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THROUGH THE ..BRITISH EMPIRE 


IN FIVE 


MINUTES. 


COLONIAL AND INDIAN EXHIBITION. 

The Maps of the Hemispheres at the entrance of the Central Annex, constructed by 
W. & A. K. Johnston of Edinburgh and London, measure, in extreme length, forty-two feet • the 
diameter of each, twenty-one feet; and the superficial area is over seven hundred square feet 
The British Possessions are coloured bright scarlet. 


W. & A. K. JOHNSTON 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON 
1886 



T H E O U G H 


THE BRITISH EMPIRJi 


IN 

FIVE MINUTES 


WITH 

E, HOWARD VINCENT, Esq, C.B., M,P, 



W. & A. K. JOHNSTON 
EDINBURGH AND LONDON 
1886 




Digitized by the Internet Archive S 
in 2017 with funding from 
University of Toronto 


https ;//archive.org/details/throughbritishemOOvinc 





> W.&A-K-Jc 



N 


CONTENTS. 

Page 

Chart of the World (Frontispiece) 

Map. showing British Possessions in 1786 ... 3 

Description of the British Possessions ... 7 

British Colonies and Possessions .... 20 

Extent, Population, and Revenue .... 22 

Naval Strength of the British Empire ... 23 

Military Strength of the British Empire . . 24 


6 


THE HOWARD VINCENT MAP 

OF 

THE WORLD. 


E'OTE. 

The Wall Map to which this forms a Handbook gives an 
Alphabetical List of all the British Possessions over the World, 
their extent in square miles, population and revenue, the 
Stations of the British Navy, Steamboat Routes and distances. 
Telegraphs, Railways, and the Admiralty Coaling Stations, 
with an inset Map showing how vast has been the growth 
of the Empire since 1786. ' 


The Map Measures 72 by 63 inches. 

Price on Rollers, Varnished, with Handbook - i o 

,, ,, Mahogany Rollers, Varnished, Silk-bound 

Edges - - - - - - I 1 1 6 

„ in Box, Cloth Case, Mounted in Four Sheets in 6 
,, on Spring Roller, no Case - - - 500 

„ on ,, ,, Mahogany or Oak Case - 8 15 o 

The Map has met with the warmest approval of all Educational 
Authorities, and is a most fitting and useful present to any School- 
room, public or private — one, too, which may have a material in- 
fluence on the veneration for the integrity of the British Empire by 
the future men and women of Great and Greater Britain. 

N.B. — The Handbook will also serve as a Guide to the Large 
Hemispheres situated at the entrance to Central Annex. 


7 


THE 


COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES 


OF THE 


BRITISH 



THEIR TRADE WITH THE MOTHER COUNTRY 
AND OPENINGS FOR THE 
MEN AND WOMEN OF GREAT BRITAIN. 


-o o- 


THE COLONIES AND DEPENDENCIES OF THE 


BRITISH PEOPLE. 


The possessions of the British people extend over somewhat 
more than nine million square miles, and are inhabited by 
320 million persons of all nationalities and religions. They 
embrace the three immense countries of Australia, Canada, 
and India, each nearly the size of all Europe, and 69 terri- 
tories and islands in the two hemispheres. It seems incred- 
ible that this immense dominion, which covers a fifth parti 
of the habitable globe, and is administered by over 50 different | 
governments, subordinate, in Imperial concerns, to that sitting 1 
at Westminster, has been acquired by a people now numbering 
scarcely more than 36 millions, and occupying but one-seven- 
tieth portion of the empire. This empire, five times the size of | 
the Persian Empire under Darius, four times that of the \ 


8 


Roman under Augustus, an eighth larger than All the Russias, 
three times the size of the United States, forty -four times that 
of France, forty-three times that of Germany, is what has been 
bequeathed to us by our fathers. 

These are the fruits of the victories of Marlborough and 
Wellington, of the genius of former statesmen. This is 
what we have to show for the indebtedness of the country, 
which sinks by comparison into insignificance. But in propor- 
tion as we gratefully admire the work of former heroes in the 
senate and -the field, and reap the fruits of their courage and 
wisdom, must we deplore the madness of those who, invested 
with a brief season of power, lost to Great Britain the vast con- 
tinent now occupied by fifty million Americans. Had it not 
been for this black spot on the shield of history that great con- 
federacy of the Anglo-Saxon race which forms the day-dream of 
the humanitarian philosopher would long since have been an 
accomplished fact. 

