  last  year,  our 
'esteemed  president  dealt  so  thoroughly  with  the  rela¬ 
tive  merits  of  each  class  of  motor,  that  I  will  not  waste 
your  time  by  going  over  old  ground,  beyond  point¬ 
ing  out  a  few  features  of  the  “  electric  ”  which,  in  my 
opinion,  particularly  fit  it  for  our  work.  These  are: 

(a)  'That  its  motive  power  is  ready  to  hand,  parti¬ 
cularly  in  those  departments  possessing  a  destructor; 
(b)  the  economy  of  motive  power  whilst  standing;  (c) 
the  ease  of  starting ;  (cl)  the  noiselessness ;  (e)  the  few¬ 
ness  of  its  working  parts;  and  :(/)  the  ease  with  which 
an  unskilled  man  can  learn  to  handle  the  machine. 
With  petrol  prices  and  restrictions  so  much  in 
evidence  and  coal  and  coke  so  difficult  to  obtain,  (a) 
requires  no  elaboration.  In  work  which  is  made  up 
of  stoppages  every  few  yards  for  loading;  (b)  and  (c) 
are  self-evident  advantages ;  (cl)  is  of  considerable  im¬ 
portance  where  night  work  is  carried  out ;  whilst  (e) 
and  (f)  require  no  argument  with  any  cleansing  super¬ 
intendent  who  looks  upon  the  havoc  war  has  played 
with  his  staff. 

It  was  for  these  and  other  reasons  that,  in  1914,  I 
recommended  my  council  to  consider  the  question  of 
using  electric  vehicles  in  the  cleansing  department, 
and  a  committee  was  appointed  to  deal  with  the 
matter. 

As  a  result  of  extensive  inquiries  and  examination 
of  various  makes  of  vehicles  they  unanimously  recom¬ 
mended  the  purchase  of  an  Edison  battery  vehicle  of 
two  tons  capacity,  and  this  was  delivered  and  com¬ 
menced  work  in  September,  1915,  and  has  been  at 
work  continuously  ever  since. 

I  do  not  propose  in  this  paper  to  discuss  the  relative 
merits  of  different  types  of  batteries.  They  each  have 
their  advantages,  but  for  traction  purposes  our  con¬ 
sidered  judgment  was  in  favour  of  the  Edison  battery, 
and  we  have  had  no  reason  to  regret  our  decision. 

A  few  weeks’  trial  of  the  first  vehicle  proved  so 
satisfactory  that  a  second  was  ordered  and  delivered 
in  January,  1916,  a  third  was  delivered  in  May,  1916, 
a  fourth  in  November,  1916,  and  a  fifth  in  December, 
1916.  Five  further  vehicles  were  then  ordered,  and 
three  of  these  are  now  at  work,  and  a  total  fleet  of  ten 
vehicles  will  probably  be.  operating  before  this  paper 
is  read.  These  facts  indicate,  without  any  comment, 
what  Sheffield  thinks  about  “  electrics:” 

•COST  FIGURES. 

The  experience  upon  which  this  policy  has  been 
based  I  propose  to  lay  before  you  in  the  form  of  figures 
in  the  course  of  this  paper,  but  before  doing  so  I  wish 
to  make  a  few  general  observations.  In  the  discus¬ 
sion  on  our  president’s  paper  last,  year  several 
speakers  complained  that  the  cost  figures  were 
not  given  in  such  a  form  that  they  could  be  used 
aS  a  comparison  with  the  costs  in  their  own  districts* 
and  they  insisted  upon  the  necessity  of  standardising 
such  figures.  The  same  idea  has  found  currency  in 
many  letters  addressed  to  the  professional  journals  in 
the.  course  of  the  year,  one  anonymous  writer  even 
going  so  far  as  to  say  that  no  figures  which  had  been 
published  on  this  subject  were  reliable.  I  am  afraid 
that  there  are  many  men  who  suffer  from  what,  one 
speaker  last  year  correctly  described  as  “  standardi- 
tis.”  They  appear  to  me  to  completely  lack  what  I 
may  call  the  “  Comparative  ”  sense — i.e.,  the  faculty 
of  using  comparison  as  an  aid  to  judgment. 

There  is  no  common  denominator  to  which  all  things 
can  b,e  reduced,  and  if  any  of  my  listeners  are  expect¬ 
ing  to  hear  figures  given  which  can  be  applied  like  a 
mathematical  formula  to  their  districts,  they  are 
likely  to  be  disappointed:  The  figures  I  shall  give 
relate  to  Sheffield  conditions,  and  to  the  relative  cost 

*  Paper  readon  Tuesday  last  attlie  animal  conference  of  the  Institute 
of  Cleansing  Superintendents. 


of  “  horse  labour  ”  and  “  electric  vehicles  ”  under 
Sheffield  conditions,  and  if  those  figures  are  to  be  of 
any  use  to  you  they  must  be  considered  with  a  full 
appreciation  of  that  fact.  I  propose  to  explain  what 
those  conditions  are,  and  it  will  then  be  for  you  to 
consider  how  far  they  correspond  with  your  own  con¬ 
ditions,  and  how  any  variations  are  likely  to  favour¬ 
ably  or  unfavourably  affect  the  work  of  “  electrics  ” 
in  your  districts.  If  your  conditions  are  generally 
more  favourable  you  may  expect  better  results  from 
“  electrics,”  whilst  if  unfavourable,  you  will  have  to 
determine  the  extent  to  which  the  unfavourable  condi¬ 
tions  will  discount  the  advantages,  which  Sheffield 
finds  in  the  use  of  this  class  of  motor.  It"  is  only  in 
this  way  that  the  results  obtained  in  one  town  can  be 
intelligently  applied  as  a  guide  to  other  towns. 


REFUSE  COLLECTION  BY  “  ELECTRICS.” 

So  far  as  I  am  familiar  with  conditions  in  other  dis¬ 
tricts,  I  know  of  no  place  where  those  relating  to  bin 
refuse  collection  are  less  favourable  to  the  use  of 
motors  than  in  Sheffield.  On  the  other  hand,  the  op¬ 
portunity  of  using  the  vehicle  on  both  day  and  night 
service  is,  of  course,  a  decided  advantage,  as  it  divides 
the  standing  charges  over  two  shifts,  although  such 
charges  are  necessarily  increased  by  working  double 
time. 

We  have  three  types  of  receptacles  in  use,  portable 
bins,  dry  ashpits,  and  privy  middens,  and  there  are 
no  back  streets  or  courts  in  the  city.  The  bins  are 
kept  at  the  rear  of  the  houses,  and  are  not  put  on  the 
kerb  for  emptying.  This  refuse,  which  is  collected 
during  the  daytime,  is  emptied  into  a  skip,  carried  out 
to  the  street  by  the  workmen,  and  emptied  into  the 
wagon,  which  moves  along  from  house  to  house.  The 
bins  are  not  continuous,  ashpits  being  interspersed 
in  many  streets  making  more  or  less  irregular  gaps 
in  the  system.  Owing  to  the  use  of  skips,  only  one 
journey  is  necessary  to  each  house  unless  the  work  is 
in  arrears,  but  the  minimum  carrying  distance  is  not 
Jess  than  twenty  yards,  and  is  often  much  more. 

With  horse  wagons  there  are  two  men — a  driver  and 
labourer — and  both  help  to  load.  With  “  electrics  ” 
there  are  three  labourers,  and  a  driver  who  only  loads 
occasionally.  In  each  case  the  labourers  accompany 
the  vehicle  to  tip.  The  costs  given  hereafter  for  bin 
refuse  both  in  the  case  of  horse  and  “  electric  ”  in¬ 
clude  all  labour  in  collecting. 

Ashpits,  both  wet  and  dry,  are  emptied  by  “  getters- 
out  ”  who  are  paid  at  piece  rates.  They  empty  the 
ashpits  and  wheel  the  refuse  into  the  front  street, 
where  it  is  loaded  into  wagons.  This  work  is  chiefly 
carried  out  during  the  night.  Horse  wagons  are 
loaded  by  the  driver  alone  and  “electrics”  by  the 
driver  and  one  labourer.  The  costs  given  in  the  case 
of  ashpit  refuse  do  not  include  getting  out,  but  repre¬ 
sent  the  cost  of  loading  and  removal  only.  The 
weekly  wages  at  present  paid  for  each  class  of  work¬ 
men,  including  bonuses,  is :  Electric  vehicle  drivers, 
46s.;  electric  vehicle  labourers,  43s.;  horsemen,  41s.; 
and  horse  wagon  labourers,  38s.'  In  calculating  the 
cost  of  horse  labour  I  have  taken  13s.  6d.  per  day  as 
the  value  of  horse  carter  and  wagon,  a  figure  which 
cannot  be  challenged  as  inflated,  I  am  sure,  and  to 
this  is  added  the  actual  wages  paid  for  labourers. 

The  working  costs  of  the  “electrics”  include' (1) 
wages,  i(2)  vehicle  costs,  (3)  tyres,  and  (4)  electricity. 
The  first  item  is  the  actual  amount  paid  during  the 
period  under  review.  The  second  includes  (a)  interest 
and  depreciation  based  on  ten  years’  life ;  (b)  insur¬ 
ance;  (c)  garage,  watering,  cleaning  and  charging; 
(d)  waste  oil,  grease,  &c. ;  and  (e)  repairs  and  renewals. 
The  third  is  the  actual  cost  under  a  maintenance 
contract,  and  the  fourth  is  the  amount  charged  a'gainst 
the  vehicles  for  the  current  -supplied  from  the  destruc¬ 
tors,  and  represents  an  interdepartmental  profit. 

The  details  of  the  vehicle  costs  are: 


(a)  Interest  and  depreciation — 10  years’ 

life  .  . .  ... 

(b)  Insurance 

(c)  Garage,  cleaning,  charging,  and  water¬ 

ing  . 

(d)  Waste,  oil,  grease,  &c.  ... 

(i e )  Repairs  and  renewals  ... 


£  8.  d. 

123  5  10 
8  10  0 

25  2  8 
6  10  0 
43  2  0 


£206  10  6 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


25 


or  £3  19s.  Gd.  per  week  divided  equally  between  day 
and  night  work. 

Taking  these  items  seriatim: 

(a)  The  basis  of  ten  years’  life  may  be  challenged 
as  too  optimistic,  especially  by  those  familiar  only 
with  the  life  of  petrol  wagons.  So  far  from  this  being 
the  case,  I  think  the  estimate  is  fully  justified  for  the 
following  reasons: 

1.  One-half  tire  cost  of  the  vehicle  is  represented 
by  the  battery,  and  this  is  guaranteed  to  give  100  per 
cent  of  its  original  efficiency  after  eight  years’  con- 


ance  of  each  vehicle  since  it  was  put  into  service,  but 
have  confined  myself  principally  to  the  period  March 
20,  1916,  to  March  25,  1917,  during  which  five  “  elec¬ 
trics  ”  were  in  service  for  periods  varying  from  one 
year  to  three  months.  In  this  year  51,498 
tons  15  cwt.  1  qr.  of  bin  refuse  were  collected  by  horses 
at  a  cost  of  5s.  5'4d.  per  ton,  and  7,040  tons  11  cwt.  by 
“  electrics  ”  at  a  cost  of  4s.  9-8d.  per  ton.  Of  ashpit  re¬ 
fuse  27,877  tons  of  12  cwt.  were  collected  by  horses  at 
a  cost  of  3s.  8-5d.  per  ton,  and  10,670  tons  3  cwt.  3  qrs. 
by  “  electrics  ”  at  a  cost  of  2s.  23d.  per  ton. 

The  detailed  figures  are: 


House  Costs  fob  Bin  Refuse. 


Depot. 

Weight 
collected . 

Horse 

days. 

Cost. 

Cost 
per  ton. 

Team. 

Labourers. 

Total. 

Heeley . . 

Penistone-road  . 

Wortbing-road  . 

T.  c.  <l. 

16,155  16  3 
19,079  9  3 

16,263  8  3 

4797'2 

5332-7 

4909-9 

£  s.  d. 
3,238  2  10 

3,599  1 1  5 

3,314  3  8 

£  s.  d 

1,260  9  9 

1,366  14  1 

1,268  5  6 

£  s.  d. 

4,498  12  7 

4,966  5  6 

4,582  9  2 

s.  d. 

5  6-8  • 

5  2-4 

5  7-6 

Total . 

Electric  ...  . 

51,498  15  1 

7/40  11  0 

15039-8 

10,151  17  11 

3,895  9  4 

14,047  7  3 

1,696  1  6 

5  5-4 

4  9-8 

stant  service,  and  any  defects  not  due  to  misuse  are 
made  good  by  the  makers  during  such  period.  If  a 
battery  will  do  this  at  the  end  of  eight  years’  ser¬ 
vice  it  is  not  unreasonable  to  expect  a  further  two 
years’  working  life,  and  in  America,  where  the  bat¬ 
tery  vehicle  has  been  much  more  extensively  used 
than  in  this  country,  there  are  batteries  in  use  after 
even  longer  periods  of  service. 

2.  The  electric  vehicle  cannot  be  compared  with 
steam  or  petrol  vehicles,  as  there  are  less  working 
parts.  There  are  no  boilers,  cylinders,  valves, 
cranks,  pistons,  clutches,  or  gears,  all  of  which  are 


Sheffield  Electric  Refuse  Collection  Vehicle. 


liable  to  quick  wear.  The  life  of  a  vehicle  with  less 
parts  to  wear  must  necessarily  be  longer. 

3.  The  electrical  drive  subjects  the  vehicle  to  very 
much  less  strain  arid  shock  in  starting  or  speed 

changing. 

4.  The  provision  for  repairs  and  renewals  repre¬ 
sents  about  10  per  cent  on  the  cost  of  chassis,  less 
battery  and  tyres,  and  allows,  therefore,  for  com¬ 
plete  renewal  of  the  entire  machine,  less  these  items, 
in  the  ten  years  period. 

5.  Although  the  vehicles  are  used  for  both  day  and 
night  service,  the  total  mileage  per  week  is  very  low, 
and  nearly  one-half  of  this  mileage  is  run  without 
load.  On  this  basis,  therefore,  ten  years’  life  does 
not  represent  hard  service. 

(b)  Is  the  actual  cost. 

(c)  (d)  Is  the  cost  per  vehicle  year  based  on  pre¬ 
sent  experience. 

(e)  Is  based  on  our  experience  with  the  first  vehicle 
and  is  more-  liberal  than  appears  necessary  with 
later  vehicles.  It  is  retained,  however,  for  reason 
(4)  given  above.  A  number  of  weaknesses  found  in 
the  first  machine  have  been  corrected  in  later 
models. 

Having  explained  local  conditions  and  given  the 
basis  of  my  calculations,  we  will  now  consider  the 
results. 

I  have  not  taken  into  account  the  whole  porform- 


Electric  Cost  fob  Bin  Refuse. 

£  s  d. 

Vehicle  costs  about  3J  years  .  331  1  II 

Drivers'  and  labourers’  wages  .  1,230  9  8 

Tyres— 12,610  miles  at  Id.  per  mile  ...  52  13  1 

Electricity — 19,639  units  at  Id.  per  unit  ...*  81  16  7 

£1,696  1  6 

Refuse  collected  7,040  tons,  11  cwt.  ...  4s.  9"8d.  per  ton. 

Ashpit  Refuse— Horse  Costs. 


Depot. 

W  eight 
removed. 

Horse 

days. 

Cost. 

Cost 
per  ton. 

T. 

c. 

Q. 

£ 

s. 

a. 

s. 

d. 

Heeley  . 

12,853 

10 

2 

4044-7 

2,730 

4 

2 

4 

2-9 

Penistone-road  ... 

10,260 

5 

0 

2494-0 

1,683 

9 

0 

3 

3-3 

W orthing-road  ... 

4,763 

16 

2 

1128-3 

761 

12 

0 

3 

2'3 

Total . 

27,877 

12 

0 

7667-0 

5,175 

5 

2 

3 

8-5 

Electric . 

10,670 

3 

3 

1,170 

17 

8 

2 

2-3 

Ashpit  Refuse — Electric  Costs. 

,  £  s.  d. 

Vehicle  costs  about  3.j  yeurs  .  362  16  0 

Drivers'  and  labourers'  wages  .  641  5  11 

Tyres — 15,313  miles  at  Id.  per  mile .  63  16  1 

Electricity — 24,716  units  at  Id.  per  unit  ...  *  102  19  8 

£1,170  17  8 

Refuse  removed,  10,670  tons  3  cwts.  3  qrs.,  2s.  2  3d.  per  ton. 

It  should  be  pointed  out  that  in  these  tables  the 
comparison  of  cost  is  between  horse  labour  and 
“  electrics  ”  over  the  whole  city,  but  inasmuch  as  the 
“  electrics.  ”  with  one  exception  were  working  on  the 
longest  distances,  this  basis  is  not  strictly  fair  to  the 
“  electrics.”  As  additional  motors  were  put  in  ser¬ 
vice  these  replaced  horses  on  long  distances,  with  the 
result  that  the  horse  costs  over  the  city  area  have 
decreased,  whilst  “  electric  ”  costs  remain  at  a  maxi¬ 
mum.  The  following  figures  illustrate  this.  In  three 
bin  districts  now  worked  by  motors  the  cost  of  collec¬ 
tion  by  horses  would  have  been  8s.  3'2d.,  6s.  lT9d.,  and 
6s.  lOd.  per  ton  respectively,  whilst,  in  one  ashpit  dis¬ 
trict  horses  and  an  “  electric  ”  were  worked  side-  by 
side,  with  the  result  that  over  a  period  of  twenty- 
three  weeks  the  average  cost  was:  Horses,  5s.  6'2d. 
per  ton  and  electrics  2s.  10'2d.  per  ton. 

In  addition  to  the  collection  and  removal  of  house 
refuse!  I  have  made  use  of  electric  vehicles  for  the 
removal  of  clinker  residue  from  the  destructor  works 
to  tips,  and  figures  as  to  the  cost  on  this  work,  as 
compared  with  horse  labour,  may  be  of  interest. 


Clinker  Removal — Lumley-street  to  Stevenson-road. 


ELECTRIC  VEHICLE  COSTS. 


Vehicle  costs  ... 

Drivers’  and  labourers’  wages 

Tyres— 334  miles  at  Id.  per  mile . 

Electricity— 557  units  at  Id.  per  unit 


£  s.  d. 
6  12  6 
19  16  8 
1  7  10 


Clinker  removed,  333  tons  1  cwt.  3  qrs. 
or  441 '34  ton  miles 

Cost  for  horse  labour  on  same  work... 


£30  5  1 
s.  d. 

1  9'9  per  ton 

1  4'4  per  ton 

mile. 

2  2  per  ton. 


O 


26 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


Lumley-street  to  Bernard-roap, 


ELECTRIC  VEHICLE  COSTS. 


Vehicle  costs  ...  ...  . 

Drivers’  and  labourers’  wages 
Tyres — 254  miles  at  Id.  per  mile  ... 
Electricity — 346  units  at  Id.  per  unit 


£  s.  d. 
6  19  2 
16  3  10 
112 
1  8  10 


£25  13  0 


Clinker  removed,  331  tons  4  cwt.  2  qrs. 
Or  339  ton  miles . 

Cost  of  same  work  with  horse  labour 


s.  d. 

1  6*6  per  ton 

1  6'1  per  ton 

mile. 
1  9'6  per  ton 


Penistone-road  to  Middlewood. 


ELECTRIC  VEHICLE  COSTS. 


Vehicle  costs . 

Drivers’  and  labourers’  wages 
Tyres— 1,834  miles  at  Id.  per  mile 
Electricity — 3,004  units  at  Id.  per  unit 


£  s.  d. 
31  0.6 
63  6  4 

7  12  10 
12  10  4 


£114  10  0 


s.  d. 

Clinker  removed,  1,423  tons  2  cwt.  2  qrs.  ...  1  7'3  per  ton 

Or  2,334  ton  miles  . 0  11*7  per  ton 

mile. 

Cost  of  same  work  with  horse  labour  ...  2  2  per  ton 

In  these  instances  it  has  been  possible  to  arrive  at 
a  cost  per  ton  mile,  the  load  being  taken  on  at  one 
point  and  delivered  at  another.  In  house  refuse  col¬ 
lection  this  basis  is  not  applicable,  owing  to  the  load 
being  picked  up  from  house  to  house. 

The  result  of  twelve  months’  working  of  electric 
vehicles  in  Sheffield  considered  on  a  financial  basis 
alone  is  eminently  satisfactory.  As  previously  stated, 
five  vehicles  have  been  at  work  for  varying  periods 
amounting  in  the  aggregate  to  the  work  of  practically 
3i  vehicles  for  one  year.  The  saving  in  the  work  done 
by  them  as  compared  with  horse  costs  over  the  whole 
city  amounts  to  £1,050  12s.  6d.;  capital  has  been 
written  off  to  the  amount  of  £292  12s.  6d.;  and  elec¬ 
tricity  supplied  from  the  destructors  represents  a 
further  sum  of  £191  14s.  8d.,  making  a  total  of 
£1,534  19S;  8d.  Put  in  another  way,  3R  vehicles  work¬ 
ing  for  one  year  have  cleared  off  more  than  the  entire 
initial  cost  of  one  and  a  half  vehicles.  This  result,  be 
it  noted,  is  in  comparison  with  horse  costs  for  the 
whole  city,  which  for  reasons  already  stated  does  not 
represent  the  full  facts.  If  the  comparison  was  made 
only  with  horse  costs  for  the  districts  now  served  by 
the  “  electrics,”  the  saving  shown  would  be  materially 
increased,  and  the  total  figure  would  be  well  over 
£2,000. 

SOME  QUESTIONS.  - 

Questions  will  probably  suggest  themselves  to  many 
of  my  hearers,  such  as :  What  of  the  cases  where  work 
is  .available  oniy  for  one  shift  P  Can  electrics  be  pro¬ 
fitably  employed  under  those  circumstances  P  The 
answer,  I  think,  can  now  be  supplied  by  many  local 
authorities  who  are  making  a  success  of  them  under 
such  circumstances.  There  is  accumulating  in  this 
country  an  ever-growing  masg  of  experience  of  this 
class  of  vehicle,  as  users  are  now  numbered  by  the 
score  where  they  were  numbered  by  units  a  year  ago, 
but  I  have  purposely  refrained  from  giving  you  the 
results  of  other  people’s  experience,  believing  that  on 
work  the  conditions  of  which  in  different  towns  vary 
so  much  as  do  thoge  of  public  cleansing  the  most 
valuable  information  can  be  given  by  the  man  who 
understands  and  can  best  explain  local  circumstances, 
and  that  the  presentation  of  a  mass  of  statistics  by 
anyone  not  familiar  with  such  circumstances  can  only 
lead  to  confusion. 

So  far  as  Sheffield  is  concerned,  I  believe  that  “  elec¬ 
trics  ”  would  be  profitable  on  single  shifts  only— very 
much  so  on  ashpit  refuse  work,  and  to  a  lesser  .degree 
on  ashbins.  If  the  entire  vehicle  costs  were'charged 
against  ashpit  work,  the  comparative  figures  would 
be:  Horses,  3s.  8'5d. ;  electrics,  2s.  10'4d.  If  charged 
entirely  against  ashbin  refuse,  the  figures  would  be: 
Horses,  5s.  5*4d. ;  electrics,  5s.  9  Id. ;  but  taking  the 
horse  costs  in  this  case  on  the  districts  now  worked  by 
“  electrics,”  the  comparison  is :  Horses,  6s,  8*4cL ;  elec¬ 
trics,  5s.  9'ld.  It  must  also  be  further  noted  that  with 
vehicles  working  only  one-half  their  present  mileage 
and  tonnage,  the  depreciation  and  repairs  items  would 
both  admit  of  substantial  reductions. 

For  those  concerned  in  the  horse  value  of  “  elec¬ 
trics,”  the  following  table  may  be  interesting : 


Bin  Ashpit 
refuse,  refuse. 

Average  tons  per  day— horses .  3*42  3*63 

,,  ,,  — electrics  ...  ...  7'67  10*58  Total. 

Value  of  each  electric  in  horses .  2*24  2*91  5*15 

These  figures  again  relate  to  the  whole  city,  but  the 
number  of  horses  actually  replaced  by  each  vehicle 
is  a  fraction  under  six. 

SUGGESTIONS  TO  MANUFACTURERS. 

In  conclusion,  there  are  two  suggestions  I  would 
throw  out  for  the  consideration  of  electric  vehicle 
manufacturers.  I  have  previously  referred  to  the 
varying  circumstances  and  conditions  which  make 
every  town  a  distinctive  proposition  for  motor  work. 
My  first  suggestion  is  that  the  manufacturer  who  best 
studies  those  conditions,  and  is  prepared  to  show  by 
demonstration  vehicles  what  he  can  do  under  the 
special  circumstances  of  each  case,  is  the  man  who 
will  get  the  business.  It  is  no  use  telling  Yorkshire 
towns  what  is  being  done  in  London  or  in  Glasgow, 
where  conditions  are  entirely  different.  Send  down  a 
vehicle  for  a  week  or  a  month,  and  demonstrate  what 
can  be  done  in  the  particular  town  concerned. 

My  second  suggestion  is  that  it  should  not  be 
assumed  that  any  vehicle  or  any  battery  represents 
the  last  word  in  efficiency.  Personally  I  am  looking 
eagerly  for  that  battery  which  will  absorb  sufficient 
power  in  one  hour  to  run  a  vehicle  for  twenty-three 
hours  without  either  boosts  or  warming  up,  and  so 
save  that  extra  six  hours  now  required  to  give  a 
“  normal  ”  charge. 


LONDON’S  SEWAGE  OUTFALL  WORKS. 


INSTITUTION  OF  SANITARY  ENGINEERS’  VISIT  TO 
CROSSNESS. 

On  Saturday  last  a  party  of  about  thirty  members 
of  the  Institution  of  Sanitary  Engineers,  at  the  invita¬ 
tion  of  the  president  (Mr.  W.  J.  E.  Binnie, 
m.inst.c.e.),  paid  a  visit  of  inspection  to  the  London 
County  Council  Southern  Outfall  Works  at  Crossness. 

The  party  embarked  at  Charing-cross  pier  at  2 
p.m.,  on  the  county  council  steamer  “  Beatrice,” 
which  had  been  kindly  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the 
president,  and  proceeded  down  the  river  to  Crossness, 
where  they  were  met  by  the  engineer-in-charge,  and 
conducted  over  the  works. 

The  whole  of  the  drainage  of  the  metropolitan  area 
south  of  the  River  Thames  drains  to  these  works 
through  two  low-level  sewer  outfalls,  each  of  the  enor¬ 
mous  size  of  11  ft.  diameter,  there  being  also  a  high- 
level  sewer  of  9  ft.  6  in.  diameter.  Here  the  sewage 
enters  a  covered  reservoir,  where  the  solids  are  de¬ 
posited,  and  the  effluent  is  pumped  into  the  river. 

The  ordinary  daily  dry-weather  flow  is  about  a 
hundred  million  gallons,  which  in  time  of  rainstorms 
reaches  double  this  figure.  The  original  pumping 
plant  consisted  of  four  Watt  beam  engines  of  about 
250  nominal  li.p.  each;  this  has  since  been  supple¬ 
mented  by  two  Stewart  engines  and  pumps  of  300  h.p. 
each,  and  still  more  recently  by  six  centrifugal  pumps 
running  at  about  260  revolutions  per  minute,  which 
are  able  to  cope  with  the  whole  of  the  dry-weather 
flow. 

The  sludge  is  taken  away  by  a  fleet  of  six  powerful 
steamships,  which  can  each  carry  1,000  tons  of  wet 
sludge,  which  is  deposited  in  the  sea  about  sixty  miles 
from  Crossness.  The  cost  of  this  operation  is  esti¬ 
mated  at  about  4d.  per  ton. 

The  members  were  much  struck  with  the  beauty  of 
design  of  the  original  pumping  house,  and  with  the 
condition  of  the  Watt  engines  and  pumps,  which  were 
erected  about  1862,  the  works  having  been  formally 
opened  in  1865.  It  is  rather  interesting  to  note  that 
one  of  the  past-presidents,  Mr.  Percy  Boulnois,  who 
formed  one  of  the  party,  was  a  pupil  of  Sir  Joseph 
Bazalgette,  the  engineer  of  the  scheme,  at  the  time 
these  works  were  under  construction. 

On  the  return  voyage  to  Charing-cross  pier  the 
members  were  entertained  at  tea  by  the  president  in 
the  cabin  of  the  "  Beatrice,”  and  “  reached  land  ”  in 
safety,  after  a  most  enjoyable  and  instructive  after¬ 
noon.  A  very  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  by 
acclamation  to  Mr.  Binnie  for  having  arranged  such 
an  attractive  programme  and  for  his  hospitality. 


Sanitary  Inspection  in  Southwark.— Recommending 
that  the  vacancies  in  the  staff  of  sanitary  inspectors  be 
filled  without  delay,  the  medical  officer  of  health  for 
So  tliwark  states  that  many  of  the  houses  in  the 
borough  are  in  a  foul  and  insanitary  state,  and  are  a 
serious  danger. 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


27 


Institution  of  Water  Engineers. 

SUMMER  GENERAL  MEETING  IN  LONDON. 

[6’ oncluded  from  last  week.'] 


On  the  presentation  at  the  recent  summer  meeting 
of  the  Institution  of  Water  Engineers  of  the  paper  by 
Mr.  J.  S.  Pickering,  borough  and  water  engineer  of 
Cheltenham,  entitled 

COLOUR  RECORDS  APPLIED  TO  POTABLE  WATER, 

The  President  (Mr.  F.  W.  McCullough)  said  they 
would  all  be  agreed  that  they  had  listened  to  a  very 
able  contribution.  They  had  expected  to  have  had  a 
written  communication  from  Prof.  Delepine  on  the 
subject,  but  it  had  not  arrived. 

Mr.  W.  T.  Burgess  (London)  said  the  author  had 
pointed  the  way  in  one  direction,  and  had  laid 
it  down  that  in  the  discussion  they  were  to  consider 
colour  alone,  because  colour,  jier  se,  had  very  little 
bearing,  or  might  have  very  little  bearing,  on  the 
hygienic  value  of  water.  Polluted  water  might  be 
perfectly  colourless,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  every¬ 
one  knew  that  highly  coloured  water  might  be  per¬ 
fectly  pure  and  wholesome.  Colour  by  itself  had 
nothing  whatever  to  do  with  the  hygienic  quality  of 
the  water.  As  this  was  the  first  time  this  question 
applied  in  relation  to  water  had  been  mentioned,  it 
was  only  right  that  they  should  take  a  glance  at  the 
history  of  the  methods  for  dealing  with  the  colours  of 
natural  waters.  The  first  effort  was  suggested  by 
Albert  It.  Leeds  in  1878,  when  he  proposed  a 
standard  which  was  sometimes  known  as  the  natural 
standard.  It  was  to  compare  the  tint  of  water 
approximately  with  the  tint  produced  by  adding  a 
nesslerised  solution  of  ammonia  to  distilled  water. 
It  was  called  the  natural  method,  but  owing  to  the 
errors  to  which  the  process  was  subject  it  had  better 
have  been  described  as  unnatural.  In  1881  Crookes, 
Odling,  and  Tidy  commenced  their  examination  of 
the  metropolitan  supplies  of  the  London  water  com¬ 
panies,  and  in  an  early  report  described  a  colour 
meter.  A  2  ft.  tube  was  filled  with  water,  and  the 
tint  of  it  was  matched  against  the  colour  that  was 
produced  from  two  hollow  wedges  containing  a 
coloured  solution.  Unfortunately  these  two  coloured 
solutions  were  blue  and  brown,  and  the  solution  sug¬ 
gested  for  the  brown  colour  was  a  very  unsatisfactory 
one.  It  was  subsequently  changed  to  one  which  was 
very  satisfactory,  but  at  what  date  that  change  took 
place  lie  did  not  know.  Some  years  later,  in  1890, 
Lovibond  described  his  tintometer  before  the  Society 
of  Chemical  Industry,  and  he  had  no'  doubt  that  this 
invention  cost  an  enormous  amount  of  labour  and  no 
inconsiderable  amount  of  expense  before  it  was  per¬ 
fected.  In  1892  Allen  Hazen  suggested  the  platinum 
cobalt  standard  for  water,  and  in  describing  this  in 
the  “  American  Chemical  Journal  ”  called  attention 
to  the  errors  which  were  liable  to  occur  in  the  natural 
standard — in  Leeds  nesslerised  ammonia  method — • 
and  also  found  fault  with  the  description  of  the 
Crookes3  instrument,  where  the  unsatisfactory  solu¬ 
tion  of  iron  and  cobalt  was  usecL  At  first  Hazen 
suggested  that  colour  should  be  expressed  in  terms 
of  parts  of  platinum  per  10,000.  Unfortunately  that 
involved  the  use  of  decimal  fractions  in  dealing  with 
the  colours,  and  later  the  scale  was  amended  so  that 
it  was  expressed  in  parts  of  platinum  per  1,000,000, 
which  had  the  advantage  of  giving  whole  numbers. 
Seventeen  or  eighteen  years  ago  he  had  occasion  to 
examine  a  large  number  of  samples  of  Metropolitan 
waters  and  was  not  satisfied  with  the  colour  meters 
he  could  get.  Lovibond’s  tintometer  was  not  suffi¬ 
ciently  delicate,  and  there  were  certain  defects  in 
Crookes’  instrument  which  he  wanted  to  avoid; 
whilst  Hazen’s  method  would  have  required  too 
many  delicate  standard  solutions.  He  therefore  con¬ 
structed  a  colour  instrument  himself  and  had  had  it 
in  use  since,  and  had  not  been  able  to  effect  any 
improvement  in  it.  Mr.  Pickering  had  given 
them  some  very  interesting  colour  records.  Unfor¬ 
tunately  the  estimation  of  colour  in  natural  waters 
was  attended  with  some  difficulty  because  the  appa¬ 
rent  colour  of  water  depended  chiefly  on  two 
factors:  First,  on  the  organic  matter  of  vege¬ 
table  origin  in  true  solution,  and,  secondly, 
matter  in  suspension,  causing  turbidity.  When 
the  latter  was  marked  the  colour  estimations 
were  uncertain.  As  a  matter  of  routine  in  dealing 
with  raw  river  waters  it  was  best  to  put  them  through 


some  preliminary  treatment  to  eliminate  most  of  the 
suspended  matters  before  applying  the  colour  test. 
Dr.  Houston  did  this.  All  the  samples  of  raw  water 
were  filtered  through  filter  paper  before  the  colour 
test  was  applied.  That  removed  the  grosser  particles 
of  suspended  matter  which  would  interfere  with  any 
system.  It  would  be  readily  understood  that  .clear 
filtered  waters  were  the  easiest  to  deal  with  in  any 
colour  measuring  arrangements.  How  closely  colour 
records  followed  the  proportion  of  organic  matter  in 
the  water  was  shown  in  the  diagrams.  With  regard 
to  the  Dowdcswell  supply  of  the  Cheltenham'  Cor¬ 
poration  they  had  a  curious  application  of  colour 
records.  The  colour  developed  subsequent  to  filtra¬ 
tion  and  was  not  in  solution,  but  depended  on  the 
growth  and  multiplication  of  a  particular  organism 
having  a  brownish  colour.  The  filtered  water,  which 
was  originally  clear,  evidently  became  increas¬ 
ingly  turbid  on  storage.  He  would  like  to 
refer  to  the  method  of  the  author  in  making 
the  tests.  Samples  were  •  taken  of  the  filtered 
water  and  tested  in  the  tintometer,  and  the 
same  water  was  examined  day  after  day  for  a 
period  of  twenty-one  days.  If  Mr.  Pickering  simply 
put  his  water  into  the  tube  and  transferred  it  back 
to  the  sample  bottle,  and  then  put  in  the  same  water 
without  some  method  of  sterilisation,  it  was  per¬ 
fectly  certain  he  must  have  inoculated  his  samples 
of  water.  In  order  to  make  these  things  perfectly 
safe  to  the  scientific  mind  one  would  have  to  take 
care  the  tube  was  filled  with,  water,  and  that  before 
it  was  returned  as  sample  water  it  was  absolutely 
sterilised  so  that  nothing  was  introduced  from  one 
bottle  to  another.  His  criticism,  however,  might 
not  have  so  much  bearing  on  the  question,  and  some 
might  think  because  the  proportion  of  water  which 
would  be  inoculated  each  time  was  relatively  small, 
whereas  probably  the  number  of  organisms  or  their 
spores  in  the  original  water  was  considerable.  From 
a  study  of  the  Severn  colour  records  it  was  fairly 
evident  that  the  great  variations  in  the  case  of  the 
raw  water  were  caused  more  by  matters  in  suspen¬ 
sion  than  by  organic  matters  in  solution.  With 
regard  to  Birmingham  he  had  been  particularly  inte¬ 
rested.  He  had  occasion  many  years  ago  to  have 
a  good  deal  to  do  with  the  Birmingham  supplies,  and 
he  must  certainly  congratulate  Birmingham  on  the 
water  having  a  less  degree  of  colour  than  he  at  one 
time  anticipated  it  would  have.  He  had  a  sample 
of  Birmingham  water  recently,  and  he  found,  accord¬ 
ing  to  his  scale,  that  at  the  present  time  it  had  a 
colour  of  32.  He  thought  that  engineers  would  do 
well  to  follow  Birmingham’s  example  and  have  colour 
records,  particularly  in  the  case  where  they  had 
large  impounding' reservoirs  for  upland  surface  water, 
so  that  they  could  see  how  the  water  behaved  over 
a  course  of  time.  As  a  rule,  they  were  higher  to 
start  with.  Mr.  Pickering  expressed  a  hope  that 
uniformity  in  expressing  colour  results  might  be 
arrived  at.  Unfortunately  all  the  proposed  scales 
■were  arbitrary,  and  probably  Lovibond’s  was  the 
most  arbitrary.  Glasses  could  not  be  made  to  accu¬ 
rate  tints  without  great  trouble,  but  any  chemist 
could  make  up  standard  colour  solutions  containing 
definite  weights  of  chemical  substances  having  suit¬ 
able  colours)  He  was  therefore  in  favour  of  having 
some  system  whereby  colours  were  matched  by 
chemical  solutions  rather  than  by  glass.  As  far  as 
his  own  device  was  concerned  he  might  say  it  was 
not  necessary  to  have  a  large  number  of  solutions. 
For  all  practical  purposes  two  standard  yellowish- 
brown  solutions  sufficed.  He  did  not  tbink  they 
could  hope  to  get  uniformity  in  expressing  results,  as 
that  was  nearly  impossible.  He  could,  however, 
throw  a  little  light  on  the  subject.  Mr.  Pickering 
some  few  days  ago  sent  him  a  solution  of  his 
Dowdeswell  filter  water,  of  which  the  colour  record 
was  ’9  yellow  and  '6  blue.  He  had  tested  that  in  his 
colour  meter  and  his  figure  was  24  5.  Then  he  had 
also  compared  Hazen’s  scale  with  his  own  scale,  and 
25  of  Hazen’s  scale  was  approximately  60  of  his. 
Therefore,  by  a  little  calculation  they  could  arrive 
at  what  the 'Hazen  figure  of  Mr.  Pickering’s  sample 
was.  It  would  be  10.  So  they  had  three  things— 
Lovibond’s  '9  yellow  plus  '6  blue,  10  on  Hazen  s 
scale,  and«24-5  on  his  (the  speaker’s)  scale.  That,  at 

0* 


28 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


any  rate,  was  something  expressing  one  water  on 
three  scales. 

Mr.  E.  Antony  Lees  (Birmingham)  said  they  were 
ali  indebted  to  Mr.  Pickering  for  a  very'  interesting- 
paper,  and  also  to  Mr.  Burgess  for  the  very  interest¬ 
ing  description  of  the  various  methods  which  had 
been  devised  for  measuring  colour  in  water.  In  his 
^opinion,  at  present,  he  did  not  think  that  the  ques¬ 
tion  of  colour  in  water  was  of  sufficient  scientific 
importance  to  call  for  so  minute  an  examination ; 
what  they  wanted  rather  was  an  examination  of  the 
tendencies  of  progression.  The  observations  taken 
of  the  .South  Birmingham  water  from  Wales  had 
been  referred  to.  They  occurred  to  him  as  being 
rather  interesting  in  that  they  extended  over  a  period 
of  three  years.  As  a  matter  of  fact  they  now  ex¬ 
tended  over  thirteen  years.  What  particularly 
occurred  to  one  to  notice  was  the  remarkable 
seasonal  regularity  of  the  observations.  It  would  be 
seen  that  the  minimum  of  colour  invariably  occurred 
in  midsummer,  and  very  shortly  after  midsummer 
the  colour  began  to  rise.  It  reached  its  maximum 
some  time  in  the  winter,  and  then  began  to  descend 
until  it  reached  its  minimum  again  about  the  next 
midsummer.  One  naturally  supposed  as  a  first  sug¬ 
gestion  that  this  might  have  something  to  do  with 
floods,  but  from  observations  he  thought  he  could 
safely  say  that  it  could  not  be  related  to  the  rain¬ 
fall.  Mr.  Pickering  and  himself  had  been  in  corre¬ 
spondence  on  the  subject,  and  they  had  also  had 
conversations  on  the  matter,  and  a  comparison  of 
the  rainfall  curves  and  the  colour  curves  showed  that 
there  could  not  be  any  connection  between  the  two. 
Mr.  Burgess  had  referred  to  the  very  high  coloration 
of  the  Birmingham  water  at  the  beginning  of  the 
supply.  At  that  time  he  (the  speaker)  had  a  series 
of  simultaneous  observations  taken  at.  every  feeder 
flow  into  the  reservoirs  and  of  the  reservoirs  them¬ 
selves.  It  was  a  time  of  very  high  colour  indeed, 
and  to  his  surprise  they  found  that  the  reservoir 
itself  was  higher  in  colour  than  any  one  of  the 
coloured  feeders,  leading  up,  it  seemed  to  him,  to 
the  inevitable  conclusion  that  the  colour  rose  in  the 
reservoir,  and  that  was  borne  out  in  his  judgment 
by  the  remarkable  regularity  of  the  seasonal  varia¬ 
tions.  There  was  undoubtedly  a  close  similarity 
between  the  colour  curve  and  the  oxygen  absorbed 
curve.  He  had  taken  those  out  and  found  that, 
roughly,  there  was  an  agreement  between  the  two. 
Then  again,  why  the  seasonal  progression?  On  that 
point,  he  would  like  to  throw  out  a  suggestion  that 
seemed  to  him  to  offer  a  solution — he  would  not  urge 
it,  but  mentioned  it  simply  to  ask  for  information— 
it  was  that  the  variation  in  colour  from  season  to 
season  was  caused  by  the  variation  in  temperature. 
The  temperature  began  to  rise  as  soon  as  they  began 
to  have  cool  nights,  and  he  suggested  that  the  rise 
in  colour  might  be  caused  by  the  cooling  of  the 
surface  waters — the  surface  strata  became  colder  than 
those  below,  and  the  more  highly-coloured  waters, 
which  had  been  lying  below  the  surface  during  the 
winter,  came  to  the  top  in  the  summer;  there  was 
more  circulation  of  the  highly-coloured  water  until 
the-  equilibrium  of  temperature  was  established 
throughout  the  mass  of  the  water.  Then  there  would 
be  no  further  vertical  circulation  until  the  next 
autumn,  but  some  water  remaining  at  the  top,  being 
oxydised  and  bleached  by  the  light,  would  remain 
there,  losing  its  colour  gradually  until  they  had  a 
repetition  of  the  autumn  frosts  and  cold,  and  the 
vertical  circulation  was  set  up  again.  Whether  that 
were  the  explanation  or  not,  it  was  perfectly  clear 
that  there  was  this  seasonal  variation  in  colour,  and 
almost  to  a  month  the  colour  began  to  rise  in  the 
later  summer  or  early  autumn.  He  might  mention 
that  the  mass  of  water  of  which  those  examinations 
had  been  made  was  about  8,000  million  gallons  and 
the  depth  just  behind  the  dam  was  120  ft.,  so  there 
was  room  lor  considerable  variations  in  temperature 
and  also  for  a  great  deal  of  vertical  circulation,  if 
such  should  be  the  real  explanation  of  this  period¬ 
icity.  He  would  be  glad  to  know  whether  any  other 
members  who  had  control  of  large  storage  reservoirs 
had  observed  periodical  variations  in  colour. 

Mr.  F.  J.  Dtxon  (Ashton-under-Lyne)  said  he  was 
surprised  to  hear  Mr.  Lees  say  that  rainfall  had  no 
relation  to  colour  in  water,  and  more  especially  in  the 
Elan  Valley.  His  works  were  situated  somewhere 
near  there,  but,  of  course,  they  bore  a  very  small 
proportion  to  their  large  works  at  Birmingham.  Tire 
rainfall  in  his  district  had  a  considerable  influence 
on  the  colour  of  water  prior  to  filtration.  Therefore 
he  was  surprised  to  hear  Mr.  Lees  say  that  he  con¬ 
sidered  rainfall  had  no  relation  to  the  colour  of  a 
water,  especially  from  a  drainage  area  similar  to  that 


of  Birmingham.  He  would  like  to  take  that  oppor¬ 
tunity  of  expressing  his  thanks  to  Mr.  Bickering 
for  the  careful  work  he  had  undertaken  in  the  pre¬ 
paration  of  the  paper,  and  he  could  assure  the  author 
that  it.  would  be  a  great  advantage  to  have  it  in¬ 
cluded  in  their  “  Proceedings.”  He  was,  however, 
somewhat  disappointed — he  would  have  been  glad 
if  Mr.  Pickering  had  gone  a  little  further  into  the 
question  as  to  the.  source  of  this  discoloration.  . 
He  thought  it  was  questionable  whether  it  was 
entirely  due  to  the  causes  mentioned  in  the  paper. 
He  (Mr.  Dixon)  had  recently  read  a  paper  which  was 
submitted  in  January  this  year  to  the  New  England 
Waterworks  Association  of  America  by  Mr.  Thorne 
Dyke  Savill.  -The  paper  was  a  very  interesting  one, 
and  was  worth  the  attention  of  all  who  w'ere  inte¬ 
rested  in  this  subject"  In  that  paper  Mr.  Savill  con¬ 
tended  that  the  discoloration  of  water  was  due  to 
colloids,  and  was  held  in  suspension  by  some  elec¬ 
tric  force,  and  he  went  on  to  contend  that  by  the 
nse  of  electricity  they  could  remove  the  discolora¬ 
tion  by  breaking  up  the  colloids.  It  was  beyond 
him  (Mr.  Dixon)  to  pass  any  opinion  upon  that, 
but  lie  thought,  it  advisable  to  draw  attention  to 
the  paper.  In  his  opinion,  there  was  no  doubt  that 
the  removal  ot  discoloration  from  water  must  be 
undertaken  by  the  introduction  of  chemicals.  That, 
he  thought,  had  clearly  been  demonstrated  by  all 
authorities  on  filtration,  and  the  only  chemical  which 
appeared  to  be  satisfactory  was  alumina,  although  _ 
he  v'as  very  doubtful  whether  alumina  was  the  best 
medium  of  removal.  He  would  like  further  investi¬ 
gation  on  that  matter,  with  a  view,  if  possible,  of 
going  into  the  question  of  the  use  of  electricity  as 
suggested  by  Mr.  Savill.  Sand  filters  undoubtedly 
only  removed  a  very  small  proportion  of  the  colour 
in  water— from  his  experience  he  should  say  that 
only  one-third  of  the  colour  was  removed  by  a  sand- 
filter.  With  regard  to  the  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer, 
which  had  been  introduced  by  Mr.  Pickering,  he  (the 
speaker),  had  had  experience  of  it,  and  from  an 
engineer’s  point  of  view  he  did  not  think  that  the 
results  obtained  w-ere  commensurate  with  the  labour 
involved,  and  the  difficulty,  which  was  certainly 
great,  was  the  standardisation  of  units.  In  1912  he 
designed  and  erected  some  mechanical  filter  works 
dealing  with  5  million  gallons  of  water  per  day,  and 
he  introduced  of  his  own  design  a  colour  meter  which 
had  two  parallel  and  two  horizontal  glass  tubes  2  in. 
in  diameter,  which  tubes  were  fixed  in  front  of  the 
window  of  the  house  where  they  were  under  the 
direct  observation  of  the. foreman.  The  raw  wrater 
as  it.  entered  the  filter  house  was  connected  with  one 
tube,  in  his  case,  the  right,  while  the  filtrate  was 
connected  with  the  2-ft.  tube  on  the  left.  By  that 
means  the  foreman  of  the  works  always  had  the 
results  of  the  filtration  before  his  notice,  and  he 
was  of  opinion  that  some,  such  kind  of  tintometer 
was  all  that  was  necessary  from  an  engineer’s  point 
of  view'.  He  agreed  with  Dr.  Kemna,  who,  replying 
to  the  discussion  on  his  paper  in  1910,  emphasised 
the  necessity  of  having  some  means  of  making  a  rapid 
examination  of  the  filtered  w'ater,  and  he  was  of 
opinion  that,  especially  in  waters  where  they  had 
sudden  changes,  it  was  advisable  to  have  some  such 
apparatus  as  he  had  described.  The  “  Lovibond  ” 
tintometer  was  all  very  well  in  the  hands  of  a 
chemist.  He  must  admit  that  until  that  day  he  was 
not  aw'are  of  the  efforts  of  Mr.  Burgess,  and  he  had 
been  highly  impressed  by  the  simple  methods  he  had 
adopted  for  finding  out  the  colour  of  water.  Mr. 
Pickering  said  he  used  175  grains  of  alumina  per 
gallon.  That  appeared  to  him  (Mr.  Dixon),  on  the 
face  of  it,  to  be  very  excessive,  and  at  the  present-day 
price  the  cost  for  alumina  alone  would  work  out  at 
10s.  5d.  per  million  gallons  treated.  When  he  was 
dealing  with  water  which  in  ordinary  times  as  re¬ 
garded  colour  was  more  highly  coloured  than  the 
Severn  w  ater,  it  only  cost,  him  for  aluminaferric  and 
carbonate  of  lime  at  to-day’s  prices  2s.  per  million 
gallons.  It  seemed  to  him  that  the  amount  of 
aluminaferric  used  by  Mr.  Pickering  was  excessive, 
and  he  believed  that  if  he  went  carefully  into  the 
question  he.  would  find  that  by  using  less  he  w'ould 
get  equally  good  results.  When  the  mechanical  filter 
was  put  down  in  his  works  by  the  makers  in  1912 
they  had  the  maintenance  of  the  works  for  twelve 
months,  and  during  that  time  they  used  as  much  as 
3-45  grains  per  gallon  of  aluminaferric,  with  fairly 
good  results  as  regarded  colour.  He  drew  their 
attention  to  the  fact,  that  they  were  exceeding  the 
amount  which  was  stated  in  the  conditions  of  con¬ 
tract,.  They  did  not,  mind  that,  but  immediately  after 
their  maintenance  ended  and  the  works  came  under 
the  control  of  the  joint  committee  a  reduction  wras 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


29 


made  from  3-45  to>  '5  per  gallon,  while  to-day  he  was 
only  using  '25  for  dealing  with  highly-coloured  peaty 
water.  He  had  overlooked  the  fact  that  in  Mr. 
Pickering’s  case  he  had  turbidity  to  deal  with  which 
he  (Mr.  Dixon)  had  not,  and  he  had  no  doubt  that 
would  be  tfie  answer  which  Mr.  Pickering  would 
give  him.  He  would  just  like  to  make  a  correction 
in  the  paper.  Mr.  Pickering,  referring  to  the  condi¬ 
tions  which  he  (the  speaker)  laid  down  in  his  original 
scheme  for  mechanical  filtration,  said  that  he  gave 
no  limit  as  to  the  amount  of  alumina.  If  Mr. 
Pickering  had  looked  carefully  through  the  paper 
he  would  have  found  that  there  was  a  limit — it  was 
not  grains  per  gallon,  but  it  was  cost  when  the  price 
was  at  a  certain  rate  per  ton.  With  regard  to  Pro¬ 
fessor  Delepine’s  remarks  as  to  the  essential  condi¬ 
tions  to  be  observed  in  a  suitably  treated  water,  they 
were  very  definite,  and  there  was  no  doubt  that  a 
water  of  a  greenish-blue  or  bluish-green  must  meet 
all  requirements. 

Dr.  S.  RinEAi,  remarked  that  Mr.  Burgess  had  given 
them  a  very  good  history  on  the  subject  of  colour 
testings  of  water,  and  he  had  said  a  good  deal  of  what 
he  (Dr.  Rideal)  had  in  his  mind.  He  knew  the  “  Lovi- 
bond  ”  tintometer  in  1890,  or  a  little  earlier,  and  he 
thought  he  was  perhaps  one  of  the  first  to  use  it.  At 
that  time  there  were  only  the  Crookes,  (Idling  and  Tidy 
methods,  as  Mr.  Burgess  had  not  then  invented  his. 
The  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer  was  very  interesting, 
and  one  obtained  very  interesting  results.  It  was 
rather  difficult  to  manipulate  and  get  accustomed  to. 
He  quite  agreed  with  Mr.  Leea  that  personal  equation 
was  a  very  important  element  before  one  could,  arrive 
at  accurate  conclusions.  It  varied  a  great  deal  with 
the  kind  of  light — where  there  were  no  clouds  about 
the  white  screen  had  to  be  put  into  a  certain  position 
to  get  concordant  results.  Of  course,  Lovibond  had 
worked  at  it  for  a  great  number  of  years,  and  had 
tried  to  overcome  the  differences  due  to  the  varia¬ 
bility.  of  light,  and  it  was  suggested  that  a  constant 
artificial  light  might  overcome  the  difficulty.  He  (Dr. 
Rideal)  thought  that  would  always  be  a  permanent 
defect  in  the  «•  Lovibond  ”  tintometer— the  difficulty 
of  having  a  constant  standard.  Then,  again,  there 
was  the  question  whether  the  glasses  were  going  to 
last  for  all  time  or  not.  That  was  a  difficulty.  Some 
of  those  glasses,  he  thought,  faded.  Steps  had  been 
taken  to  deposit  standard  glasses  at  Kew  and  Cam¬ 
bridge,  so  as  to'  see  whether  they  deteriorated  with 
age  when  kept  in  the  dark.  At  present  the  glasses 
were  made  under  the  personal  attention  of  Mi-. 
Lovibond — who  was  now  getting  an  old  man — and  his 
staff,  and  lie  believed  they  were  turned  out  very  accu¬ 
rately  indeed,  but  whether  one  could  rely  upon  the 
glasses  always  being  of  ecpial  opacity  and  of  an  equal 
clear  colour  in  the  future  was  one  of  the  problems  that 
gave  difficulty  to  that  method  of  testing.  After  all 
when  one  came  to  the  colour  of  water,  he  did  not 
know  whether  they  really  learned  much  about  it.  He 
was  not  certain  whether  the  crenothrix  in  Mr.  Picker¬ 
ing’s  water  gave  the  colour  to  it.  Even  if  it  was  a 
coloured  organism,  it  was  an  opaque  organism 
to  a  very  great  extent,  especially  if  they  looked 
through  a  tube  containing  thousands  or  millions 
of  these  filaments.  Mr.  Burgess  had  pointed 
out  that  the  real  colour  of  water  was  the 
colour  after  filtration,  and  therefore  in  judging  the 
Colour  of  a  water  before  and  after  filtration  one  ought 
to  filter  the  raw  water  before  judging  of  its  colour,  to 
compare  it  with  the  effect  of  the  filtration  upon  the 
colour  of  the  raw  water.  That  had  not  been  done  in 
any  of  Mr.  Pickering’s  work  on  this  Severn  water. 
As  had  been  pointed  out,  that  was  a  very  turbid  water, 
especially  at  certain  times,  and  might  be  as  black 
as  a  hat  looked  at  through  a  colour  instrument,  but 
that  blackness  or  darkness  was  due  to'  suspended  sand 
in  the  flood  water  as  well  as  to  the  peaty  bottom,  and 
it  was  that  which  gave  a  colour  to  the  water  at  cex-- 
tain  times  of  the  year.  In  order  to  judge  the  effect 
of  the  alumina  treatment  upon  the  colour  of  the  water 
it  was  necessary  to  remove  the  suspended  matter 
from  the  water,  and  then  test  the 'sample  after  it  had 
gone  through  the  filter.  What  they  really  wanted  to 
get  at  was  tin;  effect  of  filtration  in  removing  the  solid 
organic  matter.  In  the  storage  reservoir  those  things 
would  be  stirred  up,  and  the  object  of  the  filter  was 
to  destroy  the  organic  matter  in  solution  amongst 
other  things,  as  well  as  remove  the  bacteria,  but  from 
the  colour  point  of  view  the  effect  of  a  filter  in  bring¬ 
ing  about  the  purification  of  a  water  would  be  how  it 
brought  about  the  oxidisation  of  the  soluble  organic 
matter,  aixd  the  only  way  to  ascertain  that  would  be 
by  filtering  raw  water  through  a  filter  paper  before 


they  tested  its  colour  in  one  of  these  instruments. 
After  all,  if  a  filter  was  designed  to  remove  colour,  the 
amount  of  suspended  matter  to  be  removed  was  the 
chief  consideration.  He  had  tried  to  make  a  diffen-ntia- 
tion  of  the  colour  and  see  whether  one  could 
diagnose,  for  example,  the  nature  of  the  impurity  in 
water  from  its  coloxxr.  Take,  for  example,  a  deep 
chalk  water  which  should  be  blue  and  practically  free 
from  any  yellow.  If  they  mixed  that  with  the 
sewage,  the  yellow  coloured  matter  from  the  sewage 
and  urine  would  give  a  yellow  tint  to  the  chalk  water. 
If  they  mixed  a  chalk  water  with  some  of  the  low¬ 
land  waters,  they  introduced  some  of  the  peaty  brown 
colours  of  those  waters.  There  was  no  means,  so  far 
as  he  could  make  out,  of  differentiating  between  the 
yellows  and  the  browns  produced  by  sewage  con¬ 
tamination  and  the  colours  produced  by  moorland  or 
surface  waters.  There  was  one  point  mentioned  by 
Mr.  Pickering  which  was  very  important  in  all  these 
colour  determinations,  and  that  was  the  length  cf  the 
tube.  He  was  quite  certain  that  short  tubes  gave 
them  very  inferior  results — results  which  were  no  use 
at  all.  He  was  not  at  all  certain  that  a  2-ft.  tube  was 
the  proper  length.  At  all  events,  the  longer  the  tube 
the  more  they  could  learn  about  the  colour  of  the 
water. 

Mr.  E.  Blackburn  (Sunderland)  said  he  was  in¬ 
terested  in  what  Mr.  Pickering  told  them  as  to  how 
they  had  greatly  diminished  the  growth  of  char  a  in  one 
of  their  open  reservoirs  by  covering  the  floor  with  a 
layer  of  cement  mortar.  He  himself  had  the  same 
experience,  and  he  believed  he  mentioned  it  to  Mr. 
Pickering  at  Cheltenham  in  1912.  If  Mr.  Pickering 
was  in  a  position  to  give  them  the  information  he 
would  like  to  tell  them  what  the  results  were  with 
the  water  from  the  Hewlett’s  reservoir.  During  this 
year  he  (the  speaker)  had  had  rather  unusual  expe¬ 
rience  with  water  from  magnesia  and  limestone  in  a 
small  service  reservoir.  During  the  summer  he  had 
always  had  a  sort  of  carpet  growth  of  matter  on  the 
floor  of  the  reservoir,  and  during  the  hot  sunny 
weather  it  had  come  to  the  surface,  and  been  more 
or  less  easily  taken  off  by  the  attendant,  and  it  did 
not  get  into  the  mains.  This  year,  for  some  reason 
or  other,  they  had  been  troubled  with  alga  growth, 
which  had  penetrated  all  through  the  water  and  got 
into  the  mains,  and  given  rise  to  numerous  com¬ 
plaints.  He  was  trying  to  find  out  the  reason  for  that 
unusual  growth.  It  was  an  open  surface  reservoir, 
but  he  had  never  had  the  same  trouble  with  it  in  pre¬ 
vious  years,  so  it  must  be  due  to  some  particular 
cause.  It  might  be  due  to  the  long,  severe  whiter, 
followed  by  the  hot  summer,  or  it  might  partly  be 
due  to  the  fact  that  owing  to  the  war  the  cement  walls 
had  not  been  washed  down  quite  so  carefully  as  they 
were  in  pre-war  times.  It  would  be  interesting  to  hear 
whether  any  other  members  had  had  the  same  sort  of 
experience.  He  had  found  that  by  having  the  walls 
of  the  reservoir  smooth,  instead  of  rough  and  rocky, 
it  macle  it  more  difficult  for  the  spores  to  get  a  hold, 
and  by  that  means  the  growth  of  the  alga  was  pre¬ 
vented  to  a  cei-tain  extent. 

Mr.  C.  H.' Priestley  (Cardiff)  thanked  Mr.  Picker¬ 
ing  for  his  paper,  and  remarked  that  his  experience  of 
the  colour  of  water  in  reservoirs  agreed  with  that  of 
Mr.  Dixon,  and  was  contrary  to  that  of  Mr.  Lees. 
Whenever  they  had  a  heavy  rainfall  the  water  was 
much  more  coloured  than  it  was  before.  , 

Mr.  F.  Storr  (Chester)  said  that  many  years  ago 
when  their  friend  Mr.  Deacon  was  considering  the 
question  of  the  water  supply  of  Liverpool,  he  was  not 
so  well  acquainted  with  water  supplies  as  he  was  with 
electricity.  He  applied  to  him  (Mr.  Storr)  in  regard 
to  his  experience  of  the  colour  of  Welsh  water  and 
the  effect  of  the  sand  upon  the  colour,  and,  bearing 
out  what  Mr.  Priestley  said,  it  was  a  notorious  fact 
which  had  been  ascertained  by  all  who  had  had  to  do 
with  moorland  waters  that  the  colour  went  up  enor¬ 
mously  after  heavy  rainfall.  The  water  got  stained — 
it  was  really  a  vegetable  dye.  As  the  summer  went  on 
the  water  bleached  until  it  became  a  very  nice  clear 
water,  and  as  long  as  the  bacteriological  result  was 
good  he  did  not  care  anything  about  the  colour.  With 
regard  to  the  River  Dee  that  wins  well  known  to  be  a 
polluted  river  like  the  Thames  and  the  Lea.  He  said 
he  was  very  much  surprised  that  engineers  drew  away 
the  water  before  they  put  their  filters  into  use,  and 
sent  it  into  the  town.  It  was  the  universal  practice 
at  Cheltenham  for  days,  and  in  some  cases  for 
months,  for  the  water  to  pass  away  to  waste.  They 
could  do  it,  because  it  was  simply  a  matter  of  pump¬ 
ing  charges- — they  were  in  the  happy  position  of  being 
able  to  afford  it.  They  wanted  to  turn  the  water  out 


30 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


of  the  River  Dee  of  such  a  character  that  it  would 
satisfy  any  examination  that  such  a  man  as  Professor 
Beattie,  of  Liverpool,  subjected  it  to.  They  had  had 
to  abandon  certain  systems  of  mechanical  filters  be¬ 
cause  they  were  not  so  good  as  the  slow  sand 
filter.  There  was  another  extraordinary  thing 
with  regard  to  the  sand  filters  of  Chester  which  did 
not  appertain  to  any  other  filter  in  the  kingdom.  The 
usual  idea  was  that  a  filter  bed  was  entirely  active  on 
the  surface.  They  had  tried  that  and  had  failed,  and 
in  their  latest  filters  at  Chester,  after  all  those  experi¬ 
ments  had  been  carried  out,  they  had  put  a  film  of 
very  fine  sand  12  in.  under  the  other,  and  they  re¬ 
peated  that  in  two  separate  courses  below,  and  they 
got  the  wa'ter  absolutely  sterile  at  times. 

Dr.  Garrett  (Cheltenham)  said  he  would  like  to 
say  a  word  or  two,  particularly  in  regard  to  the 
organism  crenothrix,  with  which  a  large  part  of  the 
paper  was  concerned.  Mr.  Burgess  had  said,  very 
truly,  that  the  colour  in  the  water  was  due  either  to 
dissolved  material  or  to  suspended  matter,  and  that 
it  would  make  a  great  deal  of  difference  as  to  which 
it  was.  That  of  course  was  so,  and  the  crenothrix  was  a 
suspended  colour,  and,  consequently,  considerable 
precautions  would  have  to  be  taken  to  see  that  it  was 
distributed  fairly  through  the  water  at  every  test.  It 
was  not  a  piatter  of  testing  once  for  the  colouring  in 
the  water,  as  the  colour  was  due  to  a  vital  organism — ■ 
something  alive,  which  grew  and  increased  in  the 
water,  and  so  differed  very  materially  from  such  a 
thing  as  peat  stain  or  any  suspended  inorganic  matter, 
such  as  the  red  particles  of  new  red  marl,  which  they 
got  from  time  to  time  mixed  with  the  peaty  stain  in 
the  Severn  water.  Crenothrix  was  a  living  colour 
which  increased  and  altered  in  the  course  of  a  few 
days.  That  was  exemplified  in  the  whole  of  the  re¬ 
servoir  one  year  and  on  a  considerable  scale  another 
year  in  the  whole  of  their  swimming  baths.  The  dis¬ 
coloration  was  due  to  the  growth  of  the  organism ;  there 
was  no  question  about  that  at  all.  It  was  an  organism 
which  grew,  in  the  course  of  which  it  changed  in 
colour.  There  was  no  doubt  that  the  colour  estimate 
was  exceedingly  useful.  It  was  very  rapid  in  com¬ 
parison  with  analysis  or  bacteriological  examination, 
and  it  very  quickly  gave  them  an  idea  of  the  amount 
of  organic  material  in  a  water.  Mr.  Burgess  said 
there  was  a  means  of  comparing  the  results  from 
either  of  those  three  processes  of  colour  measure,  and 
probably  they  would  get  the  game  general  results  as 
represented  in  the  paper. 

Mr.  H.  Ashton  Hill  (South  Staffs)  said  that  his 
acquaintance  with  this  organism  which  Mr.  Pickering 
had  dealt  with  in  the  paper  was  in  connection  with 
water  supply  from  a  well.  They  had  so  far  been  dis¬ 
cussing  the  question  of  crenothrix  from  upland  sources. 
He  had  had  difficulty  in  one  case  with  an  organism 
called  lepothrix,  which  he  understood  to  be  a  rela¬ 
tion  of  crenothrix.  Whereas,  however,  crenothrix  was 
a  thread-like  organism,  the  one  he  had  in  mind  was 
of  a  colloidal  character,  and  more  like  a  sponge. '  He 
dealt  with  it  by  installing  mechanical  filters,  pro¬ 
vision  being  made  to  add  alumina  or  lime.  He  had 
an  idea  from  the  beginning  that  probably  if  they 
strained  it  through  the  filtering  material  it  might 
not  be  necessary  to  treat  it  with  alumina,  and  he  was 
glad  to  find  that  that  was  so,  and  they  were  able  to 
remove  this  lepothrix,  or  crenothrix,  whichever  they 
liked  to  call  it,  from  the  water. 

Mr.  W.  Patterson  (London)  said  he  hoped  Mr. 
Pickering  might  be  able  to  add  an  appendix  to  the 
paper  giving  the  comparative  values  of  the  colour  re¬ 
cords  of  the  various  systems.  It  would  add  enor¬ 
mously  to  the  value  of  the  paper  if  that  could  be  done, 
for  then  those  who  were  working  with  one  system 
would  be  able  to  compare  the  results  obtained  by 
those  working  with  the  other  systems. 

Mr.  Pickering,  in  replying  on  the  discussion,  said 
he  would  like  to  take  an  early  opportunity  of  thank¬ 
ing  Mr.  Burgess  for  the  great  assistance  lie  had  given, 
not  only  him  (Mr.  Pickering),  but  the  members 
generally,  in  bringing  his  colour-meter  to  the  meeting 
and  demonstrating  its  use  to  the  members.  He  had 
had  a  deal  of  correspondence  with  Mr.  Burgess,  and 
he  had  given  him  a  great  deal  of  helpful  assistance, 
for  which  lie  thanked  him.  Mr.  Burgess  suggested 
that  the  tests  would  be  more  valuable  if  the  tubes  in 
which  the  water  was  placed  were  sterilised  after  each 
sample  was  tested.  It  was  true  that  was  not  done, 
but  after  every  -  test  the  cocks  were  well  swilled  out 
with  tap  water,  and  he  thought  that  gave  a  fairly 
satisfactory  result.  He  did  not  know  whether  steri¬ 
lisation  was  absolutely  necessary.  Mr.  Burgess  also 
suggested  that  samples  of  raw  water  should  be  passed 


through  a  filter  paper  before  the  colour  tests  were 
begun.  As  to  that  the  records  were  only  taken  for  his 
own  rough  purposes;  had  he  known  that  they  were 
to  be  embodied  in  a  paper  he  might  have  done  as  Mr. 
Burgess  suggested.  He  quite  agreed,  and  Dr.  Rideal 
had  still  further  emphasised  the  point,  *that  if  the 
results  were  to  bear  a  proper  comparison  the  raw 
waters  should  first  be  passed  through  a  filter  paper  to 
lemove  the  turbidity.  Mr.  Burgess  suggested  that  a 
standard  of  colour  measurement  would  be  preferable 
by  a  chemical  process  rather  than  by  the  use  of 
coloured  glasses.  Dr.  Rideal  rather  supported  him  in 
that  view,  but  as  he  pointed  out  in  the  paper,  he  did 
not  think  it  mattered  very  much  what  method  they 
used  as  long  as  the  standard  was  a  good  one,  and  so 
long  as  it  could  be  adopted  generally.  Mr.  Burgess 
gave  three  comparative  tests  of  the  three  different 
methods  of  standardising  colour,  which  he  (the  speaker) 
hoped  would  be  useful  as  a  record,  and  Mr.  Priestly 
suggested  that  the  record  might  be  further  extended 
and  a  table  put  in  the  paper.  He  did  not  know 
whether  that  would  be  practicable,  but  if  Mr.  Burgess 
would  give  the  necessary  assistance  he  would  be  very 
pleased  to  co-operate  with  that  gentleman  in  making 
a  comparative  table  for  inclusion  in  the  paper.  Mr. 
Lees  did  not  think  that  the  variation  in  the  colour 
was  due  so  much  to  rainfall  as  to  variation  of  tem¬ 
perature  and  vertical  circulation.  As  he  mentioned 
in  the  paper,  Mr.  Lees  was  good  enough  to  supply 
him  with  the  records  of  the  rainfall  on  the  whole  of 
his  gauges,  and  there  certainly  was  very  little  to  show 
as  to  the  relation  between  the  rainfall  curve  and  the 
colour.  Several  speakers  had  made  the  point,  and  he 
(Mr.  Pickering)  agreed  with  them  that,  as  a  rule,  the 
rainfall  undoubtedly  affected  the  colour — the  two 
curves  were  in  agreement.  Mr.  Dixon  suggested  that 
he  was  a  little  disappointed  because  the  paper  did 
not  go  further  into  the  work  that  had  been  under¬ 
taken,  but  as  he  mentioned  in  his  concluding  remarks, 
the  paper  was  only  to  be  taken  as  somewhat  fragmen¬ 
tary  and  incomplete,  and  the  research  work  was  only 
to  be  regarded  as  of  a  preliminary  character.  At  the 
time  the  work  was  done  he  had  no  idea  that  the  re¬ 
sults  were  to  be  embodied  in  a  paper.  The  more  one 
went  into  the  question  of  colour  records  the  more  in¬ 
teresting  it  became,  and  the  more  important.  Mr. 
Dixon  suggested  that  the  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer  in 
its  results  was  not  commensurate  with  the  labour  in¬ 
volved.  He  was  sorry  to  say  that  he  entirely  dis¬ 
agreed  with  that  opinion  of  Mr.  Dixon.  His  ex¬ 
perience  was  exactly  the  opposite.  Records  taken 
with  the  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer  could  be  taken  very 
expeditiously — more  expeditiously  than  by  any  other 
method  of  recording  colour — and  he  certainly  hoped 
that  the  labour  he  had  put  into  obtaining  the  records 
had  not  been  altogether  thrown  away.  He  took  it 
that  Mr.  Dixon’s  tubes,  which  were  under  the  daily 
observation  of  the  foreman  of  the  works,  did  not 
record  colour  at  all.  With  regard  to  the  suggestion 
of  Mr.  Dixon  that  the  “  Lovibond  ”  tintometer  should 
be  in  the  hands  of  chemists,  he  disagreed  with  him 
there,  as  he  thought  it  was  an  instrument  that  could- 
be  used  by  the  ordinary  works  manager  with  a  little 
care.  As  to  the  amount  of  chemicals  used,  when  the 
water  was  very  highly  discoloured,  he  thought  that 
the  amount,  T75  per  gallon,  was  somewhat  low,  and 
he  did  not  possibly  see  how  they  could  reduce  it.  He 
knew  some  places  where  there  was  a  very  high  dis¬ 
coloration  where  a  larger  quantity  per  gallon  than 
he  suggested  was  used.  Mr.  Dixon  referred  to  prof. 
Delepine’s  description  as  to  the  essential  condition 
to  be  observed  in  a  suitably  treated  water,  and  said  he 
thought  it  was  sufficiently  descriptive  for  the  purpose. 
The  point  he  (Mr.  Pickering)  made  was  that  any  de¬ 
scription  of  water  should  be  in  figures  and  not  in  words, 
and  he  thought  that  was  the  more  scientific  way  of 
recording  results.  Dr.  Rideal  rather  doubted  whether 
the  water  from  the  Dowdeswell  reservoir  contained 
crenothrix — he  thought  he  rather  suggested  that  the 
colour  might  have  been  due  to  some  other  reason  than 
the  presence  of  an  organism  of  that  description.  He 
thought  Dr.  Garrett  had  answered  that.  The  tests 
were  taken  at  a  time  when  there  were  many  com¬ 
plaints  in  the  town,  and  he  thought  there  was  no 
doubt  whatever  that  the  complaints  were  due  to  the 
growth  of  that  particular  organism.  They  had  had  so 
much  experience  of  it  at  Cheltenham  that  they  had 
got  to  know  it  quite  intimately.  Dr.  Rideal  made  a 
very  interesting  remark  as  to  discoloration  which 
might  take  place  in  chalk  water  by  the  admixture  of 
sewage,  and  he  suggested  that  it  might  show  a  yellow 
or  brown  tint.  That  he  (Mr.  Pickering)  thought  bore 
out  his  suggestion  that  these  colour  records,  even 
perhaps  when  one  had  to  deal  with  well  water,  might 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


31 


be  useful.  If  they  found  they  had  got  a  brown  dis¬ 
coloration  in  chalk  water,  they  would  have  to  investi¬ 
gate  further  and  find  out  why  the  change  had  taken 
place.  Dr.  Rideal  agreed  with  his  remarks  as  to  the 
length  of  the  tube— the  longer  the  tube  the  more  accu¬ 
rate  the  results,  and  he  thought  that  was  so.  He 
thought  that  was  where  the  Hazen  apparatus  was  at 
fault — it  was  really  too  short  for  any  delicate  work 
at  all.  Mr.  Blackburn  referred  to  the  cementing  of 
the  floors  of  one  of  their  open  reservoirs,  which  had 
given  them  a  great  deal  of  trouble  from  rreno'thrix. 
It  was  through  the  remarks  which  Mr.  Blackburn 
made  at  the  meeting  at  Cheltenham  that  they  carried 
out  that  work,  as  he  had  experienced  the  same  diffi¬ 
culty,  and  had  overcome  it  in  that  way.  Incidentally, 
that  proved  the  value  of  those  meetings,  where  they 
as  water  engineers  were  able  to  give  and  receive 
advice  fiom  one  another.  Mr.  Blackburn  suggested 
that  a  reservoir  with  smooth  sides  was  to  be  preferred, 
as  there  was  less  liability  to  growth  of  alga  than  there 
would  be  where  the  walls  were  of  a  rough  substance. 
He  (Mr.  Pickering)  could  bear  out  Mr.  Blackburn’s 
remarks  in  that  respect.  The  walls  of  their  reservoir 
were  of  brickwork,  and  rather  rough,  and  they  found 
that  the  plant  adhered  Jto  the  walls,  and  where  they 
had  cemented  them  over  they  found  a  great  improve¬ 
ment.  There  was  a  deposit  in  the  reservoir  now, 
although  it  was  cemented  over.  Mr.  Priestley  and 
Mr.  Dixon  both  agreed  that  colour  and  rainfall  gene¬ 
rally  went  side  by  side — the  heavier  the  rainfall  the 
higher  the  colour,  and  he  thought  that  was  the  general 
experience,  particularly  of  river  supplies,  and  he  sup¬ 
posed  it  was  also  the  case  in  regard  to  moorland  sup¬ 
plies.  He  was  not  quite  sure  whether  he  understood 
Mr.  iStorr  to  say  that  lie  got  sterilised  effluent  from 
his  sand  filters.  [Mr.  Storr :  That  is  the  case,  and 
later  on  I  shall  be  able  to  let  the  members  of  the 
institution  know  something  more  about  this.]  Mr. 
Storr  has  evidently  got  some  unique  filters.  [Mr. 
Storr:  They  are  unique.]  He  was  sure  they  would 
all  be  interested  in  hearing  further  particulars  of  the 
result  of  Mr.  Storr’s  examinations  of  the  water  when' 
he  had  them  ready.  Mr.  Ashton  Hill  had  referred  to 
an  organism  which  he  had  to  deal  with  in  well  water. 
He  (Mr.  Pickering)  understood  that  Mr.  Adams,  of 
Chippenham,  who  had  been  troubled  with  chara  in 
his  deep-well  water,  was  to  read  a  paper  on  the  sub¬ 
ject  before  the  Institution  of  Mechanical  Engineers. 
Mr.  Adams  had  been  good  enough  to  send  him 
samples  of  the  water  from  his  different  processes,  but 
he  had  not  found  out  whether  there  was  any  change  of 
colour. 

PAPER  FOE  WINTEE  MEETING. 

In  the  absence  of  the  author  and  in  view  of  the 
lateness  of  the  hour,  a  paper  by  Mr.  Cecil  H.  Roberts, 
m.inst.c.e.  (Aberdeen),  on  “  Water  Supplies  as 
Sources  of  Power,”  was,  on  the  proposition  of  Mr. 
Ashton  Hill,  deferred  until  the  winter  meeting. 

VOTES  OF  THANKS. 

/ 

The  President  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr. 
Pickering  for  his  paper. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Priestley  seconded  the  vote,  and  re¬ 
marked  that  the  paper  itself  and  the  records  it  con¬ 
tained  showed  that  Mr.  Pickering  must  have  devoted 
a  great  amount  of  time  to  its  preparation. 

The  vote  was  carried  and  acknowledged  by  Mr. 
Pickering. 

On  the  motion  of  the  President,  seconded  by  Mr. 
Blackburn,  a  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  the 
president  and  council  of  the  Geological  Society  for  the 
use  of  the  room  for  the  meeting,  and  the  proceedings 

terminated. 


Electric  Power  Supply. — The  President  of  the  Board 
of  Trade  lias  appointed  Sir  A.  Williamson  chairman  of 
tv  e  Departmental  Committee  on  Electric  Power  Supply. 
Mr.  W.  B.  Smith,  Mr.  E.  F.  Vesey  Knox,  k.c.,  and 
Mr  Harold  Dickinson  have  been  added  to  the  com¬ 
mittee  to  represent  local  authorities  owning  electrical 
undertakings. 

Lighting  Restrictions. — Replying  to  a  question  in  the 
House  bf  Commons,  the  Home  Secretary  stated  that 
an  announcement  with  regard  to  the  lighting. restric¬ 
tions  during  the  autumn  and  winter  would  be-  made 
in  due  course  ifjiny  modification  of  the  existing  orders 
was  considered-' desirable.  -He  promised  to  consider 
whether  it  would  be  practicable  to  fix  settled  monthly 
limes  for  darkening  throughout  the  country  as  in 
London,  instead  of  daily  alterations  regulated  by  the 
hour  of  sunset.  - 


THINGS  ONE  WOULD  LIKE  TO  KNOW. 


(  Contributed .) 

Was  it  not  rather  a  novel  argument  for  an  owner 
oh  insanitary  property  at  Nottingham  -to  use,  when 
prosecuted  for  not  attending  to  orders  made  on  him 
by  the  corporation  to  abate  certain  nuisances  exist¬ 
ing  in  a  number  of  his  houses,  to  say  that  “  it  is  not 
fair  to  compel  owners  to  improve  their  property  if  it 
is  for  the  i>ublic  benefit  ”?  Is  it  not  to  be  hoped  that 
there  are  not  many  owners  of  projierty  in  this  coun¬ 
try  who  hold  such  views,  if  the  sanitary  condition  of 
our  towns  is  not  to  revert  to  that  of  the  Middle  Ages? 

*  *  *  * 

Does  it  not  seem  rather  strange  that  the  War  Office 
cannot  find  a  better  place  for  an  army  abattoir  than 
the  Trowbridge  Market  Hall,  which  is  in  the  centre 
of  the  town  ?  Is  it  surprising  that  there  should  have 
been  some  opposition  to  the  proposal  at  a  meeting  of 
the  urban  district  council?  But  if  there  is  no  other 
suitable  place  in  this  district,  is  it  not  evident  that 
war  needs  must  have  the  first  consideration,  although 
it  is  to  be  regretted  that  there  are  sfill  existing  many 
towns  in  this  country  which  are  not  provided  with 
that  necessary  sanitary  equipment — a  public  abattoir? 
#  *  *  # 

Is'  it  not  fortunate  that  there  are  not  many  men  in 
this  country  who  desire  to  be  “  safe  from  the  Army,” 
which  was  the  -statement  of  a  candidate,  aged  thirty- 
six,  for  an  appointment  as  roads  inspector  under  the 
Montgomery  County  Council,  when  asked  why,  being 
a  farmer,  he’  applied  for  the  appointment  ?  Is  it  not 
curious  that  there  should  still  be  “  men  ”  who  are 
only  too  anxious  to  shield  themselves  from  danger, 
and  allow  other  real  men  to  protect  our  homes,  women, 
and  children? 

*  #  *  # 

What  are  the  “  official  ”  interpretations  of  the 
words  “  essential  ”  and  “  indispensable  ”?  Is  it 
essential  that  certain  persons  should  be  able  to  obtain 
as  much  petrol  as  they  like  in  order  to  drive  high- 
power  motors  on  pleasure  excursions,  and  is  the 
young  and  able-bodied  man  who  sits  in  a  Government 
office  writing  useless  minutes  on  bulky  files  an 
indispensable?  When  “the  man  in  the  street”  sees 
these  cars  go  gliding  by,  and  watches  the  exodus  from 
our'  very  numerous  Government  Departments,  does 
it  not  give  him  cause  to  wonder  and  to  think  ? 

*  *  *  * 

What  is  wrong  with  the  population  in  the  Truro, 
Cornwall,  rural  district,  when  we  read  that  during 
a  recent  discussion  of  that  council  on  the  need  of  more 
houses,  one  of  the  members  stated  that  “  a  man  must 
be  a  good  Christian  to  let  a  house  to  a  large  family,” 
and  inferred  that  the  want  of  housing  accommoda¬ 
tion  in  this  locality  was  due  to  large  families  ?  What 
have  the  advocates  of  “  Baby  Week  ”  got  to  say  as 
to  this  argument  ? 

*  *  *  * 

With  regard  to  the  recent  official  restrictions  on  the 
use  of  wood  blocks  for  street  pavements,  what  substi¬ 
tutes  are  local  authorities  going  to  find  to  replace  this 
admirable  material  for  street  surfaces  in  cities  and 
towns  ?  Will  they  follow  the  example  that  was  set 
a  few  years  ago  in  Park-lane,  London,  where  a  bitu¬ 
minous  carpet  was  substituted  for  wood  blocks,  which 
had  become  worn,  or  will  they  try  unprotected  con¬ 
crete,  which  lias  been  found  so  successful  in  America 
and  Canada  ?  Or  will  they  pave  their  streets  with 
granite  setts,  on  modern  lines,  with  dressed  blocks,  so 
as  to  minimise  noise,  or  with  small  stone  setts  laid 
on  the  lines  of  Durax?  If  not,  what  are  they  going 
to  do  to  fall  into  line  with  this  order  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Should  not  the  advocates  of  ferro-concrete  construc¬ 
tion  be  somewhat  gratified  when  they  read  that  in  the 
discussion  on  air  raids  in  the  House  on  Monday  last 
Sir  George  Cave,  the  Home  Secretary,  stated  during 
1  is  remarks  that  in  one  great  building  the  whole  staff 
took  shelter  “  in  the  lower  floor  of  the  building,  which 
was  J)  infected  by  a  concrete  ceiling,”  and  that  a  bomb 
dropped  on  the  building,  penetrating  the  roof,  but  not 
one  of  i he  persons  who  had  taken  this  shelter  was 
injured  ?  How  many  readers  of  The  Surveyor  saw 
the  letter  in  the  issue  of  the  22nd  June  last  by  Mr. 
Percy  Boulnois  on  the  subject  of  air  raids,  and  was  it 
not  a  prophetic  warning  ? 


32 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers. 

ANNUAL  MEETING  AT  HASTINGS  :  DISCUSSION  OF  PAPERS. 


In  the  discussion  of  Mr.  H.  T.  Wakelam’s  paper  on 
the  subject  of 

“  EXTRAORDINARY  TRAFFIC  AND  EXCESSIVE  WEIGHTS 
ON  HICHWAYS.” 

