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Mresenteh  to 

Che  ICthrary 

of  1I]C 

llniiuu'situ  of  (Eormtta 

.   Eric  E.    Ryerson 


November,    1S99.   to   April,    1900 













Vol.  IV. 















The  Wide  World  Magazine. 

Vol.   IV. 

NOVEMBER,    1899. 

No.   19. 

In  the  Khalifa's  Clutches;    or,  My  Twelve  Years'  Captivity  in 

Chains  in  Omdurman.* 

ASSEENA  had  been  told  that  the 
best  remedy  for  my  fever  was  a 
description  of  vegetable  marrow 
soaked  in  salt  water ;  the  water 
was  to  be  drunk  and  the  marrow 
eaten  as  the  patient  recovered.  Now  the 
purgative  properties  of  this  medicine  might  suit 
Soudani  constitutions,  and  it  evidently  suited 
mine  at  the  time,  but  I  warn  any  of  my  readers, 
should  they  be  so  unfortunate  as  to  contract 
this  fever,  against  attempting  the  remedy.  When 
the  decoction  has  acted  sufficiently,  the  mouth 
is  crammed  with  butter,  which,  to  the  throat,  at 
this  stage  of  the  "cure,"  feels  like  boiling  oil, 
and  the  wretched  patient  experiences  all  the 
sensations  of  internal  scalding.  The  next 
operation  is  briskly  to  rub  the  whole  body,  and 
then  anoint  it  with  butter  or  oil — butter  for 

The  patient  has  nothing  to  say  about 
Kulo*Cuws*  his  treatment — he  is  helpless.  Every 
bit  of  strength  and  will  has  left  him, 
and  when  he  has 
been  rolled  up  in 
old  camel-cloths 
and  "sweated," 
weakness  hardly  ex- 
presses the  condi- 
tion he  has  arrived 
at.  It  was  on  the 
thirteenth  day  of 
my  attack  that  I 
reached  the  final 
stage  of  my  treat- 
ment, and  then  I 
fell  asleep.  I 
awoke  some  hours 
later  with  a  clear 
head  and  all  my 
faculties  about  me, 
though  I  was  then 
but  a  living  skele- 
ton. The  Khalifa, 
hearing  of  my  con- 
dition, thought  it 
a  favourable  oppor- 
tunity    for     me     to 

By  Charles  Neufeld. 


receive  a  few  more  lessons  in  Mahdieh,  and 
my  period  of  convalescence  was  much  pro- 
longed owing  to  the  worry  and  annoyance 
these  teachers  of  Mahdieh  caused  me.  Kadi 
Hanafi,  one  of  Slatin's  old  kadis,  then  im- 
prisoned with  me,  owing  to  his  open  avowal 
that  the  justice  and  the  sentences  given  by  the 
Mehkemehs  (religious  courts)  were  against 
the  teachings  of  the  Koran,  told  me  it  was  a 
mistake  on  my  part  so  openly  to  defy  the 
Khalifa,  and  that  it  would  be  more  "politique" 
to  submit  as  had  Slatin,  who  had  now  his  house, 
wives,  slaves,  horses,  donkeys,  and  cultivated 
land  outside  the  city.  But  in  my  then  con- 
dition, a  little  procession,  which  my  dead  body 
would  be  the  reason  for,  was  much  more  to  my 


And  I  did  not  really  care  in  what 
?«? Death?  shape  death  came,  provided  that  it  did 

come,  and  that  quickly.  Hanafi  used 
up  all  his  arguments  in  trying  to  persuade  me  to 
become  a  good  Muslim.     Dilating  on  the  power 



Vol.   IV.— 1. 

Copyright,  1899,  by  the  International  News  Company,  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

THE    W'ini      WORLD    MAGAZINE. 



Emitted   and 



:    i;,  would 



•  lipping    back    into 

.  <d  that  the 

live  after  embracing 

•   ith,    in    the    hope    of    m\ 

But,  nevertheless,  this 

invert  me, and  the  Khalifa, 

.   and    not    believing 

might  have  done  with 

t  him  later,  lor  this  and  other 

to  J      .:!  Rajaf,  near  I  ado, 


■ne    I    had   gained   sufficient 

nipt    flight    the     men 

lest  heart,  and  there  was 

NTur  ed    I  >in   was  dead, 







tov.  him. 

After  All. 

I  R    Of    THE   SAIF.R    PRISON, 


Ihning  my  twelve  years'  captivity,  this,  my  very 
first  chance  of  escape  risk)-  and  desperate 
though  it  was  was  the  only  one  which  had  in 
it  a  real  clement  of  success;  for  my  conductor 
in  saving  me  was  to  save  himself  also. 

But  to  return  to  my  prison  life.  As  is 
customary  in  all  Oriental  prisons,  the  prisoners 
in  the  Saier  had  either  to  purchase  their  own 
food,  or  their  friends  and  relatives  had  to  send 
it  into  the  prison  for  them ;  failing  money, 
friends,  and  relatives,  the  prisoners  simply 
starved  to  death.  I  have  already  said  that  the 
best  and  greater  part  of  the  food  sent  to  the 
prison  gates  was  appropriated  by  the  gaolers — 
that  is  to  say,  after  Idris  es  Saier  had  first  seen 
to  the  wants  of  his  "starving  children"  and 
numerous  household.  Idris,  even  during  the 
worst  period  of  the  famine,  did  not  lose  flesh  ; 
he  was  always  the  same  tall,  stout,  flat-nosed 
black  that  he  was  when  I  first  saw  him  on  May 
10th,  1887,  and  when  1  last  saw  him  in  Sep- 
tember, 1898. 

Not  so  Bad  N°r  was  Idris  quite  so  bad  as  he  had 
been    painted;    he    would    often — for 

example,  when 
the  Nebbi  Khiddr 
tale  had  had  the 
desired  effect  in 
the  way  of  repent- 
ance ;  or  when  he 
was  in  a  good 
humour  after  a 
bout  of  marrissa 
drinking — go  out 
of  his  way  to  do 
his  prisoners 
small  kindnesses, 
such  as  the  re- 
moval of  extra 
chains,  and  the 
giving  of  per- 
mission to  sleep 
in  the  open.  The 
Nebbi  Khiddr  in- 
stitution, however, 
left  him  very 
much  at  the 
mercy  of  the 
Khalifa's  imme- 
diate attendants, 
and  his  periods  of 
good  humour 
were,  in  con- 
sequence, of  very 
short  duration. 
Some  day,  if  I 
return  to  the 
Soudan,  or  Idris 
pays    a    visit    to 


civilization,  I  may  learn  from  him  whom  I  have 

to  thank  for  a  few  of  the  unnecessary  hardships 

inflicted  upon  me. 

It  might  be  asked   why  we,  knowing  that  the 

guards   would   purloin  the  greater   part   of   the 

food  sent  in,  did  not  arrange  for  a  larger  quantity 

to  be  sent.     There  are  two  explanations  for  this, 

and  the  first  is  the  least  of  the  two  :    the  guards 

knew  very  well  what  was  the  minimum  amount 

of  food  required  to  keep  us  alive,  and  just  that 

quantity  and  no  more  would  be  allowed  to  pass 

the  portals  of  the  Saier. 

The  second  reason  was,  because  the 

a  Reason  sjgnt    Qf  more    or    betta-  food    being 

Extortion,  brought  to  a  prisoner  proved  one  of 

two  things  :  either  the  prisoner  himself 

had     received    some 

money,    or    his    friends 

had  ;  and   the  following 

day      the       time  -  worn 

Nebbi  Khiddr  tale,  pro- 
perly   translated,   meant 

pain    and    chains    until 

more  dollars  were  forth- 
coming.      And,     under 

such  circumstances,  the 

unlucky  offender  against 

Saier  politics  would   be 

called  upon  by  the  other 

mulcted      prisoners      to 

make   good    the  money 

they  had    been    robbed 

of;    for    the    Idris    was 

most    impartial    in    the 

matter  of    chains,    and, 

certain  of  always  getting 

the  proper  victim  in  the 

end,     he     invariably 

loaded  a  dozen  or  so  of 

the  prisoners  with  extra 

chains,  a.nd  then  ordered 

all     into     the     Umm 

Hagar.     An   attenuated 

and  burned  chicken,  or 

pigeon,  cost  a  few  dollars 

in  repentance,  and  also 

the     wearing    of     extra 

chains     besides     the 

horrors  of  the   Umm    Hagar,  or   hellish    Black 

Hole,  for  nights;  for  it  was  advisable  to  keep 

Idris   waiting    some    days    for   an    evidence    of 

repentance,  so  that  he  should  believe,  and  the 

Khalifa's  attendants  believe  also,  that  some  little 

difficulty  had  been  experienced  in  collecting  the 

few  dollars  you  had  to  pay. 

Our  usual  food  was  "Asseeda,"  the 
ordinary  Soudan     dourra     (sorghum),     roughly 

Prison  Food.p0un(je(j    w|-,en    mojst)    an(J    mjxed  intO 

a   thick  paste.      It  felt   and  tasted  to 


From  a  Photo,  specially 

the  palate  like  sawdust.  It  was  not  a  very 
nourishing  dish,  but.  was  a  heavy  one,  and  it 
stayed  the  pangs  and  gnawings  of  hunger. 
A  flavour  might  have  been  imparted  by  allowing 
a  quantity  to  stand  for  a  day  or  two  until 
fermentation  had  set  in.  Occasionally  —  but 
only  occasionally  —  a  sauce  made  from  the 
pounded  seed  of  the  Baamia  hybiscus,  and 
called  "  Mulakh,"  could  be  obtained,  and  this, 
with  the  fermented  asseeda,  was  considered  a 
veritable  banquet.  Friends  in  the  town  sent  us 
— when  they  could  either  afford  or  obtain  it — a 
little  wheaten  bread,  a  bit  of  cheese  or  butter, 
or  a  few  pinches  of  coffee. 

Among  the  many  captives  in  Omdurman  who 
did  so  much  for  me  Father  Ohrwalder  stands  out 

prominently;  also  theold 
Greek  lady,  Cattarina— 
who  was  a  ministering 
angel  alike  to  Saier 
prisoners  and  captives 
in  the  town;  Mr.  Tramba 
and  his  wife  Victoria ; 
Nahoum  Abbajjee ;  and 
Youssef  Jebaalee. 
Surely  the  recording 
angel  has  placed  to  the 
right  side  of  his  account 
the  little  deceptions 
practised  by  Father 
Ohrwalder  to  gain  access 
to  the  prison,  when  the 
few  piastres  of  back- 
sheesh he  could  afford 
were  not  sufficient  to 
satisfy  the  rapacity  of 
the  guards,  and  this  in 
order  to  bring  me  some 
little  dainty,  when,  God 
knows,  he  was  bringing 
me  the  lion's  share  of 
what  he  was  in  absolute 
need  of  himself.  At  one 
time  he  would  present 
himself  at  the  gates  as 
being  Jyyan  Khaalas 
(sick  unto  death),  and, 
of  course,  he  wished  to 
see  me  once  again  before  his  dissolution.  At 
another  time  it  would  be  that  he  had  heard 
I  was  dying — and  then,  of  course,  he  wished 
to  see  me.  The  changes  would  also  be  rung 
by  his  coming  in  on  the  pretext  of  wishing  to 
see  some  other  prisoner. 

With    bowed    head    and   bent    back, 

ohrwaider-sexaggera,;ing   the   weak  state    he  was 

Ruses.    then   undoubtedly  in,  he  would  crawl 

towards   me,   dragging  one  foot  after 

the   other,   and,  on  reaching   me,   he   would  sit 

•"a  ministering  angel  alike 

cai'tives  in  the  town." 
taken  for  this  narrative. 

1111     WIDE    WORID    MAGAZINE 



d  sway  his  body  to  and 

allowed  of  his 

dainties  he  had 

ling  from   his 

ior  man 

tut  his  persist- 

ry  one  or  two 

ars  in  prison. 