We cannot dwell as we should upon the special features of 
each of the continents, the territories, and the islands, where the 
sovereignty of the British people proclaims to all men — what- 
ever their Hith or colour — freedom of action, freedom of speech, 
freedom of commerce. But we may glance separately, though 
briefly, at the leading characteristics of each of the five great 
groups into which the empire beyond the seas is divided. Let 
us consider them in this order : — 

I The Australasian Colonies. 

2. The North-American Colonies represented by Canada. 

3. The South African Colonies. 

4. The Indian Empire. 

5. The West Indies. 


THE AUSTRALASIAN GROUR 

The Australasian group consists of the eight colonies of New 
South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western 
Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, and Fiji. It is difficult to 
convey to those who have not seen them an adequate idea of 
the bounties of nature towards this extraordinary region. They 
include in their wide area of more than three million square 
miles every geographical characteristic — noble rivers, magnifi- 
cent mountains, fertile plains, arid deserts, with the most uni- 
form and glorious climate in the world overhead, and below an 


9 


inexhaustible store of mineral wealth. The senior of them has 
yet to celebrate the centenary of its foundation. But the chief 
towns rival the old world in the refinement, the luxury, and the 
culture of civic life, while the bush rears a hardy race devoted 
to field sports and all the manly virtues which have contributed 
to the preeminence of the British people. 

It was but fitting that New South Wales should be the first to 
declare, conjointly with Canada, that the sons of Greater Britain 
are not less willing than the children of the mother country 
to take up arms and lay down their lives for the honour and in- 
tegrity of the mighty empire we share in common. 

Proof has also lately been given by Queensland that the spirit 
which animated the British people in abolishing the slave trade 
at great cost and sacrifice to themselves has taken deep root in 
Greater Britain. The stifling atmosphere of the sugar plantations 
in the northern provinces almost prohibits the labour of white 
men. But, nevertheless, the abuses of the Pacific Island labour 
traffic have been cut down with a vigorous hand, at a sacrifice 
entailing temporary ruin upon hundreds. 

But it is at Melbourne that the attention of the traveller 
is first riveted. Fifty years ago the seat to-day of one of 
the finest cities of the world was but a marsh. Now 
what a change! There is a new Paris. Unlike Rome, it is 
almost the work of a day. Melbourne was planted on a founda- 
tion of gold, and her magnitude and importance increased with 
the discovery of each fresh nugget. 

South Australia is making rapid headway against difficulties 
of no mean order, and Western Australia, although still far be- 
hind, will doubtless lift up its head in the time to come. 

It may be doubted if there is any place in the world where 
men can live upon air ; but if there is one such, it is assuredly 
Tasmania. There it is a perpetual May Day. The summer sun 
is tempered by gentle breezes, and the cold grip of winter is 
unknown. 

But the most attractive colony in Australasia is certainly 
New Zealand. In the lower part of the Middle or South 
Island, as it is now usually called, we find Scotland repro- 
duced. There are the snowy mountains, there the lochs, 
there the frequent rain, there the industrious, frugal, farseeing 
race. 

On the Canterbury Plains we have Yorkshire itself, and the 
country is hardly less attractive in its natural features and daily 
life than its great prototype. 


In the North Island there are still some 40,000 Maoris who 
own the greater part of the land, and have equal rights with the 
colonists. They are a quiet, harmless race, idle perhaps, and 
not scrupulously honest, more especially under the advancing 
influence of civilisation, European clothing, and Irish whisky. 
But the North Island of New Zealand stands preeminent in 
the world in the possession of its hot lakes, hidden in the 
most cunning formations of nature, and springs containing 
all the medicines of science. Men arrive on crutches, racked 
and distorted by disease, and walk away cured. Nor is the 
district a mere hospital. Nature, while benefiting the bodies 
of the afflicted, delights their vision with the most extraordinary 
and exquisite phenomena it is possible to conceive. Yet, where- 
withal, the region is comparatively little known, and by no means 
developed according to modern ideas. 

Fiji is the centre of a numerous group of islands taken but 
ten years ago under British protection, and already the happy 
possessors of a sound administration, a surplus revenue, and 
that without which no Englishman is thoroughly happy, viz. a 
good solid grievance. 