— reported  in  part  in  our  issue  of  last  week, 

Mr.  H.  T.  Chapman  (Kent)  said  he  was  very  much 
impressed  by  the  remarks  of  Mr.  Boulnois.  When 
he  was  in  Lancashire  some  twelve  years  ago  he  very 
well  remembered  the  question  of  extraordinary 
traffic  being  discussed  by  his  committee,  and  Mr. 
Harcourt  Clare — now  Sir  Harcourt  Clare — said  there 
was  no  such  thing  as  extraordinary  traffic  in  Lan¬ 
cashire.  He  then  said  it  was  the  duty  of  the  local 
authority  to  bring  up  the  roads  to  the  needs  of  the 
industries  of  the  neighbourhood.  There  was  a  good 
deal  to  be  said  for  that.  On  the  other  hand,  he 
agreed  with  Mr.  Collins  that  there  was  some  obliga¬ 
tion  on  the  owners  of  vehicles  to  so  construct  their 
vehicles  that  they  would  not  cause  undue  damage 
to  the  roads,  having  regard  to  the  uses  they  made 
of  them.  A  Departmental  Committee  was  considering 
this,  and  the  Government  had  agreed  to  appoint 
a  Select  Committee  to  consider  the  damage  to  roads 
by  motor  omnibuses,  and  he  did  not  suppose  they 
would  get  any  legislation  until  those  committees  had 
reported,  whether  it  was  before  or  after  the  end  of 
the  war.  There  was  room  for  great  improvement  in 
the  construction  of  vehicles,  both  as  to  the  weight 
and  speed  of  vehicles  using  the  roads;  and  if  those 
vehicles  were  improved  he  thought  they  would  get 
very  much  less  damage  of  the  roads.  Mr.  Wakelam 
was  great  on  damage  by  motor  omnibuses.  Those 
companies  were  not  philanthropists ;  they  did  not 
run  ’buses  for  the  sake  of  pleasing  the  residents  in 
the  neighbourhood  on  which  they  placed  their  ser¬ 
vices;  they  run  the  ’buses  to  make  money.  If  they 
were  to  make  money  there  must  be  a  demand  for 
their  services.  Then  against  the  damage  to  the  roads 
they  must  set  the  question  of  public  utility  and 
public  necessity.  He  should  like  to  know  Mr.  Wake¬ 
lam’s  views  as  to  whether  he  was.  of  opinion 
that  motor  omnibus  proprietors  should  pay 
the  cost  of  the  damage  they  cause  to  the '  roads 
or  whether  they  should  contribute  to  the  cost,  which 
were  two  very  different  propositions.  In  the  scale  of 
rates  which  Mr.  Wakelam  published,  and  which  he 
thought  he  fathered,  of  the  user  of  the  various  kinds 
of  roads  with  a  very  frequent  service  of  motor  omni¬ 
buses,  the  ’bus  companies  would  pay  considerably 
more  than  the  cost  of  the  upkeep  and  maintenance 
of  the  roads  they  used.  That  seemed  hardly  fair  to 
the  motor  omnibus  proprietors.  Don’t  think  he  was 
inclined  to  hold  a  brief  for  the  motor  omnibus  pro¬ 
prietors.  His  opinion  was  that  they  should  be  com¬ 
pelled  to  pay  a  reasonable  amount  towards  the  cost 
of  repairs  of  the  roads  they  used,  but  at  the  same 
time  they  were  going  to  penalise  them  and  the  public 
if  they  were  going  to  seek  to  obtain  from  them  the 
whole  cost  of  the  roads  they  used.  He  was  sorry  to 
disagree  very  thoroughly  with  the  scale  of  rates  in 
Mr.  Wakelam’s  paper,  though  they  might  be  logically 
propounded.  In  regard  to  the  damage  done  to  water- 
bound  and  tar-bound  macadam  roads,  he  thought 
speed,  as  well  as  the  diameter  of  the  wheels,  was 
the  greatest  factor.  He  had  noticed  it  in  Kent. 
They  had  over  600  mires  of  roads,  314  miles  carrying 
omnibus  services.  .  On  the  flat  gradients  the  damage 
was  much  less  than  on  the  steeper  gradients.  Mr. 
Dryland  mentioned  the  fact  that  the  tractive  force 
was  greater  on  tar-macadam  roads  than  on  water- 
bound  macadam  roads.  That  depended  a  great  deal 
upon  the  temperature  at  which  the  traffic  was 
carried.  In  the  summer  months  the  tractive  force  of 
tar  macadam  was  greater  when  the  surface  was 
plastic.  They  had  a  case  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Blackpool,  where  in  summer  time  the  ’buses  could 
not  get  along  a  tar-macadam  road.  In  hot  weather 
the  tractive  force  required  was  much  greater  than  on 
water-bound  roads,  but  the  cohesion  of  the  metalling 
rendered  it  very  much  less  liable  to  corrugation  than 
water-bound  roads.  On  the  question  of  claims  for 
extraordinary  traffic  it  would,  be  very  interesting  to 
know  what  the  legal  fees  amounted  to  in  the  Abing¬ 
don  case,  and  whether  they  were  more  than  the 
£356  awarded.  He  thought  the  last  thing  they  should 
do  was  to  spend  money  on  legal  fees  which  could  be 
much  better  spent  on  the  restoration  of  the  roads. 


Mr.  H.  E.  Stilgoe  (Birmingham)  said  they  must 
draw  a  very  sharp  distinction  between  extraordinary 
traffic  and  the  increase  of  general  traffic.  He  looked 
upon  extraordinary  traffic  as  the  imposing  upon  the 
road  of  traffic,  to  which  it  had  never  been  accus¬ 
tomed,  and  traffic  for  special  purposes.  Now  in  the 
case  of  the  road  in  question  it  was  quite  certain 
it  was  never  constructed  for  the  traffic  now  upon  it. 
He  had  in  his  experience  several  cases  of  traffic 
to  which  roads  had  been  exposed  which  those  roads 
never  saw  until  the  last  few  months.  Formerly  those 
roads  never  carried  anything  but  an  occasional 
tradesman’s  or  farmer’s  cart.  To-day  they  were  cut 
to  pieces  through  the  crust  and  the  foundation  by 
steam  tractors.  In  these  days  it  was  impossible  to 
look  upon  motor  vehicles  as  extraordinary  traffic. 
The  general  increase  of  traffic  of  a  district  must  be 
met  by  better  construction.  He  thought  nobody 
would  quarrel  with  that.  They  ought  to  look  upon 
the  two  things  as  quite  distinct.  The  main  plank 
of  this  paper  was  the  Abingdon  case,  with  which 
they  were  all  familiar.  That  case  went  to  the  House 
of  Lords,  and  was  decided  in  favour  of  the  highway 
authority.  The  case  was  no  doubt  one  of  extra¬ 
ordinary  traffic,  and  the  damage  should  be  paid  for  ; 
whether  by  process  or  going  to  the  courts  or  whether 
by  mutual  consent  or-  agreement,  which  was  better 
and  cheaper,  did  pot  very  much  matter.  But  they 
must  make  this  very  sharp  distinction  between  de¬ 
struction  done  by  such  traffic  and  destruction  done 
by  ordinary  increase  of  traffic.  He  supposed  all  of 
them  who  had  charge  of  roads  on  which  there  was 
a  general  increase  of  traffic,  although  it  annoyed 
them  at  the  time,  were  glad  to  welcome  it,  because 
it  meant  increase  of  business  and  increase  of  profit, 
and  they  welcomed  that.  One  had  only  to  go  into 
Kent,  into  Mr.  Chapman’s  district,  and  there  were 
roads  in  that  country  -which  during  the  period  of 
the  war  had  been  subject  to  immense  traffic,  and 
no  doubt  the  military  authorities,  or  whoever  they 
might  be  responsible  for  that  traffic,  should  make 
a  due  contribution  to  put  those  roads  right.  That 
was  a  question  of  extraordinary  traffic.  But  when 
one  came  to  the  large  towns,  as  Mr.  Harcourt  Clare 
said,  they  had  got  this  great  increase  of  traffic  on 
the  roads  to  meet,  and  it  was  their  business  to  meet 
it.  If  extraordinary  traffic  caused  damage  then  the 
people  responsible  should  make  it  good,  but  iT  it 
was  ordinary  traffic  then  the  local  authorities  should 
make  their  roads  strong  enough  to  carry  it. 

Mr.  R.  A.  MacBrair  (Lincoln)  said  statements  had 
been  made  so  different  from  his  own  experience  that 
he  must  say .  something.  It  was  stated  that  the 
damage  clone  on  level  roads  was  greater  than  on 
gradient  roads.  (Voices:  “No.”)  He  happened  to 
live  on  a  road  in  Lincoln  where  a  large  amount  of 
munition  traffic  was  going  on.  Heavy  loads  had 
been  carried  night  and  day  over  that  road  for  months. 
There  was  a  level  part  at  the  bottom  of  the  road 
which  was  tar  macadamised,  then  there  were 
gradients  varying  from  one  in  ten  to  one  in  twelve 
which  were  laid  with  ordinary  macadam.  Since  that 
traffic  began  in  July  last  he  had  covered  the  road 
with  ordinary  macadam  twice,  but  it  was  no  use,  it 
would  not  stand  the  traffic;  and  now  he  had  laid 
it  with  tar  macadam.  Wherever  the  heaviest  gradient 
was  there  the  most  damage  was  done.  At  the  bottom 
of  the  road  they  found  damage  done  where  the 
drivers  were  trying  to  get  up  speed.  But  the  left- 
hand  side  going  up  the  hill  suffered  most.  Coming 
down  on  the  other  side  with  the  vehicles  usually 
empty  there  was  very  little  damage  done.  Of  course, 
we  were  at  war,  and  the  drivers  took  no  notice  of 
roads  and  came  down  at  full  speed.  The  War  Office 
sent  an  inspector  down,  and  they  were  going  to  pay 
a  certain  amount.  The  damage  on  the  heaviest 
gradient  was  greatest,  so  that  ordinary  water-bound 
macadam  was  useless.  They  were  hoping  that  this 
tar  macadam  would  answer.  He  had  put  down  tar 
macadam  on  gradients  of  one  in  ten  or  twelve,  quite 
to  the  dismay  of  his  chairman.  The  corporation  met, 
and  one.  after  another  came  up  and  praised  the  road. 
Of  course,  the  chairman  never  said :  “  The  surveyor 
did  it  contrary  to  my  wishes.”  iSo  the  result  was 
that  on  this  very  road  the  chairman  came  and  said : 
"  Don’t  you  think  we  had  better  put  a  little  more 
tar  macadam?  ”  He  answered:  “Yes,  if  we  can  get 
the  tar  macadam.”  It  had  proved  so-satisfactory  on 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


33 


the  part  of  the  road  they  had  done  that  if  they  could 
get  hold  of  some  more  tar  macadam  they  were  going 
to  do  it  It  was  only  a  c'ountry  road,  and  they  could 
not  put  wood  or  stone  setts  down.  It  had  proved  so 
successful  that  he  advised  other  members  to  put  it 
down. 

Mr.  E.  W.  Booth  (Wellington)  said  Mr.  Silcock 
and  Mr.  Boulnois  had  mentioned  the  pitfalls  and 
difficulties  in  the  way  of  legal  procedure.  It  seemed 
to  him  that  the  difficulty  here  was  too  elaborate  a 
tribunal.  When  they  got  the  report  from  the  Depart¬ 
mental  Committee  now  sitting  it  seemed  further 
legislation  was  bound  to  take  place  arising  out  of 
that  report.  Surely  it  was  a  matter  for  this  institu¬ 
tion  and  other  similar  institutions  to  see  that  the 
method  of  the  tribunal  was  considerably  simplified. 
Most  of  them  were  aware  of  the  simple  method  of 
procedure  adopted  under  the  Finance  Act  of  1909-10, 
whereby  a  panel  of  surveyors  were  able  to  decide 
the  matters  arising  out  of  that  Act.  If  the  matters 
arising  out  of  that  Act  could  be  dealt  with  by  a  panel 
of  surveyors,  how  much  more  easily  could  this  matter 
be  dealt  with  by  a  similarly  constituted  tribunal. 
It  seemed  to  him  a  matter  which  this  institution 
ought  to  bear  in  mind  to  take  such  steps  either  now, 
or  when  expedient,  in  order  to  simplify  the  method 
of  tribunal,  and  allow  matters  to  be  brought  before 
a  panel  of  surveyors,  merely  leaving  it  to  the  Judges 
to  deal  with  points  of  law.  He  had  had  a  good  deal 
to  do  with  the  Finance  Act  of  1909-10,  and  it  seemed 
to  him  there  were  many  other  matters  which  might 
be  dealt  with  in  the  same  way  as  that,  and  this  was 
one  of  them. 

Mr.  D.  M.  Jenkins  (Neath)  said  he  had  read  the 
paper  with  a  good  deal  of  profit,  and  having  had 
some  experience  on  this  subject  recently  he  would 
like  to  make  one  or  two  observations.  In  passing 
he  might  refer  to  Mr.  Wakela'm’s  opening  statement. 
Mr.  Wakelam  was  probably  right  in  saying  that  this 
was  the  first  paper  submitted  to  a  general  meeting- 
on  this  subject,  but  he  might  refer  to  two  papers 
early  in  1915,  one  at  Doncaster  and  the  other  at  Car¬ 
diff,  where  he  read  a  short  paper  on  a  cape  on  which 
he  was  then  engaged.  Mr.  Wakelam’s  paper  was 
particularly  interesting  to  him  because  the  decision 
in  the  motor-’ bus  case  at  Abingdon  was  the  chief 
plank  in  his  platform.  There  the  conditions  were 
somewhat  limited.  The  traffic,  although  not  so  sub¬ 
stantial  as  Mr.  Wakelam  pointed  out,  was  not  heavy 
road  traffic,  and  motor  ’buses  were  much  heavier 
than  any  other  traffic  on  those  roads.  The  point 
was:  Would  motor-’bus  traffic  be  considered  extra¬ 
ordinary  traffic  on  roads  carrying  heavy  motor  traffic 
of  all  descriptions  ?  The  main  roads  from  Cardiff  on 
the  east,  Swansea  on  the  west,  and  Aberdare  on  the 
north  were  typical  roads  of  South  Wales.  They 
were  roads  subject  to  motor  traffic  up  to  2,000  tons 
a  day;  that  included  trams,  but  not  motor-’buses. 
The  motor  traffic  included  motor-ears,  motor  vans, 
motor  lorries,  light  tractors,  and  traction  engines 
with  trailers.  The  roads  were  generally  water-bound 
macadam  roads,  periodically  tar-sprayed,  with  tram¬ 
way  generally  on  one  side.  T]^e  motor-’bus  service 
was  started  on  these  roads  three  years  ago,  two  ser¬ 
vices,  the  principal  ..one  not  being  licensed  by  the 
borough  authority;  the  other  was  licensed.  The 
motor-’bus  traffic  caused  the  roads  to  -be  cut  up  in 
an  extremely  bad  manner.  Before  the  motor-’bus 
traffic  was  started  holes  were  occasionally  found  in 
the  roads,  but  they  were  very  exceptional;  but  as  a  re¬ 
sult  of  this  traffic  holes  were  scooped  out  in  the  roads, 
which  caused  constant  and  heavy  repairs.  The  motor- 
’buses  had  a  wheel  base  of  15  ft.,  and  were  generally 
very  much  the  ordinary  type  of  ’bus.  That  the 
special  kind  of  damage  was  due  to  the  ’bus  traffic 
was  proved  by  observation  of  these  particular  roads 
and  comparison  with  other  roads  where  there  was 
no  ’bus  traffic.  They  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  only  effective  way  of  dealing  with  these  roads 
was  to  adopt  some  other  form  of  construction  for 
them.  A  scheme  was  prepared  and  submitted  to  the 
county  council  and  Road  Board,  but,  he  need  not 
say,  under  present  conditions  it  was  in  a  state  of 
suspended  animation.  An  interesting  point  which 
had  a  bearing  on  >  some  points  in  Mr.  Wakelam’s 
paper  was  that  early  last  year  a  licence  was  granted 
to  the  owners  of  the  principal  line  of  omnibuses. 
Hitherto  the  council  had  refused  a  licence.  Last 
year  a  licence  was  granted,  but  subject  to  certain 
conditions;  the  principal  condition  being  that  the 
speed  of  the  ’buses  in  passing  through  the  borough 
should  be  limited  to  6  miles  an  hour,  which  was  a 
very  low  speed,  the  ’buses  running  up  to  15  and 
20  miles  an  hour.  The  conditions  were  accepted. 


The  result  was  that  the  damage  was  much  de¬ 
creased.  In  the  centre  of  the  borough  it  was  very 
small  indeed.  The  damage  was  now  greatest  on 
the  outlying  portions  of  the  roads,  where  it  was  im¬ 
possible  to  hav6  observation  of  the  speed  at  which 
the  ’buses  ran.  Generally,  as  a  result  of  his  own 
observation  and  the  study  of  the  mechanics  of  the 
question,  he  agreed  with  Mr.  Wakelam  as  to  the 
three  main  factors  of  damage  caused  by  motor- 
omnibuses,  given  on  page  40  of  the  paper.  The 
motor-’bus  when  running  at  high  speed  had  a 
peculiar  action  on  the  road  surface;  and  this  was 
greatest  where  the  foundation  of  the  road  was  com¬ 
paratively  weak.  An.  interesting  circumstance  was 
that  on  roads  where  there  was  a  tramway  on  one 
side  the  rocking  or  “  bouncing  ”  action  was  much 
accentuated.  Could  motor-’bus  traffic  be  considered 
extraordinary  traffic  under  conditions  of  this  kind? 
The  case  seemed  to  him  to  come  within  the-  terms 
of  the  judgment  in  Hill  v.  Thomas-.  “Extraordinary 
traffic  will  include  all  such  continuous  or  repeated 
user  of  a  road  by  a  person’s  vehicles  as  is  out  of 
the  common  order  of  traffic,  and  as  may  be  calcu¬ 
lated  to  damage  the  highway  and  increase  the  ex¬ 
penditure  on  repair.”  There  was  also  the  judgment 
of  Lord  Loreburn,  which  was  quoted  and  empha¬ 
sised  by  Mr.  Justice  Sankey,  to  the  effect  that  the 
traffic  may  be  extraordinary  by  reason  of  the  pur¬ 
pose  or  the  occasion  or  the  quality  of  the  method 
of  use.  Could  claims  succeed  except  in  cases  of 
traffic  for  temporary  purposes  or  in  respect  of  roads 
other  than  heavy  traffic  main  roads  ?  One  practical 
difficulty  as  in  their  case  was  that  they  were  forced 
at  an  early  stage  to  incur  capital  outlay  on  improved 
surfaces  of  the  roads  in  order  to  keep  them  in  any¬ 
thing  like  good  condition.  It  did  seem  unfair  that 
the  proprietors  of  motor-omnibuses  who  were  out  to 
earn  profit  should  make  no  contribution  at  all  to  the 
maintenance  of  the  roads.  The  apparent  line  of 
deliverance  was  a  contribution  by  the  owners  of 
motor-’buses  using  the  roads  to  the  cost  of,  main¬ 
tenance  on  a  mileage  or  other  basis.  Undoubtedly 
the  future  development  of  road  traffic  would  be  very 
great  indeed,  but  he  thought  what  Mr.  Collins  had 
said  about  an  improved  system  of  motor  vehicles  was 
one  which  had  to  be  faced  in  dealing  with  this  pro¬ 
blem,  or  else  the  roads  would  become  impassable  to 
ordinary  traffic.  As  to  the  bases  of  contribution, 
there  was  much  to  be  said  for  the  system  of  taxa¬ 
tion  of  road  vehicles  outlined  by  Mr.  Elford  at  the 
National  Road  Conference  of  1915.  Mr.  Elford  would 
make  it  depend  on  distribution  of  weight,  speed, 
loading,  wheel  diameter,  &c.,  and  his  paper  aimed  at 
encouraging  manufacturers  to  design  vehicles  least 
likely  to  cause  damage  to  the  roads.  But  this  was 
dealing  with  this  matter  only  on  a  static  basis ; 
dynamic  considerations  should  also  be  directly 
taken  into  account  by  adopting  mileage  charges. 
The  mileage  rates  dealt  with  by  Mr.  Wakelam  of  §d. 
per  ’bus  mile  was  obviously  inadequate  for  water- 
bound  macadam  roads.  The  rates  mentioned  in  the 
paper  could  only  be  considered  as  standard  rates 
subject  to  considerable  variation,  depending  upon 
local  conditions,  width  and  character  of  roads.  He 
trusted  that  the  committee  appointed  by  Parliament 
.would  arrive  at  an  equitable  basis  with  sufficient 
‘elasticity  to  meet  varying  local  conditions. 

Mr.  8.  S.  Gettings  (Dorking)  said,  as  representing 
a  comparatively  small  authority,  he  would  like  to 
say  that  to  the  small  quite  as  much  as  the  large 
authorities  this  subject  was  of  paramount  import¬ 
ance.  He  and  his  council  at  Dorking  had  this 
matter  in  hand.  They,  unfortunately,  were  suffering 
from  extraordinary  traffic,  due  to  timber  haulage  for 
the  War  Office,  and  the  matter  was  complicated  in 
this  way:  that  the  lumber  itself  was  bought  from 
two  different  forests,  and  part  of  it  was  under  the 
control  of  the  War  Office  and  part  of  it  under  the 
control  of  their  agents.  They  had,  over  certain  dis¬ 
trict  roads  of  quite  minor  importance,  timber  hauled 
by  different  people  for  two  different  parties.  In 
dealing  with  the  timber  directly  hauled  by  the  War 
Office,  which  was  acting  through  the  Home  Grown 
Timber  Committee,  he  found  the  matter  quite  easy  of 
solution.  The  Home  Grown  Timber  Committee  itself 
was  represented  at  the  Road  Board,  and  he  antici¬ 
pated  no  difficulty  in  dealing  with  the  Road  Board 
on  the  subject.  His  difficulty  was  this:  that  the 
timber  bought  from  a  private  contractor  was  being 
hauled  by  the  same  haulier  as  that  by  the  Home 
Grown  Timber  Committee,  He  would  like  to  make 
this  suggestion,  that  the  matter  be  considered  bv  the 
council  of  the  institution,  and  if  they  thought  it 
wise,  a  proposal  be  made  to  the  War  Office  and  the 


34 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


Road  Board  to  fix  a  ton-mileage  contribution  to  the 
roads  for  the  whole  of  the  lumber  hauled  over  the 
roads.  If  that  were  done  it  would  simplify  the 
matter  of  claims  for  road  repair  enormously.  In 
every  case  now  the  surveyor  was  bound  to  assume, 
that  the  u bimate  issue  would  necessitate  proceedings 
in  court.  It  seemed  to  him  from  the  commencement 
that  it  was  the  surveyor’s  duty  to  take  the  necessary 
statistics  of  the  traffic  that  went  along  the  roads. 
That  was  an  expensive  business  and  it  was  a  most 
unprofitable  business.  It  was  common  knowledge 
that  the  costs  for  any  such  work  could  not'  be  re¬ 
covered  from  any  authority.  It  seemed  to  him  that 
the  matter  might  be  solved  in  that  way.  He  quite 
agreed  with  the  author  as  to  coming  to  an  arrange¬ 
ment  with  the  motor  omnibus  companies.  But  from 
his  experience  it  was  impossible  to  come  to  an 
arrangement  with  private  hauliers  until  they  saw 
the  authority  -yas  prepared  for  a  fight.  He  would 
like  to  ask  Mr.  Wakelam  whether  it  was  essential 
to  include  the  names  of  all  the  hauliers  who  were 
carrying  traffic  over  the  roads  in  question. 

Air.  C.  F.  Gettings,  county  surveyor  of  Worcester¬ 
shire,  said  what  occurred  to  him  on  the  question  of 
extraordinary  traffic  was  that  in  the  majority  of 
cases  it  was  either  the  county  or  the  rural  district 
that  suffered ;  inasmuch  as  in  the  city  or  urban  dis¬ 
trict  their  roads  would  carry  much  heavier  traffic 
than  the  other  two.  With  regard  to  making  claims 
by  either  county  or  rural  authorities,  he  had  in  his 
mind  a  road,  a  continuous  road  for  over  40  miles, 
which  started  in  Mr.  Stilgoe’s  area  in  the  city  of 
Birmingham  and  went  right  through  to  Malvern, 
going  through  the  areas  of  several  authorities.  Some 
sections  of  that  road  were  quite  capable  of  carrying 
motor  ’bus  traffic,  others  were  not.  Until  four  years 
ago  he  never  saw  anything  on  that  road  but  a  private 
motor  car  or  the  ordinary  traffic  of  the  district.  They 
had  had  difficulties  with  that  road.  There  were 
several  cases  where  they  thought  claims  might  be 
put  up,  but  they  had  to  deal  with  adjoining  authori¬ 
ties,  and  what  one  considered  extraordinary  traffic  the 
other  did  not,  and  it  did  seem  to  him  that  they  must 
have  the  other  authorities  in  agreement  to  bring. out 
a  successful  issue:  And  it  was  very  difficult  to  get 
that  against  the  companies.  Many  of  these  ’buses 
were  run  by  central  companies,  and  their  finances 
were  unknown.  The  general  policy  of  public  autho¬ 
rities  was  to  settle,  which  they  more  or  less  agreed 
with.  The  Act  which  was  recently  passed,  and  which 
they  thought  was  going  to  be  a  big  safeguard,  was 
limited  very  much  by  the  expression  "  what  has  been 
regular  use.”  In  Worcestershire  they  had  ’bus  ser¬ 
vices  which  were  quite  small  three  or  four  years  ago. 
He  had  in  his  mind  services  where  there  were  only 
half  a  dozen  ’buses  run  a  day;  those  had  gone  up  to 
100  ’buses  a  day.  They  had  been  advised  that  those 
services,  being  on  before  the  passing  of  the  Act,  shut 
out  any  case  for  making  a  claim.  Personally,  he 
thought  the  paper  a  most  useful  one  for  showing  the 
method  of  bringing  claims  for  extraordinary  traffic, 
but  he  thought  it  much  better  if  they  could  to  settle 
by  agreement  rather  than  to  go  into  court. 

Air.  AIarlow  Reed  (Aliddlesex  County  Council)  said 
that  for  the  twentieth  century  Institution  of  Muni¬ 
cipal  and  County  Engineers  to  be  discussing  interfer¬ 
ences  with  and  regulations. of  the  progressive  mechani¬ 
cal  traction  of  this  country  was  a  thorough  mistake. 
He  spoke  as  a  public  man  and  not  as  an  engineer.  It 
was  his  duty  to  see  that  the  trade  of  Middlesex  was 
carried.  He  was  quite  pleased  to  hear  that  several 
members  had  realised  that  they  had  got  to  go  into 
that  kind  of  thing,  as  most  of  the  manufactories  would 
be  distributed  over  the  surface  of  the  country.  There 
would  be  many  manufacturing  centres  started  where 
there  were  now  green  fields,  and  a  good  deal  of  that 
traffic  would  have  to  be  carried  by  motor  traction 
along  the  roads.  They  would  not  wait  for  railways 
to  be  built.  There  was  great  pressure  being  put  on 
the  Government  to  put  up  500,000  working-class 
dwellings?  They  had  got  to  make  roads  that  would 
carry  all  traffic.  That  was  what  the  ratepayers  ex¬ 
pected  from  them.  They  must  ask  for  more  money. 
If  they  had  to  give  more  brains  and  attention  to  this 
kind  of  thing  then  they  must  have  more  money  for¬ 
doing  it.  But  it  must  be  done.  It  was  too  late  in 
these  days  to  talk  of  hindering  and  hampering  trade 
in  this  country.  They  wanted  help,  and  they  looked 
to  municipal  engineers  to  do  the  needful. 

Mr.  F.  Wilkinson  (Deptford)  said  he  would  like  to 
take  exception  to  Air.  AIarlow  Reed’s  speech,  and  in 
doing  so  he  endorsed  what  Mr.  Collins  had  said  as 
to  the  need  of  improvement  in  the  construction  of- 
motor  vehicles.  Mr.  Marlow  Reed  said  it  was  up  to 


them  to  make  good  roads.  He  quite  agreed.  But 
had  there  been  the  same  mechanical  progress  ?  There 
were  the  same  springs  on  vehicles  as  were  in  use  one 
hundred  years  ago.  The  springing  in  almost  every 
case  was  the  reason  why  they  got  damage  to  the 
roads. 

The  President  remarked  that  they  had  had  an 
exceptionally  good  discussion,  and  put  the  vote  of 
thanks,  which  was  carried. 

Mr.  Wakelam,  in  replying,-  said  the  paper  had 
been  prepared  from  quite  a  different  standpoint  to 
that  which  had  been  taken  by  several  of  the  speakers. 
It  was  prepared  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  ques¬ 
tion  of  extraordinary  traffic  before  the  meeting  and 
not  from  any  personal  feelings  towards  that  traffic. 
He  had  nothing  else  in  his  mind.  It  was  to  allow 
those  who  had  had,  or  were  suffering  from,  extra¬ 
ordinary  traffic  an  opportunity  of  voicing  their 
grievances,  and  also  their  expectation  of  contribu¬ 
tions  from  the  War  Office  and  the  Alinistry  of  Muni¬ 
tions  in  regard  to  the  traffic  on  the  roads.  Mr. 
Marlow  Reed’s  remarks  were  in  his  mind  at  the 
moment.  Paragraph  4,  on  page  43  of  the  paper,  if 
they  would  carefully  read  it  fully,  answered  every 
point  Mr.  Reed  raised.  It  said,  “  In  connection  with 
the  question  generally  the  writer  is  quite  certain  that 
no  authority  lias  the  least  desire  to  throttle  industry 
or  trade.”  He  thought  that  was  an  answer  to  Air. 
Reed.  Now,  going  on  generally  with  the  comments 
which  had  been  made  during  the  discussion,  which 
had  been,  as  the  president  remarked,  a  very  interest¬ 
ing  one  and  a  very  long  one.  Air.  Hadfield  first  of 
all  called  attention  to  the  damage  of  the  roads  in 
Sheffield,  and  he  understood  him  to  say  there  was  very 
little  damage  caused  there  by  motor  omnibuses.  That 
might  be  so,  but  Sheffield  was  an  exceptional  town. 
Many  of  the  streets  were  paved  with  large  granite 
setts  [Mr.  Hadfield:  Not  where  the  ’buses  run.]  Alore 
than  two-thirds  of  the  area  of  Sheffield  was  covered 
with  granite  setts  [Mr.  Hadfield:  No.]  to  carry  the 
tramways.  The  -Sheffield  Corporation  were  quite 
differently  placed  to  deal  with  motor  omnibus  traffic 
than  most  of  the  rural  counties  of  this  kingdom. 
During  the  past  year  Sheffield  made  a  profit  of  about 
£9,000  on  their  motor  omnibuses.  Did  they,' in  taking 
account  of  their  motor  omnibus  profits  make  any 
charge  against  the  revenue  account  for  the  damage 
caused  to  the  roads  ?  Take  a  tramway.  A  tramway 
had  to  maintain  two-thirds  of  the  roadway.  With 
regard  to  Air.  Silcock’s  remark  that  the  judge  in  the 
Abingdon  case  held  that  the  time  would  come  when 
the  motor  omnibus  traffic  in  Abingdon  would  become 
ordinary.  He  did  not  think  motor  omnibus  traffic 
could  be  termed  extraordinary  after  a  lapse  of  three 
years.  Air.  Silcock  mentioned  that  a  string  of  carts 
going  in  procession  did  as  much  damage  as  motor 
omnibuses.  There  was  a  case  where  a  claim  was 
brought  by  the  Shropshire  County  Council  against  the 
Wolverhampton  Corporation  for  damage  caused  in 
carting  to  their  waterworks.  It  was  held  that  traffic 
by  strings  of  carts  was  extraordinary  traffic,  and  they 
had  to  pay  for  it.  Then  Mr.  Silcock  referred  to  the 
preparation  of  certificates  by  counsel.  Mr.  Silcock 
was  quite  right  when  he  said  the  certificate  should 
always  be  prepared,  or  at  any  rate  approved,  by 
counsel.  His  paper  stated  that  the  engineer  should 
always  be  the  medium  through  which  information 
was  given  to  the  authority,  and  it  was  his  function 
to  prepare  all  figures.  He  never  said  _the  engineer 
should  not  take  the  responsibility  for  his  own  figures. 

Mr.  Silcock:  Page  42,  second  paragraph. 

Air.  Wakelam  .said  that  Air.  Silcock,  in  his  refer¬ 
ence  to  the  Billericay  case,  said  it  was  ruled  that  “  to 
prove  your  case  you  must  have  evidence,  of  the  cost 
of  comparable  roads  in  the  immediate  neighbour¬ 
hood.”  Take  the  case  of  a  rural  district.  Take  the 
case  of  Mr.  Webb,  of  Hendon,  and  his  roads.  How 
much  difference  would  they  find  in  half-a-dozen  of 
those  roads  ?  He  ventured  to  say  they  would  not  find 
a  difference  of  fifty  tons  a  week  for  any  of  those  roads. 
Surely  those  could  be  considered  comparable  roads. 
There  was  no  difficulty  in  getting  similar  roads  for 
comparison  in  any  of  the  rural  districts  of  the  coun¬ 
try.  Mr.  Boulnois  made  some  pertinent  remarks  in  the 
discussion.  M.r.  Boulnois  hit  the  nail  on  the  head 
when  he  said  the  certificate  was  the  fundamental 
point.  If  they  had  not  the  fundamental  right  in  a 
case  of  this  kind  tliey  had  better  take  no  steps  at  all. 
Then  someone  raised  the  point  as  to  whether  he  was 
right  when  he  said  the  damage  to  granite  setts  was 
higher  than  to  wood  paving.  Mr.  Blair  answered  that 
case  very  fairly.  There  was  no  doubt  that  steel  tyres 
going  over  granite  and  Durax  pavement  did  aceen- 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


35 


tuate  the  damage.  There  were  more  displacements 
and  more  crushing  of  setts,  as  everybody  knew  who 
had  to  deal  with  granite  setts  and  wood  blocks.  There¬ 
fore  his  point  was  in  connection  with  wood  paving; 
the  rate  should  not  be  so  high  as  with  Durax  or 
granite.  Mr.  Collins  also  made  some  excellent  re¬ 
marks  about  the  weight  of  vehicles.  Mr.  Collins 
woidd  agree  that  if  they  distributed  the  load  properly 
there  was  not  much  damage.  But  if  they  had  got  a 
motor  vehicle  in  which  three-fourths  of  the  weight 
was  on  the  front  wheels  they  were  bound  to  get  undue 
damage.  Take  a  tramcar  running  on  bogey  wheels; 
they  got  rid  of  the  “  bounding  ”  action  to  a  large  ex¬ 
tent.  Mr.  Dryland  referred  to  the  greater  tractive 
effort  on  tar  macadam  as  compared  with  water-bound 
macadam.  Mr.  Dryland  qualified  that  to  a  great 
extent  by  saying  that  if  they  took  the  traffic  all  the 
year  round  the  statement  would  be  correct.  Mr. 
Chapman  told  them  that  Sir  Harcourt  Clare  said  in 
Lancashire  fifteen  years  ago  there  was  no  such  thing 
as  extraordinary  traffic.  Sir  Harcourt  Clare  had  now 
altered  his  opinion  because  he  knew  they  had  cases 
pending  in  the  courts  dealing  with  extraordinary 
traffic.  Then  he  said  Mr.  Wakelam  was  great  on 
damage  by  motor  omnibuses.  He  resented  that  state¬ 
ment.  He  had  to  look  after  the  interest  of  the  rate¬ 
payers.  It  was  quite  true  to  say  that  he  got  three- 
fifths  of  a  penny  per  ’bus  mile,  an  arrangement  which 
he  thought  all  the  ratepayers  were  satisfied  with.  He 
repudiated  Mr.  Chapman’s  statement  altogether.  He 
simply  wanted  to  obtain  what  was  due  to  the  rate¬ 
payers  of  the  district  in  which  he  resided  and  where 
he  worked.  Mr.  Chapman  said  public  utility  and 
necessity  had  to  be  considered,  and  he  said  so  in  the 
paper.  Those  were  the  two  fundamentals  of  the  ques¬ 
tion.  Mr.  Chapman  wanted  to  know'  if  he  thought 
it  fair  and  right  that  the  owners  of  motor-buses 
should  bear  the  whole  expense  of  the  roads.  He  con¬ 
sidered  they  should  pay  the  damage  they  caused; 
that  was  as  far  as  he  went.  Mr.  Chapman  said  he 
did  not  think  the  rates  were  quite  suitable,  but  his 
council  had  themselves  adopted  the  rates  recently. 
It  was  a  little  unfair  for  Mr.  Chapman  to  come  there 
and  say  the  rates  were  unfair  when  he  had  adopted 
them.  Mr.  Stilgoe  referred  to  Birmingham.  Birming¬ 
ham  made  a  profit  last  year  of  £10,085.  They  ran 
their  own  ’buses  and  made  the  profits,  and  were  quite 
satisfied;  but  other  provincial  councils  were  not  satis¬ 
fied.  They  said,  “  Pay  us  such  a  sum  as  we  think 
you  ought  to  pay  us.”  Parliament  had  recently  said, 
through  the  Emergency  Act  of  1910,  that  omnibuses 
should  be  termed  extraordinary  traffic,  and  be  made 
to  pay.  If  Parliament  had  said  that  local  authorities 
were  justified  in  coming  forward  and  saying,  “  We 
have  sustained  this  damage,  and  want  some  of  their 
money,”  he  could  not  understand  the  objections  which 
had  been  urged.  Then  the  greatly  increasing  traffic 
on  the  roads.  The  greatly  increasing  traffic  they  did 
not  consider  to  be  extraordinary  traffic.  It  was  traffic 
which  .was  coming  on  to  the  roads  by  reason  of  the 
increasing  trade,  and  they  did  not  place  any  obstacle 
in  the  way  of  it.  They  did  not  want  to  mulct  these 
people  for  carrying  on  the  ordinary  business,  or  the  ex¬ 
traordinary  businesses,  of  the  country.  In  Middlesex 
they  were  better  placed  than  most  counties.  They  had 
got  a  bigger  population  and  a  bigger  rateable  value ; 
but,  in  justice  to  other  counties,  they  were  perfectly 
justified  when  they  had  a  claim  for  extraordinary 
traffic  in  going  for  it.  Mr.  Jenkins  raised  the  point 
as  to  when  motor  omnibuses  should  be  considered 
ordinary  traffic.  Mr.  Justice  Sankey  inferred  in  the 
Abingdon  case  that  if  motor  ’buses  went  on  for  any 
length  of  time  it  would  be  ordinary  traffic,  just  the 
same  as  the  ordinary  business  of  a  builder  or  con¬ 
tractor.  No  one  thought  of  going  to  him  for  damage 
for  extraordinary  traffic.  Motor  omnibuses  went  into 
a  district,  they  knocked  the  roads  all  to  pieces  with¬ 
out  paying  anything  for  them,  while  a  tramway  com¬ 
pany  had  to  pay  for  going  thfough,  and  had  to  main¬ 
tain  two-thirds  of  the  road  surface.  Mr.  Gettings 
asked  him  whether  he  considered  timber  haulage  ex¬ 
traordinary  traffic  under  the  conditions  he  mentioned. 
All  he  could  say  was  that  he  would  advise  him  to  get 
the  opinion  of  the  lawyers. 

Mr.  S.  S.  Gettings  explained  that  he  did  not  ask 
whether  any  traffic  was  extraordinary  or  not,  but 
whether  the  matter  might  be  considered  by  the 
council  of  the  institution,  and  see  whether  the 
Government  would  not  make  compensation  to  the 
local  authorities  on  a  ton-mile  basis,  so  as  to  obviate 
cases  being  taken  into  the  courts. 

Mr.  Wakelam  remarked  that  Mr.  Gettings,  of  Wor¬ 
cester,  made  one  most  useful  suggestion,  to  the  effect 
that  agreements  should  be  made  with  the  companies. 


His  advice  was — make  agreements  with  the  companies 
amicably,  get  the  whole  thing  settled  under  the  Emer¬ 
gency  Act  of  1916,  and  he  thought  everybody  would 
be  satisfied. 

Mr.  W.  J.  H^dfield  explained  that  there  were  no 
motor  omnibuses  being  run  in  Sheffield  where  there 
were  trams.  Then  as  to  profits,  they  did  not  make 
anything  like  the  profits  stated  by  Mr.  Wakelam. 
They  had  had  to  increase  the  fares  on  the  motor  ’buses 
20  per  cent  this  year.  The  £9,000  mentioned  was  the 
gross  profit,  without  depreciation. 

Mr.  Wakelam:  It  is  the  nett  profit  which  goes  to 
rates  of  Sheffield.  It  has  been  published  in  the  Press. 

The  meeting  then  adjourned. 

(To  be  continued.) 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Bi V  at'rjp  ov  iravO'  opa 

( One  man  does  not  see  everything.) 

— Euripides. 

MR.  WAKELAM  AND  EXTRAORDINARY  TRAFFIC. 

To  the  Editor  of  The  Surveyor. 

Sir, — Will  you  kindly  allow  me  to  remark  in  your 
paper  on  the  manner  in  which  Mr.  Wakelam,  at  Hast¬ 
ings,  twisted  my  observations  to  suit  his  own  ends 
when  he  had  the  last  word  on  his  paper  and  discus¬ 
sion  thereon  ? 

When  referring  to  Sir  Harcourt  Clare’s  expressed 
opinion  on  extraordinary  traffic  in  Lancashire  I  was, 
of  course,  referring  to  heavy  motor-car  traffic  in  con¬ 
nection  with  Lancashire  industries,  and  not  to  motor- 
omnibus  traffic.  Twelve  to  fifteen  years  ago  there  was 
not  very  much  motor-omnibus  traffic  there. 

Everyone  but  Mr.  Wakelam  ought  to  know  that 
there,  are  as  “  rural  ’.’  main  roads  in  Lancashire  as  in 
any  other  county,  and  there  are,  of  course,  instances 
of  extraordinary  traffic. 

In  regard  to  the  Local  Government  Emergency  Pro¬ 
visions  Act,  1916,  sec.  20,  as  county  surveyor  of  Kent 
1  had  some  small  part  in  drawing  up  the  Kent  scale 
of  contributions.  I  say  it  was  not  based  omjthe.  scale 
“  fathered  ”  by  Mr.  Wakelam,  although  the  latter  was 
published  broadcast  first.  If  Mr.  Wakelam  contra¬ 
dicts  me  again,  he  is,  as  he  claims  to  be,  an  “  expert 
witness.” 

Having  served  ten  years  under  the  Lancashire 
County  Council,  and  nearly  four  in  Kent,  I  do  not 
usually  talk  “through  my  hat”  when  referring  to 
matters  that  have  occurred  in  connection  with  my 
duties  in  these  counties.  I  do  not,  however,  claim  to 
know  anything  about  Mr.  Wakelam’s  county  business. 
— Yours,  &.c., 

H.  T.  Chapman. 

County  Surveyor’s  Office, 

St.  Peter-street,  Maidstone. 

June  30,  1917. 


ROAD  MATERIALS. 


CONTROL  COMMITTEE'S  REQUIREMENTS. 

The  attention  of  quarry  owners,  managers,  or  other 
persons  engaged  upon  the  quarrying  or  output  of 
road  materials  in  quarries,  slag  dumps,  or  slag  works 
is  drawn  to  the  notification  in  the  London  Gazette 
of  June  26th,  1917,  whereby  they  must  furnish  full 
details  of  their  output  and  labour  to  the  iSecretary, 
Hoad  Stone  Control  Committee,  No.  35  Cromweli- 
road,  London,  S.W.  7,  on  forms  to  be  obtained  from 
him. 

The  particulars  required  are  as  under : 

(1)  The  output  each  month  of  road  materials,  in¬ 
cluding  quarried  stone  (not  flint  or  gravel),  slag,  and 
tarred  materials,  during  the  year  ended  31st  March, 

1914. 

(2)  Particulars  of  labour  employed  producing  the 
above  output  during  the  year  ended  31st  March, 

1914. 

(3)  The  output  each  month  of  road  materials,  in¬ 
cluding  quarried  stone  (not  flint  or  gravel),  slag,  and 
tarred  materials  for  the  period  January  1st,  1917,  to 
31st  May,  1917. 

(4)  Particulars  of  labour  employed  producing  the 
output  for  the  period  January  1st,  1917,  to  31st  May, 

1917. 

(5)  Any  other  information  which  may  be  specially 
called  for,  under  the  authority  of  the  Army  Council, 
regarding  any  particular  quarry  or  slag  dump.  ' 


36 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


Municipal  Work  in  Progress  and  Projected. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Scrvesor  readers  with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 

head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


The  following  are  among  the  more  important  pro¬ 
jected  works  of  which  particulars  have  reached  us 
during  the  present  week.  Other  reports  will  be  found 
on  our  “  Local  Government  Board  Inquiries  ”  page. 

BUILDINGS. 

Barnsley  T.C. — It  has  been  agreed  to  purchase  the 
Pindar  Oaks  estate,  comprising  residence  and  eleven 
acres,  for  £2,000,  to  be  used  as  a  maternity  home  and 
child  welfare  centre. 

Crook  U.D.C. — It  is  proposed  to  build  a  council 
chamber  and  public  hall  at  an  estimated  cost  of 
£6,000. 

Hull  T.C _ The  town  council  are  considering  the 

question  ,  of  providing  an  institution  for  mentally 
defectives. 

Middlesbrough  T.C. — The  borough  engineer,  Mr. 
S.  E.  Burgess,  has  prepared  three  alternative 
schemes  for  a  clinic  for  the  treatment  of  venereal 
diseases.  These  schemes,  which  are  located  at  vari¬ 
ous  parts  of  the  town,- are  under  consideration  by  the 
town  council  and  the  North  Riding  County  Council. 
It  is  proposed  that  the  populous  urban  districts  in 
the  environments  of  Middlesbrough,  and  which  are 
in  the  area  of  the  North  Riding  County  Council,  shall 
join  with  Middlesbrough  in  the  working  of  an 
approved  scheme.  The  estimate  for  the  various 
schemes,  each  embodying  the  same  accommodation, 
is  approximately  £6,000  each.  The  plans  have  also 
been  sent  to  the  Local  Government  Board  for  their 
opinion  as  to  which  of  the  schemes  should  be  put 
into  operation. 

Weybridge  U.D.C. — A  proposal  is  being  considered  for 
setting  aside  part  of  the  municipal  buildings  as'  a  fire 
station. 

Wolverhampton  T.C. — A  tender  has  been  accepted  for 
the  erection  of  a  new  boiler-house  wing  at  the  electri¬ 
city  station  at  a  cost  of  £5,936 

HOUSING  AND  TOWN  PLANNING. 

Airdrie  T.C. — The  sanitary  inspector  has  been  autho¬ 
rised  to  confer  with  the  surveyor  of  Coatbridge  with  a 
view  to  reporting  upon  any  area  or  areas  that  might 
form  the  subject  of  joint  action  in  the  matter  of  the 
housing  and  town-planning  scheme. 

Bradford  T.C. — The  city  engineer,  Mr.  W.  H.  S. 
Dawson,  and  the  assistant  town  clerk  have  been 
authorised  to  confer  with  the  Local  Government 
Board  with  respect  to  a  proposed  housing  scheme  at 
Eccleshill. 

Bristol  T.C. — With  reference  to  a  suggestion  by  the 
Health  Committee  that  the  whole  of  the  vacant  St. 
Philip’s  site  should  be*  laid  out  as  a  playground,  the 
Sanitary  Committee  have  resolved  to  adhere  to  their 
original  decision  to  utilise  the  ground  for  a  housing 
scheme. 

Dundee  T.C. — A  communication  has  been  received 
from  the  Dundee  Labour  Housing  Council  intimating 
that  they  had  had  housing  plans  prepared,  and  ask¬ 
ing  the  opportunity  of  co-operating  with  the  town 
council.  To  this  the  town  council  have  agreed. 

Edinburgh  T.C. — The  medical  officer  of  health.  Dr. 
Maxwell  Williamson,  reports  that  the  available  hous¬ 
ing  accommodation  of  the  city  has  been  strained  to  its 
utmost  capacity,  and  it  becomes  necessary  under 
existing  urgent  conditions  to  'permit  the  continued 
occupation  of  many  houses  which,  under  other  cir¬ 
cumstances,  would  certainly  be  condemned.  The 
housing  problem,  therefore,  meanwhile  is  being  con¬ 
siderably  accentuated  by  the  undue  strain  which  is 
being  put  upon  the  existing  facilities. 

Hetton  U.D.C — Tire  surveyor  has  received  instruc¬ 
tions  to  prepare  plans  and  an  estimate  for  the  erec¬ 
tion  of  thirty-three  working-class  houses. 

Plymouth  T.C. — The  town  council  have  granted  the 
Special  Works  Committee  the  power  to  obtain  the 
necessary  assistance  for  the  preparation  of  a  town- 
•planning  scheme. 

Sheffield  T.C. — The  Estates  Committee  of  the  City 
Council  have  submitted  a  scheme  for  the  erection  at 
High  Wincobank  of  224  houses,  and  at  Crookes,  on 
the  Walkley  Hall  estate,  of  200  houses;  also  the  pro¬ 


posal  of  a  private  builder  to  erect  117  others. 
The  committee  point  out  that  in  future  the 
corporation  should  step  in  where  private  enter¬ 
prise  fails  to  provide  working-class  houses,  but 
that  the  corporation  should  take  in  hand  a 
building  programme  for,  say,  five  years,  building 
800  houses  jeer  year,  roughly  a  third  of  the  esti¬ 
mated  requirement,  thus  leaving  plenty  of  oppor¬ 
tunity  for  private  enterprise.  The  suggestion  of  800 
per  year  is  put  at  the  minimum,  but  if  building  is 
not  taken  up  by  private  enterprise  the  corporation 
will  perforce  have  to  build  more  extensively. 

MOTOR  TRANSPORT. 

Dewsbury  T.C. — It  is  proposed  to  purchase  an  elec¬ 
tric  commercial  lorry  for  the  use  of  the  electricity  de¬ 
partment  at  a  cost  of  £911. 

Ilkeston  T.C. — It  was  stated  that  it  was  the  inten¬ 
tion  of  the  town  council  to  purchase  a  motor  water 
sprinkler  after  the  war. 

Leyton  U.D.C. — The  council  are  recommended  to  pur¬ 
chase  a  motor  ambulance. 

Swindon  T.C. — A  decision  has  been  reached  to  pur¬ 
chase  a  motor  ambulance. 

ROADS  AND  MATERIALS. 

Amesbury  R.D.C — The  schedule  of  the  roads  of 
national  importance  in  the  rural  area,  referred  to  last 
week,  was  prepared  by  the  surveyor,  Mr.  T.  Wood, 
not  by  Mr.  J.  T.  Huxbam,  who  resigned  some  twelve 
months  ago. 

Chester  T.C — The  city  council  have  referred  to  the 
General  Purposes  Committee  reports  upon  the  condi¬ 
tion  of  the  tramway  track  prepared  by  the  city 
engineer,  Mr.  W.  M.  Jones,  and  the  electrical  engineer. 

Helmsley  R.D.C. —The  council  are  asking  the  Road 
Board  for  a  grant  towards  the  cost,  estimated  at  £374, 
of  repairing  the  road  at  East  Newton,  leading  from 
the  junction  with  the  main  road  to  the  Helmsley 
boundary  to  Nunnington  Station. — A  committee  has 
been  asked  to  report  on  the  possibility  of  working  the 
quarries  at  Laddie  Ghyll,  and  the  probable  cost  of  con¬ 
structing  a  road  to  the  quarries. 

Houghton  U.D.C. — In  order  to  overtake  some  of  the 
delayed  repairs  to  the  streets  it  has  been  decided  to 
engage  women  street  sweepers,  and  thu.s  release  the 
four,  roadmen  remaining  for  heavier  work. 

Hove  T.C — Following  upon  a  suggestion  by  the  Local 
Government  Board,  the  Works  and  Improvements 
Committee  recommend  that  application  be  made  for 
sanction  to  a  loan  of  £4,000  for  the  wood  paving  of 
Western-road  after  the  war. 

Islington  B.C. — The  Works  Committee  recommend  an 
expenditure  of  £580  upon  road  repairs  in  Shepperton- 
load  and  Gillespie-road. 

Leicester  T.C. — The  town  council  have  accepted  the 
tender  of  Messrs.  H.  V.  Smith  &  Co.,  London,  for  tar¬ 
spraying  the  macadam  roads.  Alderman  Yearby  said 
that  it  was  impossible  for  the  Highway  Committee  to 
undertake  the  work  at  the  present  time,  and  they  were 
fortunate  in  having  been  able  to  get  the  work  dgne  by 
Messrs.  Smith  at  the  same  price  as  the  county  council 
was  paying. 

Limavady  R.D.C. — It  has  been  resolved  to  recom¬ 
mend  the  Londonderry  County  Council  to  grant  to 
the  road  contractors  in  the  Limavady  rural  district 
war  bonuses  ranging  from  3  to  10  per  cent...  on  the 
understanding  that  the.  contractors  will  take  into  con¬ 
sideration  the  interests  of  the  surfacemen  and  give 
them  adequate  remuneration  for  their  work. 

Lincoln  T.C. — Arrangements  have  been  reached  with 
the  parties  concerned  for  the  widening  and  partial  re¬ 
construction  of  Coulston-road,  at  an  estimated  cost  of 
£350,  but.  the  work  will  remain  in  abeyance  for  the 
present. 

Norfolk  C.C — The  county  surveyor,  Mr.  W.  Gladwell, 
reports  that  the  total  cost  per  mile  for  ordinary  main¬ 
tenance,  including  all  items  such  as  materials,  team 
and  manual  labour,  steam  rolling,  tools,  stationery, 
management,  and  also  repairs  to  footpaths,  bnt  ex¬ 
cluding  improvements,  was  £34  12s.,  as  compared  with 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


37 


CIO  Gs.  Gel.  last  year.  The  cost  per  mile  for  the  year 
ended  March  31,  1914.  was  £51  7s.  2d.  There  is  a 
shortage  in  the  deliveries  of  materials,  and  difficulty 
experienced  in  obtaining  carters.  Owing  to  the  pro¬ 
longed  drought  and  the  dearth  of  manual  labour, 
gravel  roads  especially  have  in  many  instances  broken 
up.  Several  sections  of  roads  contiguous  to  camps 
have  been  resurfaced  under  military  requisitions.  In 
instances  where  it  has  been  possible  to  obtain 
materials  and  the  necessary  labour,  the  work  apper¬ 
taining  to  the  improvement  of  road  surfaces  under 
the  19i5-16  Road  Board  grant  has  been  proceeded 
with. 

Pickering  U.D.C. — As  there  is  no  labour  available 
to  tar  slag,  the  council  have  agreed  to  purchase  a 
quantity  of  prepared  tar  macadam. 

Richmond  (Surrey)  T.C. — The  Highways  Committee 
recently  made  an  application  to  the  Road  Board  for 
a  contribution  towards  the  cost  of  repairing 
Petersham-road,  but  the  board  decline  to  make  any 
contribution.  Further,  they  have  intimated  to 
Tarmac.  Limited,  that  at  the  moment  all  their  output 
of  Tarmac  is  required  by  the  board  for  military  road 
purposes,  but  as  soon  as  practicable  material  will  be 
released  so  as  to  enable  the  company  to  supply  the 
needs  of  the  corporation.  In  these  circumstances  the 
committee  regret  that  some  delay  in  putting  in  hand 
the  repair  of  Petersham-road  is  unavoidable. 

Somerset  C.C. —  It  has  been  agreed  to  spend  £175 
in  the  purchase  of  land  at  Brislingtbn  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of  widening  -the  main  road  to  Bristol.  . 

Stratford-on-Avon  R.D.C _ The  surveyor,  Mr.  W.  E. 

Coles,  complained  that  he  was  allowed  only  half  a 
gallon  of  petrol  weekly  to  get  round  his  district.  He 
had  written  to  the  Petrol  Control  Board  twice  with¬ 
out  getting  a  reply,  and  he  should  like  the  clerk  to 
write  and  ask  for  his.  allowance  to  be  increased  to  a 
gallon  and  a  half.  The  chairman  said  there  could  be 
no  objection  to  that,  but  he  was  afraid  it  would  not 
be  much  good.  Mr.  Coles  observed  that  he  wrote  as 
far  back  as  last  April. 

SEWERAGE  AND  SEWACE  DISPOSAL. 

Bolton  T.C. — -A  scheme  of  extensions  at  the  As  t  ley 
Bridge  sewage  works  has  received  the  approval  of  the 

town  council. 

Bridgwater  R.D.C. — The  county  council  have 
approved  the  scheme  for  the  construction  of  a  12-in. 
pipe  drain  at  Pedwell  Hill,  Ashcott,  at  an  estimated 
cost  of  £317. 

East  Crinstead  R.D.C. — it  has  been  resolved  to  take 
up  additional  land  at  the  sewage  disposal  works  on 
Lower  Parrock  Farm. 

Folkestone  T.C. — An  amended  estimate  of  £475  has 
been  submitted  for  the  sewer  extension  in  Cheriton- 
road,  and  the  borough  Surveyor,  Mr.  E.  A.  Nichols,  re¬ 
commends  that  the  „sewer  should  be  covered  with  re¬ 
inforced  concrete,  at  an  additional  cost  of  £225. 

Redcar  U.D.C. — Expert  advice  is  to  he  obtained  with 
respect  to  the  condition  of  the  main  sewers. 

WATER,  CAS,  AND  ELECTRICITY. 

Airdrie  T.C. — The  question  of  a  complete  scheme  of 
public  gas  lighting  is  being  considered. 

Newport  (Mon.)  T.C. — The  Waterworks  Committee 
recommend  the  corporation  to  apply  for  Parliamen¬ 
tary  powers  to  proceed  with  the  new  waterworks  at 
Talybont,  Breconshire.  The  town  council  are  also 
advised  to  consider  the  offer  of  the  Merthyr  Town 
Council  to  commence  supplying  Newport  in  1921  with 
500,000  gallons  per  day  at  7d.  per  1,000  gallons,  and 
increase  the  consumption  and  reduce  the  price 
gradually  until  1938,  when  they  could  supply  the 
4,000,000  gallons  daily  at  4d.  per  1,000  gallons. 

Nottingham  T.C. — When  the  report  of  the  Water 
Committee,  was  submitted  at  the  city  council  meeting 
last  week,  Sheriff  Swain  asked  whether  the  new  pro¬ 
cess  of  filtration  would  have  the  effect  of  minimising 
the  effect  on  hot  water  pipes  of  the  new  Derwent, 
Valley  supply,  and  whether  the  water,  as  now  to  he 
filtered,  would  have  a  good  colour. — The  chairman  of 
the  Water  Committee,  Mr.  A.  R.  Atkey,  replied  that 
no  process  could  avoid  the  ultimate  filling-up  of  iron 
pipes,  which  was  a  normal  process,  but  the  Derwent 
Valley  water,  as  it  was  proposed  to  treat  it,  would 
have  no  more  undue  prejudicial  effect  than  that  of 
the  present  supply. 

Oldbury  U.D.C. — The  gas  undertaking  yielded  a  net 
profit  last  year  of  £2,242. 


Sheffield  T.C. — The  Sheffield  Corporation  Bill  to 
•authorise  the  extension  of  the  electricity  undertaking 
has  passed  the' Parliamentary  Committee,  and  will  be 
reported  to  the  House  of  Commons  in  due  course.  The 
committee  struck  out  clause  16,  which  gave  authority 
to  abstract  water  from  the  river  Don,  the  chairman. 
Sir  William  Middlebrook,  stating  that  the  committee 
were  strongly  impressed  with  the  importance  and 
urgency  of  the  electricity  works,  and  desired  to  assist 
the  corporation  in  every  possible  way,  but  it  was 
plain  to  him  that  the  abstraction  of  water  from  a 
river  in  the  way  proposed  was  a  departure  from  any¬ 
thing  that  had  hitherto  been  done  by  Parliament. 
They  therefore  felt  that  Sheffield  should  not  be  given 
the  statutory  powers  she  asked  for,  but  must  rely  upon 
her  right  as  riparian  owners. 

Torquay  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  679  acres  of  the 
watershed  were  under  cultivation,  potatoes  being  the 
chief  crop. 

Willesden  U.D.C. — The  Electricity  Committee  recom¬ 
mend  the  council  to  renew  their  application  to  the 
Local  Government  Board  for  sanction  to  borrow 
£7,259  for  the  proposed  Anson-road  and  Acton-lane 
electricity  cables,  and  also  to  submit  a  new  applica¬ 
tion  for  £1,850  for  further  cable  extensions  and  equip¬ 
ment. 

Worcester  T.C. — The.  city  council  have  sanctioned 
the  purchase  of  an  additional  boiler  and  other  elec¬ 
tricity  plant,,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £5.200. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Cork  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  Cork  Improve¬ 
ment  Bill  had  passed  all  its  stages. 

Glasgow  T.C — The  nett  surplus  to  be  paid  over  this 
year  to  the  common  good  from  the  tramways  under¬ 
taking  is  £160,984,  the  largest  sum  that  has  been  avail¬ 
able  for  this  purpose  since  1894. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne  T.C — The  Tramways  Committee 
have  agreed  to  a  scheme  for  utilising  the. sand-cars 
during  the  winter  for  distributing  co.al  to  house¬ 
holders. 

Seaford  U.D.C. — The  council  have  approved  a  re¬ 
vised  estimate  for  laying  out  the  Blatchington  pond 
site,  amounting  to  £1,556,  and  have  resolved  to  apply 
to  the  Local  Government  Board  for  a  loan*for  this 
sum,  the  work  to  be  carried  out  after  the  war. 

Shoreham  U.D.C. — The  Local  Government  Board 
have  sanctioned  the  proposal  of  the  council  to  increase 
the  salary  of  the  inspector  of  nuisances  from  £150  to 
£200  per  annum  during  the  continuance  of  the  camp 
in  the  urban  district. 


LOCAL  GOVERNMENT  BOARD  INQUIRIES. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Surveyor  readers 
with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 
head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


APPLICATIONS  FOR  LOANS. 

* 

Erith  U.D.C. — £1,000  for  the  extension  of  an  electricity 
sub-station. 

Newcastle  (Limerick)  U.D.C. — £3,000  for  the  comple¬ 
tion  of  the  sewerage  'scheme. 

LOAN  SANCTIONED. 

Llanelly  R.D.C. — £21,260  for  the  completion  of  the 
waterworks  scheme. 

FORTHCOMING  INQUIRY. 

JULY.  £ 

17.-  Hove,  For  the  purchase  of  the  Hove 
Baths  and  Laundry  Company  (Mr.  E. 
Leonard) .  .  9.000 


Charing  Cross  Bridge. — Speaking  before  the  London 
Society  on  the  subject  of  “  London  Bridges,"  Mr. 
W.  D.  Caroe,  alluding  particularly  to  Charing  Cross 
Bridge,  said  he  believed  that  in  five  or  six  years’  time 
the  knell  of  the  monster  would  be  sounded  by  a  gieat 
road  bridge  projected  in  it.s  place.  Mr.  Caroe  sug¬ 
gested  laying  out  a  new  road  bridge  at  Charing  Gross, 
with  its  approaches,  including  a  new  overground 
station  for  the  South-Eastern  and  Chatham  Railway 
on  the  Surrey  side,  symmetrical  wTith  Waterloo,  on 
the  axis  of  the  W'aterloo-road,  and  a.  stone  war 
memorial  bridge  on  the  axis  of  Northumberland- 
avenue.  A  low-level  bridge  in  his  opinion  would  be 
the  most  suitable. 


38 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


PERSONAL. 


Mr.  H.  N.  Jones,  sanitary  inspector  to  the  Camber¬ 
well  Borough  Council,  who  has  lost  a  leg  in  action, 
has  returned  to  his  duties. 

Mr.  C.  Harmer,  sanitary  inspector  to  the  Hailsham 
.Rural  District  Council,  received  the  congratulations 
of  the  councillors  on  Wednesday  last  upon  having 
leached  his  eighty-first  birthday. 

Mr.  G.  H.  Robbins  has  resigned  his  position  as 
sanitary  inspector  to  the  Oldbury  Urban  District 
Council,  after  thirty-five  years’  service,  and  the  coun¬ 
cil  have  decided  to  appoint  a  consulting  inspector  at 
a  salary  of  £75  per  annum. 

Mr.  F.  P.  Dolamore,  borough  engineer  of  Bourne¬ 
mouth,  has  received  the  permission  of  the  town 
council  to  give  advice  in  a  dispute  between  the 
Southern  Seas  Fisheries  District  and  the  owner  of  a 
quarry  upon  which  his  knowledge  of  the  coast  makes 
him  qualified  to  speak. 

Mr.  John  W.  M'Lusky,  manager  of  the  Airdrie  Cor¬ 
poration  Gasworks,  has  been  appointed  manager  at 
Blackburn  at  a  salary  of  £800  per  annum.  He  is  a 
native  of  Port  Glasgow,  and  was  appointed  manager 
at  Airdrie  in  June,  1915.  Prior  to  that  he  was  super¬ 
intendent  of  Barking  Gas  Company,  and  manager  at 
Portrusli. 

Mr.  P.  H.  Palmer,  borough  engineer  of  Hastings, 
was  at  last  Friday’s  meeting  of  the  Hastings  Town 
Council  congratulated  by  the  Mayor  (Alderman  G. 
Hutchings,  j.p.)  upon  his  appointment  as  president 
of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers, 
and  upon  the  successful  arrangements  made  for  the 
annual  conference. 

Mr.  J.  Surfleet,  one  of  the  highway  surveyors  to  the 
Caistor  Rural  District  Council,  lias,  owing  to  ill- 
health,  been  relieved  of  his  duties,  and  given  the  posi¬ 
tion  of  surveyor’s  clerk  at  a  salary  of  £100  a -year. 
The  council  have  asked  the  other  surveyor,  Mr.  G. 
Riley,  to  undertake  the.  surveying  of  the  whole  dis¬ 
trict,  at  a  salary  of  £185  per  annum,  with  a  war  bonus 
of  £26,  as  a  temporary  measure. 


Cas  Driven  Motor  ’Buses  for  Todmorden _ On  account 

of  the  petrol  restrictions,  the  Todmorden  motor  ’bus 
department  are  experimenting  with  coal  gas  as  the 
motive  power. 

Irish  Roadmen’s  Wages — Fourteen  shillings  a  week 
was  described  at  Atlilone..  Council  as  shameful  wages 
under  the  direct  labour  schemes.  The 'county  sur- 
'  eyor,  who  said  they  got  £8,800  from  the  Road  Board, 
was  directed  to  pay  the  workmen  17s.  6d.  a  week,  and 
get  rid  of  any  “  slackers.” 

Labour  in  Road  Stone  Quarries _ The  Executive 

Council  of  the  County  Councils  Association  have 
adopted  a  resolution  that  the  use  of  quarries  which 
provide  road  material  is  indispensable  to  local  govern¬ 
ment,  and  that  consideration  should  be  given  to  the 
question  whether  the  labour  of  prisoners  of  war  can 
be  utilised  therefor. 

Housing  Problems  after  the  War _ The  housing 

question  formed  the  subject  of  a  conference  at  a 
meeting  of  the  Provisional  Committee  of  the  Hants, 
Dorset,  and  South  Wilts  Branch  of  the  Surveyors’ 
Institution,  held  at  the  Grand  Hotel,  Bournemouth, 
last  week.  Mr.  Alex  Goddard  dealt  exhaustively  with 
the  subject  of  “-Housing  Problems  after  the  War.” 
They  wanted  100,000  houses  a  year  to  make  up  the 
shortage,  and  500,000  was  not  far  short  of  the  number 
needed.  Hitherto  private  enterprise  had  provided 
96  per  cent  of  the  working-class  dwellings.  The  pur¬ 
chaser  would  in  future  want  a  larger  return  on  his 
property.  Mr.  W.  BurroUgh  Hill  (Southampton)  said 
it  was  only  in  the  large  centres  that  private  enter¬ 
prise  had  looked  for  a  return  of  its  money.  It  would 
be  a  bad  day  if  private  enterprise  were  snuffed  out. 
It  would  be  disastrous  if  they  became  State-paid ;  but, 
the  enterprising  man  Would  have  his  reward.  After 
the  war  there  would  be  no  more  cheap  money;  if 
they  got  it  at  6  per  cent  they  would  be  lucky.  The 
alternative  was  for  the  Government  to  look  after  the 
people,  but  the  buildings  must  not  be  less  substan¬ 
tial.  Mr.  J.  E.  Blizard  could  not  see  in  what  way 
tire  by-laws  were  to  be  modified  if  they  were  to  have 
sanitary  houses.  He  had  always  advocated  State  aid 
for  the  very  poor.  Private  enterprise  would  provide 
houses  which  gave  a  good  return.  The  crux  of  the 
question  was  what  houses  should  be  provided  for  the 
very  poor  and  who  should  provide  them. 


MAIN  ROAD  MAINTENANCE  IN  ESSEX. 


COUNTY  SURVEYOR  REPORTS  “  SERIOUS  DETERIORATION.” 

In  his  report  upon  the  maintenance  of  the  main 
roads  of  Essex  for  the  year  ended  March  last,  the 
county  surveyor  (Mr.  Percy  J.  Sheldon)  mentions 
that  the  total  mileage  is  786J,  the  length  under  the 
direct  control  of  the  county  council  being  67(>J  miles. 

The  cost  of  upkeep  and  improvements  of  the  roads 
under  direct  control  was  £17,557,  and  allowing  for 
sundry  receipts  there  remained  a  nett  expenditure  for 
the  year  of  £13,048.  One  of  the  principal  items  in 
this  expenditure  was  the  tar-painting  bill.  Under 
this  head  £22,175  was  expended,  towards  which  a 
sum  of  £2,761  wras  promised  by  the  Road  Board. 

The  area  treated  by  tar-painting  was  approxi¬ 
mately  3,075,210  super,  yards,  and  the  average  cost 
per  yard  was  lfd. 

With  respect  generally  to  the  main  roads  of  the 
county — outside  urban  areas — Mr.  Sheldon  states  that 
there  has  undoubtedly  been  further  serious  deteriora¬ 
tion  owing  mainly  to  the  very  limited  quantity  of 
material  that  has  been  obtained  since  the  outbreak 
of  the  war  and  in  a  lesser  degree  to  the  absence  of 
the  best  skilled  workmen  and  inspectors,  most  of 
whom  have  joined  H.M.  Forces  overseas,  whilst 
the  winter  and  spring  of  1916-17  would  long  be 
remembered  as  the  most  disastrous  to  road  surfaces 
for  the  past  fifty  years. 

This  continued  deterioration  was  a  most  serious 
financial  matter,  and  upon  the  three  great  trunk 
roads,  viz.,  London  to  Ipswich,  London  to  Cam¬ 
bridge,  and  London  to  ’Southend-on-Sea  and  Tilbury 
Docks,  there  would  be  an  expenditure  necessary  for 
restoration  of  surfacing  only,  in  the  immediate 
future,  of  £150,000,  if  the  standard  of  upkeep  of  1913 
was  to  be*  recovered.  Fortunately  in  many  districts 
the  motor  omnibus  traffic  had  had  to  be  greatly  re¬ 
duced  or  the  damage  sustained  would  have  been 
much  worse. 

The  expenditure  under  the  Road  Board  Scheme  of 
1914,  limited  as  it  was  to  a  short  period  in  the  early 
stages  of  the  war,  had  also  been  a  help,  more  parti¬ 
cularly  on  the  section  of  the  London — Ipswich  road 
at  Harold  Wood,  where  a  bituminous  surface  was  laid 
for  about  four  miles  at  a  cost  of  approximately 
£11,500.  This,  when  inspected  by  a  French  engineer¬ 
ing  deputation  sent  by  the  French  Government 
late  in  the  winter  of  1916,  was  pronounced  by  them  to 
be  “  probably  the  best  road  in  Europe  at  that  time.” 


Omnibus  Contributions  to  County  Road  Upkeep. — 

Bucks  Highways  Committee  have  given  consent  to 
the  Great  Western  Railway  Company  introducing  a 
motor  omnibus  service  on  certain  of  the  county  main 
reads,  subject  to  the  payment  of  twopence  per  mile 
for  each  journey  either  way  by  each  omnibus  upon 
the  basis  of  certified  accounts.  Lines  (Kesteven) 
Highways  Committee  have  assented  to  the  establish¬ 
ment  of  a  motor  char-a-banc  service  on  condition  of 
a  payment  of  one  halfpenny  per  car  mile.  The  matter 
is  to  be  reviewed  at  the  end  of  six  months- — Repre¬ 
sentatives  of  the  East  Suffolk  County  Highways  Com¬ 
mittee  and  of  certain  rural  district  councils  have 
recommended  that  an  application  to  establish  a 
motor  ’bus  route  be  acceded  to,  subject  to  a  payment 
of  3d.  per  car  mile  or  part  of  a  mile,  such  payment 
to  be  made  to  the  county  council  through  their  sur- 
'•  eyor  and  to  be  divided  proportionately  between  the 
several  authorities  concerned. 

Clydebank  Housing  Scheme — Clydebank  Town 
Council  have  had  under  consideration  a  proposal 
from  the  Local  Government  Board  to  erect  100  cottage 
houses  for  the  accommodation  of  munition  workers 
on  an  area  of  between  six  and  seven  acres  near 
Drumry-road,  Kilbowie.  It  was  suggested  that  the 
scheme  might  be  regarded  as  a  suitable  instalment 
towards  the  solution  of  the  housing  problem  in  Clyde¬ 
bank,  and  that  the  town  council  should  undertake  to 
purchase  the  properties  either  at  the  actual .  cost  of 
the  buildings,  less  an  agreed  percentage,  or  at  a  valua¬ 
tion  to  be  made  on  a  date  after  the  termination  of 
the  war.  At  a  special  meeting  of  the  town  coamcil 
Mr.  Walker  Smith,  engineer  to  the  Local  Govern¬ 
ment  Board,  stated  that  the  land  could  be  acquired 
at  £325  per  acre,  and  the  cost  would  be  about  £450 
per  house,  including  the  price  of  the  ground.  The 
town  council  have  agreed  to  the  proposal  that  the 
Ministry  of  Munitions  should  erect  the  houses,  and 
have  deferred  the  question  of  becoming  prospective 
purchasers. 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


39 


Association  of  Managers  of  Sewage  Disposal  Works. 

ANNUAL  SUMMER  MEETING  AT  WORCESTER. 


The  annual  summer  meeting  of  the  Association  of 
Sewage  Works  Managers  was  held  at  Worcester  on 
Saturday,  when  the  members  were  given  an  oppor¬ 
tunity  of  inspecting  the  city  of  Worcester  sewage  dis¬ 
posal  works  on  the  activated  sludge  principle.  The 
business  meeting  was  held  in  the  Guildhall,  and  was 
attended  by  about  eighty  members  of  the  association. 
Dr.  Sidney  Barwise,  medical  officer  of  health  for 
Derbyshire,  presided,  and  among  those  present  were 
Messrs.  A.  V.  Reynolds  (Longton),  Chas.  H.  Ball 
(Manchester),  Thos.  Chettle  (Reading),  Joseph  H. 
Barford  (Maidenhead),  Councillor  P.  B.  Parfitt  (Read¬ 
ing),  Councillor  W.  E.  Collier  (Reading),  Wm,  Ransom 
(Worcester),  J.  Taylor  (Sutton),  John  Sheldrake 
(Ossett),  George  Fowler  (Brigliouge),  W.  Tomlinson 
(Chesterfield),  J.  Cook  (Worcester),  C.  A.  Snook  (Sur¬ 
biton),  W.  L.  Strachan  (Aldershot),  Wm.  Cann  (Stoke- 
on-Trent),  Albert  Cotclough  (Stoke-on-Trent),  W.  H. 
Makepeace  (Stoke-on-Trent),  J.  Woodhouse  (Crewe). 
H.  H.  Denton,  W.  J.  Ashley  (Oldbury),  J.  Faulkner 
(Abingdon),  R.  Giles  (Burton-on-Trent),  Councillors 
Aaron  Ward,  j.p.,  B.  Littler,  and  G.  Brown  (Salford), 
W.  H.  Duckworth  (Salford),  James  Hetherington 
(Friern  Barnet),  Charles  Benson  (Ormskirk),  R.  T. 
Gooseman  (Wigan),  IT.  Ledson  (Rochdale),  Walter 
Foster  (Chadderton),  John  Jones  (Oldham),  T.  H. 
Skipton  (Oldbury),  Councillors  Wm.  Parkes  and  G. 
Thomlinson  (Oldbury),  Wm.  Pattinson  (Milnsbridge), 
H.  W.  Rumble  (Wednesbury),  Lieut.  W.  N.  Coombs 
(Chiswick),  H.  Edwards  (Manchester),  H.  W.  Stafford 
(Dukinfield),  Joshua  Bolton  (Bury),  Alderman 
Rothwell  (Bury),  Councillor  William  Thorpe  (Den¬ 
ton),  Thomas  Barlow  (Denton),  E.  C.  Stamp 
(Bilston),  E.J.  Stamp (Asliton-under-Lyne),  H.E.  Part¬ 
ridge  (Stourbridge),  Z.  Degg  (Stamford^,  Councillor 
C.  W.  Rothwell  (Asliton-under-Lyne),  E.  Ardern  (Man¬ 
chester),  Percy  Lamb  (Worcester),  H.  Birch  Killon 
(Stourbridge),  C.  McKechnie  (Birmingham),  Tlios. 
Caink  (city  engineer,  Worcester),  R.  T.  Lewis  (Wor¬ 
cester),  Thomas  W.  Byrne  (Worcester),  C.  M. 
Shaw  (Worcester),  Councillors  W.  Roberts,  G. 
Johnson,  J.  Bratherston  (Salford),  T.  Melling 
(Salford),  P.  F.  Smith  (Shrewsbury).  C.  Clifford 
(Nuneaton),  J.  Clifford  (Nuneaton).  S.  Matlier  (Sal¬ 
ford),  J.  T.  Hodgen  (Salford),  Councillor  W.  H. 
Campion  (Salford),  Councillor  J.  Royle  (Salford),  G.  J. 
Quick  (Brentwood),  T.  Hughes  (Hampton),  J.  H.  Ker¬ 
shaw  (Rotherham),  J.  Haworth  (Sheffield),  E.  J.  Bar¬ 
rett  (Staines),  J.  T.  Hall  (Staines),  W.  D.  Scouller 
(Chester),  J.  H.  Garner  (Huddersfield),  J.  K.  S.  Dixon 
(Wakefield),  F.  Hambleton  (Newcastle,  Staffs),  E.  E. 
Slater  (Eton  R.D.C.)  S.  Duxbury  (New  Malden). 
J.  H.  Edmondson  (Southall-Norwood),  G.  G.  Cassie 
(Cannon-street,  E.C.),  S.  S.  Platt  (Rochdale),  C.  H. 
Clews  (Derby),  C.  H.  Hamlin  (Luton),  Councillor  J.  W. 
Tomlinson  (Luton),  and  C.  W.  Appleyard  (Sale). 

In  his  address  of  welcome  to  the  members,  the 
Mayor  (Alderman  Carlton)  observed  that  the  Wor¬ 
cester  sewage  works  had  had  a  very  chequered  career 
up  to  the  present,  but  they  hoped  that  all  their 
troubles  had  now  passed  away.  He  believed  in  the 
first  instance  they  put  all  the  sewage  into  what 
was  then  thought  to  be  the  proper  place,  and  that 
was  Mother  Severn.  It  was  then  thought  Nature 
could  do  all  that  was  necessary  in  breaking  it  up 
and  sending  it  about  its  business.  The  people  in 
those  days,  and  some  few  who  lived  now,  thought 
everything  necessary  was  done  in  connection  with  it. 
There  came  a  time  when  the  Local  Government  Board 
thought  differently,  and  it  was  a  strange  thing  that 
they  often  thought  differently  from  local  authorities. 
In  1886,  when  the  city  wanted  to  enlarge  its  boun¬ 
daries,  the  Local  Government  Board  encouraged  them 
to  do  something  with  their  sewage.  For  a  time 
the  city  failed  to  accept  the  encouragement  of  the 
Local  Government  Board,  and  then  various  methods 
were  devised  to  deal  with  it  in  a  scientific  manner. 
First,  chemical  precipitation  was  applied,  and  given  a 
not  very  successful  trial.  Then  they  tried  the 
sprinkler  system,  and  when  the  beds  were  choked 
there  was  a  brilliant  idea  to  put  it  on  the  bottom 
of  the  beds,  and  that  also  choked.  Then  the  mil¬ 
lennium  arrived,  with  the  coming  of  the  activated 
sludge  system.  He  hoped  that  system  had  brought 
all  their  troubles  to  an  end.  He  believed  their  city 
engineer  (Mr.  Caink)  considered  it  had,  and  they 
could  not  have  a  better  opinion.  Their  corporation 


was  very  proud  of  Mr.  Caink.  They  always  felt  that 
with  all  the  difficulties  they  had  passed  through  none 
of  them  had  been  his  fault.  If  Mr.  Caink  had  been 
left  alone  they  would  have  been  able  to  deal  with 
their  sewage  satisfactorily  many  years  ago.  They 
were  only  dealing  with  part  of  their  sewage  on  the 
activated  sludge  principle  at  present,  but  they  hoped 
to  deal  with  the  whole  of  it  before  long,  and  when 
that  time  arrived  and  the  war  was  over  he  hoped 
they  would  come  again  to  Worcester  to  inspect  then- 
sewage  disposal  system. 

Mr.  A.  V.  Reynolds  (Longton),  vice-chairman  of 
the  association,  in  the  absence  of  Captain  Speight, 
moved  a  vote  of  thanks  to  the  Mayor  for  the  cordial 
welcome  he  had  given  to  the  association  on  their 
visit  to  the  city  of  Worcester.  While  they  were  fight¬ 
ing  the  microbes  of  disease  in  this  country  Captain 
Speight  was  fighting  the  microbes  of  Europe,  and  he 
hoped  they  would  both  bring  their  fight  to  a  success¬ 
ful  issue.  He  hoped  they  would  join  heartily  in 
thanking  the  Mayor  for  his  cordial  welcome. 

Mr.  J.  H.  Barford  (Maidenhead)  said  he  seconded 
the  vote  of  thanks,  more  particularly  as  the  acti¬ 
vated  sludge  system  was  the  millennium  of  all  their 
troubles  and  difficulties.  He  did  not  know  that  they 
as  managers  of  sewage  works  hoped  for  that  kind 
of  tiling,  because  if  there  were  no  difficulties  from  this 
day  -onward  there  would  not  he  much  need  for  that 
association  to  exist. 

The  President,  who  had  arrived  as  the  reception 
proceedings  were  concluding,  said  he  must  apologise 
not.  on  his  own  behalf,  but  on  behalf  of  the  Great 
Western  Railway,  for  not  having  delivered  the  goods 
according  to  contract.  He  should  like  to  add  his  own 
thanks-  to  the  Mayor  for  the  kindness  of  the  city  of 
Worcester  in  offering  hospitality  to  the  association  to 
hold  their  meeting  in  the  city  and  to  inspect  their 
works.  He  was  too  late  to  take  part  in  the  vote  of 
thanks,  but  he  should  like  to  add  personally  his  own 
thanks  to  them. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  unanimously  passed,  and 
the  Mayor  invited  the  members  to  partake  of  light 
refreshments. 

PRESIDENTIAL  ADDRESS. 

On  resuming  Dr.  Barwise  gave  his  presidential 
address 

Dr.  Barwise  said :  When  some  time  in  1915  I  ac¬ 
cepted  the  honour  which  you  were  good  enough  to 
confer  upon  me  of  being  your  president,  I  explained 
to  my  friend  Mr.  Giles  that  during  the  war  you  must 
not  expect  from  me  any  original  contribution  to  the 
work  we  are  all  engaged  on,  and  I  only  accepted  office 
the  second  year  on  the  same  understanding.  I  did 
this  with  the  full  knowledge  that  the  annual  meeting 
was  to  he  held  in  Worcester  to  inspect  -the  results  of 
Mr.  Gaink’s  work  in  collaboration  with  Messrs.  Jones 
and  Attwood.  Anything  in  the  form  of  a  presidential 
address,  I  feel,  would  be  out  of  place,  as  we  have  all 
come  here  for  the  specific  purpose  of  making  up  our 
minds  as  to  what  extent  (he  engineer  has  made  a  suc¬ 
cess  of  the  scientific  work  originally-  started  by  Dr. 
Fowler,  of  feeding  the  living  organisms  contained  in 
sludge  with  air — the  oxidation  of  sewage  without  the 
use  of  filters. 

the  war  and  sewage  disposal. 

Before  coming  to  a  detailed  examination  of  this 
question,  however,  I  should  call  your  attention  to  the 
effect  of  Armageddon  upon  our  work.  Speaking  as  an 
officer 'of  an  authority  appointed  to  admiriister  the 
Rivers  Pollution  Prevention  Act  I  will  at  once  say  the 
result  of  the  war  has  been  most  harmful — I  am  almost 
inclined  to  say  disastrous.  The  most  densely-popu¬ 
lated  part  of  my  county  is  within  the  Rotlier  water¬ 
shed.  It  is  a  densely-populated  area,  and  the  water 
flowing  in  the  river  was  diverted  from  the  water¬ 
shed  for  drinking  purposes  and  canalisation  by 
schemes  constructed  before  there  was  effective  Par¬ 
liamentary  control.  I  know  of  no  instance,  and  shall 
he  glad  to  hear  of  any,  where  the  whole  of  the  water 
from  a  drainage  area  of  23,254  acres  has  been  diverted 
without  an  ounce  of  compensation  water,  for  this  was 
done  under  the  Chesterfield  and  Stockwith  Canal  Act. 
an  Act  of  Parliament  promoted  in  the  good  old  days, 
before  county  councils  and  county  borough  councils 
existed,  and  before  there  was  even  a  reformed  House 
of  Commons.  The  Bill  was  promoted  by  the  cole- 


40 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


h rated  Bess  of  Hardwick,  and  it  provided  water  for 
her  mills  at  Staveley.  The  result  of  this  is  that  in 
dry  weather  the  drainage  from  this  area  of  23,254  acres 
consists  of  the  effluent  from  the  sewage  disposal  works 
of  the  Corporation  of  Chesterfield.  The  land  in  the 
watershed  is  entirely  unsuitable  for  purifying  sewage, 
and  the  sewage  works  are  all  percolating  filters  with 
mechanical  distributors . 

Owing  to  the  war,  few  good  mechanical  men  have 
been  left.  It  is  difficult,  and  in  some  cases  almost 
impossible,  to  get  ball  bearings  or  castings  and 
flanges.  The  result  is  that  the  various  sewage  dis¬ 
posal  works,  in  the  hands  of  competent  managers, 
with  indifferent  labour,  have  gradually  got  into  bad 
order  (and  bad  odour),  and  the  effluents  from  the 
various  disposal  works  have  got  worse  and  worse.  To 
add  to  this,  owing  to  the  war,  the  number  of  coke  ovens 
and  tar  distillation  plants  for  the  making  of  benzol, 
sulphate  of  ammonia  and  explosives  have  increased, 
and  are  still  increasing.  As  you  are  aware,  there  are 
no  wastes  more  difficult  to  treat  than  those  from— fear 
distillation  works  and  sulphate  of  ammonia  plants. 
The  result  is  that  our  rivers  are  now  infinitely  worse 
than  they  were  before  the  war.  We  must  have  the  ex¬ 
plosives  and  we  must  have  the  benzol.  We  cannot 
keep  our  soldiers  waiting  while  plants  for  the  purifi¬ 
cation  of  the  wastes  are  being  put  dowm.  If  you  add 
to  this  that  the  manufacturers  themselves  are  short 
of  labour,  and  the  labour  they  have  is  not  the  best, 
you  will  see  that  the  war  is  having  a  disastrous  effect 
upon  the  state  of  our  rivers  in  densely-populated  dis¬ 
tricts,  especially  those  in  districts  in  which  the  dis¬ 
tillation  of  coal  is  an  important- industry. 

CAMP  SANITATION. 

Again  there  have  sprung  into  existence  huge  camps 
which  have  become  more  or  leas  permanent  towns 
with  as  many  as  20,000  inhabitants.  The  War  Office, 
instead  of  consulting  with  the  local  authorities  'and 
advising  efficient  schemes  of  sewrerage  and  sewage  dis¬ 
posal,  whiqh  members  of  your  own  society  should 
have  been  called  upon  to  devise  and  supervise,  have 
called  in  the  Royal  Engineers,  who  have  gone  for  in¬ 
spiration  to  their  Army  handbooks.  Sewers  have  been 
provided,  and  sewage  disposal  works  have  been  made 
for  dealing  with  slop  water  and  the  drainage  from 
urinals,  while  the  excreta  has  been  dealt  with  on  a 
plan  suitable  for  a  temporary  camp.  An  enormous 
army  of  men  is  employed  on  .scavenging  duty  which 
would  have  been  avoided  had  a  water  carriage  system 
been  adopted  at  first.  I  know  it  is  necessary  for  men 
in  the  Army  to  learn  sanitary  duty,  but  this  is  no 
reason  why  the  whole  of  the  millions  sent  to  the-  train¬ 
ing  camps  should  not  have  had  hygienic  conditions 
of  excrement  disposal  provided  for  them. 

But  in  all  things  there  is  a  balance,  and  on  the  other 
side  of  the  account  these  camps  are  showing  us  how 
much  fat  can  be  recovered  from  domestic  sewage.  I 
am  -  informed  that  from  one  camp  alone  enough  fat 
is  collected  from  the  slop  water  from  the  kitchens  to 
provide  the  glycerine  necessary  for  discharging  a 
6-inch  shell  every  four  seconds. 