Jit  from  the  out- 

to  think  about 

in  until  I  t  visit. 

«rhen    allowed    to 

air  at  night-time, 

all  the  horrors 

■  ell,   the 

fif  into  a  sound 

uld  start  up  out  of  some 

confused  dream  of  old  days;  and,  looking  up 
to  the  sky,  I  would  wonder  to  myself,  half  awake 
and  half  asleep,  which  was  the  dream  and 
which  the  realit)  the  old  loved  scenes  or  the 
awful  prison  of  Es  Saier  at  Omdurman— the 
.  apital  of  the  Soudanese  despot.  I  would 
for  some  moments  be  afraid  to  look  round  at 
the  men  chained  on  each  side  of  me.  When 
ngth  I  mustered  up  enough  courage  to  do 
so,  and  felt  the  weight  of  my  irons  and  the 
heavy  chain  across  my  legs  which  bound  our 
gang  of  fifty  or  sixty  together,  I  would  speculate 
on  how  long  it  would  lie  before  the  slender 
thread  would  sua])  which  held  me  between 
reason  and  insanity. 

That  my  reason  did   not  give  way  during  my 
first    period  of  imprisonment   I    have  to  thank 
father  Ohrwalder  and  the  friends  already  men- 
tioned.*    Each  one  of  them  risked  his  or  her 
omparative)  freedom,  if  not  his  life,  to  help  me. 

following  passage  occurs  in  the  personal  narrative  of  Father 
Ohrwalder  ("Ten  years'  Captivity  in  the  Mahdi's  Camp."  London  : 
Sampson  Low  and  Co.,  Ltd.):  — 

"  Th<  depth  of  misery  to  which  poor  Neufeld  was  reduced  may 
idily  understood  when  it  is  known  that  he  spent  a  whole  year 
in  the  stone  hut,  and  it  was  not  until  he  had  completed  two  years 
in  prison  that,  through  the  intermediary  of  a  friend,  he  was  allowed 
to  build  a  little  cell  for  himself  in  one  of  the  corners  of  the  yard, 
where  he  could  sleep  away  from  the  other  prisoners.  This  little 
building  was  about  12ft.  square,  and  very  low,  and  here  poor 
Neufeld  used  to  sit  all  daylong.  His  jjbbeh  was  very  dirty,  and 
swarming  with  insects,  which  allowed  him  little  rest  at  night,  and 
in  despair  he  used  to  get  one  of  his  companions  to  rub  him  with 
wet  sand,  which  made  his  skin  less  irritable  ;  some  sympathizing 
Vrabs  told  him  to  soak  crushed  cloves  in  water,  and  then  rub  his 
witli  the  paste.  This  Neufeld  found  a  capital  remedy, 
though  it  made  his  skin  smart  a  great  deal  at  first.  Neufeld  s 
1. mil  1  less  soon  won  over  his  guards,  and  often  they  allowed  him  to 
in  undisturbed  in  his  little  hut  fir  the  night  instead  of 
dragging  him  off  to  the  stone  hut." 

r,i , » 

1        1   HAINS.      1  HEY  w  1  11    HHOTOGB 


Even  during  the  worst  nights  in  the 
HeBartR?n  Umm   Hagar,   when  hell   itself   might 

be  defied  to  match  such  a  scene — 
when  Madness  and  Death  stalk  hand  -  in  - 
hand  amidst  the  struggling  mass  ;  and  when 
jammed  in  tight  with  a  number  of  the  more 
fanatical  prisoners,  I  fought  and  struggled, 
bit  and  kicked,  as  did  they  for  bare  life,  the 
thought  of  having  friends  in  adversity,  suffering 
almost  as  much  as  I  did,  kept  that  slender 
thread  from  snapping.  But  the  mental  strain 
caused  me  most  violent  headaches  and  periods 

for  food,  as  they  were  able  to  take  longer  strides. 
Had  it  been  under  other  circumstances,  the 
scenes  enacted  might  have  provided  endless 
amusement  for  the  onlookers,  for  they  had  in 
them  all  the  elements  but  one  of  a  sack-race 
and  the  old  country  sports.  Seeing  thirty  or 
forty  living  skeletons  shuffling  and  leaping  as  far 
as  the  weight  of  their  chains  and  their  strength 
would  allow,  you  knew  when  one  fell  it  was 
the  result  of  weakness  caused  by  starvation 
which  had  brought  him  down.  And  there  he 
would  lie  where  he  fell,  given  over  to  despair. 


of  forgetfulness  or  loss  of  memory,  which  even 
now  recur  at  times.  It  was  during  the  famine 
that  the  Christian — the  more  than  Christian — 
charity  of  my  friends  was  put  to  the  severest 
tests  and  yet  never  faltered — God  bless  them. 
Food  was  at  enormous  prices,  but,  nevertheless, 
day  after  day,  Cattarina  brought  her  scrap  of 
dourra  or  wheaten  bread.  Every  day,  too, 
Youssef  Jebaalee  sent  his  loaves  of  bread,  un- 
mindful of  how  much  the  guards  stole,  provided 
that  I  got  even  a  few  mouthfuls.  All  the  food 
sent  for  the  prisoners  did  not,  of  course,  reach 
them.  And  what  little  passed  the  gates  of  the 
Saier  was  fought  for  in  a  maniacal  manner  by 
the  starving  and  desperate  prisoners.  Those 
having  longer  chains  or  bars  connecting  their 
anklets  stood  the  best  chance  in  the  crazy  fight 

Those  who  did  reach  any  messenger 

asrewfid    with    food,    far     from    resenting    the 

Beasts,    stripes  given  by  the  guards  with  the 

kourbash,  would  almost  appear  glad  of 
the  open  wounds  the  frightful  hide  lashes  caused, 
so  that  they  might  caress  the  wounds  with  their 
hands  and  lick  the  blood  from  their  fingers. 
This  picture  is  not  over-  but  under-drawn,  and  I 
have  been  advised  to  leave  out  minute  details 
and  other  scenes  as  unnecessarily  harrowing. 
We  heard  that  cannibalism  was  being  practised 
in  the  town,  but  none  took  place  in  the  prison. 
Inside  the  Saier,  once  the  despair  engendered 
by  starvation  and  cruelty  took  hold  of  a  prisoner, 
he  would 'lie  down  and  wait  for  death.  Food 
the  dying  man  would  never  refuse  when  offered  ; 
but  if  water  without  food  were  offered,  it  would 

1H1'    WIDE    W0R1  n    MAGAZINl 


in   the 



It  may  be 

lized    being 


!  a  bit  el 

.1    dying 

a   living  h   in 

-.  wretch  is  taken 

ins  luted  on,  the 

tion  is  perhaps 

-  ...  kl(  s  knocked   off 

the  newcomer.      This 

.  but  hundreds 

of   Es  Saier  during  that 

rvant,     Hasseena,    had 

down    a    number    of 

nd  the  food  she   was   bringing 

ing    prisoners,    we 

sful    expedient.       buying    a 

I  had   this  hung  from  her 

.  and  left  dangling  betwi 

n  i  e  was  placed    in 

ys  ■    rrii  d,  as  a  blind  or 

I  in  her  hands.     This  would, 

need  upon,    when  Hasseena, 

althy    pair    of    lungs  —  as   Wad 

at  his  first   interview  with 

■  ■  hoes  with   her  screams, 

i   for  herself  a   clear  path  to  me, 

unity  would   be  s<  ized 

in  on  the  ground  beside 

_ht  from  the  foregoing 

for  each  other 

tter  of  food 

I  was  more 

wild    fanatics— almost 

in   more  civil: 

long  as  his 

:  portions  of 

sent  into  the 

a    large 

it  and  morning; 

a  meal 


h  their  less  fortunate 

I    I   havi  it    stated    that   rny 

reated   a 
_cod   impression ;   but,    then,   how  could 

I.  the  only  white  man  and  Christian  in 
prison  and,  tor  the  matter  of  that,  the 
only  avowed  Christian  in  the  Soudan — not 
strive  to  show  just  a  little  more  self-denial, 
charity,  and  kindness  of  heart  than  those 
••  fanatics  "  showed  me? 

When  the  many  escapes  from  the  Saier 
zareba  became  a  matter  of  common  gossip- 
too  common  to  be  any  longer  concealed — 
Abdullahi  ordered  a  wall  to  be  built  in  place  of 
the  thorn  zareba  ;  and  later,  to  obviate  the 
ssity  of  the  prisoners  going  to  the  Nile  banks 
for  drinking  water  and  ablutions,  he  com- 
manded that  a  well  was  to  be  sunk  to  provide 
infiltration  water  for  the  purposes  mentioned. 
I' ntil  these  works  were  ordered  to  be  made, 
the  prisoners  were  mainly  employed  in  building 
mud-brick  houses  for  the  gaolers;  and,  when 
these  were  finished,  we  had  to  attend  to  certain 
of  the  household  duties  —  the  tending  of 
children,  sheep,  and  goats,  and  the  carrying  of 
r  from  the  Nile.  Of  all  the  tasks  set  the 
prisoners,  the  household  duties  were  the  most 
pleasant,  or,  at  all  events,  the  least  distasteful. 
Most  of  the  gaolers  were  able  to 
Resuiteof  keep  up  a  large  establishment  on 
sife^sh"."  the  proceeds  of  their  backsheesh 
and  ill-gotten  gains ;  but  with  a 
multiplicity  of  wives  or  concubines  a  very 
natural  result  followed — household  bickerings 
and  squabbles,  in  which  one  wife  or  concubine 
was  bound  to  come  off  worst.  This  gave  the 
wide-awake  prisoner  engaged  upon  household 
duties  his  chance.  He  would  soon  detect 
which  concubine  was  being  "put  upon,"  or 
whom  the  women-folk  were  most  jealous  of, 
and  in  a  few  days'  time,  as  a  result  of  his 
attentions  in  carrying  her  pots  and  pans, 
bringing  her  water  as  many  times  in  the  day 
as  she  wished,  he  would  be  bemoaning  in  her 
sympathetic  ears  the  hard  fate  of  both  of  them, 
and  trying  to  persuade  her  that  what  she  was 
enduring  was  far  worse  than  his  imprisonment 
and  chains.  The  old  truism  that  "  pity  is  akin 
to  love  "  obtains  equally  as  well  under  the 
dusky  hide  of  a  Soudanese  damsel  as  it  does 
under  the  white  skin  of  her  European  sister ; 
and  very  soon  the  pair  would  be  maturing  plans 
for  an  escape  and  elopement.  The  main 
difficulty  was  the  removal  of  the  man's  chains 
and  a  rapid  flight  to  some  distant  village,  but 
the  Soudanese  ladies  are  not  a  whit  behind  in 
the  traditional  woman's  resourcefulness  in  the 
face  of  apparent  impossibilities.  Failing  to 
arrange  for  a  regular  flight,  the  woman  would 
secure  some  place  of  hiding  in  Omdurman 
itself.  She  would  undertake  all  the  arrange- 
ments, and  I  never  knew  of  a  failure  in  their 


Each    month  a  list    of   the    prisoners 
VrogreM  m  tne  Saier,  and  an  account  of  their 
Khama.   progress    in    the    matter   of    "  educa- 
tion,"    would      be      submitted       to 
Abdullahi,     with     recommendations     for     the 
release  of  certain  prisoners ;   and  each  month, 
coincidenc   with    the    preparation    of    this    list, 
some    prisoner    would    be    missing    from    his 
usual   place    that   night    and    next    morning — 
and  for  ever  afterwards. 