It lies in the fact that this colony and Western Australia are 
still administered as Crown colonies. In each of the six others 
we find a representative Government, of which the Governor 
nominated by the Crown is head, assisted by a responsible 
Ministry formed from the Parliamentary majority for the time 
being. There are two Chambers, the lower elected by universal 
suffrage, an absolute necessity in so thinly peopled a country. 
In New South Wales, New Zealand, and Queensland, the mem- 
bers of the Upper House are nominated for life by the advice 
of the Prime Minister ; but in South Australia, Tasmania, and 
Victoria the Upper House is elected. Sir Charles Gavan Duffy, 
a distinguished Irishman, for many years Premier of the latter 
colony, thus writes on the subject; — ^‘This apparently demo- 
cratic provision proves in practice a source of endless trouble 
and conflict. The nominated council, liable to be modified 
like the House of Lords by new nominations, never proved 
long intractable to the ascertained wishes of the community. 
The elected council, on the contrary, assumes that it is the 
equal of the assembly, deriving its authority also from the ascer- 
tained wish of the electors, and insists that, to give way too 
promptly in a conflict with the other Chamber, is to betray its 
special constituents.” 

Although Australasia, without the New Guinea territory, em- 


II 


braces an area equal to that of all Europe without France or 
Spain, it contains only 3,000,000 inhabitants. The population 
is increasing at the rate of 110,000 a year; but when we con- 
sider that Europe supports 327,000,000, or 87 persons to the 
square mile, we arrive at the astounding result that there is 
room, if not present opening, for some 250,000,000 additional 
British subjects in the Greater Britain of the South Seas. The 
population is now increasing at the rate of 42 per cent, in each 
decennial period, and in 1986 there will be in Australasia, if 
this progression continues, 94 millions of people. 

THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIES, AS 
REPRESENTED BY CANADA. 

Some people may have an idea that Canada is a land of per- 
petual snow. It is far from it, except in the extreme North. 
In the occupied regions the winters are severe, but the cold is 
still and dry, not so trying, therefore, as our incessant changes, 
damp, and east wind. The summer, moreover, is constant and 
delightful. The Dominion is somewhat larger than Austral- 
asia, nearly as large, therefore, as all Europe, and very nearly 
the same size as the United States. But instead of having fifty 
million inhabitants it has but five, and of these nearly one-fourth 
are Frenchmen, industrious, sober, and most loyally attached 
to England, and so unlike their brethren in Europe that they 
can scarcely be reconciled to change in anything at any price. 
We promised their fathers in the last century their language 
and their customs. We have kept our word, and they hold 
us to our bond to the great inconvenience of public life 
and the hindrance of progress. But an event has lately oc- 
curred of the deepest moment to Canada and the entire 
British empire. Not a war, nor a revolution, nor an earth- 
quake, but the triumph of science, the victory of the iron horse. 
In ten years a railway has been driven three thousand miles, 
and the Atlantic Ocean has been joined to the Pacific. A vast 
region has thus been opened to commercial enterprise — most 
fertile and productive in many parts, and, besides this, a new 
route is secured between Great Britain, India, and Australasia. 

From the seven provinces of Ontario and Quebec, Manitoba 
and British Columbia, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince 
Edward Island, each with a local legislature bound solidly to- 
gether in loyalty and attachment to the empire by the Dominion 


12 


Parliament, and from the newest route to the East, let us 
cross the Atlantic to the old road round the Cape, and stop at 

THE SOUTH AFRICAN COLONIES. 

We have not here the same prosperity and progress which 
are seen in Australasia and Canada. It is a maxim in 
the colonial service, and one which has proved but too 
true, that the difficulties of the administration of the Cape 
Colony and Natal are such as to ensure the ruin of any reputa- 
tion. The South African Colonies, without the recently- 
acquired territory of Bechuanaland, are about the size of 
Austria-Hungary — that is, a quarter of a million square miles 
in extent, but with only a million and a half inhabitants. Ever 
since they came into British possession they have been the 
scene of incessant warfare and rebellion. The Kaffirs, the 
Hottentots or Totties, the Dutch Boers, and the Zulus have all 
given us very serious trouble. All must deplore that a region so 
favoured by nature, so delightful in climate, should have 
brought so little good comparatively to the human race. 
Whether or not we should not have done better to re- 
tain the fertile island of Java ceded in 1814, and handed 
back the Cape of Good Hope to the Dutch, our fore- 
runners in the East, it is too late to inquire. But one great 
lesson should not be lost upon the statesmen of to-day, and 
that is, that an independent constitutional and representative 
Government does not prove successful unless granted to a per- 
fectly united nation existing but for one purpose. 