Again  the  divisional  sanitary  officers  in  France  have 
devised  many  expedients  for  dealing  with  village  re¬ 
fuse,  which,  when  they  return  to  civil  life,  I  am  sure 
they  will  introduce  into  this  country.  One  of  the 
greatest  difficulties  we  have  in  rural  districts  is  the 
disposal  of  house  refuse  without  creating  a  nuisance. 
Many  home-made  devices  have  been  designed  for  the 
protection  of  food  from  flies.  The  soldiers  have  had 
drummed  into  them  the  necessity  for  cleanliness,  the 
danger  from  flies,  and  the  importance  of  leaving  no 
organic  matter  on  which  flies  may  breed  in  close 
proximity  to  dwellings. 

The  nett  result  of  the  balance  is  this,  that  if  we 
have  lost  ground  since  1914  and  schemes  are  held  in 
abeyance,  when  the  war  is  over  public  opinion  will 
be  much  stronger  than  it  was  before  on  the  neces¬ 
sity  for  efficient  schemes  of  disposal  of  sewage,  excre¬ 
ment,  and  house  refuse;  that  the  working  man  of  the 
future  will  come  back  with  a  sanitary  conscience 
which  he  knew  not  before  the  war. 

THE  ACTIVATEB  SLUDGE  PROCESS. 

At  home  I  think  the  only  fresh  work  being  done  is 
that  relating  to  the  activation  of  sludge,  and  we  are 
all  indebted  to  his  Worship  the  Mayor  of  Worcester 
for  extending  to  us  his  hospitality  and  enabling  us 
to  see  for  ourselves  the  practical  results  obtained  in 
this  -city. 

The  essential  difference  between  purifying  sewage 
by  the  activated  sludge  process  and  the  old  method 
of  removing  suspended  matter,  whether  by  precipita¬ 
tion,  subsidence,  or  septic  processes,  and  the  sub¬ 


sequent  oxidation  and  nitrification  of  the  organic 
matter  in  suspension  is  this,  that  in  the  activated 
sludge  process  the  organic  matter  in  suspension  is 
broken  up  and  oxidised  at  once  by  various  groups  of 
living  organisms  in  one  process.  By  supplying  air 
to  the  sludge,  innumerable  infusoria,  amoebae,  and 
other  protozoa  increase  at  a  great  rate.  They  live 
upon  the  organic  matter  and  split  it  up ;  at  the  same 
time  liquefying,  oxidising,  and  nitrifying  bacteria 
develop  in  myriads.  In  this  process  the  changes 
which  take  place  when  sewage  is  purified  on  a  Dibdin 
contact  bed  and  by  subsequent  treatment  on  a  perco¬ 
lating  filter  are  consummated  in  one  process  at  one 
time.  For  these  changes  to  take  place  it  is  necessary 
that  the  sludge,  consisting  of  organic  matter  with 
colonies  of  intusoria  and  bacteria,  should  be  stirred 
up  in  the  presence  of  air,  and  intimately  mixed  with 
the  whole  mass  of  the  sewage.  When  we  were  at  Shef¬ 
field  last  year  we  had  an  opportunity  of  seeing  an 
interesting  experiment  where  the  stirring  up  was 
done  mechanically  and  where  the  air  was  forced  into 
the  sewage  by  an  ingenious  system  of  turbines.  Here 
to-day  at  Worcester  the  agitation  of  the  sewage  is 
effected  by  the  air  itself,  which  is  blown  in  for 
oxidising  the  sewage. 

The  question  which  is  the  more  economical 
arrangement  is  one  which  can  only  be  settled  by 
actual  experience.  If  I  might  presume  to  express 
an  opinion  it  is  that  unnecessary  work  is  done  in 
forcing  the  air  through  porous  blocks,  and  it  occurs 
to  me  that  the  process  I  should  have  expected  Mr. 
Caink  to  have  adopted  is  to  have  distributed  the  air 
by  means  of  one  of  his  revolving  arms  fixed  at  the 
bottom  of  a  circular  tank  inverting  the  ordinary 
process  of  a  percolating  filter. 

As  an  outcome  of  the  activated  sludge  process  I 
think  before  long  we  shall  see  a  new  form  of  perco¬ 
lating  cultivation  bed  made  of  something  like  brush¬ 
wood  laid  on  a  sloping  bed  of  concrete,  which  can 
easily  be  cleansed,  or  possibly  a  Dibdin  slate  bed. 
The  sewage  and  the  sludge  would  be  aerated  with 
compressed  air  and  distributed  over  the  brushwood  or 
poured  into  the  Dibdin  bed.  In  either  case  the 
colonies  of  confervse,  infusoria,  and  bacteria  grow 
and  automatically  fall  off.  The  effluent  would  con¬ 
tain  an  enormous  quantity  of  what,  we  call  humus,  - 
and  would  have  to  pass  through  a  settling  tank. 

If  tanked  sewage  applied  to  a  Dibdin  slate  bed  were 
aerated  as  it  is  applied  to  the  bed,  I  am  confident 
that  in  many  cases  no  subsequent  filtration  would  be 
necessary. 

There  are  many  sewage  works  in  my  county  which 
are  inefficient  to  which  the  activation  of  the  sludge 
would  make  the  difference  between  success  and 
failure. 

Tire  charm  of  the  process  to  me  is  the  infinite' 
variety  of  the  methods  in  which  it  can  be  applied. 
Indeed,  the  rivers  might  themselves  be  purified  in  the 
ponds  above  weirs  on  their  courses. 

THE  WORCESTER  WORKS. 

To-day,  however,  we  have  come  to  give  impartial 
consideration  and  investigation  to  the  orthodox 
scheme  of  the  activated  sludge  process  as  devised  by 
Dr.  Fowler  and  as  carried  out  by  Messrs.  Jones  and 
Attwood  in  consultation  with  Mr.  Caink. 

I  am  exceedingly  glad  to  see  a  firm  of  engineers 
like  Messrs.  Jones  and  Attwood,  who  have  the  courage 
to  back  their  opinion  by  putting  down  works  for  the 
city  of  Worcester  on  the  terms  they  have  done. 
It,  is  somewhat  a  new  departure  in  England  for  an 
engineer  to  devise  a  scheme  and  carry  it  out.  This 
is  the  usual  process  in  America.  If  they  want  a 
bridge  across  a  river  a  bridge  engineer  will  design 
and  build  the  structure.  In  this  country  an  engineer 
designs  a  works  and  a  contractor  carries  it  out.  I 
believe  the  American  system  is  a  much  better  one 
than  the  English.  The  only  way  in  which  engineer¬ 
ing  works  are  carried  out  on  these  lines  in  England 
is  where  the  official  engineer  of  a  corporate  body  pre¬ 
pares  a  scheme  -and  carries  it  out  by  administration. 
For  some  reason  or  other  the  Local  Government 
Board  always  makes  special  inquiries  into  cases  of 
this  kind,  and  asks  many  questions  as  to  the 
remuneration  the  official  in  question  is  deriving  from 
the  scheme.  This  is  perfectly  right,  and,  speaking 
from  my  experience  in  Derbyshire,  I  can  say  with  con¬ 
fidence  that  the  .schemes  which  have  been  carried 
out  by  the  officials  of  the  local  authorities  compare 
favourably  with  those  designed  by  Westminster 
engineers. 

The  chief  objection  that  I  have  to  the  system  of 
employing  engineers  is  that  they  are  paid  by  com¬ 
mission  a.s  a  percentage  on  the  cost  of  the  works, 
and  engineers  are  human,  and  I  regard  it  as  un- 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


41 


reasonable  to  expect  a  man  to  sit  up  all  night  to 
take  money  out  of  bis  own  pocket;  and  if  an  engineer 
does  burn  the  midnight  oil  to  see  if  lie  can  reduce 
the  cost  of  a  scheme,  if  lie  is  paid  by  commission  he 
gets  less  money  for  the  extra  work  put  in.  For  that 
reason  I  look  with  favour  upon  the  American  system 
or  the  system  under  which  Messrs.  Jones  and 
Attwood  have  carried  out  the  work  for  the  city  of 
Worcester. 

Our  business  to-day  .is  to  investigate  this  process, 
and  I  shall  not  keep  you  any  longer  from  the  business 
which  we  have  come  here  to  Worcester  to  do. 

Mr.  T.  Chettle  .(Reading)  proposed  a  vote  of  thanks 
to  the  president.  He  said  that  the  association  was  to 
be  congratulated  that  they  had  again  Dr.  Barwise  as 
their  president  for  a  second  year.  The  scientific  men 
who  were  placed  in  authority  over  them  could  be  a 
great  help  to  their  members  by  attending  their  meet¬ 
ings,  discussing  matters,  and  reading  papers  in  a 
similar  manner  to  what  Dr.  Barwise  had  done.  He 
wished  all  river  authorities  realised  as  Dr.  Barwise 
apparently  did  the  difficulties  which  sewage  managers 
were  working  under  at  the  present  time  owing  to  the 
inefficient  and  depleted  labour,  due  to  the  war,  in 
carrying  out  their  duties  efficiently.  If  all  the  autho¬ 
rities  realised  that  some  of  them  would  not  be  in  the 
harrowing  position  they  were  to-day  when  they  had 
a  practical  man  like  Dr.  Barwise,  and  anyone  who 
had  read  liis  book  on  sewage  purification  would  realise 
that  he  was  a  practical  man;  as  their  president,  it 
was  a  great  advantage  to  the  association.  * 

-Mr.  Makepeace  (Stoke-on-Trent),  who  seconded, 
said  he  had  known  Dr.  Barwise  for  twenty-one  years, 
and  could  speak  with  experience  of  his  able  and  prac¬ 
tical  knowledge  of  sewage  problems. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried. 

A  paper,  entitled  “  The  Activated  Sludge  Process 
of  Sewage  Purification,”  was  afterwards  read  by  Mr. 
Caink,  the  city  engineer,  and  will  appear,  together 
with  a  report  of  the  subsequent  discussion,  in  our 
next  issue.  fT7 u  be  continued.) 


THE  TRIBUNALS. 


In  regard  to  the  application  of  the  military  for  the 
withdrawal  of  the  certificate  of  conditional  exemption, 
granted  by  the  local  tribunal  to  Mr.  George  Minard 
Seels,  thirty-seven,  B2,  county  council  main-road  sur¬ 
veyor  for  South  Dorset,  Mr.  J.  Leslie  Torr  (assistant 
clerk  of  the  county  council)  appeared  recently  with 
Mr  Seels  and  stated  that  the  latter  was  quite  ready  to 
place  himself  in  the  hands  of  the  military,  as  he  had 
no  wish  to  evade  service.  Mr.  Pryer,  an  architect 
practising  in  Gloucester,  with  some  experience  of 
main-road  work,  had  been  appointed  provisionally  and 
temporarily  to  take  his  place,  and  Mr.  Seels  was  now 
prepared  to  place  his  resignation  in  the  hands  of  the 
county  council.  The  matter  would  come  Lefore  the 
County  Works  Committee  on  July  11th,  and  it  was 
\ery  desirable  that  Mr.  Seels  should  have  some  little 
time  to  initiate  his  substitute  into  the  details  of  the 
work.  Mr.  Seels,  whose  medical  category  had  been 
reduced  from  “general  service”  to  B2,  would  like  in 
the  Army  if  possible  to  engage  in  work  of  the  same 
kind  as  he  had  been  doing  in  civil  life — .work  in  which 
his  experience  should  be  of  much  value.  He  had 
accordingly  approached  the  Road  Board,  and  there 
was  every  likelihood  within  a  month  of  that  being 
effected. — The  Tribunal  ordered  that  the  certificate  of 
conditional  exemption  should  lapse  on  July  15th. 


“  Cassed  ”  at  Sewage  Works.— Two  corporation  work¬ 
men,  William  Grimes,  a  general  labourer,  and  Charles 
Holliday,  an  engine-driver,  were  gassed  on  Tuesday 
at  the  Southend  Sewage  Works.  Grimes  went  in 
search  of  a  piece  of  wood  that  had  been  dropped,  and 
was  overcome  by  fumes.  Holliday  tried  to  rescue 
him  and  was  overcome.  They  were  got  out  by  means 
of  ropes,  but  Grimes  died  almost  immediately,  and 
Holliday  a  few  hours  later. 

The  House  Famine. — The  scarcity  of  houses  in  Car¬ 
marthen  is  illustrated  by  a  string  of  removals  which 
took  place  recently.  A  house  rented  at  £50  per  year 
became  vacant  by  the  death  of  the  tenant,  and,  says 
a  correspondent  of  the  Western  Mail ,  people  from  a 
slightly  smaller  house  moved  in.  Another  tenant 
went  into  the  second  house,  and  altogether  twelve  re¬ 
movals  followed  one  another.  Finally  a  tenement  at 
Is.  lOd.  per  week  became  vacant  as  the  result  of  the 
£50  house  being  available. 


REPAIR  OF  CONCRETE  ROADWAYS. 

SOME  USEFUL  HINTS. 

The  American  Portland  Cement  Association  has  re¬ 
cently  issued  some  useful  instructions  for  the  carrying 
out  of  repairs  to  concrete  roadways.  These  instruc¬ 
tions,  which  presumably  represent  the  latest  approved 
methods,  are  as  follow:  — 

CRACKS. 

Cracks  in  concrete  roads  occasion  no  inconvenience 
to  traffic,  and  traffic  will  not  injure  the  road  at  such 
a  place  if  the  crack  is  filled  .with  tar  and  covered  with 
sand.  The  crack-  should  be  first  cleaned  with  a  stiff 
wire  broom  and  all  loose  particles  of  material  removed. 
If  the  crack  is  too  narrow  to  permit  cleaning  in  this 
manner,  it  may  be  cleaned  with  an  air  jet  from  an 
automobile  pump.  Tar  should  then  be  poured  into 
the  crack  in  sufficient  quantity  just  to  flush  over  the 
edges  and  afterward  covered  with  coarse,  dry  sand. 

TAR. 

Refined  coal  tar  should  be  used,  having  a  melting 
point  (4-in.  cube  method  in  water)  of  about  100  deg. 
Fahr.  The  tar  should  be  heated  from  225  deg.  to  250 
deg.  Fahr.  at  the  time  of  application,  and  may  be 
applied  by  means  of  a  sprinkling  can  with  spray 
nozzle  removed.  Sand  or  screenage,  thoroughly  dried, 
graded  from  i-in.  to  j-in.,  should  he  spread  over  the 
surface  before  the  tar  hag  coaled.  ^ 

SMALL  HOLES. 

Where  a  small  hole  occurs,  due  to  the  displacement 
of  a  lump  of  clay  or  a  jiiece  of  coal  or  wood,  it  should 
be  thoroughly  cleaned  and  filled  with  tar  and  stone 
chips.  If  the  hole  is  2  in.  or  3  in.  in  size,  it  should 
first  be  wiped  with  tar  and  stone  chips  put  in;  these 
are  covered  with  more  tar  and  sand  and  tamped  into 
place. 

SLIGHT  DEPRESSIONS. 

If  for  any  cause  the  surface  of  the  concrete  lias 
scaled  and  a  slight  depression  formed,  it  can  be  coated 
with  tar,  stone  chips  added,  these  in  turn  covered 
with  tar  and  the  whole  covered  with  sand  and  tamped 
into  place. 

DEEP  HOLES. 

If  through  neglect  or  other  cause  a  hole  of  any  con¬ 
siderable  size  and  depth  has  formed  in  the  surface  oi 
a  concrete  road,  the  concrete  surrounding  the  edge 
should  be  cut  away  until  the  walls  are  made  practi¬ 
cally  vertical  and  cut  to  a  depth  of  at  least  3  in.  or 
as  much  deeper  as  the  hole  may  be.  The  hole  should 
then  be  filled  with  water  and  stand  for  a  few  hours, 
after  which  the  water  should  be  removed,  the  sides 
washed  with  cement  paste  and  the  hole  filled  with 
concrete  of  as  nearly  as  possible  the  same  materials 
and  mixture  as  that  in  the  original  road.  The  sur¬ 
face  should  be  finished  with  a  wood  float  and  brought 
to  a  true  shape  with  tile  surrounding  surface  of  the 
concrete,  then  covered  so  as  to  protect  it  from  traffic. 
This  may  be  done  by  the  use  of  steel  plates  or  pieces 
of  plank,  which  should  in  turn  be  covered  with  moist 
earth  or  gravel.  This  will  permit  traffic  to  use  the  re¬ 
paired  portion  of  the  road  without  injuring  the  con¬ 
crete.  On  a  wide  street  where  there  is  sufficient  room 
a  barrel  could  be  placed  over  the  hole  and  traffic 
diverted  around  it. 

If  it  is  necessary  to  cut  a  hole  through  the  entire 
thickness  of  the  concrete  slab,  gravel  should  be  placed 
in  the  sub-base  and  thoroughly  rammed,  so  as  to  form 
a  compacted  base  on  which  the  new  concrete  will  rest. 
Where  water  has  been  allowed  to  stand  in  such  a 
place,  it  should  be  compacted  after  the  water  has 
been  removed  and  just  before  laying  the  concrete. 

The  consistency  of  the  concrete  should  be  suffi¬ 
ciently  stiff  to  require  considerable  tamping  to  bring 
water  to  the  surface  so  that  it  may  be  possible  to  ram 
it  thoroughly  into  place. 

A  new  patch  should  be  kept  moist  for  at  least  four 
days  or  five  days,  and  protected  from  traffic  at  least 
ten  days.  _ 


Professional  Classes  War  Relief  Council. — Mr. 

Thomas  Cole,  the  representative  of  the  Institution  of 
Municipal  and  County  Engineers  on  this  body,  in¬ 
forms  us  that  a  maternity  nursing  home,  at  13, 
Prince’s-gate,  S.W.,  was  opened  early  in  1915  for  the 
benefit  of  the  wives  of  professional  men  adversely 
affected  by  the  war.  Over  300  babies  have  been  born 
therein.  Applications  for  admission  or  for  assistance 
in  regard  to  maternity  expenses  at  home  should  be 
made  to  the  secretary. 


42 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


WOMEN  S  WORK  FOR  LOCAL  COUNCILS. 


CONFERENCE  AT  WESTMINSTER. 

At  the  Middlesex  Guildhall  on  Tuesday  last  Mr. 
H.  T.  Wakelam,  m.inst.c.e.,  county  engineer  of 
Middlesex,  presided  over  a  conference  with  respect 
to  women’s  labour  under  urban  and  rural  authorities, 
with  special  reference  to  an  offer  of  women  ■  workers 
from  the  Food  Production  Branch  of  National  Ser¬ 
vice.  The  attendance  included  Lady  Enfield,  Lady 
Boscawen,  Mrs  Bayne  (Food  Production  Depart¬ 
ment),  Mrs.  (Dr.)  Thomas,  Messrs.  W.  R.  Hicks 
(Ealing),  J.  A  Webb  (Hendon),  E.  Willis  (Chiswick), 
IT.  F.  Coates  (Sunbury),  M.  Hainsworth  (Tedding- 
ton),  E.  J.  Barrett  (Staines),  S.  H.  Chambers 
(Hampton),  E.  Lambert  (Tottenham),  J.  Briscoe.  (En¬ 
field),  J.  Catchpole  (Finchley),  G.  R.  Bennetts  (Har¬ 
row),  E.  Walker  (Wealdstone),  J.  Harrison  (Uxbridge 
Rural),  J.  G.  Carey  (Hounslow),  J.  Croxford  (Wood 
Green),  and  W.  L.  Carr  (Ruislip-Northwood). 

The  Chairman  said  the  meeting  was  called  to  dis¬ 
cuss  an  important  question  and  suggestion  made  by 
the  Food  Production  Department  (Women’s  Branch) 
of  the  Board  of  Agriculture  with  regard  to  women’s 
labour.  At  the  present  time  many  women  were 
engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits,  and  these  would  be 
available  for  other  work  from  November  to  March, 
and  it  had  been  suggested  that  they  might  be  em¬ 
ployed  in -connection  with  road  work,  and  also  in 
acting  as  caretakers,  lamp  lighters,  storekeepers, 
stable  keepers,  and  such-like  occupations  during  the 
winter  months.  The  general  idea  was  that  they  might 
probably  be  useful  for  sweeping  streets  in  the  winter 
months,  and  also  generally  in  the  ordinary  work 
connected  with  road  management.  He  did  not  sup¬ 
pose  they  would  be  able  to  do  the  laborious  work 
of  scavenging  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  word — that 
was  to  say,  carrying  baskets  out  of  backyards  and 
emptying  them  into  carts  on  the  streets — but  they 
might  be  able  to  assist  in  that  kind  of  work  in  a 
minor  degree.  With  regard  to  wages  the  lowest 
amount  acceptable  was  not  less  than  18s.  per  week. 
Middlesex  had  been  selected  as  the  first  county  in 
which  representations  of  the  local  authorities  had 
been  called  together  to  discuss  this  matter.  The 
subject  was  not  public  at  the  present  time,  but  it 
was  hoped  it  would  be  after  this  meeting,  and  that 
all  the  counties  would  eventually  give  consideration 
to  the  movement  and  assist  in  carrying  it  forward. 

Mrs.  Bayne,  chief  acting  inspector  of  the  branch 
for  the  county  of  Middlesex,  remarked  that  there 
were  a  great  many  jobs  on  farms  on  which  women 
were  employed  in  the  summer  which  were  not  avail¬ 
able  in  the  winter,  and  it  was  desired  to  ascertain 
what  would  be  the  most  useful  and  practical  way  of 
making  use  of  the  labour  which  would  thus  be  re¬ 
leased.  Under  the  scheme  of  National  Service  the 
Board  of  Agriculture  had  been  recording  women  who 
were  willing  to  sign  on  for  the  duration  of  the  war  to 
assist  in  food  production,  and  they  promised  the 
women,  in  respect  of  the  contract,  that  they  would 
have  continuity  of  employment.  If  any  considerable 
body  of  these  women  should  at  the  end”  of  October  or 
so  lose  their  employment  the  board  would  be  under 
the  necessity  of  releasing  them  from  their  contract, 
and  in  view  of  the  greater  necessity  for  their  services 
next  year  it  was  desirable  to  find  work  for  them  during 
the  winter,  and  it  was  hoped  this  would  be  nearly 
akin  to  the  agricultural  work  they  had  been  doing. 
The  minimum  wage  was  18s.,  but  by  piecework  it 
might  be  possible  to  earn  more.  She  understood  that 
the  question  was  discussed  at  the  annual  meeting  of 
the  Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers, 
and  that  the  view  was  expressed  that  road  work  was 
not  suitable  for  women,  or  that  the  difficulties  were 
too  great.  It  was,  therefore,  desirable  to  discuss 
what  women  could  possibly  do  on  the  roads  during 
the  winter,  and  for  the  committee  to  state  what  they 
could  do  on  their  part  to  get  over  the  housing  and 
other  difficulties.  The  idea  was  to  develop  the  pro¬ 
posal  in  urban  and  rural  districts,  because  possibly 
women  would  not  care  for  street  work  in  the  towns.  ' 

The  Chairman  having  invited  discussion, 

Mr.  E.  Willis  (Chiswick)  said  he  had  engaged  women 
in  road-sweeping  and  general  light  labour,  and  found 
that  they  did  the  work  quite  as  well  as  men.  He 
started  their  at  £1  a  week,  which  was  increased  by 
a  shilling,  and  bonuses  were  given  after  six  months’ 
and  a  year’s  satisfactory  service i  As  painters’ 
labourers  they  -proved,  with  one  or  two  exceptions, 
very  successful.  They  were  also  set  to  garden  work, 
and  as  to  making  tar  clinker,  if  he  couid  get  a  suit¬ 


able  gang  of  three  strong  women  he  was  prepared  to 
give  them  a  fairly  constant  job.  In  the  case  of 
gangs  of  women  on  road  work  he  provided  them  with 
a  shed  on  wheels,  in  which  they  took  their  meals,  and 
other  accommodation. 

Mr.  E.  J.  Barrett  (Staines)  remarked  that  his  experi¬ 
ence  coincided  with  that  of  Mr.  Willis.  He  employed 
women  on  light  wtfrk,  but  he  found  that  sifting  road 
material ‘seemed  too  much  for  them.  In  scavenging, 
tarring,  and  clearing  up  public  gardens  women  had 
done  as  good  work  as  men. 

Mr.  W.  R.  Hicks  (Ealing)  said  he  employed  women 
in  parks,  and  their  work  was  quite  satisfactory,  and 
he  was  prepared,  if  he  could  find  women,  to  put  them 
to  scavenging.  He  found  they  had  a  weakness  for 
not  turning  up  in  bad  weather. 

Mr.  J.  A.  Webb  (Hendon)  observed  that  he  had 
employed  women  in  ordinary  work,  but  not  on  roads 
or  sewage  work,  and  he  had  found  their  work  satis¬ 
factory,  The  difficulty  in  the  rural  districts  was 
housing.  But  for  that  he  saw  no  difficulty  in  employ¬ 
ing  women  on  the  road. 

Mr.  J.  Harrison  (Uxbridge  Rural)  saw  no  diffi¬ 
culty  in  engaging  women  except  that  of  housing. 

Mr.  E.  R.  Bennetts  (Harrow)  said  he  did  not  see 
how  the  councils  could  employ  gangs  of  women  in 
the  winter  unless  they  were  prepared  to  do  the 
heavier  kind  of  work — using  the  shovel  and  lifting 
stones. 

Mr.  M.  Hainsworth  (Teddington)  had  employed  a 
few  women  on  sewage  works  with  satisfactory  results. 
The  pay  was  25s.  per  week.  As  to  winter  labour  they 
required  assistance  then,  which  he  feared  women 
were  not  physically  capable  of.  Even  scavenging  in 
the  winter  was  heavy  work. 

Mr.  J.  Briscoe  (Enfield)  was  of  opinion  that  the 
time  for  which  the  women  would  be  available  was  not 
suitable.  He  found  that  shovelling  was  too  heavy 
for  women,  and  as  regards  a  load  they  might  alter  it. 
if  not  the  size  of  the  barrow.  A  carman  had  to  load 
his  own  vehicle  and  deal  with  eight  to  ten  tons  per 
day,  and  this  was  too  heavy  for  women.  Nor  did  he 
think  handling  a  pick  on  a  hard  road  would  be  suit¬ 
able  for  them.. 

Mr.  H.  F.  Coates  (Sunbury)  agreed  that  work  that 
was  available  in  the  winter  was  too  heavy  for  Women. 
He  had  found  women  did  snow  clearing  successfully, 
but,  of  course,  that  was  only  casual  labour. 

Mr.  S.  II.  Chambers  (Hampton)  questioned  whether 
there  would  be  many  women  available  for  winter 
work,  as  they  would  be  required  on  the  farms. 

Mr.  E.  Lambert  (Tottenham)  considered  that  women 
did  their  work  as  park  keepers  and  road  sweepers 
very  satisfactorily,  but  in  other  directions  they  were 
not  a  success. 

Mr.  E.  Walker  (Wealdstone)  feared  that  the  winter 
work  would  be  too  heavy  for  women ;  it  was  trying 
enough  sometimes  for  men. 

Mr.  J.  Catchpole  (Finchley)  agreed  that  women 
would  be  able  to  do  sweeping,  but  as  to  the  repair  of 
roads  they  would  be  impossible.  '  He  would  be  only 
too  delighted  if  he  could  help  to  solve  the  problem. 

It  was  explained  in  the  course  of  further  conversa¬ 
tion  by  Lady  Enfield,  Mrs.  Bayne,  and  Mrs.  (Dr.) 
Thomas  that  suitable  clothing  would  be  provided  for 
the  women;  that  the  women,  who  were  of  several 
classes  so  far  as  upbringing  was  concerned,  were  used 
to  the  strenuous  work  of  farming,  and  not  merely 
to  milking;  but  it  was  conceded  that  the  heavier 
kind  of  road  work  would  probably  be  unsuited  to 
them . 

In  conclusion,  it  was  understood  that  arrangements 
would  be  made  for  a  general  intimation  to  be  con¬ 
veyed  to  the  local  councils  of  the  women  who  would 
be  available  in  order  that  an  offer  of  labour  might  be 
formally  laid  before  these  bodies,  and  the  proceedings 
ended  with  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Wakelam  for  pre¬ 
siding. 


Book  Wanted. — Could  any  reader  oblige  with  parti¬ 
culars  of  any  book  dealing  with  the  law  as  it  affects 
owners  of  mills  ? 

Change  of  Address. — Owing  to  the  Government 
having  taken  possession  of  their  premises  in  Regent- 
street.  the  Association  of  British  Motor  and  Allied 
Manufacturers,  Ltd.,  have  been  obliged  to  take  tem¬ 
porary  offices  at  39  St.  James’s-street,  S.W.  1. 

Edinburgh  and  Women  Labour. — With  reference  to 
a  letter  from  the  Local  Government  Board  for  Scotland 
suggesting  that  Women  scavengers  should  be  employed, 
the  Edinburgh  Cleansing  and  Lighting  Committee  re¬ 
port  that  they  had  resolved  to  give  the  employment  of 
women  a  trial. 


July  13,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


43 


MOTOR  VEHICLE  DRIVERS'  LICENCES. 


SUCCESTED  REDUCTION  OF  ACE  LIMIT. 

In  view  of  the  constantly-increasing  shortage  of 
drivers  of  commercial  motor  vehicles,  the  Commercial 
Motor  Users  Association  has  had  under  consideration, 
since  the  end  of  1915,  the  desirability  of  the  tem¬ 
porary  lowering  of  the  minimum  age  for  the  holding 
of  motor-car  driving  licences,  subject  to  satisfactory 
safeguards  in  the  public  interest.  The  association 
again  recently  brought  the  matter  to  the  notice  of  the 
Government  authorities,  and  has  now,  on  the  request 
o;  the  Local  Government  Board,  ■  submitted  a  memo- 
landum  on  the  subject. 

The  association  suggests,  inter  alia ,  that  such 
licences  shall  only  be  issued  on  the  following  condi¬ 
tions,  and  that  such  modification  of  the  Motor  Car 
Act  shall  be  effected  as  a  temporary  war  measure, 
under  the  Defence  of  the  Realm  Regulations  or  by 
other  Order,  and  not  by  any  general  alteration  of  the 
Motor  Car  Acts:  — 

(а)  That  the  licence  shall  only  be  issued  to  a  male 
person  between  sixteen  and  seventeen  years  of  age  on 
the  written  certificate  of  an  intending  employer  that 
the  applicant  is  a  fit  person  to  be  licensed. 

(б)  That  the  licence  shall  bear  the  name  of  such  em¬ 
ployer,  and  shall  not  be  valid  in  any  other  employ¬ 
ment  or  in  respect  of  the  driving  of  public-service 
vehicles. 

(c)  That  the  licence  shall  be  a  provisional  one,  avail¬ 
able  for  an  initial  period,  and  shall  be  subject  to  con¬ 
firmation  at  the  end  of  that  period  only  if  the  em¬ 
ployer  furnishes  a  written  confirmation  of  the 
original  application. 


GLINKER-MEKPHALTE. 


We  are  informed  that  Messrs.  Highways  Construc¬ 
tion  (Limited),  Finsbury-court,  London,  E.C.,  have 
secured  a  contract  from  the  City  of  Birmingham 
(Mr.  H.  IJ.  Stilgoe,  city  engineer)  for  laying  clinker- 
Mexphalte  over  an  area  of  approximately  twelve 
thousand  yards,  the  work  to  be  carried  out  this 
season. 

We  understand  that  the  roads  constructed  under 
licence  from  this  company  with  clinker-Mexphalte  at 
Wolverhampton,  Abertillery  and  Kensington  are 
giving  complete  satisfaction,  and  the  successful 
character  of  the  work  at  these  points  (together  with 
the  work  executed  by  Mr.  E.  J.  Lovegrove,  borough 
engineer  of  Hornsey)  was  doubtless  a  determining 
factor  in  the  award  of  the  contract  above  mentioned. 

After  the  recent  severe  storms  over  London,  the 
Kensington  Borough  Council  was  recently  informed 
by  the  acting  engineer  (Mr.  W.  Hill)  that  the  storm 
was  of  the  nature  of  a  “'cloud-burst  ”  and  over  4i  ins. 
of  rain  fell  in  two  hours.  Sewers  were  quickly  sur¬ 
charged,  houses  and  business  premises  were  flooded, 
and  considerable  damage  was  done  to  road  surfaces. 
In  connection  with  this  report  it  is  interesting  to 
note  that  a  portion  of  Holland-road,  Kensington,  was 
torn  up  by  the  storm  and  had  to  be  closed  to  traffic. 
We  are  now  advised  that  Messrs.  Highways  Construc¬ 
tion  (Limited)  have  received  the  contract  to  resur¬ 
face  this  portion  with  their  monolastic  asphalt  mac¬ 
adam,  consisting  of  2jj-inch  binder  course  and  lg-inch 
sand  carpet. 


INSTITUTION  OF  MUNICIPAL  AND  COUNTY 
ENGINEERS. 

SOUTH  WALES  DISTRICT  MEETINC. 

With  the  kind  permission  of  the  chairman  of  the 
Waterworks  Committee  of  the  Neath  Rural  District 
Council  a  visit  has  been  arranged  for  to-morrow 
(Saturday)  to  the  storage  reservoir  in  the  Dringarth 
Valley,  Ystradfellte,  Breconshire,  recently  completed. 

A  paper,  prepared  by  D.  M.  Davies,  engineer  to  the 
Neath  Rural  District  Council,  entitled  “  History  and 
Description  of  the  Ystradfellte  Waterworks,”  wall  be 
considered  and  discussed  during  the  visit. 

programme. 

10.30  a.m. — Hirwain  Great  Western  Railway  Station. 
1.  0  p.m. — Light  refreshments  will  be  provided  on  the 
works. 

1.30  p.m. — Discussion  upon  Mr.  D.  M.  Davies’  paper, 
which  will  be  taken  as  read. 


3.  0  p.m. — Members  will  be  shown  over  the  works. 

4.  0  p.m. — Leave  the  works  for  return  journey,  meet¬ 

ing  the  brakes,  to  proceed  to  Penderyn. 

5.  0  p.m. — Tea  at  the  “  Lamb  Inn,”  Penderyn,  by  in¬ 

vitation. 

6.  0  p.m.— Leave  the  “  Lamb  Inn  ”  for  return  jour¬ 

ney  to  Hirwain  Station. 


APPOINTMENTS  VACANT. 

Official  and  similar  advertisements  received  dp  to  4.30  p.m. 

ON  THURSDAVS  WILL  BB  INSERTED  IN  THE  FOLLOWING  DAT  S  ISSOB. 

but  those  responsible  /or  their  despatch  are  recommended 
to  arrange  that  they  shall  reach  The  Surveyor  office  by  noon 
on  Wednesdays  to  ensure  their  inclusion  in  the  weekly  list  of 
summaries.  Such  advertisements  may,  in  cases  of  emergency 
only,  be  telephoned  (City  No.  101,6)  subject  to  later  con¬ 
firmation  by  letter. 


SURVEYOR. — July  17th. — Bangor  (Co.  Down) 
Urban  District  Council.  £250  a  year. — Mr.  J.  Milli- 
ken,  clerk.  Town  Hall,  Bangor,  Co.  Down. 

SURVEYOR’S  ASSISTANT.— July  17th.— Wednes- 
bury  Town  Council.— Mr.  T.  Jones,  town  clerk.  Town 
Hall,  Wednesbury. 

SECOND  SEWAGE  WORKS  ENGINEER.— July 
18th. — ‘Corporation  of  Oxford. — City  Engineer,  Town 
Hall,  Oxford. 

ROLLER  DRIVER.— July  21st.— Matlock  Urban 
District  Council. — The  Surveyor,  Town  Hall,  Matlock. 

TEMPORARY  SURVEYOR  AND  INSPECTOR  OF 
NUISANCES.— July  21st. — Leighton  Buzzard  Urban 
District  Council,  £130  a  ye^,r. — Mr.  Reginald  F.  A'. 
Tutt,  clerk,  Council  Offices,  Leighton  Buzzard. 

BOROUGH  SURVEYOR.— July  27th.— Corporation 
of  Buckingham.  £175  a  year. — Mr.  Geoffrey  W.  Barker, 
town  clerk.  Town  Hall,  Buckingham. 

CITY  ENGINEER  AND  ENGINEER  OF  WATER 
AND  SEWERAGE  WORKS. — December  1st. — Port-of- 
Spain  City  Council,  Trinidad,  B.W.I.  £600-£750,  with 
£75  towards  the  upkeep  of  a  niotor  cycle. — Mr.  Philip 
H.  Salomon,  acting  town  clerk.  Town  Hall,  Port-of- 
Spain,  Trinidad,  B.W.I. 

DRAUGHTSMAN  AND  TECHNICAL  INSTRUC¬ 
TOR. — For  the  Gold  Coast  Government  Railway.  £350- 
£400.— Crown  Agents  for  the  Colonies,  4  Millbank, 
London,  S.W.  1. 

SEWAGE  WORKS  FOREMAN.— North  Brooms- 
grove  Urban  District  Council. — Mr.  F.  T.  Levens,  110, 
High-street,  Broomsgrove. 

IPSWICH. — For  carrying  out  repairs  and  conver¬ 
sions  of  existing  buildings. — Mr.  C.  W.  Marfell,  for 
the  borough  engineer  and  surveyor,  Town  Hall', 
Ipswich. 


MUNICIPAL  CONTRACTS  OPEN. 

Official  and  similar  advertisements  received  dp  to  4.30  p.m. 

ON  THURSDAYS  WILL  BB  INSERTED  IN  THB  FOLLOWING  DAY’S  ISSUE, 

but  those  responsible  for  their  despatch  are  recommended 
to  arrange  that  they  shall  reach  Thb  Surveyor  office  by  noon 
on  wbdnbsdays  to  ensure  their  inclusion  in  the  weekly  list  of 
summaries.  Such  advertisements  may,  in  cases  of  emergency 
only,  be  telephoned  ( City  No.  101,6)  subject  to  later  con¬ 
firmation  by  letter. 


Buildings. 

WILLESDEN. — July  16th. — For  additions  and  altera¬ 
tions  to  buildings  at  the  isolation  hospital,  for  the 
urban  district  council. — Mr.  D.  C.  Robson,  engineer. 
Municipal  Offices,  Dyne-road,  Kilburn,  N.W. 


Engineering:  Iron  and  Steel. 

DUBLIN. — July  16th. — For  the  supply  and  erection 
oj  transformers,  for  the  Electricity  Committee. — City 
Electrical  Engineer,  Fleet-street,  Dublin. 

LEIGH. — July  18th. — For  the  supply  of  apparatus 
for  automatically  raising  low-level  sewage,  for  the 
rural  district  council. — The  Surveyor  and  Engineer, 
Council  Offices,  1,  Market-place,  Leigh. 

BOLLINGTON. — July  18th. — For  resetting  two  beds 
of  retorts,  for  the  Gas  Committee. — Mr.  J.  Brabbs,  gas 
engineer,  Urban  Council  Offices,  Bollington,  Cheshire. 

HALIFAX. — July  18th.— For  the  construction  of  a 
ferro-concrete  roof,  for  the  Gas  Committee. — Mr. 
W.  B.  McLusky,  engineer,  Gasworks,  Halifax. 

CLEATOR  MOOR. — July  20th.— For  the  resetting  of 
three  benches  of  retorts  and  three  generator  furnaces, 
for  the  urban  district  council.— Mr.  A.  W.  Heatheote, 
manager,  Gasworks,  Cleator  Moor. 


44 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  13,  1917. 


BOSTON. — July  20th. — For  repairing  Clough  Bridge, 
for  the  court  of  sewers.— <Mr.  F.  Bett,  surveyor  of 
sewers,  Kirton,  Lines. 

MELBOURNE. — July  30th. — For  the  supply  and 
erection  of  a  2,000  k.w.  rotary  converter,  and  its  trans¬ 
former  and  accessories,  for  the  city  council. — Messrs. 
Mcllwraith,  McEacharn  and  Co..  Bill  iter-square-build¬ 
ings,  London,  E.C.  3. 

CAPE  TOWN. — July  31st. — For  the  construction  of 
tanks  and  percolating  beds  for  sewage 'disposal  and 
other  works  in  connection  therewith,  for  the  corpora¬ 
tion. — City  Engineer,  City  Hall,  Cape  Town,  and  the 
Department  of  Commercial  Intelligence,  73,  Basing- 
hall-street,  E.C.  2. 

JOHANNESBURG. — Aug.  31st. — For  refrigerating 
plant  at  Market-buildings,  for  the  town  council. — 
Messrs.  E.  W.  Carling- and  Co.,  St.  Dunstan’s-build- 
ings,  St.  Dunstan’s-hill,  London,  E.C. 

Mechanically  Propelled  Vehicles. 

WEST  HAM. — July  17th. — For  the  supply  of  two 
motor  ambulance  vehicles,  for  the  corporation. — Dr. 
Sanders,  medical  officer  of  health.  Town  Hall,  Strat¬ 
ford 

SALFORD. — The  Lighting  and  Cleansing  Commit¬ 
tee  invite  tenders  for  two  motor  tipping  wagons. — 
Cleansing  Superintendent,  Wilburn-street  Depot, 
Salford. 

Roads. 

DUNMOW. — July  21st. — For  the  liirx  of  a  steam 
roller,  for  the  rural  district  council. — Mr.  A.  E.  Floyd, 
clerk.  Council  Offices,  Dunmow. 

MARYLEBONE. — July  21st. — The  council  invite 
tenders  for  the  purchase  of  the  following  second-hand 
vehicles :  10  street  water  vans,  8  horse  street-sweeping 
machines,  4  street-scraping  machines,  1  snow  plough, 
25  navvy  barrows,  and  6  hand  trucks. — Mr.  James 
Wilson,  town  clerk,  Town  Hall,  Marylebone-lane, 
Oxford-street,  W.  1. 

FOLKESTONE. — July  23rd. — 'For  the  supply  of  1,000 
to  2,000  tons  of  2J-in.  tar  slag  macadam,  and  500  to 
1,000  tons  of  tarred  slag  toppings,  for  the  corporation. 
— Borough  Engineer,  Corporation  Offices,  Folkestone. 

HENDON. — July  23rd. — For  the  construction  of  a 
new  entrance  road  to  Wessex-gardens  School,  Golder’s- 
green,  N.W.  4,  for  the  Education  Committee. — Engi¬ 
neer’s  Department,  Hendon  Urban  District  Council, 
The  Burroughs,  Hendon,  N.W.  4. 

ROCHESTER. — July  24th. — For  the  supply  of  road 
metal,  brooms,  oils,  horse  hire,  tools  and  Portland 
cement,  for  the  corporation, — Mr.  W.  Banks,  city  sur¬ 
veyor,  Guildhall,  Rochester. 

Sanitary. 

WANDSWORTH.— July  17th. — For  water  surface 
drainage  works,  at  Putney  Vale  Cemetery,  for  the 
borough  council. — Mr.  P.  Dodd,  borough  engineer,  215, 
Balharn  High-road,  S.W. 

WIGSTON  MAGNA. — July  18th. — For  taking  up 
existing  sewer,  about  130  lineal  yards,  axrd  replacing 
the  same  in  cast-iron  pipes  (provided  by  the  council), 
also  for  constructing  a  new  manhole,  for  the  urban 
district  council. — The  Surveyor,  Urban  Council 
Offices  Wigston  Magna,  Leicestershire. 

WOLVERHAMPTON. — For  the  removal  of  ashes, 
up  to  20,000  tons  per  annum,  for  the  electricity  works, 
for  the  corporation. — Mr.  S.  Allen,  borough  electrical 
engineer,  Electricity  Works,  Commercial-road,  Wol¬ 
verhampton. 


TENDERS  FOR  MUNICIPAL  WORKS  OR  SUPPLIES. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Surveyor  readers 
with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 
head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 

•  Aooepted.  t  Recommended  for  acceptance. 

WELLINGBOROUGH.  — For  tlie  supply  of  Leicestershire  granite, 
best  granite  chippiDgs,  best  granite  treated  with  Bi-tarco.  best  bard 
limestone,  best  hard  limestone  clappings,  patent  paving  slabs,  bpst 
broken  slag,  best  slag  chippings,  tarred  slag,  and  stoneware  pipes 
and  gullies,  for  the  urban  district  council : — 

Granite. 

Enderby  and  Stoney  Stanton  Granite  Company,  Enderb.v,  near  Leices¬ 
ter,  per  ton,  2i  in.,  13s.  9d.;  2 in.,  13s.  9d.;  Jin.,  9s. 6d.;  |  in., 9s.  6d.: 
|  in.,  11s. 

Ellis  and  Everard,  Wellingborough,  per  ton,  J  in.,  9s.  3d.;  i  iu.,  9s.  9d.- 
2  in.',  11s. 

Granite  treated  with  Bi-Tarco. 

Cliife  Hill  Granite  Company,  Markfield,  near  Leicester,  per  ton.  2  in. 
20s.  Id.;  li  in.,  19s.  7d. 

Iron  Slag  Tarmacadam. 

Constable,  Hart  and  Company,  Wellingborough,  per  ton,  2  in.,  13s  9d.; 
If  in.,  14s. 6(1.  (To  Midland  station  and  9d.  per  ton  more  to  L.&  N.W.) 


Granite  Kerb. 

Croft  Granite  Brick  and  Concrete  Company',  Croft,  near  Leicester, 
per  ft.  run,  5  in.  by  10  ill.,  edge  kerb.  Is.  6d.,  circular,  Is.  9d. ;  6  in. 
by  12  in.,  edge  kerb,  Is.  8d.,  circu’ar,  Is.  lid. ;  12  in.  by  6  in.,  edge 
kerb.  Is.  B.Jd.,  circular,  Is.  llfd. 

Steam  Coal. 

Ellis  and  Everard,  Wellingborough,  Bolsover  hard  steam,  2Cs.  per  ton. 

House  Coal. 

Ellis  and  Everard,  Wellingborough,  Whitwick  best  screened,  26s.  Id. 
per  ton. 

Patent  Paving  Slabs. 

Excelsior  Patent  Stone  Company,  Finedon  sidings,  3s.  Id.  per  super, 
yard. 

Lime. 

Ellis  and  Everard,  Wellingborough,  23s.  led.  per  ton. 

Pipes  and  Gullies. 

T.  H.  Higgins,  Wellingborough,  15  per  ce  it  discount  off  standard  list. 


WIGAN. — For  converting  stables  into  a  motor  tower  wagon  garage, 
for  tlie  corporation  : — 

John  Johnson  and  Son,  Wigan,  .£157. 


FORTHCOMING  MEETINGS. 

Secretaries  and  others  will  oblige  by  sending  early  notice  of 
dates  of  forthcoming  meetings. 


JULY. 

14.—  Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  :  South  Wales 
District  Meeting.  Visit  to  Driogarth  Valley  Storage  Reservoir, 
Breconshire. 

28. — Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  :  Meeting 
at  Porthcawl. 


APPOINTMENTS  OPEN. 


PORT-OF-SPAIN  CITY  COUNCIL. 


POST  OF  CITY  ENGINEER. 


The  Port-oGSpain  City  Council  invite 

Applications  for  the  Post  of  city  engi¬ 
neer,  and  ENGINEER  OF  WATER  AND 
SEWERAGE  WORKS,  with  which  is  associated  also 
the  general  supervision  of  the  management  of  the 
Woodbrooke  Estate  and  the  Cocorite  Farm. 

2.  Tlxe  salary  attached  to  the  post  is  £600  a  year, 
rising  by  annual  increments  ot  £25  a  year  to  a  maxi¬ 
mum  ot  £750,  witli  an  allowance  of  £75  a  year 
towards  the  upkeep  of  a  motor  vehicle  for  the  per¬ 
formance  of  his  duties. 

3.  The  appointment  is  subject  to  the  approval  of 
the  Governor. 

4.  The  office  is  pensionable  under  the  Port-of-Spain 
Corporation  Ordinance,  1914. 

5.  Salary  will  commence  from  the  date  of  arrival 
in  Trinidad.  No  allowance  is  made  in  respect  of 
passage. 

6.  Candidates  must  submit  evidence  of  their  being 
corporate  members  of  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engi¬ 
neers  of  England,  and  of  possessing  experience  in 
the  designing,  construction,  and  maintenance  of 
waterworks  and  sewerage  systems. 

7.  Should  the  officer  be  desirous  of  leaving  the  ser¬ 
vice  of  the  Corporation  within  five  years  from  the 
date  of  his  appointment,  the  Council  reserve  to  them¬ 
selves  the  right  to  exact  not  less  than  three  months’ 
notice  in  writing. 

8.  The  Engineer  will  be  required  to  reside  within 
the  City  or  within  a  mile  of  the  City,  and  to  devote 
his  whole  time  to  the  service  of  the  Corporation. 

9.  The  successful  candidate  will  be  required,  within 
one  month  of  the  date  of  his  arrival  in  the  Colony, 
to  furnish  a  bond  with  axx  approved'  surety,  or  to 
enter  into  a  bond  with  an  approved  guarantee  society, 
in  the  sum  of  £500  for  the  due  performance  of  the 
duties  of  the  office. 

10.  The  successful  candidate  must  be  prepared  to 
take  up  the  duties  of  his  office  within  three  months 
of  the  date  of  his  receiving  the  official  intimation 
from  the  Town  Clerk  that  his  appointment  has  been 
approved  by  the  Governor. 

11.  Applications,  accompanied  by  not  more  than 
two  recent  testimonials  (one  of  which  should  be 
from  the  candidate’s  present  employers),  and  stating 
age  and  previous  experience,  together  with  a  medical 
•certificate  that  the  candidate  is  fit  for  service  in  the 
West  Indies,  must  reach  the  Town  Clerk,  Port-of- 
Spain.  Trinidad,  not  later  than  the  1st  December, 
1917. 

PHILIP  H.  SALOMON, 

Acting  Town  Clerk. 

Town  Hall, 

Port-of-Spain, 

Trinidad,  B.W.I,  (3.445) 


The  Surveyor 

Rnb  Municipal  anb  Count?  Engineer. 


Vol.  LII. 


JULY  20,  1917. 


No.  1,331. 


Minutes  of  Proceedings. 


Motors  and 
Town  Roads. 


The  question  of  the,  equity  of 
making  a  special  imposition 
upon  the  owners  of  motor 
vehicles  as  a  contribution  to  the  maintenance  of 
the,  roads  is  one-  upon  which  a  difference  of 
opinion  is  only  to  be  expected  between  those  upon 
whose  shoulders  it  is  suggested  that  such  a  burden 
should  be  placed  and  the  general  body  of  non- 
mote-using  ratepayers.  Broadly  speaking,  the 
dictum  that  roads  should  be  adapted  to  bear  new 
and  improved  forms  of  traffic  rather  than  that 
such  traffic  should  be  restricted  to  the  capacity 
of  existing  roads,  is  a  /sound  one.  Indeed,  from 
one  point  of  view,  the  problems  of  highway 
administration  that  have  been  raised  by  the  transi¬ 
tion  from  horse-drawn,  solid  tyre  traffic  to  motor- 
driven  pneumatic  tyre  vehicles  are  singularly  like 
the  questions  which  arose  on  the  original  introduc¬ 
tion  of  wheeled  traffic  on  a  considerable  scale. 
Then  it  was  sought  to  restrict  the  new  develop¬ 
ment  by  means  of  such  devices  as  a  wheel  tax  ; 
and -now  we  are  not  only  familiar  with  the  petrol 
tax,  but  also  with  other  proposals  for  securing 
further  road  maintenance  contributions  from 
motorists.  The  question  raised  by  these  pro¬ 
posals  is  one  of  broad  policy,  which  is  certainly 
capable  of  argument  on  both  sides.  It  has,  how¬ 
ever,  long  ago  been  proved  to  demonstration  that 
tlie>  cost  of  road  maintenance  has  been  enormously 
increased  by  the  advent  of  motor  traffic,  and  the 
sole-  question  is  as  to  the  incidence  of  this  addi¬ 
tional  burden.  It  is  with  some  surprise,  therefore, 
that  we  observe  in  a  recent  issue  of  our  contem¬ 
porary  the  Motor  an  article,  the  theme  of  which 
is  that-  the  extra  cost  of  road  maintenance  is  more- 
than  counterbalanced  by  a  saving  in  the  cost  of 
widenings,.  and  that  for  this  reason  it  would  be 
unjust  to  ask  motor  owners  to  make  any  contribu¬ 
tion  towards  it.  ‘  ‘  The  road  surveyor,  ’  ’  says  our 
contemporary,  “  is  faced  by  new  problems  and 
new  needs  for  expenditure  in  his  own  department. 
Naturally,  he  makes  the  best  of  his  case,  and 
generally  carries  with  him  all  those  who  are  con¬ 
cerned  in  local  government  matters.  These 
latter  have  no  difficulty  in  seeing  his  point.  A 
new  kind  of  traffic  has  come,  and  'the  road 'sur¬ 
veyor  tells  them  that  their  roads^are  going  to  cost 
them  more.  Evidently,  then,  the  new  traffic 
must  make-  good  the  difference-  There  is  much 
too  strong  a  tendency  to  burke  the  question  of 
whether  that  new  traffic  is  not,  in  fact,  a  great 
public  asset,  and  even  whether,  when  everything 
is  taken  into  account,  it  does  not  represent  a 


positive  economy  to  the  local  exchequer.  Road 
maintenance  and  road  improvement  are  not  the 
only  expenditures  that  have  to  be  considered. 
Particularly  in  towns,  we  are  frequently  faced 
with  the  need  for  spending  large  sums  on  road 
widenings.  If  we  could,  get  into  the  habit  of 
viewing  the  thing  as-  a  whole  instead  of  putting 
each  item  into  its  own  watertight  compartment, 
we  should  be  much  better  qualified  to  legislate 
in  the  interests  of  the  community,  local  or 
national.  ’  ’ 

This  seems  to  us  to  be  the  weakest  argument 
'that  could  be  put  forward  in  support  of  what  we 
may  call  the  motor  users’  point  of  view,  for  it  not 
only  ignores  the  broad  question  of  policy  to  which 
we  have1  already  referred,  but  it  also  fails  to  take 
into  consideration  the  many  road  widenings  and 
improvements  that  have  been  rendered  necessary 
solely  and  directly  to  meet  the-  conditions  of  motor- 
traffic  with  its  greatly  increased  speed  and  danger 
to  pedestrians.  We  refer  not  only  to  the  round¬ 
ing-off  of  corners  and  -the  straightening  of  roads, 
but  a-lso'  to  the  widenings  that  have  taken  place 
to  provide-  room  for  separate  lines  of  slow  and  fast 
moving  traffic.  In  conclusion,  our  contemporary 
says  that  “  so  long  as  people  persist  in  regarding 
a  road  as  a  thing  which  must  be  kept  in  order  at 
the  lowest  possible  cost  and  upon  which  traffic  is 
only  admitted  on  sufferance,  we  shall  find  among 
us  plenty  of  a-dvocaJtes-  of  high  taxation  of  motors. 
When  once  we  all  realise  that  the  function  of  .a 
road  is  to  carry  traffic  and  to  help  in  the  convey¬ 
ance  of  the  largest  possible  bulk  of  goods  and  the 
largest  number  of  passengers  at-  the  highest  pos¬ 
sible  speed  compatible  with  safety,  then  we  shall 
understand  that  the  cost  of  motor  traffic  must  not 
be  judged  by  the  borough  surveyor’s  accounts, 
but  on  a  very  much  broader  and  more  logical 
basis.”  To  which  we  would  add  that  it  must 
also  be  judged  on  a  very  much  broader  and  more 
logical  basis  than  that  adopted  by  the  writer  we 
have  quoted. 

*  *  * 


Activated  Sludge 
Treatment 
at  Worcester. 


The  recent  annual  conference 
of  the  Association  of  Managers 
of  Sewage  Disposal  Works,  held 
at  Worcester,  has  brought  forth 
within  a  few  weeks  a  second  paper  by  the  inde¬ 
fatigable  city  engineer,  Mr.  Thos.  Caink,  on  the 
same  subject.  If  it  had  been  simply  a  repetition 
of  the  first  paper  there-  would  have  been  no  need 
to  comment  upon  it  in  these  columns,  but  it  con¬ 
tains  a  very  clear  description  of  the  new  system 


46 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


of  sewage  treatment  by  the  activated  sludge  pro¬ 
cess,  and  some  interesting  suggestions  as  to  the 
lines  along  which  further  progress  may  be  made 
towards  increasing  the  efficiency  of  the  process. 
These  suggestions  are  accompanied  by  drawings, 
and  deserve  very  careful  consideration  by  all 
those  who  are  interested  in  the  subject.  Whether 
the  additional  initial  outlay  involved  in  the  con¬ 
struction  of  the;  special  form  of  tank  advocated 
by  Mr.  'Caink  will  produce  a  sufficient  reduction 
in  the  cost  of  power  for  the  air-compressing  plant 
to  justify  the  greater  initial  cost  is  a  matter  for 
further  investigation.  It  is  undoubtedly  all  to 
the  good  that  engineers  of  experience  should  de¬ 
vote  their  minds  to  the  consideration  of  these 
problems  and  publish  them  as  promptly  as  Mr. 
Caink  has  done.  Considerable  benefit  must  re¬ 
sult  from  a  frank  and  frequent  exchange  of  views 
in  this  manner. 

Another  interesting  point  which  may  be  men¬ 
tioned  is  that  since  our  last  reference  to  the  sub¬ 
ject  the  corporation  of  Worcester  have  taken  over 
the  works  carried  out  by  Messrs.  Jones  &  Att- 
wood,  who  have  fulfilled  their  contract  to  the 
satisfaction  of  the  corporation.  It:  appears,  how¬ 
ever,  that  within  three  days  of  the  plant'  being 
taken  over  some  difficulties ,  arose  owing  to  the 
discharge  into  the  sewers  of  a  considerable 
volume  of  tarry  liquid.  Asi  might  be  expected, 
the  workirfg  of  the  tanks,  was  very  much  upset, 
but  in  spite  of  this  the  quality  of  the  effluent  was 
still  up  to  the  standard  prescribed  when  the 
original  contract  for  the  installation  was  arranged. 
This  suggests  that-  this  system  is  nearly  fool-proof, 
as  at  least  one  instance  of  a  similar  discharge  has 
occurred  in  the  past  .at  another  place  when  the 
whole  works'  were  thoroughly  disorganised  for 
some  time.  Further  information  as  to  the  effect 
of  this  discharge  of  tarry  liquid  upon  the  activated 
sludge  in  the  tanks  would  be  interesting. 

The  presidential  address  delivered  by  Dr. 
Sidney  Barwise  at  the  same  meeting  also  contains 
some  interesting  suggestions  with  regard  to  the 
activated  sludge  process.  His  suggestion  that  we 
may  before  long  see  a  new  form  of  percolating 
filter  constructed  of  brushwood  is  somewhat 
belated,  as  our  readers  . will  be  aware.  For  some 
time  now  a  filter  of  this  type  has  been  in  opera¬ 
tion  in  Canada,  and  several  descriptions  of  it 
have  appeared  in  these  pages.  We  agree  with 
Dr.  Barwise  when  he  sta.es  that  the  .charm  of 
the  process  is  the  infinite  variety  of  the  methods 
by  which  it  can  be  applied,  but  it  is  doubtful 
whether  his  suggestion  that  it  could  be  adapted 
economically  for  the  purification  of  rivers  them¬ 
selves  is  practical. 

*  *  * 


Recent 
Law  Cases. 


Among  the  cases  reported  in 
the  June  number  of  “'Knight’s 
Local  Government  Reports  ’’ 
are  several  which  have  a  direct  bearing  upon  the 
work  of  municipal  engineers  and  surveyors. 
High  way  law  is  represented  by  the  case  of 
Abingdon  Rural  District  Council  v.  City  of  Or. ford 
Electric  Tramways,  Limited — raising  an  important 
question  of  extraordinary  traffic,  which  has  already 
been  noted  in  these  columns— and  Macey  v. 
James's  E. realtors.  In  the  latter  case  the  respon¬ 
dents  were  owners  of  some  land  which  they  were 
developing  as  a  building  estate  by  granting  ground 
leases  for  ninety-nine  years,  containing  covenants 
on  the  part  of  the  lessees  to  build  houses  and 
make  roads.  Under  these  leases  roads  had  been 
made  and  used  by  the  public  without  hindrance. 
Moreover,  the  local  authority  had  placed  lamps  in 
them,  and  had  sent  their  carts  over  them  for  the 
purpose  of  house  refuse  collection.  In  these 
circumstances:  certain  nuisances,  existed  on  the 
roads,  and  notices  to  abate  them  were  served  upon 
the  respondents  as  “  owners.  ’’  It  will  be  remem¬ 
bered  that  the  expression  “  owner  “  is  defined  in 


the  Public  Health  Act,  1875,  as  meaning  the 
person  for  the  time  being  receiving  the  rack  rent, 
or  if  the  premises  are  not  let  at  a  rack  rent  “  the 
persons  who  would  so  receive  thesame  if  the  pre¬ 
mises  were  let  at  a  rack  rent.  ”  For  the  appellant 
it  was  contended  that  the  respondents  came 
within  the  latter  part  of  this,  definition,  and  that 
they  were  therefore  liable  for  the  abatement  of  the 
nuisances  in  question.  It  was  held,  however, 
that  as  the  roads  had  been  admittedly  dedicated 
to  the  public-  use  in  the  sense  that  the  public  in 
fact  used  them,  they  were  not  capable  of  being 
let  at  a  rack  rent,  and  that  consequently  the  re¬ 
spondents  were  not  “  owners  ’’  of  the  roads 
within  the  meaning  of  the  Act,  nor  were  they 
liable  to  abate1  the  nuisance.  Another  case  of 
special  interest  is  that  of  Morris  v.  Mynyddislwyn 
Urban  District  Council.  There  the.  defendants, 
served  notices  under  secs.  28  and  36  of  the  Public 
Health  Act,  1875,  to  enforce  the  drainage  of  a 
row  of  houses  which  were  undrained.  They  did 
not,  however,  in  accordance  with  sec.  23,  require 
the  drain  to  be  “  of  such  materials  and  size,  and 
to  be  laid  at  such  levels  .  .  .  as  on  the -report  of 
their  surveyor”  appeared  to-  them  to  be  neces¬ 
sary;  nor  was  any  report,  in  fact,  ever  received 
from  their  surveyor.  The  drain  constructed  under 
’the  notice  by  the  landlord  was  admittedly  a 
“  sewer.”  It  was  laid  through  the  garden  of  the 
plaintiff's  house,  and  was  as  to  half  its  diameter 
above  the  ground.  The'  occupier  stumbled  over 
the  pipes,  and  now  claimed  damages  against  the 
council.  It  was  held  that  the  defendants  were 
not  liable,  either  on  the  ground  of  their  alleged 
negligence  in  the  original  construction  of  the 
sewer  (as  in  supervising  such  construction  their 
inspector  of  nuisances  had  exceeded  his  autho¬ 
rity)  ;  or  after  the  sewer  had  become  vested  in 
them,  for  keeping  ft  in  a  position  partly  above 
ground  and  so  dangerous  to  the  occupier  of  the 
house.  On  the  latter  point  Mr.  Justice  Atkin 
laid  it  down  that  the  duty  of  a  local  authority 
under  sec.  19  is  merely  to  maintain  a  sewer  as  a 
sewer — that  is,  to  take  care  that  it  efficiently  con¬ 
veys  the  sewage  away,  and  does  not  permit  it  to 
become  a  nuisance  by  percolation  or  otherwise. 


An  “Open  Letter” 
to  the  Swindon 
Borough  Surveyor. 


The  habit  seems  bo  be  on 
the  increase  of  making  a 
public  appeal,  ex  officio'  and 
ad  hominem,  to  the  muni¬ 
cipal  surveyor  for  the  remedy  of  the  multitudinous 
grievances  which  affect  the  ratepaying  com¬ 
munity.  This  is  in  a  sense  complimentary  to 
the  surveyor,  and  his  potentiality  as  a  remedial 
agent,  but  when  the  appeal  covers  so  wide  a  field 
as ‘that  which  is-  made  to  the  borough  survey  or -of 
Swindon  in  the  form  of  an  “  open  letter  ”  to  the 
Earth  Wilts  Herald,  the  embarrassments  of  the 
situation  may  become  almost  serious.  The  skill 
and  enterprise  which  are  notoriously  the  posses¬ 
sions  of  Mr.  Hamp  will  be  severely  tested  if  they 
are  successful  in  grappling  with,  or  even  enter¬ 
taining  a  tithe  of,  the  demands  made  upon  them 
by  Mr.  Amos.  Currey,  the  writer  of  the  epistle  in 
question.  First  the  borough  '  surveyor  is  invited 
to  say  whether  he  lias  carefully  thought  out  the 
labour  problem  of  the.  future.  In  view  of  the 
exercises  which  the  prophetic  soul  of  the  man  in 
the  street  is  in  the  habit  of  indulging  in  with 
respect  to  the  subject  in  question,  this  may  be 
regarded  as  a  goodlv-sized  order.  One  might 
plead  that  it  is  almost  sufficient  to  go  on  with, 
but  by  Mr.  Currey  it  is  evidently  regarded  as  a 
mere  preliminary  canter  to  the  whirligig  of  larger 
issues.  Mr.  Hamp  is  next  invited  to  state 
whether  he  has  carefully  inspected  the  plans  of 
allotments  as  laid  out  by  his  department.  These, 
according  to  Mr.  Currey,  are  open  to  improve¬ 
ment.  Mr.  Hamp  is  asked  to  “  make  a  note  of 
certain  things  in  the  approved  formula  of  Captain 


.July  20,  1017. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


47 


Cuttle,  after  which — having  been  incidentally 
inched  to  say  whether  he  realises  his  responsi¬ 
bility  when  he  states  it  would  cost  £7  to  put  a 
fence  round  a  certain  holding— inquiry  is  made 
whether  lie  knows  that  his  department  “  are 
asking  for  trouble  from  the  trees  in  Victoria-road, 
which- were  left  unpruned  last  winter  ”  ?  As  if  if  is 
not  the  merest  commonplace  of  every  municipal 
surveyor’s  experience  to  be  sempitefnally  accused 
of  over-pruning  or  under-pruning  whole  forests  of 
street  trees  !  The  borough  surveyor  is  invited  to 
“  demand  ”  wider  streets  and  larger  gardens  for 
all  and  sundry;  to  assist  the  medical- officer  to 
make  Swindon  “a  real  paradise”;  to  initiate  a 
non-cheeseparing  policy;  to  seize  opportunities 
for  carrying  out  much-needed  improvements;  to 
take  no  heed  of  people  who  always  cry,  “  There 
is  no  money ;  think  of  the  rates  and  the  poor  rate¬ 
payer”;  and  to  consider  that  his  first  duty  is  to 
the  men  entrusted  to  his.  charge,  “  because  as 
ratepayers  they  are  as  much  your  employers  as 
the  members  of  the  borough  council,  and  have  as 
much  right  out  of  work  hours  to  call  to  account  or 
give  praise  in  proportion  to  your  championship  or 
otherwise  of  their  jusb  rights.”  This  last  would 
appear  to  imply  a ‘system  of  give  and  take  as 
between  official  and  men,  in  which  the  latter  as 
“employers  ”  might  occasionally  take  the  place 
of  top  dog.  Whether  this  would  tend  to  the 
creation  of  a  real  municipal  paradise  in  Swindon 
may  well  be  doubted.  But,  if  may  be  asked, 
where  does  the  responsibility  of  the  citizens  and 
the  town  council  come  in  when  the  borough  sur¬ 
veyor  is  expected  to  be  the  universal  provider  ? 

*  * 

One  of  the  fundamental  dif¬ 
ferences  between  the  procedure 
for  the  execution  of  works  of 
private  street  improvement  under  sec.  150  of  the 
Public  Health  Act,  1875,  and  that  under  the 
Private  Street  Works  Act,  1892,  is  that  in  the 
former  case  notices  must  be  served  on  the  respec¬ 
tive  owners  or  occupiers  of  the  premises  fronting, 
adjoining  or  abutting  on  the  street,  requiring  them 
to  do  the  works  within  a  time  to  be  specified  in 
the  notice.  It  is  only  if  these  notices  are  not 
complied  with  that  the  local  authority  may  them¬ 
selves  do  the  works  and  recover  the  expenses. 
The  drafting  and  service  of  this  notice  are  matters 
of  the  greatest  importance,  for  it  is  a.  condition 
precedent  to  any  liability  on  the-  part  of  the 
owners  that  they  should  have  it  and  make  default 
in  doing  the  duty  imposed  on  them  before  the 
works  are.  executed  by  the  local  authority.  In 
more  than  one  case  owners  have  escaped  liability 
owing  to  some  technical  defect  either  in  the  notice 
itself  or  in  the  manner  of  its  service.  Thus  in 
W all  send  Loral  Hoard  v.  Murjdiy,  1890,  61  L.T., 
777,  the  local  authority  failed  to  recover  expenses 
from  the  owner  of  certain  property,  because  the 
notice  had  erroneously  been  served  on  a  former 
owner;  and  it  was  held  in  Handsworth  District 
Council  v.  Herrington,  1897,  2  Ch.,  438,  the 

notice  must  be  served  upon  every  frontager  in 
order  that  the  expenses  may  be  recoverable  from 
any  frontager.  Moreover,  the  notice  must  speci¬ 
fically  refer  to  the.  deposited  plans  and  sections 
of  the  work  required  to  be  done,  and  state  that 
such  plans  and  sections  are  open  to  inspection  at 
the  office  of  the  local  authority.  A  notice  which 
merely  refers  in  general  terms  to  the  provisions 
of  sec.  150  is  insufficient  and  bad.  A  further 
decision  in  regard  to  this  matter  was  recently 
given  in  the  Chancery  Division  in  a.  case  in  which 
the  Bristol  Corporation  sought  to  make  an  owner 
liable  under  sec.  257  for  the  expenses  of  works 
carried  out  under  sec.  150.  It  will  be  remembered 
that  the  latter  section  provides  that  the  notice 
shall  require  the  execution  of  the  Works  “  within 
a  time  to  be  specified  in  the  notice.”  In  the 


* 

Street  Paving 
Charges. 


notice  in  question  the  time  specified  was  one 
month,  and  it  appeared  from  the  evidence  that 
this  time  was  inserted  a.s  a  matter  of  common 
form,  without  any  reference  to  the  work  to  be 
carried -out,  and  that  it  was  grossly  inadequate. 
It -was  held  that  this  invalidated  the  notice,  and 
that  it  was  bad.  The  practice  of  stating  a  conven¬ 
tional  time,  such  as  a  month,  in  all  cases  for  the 
completion  of  works  is  a  common  one,  but  in  view 
of  this  decision  it  behoves  local  authorities  to 
insert  a  reasonable  time,  varying  with  the  nature 
of  the  ease,  within  which  it  is  possible  for  the 
owner  or  occupier  to  carry  out-  the  works  if  he 
should  choose  to-  do  so. 

♦  * 


Housing 
at  Hexham. 


The  annual  report  of  Dr. 
J.  A.  Jackson,  the  medical 
officer  of  health  for  Hexham, 
which  was  submitted  at  the  last  meeting  of  the 
council,  shows  that  the  housing  question  is;  as 
acute  in  that  town  as  it  is  in  so  many  other  places 
at  the  present  time.  Dr.  Jackson  was  perfectly 
justified  in  pointing  out  that  pre-existing  bad 
housing  conditions  are  in  no;  small  measure  re¬ 
sponsible  for  the  enormous  number  of  young  men 
who  have  failed  to  come  up  to  the  general  service- 
standard  for  the  Army,  owing  to  various,  physical 
defects  and  weaknesses.  Many  of  these  men,  as 
he  said,  have  been  barred  in  their  development 
by  the  “  four1  great  D’s — namely,  Damp;  Dark¬ 
ness,  Disease,  and  Dirt.  ’  ’  Common  gratitude  to  our 
soldiers  demands  that  immediate  steps  should  be 
taken  throughout  the  country  to  secure  for  them 
better  conditions  on  their  return,  while  national 
security  and  the  preservation  of  the-  race  make 
equally  insistent,  demands  in  the-  same  direction. 
Indeed,- Dr.  Jackson’s  words  to  Hexham  might- 
well  be  taken  to  heart  *bv  local  authorities  gene- 
rally.  “It  behoves  you,”  he-  said,  “to  be  pre¬ 
pared  to  put  your  house  in  order,  and  to  be  pre¬ 
pared  for  the  many  activities  in  sanitary  matters 
which  will  undoubtedly  be  necessary  after  the 
cessation  of  the-  war.”  It-  is  satisfactory  to  re¬ 
cord  that,  in  spite-  of  the  difficulties  of  the  time 
and  the  absence  of  the  surveyor,  every  possible 
attention  has  been  given  to  sanitary  administra¬ 
tion  in  the  town. 


Dr.  Barwise 
and  Consulting 
Engineers. 


"We  really  cannot  allow  the 
extraordinary  attack  on  the 
engineering  profession  made  by 
Dr.  Barwise  recently  in  bis 
capacity  as-  president  of  the-  Association  of 
Managers  of  Sewage  Disposal  Works  to  pass-  with¬ 
out  notice.  The  feeling  of  consulting  engineers 
in  the-  matter  is  reflected  in  the-  letter  over  ,  the 
signature  “M.Inst.C.E. ,  which  appears  in  our 
correspondence  column.  The  suggestion  that 
“  it  is  unreasonable  to  expect  a  man  to  sit  up  all 
night  to  take-  money  out-  of  his  own  pocket  ”  is  a 
most  astonishing  one  to  come  from  a  member  of 
the  medical  profession.  Just  as  the  fee  of  an 
engineer  paid  by  commission  for  a  particular  work 
depends  upon  the  cost  of  that  work,  so  the  fee 
of  a  doctor  for  attending  a  patient  in  a  particular 
mness  depends  upon  the  length  of  that  illness. 
Do  we  understand  that  if  Dr.  Barwise,  were-  in 
general  practice  lie  would  regard  it  as  unreason¬ 
able  for  his  patients  to  expect  him  “  to  sit  up  all 
night  to  take-  money  out  of  his  own  pocket”? 
We  suggest  that  in  neither  case  is  there-  likely  to 
be  a  conflict  of.  interest  between  professional 
adviser  and  client,  and  that  for  the  reason  im¬ 
plied  in  the  words  that  we  have  italicised.  It 
would  indeed  be  foolish  policy — not-  to  say  morally 
reprehensible — for  a  man  in  practice  either  as  an 
engineer  or  a  doctor  to  take  an  unfair  advantage 
of  particular  clients  or  patients  with  a  view  to 
monetary  gain,  and  at  the  same  time  to  risk  his 
professional  reputation,  which  is  his  chief  capital. 


48 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


Cleansing  Work  at  Nottingham.* 

By  J.  TERRY,  Cleansing  Superintendent,  NoUcingkarm*. 


The  cleansing  of  the  City  of  Nottingham  is  carried 
out  by  two  committees — the  night-soil  work  being 
done  by  the  Health  Committee  and  the  street  cleansing 
being  done  by  the  Works  and  Ways  Committee,  whose 
chief  official  is  Mr.  A.  Brown,  city  engineer,  to  whom 
I  am  indebted  for  the  details  regarding  that  depart¬ 
ment,  and  also  regarding  the  flag-making  plant,  which 
is  also  under  his  control.  We  have  in  the  city  30,392 
pail  closets  and  33,911  dry  ash  bins  or  tubs,  and  a 
few  privy  middens.  The  system  of  emptying  the 
closet  pails  is  for  the  drays  to  start  out  each  night 
with  a  load  of  pails  clean,  washed  and  disinfected. 
These  they  leave  in  the  closets  in  place  of  the  full  ones, 
which  are  brought  to  the  depot,  the  contents  emptied 
direct  into  a  boat  or  railway  wagon,  and  the  pail 
washed  out  and  disinfected,  to  be  again  taken  in  use. 
Tor  the  purposes  of  night-soil  work  the  city  is  divided 
into  three  districts,  and  is  under  the  control  of  two 
day  and  two  night  inspectors. 

For  the  emptying  of  closet  pails  there  are  forty- 
ei^ht  horses  and  drays;  each  dray  is  in  charge  of  two 
men,  and  they  vary  from  five  to  ten  journeys  per 
night. 

The  average  number  of  pails  emptied  per  week  is 
40,719. 

For  the  removal  of  dry  .ashes  we  employ  twenty- 
-  nine  horses  and  wagons  and  four  electric  motor 
vehicles.  In  addition  to  the  ordinary  dry  ash  carts 
we  ha  ve_  al’so  two  small  cobs  and  floats,  which  are 
used  in  the  shun  areas,  and  make  a  daily  clearance  of 
every  bin  and  corner  in  which  people  will  throw 
refuse.  -This  we  find  is  well  worth  the  cost.  The 
slum  areas  are  kept  free  from  all  offensive  refuse;  they 
relieve  the  large  dry  ash  carts,  and  being  able  to  get 
quickly  over  the  ground,  they  bring  in  almost  as  much 
refuse  as  the  ordinary  carts,  and  they  are  also  very 
useful  in  sending  to  various  parts  of  the  city  to  re¬ 
move  small  quantities  of  offensive  refuse  which  are 
at  times  found  by  the  sanitary  inspectors,  &c. 

In  addition  to  this,  we  have  a  washing  staff  of  six 
men  who  daily  visit  the  glum  areas-and  swill  out  with 
water  and  disinfectants  yards,  passages  and  closets 
used  in  common.  These  men  wash  and  disinfect  323 
yards,  &c.,  and  1,605  closets  weekly. 

The  Health  Committee  algo  undertakes  the  removal 
o'  butchers’  offal  free  of  cost.  For  this  purpose  the 
corporation  provide  covered  galvanised  bins  for  the 
storage  pt  the  offal.  These  are  brought  away  on  a  low 
diay  and  replaced  by  clean  ones;  a  charge  of  2s.  6d. 
per  year  is  made  for  the  use  of  the.  bins.  Last  year 
1,062  tons  were  collected  in  this  manner. 

The  total  weight  of  refuse  received  at  the  three 
depots  during  1916  was:  Dry  ash  bins  and  ashpits, 
32,490  tons;  trade  refuse,  5,815  tons;  and  pail  closet 
refuse,  33,470  tons.  Of  this  24,860  tons  were  sold  to 
farmers  and  8,610  tons  destroyed.  These,  two  latter 
figures  represent  actual  weights  after  draining,  the 
total  weight  collected  would  be  some  15  to  20  per  cent 
more  than  this. 

DESTRUCTORS. 

These  are  two  in  number  (both  made  by  Messrs. 
Manlove,  Alliott  &  Co.,  of  Nottingham),-  situate  at 
Castcroft  and  Radford  The  Easteroft  is  one  of  twelve 
cells,  but  as  it  is  fifteen  years  since  its  erection  I  will 
not  go  into  the  details  as  to  its  construction,  &c.  The 
Radford  is  similar,  but  of  six  cells  only,  and  the  steam 
generated  is  not  utilised  except  for  the  forced  draught. 

During  1916  the  Easteroft  destructor  consumed 
30,750  tons  of  retuse,  evaporated  9,277,000  gallons  of 
water,  ancj  produced  744,692  units  of  eledtricity.  The 
current  is  taken  by  the  Electricity  Committee,  who 
pay  all  stokers’,  chargers’,  and  foremen’s  wages,  and 
light  the  plant,  whilst  the  Health  Committee  maintain 
the  plant  and  building,  excepting,  of  course,  the 
dynamos.  The  Radford  destructor  consumed  14,143 
tons  of  refuse. 

Disposal  of  Clinker. — About  2  per  cent  of  this  is  used 
for  the  flag  making;  the  remainder. is  used  for  filling 
up  or  for  sewage  plants.  That  from  Easteroft  now 
costs  2s.  per  load  to  cart  away,  but  at  Bradford  we 
have  recently  purchased  land  adjoining  the  destruc¬ 
tor,  and  the  clinker  is  taken  direct  from  the  furnaces 
by  means  of  trolleys.. 

CONCRETE  SLAB-MAKING  PLANT. 

In  order  to  utilise  profitably  a  portion  of  the  clinker 

.*  Paper  read  at  the  annual  conference  of  the  Institute  of  Cleansing 
Superintende  ts  at  Nottingham. 


resulting  from  the  burning  of  the  town’s  refuse  in  the 
destructor  at  the  Easteroft,  a  concrete  slab-making 
plant  was  installed  by  the  Works  and  Ways  Commit¬ 
tee,  under  the  advice  and  direction  of  the  city 
engineer.  It  consists  of  a  grinding  mill,  similar  to  a 
mortar  mill,  but  with  a  perforated  bottom,  through 
which  tiie  clinker  is  screened  when  broken  to  a  suit¬ 
able  size;  a  set  of  vertical  two-throw  belt-driven 
pumps,  having  rams  lj-in.  diameter  and  5-in.  stroke; 
an  accumulator  having  a  ram  4  in.  diameter  and  8  in. 
stroke,  working  at  a  pressure  of  one  ton  per  square 
inch,  with  automatic  knock-off  valve  to  prevent  the 
pump  working  against  pressure  when  the  accumulator 
reaches  a  certain  height;  a  three-slab  hydraulic  slab¬ 
making  press,  which  gives  a  pressure  of  400  tons  on 
each  slab,  and  a  vacuum  pump  fort  working  the  lifting 
tackle  which  takes  the  slabs  out  of  the  moulds.  The 
whole  of  the  plant  is  driven  by  a  motor,  with  the  elec¬ 
tric  current  generated  by  steam  derived  from  the  burn¬ 
ing  of  the  town’s  refuse. 

At  the  commencement  of  operations  considerable 
trouble  was  encountered  by  “  blowing  ”  on  the  sur¬ 
face  of  the  slabs ;  this  was  caused  by  the  pieces  of 
lime  to  be  found  in  the  clinker. 

The  slabs  are  2|  in.  thick,  1J  in.  clinker  and  cement 
backing,  and  1  in.  granite  and  cement  face,  and  it  was 
found  that  the  “  blowing  ”  only  took  place  where  the 
granite  face  was  thin.  The  granite  and  cement  was 
put  in  the  mould  first  in  sufficient  quantity  to  make 
a  face  1  in.  thick,  and  on  this  was  then  shovelled  the 
clinker  and  cement;  it  was  found,  however,  that  the 
operation  of  dropping  the  latter  on  to  the  former 
resulted  in  a  portion  of  the  granite  being  displaced, 
and  instead  of  there  being  a  face  of  1  in.  thick  through¬ 
out,  in  some  places  it  was  only  |  in.  thick.  If  there 
happened  to  be  a  very  small  piece  of  lime  in  the 
.clinker  backing  where  the  granite  face  was  very  thin, 
“blowing.”  took  place, ’ caused  by  the  expansion  of 
the  lime.  The.  trouble  was  overcome  entirely  by,  first, 
allowing  the  ground  clinker  to  be  thoroughly 
saturated  with  water,  which  breaks  up  the  lime  and 
renders  it  practically  inert;  and,  second,  by  making 
the  slabs  in  two  operations — that  is,  after  the  layer  of 
granite  and  cement  was  filled  into  the  moulds,  giving 
a  gentle  pressure  on  the  material  in  the  mould  so  as 
to  render  it  hard  enough  to  allow  of  the  clinker  and 
cement  being  shovelled  on  to  it  without  affecting  the 
thickness  at  any  point;  since  this  system  was  adopted 
a  defective  slab  is  almost  unknown. 

The  arrangement  for  removing  the  slalis  from  the 
mould's  is  very  ingenious,  as  they  are  not  handled  in 
any  way;  a  ram  working  under  the  mould 
pushes  the  slab  out  of  the  mould  and  it  is  re¬ 
ceived  on  its  upper  face  by  a  perforated  plate, 
the  holes  in  which  are  connected  by  suitable 
piping  to  the  vacuum  pump ;  this  plate,  with  its 
traveller,  swings  the  slab  over  on  to  its  receiving  tray, 
and  when  nine  or  twelve  of  these  are  piled  up  they 
are  removed  on  a  trolley  to  the  shed,  which  is  sup¬ 
plied  with  rails,  on  the  lower  flange  of  which  the 
trolley  runs;  by  turning  a. screw  the  floor  of  the  trolley 
is  lowered,  so  that  the  bottom  tray  rests  on  the  top 
flange  of  the  girders ;  the  trolley  may  then  be  removed 
to  tire  slab-making  press. 

The  plant  was  started  working  in  June,  1905,  and  the 
quantity  of  slabs  made  up  to  June,  1910,  was  about 
75,000  square  yards;  the  output  last  year  was  18,500 
square  yards.  It  must  be  understood,  of  course,  that 
the  possible  output  of  the  plant  is  much  more  than 
this  if  working  every  day  in  the  year,  but  certain  days 
are  spent  by  the  staff  in  unloading  and  .stacking; 
also,  tlie  plant  is  shut  down  for  some  months  in  the 
winter. 

As  previously  stated,  the  thickness  of  the  flags  is 
2J  in.  with  1  in.  thick  granite  face,  three  of  granite 
to  one  of  cement,  and  1J  in.  thick  of  clinker,  three  of 
clinker  to  one  of  cement.  Three  sizes  of  slabs  can  be 
made,  viz.,  3  ft.  by  2  ff.,  2  ft.  6  in.  by  2  ft.,  and  2  ft.  by 
2  ft. 

After  the  slabs  have  remained  under  cover  on  the 
wooden  trays  from  three  to  seven  days,  depending 
somewhat  on  the  condition  of  the  weather,  they  are 
stacked  in  the  open  air,  and  are  not  allowed  to  be 
used  until  they  have  been  made  six  months. 

The  total  cost  of  the  plant,  including  buildings  and 
everything  complete,  was  £2,869,  which  was  paid  for 
out  of  the  profit  on  the  sale  of  the  slabs,  for  private 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


49 


street  works.  The  slabs  are  supplied  for  public  works 
— that  is,  works  in  public  streets — at  cost  price,  but 
for  private  street  works  they  are  charged  at  3s.  3d. 

per  yard. 

It  is  not  considered  advisable  to  lay  concrete  slabs 
on  any  footways  having  a  steeper  gradient  than  I  in 
15,  on  account  of  their  wearing  slippery  on  steep 

gradients. 

.  It  may  be  added  that  the  slab-making  plant  was 
supplied  by  Messrs.  Fielding  &  Platt,  Ltd.,  of  Glouces¬ 
ter,  and  it  has  given  every  satisfaction. 

DISPOSAL  OF  TINS. 

This  is  a  matter  which  is  causing  much  trouble  to 
many  superintendents,  and  is  also  one  upon  which 
there  is  a  divided  opinion,  but  in  Nottingham,  we 
believe,  we  have  solved  the.  difficulty.  For  a  number 
of  years  we  had  a  special  furnace  for  extracting  solder, 
and  this  has  done  excellent  work,  but  the  making  of 
tins  by  machinery  has  so  reduced  the  quantity  of  this 
metal  as  to  make  it  a  negligible  quantity.  We  have  now 
erected  .a  large  open  fireplace  in  which  we  burn  all  the 
tins.  The  .fire  is  kept  going  by  waste  brought  in  from 
the  town,  and  which  previously  gave  us  considerable 
trouble  in  the  destructor.  The  burnt  tins  are  then 
pressed  in  an  hydraulic  press  into  billets. 

Since  erecting  this  press  we  have  been  able  to  obtain 
such  an  increased  price  that  with  contracts  already 
placed  we  expect  this  year  to  realise  the  sum  of  over 
£1,000.  The  cost  of  burning  and  pressing  does  not 
equal  that  of  ioading  them  in  trucks  without  pressing. 

All  scrap  is  now  sold,  including  old  wire,  springs, 
&c.,  which  could  not  be  got  rid  of  anywhere,  and  .was 
causing  quite  an  accumulation  in  the  depots. 

HORSES. 

The'  purchasing  of  horses  always  raises  an  interest¬ 
ing  discussion  at  our  meetings,  so  I  will  just  state  the 
class  of  horse  we  buy  for  our  night-soil  work,  and  how 
wre  buy. 

The  horses  are  generally  known  as  “  half -legged  ” 
horses,  and  run  fffim  16  hands  to  16  3,  and  for  some 
years  we  have  had  one  price,  namely,  £52,  but  one 
lot  purchased  since  the  outbreak  of  war  cost  £84  each. 