I  was  too  important  a  prisoner  for  my  escape 
to  be  at  all  possible  by  such  happy  means  as 
those  above  described.  My  only  hope  lay  in 
trusty  natives  and  swift  camels  which  would  out- 
strip my  pursuers.  I  often  envied  my  fellow- 
prisoners  who  exchanged  the  bonds  of  slavery 
for  those  of  matrimony,  for  numbers  of  them 
came  to  see  me  after  their  "  release " ;  but  I 
shudder  to  think  what  might  have  happened 
had  I  been  released  by  the  Khalifa's  orders,  for. 
following  the  old  adage  that  a  drowning  man 
clutches  at  a  straw,  I  must  have  promised 
marriage  to  dozens  of  Soudanese  beauties  (?)  in 
the  event  of  their  doing  anything  towards 
wheedling  their  masters  or  the  Khalifa  into 
releasing  me.  Thus  it  is  quite  certain  that,  on 
my  release,  I  should  have  met  at  the  prison- 
gates  a  clamouring  crowd  of  ladies  all  claiming 
me  as  husband.  But  I  should  explain  how  it 
was  that  I  came  into  direct  contact  with  the 
harems  of  the  gaolers.  Having  studied 
physiology  and  medicine  at  Konigsberg  and 
Leipzig,  I  was  often  called  upon  by  the 
natives  in  Upper  Egypt,  before  the  place 
was  so  well  known  to  the  travelling  public 
as  it  is  now,  and  in  the  absence  of  doctors, 
to  attend  to  them  in  cases  of  sickness  or 
accident.  My  practice,  being  gratuitous,  was 
naturally  a  large  one,  and   I  soon   became  the 

"  Hakeem  Pasha,"  or  prin-  

cipal  medical  officer. 
My  reputation  in  this 
capacity,  if  it  did  not 
precede  me,  at  least  SM^ew 
accompanied  me  to 
Omdurman  when  I  was 
captured  ;  so  that  I 
was  in  constant  requisi- 
tion at  the  gaolers' 
harems,  paying  "  pro- 
fessional "  visits,  ranging 
from  cases  in  which  the 
Khalifa  was  soon  to 
be  presented  with  an- 
other subject,  right 
to  the  most 
and  sometimes 
imaginary     com- 


d  o  w  n 

Vol.  iv.-2. 

So   long   as   the  women   kept   ailing, 

"s'jMfuack1  my  life  was    rendered    endurable,  for 

Doctor,    j  was  abie  tQ  sit  down  and  chat  with 

them  for  hours,  whilst  supposed  to  be 
waiting  to  see  the  result  of  concoctions  made 
from,  to  me,  unknown  herbs  and  roots,  whose 
properties  I  was  utterly  ignorant  of.  Fortu- 
nately, the  results  were  always  satisfactory. 
The  only  medicine  or  chemical  I  came  across 
of  any  value  in  the  stores  of  the  Beit  el  Mai 
was  permanganate  of  potash ;  and  I  soon 
discovered  that  a  Soudan  constitution  neces- 
sitated the  application  of  this  in  crystals  and 
not  in  liquid  form.  The  effects,  as  may  be 
imagined,  were  rapid,  and,  though  my  medical 
readers  might  be  inclined  to  doubt  the  state- 
ment, the  results  were  eminently  satisfactory 
both  to  patients  and  myself. 

Occasionally  I  would  be  sent  for  to  attend 
someone  in  the  women's  prison,  which  was 
situated  a  short  distance  from  the  Saier  con- 
trolled by  Idris.  The  women's  prison  consisted 
of  the  common  cell  and  a  light  zareba,  through 
which  the  curious  might  gaze  on  the  women 
as  they  lay  stretched  on  the  ground  during 
the  day  in  the  sun,  undergoing  their  first 
period  of  imprisonment.  The  majority  of  the 
women  prisoners  were  slaves  locked  up  on 
some  pretence  or  other  to  prevent  their 
escaping.  It  might  be  that  their  master  was 
arranging  for  some  trading  trip  which  would 
occupy  him  for  weeks  and,  maybe,  months , 
and  the  simplest  way  of  preventing  his  property 
from  running  away  during  his  absence  was  to 
trump  up  some  charge  against  her,  and  have 
her  locked  up,  knowing  that  her  release  could 
not  be  obtained  until  he  himself  returned  and 
requested  it.  Furthermore,  as  in  the  meantime 
she  would  have  to  be  fed  at  his  expense,  and 




From  a  Photo,  specially  taken/or  this  narrative. 


nil.    WIDE    WOR]  1'    MAGAZINE. 

that  the 
ure  her 

•    the 


mark    by 

only    be 

the   luxury 

this  labour 

ild  si  t  us 

■  pay  many  times 

It  was  in 


vering  from  my 

ath  o\  Ahmed 

my  in  ging. 

■  1   me  for   money, 
him,  he  ordered  me  to 

The  only 

1    refusal    was   to   sit 

h  I  did,   and  on  this  the 

■  wards  the  ga 

I  immediately  got  upon   my 

and  ki.  the  g  oler  off  his. 

•'  up  he  ran  to  Idris  es  Saier,  told 

preaching  me,  ord< 

i  gain   sat   down— and 

_*  ur.  die  boats.     I  refused, 

i  !     trying    to    extort 

I       'ii  this  Idris  struck  me  a 

with  his  safarog—zx\  instru- 

counterpart    of    the 

and     used     by     the 

-imilar  purposes. 

1  the  safarog  and 

•hen   whilst   only  partly   con- 

r'er  and   condemned   to 

500  lashes. 

•    nty,  I  was  told,  wi 
the     remainder     not     being 
Idr:  ng    that     I    was 

I  dead,  and  in  con- 

terrible    fright.       I    was 
cell,  while  Idris  set 
f  with  the  other  prisoners, 
11  the  work  of  the 
knew  what  it  meant  to 
ith,  and,  believing 
hen  I  did  recover, 
nind    to   pay   out   the 
•  r  his  fright  in  the 
rvility  to 
moment   when   he 
for  the  scare, 
little    time    later 
invented  another 
I    had    bought   from 
one  inall   mud  hut,  a  few  feet 

re,  in  the  prison  inclosure,  and  had  received 
ilission   bom    Idris  es   Saier  to  sleep  in   this 
at  night    instead  of  in  the  Umm    Hagar.     The 
young  gaoler  aforesaid  —  and  other  gaolers  as 
well  pted  backsheesh  from    prisoners   to 

allow  them  to  sleep  in  the  open  ;  and  Idris, 
finding  the  contributions  to  his  "  starving 
children  "  falling  off,  suspected  the  reason,  and 
lay  in  wait.  Upon  a  night  when  a  larger 
number  than  usual  had  been  allowed  to  sleep 
outside  the  Umm  Hagar,  he  suddenly  made 
his  appearance  in  the  prison  inclosure.  There 
was  nothing  for  our  guardians  to  do  but  to 
pretend  that  the  prisoners  had  been  insubordi- 
nate, and  refused  to  enter  the  Umm  Hagar.  So 
they  laid  about  us  with  their  whips. 

The    young    gaoler,    not   aware    that 
Assau"   I  bad  paid  the  regulation  backsheesh 

to  Idris.  made  straight  for  my  hut, 
dragged  me  out,  and  flogged  me  to  the  door 
of  the  common  cell,  a  distance,  maybe,  of 
40yds.  or  50yds.  My  thick  jibbeh,  however, 
prevented  the  blows  from  telling  with  much 
effect  so  far  as  regards  abrasions  of  the  skin. 
Nevertheless,  their  weight  told  on  my  dimi- 
nished strength,  and  I  again  fell  ill.  The 
circumstance  came  to  the  ears  of  the  Khalifa 
through  Idris,  or  the  "  Nebbi  Khiddr,"  and  I  had 
the  huge  satisfaction  of  seeing  my  tormentor 
dismissed  from  his  lucrative  post  and  receiving 
two  hundred  lashes.  He  was  then  sent  as  a 
prisoner  in  chains  to  work  at  the  very  same 
boats  he  had  had  me  flogged  for  refusing  to 
assist  in  the  unloading  of.  This,  at  the  present 
moment,  is  the  only  bit  of  real  justice  I  can 
remember  having  been  meted  out  during  my 
twelve  years'  captivity. 

I  have  in  a  former  chapter  given  a  slight 
description  of  the  flogging  as  I  saw  it  practised 
when  first  captured  by  the  Dervishes;  but  the 
flogging  in  the  Saier  was  a  very  different  matter. 
The  maximum  number  of  stripes  ever  ordered 
was  a  thousand,  and  this  number  was  often 
actually  given  ;  but  in  every  case  the  stripes  were 
given  over  the  clothing.  The  rules  of  flogging  were 
generally  as  follows  :  the  first  two  hundred  were 
given  on  the  back  below  the  region  of  the 
lumbar  vertebrae  ;  the  third  and  fourth  hundred 
on  the  shoulders  ;  and  the  fifth  hundred 
on  the  breast.  When  the  maximum  number 
of  one  thousand  lashes  was  ordered  they 
were  always  given  on  the  same  parts  as 
the  first  two  hundred  ;  and  this  punishment 
was  resorted  to  for  the  purposes  of  extorting 
confessions.  After  eighty  or  one  hundred 
blows  the  jibbeh  was  cut  into  shreds,  and  soon 
became  saturated  with  the  blood  of  the  victim  ; 
and  while  the  effect  of  the  individual  blows 
may  not  have  been  as  great  as  those  from  the 




cat-o'-niae-tails,  the  number  given  made  up  in 
quantity  for  what  might  have  been  lacking  in 
"quality,"  as  is  evidenced  by  the  large  numbers 
who  died  under  the  castigation,  or  as  a  result  of 
it  later. 

On  one  occasion  an  old  black  soldier 
of     the      Egyptian       army,      named 
Mohammad    Ajjami,    who    was     em- 
ployed  as   a   runner   (a   foot-galloper 
— if    I    may   invent    the    expression  —  of    the 
Khalifa  on  field   days),  was  sent  to  me  while 
in  the  prison  to  be  cured  of  the  effects  of  a 
flogging.  He  had  by  some 
means  incurred   the  dis- 
pleasure of  Sheik  ed  Din, 
the   son  of  the    Khalifa, 
and    by   him   had    been 
sentenced    to    receive    a 
public  flogging,   after 
which  he  was   to  be  sent 
to  the  Saier  to  be  "edu- 
cated."    He  was   carried 
into  the  prison  to  me  after 
his  flogging.     The   fleshy 
part  of  his  back  was  cut 
into  ribbons,  and  the  hip- 
bones exposed.     For  six 
or  eight  weeks  I  was  con- 
stantly employed  bathing 
this  man's  wounds  with  a 
dilute  solution  of  carbolic 
acid  ;  the  carbolic  crystals 
being  sent  to  me  by  Sheik 
ed    Din    himself  for    the 
purpose — for    his    father, 

the  Khalifa,  jealous  of  his  authority,  had 
censured  his  son,  telling  him,  as  he  constantly 
told  others,  that  "  In  Usbaiee  shareeknee  fee 
tnulkee,  anna  ikktahoo"  This  expression  was 
always  used  by  the  Khalifa  in  any  discussion, 
holding  up  his  forefinger  as  he  spoke.  Ajjami 
did  recover,  and  often  came  to  see  me  in  prison 
to  express  his  gratitude.  Sheik  ed  Din  himself 
was  so  pleased  at  the  man's  recovery  that  he 
begged  his  father  to  release  me,  so  that  I  might 
practise  the  healing  art  among  his  Ansar 
(Faithful),  and  teach  it  to  others.  The  Khalifa 
was  obdurate,  however,  and  refused  persistently, 
his  reasons  for  refusing  to  release  me  being 
better  left  to  be  told  later  by  some  of  my  fellow- 

My  third  flogging  was  received 
8coJrhg\ndg.  under  the  following  circumstances. 
Having  received  from  Idris  es  Saier 
permission  to  remain  in  my  mud  hovel, 
and  not  have  to  spend  the  nights  in  the 
Umm  Hagar,  and  feeling  secure  in  my  com- 
parative freedom  and  security  from  exactions 
from  the  other  gaolers,  as  I  had  "  backsheeshed  " 