Sailing up the Indian Ocean we pass the sugar island of 
Mauritius, sorely depressed by the German bounty system, and 
come to 

THE INDIAN EMPIRE. 

This immense territory, the size of Europe without Russia, 
is perhaps that possession which reflects the greatest honour 
and material advantage upon the British people. Two 
hundred and fifty-four millions of people bow to the sove- 
reignty of the British Empress of India. The fertile plains 
which stretch from the slopes of the gigantic Himalayas to the 
ocean, and thence again to the frontiers of Siam and the densely 
populated markets of China, are safe now from the devastating 
hordes which poured down upon them in former days, times 
without number, through the Khyber Pass from the camps of 


13 


Central Asia. Much further back into the labyrinths of antiquity 
runs the history of India than that of Europe. While we here 
were a rude uncivilised people, India was in advance of the times. 
But invasion from without — such as has been threatened in 
recent days, too, and quarrels within, held her back, and now 
we have caught her up, surpassed, and given her the fruits of 
a superior intelligence. Five hundred feudal princes are still 
allowed territorial independence. Hindus, Mohammedans, 
Buddhists, and Parsees are as free to pursue their religion as 
Christians. The administration of the country is conducted to 
a vast extent by native officials. But so just and equitable is 
our rule, so widely are its benefits recognised, that one British 
soldier is sufficient to secure the interests of the British people 
among some 4000 natives. But while this is the case, we 
must ever remember that a mere handful of Europeans amid 
rival races, jealous families, antagonistic religions, and an in- 
extricable web of prejudiced castes, must not forget that 
physical preparation is a necessary guarantee for the preserva- 
tion of safety and the maintenance of order. We have given 
the Indian peoples liberally of our substance — our blood, our 
money, our liberty, our knowledge, our education. While we 
concede all that progress demands, we must not submit to the 
use of our very gifts against us at the restless instigation of 
ambitious spirits, but courageously continue in the course we 
have followed for two centuries with such conspicuous success, 
to the advantage of the whole world. Let us now retrace our 
path, and glance for a moment at the numerous islands in the 
West Atlantic forming 

THE WEST INDIAN POSSESSIONS. 

Time was when their value and importance was far in 
advance of their position to-day. Of the fifteen principal ones, 
Jamaica is the chief and in some measure holds its place. 
Large fortunes were made in by-gone times. But the abolition 
of forced labour and the creation of a free people, has changed 
the course of events. An improvement is confidently expected 
in the early future, and it is to be hoped that Parliamentary 
efforts may be directed to that end. 

We have thus been led rapidly through the five prin- 
cipal regions in which the sovereignty of the British 
people holds sway. We have not been able to tarry 
at numerous trading stations over which flies the Union 


14 


Jack. Nor have we had time to stop at the fortresses and 
military posts which the far-seeing wisdom of our ancestors 
acquired to secure us in the possession of their legacy. Of such 
we have Gibraltar guarding the mouth of the Mediterranean, 
Aden commanding the entrance to the Red Sea, Singapore 
holding the gate between the China Sea and the Indian Ocean, 
and Hongkong watching the broad surface of the Sea of Japan. 
Then we have the Falkland Islands to watch over the stormy 
rounding of Cape Horn, St. Helena the tomb of fallen great- 
ness, and last, but not least, the now prosperous Island of 
Cyprus. 

We see, truly, that our empire is one on which the sun never 
sets, and on some portion of which summer is ever present. 
We can almost hear the applause of the American Senate as 
their greatest orator spoke half a century ago of “ Britain, that 
great country, who has illuminated the surface of the whole 
globe with her possessions and military posts, whose morning 
drum beats following the sun in his rising, and keeping com- 
pany with the hours, encircles the earth with one continuous 
and unbroken strain of the martial airs of England.” I must 
now trespass upon your attention while we briefly survey 

THE COMMERCE BETWEEN YOUR POSSESSIONS. 