We  get  them  all  from  a  large  dealer  who,  when- we 
are  purchasing,  sends  a  number  to  the  depot.  They 
are  all  examined  by  the  vet.  for  soundness,  and  those 
he  passes  areta-ifen  round  the  yard  and  inspected  by 
the  committee,  who  purchase  those  they  consider 
suitable. 

This  method  we  have  found  quite  satisfactory.  The 
dealer  relies  upon  our  custom  and  tries  to  suit  us,  and 
when  one  goes  wrong,  even  a  few.  months  after,  we 
have  never  experienced  any  difficulty  in  effecting  an 
exchange. 

Whilst  speaking  of  horses,  I  would  also  like  to  say 
that  my  committee  gives  away  about  £20  per  year  to 
those,  men  whom  they  think  keep  their  horses  and 
harness  best  attended ’to. 

This,  we  believe,  is  easily  saved  by  everything  being 
kept  in  good  condition. 

STREET  CLEANSING  AND  DUST  LAYING. 

The  total  mileage  of  streets  is  estimated  at  225  miles, 
paved  streets  have  a  mileage  of  140  miles,  and  there 
are  about  eighty-five  miles  of  macadam  roads  in  the 
city ;  there  are  about  fifteen  miles  of  wood-paved  roads 
and  thirty-five  miles  of  tar-macadam  roads,  the  length 
of  which-'are  included  in  the  mileage  of  paved  and 
macadam  roads. 

The/:entre  of  the  business  portion  of  the  city,  having' 
an  area  of,  approximately,  2,170  acres,  is  cleansed  by 
a  special  staff  controlled  by  a  superintendent  and  his 
assistant,  working  under  the  direction  of  the  city  en¬ 
gineer  and  the  chief  highway  surveyor.  The  number 
of  men  employed  .under  normal  conditions  is  seventy- 
two,  and  the  number  of  horse-driven  machine  brushes 
is  nine.  The  aiea  is  divided  into  suitable  districts, 
each  district  dealt  with  by  a  gang  of,  usually,  eight 
men  in  charge  of  a  foreman.  The  outer  districts, 
having  an  area  of,  approximately,  8,765  acres,  are 
cleansed  by  seven  gangs  of  from  three  to  eight  men, 
the  number  of  men  employed  under  normal  conditions 
being  forty-four,  and  the  number  of  horse-driven 
machine  brushes  seven. 

The  type  of  man  now  engaged  on  street-sweeping 
is  very  different  from  the  type  of  man  engaged  on 
similar  work  thirty-five  years  ago,  when  a  man  was 
not  considered  eligible  for  street  sweeping  until  he  was 
past  sixty  years  old;  now  a  man  is  not  considered 
eligible  to  be  put  on  if  he  is  over  thirty-five. 

The  importance’  of  an  efficient  system  of  street 
cleansing  cannot  be  over-estimated.  In  this  city,  at 
any  rate,  more  might  be  spent  on  thisymrk,  but  there 
need  be  no  hesitation  whatever  in  saying  that  the 


work  of  every  other  department  of  the  corporation  is 
crippled  in  order  to  find  funds  for  education.  The 
first  consideration  in  all  large  cities  now  has  to  be 
education;  health  is  relegated  to  second  place;  in  the 
opinion  of  most  people  the  order  should  be  reversed. 

During  the  year  ending  March  31,  1915. 

Number  of  streets  swept  was  . 198,122 

Mileage  of  streets  .  23,205 

Loads  of  refuse  removed,  including  snow  47,554 

Average  mileage  of  streets  swept  daily 
(excluding  Sundays) . 70'69 

Average  mileage  of  streets  swept  on  Sun¬ 
days  . 2617 

Number  of  gullies  emptied  .  126,924 

In  the  centre  of  the  city  the  horse  brushes  come  on 
duty  at  twelve  midnight  and  turn  out  at  one  a.m., 
and  in  dry  weather  they  are  preceded  by  a  water-cart. 
The  street-sweepers  come  on  duty  at  four  a.m.,  and 
the  carts  for  picking  up  at  four  and  five  a.m. :  the 
whole  of  the  sweeping  and  picking  up  in  all  the  main 
thoroughfares  and  streets  in  the  business  centre  are 
finished  before  seven  or  eight  a.m.  The  principal 
thoroughfares  are  swept  by  hand  brushes  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of.  collecting  horse  droppings,  and  are  dealt  with 
in  this  manner  two  or  four  times  per  day,  in  addition 
to  morning  scavenging.  _ 

Dealing  with  the  refuse  after  collection  is  becoming 
a  more  difficult  problem  every  year.  There  is  a  ready 
sale  for  horse  droppings,  but  the  sweepings  from 
paved  and  tar  macadam  roads  are  . carted  to  the  East- 
croft,  stacked,  and  given  away  to  farmers.  The  demand 
now  is  greater  than  the  supply. 

SNOW  REMOVAL. 

Another  difficult  problem  is  that  of  snow  removal, 
and  during  recent  years  there  lias  always  been  one 
heavy  snowfall.  The  city  is  divided  into  districts, 
and  the  number  of  men  with  a  foreman  is  assigned 
to  that  district,  with  the  necessary  number  of  carts. 
There  is  no  particular  difficulty  in  organising  a 
method  of  rapid  snow  removal  if  a  sufficient  number 
of  carts  can  be  hired ;  there  are  always  plenty  of  men 
(of  a  kind),  but  as  snow  always  comes  when  coal  cart¬ 
ing  is  brisk,  there  is  very  great  difficulty  in  obtaining 
an  ample  supply  of  carts.  If  thejmow  falls  early  at 
night  salt  is  immediately  used,  and  before  .traffic  is 
busy  the  snow  plough  and  brushes  have  dealt  with  the 
melted  snow,  and  moved  it  to  the  sides  of  the  road; 
this  part  of  the  operation  of  snow  removal  is  compara¬ 
tively  ea‘sy;  there  are  a  number  of  large  manholes  con¬ 
structed  on  the  large  sewers  where .  there  is  a  good 
volume  of  water,  and  the  bulk  of  the  snow  is  disposed 
of  in  this  way.  In  the  urban  districts  the  snow  is 
tipped  on  to,  the  waste  grounds  by  permission  of  the 
owners,  or  tipped  into  the  river  Leen. 

In  a  severe  winter  snow-removal  may  cost  the  city 
•£1,500  to  £2,000.  The  maximum  number  of  men  em¬ 
ployed  was  645  and  the  number  of  carts  315  on  a  heavy 
snowfall. 

.  DUST-LAYING  AND  PREVENTION. 

There  are  fifty-two  water  carts  for  street  watering; 
nearly  all  are  four-wheeled  vans,  and  the  more  recent 
ones  are  of  the  “  Warwick  ”  Patent  Sprinkler  type, 
which  is  an  improvement  on  the  old  type  of  spreader. 
There  are  always  in  use  two  Layland  combined  tipping 
lorries  .and  interchangeable  watering  tanks :  the  tank 
is  1,000  gallons  capacity,  and  water  is  passed  through 
a  small  centrifugal  pump,  always  delivered  at  high 
pressure,  so  that  it  is  quite  easy  to  water  a  carriage¬ 
way  50  ft.  in.  width,  on  one  journey.  These  watering 
machines  are  exceedingly  economical. 

Street  watering  is  a  difficult  problem,  as  anyone  en¬ 
gaged  in  it  knows  only  too  well ;  thirty  or  forty  horses, 
men  and  carts  may  be  sent  out  in  the  early  morning, 
and  at  ten  o’clock  comes  a  brisk  shower,  soaking 
everything.  Work  has  to  be  found  for  these  thirty  or 
forty  horses  and  men,  and  when  this  has  been 
organised  the  sun  comes  out  with  a  drying  east  wind, 
and  the  dust  is  blinding.  The  man  who  pays  rates 
expects  that  thirty  or  forty  horses  can  be  found  in  half 
an  hour,  and  the  watering  started  again;  they  could 
be  if  that  number  of  horses  were  kept  in  reserve,  and 
the  ratepayer  would  then  feel  the  burden  greater  still. 

Year  ending  March  31,  1915,  the  days  on  which 


street-watering  w'as  necessary  were;  ...  178 

Number  of  streets  watered  .  71,820 

Number  of  loads  of  water  used  .  63,377 

Gallons  of  water  used .  25,500,000 


During  the  hot  weather  disinfectants  are  used  in 
the  water-carts  on  all  paved  roads;  as  much  as  2,600 
gallons  have  been  used  in  a  year. 

Besides  dust  laying  by  means  of  watering,  a  num- 


50 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


ber  of  experiments  -have  been  made  on  macadam 
roads  with  various  methods  of  dust  prevention.  The 
early  methods  were  the  use  of  oil  in  several  forms, 
made  so  as  to  be  miscible  with  water;  this  was  only 
moderately  successful,  as  the  oil  did  not  penetrate 
below  the  surface,  and  was  readily  washed  away  by  a 
heavy  shower  of  rain,  and  had  to  be  repeated. 
“  Akonia  ”  and  calcium  chloride*  were  tried,  and  these, 
which  are  practically  the  same  substance,  do  pene¬ 
trate  into  the  road  to  a  certain  extent.  Calcium 
chloride  having  a  remarkable  affinity  for  moisture, 
the  latter  held  in  the  air  is  attracted  to  the  surface  of 
the  road,  which  is  always  kept  moist;  it  is  only  effec¬ 
tive,  however,  so  long  as  the  weather  remains  fine:  a 
heavy  rain  washes  the  calcium  chloride  out  of  the 
road,  and  the'  process  has  to  be  repeated  fairly  fre¬ 
quently  in  this  changeable  climate. 

During  the  past  year  a  tar-spraying  machine  was 
purchased,  and  a  number  of  roads  treated  with  various 
kinds  of  tar,  with  results  which  were  eminently  satis¬ 
factory.  The  area  coated  was  124,069  square  yards, 
and  the  dust  on  these  roads  was  reduced  to  an  absolute 
minimum. 

It  should  be  remembered  that  tar-=spraying  gives  re¬ 
lief  from  dust  for  twenty-four  hours  per  day,  Sundays 
included,  whereas  the  relief  from  dust  by  street-water¬ 
ing  on  a  very  hot,  bright  day  is  of  a  very  temporary 
character.  Tar-spraying  not  only  prevents  dust,  but 
reduces  the  wear  to  the  macadam  surface  of  the  road, 
and,  unlike  when  oil  or  calcium  chloride  is  used,  is 
not  affected  by  heavy  rains.  Anything  which  will 
tend  to  reduce  dust,  increase  the  life  of  the  roads,  and 
save  the  waste  of  water  used  in  street  watering,,  is 
worth  trying  on  a  larger  scale.  It  is  possible  that  on 
very  steep  gradients  the  use  of  tar  may  not  be  advis¬ 
able;  if  so,  a  combination  of  the  two  systems  may  be 
necessary ;  that  is,  calcium  chloride  on  roads  having 
very  steep  gradients,  and  tar-spraying  on  other  roads. 


GOVERNMENT  AND  OILS. 


NO  CREOSOTE  FOR  ROADS. 

The  Minister  of  Munitions  orders  that  all  users  or 
consumers  of  creosote  oil,  green  oil,  sharp  oil,  anthra¬ 
cene  oil,  or  other  oils  with  a  specific  gravity  of  1  000 
or  more,  distilled  from  coal-tar,  and  all  oils  with  a 
specific  gravity  of  '950  or  more  distilled  from  other 
tars,  shall  within  fourteen  days  furnish  to  the  Con¬ 
troller  of  Mineral  Oil  Production,  M.P.S.3,  8  Norih- 
umberland-avenue,  London,  W.C.  2,  particulars  as 
to  the  source  of  supply,  the  quantity  used  during 
the  first  six  months  of  1917,  the  amount  estimated 
for  use  for  the  second  six  months  of  the  year,  and  the 
use  to  which  the  oil  is  put. 

It  is  further  ordered  that,  until  further  notice,  no' 
person  shall,  except  under  and  in  accordance  with 
the  terms  of  a.  licence  issued  under  the  authority  of 
the  Minister  of  Munitions,  use  any  creosote  (whether 
as  a  solvent  or  otherwise)  for  or  in  connection  with 
the  water-proofing,  preservation,  or  treatment  of 
timber  or  wood  of  any  kind  or  description;  the 
manufacture,  repair,  preservation,  or  treatment  of 
any  road  or  path  in  the  United  Kingdom,  or  any  -part 
of  such  road  ornath.  No  person  shall  until  further 
notice  offer  to  sell,  sell,  or,  except  for  the  purpose 
of  carrying  out  a  contract  in  writing  existing  prior 
to  such  date  for  the  sale  of  greosote,  enter  into  any 
transaction  or  negotiation  in  relation  to  the  sale  of 
creosote,  except  under  a  licence.  All’  applications 
for  licences  under  this  Order  shall  be"  made  to  the 
Direetor-GeneraJ  of  Munitions  Supply,  Ministry  of 
Munitions,  Whitehall-place,  London,  S.W.  1,  and 
marked  r‘  Creosote  Licence.” 


The  Sheffield  Darkened  Streets  Case.— The  Court  of 
Appeal  have  dismissed  the  appeal  of  the  Sheffield  Cor¬ 
poration  in  respect  of  an  award  of  £660  against  the 
corporation  for  personal  injuries  sustained  by  the 
plaintiff  coming  in  contact  with  one  of  the  iron  spikes 
fencing  a  tree,  the  sight  of  one  eye  being  practically 
destroyed.  The  contention  of  the  corporation  was 
that  the  guards  were  admittedly  safe  in  normal  cir¬ 
cumstances,  and  that  there  was  no  further  degree  of 
care  imposed  upon  them  by  reason  of  the  Lighting 
Order  under  which  the  town  was  placed  in  a  state  of 
darkness.  The  Lord  Chief  Justice  held  that  whether 
or  not  the  corporation  had  exercised  reasonable  care 
was  a  matter  for  the  jury  to  decide,  and  Lord  Justice 
Scrutton  concurred. 


MOTOR  SWEEPING  AT  HACKNEY. 


YEAR’S  WORK  WITH  A  LAFFLY  MACHINE. 

Mr.  Norman  Scorgie,  m.inst.c.e.,  borough  engineer 
of  Hackney,  has  prepared  for  the  information  of  his 
Works  Committee  the  subjoined  report  on  the  work¬ 
ing  of  the  Laffly  road-sweeping  machine  owned  by  the 
borough  council:  — 

N  umber  of  days  worked  ...  ...  ... 

Mileage  recorded  ... 

Average  per  day 
Length  of  roadway  swept 
Average  per  day 
Petrol  used ... 

Average  per  day 
Distance  per  gallon  ... 

Lubricating  oil  used 

Distai  ce  per  gallon  ...  ...  ... 

Axle  grease  used  ... 

Distance  (  er  1  lb. 

Number  of  broom  refills  ... 

Average  life  per  broom 
Average  wearing  distance  per  broom 


Initial  Cost. 


£ 

8. 

d. 

Machine 

638 

0 

0 

Hood  ...  ...  ...  ...  . 

12 

10 

0 

Speedometer 

5 

5 

0 

Spare  broom  spindles  (6)  ... 

15 

0 

0 

£670 

Working  Costs  for  the  Year. 

Life  of  the  machine  assumed  as  eight  years. 

15 

0 

£ 

s. 

d. 

Depreciation— 12^  per  cent 

Depreciation  on  sundry  additional  plant, 

S3 

16 

11 

levers,  lifting  jack,  &c. — 12}  per  cent... 
Repairs  and  renewals  (including  a  new 

2 

3 

10 

tyre)  ....  . 

26 

1 

5 

Insurance 

10 

4 

0 

Wages  paid  to  driver 

Petrol  (1,038  gallons — 2s.  2d.  and  2s.  3d. 

123 

18 

5 

per  gallon) 

Lubricating  oil  (50  gallons— 3s.  4d,  to 

116 

7 

2 

3s.  lOd.  per  gallon) 

9 

0 

8 

Axle  grease  (140  lb.) 

3 

2 

0 

Broom  refills  (33  at  £2  8s.) 

79 

4 

0 

£453 

18 

5 

Ecpial  to  6s.  ll'8d.  per  mile  of  road  swept. 


The  abnormal  conditions  which  have  prevailed  dur¬ 
ing  the  year  of  work  of  the  machine,  to  May  15,  1917, 
render  it  difficult  to  make  any  definite  comparison 
between  the  cost  of  the  work  as  executed  by  the  motor 
machine  and  as  previously  executed  by  the  horsed 
machines.  Taking  the  work  actually  done  by  the 
horsed  machines  during  the  preceding  year  (1915-1916), 
including  the  washing  down  in  front  of  these 
machines,  and  calculating  its  cost  at  the  prices  which 
were  in  force  during  the  year  1916-17,  the  total  cost 
woidd  have  been  £1,474.  The  cost  of  the  work  actually 
done  by  horsed  machines  during  the  year  1916-17  was 
£890;  the  cost  of  the  work  of  the  motor  machine,  as 
stated  above,  has  been  £454;  so  that  the  total  cost  has 
been  £1.344. 

There  has  been  a  saving  of  £130,  as  compared  with 
the  previous  year’s  work,  when  horsed  brooms  were 
used  exclusively.  It,  however,  should  be  borne  in 
mind  that  prices  generally  during  the  year  1916-17 
have  been  15  per  cent  in  excess  of  the  prices  during 
the  year  1915-16,  so  that,  assuming  that  the  cost  of 
working  the  motor  machine  does  not  increase  during 
the  course  of  the  present  year,  the  saving  should  be 
close  upon  £200  on  the  work  of  this  one  machine.  The 
foregoing  figures,  of  course,  do  not  show  the  further 
great  advantage  which  the  council  was  enabled  to 
obtain  by  the. quicker  cleaning  of  the  main  thorough¬ 
fares  of  the  borough  after  the  heavy  falls  of  snow 
which  took  place  during  last-  winter. 


London’s  Motor  Ambulance  Service _ The  London 

Gounty  Council  maintains  six  ambulance  stations,  at 
which  are  stationed  nine  motor  ambulances,  including 
two  spare  ambulances.  The  first  of'these  stations  was 
opened  on  February  1.  1915,  and  the  numbers  of  calls 
dealt  with  by  the  ambulance  service  in  the  years  1915 
and  1916  were  2,405  and  9,244  respectively. 


255 

8,925 

35 

1,300  miles 
5-1  „ 

1,038  gallons 
407  „ 

8'6  miles 
50  gallons 
178  miles 
-1401b. 

64  miles 
33 

7‘7  days 
270  miles 


July  20.  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


51 


Activated  Sludge  Process  of  Sewage  Purification/ 

THE  WORCESTER  EXPERIMENT. 

By  THOMAS  CA1NK,  assoc. m.inst.c.e.,  City  Engineer. 


In  December,  1914,  a  deputation  from  the  Corpora¬ 
tion  of  Worcester,  including  the  Mayor,  Alderman 
H.  A.  Leicester,  and  the  members  of  the  Water  and 
Sewerage  Committee,  with  some  other  members  of  the 
city  council,  visited  the  Salford  Sewage  Works  to 
see  the  activated  sludge  process  of  purification,  which 
was  experimentally  in  operation  there. 

Mr.  Melin,  the  chemist,  and  Mr.  Duckworth,  the 
manager  of  the  works,  kindly  met  the  visitors  and  ex¬ 
plained  to  them  the  process.  The  deputation  had  the 
further  privilege  of  being  accompanied  by  Dr.  Fowler, 
of  Manchester  University,  from  whose  investigations 
the  process  is  mainly  the  outcome.. 

The  deputation  was  greatly  impressed  with  the  sim¬ 
plicity  and  compactness  of  the  purification  arrange¬ 
ments,  as  well  as  with  the  effluent  produced,  but  as 
no  particulars  of  the  consumption  of  air  required  and 
other  items  of  cost  were  then  avaliable,  the  City 
council  was  content  to  await  further  developments 
of  the  process. 

The  method  experimented  with  was  an  intermittent 
one,  known  as  the  “  fill  and  draw  ”  method.  The 
writer  was  impressed  with  the  conviction  that  until  a 
continuous  method  wras  devised,  which  did  not  appear 
to  be  a  very  difficult  proposition,  the  process  was  not 
likely  to  receive  general  acceptance. 

The  position  was  not  greatly  dissimilar  to  that 
which  obtained  twenty  years  ago.  At  that  time  the 
intermittent  method  of  bacterial  purification  by  con¬ 
tact  beds  had  spread  pretty  widely.  The  author  was 
at  that  time  convinced  that  superior  results  would  be 
achieved  if  the  bacterial  filtration  could  proceed  con¬ 
tinuously  by  percolation.  He  accordingly  devised  the 
self-propelled  distributor,  which  was  introduced  to_ 
the  engineering  world  under  the  title  of  the  Candy- 
Caink  Distributor. 

This  device  made  practicable  the  continuous  perco¬ 
lating  filter,  which,  by  its  extremely  wide  adoption 
for  sewage  purification,  has  shown  that  the  anticipa¬ 
tions  which  the  author  entertained  were  amply  justi¬ 
fied.  A  similar  development  has  now  been  made  with 
the  activated  sludge  process,  and  with  similar  bene¬ 
ficial  results,  both  in  capital  outlay  as  well  as  running 
costs.  It  is  the  continuous  method  of  this  treatment 
that  has  been  experimented  with  at  the  Worcester 
Sewage  Works  during  the  past  twelve  months. 

Messrs.  Jones  and  Attwood,  in  company  with  Dr. 
Fowler,  visited  the  Worcester  works,  to  ascertain  if 
the  sewage  tanks  could  be  conveniently  adapted  to 
the  arrangements  they  had  designed  for  giving  effect 
to  the  continuous  method.  Dr.  Fowler  thought  the 
tanks  were  ideal  for  the  purpose. 

The  firm  accordingly  approached  the  city  council 
with  a  proposal  upon  the 

“no  cure,  no  pay” 

principle,  which  was  finally  accepted  by  the  council . 
and  embodied  in  an  agreement. 

The  firm  was  given  possession  of  two-thirds  of  one 
of  the  tanks,  which  were  in  duplicate,  to  make  what 
alterations  they  thought  necessary,  and  if  the  experi¬ 
ments  were  successful  they  were  to  be  paid,  at  the 
expiration  of  twelve  months,  a  sum  mentioned  in  the 
agreement.  If  not  successful,  they  undertook  to  re¬ 
move  their  plant,  &c.,  and  restore  the  tank  to  practi¬ 
cally  its  original  state. 

The  experiment  was  to  be  regarded  as  a  success  if. 
without  causing  any  nuisance  or  offence,  it  treated 
three-quarters  of  a  million  gallons  per  day  d.w.f.,  and 
twice  that  quantity  w.w.f.,  so  that  the  resulting 
effluent  should  be  incapable  of  putrefaction,  and  con¬ 
tain  not  more  than  four  parts  by  weight  of  suspended 
matter  in  100,000  parts  of  effluent. 

The  firm  was  also  required  to  submit  to  the  city  en¬ 
gineer  for  his  perusal,  but  not  for  his  approval,  draw¬ 
ings  showing  the  arrangements  they  proposed  to 
adopt. 

It  will  be  understood  from  this  that,  whatever  merit 
there  is  in  the  scheme,  which  the  association  will  have 
the  opportunity  of  inspecting,  the  credit  thereof 
belongs  entirely  to  Messrs.  Jones  &  Attwood,  and 
in  no  sense  to  the  author,  with  the  exception,  perhaps, 
of  some  details  suggested  by  him. 

It  was  obvious  that,  if  the  activated  sludge  process 

*  Paper  rfa'l  at  the  annual  summer  conference  of  the  Association  of 
Managers  of  Sewage  Disposal  Works.  *  » 


of  purification  was  to  become  one  which  sewage  en¬ 
gineers  could  entertain,  the  quantity  of  air  used  in 
the  Salford  experiment  when  the  deputation  .visited 
those  works  must  be  greatly  reduced,  so  as  to  bring 
the  cost  of  pumping  air  within  reasonable  limits, 
and,  as  has  already  been  remarked,  it  was  extremely 
desirable  that  a  continuous  method  should  be  found. 
The  experimental  plant  at  Worcester  is  an  effort  to 
give  effect  to  these  two  desiderata. 

It  was  clear  from  the  investigations  of  Dr.  Fowler 
and  others  that  the  purification  was  effected  by  keep¬ 
ing  the  activated  sludge  which  held  the  myriads  of 
oxidising  organisms  in  intimate  contact  with  the 
liquid  to  be  purified,  and  by  keeping  the  organisms 
supplied  with  a  sufficiency  of  oxygen  from  the  air. 
Hence  the  more  finely  the  sludge  was  broken  up,  and 
the  more  evenly  it  was  distributed  throughout  the 
mass  of  liquid,  the  more  intimate  was  the  contact 
between  the  solids  and  liquid.  The  question,  there¬ 
fore,  became.  What  is  the  most  efficient  method  of 
pioducing  fine  subdivision  and  suspension  of  the 
solids? 

Mottling  seemed  so  effective  to  this  end  as  agitation 
of  the  entire  mass  of  liquid  and  solids  by  the  blowing 
in  of  atmospheric  air,  while  this  method  possessed 
the  further  advantage,  of  supplying  the  necessary 
oxygen  to  the  organisms. 

As  the  need  of  the  latter  requires  only  a  fraction  of 
the  air  demanded  for  the  former,  the  economical 
problem  becomes  reduced  to  one  of  devising  a  method 
of  suspending  the  sludge  throughout  the  mass  of 
liquid  with  the  minimum  consumption  of  air. 

THE  PLANT  INSTALLED 

at  the  Worcester  Sewage  Works  is  Messrs.  Jones  & 
Attwood’s  contribution  towards  the  solution  of  this 
problem. 

It  will  easily  be  seen  from  what  has  been  said  that 
it  is  important  to  remove  detritus  and  all  other  heavy 
matter  in  the  .sewage  before  passing  it  into  the  aera¬ 
tion  tank.  All  large,  suspended,  non-putrefactive, 
organic  matter  should  also  be  screened,  and  as  these 
substances  neither  need  purification  themselves,  nor 
contribute  to  the  purifying  process,  they  ,  are  “  matter 
in  the  wrong  place,”  and  should  be  eliminated. 

The  portion  of  the  tank  handed  over  to  Messrs. 
Jones  &  Attwood  for  their  experiment  had  a  nett 
water  capacity,  at  a  depth  of  17  ft.  3  in.,  of  626,000 
gallons.  It  consisted  of  a  rectangular  tank,  86  ft.  3  in. 
by  78  ft.  by  18  ft.  deep  from  coping  to  floor.  It  was 
divided  into  nine  longitudinal  bays  extending  from 
the  inlet  channel,  which  ran  across  the  entire  width  of 
the  tUfnk,  to  its  opposite  end,  by  eight  division  walls, 
9  in.  thick,  all  the  bays  having  a  water  communica¬ 
tion  between  them  at  the  lower  or  outlet  end. 

These  longitudinal  bays  were  subdivided  by  three 
transverse  walls,  finally  forming  thirty-six  rectangular 
bays,  each  21  ft.  long  by  8  ft.  wide  and  18  ft.  deep. 
Of  these  twenty  are  devoted  to  aeration,  eight  to  the 
settlement  of  the  sludge,  and  the  remaining  eight  are 
at  present  not  in  use. 

Reverting  to  the  Salford  tank,  the  arrangement  for 
aeration  consisted  of  air  pipes  laid  on  the  floor  of  the 
tank,  which  was  flat,  containing  perforations  for  the 
exit  of  air  spaced  about  a  foot  apart.  Any  material 
increase  in  the  distance  between  the  air  exits  was 
found  to  result  in  the  settlement  of  sludge  on  the  floor 
in  fllie  intervening  spaces. 

For  the  purpose  of  increasing  the  intervals  between 
the  air  jets,  and  to  avoid  the  piling  up  of  sludge  on 
the  floor  of  the  tank,  a  series  of  concrete  ridges  and 
furrows  have  been  constructed  over  the  entire  floor 
area  of  the  aeration  tank,  the  ridges  occupying  the 
spaces  on  which  the  sludge  would  accumulate  if  the 
floor  were  flat.  In  the  furrows  porous  tiles,  called 
“  diffusers,”  are  laid,  through  which  the  air  is 
delivered  to  the  liquid.  The  author  thinks  these  are 
a  distinct  improvement  upon  the  plain  jets.  By 
means  of  these  ridges  the  distances  between  the  air 
outlets  have  been  greatly  increased. 

In  the  first  longitudinal  set  of  bays,  which  receives 
the  raw  sewage,  the  rows  of  diffusers,  which  run  across 
the  bays  and  are  a  foot  in  width,  are  separated  by 
a  distance  of  5  ft.  By  these  diffusers  a  vertical  cir¬ 
culation  of  the  water  is  set  up,  returning  upon  itself. 


o 


52 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


while  the  air  escapes  at  the  surface.  In  the  remaining 
aeration  bays  a  somewhat  different  arrangement,  of 
ridging  has  been  adopted,  whereby  the  distance 
between  the  rows  of  diffusers  is  increased  to  10  ft., 
thereby  reducing  the  consumption  to  one-half  of  the 
former  series  for  a  given  area  of  tank.  Each  row 
consists  of  eight  diffusers,  each  1  ft.  square,  laid 
tiansversely  across  the  bay.  The  circulation  resulting 
from  this  arrangement,  instead  of  being  local  to  each 
row  of  diffusers,  as  is  the  case  m  the  first  longitudinal 
bay,  the  air  drives  the  liquid  forward. 

Advantage  is  taken  of  this  to  create  a  horizontal  cir¬ 
culation  around  two  contiguous  series  of  longitudinal 
bays;  a  portion  of  the  water  returns,  and  a  portion 
is  taken  by  the  next  pair  to  travel  in  a  horizontal 
circuit  in  these. 

From  these  the  now  oxidised  liquid,  containing  its 
full  complement  of  suspended  sludge,  passes  into 
the  settling  bays.  These  eight  bays  are  formed  into 
four  tanks,  having  their  floors  shaped  into  inverted 
pyramids  sloped  at  an  angle  of  60  deg.  from  the  hori¬ 
zontal.  At  the  apex  of  each  pyramid  a  sludge  lift 
is  provided,  consisting  simply  of  a  6-in.  pipe,  in  the 
bottom  of  which  a  stream  of  air  is  blown,  which 
raises  the  settled  sludge  and  discharges  it  into  an 
8-in.  horizontal  sludge  main,  which  conveys  it  into 
the  inlet  channel,  where  it  mixes  with  the  incoming 
raw  sewage  and  returns  to  the  aeration  tank,  the 
excess  sludge  being  drawn  off  and  conveyed  to  sand 
beds  for  drying  and  disposal. 

The  sludge  as  it  leaves  the  settling  bays  contains 
usually  about  95  per  cent  of  water,  in  addition  to  a 
considerable  quantity  of  free  water,  which  rapidly 
drains  away.  The  purified  effluent  is  decanted  from 
the  settling  tank  into  troughs,  which  convey  it  to  the 
effluent  channel.  The  total  nett  capacity  of  the  aera¬ 
tion  bays  affords  an  aeration  period  of  six  hours,  with 
a  rate  of  flow  of  one  million  gallons  per  twenty-four 
hours,  plds  20  per  cent  of  sludge.  The  settling  bays 
give  a  detention  of  one  hour  and  forty  minutes  for  the 
seme  rate  of  flow,  but  without  the  sludge. 

The  actual  quantity  treated  per  diem  is  usually 
750,000  gallons,  which  gives  eight  hours’  aeration  and 
2J  hours’  settlement. 

With  these  flows,  the  conditions  of  the  agreement  in 
respect  of  the  d.w.f.  are  complied  with.  Below  is  an 
analysis  of  the  effluent. 

So  far  as  the  experiment  has  proceeded,  the  require¬ 
ments  relating  to  the  wet-weather  flow  have  not  been 
fulfilled  with  respect  to  the  suspended  matter,  the 
settling  area  being  apparently  insufficient. 

ANALYSIS  OF  SCREENED  SEWAGE. 


(Taken  May  31,  1917,  Worcester  Sewage  Works.) 

Parts  per 

100,000. 

Solids  in  suspension  ...  ...  ...  ...  10'4 

„  solution  dried  at  100c.  ...  ...  ...  151'0 

,,  „  appearance  ...  ...  ...  Brown. 

,,  ,,  after  ignition  ...  ...  .  .  132'0 

Behaviour  of  solids  in  ignition — blackeningandbadodour. 


Phosphates 
Chlorine  calculated  as  common  salt 
Free  and  saline  ammonia... 
Albuminoid  ammonia 
Oxygen  absorbed  in  four  hours  ... 
Nitrogen  in  nitrates  and  nitrites 

Colour  . 

Deposit 

Smell 


Trace. 

.  '  68  9 

.  20 

.  0-57 

.  21 

...  ...  None. 

Opalescent. 
...  Dark  grey. 

Bad. 

(Signed)  It.  Nino. 


ANALYSIS  OF  SEWAGE  EFFLUENT. 

(Taken  May  3',  1917,  Worcester  Sewage  Works.) 

Parts  per 
100,000. 

Solids  in  suspension  ...  ...  ...  ...  Trace. 

„  solution  dried  at  100c.  ...  ...  ...  143’0 

„  ,,  appearance  ...  ...  ...  Brown. 

„  „  after  ignition  ...  ...  ...  126-0 

Behaviour  of  solids  in  ignition — blackeningandbadodour. 


Phosphates 

Chlorine  calculated  as  common  salt 
Free  and  saline  ammonia... 

Albuminoid  ammonia 
Oxygen  absorbed  in  four  hours  ... 

Nitrogen  in  nitrates  and  nitrites 
Colour 
Deposit 
Smell... 

Dissolved  atmospheric  oxygen  absorbed  in  five  days 
(Adeney’s  test)  =  0'63  parts  per  100,000. 

No  putrefaction  observed  in  five  days  (incubation 
test). 

Remarks — The  above  effluent  is  satisfactory. 

(Signed)  Rol.  Nind. 


Trace. 

.  677 

.  26 

.  0-17 

.  066 

None. 

Slightly  opalescent. 
...Slightly  brown. 

Slight. 


The  air  compressor  supplied  with  the  plant  for 
aeration  is  a  double-acting  reciprocating  machine,  de¬ 
signed  to  deliver  562  cubic  feet  per  minute,  with  a 
speed  of  235  revolutions' per  minute,  and  is  driven  by 
a  40-h.p.  d.c.  motor. 

The  quantity  of  air  delivered  seemed  greater  than 
was  needed ;  the  speed  of  the  machine  was  therefore 
reduced  by  increasing  the  diameter  of  the  motor 
pulley  to  150  revolutions,  yielding  (not  counting  slip) 
416  cubic  feet  per  minute  with  a  consumption  of  elec¬ 
tricity  of  365  units  per  day.  The  reduction  of  speed 
doubtless  diminished  to  some  extent  the  efficiency  of 
the  air-compressing  plant.  The  air  is  conveyed  to  the 
tank  through  a  cast-iron  main,  9  in.  diameter,  from 
which  5-in.  and  4-in.  branches  are  taken  along  the 
coping  courses  of  the  division  walls.  From  these, 
wrought-iron  tubes,  1-in.  and  lfirn  diameter,  are  car¬ 
ried  to  the  diffusers,  which  are  laid  upon  the  floors  of 
the  tank  between  the  ridges. 

The  total  area  of  the  diffusers,  each  of  which  is 
12  in.  square,  is  313  sq.  ft.,  being  about  one-tenth  of 
the  water  area,  in  the  aeration  tank. 

The  pressure  of  air  at  the  compressor  is  9  lb.  per 
sq.  in.;  the  quantity  of  air  used  is  cubic  ft.  per 
gallon  of  sewage ;  the  price  paid  for  electricity  is  three 
farthings  per  unit;  the  consumption  of  electricity  for 
the  air  supply  is  488  units  per  million  gallons;  and 
the  cost  at  the  price  paid,  30s.  per  million  gallons 
treated.* 

The  air  compressor  should  be  in  duplicate,  so  that 
the  aeration  may  not  be  suspended  in  the  event  of  the 
machine  requiring  repairs.  Probably  the  most  econo¬ 
mical  arrangement  would  be  to  divide  the  compressor 
plant  into  three  units,  one  having  a  capacity  equal  to 
the  maximum  air  required,  another  of  75  per  cent,  and 
the  third  of  50  per  cent  of  the  maximum. 

Observation  of  the  running  of  the  plant  affords 
evidence  that  the  quantity  of  air  used  is  capable  of 
oxidising  a  greater  quantity  of  sewage  than  the  above 
figures  indicate. 

It  has  been  said  that  the  sludge  problem  is  the 
sewage  problem ;  that  the  solution  of  one  is  the  settle¬ 
ment  of  the  other.  If  that  is  so,  then  the  author  is 
of  opinion  that  the  activated  sludge  process  is 

THE  SOLUTION  OF  THE  SEWAGE  DISPOSAL  PROBLEM, 

because,  whatever  fertilising  value  the  sludge  result¬ 
ing  from  the  process  may  or  may  not  possess,  it  is  an 
innocuous  material,  and  may  be  deposited  anywhere 
without  offence. 

That  it  does  possess  important  fertilising  properties 
is  unquestionable,  but  how  to  apply  it  most  econo¬ 
mically  to  the  land  is  open  to  much  consideration.  It 
appears  to  the  author,  so  far,  that  after  simple  air  dry¬ 
ing  for  a  f'Sw  weeks  in  very  thin  layers,  it  could  be 
conveyed  by  mechanical  traction  to  the  land,  to  dis¬ 
tances  which  would  ensure  a  profitable  return  for  the 
expenditure,  without  causing  the  least  offence.  If 
that  proves  to  be  the  case,  the  importance  of  the  pro¬ 
cess  wi'l  eventually  be  enormous  from  the  point  of 
view  of  production  of  food  crops. 

The  character  of  the  Worcester  'sewage  is  a  fairly 
average  one  from  the  domestic  and  manufacturing 
point  of  view.  The  city  is  entirely  water  closeted; 
a  considerable  portion  of,  but  by  no  means  all,  the 
surface  water  is  separated  from  the  sewers,  and  there 
is  a  variety  of  manufactories,  comprising  breweries, 
porcelain  works,  glove  works,  tanneries,  chrome 
leather  works,  engineering  works,  foundries,  tinplate 
works,  and  others. 

When  Messrs.  Jones  &  Attwood  submitted  the 
drawings  showing  the  alterations  they  proposed  to 
make  to  the  tank  to  adapt  it  to  the  process  they  were 
going  to  experiment  with,  the  author  was  impressed 
with  the  conviction  that  more  energy — mechanical, 
chemical,  and  bacterial — might  be  obtained  from  the 
air  used  if,  instead  of  allowing  it  to  escape  into  the 
atmosphere  immediately  on  its  reaching  the  surface 
of  the  water,  ft  were  made  to  travel  horizontally,  car- 
rjing  with  it  a  stream  of  liquid  for  a  distance,  by 
covering  the  tank  with  a  more  or  less  airtight  roof. 
He  accordingly  submitted  to  the  firm  a  design  for  an 
aeration  tank  upon  those  lines,  as  well  as  a  settling 
tank  by  which,  he  conceived,  superior  effects  would 
be  obtained  for  a  given  quantity  of  air  supplied  to 
the  liquid.  He  has  since  then  further  developed  the 
scheme  along  the  same  lines,  and  ventures  to  submit 
a  description  and  drawing  of  it  for  the  consideration 
of  the  association. 

The  .objectives  sought  to  be  reached  are:  — 
AERATION  TANK. 

1.  Prolonged  contact  between  air  and  liquid. 

*  Ten  per  cent  Las  been  added  to  the  price  of  current  since  the  war 
began,  which  makes  the  cost  £1  13s.  per  1,000,000  gallons. 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


53 


2.  Simplicity  and  moderate  cost  of  tank  construc¬ 
tion. 

3.  Suspension  and  fine  subdivision  of  the  solids, 
and  aeration  with  a  minimum  expenditure  of  air. 

4.  Impossibility  of  short-circuiting  of  the  liquid 
from  inlet  to  outlet. 


8.  Adaptability  to  variations  of  flow  from  minimum 
dry  weather  to  maximum  wet  weather,  and  from  day 
flow  to  night  flow. 

SETTLEMENT  TANK. 

10.  Uniformity  of  forward  movement  of  the  entire 
volume  of  effluent,  so  as  to  obtain  the  maximum 


av.l 

II  '  *  \ 

;4  1 

I1 

D  *  *  ' 

\  ! 
• :  ‘\  -  !i 

1 

u 

.\U_»r  r~ 

k 

U:4 

-  F  ic~T 

-  Sludge  l  t 

The  Activated  Sludge  Process:  Design  for  Aeration  and  Settling  Tanks  for  Treating 

2,000,000  Gallons  Per  Day,  D.W.F. 


5.  Facility  for  draining  tank  in  the  event  of  its  re¬ 
quiring  to  be  emptied. 

6.  Easy  removal  of  air  diffusers  for  examination  and 

changing. 

7.  Facility  for  observing  progress  of  purification  in 
the  transmission  of  the  liquid  from  inlet  to  outlet  of 
aeration  tank. 


settlement  of  sludge  with  the  minimum  tank  capacity. 

11.  Certainty  of  early  and  complete  removal,  and  re¬ 
storation  to  aeration  tank  of  the  deposited  sludge. 

12.  Adequate  length  of  weir  over  which  the  final 
effluent  flows  to  its  destination. 

The  accompanying  drawing  illustrates  a  tank  de¬ 
signed  with  these  aims  to  deal  with  a  d.w.f.  of  2,000,000 

0* 


54 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


gallons  of  sewage,  and  a  w.w.f.  <of  6,000,000  gallons  per 
day.  This  would  provide  for  a  population  of  50,000, 
with  a  water  consumption  of  40  gallons  per  head  per 
day. 

The  internal  dimensions  of  the  aeration  tank  are 
86  ft.  9  in.  and  18  ft.  deep  from  coping  to  floor,  and 
has  a  nett  capacity  of  rather  more  than  650,000  gallons, 
with  a  depth  of  water  of  17  ft.  This  capacity  gives  an 
aeration  period  for  2,000,000  gallons  per  day  of  six 
hours,  and  for  6,000,000  gallons  per  day  of  two  hours, 
assuming  a  sludge  proportion  of  25  per  cent  of  the 
entire  volume. 

~ The  tank  is  divided  into  ten  longitudinal  bays  by 
walls  running  the  whole  length  of  the  tank,  the  walls 
having  their  lowest  course  1  ft.  6  in.  above  the  floor, 
and  tlie  top  courses  2  ft.  6  in.  below  the  water-line. 
.Nine  of  these  bays  are  covered  by  a  more  or  less  air¬ 
tight  roof,  carried  by  arches  resting  upon  the  division 
walls.  The  best  material  for  this  will  probably  be 
ferro-concreto,  but  in  the  drawing  appended  the  roof 
is  shown  constructed  of  timber,  composed  of  11-in.  by 
4-in.  planks  rebated  at  their  edges  so  as  to  form  a  joint 
half  an  inch  wide,  intended  to  be  filled  with  soft  bitu¬ 
men.  This  arrangement  would  facilitate  the  removal  of 
any  part  of  the  roof  for  renewing  the  air  diffusers  When 
necessary,  or  for  other  purposes.  One  of  the  longitu¬ 
dinal  bays  is  left  uncovered  for  the  exit  of  the  air 
used  for  circulation  and  aeration. 

A  row  of  diffusers,  which  are  suspended  by  wrought- 
iron  tubes  from  the  cast-iron  air  main,  running  above 
the  roof,  extends  along  the  entire  length  of  the  bay,  at 
the  opposite  side  of  the  tank  to  that  of  the  unroofed 
bay.  Other  diffusers,  similarly  suspended,  are  distri¬ 
buted  over  eighty  other  bays,  at  distances  apart  of 
about  8  ft.  in  all  directions.  Over  each  of  the  latter 
diffusers  a  shield  or  deflector,  4  ft.  square,  consisting 
ot  elm  boards  submerged  3  ft.  below  the  roof,  is  sus¬ 
pended. 

In  the  wall  separating  the  aeration  from  the  settling 
tank  a  number  of  openings  for  conveying  the  liquid 
from  the  former  to  the  latter  are  provided. 

The  dimensions  of  the  settling  tank  are  86  ft.  9  in. 
long,  23  ft.  wide,  and  21  ft.  deep.  The  depth  of  water 
from  the  crest  of  the  overflow  weir,  which  is  level 
with  the  underside  of  the  roof  of  the  aeration  tank,  is 
20  ft.  The  settlement  tank  is  unroofed;  its  capacity 
is  250,000  gallons,  and  gives  a  settling  period  of  three 
hours  for  2,000,000  gallons  per  day.  The  floor  is  flat 
over  its  entire  area. 

»  A  syphon,  having  its  horizontal  limb  about  3  in. 
above  the  floor,  stretches  across  the  length  of  the  tank, 
its  vertical  limb,  which  is  10  in.  in  diameter,  dis¬ 
charging  into  a  channel  running  between  the  aeration 
and  the  settling  tanks.  The  horizontal  limb  is  per¬ 
forated,  and  carries  a  series  of  scrapers  pivoted  -upon 
a  rod  below  the  pipe,  the  other  ends  resting  on  the 
floor. 

The  syphon  is  suspended  from  a  pair  of  wheeled 
carriages  which  run  upon  steel  rails,  laid  on  each  side 
of  the  tank  upon  trunnions,  whereby  the  submerged 
portion  of  the  syphon  may  be  easily  lifted  to  the  sur¬ 
face  for  examination  and  removal  of  the  scrapers 
when  necessary,  without  emptying  the  tank  or  other¬ 
wise  interfering  with  the  continuity  of  the  operation. 
A  small  electric  motor  mounted  upon  one  of  these 
carriages  drives  the  syphon  through  speed-reducing 
gear  to  and  from  end  to  end  of  the  tank. 

This  is  probably  the  most  convenient  form  of  drive, 
but  generally  there  would  be  ample  power  in  the  flow 
of  the  effluent  to  give  motion  to  the  syphon,  without 
the  small  expenditure  of  electricity.  The  effluent 
weir  runs  the  entire  width  of  the  tank,  and  conveys 
the  water  to  a  channel  which  discharges  into  a 
culvert,  conveying  it  to  the  river. 

«  THE  ACTION  OF  THE  PLANT 

will  have  been  anticipated  from  its  description.  The 
tank  is  filled  to  the  underside  of  the  roof  from  the 
inlet  channel  with  raw  sewage,  admitted  through  nine 
openings  spaced  at  regular  intervals  along  the  chan¬ 
nel.  Air  is  blown  through  the  diffusers  into  the 
liquid,  but  instead  of  immediately  escaping  at  the 
surface  into  the  atmosphere,  it  is  forced  along  under 
the  roof  to  the  only  exit  at  the  opposite  end  of  the 
tank  in  a  stream  of  water  which  flows  at  a  velocity 
depending  upon  the  volume  of  air  transmitted 
through  the  diffuser.  As  this  is  happening  through¬ 
out  the  whole  length  of  the  tank  from  inlet  to  outlet, 
the  upper  layer  of  water  over  the  entire  area  is  set  in 
motion  in  the  same  direction  from  the  diffusers  to  the 
opposite  side  where  the  uncovered  portion  of  the  tank 
offers  an  escape  for  the  air. 

The  stream  of  water  creates  a  head  at  this  point. 


setting  up  a  return  current,  the  intervening  walls 
forcing  the  stream  to -flow  along  immediately  above 
the  floor  with  a  scouring  velocity,  effectually  prevent¬ 
ing  the  lodgment  of  solid  matter  thereupon. 

A  moving  .belt  of  water  is  thus  created  over  the 
entire  area  ot  the  tank.  As,  however,  the  sewage  is 
constantly  entering  the  tank  and  moving  towards  the 
outlet,  each  particle  of  water  in  the  belt  will  assume 
(the  direction  of  a  spiral  or  screw,  the  pitch  of  which 
will  depend  upon  the  relative  velocities  of  the  forward 
motion,  due  to  the  inflow,  and  of  the  circumferential 
motion,  due  to  the  influx  of  air,  and,  by  this  spiral 
motion,  eventually  reach  the  settling  tank. 

The  openings  which  convey  the  raw  sewage  from  the 
inlet  channel  into  the  tank  are  placed  at  such  a  level 
as  to  be  near  the  middle  line  of  the  upper  moving  belt 
of  water.  The  sewage,  therefore,  is  immediately 
caught  in  the  vortex  and  carried  round  the  spiral 
stream,  thereby  preventing  the  possibility  of  short- 
circuiting — that  is,  of  taking  a  more  or  Jess'  direct 
course  to  the  outlet.  ' 

It  will  be  seen  that  the  mass  of  liquid  lying  between 
the  moving  zones  is  more  or  less  stationary.  In  order 
to  give  motion  to  this  water  sufficient  to  keep  the 
solids  in  suspension,  and  to  give  an  adequate  supply 
of  air  to  the  organisms,  the  isolated  diffusers  are  pro¬ 
vided.  The  air  from  these  rises  through  the  liquid 
and  is  deflected  by  the  shields  escaping  at  their  edges, 
contributing  more  air  to  that  in  the  upper  layer  and 
ac  ding  to  the  velocity  of  the  moving  liquid,  at  the 
same  time  causing  a  local  crater-like  circulation  of 
the  water  to  be  set  up  by  each  diffuser. 

It  will  be  noticed  that  there  are  three  distinct 
motions  given  to  the  liquid — the  flow  from  inlet  to 
outlet,  the  circumferential  motion,  and  the  crater¬ 
like  motion — the  actual  movement  forward  being  com¬ 
pounded  of  all  three. 

The  question  may  be  asked,  What  is  the 

MOST  ECONOMICAL  DEPTH  FOR  THE  AERATION  TANK  P 

The  following  theoretical  considerations  may  be  of 
service  in  answering  this  question,  although  the 
actual  depth  which  may  be  economical  for  any  parti¬ 
cular  case  will,  of  course,  greatly  depend  upon  the 
circumstances  of  the  site  and  the  nature  of  the  ground 
encountered. 

The  energy  expended  in  creating  a  velocity  of  cur¬ 
rent  is  almost  entirely  absorbed  by  friction.  Hence 
the  shorter  the  distance  the  stream  has  to  flow,  the 
smaller  is  the  friction  developed  for  a  given  velocity, 
and  consequently  the  less  the  energy  absorbed  in  over¬ 
coming  it. 

The  form  of  rectangle  of  a  given  area  which  has  the 
shortest  periphery  is,  of  course,  the  square  ;  hence  a 
rectangular  tank  which  would  offer  the  least  friction 
to  the  circumferential  current,  in  the  method  last 
described,  is  one  of  which  the  depth  would  equal 
its  breadth. 

In  practice  this  would  generally  be  out  of  the  ques¬ 
tion.  because  a  tank  100  ft.  wide  would  have  to  be 
100  ft.  deep.  But  the  consideration  shows  that,  other 
-things  being  equal,  the  deeper  the  tank  the  less  loss 
ot  power  in  circulating  the  water  at  a  given  velocity. 

Take  the  following  example.  Tn  a  tank  of  a  width 
ot  100  ft.  and  a  depth  of  10  ft.,  the  water  would  travel 
10  +  100  +  10  +  100.  total  220  ft.  In  a  tank  of  the 
same  capacity,  50  ft.  wide  and  20  ft.  deep,  the  water 
would  travel  20  +  50  +  20  +  50,  total  140  ft.  The  dif¬ 
ference  in  the  energy  required  to  overcome  the  friction 
for  the  same  velocity  of  current  in  these  cases  would 
be  appreciable. 

In  considering 

ADAPTABILITY  TO  VARIATIONS  OF  FLOW, 

it  is  clear  that  a  tank  capacity,  both  for  aeration  and 
settlement,  must  be  provided  to  deal  with  the 
maximum,  quantity  intended  to  be  treated,  and  that 
the  entire  sludge  content  of  the  aeration  tank  must  be 
kept  active  by  maintaining  alive  the  oxidising 
organisms,  and  that  can  only  be  done  by  a  more  or 
less  continuous  supply  of  air. 

Experience  has  shown  that  a  more  diluted  sewage 
does  not  demand  so  long  a  period  of  aeration  as  a 
stronger  one.  It  may  provisionally  be  taken  that 
double  the  tank  capacity  which  is  required  for  the 
d.w.f.  will  suffice  for  three  times  that  flow  diluted 
with  storm-water.  Hence,  if  the  full  capacity  of  the 
tank  capable  of  dealing  with  the  maximum  flow  be 
used  for  the  d.w.f.,  it  follows  that  it  will  receive 
twice  the  aeration  period  in  its  transit  through  the 
tank  that  it  needs. 

The  “  fill  and  draw  ”  method  of  the  activated  sludge 
process  showed  that  adequate  activity  of  the  sludge 
coidd  be  maintained  by  intermittent  aeration,  pro- 


.July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


55 


vided  the  period  of  rest  was  kept  within  certain  limits. 
Two  hours  seemed  to  be  quite  a  practicable  interval. 

By  the  arrangement  which  lias  been  described,  ad¬ 
vantage  may  be  taken  of  this  circumstance  to  employ 
one-half  of  the  tank  at  a  time  for  the  d.w.f.,  alter¬ 
nating  the  two  halves  at  short  intervals  of,  say,  half 
an  hour  or  less.  * 

This  can  lie  easily  effected  by  carrying  a  separate  air 
main  from  the  compressor  to  each  half  of  the  tank, 
and  controlling  them  by  a  three-way  valve.  This 
might  be  operated  either  by  hand  or  automatically 
through  an  electric  motor  by  a  timing  arrangement. 

If  the  latter  be  adopted,  the  intervals  of  change  might 
be  made  still  shorter.  •  This  principle  might  be  ex¬ 
tended  to  adapting  the  consumption  of  air  to  varia¬ 
tions  due  to  a  day  and  night  flow. 

The  total  area  of  diffusers,  each  of  which  is  15  in. 
square,  is  20  sq.  ft.,  being  l'29th  of  the  water  area 

With  an  initial  pressure  of  9  lb.  per  sq.  in.,  the 

CONSUMPTION  OF  AIR 

with  this  area  of  diffusers  would  be  0-22  cubic  ft.  per 
gallon  of  sewage  treated.  The  consumption  of  elec¬ 
tricity  for  the  air  supply  would  be  about  174  units, 
which  at  fd.  per  unit  amounts  to  10s.  8d.  per  million 
gallons  for  the  d.w.f.,  and  less  for  the  w.w.f. 

These  figures  are  based  upon  an  aeration  period  of 
six  hours.  If  three  hours’  aeration  suffice,  which  is 
frequently  found  to  be  the  case,  then  the  method  of 
alternate  working  of  the  two  halves  of  the  tank  pre¬ 
viously  mentioned  might  be  adopted. 

In  that  case  the  cost  of  the  air  supply  would  be  re¬ 
duced  to  5s.  4d.  per  million  gallons.  These  costs 
would,  of  course,  be  further  reduced  in  the  proportion 
in  which  the  power  production  costs  may  be 
diminished. 

For  large  installations,  probably  the  steam  turbine 
driving  a  turbine  air  compressor  would  prove  the 
most  economical. 

In  other  instances,  high-compression  types  of  oil 
engines  or  suction  gas-producer  sets  would  have  the 
advantage. 

Having  regard  to  the  comparatively  small  capital 
outlay  involved  in  installing  a  fully-equipped  plant- 
for  the  process,  the  author  believes  that  no  other 
method  of  sewage  purification  will  for  economy  ap¬ 
proach  that  of  the  activated  sludge  process,  and,  from 
the  point  of  view  of  freedom  from  the  risk  of  nuisance, 
is  probably  not  equalled,  and  certainly  is  not  sur¬ 
passed. 

To  give  any  period  of  aeration  that  may  be  deter¬ 
mined  upon,  25  per  cent  should  be  added  to  the  nett 
capacity  of  the-  tank  which  would  provide  that  period, 
in  order  to  allow  for  the  volume  of  sludge  present, 
upon  which  the  purification  mainly  depends. 

The  quantity  of  wet  sludge  is  in  this  scheme 
assumed  to  be  25  per  cent  of  the  total  volume.  This 
quantity  generally  takes  from  two  to  three  months  to 
accumulate. 

The  aerated  liquid,  mixed  with  its  full  complement 
oc  suspended  sludge,  passes  into  the  settling  tank 
through  a  number  of  openings  in  the  portion  of  tin- 
wall  situated  between  the  two  rapidly-moving  belts 
of  water.  This  arrangement  has  the  effect  of  giving 
a  slow  forward  movement  to  the  entire  mass  of  liquid 
in  the  tank,  thereby  ensuring  the  maximum  settle¬ 
ment.  of  the  sludge.  The  latter  is  drawn  away  through 
the  perforations  into  the  horizontal  limb  of  the  syphon 
and  discharged  into  the  sludge  channel  which  conveys 
it  to  a  well,  trom'which  it  is  lifted  by  an  air  sludge 
lift  into  the  pumping  main  conveying  the  raw  sewage, 
with  which  it  gets  intimately  mixed  and  returned  to 
the  aeration  taqk. 

Fig.  2  shows  a 

NEW  DESIGN  FOR  A  SLUDGE  LIFT 
which  possesses  the  advantage  of  avoiding  the  semi- 
intermittent  pulsating  action  common  to  air  lifts,  and 
also  of  indicating  the  density  of  the  sludge  lifted. 

't  his  latter  is  important,  because,  while  it  is  impera¬ 
tive  that  all  the  sludge  should  as  rapidly  as  pos¬ 
sible  be  removed  from  the  settling  tank,  it  should,  for 
economical  reasons,  be  accompanied  by  a  minimum 
quantity  of  free  water.  The  device  enables  tin- 
density  to  be  kept  under  easy  observation,  and  conse¬ 
quently  the  proper  quantity  of  air  required  for  lift¬ 
ing  the  sludge  readily  ascertained  and  controlled. 

At  the  opposite  end  of  the  sludge  channel  to  that 
of  the  well  a  valve  -is  provided  for  drawing  off  the 
excess  sludge  for  disposal.  This  is  conveyed  through 
a  drain  to  the  drying  beds. 

A  settlement  period  of  about  two  hours  seems  to  be 
sufficient  in  most  cases.  The  drawing  shows  a  tank 
of  a  capacity  equal  to  three  hours  d.w.f.  of  2,000,000  | 
gallons  per  day,  which  would  give  one  hour  for 


three  times  the  d.w.f.  Whether  this  would  suffice 
for  the  w.w.f.  would  largely  depend  upon  the  size 
and  character  of  the  stream  into  which  the  effluent 
would  be  discharged. 

The  above  arrangement  assumes  that  the  sewage 
has  been  previously  efficiently  screened  and  freed 
from  detritus. 


STREET  PAVING  CHARGES. 


HIGH  COURT  DECISION  AS  TO  NOTICE  TO  OWNERS. 

In  the  Chancery  Division  of  the  High  Court  re¬ 
cently  Mr.  Justice  Neville  delivered  judgment  against 
the  Bristol  Corporation  in  their  action  seeking  to 
make  Mr.  George  Hall  Sinnott,  solicitor,  of  12 
Orchard-street,  Bristol,  and  his  brother,  Major  Her¬ 
bert  Cyril  Sinnott,  liable  under  Section  257  of  the 
Public  Health  Act  of  1875  for  charges  for  draining, 
paving,  and  channelling  the  road  fronting  premises 
owned  by  them  in  Bloomfield-road,  Bristol.  Mr. 
MacMorran,  K.C.,  and  Mr.  Northcote  were  for  the 
corporation;  Mr.  Kingsbury  for  Mr.  Sinnott  and  his 
brother. 

Mr.  Justice  Neville,  in  giving  judgment,  said  the 
question,  although  important,  was  purely  technical, 
and  turned  upon  the  construction  of  a  few  words  in 
the  Act  of  1875.  He  (his  lordship)  had  nothing  to 
do  with  whether  or  not  the  owner  was  attempting  to 
avoid  doing  the  work.  He  had  simply  got  to  ascer¬ 
tain  whether  the  notice  was  within  the  meaning 
of  the  words  oKthe  Act,  “  a  good  notice.”  The  words 
were  that  notice  may  be  given  to  the  owners  “  in  a 
time  to  be  specified  in  such  notice,”  and  he  thought 
that  meant  a  reasonable  time — a  time  reasonably 
adapted  for  fulfilling  the  work  ordered  to  be  done 
by  the  local  authority.  The  peculiarity  of  this  case 
was  that  it  appeared  quite  clear  from  the  affidavit 
of  the  town  clerk  that  the  local  authority,  instead 
of  considering  what,  was  a  reasonable  time  in  which 
ro  do  certain  work,  had  got  into  a  habit  of  saying 
invariably  “  one  month.”  They  said  this  was  of 
very  smail  importance,  because  if  the  work  was 
commenced  within  the  month  they  were  never  un¬ 
reasonable  as  to  the  time  it  took  to  complete.  They 
said  it  was  a  matter  of  very  small  interest  to  the 
frontager,  so  long  as  he  was  diligent  to  commence 
the  work.  But  one  of  the  conditions  precedent  by’ 
the  local  authority  was  the  giving  of  a  sufficient 
notice,  and  if  a  reasonable  time  had  not  been  fixed 
for  the  completion  of  the  work  the  notice  was  bad. 
He  saw  no  distinction  between  giving  a  notice  which 
did  not  comply  with  the  provisions  of  the  Act  and 
giving  no  .notice  at  all.  It  was  perfectly,  clear  that 
in  this  case  a  month  was  fixed  without  any  refer¬ 
ence  to  the  work  to  be  performed,  and  that  this  time 
was  grossly  inadequate  for  the  purpose.  He  came 
to  the  conclusion,  therefore,  that  the  notice  was  bad, 
inasmuch  as  it  fixed  a  time  for  the  completion  of 
the  work  within  which  it  could  not  be  completed. 
If  that  was  so,  the  local  authority  could  not  recover 
unless  there  had  been  on  the  part  of  the  owners  a 
waiver  to  the  right  of  notice,  or  that  conduct  of  the 
owner  had  been  such  as  to  amount  to  an  estoppel. 
He  did  not  find  any  evidence  that  there  had  been  a 
waiver  of  the  right  to  notice  by.  the  owner.  There 
had  been  some  hostility  from  the  owner,  and  he  had 
been  holding  the  corporation  at  arm’s  length  from 
first  to  last,  and  he  therefore  must  find  that  there 
had  been  no  waiver.  He  (his  lordship)  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  the  notice  not  having  been  given,  it 
was  not  within  the  jurisdiction  of  the  court  to  say 
it  was  a  small  matter,  and  that  the  fixing  of  a  longer 
period  would  have  made  little  difference  to  the 
owner.  He  dismissed  the  summons,  and  ordered  the 
corporation  to  pay  the  costs. 


City  of  London  Motor  Volunteer  Corps. — An  addi¬ 
tional  heavy  squadron  is  in  course  of  formation  in 
connection  with  the  lst/3rd  (National  Guard)  Squad¬ 
rons  of  the  City  of  London  Motor  Volunteer  Corps. 
The  class  of  work  covered  by  the  corps  includes:  (1) 
Conveyance  of  troops  to  working  points,  for  trench 
digging,  field  exercises,  musketry  and  other  training. 
(2)  Conveyance  of  arms,  stores  and  equipment.  (3) 
Conveyance  of  wounded  soldiers.  (4)  M.T.  practice 
in  convoy  running  and  march  discipline.  There  are 
still  a  few  motor  vans  and  lorries,  private  motor  cars 
and  motor  cycles  required  to  complete  (lie  establish¬ 
ment  of  the  squadron,  and  owners  who  are  willing 
to  assist  in  this  branch  of  the  scheme  of  Home  Defence- 
are  invited  to  communicate  with  Lieutenant  and  Act¬ 
ing  Adjutant  F.  G.  Bristow,  at  the  Headquarters,  83 
Fall  Mall,  S.W.  1. 


56 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

El's  avyjp  ov  TrdyO'  6 pa 

(One  man  does  not  see  everything.) 

— Euripides. 

RECONSTRUCTION  AFTER  THE  WAR. 

To  the  Editor  of  Tub  Surveyor. 

Sir, — I  would  invite  the  attention  of  all  engineers 
and  architects,  surveyors,  builders,  and  manufacturers 
to  a  little  pamphlet  issued  by  Technical  Journals, 
Limited,  27-29  Tothill-street,  Westminster,  and  en¬ 
titled,  “  The  Chance  for  British  Firms  in  the  Re-build¬ 
ing  of  Belgium.” 

I  ask  your  special  attention  to:  — 

Rage  4,  the  whole. 

Summary,  pages  6  and  7,  Nos.  (3)  and  (5). 

Rages  11  to  13  (half-way  down). 

Rage  16,  paragraph,  “  The  Germans  .  .  .  recon¬ 
structed.” 

Rage  22,  the  whole. 

Rages  26  to  half-way  down  27 

Rage  29,  paragraph,  “  We  have  ....  and  suburbs.” 

Rage  37,  the  whole. 

In  my  opinion  the  pamphlet  makes  perfectly  intel¬ 
ligible  the  action  of  the  Germans  in  laying  waste 
Belgium,  Serbia,  Poland,  the  best  half  of  Roumania, 
and  as  much  of  France,  Italy,  and  Britain  as  they  can 
reach.  If  so  much  of  France,  Italy,  and  Britain  can 
be  destroyed  as  will  keep  these  nations  busy  the  first 
few  vital  months  immediately  following  the  war,  the 
Germans  will,  with  their  complete  knowledge,  organi¬ 
sation,  and  experience  before  the  war,  have  practically 
secured  the  reconstruction  of  Belgium,  Serbia, 
Roumania,  and  Russia  for  themselves.  Therefore,  so 
long  as  Germany  proper,  the  “  Fatherland  ”  inside 
the  boundaries  of  1856,  remains  undamaged,  the  more 
damage  done  outside  these  boundaries,  the  better  for 
German  financial  interests.  The  reasons  may  be 
stated  thus :  — 

(а)  Alsace-Lorraine,  German  Poland,  the  Colonies, 
and  perhaps  other  territory,  are  lost  altogether,  but 
can  be  made,  in  the  peace  terms,  to  balance  indemni¬ 
ties.  The  skill  of  German  diplomacy  may  be  trusted 
to  make  the  actual  indemnities  to  be  paid  compara¬ 
tively  small,  to  be  disbursed  in  instalments,  over  a 
.long  period  of  years. 

(б)  These  indemnities  may  be  regarded  as  distri¬ 
buted  outlay  on  profitable  contracts,  if  a  sufficient 
share  of  the  reconstruction  of  the  B.S.R.R.  Group  can  be 
secured.  The  Allies,  or  rather  Britain  and  the  United 
States  of  America,  will  find  the  capital,  “  someone  ” 
(not  Germany !)  the  interest,  and  Germany  will  do  the 
work  and  pocket  the  capital,  which  will,  of  course,  be 
the  actual  sums  paid  to  the  “  contractors.” 

My  theory,  therefore,  is  ‘that  the  Germans  are 
“  making  work  ”  for  themselves  in  order  to  re-esta¬ 
blish  their  industries,  and  to  regain  their  influence 
and  trade  hold  on  their  victims  after  the  war.  They 
will  continue  to  destroy  property  until  we  can  bomb 
purely  German  property,  seeking  the  destruction  of 
buildings  and  public  works  rather  than  life;  and 
when  the  pace  becomes  too  hot  for  them  the  Germans 
will  "  surrender,”  and  treacherously  commit  every 
kind  of  further  damage  in  withdrawing  to  within  their 
new  boundaries.  If  the  Germans  succeed  in  this  they 
will  have  established  a  Middle  Europe,  and  in  one 
generation  will  have  renewed  the  race,  and  probably 
Germanised  depopulated  Belgium,  Serbia,  and 
Roland,  partly  with  living  Germans  of  mixed  ancestry 
and  partly  by  the  spread  of  Kultur,  through  personal 
contact.  In  this  policy  they  will  be  materially  helped 
by  the  red-tape  prevailing  in  Belgium  (see  pages  26 
and  27  of  the  pamphlet)  and  by  the  metric  system, 
and  the  official  Belgic  importance  attached  to  exact 
dimensions. 

It  i,s  of  urgent  public  importance,  therefore,  that 
all  Belgic  specifications,  &e.,  should  be  legally  stan¬ 
dardised  with  the  least  possible  delay  to  suit  the  ac¬ 
customed  users  of  the  foot,  inch,  yard  and  pound 
weight. 

Regarding  weights  and  measures,  I  have  already 
made  suggestions  for  a  friendly  allied  understanding 
to  cut  out  Germany  in  your  columns;  see  page  472  in 
your  issue  dated  May  18th  last. 

We  cannot  change  over  to  the  metric  system.  There 
is,  for  one  thing,  no  time.  Only  one-quarter  of  mankind 
employ  it,  and  half  of  these  are  our  bitter  enemies 
and  unfriendly.  To  alter  our.  ancient  systems  to  suit 
Belgium,  Serbia  and  Roumania  is  to  burn  the  house 
down  to  sequre  some  roast  pig.  Russia,  our  great  and 
valuable  neighbour  and  ally,  is  non-metric,  and 


already  uses  the  foot,  inch,  yard,  and  pound  weight. 
1  submit  that  if  the  Belgians,  Serbians,  and 
Roumanians  have  a  spark  of  gratitude  for  Britain  and 
the  United  States  of  America  they  will  accept  my  sug¬ 
gestions  (see  reference  above)  without  hesitation  or 
demur. 

I  commend  this  letter  to  the  attention  of  the  Ameri¬ 
can  Ambassador.  It  will  amply  repay  Germany  if  she 
secures  only  half  the  construction,  and  a  solid 
footing  in  all  these  markets  on  her  old  conditions. 
What  has  to  be  done  is  to  shut  her  out  altogether,  so 
that  the  policy  of  frightfulness  will  bear  dead-sea  fruit 
to  her.  The  surest  means,  of  course,  is  to  create  a 
German  reconstruction  problem,  but  our  standards 
of  morality  are  too  high  for  such  a  solution ! — Yours, 
E.  A.  W.  Phillips,  m.inst.c.e. 

Hove,  July  13,  1917. 


DR.  BARWISE  AND  CONSULTING  ENGINEERS. 

To  the  Editor  of  The  Surveyor. 

Sir, — When  I  read  the  remarks  of  Dr.  Sidney  Bar- 
wise,  medical  officer  of  health  for  Derbyshire,  in  his 
recent  presidential  address  to  the  Association  of 
Managers  of  Sewage  Disposal  Works  at  Worcester,  I 
could  scarcely  believe  that  any  one  in  such  a  position 
as  Dr.  Barwise  holds  could  make  such  a  gratuitous 
unprovoked  attack  upon  the  engineering  profession. 

At  the  conclusion  of  his  address  he  is  reported  in 
your  issue  of  the  13th  inst.  to  have  said:  “  The  chief 
objection  that  I  have  to  the  system  of  employing  en¬ 
gineers  is  that  they  are  paid  by  commission  as  a  per¬ 
centage  on  the  cost  of  the  works,  and  engineers  are 
human,  and  I  regard  it  as  unreasonable  to  expect  a 
man  to  sit  up  all  night  to  take  money  out  of  his  own 
pocket;  and  if  any  engineer  does  burn  the  midnight 
oil  to  see  if  he  can  reduce  the  cost  of  a  scheme,  if  he 
is  paid  by  commission,  he  gets  less  money  for  the 
extra  work  put  in.” 

Does  Dr.  Barwise  realise  that  if  engineers  are 
“  human  ”  they  are  also  “  honourable,”  a  commodity 
in  which  Dr.  Barwise  has  no  right  to  think  that  he 
alone  hold.s  the  monopoly?  Is  not  the  insinuation  that 
engineers  paid  by  commission  have  no  desire  to  econo¬ 
mise  a  serious  insult  to  the  profession?  I  can  only 
hope  that  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  and  the 
Association  of  .Consulting  Engineers  will  not  allow 
such  remarks  to  pass  unheeded,  and  will  call  upon 
Dr.  Barwise  either  to  withdraw  or  substantiate  them. 

Engineers  have  been  suffering  for  some  time  past 
from  the  interference  of  some  medical  officers  of 
health,  who  consider  that  they  know  as  much  about 
sanitary  engineering  as  engineers  themselves.  It  is 
time  that  this  should  be  stopped,  although  these  gen¬ 
tlemen  have  the  protection  of  the  Local  Government 
Board,  a  protection  which  is  so  unjustly  withheld 
from  the  surveyor  or  engineer. 

Dr.  Barwise  also  apparently  considers  that  the  en¬ 
gineer  and  contractor  should  be  one  and  the  same 
person;  but  has  not  this  been  proved  over  and  over 
again  as  disastrous  for  obvious  reasons?  If,  as  Dr.  Bar- 
wise  suggests,  engineers  are  human,  but  not  honour¬ 
able,  does  not  this  equally  apply  to  the  contractors, 
or  does  he  think  that  when  combined  the  combination 
is  bound  to  make  them  honourable  ? 

Evidently  Dr.  Barwise’s  logic  is  as  bad  as  his  views 
upon  honour.” — Yours,  &c., 

M.Inst.C.E. 

July  16,  1917. 


MR.  WAKELAM  AND  EXTRAORDINARY  TRAFFIC. 


To  the  Editor  of  The  Surveyor. 

Sir, — I  have  no  desire  to  follow  Mr.  H.  T.  Chap¬ 
man  into  the  realms  of  glory,  nor  to  challenge  his 
vaunted  experience,  as  set  forth  in  his  letter  to 
you  of  the  30th  ultimo.  I  only  wish  to  state  that  I 
have  compared  for  my  own  satisfaction  the  rates 
per  ’bus  mile  recently  agreed  to  by  the  Kent  Bridges 
and  Roads  Committee  with  those  given  in  Mr.  Wake- 
lam-’ s  paper  (at.  the  Hastings  meeting)  so  far  as  the 
rates  apply  to  Kent.  The  result  is  as  follows: 


Kent  Committee  Rate. 

All  waterbound  macadam 
roads,  Id.  per  ’bus  mile. 

Tarred  macadam  roads,  f  d. 
per  ’bus  mile. 

Roads  with  concrete  found¬ 
ations,  fd.  per  ’bus  mile. 


Mr.  Wakelam’s  Kates. 

All  waterbound  macadam 
roads,  Id.  per  ’bus  mile. 

Tarred  macadam  roads,  fd. 
per  ’bus  mile. 

Roads  wich  concrete  found¬ 
ations,  fd.  and  Tijd.  per  ’bus 
mile  (according  to  concrete 
used). 


The  rates  appear  to  me  to  be,  for  all  practical  pur¬ 
poses,' the  same  in  each  case. — Yours,  &c., 

July  16,  1917.  Mid-Kent. 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


57 


THINGS  ONE  WOULD  LIKE  TO  KNOW. 


(  Contributed.) 

Is  not  the  article  on  "Concrete  Railway  Sleepers” 
in  the  July  number  of  Concrete  of  more  than  passing 
interest  when  we  consider  the  enormous  amount  of 
timber  that  is  annually  swallowed  up  for  this  pur¬ 
pose  ?  Would  it  not  be  a  splendid  thing  both  for 
permanent-way  engineers  and  for  the  controllers  of 
our  timber  supplies  if  a  reliable  and  efficient  concrete 
sleeper  could  be  put  on  the  market  ?  Are  we  not 
struck,  in  reading  the  article,  by  the  large  number  of 
different  patterns  of  concrete  sleepers  already  in  use, 
and  how  very  near  we  seem  to  be  to  a  solution  of  the 
problem  of  the  substitution  of  concrete  for  wood  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Is  it  not  also  very  interesting  to  see  that  both  in 
Concrete  and  Ferro-Concrete  for  this  month  there  are 
articles  on  boat,  barge,  and  ship  building  in  reinforced 
concrete,  and  that  this  industry  is  making  great 
strides  ?  Do  not  the  uses  to  whi'ch  skilfully-designed 
reinforced  concrete  can  be  put  appear  to  be  almost 
without  limit,  and  does  not  the  rule  of  law  apparently 
hold  good  that  when  there  is  a  scarcity  of  any  com¬ 
modity  the  wit  of  man  will  find  something  el.se  in 
Mature  to  take  its  place  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Was  there  not  a  great  deal  of  sound  common- 
sense  in  Mr.  Justice  Darling’s  remark  the  other  day: 
“  If  half  the  people  who  make  speeches  would  make 
concrete  floors  they  would  be  doing  more  good  ”  ? 
How  long  will  it  take  the  world  to  realise  that  it  is  the 
man  of  action,  and  not  words,  that  pushes  the  ambi¬ 
tion  of  mankind  along  towards  ultimate  perfection  P 
As  a  side  light  of  this  “  saying  of  the  week  ”  by  Mr. 
Justice  Darling,  is  it  not  remarkable  how  concrete  is 
now  being  discussed,  not  only  by  engineers,  but  even 
by  statesmen  and  judges  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Is  it  at  all  a  matter  for  surprise  that  a  large  number 
of  the  rural  and  other  “  smaller  ”  surveyors  through¬ 
out  the  country  are  unable  to  fill  up  the  statistical  re¬ 
turns  as  to  road  metal  and  labour  which  have  been 
asked  for  by  the  Roadstone  Control  Committee  ? 
When  we  consider  the  inadequate  salary  that  many 
of  these  officials  receive  and  the  paucity  of  the  “  staff  ” 
they  are  allowed,  is  it  to  be  expected  that  they  can 
keep  all  the  particulars,  the  production  of  which  is 
now  demanded  P  Is  it  not  the  fault  of  the  officials 
of  the  Local  Government  Board  that  this  check  is  now 
encountered,  for  has  not  this  department  always  set 
its  face  against  any  protection  or  recognition  of  this 
underpaid  and  overworked  official  ?  Is  it  too  late  to 
remedy  this  grave  injustice  ? 

*  .  *  *  * 

Apropos  the  above,  is  it  a  fact,  as  stated  at  a  recent 
meeting  of  the  National  Association  of  Local 
Government  officers,  that  80  per  cent  of  municipal 
officers  received  less  than  £200  a  year,  and  that  of 
this  80  per  cent  10  per  cent  only  got  £50  a  year  and 
less,  30  per  cent  from  £51  to  £100  a  year.  20  per  cent 
£101  to  £150,  and  20  per  cent  £151  to  £200  a  year,  the 
remaining  14  per  cent  receiving  salaries  up  to  £500 
per  annum?  Does  it  not  seem  extraordinary  that  such 
low  salaries  should  be  paid  for  such  useful  and  neces¬ 
sary  work  ?  How  is  the  scale  to  be  raised  to  more 
reasonable  figures  ? 

*  *  *  * 

Did  any  of  the  readers  of  the  Surveyor  see  the 
excellent  picture  in  an  illustrated  weekly  recently 
showing  Canadians  making  roads  “  somewhere  in 
France  ”  ?  If  so,  would  they  be  surprised  to  hear 
that  they  were  not  Canadians  at  all,  but  English¬ 
men  forming  part  of  the  splendid  corps  of  road-con¬ 
struction  men,  who  have  done,  and  are  doing,  such 
excellent  work  to  help  us  win  the  war?  ■  Would  not 
anyone  acquainted  with  military  operations,  on 
looking  at  this  picture  or  photograph,  clearly  see  that 
the  badges  in  the  caps  of  the  men  are  not  Canadian, 
but  those  of  our  Royal  Engineers?  Does  it  not  seem 
a  pity  that  those  to  whom  credit  is  due  should  not 
get  it?  But  is  not  this  often-  the  way  of  the  world? 

#  #  *  # 

W  as  it  not  rather  interesting  to  note  that  several  of 
the  speakers  on  Mr.  Wakelam’s  recent  paper  on  ex¬ 
traordinary  traffic  referred  to  the  greater  damage 
done  to  a  road  by  traffic  when  ascending  a  gradient 
than  when  descending  the  same  gradient  ?  Is 
not  the  cause  of  this  that  in  ascending  with  a  heavy 
load  there  is  more  shear  on  the  road  due  to  the  pull¬ 
ing  action  of  the  engines  on  the  periphery  of  the 


driving  wheels,  which  causes  a  brushing  effect  on  the 
surface  of  the  road,  and  thus  creates  considerable 
wear  ?  If  this  is  not  the  reason,  what  is  it,  as  it  is 
evident  that  the  speed  is  greater  going  down  a  hill 
than  up  it  ? 

#  #  #  • 

Was  not  the  paper  on  “  Colour  Records  Applied  to 
Potable  Water,”  by  Mr.  J.  S.  Bickering,  reproduced 
in  The  Surveyor  of  the  6th  inst.,  an  extremely  useful 
addition  to  the  question  of  a  quick  and  ready  method 
for  standardising  the  purity  of  potable  waters  ?  Did 
not  the  paper  clearly  show  that  in  the  hands  of  a 
trained  person  the  records  given  by  a  tintometer  are 
very  safe  guides  as  to  certain  classes  of  impurities  ? 


CORNWALL  MAIN  ROADS. 


THE  SCARCITY  OF  MATERIALS  AND  MEN. 

In  his  report  to  the  Main  Roads  Committee  of  the 
county  council  the  county  surveyor  of  Cornwall, 
Mr.  L.  D.  Thompson,  stated  that  the  actual  expendi¬ 
ture  during  the  year  was  £3,370  below  that  autho¬ 
rised-  The  principal  cause  of  that  was  the  failure 
of  the  supply  of  material  from  some  sources.  It 
could  not  be  looked  upon  as  a  saving,  as  many  of 
the  roads  were  in  urgent  need  of  expenditure,  greater 
even  than  that  sanctioned.  Among  the  badly- 
damaged  roads  on  which  he  had  not  been  able  to 
carry  out  sufficient  repairs,  even  for  temporary  re¬ 
quirements,  was  that  between  Tregony  and  Tre- 
wethian,  a  distance  of  about  six  miles.  He  proposed 
carrying  out  this  year  as  much  ballasting  and  coat¬ 
ing  on  this  road  as  could  be  done  without  exceeding 
the  estimates.  There  was  a  considerable  over-expen¬ 
diture  in  the  district  bounded  by  Wadebridge,  Mor- 
wenstow,  Bodmin,  and  Launceston,  mainly  due  to 
extra  repairs  on  the  Launceston-Bude  main  road, 
which  was  so  soft  and  weak  in  places  that  in  winter 
it  yielded  under  heavy  locomotive  and  motor  wagons 
to  such  an  extent  as  to  make  consolidation  by  steam 
roller  impracticable.  There  was  considerable  timber 
hauling  on  this  road. 

The  chairman  (Sir  A.  Carkeek)  said  they  should 
bring  home  to  the  proper  quarters  this  excess  of  2U 
per  cent  above  the  ordinary  cost  of  the  country. 

On  the  chairman’s  suggestion,  a  committee  of 
members  for  the  district  in  which  the  road  was 
situated  was  appointed  to  report  at  the  next  meeting. 

ROADSTONE  CONTROL. 

The  Ministry  of  Munitions  wrote  asking  for  par¬ 
ticulars  to  enable  them  to  control  the  reduced  output 
of  roadstone,  so  that  it  might  be  used  for  the  pur¬ 
poses  of  the  Admiralty,  War  Office,  Ministry  of 
Munitions,  and  other  needs  of  national  interest. 

The  chairman  said  they  appeared  to  be  giving 
their  staff  more  than  they  could  do.  If  the  proposed 
committee  could  do  any  good  they  would  take  the 
necessary  steps ;  but  they  ought  to  have  the  com¬ 
pliment  paid  to  them  of  being  intelligently  instructed 
as  to  the  way  they  were  to  work. 

Mr.  Ward:  The  object  is  to  facilitate  the  effective 
control  of  road  material. 

It  was  decided  to  give  the  Government  the  support 
it  needed,  and  a  sub-committee  was  appointed. 

LACK  OF  TRACTOR  DRIVERS. 

The  county  surveyor  proceeded  to  say  that  he  was 
becoming  alarmed  at  the  loss  of  the  tractor  drivers, 
who  had  been  called  up  for  service.  If  it  was  not 
possible  to  retain  men  of  a  low  physical  class  there 
was  a  great  probability  of  having  no  drivers  at  all 
on  some  of  the  engines.  In  pursuance  of  authority 
given  at  the  last  meeting,  the  surveyor  had  applied 
to  the  road  board  for  grants  towards  works  in  the 
scheme  then  submitted,  and  he  had  been  informed 
that  the  Board  were  prepared,  subject  to  the  sanction 
of  the  Treasury,  to  make  proposed  grants  of  £2,556 
towards  the  total  estimate  of  £5,736. 


Road  Maintenance  in  Essex.— We  regret  that  in 
referring  in  our  last  issue  to  the  recently-issued 
annual  report  of  the  county  surveyor  of  Essex.  Mr. 
Percy  J.  Sheldon,  a  number  of  figures  were  incor¬ 
rectly  quoted.  The  total  mileage  of  main  roads  is 
7873 — n°t  7863 — of  which  670^  miles  are  under  the 
direct  control  of  the  county  council.  The  cost  of 
upkeep  and  improvements  of  the  roads  under  direct 
control  was  £117.557 — not  £17,557— and  allowing  for 
sundry  receipts  there  remained  a  nett  expenditure 
for  the  year  of  £113,048.  The  last-mentioned  figure 
was  given  as  £13,048. 


58 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


Institute  of  Cleansing  Superintendents. 

ANNUAL  CONFERENCE  AT  NOTTINGHAM. 


The  annual  conference  of  the  Institute  of  Cleansing 
Superintendents  was  held  at  Nottingham  last  week. 
Mr.  D.  Kennedy  presided  at  the  outset  of  the  confer¬ 
ence,  held  in  the  council  chamber  at  the  Exchange 
Hall,  and  was  supported  by  the  Mayor  of  Nottingham 
(Councillor  J.  E.  Pendleton),  the  Sheriff  (Councillor 

R.  H.  Swain),  and  the  chairman  of  the  Nottingham 
Corporation  Health  Committee  (Councillor  Harry 
Spray).  The  attendance  at  the  conference  was  as 
follows :  — 

Accrington— Mr.  R.  Diggle,  cleansing  superintendent. 
Birmingham — Mr.  Whitworth,  chief  engineer.  Burnley — 
Mr.  W.  Crabtree,  cleansing  superintendent,  and  Councillor 
A.  Brumbley,  chairman,  cleansing  committee.  Brighton— 
Alderman  Pankhurst,  chairman,  Works  Committee;  Mr. 
H.  Tillstone,  borough  surveyor.  Chorley— Mr.  W.  Heaps, 
chief  sanitary  inspector.  Derby — Messi's.  .1.  Ward,  borough 
engineer,  and  Wargan,  cleansing  superintendent.  Eccles — 
Mr.  C.  W.  Laskey,  chief  sanitary  inspector.  Exeter — Mr. 