Idris  well,  I  firmly  refused  to  be  bled  any  further. 
My  particular  guardian,  not  daring,  after  what 
had  occurred  to  my  former  keeper,  to  order  me 
into  the  Umm  Hagar,  went  a  step  further,  and 
refused  to  allow-  me  to  leave  my  mud  hut  at  all 
for  any  purpose  whatever.  I  insisted  upon 
being  allowed  to  go  to  the  place  of  ablution  — 
about  iooyds.  distant — and,  being  refused,  set 
off,  receiving  at  every  step  a  slashing  blow  from 
the  kourbash.  Being  heavily  chained  I  was 
quite  helpless,  and  therefore  could  not  reach  my 
tormentor,  who  was  able  to  skip  away  from  my 

*     Ii 

ALL    THAT    REMAINS   Or      l  1 1  !■: 

From  a 


Photo,  specially  taken  for  this  narrative. 

reach,  which  was  limited  to  the  length  of  the 
bars  connecting  my  feet.  These  bars  were  15m. 
in  length.  It  was  on  this  occasion,  and  night-time 
too,  that  Idris  es  Saier  paid  another  surprise  visit 
to  the  prison  inclosure  to  see  what  number  of 
"  unauthorized  "  prisoners  were  sleeping  outside 
the  Umm  Hagar  ;  then,  furious  at  the  number  he 
discovered,  he  ordered  all  he  found  outside  to 
be  flogged  without  exception.  I  and  fifteen  to 
twenty  others  received  a  hundred  and  fifty 
lashes  each — at  least,  I  received  this  number; 
the  others  repented  by  crying  out  after  twenty 
or  thirty  blows.  I  alternately  clenched  my 
teeth  and  bit  my  lips  to  prevent  a  sound  of  pain 
escaping,  as  I  was  asked,  "  Will  you  not  cry 
out?  Are  your  head  and  heart  still  like  black 
iron  ?  "  And  the  more  they  reminded  me  of 
the  courage  I  was  exhibiting,  the  more  reason 
I  had  for  not  giving  way  or  breaking  down. 

But  the  mental  ordeal  was  far,  far 
Agony!     niore     terrible     than      the     corporal 

punishment.  There  was  I,  a 
Europea-n — a  Prussian  —  a  man  who  had 
fought   with  the  British  troops  in  what  turned 



11    MY    TORMEN  ION." 

out  "too    late"     expedition     for 

•    Gordon,  now  in  the  clutches  of 

tnt  and  his  myrmidons,   from  whom  we 

Gordon.      Yes,   a   white 

ind  a  Christian— and  the  only  professing 

—  chained  and  helpless,  being  flogged 

•  '-..  who  was  in  reality  as  much  a  eaptiv< 

I.  and   yet  he  was   my   superior 

It  is  impossible  for  anyone  who 

■ne  a  similar  experience  to  appreciate 

s    I   endured.      I    may   have 

f-willed  and   -tr<  ded ;    I    may,  if 

iike  a  fool  in  my  constant 

the   Khalifa  and   the   tenets  of  the 

idi.       But    now,    looking    back    on    those 

d  that,   had  poor 

Ion  In  'ions  would  at  least  have 

ith    his   approbation,     for    the    outward 

•it   the   Mohammedan 

out   on  me  under  force  after 

the  escape  oli.      Death,  in  what' 

form  it  uld  have    been    a    welcome 

■  jr  to  me  :  but   while  doing  all  in  my  power 

to  exasperat  <  aptors  to  kill  me,  a  strange 

something  :   perhaps  hope,  courage  ;  a   clinging  A(&d!!u!y  or 

to  life  ;  pride  in   my   race  ;  personal   vanity   in 

defying  them  to  the  end — call  it 
what  you  will — restrained  me 
from  taking  my  own  life  ;  though 
I  leaven  knows  that,  if  ever  man 
had  a  good  excuse  for  doing  so, 
I  had. 

My    conduct    so    im- 
Khaitfa    pressed     the     Khalifa 

Impressed.  that        hg        tQjd       Wad 

Nejoumi,    who    asked 
for  my  release  so  that  I  might 
accompany  him   to  Dongola  to 
"  open  up  trade"  (and  Abdullahi 
later  on    told    many  others  the 
same    thing):      "Nofal     I    will 
not  release ;  but  I  will  not  kill 
him."     Invariably,    in    speaking 
of  me  to  others — as  I   was  still 
"  unconverted"  —  the     Khalifa 
omitted   the   name  "Abdullah" 
which    I    had    been    given,   and 
spoke  of  me  as  "  Nofal  " — the 
Arabic  pronunciation  of  Neufeld. 
While  a  man,  having  already 
the     regulation    quota   of     four 
legal    wives,    might    crowd    his 
harem    with     as     many    female 
slaves    and    concubines    as    he 
could  support  or  keep  in  order, 
a  woman  was   restricted  to   the 
one    husband    or    master.      All 
breakings  of  our  seventh  com- 
mandment    were,     if     proved, 
followed  by  flogging  in  the  case  of  unmarried 
women  and  slaves,  and  the  stoning  to  death  of 
married  women  ;   but,  in  the  latter  case,  the  sen- 
tence  could  not  be  pronounced  nor  the  punishment 
inflicted  unless    the  woman   confessed.      But    few 
stonings  to  death  took  place,  however,  and  these 
were  in  the  early  clays  of  Mahdieh,  when  religious 
fanaticism  held  sway.     The  flogging  has  already 
been  described.     When  a  stoning  to  death  was 
to  take  place,  a  hole  was  dug  in  the  ground,  and 
the  woman    buried    to    her    neck    in  it.       The 
crowd  stood   facing  the  victim,  about   fifteen  to 
twenty  yards  distant,  and  on   a  given  signal  the 
stoning  commenced.      It  is,  however,  only  right 
to  say  that  the  Soudanese  themselves  hated  and 
feared  taking  part  in  such  a  ghastly  and  devilish 
orgie  of  brutality.     None  of  the  stones  thrown 
had,  singly,  the  force  or  weight  to  cause  uncon- 
sciousness or  death  ;  and  the  horrid  and  fearful 
tacle  was  presented  of  what  appeared  to  be  a 
trunkless  head — a  pitiful,  bleeding  thing — slightly 
jerking  backwards  and  forwards  and  from  side 
to  side  to  avoid  the  stones  being  hurled  at  it. 

I 'his    ordeal    continued    for    an    hour 

more.       Sometimes     a      relative 

or    friend,    under   pretence   of    losing 



his  temper  in  upbraiding  or  cursing  the 
woman,  would  smash  in  her  head  with  one 
of  the  small  axes  usually  carried  by  the 
Soudanese,  thus  putting  her  at  once  out  of 
her  torture  and  misery.  Shortly  before  sunset 
the  relatives  and  friends  would  come  out  to  take 
away  the  body  and  give  it  decent  burial,  for  the 
soul  had  fled  purified, 
with  the  woman's  blood, 
to  the  next  world. 

In  January  the 
Khalifa,  in  a  fit  of  good- 
humour,  sent  word  to 
me  to  ask  if  I  would 
undertake  the  manu- 
facture of  gunpowder  if 
he  released  me.  I  un- 
fortunately replied  that 
I  did  not  understand  the 
making  of  it,  and  this 
aroused  his  suspicions, 
which  did  not  abate  one 
jot  when,  shortly  after- 
wards, a  Bohemian 
baker,  who  had  strayed 
from  Haifa,  was  taken 
prisoner,  and  sent  on  to 
Omdurman  as  a  cap- 
tured spy.  This  man, 
whom  I  knew  only  by 
the  name  of  Joseppi  — 
though  he  had  a  string 
of  other  names,  which  I 
have  forgotten — was  a 
Bohemian  by  birth  and 
a  baker  by  trade.  He 
was  not  of  strong  in- 
tellect, poor  fellow,  and 
what  intellect  he  had 
had  apparently  been 
impaired  by  a  kind  of 
"music  madness."  From 
the  rambling  statements 
he  made  to  me  during 
his  year's  imprisonment 
I  gathered  that  he  had 
tramped  Europe  as  a 
wandering  musician, 
finally  landing  in  Egypt, 

where  he  tramped  from  the  Mediterranean  to 
the  frontier.  It  is  quite  evident  that  instead  of 
coppers  he  received  drinks  in  exchange  for  his 
strains,  and  this  further  added  to  his  mental 
troubles — though  the  drunkenness  he  has  been 
charged  with  was,  in  my  opinion,  more  the 
result  of  circumstances  and  misfortune  than  a 
natural  craving  for  ardent  liquors.  On  leaving 
Wadi  Haifa  he  had  expected  to  find,  as  he  had 
found  in  Europe  and  the  part  of  Egypt  he  had 

tramped  through,  villages  or  towns  within  the 
day's  tramp.  He  had  not  the  slightest  idea  of 
what  the  desert  was  until  he  found  himself  in 
it.     Surely  a  very  remarkable  case. 

After  some  days   of   wandering,  how- 
wandering  ever,  during  which  he  ate  pieces  of  his 
Lunatic.   worn-0ut   boots  in  lieu  of  other  food, 



he  struck  the  Nile,  and,  wandering  along, 
quite  ignorant  of  the  direction  he  was  taking, 
the  unfortunate  man  suddenly  came  upon 
a  party  of  Dervishes,  whom  he  tried  to  com- 
municate with.  Then  after  showing  them  by 
means  of  gesticulations  that  he  wanted  bread 
or  food,  he  commenced  to  "  soothe  the  savage 
breast "  with  the  strains  of  his  violin.  They 
took  him  prisoner,  however,  and  destroyed  his 
instrument.     Then  they  sent  him  on  to  Omdur- 


s  ushered 

K    a      .   who  was  iin- 

nadman  or  an 

being  brought 

.   he  threw  them  about,  and 

to  the  surprise  of 

s«  nt   to  prison 

ut  in  the  pr<  having 

.  he  fainted  away. 

hargi    about  one 

while    being    as   harmless 

d.    he   caused    me    endless 

1   ring    the    day  he    would 

but    at   night-time    h> 

S    i  tr    humming  ;  and 

ad    neither        ginning  nor  end, 

s    snatched  from 

soon  tired  of  it.      Indeed, 

_  on  one  occasion 

itting  his  mouth  "  when  requested  to 

I  remonstrated  with  him  after  he  had 

I  him  that  he  should  not 

hum    after    other     prisoners     had 

:eep  quiet.     He  ruminated  over 

thinking,  maybe,  at  the  moment, 

the  part  of  the  others  against 

to    Idris,    the    head    gaoler, 

him  confidentially  that  1  was  a  great 

General  in  Europe^  and  a   few 

r  things. 

i  had  an  enormous  appetite,  and  was 

hungry.      He  caused   me  a  serious  deal 

during  the  worst  days  of  the  famine, 

so  scarce;  for,  after  sharing  my 

I,   he  would  wander   off  and  pester 

up  of  starving  prisoners  for  a  scrap  of 

ntually,    we    had   to   provide   three 

r  him,  and  just   when  our  food  came  in, 

lim  his  bowls,  and  thus  were  allowed 

ace.     We  had   finished  our 

before   he  had  finished  his  food,  so  that 

from  his  importunities. 

.  he   came  to  grief   through    eating 

skin,    which    the  gaolers    used 

til   *  poorer     prisoners    during    the 

<uld   die  in  the  prison,  I 

istian  "  quarter,  advising 

i   should   be  prayed    to    release 

was    done,  and   he   found  con- 

lial  ei  a  time   in  the  bakery  of 

afterwards,   however,  he 
dollars  here  and   there  for  the 
piK  i  grain  at  El  Fun. 