Let us pause, though for a moment, to look at the immense 
volume of trade in the hands of the British people. It amounts 
to no less than 1,210 million pounds sterling annually, and of 
this 760 millions belong to the mother country wherein we 
stand. We thus see that the import and export trade of the 
British empire is more than half that of the whole of the rest 
of the world put together, and that the foreign trade of the 
United Kingdom is very nearly double that of France, which 
stands next in order with 464 millions. 

Our total export trade from the United Kingdom amounts 
to 327 millions, and one-third thereof goes to British posses- 
sions. Four-fifths of the imports into India are British. In 
nearly every colony one-half of the external trade is with Great 
Britain, and three-fifths of it with the British people located in 
some portion of their empire. As an illustration of the vast 
interchange of commerce between British possessions, no better 
example can be found than Victoria. There the strictest pro- 
tective duties prevail, and with no diminution as regards British 
goods. Yet, notwithstanding this, we find that out of a total 


15 


import trade of 19 millions in 1884, no less than 17 millions’ 
worth were imported from British possessions, and of this more 
than half came from the United Kingdom. Nor is it less 
remarkable that the imports from the mother country into 
British possessions have nearly doubled during the last fourteen 
years, while the amount of British goods purchased by the 
great European nations has only increased by one-seventh. 

How different is the condition of commerce between Great 
Britain and foreign States we see at once, when we find that 
while England buys one-fourth of the total exports of France, 
British goods only amount to one-twelfth of her imports. We 
buy one-sixth of the goods sent abroad by Russia, but of the 
goods the subjects of the Tsar purchase from abroad, ours only 
amount to one-eighteenth. 

In short, if we strike an average of the returns over a 
term of years, we buy 175 millions’ worth of foreign goods 
in Europe, and only sell to Europe in millions’ worth of 
British goods, that is, a deficiency of 64 millions against us. 
In foreign countries, not in Europe, we buy 140 millions’ 
worth of goods, but only sell to them in return 70 millions’ 
worth, or one-half. There is, consequently, a balance of con- 
siderably over a hundred million annually against us in favour 
of the foreigner. 

To look at the matter in another way. Whereas we find 
that foreign countries consume an average of less than los. per 
head of British goods, the Canadians consume ^ 2 per head, 
the South African Colonists ^3 per head, and the Australians 
more than ^8 per head. It was a saying in the olden time 
that one Englishman was a match for two Frenchmen, but 
now we find that two Australians do more for British com- 
mercial interests than thirty-three Americans. 

These figures prove beyond all doubt that the object 
for which our fathers fought, died, and denied themselves, 
of acquiring colonies to increase the markets of the mother 
country, has been attained, and this, although the restrictions 
on colonial trade which overthrew the Spanish and other 
empires of former ages, and did our own such grievous injury, 
have been happily removed. 

Let us now observe the other side of the picture, and see 
not only what sale markets we find in the colonies, but also 
what advantageous markets in which to purchase all we require 
from other countries for food and clothing, and to work those 
industries we have established in our midst. We buy from our 


i6 


brethren beyond the sea no less than 90 millions’ worth of 
goods every year, and it is a trade which is constantly extend- 
ing and increasing. The varied climates and varied soils of 
the possessions we share in common with Australasians, 
Canadians, South Africans, Indians, and they with us, are 
capable of producing every single article any one of us may 
require for the sustenance of life, the luxury of fashion, or the 
pursuit of our callings. We provide capital, industry, experi- 
ence in manufacture, iron, steel, coal, cutlery, machinery, and 
ships ; Australasia gives wool, meat, excellent wine and oil ; 
Canada furnishes corn, beasts, and timber ; South Africa sends 
diamonds, feathers, corn, and wine ; India supplies corn, tea, 
rice, silk, and cotton ; while the West Indies provide sugar, 
coffee, and tobacco. If, then, all the rest of the world were 
closed to us, and our condition reduced to that of only trading 
within our own empire, we should only be sufferers in degree, 
provided we had not lost sight of the necessity of material 
force, especially on the high seas as of old, in the days pre- 
sent and to come of might and right. 