S.  D.  Tolliday,  cleansing  superintendent.  Epsom — Mr.  B.  R. 
Capon,  town  surveyor.  Falkirk— Mr.  T.  McKee,  cleansing 
superintendent,  treasurer,  Gilchrist,  and  Councillor  Logan. 
Glasgow— Messrs.  W.  Greig,  cleansing  superintendent;  C.  H. 
Macfarlane.  assistant  cleansing  superintendent;  and  J.  L. 
Wells,  town  clerk's  representative.  Leeds — Councillor  R.  H. 
Blackburn,  chairman.  Cleansing  Committee;  Councillor  J. 
Blackburn,  deputy  chairman;  and  Mr.  S.  Thornley, 
assistant  superintendent.  Leicester — Mr.  H.  F.  Wigfield, 
cleansing  superintendent.  Liverpool  —  Mr.  H.  Mercer, 
United  Alkali  Company,  Limited;  Alderman  W.  Roberts; 
and  Mr.  J.  J.  Beckett,  cleansing  superintendent.  London — 
Messrs.  E.  W.  Curtis,  General  Vehicle  Company,  Limited; 
J.  Hargreaves  and  W.  H.  Watson  (Edison  Accumulators); 
J.  S.  brewery,  T.  H.  Wagstaff,  and  S.  Parslow,  Lacre  Motor 
Car  Company,  Limited;  D.  Kennedy  (Kensington),  A.  G. 
Jefferies,  F.  A.  Dowse  (Hackney),  and  T.  B.  Crookes  (Fins¬ 
bury),  hon.  secretary.  Manchester — Alderman  S.  Dixon, 
chairman,  Cleansing  Committee ;  Alderman  C.  Hornby, 
deputy  chairman;  and  Mr.  R.  Williamson,  cleansing  super¬ 
intendent.  Mansfield — Mr.  F.  W.  Brookman,  borough  sur¬ 
veyor's  Office.  Middlesbrough — Mr.  Geo.  Anderson,  chief 
sanitary  inspector.  Nelson — Councillor  Gibson,  chairman. 
Cleansing  Committee;  and  Mr.  J.  T.  Nutter,  health  super¬ 
intendent.  Newcastle — Alderman  C.  C.  Elliott,  Councillor 
E.  W.  Robson,  Councillor  J.  W.  Thwaites,  Messrs.  F.  I. 
Morgan,  acting  city  engineer,  and  F.  W.  Sykes,  cleansing 
superintendent.  North  Shields — Mr.  R.  H.  Storer,  cleansing 
superintendent.  Nottingham  —  Mr.  J.  Terry,  cleansing 
superintendent.  Oldham — Councillor  Broadbent,  chairman. 
Cleansing  Committee;  Mr.  J.  L.  Haslop,  cleansing  super¬ 
intendent;  and  Councillor  Holroyd,  vice-chairman.  Old 
Trafford — Mr.  E.  Nuttall,  cleansing  superintendent.  Ports¬ 
mouth — Mr.  H.  Hopkinson,  cleansing  superintendent.  Sal¬ 
ford — Alderman  Hulton  and  Mr.  W.  H.  Hamblett,  cleansing 
superintendent.  Sheffield  —  Councillor  Kaye,  chairman, 
Cleansing  Committee;  and  Mr.  J.  A.  Priestley,  cleansing 
superintendent.  Southampton — Mr.  J.  A.  Crowther,  borough 
engineer;  Alderman  S.  G.  Kimber;  and  Messrs.  W.  J. 
Bosley,  Corporation  Wharf,  wharf  superintendent ;  and 
H.  F.  Street,  electrical  engineer.  Stockport — Mr.  W.  H 
Eccles,  cleansing  superintendent.  Stoke-on-Trent — Mr.  T. 
Stake,  cleansing  superintendent.  Stockton — Mr.  J.  Leng, 
cleansing  superintendent.  Wallasey — Mr.  H.  C.  Bascombe, 
cleansing  superintendent.  Wolverhampton  —  Councillor 
Jones,  chairman.  Team  Committee;  and  Mr.  H.  Cousins, 
cleansing  superintendent.  Wigan — Mr.  E.  Knowles,  cleans¬ 
ing  superintendent. 

The  Mayor  said  it  gave  him  great  pleasure  to  see 
so  many  delegates  assembled  in  these  abnormal  times. 
He  was  led  to  understand  some  little  time  ago  that 
there  would  be  no  conference  at  all ;  then  they  were 
told  that  if  a  conference  was  held  it  would  be  entirely 
for  business  purposes,  and  a  very  small  gathering. 
He  could  not  help  thinking  that  there  were  reasons 
outside  the  purely  formal  business  reasons  to  account 
for  the  large  gathering  other  than  the  very  natural 
attractions  that  the  city  of  Nottingham  afforded.  He 
thought  he  had  once  before  at  one  of  their,  previous 
conferences  said  that  Nottingham  claimed  to  be  a 
clean  town.  Of  course,,  it  was  not  quite  so  clean  now 
as  it  was  in  normal  times,  and  he  need  not  explain 
the  reason  why  to  them.  Those  who  had  experienced 
the  difficulty  of  getting  sufficient  men  to  carry  on  the 
work — even  a  reduction  of  work — would  appreciate 
the  position ;  but  Nottingham  undoubtedly  was  a  very 
clean  city.  Notwithstanding  the  difficulties  of  the 
times,  matters  appertaining  to  public  health  could  not 
be  ignored.  There  were  certain  tilings  that  could  not 
be  trifled  with,  even  in  war  time,  and  that  especially 
applied  to  matters  which  very  closely  and  vitally  con¬ 
cerned  the  public  health.  Had  the  conference  met 
in  normal  times,  Nottingham  would  have  been  pleased 
to  offer  the  hospitality  which  was  its  due,  but  they 
had  felt  that  it  would  not  be  in  keeping  with  the 
times  to  do  that,  and  he  did  not  think  they  would 
expect  anything  from  Nottingham  in  the  way  of 
elaborate  hospitality,  apart  from  the  luncheon  which 
the  chairman  of  the  Health  Committee  had  very  kindly 
invited  them  to.  He  had  nothing  further  to  say  except 
to  welcome  them  very  heartily  to  the  city..  The  war 
had  stopped  progress  in  many  directions,  especially  in 
municipal  matters,  but  they  had  the  future  to  look  to, 


and  it  was  a  source  of  satisfaction  that  such  a' con¬ 
ference  was  assembling  to  consider  problems  which 
would  have  to  be  tackled  after  the  war  was  finished. 
He  hoped  that  they  would  have  a  pleasurable  time 
and  that  their  presence  would  be  helpful  not  only 
to  the  city,  but  to  all  those  who  took  part  in  the 
conference  and  to  all  muncipal  undertakings  through¬ 
out  the  country. 

The  Sheriff  agreed  that  matters  of  public  health 
could  not  be  neglected,  and  had  no  doubt  that  a 
good  deal  of  good  would  come  out  of  the  conference. 
It  was  true  that  they  were  proud  of  the  cleanliness 
of  Nottingham,  but  still  there  was  one  black  spot — 
he  meant  the  delicate  subject  of 

THE  PAIL-CLOSET  SYSTEM. 

That  was  a  very  difficult  matter  and  a  very  grave 
danger,  and  he  hoped  that  the  next  time  the  insti¬ 
tute  visited  Nottingham  the  system  would  have  been 
swept  away.  They  had  most  enthusiastic  men  on  the 
Health  Committee,  who  were  anxious  to  do  away 
with  it,  and  had  fought  hard  to  attain  that  object, 
but  there  were  a  tremendous  number  of  landlords  to 
deal  with,  and  they  found  it  very  difficult  to  act. 
He  hoped  that  Parliament  would  before  long  give 
them  powers  enabling  them  to  settle  the  evil  as 
quickly  as  possible.  He  had  no  doubt  the  members 
of  the  conference  would  receive  great  benefit  from 
the  papers  which  were  to  be  read  to  them,  and  he 
hoped  that  the  public  would  take  notice  of  what 
they  had  to  say.  It  was  very  difficult  in  these  times 
to  do  anything  fresh,  but  they  hoped  that  the  war 
would  very  soon  be  over,  and  then  they  could  go  on 
with  those  matters  which  were  vital  to  the  whole 
community. 

The  Mayor  expressed  Nottingham’s  delight  that 
the  institute  had  elected  the  city’s  cleansing  super¬ 
intendent,  Mr.  Terry,  as  president.  They  realised 
that  it  was  a  great  compliment,  not  only  to  Mr. 
Terry  himself,  but  a  recognition  of  his  faithful  and 
valuable  services  to  the  city  and  to  the  institute. 

THE  LATE  MR.  WILLIAM  HARPUR. 

•  Mr.  D.  Kennedy  (Kensington),  on  behalf  of  the  in¬ 
stitute,  thanked  the  Mayor  and  Sheriff  for  the  very 
hearty  reception  they  had  given— a  reception  which 
bade  fair  for  the  success  of  the  gathering.  Proceed¬ 
ing,  he  said  that  there  had  passed  away  one  whom 
they  had  learnt  to  admire  and  greatly  esteem.  Only 
a  year  ago  it  fell  to  his  lot  to  introduce  to  the  con¬ 
ference1  as  president  a  gentleman  who  was  known 
and  respected  throughout  the  institute.  The  nobility 
of  his  nature  was  exemplified  when,  in  the  midst 
of  heavy  public  duties  occasioned  by  the  war,  he 
devoted  himself  to  the  office  of  president,  and  he 
(Mr.  Kennedy)  re-echoed  the  sentiments  which  the 
journal  expressed  on  the  occasion  of  his  election. 
The  late  president  was  greatly  respected  for  his 
courtesy,  for  his  sincerity  of  purpose,  and  also  for 
the  ability  with  which  nature  had  richly  endowed 
him.  He  desired  the  annual  meeting  to  pass  a  reso¬ 
lution  of  condolence  to  Mrs.  Harpur  and  family. 
Continuing,  he  said  it  was  now  his  duty  as  acting- 
president  to  instal  the  new  president.  The  election 
of  a  new  chief  to  preside  over  any  public  institution 
was  always  a  matter  of  absorbing  interest.  Their 
institution  was  now  a  well-established  organisation, 
which  was  within  two  years  of  its  majority,  and 
it  might  well  claim  to  have  its  roots  deeply  embedded 
in  those  things  -which  made  for  the  advantage  and 
well-being  of  its  members.  The  growth  of  the  insti¬ 
tution  had  been  marked  in  several  ways — by  the 
earnest  way  in  which  the  members  had  enrolled,  by 
their  continuously  loyal  support,  and  by  the  active 
interest  which  the  municipal  authorities  throughout 
the  country  had  always  shown  in  their  proceedings. 
He  must  leave  the  outlook  to 

THE  NEW  PRESIDENT. 

The  privilege  of  laying- before  them  a  review  of  the 
future  work  of  the  institute  belonged  to  him,  and 
under  his  able  guidance  he  was  sure  they  would  not 
only  have  a  prosperous  conference  but  also  a  success¬ 
ful  year.  The  honour  of  the  presidency  had  this 
year  fallen  to  a  gentleman .  who  was  one  of  their 
most  popular  and  respected  members,  one  who  had 
with  credit  to  himself  and  with  adva'ntage  to  the 
organisation  for  a  good  many  years  filled  the  impor¬ 
tant  office  of  honorary  treasurer.  Nottingham  was 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


59 


justly  celebrated  for  its  good  lace  and  distinguished 
citizens,  and  they  were  proud  to  have  one  of  its 
citizens  as  their  president.  Mr.  Terry  was  intimately 
acquainted  with  every  phase  of  their  work,  and 
would  therefore  be  regarded  as  duly  qualified  for 
the  position.  But  for  his  extreme  diffidence  and 
modesty  the  highest  honour  which  the  institute  could 
bestow  would  have  been  conferred  upon  him  many 
years  ago.  Mr.  Kennedy  concluded:  “Mr.  Terry,  T 
have  much  pleasure  in  investing  you  with  this  badge 
of  office.  Besides  being  a  mark  of  our  appreciation, 
I  hope  that  you  will  wear  it  for  many  years  to  come, 
and  I  congratulate  you  upon  being  the  president  of 
this  important  institute.” 

Mr.  Terry  then  delivered  his 

PRESIDENTIAL  ADDRESS. 

Mr.  Terry:  1  accept  the  presidency  with  very  great 
regret  and  diffidence — regret  that  is  shared  by  you 
all  that  our  old  friend  Mr.  Harpur  is  not  with  us  to 
carry  out  the  last  task  of  his  office,  and  with  diffi¬ 
dence,  because  I  feel  that  in  following  Mr.  Harpur 
as  your  president  I  am  undertaking  a  task  of  very 
great  difficulty.  I  do  not  on  this  occasion  propose 
to  do  more  than  speak  very  briefly  on  the  work  of 
your  General  Purposes  Committee  during  the  past 
year.  In  July  last  you  instructed  them  to  remodel 
the  by-laws  of  the  institute,  prepare  an  examination 
scheme,  and  to  consider  the  question  of  standardisa¬ 
tion.  With  reference  to  the  by-laws,  these  have  been 
drafted  and  approved  at  a  quarterly  meeting,  and  I 
trust  will  receive  your  final  sanction  this  afternoon. 
The  examination  scheme  has  been  completed,  an 
excellent  syllabus  drawn  up,  and  questions  prepared, 
but  owing  to  the  difficulties  created  by  the  war  the 
examination  this  year  has  had  to  be  postponed. 
With  reference  to  standardisation,  this  has  been  a 
more  difficult  subject  to  deal  with,  and  your  com¬ 
mittee  have  not  been  able  to  come  to  an  agreement 
on  the  matter,  but  it  is  still  receiving  their  most 
serious  attention. 

Other  matters  of  vital  importance  have  occupied 
their  attention,  the  most  important  being  the  diffi¬ 
culty  of  finding  suitable  labour  to  carry  on  cleansing 
work  owing  'to  the  demands  of  the  Army  authorities. 
In  December  last  Messrs.  Crookes,  Dawes,  and 
Priestley  were  appointed  to  interview  the  Minister 
of  War  and  other  Government  departments  with  a 
view  to  having  cleansing  work  included  in  the  list 
of  certified  occupations ;  their  efforts  have  resulted 
in  the  work,  “  Collection  and  Disposal  of  House 
Refuse,'”  being  added  to  the  list  of  certified  occupa¬ 
tions,  and  if  the  institute  had  accomplished  nothing 
more  than  this  during  the  past  year  it  would  have 
amply  justified  its  existence.  With  reference  to  the 
question  of  waste,  nothing  has  been  done  in  this 
city  by  way  of  special  collection  -or  utilisation.  Not¬ 
tingham  being  a  pail-closet  town,  it  was  considered 
advisable  to  concentrate  all  efforts  on  the  thorough 
scavenging  of  those  receptacles,  and  in  this  we  have 
been  very  successful.  There  are,  however,  so  many 
private  agencies  at  work  that  I  am  of  opinion,  which 
is  confirmed  by  frequent  examinations  of  the  refuse 
received  at  the  destructors,  that  nothing  is  being  de¬ 
stroyed  here  that  could  be  put  to  better  purpose. 
There  is,  however,  one  point  on  which  we  have  been 
proud  for  some  years,  and  that  is,  the  manner  of 
dealing  with  our  scrap  tins,  buckets,  &c.  For  this 
material  during  the  last  six  months  we  have  received 
a  sum  of  over  £500,  which  I  think  will  compare 
favourably  with  any  other  town. 

Councillor  Kaye  (Sheffield)  congratulated  the 
president  upon  the  honour  which  had  been  conferred 
upon  him,  and  said  that  they  were  perfectly  satis¬ 
fied  that  he  would  be  equal  to  the  occasion  and  do 
all  the  work  that  fell  to  his  lot  efficiently  and  well. 
He  had  been  asked  to  propose  the  following  resolu¬ 
tion  :  “  Tha^t  this  conference  is  of  opinion  that  it 
is  essential  in  the  interests  of  public  health  that 
the  work  of  domestic  refuse  collection  and  disposal 
should  lie  carried  out  efficiently,  and  that  for  this 
purpose  the  Government  be  requested  to  take  early 
steps  to  ensure  a  proper  supply  of  labour  for  this 
work  in  accordance  with  the  request  already  made 
by  this  institution ;  otherwise  the  consequences  may 
prove  to  be  very  serious,  as  the  outlook  for  the 
coming  autumn  and  winter  is  distinctly  grave.”  He 
said  that  various  corporations  were  likely  to  be  con¬ 
fronted  by  a  very  dangerous  position  in  the  ensuing 
winter.  As  one  who  happened  to  know  a  little  bit 
about  the  way  Government  Departments  treated 
deputations — and  the  deputations  over  this  question 
in  particular  had  been  very  numerous — he  had  to 
say  that  some  of  the  officials  had  not  always  dealt 


with  them  as  they  felt  that  they  might  haye  been 
treated.  But  they  were  not  against  a  very  serious 
difficulty.  The  towns  and  cities  were  concerned  with 
the  collection  of  refuse,  and  if  that  work  was  not 
attended  to  we  should  undoubtedly  be  in  a  very 
serious  predicament.  The  Local  Government  Board, 
who  dealt  with  the  matter,  was  composed  mostly  of 
medical  men,  and  still  they  had  not  the  ability— he 
used  the  word  advisedly — to  organise  and  allow  the 
men  to  be  retained  to  do  the  work  which  they  must 
know  was  absolutely  necessary  to  keep  sanitary 
administration  in  proper  order.  In  his  case  the 
authorities  had  endeavoured  to  take  the  whole  of 
their  horses,  and  the  conference  could  imagine  what 
sort  of  a  state  they  would  have  been  in  if  they  had 
got  them  all.  The  military  authorities  were  in  league 
with  them,  and  would  not  give  them  opportunities 
to  provide  mechanical  traction  to  replace  the  horses 
they  wanted  to  take.  He  knew  that  some  members 
of  the  institute  had  lost  their  horses,  and  it  was 
beyond  the  power  of  the  authorities  to  find  the 
mechanical  traction  to  replace  them.  How  in  the 
world  a  board  of  medical  men  could  stand  a  system 
of  that  sort  one  could  not  understand.  However 
strong  the  resolution  might  appear,  it  was  not  strong 
enough  in  the  circumstances.  He  should  much  pre¬ 
fer  that  it  should  be  much  more  strongly  worded, 
and  possibly  the  chairman  would  insist  upon  its 
being  altered  to  make  it  stronger. 

Alderman  S.  Dixon  (Manchester)  seconded  the 
resolution.  He  said  that  mention  had  been  made 
of  medical  men,  but  he  was  afraid  that  a  lot  of  these 
medical  men  were  medical  fads.  Many  towns  were 
even  forbidden  to  use  water  to  clean  the  streets. 
They  had  to  sweep  the  streets  without  water,  no 
matter  what  dust  they  created.  He  noticed  that  they 
had  been  holding  a  lot  of  baby  shows  for  the  benefit 
of  the  community.  What  was  the  use  of  holding 
baby  shows  if  they  had  not  someone  to  cleanse  the 
streets?  Calling  attention  to  the  shortage  of  labour, 
he  said  that  a  great  many  of  their  able-bodied  men 
had  been  called  up,  a  great  many  had  gone  into 
munition  works,  and  others  had  gone  into  collieries, 
and  he  was  sure  there  were  thousands  up  and  down 
the  country  in  munition  works  jvho  were  not  doing 
the  work  for  the  country  in  their  present  employ¬ 
ment  that  they  would  have  been  doing  in  cleansing 
departments.  He  was  sure  there  ought  to  be  pro¬ 
vision  for  men  to  remain  behind  to  clean  the  streets. 

Mr.  W.  Greig  (Glasgow)  supported  the  resolution. 
Lvory  cleansing  superintendent  must  look  forward 
with  great  misgiving  as  to  what  would  happen  in  the 
ensuing  winter.  They  managed  very  well  last  winter. 
Fortunately  it  was  a  very  good  winter  in  Scotland 
fiom  the  point  of  view  of  the  cleansing  superintendent. 
During  his  twenty-five  years’  experience  it  had  been 
the  mildest  winter  on  record.  He  knew  that  in  the 
south  they  had  some  severe  snowstorms,  but  in  the 
north  they  had  had  exemption  from  those.  (Laughter.) 
There  was  a  period  of  six  or  eight  weeks  in  the  spring 
when  the  frost  was  keen,  but  not  unpleasant,  and  in 
that  period  they  were  able  to  get  through  their  work, 
both  the  collection  and  disposal  of  domestic  refuse. 
In  the  coming  winter,  if  they  experienced  anything 
like  the  weather  which  they  had  had  in  some  past 
years,  the  difficulties  would  be  enormously  increased. 
Fortunately  in  Glasgow  they  had  men  who  were  re¬ 
leased  by  the  military  authorities.  He  thought  that 
if  the  military  representatives  were  approached  by 
local  men  who  knew  the  difficulties  of  the  streets,  and 
by  the  members  of  the  Cleansing  Committees,  and  the 
matter  was  put  clearly  and  fairly  before  them,  they 
would  realise  that  it  was ‘of  the  utmost  importance 
that  cleansing  work  should  be  carried  on.  They 
would  all  agree  that  their  work  was  sanitary,  and 
he  trusted  that  every  effort  would  be  made  to  arouse 
in  all  local  authorities  and  their  members  the  neces¬ 
sity  of  not  submitting  to  any  further  delay  in  their 
work.  On  the  other  hand,  he  thought  that  they  could 
claim  that  they  had  assisted  the  military  authorities 
considerably  in  their  work.  They  had  taken  many 
men  from  their  departments  to  replace  the  men  at 
the  front,  and  had  even  employed  a  large  number  of 
women.  They  had  released  300  men  in  Glasgow,  and 
lie  had  no  doubt  that  there  were  other  centres  which 
had  done  the  same,  and  were  doing  their  best  with 
women  labour. 

The  resolution  was  carried,  and  the  President  said 
it  would  be  put  before  the  Local  Government  Board. 
The  institute  would  put  forward  every  effort  possible 
to  prepare  for  the  coming  winter. 

The  President  also  announced  that  in  their  name 
he  had  that  morning  despatched  a  telegram  to  his 
Majesty  the  King  expressing  their  loyalty  and  their 


60 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


hope  for  a  speedy  and  victorious  termination  of  the 
war. 

Consideration  was  afterwards  given  to  the  paper  by 
Mr.  J.  A.  Priestley  on 

ELECTRIC  VEHICLES  AND  THEIR  USE  ON 
CLEANSING  WORK  IN  SHEFFIELD 

which  was  reproduced  in  The  Surveyor  of  last  week. 

Mr.  Priestley  explained  that,  having  regard  to  the 
importance  of  time  and  to  the  fact  that  all  the  mem¬ 
bers  had  probably  read — or  ought  to  have  read — his 
paper,  he  would  dispense  with  the  formality  of  read¬ 
ing  it  to  the  conference.  It  explained  itself,  he 
thought.  He  Had  tried  to  make  out  the  working  re¬ 
sults  they  had  obtained,  and  the  methods  they  had 
adopted,  in.  order  to  obtain  those  results.  The  total 
cost  of  the  removal  of  bin  refuse  by  horses  was  not 
given  with  exact  accuracy,  but,  for  all  practical  pur¬ 
poses,  in  order  to  obtain  an  exact  result,  if  they  added 
Id.  to  the  cost  of  collection  over  the  whole  of  the  city 
by  means  of  horses,  they  would  arrive  at  an  approxi¬ 
mately  correct  figure.  He  wished  to  point  out  tha.t 
in  the  paragraph  where  he  stated  that,  so  far  as  Shef¬ 
field  was  concerned,  he  believed  that  “  electrics 
would  be  profitable  on  single  shifts  only,”  he  did  not 
want  them  to  assume  that  electrics  would  be  prefer¬ 
able  as  compared  with  horses  for  every  individual 
district  in  the  city ;  but,  taking  the  city  as  a  whole,  he 
was  convinced  that  to  replace  horses  by  electric 
vehicles  would  effect  a  very  considerable  saving,  even 
if  they  were  employed  on  one  shift  only.  Some  of 
them  would  like  to  know  whether  the  work  in  their 
own  districts  could  be  accomplished  by  means  of  elec¬ 
tric  vehicles.  He  had  expressed  pretty  freely  his 
views  on  the  point  of  the  impossibility  of  standardising 
the  results  in  such  a  form  that  they  could  be  applied 
as  they  stood  in  different  districts.  The  thing  could 
not  be  done.  They  had  got  to  standardise  the  condi¬ 
tions  before  they  could  standardise  results.  “  For 
practical  purposes  assume  that  a  horse  will  cost  you 
13s.  Gd.,  and  that  a  motor  vehicle  will  replace  two 
horses  without  any  additional  rent,  and  you  will  find 
that  that  is  just  the  proposition.  If  you  have  horses 
and  two  drivers  replaced  by  one  vehicle  and  one 
driver,  it  is  a  payilig  concern.  My  experience  has 
shown  me  that  so  far  as  Sheffield  is  concerned — and 
I  speak  only  of  Sheffield,  and  I  would  not  say  that 
that  condition  applies  to  any  other  district — the  best 
point  for  electrics  for  his  refuse  collection  is  a  total 
journey  from  depot  to  depot  of  about  three  miles.  If 
the  journey  is  less  than  that  distance  we  think  that 
horses  can  do  the  work  slightly  cheaper  than  electrics. 
Now  with  these  exceptions  I  leave  the  paper  for  your 
consideration  and  discussion.  I  have  not  gone  into 
the  question  from  a  technical  point  of  view.  I  have 
not  said  anything  at  all  about  the  charging  facilities, 
the  electrical  side  of  the  business,  but  I  shall  be  very 
glad  to  give  you  any  information  as  to  the  denomina¬ 
tion  required,  and  what  voltage  you  can  work  at,  if  it 
is  desired.  I  have  tried  to.  keep  the  paper  as  free  as 
possible  from  all  technical  matters.”  (Applause.) 

The  President  said  that  Nottingham  corresponded 
almost  exactly  with  Sheffield  in  its  local  conditions, 
and  the  figures  obtained  from  the  working  were  almost 
identical,  but  there  was  one  point  where  he  differed 
somewhat  from  Mr.  Priestley,  and  that  was  with 
regard  to  the  three-mile  limit.  The  first  two  vehicles 
which  Nottingham  obtained  were  3-ton  vehicles,  and 
they  had  some  journeys  covering  five  miles.  He  pre¬ 
sented  some  figures  to  his  committee  in  March  last, 
and  worked  out  the  whole  of  the  working  cost,  and 
the  total  amount  of  refuse  collected,  and  compared 
the  average  cost  per  ton  with  the  average  cost  per 
ton  of  horses  worked  throughout  the  city.  Taking  the 
two  farthest  differences  and  the  two  nearest  distances, 
he  thought  that  the  cost  showed  a  fair  average  for 
the  city,  and,  compared  with  the  average  cost  for 
horses’  work,  these  figures  for  three  vehicles  fiom 
October,  1915,  to  February  last  showed  an  average 
cost  per  ton  of  4s.  4'7d.,  and  for  four  vehicles  an 
average  cost  of  4s.  l-4d.,  while  the  average  cost  per 
ton  of  the  horse  vehicles  was  5s.  l-3d.  per 

ton.  That  was  showing  a  considerable  saving  in 
favour  of  electrics.  If  gentlemen  criticised  the  figures 
in  Mr.  Priestley’s  paper  and  the  figures  he  himself 
had. given,  he  trusted  that  they  would  not  do  so  in 
the  spirit  which  had  been  shown  in  the  correspond¬ 
ence  in  some  of  the  professional  journals.  One  gentle¬ 
man  had  said  that  there  had  been  no  reliable  figures 
yet  published  which  could  be  used,  the  implication 
being  that  .the  figures  were  all  fak<M,^and  were  not  to 
be  relied  upon.  The  gentlemen  present,  he  thought, 
at  least  knew  Mr.  Priestley  and  himself  sufficiently 


to  say  that  that  was  not  the  case  with  the  figures 
which  they  had  given.  (Hear,  hear.) 

Alderman  W.  Roberts  (Liverpool),  prefacing  his  ob¬ 
servations  with  hearty  congratulations  to  the  presi¬ 
dent,  whose  speech  was  a  very  good  incentive  to 
members  of  the  institute,  said  that,  as  the  members 
knew,  he  was  a  horsey  man.  He  always  believed  in 
horses.  He  was  born  in  a  manger,  and  in  a  stable 
not  very  far  off — (laughter) — and  he  had  loved  horses 
all  his  life.  But  he  had  had  the  opportunity  of  read¬ 
ing  Mr.  Priestley’s  paper  on  electric  vehicles,  and 
evidently,  from  the  figures,  these  vehicles  had  worked 
well — in  fact,  remarkably  well.  In  Liverpool  they  had 
a  large  number  of  horses,  between  3(J0  and  400,  and  a 
number  of  petrol-driven  vehicles,  for  their  engineer 
believed  that  they  could  run  a  petrol-driven  vehicle 
much  cheaper  than  an  electric.  For  certain  distances 
he  believed  that  horses  were  more  economical,  but 
there  seemed  no  doubt  that  for  long  distances  the 
petrol  vehicle,  or  the  electric,  could  beat  the  horse. 
He  did  not  know  whether  Mr.  Priestley  put  anything 
down  in  his  figures  for  the  breakdowns  in  his  vehicles 
or  for  the  occasions  when  he  had  to  send  horses  to 
fetch  them—' (laughter) — but  he  knew  that  in  Liver¬ 
pool  when  they  broke  down  they  had  to  collect  both 
the  vehicle  and  the  refuse.  He  should  think  that  at 
the  present  time  the  mechanical  vehicles  must  be 
rather  expensive,  but  under  the  new  regulations  of 
the  Government  it  would  be  very  difficult  for  the 
municipalities,  or  anyone  else,  to  buy  a  cart  horse — 
every  farmer  must  have  a  permit  before  he  could  sell 
a  horse.  But  everything  depended  in  connection  with 
these  petrol-driven  or  electric-driven  vehicles  on  get¬ 
ting  them  loaded  quickly  and  lightened  quickly.  You 
must  always  keep  them  working,  to  make  them  pay. 
He  believed  that  horses  were  cheaper  for  the  shorter 
journeys,  but,  lover  of  horses  as  he  was,  he  was  pre¬ 
pared  to  admit  that  on  the  longer  distances  the  petrol 
or  electric  vehicles  were  cheaper. 

Mr.  W.  Greig  (Glasgow)  congratulated  Mr.  Priestley 
on  the  admirable  paper  he  had  presented  to  the  con¬ 
ference.  His  object  in  so  doing  was  no  doubt  to  invite 
criticism,  and  he  was  sure  that  Mr.  Priestley  would 
accept  any  criticism  in  the  spirit  in  which  it  was 
given.  (Hear,  hear.)  In  the  first  place,  he  saw  that 
on  page  3  Mr:  Priestley  stated  that  with  horse  wagons 
there  are  two  men.  a  driver  and  a  labourer,  and  both 
help  to  load.  With  electrics  there  are  three  labourers 
and  a  driver,  who  only  loads  occasionally.  In  each 
case  the  labourers  accompany  the  vehicle  to  tip.  That 
struck  him  (Mr.  Grieg)  as  being  a  waste  of  time.  Why 
should  the  labourers  accompany  the  vehicle  to.  the 
tip  ?  In  Glasgow'  they  had  a  different  method.  Their 
twro  vehicles  worked  together.  One  started,  perhaps, 
forty  minutes  in  front  of  the  other,  and  by  the  time 
it  was  loaded  the  second  vehicle  was  -on  the  ground, 
and  while  the  first  was  going  to  the  tip  the  second  was 
being  loaded.  Of  course  that  was  a  small  matter. 
Mr.  Priestley  told  them  that  in  Sheffield  each  man 
and  horse  cost  13s.  6d.  a  day.  He  (Mr.  Greig)  thought 
that  was  extremely  low.  In  Glasgow  it  cost  16s.  Gd., 
but  on  the  other  hand  in  Glasgow  they  got  75  per 
cent  more  work  out  of  their  horses.  (Laughter.)  And, 
of  course,  in  Scotland  they  had  the  Clydesdale  horse, 
whereas  in  the  iSoutli  they  preferred  the  Shire,  and 
there  was  a  considerable  difference  in  favour  of  the 
Clydesdale.  All  the  same,  he  did  not  think  it  was 
quite  right  to  say  75  per  cent ;  it  was  rather  too  high ; 
there  must  be  some  other  agencies  at  work.  (Hear, 
hear.)  Then  in  the  next  table,  about  electric  vehicles, 
Mr.  Priestley  said  that  he  was  guaranteed  a  ten-years’ 
life  for  the  vehicle,  and  he  went  on  to  say,  “  One-half 
the  cost  of  the  vehicle  is  represented  by -the  battery, 
and  this  is  guaranteed  to  give  100  per  cent  of  its 
original  efficiency  after  eight  years’  continuous  ser¬ 
vice,  and  any  defects  due  to  misuse  are  made  good 
by  the  makers  during  such  period.”  Well,  in  Glasgow 
they  purchased  an  Edison  battery  vehicle,  and  they 
were  only  given. a  guarantee  of  four  years  on  40,000 
miles  with  a  90  per  cent  for  the  next  ten  years,  and 
80  per  cent  on  the  remaining  ten  years,  so  that  he 
thought  the  estimate  here  should  have  a  five  years’ 
life  instead  of  ten.  But,  notwithstanding  this,  the 
cost  of  electric  vehicles  in  Glasgow  for  collection  and 
haulage  was  3s.  lOd.  per  ton  and  for  horses  4s.  2d. 
per  ton. 

(To  be  continued.) 


The  Hastings  Meeting — Our  report  of  the  discus¬ 
sions  at  the  recent  annual  meeting  of  the  Institution 
of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  at  Hastings  will 
be  continued  in  our  next  issue. 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


01 


LAW  QUERIES  AND  REPLIES. 


Edited  by  J.  B.  Reignier  Conder, 
Solicitor  of  the  Supreme  Court. 


In  order  to  avoid  confusion  querists  are  requested  to  uzo 
distinctive  words  as  noma  de  plume.  The  letter  X,  com 
binattons  such  as  X.Y.Z.,  and  words  such  as  "engineer” 
and  "aurveycr,”  should  never  be  used.' 


The  Conversion  of  Privies  into  Water-closets. 
— “  Sanitas  ”  writes:  There  are  a  number  of  old 
houses  in  this  district  with  privies,  and  the  council 
are  desirous  of  having  them  converted  into  water- 
closets.  1  shall  be  obliged  if  you  will  .advise  me 
whether  they  can  compel  the  owners  to  do  this,  and 
the  method  of  procedure  ? 

If  sec.  39  of  the  Public  Health  Acts  Amendment  Act,  1907, 
is  in  force  in  the  district,  and  there  are  a  sufficient  water 
supply  and  sewer,  the  council  can  give  notice  to  the  owners, 
requiring  them  to  convert  the  privies  into  water-closets 
within  a  specified  time,  not  less  than  fourteen  days  after 
the  service  of  the  notice.  If  the  notice  is  not  complied  with 
the  council  can  themselves  do  the  work,  and  recover  half 
the  expense  from  the  owners.  If  this  section  is  not  in  force 
the  requirement  can  only  he  enforced  with  respect  to  houses 
as  to  which  the  surveyor  or  inspector  of  nuisances  reports 
that  they  are  without  “sufficient”  closet  accommodation, 
under  sec.  36  of  the  Public  Health  Act,  1875.  Notice  can  be 
given  to  the  owners  of  such  houses  requiring  them  to  pro¬ 
vide  a  “sufficient”  water-closet  within  a  specified  time,  and 
if  the  notice  is  not  complied  with  the  council  can  do  the 
work  and  recover  the  expenses  from  the  owners,  or  declare 


would  become  a  public  sewer  within  the  meaning  of 
the  Public  Health  Acts,  and  whether  the  council 
would  become  liable  should  any  nuisance  occur  on 
the  seashore  in  consequence  of  the  increased  quantity 
of  sewage,  and  also  for  any  damage  to  this  sewer  by 
storm  or  weather  ?  And  if  so,  whe'tlier  it  is  possible 
to  pass  the  plans  subject  to  an  undertaking  from  the 
party  covering  these  points  ? 

In  my  opinion,  in  the  event  of  drain  0  being  connected 
with  A,  the  latter  would  fall  within  the  statutory  definition 
of  a  “  sewer,”  and  would  be  vested  in  and  repairable  by  the 
council,  who  would  be  liable  for  any  nuisance  caused  by  it, 
and  bound  to  repair  any  damage  sustained  by  it.  An 
undertaking  by  the  owner  of  the  houses  that  it  shall  be 
treated  as  a  private  drain  and  repaired  by  him,  would,  1 
think,  be  binding  as  between  him  and  the  council;  but  I 
do  not  think  it  would  protect  the  council  from  claims  for 
damages  by  other  parties.  See  Butt  v.  Snow  (89  L.T.,  302). 


AMBULANCE  'BUSES. 


“  Our  Part  in  the  War  ”  is  the  title  of  a  well-pro¬ 
duced  illustrated  booklet  which  Messrs.  Straker- 
Squire  (1913),  Limited,  Nelson-square,  Blackfriars-road, 
London,  S.E.,  have  just  issued,  and  which  shows  how 
widely  this  well-known  firm's  vehicles  are  being  em¬ 
ployed  in  connection  with  the  war. 

We  illustrate  herewith  their  newest  type  of  ambu¬ 
lance  ’bus,  of  which  a  large  fleet  has  been  acquired 


Metropolitan  Asylums  Board  Ambulance  ’Bus. 


them  to  be  private  improvement  expenses.  The  council 
cannot  prescribe  the  particular  kind  of  water-closet  to  be 
provided,  nor  can  they  lay  down  any  general  rule  applic¬ 
able  to  all  houses  in  the  district.  See  Wood  v.  Widnes  Cor¬ 
poration  (62  J.P.,  117). 

Combined  Drainage. — “Max”  writes:  Plans  have 
been  submitted  for  a  number  of  houses  to  be  erected 
about  one  mile  from  the  public  sewers.  At  present' 
there  is  an  existing  sewer  (A)  serving  one  house  (B), 


and  the  person  depositing  plans  has  agreed  to  con¬ 
struct,  and  afterwards  periodically  cleanse,  a  large 
cesspool  to  serve  the  proposed  houses.  He  would, 
however,  prefer  to  connect  up  by  drain  C  with  the 
above-mentioned  sewer,  and  to  pay  the  cost  of  putting 
this  silver  into  proper  working  order,  and  to  extend  it 
if  necessary.  I  should  like  to  have  your  opinion 
whether,  in  the  event  of  this  being  done,  the  sewer 


by  the  Metropolitan  Asylums  Board,  who  control  the 
hospital  work  over  a  very  large  area.  An  examina¬ 
tion  of  these  cleverly-conceived  and  handsomely-con¬ 
structed  vehicles  affords  eloquent  testimony  to  the 
high  state  of  efficiency  to  which  the  board  has  brought 
its  organisation.  A  feature  of  these  vehicles  is  that 
they  are  designed  to  convey  sitting-up  cases  (such  as 
convalescents),  as  well  as  stretcher  cases.  They  are 
fitted  with  side  seats  capable  of  being  removed  and 
replaced  by  stretchers,  while  a  detachable  seat  is  pro¬ 
vided  for  the  nurse.  The  springing  of  these  ambu¬ 
lances  is  specially  designed  to  adjust  itself  to  the  dif¬ 
ferent  loads  to  be  carried,’  with  the  result  that  the 
vehicles  will  take  a  variety  of  load  weights  and  yet 
retain  their  flexibility. 


Amateur  Well  Sinkers. — Some  of  the  allotment- 
holders  in  a  Midland  district  have  got  over  the  water 
supply  difficulty  by  sinking  wells,  and  in  a  number  of 
instances  water  in  quite  sufficient  quantities  has  been 
tapped  at  a  depth  of  10  It.  or  so. 

Concreted  Fuel. — It  will  be  recollected  that  Mr.  G. 
Goulbourn,  a.r.i.b.a.,  presented  recently,  before  the 
Society  of  Architects,  a  paper  on  this  subject,  ayid  it  is 
of  interest  to  note  that  he  will  follow  this  up  with  a 
second  contribution.  Analyses  will  be  shown  of 
several  artificial  fuels,  together  with  the  analyses  of 
their  component  parts,  and  fuels  from  cinders  and 
coal  dust  will  be  made  by  simple  processes  at  the 
meeting— which  will  take  place  at  28  Bedford-square, 
W.O.,  at  6.30  p.m.  on  Thursday  evening  next,  the 
26th  inst. 


62 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


NOTES  FROM  IRELAND. 


Specially  Contributed  by  an  Irish 
Correspondent, 


A  rather  interesting  return  was  pre- 
Road  pared  some  few  years  ago  by  Mr. 
Maintenance  Burkitt,  county  surveyor  of  Fer- 
Costs.  managh,  showing  by  diagrams  the 
number  of  acres  to  each  mile  of  road 
in  each  county  in  Ireland,  the  cost  of  road  mainten¬ 
ance  in  each  county,  the  cost  per  mile,  and  the  pro¬ 
portion  which  the  value  tion  of  each  county  bears  to 
its  mileage  of  roads.  These  diagrams  show  that,  while 
there  is  one  mile  of  road  maintained  at  the  expense 
of  the  ratepayers  to  every  200  acres  of  land  in 
County  Armagh,  there  is  only  one  mile  to  600  acres  in 
Galway.  Again,  while  the  average  cost  was  £48  per 
mile  in  County  Dublin,  when  the  diagrams  were  pre¬ 
pared,  it  was  only  about  £7  per  mile  in  County  Mayo 
and  £8  per  mile  in  Cavan  and  in  West  Cork.  It  would 
be  interesting  to  know  if  there  are  any  other  parts 
of  the  world,  outside  urban  districts,  in  which  there 
is  a  mile  of  public  road  to  every  200  acres  of  land,  or 
if  there  are  any  other  counties  in  the  United  Kingdom 
in  which  the  public  roads  have  been  maintained  at 
an  average  cost  of  £7  to  £8  a  mile. 

*  *  *  * 

During  the  past  few  years  there  has 
Materials  been  a  great  increase  in  the  cost  of 
and  materials  and  labour  in  Ireland,  and  it 
Labour,  seems  probable  that  for  the  future  the 
amount  allowed  for  road  maintenance 
will  ha/e  to  be  increased  by  from  25  per  cent  to  50  per 
cent,  in  order  to  maintain  the  same  mileage  of  roads 
in  the  future  as  in  the  past.  Since  the  Local  Govern¬ 
ment  Act  came  into  force  in  Ireland  the  cost  of  road 
maintenance  has  gone  up  25  per  cent  in  the  majority 
of  the  counties,  and  a  further  increase  in  cost  of  from 
25  per  cent  to  50  per  cent  will  mean  a  very  heavy  tax 
on  the  ratepayers  unless  liberal  grants-in-aid  are 
forthcoming  from  the  Royal  Exchequer. 

*  *  *  * 

The  false  economy  of  leaving 
Superintendence,  the  superintendence  of  road  main¬ 
tenance  to  an  inadequate  staff  is 
very  apparent  in  the  case  of  a  particular  county  in 
Ireland  which  has  recently  come  under  the  writer’s 
notice.  The  roads  in  this  county  appear  to  have  been 
always  very  weak,  many  of  them  traversing  bog  land, 
while  the  majority  of  them  are  without  any  sound 
foundation  or  bottoming  material.  In  fact,  the  roads 
consist  for  the  most  part  of  a  weak  and,  in  many 
.  cases,  a  much  worn  crust  resting  on  a  foundation  of 
clay  or  peat  moss.  In  addition,  the  material  available, 
for  the  repair  of  the  roads  is  a  rather  indifferent  lime¬ 
stone  of  poor  wearing  properties  under  traffic.  The 
traffic  on  the  roads,  however,  in  the  county  in  ques¬ 
tion  is  comparatively  light,  while  a  fair  average  sum 
is  aliowejj  for  the  roads,  and  as  the  county  surveyor 
is  a  very  capable  officer,  a  great  improvement  could 
be  effected  in  the  condition  of  the  roads  if  the  county 
council  adopted  a  bold  scheme  of  direct  labour,  and 
provided  the  county  surveyor  with  a  sufficient  staff 
of  assistants  devoting  all  their  time  to  county  work. 
At  present  there  are  only  four  assistants  in  the  county, 
each  in  charge  of  about^300  miles  of  roads,  the  salary 
of  each  assistant  being"  about  £10U  a  year.  These 
assistants  are  not  bound  to  devote  their  whole  time 
to  their  county  duties,  and;  considering  the  salaries 
paid,  it  is  probable  that  they  consider  they  are  acting, 
fairly  if  they  spend  only  half  their  time  at  these  duties. 
Anyone,  however,  with  a  practical  knowledge  of  road 
maintenance  in  Ireland  is  aware  that  an  assistant  in 
charge  of  300  miles  of  roads  should  devote  his  whole 
time  to  his  work  if  he  is  to  perform  his  duties  satis¬ 
factorily. 

*  *  *  * 

In  those  counties  in  Ireland  where 
Economy  of  direct  labour  is  in  operation,  and 
Direct  where  the  best  results  are  being  ob- 
Labour.  tained,  the  cost  of  the  county  sur¬ 
veyor’s  staff  amounts  to  about  6  per 
cent  of  the  expenditure,  but  in  the  county  under  con¬ 
sideration  it.  is  only  a  little  over  3  per  cent  of  the  ex¬ 
penditure.  In  order  to  effect  a  rapid  improvement 
in  the  condition  of  the  roads  in  this  county  without 
any  increase  in  expenditure  beyond  that  which  is 
common  to  all  counties  on  account  of  the  increase  in 
wages,  a  comprehensive  scheme  of  direct  labour 


should  be  introduced,  as  suggested  above,  and  a 
trained  staff  of  assistants  provided,  who  would  devote 
all  their  time  to  county  work.  A  sufficient  number  of 
light  rollers  and  other  necessary  plant  should  also  be 
procured.  The  cost  of  providing  whole-time  assis¬ 
tants  is  infinitesimal  .compared  to  the  loss  at  present 
incurred  owing  to  inadequate  supervision,  and  the 
writer  is  satisfied  that  if  these  assistants  were  ap¬ 
pointed  the  good  results  which  would  follow  would 
astonish  the  council  a.s  well  as  the  ratepayers  of  the 
county  he  is  referring  to. 

#  #  #  # 

When  the  Road  -Board  resumes  its 
Grants  activities  in  Ireland  it  would  be  well 
in  Aid.  for  the  board  to  consider  the  claims 

of  urban  district  councils  for  grants  in 
aid  independently  of  the  county  councils.  Up  to 
the  present  the  board  have  only  made  grants  in  aid 
to  the  urban  districts  through  the  county  councils, 
and  the  specification  for  a  road  board  work  in  any 
urban  district  must  be  drawn  up,  or  at  any  rate 
be  approved  of,  by  the  county  surveyor  before  a 
grant  is  made,  and  afterwards  the  certificate  of  the 
county  surveyor  must  be  given  testifying  to  the  due 
completion  of  the  work.  This  is  rather  a  sore  point 
with  town  surveyors,  many  of  whom  are  very  able 
men  who  have  succeeded,  by  improved  methods  of 
construction,  in  providing  street  surfaces  which  com¬ 
pare  favourably  with  the  roads  outside  their  areas. 
In  some  of  the  larger  urban  districts  tar  paving, 
Rocmac,  Ferromac'r  and  other  materials  have  been 
introduced,  while  the  cleansing  of  the  streets  is 
carried  out  in  a  thorough  and  systematic  manner, 
and  no  fault  can  be  found  with  the  construction  and 
maintenance  of  the  street  crusts.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  streets  in  some  of  the  smaller  urban  districts 
seem  to  be  always  in  bad  order,  and  any  cleansing 
done  is  carried  out  in  an  irregular  and  slovenly 
manner.  It  would  appear  then  only  fair  that  grants 
should  be  made  direct  to  the  larger  urban  districts. 
Of  course,  grants  are  only  given  for  works  of  improve¬ 
ments  on  leading  roads,  and  when  a  road  board 
Work  is  being  carried  out  on  a  road  a  short  piece  of 
which  forms  the  main  .street  of  an  urban  district 
it  is  not  worth  while  dividing  up  the  work  between 
two  authorities ;  but  there  are  a  good  many  towns 
through  which  a  mile  or  more  of  a  main  road  passes, 
and  in  such  cases  it-  seems  desirable  that  any  Road 
Board  work  should  be  carried  out  directly  by  the 
local  authority,  and  not  through  the  county  council 


Gas  and  Coal  Economy. — -Various  questions  of  i 

technical  character  having  recently  arisen  relating  to 
the  supply  of  gas,  the  Fuel  Research  Board  have  un¬ 
dertaken,  at  the  request  of  the  Board  of  Trade  and 
other  Government  departments  concerned,  to  conduct 
an  investigation  and  to  advise  them  as  to  the  most 
suitable  composition  and  quality  of  gas  and  the  mini¬ 
mum  pressure  at  which  it  should  be  generally  sup¬ 
plied,  having  regard  to  the  desirability  of  economy  in 
the  use  of  coal,  the  adequate  recovery  of  by-products, 
and  the  purposes  for  which  coal  is  now  used. 

Local  Authorities  and  Coal  Distribution _ In  the 

House  of  Commons  on  Monday  the  President  of  the 
Local  Government  Board  was  asked  whether,  in  view 
of  the  probability  of  the  shortage  of  coal  during  the 
coming  winter,  he  could  see  his  way  to  empower  the 
councils  of  boroughs  and  urban  and  rural  districts  to 
purchase  coal  for  sale  to  the  residents  in  their  respec¬ 
tive  areas.  Mr.  Hayes  Fisher  said  special  efforts  were 
being  made  at  the  present  time  to  secure  deliveries 
of  coal  to  householders  who  possessed  storage  accom¬ 
modation  so  that  when  the  winter  came  attention 
might  lie  concentrated  on  keeping  up  supplies  for  the 
poorer  classes.  There  would  obviously  be  a  risk  of 
this  object  being  defeated  if  some  restriction  were  not 
imposed  on  the  amount  of  coal  which  particular  local 
authorities  were  allowed  to  accumulate,  as  the  build¬ 
ing  up  of  special  stocks  by  the  local  authorities 
must  affect  the  quantities  passing  through  the 
hands  of  the  coal  merchants  and  to  that  extent 
retard  the  deliveries  which  were  now  taking  place  to 
householders  with  storage  accommodation.'  For  this 
reason  it  was  thought  advisable  to  restrict  the  amount 
of  coal  which  any  local  authority  should  accumulate, 
and  it  would  be  necessary  to  consider  each  case 
separately.  Subject  to  these  limitations  and  to  such 
other  conditions  as  might  be  required  by  the  Con¬ 
troller,  the  Local  Government  Board  would  not  wish 
to  raise  any  objection  to  the  purchase  of  coal  by  local 
authorities  for  the  purpose  in  view. 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


63 


EAST  STIRLINGSHIRE  ROADS. 

SURFACE  RENEWAL  AND  STRENCTHENINC. 

In  li is  annual  report  and  estimate  for  the  mainten¬ 
ance  of  the  roads  in  his  district  during  the  recent 
year  J\Ir.  William  Ballantine,  surveyor  for  the  Eastern 
District  of  the  County  of  Stirling,  states  that  the 
strengthening  and  renewing  of  the  road  crusts  by 
the  close  coating  of  long  continuous  stretches  and 
binding  with  bituminous  materials  has  been  con¬ 
tinued  as  in  che  few  previous  years,  and  the  system 
is  now  proving  economical  and  very  advantageous. 
After  the  last  four  years’  experience,  the  new  process 
has  been  found  to  withstand  the  tear  and  wear  ol 
winter  weather  much  better  than  the  ordinary 
method,  it  having  been  found  that,  wherever  metal 
coatings  have  l>een  bound  with  tar,  the  frost  caused 
no  bad  effects,  while  it  is  also  noticeable  that  the 
snow  disappears  much  more  quickly  from  the  surface 
that  has  been  treated  with  tar.  It  is,  therefore,  now 
clearly  shown  that,  where  a  road  surface  is  first 
properly  coated  and  made  waterproof,  the  damage 
from  weather  is  practically  nullified.  The  only 
objection  to  the  smooth  surface  is  that  it  gives  less 
foothold  to  horses,  but  Mr.  Ballantine  points  out  that 
it  has  been  demonstrated  by  the  London  horse  traffic 
that  horses  in  time  get  accustomed  to  the  new  con¬ 
ditions. 

On  main  roads  the  number  of  horse-drawn  vehicles 
is  gradually  declining,  while  mechanically-propelled 
vehicles  are  rapidly  increasing,  and  not  only  are  they 
superseding  what  was  formerly  horse-drawn,  but 
they  are  also  bringing  new  traffic  on  the  road  which 
previously  went  by  rail.  From  a  recent  census  of 
traffic  taken  on  the  Glasgow  road,  at  Carmuirs  ex¬ 
periments,  out  of  727  motor  vehicles  Registered  in 
one  week,  444  were  motor  vans  or  lorries,  weighing 
in  the  aggregate  1,024  tons,  all  of  which  is  mostly 
new  traffic  and  from  which  the  county  derives  no 
revenue  for  road  maintenance. 

'The  work  specified  for  the  current  year  will,  as 
last  year,  be  almost  wholly  confined  to  surface  main¬ 
tenance,  and,  while  giving  due  attention  to  the  re¬ 
quirements  of  secondary  roads,  the  principal  expen¬ 
diture  will  be  on  main  roads  and  streets,  which 
latter  will  include,  under  the  road  surface  improve¬ 
ment  schemes,  37,144  square  yards  of  new  coatings 
with  bituminous  binder  and  about  nine  miles  of 
surface  spraying.  The  amount  of  the  estimate  is 
£10 ,448 -as  compared  with  £9,512  last  year.  The  in¬ 
crease  is  due  to  the  increased  cost  of  labour  and 
materials,  and  to  the  part  of  the  work  not  overtaken 
last  year  being  carried  forward  into  this  year. 


Water  Power  in  Ireland. — Asked  whether  in  view  of 
the  danger  of  a  coal  shortage,  and  considering  also 
that  there  was  in  Ireland  water-power  enough  to 
supply  all  the  demands  of  electrical  power  for  the 
whole  island,  he  would  take  the  necessary  steps  to 
secure  the  realisation  of  scientific  plan*  for  utilising 
this  water-power,  Mr.  Duke,  Chief  Secretary  for  Ire¬ 
land,  stated  in  the  House  of  Commons  on  Monday 
that  he  had  no  reason  to  suppose  that  water-power 
could  be  made  available  as  a  substitute  for  power 
derived  from  combustion  to  the  extent  suggested,  but 
he  would  be  prepared  to  bring  before  the  Committee 
which  had  been  appointed  to  deal  with  questions  re¬ 
lating  to  electrical  power  any  practical  proposal  that 
might  be  formulated. 

The  Roadman’s  “  Soft  Job.” — Labour  difficulties 
were  raised  at  the  last  meeting  of  Grimsby  Rural  Dis¬ 
trict  Council  by  Mr.  C.  Lowish,  who,  referring  to  the 
scarcity  of  labour  on  the  land,  said  that  men  employed 
on  the  roads  by  the  council  were  not  at  present  earning 
their  wages,  and  he  moved  that  all  those  who  were 
capable  of  work  on  the  land  be  discharged,  in  order 
that  they  might  get  work  on  the  land.  If  offered  work 
now  the  men  would  not  take  it.  They  had  “  a  soft 
job,”  he  said,  and  wanted  to  keep  it,  but  if  they  were 
discharged  they  would  soon  get  on  the  land.  The 
surveyor  said  that  many  of  his  men  were  helping 
farmers  half  the  time  at  present.  There  was  the 
utmost  difficulty  in  getting  Jabour,  and  if  men  were 
once  discharged  they  would  never  get  a  staff  back. 
The  chairman  suggested  that  the  matter  was  best  left 
to  the  surveyor,  who  might  intimate  to  the  men  that 
they  were  free  to  assist  the  farmers  on  the  land,  but 
he  felt  it  would  not  be  wise  to  dismiss  all  the  men. 
The  surveyor,  in  consultation  with  the  members, 
might  be  able  to  arrive  at  some  solution.  Mr.  Lowish 
agreed  to  this  course,  and  the  resolution  was  not 
pressed. 


THE  TRIBUNALS. 

At  St.  Ives  the  borough  surveyor  applied  for  the 
conditional  exemption  of  Thomas  Case,  34,  C2,  road 
foreman,  at  present  in  charge  of  the  construction  of  a 
breakwater  to  protect  Smeaton  Pier.  Three  months’ 
exemption. — The  borough  surveyor  also  appealed  for 
W.  F.  Curnow,  32,  C2,  labourer,  until  the  completion 
of  the  breakwater.  No  exemption;  man  to  report  on 
September  10th. 

At  the  West  Sussex  Appeal  Tribunal  the  Slioreham 
Urban  District  Council  supported  the  appeal  of  a  head 
carter,  forty-one,  married,  fit  for  general  service, 
against  whose  exemption  for  three  months  the 
Military  Representative  appealed.  The  man  had 
charge  of  three  horses,  was  employed  on  general  town 
work,  and  was  the  only  man  of  military  age  in  the 
employment  of  the  council.  In  this  case  there  was 
only  a  verbal  statement  of  age,  and  it  appeared  pro¬ 
bable  the  man  was  outside  the  scope  of  the  Act  by  a 
few  days. — The  exemption  was  confirmed,  and  it  was 
specified  as  desirable  that  proper  inquiries  should  be 
made  relative  to  the  man’s  age. 

At  the  sitting  last  week  of  the  Teignmouth  Tribunal 
the  case  was  submitted  of  F.  W.  Knight,  37,  single, 
Cl,  engineer  to  the  Teignmouth  Urban  District 
Council.  Colonel  Duxbury  said :  I  should  raise  no 
objection  to  exemption,  but  I  cannot  say  what  view 
the  recruiting  officer  would  take  of  it.  It  is  open  to 
him  to  op  pose  it  if  he  thinks  fit.  Mr.  W.  H.  Hooper : 
If  we  granted  it  and  the  recruiting  officer  appealed, 
the  matter  would  be  taken  out  of  our  hands  entirely. 
Colonel  Duxbury  :  All  I  can  say  is  they  do  not  oppose 
a  further  period  of  exemption.  Exemption  to  January 
15th. — On  behalf  of  the  urban  council,  Mr.  Knight  ap¬ 
plied  for  a  further  exemption  of  his  clerk,  F.  W.  Easter- 
bi’ook,  21,  single,  Cl.  The  military  said  Easterbrook, 
a  single  young  man,  should  join  up.  Sufficient  exemp¬ 
tion  had  been  given  to  enable'  the  council  to  make 
other  arrangements.  Mr.  Knight  said  the  question  of 
getting  a  substitute  was  difficult,  as  he  was  practically 
bound  down  to  get  either  a  boy  under  16  or  a  man 
over  61.  He  had  to  be  out  of  the  office  a  great  deal, 
and  it  was  necessary  to  have  someone  cqmpetent  to 
leave  in  charge.  Adjourned  for  further  medical 
examination. 


PUBLIC  OFFICIALS  AND  MILITARY  SERVICE. 


POSITION  OF  MEN  IN  LOW  MEDICAL  CATEGORIES. 

In  the  House  of  Commons,  on  the  12th  inst.,  the 
Under  Secretary  of  State  for  War  was  asked  whether 
any  instructions  had  been  issued  to  recruiting 
officers  that  men  employed  on  the  administrative 
staffs  of  county  or  local  authorities  and  who  were 
in  low  medical  categories  were  not  to  be  called  up 
for  service  for  the  present;  and,  if  not,  whether,  in 
view  of  the  importance  of  continuing  the  work  of 
county  and  local  authorities,  he  would  consider  the 
question  of  issuing  such  instructions. 

Mr.  Macpherson :  Since  the  9th  October,  1916,  re¬ 
cruiting  officers  have  been  in  receipt  of  instructions 
that  men  not  classified  in  medical  categories  A  or 
B1  employed  on  the  professional,  clerical,  and  ad¬ 
ministrative  staffs  of  local  authorities  and  kindred 
bodies  connected  with  the  administration  of  public 
functions  are  not  to  be  removed  from  their  employ¬ 
ment  without  communication  with  the  Director  of 
Recruiting. 


Municipal  Profit-sharing  Scheme  Abandoned. — The 

profit-sharing  scheme  which  has  been  in  operation  for 
a  considerable  time  in  the  gas  and  electricity  depart¬ 
ment  of  the  Stafford  Corporation  is  being  abandoned. 
The  workmen  in  the  department  made  application  for 
an  increase  of  5s.  a  week  on  the  present  war  bonus, 
and  the  Gas  and  Electricity  Committee  at  a  recent 
meeting  of  the  town  council  recommended  that  the 
profit-sharing  scheme  should  be  terminated,  that  in 
substitution  the  salaries  and  wages  of  those  who  par¬ 
ticipated  in  the  benefits  thereof  be  increased  by  15  per 
cent,  and  that  the  recipients  of  the  3s.  war  bonus  re¬ 
ceive  an  addition  thereto  of  2s.  3d.  per  week.  Mr. 
Bostock  said  the  worst  feature  of  profit-sharing 
schemes  was  that  it  was  extremely  difficult  to  avoid 
jealousies  between  departments  and  workmen,  but  it 
was  a  disappointment  to  see  a  scheme  which  had 
worked  well  dropped.  The  committee’s  recommenda¬ 
tion  was  adopted. 


G4 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


Municipal  Work  in  Progress  and  Projected. 

The  Editor  invites  tjie  co-operation  o]  Surveyor  readers  with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 

head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


The  following  are  among  the  more  important  pro¬ 
jected  works  of  which  particulars  have  reached  us 
during  the  present  week.  Other  reports  will  be  found 
on  our  “Local  Government  Board  Inquiries”  page. 

BUILDINGS. 

Antrim  C.C. — It  has  been  agreed  to  carry  out  re¬ 
pairs  at  the  county  court  house,  Belfast,  and  the 
court  house,  Ballymena. 

Birmingham  T.C. — The  Education  Committee  are 
recommended  to  purchase  a  6-acre  site  for  a  secondary 
school  for  girls  and  a  playing  field. 

Huddersfield  T.C. — The  Education  Committee  have 
agreed  to  carry  out  extensions  at  the  high  school  for 
girls. 

Merthyr  T.C. — The  Education  Committee  have 
accepted  a  gift  of  £10,000  from  Mr.  H.  Seymour  Berry 
for  a  technical  mining  and  engineering  institute. 

Winchester  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  Army 
authorities  had  secured  for  the  purposes  of  an  abattoir 
the  premises  of  the  Cheeshill  Brewery,  which  were 
closed  down  recently  for  the  duration  of  the  war.  A 
proposal  to  ask  the  Army  authorities  to  reconsider  the 
matter  was  lost,  the  mayor  stating  it  would  be  useless 
to  attempt  to  do  anything. 

HOUSING  AND  TOWN  PLANNING. 

Adwick-le-Street  U.D.C. — It  was  reported  that 
negotiations  are  proceeding  for  the  purchase  of  a  site' 
for  a  housing  scheme. 

Dumbarton  T.C. — The  town  council  (the  Glasgoiv 
Herald  states)  have  been  presented  with  rather  a  novel 
point  on  procedure  arising  out  of  the  scarcity  of  work¬ 
men’s  houses  in  town.  A  proprietor  in  Levenhaugh- 
street,  whose  property  it  is  estimated  can  be  repaired 
and  made  habitable  for  £50,  closed  it  up  rather  than 
spend  the  money,  and  the  local  Trades  Council  re¬ 
quested  the  town  council  to  make  a  request  to  the 
Ministry  of  Munitions  that  the  houses  should  be  re¬ 
opened  for  letting  purposes.  The  town  council  took 
up  the  attitude  that  they  had  no  power  in  the  matter, 
but  Councillor  Ward  has  forced  them  to  take  action, 
and  they  are  now  to  support  the  Trades  Council’s 
application  to  the  extent  of  writing  the  Ministry  of 
Munitions  stating  that  the  matter  has  been  before 
them.  The  position  of  the  landlord  is  that  he  posi¬ 
tively  refuses  to  clo  anything. 

East  Stow  R.D.G.— The  clerk  has  been  authorised 
to  make  inquiries  from  owners  of  land  in  the  district 
as  to  sites  suitable  for  the  erection  of  workmen’s 
houses.  Mr.  A.  H.  Hunt,  of  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  who 
has  been  appointed  architect,  has  been  asked  to  sub¬ 
mit  particulars  of  the  proposed  dwellings. 

Sheffield  T.C. — The  city  council  have  approved  the 
first  section  of  the  housing  scheme. 

Wombwell  U.D.C. — -A  site  of  5g  acres  at  Hening- 
field  is  to  be  purchased  for  a  housing  scheme,  .subject 
to  a  loan  being  sanctioned  for  the  purpose..  It  has 
also  been  agreed  to>  amend  the  plans  of  the  King’s- 
road  site  so  as  to  allow  for  the  erection  •  of  120  addi¬ 
tional  houses. 

MOTOR  TRANSPORT. 

Hammersmith  B.C. — The  borough  council  have 
authorised  the  purchase  of  two  motor  vans  for  the  use 
of  the  municipal  kitchens  department. 

Hemel  Hempstead  T.C. — The  town  council  have 
authorised  the  purchase  of  a  motor  tractor  for  £350, 
for  the  use  of  the  fire  brigade. 

Perth  T.C. — It  has  been  decided  to  equqr  one  of  the 
municipal  omnibuses  with  a  gas  apparatus  for  propul¬ 
sion,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £27. 

Southend  T.C. — Quotations  are  being  obtained  for 
three  electric  tip-wagons. 

Swindon  T.C. — The  borough  surveyor,  Mr.  H.  J. 
Hamp,  has  been  asked  to  report  on  the  adoption  of 
motor  traction  for  haulage. 

Thornaby  T.C. — The  town  Council  have  deferred  for 
the  present  the  consideration  of  the  purchase  of  a 
motor  fire  engine. 

Walthamstow  U.D.C. — Inquiries  are.being  made  with 
a  view  to  replacing  the  5-ton  Clayton  &  Shuttleworth 
steamer  requisitioned  by  the  War  Office. 


West  Ham  T.C. — The  Education  Committee  are  in¬ 
viting  tenders  for  two  motor  ambulances. 

Widnes  T.C. — A  5-ton  motor  and  trailer  is  to  be 
purchased  for  £1,000  for  the  Gas  and  Water  Com¬ 
mittee. 

PARKS  AND  OPEN  SPACES. 

Goole  U.D.C.  — The  council  have  received  from  a 
number  of  residents  the  title  deeds  of  a  plot  of  land  in 
Back  Kingsway,  with  a  request  that  it  may  be  utilised 
as  a  children’s  playground. 

Wolverhampton  T.C. — The  town  council  have  re¬ 
ceived  from  Councillor  Myatt  a  gift  of  land  for  a  re¬ 
creation  ground  in  a  congested  area. 

REFUSE  COLLECTION  AND  DISPOSAL. 

Hove  T.C. — The  town  council  last  week  approved  a 
report  of  the  Sanitary  Committee  for  the  collection 
and  disposal  of  house  refuse  by  direct  labour.  The 
House  Refuse  Sub-committee  were  entrusted  with  the 
task  of  making  inquiries,  and  they  directed  their 
attention  to  devising  a  scheme  with  the  view  to  the 
work  being  carried  out  in  a  more  satisfactory  manner, 
to  the  refuse  being  removed  outside  the  borough,  and 
further  to  reduce  the  cost,,  which  has  been  increasing 
so  rapidly  during  the  last  few  years.  A  scheme  which 
it  is  confidently  expected  will  be  found  to  realise  these 
points  has  been  evolved,  and  is  set  out  in  a  report 
from  the  acting  medical  officer  of  health.  In  connec¬ 
tion  with  the  scheme  the  committee  have  obtained  a 
conditional  agreement  for  the  use  of  the  pit,  and  they 
are  informed  that  suitable  premises  are  available  for 
hiring  as  an  office  for  the  new  department.  The 
agreement  with  the  contractors  terminates  on  Septem¬ 
ber  29th  next. 

Richmond  (Surrey)  T.C. — Owing  to  the  failure  of  the 
contractors  to- remove  the  refuse  by  rail,  there  being 
no  trucks  available,  it  was  reported  that  the  borough 
surveyor,  Mr.  .1.  H.  Brierley,  had  to  make  temporary 
arrangements  for  dealing  with  it,  and  assistance  was 
being  rendered  by  the  Barnes  Council.  Alderman 
Bevnays  remarked  that  Barnes  had  for  years  past  had 
an  up-to-date  plant  for  the  disposal  of  house  refuse, 
and  Richmond  were  placed  at  a  disadvantage  in  not 
having  similar  facilities.  He  hoped  that  this  fact 
would  induce  the  Richmond  Council  not  to  unduly 
delay  their  dust  destructor  scheme. 

Scalby  U.D.C. — The  council  have  decided  to  adopt  a 
scheme  for  the  removal  of  house  refuse  other  than" 
that  of  earth  closets  and  cesspools. 

Whitby  U.D.C  .—It  was  reported  that  the  waste- 
paper  collected  had  been  sold  for  £31,  and  old  tins, 
for  8s.  The’press  cost  about  £19  10s.,  and  had  paid 
for  itself. 

ROADS  AND  MATERIALS. 

Bethnal  Green  B.C. — It  is  proposed  to  reconstruct 
the  carriageway  in  part  of  Bethnal  Green-road,  at  an 
estimated  cost  of  £3,500. 

Birmingham  T.C — For  some  time  the  question  of 
street  improvements  has  engaged  the  joint  attention 
of  the  Tramways  Committee  and  the  Public 
Works  Committee,  and  their  report,  which  has 
been  prepared  but  not  published,  will  probably 
be  considered  by  the  city  council  within  the 
next  two  or  three  months.  The  first  aim  is  to 
secure  a  widening  of  many  main  thoroughfares 
(along  which  there  are,  or  wiH  be,  tramways)  when¬ 
ever  building  changes  are  made.  The  three  com¬ 
mittees  concerned  recognise  that  many  of  the  main 
arteries  of  the  city  are  wholly  unsuited  to  modern 
needs;  they  point  out  that  the  restricted  width  in 
many  instances  makes  impossible  the  full  and 
natural  development  of  the  tramway  system.  The 
committee  emphasises,  moreover,  the  need  for  con¬ 
certed  action,  and  apart  from  street  widening  on  an 
extensive  scale  it  has,  on  broad  lines,  had  prepared 
a  plan  which  connects  up  one  important  street  with 
another,  and  one  district  with  another,  with  a  view 
ultimately  of  establishing  a  much  enlarged  cross-city 
tramway  system.  The  immediate  sanction  of  the 
council  will  be  asked  to  a  portion  of  the  scheme  relat¬ 
ing  to  the  acquisition  of  frontage  sites  on  main 
arteries.  Larg_e  numbers  of  leases  are,  it  is  stated, 
constantly  falling  in,  and  the  joint  committee  want 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


G5 


to  he  in  a  position  to  acquire,  as  opportunities  occur, 
plots  of  land,  so  that  ultimately  it  may  rearrange  the 
street  lines,  always  with  the  object  of  giving  a  greater 
width  of  carriage-way. 

Bromley  (Kent)  R.D.C. — The  council,  are  asking  the 
Road  Board  to  renew  this  year  their  contribution  of 
1300  towards  the  cost  of  tarring  the  roads  which  are 
largely  used  for  the  conveyance  of  munition  workers. 

Newton  R.D.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  Road 
Board  had  agreed  to  pay  £308  out  of  a  total  estimate 
of  £338  in  respect  of  repairs  to  the  Whiteway  roads. 

Wakefield  T.C. — An  expenditure  of  £350  has  been 
sanctioned  on  road  repairs  in  Vicarage-street. 

Whitby  U.D.C.  —  It  was  reported  that  the  Works 
Committee  had  had  under  consideration  the  purchase 
of  a  trailer  for  the  steam  roller,  and  they  had  decided 
to  got  a  second-hand  one,  if  they  could,  at  a  reason¬ 
able  price.  If  the  roads  were  to  be  kept  in  good  order, 
and  the  work  done  in  decent  time,  they  would  not  only 
want  a  trailer,  but  also,  after  the  war,  a  steam  wagon 
or  motor  wagon,  so  that  it  could  be  bringing  consider¬ 
able  quantities  of  stone  from  the  station-  to  the  roads, 
and  thus  keep  the  roller  continually  going,  instead  of 
being  idle  half  the  day. 

SEWERAGE  AND  SEWACE  DISPOSAL. 

Birmingham  T.C. — The  Public  Works  Committee, 
as  a  matter  of  urgency,  recommend  the  reconstruction 
of  a  portion  of  the  Hockley  main  sewerage  system. 
The  defective  portion  of  sewer  which  it  is  proposed 
shall  be  reconstructed  is  about  half  a  mile  in  length, 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Cheston-road,  between 
Thimblemill-lane  and  Chester-street.  The  proposed 
scheme  will  necessitate  the  deepening  of  Hockly 
Brook  between  Plume-street  and  Newtown-row,  and 
this  work,  it  is  suggested,  must  be  carried  out  at  the. 
same  time.  The  total  cost  of  the  reconstruction  of 
the  sewer  and  the  deepening  of  the  stream  embraced  in 
this  part  of  the  scheme  is  estimated  at  £100,000  to 
£120,000,  and  it  will  take  about  two  years  to  carry 
out  the  work. 

Rotherham  T.C. — -Representatives  have  been  elected 
to  a  conference  with  the  corporations  of  Sheffield  and 
Chesterfield  to  discuss  the  advisability  of  dealing  with 
the  sewage  in  the  watersheds  of  the  rivers  Rother  and 
Don  by  means  of  a  main  arterial  sewer  which  would 
conduct  it  to  the  Humber.  This  method,  it  was 
stated,  would  obviate  the  necessity  of  sewage  works 
in  the  hearts  of  the  towns  named,  and  would  release 
land  now  used  for  sewage  treatment  for  other  purposes 
— building  sites,  &c. 

Truro  T.C. — At  the  request  of  the  Local  Government 
Board  it  has  been  decided  to  forward  to  the  board 
amended  plans  of  the  proposed  sewerage  scheme,  with 
a  view  to  facilitating  the  granting  of  a  loan  for  the 
work  when  the  restrictions  on  public  borrowing  are 
removed. 

WATER,  CAS,  AND  ELECTRICITY. 

Bangor  T.C. — Owing  to  a  deficit  on  the  gas  under¬ 
taking  the  town  council  have  decided  to  advance  the 
price  of  gas  by  6d.  per  1,000  cub.  ft.  to  consumers 
inside  the  borough,  and  by  Is.  to  consumers  outside 
the  borough. 

Bath  T.C. — The  Electricity  Lighting  Committee 
have  been  authorised  to  purchase  an  underfeed  stoker 
and  transporter,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £1,200. 

Camberwell  B.C. — A  communication  has  been  re¬ 
ceived  from  the  Home  Office  making  the  following 
suggestions  for  the  regulation  of  street  lighting  until 
August  25th  or  thereabouts:  Where  all  lamps  are  now 
in  lighting,  a  certain  proportion,  say  one  lamp  in 
three  (or,  where  the  intervals  between  lamps  are  un¬ 
usually  short,  alternate  lamps),  might  be  dispensed 
with,  subject  to  the  following  conditions :  (1)  Sufficient 
lamps  should  be  retained  in  lighting  for  each  such 
lamp  to  have  another  lighted  lamp  within  100  yards 
of  it,  either  on  the  same  side  or  the  opposite  side  of 
the  street.  (2)  Single  lamps  at  street  corners  should, 
as  a  rule,  be  retained  in  lighting.  (3)  Care  should  be 
taken  to  retain  sufficient  light  at  important  traffic 
junctions,  and  any  requirements  of  the  police  in  this 
respect  should  be  complied  with.  (4)  The  lamps  to  be 
put  out  of  lighting  should  be  selected  so  as  to  retain 
the  greatest  possible  uniformity  of  lighting  along  the 
roadway,  and  this  will  be  of  special  importance  where 
the  lighting  is  by  electric  arc  or  high-pressure  gas 
lamps.  In  streets  where  the  system  of  lighting  or 
spacing  of  the  lamps  does  not  permit  of  the  extinction 
of  a  portion  of  the  lamps  consistently  with  the  above 
conditions,  all  lamps  should  be  retained  in  lighting. 


Horwich  U.D.C. — The  council  are  giving  considera¬ 
tion  to  a  proposal  for  a  water  supply  scheme. 

Itchen  U.D.C. — Representatives  have  been  appointed 
to  discuss  with  the  promoters  a  scheme  to  sell  elec¬ 
tricity  in  bulk  to  the  council,  to  sell  to  local 
customers. 

Nuneaton  T.C. — The  Electricity  Committee  recom¬ 
mend  the  purchase  of  a  site  in  the  vicinity  of  Central- 
avenue  for  a  generating  station. 

Rotherham  T.C. — The  council  have  approved  the 
estimate  of  the  electrical  engineer,  at  £275,000,  for  the 
installation  of  a  turbo-generator,  the  provision  of 
boilers,  the  extension  of  the  new  electricity  station 
and  boiler-house,  and  other  works  in  connection  with 
the  electricity  undertaking. 

Ulverston  R.D.C. — The  council  have  engaged  the 
services  of  Mr.  E.  J.  Silcock,  m.inst.c.f,.,  of  West¬ 
minster  and  Leeds,  as  consulting  engineer,  to  advise 
them  on  the  water  supply  of  the  Cartmel  Valley.  The 
council  have  already  had  under  consideration  the  re¬ 
port  of  their  surveyor,  Mr.  W.  F.  Y.  Molineux,  on 
the  subject,  urging  the  importance  of  moving  in  the 
matter  at  once. 

Walsall  T.C. — In  explaining  that  there  was  a  deficit 
of  nearly  £9,000  upon  the  electricity  undertaking  for 
the  year  ended  March  31st  last,  Councillor  Hayward 
stated  that  they  had  passed  through  a  trying  and 
difficult  time,  as  circumstances  made  it  impossible  to 
get  the  new  turbine  working  until  February  of  this 
year.  It  was  expected  that  the  profit  during  the 
coming  winter  would  cover  the  loss. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Camberwell  B.C. — Upon  the  recommendation  of  the 
borough  engineer,  Mr.  W.  Oxtoby,  the  Public  Health 
Committee  advise  that-  the  defective  timber  of  the 
camp  sheeting  alongside  the  ditch  on  tSydenham-hill 
should  be  removed  and  the  ditch  piped  in.  The  cost 
of  the  necessary  pipes  is  estimated  at  £50,  and  the 
work  would  be  executed  by  the  council’s  workmen. 
The  Carnegie  Trust  have  made  an  offer  of  a  grant 
of  £4,089  towards  paying  off  the  existing  loans  on 
the  public  libraries  in  the  borough  conditional  upon 
the  borough  council  appointing  a  chief  librarian,  the 
re-imposition  of  the  full  penny  rate,  and  the  reopening 
of  the  two  libraries  that  have  been  closed. 

Derbyshire  C.C. — It  has  been  agreed  to  purchase 
six  trailer  wagons,  at  an  estimated  cost  of  £650. 

Dover  T.C. — The  town  council  have  accepted  the 
tender,  of  the  Sanitas  Company  for  disinfectants. 

Hythe  T.C  . — The  borough  surveyor,  Mr.  C.  Jones, 
has  prepared  an  estimate  for  building  a  new  sea  wall 
at  the  Stade,  and  the  town  council  have  decided  to 
approach  certain  owners  of  property  with  a  view  to 
their  contributing  towards  the  cost. 

Newport  (Mon.)  T.C. — The  Tramways  Committee 
have  been  authorised  to  purchase  half  a  dozen  new 
tramway  cars,  so  as  to  supply  the  general  wants  of  the 
town  and  the  extension  towards  the  docks.  Mr.  John 
Moxon,  chairman  of  the  committee,  said  they  could 
purchase  at  £450  each  nearly  new  cars  from  the 
London  County  Council  which  at  the  present  time 
would  cost  about  £1,200  each  to  build. 

West  Penwith  R.D.C. — The  council  have  asked  the 
Cornish  Sand  Company  to  pay  £500  towards  the  cost 
of  repairing  the  road  between  St.  Erth  Village  and 
the  railway  station,  and  4d.  for  every  ton  of  sand 
hauled  in  future.  The  company  have  offered  to  pay 
£350  for  the  repair  of  the- road  and  2gd.  for  every  ton 
carried  by  mechanical  power.  The  council  have  de¬ 
cided  to  adhere  to  the  demand  for  £500,  but  resolved 
to  accept  2£d.  a  ton  for  mechanical  transport. 


EOR  OTHER  ADVERTISEMENTS 

See  End  of  Paper. 

Bromley  rural  district  council, 

KENT. 

TEMPORARY  HIGHWAY  SURVEYOR. 
Required,  for  the  period  of  the  War,  a  Highway 
Surveyor.  Remuneration  £5  weekly. 

Persons  wishing  to  apply  are  requested  to  wi’ite  to 
the  undersigned  as  soon  as  possible. 

EDWARD  HASLEHURST, 

Clerk  to  the  Council. 

Park  House, 

Bromley,  Kent. 

July  18,  1917.  (-1,467) 


66 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


PERSONAL. 

Mr.  Sam  Evans,  county  surveyor  of  Flintshire,  has 
been  released  by  the  county  council  for  road  service 
in  France. 

Mr.  Bernard  H  Knight,  engineer’s  department, 
council  offices,  Finchley,  lias  been  elected  a  member 
of  the  Royal  Sanitary  Institute. 

Mr.  Marshall  Hainsworth,  surveyor  to  the  Tedding- 
ton  Urban  District  Council,  has  been  elected  a  mem¬ 
ber  of  the  Royal  Sanitary  Institute. 

Mr.  Albert  Dickinson,  sanitary  inspector  of  Hert¬ 
ford,  has  been  appointed  surveyor  and  sanitary 
inspector  to  the  Ware  Urban  District  Council. 

Mr.  S.  Wilkinson  has  been  appointed  surveyor  to 
the  Sowerby  Bridge  Urban  District  Council  in  the 
absence  with  the  Colours  of  Mr.  J.  Eastwood. 

Mr.  A.  E.  Scott  Murray,  assistant  engineer  to  the 
West  Kent  Main  Sewerage  Board,  has  been  granted 
exemption  by  the  Chislehurst  Tribunal  until  October 
1st. 

Mr.  A.  S.  Hughes,  of  the  Carron  Company,  has  been 
appointed  chief  electrical  engineer  of  Falkirk,  in  suc¬ 
cession  to  Mr.  R.  Allan  Brown,  who  has  joined  the 
Royal  Naval  Air  Service. 

Lieutenant  Arthur  L.  Parker,  who  in  civil  life  is 
engineer  and  surveyor  to  the  Oakham  Urban  District 
Council,  has  received  severe  injury  to  his  leg  in  a 
motor  accident  while  on  military  duties  in  France, 
and  is  now  in  a  hospital  in  England. 

Mr.  Arthur  Ventris,  assistant  city  engineer  of  West¬ 
minster,  and  superintendent  of  the  city  council  high¬ 
ways  department,  who  would  have  retired  in 
November  next,  has  agreed  to  continue  in  office  for 
another  year. 

Mr.  Howard  Chatfeild  Clarke,  f.r.i.b.a.,  the  well- 
known  architect  and  surveyor,  who  died  last  week,  at 
the  age  of  fifty-seven,  was  a  past-president  of  the 
Surveyors’  Institution.  Recently  he  had  been 
actively  engaged  in  connection  with  the  surveys  and 
valuations  made  at  the  request  of  the  Ministry  of 
Munitions,  to  which  he  acted  as  hon.  adviser. 


NATIONAL  HOUSING  SCHEMES. 


PROBABILITY  OF  GOVERNMENT  ASSISTANCE. 

We  understand  (says  the  Times)  that  the  question 
of  adopting  a  housing  policy  for  the  whole  country 
after  the  war  is  now  engaging  the  close  attention  of 
the  Government.  The  causes  which  led  to  the 
admitted  shortage  of  houses  before  the  war  have 
become  aggravated  since,  and  are  likely  to  continue. 
It  is  improbable  that  money  will  be  more  plentiful,  or 
materials  or  labour  cheaper,  for  some  time  after  the 
cessation  of  hostilities,  while  with  demobilisation  the 
need  for  extended  housing  accommodation  will  become 
increasingly'  urgent.  The  Local  Government  Board 
early  recognised  the  necessity  of  getting  schemes  pre¬ 
pared  in  order  to  be  in  a  position  to  deal  effectively 
with  the  situation  at  the  end  of  the  war.  Mr.  Hayes 
Fisher,  both  before  and  since  his  appointment  as 
president,  has  been  extremely  active  in  the  matter,  and 
many  conferences  with  representative  bodies  have  been 
held.  There  is  undoubtedly  a  general  feeling  that  no 
.appeal  for  the  preparation  of  schemes  can  be  expected 
to  succeed  unless  it  be  accompanied  by  a  promise  of 
solid  financial  support  from  the  Government,  and  little 
doubt  is  entertained  that  such  will  be  forthcoming. 


Silvertown  Reconstruction  :  A  By-Laws  Question. — 

On  the  12th  inst.,  in  the  House  of  Commons,  the 
First  Commissioner  of  Works  was  asked  whether  the 
building  by-laws  of  the  borough  of  West  Ham  forbid 
the  construction  of  any  building  unless  the  whole 
ground  surface  under  every  domestic  building  is  jjro- 
perly  asphalted  or  covered  with  a  layer  of  good  con¬ 
crete  cement ;  and  whether  the  reconstruction  work 
carried  out  by  his  Department  at  Silvertown  was  in 
accordance  with  these  by-laws.  Mr.  Pratt  (Lord  of 
the  Treasury)  said  the  answer  to  the  first  part  of  the 
question  was  in  the  affirmative.  The  by-laws,  how¬ 
ever,  were  operative  only  in  respect  of  entirely  new 
or  rebuilt  houses.  The  local  authorities,  who  were 
consulted,  informed  the  board  that  they  had  no  power 
to  enforce  their  by-laws  in  respect  of  the  work  which 
the  Government  were  undertaking  at  Silvertown. 


LOCAL  GOVERNMENT  BOARD  INQUIRIES. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Bdrvbtor  readers 
with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 
head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


INQUIRY  HELD. 

Hove  T.C.  (July  17th.  Mr.  E.  Leonard). — £9,000 
for  the  purchase  of  the  undertaking  of  the  Hove  Baths 
and  Laundry  Company. — The  town  clerk,  Mr.  W. 
Jermyn  Harrison,  explained  that  it  was  intended  to 
renovate  and  refit  the  baths,  and  to  make  use  of  an 
upper  chamber  as  a  public  assembly  room.  Mr.  H.  II. 
Scott,  borough  surveyor,  gave  details  of  the  area  of 
the  bath  and  rooms,  and  the  acting  medical  officer, 
Dr.  C.  Rawdon  Wood,  said  it  was  in  the  interest  of 
the  Hove  population  to  have  a  public  bath. 

APPLICATIONS  FOR  LOANS. 

Burnley  T.C. — £1,600  for  an  additional  feeder  cable 
for  the  electricity  undertaking. 

Hove  T.C.— £4,000  for  laying  wood  paving  in 
Western-road  after  the  war. 

Kirkcaldy  T.C. — £7,000  for  a  high-pressure  electric 
cable. 

Lowestoft  T.C. — £1,200  for  the  erection  of  groynes. 

LOAN  SANCTIONED. 

South  Shields  T.C. — £1,109  for  alterations  of  the 
electricity  plant. 

FORTHCOMING  INQUIRY. 

JULY.  £ 

24.-  Poplar.  For  the  provision  of  baths  and 

wash-houses  (Mr.  H.  A.  Chapman)  • — 


THE  MAINTENANCE  AND  CLEANSING  OF 
WATERCOURSES. 


GLOUCESTERSHIRE  COUNTY  COUNCILS  RESOLUTION. 

On  Tuesday,  in  the  House  of  Commons, the  President 
of  the  Local  Government  Board  was  asked  whether 
his  attention  had  been  called  to  a  resolution  passed  by 
the  Gloucestershire  County  Council  to  the  effect  that, 
to  prevent  the  damage  now  accruing  to  many  High¬ 
ways  and  large  areas  of  agricultural  land  in  England, 
it  was  desirable  that  the  law  as  regards  the  mainten¬ 
ance  and  cleansing  of  watercourses  should  forthwith 
be  simplified  and  amended,  and  that  to  secure  this 
’’end' the  administration  of  such  law  could  be  usefully 
entrusted  to  such  local  authorities  as  Parliament 
might  authorise ;  and  whether  he  would  consider  the 
advisability  of  introducing  such  legislation. 

Mr.  Fisher  said  he  had  received  a  copy  of  the  reso¬ 
lution  referred  to,  but  it  did  not  indicate  the  nature 
of  Ihe  amendments  desired.  He  was  asking  for  this 
information. 