I  off  dressed  in  a  new 
■°rK^t.  ■  and  ollars  and 

of    provisions 

journey.       At    the    very 

mor:  Wad   Adlan  was   pleading  with 

lifa  I  _-  me  from  prison,  so  that  I 

could  assist  him  in  the  work  of  the  Beit  el  Mai, 
a  deputation  of  the  captives  arrived  at  the  door 
ot  the  house  to  tell  the  Khalifa  that  Joseppi 
must  have  escaped,  as  he  should  have  been 
back  in  Omdurman  some  days  ago.  Turning  to 
\\  .ul  Adlan,  the  Khalifa  said,  harshly  :  " Elboomi 
mahhgaad —  Abdullah  Nqfal  ogud  ?  Khallee 
ossbur"  (  "The  fool  did  not  stop  when  he  had 
the  chance  to  escape.  Will  Neufeld?  Let  him 
wait  a  bit").  It  was  a  bitter,  bitter  disappoint- 
ment. This  was  the  second  time  the  poor 
fellow  had  cost  me  my  liberty.  There  is  no 
doubt  that  the  unfortunate  man  was  murdered 
for  the  sake  of  his  food  or  money,  for  his 
ins  were  afterwards  found  on  the  road 
between  Khartoum  and  El  Fun. 

A  favourable  opportunity  here  presents  itself 
for  referring  to  that  little-written-about  and, 
therefore,  little-known  and  strange  character  in 
Mahdieh— Ibrahim  Wad  Adlan,  the  Amin  Beit 
el  Mai,  or  Keeper  of  the  Treasury.  Maybe  to 
no  one  else  did  he  confide  as  he  confided  in 
me  while  we  were  fellow-prisoners,  and  possibly 
he  confided  in  me  only  because  he  knew  that  I 
was  an  avowed  enemy  of  Mahdieh  — that  I  was 
at  the  time  defying  the  Khalifa  to  do  his  worst 
against  me,  and  that  my  interests  lay  elsewhere 
than  in  the  Soudan.  There  was  perhaps  also  a 
lurking  suspicion  that  I  had  after  all  been  sent 
up  as  a  Government  emissary,  and  that  the 
letter  of  General  Stephenson  was  purposely 
couched  in  the  language  it  was,  so  that,  if  it 
fell  into  the  hands  of  the  Khalifa,  he  would  be 
led  to  believe  that  I  had  started  upon  a  trading 
expedition  pure  and  simple.  The  friendship 
formed  during  the  two  or  three  months  Adlan 
and  I  spent  together  as  fellow-prisoners  was 
destined  to  end  in  the  not  least  interesting  of 
my  experiences;  but  it  also  ended  in  a  tragedy. 
Wad  Adlan,  prior  to  the  Mahdist 
Tof  wa5y  revolt,   had  been  one  of  the  principal 

Adian.  an(j  richest  merchants  in  Kordofan. 
His  business  connections  had  taken 
him  a  number  of  times  to  Cairo  and  other 
parts  of  Egypt.  For  intelligence,  and  as  a  man 
of  the  world,  he  was  far  and  away  superior  to 
all  the  "  great "  people  who  from  time  to  time 
became  my  fellow-prisoners. 

Had  there  been  one  more  Adlan  in  the 
Soudan  (and  many  had  the  opportunity  of  being 
such),  the  rule  of  Abdullahi  would  have  ended 
with  the  insurrection  of  Khalifa  Shereef.  Adlan 
was  the  one  man  in  the  Soudan  who  had  the 
courage  of  his  opinions,  and  expressed  them  to 

As  Director  of  the  Beit  el  Mai,  Wad  Adlan's 
first  care  was  to  keep  the  treasury  and  granaries 
full  to  repletion.  During  the  famine,  of  course, 
this  was  an   impossibility,  but  some  grain  and 



money  had  to  be  procured  from  somewhere. 
The  poor,  and  those  who  had  come  by  their 
little  stores  honestly,  Adlan  never  made  a  call 
upon  ;  indeed,  he  was  the  protector  of  the  poor 
and  the  Muslimanieh — as  the  captive  Christians 
were  called.  It  was  Adlan's  policy  to  create 
enemies  of  Abdullahi,  so  that  was  another 
reason  for  his  protecting  the  poor,  who  were 
already  bitter  enemies  of  their  savage  ruler.  On 
reporting  to  Abdullahi  the  depleted  condition  of 
the  treasury  and  granaries — and  Abdullahi  was 

that  he  was  carrying  out  Abdullahi's  orders,  and 
all  knew  that  a  disobedience  of  these,  or  any 
attempt  to  evade  them,  meant  summary  execution. 

Occasionally     some      "strong"     man 

A"Mai?Sg "would    enter   a    mild    protest    to    the 

protest.    Khalifa     himself,    who    would    feign 

ignorance  of  having  given  any  general 
orders  to  Adlan.  Adlan  would  then  be  sum- 
moned, but,  questioned  as  to  his  actions  in 
the  presence  of  the  complainant,  he  dare  not 
reply  that  he  had  but  obeyed  the  general  orders 


aware  that  the  doors  of  the  Beit  el  Mai  and 
Adlan's  house  were  besieged  night  and  day  by 
thousands  of  starving  wretches — Adlan  would 
be  given  a  verbal  order  to  search  for  grain 
and  bring  it  anyhow  into  the  Beit  el  Mai. 
This  order  he  would  put  into  immediate 
execution  against  Abdullahi s  particular  friends 
and  adherents ;  for  the  whole  of  their  stores 
were  the  proceeds  of  robbery  and  the  plunder- 
ing and  murdering  of  weaker  tribes  and 
people.    To  all  remonstrances  Adlan  would  reply 

given  him.  He  would  be  obliged  in  such  cases 
to  answer  in  such  a  way  that  the  "  strong  "  man 
would  believe  that  he  had  acted  upon  his  own 
initiative.  Then,  after  the  audience,  the  "  strong  " 
man  would  follow  Adlan  to  the  Beit  el  Mai,  and 
demand  the  return  of  his  grain  and  dollars. 
But  Adlan,  it  would  be  found,  had  distributed 
all  on  the  Khalifa's  orders — which  the  registers 
proved,  as  nothing  might  leave  the  Beit  el  Mai 
without  Abdullahi's  sanction.  It  was  an  amusing 
game — thoroughly  Oriental. 

(To  be  continued.) 

•  •  /.  uging ' '  in  the  Swiss  Riviera. 

Written     vnd    [llustrated    b^     Mary    C.    Fair. 

>out  a  glorious   and  exhilarating  pastime,  relating  her  own  personal  adventures 
and  illustrating   her   points   by   means   of   a    set    of   snap-shot  photographs 
taken  by  herself. 

■   to   Montreux-    Mori 
delightful — is  puzzled  after 
snow  on   finding  that 
:  it   out  ry    ten    people   he 

v    little  light   sledges   on 




»wn  the 


•  ied  on. 

party    soon 

ts  mind  that 

happiness,  and 
:  off 
an     ironn 

fhich    bore   the 
■  I 

found  that  a  new  luge 
of  t      i  i  d'l 

-    I  francs, 


i  franc  less. 

<  Chateau  d  ' 

ght  to  carry, 

and  more  suitable  for 

lad:  they  will 

in    snow  where 

.     with 
rs  al 


■  Humn 

.  and  it  has 
the   important 
me:  ,iore 


on,  we  four.  ux, 

ched  by  funicular  and  sleigh  ; 

which  a  diligence  took  its 

nd  at  the  Col  de  Sant 

Loup,  to  which  we  should  have  to  walk.     We 

fina.  ided    on    the    latter,    as    those    of 

■     i  V    C.    PAIR    KNOWS    A    GOOD    DEAL    ABOUT    "  LUGING. 

Photo,  by  Hughes  &  Mullins,  Ryde,  Isle  of  Wight. 

us  who  had  luged  before  said  the  track 
was  much  better  for  the  purpose  we  had 
in  view. 

Accordingly    next   morning  we    started   gaily 
forth,  each  bearing  a  luge  on  his  or  her  back,  to 

which  was  tied  a  pac- 
ket of  provisions :  and 
after  a  while  the 
owner's  outer  coat  was 
added  thereto,  for  the 
clear  bright  sun  makes 
walking  up  a  steep 
patli  very  warm  work. 
The  road  goes  up  the 
mountain  side  in  long, 
easy  curves,  which  we 
rather  rashly  forsook, 
as  they  seemed  to  go 
so  far  to  get  so  short 
a  way.  The  wood- 
man's track  we  went 
up  was  frozen  hard, 
and  therefore  ex- 
tremely slippery.  We, 
therefore,  found  it  dis- 
tinctly preferable  to 
tow  our  luges  behind 
us  instead  of  carrying 
them  on  what  seemed 
an  endless  journey 

But  at  last  our  re- 
ward came,  for  we 
reached  the  top  of  the 
hump-backed  hill 
known  as  the  Col  de 
Sant  Loup,  from  which 
we  had  a  glorious  view 
away  to  the  Juras  in 
one  direction,  whilst 
in  the  other  gleamed 
the  blue  lake,  beyond 
which  the  Dent  du 
Midi  reared  its  stately 
peaks.  The  atmosphere  was  so  still  that  the 
creaking  rustle  of  the  ravens'  wings  as  they  flew 
to  and  from  their  rocky  haunts  was  distinctly 
audible.  And,  although  there  was  a  stinging 
frost,    it    was   quite   possible   to   sit    on    one's 



"  \VF.    FOUND    IT    PREFERABLE    TO    TOW    OUR    I.UGES    BEHIND    US. 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Authoress. 

luge,  basking  in  the  sun,  getting  freckled 
and  burnt,  whilst  devouring  the  sandwiches 
which  went  but  a  little  way  towards  appeas- 
ing the  pangs  of  hunger.  Indeed,  two  of 
our  party  found  this  spot  so  attractive  that 
they  could  not  tear  themselves  away  from  it, 
and  so  they  spent  the  greater  part  of  the 
day  until  the  sun  went  down,  seated  up  there, 
engaged  in  earnest  conversation  and  admiring 
the  view.  However,  the  rest  of  us,  more 
energetic,  but  with  sinking  hearts,  prepared  to 
embark  on  our  mad  career  down  the  mule-track 
which  leads  down  the  Col  to  Chambay. 

Now,  there  are  several  ways  of  guiding  a  luge, 
and  everyone  declares  his  way  to  be  the  best. 

You  can  put  the  feet  slightly  in  front,  at  either 
side,  touching  the  ground  with  the  heel,  according 
to  which  way  you  want  to  go.  As  the  heels  and 
feet  are  also  used  for  putting  on  the  brake,  this 
method,  by  which  very  fine  steering  is  possible, 
is  very  hard  on  boots,  as  may  be  imagined. 
Also,  the  feet  can  be  kept  quite  clear  of  the 
ground,  straight  in  front  of  their  owner,  when 
the  little  vehicle  is  guided  by  means  of  two 
sticks,  or  one  longer  one,  which  is  used  rudder- 
wise.  The  third  way  is  to  "  coast "  down  head- 
first,  but  this  is   not  to   be  recommended,  for 

Vol.  iv.— 3 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Authoress. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Authoress. 

should  the  luger  charge  into  one  of  the  many 
obstructions,  a  broken  neck  is  no  unlikely  result. 
We  explained  all  this  to  the  novices — told 
them  to  shout  "  Gare  !  "  at  every  corner, 
and  also  when  they  saw  danger  ahead. 
Then  the  descent  began.  My  cousin 
Jane  led,  but  her  career  was  short  and 
inglorious,  for  she  went  off  at  a  tremen- 
dous speed  in  a  whirl  of  powdery  snow 
which  flew  up  like  the  spray  over  a 
yacht's  bows  as  she  tears  through  the 
water  in  a  stiff  breeze  with  as  much 
canvas  as  she  can  carry.  Suddenly 
round  a  corner  hove  a  pedestrian, 
coming  along  the  track  as  usual  right 
in  the  very  middle.  We  held  our 
breath,  and  wondered  what  would 
happen.  Jane  shouted  "  Gare  I 
Gare  ! !  GARE  ! ! !  "  as,  like  an  express 
with  a  mineral  train  in  front,  she  made 
frantic  efforts  to  avoid  him,  with  the 
surprising    result   that    she    went,    luge 

riii    w  im:   world   magaziN] 

a  v 


a  hat.  Yes,  there  she  stood,  white,  but  smiling, 
when  we  arrived  to  lend  her  aid,  and  after 
explanations  and  condolences,  we  started  her  off 
once  mqn  . 