Addressing the London Chamber of Commerce, not long 
since, Mr Colquhoun, a gentleman who, the Times said, 
has had unrivalled opportunities of studying British commerce 
abroad, declared that : “An examination of the total trade of 
the fourteen principal States of Europe from i860 to 1881 
brings out the significant fact that, while our trade has in- 
creased 85 per cent, that of the fourteen countries combined 
has grown 162 per cent, or nearly twice as fast as our own ; 
and these figures are becoming more and more unfavourable. 
In the growth of the European continental trade we have 
failed to participate, except as carriers. We have up to 
the present time proceeded on the old, comfortable, easy 
system of permitting things to arrange themselves, and the 
only policy, or what has taken the place of a policy, has been 
laisser alter. This was possible while markets were to be had 
at will, and customers were more numerous than producers. 
But now, with overstocked markets at home, our population 
increasing, and hemmed in by competition and hostile tariffs 
on all sides, we must not only reverse this easy-going policy, 
but throw ourselves into the struggle with our utmost energies. 
There is room here in abundance for drastic reform. The only 
remedy for this state of affairs is to discover new customers, 
who are to be found in new markets, and in developing those 
already existing. These areas for the extension of our com- 


^7 


merce are to be found in the colonies and in the unopened 
markets of Asia and Africa. The value of the British colonies 
and possessions is not even yet recognised by the mercantile 
and manufacturing classes of the country, and still less by the 
working man. They are by far our best customers.” 

I agree in this view. The mutual trade of the British empire 
is only in its infancy. It behoves us to increase and develop 
it by every possible means. We must throw ourselves into 
the struggle with increased energy. 

OPENINGS FOR ENGLISH, SCOTCH, AND IRISH. 

Let us inquire into the openings British men and women can 
find in Greater Britain. During the last thirty-two years, no 
less than 5J million persons have emigrated from the mother 
country. Of these, 20 per cent., or one-fifth, have gone to 
Australasia, 10 per cent, to Canada, and 60 per cent, to the 
United States of America. Is there a true patriot who can 
look without sorrow at the emigration of nearly four million 
British subjects to another flag ? It is not only because in 
their oath of naturalisation they “ particularly, absolutely, and 
entirely renounce and abjure all allegiance and fidelity to Vic- 
toria, Queen of Great Britain and Ireland ; ” but also because 
they do the friends they leave behind a grievous wrong. 

There can be no true relationship without a common 
nationality ; and who would not sooner cut off his right hand 
than lose his British citizenship or take that oath, while there 
is British soil equally attractive and offering better prospects 
crying out for population? The four millions of emigrants who 
have gone to America may not only one day have to take 
up arms against us — pray God that it may be in the very dis- 
tant future, if at all ; but they only consume, as we have seen 
this evening, ;£'2, 000,000 worth of British manufactures per 
annum, instead of ^^32, 000,000 worth, if they had gone to 
Australasia. It is much to be regretted that past Govern- 
ments have not recognised this matter, and taken steps 
to prevent the cheaper passage to America deciding the 
choice of a new home. Nobody wants those to emigrate 
who are doing well here. But if times are hard, trade bad, or 
competition excessive, why hesitate ? There is no reason why 
a man should go for good. The journey for a single man 
is nothing at all, and if he does not like it he can come home 
again. He will find a glorious climate, plenty of work for 


i8 


industrious hands, the telegraph tells him every day all that is 
passing here, and every week brings letters from “ Our Home.” 
The laws are the same, the customs are the same, the sports 
are the same, and the openings are unbounded. But do 
not misunderstand me. There are openings without number 
for capital, for enterprise, for intelligence, and for hands. But 
there are none for “ ne’er-do-wells,” or for mere clerical apti- 
tude. Hands are wanted — not heads. There are too many 
heads already, and all the vacancies are filled up from the well- 
educated ranks of born colonials. 

If you think of emigrating be sure 

“ In spite of all temptations. 

To belong to other nations. 

You remain an Englishman.” 

By so doing you will become a purchaser of British work and 
that of your relations and comrades to the amount of ;£2 a 
year, if you go to Canada, or ^8 a year if you go to Austral- 
asia. 