Sales  of  Imported  Soft  Timber. — The  Controller  of 

Timber  Supplies  announces  that,  as  a  result  of  repre¬ 
sentations  made  on  behalf  of  retail  timber  merchants 
by  a  deputation  of  the  retail  timber  trade  section  of 
the  Timber  Trades  Federation,  the  concession  granted 
in  May  last  whereby  sales  of  imported  soft  timber  not 
exceeding  20s.  in  value  might  be  made  without  ob¬ 
taining  a  permit  from  the  Controller  of  Timber  Sup¬ 
plies  will  be  extended,  and  that  such  sales  up  to  £5 
in  value  may  until  further  notice  be  made  without 
permit. 

Electric  Dust  Van  Bodies. — In  consequence  of  the 
failure  of  the  Surbiton  Urban  District  Council  to 
obtain  a  priority  certificate  for  the  steel  necessary  to 
complete  the  electric  dust  vans  which  they  had 
ordered,  the  alternative  suggestion  of  a  wooden  body 
was  put  forward.  At  the  last  meeting  the  surveyor 
submitted  a  letter  he  had  received  from  Messrs. 
Edison  Accumulators,  Limited,  stating  that  they  had 
done  everything  possible  to  obtain  a  suitable  body 
for  the  sum  of  £35,  but  unfortunately,  on  account  of 
the  scarcity  and  high  price  of  wood,  a  body  of  the 
size  required  could  not  be'  made  for  less  than  £65, 
not  including  the  driver’s  seat  and  canopy.  They 
also  stated  that  the  time  to  make  the  wooden  body 
and  the  canopy  might  be  as  long  as  that  required 
to  get  a  steel  body,  and  they  thought  they  could  let 
the  council  have  one  in  the  course  of  four  or  five 
weeks,  taking  it  from  another  order  for  which  they 
had  not  yet  the  chassis.  It  was  now  stated  that  the 
contractors  were  supplying  one  dust  van  complete 
with  a  steel  body  in  about  five  weeks’  time. 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


67 


Association  of  Managers  of  Sewage  Disposal  Works. 

ANNUAL  SUMMER  MEETING  AT  WORCESTER. 

[ Concluded  from  lad  weeZ\] 


On  the  presentation  at  the  recent  annual  summer 
meeting  at  Worcester  of  the  Association  of  Managers 
of  Sewage  Disposal  Works  of  the  paper  by  Mr.  T. 
Caink,  the  city  engineer,  dealing  with 

THE  WORCESTER  ACTIVATED  SLUDGE 
EXPERIMENTS, 

The  President  said  Mr.  Caink  informed  him  tiiat 
some  difficulties  had  arisen,  ’and  that  he  would  like 
to  explain  them  to  the  meeting.  It  might  save  their 
time  if  Mr.  Caink  dealt  with  the  difficulties. 

Mr.  Caink:  I  wish  to  supplement  the  paper*  by 
alluding  to  an  incident  that  has  occurred  since  the 
paper  was  written.  In  the  afternoon  of  Monday,  the 
2oth  of  last  month,  an  apparently  large  quantity  of 
some  tarry  compound  arrived  in  the  sewage  at  the 
works  and  passed  into  the  purification  tank.  This  dis¬ 
charge  continued  until  midnight.  The  effect  upon  the 
purification  seemed  almost  disastrous.  In  two  or  three 
hours  the  effluent,  from  being  a  transparent,  colour¬ 
less,  and  odourless  liquid,  became  very  opalescent 
and  possessed  a  strong  tarry  odour.  The  incident  was 
emphatically  disconcerting.  With  the  hope  of  correct¬ 
ing  the  mischief,  the  tank  was  partially  emptied  and 
river  water  allowed  to  run  into  it,  while  the  air  was, 
of  course,  kept  continually  supplied.  I  had  to  leave 
two  days  afterwards  for  the  iSouth  of  England,  and 
did  not  see  the  works  again  until  the  following  Tues¬ 
day.  Mr.  Lamb  informed  me, that  the  contents  of  the 
tank  went  through  certain  phases.  Towards  the  end 
of  the  week  the  effluent,  while  getting  fairly  trans¬ 
parent,  assumed  a  red' colour,  gradually  changing  to 
orange  and  yellow-  by  the  following  Tuesday  when  I 
visited  the  works.  The  tarry  odour  was  then  almost 
imperceptible.  The  colour  has  now  become  paler  and 
the  effluent  more  transparent  and,  apart  from  the  tint, 
appears  to  be  fairly  satisfactory.  A  sample  under 
these  conditions  has  been  sent,  but  the  analyst’s  re¬ 
port  has  not  yet  arrived.  A  bottle  of  the  effluent  and 
also  of  the  screened  sewage  were  despatched  to  the 
analyst  taken  when  they  were  at  their  worst  after  the 
influx  of  the  tar.  The  analysis  showed  an  extra¬ 
ordinary  rise  of  the  oxygen-absorbed  figure  in  the 
screened  sewage  as  well  as  in  the  effluent.  The  former 
is  usually  between  3  and  4  parts,  per  100,000,  while 
the  latter  averages  about  0'8.  These  figures  rose  by 
the  influx  of  the  tarry  matter  to  14  in  the  screened 
sewage  and  to  8-4  per  100,000  in  the  effluent.  But  the 
dissolved  atmospheric  oxygen  absorbed  in  five  days 
(Adeney’s  test)  showed  only  2'2  parts  per  100,000  in 
the  effluent,  and  no  putrefaction  was  observed  in  five 
days  (incubation  test),'  it  contained  only  2’8  parts  per 
100,000  of  suspended  matter.  The  effluent  would 
therefore,  even  under  these  conditions,  have  complied 
with  the  conditions  laid  down  in  the  agreement 
between  Messrs.  Jones  and  Attwood  and  the  corpora¬ 
tion  if  that  part  of  it  had  stilt  been  in  force,  the  con¬ 
ditions  being  that  the  effluent  should  not  be  capable 
of  putrefaction  and  not  contain  more  than  4  parts 
per  100,000  of  suspended  matter.  I  do  not  know  of 
any  other  instance  in  which  the  difference  between 
the  four  hours’  test,  which  I  presume  was  by.  the  per¬ 
manganate,  and  the  Adeney’s  test  approached  the 
difference  occurring  in  this  case  — viz.,  8'4  and  2'8— nor 
do  I  quite  know  what  significance  to  attach  to  it;  but 
there  does  seem  to  me  to  be  something  exceptional 
in  the  fact  that,  with  an  albuminoid  ammonia  figure 
of  0'58  and  an  oxygen-absorbed  figure  of  8  4  parts  per 
100,000,  the  effluent  should  have  exhibited  such 
stability.  Perhaps  some  chemist  present  will  be  able 
to  throw  light  upon  it.  If  it  be  the  result  of  the 
nature  of  the  activated  sludge  process,  with  its  con¬ 
tinuous  supply  of  atmospheric  oxygen,  the  value  of 
the  process  would  thereby  appear  to  bp  still  further 
enhanced.  It  happened  that  the  afternoon  in  which 
the  tarry  matter  entered  the  tank  Mr.  Midgley  Taylor, 
a  distinguished  engineer  known  to  most  of  you  and  an 
honorary  member  of  your  association,  was  visiting 
the  works.  This  was  fortunate,  because,  as  he  stayed 
there  for  a  couple  of  hours,  he  had  the  opportunity 
of  observing  the  effect  of  the  stuff  in  changing  the 
condition  of  the  effluent.  It  is  not  a  little  remarkable 
that  during  the  whole  of  the  trial  period  fixed  by  the 
agreement,  which  covered  a  period  of  15  months, 
nothing  of  the  kind  occurred,  yet  within  three  days  of 


the  city  council  having  taken  over  the  plant  what 
I  have  described  took  place.  I  have  endeavoured  to 
trace  the  origin  of  the  mischief,  but  so  far  without 
success.  It  is  clear  that  it  is  extremely  important 
that  all  antiseptics  of  the  kind  mentioned,  and, 
indeed,  any  antiseptic,  should  be  prevented  from 
entering  the  sewers,  owing  to  its  very  injurious  effect 
upon  the  treatment,  and  I  should  like  to  seize  this' 
opportunity  of  appealing  to  the  manufacturers  in  the 
city,  and  indeed  to  every  citizen,  not  to  allow  such 
discharges  to  pass  into  their  drains.  Doubtless  in 
this  case  it  was  done  without  any  knowledge  or 
suspicion  of  injurious  results  arising,  and  when  the 
effect  is  understood  citizens,  I  am  sure,  will  assist  in 
excluding  from  the  sewers  everything  prejudicial  to 
the.  successful  operation  of  the  process.  Antiseptics 
would  operate  injuriously  with  any  system  of  bacterial 
purification,  but  probably  no  other  is  quite- so  sensi¬ 
tive  to  these  effects  as  the  activated  sludge  process 
of  purification. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Duckworth  (Salford)  proposed  a  vote  of' 
thanks  to  Mr.  Caink  for  his  paper.  He  was  sure 
they  had  all  been  interested  in  his  description 
of  a  new  phase  of  the  sewage  purification  pro¬ 
blem.  It,  was  quite  a  good  thing  for  them  as 
an  association  to  be  able  to  visit  a  city  like 
Worcester,  which  had  the  largest  installation  on 
the  activated  sludge  principle  in  the  country.  It 
might  be  that  they  would -not  see  everything  they 
would  like  to  see ;  it  might  be  that  things  were  not  as 
good  as  they  hoped  they  were,  but  whether  that  was 
so  or  not,  it  was  a  good  and  useful  thing  for  them  to 
see  the  largest  installationof  the  kind  in  this  country, 
if  not  in  the  world.  He  agreed  with  Mr.  Caink  when 
he  said  that  the  activated  sludge  process  was  prob¬ 
ably  not  equalled,  and  certainly  not  surpassed.  Per¬ 
sonally  he  believed  there  was  a  great  future  before 
the  activated  sludge  process  from  several  points  of 
view.  Besides  its  properties  as  a  purifying  agent,  and 
giving  a  clear  effluent,  they  had  a  sludge  which  he 
ventured  to  say  would  be  a  great  boon  to  sewage  dis¬ 
posal  works.  Agriculture  had  got  such  a  fillip  from 
this  war  that  they  were  told  that  more  land  would  be 
put  under  cereals  than  ever  before,  and  the  magic 
word  would  be  manure  for  intensive  culture,  and  he 
believed  that  activated  sludge  was  going  to  supply 
that  very  largely.  They  had  in  Worcester  eight  hours’ 
•aeration  and  21  hours’  settlement — that  was  together 
10J  hours.  He  was  certain  they  would  be  able  to 
beat  that  hollow.  They  had  had  good  results  in  Sab 
ford  with  from  four  to  five  hours’  contact  and  settle¬ 
ment.  With  regard  to  the  plans  and  plates  submitted 
to  them,  there  were  some  things  he  must  admit  he 
did  not,  like.  It  was  only  an  idea,  but  ,  he  should 
prefer  a  longitudinal  ridge  and  furrow.  They  might 
have  the  objection  that  there  would  be  short  circuit¬ 
ing,  but  he  did  not  think  there  was  anything  in  that. 
They  would  increase  the  capacity  of  the  tank  by 
narrowing  down  the  diffusers.  They  would  increase 
the  capacity  of  the  tank  and  at  the  same  time  get  all 
the  aeration  and  circulation  they  required.  This 
method  would  lend  itself  to  the  pulsating  valve  they 
had  got.  He  had  not  seen  it  in  Worcester,  but  be 
had  in  Manchester,  and  it  was  a  very  good  device 
'indeed. 

Mr.  Harden,  who  seconded  the  vote  of  thanks,  said 
they  all  fully  appreciated  Air.  Caink’s  effort  in  pre¬ 
paring  this  paper,  which  included  a  most  ingenious 
suggestion;  indeed,  he  thought  it,  was  too  ingenious. 
It  did  show  that  Air.  Caink  was  devoting  a  great' deal 
of  thought  to  this  matter  and  the  purpose  for  which 
the  works  had  been  designed. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  unanimously  accorded. 

The  members  then  had  luncheon  together  at  the 
Hop  Market  Hotel. 

The  afternoon  was  devoted  to  an  inspection  of  the 
Worcester  sewage  disposal  works,  the  members  being 
taken  there  by  motor  omnibuses.  They  were  enter¬ 
tained  to  tea  at  the  works  by  the  chairman  of  the 
s  e  w a  ge  committee. 


Dover  Electricity  Undertaking. — A  loss  of  £2,000  is 
shown  in  the  annual  accounts  of  Dover  Municinal 
electricity  works  presented  to  the  town  council,  light¬ 
ing  restrictions  being  the  chief  cause. 


*  See  page  51. 


68 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


CONCRETE  ROADS. 


PRESENT  POSITION  AND  POSSIBILITIES  OF  THE  FUTURE. 

In  view  of  the  increasing  interest  shown  in  the 
subject  of  concrete  road  construction,  the  Roads  Im¬ 
provement  Association  recently  instructed  Mr.  H. 
.Percy  Boulnois,  m.inst.c.e.,  who  is  a  well-known 
authority  on  all  classes  of  road  construction  and  main¬ 
tenance,  to  prepare  for  them  a  report  upon  the  present 
position  and  possible  future  of  concrete  roads  in  this 
country. 

This  report  (which  has  now  been  completed,  and  is 
being  issued  by  the  association  in  pamphlet  form) 
reviews  at  the  outset  the  work  which  has  been 
carried  out  in  the  United  States  and  Canada,  and 
the  remarkable  fact  is  given  that  “  during  the  year 
1914  alone  it  was  estimated  that  no  less  than 
17,000,000  sq.  yds.  of  concrete  roads  were  constructed 
in  America,  and  that  at  the  present  time  there  must 
be  at  least  50,000,000  sq.  yds.  of  such  roads  in  the 
United  States.” 

The  -opinions  of  some  of  the  leading  American 
engineers  are  given  in  regard  to  the  adaptability  and 
cost  of  concrete  roads,  as  well  as  stating  the  reasons 
why  they  should  prove  a  success.  The  manner  in 
which  American  engineers  deal,  with  the  construc¬ 
tion  of  a  \road  is  set  forth  in  much  detail,  and 
examples  given  of  the  proper  methods  of  mixing  and 
laying  the  concrete,  in  addition  to  a  description  of 
the  materials  to  be  used. 

Mr.  Boulnois  then  gives  particulars  of  the  various 
concrete  roads  that  have  bqen  constructed  in  this 
country,  from  which  it  would  appear  that,  compara¬ 
tively  speaking,  but  slight  progress  has  been  made, 
and  the  roads  limited  to  only  a  few  districts,  the 
City  of  Chester  and  Dunfermline  in  Scotland  being 
two  of  the  principal  ones. 

The  most  interesting  experiment  in  the  construc¬ 
tion  of  concrete  ioads  in  this  country,  however,  wa's 
that  on  a  portion  of  a  road  near  Gravesend,  in  Kent, 
in  1914,  which  is  fully  described,  a  copy  of  the  speci¬ 
fication  to  which  the  road  was  constructed  being 
given,  as  well  as  the  results  of  the  experiment. 

The  author  devotes  much  attention  to  the  points  to 
be  considered  in  constructing  a  concrete  road,  treat¬ 
ing  with  the  sub-base  or  foundation,  the  materials, 
proportion,  mixing  and  placing  of  concrete  in  situ, 
finishing  the  surface,  tar-spraying  and  gritting  the 
surface,  period  of  diversion  of  traffic,  the  prevention 
of  cracks,  cutting  trenches,  and  repairs,  cost  of  con¬ 
struction  and  maintenance,  and  in  regard  to  this 
latter  item  says:  It  would  appear  that,  with  proper 
organisation,  a  good  concrete  road  can  be  constructed 
at  a  cost  of  about  5s.  per  sq.  yd.,  and  that  the 
cost  of  maintenance  of  such  a*  road  would  be  very 
trifling;  but  it  is  evident  that  in  order  to  secure 
success,  much  more  care  should  be  exercised  in  its 
construction  than  has  hitherto  been  the  case  in  some 
instances.  With  regard  to  the  cost  I  have  assumed 
that  nothing  is  charged  for  excavation  or  formation 
of  the  sub-base,  as  such  work  must  necessarily  vary 
largely  in  different  localities.” 

The  suggestions  for  the  preparation  of'  specifica¬ 
tions  for  concrete  roads  which  follow  are  based  on 
the  experience  of  American  practice,  and  after  a  care¬ 
ful  study  of  the  subject  by  the  author.  It  is  hoped 
that  these  may  be  helpful  to  any  highway  engineer 
who  contemplates  the  construction  of  a  road  on  the 
principles  laid  down  in  the  report,  in  concluding 
which  the  author  says :  “  There  is  no  doubt  that  the 
future  traffic  on  our  roads  and  streets  -will  become1 
more  and  more  intense  in  weight,  speed,  and  quan¬ 
tity,  and  the  roads  of  the  future  will  be  expected 
to  carry  this  traffic.  It  will  be  the  duty  of  all  high¬ 
way  engineers  carefully  to  consider  the  best  manner 
in  which  to  meet  these  greater  demands '  on  the 
strength  and  durability  of  our  roads,  and  possibly  it 
will  be  found  that  properly-constructed  concrete 
roads  may,  in  some  cases,  meet  the  requirements. 

“  I  have  purposely  said  very  little  as  to  the  . benefits 
of  reinforcement,  as  this  question  must  be  left  to  the 
engineer  who  designs  the  construction  of  a  road. 
There  can  be  no  doubt  that  reinforcement,  properly 
applied,  has  revolutionised  concrete  construction, 
and  where  very  heavy  weights  are  to  be  carried  by 
a  road,  or  where  there  is  an  unstable  sub-base,  it 
might  be  found  desirable  to  insert  some  form  of~rein- 
forcement,  but  each  case  must  be  considered  on  its 
merits. 

“  This  report  is  merely  intended  as  a  short  state¬ 
ment  of  what  has  been  attempted  in  connection  with 
concrete  roads,  and  also  to  act  as  a  guide  to  those 


who  are  contemplating  the  construction  of  a  concrete 
road,  or  street,  without  any  surface  protection.” 

Copies  of  the  report  (price  7d.  by  post)  may  be 
obtained  on  application  to  the  Acting  Secretary, 
Roads  Improvement  Association,  15,  Dartmouth- 
street,  Westminster,  S.W.  1. 


CARNARVONSHIRE  COUNTY  COUNCIL  AND 
MOTOR  BUSES. 


A  DEMAND  FOR  THE  SUSPENSION  OF  THE  TRAFFIC. 

It  was  reported  to  the  Carnarvonshire  Coulity 
Council  recently,  the  Carnarvon  Herald  states,  that 
Mr.  J.  T.  Jones  had  called  the  attention  of  the  sur¬ 
veyor’s  committee  to  the  new  Petrol  Order  and  to  the 
inconvenience  that  would  ensue  to  the  public  as  the 
result  of  +lie  restricted  supply.  The  chief  constable 
(who  had  been  invited  to  the  committee)  referred  tc 
the  consumption  of  petrol  by  the  big  motor  ’buses 
that  run  under  licence  from  several  district  authori¬ 
ties  in  the  county,  and  which  run  in  competition 
with  the  railway  companies,  and  he  expressed  an 
opinion  that  in  such  cases  these  motor  ’buses  should 
be  stopped  where  the  journeys  covered  by  them 
were  accommodated  by  the  railway.  As  a  result  of 
the  discussion  it  was  resolved — (a)  That  the  district 
authorities  concerned  should  be  written  to  with  a 
view  to  getting  the  licences  already  granted  to  the 
motor  companies  revoked;  (6)  That  so  far  as  the 
county  main  roads  were  concerned,  the  companies 
referred  to  be  requested  to  discontinue  to  run  the 
motor  ’buses  along  the  county  main  roads 
until  the  consent  of  the  county  council  had  been 
obtained;  (c)  That  in  the  event  of  the  motor  ’bus 
companies  declining  to  discontinue  these  services 
the  'Petrol  Control  Committee  be  notified  of  the 
whole  circumstances  with  a  view  to  the  supply  of 
petrol  to  such  companies  being  entirely  suspended. 

.Mr.  O.  Isgoed  Jones  dwelt  upon  the  usefulness  of 
the  motor  ’buses  in  these  days  of  railway  restric¬ 
tion.  In  order  to  attend  the  meeting  that  day  he 
had  to  get  up  at  five.  The  railway  company  would 
do  nothing  for  them  although  they  were  engaged 
upon  important  public  business.  He  had  sufficient 
petrol  because  he  had  successfully  fought  the  Petrol 
Board. 

Mr.  Maurice  Jones  hoped  it  would  be  arranged 
that  joy  riders  should  not  be  allowed  to  travel  in 
these  motor  ’buses,  which  should  be  used  only  by 
business  people. 

Mr.  R.  Jones  said  several  of  the  motor  ’buses  were 
run  solely  for  the  benefit  of  holiday-makers. 

Mr.  T.  W.  Griffith  disagreed  with  that  view,  and  . 
spoke  of  the  usefulness  of  the  motor  services  between 
Llanrwst  and  Conway. 

Mr.  Henry  Parry  observed  that  there  was  too  much 
talk  about  joy  rides.  How  could  lodging-house 
keepers  in  seaside  places  pay  heavy  taxes  unless 
visitors  were  catered  for? 

The  committee’s  recommendations  were  agreed  to. 


City  of  London  Street  Lighting _ At  a  recent  meet¬ 

ing  of  the  Court  of  Common  Council  a  letter  was 
read  from  the  Gas  Light  and  Coke  Company  stating 
that  the  jn'ice  of  gas  supplied  to  street  lamps  (except 
where  a  fixed  annual  charge  is  made  under  contract) 
would  in  future  be  increased  by  5d.  per  1,000  ft. — i.e. , 
from  2s.  8d.  to  3s.  Id. 

Petrol  Supplies  for  Commercial  Motor  Vehicles. — 

The  Commercial  Motor  Users  Association  has  for  some 
time  past  been  in  communication  with  the  Petrol 
Control  Committee,  and  more  recently  with  the 
Control  Department  of  the  Board  of  Trade,  with  a  view 
tc  assistance  being  rendered  to  those  of  its  members 
who  have  been  most  seriously  affected  by  the  further 
curtailment  in  petrol  supplies.  A  special  committee 
of  the  association,  which  was  appointed  to  draw  up  a 
memorandum  on  the  subject  for  submission  to  the 
Petrol  Control  Committee,  was  eventually  received  as 
a  deputation,  and  was  successful  in  arranging  that,  in 
cases  where  the  association,  after  thorough  investiga¬ 
tion.  is  satisfied  that  a  member  engaged  on  war  work 
or  on  work  of  national  importance  is  suffering  genuine 
hardship  through  insufficient  supplies  of  petrol,  such 
cases  will,  on  the  recconmendation  of  the  association, 
receive  further  consideration  by  The  Petrol  Control 
Department.  Certain  detailed  information  must  be 
forwarded,  in  the  first  instance,  to  the  association, 
particulars  of  which  may  be  obtained  from  Mr.  F.  G. 
Bristow,  f.c.i.s.,  the  secretary,  at  83  Pall-mall,  S.W.l. 


July  20,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


69 


INSTITUTION  OF  MUNICIPAL  AND  COUNTY 
ENGINEERS. 

PORTHCAWL  MEETINC. 

A  meeting  of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  and 
County  Engineers  will  be  held  in  the  South  Wales  Dis¬ 
trict  at  Porthcawl,  on  Saturday,  the  28tli  inst. 

PBOGB.AMME. 

12.0  noon. — Deception  at  the  council  chamber,  John- 
street,  by  the  chairman  of  the  Portlicawl 
Urban  District  Council,  Mr.  ft.  E.  Jones, 
J.P. 

Paper  by  Frederick  Hatcher,  engineer 
and  surveyor,  on  “  Portlicawl  and  its 
Public  Works,”  which  will  be  taken  as 
read. 

Discussion. 

1.30  p.m.—  Lunch  at  the  Esplanade  Hotel,  by  invita¬ 

tion  of  the  chairman  of  the  Portlicawl 
Urban  District  Council. 

3-  0  p.m. — Assemble  at  the  Esplanade  Hotel  previously 
to  visiting  the  following  works,  viz.:  — 
Western  Sewer  Outfall,  Ty  Cocli  Service 
reservoir,  and  sewage  pumping  plant. 
(Conveyances  provided  by  the  chairman 
of  the  urban  district  council.) 

5.30  p.m. — Tea  at  the  Esplanade  Hotel,  also  by  the 

invitation  of  the  chairman  of  the  Porth- 
cawl  Urban  District  Council. 


INSTITUTION  OF  MUNICIPAL  ENGINEERS. 


NORTHERN  DISTRICT  MEETINC. 

A  meeting  of  the  members  of  the  Northern  District 
of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  Engineers  will  be  held 
at  the  Town  Half,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  at'  3.30  p.m.  to¬ 
morrow  (Saturday).  " 

AGENDA. 

1.  To  read  and  confirm  minutes  of  last  meeting. 

2.  Deport  on  the  Northern  District  Federation  with 

N.A.L.G.O. 

3.  Deport  of  council  meeting  held  on  the  same  date. 

4.  Paper  on  ‘‘  Work  after  thwWar,”  by  Mr.  W.  J. 
Coulson,  Cramlington,  and  discussion  on  same. 

5.  To  fix  the  date  of  next  meeting. 

6.  Any  other  business. 


APPOINTMENTS  VACANT. 

Official  and  similar  advertisements  received  dp  to  4.30  p.m. 

ON  THURSDAYS  WILL  BE  INSERTED  IN  THE  FOLLOWING  DAY’S  ISSUE 

but  those  responsible  for  their  despatch  are  recommended 
to  arrange  that  they  shall  reach  The  Surveyor  office  by  noon 
on  Wednesdays  to  ensure  their  inclusion  in  the  weekly  list  of 
summaries.  Such  advertisements  may,  in  cases  of  emergency 
only,  be  telephoned  ( City  No.  1066)  subject  to  later  con¬ 
firmation  by  letter. 

BOROUQH  SUDVEYOE. — July  27tli. — Corporation 
of  Buckingham.  £175  a  year. — Mr.  Geoffrey  W.  Barker, 
town  clerk.  Town  Hall,  Buckingham. 

CITY  ENGINEED  AND-  ENGINEEK  OF  WATEB 
AND  SEWEDAGE  WORKS. — December  1st. — Port-of- 
Spain  City  Council,  Trinidad,  B.W.I.  £600-£750,  with 
£75  towards  the  upkeep  of  a  motor  cycle.— Mr.  Philip 
H.  Salomon,  acting  town  clerk.  Town  Hall,  Port-of- 
Spain,  Trinidad,  B.W.I. 


MUNICIPAL  CONTRACTS  OPEN. 

Official  and  similar  advertisements  received  up  to  4.30  p.m. 

ON  THURSDAYS  WILL  BE  INSERTED  IN  THE  FOLLOWING  DAY’S  ISSUB, 
but  those  responsible  for  their  despatch  are  recommended 
to  arrange  that  they  shall  reach  The  Surveyor  office  by  noon 
on  Wednesdays  to  ensure  their  inclusion  in  the  weekly  list  of 
summaries.  Such  advertisements  may,  in  cases  of  emergency 
only,  be  telephoned  ( City  No.  1066 )  subject  to  later  con¬ 
firmation  by  letter. 

Buildings. 

NEWTON  ABBOT.— July  24th. — For  the  erection  of 
a  coal  and  coke  store  at  the  joint  isolation  hospital. — 
The  Architect,  26  Union-street,  Newton  Abbot. 

.ST.  HELENS. — July  24th. — For  the  erection  of  a 
brick  chimney  and  other  works,  for  the  Electricity 
Committee. — Mr.  E.  M.  Hollingsworth,  borough  elec¬ 
trical  engineer.  Town  Hall,  St.  Helens. 

CANTERBUBY.— July  25th.— For  the  erection  of  an 
isolation  building  at  the  Kent  and  Canterbury  Hospi¬ 
tal. — Messrs.  Jennings  &  Gray,  architects,  4  St.  Mar- 
garet's-street.  Canterbury. 

BLACKPOOL. — July  26tli. — For  proposed  alteration 


to  a  mortuary  chapel,  for  the  corporation. — Mr.  John 
S.  Brodie,  borough  engineer.  Municipal  Buildings, 
Blackpool. 

Engineering:  Iron  and  Steel. 

WIGAN. — July  23rd. — For  improving  the  heating 
arrangements  in  the  council  chamber,  for  the  corpora¬ 
tion. — Mr.  A.  T.  Gooseman,  borough  engineer.  King- 
street  West,  Wigan. 

MELBOURNE. — July  30th. — For  the  supply  and 
erection  of  a  2,000  k.w.  rotary  converter,  and  its„trans- 
former  and  accessories,  for  the  city  council.— Messrs. 
Mcliwraith,  McEacharn  &  Co.,  Billiter-square-build- 
ings,  London,  E.C.  3. 

CAPE  TOWN. — July  31st. — For  the  construction  of 
tanks  and  percolating  beds  for  sewage  disposal  and 
other  works  in  connection  therewith,  for  the  corpora¬ 
tion.— City  Engineer,  City  Hall,  Cape  Town,  and  the 
Department  of  Commercial  Intelligence,  73  Basing- 
hali-street,  E.C.  2. 

Roads. 

FOLKESTONE. — July  23rd. — ‘For  the  supply  of  1,000 
to  2,000  tons  of  2Hin.  tar  slag  macadam,  and  500  to 
1,000  tons  of  tarred  slag  toppings,  for  the  (corporation. 
— Borough  Engineer,  Corporation  Offices,  Folkestone. 

HENDON. — July  23rd. — For  the  construction  of  a 
new  entrance  road  to  Wessex-gardens  School,  Golders- 
green,  N.W.  4,  for  the  Education  Committee. — Engi¬ 
neer's  Department,  Hendon  Urban  District  Council, 
The  Burroughs,  Hendon,  N.W.  4. 

ROCHESTER. — July  24th. — For  the  'supply  of  road 
metal,  brooms,  oils,  horse  hire,  tools  and  Portland 
cement,  for  the  corporation. — Mr.  W.  Banks,  city  sur¬ 
veyor,  Guildhall,  Rochester. 

RHONDDA. — July  24th.— For  the  supply  of  four 
scavenging  carts,  for  the  urban  district  council. — Mr. 
E.  H.  Barber,  engineer  and-surveyor.  Council  Offices, 
Pen-fere,  Rhondda. 

SCUNTHORPE.— July  25th.— For  the  supply  of  any 
quantity  up  to  300  tons  of  broken  granite,  for  the 
urban  district  council.— Mr.  H.  Heap,  engineer  and 
surveyor,  110  High-street,  Scunthorpe. 

BUNGAY.— August  1st.— For  the  supply  of  300  tons 
of  1  f-in.  Mountsorrel  granite  and  hire  of  steam  roller, 
for  the  urban  district  council.— The  Surveyor,  Urban 
Council  Offices,  Bungay,  Suffolk. 

DROMANT1NE  (Ireland).— August  7th.— For  the 
construction  of  an  accommodation  road. — Mr.  T .  Mor¬ 
rison,  secretary.  Great  Northern  Railway  Company, 
Amiens-street  Station,  Dublin. 

HAMPSTEAD.^The  borough  council  are  ,  offering 
for  sale  ten  water  vans  and  six  -water  carts,  all  in  good 
working,  order. — The  Superintendent,  Council’s  Depot, 
Lymington-road,  Finchley-road,  N.W. 

Sanitary. 

NEWRY.— July  27th.— For  the  construction  of 
sewers,  for  the  No.  1  rural  district  council.— Messrs. 
P.  H.  McCarthy,  engineers,  39  Westmoreland-street, 
Dublin,  and  Mr.  S.  Wilson  Reside,  Margaret-square, 
Newry. 

BRIDGWATER.— July  30tli.— For  supplying  and 
laying  350  yards  of  12-in.  stoneware  pipes,  with  9-in. 
and  4-in.  branch  drains,  manholes,  and  other  works, 
for  the  rural  district  council. — Mr.  W.  Horace  Cousins, 
engineer,  Rural  Council  Offices,  Bridgwater. 

SALTASH.— August  4th.— For  the  removal  of  house 
refuse  and  road  sweepings,  and  hire  of  horse  and  cart, 
for  the  corporation.— The  "Borough  Surveyor,  Guild¬ 
hall,  Saltash.  *  _ 


TENDERS  FOR  MUNICIPAL  WORKS  OR  SUPPLIES. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Surveyor  readers 
with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 
head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 

•  Aooepted.  t  Recommended  for  acceptance. 

HINDLEY.— Accepted.— For  the  supply  of  a  Maxwell  motor 
chassis  and  an  ambulance  van,  for  the  urban  district 
council.— Mr.  D.  P.  Abbott,  surveyor,  Urban  District 
Council  Offices,  Hindley  (Lancs)  : — 

Gordon’s  Motor  Carriage  Works,  Bolton. 


FORTHCOMING  MEETINGS. 

Secretaries  and  others  will  oblige  by  sending  early  notice  of 
dates  of  forthcoming  meetings. 

JTTVir. 

21. — Institution  of  Municipal  Engineers  :  Northern  District 
Meeting  at  Newcastle-on-Tyne. 

28.— Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers  :  Meeting 
at  Porthcawl. 


70 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


Road  Stone  Control  Committee. 

-  MEMORANDUM  OF  PROCEDURE. 


The  following  details  concerning  the  operation  of  the  Control  over  Road  Stone  Quarries  and  Slag 
dumps  and  works  in  England  and  Wales,  hereinafter  referred  to  as  Quarries,  in  accordance  with  an 
Order  made  under  Regulations  9G'G  of  the  Defence  of  the-  Realm  Regulations  are  issued  for 
information. 

1. — GOVERNMENT  DEPARTMENTAL  REQUIREMENTS. 

The  largest  portion  of  the  requirements  of  road  materials  for  the  various  Government  Departments 
will  be  dealt  with  by  the  Road  Board,  which  Department  is  carrying  out  during  the  present  emergency 
most  of  the  road  and  similar  work  services  for. the  Admiralty,  War  Department,  Ministry  of  Munitions, 
Board  of  Trade  (Timber  Section),  Board  of  Agriculture,  &e.  These  and  all  other  Government  Depart¬ 
mental  requirements  will  be  indented  for  on  special  forms  provided  for  the  purpose  by  the  Road  Stone 
Control  Committee. 

Contractors  and  others  carrying  out  services  for  the  various  Government  Departments  must  submit 
their  requirements  to  the  Road  Stone  Control  Committee  on  the  special  forms  referred  to,  through  the 
Government  Departments  for  which  they  are  carrying  out  the  work. 

In  selecting  quarries  from  which  material  is  required  due  regard  must-  be  given  to  economy  of 
transit  facilities. 

2,  -RAILWAY  AND  CANAL  COMPANIES’  REQUIREMENTS. 

The  Railway  and  Canal  Companies  must  indent  through  the  Road  Stone  Control.  Committee  in 
bulk  on  the  various  quarries  (on  a  form  to-be  provided  by  the  Road  Stone  Control  Committee)  for  their 
requirements  for  the  period  ending  March  31st,  1918. 

3— ADMINISTRATIVE  COUNTY  AREAS. 

County  Advisory  Committees  have  been  set  up  by  the  Chairmen  of  the  various  County  Councils  to 
ascertain  and  deal  with  the  requirements  of  all  Local  Authorities  in  each  Administrative,  area. 

4. — COUNTY  BOROUGHS  AND  METROPOLITAN  BOROUGHS. 

The  Highway  Committees  of  the.  various  County  or  Metropolitan  Boroughs  will  take  the  place  of 
the  County  Advisory  Committees  referred  to  in  the  preceding  Paragraph  (3). 

5. — PUBLIC  AND  OTHER  LOCAL  AUTHORITIES. 

All  Local  Authorities,  Joint  Boards,  and  other  Public  Bodies  requiring  materials  for  Highways 
or  other  works  which  have  not  been  dealt  with  in  the  preceding  Paragraphs  should  apply  to  the  Road 
Stone  Control  Committee  direct. 

6. — QUARRIES,  SLAG  DUMPS,  OR  SLAG  WORKS. 

Control  of  the  output  will  be  obtained  as  follows 

The  Census  of  material  and  an  estimate  of  output  for  the  period  ending  March  31st,  1918,  having 
been  furnished  by  the  Quarry  Owners  in  accordance  with  the  Census  called  for  by  the  Army  Council 
on  the  25th  June,  1917,  the  Road  Stone  Control  Committee  will  keep  in  touch  with  the  output  by  means 
of  a  weekly  Quarry  Return. 

Quarry  owners  in  England  and  Wales  after  the  15th  of  July,  1917,  must  not- supply  $my  road  or 
other  materials  from  Quarries  to  any  persons  unless  authorised  by  the  Road  Stone  Control  Committee 
to  do  so,  excepting  during  the  period  of  transition  from  the  present  system  when  they  are  permitted. 

(a)  To  fulfil  Government,  Railway,  and  Canal  orders,  and. 

(b)  If  materials  are  available  after  meeting  such  orders  under  (a),  to  supply  Local  Authorities 

with  whom  they  have  Contracts  up  to  20  per  cent,  of  such  Contracts. 

(c)  Modifications  of  (a)  and  (b)  will  be  dealt  with  on  representation  to  the  Road  Stone  Control 

Committee. 

Returns  must  he  furnished  to  the  Road ’Stone-  Control  Committee  weekly  of  all  materials  supplied 
as  in  (a),  (b),  and  (c)  above,  with  the  name  of  the  Government  Department  or  Local  or  other  Authorities, 
and  the  tonnage  supplied.  'Phis  arrangement  has  been  come  to  in  order  to  prevent  any  delay  in  dealing 
with  the  output-  of  the  Quarries  during  the  change  of  system,  but  so  soon  as  the  bulk  indents  on  the 
various  Quarries  have  been  sanctioned  in  such  numbers  as  will  prevent  any  delays  in  despatch  of  the 
output-  of  the  Quarry,  the  special  arrangements  here  referred  to  will  be  cancelled  by  the  Road  Stone 
Control  Committee. 

7. — PRIVATE  CUSTOMERS,  TRADE,  &c. 

Quarry  Owners  are  hereby  permitted  to  retain  5  per  cent,  of  their  present  output  in  order  to-  meet 
urgent  requirements  of  their  private  customers;  that  is  to  say,  customers  other  than  Government- 
Departments  or  their  Agents,  Railways,  Canals,  Local  and  other  Authorities. 

8. — QUARRY  RETURNS. 

Quarry  Owners  are  instructed  to -furnish  weekly  returns  from  the  16th  of  July,  1917,  inclusive, 
giving  details  of  the  output,  stock  disposed  of  and  in  hand,  on  approved  forms  which  are  provided  by 
the  Road  Stone  Control  Committee  on  application. 

P.  J.  BLACK,  Secretary. 

Road  Stone  Control  Committee, 

35,  Crom well-road,  London,  S.W.  7. 

July  11,  1917. 


(3,464) 


July  20.  1017. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


71 


L  Jf -V 

j&i&m 

Wmmm 


No.  8. 

To  supply  the  large  and  increasing  quantities 
of  Mexphalte  sold  in  this  country  for  road 
construction  and  industrial  purposes,  ample 
storage  warehouses  have  been  erected  at  the 
various  ports  where  the  company  has  storage 
and  installa’ ions,  including  London,  Salt  End, 
Hull,  Avonmouth,  Barton,  on  the  Manchester 
Ship  Canal,  &c.  At  these  points  Mexphalte  is 
put  on  rail  from  sidings  in  the  company’s 
depots  and  despatched  to  all  parts  of  the 
country. 

ANGLO-MEXICAN 
PETROLEUM  CO.,  Ltd. 

(ASPHALT  DEPT.), 

FINSBURY  COURT,  LONDON,  E.C.  2 


mj 


john  YATES 

Aston  Manor,  BIRMINGHAM. 

TFIFGRAMS:  "  VATONIAN,  BIRMINGHAM.'' 

I  CLlPHONES  :  BIRMINGHAM  EAST  400,  401  &  402. 

(Private  Branch  Exchange.) 


ALL  KINDS  OF  BROOMS  BOTH  FOR 

TAR  &  SGAVE  WORK 

BASS,  HAIR  and  WIRE. 


Activated 
Sludge 
System  of 
Sewage 
Purification 


For  further  particulars  write  for  BooKlet  S  52  to  :  — 


Jones  &  Attwood,  Ltd., 


Stourbridge. 


Telegrams :  “  Heat,  Stourbridge. ” 


Telephone  :  No.  10 


Specialists  in  Sewage  Apparatus,  “JandA”  Sewage-wheel  Distiibutors,  330 


Booklet 


“JandA  Sewage  Ejectors,  Air  Lifts,  &c., 


S  18 


See  “  C he  Surveyor  ”  issued 


15th  Jane,  1917. 


THE  ACTIVATED  SLUDGE  SYSTEM  AT  WORCESTER. 


72 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  20,  1917. 


TENDERS  WANTED. 


Hampstead  borough  council. 

Ten  Water  Vans  and  G  Water  Carts  for  Sale;  all 
in  good  working  order.  The  vehicles  may  he  in¬ 
spected  On  application  to  the  Superintendent,  Coun¬ 
cil’s  Depot,  Lymiqgton-road,  Finchley-road,  N.W. 
Offers  to  be  sent  to  the  undersigned. 

OLIVER  E.  WINTER. 

Borough  Engineer. 

Town  Hall, 

Hampstead,  N.W.  (3,465) 

SCUNTHORPE  URBAN  DISTRICT 
COUNCIL. 

SUPPLY  OF  ROAD  MATERIAL. 

The  above  Council  invite  Tenders  for  the  supply  of 
any  quantity  up  to  300  tons  of  Broken  Granite  of 
approved  quality,  delivered  in  trucks,  carriage  paid, 
at  Frodingham  Station,  G.C.  Railway.  Official 
Tender  Forms  and  further  particulars  may  be 
obtained  at  the  office  of  the  Engineer  and  Surveyor 
(Herbert  Heap,  assoc. m.inst.c.e.),  110  High-street, 
Scunthorpe. 

Tenders,  duly  sealed  and'  endorsed  “  Granite,”  are 
to  be  addressed  to  me,  and  delivered  at  the.  Cohncil’s 
Offices,  110  High-street,  Scunthorpe,  on  or  before 
Wednesday,  the  25t.h  day  of  July,  1917,  and  must ’be 
accompanied  by  an  average  sample  of  the  material. 

The  Council  do  not  bind  themselves  to  accept  the 
lowest  or  any  Tender. 


(3,463) 


GEORGE  E.  DAVY, 

Clerk  to  the  Council. 


APPOINTMENTS  WANTED. 

TO  MUNICIPAL  ENGINEERS. 

WANTED,  position  as  Junior  Assistant.  Appli¬ 
cant  has  good  knowledge  of  sanitary  work  and  of  sur¬ 
veying  and  levelling,  and  is  not  liable  for  military 
service. — Apply  Box  1,613,  Offices  of  The  Surveyor, 
24  Bride-lane,  Fleet-street,  London,  E.C.  4.  (3,454) 


MISCELLANEOUS. 


OLD  ROCK  ASPHALTE  wanted,  as  taken  from 
roofs,  floors,  roadways,  &c.  Large  or  small 
quantities.  Good  prices  given.  Address  Box  1,612, 
office  of  The  Surveyor,  24  Bride-dane,  Fleet-street, 
E.C.  4.  (3,449) 

pLOTH  FILTER: 

Wanted  to  purchase,  or  loan  for  a  period  of  6 
months..  One  Haines  Standard  Pattern  Cloth  Filter; 
state  lowest  price,  condition,  &c.,  and  where  same  can 
be  inspected. — Alfred  E.  Smith,  Manager,  Ilkeston 
and  Heanor  Water  Board,  High  Peak  Junction,  near 
Matlock.  (3,466) 

WANTED,  copies  of  The  Surveyor,  vol.  li. 

No.  1,325,  June  8,  1917,  and  No.  1.318,  April  20, 
1917. — Replies  to  the  Publisher,  offices  of  The 
Surveyor,  24,  Bride-lane,  Fleet-street,  E.C.  4. 


R.  WHITE  &  SONS, 

WIDNES. 


RAILS  of  all  Sections 
in  Stock. 


New  and  Secondhand 
Portable  Railway, 

Tip  Wagons,  Turntables, 
Aerial  Ropeways, 

Old  Rails  for 
Concreting  Purposes. 


MAKERS 
OF - 


Points  and  Crossings. 


The  Victoria  Concrete  Mixer 

illustrated  above  is  a  No.  0  (Batch  6  cubic 
feet)  on  truck,  with  petrol  engine,  water 
tank  and  side  loader.  We  supply  many 
other  sizes  and  styles  suited  to  all  classes 
of  concrete  and  ferro-concrete  work. 

SEND  A  CARD  FOR  OUR  CATALOGUE  7. 

The  T.  L.  SMITH  CO.,  13  Victoria  Street, 

LONDON,  S.W.  1. 


<QP' 


otFibA 


*4 


v 


'SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSASSSSSSS.  'S/SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS/, 
r  .  rsSA  r///.  f///.  f///  \ 

'/'A  vm  mm,  /pm  mm  m  w,  ap\ 


MberiiC  is  an  interior  building 
material  —  more  economical,  more 
easily  erected  and  much  more  satis¬ 
factory  than  lath  and  plaster.  Easy  to 
erect  and  permanent  when  fixed.  It  is 
highly  fire-resisting,  sanitary  and  vermin 
and  damp-proof.  It  will  not  warp  and 
is  a  non-conductor  of  heat,  cold  and 
sound.  Decorative  effects  unlimited. 


Write  for 
free  samples 
illustrated  : 
brochure  & 
price  list. 


Mac  Andrews 


&  Forbes,  Ld. 


2  Broad  Street 


Place,  London, 

E.C.  2 


The  Surveyor 

Rnb  flDunidpal  anb  County  Enotneet. 


Vol.  LII. 


JULY  27,  1917. 


No.  1,332. 


Minutes  of  Proceedings. 


The-  annual  report  to  the 
The  Hea  o  London  County  Council  of  the 
county  medical  officer  of  health 
for  the  year  1916  has  just  been  published,  and 
forms  an  interesting  record  of  the  important 
department  .over  which  Dr.  Hamer  presides.  In 
connection  with  the  incidence  of  typhoid  fever, 
Dr.  Hamer  points  out  that  on  a  review  of  all  the 
facts  as  to  disuse  of  suspected  sources  of  supply 
to  this  country  of  shell-fish  and  of  fish,  it  will  be 
apparent  that  the  great  decline  of  recent  years  in 
prevalence  of  typhoid  fever  has  proceeded  practi¬ 
cally  pan  passu  with  abandonment  of  consump¬ 
tion  of  shell-fish  and  fish  from  polluted  sources, 
and  with  removal  of  layings,  &c. ,  to  a  distance 
from  sewer  outfalls.  In  particular  it  should  be 
noted  that  the  reports  of  Dr.  H.  T.  Bulstrode,  and 
the  adoption  of  the  precautionary  measures  out¬ 
lined  in  them,  must  be  regarded  as  having  been 
very  largely  responsible-  for  the  great  reduction  in 
the  prevalence  of  and  mortality  from  typhoid 
fever  brought  about  in  the  last  twenty  years. 
Just  at  the  time,  however,  when  the  carrying  into 
effect  of  epidemiological  teaching  was  beginning 
to  exert  appreciable  influence,  a  new  bacteriologi¬ 
cal  method  of  prevention  of  typhoid  fever  was  first 
advocated.  This  new  method  has  been  but  little 
practised  in  civil  life,  save  by  the  campaigners  of 
South; West  Germany,  but  it  has  been  somewhat 
widely  employed  in  the  British,  German,  and 
French  armies.  It  lias  been  assumed  not  only 
that  this  method  has  been  _  productive  of  great 
results  from  a  preventive  point  of  view  in  the  case 
of  those  armies ,  but  the  corollary  is  apparently 
drawn  that  if  it  had  been  adopted  twenty  years 
ago  among  civilians  in  this  country  there  would 
have  followed  not  merely  the  huge-  decline  in 
typhoid  that  has  actually  occurred,  but  an  even 
greater  decline.  To  the  epidemiologist  this  is  very 
hard  of  acceptance  ;  he  inclines  to  think  that  more 
benefit,  as  regards  further  reduction  of  typhoid 
fever  in  this  country,  is  likely  to  result-  from  pur¬ 
suing  the  older  epidemiological  methods  than  from 
giving  effect  to  the  new  principles  advocated  by 
Koch  and  his  followers.  In  particular,  further 
care  for  the  purity  of  shelL-fish  layings  and  entire 
prohibition  of  the  sale  of  ungutted  flat  fish  are.  to 
be  looked  upon  as  the  main  lines  upon  which 
further  advance  can  be  made. 

During  the  year  the  sanitary  services  of  various 
metropolitan  boroughs  were  impaired  by  the  de¬ 
pletion  of  staffs.  Inquiries  were  made  in  order 


to  ascertain  the  extent-  to  which  the  sanitary  staffs 
of  these  authorities  had  been  affected  by  the 
war.  It  was  found  that  there  was  approximately 
a  depletion  of  some  16  per  cent  in  these  staffs,  and 
the  council  called  the  attention  of  six  borough 
councils  to  the  serious  extent  of  the  depletion,  and 
suggested  that  if  male'  substitutes  could  not  be 
obtained  for  sanitary, inspectors  the  desirability  of 
employing  health  visitors  should  be  considered. 
At.  the  same-  time,  the  Local  Government  Board 
was  urged  not  to  permit  any  further  reduction  in 
the  sanitary  staffs  in  the  county.  In  four  of  the 
six  boroughs  above  referred  to,  improvement  was 
made  by  the  appointment  of  health  visitors,  and 
at  the  end  of  the  year  the  conditions-  in  the  other 
two  boroughs  were  under  consideration.  During 
the  early  part  of  the  year  complaints  were  received 
as  to  non-removal  of  house  refuse  in  the  metro¬ 
politan  borough  of  St.  Pan  eras,  and  as-  to  difficul¬ 
ties  experienced  with  regard  to  the  removal  of 
trade  refuse,  particularly  in  West  London.  These 
difficulties  apparently  arose  from  shortage-  of 
labour,  but  similar  failure  to'  remove  house  refuse- 
was  not  found  to  exist  in  London  generally.  There- 
were,  however,  for  a  time,  considerable  accumula¬ 
tions  at  the  various  wharves,  due,  primarily,  to  the 
difficulty  of  obtaining  barges.  The-  conditions  in 
St,  Pancras  were  attributed  to  shortage  of  stokers 
at  the  destructor  works.  The  council  entered  into 
correspondence  with  the-  borough  council  on  the 
matter,  and  improvement  was  affected  during  the 
summer  months,  but  at  the  end  of  the  year  the 
trouble  was  again  becoming  serious.  The  recent- 
amendments  in  the  list  of  “  certified  occupations,  ” 
which  have  already  been  noted  in  Tin-:  Surveyor, 
will  go  some  way  towards  preventing  further  deple¬ 
tion  of  the  sanitary  staffs  of  the  borough  councils. 

*  *  * 


Machine  Trenching 


The  use  of  mechanical 
appliances  for  digging  trenches 
and  Ramming.  ^  f(>r  refiUing  them  is  without 

doubt  of  great  value-  and  importance.  Where  labour 
is  scarce  such  appliances  are-  doubly  important. 
Machines  which  will  excavate  and  form  trenches 
for  sewers  and  water  mains  at  great,  speed  not 
only  save  the  labour  of  a  gang  of  navvies,  but  will, 
under  certain  conditions,  also  save  the  cost  of 
much  timbering,  for  where  a  trench  is  excavated 
rapidly  and  the  pipe-laying  is  carried  out  expe¬ 
ditiously  it  may  be  possible  to  fill  in  the  trench  at 
once,  and  thereby  to  reduce  the  timbering  to  a 


B 


74 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


minimum.  The  advantages  are  so  obvious  that 
it  is  difficult. to  account  for'  the  slowness  with 
which  the  machines  are  adopted  in  this  country. 
Similarly  the  mechanical  trench  filler  and  rammer 
not  only  saves  labour,  but-  does  the  work  much 
more  quickly  and  effectively  than  is  possible  by 
hand,  and  by  replacing  all  the  spoil  in  the  trench 
saves  the  cost  of  cartage  and  leaves  a  trench 
which  will  not  settle,  so  that  the  ordinary  expense 
of  making  good  the  surface  after  settlement'  does 
not  occur.  * 

At  times  like  the  present,  when  labour  is  scarce, 
and  in  the'  future,  when  it  is  likely  to  be  scarce, 
it  is*  well  to  consider  why  such  machines  are  not 
used.  Without  doubt  the  chief  reason  is  the  con¬ 
servatism  of  local  authorities!  and  finance  com¬ 
mittees,  and  possibly  also  of  contractors'.  '  Such 
persons,  or  bodies-  of  persons,  need  educating  up 
to  the  idea,  and  for  their  education  require  prac¬ 
tical  examples.  It'  is  probable  that  the  greater 
towns  and  authorities!  would  have  been  more 
ready  to  take  up  the  new  method  if  it  had  not 
been  evident*  that  the  streets  of  any  large  town 
contain  such  'a  network  of  pipes  of  various  kinds 
that  the  opening  of  the  trenches  and  their  refilling 
must  of  necessity  be  done  with  great  care,  and 
the*  idea  of  using  an  excavating  machine  appeared 
'to*  be  out  of  the*  question.  Other  authorities  and 
the  smaller  contractors  would  probably  be  unwill¬ 
ing  to  incur  expense  in  purchasing  such  machines. 
Yet  experience  elsewhere  has  shown  that  a  well- 
equipped  contractor  may  easily  undertake  a,  large 
work  at  a  lower  rate  than  his  competitors,  and  yet 
make  a  larger  profit  than  they  could  have  made 
with  hand  labour.  Knowledge  of  the  practice  and 
experience  of  large'  cities  and  of  contractors  who 
have*  adopted  the  use  of  such  machines  is  there¬ 
fore  very  desirable  at  the  present  time.  Such 
information  was  given  in  a  recent  article'  in  the 
Engineering  News- Record  of  New  York.  The  ex¬ 
perience  of  many  cities,  and  of  various  contractors 
was  given  in  this  article,  and  although  there  are 
cases  in  which  the  machines  do  not  appear  to 
have  found  favour  for  use*  in  some  of  the  larger 
towns,  'there  are  a  very  large  number  of  cases 
quoted  which  show  clearly  that  it  is  possible  to 
use  a  trench  machine  with  advantage  even  in  city 
streets,  provided  the  positions  of  the*  underground 
obstructions  are  known,  while  for  ordinary  work 
they  are  generally  approved.  These  machines 
are  evidently  largely  used  in  America  with  the 
most  satisfactory  results,  and  there  is  no  doubt 
that  their  adoption  in  this  country  would  lead  to 
a  considerable  saving  of  labour  and  money  in  the 
majority  of  cases.  The  contractors  who  use  them 
should  score  a  notable  success. 


Against  the 
Metric  System. 


In  the  discussion  as  to  tl 
merits  of  the  metric  system 
weights  and  •  measures  whic 
lias  been  going  on  more  or  less  continuously  f< 
many  years  now,  the  voice  of  the  advocates  of  tl 
change  lias  been  heard  so  much  more  frequent 
than  that  of  his  opponent,  that  there  is-  son 
danger  of  the  arguments  in  favour  of  the  mail 
tenance  of  the  statu*  quo  being  overlooked.  ] 
was  therefore  all  to  the  good  that  the  case  again 
the  compulsory  adoption  of  the  metric  system  w; 
made  the  subject  of  discussion  at  the*  recei 
annual  meeting  of  the  Incorporated  Society  ( 
Inspectors  of  Weights  and  Measures.  The  math 
was  introduced  in  an  able*  paper  by  Mr.  I 
Cunliffe,  of  Smethwick,  in  which  lie  pointed  oi 
that  no  country  has  accepted  the  metric  systei 
without  compulsion,  and  urged  that  if  compulsir 
is  to  be  applied  in  this  country  it  should  he  t 
the  demand,  not  of  scientists,  educationists,  c 
special  pleaders,  but  of  the  ordinary  users  < 
weights  and  measures  in  trade.  For  scientif 
purposes,  the  use  of  the  metric  system  is  pr< 


f erred  because  of  the  interrelation  of  its  units. 
It  does  not  follow,  however,  that  this  considera¬ 
tion  would  form  an  equally  powerful  argument 
from  the  point  of  view  of  the  trader.  The  argu¬ 
ment  from  the  cost  of  a  general  change,  which 
was  advanced  by  Mr.  Cunliffe,  does  not  strike  us 
so  forcibly.  This  cost,  he  says,  has  been  variously 
estimated  at  from  two.  to  forty  million  pounds 
sterling.  It  is  not  possible  to  submit  an  accurate 
estimate  in  money,  but  it  is  quite  easy  to  indicate 
wliat  the  change,  means  in  material  objects.  All 
existing  weights  and  measures  would  have  to  be 
replaced.  All  weighing  instruments,  other  than 
equal-armed  rpachines,  would  have  to-  be  recon¬ 
structed.  All  gas  meters,  measuring  by  the  cubic 
foot,  water  meters  by  the  gallon,  and  taxi-meters 
by  the  mile  and  the  penny,  would  either  have  to 
be  reconstructed  or  replaced.  On  the  other 
hand,  we  are  much  impressed  with  the  argument 
founded  upon  the  effect  which  the  introduction 
of  the  metric  system  would  have  on  the  work  of 
the  Engineering  Standards.  Committee.  Mr. 
Cunliffe  points  out  that  since  the  month  of  April, 
1004,  when  its  first  report  was  issued — almost  at 
the  very  moment  when  the  House  of  Lords  Select 
Commit  tee  was  considering  its  pro-metric  report — 
unt  il  the  present  time,  seventy-seven  reports 'have 
been  issued  by  this  body.  In  these  volumes  are 
contained  thousands  of  standard  measurements 
made  for  all  kinds  of  metal  working  trades,  and 
■at  the  request  of  the  trades  concerned.  All  these 
standard  measurements  are  fixed  on  the  basis  of 
the  British  inch,  with  the  almost  negligible  excep¬ 
tion  of  standards  for  some  electrical  and  auto¬ 
mobile  parts,  and  the  British  Association  screw 
threads,  which  are  stated  in  millimetres.  No 
one,  Mr.  Cunliffe  imagines,  would  suggest  that 
this  valuable  work  should  be  destroyed. 
Obviously,  to  transpose  the  committee’s  standard 
measurements  into  metric  equivalents  is  imprac¬ 
ticable,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  to  continue  them 
after  the  metric  system  had  become  compulsory 
and  the  inch  illegal  would  merely  create  con¬ 
fusion. 

*  *  * , 


Heavy  Motor  In  another  column  will  be. 

Traffic  in  Kent.  {™nd  *  the  Pon  ,of 

Mr.  H.  T.  Chapman,  the 

county  surveyor  of  Kent,  in  which  lie  discusses 
the  question  of  the  control  of  omnibus  and  other 
motor  traffic,  with  special  reference  to  the  user  of 
the  main  roads  in  that  county.  In  Kent,  as  mother 
counties,  the  damage  that  has  been  and  is  being 
done  to  the  main  roads  by  motor-omnibus  traffic 
is  one  of  the  most-  serious  highway  problems  with 
which  the  county  council  are  confronted.  To  use 
Mr.  Chapman’s  words,  most  of  the  routes  used 


were  never  constructed  with  a  view  to  their  carry¬ 
ing  this  kind  of  traffic,  and  consequently  they 
must  be  reconstructed,  strengthened  and  resur¬ 
faced  in  a  more  suitable  manner  if  they  are  to 
withstand  it  and  be  kept  in  a  proper  state  of 
repair.  It  goes  without  saying  that  to  do  the 
necessary  work  on  an  extensive  scale  would  in¬ 
volve  the  expenditure  of  an  impossible  sum  of 
money — unless,  indeed,  some  new  sources  of 
revenue  can  he  tapped.  Our  views  on  the  finan¬ 
cial  question  thus  raised  have  been  stated  so  often 
that  it  is  unnecessary  to  repeat  them  here.  It  will 
be  remembered,  however,  that  by  sec.  20  of  the 
Local  Government  (Emergency  Provisions)  Act, 
1916,  the  consent  of  the  highway  authority  must- 
be  obtained  before  any  new  routes  for  motor  omni¬ 
buses  can  be  established,  and  that,  subject  to  a 
right*  of  appeal  to  the  Local  Government  Board, 
conditions  may  be  attached  to  this  consent. 
These  conditions,  will,  of  course,  usually  take  the 
form  of  a.  stipulation  that  the  omnibus  owners 
shall  bear  a  proportion  of  the  additional  cost  of 
road  maintenance.  In  this  connection  the  scale 
of  contributions  fixed  by  the  Kent  County  Council 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


75 


is  of  general  interest.  This  scale  provides,  in  the 
first  place,  for  the  payment  hv  each  proprietor' of 
£10  per  route-mile  pel*  annum,  payable  in 
advance,  quarterly  or  otherwise,  such  payments 
to  be  deducted  from  any  amounts  that  may  be 
due  under  the  prescribed  mileage  rates  should 
they  exceed  this  minimum  payment.  This  mile¬ 
age  rate  in  respect  of  all  water-bound  macadam 
roads,  tar-painted  or  otherwise,  is  at  the  rate  of 
Id.  per  ’bus-mile;  in  respect  of  all  tar-macadam 
or  other  bituminously  bound  surfaces,  at  the  rate 
of  fd.  per  ’bus-mile;  and  in  respect  of  all  roads 
having  concrete  foundations,  at  the  rate  of  jjd.  per 
’bus-mile.  The  magnitude  of  the  problem  is  indi¬ 
cated  by  some  rather  startling  figures  given  by 
Mr.  Chapman. 

*  *  * 


Dust  Collecting 
at 

Haywards  Heath. 


A  somewhat  unusual  position 
has  arisen  at  Haywards  Heath 
with, respect  to  the  question  of 
refuse  collection.  The  Sani- 
appear  to  have  decided  not  to* 


streets,  concluding 
;e  and  the  available 
the  residents  had 
facilities,  for  getting 


tary  .Committee 
collectrlhe  refuse  in  certain 
that,  as  the  houses  were  larj 
garden  space  considerable, 
within  their  own  borders  the 
rid  of  the  material.  It.  is.  not  surprising  to  find 
that  this  rather  one-sided  view  of  the  matter  was 
met  not  only  by  a.  petition,  but  also  by  a  threat 
on  the  part  of  the  petitioners  to  take  legal  proceed¬ 
ings  against,  the  urban  council  for  neglect 
of  duty.  It  is  pretty  clearthat  there  would  be  good 
grounds  for  an  appeal  to  the  law,  for  the  council 
w«re  obviously  abrogating  one  of  the.  important 
sanitary  duties  which  the  law  imposes  upon 
them.  The  action  of  thtei  committee,  was  de¬ 
fended  by  one  of  the  councillors,  who,  arguing  by 
analogy  from  his  own  case,  remarked  that  there 
would  be  .no  necessity  for  the  weekly  visits  of  the 
dustmen  if  people  only  took  the  trouble  and  the 
proper  means  of  disposing  of  their  refuse.  This 
is  no  doubt  very  sound  advice,  but  it  was  mani¬ 
festly  the  business  of  the  council  to  ascertain 
whether  it  could  be  applied  all  round  before  they 
sanctioned  the  new  departure  of  the  Sanitary 
Committee.  Instead  of  this  it.  appears  that  the 
residents,  if  they  were  approached  at  all,  were 
not  approached  in  such  a  manner  as  to  gain  either 
consent  or  conciliation.  We  are  told,  at  all 
events,  by  the  speaker  already  quoted,  that,  if  the 
majority  of  the  petitioners  had  not  been 
approached  in  the  way  they  had  been  very  little 
would  have  been  heard  from  them.  The  matter, 
indeed,  seems  to  have  been  arranged  with  little 
regard  to  consistency  or  equality  of  treatment,  for 
another  councillor  stated  that  “they  had  been  a 
little  invidious  in  selecting  those  who  were  not  to. 
have  the  weekly  visit  of  the  dustman,  as  he  had  had 
application  from  two  petitioners  who,  not.  having 
extensive  premises,  could  not  dispose  of  the 
house  refuse.’’  Meanwhile  the  urban  council 
have  been  well  advised  in  rescinding  the  order, 
for  even  in  these  days  of  labour  shortage  it  would 
be  hard  to  justify  a  practice  that  could  only  lead 
to  something  approaching  sanitary  chaos. 


Rebuilding 

Dublin. 


Judging  from  the-  proceedings 
when  a  deputation  from  the 
Dublin  Industrial  Development 
Association  recently  waited  upon  the  Reconstruc¬ 
tion  Committee  of  the.  Dublin  Corporation,  there 
has  been  some  misunderstanding  as  to  the  powei 
of  the  committee,  or  of  the  city  architect  to  exer¬ 
cise  control  over  the  materials  to  be  used  in  the 
construction  of  buildings  in  the  devastated  area. 
The.  object  of  the  deputation  was  the  furtherance 
of  the  use  of  Irish  materials,  and  particularly 
stone,  and  its  origin  seems  to  have  been  a  fear  that 
imported  red  facing  bricks  would  be  used  in  the 


principal  public  buildings.  It  was  suggested  by 
one  speaker,  for  example,  that  the  Rost.  Office 
authorities  contemplated  pulling  down  the  old 
General  Post  Office,  and  that  even  this  might  be 
replaced  by  a  red-brick  structure.  It  goes  with¬ 
out  saying  that  in  a  country  which  possesses  such 
abundant  supplies  of  admirable  building  stones  as 
does  Ireland,  it  would  be  a  most  extraordinary 
thing  to  use  any  other  material  for  the  chief  public 
buildings  in  the  capital  city.  It  was  explained, 
however,  that  the  matter  is  not  one  over  which 
the  Reconstruction  Committee  have  any  control. 
Nor,  indeed,  has  the  city  architect  any  direct  autho¬ 
rity,  bis  light  being  merely  to  put  a  veto  upon  any 
plan  which,  in  his  opinion,  would  be.  injurious  to 
the  city.  The  city  architect  stated  definitely  that, 
so  far  as  lie  was  concerned ,  lie  was  anxious  that 
stone  should  be  used  in  the.  construction  of  these 
important  buildings.  If  there  is  any  real  danger 
of  some  less  Suitable  material  taking  its  place,  it 
would  appear  that  it  can  only  be  averted  by  the 
pressure  of  public  Opinion,  and  the  openly  ex¬ 
pressed  views,  of  the  city  architect,  ought  to  be  of 
material  assistance  in  the.  formation  of  such 
opinion  on  sound  lines. 

^  *  * 

In  view  of  the.  large  revenues 
that  are  being  derived  from 
tramway  undertakings  in  many 
of  the  larger  cities,  it  is,  to  say  the  least,  unlikely 
that,  as  some  would  have  us  suppose,  all  electric 
tramway  systems  will  be  scrapped  within  a 
measurable  number  of  years.  It  is  almost  cer¬ 
tainly  true,  however,  that  in  view  of  the  improve¬ 
ments  that  have,  been  made,  in  the  construction 
of  motor  omnibuses,  in  recent  years,  there,  will 
not  in  future  be  so  many  new  tramway  systems 
inaugurated  in  this  country  as  there  have  been 
hitherto.  The  coming  competition  was  empha¬ 
sised  recently  at  Nuneaton,  a  town  which  lias  had 
under  consideration  the.  setting  up  either  of  a 
tramway  system  or  a  motor  omnibus  service.  It 
was  shown  that  there  would  be  an  enormous  saving 
in  first  cost,  by  establishing  the  latter,  as  for 
£18,500  a  service  could  be  inaugurated  that 
would  do  the  work  of  a.  tramway  system  costing 
£150,000.  We  do  not,  of  course,  suggest  that 
first,  cost  is  the  only  factor  that  ought  to  be  taken 
into  consideration  in  comparing  the  two  alterna¬ 
tive  systems;  but.  inasmuch  as  after  the  war 
immediate  economy  will  often  be  the  ruling 
factor,  comparative  first  cost  figures  like  those 
given  at  Nuneaton  will  go  a  long  way  towards 
inducing  the  “  economists.  ’’  to.  vote  for  the  motor 
without  giving  due  weight  to  other  considerations. 
In  any  case,  it.  is  clear  that  the  future  will  witness 
the  keenest  competition  between  the  two  forms 
of  transport,  a  competition  which  it  is  to.  be  hoped 
will  lead  to  greater  efficiency  all  round. 


Liverpool  Water  Undertaking _ The  consulting  water 

engineer  of  Liverpool,  Mr.  John  Parry,  reports  that, 
apart  from  war  conditions,  and  strictly  from  a  water¬ 
works  point,  of  view,  the  _  year  1916  presented  no 
exceptional  features.  The  rainfall,  both  on  the 
Rivington  and  Vyrnwy  areas,  was  sufficient  to  main¬ 
tain  the  reservoirs  at  a  high  level  in  the  summer 
months,  and  there  was,  therefore,  abundance  of  water 
in  stock  at  the  sources  of  supply  throughout  the  year. 
The  consumption  of  water  exceeded  that  of  the  pre¬ 
vious  year  to  the  extent  of  359,631,000  gallons,  or 
nearly  1,000,000  gallons  per  day,  the  exact  figure  being 
988,000.  The  largest  proportion  of  this  increase  was 
for  uses  under  the  head  of  domestic  purposes.  A  con¬ 
siderable  proportion  of  the  increase  was  caused  by 
additional  demands  for  military  camps  outside  the 
city.  There  are  on  the  Vyrnwy  area  a  few  plantations 
of  larch  and  mixed  trees  which  were  in  existence 
when  the  corporation  bought  the  land.  Offers  for 
about  23,000  cubic  feet  of  these  were  invited  from 
colliery-owners  and  merchants  soon  after  the  war 
broke  out,  and  the  most  favourable  was  accepted. 

B* 


The  Future 
of  Tramways. 


a 


76 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Control  of  Omnibus  and  other  Motor  Traffic. 

By  H.  T.  CHAPMAN,  County  Surveyor  of  Kent. 


[The  Kent  County  Council  are  considering  the  advisability  of  seeking  greater  powers  for  controlling 
the  motor-’bus  services  and  other  motor  traffic  within  their  area,  and  Mr.  Chapman  has  prepared 
the  subjoined  report  dealing  with  the  subject.] 


It  would,  1  think,  be  as  well  in  the  first  instance  to 
refer  to  the  Motor  Car  Acts,  1896  and  1903,  which, 
together  with  regulations  and  orders  made  by  the 
Local  Government  Board  under  such  Acts,  govern  the 
use  on  highways  of  every  type  of  motor  vehicle  up  to 
a  maximum  weight  of  live  tons  unladen  in  the  case 
of  privately-owned  vehicles,  or  six  tons  unladen  in  the 
case  of  military  heavy  motor  cars  which  are  vested 
in  His  Majesty’s  War  Department. 

*To  take  a  broad  survey  of  the  scope  of  these  Acts 
and  Regulations  it  may  be  said  that  they  deal  with 
the  use  and  construction  of  motor  vehicles  and  the 
licensing  of  all  persons  driving  them. 

Provision  is  made  for  the  registration,  for  purposes 
of  identification,  of  all  motor  cars  and  motor  cycles, 
restrictions  are  imposed  as  to  their  unladen  weight, 
and  in  the  case  of  heavy  motor  cars  (i.e.,  cars  exceed¬ 
ing  two  tons,  but  not  exceeding  five  or  six  tons,  as 
the  .case  may  be,  in  weight  unladen)  there  are  further 
restrictions  as  to  the  registered  axle  weights,  width 
and  material  of  tyres,  &c. 

The  regulations  also  govern  the  use  of  trailers 
behind  motor  cars,  the  maximum  speed  at  which  they 
are  permitted  to  travel  under  varying  conditions,  their 
maximum  width  and  the  provision  of  suitable  and 
efficient  brakes,  lights  and  horn,  bell  or  other  alarm. 

SPEED  IN  DELATION  TO  WEAR  AND  TEAR. 

Since  speed  is  probably  the  chief  factor  to  be  dealt 
with  in  relation  to  wear  and  tear  to  roads,  it  would  be 
well  to  deal  with  the  regulations  as  to  that  point  in 
som.e  detail. 

Motor  ears  and  motor  cycles  not  exceeding  two  tons 
in  weight  unladen  are  permitted  to  travel  at  a  speed 
not  exceeding  twenty  miles  an  hour,  except  in  those 
districts  in  which  there  is  in  force  a  local  Speed  Limit 
Order  made  by  the  Local  Government  Board,  while 
heavy  motor  cars  are  restricted  to  a  maximum  speed 
ranging  from  five  miles  an  hour  in  the  caae  of  vehicles 
drawing  a  trailer  or  not  having  soft  or  elastic  tyres 
to  twelve  miles  an  hour  in  case  of  a  vehicle  having 
soft  or  elastic  tyres  and  not  having  a  registered  axle- 
weight  of  any  one  axle  in  excess  of  six  tons. 

Heavy  motor  cars  of  a  similar  type  to  the  last 
named,  and  having  a  registered  axle  weight  exceed¬ 
ing  six  tons,  are  restricted  to  a  maximum  speed  of 
eight  miles  an  hour,  while  with  regard  to  all  classes 
of  motor  vehicles  there  is  power  to  proceed  against 
the  driver  for  dangerous  driving  having  regard  to  all 
circumstances,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  in 
actual  mileage  per  hour  the  car  might  be  travelling 
at  a  speed  below  the  maximum  fixed  by  the  Regula¬ 
tions. 

OMNIBUS  OWNERS’  CONTRIBUTIONS. 

Having  regard  to  the  rapid  development  of  motor 
traffic -generally  and  of  heavy  motor  car  traffic  in  par¬ 
ticular,  which  has  been,  brought  about  by  the  con¬ 
stantly  increasing  number  of  trade  lorries  and  motor 
’buses,  it  can  be  readily  realised  that  an  enormous 
additional  burden  has  been  put  upon  the  roads  in 
recent  years,  and  I  therefore  feel  it  to  be  only  reason¬ 
able  that  the  consent  of  highway  authorities,  which 
section  20  of  the  Local  Government  (Emergency  Pro¬ 
visions)  Act,  1916,  requires  to  be  obtained  before  new 
routes  for  omnibuses  can  be  established,  should  only 
be  given  upon  the  omnibus  owners  agreeing  to  bear 
a  proportion  of  the  additional  cost  of  upkeep  ol  the 
roads  affected,  a  view  which  was  taken  by  the  county 
council  when  in  February  last  they  approved  the  fol¬ 
lowing  scale  of  contributions: 

1.  The  payment  by  each  proprietor  of  £10  per  route 
mile  per  annum,  payable  in  advance  quarterly  or 
otherwise,  such  payments  to  be  deducted  from  any 
amounts  that  may  be  due  under  the  following  mile¬ 
age  rates  should  they  exceed  this  minimum  payment. 

2. '  The  contribution  in  respect  of  all  waterbound 
macadam  roads,  tar-painted  or  otherwise,  to  be’  at  the 
rate  of  Id.  per  ’bus  mile. 

3.  The  contribution  in  respect  of  all  tar-macadam 
or  other  bituminously  bound  surfaces  to  be  at  the  rate 
of  fd.  per  ’bus  mile. 

4.  The  contribution  in  respect  of  all  roads  having 


concrete  foundations  to  be  at  the  rate  of  |d.  per  ’bus 
mile. 

Rote. — Where  roads  carry  tramways  the  rates  to  be 
in  accordance  with  the  type  of  surfaces  adjoining  the 
tracks. 

These  rates  of  contribution  to  be  subject  to  rever¬ 
sion  in  all  cases  twelve  months  after  consent  is  given. 

Nearly  all  the  local  authorities  in  the  county  have 
•  agreed  to  delegate  their  powers  under  this  Act  to  the 
county  council,  and  have  also  approved  the  above 
scale  of  contributions. 

It  would  serve  no  useful  purpose  to  state  the  num¬ 
ber  of  heavy  motors,  including  motor  omnibuses 
licensed  or  registered  in  this  county  as  very  many  of 
such  vehicles  travelling  over  the  Kent  roads  are 
licensed  in  London  and  other  counties  and  county 
boroughs. 

A  PUBLIC  NEED. 

Kent  main  roads,  like  those  in  other  home  counties, 
carry  an  enormous  number  of  heavy  motors  as  di.s- 
iinct  from  motor  omnibuses,  and  goods,  merchandise, 
foodstuffs  and  other  commodities  are  carried  not  only 
to  places  bordering  on  and  in  London,  but  from  one 
place  to  another,  and  from  one  end  of  the  county  to 
the  other.  Although  the  wear  and  tear  and  damage 
to  the  roads  is  consequently  exceedingly  heavy,  it 
must  be  borne  in  mind  that  cheap  and  expeditious 
transit  benefits  both  the  producer  and  manufacturer 
as  well  as  the  purchaser  and  consumer,  and  these  are 
largely  Kent  ratepayers. 

It.  is  a  moot  point  as  to  which  of  these  should  bear 
the  greater  burden  of  maintaining  the  roads  which 
are  of  benefit  to  all,  and  it  is  almost  impossible  equit¬ 
ably  to  allocate  the  cost  without  instituting  a  wheel 
tax' as  in  the  old  turnpike  days. 

Of  our  600  mileb  of  directly  maintained  main  reads 
about  314  miles  carry  motor  omnibus  services,  and  of 
the  150  miles  of  borough  and  urban  main  roads  104 
miles  are  used  for  the  same  purpose-.  The  services 
vary  from  five  minutes  on  some  roads  to  two  or  four 
journeys  per  day  on  others. 

Generally  speaking,  motor  omnibuses  serve  a  public 
need,  and  have  come  to  be  considered  a  necessity. 
Apart  from  the  railway  services,  which  in  Kent  are 
admittedly  not  of  the  best,  there  are  many  places  not 
served  by  railways,  or  so  badly  served  that  a  long, 
tortuous  and  tedious  journey  by  rail  would  be  ex¬ 
perienced  in  getting  from  place  to  place  in  the  county. 

In  the  towns  of  Bromley,  Folkestone,  Hythe,  Tun¬ 
bridge  Wells,  &c.,  the  fact  that  .there  are'  very  fre¬ 
quent  local  motor  ’bus  services  proves  they  are  a 
public  requirement,  otherwise  the  companies, not  being 
philanthropists,  would  not  run  them.  Again  there  is 
no  doubt  that  the  services  inaugurated  by  the  various 
motor-  bus  companies  to  places  of  interest  are  an  asset 
to  pleasure  resorts  in  the  county  and  a  distinct  attrac¬ 
tion  to  visitors. 

I  he  damage  done  to  pur  main  roads  by  motor  omni¬ 
bus  traffic  is  one  of  the  most  serious  problems  the 
county  council  have  to  contend  with  in  the  mainten¬ 
ance  and  repair  of  the  main  roads,  as  the  wear  and 
tear  caused  by  this  traffic  is  enormous.  Most  of  the 
routes  were  never  constructed  or  built  up  to  carry  this 
damaging  type  of  traffic,  and  they  must  be  re-con¬ 
structed,  strengthened  and  re-surfaced  in  a  more  suit¬ 
able  manner  if  they  are  to  withstand  it  and  be  kept 
in  adequate  condition  for  this  and  other  traffic  using 
them.  Many  of  the  roads,  such  as  the  Maidstone  to 
Chatham,  Maidstone  to  Sittingbourne,  Maidstone  to 
1  onbridge,  and  others,  prior  to  the  motor-’bus  era, 
could  be,  and  were,  maintained  in  waterbound  granite 
macadam  or  even  flint,  and  kept  in  good  condition  at 
small  cost  compared  with  the  present  expenditure, 
but  have  since  had  to  be  strengthened  and  surfaced 
with  bituminously  bound  material  at  not  less  than' 
double  the  former  cost. 

Anyone  travelling  over  roads  that  have  not  recently 
been  specially  surfaced  can  tell  at. once  that  they  are 
passing  over  a  “  ’bus  route  ”  by  the  waviness,  corru¬ 
gations  and  deep  holes  caused  by  the  vibrating  and 
a  braiding  action  of  quick,  heavy  traffic.  Very  many 
miles  of  main  roads  in  rural  and  urban  areas  have 


J v ly  ‘27,  1017. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


77 


been  or  are  in  course  of,  or  must  shortly  be, 
strengthened  and  re-surfaced  with  more  suitable  and 
costly  material  to  meet  this  class  of  traffic,  and  the 
cost  to  the  ratepayers  is  ever  an  increasing  one.  The 
damage  is  general  throughout  the  county.  , 

INADEQUATE  ROAD  FOUNDATIONS. 

Experience  has  proved  that  to  withstand  intense 
and  frequent  mqtor-’bus  traffic  nothing  short  of  wood 
or  granite  sett  paving  or  asphalt  on  a  concrete  foun¬ 
dation  costing  something  like  12s.  6d.  per  square  yard 
(pre-war  prices)  is  required,  and  in  the  metropolitan 
boroughs  it  has  been  found  necessary  to  increase  the 
concrete  foundations  from  6  in.  to  9  in.,  or  even  12  in. 
in  thickness,  or  to  reinforce  them. 

On  the  main  roads  in  the  borough  of  Bromley  and 
urban  district  of  Penge,  where  wood  paving  has  been 
laid  on  motor-' bus  routes,  a  thickness  of  9  in.  of  con¬ 
crete  was  provided. 

For  moderate  motor-’bus  traffic,  possibly  bitu¬ 
minous  surfacing  in  lieu  of  waterbound  granite  would 
suffice,  provided  always  the  foundation  is  adequate; 
this  would  cost  about  5s.  per  square  yard  against,  say, 
2s.  per  square  yard  for  granite  macadam,  or  £2,500 
per  mile  for  the  former  and  £1,000  per  mile  for  the 
latter. 

To  surface  all  our  directly  maintained  main  roads 
carrying  motor-’bus  services  not  already  surfaced  with 
bituminous  material  would  cost  something  like 
£500.000.  There  is,  however,  additional  cost  to  be 
faced.  The  action  of  quick  traffic  on  roads  with  inade¬ 
quate  foundations  or  weak  sides  on  clay  subsoils,  as 
in  Kent;  causes  great  distortion  and  movement  in  the 
road  crust,  and  I  estimate  that  from  £40,000  to  £50,000 
is  required  for  strengthening  the  main  roads  and  form¬ 
ing  lateral  support.  This,  in  addition  to  the  afore¬ 
mentioned  figure,  makes  a  total  expenditure  of 
£550,000  to  cope  with  this  and  other  heavy  traffic. 

Instances  can  be  given  of  reconstruction  and  surfac¬ 
ing  work  done  and  required  on  urban  main  roads, 
forming  motor-’bus  routes  as  at  Bromley  and  Penge, 
wood  paving  on  concrete;  Folkestone,  Hythe  and  Tun¬ 
bridge  Wells  and  other  towns,,  surfacing  with  slag  tar¬ 
macadam.  Possibly  some  £200,000  would  be  required 
to  bring  the  urban  roads  up  to  a  suitable  standard  to 
withstand  the  traffic  or  a  grand  total  expenditure  on 
all  county  main  roads  of  about  £750,000. 

It  might  in  passing  be  well  to  refer  to  the  damage 
caused  to  buildings  adjoining  or  abutting  on  roads 
carrying  motor-’bus  services,  as  many  complaints 
have  been  received  from  property  owner's  and  tenants 
of  the  damage,  inconvenience  and  nuisance  ensuing 
from  this  traffic. 

It  is  manifest  that  owners  of  motor  vehicles  cannot 
be  expected  to  bear  the  whole  burden  of  the  expendi¬ 
ture  necessitated  in  making  the  roads  suitable  to  with¬ 
stand  their  traffic  in  addition  to  other  traffic  require¬ 
ments,  without  penalising  them  to  such  an  extent  as 
unduly  to  hamper  industries  and  increase  the  cost  of 
transit  or  travelling  on  the  roads. 

It  is,  however,  undoubtedly  true  that  the  present 
rate  of  contribution  towards  highway  expenditure  is 
in  no  way  commensurate  with  the  advantages  reaped 
financially  and  otherwise  by  the  provision  of  good 
road.s.  The  king’s  highway  is  open  to  all  to  use  but 
not  to  abuse,  and  it  must  be  remembered  that  tram¬ 
way  undertakings  and  light  railway  companies  have 
first  to  obtain  ParliamentaTy  sanction  before  using 
roads,  and  in  addition  have  to  provide  and  maintain 
tracks,  the  initial  cost  of  which  may  be  at  the  rate 
of  £3,01X1  per  mile ;  also  rates  must  be  paid  to  local 
authorities  to  assist,  among  other  things,  in  main¬ 
taining  the  roads  over  which  motor  ’buses  may  be 
running  in  competition.  Again,  railway  companies 
with  which  commercial  motors  and  commercial  buses 
are  in  competition  are  heavily  rated,  and,  in  fact,  in 
many  parishes  are  the  heaviest  ratepayers. 

EXTRAORDINARY  TRAFFIC. 

It  may  be  contended  that  highway  authorities  have 
their  remedy  by  claiming  in  courts  for  extraordinary 
traffic  in  respect  of  damage  done  to  roads,  but  this 
can  only  apply  to  new  traffic,  as  in  most  cases  it  has 
become  the  “  ordinary  traffic  of  the  district.” 

In  many  instances,  and  even  where  a  new  route  is 
inaugurated,  it  is  very  difficult  to  apportion  precisely 
the  damage  due  to  the  traffic  or  to  recover'  it  except 
by  means  of  costly  litigation. 

Recently  the  Abingdon  Rural  District  Council  re¬ 
covered  in  the  courts  against  the  Oxford  Tramways, 
Limited,  the  sum  of  £350  in  respect  of  damage  caused 
by  a  new  motor  omnibus  service.  Probably  the  legal 
costs  on  both  sides  greatly  exceeded  the  amount 
awarded. 


In  1915  Parliament  appointed  a  Departmental  Com¬ 
mittee  to  report  on  Locomotives  and  Heavy  Motors 
(Damage  to  Roads).  This  committee  has  sat  and 
taken  evidence,  but  ha.s  not  yet  issued  its  report.  At 
the  request  of  the  committee,  I  submitted  a  written 
communication  on  the  effect  of  heavy  locomotive 
traffic  on  main  roads  in  Kent. 

The  Government  also  undertook  to  appoint  a  joint 
select  committee  on  the  subject  of  the  liability  of 
motor  omnibus  companies  to  contribute  to  the  cost 
of  roads,  but  it  has  not  yet  been  appointed. 

No  doubt  after  these  committees  have  reported  to 
Parliament  legislation  will  ensue  which  will  be  of 
great  assistance  to  highway  authorities  and  may  also 
have  the  effect  of  causing  motor  vehicles  to  be  con¬ 
structed  in  such  a  manner  as  to  cause  the  least  pos¬ 
sible  damage  to  roads. 

CONCLUSION. 

The  Motor  Car  Acts  of  1896  and  1903  require  amend¬ 
ments  so  far  as  the  provisions  relating  to  the.  construc¬ 
tion,  speed,  registration  and  licensing  of  heavy  motor¬ 
cars  are  concerned.  More  adequate  rates  of  contribu¬ 
tion  from  heavy  and  high  speed  traffic  towards  the 
construction  and  maintenance  of  roads  and  the  repair 
of  damage  done  should  be  imposed.  Highway  autho¬ 
rities  should  be  given  greater  control  over  the  routes 
to  be  used  by  heavy  motor  vehicles.  It  is  suggested 
that  somewhat  similar  provisions  to  those  of  the  Local 
Government  , (Emergency  Provisions)  Act,  1916,  sec. 
20,  should  be  made  applicable  to  all  motor-’bus  ser¬ 
vices,  and  not  merely  to  those  using  new  routes,  and 
also  to  all  heavy  motor  traffic. 