As  well  as  those  who  came  down  singly,  we 
also  had  a  "bob"  of  three.  Now,  a  "  bob,"  or 
"  train eati,"  in  luging  parlance,  consists  of  two 
or  more  people  who,  each  on  their  own  luge, 
form  upjone  hehincl  the  other,  each  girl  or  man 
holding  tightly  to  the  ankles  of  the  girl  or  man 
behind  him  or  her;  the  greater  part  of  the 
steering  falling  upon  the  front  member,  though 
the  others  may  greatly  assist  by  balancing  round 
corners.  The  longer  the  "  bob,"  the  greater  the 
difficulty  of  steering  — naturally.  I  once  saw  a 
"  bob "  which  consisted  of  fifteen  enterprising 
lugers  ;  its  upsets  were  many,  and  its  adventures 
surprising,  as,  in  addition  to  its  general  un- 
wieldiness,  the  pace  was  greatly  increased.  The 
sharp   turns   of  these    Swiss    mountain    roads  are 

<  ,     THE 
IGHT    I\     Till-:   VERY 
Mil  ' 

by  the  Authoress. 

ght    over  the  edge    of   the 

here  the  snow 

and  soft.     How  she  did  it 

1   never  tell,  but   she  alighted 

\  holdin_   her  luge   in  her 

with    the   air   of    a    successful 

rer  producing  a  guinea-pig  from 


*»l  l  t 


■he  Authoress. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Authoress. 

by  no    means   easy  to  get    round    even  when    the 
luger  is  alone. 

The  luger,  by  the  way,  should  keep  as  close 
as  possible  to  the  inside  of  the  curve,  otherwise 
the  luge  will  skid  and  upset,  and  its  occupant 
be  hurled  against  the  wall  or  rocky  side  of  the 
cutting.  Or,  again,  the  luge  may  spin  round 
and  attempt  to  continue  its  journey  backwards. 
It  is  also  desirable  to  slow  up  on  reaching  a 
corner,  for,  as  a  rule,  you  cannot  see  what  is 
round  it.  Our  "  bob "  had  a  narrow  escape 
through  neglecting  this  precaution,  for  as  we 
whirled  round  we  perceived  right  in  front  of 
us  a  timber  sleigh,  towing  long  logs  behind, 
which  waggled  backwards  and  forwards  over  the 
whole  road.  The  thing  seemed  specially  devised 
for  the  destruction  of  lugers  "  on  the  luge." 
Then,  indeed,  it  was  all  hands  'bout  ship,  and 
we  only  just  pulled  up  in  time,  for  the  front 
man's  knees  were  up  to  his  chin,  his  toes  actually 




From  a  Photo.]  turn  of  the  road.''  [by  the  Authoress. 

touching  the  logs,  whilst  the  other  two  of  us 
grovelled  in  the  snow  into  which  the  sudden 
stoppage  had  turned  us. 

Our    next    adventure    was    caused    by    some 
heavy  wood  luges  which  were  being  loaded  by 
their  owners  at  a 
peculiarly  awk- 
ward turn  in  the 
road.      This  turn 
we     christened 
"  The  Grave,"  on 
account     of     the 
numerous      spills 
which      occurred 
there.       Its    dan- 
gers were  caused 
by  a  large  ditchy 
rut,  which  formed 
a    difficult   jump. 
Should  the  luger 
fail    to    negotiate 
this  properly  dis- 
aster was  certain  ; 
and  on  each  side 
of  the  road  stood 
great      timber- 
stacks,  into   one   or  other  of  which   the   unfor- 
tunate luger  was  sure  to  crash.     Add  to  this  two 
large    wood    luges,    partly   laden,    in    the    very 
middle  of  the  road,   and    our  feelings  may  be 
imagined  as  we  bumped  roughly  over  the  jump 
and  hurtled  against  the  left-hand  log-stack,  a  heap 
of  bruised  human  beings  and  overturned  luges. 

On  one  occasion  luge  races  were  held.  They 
were  really  most  exciting  ; 
and,  indeed,  from  what  I 
have  already  told  you,  you 
will  readily  understand  this. 
The  competitors  were 
started  at  intervals  of  two 
minutes  after  each  other 
and  timed,  the  luger  who 
got  over  the  course  in  the 
shortest  time  being,  of 
course,  the  winner. 

The  snow  is  the  great 
highway  of  the  Swiss 
peasant  in  winter,  and  it  is 
a  wonderful  sight  to  see  a 
hayrick  apparently  taking  a 
trip  down  the  mountain 
side  on  its  own  account ; 
for  the  luge  and  the  luger 
who  sits  in  front  and  guides 
and  controls  it  are  quite 
invisible  until  one  is  quite 
close.  Neatly  cut  logs 
too,  for  firewood,  etc,  are 
brought  down   from   the  fir 

woods  on  the  inevitable  luge,  with  the  cheerful 
little  Swiss  mountaineer  in  his  picturesque 
costume  of  blouse,  baggy  trousers,  and  gaiters, 
seated  in  front,  in  some  mysterious  way  keeping 
his  rather  unmanageable  load  from  running  away, 

and  charging 
headlong  down 
the  hill  to  its  and 
his  own  destruc- 

It  is  no  wonder 
that  the  Swiss  are 
expert  lugers,  for 
they  seem  to  be- 
gin to  practise 
almost  before 
they  can  walk.  It 
is  no  uncommon 
sight  to  meet  a 
small  child  luging 
down  with  an  ex- 
tremely small 
baby  tightly 
clasped  in  a  spare 
arm.  Directly  the 
children  are  out 
of  school  they  immediately  fly  off  to  luge, 
sometimes  down  the  roads,  sometimes  down  the 
mountain  slopes. 

The  great  thing  in  choosing  a  luge  is  to  see 
that  the  runners  are  exactly  parallel,  and  that 
the  wood  is  sound,  well-seasoned,  and  free  from 
knots  and  cracks.  The  luger's  boots  should  be 
strong  and   waterproof,  with   climbing   nails   in 

soles  and  heels ;  the  outer 
edge  of  the  latter  being  pro- 
tected by  a  rim  of  nails. 

Very  few  who  have  once 
tried  luging  forsake  it.  It 
combines  the  joys  of  cross- 
country riding  and  sailing 
in  a  stiff  breeze — that  is,  if 
a  good  pace  be  maintained. 
What  a  thrill  of  triumph  as 
a  bad  corner  is  safely  nego- 
tiated !  Then  full  steam 
ahead  along  the  straight 
slope,  with  the  driving, 
blinding  spray  of  crisp  snow, 
that  flies  up,  stinging  the 
luger's  face,  and  powdering 
him  with  white  from  head 
to  foot.  On  he  goes, 
whistling  through  the  keen 
air  until  the  next  corner  is 
reached,  and  there  is  a  tem- 
porary slowing  down  ;  and 
so  on  till  the  bottom  is 
reached,  or  the  snow  ends. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Authoress. 

What    I    lound    in    the   Mine. 

B\    Oliver   Roberts,    Ml.,   oi    San    Francisco. 

rt    well    known    all    over    the    Pacific    Slope,   and    also  known    to  many 
sion  to  employ  him  in  California  and  Nevada.     Although  he  has 
more  than  thirty  years,  undergoing  many  thrilling  adventures,  Mr.  Roberts 
ideal    herein   described   as  the  most  fearful  of   his   life. 


AS  I     Januai )     i     r<  ceived    a    note 
whi  :  illows  : — 


I  way,    San 

,  I     lil   i nia. 
Will  you  please  call  at   10 
:.  business  of  importance  ? 

M  and  W . 

the    above-named   place  at    the 
.  and  nil  t  two  English  gentlemen, 
m   I   introduced  myself.     After  we  had 
Mr.  M  asked  me  if  I 

them    : 
:        i     unty,  (  alifornia, 
line   the  Gove- 
and      Napoleon 
-     nd  repon 
ilue,     location, 
and    feasibility    as   pro 
pun    which    to 
■   tal.     1 
I  .       I  here- 

upon    I  a     price 

:i     my    services, 
which     was     promptly 
pi    d.      Without 
delay.   I    packed    up   a 
cam]      i       :id     mining 
outfit,   and  was  off,   by 
Mojave    and 
through  Mojave  desert. 
The      mines      men- 
d  are  situated  on 
the  ide   of    the 

Panamint    range    of 
ntains,   facing    the 
and      terrible 
t  h    V  a  1 1  e  y  —  a 
counl  I   known  to 

■   resi- 
nd     travel     in 

the    State.       I    was    to    meet 

i  with  1  nd  a  waggon   at    Mojave. 

•mpany  me  on  the  trip,  and 

e  in  every  way  possible  to  explore 

and  gate  the  mines. 

bought  a  300ft.  rope,  ^in.  in  diameter, 
.rub  and  a  larger  camping  outfit, 
all  of  which  we  put  into  the  waggon,  with  a 
ten  and  twenty-five  gallon  water-barrel ;  the 
country  before  us  being  almost  entirely  without 
sprit  n   rains,  and  good  water 

therefore   almost    wholly    lacking.       We    struck         portable 

Tills    IS    A    PORTRAIT   OF    MR.  OLIVER    ROBI  RTS,  WHO   RELATES 
IN    THE    MOST   TERRIFYING    ADVENTURE    IN    HIS    1    Ml   I   I 
From  a  Photo,  by  Schneider  and  Shims. 

out  from   Mojave,  and  by  the  first  night  made 
Indian  Wells. 

The  next  day  brought  us  to  Shepherd's 
Station,  in  Shepherd's  Canon.  On  the  day  that 
followed  we  had  a  long,  hot  ride  across  Pana- 
mint Valley  and  into  Wild  Rose  Canon.  That 
night  we  arrived  at  the  old  cool  camp  where  I 
had  been  so  many  years  before.  At  this  place 
we  left  the  waggon,  packed  both  horses,  and 
started  on  foot  to  finish  the  trip — a  distance  of 
twelve  miles,  over  towards  Death  Valley.    When 

night  came  again  we 
were  at  the  mines, 
where  we  camped  until 
morning.  All  up  to  this 
time  had  been  com- 
paratively easy  sailing 
-  fatiguing,  certainly, 
under  the  blistering  sun, 
but  yet  not  attended  by 
any  particular  discom- 
forts to  one  accustomed 
to  the  mountains  and 
barren  country. 

After   breakfast    that 
morning  I   took  a  look 
around  the  locality  and 
surrounding  mountains. 
The  men  showed  me  a 
tunnel  which  had  caved 
in.    It  had  formerly  tap- 
ped   the   shaft  of     the 
mine  which  I  was  to  in- 
vestigate. The  cave  had 
filled  it  in  completely, 
from  floor  to  roof;  we 
therefore   climbed    the 
hill,  at  the  top  of  which 
was  the  shaft.    Here  we 
found  an  old  windlass 
of  ancient  and  primitive  construction.     It  had 
two  sticks  thrust  through  holes  in  each  end,  the 
extremities  sticking  out  like   four    spokes  in   a 
wheel.     This    sort    of  windlass   is    much   more 
difficult    to  control  than   the  type  on  which  a 
crank    is  employed.     This   mechanism   we   put 
together,  erected  over  the  open   mouth  of  the 
shaft,  and  then  braced  it  strongly  in  position. 
Finally  the  rope   was  made  secure  and  wound 
on,  after  which  we  fastened  to  the  end  a  cow- 
hide   tub,    stout   and    large,    and,    of    course, 

WHAT    I    FOUND    IN    THE    MINE. 