Now what are the class of men who are wanted and who 
find ready employment ? Chief among them, come men with 
a knowledge of machinery, who can drive a stationary or loco- 
motive steam engine, understand its mechanism, and do the 
repairs themselves. Then carpenters, plumbers, masons, and 
bricklayers are in constant demand. But most of all, farm 
labourers and handy men are in request. The wages vary in 
the several colonies, but they may be generally taken as fully 
half as much again as at home, and with every prospect of 
advancement in life. House rent is dearer in the neighbour- 
hood of towns, but living is not expensive, and in most parts of 
Australasia qd. or 5d. a pound for prime meat is high. It goes 
without saying that for men with large or even small capital, 
say ^looo, the chances of very favourable investment are 
innumerable if they will only bide their time, look before 
they leap, gain colonial experience, and unlearn much of 
their old-world knowledge. But while there is much that 
is very attractive in the colonies, you will readily believe that 
“it is not all beer and skittles.” Those who want to get on 
must work desperately hard, perhaps harder than they ever did 
at home, with many ups and downs ; they will have to undergo 
many hardships in all probability ; but in front of all there is 
wealth, position, and influence. It is attainable by the most 
deserving of the very humblest, and for those who turn the 


19 


deafest ear to the ruinous cry for those who want to get on in 
the world, as all men do who are worth their salt, of 

“ Eight hours work. 

Eight hours play, 

Eight hours sleep, 

Eight bob a day.” 

But I must not forget the ladies. They must pardon my want 
of gallantry if I tell them that females are greatly in excess in 
England. They are, however, greatly in the minority in the 
colonies. The demand for female domestic servants is far 
greater than the supply, and wages are excellent. They are 
well treated and fed, and in addition to all this, they will 
probably be able to exercise much freedom of choice to what 
fortunate man they will say “for better, for worse.” In 
spite of the great areas wanting population, and the constant 
demand for good hands in Australasia, the Colonial Govern- 
ments have to be very careful of their popularity in assisting 
immigration, as, of course, the tendency is to reduce the rate 
of wages by increasing the supply of labour. But the Govern- 
ments of Queensland and New South Wales still offer consider- 
able facilities, as does Canada and the Cape Colony. 

It is not my purpose to recommend anyone to emigrate, and 
still less to recommend any particular colony. But if there is 
any single man under thirty-five years of age, any single female 
under thirty, any married couple under forty years of age, who 
think for any reason of seeking a new home, then the best 
advice I can give them is to get the “Handy Guide to Emi- 
gration to the British Colonies,” published by the Central Emi- 
gration Society, and then write to the Agent-General of the 
Colony they select, in Victoria Street, London, for all the latest 
particulars as to passage, and information as to free grants of 
land, etc. But whatever your decision, whatever befall you, 
in the Old World or the New, 

“ Hold with Britain heart and soul — 

One life, one flag, one fleet, one throne — 

Britons hold your own, 

And God guard all ! ” 


C. E. HOWARD VINCENT. 


20 


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22 


THE POSSESSIONS OF THE BRITISH PEOPLE. 


APPROXIMATE STATISTICS. 

Total Revenue of the British Possessions, £206,335,000. 

,, Imports from!,. , , r,, , 152,975,495 

„ Exports to j-JVlutual Hade ,, 137,477,666 

,, Square Miles ,, ,, 8,850,526 

,, Population ,, ,, 309,934,450 

Approximate Armed Defensive Strength of our Empire. 
500 Ships of War ; 106,000 Sailors. 

2,250,000 Soldiei’s (Regular, Reserve, Retired, or of the Great 
Police Army of Order) and 20,000 Cannon. 


The English-speaking People over the AVorld number about 100,000,000. 


THE MOTHER COUNTRY. 


“OUR HOME.” 
ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, 

Sq. Miles. 

Population. 

Annual 

Revenue. 

WALES, IRELAND . 

121,500 

36,000,000 

£90,000,000 

ADEN 

65 

35,000 

£ 83,000 

ASCENSION 

34 

300 

BAHAMAS 

. 5,500 

44,000 

53,000 

BASUTO LAND 

10,000 

128,000 

BERMUDAS 

41 

15,000 

29,000 

CANADA 

3,500,000 

5,000,000 

7,200,000 

CAPE COLONY 

242,000 

1,200,000 

5,500,000- 

CEYLON 

.25,000 

3,000,000 

1,140,000 

CYPRUS 

. 4,000 

190,000 

195,000 

FALKLAND ISLANDS 

. 5,000 
. 8,000 

2,000 

8,000 

FIJI ISLANDS 

4,000 

107,000 

GAMBIA 

20 

14,000 

27,000 

GIBRALTAR 

1| 

24,000 

44,000 

GOLD COAST 

15,000 

520,000 

105,000 

GUIANA 

85,000 

260,000 

460,000 

HELIGOLAND 

i 

2,000 

8,000 

HONDURAS 

. 8,000 

27,000 

52,000 

HONG-KONG 

32 

160,000 

253,000 

INDIA AND BURMA .... 