The  question  of  the  financial  adjustment  and  ad¬ 
ministration  of  the  proceeds  of  the  contributions  from 
owners  of  heavy  motor  vehicles  does  not  come  within 
the  purview  of  this  report. 


NORTHAMPTON  WATER  SUPPLY. 


LINKINC  UP  OF  OLD  AND  NEW  WORKS. 

A  tunnel,  which  has  been  constructed  for  the  pur¬ 
pose  of  connecting  the  Ravensthorpe  and  Hollowell 
Waterworks  of  the  Northampton  Corporation,  hi  the 
valleys  of  those  names,  was  formally  opened  recently, 
the  ceremony  taking  place  midway  through  the  struc¬ 
ture  at  a  depth  of  nearly  200  ft.  below  the  surface. 
The  journey  to  the  centre  of  the  tunnel  was  made  on 
a  temporary  narrow  electric  tramway. 

The  tunnel  is  one  mile  227  yards  long,  and  is  a  brick 
arch,  with  a  maximum  dimension  of  6  ft.  by  6  ft.,  and 
a  fall  of  15  in.  from  Ravensthorpe  to  Hollowell.  Its 
object  is  to  obviate  duplicate  plant  at  Hollowell, 
which  would  entail  at  least  £30,000  expenditure.  When 
the  work  was  offered  to  tender  the  lowest  offer  was 
£16,134,  but  it  was  a  pre-war  price,  and  would  have 
been  subject  to  considerable  additions  as  war  allow¬ 
ances.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  contractors  withdrew, 
so  that  it  is  a  matter  for  satisfaction  that  the  work  will 
not-  cost  more  than  the  tender. 

Now  the  tunnel  is  complete  energy  will  be  devoted 
to  removing  pollution  from  Stowe  Brook.  Then  comes 
the  filter  construction,  and  then  the  construction  of 
a  reservoir  bigger  than  the  one  at  Ravensthorpe,  its 
capacity  being  457  million  gallons  against  414  millions, 
area  13b  acres  against  114,  and  maximum  depth  36  ft. 
against  27  ft.  A  duplicate  main  is  also  to  be  carried 
out,  as  the  present  one,  constructed  to  carry  l\ 
millions  per  day,  sometimes  has  two  million  gallons 
through  it. 

The  water  engineer  is  Mr.  F.  Tomlinson. 


Stream  Pollution  in  the  West  Riding — At  the  last 
meeting  of  the  West  Riding  Rivers  Board  a  report 
was  presented  showing  what  had  been  done  by  the 
firms  concerned  towards  remedying  the  pollution  of 
the  River  Calder  by  acids.  It  was  stated  that  in  a 
short  time  it  was  likely  that  the  acid  discharges  would 
cease,  although  the  colour  of  the  stream  was  not 
likely  to  be  altered.  The  necessity  for  the  enlarge¬ 
ment  of  the  Huddersfield  sewage  works  was  reported 
in  view  of  the  great  increase  both  of  trade  refuse  and 
domestic  sewage  due  to  the  erection  of  new  works  in 
the  district,  the  board  are  in  communication  with 
the  Huddersfield  Corporation.  A  very  long  list  of 
complaints  of  trade  and  other  pollution  was  con¬ 
sidered.  The  pollution,  it  was  reported,  was  due 
partly  to  the  long-continued  low  condition  of  the 
streams,  and  partly  to  the  want  of  proper  care  at 
purification  works  owing  to  war  conditions  and  the 
scarcity  of  labour. 


0 


78 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers. 

ANNUAL  MEETING  AT  HASTINGS  :  DISCUSSION  OF  PAPERS. 

[Continued  from  July  13th.~\ 


At  the  opening  of  the  second  day’s  sitting  at  the 
recent  annual  meeting  of  the  Institution  of  Muni¬ 
cipal  and  County  Enginers  at  Hastings — Mr.  P.  H. 
Palmer,  the  president,  in  the  chair — 'consideration 
was  first  given  to  the  paper  by  Mr.  E.  Willis  (Chis¬ 
wick)  on  the 

OBJECT  AND  SCOPE  OF  THE  INSTITUTION 
EXAMINATIONS.* 

Mr.  A.  E.  Collins  (Norwich)  said  in  the  first 
place  Mr.  Willis  was  to  be  congratulated  upon  having 
chosen  a  subject  which  must  be  of  great  interest  to 
the  whole  institution,  and  especially  to  the  younger 
members.  In  his  opinion,  the  examination  was  a 
very  valuable  stepping-stone  to  the  profession,  and 
he  quite  agreed  that  appointments  to  municipal 
engineering  positions,  whether  in  the  junior  or  senior 
grades,  ought  never  to  be  given  to  persons  who  had 
not  proved  their  qualification.  Unfortunately,  in  all 
sorts  of  public  health  appointments  the  man  who 
could  exert  considerable  influence,  and  had  the 
quality  of  personal  magnetism,  could  often  persuade 
a  council  over  the  head  of  a  man  of  higher  profes¬ 
sional  ability.  A  properly  organised  examination 
would  tend  to  prevent  that.  With  regard  to  the 
institution  examination  he  had  taken  considerable 
interest  in  it,  and  happened  to  take  part  in  an  exami¬ 
nation  which  was  the  first  in  which  they  intro¬ 
duced  a  practical  test  of  the  candidate’s  knowledge. 
He  was  very  much  disappointed  with  that  side  of  the 
examination,  and  the  amount  of  ignorance  displayed 
by  students  who  did  fair  paper  work.  The  result 
was  that  they  only  passed  two-fifths  of  the  candi¬ 
dates  who  sat  for  the  examination.  At  the  present 
time  a  man  depended  to  a  great  extent  on  memory. 
Personally,  lie  could  not  pass  their  examination;  he 
had  not  a  memory  good  enough.  He  had  been  able 
to  look  at  books  of  reference — Molesworth,  Kemp, 
and  Ramsden,  and  books  of  that  kind.  He  thought 
the  council  ought  to  allow  candidates  the  use  of  books 
of  that  sort,  to  which  they  could  refer  just  the  same 
as  if  they  were  in  their  ‘own  office.  He  thought  as  a 
preliminary  of  the  examination  the  candidate  ought 
to  be  required  to  submit  certain  drawings.  The 
general  scope  of  the  drawings  should  be  laid  down 
by  the  council,  and  there  should  be  an  understand¬ 
ing  that  the  surveys  had  been  carried  out  by  the 
candidate  himself.  He  thought  in  addition  to  the 
drawings  they  ought  to  have  a  more  business  docu¬ 
ment,  such  as  specifications  and  quantities.  They 
ought  to  see  that  each  candidate  understood  these 
documents.  He  might  say,  in  support  of  what  Mr. 
Willis  had  said  in  his  paper,  that  he  believed 
examiners  were  not  so  much  concerned  as  to  a  can¬ 
didate  being  letter  perfect  as  in  showing  good  sound 
common  sense.  If  a  man  did  not  know  the  way  to 
make  a  calculation  without  referring  to  a  note-book, 
personally  he  would  not  pluck  him  for  that  if  he 
knew  the  basis  on  which  a  thing  should  be  designed. 
In  the  viva  voce  they  tried  a  number  of  questions 
which  could  be  answered  by  candidates  who  read  the 
technical  journals,  and  it  was  surprising  how  bad 
were  many  of  the  answers,  which  showed  that  they 
did  not  know  the  things  which  were  going  on  from 
day  to  day,  but  only  knew  the  things  in  text-books. 
A  man  could  not  lie  an  efficient  municipal  engineer 
unless  he  kept  himself  up  to  date  by  examination  of 
works  and  by  studying  the  professional  Press. 

Mr.  H.  P.  Boulnois  (Westminster)  said  this  ques¬ 
tion  was  exceedingly  interesting  to  him  in  many  ways. 
When  he  was  city  engineer  of  Liverpool  he  did  not 
care  what  diplomas  a  man  held,  but  any  man  who 
wanted  employment  in  the  engineering  department 
had  to  pass  an  examination  which  he  set.  In  ad¬ 
dition  to  doing  a  paper,  a  candidate  had  to  pass  a 
viva  voce,  which  he  conducted  himself,  and  which 
he  endeavoured  to  make  a  thoroughly  practical  test 
of  the  candidate’s  qualifications:  He  was  tested  with 
the  use  of  the  theodolite,  the  spirit  level,  the  two-foot 
rule,  various  kinds  of  bricks,  two  bowls  of  sand, 
cement,  and  various  other  things  which  they  used 
in  their  daily  life.  He  would  say  to  the  can¬ 
didate.  Put  that  level  up,  ’  and  time  him  in 
doing  so.  He  had  an  ordinary  levelling  rod, 
and  he  asked  as  to  its  use,  and  he  would  tell 

*  See  page  93. 


by  how  the  candidate  handled  these  things  as 
to  his  training  and  practical  knowledge.  Then 
•  he  would  say,  “  I  am  going  *  to  build  a  sewer. 
Select  the  bricks  you  would  use.”  That,  to  his  mind, 
was  a  practical  viva  voce  examination.  Then  he  was 
examiner  to  another  body.  With  regard  to  drawings 
they  never  accepted  a  drawing  which  a  man  brought 
with  him,  but  they  gave  him  two  hours  in  which 
to  make  a  drawing.  They  gave  him  two  subjects. 
They  said,  “  Make  a  plan  and  section  of  an  under¬ 
ground  convenience ;  there  are  two  hours  to  do  it  in.” 
They  could  tell  then  by  looking  at  his  drawing 
whether  he  understood  drawing  or  not.  That,  to  his 
mind,  was  another  practical  method.  The  whole  ques¬ 
tion  of  the  examination  for  the  institution  was  that 
it  was  not  a  competitive  examination,  but  an  exami¬ 
nation  for  knowledge.  He  always  tried  to  find  out 
how  much  a  man  knew ;  he  never  tried  to  catch  him 
with  tricky  questions;  it  was  very  different  from  a 
competitive  examination.  What  they  wanted  to  find 
out  was  whether  a  man  knew  his  job  and  was  prac¬ 
tical.  He  believed  in  a  man  being  fully  equipped 
with  a  diploma  from  a  University,  but  that  was  not 
all  that  was  wanted.  They  wanted  a  man  who  could 
deal  with  difficulties  as  they  arose — who  could  use  his 
judgment  at  the  moment.  That  was  very  difficult  to 
find  out.  In  their  profession  they  wanted  tact,  they 
wanted  common  sense — the  most  valuable  commodity 
a  man  could  have.  Therefore  he  looked  with  some 
suspicion  on  a  man  who  had  any  number  of 
diplomas  to  his  name,  but  was  not  a  practical  man.  He 
might  be  a  good  man  to  go  to  for  advice  on  technical 
points,  but  when  they  wanted  practical  work  they 
wanted  something  beside  that. 

Mr.  H.  T.  Wakelam  (Middlesex),  who  seconded 
the  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Willis,  said  he  knew  he 
was  a  most  indefatigable  man  in  anything  appertain¬ 
ing  to  examinations.  Both  Mr.  Willis  and  Mr.  Collins 
had  done  an  enormous  work  for  the  institution, 
and  he  hoped  much  of  that  work  would  fructify  in 
the  right  direction.  He  agreed  with  much  that  Mr. 
Willis  had  said  in  his  paper,  but  did  not  go  all  the 
way  with  him  in  the  matter  of  the  examinations.  He 
was  not  a.  believer  in  scientific  examinations  to  a  great 
degree.  He  .mentioned  two  years  ago  in  his  presi¬ 
dential  address  that  he  had  a  sneaking  liking  for 
the  man  who  possessed  practical  knowledge,  and  he 
was  not  ashamed  again  to  say  he  had  that  feeling 
still.  There  were  some  men  who  could  not  pass 
examinations.  He  had  had  men  in  his  own  depart¬ 
ment  who  could  not  pass  an  examination,  and  yet 
had  been  some  of  the  most  proficient  assistants  he  had 
ever  had.  He  believed  in  a  good  education  for  a  boy 
equal  to  the  London  University  Matriculation,  and 
then  training  in  a  good  office — he  did  not  say  in  a 
large  office  like  Liverpool,  because  a  man  was  kept 
too  much  in  one  department,  but  in  the  office  of  ax 
town  with  about  40,000  inhabitants,  where  they  got 
a  good  training  in  all  branches  of  their  work.  He  was 
not  in  favour  of  a  man  with  a  fancy  memory.  There 
were  men  who  could  absorb  any  amount  of  know¬ 
ledge  like  a  sponge;  they  could  go  through  an  ex¬ 
amination  with  flying  colours,  but  when  they  brought 
them  into  an  office  to  do  work  they  were  entirely 
at  sea.  He  had  a  case  of  that  kind.  He  had  a  block 
of  creosoted  deal,  and  lie  asked  the  young  man  what 
sort  of  wood  it  was,  and  he  said  he  thought  it  was  a 
piece  of  grained  oak.  He  believed  in  a  good  general 
education,  supplemented  with  experience  in  an  office, 
and  with  that  degree  of  training  he  was  satisfied 
with  what  a  man  could  do.  He  heard  a  story  of 
a  man  in  Ireland  who  went  before  the  Local  Govern¬ 
ment  Board  with  a  sewage  scheme,  and  at  the  end  of 
his  name  he  had  stuck  the  letters  S.I.  When  the 
inspector  looked  at  the  drawings  he  asked  what  the 
letters  S.I.  .stood  for.  “Sure,  don’t  you  know?” 
asked  the  man.  “  No.  I  don’t.  Mr.  Malone,”  answered 
the  inspector.  “  Sure,  sir,  it  stands  for  civil  en¬ 
gineer.”  replied  the  Irishman.  With  that  sort  of  edu¬ 
cation  one  could  not  help  seeing  why  failures  occurred. 
Mr.  Boulnois  referred-  to  drawing-boards,  and  seeing 
that  men  were  required  to  prepare  drawings,  he  intro¬ 
duced  that  system  in  the  examinations  of  the  institu¬ 
tion.  Mr.  Cole  would  remember  that  they  obtained 
a  number  of  drawing-boards  for  one  examination.  The 
examinees  were  so  disappointed  with  the  exhibition 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


79 


the  candidates  made  of  themselves  that  the  drawing- 
boards  were  relegated  to  the  shelves.  He  thoroughly 
agreed  that  that  should  be  made  part  of  the  profes¬ 
sional  training  of  a  man.  He  should  show  what  he 
knew  of  practical  work  instead  of  being  hoisted  on 
to  a  high  scientific  pinnacle.  He  had  had  Bachelors 
of  Science  working  side  by  side  with  men  with  ordi¬ 
nary  training,  and  he  would  rather  give  the  ordinary 
man  £300  a  year  than  pay  £100  to  the  scientifically- 
trained  man.  Some  of  our  greatest  engineers — Brind¬ 
ley  and  Telford — were  men  who  never  had  any  scien¬ 
tific  training  at  all,  and  yet  they  became  the  highest 
engineers  this  country  ever  had.  Give  a  boy  the  best 
training  they  coidd,  and  do  all  they  could  for  him 
and  his  future  success  in  life. 

Mr.  C.  H.  CoorER  (Wimbledon)  said  it  was  very 
pleasant  to  hear  the  discussion  which  had  taken  place 
on  this  subject.  It  was  a  subject  in  which,  as  an  old 
examiner,  he  tried  in  years  gone  by  to  have  some  im¬ 
provements  made,  and  he  was  afraid  he  failed.  At 
present  they  must  remember  the  country  was  passing 
through  a  very  grave  crisis,  a  crisis  which  had  opened 
the  eyes  of  the  public  more  than  any  other  which  had 
taken  place  in  history.  There  was  no  doubt  about  it 
that  after  this  war  was  over  the  people  would  not 
allow  men  to  conduct  the  important  posts  of  munici¬ 
pal  engineers  in  the  way  they  had.  He  believed 
firmly  that  local  authorities  would  not  be  allowed  to 
appoint  their  own  members,  as  they  had  in  many 
cases,  as  municipal  officers.  That  was  the  crucial 
point  in  the  question  of  these  examinations  as  re¬ 
garded  the  institution.  Either  they  were  going  to 
have  a  proper  examination,  and  issue  a  proper  testa¬ 
mur  to  the  men  to  be  appointed  as  municipal  en¬ 
gineers,  or  the  Government  would  institute  it  for  them. 
There  was  no  doubt  about  that.  The  medical  officer 
had  got  to  pass  liis  examination ;  he  had  got  to  have 
his  training,  and  he  was  the  only  municipal  officer 
at  present  who  had  to  have  a  training.  There  wa?  no 
doubt  about  it,  a  similar  training  would  be  required 
of  all  municipal  officers  at  some  future  date.  Mr. 
Willis  was  perfectly  right  in  what  he  said  about  the 
examinations  instituted  by  the  universities.  They 
did  not  allow  the  papers  that  .vere  set  to  be  left  to. one 
examiner.  Those  papers  were  overlooked  by  the  co¬ 
examiner.  They  could  take  what  examiner  they 
liked,  whether  a  professor  or  a  professional  man,  his 
mind  was  full  of  the  last  work  he  had  been  doing.  He 
would  give  them  an  instance  of  the  paper  set  on  law 
at  one  of  their  examinations.  Nearly  all  the  ques¬ 
tions  on  that  paper  were  on  arbitration.  There  was 
nothing  in  the  syllabus  about  arbitration ;  it  was  the 
Public  Health  Acts  with  which  they  were  concerned. 
The  examiner  said:  “You  have  done  badly  on  your 
paper.”  The  candidate  replied,  “  I  know.  I  have 
had  no  questions  to  answer  on  public  health  law.” 
The  examiner  said,  “  I  am  sorry  to  tell  you  the  truth, 
I  have  been  engaged  on  several  arbitrations  recently.” 
He  would  give  them  another  instance  of  the  Engineer¬ 
ing  School  at  Dublin  University.  There  was  a  paper 
set  there,  just  after  the  publication  of  Jules  Verne’s 
book,  “  Round  the  Moon.”  No  less  than  three  of  the 
questions  were  '  on  that  book  of  Jules  Verne.  It 
showed  them  the  necessity  of  having  the  papers  re¬ 
vised  before  they  were  set.  On  all  questions  which 
were  set  examiners  were  likely  to  have  in  their  mind 
the  work  which  they  had  been  engaged  upon.  He 
knew  very  well  the  examiner  for  the  Victorian  Univer¬ 
sity,  and  he  had  spoken  to  him  very  often  on  this  sub¬ 
ject.  He  had  given  him  instance  after  instance  where 
he  had  had  to  have  papers  altered,  and  also  where 
he  had  had  to  go  through  the  work  and  revise  the  marks 
awarded  to  papers.  He  would  take  one  subject  like 
public  health  law.  The  examiner  had  possibly  got  a 
particular  way  in  which  he  taught  the  subject,  and 
asked  his  questions  in  that  way.  They  had  to  guard 
against  that  kind  of  thing.  If  they  ploughed  a  man, 
especially  a  good  man,  they  were  doing  him  infinite 
injustice.  He  had  in  his  office  a  most  promising 
young  man.  He  had  the  offer  of  employment  abroad 
if  he  got  the  testamur  of  the  institution.  He  said  to 
that  young  man  before  he  went  up  to  sit  for  the  ex¬ 
amination,  “  They  are  bound  to  plough  you.”  There 
were  examiners  who  thought  the  proper  thing  to  do 
was  to  put  a  young  man  back,  and  let  him  read  his 
subject  all  over  again.  It  was  the  greatest  injustice 
in  the  world.  If  a  man  knew  his  subject,  whether  old 
or  young,  he  ought  to  be  allowed  to  pass.  There  were 
two  points  which  he  wished  to  emphasise.  There  was 
a  large  portion  of  their  examination  which  could  only 
be  examined  upon  by  men  who  were  engaged  in  the 
work  of  education.  Engineering  pure  and  simple 
could  very  well  be  examined  by  those  men  vho  had 


been  in  the  habit  of  conducting  their  examinations. 
If  they  added  to  their  examiners  men  who  were 
trained  examiners,  it  not  only  gave  public  confidence, 
and  Government  confidence  in  their  examinations, 
but  it- also  brought  their  examiners  in  touch  with 
people  who  were  constantly  examining.  What  they 
had  to  do  was  to  get  public  confidence  if  their  testa¬ 
mur  was  to  carry  the  weight  it  should.  He  was,  and 
always  had  been,  strongly  of  opinion  that  these  ex¬ 
aminations  should  not  be  conducted  wholly  by  men 
holding  the  appointment  of  municipal  engineers,  but 
that  they  should  co-opt  other  examiners,  and  bring 
them  into  contact  with  their  council.  There  were 
several  men  who  were  quite  willing,  such  as  Mr. 
Reginald  Middleton,  Professor  Adams,  and  the  ex¬ 
aminer  at  Victoria  University,  to  come  in  and  assist 
in  their  examinations.  At  the  time  the  council  did 
not  see  their  way  to  do  it.  It  would  very  much  assist 
in  raising  the  standard  of  the  examination,  and  it 
would  have  influence  with  the  public  if  such  a  course 
was  adopted.  He  quite  sympathised  with  what  Mr. 
Collins  had  said.  They  might  have  a  man  who  had 
passed  through  a  university  and  had  his  degree,  but 
was  quite  useless  for  real  work.  The  worst  man  they 
could  possibly  have  was  one  who  had  passed  through 
two  or  three  examinations.  There  were  men  who  had 
gone  from  one  university  to  another,  and  who  lived 
on  scholarships.  These  men  were  perfect  in  examina¬ 
tions,  but  they  were  useless  in  practice.  Some  of  the 
universities — Liverpool,  for  instance — were  not  now 
trusting  to  examinations,  but  testing  a  man  by  the 
general  quality  of  his  work  during  the  term.  They 
would  not  let  a  man  sit  for  his  examination  if  he  had 
not  done  his  work  properly  during  the  term.  There 
was  no  good  a  man  cramming.  Cramming  was  not  the 
slightest  good  in  the  world.  The  man  who  would 
cram  best  was  the  most  useless.  As  regarded  draw¬ 
ings,  there  were  many  men  who  would  be  useful  as 
engineers  who  could  not  prepare  a  drawing,  and  had 
not  the  speed  to  do  it  in  the  time  fixed  by  the  exami¬ 
nation.  That  difficulty  could  be  got  over  by  confining 
the  requirement  to  sketching,  because  a  man  who 
could  not  get  out  a  sketch  would  be  no  good  as  an  en¬ 
gineer.  What  they  wanted  to  know  was  the  know¬ 
ledge  which  a  man  possessed.  If  he  had  sufficient  to 
qualify  him,  well  and  good.  There  was  one  branch  of 
their  work  which  should  be  taken  into  consideration 
in  examinations,  and  that  was  organisation.  There 
were  many  men  who  knew  their  business  thoroughly, 
but  failed  completely  when  they  got  a  chief  appoint¬ 
ment,  because  they  knew  nothing  about  organisation. 
There  was  one  point  he  wished  to  emphasise :  “  Have 
youn- examination  conducted  in  such  a  way  that  you 
will  get  the  confidence  of  the  Government  and  of  the 
public.” 

Mr.  E.  Witton  Booth  (Wallington)  did  not  know 
whether  this  paper  was  designed  to  follow  a  note 
which  was  struck  by  the  president  in  his  address,  but 
if  so,  it  was,  distinctly  apt.  For  four  or  five  years  he 
had  the  opportunity,  in  conducting  a  practice  in  Man¬ 
chester,  of  passing  through  his  hands  a  great  number 
of  students  for  the  institution  examination.  There¬ 
fore,  while  he  had  left  that  practice,  and  had  no  axe 
to  grind,  yet  what  he  had  learnt  might  be  of  use  in 
that  discussion.  Another  point  was  this:  he  had  had 
during  the  last-  few  months  a  number  of  consultations 
with  educational  authorities  in  London  and  elsewhere 
who  had  written  to  him  about  education  after  the  war. 
Mr.  Palmer  struck  that  note  very  forcibly  on  the  pre¬ 
vious  day,  but  he  restricted  his  proposals  to  evening 
classes  for  young  men  between  eighteen  and  twenty- 
one.  He  wanted  to  go  further  than  that,  and  ask  what 
the  institution  was  going  to  do  for  the  young 
men  who  came  back  from  the  Front,  and 
who  would  not  be  in  very  good  condition  for  quiet 
study.  What  they  wanted  to  do  was  to  put  an  attrac¬ 
tive  programme  before  them  which  would  draw  them 
back  into  the  line  of  quiet  study,  which  alone  would 
bring  success  in  the  future.  He  wanted  to  throw  out 
one  or  two  hints.  He  thought  there  would  have  to  be 
considerable  changes  before  satisfaction  among 
students  could  be  guaranteed.  There  would  have  to 
be  amalgamation,  or,  at  all  events,  an  agreement,  be¬ 
tween  institutions  which  examined  in  the  same  sub¬ 
jects.  For  instance,  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers, 
the  Surveyors’  Institution,  and  their  own  institution 
examination  on  various  subjects  all  travelled  over  the 
same  ground.  Yet  if  a  man  set  out  to  do  the  whole 
course,  to  qualify  for  the  Institution  of  Civil  En¬ 
gineers,  the  Fellowship  of  the  Surveyors’  Institution, 
and  their  own  diploma,  he  found  he  had  not  only  to 
pay  the  fees  for  all  thq  three  examinations,  but  he  had 
to  repeat  himself  and  keep  in  mind  the  same  subjects. 


0* 


80 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Take  the  subject  of  geology.  If  a  man  had  passed  in 
that  subject  in  the  other  examination,  why  should  they 
ask  him  to  sit  again  for  a  subject  which  had  been  dealt 
with  more  fully  in  another  examination  which  he  had 
already  passed  ?  The  same  applied  to  hydraulics. 
Then  there  was  building  construction,  materials;  and 
other  things  in  the  examination  of  the  Surveyors’  In¬ 
stitution,  If  they,  as  an  institution,  arranged  to  do 
that  in  their  examination,  then  the  Institution  of 
Civil  Engineers  and  the  Surveyors’  Institution  must 
be  prepared  to  go  half-way  to  meet  them,  and  allow 
those  who  had  passed  the  institution  examination  to 
be  exempted  in  certain  subjects  in  their  examination. 
They  set  a  paper  in  public  health  law  which  was  much 
fuller  than  that  of  the  Surveyors’  Institution.  The 
Surveyors’  Institution  might  drop  that  in  their  exami¬ 
nation.  It  wag  a  sore  point  with  many  pupils  that  all 
these  things  meant  fees.  If  a  man  had  gone  ahead 
and  already  passed  in  another  examination  in  cer¬ 
tain  subjects,  they  might  reduce  his  fees.  All  these 
examinations  to  a  man  getting  a  small  salary  were  a 
big  thing.  They  entailed  a  good  deal  of  expense  in 
preparation.  He  was  glad  to  have  the  opportunity 
of  puffing  this  forward  and  showing  the  existence  of 
this  sore,  which  was  a  great  grievance  to  pupils.  He 
was  cjuite  convinced  of  this — that  after  the  war  a  wider 
syllabus  all  round,  from  the  education  standpoint, 
would  have  to  be  devised.  They  had  revised  their 
syllabus  in  the  midst  of  war.  He  was  not  sure,  but 
after  the  war  was  over  they  might  find  it  necessary  to 
deal  with  another  revision.  There  was  one  subject 
which  might  very  well  be  incorporated  in  their  ex¬ 
amination  paper — the  Surveyors’  Institution  were 
recommending  this — that  was  the  ethics  of  valuation 
and  knowledge  of  dealing  with  finance.  How  often 
did  they  find  surveyors  dealing  with  sinking  funds? 
There  was  a  very  useful  table  in  Mr.  Santo  Crimp’s 
book  which  they  generally  turned  to.  They  had  to 
advise  corporations,  and  yet  the  ethics  of  sinking 
funds  they  generally  knew  nothing  about.  That  was 
a  subject  which  they,  like  the  Surveyors’  Institution, 
might  include  in  their  examination.  The  Surveyors’ 
Institution  required  a  knowledge  of  that  subject  from 
agricultural,  quantity  and  building  surveyors. 
Builders  and  architects  had  got  practically  nothing 
to  do  with  finances  and  sinking  funds  like  they  had 
as  municipal  engineers.  If  the  Surveyors’  Institution 
considered  it  so  important  that  it  should  form  an  item 
in  their  examination,  it  seemed  still  more  important 
it  should  do  so  in  the  institution  examination. 

Mr.  F.  Wilkinson  .(Deptford)  said  he  would  like  to 
congratulate  Mr.  Willis  upon  tackling  a  subject  which 
certainly  bristled  with  great  difficulties.  All  who 
knew  Mi .  Willis  knew  lie  would  tackle  subjects  of 
great  difficulty.  There  was  a  great  deal  of  dissatisfac¬ 
tion  among  the  younger  members  of  the  institution. 
Some  years  ago  he  coached  a  lot  of  candidates  for  this 
examination.  iSome  were  ploughed ;  some  got 
through ;  some  who  were  ploughed  deserved  to  get 
through.  In  one  case  a  man  who  ought  to  have 
known  better  was.  ploughed  for  a  mistake,  and  he  told 
him  rightly  ploughed.  There  was  no  doubt  scope  for 
an  alteration  in  the  syllabus.  The  president  gave 
them  a  warning  in  his  address,  and  he  thought  that 
warning  should -be  taken  to  heart.  If  they  did  not 
take  it- they  would  have  to  go  under.  He  did  not 
agree  with  the  two  speakers  who  said  they  would  have 
a  practical  engineer  rather  than  a  theoretical  one. 
They  spoke  of  Brindley  and  Telford.  The  engineer  of 
to-day  would  not  only  have  to  be  a  practical  man,  but 
have  a  superstructure  of  education.  There  was  not  a 
better  superstructure  yet  known  than  the  test  of  an 
examination.  Until  they  got  something  better  than 
the  examination  test  it,  would  have  to  be  continued. 
In  conducting  these  examinations  they  must  have  a 
syllabus  which  would  test  the  theoretical  knowledge 
of  the  pupil.  He  was  examined  by  one  of  the  old 
members  of  the  institution,  the  late  Mr.  Laws.  Mr. 
Laws  asked  him,  “  What  experience  have  you  had?  ” 
and  he  answered,  “  None.”  Mr.  Laws  then  safd, 
“  Let,  us  see  what  common  sense  you  have,”  and  put 
certain  questions  to  him  to  test  his  knowledge.  Mr. 
Laws  was  a  most  practical  man,  and  a  most  able  man. 
They  wanted  men  who  would  march  with  the  times 
and  pass  these  examinations  on  theory,  and  that 
theory  must  be  accompanied  by  practical  experience. 
He  cordially  commended  the  suggestions  to  the  chief 
engineers  of  all  big  boroughs  that  their  assistants 
should  be  given  an  opportunity  of  dealing  with  all 
branches  of  municipal  engineering.  That  was  the 
grievance  of  many  assistants.  A  man  of  forty-five, 
who  had  been  kept,  to  one  job,  and  kept  on  it  all  his 
life,  was  earning  £130  a  year.  (Shame.)  He  believed 
With  Mr.  Willis  that  the  age  of  candidates  should  be 


raised,  the  examination  made  stiffer,  and  that  pupils 
and  students  should  have  more  facilities  to  study  and 
more  facilities  to  visit  works  and  see  the  jirogress 
which  was  being  made  and  the  new  things 
which  were  being  brought  out  in  the  universi¬ 
ties.  He  ventured  to  say  not  many  men  pre¬ 
sent  had  seen  the  experiment  invented  by  Prof. 
Coker,  of  University  College,  by  which  he  had 
measured  the  stresses  and  strains,  and  photographed 
them,  in  the  designs  of  bridges  and  other  construc¬ 
tion.  Prof.  Coker  was,  above  all,  a  practical  man  in 
the  engineering  profession,  who  had  wanted'  to  get 
to  the  top  of  the  tree  and  had  got,  there.  He  was  one 
of  the  men  with  practice  and  theory  combined,  and 
the  man  of  the  future  would  require  to  have  both. 
They  would  have  to  be  in  the  forefront  or  go  under. 
They  must  set  their  house  in  order  in  regard  to  the 
examination;  they  must  have  the  best,  and  nothing 
but  the  best  would  do.  He  thought  Mr.  Willis  was 
thoroughly  to  be  congratulated  on  tackling  this 
problem.  It  bristled  with  enormous  difficulties  in 
getting  the  right  examination  for  everyone.  He  could 
point  to  many  difficulties.  His  late  respected  chief, 
Mr.  Cooper,  wanted  to  make  changes  some  years  ago, 
and  to  make  some  good  alterations.  Mr.  Copper  had 
always  conducted  a  practical  examination  when  he 
had  appointed  a  man,  and  all  his  pupils  had  to  have 
a  theoretical  knowledge  before  he  admitted  them  into 
his  office.  He  had  had  the  very  best  men,  and  his 
pupils  had  come  out  very  well.  Why  ?  Because  he 
saw  to  their  practical  training,  and  they  had  had  a 
theoretical  training  before  they  went  to  him.  He  sug¬ 
gested  to  the  council  that  they  take  into  their  con¬ 
sideration  the  establishing  of  students’  centres  in  the 
large  towns  and  let  the  students  give  papers.  And 
they  should  also  establish  a  library,  because  technical 
books  soon  go  out  of  date.  They  should  also  encour¬ 
age  visits  to  works  in  progress.  If  they  did  this  he 
thought  the  students  would  gain  the  practical  know¬ 
ledge  which  the  institution  wished  them  to  have,  and 
which  Mr.  Willis  had  so  much  at  heart.  And  if  they 
got  the  theory  in  the  technical  colleges  then  they 
would  be  able  to  sit  for  their  examination,  however 
stiff  they  made  it. 

Mr.  ,1.  S.  Brodie  (Blackpool)  said  with  regard  to  the 
remarks  of  Mr.  Cooper  that  they  should  call  in  some 
outside  assistance  to  help  conduct  the  examinations. 
He  could  not,  see  for  the  life  of  him  why  they  should. 
Surely  they  as  municipal  engineers  knew  what,  the 
municipal  authorities  required  in  the  way  of  qualifi¬ 
cation  for  official  positions !  If  they  did  not  know 
what  the  requirements  were,  surely  it  was  hopeless  to 
expect  any  university  professor  to  know !  Therefore, 
he  thought  the  policy  of  the  institution  of  having  the 
examinations  conducted  by  their  own  members  was 
the  soundest,  policy.  The  examiners  were  by  no 
means  confined  to  members  of  the  council,  or  past- 
presidents,  but  men  were  selected  from  the  rank  and 
file  of  the  institution,  who  had  special  qualifications 
which  enabled  them  to  be  tactful  examiners.  There 
had  been  an  attempt  made  to  draw  a  line  between 
theoretical  and  practical  engineers.  Mr.  Wakelam, 
especially,  had  run  on  that  line.  He  thought  all  who 
knew  him,  though  he  had  many  failings,  would  not 
accuse  him  of  being  a  theoretical  engineer.  His 
friends  of  Victoria  University,  Manchester,  in  con¬ 
ducting  their  examination  in  sanitary  engineering, 
had  called  him  in  to  assist  them  in  outside  knowledge 
of  sanitary  engineering.  That  was  an  example  of  a 
university  calling  in  a  practical  man  as  to  the  way 
in  which  to  conduct  an  examination  in  sanitary  engi¬ 
neering,  Mr.  Boulnois  had  been  called  in  in  the 
same  way,  and  be  was  a  practical  engineer.  Unless 
there  was  a  happy  marriage  between  theory  and  prac¬ 
tice  he  was  afraid  the  engineering  results  would  not 
be  very  satisfactory.  A  practical  man  might  have  pre¬ 
cedents  without  number  and  try  to  employ  them,  but 
unless  he  knew  something  about  construction,  he  was 
afraid  his  career  would  not  be  very  successful.  There¬ 
fore  he  deprecated  any  strict  line  of  division  between 
practice  and  theory,  but  considered  they  should  try  to 
combine  the  two. 

Mr.  Wakelam  said  he  hoped  the  meeting  would  not 
think  he  was  entirely  in  favour  of  what  was  known  as 
the  practical  man.  He  tried  to  make  it  clear  that  he 
considered  it  essential  for  all  students  to  have  a  good 
general  education,  equal  to  the  matriculation  examina¬ 
tion  of  London  University.  What  he  said  was  that 
he  did  not  believe  in  the  man  who  had  a  highly  scien¬ 
tific  education,  upon  which  he  relied  throughout  his 
career,  without  any  practical  knowledge.  Those  were 
the  points  he  wanted  to  emphasise.  Theoretical  know¬ 
ledge  was  sufficient  to  give  that  man  an  idea  of  what 
he  was  about  to  tackle,  but  it  should  be  supplemented 


July  27,  ,1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


81 


with  practical  knowledge  of  how  to  carry  that  theo¬ 
retical  knowledge  out. 

Mr.  Willis,  in  replying  on  the  discussion,  said  he 
was  very  pleased  to  hear  Mr.  Wakelam  qualify  his 
earlier  remarks.  Coming  from  a  past-president  they 
had  caused  him  some  surprise.  Mr.  Wakelam  might 
have  intended  to  say  what  he  had  now  said,  but  he 
must  bear  out  Mr.  Brodie  that  he  had  not  said  it. 

A  man  should  have  a  higher  degree  of  knowledge  than 
that  of  the  London  Matriculation  examination.  His 
own  daughter  passed  that  examination  at  sixteen 
years  of  age,  and  she  had  no  engineering  training  or 
knowledge  of  mathematics.  Mr,  Wakelam  had  quali¬ 
fied  that  a  good  deal.  If  a  man  had  passed  the  en¬ 
gineering  examination  of  one  of  the  Universities  he 
would  have  sufficient  knowledge  to  pass  in  theory, 
and  then. his  training  in  the  office  should  give  him 
knowledge  of  practice.  That  was  the  point  the  insti¬ 
tution  had  always  laid  down.  It  had  always  wanted 
to  help  the  practical  man.  In  the  last  examination 
the  lack  of  practical  knowledge  on  the  part  of  can¬ 
didates  was  bad.  The  ordinary  stock  bricks',  red 
bricks,  blue  bricks,  and  fire-bricks  were  put  together 
and  they  were  asked  for  a  definition.  Most  of  the 
candidates  who  failed  could  not  tell  them  what  a  fire¬ 
brick  was.  Was  a  man  who  could  not  do  this  fit,  to  be 
an  engineer  ?  A  piece  of  lead,  5-lb.  metal  sheet  lead, 
was  shown,  and  a  candidate  told  him  it  was  iron.  That 
candidate  did  not  pass.  Then  as  to  concrete.  He  had 
an  ordinary  piece  of  coke  breeze  concrete.  That  was 
laid  before  the  candidates.  One  of  them  lifted  it, 
tested  it,  and  said  it  was  a  piece  of  Bath  stone.  It 
was  black  to  start  with.  These  were  men  who  ought 
to  be  ploughed,  for  if  they  had  not  a  practical  know¬ 
ledge  of  the  work  they  ought  not  to  come  forward. 
Drawings  were  required  as  part  of  the  examination 
test.  He  agreed  with  Mr.  Collins  that  some  know¬ 
ledge  of  specifications  and  quantities  should  be  re¬ 
quired  of  candidates  for  the  testamur.  Mr.  Boulnors 
referred  to  the  private  examination  which  he  used  to 
hold  at  Liverpool.  They  could  not  always  hold  an 
examination.  Many  of  the  councils  liked  to  have  the 
appointment  of  the  assistants,  particularly  the  smaller 

VISIT  TO  YSTRADFELLTE  W/ 

A  very  interesting  meeting  of  the  South  Wales  Dis¬ 
trict  of  the  Institution  of  Municipal  and  County  Engi¬ 
neers  was  held  at  Ystradfellte  on  Saturday,  July  14th. 
‘The  journey  was  undertaken  by  train,  brake  and  foot, 
and  a  day  of  glorious  sunshine,  coupled  with  complete 
arrangements  made  by  the  hon.  district  secretary,  Mr. 
H.  Alex.  Clarke,  Briton  Ferry,  rendered  the  visit  to 
the  beautiful  valley  of  the  Dringarth  one  of  pleasant 
recollection.  The'  following  members  of  the  institu¬ 
tion  were  present:  Messrs.  D.  M.  Jenkins  (Neath), 
district  chairman,  D.  M.  Davies  (Neath  Rural),  C.  H. 
Priestley  (Cardiff),  T'hos.  H.  Harvey  (Merthyr), 
J.  Richard  Heath  (Swansea),  E.  W.  Edwards  (Pont- 
llanfraith),  Frank  Mansfield  (Abergavenny),  Dan  FI. 
Price  (Bedwellty),  T.  H.  Richards  (Caerphilly),  W.  P. 
Puddieombe  (Oystermouth),  W.  P.  Jones  (Glyncorrwg), 
W.  E.  Lowe  (Pontypridd),  E.  C.  Pole  (Cardiff),  G.  H. 
Collinson  (Swansea),  Fred.  Hatcher  (Portncawl),  and 
H..  Alex.  Clarke  (Briton  Ferry),  hon.  district  secre¬ 
tary.  There  were  also  three  visitors  from  Neath, 
Messrs.  E.  Chris.  Jones,  Ernest  J.  Rees,  and  J.  H. 
Culley. 

With  the  kind  permission  of  the  chairman  of  the 
Waterworks  Committee  of  the  Neath  Rural  District 
Council,  an  inspection  of  the  storage  reservoir  was 
made  on  arrival  in  the  Dringarth  Valley. 

Mr.  D,  M.  Davies  piloted  the  members  round,  ■ 
pointed  out  the  principal  items  of  interest,  and  ex¬ 
plained  technical  points. 

After  luncheon,  kindly  provided  by  Mr.  D.  M. 
Davies,  the  business  of  the  district  was  proceeded 
with,  Mr.  D.  M.  Jenkins  presiding. 

The  secretary  read  the  minutes  of  the  last  meeting, 
which  were  adopted. 

THE  LATE  MR.  WILLIAM  HARPUR. 

In  moving  a  vote  of  condolence  with  the  relatives 
of  the  late  Mr.  W.  Harpur,  ex-chairman  of  the  dis¬ 
trict,  the  Chairman  said  he  felt  that  they  "could  not 
let  that  opportunity  pass  without  paying  a  tribute  to 
his  memory.  Mr.  Harpur  was  particularly  interested 
in  the  proposed  visit  to  Ystradfellte,  and  when  he 
(the  chairman)  last  saw  him  at  his  home  he  expressed 
great  pleasure  that  the  visit  had  been  arranged;  but, 
he  said — and  it  was  very  pathetic  in  the  light  of  what 
had  since  happened — that  he  did  not  expect  to  be  well 
enough  to  attend  himkelf.  They  all  missed  his  genial 
presence  that  day,  and  they  would  miss  it  for  many 


councils.  He  quite  agreed  with  Mr.  Boulnois  as  to 
tact  and  common  sense.  He  thought  they  would  find 
he  had  emphasised  certain  points  of  that  character. 
Mr.  Wakelam  was  entirely  good  in  his  humorous  illus¬ 
trations.  He  and  Mr.  Cooper  had  differed  on  many 
occasions ;  on  this  occasion  they  agreed  on  many 
points.  He  thought  the  examiner  who  made  the  ob¬ 
servations  Mr.  Cooper  told  them  of  was  a  tactless 
examiner.  He  did  not  think  it  could  have  been  one 
of  their  examiners ;  it  must  have  been  another  Dublin 
University  examination.  Their  examiners  were  all 
gentlemen  with  tact  and  knowledge.  He  spoke  with 
a  little  knowledge  of  this  examination  question.  He 
had  taken  six  of  these  examinations.  He  did  not 
believe  in  them  as  a  sine  qua  non.  It  was  the  study  for 
them  that  was  valuable  to  the  student.  He  thought 
it  was  a  satisfactory  climax  for  the  student  who  had 
really  worked  to  prepare  himself  that  he  had  some¬ 
thing  to  show  for  it  beside  a  testimonial.  There  was 
an  observation  made  by  Mr.  Cooper  about  a  student 
being  qualified  but  not  passing  the  examination.  The 
examiners  did  not  want  to  see  only  50  per  cent  passed; 
they  wanted  to  see  every  candidate  passed.  He  was 
sure  every  examiner  wanted  to  help  the  younger  men 
in  his  profession.  He  was  quite  in  favour  of  organi¬ 
sation  being  included  in  the  examination.  He  thought 
they  were  very  fortunate  in  having  Mr.  Booth  and  Mr. 
Wilkinson  to  speak,  because  they  had  coached  a  lot 
of  men  for  the  examination;  he  would  not  say  cram¬ 
med,  because  he  thought  it  had  been  coaching  of  a 
very  practical  character.  He  had  not  the  pleasure  of 
seeing  the  president’s  address  before  it  was  read,  and 
he  could  assure  them  there  was  no  collusion  between 
the  president  and  himself  with  regard  to  theory  and 
practice.  The  happy  combination  of  the  two  was  the 
main  object  of  their  examination.  The  majority  of 
the  university  examinations,  even  the  Bachelor  of 
Science  examination,  were  theory  examinations  pure 
and  simple;  and  the  only  practical  examination  in 
this  country  was  that  of  this  institution.  At  present 
it  was  a  voluntary  examination,  but  he  did  say  the 
time  would  come,  as  he  had  already  said  in  the  paper, 
when  it  would  become  compulsory. 

rERWORKS,  SOUTH  WALES. 

a  day  to  come..  They  had  reason  to  deplore  his  loss, 
not  only  as  a  distinguished  member  of  the  profession, 
but  as  a  personal  friend.  He  was  always  willing  and 
ready  to  give  a  helping  hand.  Personally,  he  was 
deeply  indebted  to  him  for  his  numerous  acts  of  kind¬ 
ness.  It  was  quite  unnecessary  for  him  to  dilate  on 
his  many  and  excellent  qualities,  because  he  was  so 
well  known  to  them  all.  He  would  therefore  move 
that  they  record  an  expression  of  their  deep  sympathy 
with  the  widow  and  children  on  the  loss  sustained. 

Mr  C.  H.  Priestley  said  ‘that  as  a  colleague  of 
Mr.  Harpur’s  for  something  like  thirty-six  years  he 
felt  it  a  sad  duty  to  second  the  proposition.  They 
all,  he  was  sure,  deplored  his  loss.  He  was  a  friend 
—a.  personal  friend — to  nearly  every  member  present 
that  day.  During  the  whole  of  their  long  connection 
they  never  had  a  wrong  word,  and  his  staff  and 
officials  could  say  the  same. 

Mr.  T.  J.  Harvey  said  he  should  like  to  say  one 
word  in  support.  He  had  known  the  late  Mr. 
Harpur  for  thirty  years,  and  always  felt  the  greatest 
esteem  for  him.  His  illness  and  death  at  so  early 
an  age  was  pathetic. 

The  resolution  was  carried  in  silence. 


A  paper  descriptive  of  the  Ystradfellte  Waterworks 
was  afterwards  submitted  by  Mr.  D.  M.  Davies,  the 
engineer  to  the  Neath  Rural  District  Council,  and  will 
appear,  together  with  a  report  of  the  ensuing  discus¬ 
sion,  in  our  next  issue. 


Tottenham  War  Bonuses. — At  a  recent  meeting  of 
Tottenham  Urban  District  Council  it  was  decided 
that  war  bonuses  should  be  granted  to  all  employees 
of  the  council  oyer  twenty-one  years  of  age  who  had 
been  twelve  months  in  their  service.  Those  whose 
salary  does  not  exceed  £150  a  year  are  to  receive  10s. 
a  week  inclusive  of  any  previous  war  bonus  or  rise 
of  wages  granted  in  consequence  of  the  increased  cost 
of  living,  and  those  whose  salary  is  above  this  sum, 
but  less  than  £200,  are  to  receive  7s.  6d.  a  week 
subject  to  the  same  condition.  Employees  under 
twenty-one  years  of  age  are  to  receive  6s.  a  week,  and 
7s.  6d.  a  week  will  be  granted  to  part-time  employees. 
The  payment  of  all  war  bonuses  will  cease  three 
months  after  the  declaration  of  peace,  unless  other¬ 
wise  directed  by  the  council. 


82 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Water  Waste  Prevention  in  Cork, 

By  J.  F.  DELANY,  City  Engineer. 


[The  subjoined  particulars  relating  to  the  water  waste  prevention  work  accomplished  by  his 
department  are  extracted  -from  a  report  presented  by  Mr.  Delany  to  the  Cork  Corporation  Waterworks 
Committee.] 


The  summary  which  follows  shows  the  results  of  the 
work  of  the  new  inspection  staff  since  the  reorganisa¬ 
tion  of  this  section  of  the  Waterworks  Department 
took  place :  — 

Pipes  broken  under  ground,  1,384;  pipes  broken 
over  ground,  1,489 ;  broken  mains,  96 ;  various  defects, 
9,952.  New  fittings  erected — tanks,  1,081;  stop-cocks, 
979.  Total  number  of  defects,  14,980. 

The  items  worthy  of  note  in  this  record  are:  — 

(1)  The  repair  of  1,384  pipes,  which  were  discovered 
underground,  and  which  in  some  cases  must  have 
existed  undetected  for  many  years.. 

(2)  Defects  in  mains  to  the  number  of  ninety-six, 
which  accounted  for  a  considerable  amount  of  water 
wasted. 

(3)  The  abolition  of  close  on  1,100  obsolete  water 
wasting  tanks  and  the  substitution  of  new  ones,  which 
means  a  considerable  conservation  of  water.  While 
the  number  is  considerable,  a  good  deal  still  remains 
to  be  done  by  the  inspectors  in  this  direction. 

(4)  The  fixing  of  979  -  stop-cocks  is  an  important 
advance  in  the  facilitation  of  inspection  work. 

The  effects  of  these  results  may  be  summarfsed  as 
follows : — • 

A  reduction  in  coal  consumption,  from  close  on  2,000 
to  1,000  tons  per  annum. 

A  reduction  of  from  56  gallons  per  head  per  day 
to  37. 

The  gross  consumption  per  day  has  been  reduced 
from  a  little  over  5,000,000  gallons  to  close  on  3,000,000. 

The  flow  of  water  through  the  mains  at  night  shows 
a  decrease  from  123,000  gallons  per  hour  to  79,000,  or. 


Toms 

PER 

Annum 

Diagram  s»o^//vg  tpc  Dcomom/c  Effect  of 
Waste  Rjedl/ctioaT  Work  or/  Coal  CoKsl/mptto/V 
at  PUMF/rVG  Stat/oaJ 

Toms 

PER 

Annum 

Note  the  dotted  port  toy 

2DOO 

FORTHE  YEAR  /S/S-/6SPOT/S 

2000 

— 

r /it  Extra  Coal  used  (640)  o^r 
the  Normal,  o*//mg  to  the: 

— 

r - 

WaterRiwer  Plant  //a  Y/t/a 

— 

C 

been  stopped  pop  repairs. 

1.500 

The  Steam  Plant  pad  to  be 

1.500 

<«* _ 

£ 

§ 

VO 

XCEPT  //V  USE  TOR  A  LOPiGER 

PER/QO,  THUS  rtECESS/TAMUG 

GREATER  CoAt  CoPiSUM  Pr/Ort 

— 

1.000 

i  OOO 

— ' 

<0 

1 

:  - 

500 

O 

CM 

5 

N 

O 

V) 

8 

500 

s 

s 

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— 

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1906 

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1912 

TO 

1913 

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1914 

1914 

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1915 

I9J5 

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1916 

1916 

TO 

1917  | 

/ear 

1 

deducting  25,000,  the  quantity  used  for  trade  purposes 
from  98,000  to  45,000— a  saving  of  54  per  cent. 

Making  allowance  for  the  exceptional  conditions  of 
the  year  1915-16,  the  saving  in  coal  rounds  up  to  about 
1,000  tons,  which,  at  the  low  price  of  £1  per  ton, 
becomes  a  respectable  figure  in  business  economy. 

REDUCTION  IN  CONSUMPTION. 

Before  the  reform  work  w'as  begun  the  consumption 
had  reached  the  startling  figure  of  56  gallons  per  head 
per  day,  and  during  the  progress  of  the  work  it  was 
brought  down  on  a  few  occasions  to  32  gallons,  the 
lowest  consumption  ever  recorded,  the  average  taken 
for  the  year  1916,  just  completed,  being  37  gallons  per 
head  per  day. 

Again,  by  this  reduction  in  waste  the  requirements 


of  the  city  have  been  brought'  w'itliin  the  filtering 
capacity  of  the  filter  tunnel.  The  desideratum  had 
long  been  aimed  at  in  the  interests  of  public  health, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  the  prodigal  misuse  of  filtered 

water  had  run  the  daily  consumption  in  excess  of  the 

/ 


Gallows 

Prrttead 
JW  Day 

- 

Daily  Consumption  per  tfead. 

- 

60 

-  ..to 

JL 

iX. 

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L 

so 

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year 

yield  from  the  filter  tunnel,  thus  necessitating  the 
addition  of  a  small  percentage  of  unfiltered  water  to 
the  reservoirs.  This  unhygienic  policy  was  enforced 
by  the  citizens  themselves  by  their  neglect  of  the 


ordinary  dictates  of  domestic  economy  and  citizen¬ 
ship.  The  reduction  in  the  misuse  of  water  also  had 
the  further  very  desirable  improvement  of  increasing 
the  pressure  throughout  the  city. 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER 


83 


TOTAL  DAILY  CONSUMPTION. 

Turning  to  the  gross  consumption,  a  fairly  steady 
and  progressive  reduction  in  the  bulk  quantity  per 
day  is  shown  over  a  period  of  41  years. 

the  gross  total  reduction  amounts  to  nearly 
2,000,000  gallons  per  day  in  water  consumed,  misused 
or  wasted,  which  if  commercialised  at,  say,  one 
penny  per  1.000  gallons,  would  amount  to  considerably 
over  £2,000  per  annum. 

NIGHTLY  CONSUMPTION. 

The  true  index  of  the  waste  and  misuse  of  water  is, 
however,  recorded  by  the  meters  which  are  fixed  on 
the  service  mains  at  the  reservoirs,  and  through 
which  all  water  delivered  to  the  city  must  pass;  the 


quantity  which  is  recorded  during  the  night  hours  by 
these  meters  (less  25,000  gallons  per  hour  legitimately 
used  for  trade)  is  therefore  the  actual  waste.  In  1912 
the  waste  was  98,000  gallons  per  hour,  and  a  fairly 
steady  reduction  is  observable  during  the  four  sub¬ 
sequent  years  (the  period  of  reformation  and  progress) 
until  19i6  is  reached  with  a  waste  line  standing  at 
45,000  gallons  per  hour,  or  a  reduction  of  54  per  cent. 


Canadian  Roads.— A  Canadian  soldier  summoned  at 
a  London  police-court  last  week  for  exceeding  the 
speed  limit  said  he  did  not  know  there  was  a  speed 
limit.  The  Magistrate:  Is  there  no  speed  limit  in 
Canada  ?  Defendant:  There  is  no  road  in  Canada 
capable  of  speeding  on. 

Coal  Tar  Products. — With  reference  to  the  appeal 
recently  issued  by  the  Controller  of  Coal  Mines  to 
the  gas  industry  urging  the  substitution  of  water  gas 
for  coal  gas  to  the  greatest  practical  extent  with  a 
viewr  to  effecting  coal  economy,  certain  factors  have 
since  arisen  which  require  a  reversal  of  this  policy, 
and  with  a  view  to  securing  the  maximum  quantity  of 
coal  tar  products  the  Minister  of  Munitions  now 
-  urges  that  all  carbonising  plants  at  gasworks  be 
worked  to  the  fullest  extent  before  any  water  gas, 
carburetted  or  uncarburetted,  is  manufactured  at  all. 

Manchester  Cas  Department. — The  Manchester  Gas 
Committee  report  that  the  nett  profit  earned  last  year 
by  the  gas  undertaking  was  £93,780,  against  £141,234 
'  in  the  previous  year.  There  was  a  deficit  of  £34,009 
in  last  year’s  account.  This  had  to  be  met.  Then  the 
committee  have  been  asked  to  contribute  £50,000  in 
aid  of  the  city  rate,  and  the  sum  of  £61,047  is  needed 
for  sinking  fund  for  redemption  of  loan  debt.  As, 
therefore,  the  nett  profit  on  the  year’s  work  is  insuffi¬ 
cient  to  meet  these  claims,  the  committee  propose  to 
carry  forward  an  adverse  balance  of  £53,951.  Since 
the  business  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  corporation 
seventy-three  years  ago  the  department  has  given 
£3,317,174  in  aid  of  city  rates. 


THINGS  ONE  WOULD  LIKE  TO  KNOW. 


(  Contributed.) 

Is  it  not  very  satisfactory  to  find  in  the  Journal 
of  the  Engineering  Society  of  University  College, 
Cork,  that  road  construction  figures  somewhat 
largely  in  the  subjects  treated  ?  Ts  it  not  to  be  hoped 
tli is  is  a  “  sign  of  the  times,”  and  that  technical 
universities  throughout  the  kingdom  are  now  adding 
this  important  branch  of  engineering  to  their  curri¬ 
culum  ?  Will  not  Mr.  Boulnois’  recent  report  to  the 
Roads  Improvement  Association,  now  issued  as  a  six¬ 
penny  pamphlet,  show  that  considerable  engineering 
skill  is  required  in  some  forms  of  road  construction? 

*  #  •  # 

Why  is  it  that  many  ratepayers,  and  a  few  news¬ 
paper  correspondents,  look  upon  the.  “  town  sur¬ 
veyor  ”  as  the  “  vessel  ”  into  which  complaints  of 
every  kind  should  be  poured?  Was  it  not  amusing  to 
read  in  The  Surveyor  of  July  20tli  the  various  “  sug¬ 
gestions  ”  made  by  a  Mr.  Amos  Currey,  of  Swindon, 
to  the  borough  surveyor?  Was  not  this  official  to 
think  out  the  labour  problems  of  the  future,  to  recon¬ 
sider  an  estimate  of  £7  for  certain  fencing,  to  demand 
wider  streets,  and  so  forth,  including  the  making  of 
Swindon  into  “  a  real  paradise  ”  ?  Is  it  not  given  to 
mortals  to  command  success  ?  And  can  the  borough 
surveyor  make  Swindon  a  real  paradise,  including  the 
banishment  of  the  serpent  ? 

*  *  #  * 

What  was  the  reason  that  Dr.  Sidney  Barwise, 
medical  officer  of  health  for  the  county  of  Derbyshire, 
made  such  a  violent  attack  on  consulting  engineers 
the  other  day  in  concluding  his  presidential  address 
to  the  members  of  the  Association  of  Managers  of 
Sewage  Disposal  Works  ?  Why  also  should  Dr. 
Barwise  have  thought  fit  to  recommend  the  American 
system  of  combining  the  functions  of  engineer  and 
contractor  in  one  individual?  To  what  profession 
does  Dr.  Barwise  belong,  and  why  should  he  inter¬ 
fere  in  matters  that  cannot  concern  him  ?  Is  there 
not  a  wise  adage:  “  The  cobbler  should  stick  to  his 
last  ”  ?  Will  Dr.  Barwise  be  wise  enough  to  do  this? 

»  *  *  » 

With  reference  to  the  cost  of  construction  of  con¬ 
crete  roads,  is  it  not  interesting  to  see,  in  a„recent 
report  on  paving  work  in  various  cities  and  towns  of 
Ontario,  issued  by  the  Provincial  Department  of 
Public  Highways,  that  the  average  cost  per  square 
yard  of  roads  of  this  description  in  twelve  different 
localities  works  out  at  1  dollar  20  cents,  or,  say, 
4s.  10Jd.  English  money  ?  Should  not  this  be  some 
criterion  as  to  the  cost  of  such  roads  in  this  country, 
for  although  cement  may  be  cheaper  in  Canada  than 
here,  is  not  the  cost  of  labour  and  haulage  much 
higher  ? 

»  *  *  * 

Will  not  the  new  scheme  put  forward  by  the  Coal 
Controller,  limiting  the  area  in  which  coal  from  cer¬ 
tain  mining  districts  may  be  distributed,  go  far 
towards  relieving  the  present  strain  on  railway  trans¬ 
port  ?  Does  it  not  seem  to  be  a  rather  futile  waste 
of  energy  that  under  existing  conditions  a  coal  pit, 
say  in  Northumberland,  should  supply  coal  to  London 
when  there  are  pits  in  Yorkshire,  Derbyshire,  Leices¬ 
tershire  and  other  districts  much  nearer  to  London  ? 
Does  not  this  apply  all  over  the  United  Kingdom,  and 
will  not  the  new  Order,  which  comes  into  operation 
on  Sept.  10th,  greatly  assist  in  preventing  the  pre¬ 
sent  congestion  of  traffic  on  our  railways  ? 

*  *  #  # 

Is  not  the  article  in  The  Engineer  of  July  13th  on 
“  efficiency  ”  well  worthy  of  a  careful  study,  not  only 
by  engineers,  but  by  everyone  who  has  the  welfare  of 
our  country  at  heart?  Could  not  the  words,  “  To 
lessen  fatigue  by  the  right  application  of  effort  is  the 
end  to  be  sought  ;  add  to  this  reward  in  leisure,  and, 
provided  a  living  wage  is  paid,  efficiency  will  result,” 
with  which  the  article  concludes,  apply  with  equal 
force  to  all  “.labourers,”  whether  mental  or  physical? 
*  *  *  * 

Is  it  not  rather  a  novelty  to  find  from  the  Toronto 
Contract  Itecord  that  in  order  to  deaden  the  noise  from 
trucks  rumbling  over  a  concrete  floor  in  a  factory  a 
heavy  tar  paper  was  pasted  to  the  floor  by  paint  in  a 
careful  manner  ?  When  we  read  that  this  surface  not 
only  deadened  the  sound  of  the  trucks,  but  appeared 
to  improve  with  age,  does  it  not  strikp  one  that  if 
some  similar  description  of  tar  paper  could  be  applied 
as  a  covering  to  concrete  roads  it  might  go  far  to 
meet  some  of  the  objections  to  this  description  of 
road  surface  ? 


84 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Institute  of  Cleansing  Superintendents. 

ANNUAL  CONFERENCE  AT  NOTTINGHAM. 

[ Concluded  from  last  wceh.~\ 


Continuing  the  discussion  at  the  recent  annual 
conference  of  the  Institute  of  Cleansing  Superin¬ 
tendents  of  Mr.  J.  A.  Priestley’s  paper  on 

ELECTRIC  VEHICLES  AND  THEIR  USE  ON 
CLEANSING  WORK  AT  SHEFFIELD, 

Alderman  C.  C.  Elltott  (Newcastle)  said  that  lie 
had  had  twenty-five  years’  experience  of  haulage  with 
steam  and  petrol  wagons.  He  had  had  some  experience 
in  .working  out  the  cost  of  these  different  vehicles, 
but  he  could  not  very  well  go  into  that  without  laying 
down  the  figures  for  each  car  and  without  knowing 
exactly  the  circumstances  of  the  work  done.  He.  had 
experience,  too,  of  heavy  loads.  They  loaded  now 
about  twenty  tons,  and  it  was  carried  a  distance  of 
six  and  a-half  miles,  and  they  thought  that  with  a 
steam  wagon  they  carried  it  that  distance  at  a  cheaper 
cost,  though  on  the  shorter  distances  the  petrol 
wagon  was  a  little  cheaper.  He  did  not  care  how  the 
figures  worked  out,  but  there  was  nothing  to  chal¬ 
lenge  the  electric  vehicle  for  intermittent  work  and 
varied  loads,  and  the  house-to-house  deliveries  to  a 
distance  of  three  miles.  Take  an  electric  car  to  carry 
two  miles,  however,  and  they  would  find  that  a  petrol 
ear  worked  out  cheaper  than  the  electric.  They  were 
also  doing  short  work,  and  loading  about  a  mile  and 
a  half,  and  the  cost  of  the  horse  cart  compared  with 
the  petrol,  or  the  electric  or  the  steam  vehicle,  was 
higher.  But  he  did  not  think  that  they  could  lay 
down  a  general  law.  They  could  have  some  general 
idea  of  the  kind  of  cart  to  employ  to  do  the  work,  but 
for  long  distances  over  six  miles  they  could  not  beat 
the  steam  wagon  for  loads  of  five  tons  and  upwards. 
All  the  same,  the  horse  would  not  entirely  be  ruled 
out.  The  horse  would  always  have  its  place  in  the 
very  short  distances. 

Councillor  J.  Blackburn  (Leeds)  desired  to  express 
his  compliments  to  Alderman  Roberts  upon  his  con¬ 
version  and  upon  his  bold  expression  of  faith  in  elec¬ 
tric  and  petrol  vehicles.  He  remembered  him  holding 
forth  very  strongly — two  years  ago  he  thought  it  was 
— at  the  conference  in  London,  on  horses,  and  he  was 
glad  that  he  had  come  round  to  see  that  there  was 
something  else  beside  a  horse,  that  horses  were  pro¬ 
bably  better  for  some  things,  but  that  it  might  even 
be  wise  to  use  other  things.  There  was  only  one  point 
in  the  paper  that  he  was  going  to  raise,  and  Mr.  Priest¬ 
ley  himself  had  made  that  point  clear  when  he  re¬ 
ferred  to  the  three  miles  limit,  because,  after  all,  it 
was  all  a  question  of  distance  as  to  the  economic  value 
of  the  machines  that  they  were  considering.  He  did 
not  agree  altogether  with  Mr.  Priestley  as  to  the  dis¬ 
tance,  and  would  be  glad  if  he  could  have  some  infor¬ 
mation  as  to  the  cost  of.  loading  for  the  short  distance. 
Mr.  Greig  referred  to  the  Clydesdale  horse.  They  had 
some  Clydesdale  hor.ses  in  Leeds,  and  they  certainly 
did  not  get  75  per  cent  extra  out  of  them.  No  doubt 
Mr.  Greig  would  say  that  they  were  out  of  their 
element  in  Leeds,  and  that  might  be  the  explanation 
as  to  why  they  did  not  do  the  same  amount  of  work 
there.  He  would  like  to  have  some  light  thrown  on 
the  subject  as  to  the  value  they  got  out  of  the  horses 
in  different  cities  and  localities. 

Mr.  R.  Diggle  (Accrington)  complimented  Mr. 
Priestley  on  his  admirable  paper.  It  might  help  some 
of  the  gentlemen  present  to  know  that  in  Accrington 
they  had  had  one  of  these  vehicles  for  about  two 
months,  and  that  the  distance  they  had  to  carry  their 
stuff  was  within  a  radius  of  two  miles.  They  had  had 
to  suffer  in  their  little  town  some  adverse  criticism 
with  regard  to  the  electric  vehicle,  but  he  could 
assure  the  conference  that  the  electric  vehicle  had 
come  to  stay,  and  that  if  they  could  get  another 
they  would  have  one  next  week.  Unfortunately,  that 
was  out  of  the  question.  The  Government  had 
entirely  stopped  this  work,  and  they  would  have  to 
put  up  with  something  else.  This  vehicle  they  had 
was  bringing  in  about  20  loads  a  day.  It  had  had 
the  advantage  of  being  in  competition  with  the  horse, 
and  the  horse  had  been  doing  more  work  because  of 
the  competition.  They  had  reduced  the  cost  per  ton 
by  Is.,  and  when  the  report  was  read  to  his  com¬ 
mittee  they  were  quite  agreed  that  it  was  time  to 
get  another  one.  Besides  that  they  had  a  system  of 
bonuses  which  they  paid  to  the  men.  The  men  had 


been  earning  more  money  and  were  quite  satisfied, 
so  that  he  thought  it  would  help  the  gentlemen 
present  to  know  that  in  the  short  distances  the  elec¬ 
tric  vehicle  would  compete  very  favourably  with  the 
horse." 

Mr.  T.  Stake  (iStoke-on-Trent)  having  congratu¬ 
lated  the  president,  said  that  he  had  come  to  learn 
something  about  electric  vehicles.  They  had  not  got 
one  at  Stoke,  and  he  was  not  yet  convinced  that  they 
were  suitable  for  that  district.  They  had  hundreds 
of  houses  built  on  a  system  which  gave  thenu.8, 

10,  and  in  some  cases  12  ft.  back-yards,  and  he  did 
not  think  they  would  be  any  use  for  mechanical 
vehicles,  but  perhaps  Mr.  Priestley  would  kindly 
help  them  to  solve  the  problem.  As  they  all  knew, 
electricity  was  fluid,  and  apt  to  run  away,  and  he 
wanted  to  know  whether  “there  was  any  danger  of 
losing  fluid  while  the  vehicle  was  at  work,  and  also 
if  in  the  actual  working  of  the  vehicles  the  re  was 
any  time  lost.  Through  the  kindness  of  the  presi¬ 
dent,  he  had  the  opportunity  of  seeing  a  three-tonner 
and  a  two-tonner  on  the  previous  afternoon,  and  he 
was  very  pleased  with  the  ease  with  which  the 
thing  was  manipulated;  but  there  were  -just  one  or 
two  casual  observations  he  would  submit.  He 
thought  that  the  body  was  built  far  too  heavy  to 
carry  two  tons  of  house  refuse.  He  thought  that 
these  bodies  would  be  quite  capable  of  carrying 
anything  from  five  to  seven  tons  of  any  kind  of 
material.  There  was  another  point  that  lie  did  not 
think  was  referred  to  in  the  paper,  and  that  was 
what  provisions  were  required  for  the  repairs  of 
parts  and  the  bearings,  and  he  would  also  like  to 
know  how  the  vehicles  travelled  on  difficult  or  soft 
roads. 

Mr.  G.  W.  Laskey  (Eccles)  said  that  it  was  a  great 
pleasure  to  see  installed  in  the  chair  a  very  old  friend 
and  colleague  of  his,  who  occupied  some  time  ago  a 
similar  position  to  that  which  lie-  himself  now  held. 
He  had  known  Mr.  Terry  for  twenty-five  years,  and 
was  sure  that  the  presidency  would  be  in  good  hands, 
and  that  at  the  end  of  the  year  they  would  have  no 
cause  to  feel  that  they  had  placed  the  wrong  man  in 
that  position.  He  also  wanted  to  compliment  another 
old  colleague  in  Mr.  Priestley.  These  two  colleagues 
had  come  well  to  the  front,  and  having  seen  and 
heard  them  both  the  conference  would  agree  that 
their  position  was  thoroughly  well  deserved  and  due 
to  their  own  merits.  (Hear,  hear.)  He  was  somewhat 
disappointed,  not  by  reason  of  the  paper,  but  with 
the  discussion.  His  town  was  a  small  town  of  some¬ 
thing  like  2,050  acres,  a  pretty  compact  town,  with  a 
destructor  at  one  end,  and  probably  its  distance  from 
the  opposite  end  was  roughly  about  two  miles.  He 
wanted  to  get  to  know  as  to  whether  the  adoption 
of  the  electric  system  of  collection  would  be  useful 
to  such  a  small  town.  The  only  information  hitherto 
had  been  furnished  by  his  friend  Mr.  Diggle,  of 
Accrington.  Of  course,  he  was  not  blaming  Mr. 
Priestley,  but  he  thought  that,  they  would  have  had 
some  information  as  to  what  the  experience  of  small 
towns  had  been,  because  many  small  towns  were 
represented.  In  his  own  town  they  had  so  far  had  no 
difficulty  with  regard  to  their  horses.  The  War 
Office  came  along  and  took  about  twenty,  but  that 
did  not  bother  them  very  much,  because  they  were 
able  to  get  others;  but  suppose  the  War_Office  took 
more,  and  they  were  left  with  very  few?  It  had 
been  suggested  that  they  should  try  electric  vehicles, 
but  they  would  like  to  have  the  experience  of  some 
town  similar  to  their  own.  There  was,  for  example, 
the  question  of  short  journey  work,  as  to  whether 
there  was  much  delay  in  the  house-to-house  collec¬ 
tion,  and  he  wanted  to  get  to  know  how  the  electric 
vehicle,  or  the  petrol-driven  vehicle,  would  compare  , 
with  a  horse  in  stopping  and  starting,  having  regard 
to  the  comparatively  short  distance  they  would  have 
to  travel  in  a  town  like  this. 

Mr.  W.  H.  Eccles  (Stockport)  added  his  tribute 
of  praise  to  the  paper.  He  was  not  able  to  say  that, 
they  had  advanced  very  far  yet  in  Stockport.  The 
impression  that  they  had  always  had  up  to  now  about 
electric  vehicles  was  not  very  favourable,  but,  like 
Alderman  Roberts,  if  they  had  many  more  papers  like 
Mr.  Priestley’s  they  would  be  converted.  (Hear,  hear, 
and  laughter.)  He  was  impressed  with  the  state- 


July  27,  1017. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


85 


meat  in  which  Mr.  Priestley  told  them  of  the  ten 
years’  life  of  the  batteries  and  the  eight  years’ 
guarantee.  He  only  hoped  that  that  might  prove 
correct,  because  it  might  induce  his  authority  to  buy 
one,  but  where  you  had  a  horsey  chairman  and  vice- 
chairman,  and  several  members  on  the  committee 
were  horsey  men,  it  was  very  difficult  to  persuade 
them  that  mechanically-driven  vehicles  were  prefer¬ 
able.  He  was,  however,  grateful  to  Mr.  Priestley 
for  his  paper,  which  would  enable  him  to  take  some¬ 
thing  back  to  his  committee  that  would,  perhaps,  be 
the  means  of  following  the  example  of  a  little  place 
like  Accrington.  (Laughter.) 

Mr.  F.  A.  Dowse  (Hackney)  would  like  to  know 
Mr.  Priestley’s  experience  of  the  tyres.  What  did  he 
think  the  life  of  the  tyres  on  these  vehicles  was?  He 
was  much  surprised  to  find,  too,  that  three  labourers 
accompanied  the  vehicle  to  the  tip.  It  did  seem 
to  him  to  be  a  terrible  waste.  It  would,  also  help 
them  to  know  exactly  what  work  these  vehicles  were 
engaged  upon  from  those  who  were  working  them. 
They  were  told  that  the  vehicles  disposed  of  nine 
loads  a  day,  and  he  would  be  glad  to  know  what 
work  they  were  doing — surely  not  picking  up  rough 
stuff,  nor  the  collecting  house  refuse.  A  good  deal 
must  depend  upon  the  type  of  stuff  they  collected 
and  the  quality^ of  the  roads.  How  did  they  manage 
on  narrow  roads  where  there  was  no  room  to  turn 
round? 

Mr.  H.  F.  Wtgfield  (Leicester)  said  that  in  Mr. 
Priestley’s  illustration  of  the  loading  both  the 
vehicles  appeared  to  be  very  high.  Could  he  give 
them  an  idea  as  to  the  exact  height? 

Mr.  Nuttall  (Stretford)  said  that  his  committee 
had  for  some  time  been  considering  this  question  of 
mechanical  propulsion,  and  he  had  already  sub¬ 
mitted  a  report  to  them  which  was  very  comprehen¬ 
sive.  _jHe  took  the  opinion  of  a  large  number  of 
authorities,  and  in  a  very  few  words  one  councillor 
put  his  foot  on  the  whole  thing.  He  said:  “  Mr. 
Chairman,  this  is  an  excellent  report  on  the  utility 
of  mechanical  propulsion.  He  says  there  are  three 
things  on  the  market,  electric,  petrol,  and  steam, 
but  he  tells  us  very  little  about  them.”  The  fact 
was  that  he  could  not  tell  them  because  he  had  not 
the  necessary  information.  He  sent  round  to  about 
twenty-five  different  places  for  it,  but  without  result. 
If  there  were  any  gentlemen  present  who  would  give 
him  any  information  as  to  the  cost  of  collection  by 
petrol  and  steam — he  did  not  particularly  want  to 
know  about  electrics,  Mr.  Priestley  had  given  them 
that — he  would  be  very  grateful.  He  would  also  like 
to  know  whether  Mr.  Priestley  included  establish¬ 
ment  charges  in  his  cost  per  ton,  and  why  he  did  _ 
not  include  the  getting-out  charges. 

Mr.  H.  Hopkinson  (Portsmouth)  said  that  if  Mr. 
Wigsfield  would  come  down  to  Portsmouth  he  would 
have  the  experience  of  witnessing  the  work  done 
there.  Some  gentlemen  had  paid  him  a  visit,  and 
went  away  fully  satisfied  with  what  they  saw,  and 
he  dared  say  if  he  had  told  them  what  was  being 
done,  and  they  had  not  seen  it,  they  would  not  have 
believed  him.  He  had  not  the  slightest  doubt  about 
the  accuracy  of  Mr.  Priestley’s  figures.  He  foresaw 
a  big  extension  of  this  business,  and  although,  like 
Alderman  Roberts,  he  was  a  horsey  man,  and  had  many 
horsey  men  on  the  committee,  they  had  changed  their 
policy.  Undoubtedly  the  outlines  of  the  scheme 
sent  them  by  Mr.  Priestley  must  have  had  some 
weight  for  them  to  make  a  start,  and  the  ultimate 
result  was  that  they  had  got  almost  carle  blanche 
now.  They  could  bring  as  many  as  they  wanted  or 
could  get,  and  his  committee  were  perfectly  satisfied 
that  they  had  beaten  the  horse  off  the  face  of  the 
earth  as  regarded  collection  of  refuse. 

Alderman  Elliott  (Middlesbrough)  moved  a  vote  of 
thanks  to  Mr.  Priestley  for  his  paper.  They  had  had 
a  very  full  and  interesting  discussion,  and  it  was 
clear  that  Mr.  Priestley  was  going  to-be  one  of  their 
most  progressive  spirits. 

Councillor  Gibson  (Nelson)  seconded,  and  the  vote 
was  unanimously  agreed  to. 

Mr.  Priestley,  in  reply,  said  that  they  would  all 
have  been  disappointed  if  they  had  mot  heard  Aider- 
man  Roberts  bear  tribute  to  his  friend  the  horse. 
They  knew  his  feelings  in  that  direction,  and  matters 
were  progressing  very  favourably  for  the  mechani¬ 
cally-propelled  vehicles,  when  Alderman  Roberts 
began  to  waver  in  the  slightest  degree  from  his  old 
allegiance.  Something  had  been  said  about  waste, 
and  it  was,  of  course,  obvious  that  if  you  were  wast¬ 
ing  time  over  an  expensive  vehicle  you  did  not 
get  the  best  results  from  it.  With  regard  to  the 


question  of  the  cost  of  bringing  in  a  motor  when  it 
broke  down  with  a  load,  he  had  had  a  good  deal 
of  experience,  and  he  considered  that  it  formed 
an  infinitesimal  proportion  of  the  cost..  He  had  also 
known  a  number  of  cases  where  the  horses  had  been 
standing  off,  suffering  from  colic  or  something  of  that 
sort.  (Laughter.)  Mr.  Greig  made  several  criticisms, 
and  one  point  that  he  made  in  particular  was  with 
regard  to  the  fact  that  the  loaders  accompanied  the 
vehicle  to  the  tip.  He  (Mr.  Priestley)  would  be  the 
last  person  in  the  world  to  suggest  that  that  was  an 
ideal  arrangement.  He  did  not  know  whether  Mr. 
Greig  knew  anything  about  the  British  workman. 
Those  who  did  know  him  knew  what  would  be  the 
result  of  attempting  to  show  him,  particularly  in  war 
time,  that  it  was  his  duty  to  work  every  available 
hour  of  the  day.  (daughter.)  There  was  another 
disadvantage  with  reference  to  two  vehicles  being- 
loaded  by  one  gang,  and  he  could  only  admire  the 
shrewdness  which  Mr.  Greig  had  brought  to  bear 
upon  the  organisation  of  his  department.  If  lie  could 
always  arrange  that  the  vehicle  always  arrived  back 
at  the  very  moment  when  the  loaders  were  ready  to 
load  it,  he  was  fortunate.  His  own  opinion  with 
regard  to  that  was  that  sometimes  there  had  been  a 
delay  of  forty-five  minutes  before  the  vehicle  got 
back  from  the  tip.  Mr.  Greig  had  spoken  of  the 
superlative  value  of  the  Clydesdale  horse.  These 
were,  matters  that  they  expected — (laughter) — and 
they  would  be  disappointed  if  they  were  not  raised, 
but  the  suggestion  had  been  made  that  they  got 
more  work  out  of  a  Clydesdale  horse.  Perhaps  they 
put  something-  strong  in  the  food,  and  perhaps 
whiskey  accounted  for  it.  (Laughter.)  He  was 
delighted  with  one  admission  that  Mr.  Greig  had 
made.  It  was  the  first  time  that  he  had  heard 
tell  of  an  English  municipality  being  more  wide- 
-  awake  than  a  Scotch,  and  to  know  that  he  had  got 
four  years  more  guarantee  on  his  battery  than  Mr. 
Greig  had  been  able  to  get  for  his,  delighted  him. 
He  finished  up  his  remarks,  however,  by  saying 
that  they  could  do  the  work  with  electrics  4d.  per 
ton  cheaper  than  with  a  horse,  arid  that  expressed 
his  real  views.  One  or  two  references  had  been  made 
to  the  question  of  the  three-mile  limit.  He  was 
referring  to  the  conditions  which  obtained  in  Shef¬ 
field  in  the  collection  of  bin  refuse,  and  he  did  not 
want  anybody  to  go  away  with  the  idea  that  that 
applied  in  collection  of  refuse  from  houses  by  electric 
vehicles  under  any  other  conditions  than  their  own, 
because  their  experience  was  that  they  loaded  and 
got  away  rapidly — that  was  where  tlfe  refuse  was 
already  out  in  the  street — and  the  figures  for  loading- 
showed  that  the  electric  could  beat  the  horse 
at  any  distance.  And  that  circumstance  explained 
the  reason  why  with  the  machine  in  the  work  of 
collecting  the  refuse  they  did  the  work  more  cheaply 
at  a  short  distance  than  with  the  horse.  The  matter 
depended  entirely  upon'  the  class  of  work  and  the 
time  that  was  taken  up  in  the  loading.  Mr.  Stake 
asked  him  a  number  of  questions,  one  about  the  lime 
lost  in  charging.  No  time  was  lost.  The  vehicles 
were  charged  in  the  depot  at  night  between  the  day 
and  the  night  service,  and  when  they  came  in  for 
meal  times,  either  during  the  night  or  during  the 
day  if  necessary.  There  was  no  loss  of  electricity 
when  the  vehicle  was  at  work,  and  they  had  had  no 
trouble  with  reference  to  short  circuiting.  He  did 
not  agree  that  the  weight  of  the  body  was  in  excess 
of  what  was  required,  because  these  vehicles  had  a 
special  body,  which  was  limited  by  the  strength  of 
the  chassis  and  the  springs.  They  had  not  had 
any  experience  that  he  was  able  to-  give  with 
regard  to  the  return  loads,  which  would  simplify 
matters  considerably,  but  they  could  only  be 
obtained  in  very  abnormal  circumstances.  His 
figures  were  based  on  where  the  load  was  carried 
in  one  journey  only.  With  regard  to  clinker 
removal,  he  wished  to  explain  on  the  figures 
331  tons  or  339  ton  miles,  that  he  believed  each 
travel  was  very  much  less  than  three  miles,  but  it 
was  cheaper.  Very  few  small  towns  had  found 

themselves  in  a  position  to  test  this  method  of  col¬ 
lection,  but  this  experience  would  now  be  available 
for  them.  Mr.  Dowse  asked  as  to  the  tyre  wear. 
That  depended  on  the  conditions  of  the  district. 
Their  tyre  wear  was  very  much  in  excess  of  the  tyre 
wear  in  Nottingham.  Mr.  Terry  had  had  his  vehicles 
at  work  since  October,  1915,  and  had  only  recently 
renewed.  In  Sheffield  they  had  renewed  more  than 
once,  but  they  had  an  arrangement  with  the  tyre 
manufacturers  to  work  them  on  bare  maintenance 
cost,  and  the  prices  that  were  given  per  mile 
were  what  they  were  paying  for  the  maintenance  of 


86 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND^MUNICIPAL  July  27,  1917. 


their  tyres.  Mr.  Wigfield  asked  with  reference  to 
the  loading,  and  his  question  showed  the  necessity 
of  his  apology -for  the  poorness  of  the  blocks,  which 
did  not  accurately  represent  the  process,  though  the 
originals  were  all  right.  Mr.  Nuttail  had  asked 
about  the  establishment  charges.  He  had  not  in¬ 
cluded  them,  because  they  were  the  same  both  in 
reference  to  horsed  and  electric  vehicles.  As  to  the 
steam  vehicle;  he  once  had  one,  but  some  part  of  the 
mechanical  construction  was  wrong,  and  his  faith 
in  steam  wagons  suffered  a  severe  shock. 

This  closed  1  lie  business  of  the  conference. 

LUNCHEON. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  morning’s  proceedings 
the  delegates  adjourned  to  the  Welbeck  Hotel,  where 
they  were  entertained  to  luncheon  by  Councillor 
Harry  Spray,  the  chairman  of  the  Nottingham 
Health  Committee,  who  was  supported  by  the  Mayor, 
the  Sheriff,  the  Town  Clerk,  the  Deputy  Town  Clerk, 
the  Clerk  of  the  Peace,  Councillors  E.  Kidd,  Dr.  A. 
Fulton,  H.  Offiler,  E.  Id.  Goddard,  and  W.  A.  Young. 

Only  two  toasts  were  submitted. 

The  Chairman  said  that  the  Mayor  had  already 
given  them  an  official  welcome,  and  he  had  to  wel¬ 
come  them  on  behalf  of  the  Health  Committee. 
When  Alderman  Cook  a  year  ago  extended  an  invi¬ 
tation  to  the  institute  to  hold  its  conference  in  Not¬ 
tingham  they  all  hoped  that  the  war  would  be  over. 
He  was  afraid  it  was  not  half  over,  but  all  the  same 
he  hoped  that  it  would  be  concluded  before  next 
year,  when  they  hoped  to  have  an  opportunity  of 
welcoming  them  again.  He  could  assure  them  that 
they  would  give  them  a  right  royal  reception.  -The 
Health  Committee  appreciated  the  work  which  the 
institute  was  doing.  They  knew  the  difficulties  that 
had  to  be  surmounted  in  the  disposal  of  refuse,  and 
to  perfect  the  sanitation  of  our  towns  and  cities. 
These  questions  concerning  the  health  of  the  nation 
were  of  vital  importance.  The  only  thing  that  cor¬ 
porations  could  do  to  solve  the  problem — and  they 
would  do  it  in  Nottingham  as  soon  as  they  got  the 
chance — was  to  seek  powers  to  clear  away  all  the 
rookeries  and  slums.  They  in  Nottingham  would 
want  half  a  million  of  money  to  clear  out,  lock,  stock, 
and  barrel,  the  slummer  and  the  slum.  He  was 
sorry  that  the  corporation  had  no  lethal  chamber  in 
which  they  could  put  certain  folk.  He  would  put  a 
hundred  of  them  in  every  day,  and  they  certainly 
deserved  it. 

Councillor  Dr.  A.  Fulton,  in  a  humorous  speech, 
proposed  success  to  the  institute.  He  thought  it 
an  excellent  thing  that  superintendents  of  cleansing 
departments,  alike  of  great  cities  a-nd  of  small 
districts,  should  have  an  organisation  which  had 
accomplished  such  excellent  work  in  improving  the 
-status  of  their  profession,  and  lie  wished  them  every 
success. 

The  Presibent,  in  reply,  said  he  hoped  that  they 
would  continue  to  justify  wdiat  had  been  said  of 
them.  The  institute  existed  for  the  purpose  of 
improving  the  status  of  its  members,  and  it  fol¬ 
lowed  that  the  public  health  must  benefit  as  well. 
It  was  in  no  sense  a  trade  union,  and  salaries  were 
not  discussed.  They  had  at  times  to  discuss  the 
positions  in  which  thy  were  placed  and  the  diffi¬ 
culties  they  had  to  confront.  There  was  no  getting 
away  from  the  fact  that  certain  institutions  were 
trying  their  best  to  do  away  with  the  position  of  the 
cleansing  superintendent  as  an  individual  officer, 
and  they  trusted,  not  only  for  their  own  sakes,  but 
for  the  sake  of  the  health  of  the  cities  and  towns  of 
the  country  generally,  that  those  efforts  would  not  be 
successful. 