While  the  preparations  for  my  descent  into 
the  shaft  were  being  completed,  I  could  hear 
mysterious  noises  proceeding  from  the  dark 
hole.  Pebbles  and  small  pieces  from  the  ledge 
fell  in  and  rattled  down,  finally  to  strike  on  the 
bottom.  I  could  not  imagine  a  reason  why 
these  things  should  fall  in,  and  asked  one  of  the 
men  what  he  thought  the  noises  were,  or  what 
they  indicated.  He  said  he  thought  they  were 
made  by  wood  rats  or  kangaroo  rats,  which 
were  numerous  about  the  place.  The  other 
man  said  that  undoubtedly  lizards  were  the 
cause.  Their  explanations,  however,  failed  to 
give  me  entire  satisfaction  ;  I  thought  of  other 
far  more  objectionable  things  which  might  be 
inhabiting  the  old,  deserted  works. 

It  was  exceedingly  hot  down  there   in    that 

it  failed  to  give  sufficient  friction  on  the  wood — 
so  down,  down,  down  I  went  into  the  apparently 
bottomless  pit. 

Finally,  my  descent  was  not  so  swift ;  then 
the  speed  began  perceptibly  to  slacken.  Soon 
I  stopped  altogether,  suspended  in  the  shaft. 
I  could  just  see  above  me  a  speck  of  light.  It 
did  not  appear  larger  than  my  hand.  I  shouted 
up  for  the  men  to  lower  more  slowly.  At  the 
first  sound  of  my  voice,  however,  an  enormous 
flock  of  bats  started  suddenly  up  the  shaft — so 
thick  about  me  that  my  candle  was  instantly 
extinguished.  Then  came  a  fight.  The  situa- 
tion was  well  calculated  to  appal  the  stoutest. 

I  shouted  again  and  again  for  the  men  to 
hoist,  for  I  was  being  overwhelmed  and  choked 
by  the  vast  swarm  of  creatures.     But  instead, 


desert  country.  I  had  started  to  go  down  the 
mine  in  a  silk  neglige  shirt  and  stout  overalls, 
but  on  second  thought  I  put  on  a  heavy  brown 
duck  coat,  lined  with  blanket  wool.  The 
overalls  were  made  of  the  same  material.  I 
then  put  on  a  pair  of  heavy  buckskin  gloves, 
took  my  pick,  got  into  the  raw-hide  tub,  and 
told  the  men  to  lower  away. 

Well,  they  lowered  with  a  vengeance.  Instead 
of  letting  me  down  slowly,  controlling  the  wind- 
lass by  holding  to  the  spokes  on  each  end  of 
the  rickety  old  affair,  they  employed  a  brake, 
which  they  had  rigged  up  for  the  purpose.  It 
consisted  of  a  rope  wound  about  the  roller. 
This,  however,  was  not  strong  enough,  or  else 
it  was  too  stiff  to  bind  or  tighten.     At  any  rate, 

down  and  down  I  went.  The  men  evidently 
could  not  hear  my  cries.  I  held  tightly  to  the 
rope  with  one  hand  and  tried  to  get  a  match  to 
light  the  candle,  but  the  bats  flew  against  my 
face  and  hands,  striking  their  sharp  little  claws 
into  my  flesh.  I  was  completely  covered  by  the 
evil-smelling  and  nauseating  creatures.  There 
were  thousands  of  them,  which  I  tried  to  fight 
off  from  me.     But  now  came  the  worst. 

I  was  shot  down  until  I  was  entirely  through 
the  bat  "line"  or  "belt,"  and  was  still  descend- 
ing. Kneeling  down  in  the  cow-skin  tub,  or 
bucket,  I  got  out  a  match  and  relighted  the 
candle.  Instantly  a  dozen  or  more  rattlesnakes 
set  up -their  fearful  and  unmistakable  sound  of 
warning.     I  say  a  dozen,  but  there  must  have 

Illi:    WIDE    WOULD    MAGAZINE. 

rd    him 


deadly  reptiles  in  that 

there  had  been  good 

.    the    shaft    was 

tion   where  the 

\  ch  of  the  shelf-like 

of  the  snakes. 

.  up,  1  suppose,  trying  to  get 

known   fact   to  ail   miners 

West  that  rattlesnakes 

whether  necessity  tor  such 

•    1    went   down   among   this   rattling, 

.    from 


in     my 


horror  in  i 

,  ]         ght  him 

the  back 

the    head, 

.    and  drop- 
him  down  the 

and  knew  I  was  not 
■.  by  the 
mptness   with 
which     the     sound 
came    back.       Two 
hree  other   rat- 
ruck    in 
a     similar    manner, 
but  had  fallen  short 
leir    mark   and 
:    down.       ( >ne 
struck  me,  or  rather 
at     the 
1  of  my   back, 
i  >at    was 
hat    the 
failed     to 
to      the 
i,  and  he  finally 
fell  off  and  down  to 
the   bottom   of  the 

me  the 

had  increased  a 
hundred  -  fold  ;  the 
fall  ing  snakes 
having    aroused    countless    numbers     of   their 

bottom  of  the  shaft.     The  bu 

now  stopped  abruptly.     I   was   suspended  there 

ft.  below   the  surface  and  about   15ft.   only 

from  the  snake-inhabited  bottom  of  the  mine. 

-     h  rattling  no  one  ever  heard  before  ;  and  the 


stench  of  the  snakes  was  stifling.  Only  those  who 
have  ever  smelt  rattlesnakes  in  a  horrid,  close, 
writhing  mass  can  realize  what  this  dreadful 
odour  is.  1  was  sick  and  faint  with  it,  and  the 
prospect  of  being  lowered  helplessly  into  the 
very  midst  of  this  den  of  snakes  was  something 
awful.  I  fairly  shivered  with  terror  at  the  mere 

I  shook  the  rope  in  desperation  ;  I  shouted 
and  kept  shouting,  and  shaking  more  and  more 
frantically.  I  felt  as  though  I  were  frozen,  so 
cold  and  horrified  had  my  whole  body  become. 

It  seemed  as  if 
nothing  could  save 
me  from  shooting 
down  that  last  pal- 
try 15ft.  to  a  death 
from  which  it  would 
be  absolutely  im- 
possible to  escape. 

But  at  last  the 
bucket  began  to 
ascend  — ■  slowly  — 
slowly.  Oh,  it  was 
maddening !  I  felt 
as  if  it  would 
reverse  and  go  down 
at  any  moment 
lower  than  ever.  I 
crouched  in  its  cow- 
hide  depths  and 
struggled  with  all 
my  power  of  will  to 
endeavour  to  make 
the  men  hoist  faster. 
The  slowness  with 
which  the  thing 
went  up  was  enough 
to  make  a  man  go 
crazy.  The  ordeal 
I  had  already  un- 
dergone before  was 
now  repeated.  I 
was  continually 
being  struck  at  by 
the  snakes  left  on 
the  timbers.  I  was 
hit  time  after  time 
— so  much  so,  in- 
deed, that  my  duck 
coat  was  wet  in 
many  places  with 
the  poison  of  these 
horrid  reptiles.  The  thing  would  have  been 
horrible  enough,  God  knows,  had  it  happened 
above  ground  in  the  light  of  day.     But  down 

in  that  awful  pit ! 

One    monster,   about  3  x/> ft-  long,   finally  got 
into    the    bucket    with    me.       He  must  have 

WHAT    I    FOUND    IN    THE    MINE. 


reached  out  too  far,  when  striking,  and  fallen 
in.  I  quickly  stamped  my  foot  upon  him  and 
ground  it  down  and  held  it  there ;  I  put  my 
whole  weight  upon  it,  and  got  him  just  behind 
the  head,  where  he  could  not  move  to  strike. 
His  body  writhed  about  my  ankles;  his  skin 
slipped  on  his  body,  beneath  my  weight.  It 
was  a  sickening  sensation  to  feel  that  awful 
slippery  form  under  my  heel ;  the  chill  and  the 
crawling  of  my  nerves  never  departed  for  a 
second.  But  the  bucket  still  moved  upward, 
slowly,  slowly. 

I  now  arrived  in  the  belt  of  the  bats  again, 

Now,  at  last,  I  could  see  daylight  and  could 
make  myself  heard.  I  shouted  to  the  men  to 
hoist  quickly.  The  two  miners  did  their  very 
best,  and  soon  had  me  up  at  the  top,  or  within  a 
few  feet  of  it.  They  now  discovered,  and  I  also 
saw,  four  large  rattlesnakes  hanging  to  the 
bottom  edge  of  the  leather  tub.  These  had 
struck  at  me,  and  had  got  their  fangs  caught  in 
the  raw  hide  in  such  a  manner  that  they  could 
not  get  away. 

With  the  butt-end  of  my  pick  I  smashed  the 
head  of  the  fellow  I  had  under  my  foot,  and 
then  I  was  hoisted  to  the  level  of  the  top,  where 


and  such  a  mess  I  don't  think  any  man  ever  got 
into  before.  The  erratic  winged  creatures  beat 
about  me — it  seemed  with  added  fury.  They 
struck  me  repeatedly  in  the  face,  and  once  more 
put  out  the  candle.  It  was  hideous,  I  tell  you. 
Their  mouse-like  squeaks  and  the  dying  rattle 
of  the  snake  beneath  my  heel  nearly  froze  me 
to  death.  I  could  not  fight  such  a  cloud  of 
foes — it  was  all  I  could  do  to  protect  myself  a 
little  from  their  flapping  wings  and  blind 
hurtling  against  my  cold  face. 

I  crawled  out  of  my  cow-hide  bucket  on  to 
the  dump.  The  sun  was  blistering  hot,  but  I 
shivered  from  head  to  foot,  and  was  so  nauseated 
that  I  vomited  for  an  hour.  For  a  long  time  I 
lay  upon  the  earth  in  the  hot  glare  of  the  sun 
trying  to  get  warm.  My  flesh  was  as  cold  as 
ice  and  my  face  (they  told  me)  as  white  as  a 
piece  of  marble. 

The  men  killed  three  of  the  rattlers  which 
were  hanging  to  the  bottom  of  the  bucket,  and 
I  guess  the  other  fellow  killed  himself,  for  he 

rilK    WIDE    WORLD     MAGAZINE. 

I  down  the  shaft  again,  which 

than  th  deep  which  we  had 

I  .:  ned  that  the  only  reason 

lowered  entirely  down  to 

ng    the  deadly  and  disgusting 

-    inhabiting   the   place,  was   that 

:i   all   paid  out,  and   therefore 

own  farther.     It  had  held  me 

not  more  than  10ft.  or  15ft.  from  the 

:  a  distance  which  I  was  well 

a     from   the  many  sounds  of  falling 

matl  and  inanimate      I  heard  while 

in  I  ition.     1  [ad  the  rope  been 

r,  what  would   have   become  of  me  I 

not    know,    for  the  two    men  on    top  would 

ntinued  to  let  me  down,  and   I   should 

.  in  the  thick  of  a  living   mass 

of    venomous    and     enraged     serpents,    at     the 

numl  hich  I  can  only  guess. 

jot  over  my  fright  and  had  begun 

n    my   self-control,  and    my  blood   had 

w  through   my  veins,  1  asked 

e  men  why  they  did  not  hoist  when  I  shouted 

i  hey  answered  that  they  had  not  heard  a 

d,  and  that  furthermore  it  was  all  they  had 

■en  able  to  do  to  stand  at  the  edge  of  the 

t  when   the  bats   came  out.     The  cloud  of 

the  creatures,   they  told  me,  was  so  thick  as  it 

poured  from    the   mouth  of   the   hole   that   it 

like  so  much  smoke.     Then   the  sun   had 

made  the  bats  blind,  so  that  they  flew  against 

the  men,  and  battered  them  as  they  had  done 

and  all  but  made  them  blind  themselves  for 

time.     My  assistants,  indeed,  had  been  unable 

to    see   anything    but    bats,    and    could    hardly 

control  the  windlass,  assailed  as  they  were  by 

the  winged  myriads.     They  did  not  dare,  at  the 

time,  to   pull  me  up  again   through  the  mass, 

>ut  thought  it  would  be  best  to  let  me  drop 

low  the  belt  where  the  creatures  lived.     They 

did    not,    of    course,    know    of    the   other   still 

more  fearful  danger. 