1,452,375 

257,000,000 

74,000,000 

JAMAICA AND TURKS ISLANDS . 

. 4,000 

582,000 

580,000 

LABUAN 

30 

6,000 

5,000 

LAGOS 

73 

75,000 

42,000 

LEEWARD ISLANDS .... 

. 694 

120,000 

■ 116,000 

MALTA AND GOZA .... 

. 117 

150,000 

206,000 

MAURITIUS 

. 708 

360,000 

956,000 

NATAL 

. 21,000 

420,000 

620,000 

NEWFOUNDLAND .... 

.40,000 

160,000 

284,000 

NEW GUINEA 

NEW SOUTH WALES .... 

100,000 

325,000 

1,000,000 

7,500,000 

NEW ZEALAND 

105,000 

600,000 

4,000,000 

NORTH BORNEO 

26,000 

150,000 

PERIM (Naval and Military Station) 

7 

150 


QUEENSLAND 

668,000 

300,000 

2,600,000 

ROTUMAH 

14 

3,000 


ST. HELENA 

47 

5,000 

12,000 

SIERRA LEONE 

. 468 

61,000 

62,000 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA .... 

903,000 

320,000 

2,100,000 

STRAITS SETTLEMENT . 

. 1,000 

470,000 

450,000 

TASMANIA 

. 26,000 

127,000 

560,000 

TRINIDAD 

. 2,000 

153,000 

458,000 

VICTORIA 

88,000 

932,000 

6,000,000 

WEST AUSTRALIA .... 

1,057,000 

30,000 

250,000 

WINDWARD ISLANDS 

. 800 

285,000 

270,000 


-i 


23 


THE APPROXIMATE NAVAL STRENGTH OF 
THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 

500 Ships of War with an aggregate burden of about 
1,000,000 tons, and a total of 

106.000 Officers, Seamen, and Royal Marines. 

The British Navy (including the Naval Forces, of course, 
of Australasia and India) consists of 

80 Armour-plated Vessels of War, each averaging 7000 
tons burden. 

140 Armed Cruisers, Sloops, and Gun-boats, averaging 
1300 tons burden. 

160 Torpedo Vessels and Boats. 

120 Armed Transports, Troop Ships, Despatch Vessels, 
and Tugs. 

500 (At least) Fast Ocean Steamers, easily adaptable and 
ready at short notice as Armed Cruisers with their 
complement of able Officers and Seamen from the 
Merchant Marine. 

47.000 Officers and Sailors in permanent employ. 

13.000 Officers and Soldiers of the Royal Marine Artillery 

and Light Infantry. 

22.000 Naval, Regular, and Volunteer Reserve. 

24.000 Trained “British Tars” on pensions, but ready with 

Hearts of Oak to obey their country’s call. 


24 


THE APPROXIMATE MILITARY DEFENSIVE 
STRENGTH OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 


Two Million Two Hundred and Fifty Thousand Men. 


185.000 Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Soldiers of 

the British Regular Standing Army at Home and 
Abroad. 

460.000 Officers and Soldiers in the Reserve Forces of Great 

Britain and Ireland. 

65,000 Drilled Police. 

500.000 (At least) Officers and Soldiers, in Great Britain 

trained to arms, in the Regular Army, Militia, or 
that Volunteer Force for National Defence, which 
is the proudest institution of British patriotism, 
but now retired from active duty until summoned 
by their country’s bugle-call. 

700.000 Officers and Soldiers, in Greater Britain (Australasia, 

Canada, and South Africa), who have been trained 
to arms, and are now in either the Permanent 
Forces, Armed Constabulary, Standing Militia, 
Reserve Militia, or Volunteer Forces. 

150.000 Indian Troops. 

190.000 Indian Police.