Alderman  Roberts  proposed  the  health  of  the 
chairman,  and  said  that- if  he  did  his  work  as 
chairman  of  the  health  committee  as  well  as  he  had 
done  the  luncheon  Nottingham  was  to  be  congratu¬ 
lated. 

Councilor  Spray  responded. 

Afterwards  the  annual  meeting  of  the  institution 
was  held,  and  the  delegates  visited  the  Eastcroft 
works  of  the  corporation,  and  were  entertained  to 
light  refreshments  by  the  president. 


Change  of  Address. — The  Government  having  taken 
over  for  the  duration  of  the  war  the  use  of  the  offices 
of  Messrs.  Brookes,  Limited,  in  Caxton  House,  tem¬ 
porary  accommodation  has  been  found  for  the  firm 
and  their  branches  at  65  Victoria-street,  Westminster. 
S.W.  1.  The  company’s,  telephone  number  will 
remain  the  same  as  hitherto,  namely :  Victoria  4622 
(two  lines). 


WAR  BONUSES. 


LIVERPOOL  CORPORATION'S  NEW  SCHEME. 

At  their  meeting  on  Wednesday  the  Liverpool  Cor¬ 
poration  approved  of  a  new  war  bonus  scheme 
for  corporation  officers  and  servants.  At  the  begin¬ 
ning  of  January  last  the  council  adopted  a  bonus 
scheme  to  remain  in  operation  for  six  months.  This 
period  expired  in  the  early  days  of  July.  At  the 
last  meeting  of  the  council  it  was  decided  to  con¬ 
tinue  the  scheme — with  minor  alterations — until  the 
next  council  meeting,  by  which  time  it  was  intended 
to  formulate  a  new  scale  of  bonuses  on  a  basis  com¬ 
mensurate  with  the  increase  in  the  cost  of  food  which 
has  taken  place  since  January  last. 

Subjoined  is  the  text  of  the  new  scheme: 

Salary  or  Wages.  Men.  Women. 


Up  to  10s 

per 

week 

8. 

.  .  3 

d. 

0 

s. 

3 

d. 

0 

Over  10s. 

and 

up  to 

11s. 

per  week 

.  .  3 

6  .  . 

3 

6 

Over  11s. 

' 

12s. 

.  .  4 

0  .  . 

3 

6 

Over  l‘2s. 

}> 

13s. 

.  .  4 

6  .  . 

4 

0 

Over  13s. 

14s. 

.  .  5 

0  .  . 

4 

0 

Over  14s. 

15s. 

5 

6  .  . 

4 

6 

Over  13s. 

16s. 

.  6 

0  .  . 

4 

6 

Over  16s. 

17s. 

.  .  6 

6  .  . 

5 

0 

Over  17s. 

18s. 

.  .  7 

0  .  . 

5 

0 

Over  18s. 

19s. 

.  .  7 

6  . . 

5 

6 

Over  19s. 

20s. 

.  .  8 

0  . . 

5 

6 

Over  20s. 

21s. 

' 

.  .  8 

6  .  . 

6 

0 

Over  21s. 

.  ' 

22s. 

. .  9 

0  .  . 

6 

0 

Over  22s. 

23s. 

.  .  9 

6  *. 

6 

6 

Over  23s. 

under 

24s. 

.  .  10 

0  .  . 

6 

6 

Over  24s. 

and 

25s. 

..10 

6  .  . 

7 

0 

25s 

and 

up  to 

80s. 

' 

.  .  12 

0  . . 

7 

6 

Over  80s.  per 
annum 

week 

and 

up  to 

£400 

per 

. .  15  p.c.  . . 

15  p.c. 

Subject  to  the  following  conditions:  Salary  or  wages 
and  bonus  together  not  to  exceed  £400  per  annum. 

Married  women  where  the  husband  and  wife  are 
not  dependent  on  the  wife’s  earnings.  Salary  or  wages 
and  bonus  together  not.  to  exceed  £140  per .  annum 
(unless  Finance  Committee  consider  that  in  any  par¬ 
ticular  case  where  there  are  dependents  hardship 
would  result  by  this  limitation). 

Bonus  is  to  be  caleidated  on  the  ordinary  salary 
or  wages  only,  without  reference  to  emoluments,  over¬ 
time,  evening  school  salaries,  fees,  &c. 

No  bonus  is  to  be  payable  in  the  following  cases: 
Certain  workmen,  men  serving  with  H.M.  Forces, 
employees  granted  leave  .of  absence  to  enable  them 
to  undertake  war  work,  employees  who  receive  board 
or  board  and  lodgings,  employees  who  ar6  receiving 
or  who  may  receive  war  pay  under  any  agreement 
or  award  equal  to  or  greater  than  the  bonus. 

These  scales  of  bonus  only  to  apply  to  full-time 
employees,  whether  permanent  or  temporary,  but  in 
the  case  of  certain  women  the  bonus  shall  be  paid 
in  accordance  with  the  above  scale  in  proportion  to 
the  number  of  hours  worked  on  a  basis  of  forty-eight 
hours  per  week. 

Bonus  not  to  rank  for  superannuation. 

No  employee  to  receive  a  smaller  sum  than  he 
at  present  receives. 


Public  Works  Loan  Board. — During  the  century  of 

its  existence,  completed  in  March  last,  the  Public 
Works  Loan  Board  have  advanced  loans  amounting  to 
£143,958,125. 

London  Electric  Power  Supply — Asked  whether  he 
had  received  any  resolutions  from  London  municipal 
authorities  owning  electric  power  supply  under¬ 
takings  asking  for  representation  on  the  departmental 
committee  on  electric  power  supply,  and  whether  he 
proposed  to  appoint  any  representatives  on  the  com¬ 
mittee  to  represent  these  authorities,  the  President 
of  the  Board  of  Trade  stated  in  the  House  of 
Commons  that  he  was  of  opinion  that  the  committee 
as  at  present  constituted  was  sufficiently  representa¬ 
tive  of  all  bodies  owning  electricity  undertakings,  and 
he  was  not  prepared  to  make  any  further  additions 
to  it. 

Future  Water  Supply  of  the  Metropolis.— A  scheme 
for  augmenting  the  supply  to  London  north  of  the 
Thames  was  prepared  by  the  Metropolitan  Water 
Board’s  late  chief  engineer  (Mr.  W.  B.  Bryan)  in 
connection  with  the  Littleton  reservoir,  and  received 
the  approval  of  the  board.  For  various  reasons  the 
commencement  of  the  work,  except  as  to  Littleton 
reservoir,  has  had  to  be  postponed,  and  the  time  thus 
afforded  for  further  consideration  of  the  matter  has 
led  the  present  chief  engineer  (Mr.  J.  W.  Restler)  to 
the  conclusion  that  the  board  should  be  asked  to 
consider  certain  respects  in  which  Mr.  Bryan’s 
scheme  might  be  modified.  To  enable  the  matter  to 
be  placed  properly  before  the  board  a  number  of  plans 
and  surveys  will  be  required,  and  an  expenditure 
of  £1,000  in  respect  of  these  has  been  agreed  upon. 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


87 


The  Activated  Sludge  Process  of  Sewage  Disposal. 

THE  WORCESTER  EXPERIMENTS:  REPLIES  TO  QUESTIONS. 


[Mr.  T.  Caink,  the  city  engineer,  has  prepared  the  following  reply  to  the  questions  raised  by  those 
who  took  part  in  the  discussion  of  his  paper  dealing  with  the  Worcester  Activated  Sludge  Experiments, 
which  he  presented  at  the  recent  summer  meeting  of  the  Association  of  Managers  of  Sewage  Disposal 
Works,  and  which  was  reproduced  in  our  issue  of  last  week.] 


Mr.  Ardern  lias  expressed  the  view  that  with  the 
capacity  of  the  plant  installed  here  efficient  purifica¬ 
tion  might  be  attained  with  double  the  rate  of  flow 
that  has  been  employed  during  the  experiment.  From 
my  observations  of  the  working  of  the  plant,  1  think, 
so  far  as  the  aeration  is  concerned,  that  expectation 
is  not  at  all  unlikely  to  be  realised,  but  the  rate  of 
flow  with  the  plant,  as  it  is  constructed,  is  limited  by 
the  capacity  of  the  settling  tank,  and  material  in¬ 
crease  of  speed  through  this  portion  of  the  scheme 
resulting  in  the  carrying  away  of  too  much  suspended 
matter. 

TRADE  WASTE. 

In  reply  to  Mr.  Haworth’s  question  as  to  the  pro¬ 
portion  of  trade  wastes  in  the  Worcester  sewage,  the 
water  supply  for  trade  purposes  is  about  one-fifth  of 
the  total.  The  character  of  the  waste  liquids  will  be 
gathered  from  the  list  of  manufactures  given  in-  the 
paper. 


With  regard  to  the  variation  in  the  quantity  of  air 
required  for  treating  sewages  of  varying  strengths,  the 
aeration  tank  in  use,  as  designed,  does  not  lend  itself 
to  investigation  of  that  kind,  for  the  reason  that,  after 
the  sewage  has  passed  the  first  longitudinal  bay,  it  is 
immediately  driven  forward  into  a  horizontal  circula¬ 
tion.  where  it  gets  mixed  with  sewage  which  may  have 
been  under  aeration  any  length  of  time,  from  a  few 
minutes  to  several  hours,  so  that  weak  and  strong 
sewages  get  completely  mixed,  eventually  passing  to¬ 
gether  into  the  settling  tank.  It  was  this,  among 
other  considerations,  that  led  me  to  adopt  the  spiral 
motion  of  the  liquid  in  its  passage  through  the  aera¬ 
tion  tank.  With  this  movement  a  sample  of  the 
liquid  may  be  taken  at  any  moment  out  of  the  un¬ 
roofed  bays  in  the  new  design,  at  any  point,  the  dis¬ 
tance  of  which  from  the  inlet  end,  combined  with  the 
rate  of  flow,  accurately  determines  the  period  of  aera¬ 
tion  which  has  been  given  to  it. 


QUANTITY  OF  SLUDGE. 

With  reference  to  the  quantity  of  sludge  removed 
for  disposal  per  million  gallons  treated,  I  will  take 
an  early  opportunity  of  making  some  observation  for 
the  purpose  of  ascertaining  this,  which  up  to  the  pre¬ 
sent,  through  pressure  of  work,  I  have  been  unable  to 
do. 

The  proportion  of  sludge  to  the  total  volume  in  the 
tank  has  varied  at  different  times  from  10  per  cent  to 
25  per  cent  at  one  hour’s  settlement,  but  the  lack  of 
continuity  of  the  running  during  the  period  of  trial 
has  not  permitted  sufficient  observations  to  determine 
what  seems  the  most  effective  proportion  in  this  case. 


CAPITAL  AND  RUNNING  CHARGES  OF  NEW  PLANT. 

Mr.  Haworth  asked  as  to  the  capital  and  running 
charges  of  an  entirely  new  plant. 

The  following  is  what  I  regard  a,s  a  fair  estimate, 
based  upon  pre-war  prices,  of  an  installation  such  as 
is  illustrated  in  the  drawing  appended  to  the  paper, 
for  treating  two  million  gallons  of  dry-weather  flow 
sewage  per  day  with  a  six-hours’  aeration  period  and 
three  hours’  settlement.  The  estimate  covers  the  cost 
of  the  plant  from  the  discharge  of  the  sewage  into  the 
aeration  tank  to  the  exit  of  the  purified  effluent  from 
the  settling  tank,  and  the  working  expenses  for  the 
operations.  It  does  not  include  what  may  be  neces¬ 
sary  for  dealing  with  the  sludge,  the  cost  of  which, 
however,  may  reasonably  be  expected  to  be  covered 
by  its  value  as  a  fertiliser.  The  figures  take  no  ac¬ 
count  of  royalties,  as  to  which  I  have  no  information. 
Any  excess  of  post-war  over  pre-war  prices  would 
operate  in  favour  of  the  new  process,  at  any  rate  for 
new  works,  owing  to  the  reduced  capital  outlay 
involved  *+ 


CAPITAL  EXPENDITURE. 
Cost  of  aeration  and  settling  tanks,  in¬ 
cluding  diffusers,  .  air-pipes,  valves, 
electric  motors  and  compressor  in  dupli¬ 
cate,  syphons,  sludge  lifts,  engineering 
expenses,  and  other  necessary  details... 
Air  compressor  house 
Land,  two  acres 


£  s.  d. 


9,000  0  0 
300  0  0 
200  0  0 


£9,600  0  0 


ANNUAL  EXPENDITURE. 


Interest  and  repayment  of  capital,  £9,500 

£ 

s. 

d. 

at  6£  per  cent 

617 

10 

0 

Electricity  at  £d.  per  unit.  Two  million 
gallons  per  day  d.w.f.  equals  730  million 

gallons  per  annum  at  11s.  per  million... 

401 

10 

0 

Labour  attending  to  compressor  and  tank 
three  men  (one  man  per  shift)  at  35s. 

per  week  ... 

273 

0 

0 

Oil,  sundries  and  insurance 

100 

0 

0 

£1,392 

0 

.  0 

If,  as  Mr.  Haworth  and  Mr.  Ardern  think,  and  which 
my  own  observations  confirm,  that  four  hours’  aera¬ 
tion  will  yield  a  satisfactory  effluent,  then  the  esti¬ 
mate  would  be  approximately  the  following: 

CAPITAL  EXPENDITURE. 


Aeration  and  settling  tank,  &c.,  as  before, 
but  reduced  capacity  of  the  former 
Air  compressor  house 
Land... 


ANNUAL  EXPENDITURE. 

Interest  and  redemption  of  capital,  £7,000 
at  per  cent 

Electricity  at  £d.  per  unit,  two  million 
gallons  per  dayd.w.f.  equals  730million 
per  annum,  at  7s.  4d.  per  million 

Labour  as  before  ... 

Oil,  &c,,  as  before,  but  reduced  ... 


£  s.  d. 


7,000 

0 

0 

300 

0 

0 

200 

0 

0 

£7,500 

0 

0 

£ 

S. 

d. 

455 

0 

0 

267 

0 

0 

273 

0 

0 

80 

0 

0 

£1,075  0  0 


If  it  should  be  considered  necessary  to  keep  an 
empty  tank  fully  equipped  as  a  stand-by,  then,  ap¬ 
proximately,  £9,000  should  be  added  to  the  capital 
outlay  in  the  former  case  and  £7,000  in  the  latter. 

Mr.  Makepeace  raised  some  interesting  questions. 
The -screens  through  which  the  sewage  passes  before 
entering  the  tank  are  cubical  in  form,  have  a  mesh 
of  If  in.  by  f  in.,  and  a  total  available  area  of  150 
sq.  ft.  The  detritus  well  (which  is  also  the  pump  well) 
is  20  ft.  diameter  for  a  depth  of  50  ft.  and  14  ft. 
diameter  for  a  further  depth  of  34  0,  and  has  a  conical¬ 
shaped  bottom  with  a  60  deg.  slope.  The  depth  of 
liquid  in  the  well  is  usually  about  63  ft.  The  sewage 
enters  the  well  at  12  ft.  6  in.  from  the  bottom  and 
18  ft.  6  in.  below  the  suction  pipe  to  the  pumps.  By 
this  arrangement  the  mineral  and  organic  matters 
tend  immediately  to  separate,  the  former  descending 
and  the  latter  rising  with  the  current  to  the  pump 
suction.  Both  the  screening  and  settlement  of  detritus 
are  efficient.  The  detritus  is  removed  from  the  well 
by  an  air-lift. 


DESIGN  OF  AERATION  TANK. 

With  regard  to  the  suggested  new  design  for  the 
aeration  tank,  Mr.  Makepeace  expressed  the  fear  that 
such  a  velocity  of  flow  could  not  be  obtained  along 
the  floor  of  the  tank  as  would  ensure  the  absence  of 
stagnation  of  sludge  thereon. 

I  think  that  upon  reflection  he  will  agree  that  any 
velocity  which  may  be  required  for  all  practical  pur¬ 
poses  can  be  attained  if  only  sufficient  air  is  pumped 
into  the  liquid.  I  do  not  doubt  that  the  quantity  I 
have  assumed  in  the  paper  will  give  the  required 
velocity  easily.  If  the  detritus  is  efficiently  removed 
a  velocity  of  1  ft.  per  second  seems  ample  to  keep  the 
solids  in  suspension. 

Mr.  Makepeace,  curiously  .enough,  afterwards  gave 
expression  to  the  opposite  fear — viz.,  that  the  liquid 
as  it  passed  through  the  pipes  from  the  aeration  to 
the  settling  tank  would  acquire  such  a  velocity  as  to 
prevent  the  sludge  settling  on  the  floor  till  it  had 
bombarded  the  wall  on  the  opposite  side  and  re¬ 
bounded  to  the  middle  of  the  tank.  The  velocity  of 
entrance  for  a  given  quantity  passing  simply  depends 
upon  and  is  inversely  proportional  to  the  total  sec¬ 
tional  area  of  the  pipes  through  which  it  is  trans¬ 
mitted.  Hence  a  motion  as  slow  as  may  be  desired 
can  be  acquired  by  merely  increasing  the  area  of  the 
apertures. 

In  the  design  described  in  the  paper  the  area  was 


88 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


rixed  for  a  speed  of  6  in.  per  second  for  the  normal 
flow. 

Such  a  movement  would  probably  be  practically  de¬ 
stroyed  by  the  time  it  reached  the  opposite  wall.  Such 
a  gradually  diminishing  speed  from  one  side  of  the 
tank  to  the  other  has  the  advantage  of  depositing  the 
sludge  more  or  less  evenly  over  the  entire  width  of  the 
floor,  and  of  preventing  the  ridges  and  furrows  feared 
by  Mr.  Makepeace. 

As  to  variation  of  flow,  there  has  been  practically 
none  during  the  experiment,  as  a  portion  only  of  the 
total  quantity  of  the  city  sewage  was  being  treated. 
The  variation  has  been  one  of  quality  rather  than 
quantity. 

TRAVELLING  SYPHONS. 

Mr.  Makepeace  prefers  the  principle  of  the  Dort¬ 
mund  tank  to  the  travelling  syphon.  The  success  of 
this,  as  of  most  principles,  depends  upon  the  method 
of  its  application.  The  principle  was  adopted  in  the 
original  alterations  made  by  Messrs.  Jones  &  Att- 
wood,  and  hopelessly  failed  because  of  the  insuffi¬ 
ciency  of  the  angle  of  slope.  These  were  afterwards 
increased,  and  now  Mr.  Ardern  is  of  opinion  that  the 
absence  of  nitric  nitrogen  in  the  effluent  is  due  to  the 
Dortmund  principle,  as  it  is  now  applied  to  the  tank 
in  use,  failing  to  convey  all  the  sludge  to  the  sludge- 
lifts  for  removal,  and  as  a  consequence  becoming 
putrid.  There  is  other  evidence  that  Mr.  Ardern’s 
suspicion  is  well  founded.  It  was  precisely  this 
danger  that  convinced  me  that  nothing  less  than  the 
actual  scraping  of  every  inch  of  the  floor  surface 
should  be  relied  upon  for  the  removal  of  the  sludge. 
Hence  the  travelling  syphons  and  scrapers. 

The  dotted  lines  shown  upon  the  drawing  of  the, 
settling  tank  is  an  alternative  arrangement  of  the 
moving  syphons  travelling  to  and  fro  parallel  to  the 
direction  of  the  moving  liquid,  instead  of  at  right 
angles  to  it.  I  think  this  preferable. 

For  schemes  of  important  magnitude  I  think  it 
will  be  found  that  the  syphon,  with  its  scrapers,  is, 
for  this  process,  from  every  point  of  view  to  be  pre¬ 
ferred  to  the  Dortmund  tank,  as  well  as  being  British. 
The  disturbance*®!'  the  solids  mentioned  by  Mr.  Make¬ 
peace  is  purely  local,  and  takes  place  at  a  spot  near 
the  floor  where  a  downward  current  is  being  produced 
by  the  suction  of  the  syphons,  and  does  not  affect  the 
surface  movement  at  the  overflow  weir. 

In  reply  to  Mr.  Mellin,  the  amount  of  grease  con¬ 
tained  in  the  Worcester  setvage  has  not,  so  far,  been 
great  enough  to  give  trouble. 


CORRESPONDENCE. 

Ely  avrjp  ov  iravff  opa 

( One  man  does  not  see  everything.) 

—Euripides. 


HOUSE  REFUSE. 

To  the  Editor  of  The  Surveyor. 

Sir, — Since  I  opened  the  discussion  a  short  time 
since  at  the  Royal  Sanitary  Institute  on  the  collection 
and  disposal  of  house  refuse,  it  has  occurred  to  me 
that  by  adopting  the  bag  receptacle  advocated  by 
Mr.  R.  Brown,  of  Southall,  in  conjunction  with  crates 
and  motor  haulage,  a  method,  of  collection  could  be 
devised  which  would  be  far  more  sanitary  and  less 
expensive  than  any  now  in  use,  whilst  it  would  reduce 
to  a  minimum  the  time  lost  in  loading,  which  mili¬ 
tates  against  the  use  of  motor  haulage. 

I  suggest  that  at  a  convenient  position,  both  for  the 
housewife  and  dust  collector,  four  posts  be  driven  into 
the  ground,  with  a  hook_attached  to  each,  to  carry  an 
endless  lanyard  passed  through  eyes  placed,  so  as  to 
keep  the  bag  open  for  the  reception  of  refuse.  The' 
posts  would  carry  a  corrugated  roof  in  order  to  keep 
the  bag  and  its  contents  dry. 

When  the  collector  calls,  he  would  bring  a  clean  bag 
to  replace  the  bag  with  its  contents  which  he  removed. 
One  visit  to  the  house  would  suffice,  whereas  he  now 
has  to  remove  the  pail  which  he  empties  into  the  dust¬ 
cart  and  returns  to  the  house.  The  bags  containing 
the  refuse  would  be  placed  in  a  crate  carried  on  a  hand 
truck.  When  the  crate  is  full  it  would  be  placed  on 
the  edge  of  the  footpath  for  the  motor  lorry  to  pick 
up.  An  empty  crate  would  then  be  placed  on  the 
hand-truck  to  receive  its  load  Of  bags  of  refuse.  The 
crates  should  be  of  the  dimensions  that  best  take  the 
bags  and  the  body  of  the  motor  lorry  of  the  dimensions 
that  best  take  the  crates,  which  could  be  loaded  in 
tiers  one  on  top  of  another. 

Bags  have  many  advantages.  They  prevent  the 


house  refuse  being  blown  about,  whilst  they  take  up 
a  minimum  space.  A  motor  lorry  to  carry  standard 
crates  can  be  built  far  lighter  than  the  lorries  now 
used,  as  there  is  no  need  for  the  body  to  tip.  On 
arriving  at  the  depot  or  destructor,  the  load  might  be 
withdrawn  from  the  lorry  in  one  operation  by  means 
of  drawboards. 

If  the  bags  were  emptied  by  mechanical  means 
little  time  would  be  lost  in  emptying.  Although  not 
strictly  a  question  of  house  refuse,  owing  to  power 
plants  being  unable  to  obtain  the  fuel  suitable  for 
mechanical  stokers,  a  large  amount  of  unburnt  slack 
now  passes  through  the  fire-bars  which  can  be 
separated  from  the  clinker  by  screening.  Slack  thus 
obtained  may  be  made  into  blocks  by  an  addition  of 
tar,  and  produces  a  fuel  that  would  be  most  valuable 
now  that  coal  is  so  dear. — Yours,  &c., 

G.  H.  Cooper,  m.inst.c.e.. 

Borough  Engineer  and  Surveyor,  Wimbledon. 

July  25,  1917. 


DR.  BARWISE  AND  CONSULTING  ENGINEERS. 

To  the  Editor  of  The  Surveyor. 

Sir, — Dr.  iS.  Barwise,  in  his'  presidential  address  to 
the  Association  of  Managers  •  of  Sewage  Disposal 
Works  (see  report.  The  [Surveyor,  July  13th  last), 
comments  upon  the  system  of  paying  engineers  by 
commission  as  a  percentage  on  the  cost  of  works. 
He  says,  vide  report — “  I  regard  it  as  unreasonable  to 
expect  a  man  to  sit  up  all  night  to  take  money  out  of 
his  own  pocket;  and  if  an  engineer  does  burn  the 
midnight  oil  to  see  if  he  can  reduce  the  cost  of  a 
scheme,  if  he  is  paid  by  commission  he  gets  less 
money  for  the  extra  work  put  in.” 

Is  it  in  accordance  with  the  ethics  of  the  medical 
profession  to  allow  patients  to  enjoy  ill-health  longer 
than  necessary  in  order  to  get  in  more  “  visits,”  or  to 
take  no  trouble  in  diagnosing  a  case  P 

There  are,  I  suppose,  a  few  honourable  civil  engi¬ 
neers  in  Westminster,  unconnected  with  trade  in¬ 
terests,  who  do  occasionally  burn  a  little  midnight 
oil — even  in  war-time — in  the  endeavour  to  get  out 
schemes  on  economic  and  also  on  efficient  lines. 

If  Dr.  Barwise  is  such  an  authority  on  sewage  treat¬ 
ment,  how  is  it  that  one  reads  in  his  address — “  There 
are  many  sewage  works  in  my  county  [ and  therefore 
presumably  under  his  jurisdiction ]  which  are  inefficient, 
to  which  the  activation  of  the  sludge  would  make  the 
difference  between  success  and  failure  ”  ? — Yours,"  &c.. 

Civil  Engineer. 

Westminster,  S.W.  1. 

July  19,  1917. 


To  the  Editor  of  The  (Surveyor. 

Sir, — I  have  often  felt  myself  that  the  system  of 
payment  of  consulting  engineers  by  a  percentage  on 
actual  cost  of  works  is  open  to  misconception.  With¬ 
out  offering  any  opinion  on  Dr.  Barwise’s  statements, 
may  I  .suggest  that  it  would  be  better  to  calculate  per¬ 
centages  upon  the  amount  of  the  accepted  contract, 
based  upon  a  schedule  prepared  from  the  estimated 
quantities  and  contract  -rates,  or  the  accepted  lump 
sum  tendered  on  the  estimated  quantities — this  fee 
to  be  the  consulting  engineer’s  fee,  no  matter  by  what 
amount  the  tendered  total  sum  is  exceeded  or  reduced 
in  actual  construction  P  It  is  quite  easy  to  check  esti¬ 
mates,  and  arrive  at  a  correct  fee,  and  the  consulting 
engineer,  having  completed  his  duties  for  this  sum, 
can  take  it  in  the  full  knowledge  that  -nobody-  will 
sling  professional  ink  or  throw  human  mud  at  him, 
and  in  the  full  satisfaction  that  his  remuneration  has 
not  been  a  “  gamble.” — Yours,  &c.. 

Another  M.Inst.C.E. 

July  22,  1917. 


Liverpool  Housing  Scheme _ The  Liverpool  Housing 

Committee  report  that  they  have  now  under  control 
2,894  tenements.  The  gross  rental  for  the  year  was 
£28,782  odd,  the  loss  upon  this  amount  through  empties 
being  £203  and  through  bad  debts  £128.  The  amount 
actually  collected  was  £28.741,  or  100'24  per  cent  of  the 
rents  accrued  during  the  year.  Total  payments  for 
rates  and  taxes,  maintenance,  and  management 
amount  to  £14,690.  Up  to  the  end  of  December  the 
total  cost  of  demolition  was  £303,396,  whereas  the 
amount  expended  on  housing  was  £909,688.  The  total 
cost  of  housing  and  demolition,  therefore,  amounts  to 
£1,213,084,  of  which  sum  there  is  a  balance  still  owing 
of  £731,751. 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


89 


Against  the  Compulsory  Adoption  of  the  Metric 

System.* 

By  H.  CUNLIFFE,  Smethwick. 


The  use  of  metric  weights  and  measures  has  been 
permissive  in  the  United  States  of  America  since  the 
year  1866,  but  its  complete  adoption  is  as  far  off  to¬ 
day  as  ever.  Indeed,  tire  stoutest  opponents  of  metric 
measures  and  the  most  enthusiastic  defenders  of 
British  units  are  to  be  found  across  the  Atlantic 
Ocean.  No  country  has  accepted  the  metric  system 
without  compulsion;  and  if  compulsion  is  to  be  ap¬ 
plied  in  this  country,  let  it  be  by  the  demand,  not  of 
scientists,  educationists,  or  special  pleaders,  but  by 
users  of  weights  and  measures  in  trade :  manufac¬ 
turers,  merchants  and  retail  traders.  Up  to  the  pre¬ 
sent  the,  opinions  of  these  latter  have  not  been  fully 
canvassed.  In  no  official  inquiry  has  the  attitude  of 
retail  traders  received  consideration.  The  textile  and 
engineering  trades  have  been  given  but  scant  atten¬ 
tion,  and  the  shipping  industry  has  remained  un¬ 
heard.  To  accept  the  compulsory  adoption  of  the 
metric  system  at  the  present  stage  of  investigation, 
and  before  we  have  estimated  all  the  consequences 
of  such  a  revolution  in  trade  methods,  involves  the 
suppression  of  individual  judgment. 

While  in  this  country  we  have  practical  uniformity, 
there  is  no  metric  country  which  can  make  this  boast. 
On  April  11,  1906,  the  French  Minister  of  Commerce 
addressed  a  circular  letter  to  the  Chambers  of  Com¬ 
merce  in  France,  complaining  that,  despite  the  efforts 
of  the  inspectors  of  weights  and  measures  in  seizing 
illegal  standards,  weights  and  measures  forbidden  by 
the  law  of  July  4,  1837,  continue  in  use.  In  reply  to 
this  circular  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  of  Amiens 
said  that  “  in  view  of  the  customs  adopted  by  certain 
traders,  it  seems  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  arrive 
at  a  complete  suppression,  of  the  actual  conditions; 
that,  moreover,  such  a  radical  and  immediate  sup¬ 
pression  would  cause  profound  disturbance  in  many 
industries,  notably  textile  manufacturing.”  This 
condition  of  affairs  in  France  existed  after  112  years 
of  effort  and  seventy  years  of  compulsory  law. 

In  considering  the  suitability  of  our 

ENGLISH  WEIGHTS  AND  MEASURES 

for  trade  purposes,  it  will  be  more  convenient  to  do 
so  in  conjunction  with  the  propositions  put  forward 
by  what  one  may  call  the  official  metric  advocates. 
They  say :  “  The  immediate  effects  of  metric  legisla¬ 
tion  are  strictly  confined  to  transactions  where 
materials  and  food  are  sold  by  length  or  weights— i.e., 
at  a  price  per  yard  or  per  pound — because  the  law 
does  not  touch  any  other  transactions.”  That  is,  in 
the  first  process  of  enforcement  they  would  apply  it 
to  retail  trade — the  internal  trade  of  the  country.  Yet 
anyone  who  has  taken  note  of  the  present  controversy 
will  have  observed  that  most  of  the  arguments  em¬ 
ployed  for  the  advancement  of  this  proposition  bear 
no  relation  to  the  internal  trade  of  the  country,  but 
rather,  the  advancement  of  our  foreign  trade,  which 
is  a  matter  solely  affecting  manufacturers  and  mer¬ 
chants.  But  in  regard  to  manufacturers,  the  proposed 
Metric  Bill  of  the  Associated  Chambers  of  Commerce 
provides  “  that  nothing  in  this  Act  shall  affect  the 
manufacture  or  use  of  any  machinery,  tool,  pattern, 
sieve,  template  or  other  article  made  by  measures 
other  than  metric  measures.”  No  time  limit  is  placed 
on  this  proviso,’  and  the  manufacture  as  well  as  the 
use  of  machinery  and  tools  on  the  basis  of  the  English 
foot  and  inch  might  go  on  indefinitely.  What  is  the 
motive  behind  these  proposals  ?  It  is  common  know¬ 
ledge  that,  although  the  metric  system  has  been  per¬ 
missive  for  the  past  twenty  years,  it  makes  little  head¬ 
way  with  those  dealing  with  metric  countries,  and 
none  with  those  who  do  not. 

In  face  of  the  failure  of  the  metric  system  to  win  its 
way  without  compulsion,  in  face  of  the  indifference 
if  not  the  hostility  of  manufacturers  whose  factories 
have  been  working  at  full  pressure  despite  the  pre¬ 
sumed  drawbacks-of  our  British  system  of  weights  and 
measures,  and  who,  therefore,  have  not  felt  the  com¬ 
pelling  force  of  declining  dividends,  what  do  the  metric 
advocates  propose  ?  They  propose  that  the  metric 
system  shall  be  forced  into  the  homes  of  the  British 
people  in  the  hope,  as  they  express  it,  that  in  the 
process  of  twenty  years  it  will  “  creep  into  the  work¬ 

*  From  a  paper  read  before  the  annual  meeting  of  the 
Incorporated  Society  of  Inspectors  of  Weights  and  Measures. 


shop  and  factory.”  If  the  metric  system  is  really  as 
essential  to  our  prosperity  as  these  people  assert, 
would  such  proposals,  be  necessary?  But  let  us  assume 
for  the  moment  they  were  given  legislative  sanction ; 
how  would  they  work  out  ?  We  should  have  iron  and 
steel  bars  of  standard  inch  sections  sold  by  weight 
according  to  the  kilogram,  and  textiles  manufactured 
on  the  basis  of  the  yard  and  pound  sold  over  the 
counter  according  to  the  metre.  Manufacturers  would 
buy  their  materials  by  one  .system,  and  make  them  up 
into  finished  articles  by  another.  Such  a  mixture  of 
units  may  be  good  enough  for  Mexico,  where  these 
things  happen,  but  it  is  not  good  enough  for  Great 
Britain. 

For  scientific  purposes,  at  any  rate,  for  what  may 
be  called  theoretical  as  distinct  from  applied  science, 
the  use  of  the  metric  system  is  preferred  because  of 
the  interrelation  and  co-relation  of  its  units,  and  no 
one  suggests  that  the  scientist  should  change  his  prac¬ 
tice.  But  because  the  metric  system  is 

CONVENIENT  FOR  THE  SCIENTIST, 

it,  does  not  follow  that  it  is,  therefore,  suitable  for 
every  other  purpose.  The  interrelation  and  co-rela¬ 
tion  of  units  is  not  required  for  the  ordinary  purposes 
of  life, ,  and  is  not  essential  to  the  work  of  manufac¬ 
ture.  In  ordinary  affairs  each  man  uses  the  unit  most 
suitable  to  his  work.  As  was  pointed  out  by  the 
Standards  Commission,  the  surveyor  adopts  the  chain, 
the  draper  the  yard,  the  carpenter  the  foot,  and  the 
engineer  the  inch,  and  the  fact  that  each  man’s  unit 
is  not  decimally  related  to  the  other  man’s  unit  is  -a 
matter  of  profound  indifference. 

Another  claim  put  forward  on  behalf  of  the  metric 
system  is  its  so-called  international  character.  It  is 
only  partially  international,  and  can  make  no  real 
claim  to  being  so,  so  long  as  the  yard  bars  the  path 
of  the  metre.  Even  in  those  countries  which  are 
reckoned  as  “  metric,”  many  of  them  are  only  metric 
in  name,  the  system  being,  used  by  the  Government, 
but,  as  the  Board  of  Trade  has  pointed  out,  not  exclu¬ 
sively  by  the  ordinary  people.  Moreover,  in  countries' 
where  the  system  is  in  force  the  French  nomenclature 
is  not  always  followed.  International  weights  and 
measures  would  undoubtedly  be  convenient,  even  as 
a  common  language  throughout  the  world  would  facili¬ 
tate  intercourse  between  the  people  of  different  coun¬ 
tries.  But  at  the  present  moment  there  is  no 
common  language,  neither  is  there  a  common  cur¬ 
rency,  and  the  absence  of  an  international  system  of 
weights  and  measures,  is  but  one  of  the  difficulties  of 
trade  relations  between  foreign  peoples.  These  are 
conditions  which  appear  to  call  for  the  exercise  of 
ordinary  commercial  enterprise  on  the  part  of  indivi¬ 
dual  manufacturers  and  merchants,  rather  than  the 
institution  of  weights  and  measures  conditions  in  this 
country  which  would  create  a  great  disturbance. 

Tlie  cost  of  this  disturbance  has  been  Variously  esti¬ 
mated  at  from  two  to  forty  million  pounds  sterling.  It 
is  not  possible  to  submit  an  accurate  estimate  in 
money,  but  it  is  quite  easy  to  indicate  what  the  chgnge 
means  in  material  objects.  All  existing  weights  and 
measures  would  have  to  be  replaced.  All  weighing 
instruments,  other  than  equal-armed  machines,  would 
have  to  be  reconstructed.  All  gas  meters,  measuring 
by  the  cubic  foot,  water  meters  by  the  gallon,  and  taxi¬ 
meters  by  the  mile  and  the  penny,  would  either  have 
to  be  reconstructed  or  replaced.  Then  in  so  far  as 
changes  dependent  upon  our  measures  of  length  are 
concerned,  although  in  many  cases  not  affected  by  the 
terms  of  the  Weights  and  Measures  Acts,  they  ought 
to  be  taken  into  account,  because  so  soon  as  the  metric 
system  became  compulsory  an  agitation  would  com¬ 
mence  to  accelerate  the  “  creeping  ”  process  into  the 
workshops  and  factories.  The  outcome  of  such  an 
agitation  would  either  stultify  the  metric  system  or 
alternatively  effect  enormous  and  costly  changes  in 
existing  machines,  rolling  stocks,  tools  and  other  ac¬ 
cessories  in  which  at  the  present  moment  the  inch  and 
the  foot  are  indelibly  impressed.  It  would  also  affect 
measurements  of  land,  the  Ordnance  Survey,  and  the 
measurements  expressed  in  title  deeds. 

In  the  world  of  engineering,  what  seems  to  me  to 
offer  the 

GREATEST  OBSTACLE  TO  CHANGE 

is  the  monumental  work  of  the  Engineering  Standards 


90 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Committee.  This  committee  consists  of  a  large  num¬ 
ber  of  eminent  engineers  and  scientists  and  is  sup¬ 
ported  by  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers,  the  In¬ 
stitution  of  Mechanical  Engineers,  the  Institution  of 
Naval  Architects,  the  Iron  and  Steel  Institute,  and 
the  Institution  of  Electrical  Engineers.  Since  the 
month  of  April,  1904,  when  its  first  report  was  issued 
— almost  at  the  very  moment  when  the  House  of  Lords 
Select  Committee  was  considering  its  pro-metric  report 
—until  the  present  time,  seventy-seven  reports  have 
been  issued.  In  this  huge  pile  of  folio  volumes  are 
contained  thousands  of  standard  measurements  made 
for  all  kinds  of  metal  working  trades,  and  at  the  re¬ 
quest  of  the  trades  concerned.  The  material  point  for 
the  purposes  of  this  discussion  consists  in  the  fact 
that  all  these  standard  measurements  are  fixed  on 
the  basis  of  the  British  inch,  .with  the  almost  negli¬ 
gible  exception  of  standards  for  some  electrical  and 
automobile  parts,  also  the  British  Association  screw 
threads,  which  are  stated  in  millimetres.  No  one,  1 
.imagine,  would  suggest  that  this  valuable  work  should 
be  destroyed.  To  transpose  the  committee’s  stan¬ 
dard  measurements  into  metric  equivalents  is  imprac¬ 
ticable,  while,  on  the  other  hand,  to  continue  them 
after  the  metric  system  had  become  compulsory  and 
the  inch  illegal  would  merely  create  confusion. 

But  the  metric  advocates  assert  there  are  metric 
countries  who  have  faced  all  these  difficulties  and 
have  experienced  none  of  the  woes  which  we  predict. 
But  is  it  true  that  they  have  encountered  the  difficul¬ 
ties  which  await  us?  Consider  the  principal  European 
metric  countries.  In  the  first  place,  in  none  of  these 
countries — indeed,  in  no  instances — did  the  metric 
system  displace  a  uniform  system  of  weights  and 
measures  such  as  we  enjoy.  In  every  case  up  to  the 
present  the  metric  system  has  displaced  diverse  units, 
or  units  possessing  different  values.  In  each  country 
the  displaced  standards  possessed  merely  a  parochial 
importance,  whereas  British  weights  and  measures 
are  known  throughout  the  world. 

Eor  me  to  suggest  that  British  weights  and  measures 
are  perfect  in  every  respect  would  be  mere  affectation, 
but  at  the  present  point  in- time,  whatever  weights  and 
measures  reform  is  recommended,  it  should  be  the 
outcome  of  a  joint  commission  of  all  the  English- 
speaking  nations,  as  was  suggested  in  the  engineering 
section  of  the  British  Association  last  year.  British 
weights  and  measures  at  the  moment  supply  the  needs 
of  the  English-speaking  peoples  of  the  world,  and  their 
reform,  if  any,  should  not  be  of  a  piecemeal  character. 
We  should  bear  in  mind  that  our  Allies  are  not  exclu¬ 
sively  metric  countries.  America  employs  British 
units,  and  Russia’s  measure  of  length  is  commensur¬ 
able  with  the  British  foot.  Until  such  a  commission 
had  recommended  an  acceptable  reform  it  were  well 
for  us. to  abide  by  the  ills  we  know  than  to  fly  unto 
others  we  wot  not  of. 


LOCAL  GOVERNMENT  BOARD  INQUIRIES. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Survbtor  readers 
with  a  view  to  making  the  information  given  under  this 
head  as  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


APPLICATIONS  FOR  LOANS. 

Baildon  U.D.C. — £2,700  for  permanent  works  and 
street  improvements. 

Erith  U.D.C. — £1,000  for  the  extension  of  an  elec¬ 
tricity  sub-station. 

Southend  T.C. — £4,150  for  the  purchase  and  elec¬ 
trical  equipment  of  motor  vehicles. 

LOANS  SANCTIONED. 

Ulverston  R.D.C. — £750  for  the  Flookburgh  water 
supply  scheme. 

Walthamstow  U.D.C. — £16,387  for  the  extension  of 
the  electricity  station. 


Housing  in  Scottish  Burghs. — The  Convention  of 
Royal  Burghs  is  preparing  a  schedule  regarding  the 
condition  of  housing  in  Scottish  burghs  and  the  effect 
on  public  health  and  infantile  life. 

Bermondsey’s  Electric  Lighting — Bermondsey’s  elec¬ 
tricity  accounts  show  a  deficit  of  £7,024,  and  the 
charges  for  power  have  been  further  increased  by 
20  per  cent  on  the  pre-war  rate,  making  50  per  cent 
in  all. 

Water  Charges  in  London.— Regarding  the  deficiency 
of  the  Metropolitan  Water  Board,  a  report  presented 
at  the  board  expressed  the  view  that  it  is  inexpedient 
to  seek  legislation  to  increase  the  charges  for  water 
because  of  the  disinclination  of  Parliament  to  deal 
with  contentious  matters. 


HUMIC— AN  IMPORTANT  AGRICULTURAL 
DISCOVERY. 


In  these  days  when  the  introduction  of  motor  trans¬ 
port  has  so  greatly  reduced  the  output  of  stable 
manure,  and,  owing  to  the  state  of  war,  the  importa¬ 
tion  of  fertilisers  has  almost  entirely  ceased,  any  news 
of  a  new  manure  is  sure  to  be  welcomed  by  farmers 
and  agriculturists  in  general  as  a  great  boon. 

Captain  Furse,  the  inventor  of  the  system  of  crush¬ 
ing  house  refuse  into  manure  by  means  of  the  Patent 
Lightning  Crusher,  has  now  gone  one  better.  He  has 
discovered  a  process  of  bacterising  town  refuse,  thus 
greatly  improving  both  the  appearance  and  the  fer¬ 
tilising  properties  of  town  refuse  manure. 

We  have  been  shown  a  sample  of  this  new  fertiliser, 
which  the  inventor  has  called  “  Humic,”  and  which 
is  a  very  fine  black  powder,  soft  to  the  touch,  and 
quite  odourless:  that  is,  so  far  as  any  disagreeable 
odour  is  concerned.  It  has  a  slight,  pleasant  smell 
that  at  once  identifies  it  with  humus.  For  this  is 
what  the  action  of  these  bacteria  amounts  to:  they 
actually  transform  the  refuse  into  humus. 

Its  plant  food  value  appears  to  be  quite  high,  for  a 
chemical  analysis  from  the  Laboratory  of  the  Agricul¬ 
tural  College  of  Holmes  Chapel,  dated  May  4th  last, 
gives  the  following  percentage  of  plant  foods: 

Nitrogen  (about)  .  3  per  cent 

Phosphoric  acid  (about) .  3  per  cent 

Potash  (about)  . 3J  per  cent 

Tests  are  being  made  with  different  crops;  but  a 
test  made  with  a  primitive  sample  of  bacterised  refuse 
manure  has  already  shown  an  increase  of  over  70  per 
cent  in  the  height  and  bulk  of  oats. 

We  understand  that  the  sample  shown  to  us  is  by 
no  means  the  limit  of  perfection  to  be  attained,  as 
both  by  a  little  more  drying  and  certain  slight  modi¬ 
fications  in  the  process  of  manufacture  a  much  supe¬ 
rior  article  can  be  obtained.  The  results  already 
secured  are,  however,  sufficiently  satisfactory. 

What  gives  a  national  importance  in  these  days  to 
this  discovery  is  the  practically  inexhaustible  supply 
of  the  crude  material  to  be  found  entirely  in  our  own 
country,  for  nothing  but  town  refuse  is  used  in  this 
manure. 


SOME  REGENT  PUBLICATIONS.* 


Treatise  on  Hydraulics.  By  Mansfield  Merriman, 
member  of  the  American  Society  of  Civil  En¬ 
gineers.  Tenth  Edition,  revised  with  the  assist¬ 
ance  of  Thaddeus  Merriman,  member  of  the 
Society  of  Civil  Engineers.  Price  18s.  6d.  nett. 
New  York:  John  Wiley  &  Sons;  London:  Chap¬ 
man  &  Hall,  Limited. 

This  valuable  and  standard  work  on  hydraulics  has 
now  reached  its  tenth  edition.  It  is  so  well  known  to 
all  water  engineers  as  to  need  little  fresh  recommenda¬ 
tion.  In  the  new  edition  over  forty  pages  have  been 
re-written  and  other  minor  changes  have  been  made 
in  order  to  keep  the  book  abreast  of  modern  progress, 
and  it  is  undoubtedly  on  such  matters  as  those  dealt 
with  in  the  new  edition  that  engineers  need  informa¬ 
tion.  No  greater  mistake  can  be  made  than  to  place 
unhesitating  reliance  upon  books  which  contained  the 
best  available  information  when  they  were  written, 
but  which  in  the  course  of  years  have  become  obsolete 
on  many  points  owing  to  fresh  discoveries  and  to 
general  progress. 

It  is  impossible  to  summarise  the  many  small 
matters  dealt  with  in  order  to  bring  this  book  up  to 
date,  and  some  of  the  smaller  emendations  are  un¬ 
doubtedly  the  most  valuable.  The  new  articles  treat 
of  proportional  weirs,  of  Biel’s  formula,  and  of  the 
back  water  due  to  bridge  piers.  Horton’s  extended 
table  of  the  values  of  Kutter’s  is  given,  and  also  new 
coefficients  for  riveted  steel  pipes.  In  dealing  with 
the  velocities  in  open  channels,  the  authors  have  given 
new  matter  regarding  the  vertical  and  horizontal 
curves.  The  article  on  water  hammer  and  surge  tanks 
has  been  re-written.  The  articles  dealing  with  tur¬ 
bines  have  been  revised  so  as  to  include  modem  tur¬ 
bines  and  the  methods  for  their  discussion,  while  a 
new  article  has  been  written  on  hydraulic  machinery. 


*  Any  of  the  publications  reviewed,  or  referred  to  as 
received,  will  be  forwarded  by  the  St.  Bride’s  Press,  Limited, 
on  receipt  of  published  price,  plus  postage  in  the  case  of 
nett  books. 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


91 


Municipal  Work  In  Progress  and  Projected. 

The  Editor  invites  the  co-operation  of  Surveyor  readers  with  a  view  to  makina  the  information  given  under  this 

head'  os  complete  and  accurate  as  possible. 


The  following  are  among  the  more  important  pro¬ 
jected  works  of  which  particulars  have  reached  us 
during  the  present  week.  Other  reports  will  be  found 
on  our  “  Local  Government  Board  Inquiries  ”  page. 

BUILDINGS. 

Halifax  T.C. — A  site  has  been  purchased  at  Copley 
for  a  new  electricity  station. 

Omagh  R.D.C. — Tho  council  have  voted  £200  for  the 
repair  of  the  old  bridge  over  the  river  Omenkillow. 

Poplar  B.C. — It  is  proposed  to  build  new  electricity 
sub-buildings  in  High-street  at  an  estimated  cost  of 
£4_,200.  The  work  "will  be  done  by  the  borough  sur¬ 
veyor,  Mr.  Harley  Heckford,  by  direct  labour. 

Woolwich  B.C. —The  borough  council  have  autho¬ 
rised  the  erection  of  a  small  building  in  the  yard  of 
the  town  hall  for  a  water-softening  plant  in  connec¬ 
tion  with  the  public  baths.  The  water-softening  plant 
will  be  supplied  by  the  Harris  Patent  Feed  Water 
.Filter,  Limited,  Neweastle-on-Tyne,  at  a  cost  of  £687. 

HOUSING  AND  TOWN  PLANNING. 

Dodworth  (Yorks)  U.D.C. — The  council  have  ap¬ 
proved  the  preparation  of  a  scheme  for  the  erection 
of  fifty  working-class  houses. 

Elland  U.D.C. — Mr.  Carby  Hall,  of  Leeds,  has  re¬ 
ceived  instructions  to  prepare  a  town-planning  scheme 
to  include  all  the  available  building  land  in  the 
western  part  of  the  town. 

M exborough  U.D.C. — The  council  are  submitting  to 
the  Local  Government  Board  the  particulars  of  a  pro¬ 
posed  housing  scheme  near  Hallgate,  with  a  request 
for  information  as  to  what  assistance  will  be  given 
by  the  Government.  The  suggestion  is  to  purchase 
five  acres  of  land  and  erect  eighty-five  five-roomed 
houses  at  an  approximate  cost  of  £18,000,  with  an 
allowance  of  33  per  cent  for  the  enhanced  cost  of 
building  expected  to  rule  after  the  war. 

MOTOR  TRANSPORT. 

Aldershot  U.D.C, — A  deputation  has  been  appointed 
to  press  upon  the  Local  Government  Board  the  urgency 
of  sanctioning  a  loan  of  £1,000  for  the  purchase  of  a 
motor  fire  engine. 

Blyth  U.D.C  . — The  surveyor,  Mr.  L.  Leeper,  lias 
been  asked  to  report  upon  the  advisability  of  pur¬ 
chasing  a  motor  fire  engine. 

Bolton  T.C. — It  is  proposed  to  purchase  an  electric 
vehicle  for  the  electricity  department. 

Great  Crosby  U.D.C. — The  urban  council  have  had 
an  old  Napier  chassis,  which  had  been  used  previously 
for  touring,  converted  into  a  motor  fire  tender  and 
escape,  and  the  vehicle  is  giving  every  satisfaction. 

Hindley  U.D.C  . — The  council  have  accepted  the 
tender- of  the  Gordon  Motor  Carriage  Works,  Bolton, - 
for  the  supply  of  a  Maxwell  chassis  and  an  ambulance 
van  body. 

REFUSE  COLLECTION  AND  DISPOSAL. 

Haywards  Heath  U.D.C. — The  council  at  their  last 
meeting  rescinded  an  order  of  the  Sanitary  Com¬ 
mittee  not  to  collect  the  refuse  from  houses  in  certain 
roads.  The  decision  not  to  collect  was  made  on  the 
grounds  of  economy,  and  it  was  argued  that,  as  the 
houses. had  large  gardens  attached,  the  tenants  could 
dispose  of  the  refuse  by  burning  it  and  digging  it  in. 
It  was  stated,  however,  that  the  residents  had 
threatened  legal  proceedings  against  the  council  for 
neglect  of  duty. 

Liverpool  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  the  waste 
paper  scheme  continues  to  make  satisfactory  pro¬ 
gress.  The  financial  statement  shows  that  about 
£1,000  profit  for  charities  had  been  realised,  or  about 
30  per  cent  on  the  outlay. 

ROADS  AND  MATERIALS. 

Andover  R.D.C. — Tt  has  been  agreed  to  carry  out 
repairs  to  the  S hod desden-road,  at  an  estimated  cost 
of  £684. 

Athy  U.D.C. — The  county  surveyor,  Mr.  Rorke,  re¬ 
ported  that  he  was  making  a  provisional  proposal  to 
steam-roll  the  road  which  had  been  subject  to  much 


damage  by  the  carriage  of  materials  for  the  construc¬ 
tion  of  the  Wolfhill  Colliery  railway.  His  estimate 
of  the  cost  of  steam-rolling  was  £1,420.  The  council 
decided  to  apply  to  the  Government  for  a  grant  to 
carry  out  the  work. 

Bridgwater  R.D.C. — Owing  to  damage  caused  by 
floods,  it  has  been  agreed  to  carry  out  extensive  re¬ 
pairs  on  Andersea-road,  Westonzoyland,  including 
piling  and  widening  works. 

Brighton  T.C. —The’ Works  Committee  report  on  the 
question  of  the  maintenance  and  reconstruction  of 
the  surface  of  the  King’s-road  Tarmac,  and  submit  a 
statement  which  they  have  received  from  the  borough 
surveyor,  Mr.  H.  Tillstone,  and  an  offer  from  Tarmac, 
Limited.  The  borough  surveyor  calls  attention  to  the 
fact  that  the  estimated  cost  of  the  original  work, 
including  the  consequential  alterations  to  kerbs, 
channels,  &c.,  was  £8,816,  and  a  loan  of  that  amount 
repayable  in  seven  years  was  .  borrowed,  which  loan 
lias  now  been  wholly  repaid.  The  contract  with  the 
Tarmac  Company,  including  seven  years’  mainten¬ 
ance.  was  for  £7,043,  but  in  addition  to  the  work 
included  in  the  contract  the  council  decided  to  lay 
Tarmac  along  the  Madeira-drive  frontage  of  the 
Aquarium  at  a  cost,  including  alterations  to  kerbs, 
channels,  &c.,  of  £650.  Subject  to  the  approval  of  the 
council,  the  borough  surveyor  recommends  that  the 
terms  set  out  in  a  letter  from  the  Tarmac  Company 
be  agreed  to  and  the  order  given  for  the  work  to 
be  commenced  at  once,  so  that  it  may  be  completed 
before  the  winter.  The  proposed  terms  include  the 
laying  of  new  material  to  a  minimum  thickness  of 
three  inches  in  consolidated  thickness,  in  accordance 
with  the  company’s  standard  specification,  and  the 
maintenance  of  the  work  for  three  years. 

Eastbourne  R.D.C. — Negotiations  are  in  progress 
for  the  improvement  of  the  dangerous  corner  between 
Eastbon roe-road  and  Wannock-road. 

Hereford  C.C.— A  scheme  has  been  adopted  for 
widening  part  of  Holme  Lacy-road,  at  an  estimated 
y  cost  of  £2,600,  towards  which  the  Road  Board  will 
contribute  £1,500. 

Mildenhall  R.D.C. — The  acting  county  surveyor  has 
been  asked  to  make  an  inspection  of  the  road  from 
the  Elvedon  cross  roads  to  West  Stow  boundary,  with  a 
view  to  making  a  claim  upon  the  Road  Board  for  the 
cost  of  the  repairs. 

Northfleet  U.D.C. — It  is  proposed  to  purchase  5,000 
English  elm  blocks  for  the  repair  of  the  wood  paving 
in  High-street,  at  a  cost  of  £12  15s.  per  1,000. 

North  Riding  (Yorks)  C.C. — The  Highways  and 
Bridges  Committee  report  that  the  Road  Board  are 
making  a  new  road,  1  j,  miles  long,  between  the  Rich¬ 
mond  and  Scotton-road  to  Richmond  Station,  with  a 
new  bridge  over  Sandbeck,  to  avoid  the  present  diffi¬ 
cult  hilly  and  tortuous  road  via,  Molly  Hill.  It  has 
been  decided  to  declare  the  road,  when  completed  to 
the.  satisfaction  of  the  council,  a  main  road  and  the 
bridge  a  county  bridge.  The  committee  have  also  re¬ 
solved  to  spend  £3,583  in  tarring  about  40  miles  of 
main  road,  and  to  accept  an  offer  by  the  Road  Board 
to  contribute  £1,000  to  the  cost.  An  offer  of  the 
Road  Board  to  pay  £2,000  towards  an  estimated  cost 
of  £13,007  for  strengthening  and  resurfacing  various 
sections  of  road  has  been  accepted. 

Omagh  R.D.C. — The  county  surveyor,  Mr.  F.  J. 
Lvnam,  reported  that  for  nearly  one  hundred  roads  in 
their  district  there  were  no  contractors  at  present. 
This  state  of  affairs  was  due  to  the  small  prices 
offered.  If  they  were  to  keep  their  roads  in  passable 
condition  for  the  next  few  years  under  their  contract 
system  they  must  increase  their  prices.  If  he  was 
sure  of  having  certain  groups  of  roads  left  in  his 
hands  for  a  period  of  three  years  he  would  be  in  a 
far  better  position  of-  getting  together  a.  permanent 
staff  for  the  proper  carrying  out  of  the  work.  The 
council  approved  of  the  report. 

Perthshire  C.C. — The  Western  District  Committee 
have  resolved  to  incur  an  outlay  of  £1,751  on  tar¬ 
spraying  main  roads. 

Ruskington  U.D.C. — Tho  Road  Board,  having  made 
a  grant  of  £130  towards  the  estimated  cost  (£320)  for 
repairing  Westcliff-road,  have  now  written  that  they 
cannot  see  their  way  to  increase  the  amount. 


92 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


Whitchurch  (Salop)  R.D.C. — The  council  have  re¬ 
ceived  a  grant  of  £228  from  the  Road  Board  towards 
the  cost  of  the  improvement  of  roads  at  Frees  Heath. 

Woolwich  B.C. — -The  borough  engineer,  Mr.  J.  Sut¬ 
cliffe,  has  been  authorised  to  carry  out  the  work  of 
making  up  a  portion  of  Bostall  Manorway,  at  an  esti¬ 
mated  cost  of  £486,  in  the  event,  of  his  being  requested 
by  the  Road  Board  to  do  so. 

SEWERAGE  AND  SEWACE  DISPOSAL. 

Berkhamsted  R.D.C. — The  Joint  Sewerage  Com¬ 
mittee  are  asking  for  tenders  for  the  enlargement  of 
the  sewage  disposal  works. 

Burry  Port  U.D.C. — In  connection  with  the  scheme 
for  the  immediate  erection  of  300  houses,  which  has 
received  the  sanction  of  the  Treasury,  the  council  re¬ 
cently  held  a  special  meeting  to  consider  the  question 
of  drainage. 

Huddersfield  T.C. — The  West  Riding  Rivers  Board 
are  urging  upon  the  corporation  the  necessity  for  the 
extension  of  the  sewage  disposal  works,  in  view  of  the 
great  increase  both  of  trade  refuse  and  domestic 
sewage  due  to  the  erection  of  new  works. 

WATER,  GAS,  AND  ELECTRICITY. 

Bexhill  T.C. — Th  e  accounts  of  the  electricity  under¬ 
taking  for  the  year  ended  March  31st  last  show  a 
surplus  of  £587.  It.  has  been  decided  to  order  one 
hundred  50-candle-power  lamps. 

Brighton  T.C. — The  Lighting  Committee  recommend 
a  further  increase  of  the  charges  for  electricity, 
including  a  10  per  cent  rise  to  all  consumers  other 
than  power  users.  The  Waterworks  Committee  report 
that  for  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  the  water 
undertaking  the  year’s  working  has  resulted  in  a 
deficiency  of  £2,557,  which,  after  deducting  a  balance 
of  £642  brought  forward  from  last  year,  leaves  a 
deficiency  of  £1,914  to  be  provided  for. 

Cardiff  T.C. — The  Electricity  Committee  recommend 
the  city  council  to  apply  to  the  Local  Government 
Board  for  a  loan  of  £6,000  for  the  extension  of  the 
electricity  main  to  the  Windsor  slipway. 

Huddersfield  T.C.—1 The  town  council  have  resolved 
to  apply  for  Parliamentary  powers  to  supply  elec¬ 
tricity  to  Kirltheaton,  Marsden,  Meltham,  Kirk- 
burton,  and  Lepton. 

Nuneaton  T.C. — It  was  reported  that  negotiations 
were  pending  with  the  Leicester  Corporation  in  refer¬ 
ence  to  providing  for  the  water  supply  of  the  town. 

Oldham  T.C.— It  was  reported  that  the  ne^t  profit 
on  last  year’s  working  of  the  water  undertaking  was 
£3,924.  The  increased  charge  fcfr  income'  tax  was 
stated  to  be  £6,000. 

Sunderland  T.C. — It  has  been  decided  to.  increase 
by  10  per  cent  the  tariff  for  electricity  to  all  ordinary 
lighting  and  small  power  consumers  and  for  high 
tension  supplies  to  new  customers,  and  to  existing 
consumers  upon  the  expiration  of  their  present 
agreement. 

West  Bromwich  T.C. — The  Gas  Committee  report 
that  the  nett  profit  of  the  gas  undertaking  last  year 
was  £3,011.  On  the  electricity  undertaking  there 
was  a  nett  loss  of  £4,696.  The  committee  recommend 
further  increases  in  the  price  of  electricity,  both  for 
lighting  and  motive  power  purposes. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Woolwich  B.C. — In  renewing  the  contract  for  the 
Supply  of  horse-hire  to  the  North  Woolwich  district 
the  borough  council  have  agreed  to  grant  the  con¬ 
tractor  an  increase  of  Is.  per  day  on  his  prices. 


Derby’s  Motor  Ambulance.  —  A  motor  ambulance 
which  has  been  provided  for  use  in  Derby  was  formally 
presented  to  the  corporation  on  Wednesday.  The 
vehicle  is  fitted  with  three  stretchers,  and  another  can 
be  added  in  an  emergency.  The  ambulance  is  to  be 
free  in  accident  cases  and  for  poor  people,  a  charge 
being  made  for  other  private  use. 

Miners  and  Housing  Problem. — At  the  Miners’ 
Federation  Conference  at  Glasgow  on  Wednesday  a 
long  discussion  took  place  on  housing,  and  a  resolu¬ 
tion  was  adopted  asking  the  executive  to  approach  the 
Government,  urging  that  immediate  steps  should  be 
taken,  making  it  imperative  that  local  authorities 
should  carry  out  suitable  schemes.  It  was  suggested 
that  from  50  to  100  millions  was  wanted  to  embark 
upon  a  successful  scheme. 


PERSONAL. 


Mr.  E.  H.  Padfield,  surveyor  and  inspector  to  the 
Wells,  Somerset,  Rural  District  Council,  lias  resigned. 

Mr.  C.  O.  Rawstron,  surveyor  to  the  Lichfield  Rural 
District  Council,  has  been  appointed  surveyor  and 
sanitary  engineer  to  the  Rotherham  Rural  District 
Council. 

Mr.  Walter  H.  Whitaker,  sanitary  surveyor  to  the 
Kingsbridge  Rural  District.  Council,  has  been  ap¬ 
pointed  surveyor,  inspector,’  and  waterworks  engineer 
to  the  Torpoint  Urban  District  Council. 

Mr.  IT.  Bintcliffe,  inspector  of  nuisances  for  Lough¬ 
borough,  will,  with  the  consent  of  the  town  council, 
act  as  temporary  part-time  surveyor  and  inspector  of 
nuisances  to  the  Leake  Rural  District  Council. 

Lieut.  P.  G.  Cocks,  surveyor  to  the  St.  Helens  (Isle 
of  Wight)  Urban  District  Council,  has  received  the 
congratulations  of  the  council  upon  having  been 
awarded  the  Military  Gross  for  special  gallantry  on 
patrol  work  in  the  trenches- 

Mr.  C.  T.  Fulcher,  acting  borough  surveyor  of  Shore¬ 
ditch,  has  been  appointed  by  the  borough  council  dis¬ 
trict  coal  overseer,  to  represent  the  consumer,  in  ac¬ 
cordance  with  an  Order  made  by  the  Board  of  Trade 
under  the  Defence  of  the  Realm  Regulations. 

Mr.  E.  Jones,  surveyor  of  highways  to  the  Lam¬ 
peter  Rural  District  Council,  has  had  a  distressing 
tragedy  in  his  household.  Returning  from  shooting 
rabbits  lie  placed  his  gun  in  the  kitchen.  His  son, 
aged  ten,  took  the  gun,  touched  the  trigger,  and  dis¬ 
charged  the  cartridge,  which  killed  his  brother,  aged 
two. 

Captain  J.  D.  Lapham,  of  the  10th  Royal  Scots, 
now  attached  to  the  Royal  Engineers,  has  been  pro¬ 
moted  Major,  and  more  recently  awarded  the  Military 
Cross.  Major  Lapham,  who  in  civil  life  is  surveyor 
to  the  Linlithgowshire  County  Council,  is  a  son  of 
Mr.  A.  H.  Lapham,  surveyor,  of  Chippenham,  and 
held  a  commission  at  the  outbreak  of  war.  His  two 
younger  brothers  are  also  serving. 

Corporal  Edward  Foster,  of  the  Mayor’s  Battalion, 
East  Surrey  Regiment,  who  has  won  the  Victoria 
Cross,  was  from  the  age  of  fourteen  until  the  age  of 
twenty-three  in  the  service  of  the  Wandsworth 
Borough  Council  at  the  Tooting  destructor.  He  was 
then  transferred  to  the  council's  contractors  for  the 
removal  of  house  refuse,  in  which  employment  lie  con¬ 
tinued  until  June,  1915,  when  he  enlisted. 

Mr.  E.  F.  Farrington,  who  has  been  borough  sur¬ 
veyor  of  Arundel  for  sixteen  years,  has  resigned, 
having  accepted  the  position  of  surveyor  to  the  Burgess 
Hill  Urban  District  Council.  On  Wednesday  last  the 
Mayor  of  Arundel,  at  a  town  council  meeting,  referred 
with  regret  to  Mr.  Farrington’s  resignation,  and  said 
he  had  carried  out  a  number  of  important  works  very 
successfully.  The  town  council  congratulated  Mr. 
Farrington  on  his  appointment,  and  resolved  that  a 
suitable  appreciation  of  his  services  should  be  entered 
upon  the  minutes. 

Major  W.  H.  Morgan,  r.e.,  son  of  Mr.  E.  F.  Morgan, 
the  borough  roads  surveyor  and  tramway  engineer  of 
Croydon,  -  has  been  three  times  commended  in 
dispatches,  and  has  now  been  awarded  the  d.s.o. 
Major  Morgan’s  pre-war  experience  as  constructive 
engineer  on  the  London  tube  railways  has  proved 
especially  valuable  in  the  tunnelling  work  for  explo¬ 
sive  mines  at  the  front.  Three  younger  sons  of  Mr. 
E.  F.  Morgan  enlisted  as  privates  at  an  early  stage  in 
the  war,  two  have  been  given  commissions,  while  the 
third,  who  was  severely  wounded,  but  has  recovered, 
has  been  appointed  to  a  responsible  post  on  the  staff 
of  General  Maybury,  d.s.o. 

OBITUARY. 

Mr.  John  Adams,  for  many  years  surveyor  and 
inspector  of  nuisances  to  the  Barmouth  urban  dis¬ 
trict,  died  recently,  we  regret  to  state. 

Mr.  Clanmorris  Thompson,  who  was  for  many  years 
surveyor  to  the  Uckfield  Urban  District  Council,  died, 
we  regret  to  state,  on  the  19th  inst.  He  had  been  in 
failing  health  for  some  time,  and  recently  it  became 
necessary  to  amputate  one  of  his  legs. 

KILLED  IN  ACTION. 

Lieutenant  H.  Y.  Maulkinson,  surveyor  to  the 
Mabelthorpe  Urban  District  Council,-  has,  we  regret 
to  state,  died  from  wounds  received  in  action, 


July  27,  1917. 


AND  COUNTY  ENGINEER. 


93 


The  Object  and  Scope  of  the  Institution  of  Municipal 
and  County  Engineers’  Examination.* 

By  EDWARD  WILLIS,  Engineer  and  Surveyor  to  the  Chiswick  Urban  District  Council. 


« 

The  object*  of  this  paper  will  appeal  to  many  mem¬ 
bers  as  one  which  may  not  lend  itself  to  discussion. 
At  the  same  time  the  writer  considers  the  improve¬ 
ment.  of  professional  status  aimed  at  by  the  provision 
of  such  examinations  is  of  the  utmost  importance  to 
students  of  the  institution,  and  such  improvement  in 
the  “personnel  ”  of  the  profession  we  represent  must 
also  apply  equally  to  all  classes  of  our  members,  and 
thug  directly  become  an  advantage  to  the  general 
public. 

Examinations  of  any  kind  are  usually  looked  upon 
from  two  different  points  of  view — viz.,  first,  there  is 
the  man  who  openly  says  he  lias  no  belief  in  the 
utility  of  examinations;  and,  secondly,  there  is  the  en¬ 
gineer  who  realises  that  the  examinations,  if  properly 
conducted  and  supported,  will  in  the  course  of  time 
tend  to  a  vast  improvement  in  the  general  character 
and  status  of  the  institution.' 

In  the  writer’s  opinion  there  is  little  doubt  of  the 
importance  of  systematic  study  and  preparation 
which  generally  results  in  passing  a  properly  con¬ 
ducted  examination  in  any  profession,  and  whilst  it 
is  of  course  possible  for  the  principle  of  “  cramming  ” 
to  be  adopted  in  most  cases,  yet  because  the  object 
has  not  been  obtained  in  the  most  efficient  manner, 
it  is  not  justifiable  to  condemn  it,  even  if  the  method 
of  arriving  thereat  may  not -be  satisfactory. 

It  may  be  considered  that  the  learned  professions, 
such  as  the  law,  the  bar,  and  the  medical,  have 
clearly  established,  not  only  the  necessity,  but  also 
the  advantages  of  a  systematic  education  and  training 
followed  by  a  test  or  examination,  and  it  is  upwards 
of  twenty  years  since  the  Institution  of  Civil  En¬ 
gineers  and  the  Surveyors’  Institution  made  an  ex¬ 
amination  qualification  a  sine  qua  non  for  associate 
members. 

Even  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects  re¬ 
cognise  that  an  examination  is  practically  a  necessity 
before  election  to  associate  membership,  although 
it  has  hitherto  set  its  face  against  compulsory  regis¬ 
tration  of  architects  which,  in  the  opinion  of  many, 
should  follow  and  practically  close  the  profession. 

PRACTICAL  AND  THEORETICAL  KNOWLEDGE. 

An  opponent  of  examinations  continually  raises  the . 
cry,  “  Give  me  a  practical  man  in  preference  to  a 
theoretical  one,”  but  this  is  not  justified  if  the  scope 
of  an  examination  embraces  a  sufficient  amount  of 
practical  experience. 

Surely  the  engineer  with  both  practical  experience 
and  theoretical  knowledge  must  be  superior  to  one 
who  only  has  the  former,  since  in  all  important  works 
some  calcidations  are  needed  to  determine  the  dif¬ 
ferent  lines  upon  which  any  scheme  should  be 
framed.  No  one  is  more  willing  than  the  writer  to 
admit  that  a  purely  theoretical  man  with  no  know¬ 
ledge  of  practical  work  is  often  at  first  a  serious  han¬ 
dicap  to  his  chief,  and  there  is  a  tendency,  it  must  be 
admitted,  for  the  young  engineer  fresh  from  college 
to  feel  that  he  has  stored  up  in  his  brain  a  vast 
amount  of  real  knowledge,  whilst  in  his  chief  he 
thinks  lie  can  observe  the  entire  absence  of  theory 
which  he  lias  been  taught  to  regard  as  essential. 

The  practical  knowledge,  however,  that  is  given  by 
years  of  experience  will  often  serve  to  avoid  the  pitfalls 
that  can  easily  arise  through  slight  errors  in  calcula¬ 
tions  which  may  pass  unnoticed  by  the  theorist.  As  an 
instance  of  this  the  writer  had  an  assistant  at  one  time 
straight  from  an  engineering  college,  and  he  gave  him 
instructions  to  design  a  small  retaining  wall  for  a 
public  convenience.  After  several  hours  of  calcula¬ 
tion  the  design  of  the  wall  was  submitted.  It  was 
clearly  wrong,  and  the  assistant  was  accordingly  in¬ 
structed  to  try  again,  but  the  next  day  an  identical 
design  and  a  similar  set  of  calculations  were  pro¬ 
duced.  the  assistant  in  question  assuring  the  writer 
that  he  would  risk  his  reputation  on  its  stability. 
The  writer  then  made  rough  calculations,  proving  to 
the  assistant  the  fallacy  of  his  deductions,  which, 
upon  a  third  revision,  revealed  a  simple  slip  which 
affected  the  whole  problem. 

This  is  a  simple  illustration,  but  others  have  pro- 


*  Paper  presented  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Institu¬ 
tion  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineer's  at  Hastings. 


babiy  often  occurred  to  most  present,  showing  the 
importance  of  practical  over  theoretical  knowledge, 
and  il  is  only  one  of  many  that  could  be  mentioned. 

PRACTICAL  EXAMINATIONS. 

The  Institution, of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers 
has  always  endeavoured  to  make  the  scope  of  its  ex¬ 
amination  of  a  much  more  practical  character  than 
probably  any  of  the  allied  professions,  except  sur¬ 
gery,  but  even  with  -the  precautions  taken  in  past 
years  it  is  impossible  entirely  to  eliminate  the  class 
of  student  who  relies  principally  upon  the  professional 
coach. 

It  was  upwards  of  three  years  ago  that  the  board  of 
examiners  decided  to  revise  their  syllabus,  and  one 
of  the  particular  features  in  such  revision  was  the  in¬ 
clusion  -of  a  thoroughly  practical  examination.  The 
principal  reason  for  this  important  provision  was 
that  a  number  of  candidates  produced  more  or  less 
correctly  written  papers,  having  marvellous  powers 
of  memorising  formulae  and  various  useful  data,  but 
their  ability  in  dealing  with  practical  problems,  or 
in.  coping  with  the  difficulties  that  continually  arise 
in  practice,  proved  abnormally  deficient  when  leading 
questions  were  at  times  given  in  the  viva  voce 
examination. 

There  is  little  doubt  that  many  of  us  owe  the 
greatest  benefit  to  the  viva  voce  examination  of  the 
old  days,  since  the  most  lenient  examiner  will  seldom 
allow  a  candidate  to  obtain  a  “  testamur  ”  should  he 
fail  to  show  at  least  a  rudimentary  knowledge  in  the 
real  practice  of  his  profession. 

AGE  OF  CANDIDATES. 

One  of  the  most  difficult  questions  to  determine 
and  also  one  that  appears  to  have  exercised  the  minds 
of  examiners  for  some  years,  is  the  age  at  which  a 
candidate  should  be  privileged  to  sit  for  the  examina¬ 
tion. 

It  may  be  remembered  that  this  used  to  be  twenty- 
two  years,  and  the  author  is  of  opinion  that  this 
should  even  be  increased,  but  the  majority  of  the  board 
felt  that  if  an  apt  pupil  really  had  the  privilege  of  pass- 
ing  through  all  departments  in  an  important  urban  dis¬ 
trict,  county  borough  or  city  engineer’s  office,  and  if 
he  made  the  most  of  such  advantages,  and  was  equally 
quick  and  anxious  to  learn,  it  should  be  possible  for 
such  a  candidate  to  have  obtained  a  good  knowledge 
of  the  profession  sufficient  to  enable  him  to  obtain  a 
“  testamur  ”  of  the  institution  when  he  reached 
twenty-one  years  of-  age. 

The  author  recognises  such  is  possible,  but  he  con¬ 
siders  it  exceptional,  and  he  does  not  personally  re¬ 
commend  candidates  to  enter  for  the  present  examina¬ 
tion  until  twenty-two  or  twenty-three  years  of  age. 

REAL  OBJECT  OF  THE  EXAMINATIONS. 

To  revert  to  the  title  of  this  paper,  the  first  point  to 
bp  considered  is  the  .object  of  the  examinations. 

This  may  be  briefly  dealt  with  under  two  headings: 
(1)  fictitious,  (2)  Real. 

How  can  the  object  be  fictitious?  Surely  many  en¬ 
gineers  present  have  met  men  whose  sole  object  in 
passing  a  public  examination  is  to  boast  of  their 
attainments,  to  have  a  string  of  letters  after  their 
names,  and  fo  emphasise  their  own  importance  on 
every  occasion. 

The  author  does  not  desire  to  deprive  them  of  this 
privilege,  as  there  are  times  when  it  may  be  both 
necessary  or  desirable  to  prove  that 'various  examina¬ 
tion  tests  have  been  successfully  passed,  and  there 
are  still  many  persons — sometimes  members  of  the 
councils  whom  we  serve— who  are  impressed  by  such 
titles,  but  he  does  deprecate  the  use  of  such  append¬ 
ages  at  all  times  and  places  to  emphasise  the  alleged 
importance  of  the  individual  concerned. 

What  then  is  the  real  object  ? 

This  appears  to  be  the  natural  climax  of  several 
years  of  close  study  of  the  underlying  principles  and 
practice  of  municipal  engineering  obtained  under 
either  a  system  of  pupilage,  preceded  by  a  full  engi¬ 
neering  college  or  technical  training,  or  followed  by  n 
similar  but  shorter  course.  There  is.  of  course,  the 
alternative  method  which  has  been  adopted  by  many— 
viz.,  to  be  articled  to  an  architect,  quantity  surveyor. 


94 


THE  SURVEYOR  AND  MUNICIPAL 


July  27,  1917. 


or  civil  engineer,  and  subsequently,  after  training  in 
such  profession,  to  enter  that  of  municipal  engineer¬ 
ing  a.s  a  specialist  assistant,  and  then  aim  at  proving 
one’s  interest  and  ability  to  obtain  such  a  grip  of  the 
whole  branch  of  municipal  engineering  as  will  entitle 
such  assistant  to  obtain  the  “  testamur.”  The  prin¬ 
cipal  difference  between  these  two  methods  of  attain¬ 
ing  the  same  object  is  that  the  former  class  more  often 
obtain  the  diploma  at  an  earlier  age. 

The  scope  of  the  examinations  can  be  best  appre¬ 
ciated  by  carefully  reading  the  detailed  syllabus 
issued  by  the  institution,  but  a  few  suggestions  may 
be  desirable  in  further  amplification  thereof. 

It  is  customary  in  a  university  examination  sylla¬ 
bus  to 'set  forth  in  outline  the  stage  to  be  reached  by 
the  examinee,  and  it  is  assumed  to  some  extent  that 
all  previous  knowledge  has  been  permanently 
acquired,  and  needs  no  recapitulation,  but  questions 
may  be,  and  are  often,  asked  upon  more  elementary 
data. 

HOW  TO  SUCCEED. 

Here  an  essential  difference  is  apparent,  for  the 
ordinary  sequence  of  practical  knowledge  in  muni¬ 
cipal  engineering  is  often  unobtainable,  and  the 
student  who  means  to  finish  at  “  the  summit  of  his 
profession  ”  must  be  prepared  to  cope  with  this  dis¬ 
advantage.  How  and  when  should  this  be  done  ?  The 
writer’s  advice  is  by  tact,  vigilance,  courtesy,  until¬ 
ing  energy  for  work  at  all  times,  and  by  that  golden 
rule,  “  doing  to  others  as  you  would  they  should  do 
unto  you.” 

“  Tact  and  courtesy  ”  are  invariably  required  from 
the  moment  a  man  becomes  a  municipal  officer  until 
he  joins  the  “  great  majority,”  and  if  not  possessed 
it  should  be  strenuously  cultivated,  as  without  it  end¬ 
less  opportunities  of  obtaining  and  storing  informa¬ 
tion  will  be  lost,  since  experience  proves  that  much 
may  be  imparted  willingly  by  persons  with  whom  we 
daily  come  in  contact. 

“  Vigilance  ”  is  essential  to  gain  that  knowledge 
and  experience  which  is  often  obtainable  if  we  only 
seek  it  wherever  we  may  be  engaged  or  travelling,  and 
at  all  times. 

It  is  astonishing  what  a  mass  of  knowledge  can  be 
stored  in  the  human  brain,  and  can  be  subsequently 
utilised  if  systematically  memorised. 

This  requires  the  “  untiring  energy  ”  at  all  times 
if  the  store  of  information  daily  being  acquired  is  to 
be  tabulated  and  docketed  for  future  reference,  and 
it  is  largely  due  to  application  of  the  foregoing  that 
a  man  earns  the  title  of  “  being  devoted  to  his  pro¬ 
fession.” 

The  Golden  Kule  may  not  apparently  be  so  necessary, 
for  essentially  selfish  people  do  often  succeed  in  life; 
but  are  they  usually  satisfied  by  their  success  ?  Do 
they  themselves  derive  much  pleasure  or  satisfaction 
therefrom  ?  It  is  doubtful.  But  the  engineer  who 
is  always  willing  to  help  a  colleague  or  a  junior  by 
suggestion,  advice,  or  experience,  without  fee  or  re¬ 
ward,  learns  often  by  thinking  out  others’  problems, 
and  even  the  necessary  discussion  or  visits  add  to  his 
store  of  knowledge. 

The  writer  has  personally,  experienced  the  truth  of 
these  observations  from  both  points  of  view,  and  he 
still  looks  up  with  a  kind  of  affectionate  respect  to 
certain  of  the  past  presidents  who  were  always  willing 
to  help  or  explain  away  difficulties  to  him  and  other 
junior  members  in  the  past,  often  no  doubt  at  great 
inconvenience  to  themselves,  but  never  made  ap¬ 
parent  to  those  who  wanted  to  get  to  the  real  bottom 
of  an  engineering  matter. 

There  is  still  one  other  point  to  be  considered — viz., 
the  scope  of  the  practical  examination.  In  glancing 
over  the  syllabus  it  may  seem  very  wide  to  the  pupil 
or  assistant  in  a  rural  district  engineer’s  office — and 
it  is  wide,  and  will  become  ever  wider  in  the  future, 
as  municipal  engineering  will  not  stand  still.  But 
consider  the  doctor  or  surgeon.  Who  would  like  a 
man  to  operate  on  him  without  some  previous  prac¬ 
tical  experience  as  a  rule?  There  must  certainly  be  a 
first  operation,  but  it  is  usually  -in  the  presence  of 
those  who  can  prevent  any  trouble  arising  from  a  slip 
or  oversight. 

Surely  then  the  public  health  and  administration  of 
a  district  which  is  largely  in  the  hands  of  the  engineer 
and  surveyor  is  an  equally  important  matter,  since 
instead  of  one  life  it  may  mean  thousands  of  lives,  or 
thousands  of  pounds  if  unnecessary  mistakes  are  to 
be  made.  Therefore  read  up,  study,  visit  and  inspect 
every  public  institution  one'  can  Sundays,  weekdays, 
and  holidays,  and  if  the  principles  enunciated  are 
adopted  no  one  need  fear  the  viva  voce  or  practical 
examinations. 


COACHING. 

The  author  does  not  entirely  object  to  the  system 
of  “coaching”;  in  fact,  he  is  strongly  in  favour  of 
tile  young  man  who  has  steadily  worked  through  a 
three  or  four  years’  pupilage,  and  possibly  a  year’s 
work  as  an  assistant,  taking  some  special  course 
of  study  prior  to  sitting  for  the  institution  ex¬ 
aminations  But  he  is  most  strongly  opposed  to  the 
principle  of  a  clerk  or  working  artisan,  who  may  have 
become  an  excellent  road  foreman,  taking  a  course 
of  six  months  with  a  coach  and  then  presenting  him¬ 
self  for  the  institution  examination,  and  he  thinks 
the  old  viva  voce  examination  had  some  advantages 
in  eliminating  the  man  who  was  solely  “  crammed  ” 
from  amongst  those  who  really  had  a  working  expe¬ 
rience  of  the  profession  of  a  municipal  engineer. 

It  is  not  the  author’s  desire  or  intention  to  suggest 
any  deserving  or  budding  engineer  should  be  pre¬ 
vented  from  sitting  for  the  institution  examination, 
but  it  is  only  by  practical  experience  in  a  large  pro¬ 
portion  of  the  duties  of  an  engineer  and  the  daily 
routine  work  which  necessarily  falls  upon  him  or  his 
staff,  that  a  man,  with  a  few  possible  exceptions, 
becomes  fitted  for  the  duties  of  a  similar  post. 

It  ivas  recently  found  by  the  examiners  that  even 
with  the  viva  voce  examination  candidates  did 
occasionally  pass  who  had  but  little,  if  any,  ex¬ 
perience  in  the  use  of  the  ordinary  mathematical  and 
surveying  instruments,  and  they  also  found  that  even 
the  viva  voce  examination,  whilst  it  showed  clearly 
what  a  candidate  did  not  know,  sometimes  did 
not  give  such  candidate  an  opportunity  of  showing 
what  he  actually  did  know,  or  how  he  approached 
practical'  questions,  presumably  in  the  presence  of  his 
employers — viz.,  committees  and  councillors. 

It  was,  therefore,  as  previously  stated,  only  last  year, 
after  many  months  of  very  careful  thought,  that  the 
board  of  examiners  decided  to  advise  the  council  to  in¬ 
stitute  this  practical  examination  in  the  work  of  the 
municipal  and  county  engineer,  and  if  the  syllabus  is 
read  through  thoughtfully  it  will  be  seen  that  a  candi¬ 
date  who  obtains  60  per  cent  of  the  marks  must  have 
some  genuine  knowledge  of  the  practical  side  of  his 
profession. 

A  few  notes  and  suggestions  on  this  branch  of  the 
examinations  may  be  useful  to  future  examinees. 

SECTION  A. — WORKS  OF  ADMINISTRATION. 

The  only  way  to  obtain  a  proper  knowledge  of  this 
section  is  to  never  lose  an  opportunity  of  observing 
building,  engineering  or  road-making,  materials  and 
appliances  wherever  or  under  whatever  conditions 
they  can  be  seen. 

Master  them  carefully,  see  whether  you  cannot  im¬ 
prove  upon  them,  note  any  weaknesses  or  defects  that 
occur  to  you,  and  think  how  those  defects  could  be 
remedied. 

Consider  how  you  would  do  the  work,  or  what 
materials  you  would  use  on  each  occasion,  were  you 
responsible,  and  never  neglect  to  make  notes  of  any¬ 
thing  upon  which  you  think  after  careful  considera¬ 
tion  you  might  improve. 

In  addition,  whenever  new  materials  have  been 
utilised  carefully  observe  the  methods  adopted  in 
working  or  using  and  the  effect  of  weather,  wear  and 
tear  upon  them. 

By  such  procedure  you  will  gradually  acquire  such 
a  store  of  knowledge  that  when  you  come  before  an 
examiner  you  may  perchance,  in  answering  ques¬ 
tions,  give  him  useful  information. 

Carefully  make  yourself  fully  conversant  with  all 
methods  of  storekeeping  and  recording  in  any  other 
office  with  which  you  may  be  connected  or  in  which 
you  have  friends,  and  thus  cultivate  the  greatest  pos¬ 
sible  experience,  even  though  sometimes  under  the 
least  favourable  conditions.  . 

When  you  go  for  a  holiday  utilise  your  spare 
moments  in  such  a  way  that  observation  becomes  a 
pleasant  habit  and  loses  its  identity  as  professional 
work. 

SECTION  B. — PUBLIC  UTILITIES  OR  MUNICIPAL 
UNDERTAKINGS. 

It  will  be  see