My  adventure  put  an  end  to  all  exploration 

of  that  particular  mine  —  by  me,  at  any  rate. 
The  rope  was  pulled  off  the  windlass  ;  the 
outfit  was  packed,  and  my  coat  thrown  away  on 
imt  ot  its  being  covered  with  the  poison  of 
the  snakes.  The  venom  looks  very  much  like 
albumen,  but  is  very  thin  and  watery. 

The  explanation  of  the  presence  of  the  snakes 
in  the  mine  is  that  about  twenty-five  years  ago 
an  Italian  and  Frenchman  worked  the  claim, 
sinking  the  shaft  which  I  descended,  until 
hoisting  out  the  rock  and  ore  became  too 
difficult,  when  they  went  down  the  mountain 
side  and  drove  in  the  tunnel  which  tapped 
the  shaft  at  the  bottom.  The  tunnel  was 
completed  as  planned,  but  the  miners  found 
that  the  ore  was  too  poor,  or  "low-grade," 
to  warrant  their  pursuing  the  work  further. 
At  that  time  milling  facilities  were  almost 
wholly  lacking,  so  that  rich  ore  was  the 
only  sort  worth  taking  from  the  earth.  The 
prospectors  therefore  abandoned  the  mine,  which 
thereupon  became  the  den  of  snakes,  scorpions, 
tarantulas,  and  sundry  other  denizens  of  the 
rock  and  brush  with  which  the  country  swarms. 
After  many  years  the  tunnel  caved  in,  imprison- 
ing the  snakes  and  anything  else  which  had 
made  the  pit  their  home.  Doubtless  creatures 
less  tenacious  than  are  the  rattlers  perished,  but 
the  snakes  fed  on  the  young  bats  that  fell  into 
the  shaft,  and  there  the  serpents  have  been 
breeding  and  flourishing  ever  since. 

I  weigh  2501b.  (1 7st.  i2lb.),  and  had  I  lost 
my  nerve  and  fallen  to  the  bottom  of  the  pit 
those  snakes  would  have  had  enough  to  eat  and 
keep  them  alive  for  two  years. 

The  trip  down  the  shaft  did  not  turn  my  hair 
grey,  but  if  anything  like  that  ever  happens 
again,  I  believe  it  will  become  as  white 
as  snow. 

I  returned  to  San  Francisco  and  reported  to 
my  English  friends  that  I  had  made  the  trip 
and  found — the  biggest  rattlesnake  mine  in  the 
country  ! 

The    Juggernath    Festival    in    Bengal. 

By  the  Rev.  T.  R.  Edwards,  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society. 

The  festival  is  not  what  it  was  in  the  days  when  frenzied  devotees  hurled  themselves  beneath  the 
wheels  of  the  car,  but  still  it  remains  an  extraordinary  instance  of  Pagan  fanaticism  and  fervour. 
This  well-known  missionary  tells  us   all   about   the  festival,  and  illustrates  his  description  with  photos. 

of  a  striking  character. 

HE  great  car  of  Juggernaut,  or 
Juggernath  !  The  very  name  sug- 
gests the  reading-books  we  used  at 
school,  which  told  us  of  the  san- 
guinary horrors  of  the  festival  and 
the  hideous  trail  of  blood  left  by  the  murderous 
wheels.  All  this,  of  course,  is  past  and  gone, 
thanks  to  the  beneficent  rule  of  the  British  in 
India  —  a  rule 
which,  one  is 
bound  to  say,  is 
fatal  to  what  the 
worldling  is  apt 
to  call  "  the  pic- 

Even  to-day, 
however,  one  of 
the  most  charac- 
teristic sights  to 
be  witnessed  in 
India  is  that 
furnished  by  the 
worship  of  the 
god  Juggernath. 
To  begin  with, 
there  is  the  im- 
posing temple, 
surrounded  with 
an  atmosphere 
of  age-long  mys- 
tery and  super- 
stition. Next 
comes  the  lofty 
and  ponderous 
car,  gaudily 
painted  with 
Hindu  mytho- 
logical scenes. 
Let  me  here 
afford  you  a 
near  view  of  one 
of  the  cars  of  Juggernath — an  excellent  idea  of 
its  size  is  gained  by  comparing  it  with  the  figure 
of  the  native  on  the  right.  You  will  observe 
that  the  construction  of  the  car  is  extremely 
rude,  and  round  it  runs  what  looks  like  a  crazy 
balcony.  The  wheels  are  more  or  less  sunk 
in  the  sand,  and  on  the  right  we  see  the 
great  cables  used  for  hauling  on  the  festival 
day.  In  contemplating  this  extraordinary 
temple  on  wheels,  however,  it  must  be  borne 
in  mind  that  the  one  shown  in  our  photo,  is  "in 

Vol.  iv.  -4. 



From  a  Photo,  by]  in  the  ol 

its  stable,"  so  to  speak  ;  its  appearance  on  the 
great  day  itself  being  far  more  gay  and  animated. 
But  this  will  be  evident  in  the  other  photos. 

Besides  the  temple  and  the  car  there  are  the 
images,  grim  and  hideous,  which  are  worshipped 
by  adoring  thousands.  And,  above  all,  there 
are  the  vast  crowds  which  the  eye  tries  in  vain 
to  estimate.      You  may  readily  imagine,  then, 

that  a  pageant 
made  up  of  these 
elements  forms 
a  unique  and 
spectacle.  So 
you  cannot  do 
better  than  ac- 
company me  to 
Serampore  and 
behold  it  for 

Sera  mpore, 
you  must  know, 
is  about  twelve 
miles  above  Cal- 
cutta, on  the 
right  bank  of  the 
River  Hooghly; 
and  the  place  is 
famous  because 
it  was  here  that 
the  first  Protest- 
a  n  t  mission 
station  in  India 
was  planted.  But 
Serampore  is 
also  famous  for 
its  Juggernath 
worship.  There 
are  two  chief 
festivals  claiming 
our  attention  — 
the  Snan-Jatra,  or  bathing  ceremony,  and  the 
Roth-jatra,  or  car  expedition. 

The  next  photo,  reproduced  gives  us  a 
splendid  view  of  the  scene  presented  on  the 
first  of  these  occasions.  In  the  background  the 
temple  of  Juggernath  raises  its  lofty  head, 
standing  in  its  own  walled  inclosure.  Behind 
is  a  forest  of  palms  and  mangoes  ;  while  the 
foreground  is  made  up  of  a  veritable  sea  of 
human  beings,  relieved  only  by  a  few  booths 
and  a  sprinkling  of  carriages. 


d  days.  [Bourne  &  Shepherd. 

[■m:   wide   world   mag  a/,  ink. 

\    OK    HUMAN    l'.LIM.S,    RELIEVED    ONLY    BY 

From  a  J'/ioto.  by  the  Rev.    T.  R. 

A-  the  sun  is  blazing  down  with  all  its  Indian 
ur,  those  natives  possessing  umbrellas  have 
prudently  put  them   up.     Every  person  present 
is  on  the  tip-toe  of  excitement  and  expectation, 
waiting    for  the  ceremony  to    commence.     All 
are  turned  towards  the  platform  of  brick 
and  masonry  at  the  rear,  where  the  great  func- 
tion is  taking  place  that  has  attracted  all  these 
multitudes.     The  fact  is,  Juggernath  is  receiving 
inual  public  bath. 
During  the  greater  part  of  the  year  the  god 
in  considerable  state  in   the  temple,   but 
on  this   occasion   he  is  carried  forth,  carefully 
wrapped  up  in    a    thick    cloth.       His    brother 
loram  and   his  sister  Shubhodra   dwell   with 
him  in  the  temple,  and  now  accompany  him  on 
journey  forth.      Juggernath   himself  is  ex- 
ingly  heavy,  and  it  requires  several   men  to 
carry  him.     They  pull  and  strain  to  get  him   up 
2  top  of  the  platform,  and  then  the  covering 
s  remo\ed  and  a  gorgeous  umbrella  held  over 
ad.     This  done,   the  god   is   ready  for  his 

Amid    an   impressive   silence,    the   officiating 

take    water   from   the   holy  Ganges  and 

pour  it  over  the  idol's  head  in   full  view   of  the 

ed  thousand-.      Every  eye  is  strained  to 

<f  the  god,  and  witness  the 

illy.      Every  phase  of  the  ritual 

thunders  of  "Hurri-bol-  hurri-bol" 

Shout  the  name  of  God").     After  the  water 

has  been  poured  o.  gernath,  and  his  body 

carefully    wiped    with    a    cloth,    this    particular 

mony  is  at  an  end.     The  orthodox  Hindus 



believe  that  by 
coming  to  Seram- 
pore  and  witness- 
ing the  bathing 
ceremony  they 
acquire  unbound- 
ed merit  and 
more  or  less 
certain  salvation. 
The  more  enthu- 
siastic devotees 
now  press  forward 
to  the  platform, 
where  they  make 
their  obeisances 
to  the  god,  while 
the  majority  of 
the  people 
(human  nature 
being  the  same 
all  over  the  world) 
turn  away  to  en- 
joy the  fast  and 
furious  fun  of  the 
fair,  as  repre- 
sented by  performing  bears,  show-booths,  jug- 
glers, snake-charmers,  etc. 

But  let  us,  too,  approach  the  platform  for  a 
closer  view  of  the  images.  As  a  matter  of  fact, 
they  are  merely  three  misshapen  logs  of  wood. 
Juggernath  himself  is  neither  lovely  nor  artistic. 
He  is  painted  black.  Two  white  circles  do 
duty  for  eyes,  and  two  more  broad  stripes  are 
intended  to  represent  respectively  the  nose  and 
mouth.  None  of  the  figures  have  either  arms 
or  legs.  It  seems  rather  curious  to  call  such  a 
grotesque  idol  "  Lord  of  the  World,"  but  that  is 
what  "  Juggernath  "  means.  When  he  appears 
in  public  in  his  car,  however,  the  obliging 
priests  provide  him  with  temporary  silver  arms  ; 
but  these  are  merely  "  properties  "  for  stage  use, 
so  to  speak. 

As  soon  as  the  enormous  concourse  have 
finished  worshipping  the  idols,  they  are  covered 
up  again  and  carried  back  to  the  temple,  there 
to  await  the  great  ceremony  of  the  Car  Journey. 
This  is  undoubtedly  the  chief  event  of  the  year, 
and  most  accurately  is  it  portrayed  for  us  in  the 
next  photograph  reproduced.  Really,  a  study 
of  this  picture  is  almost  as  good  as  a  trip  to 
Serampore  at  festival  time.  Observe  the  vast 
throng  in  the  photo.,  and  remember  that  this 
can  only  show  a  very  small  section  of  the 
assembly.  All  along  the  route  taken  by  the 
car  the  road-sides  are  packed  with  countless 
devotees  and  spectators.  Walls,  banks,  and 
house-tops  are  all  crowded  to  their  utmost 
capacity,  and  almost  beyond  it.  From  a  worldly 
point  of  view  it  is  a  grand  sight,   but  also  one 



which  gives  intense  pain  to  the  missionary,  who 
realizes  at  a  glance  the  tremendous  hold  which 
idol-worship  still  retains  upon  India's  millions. 

Let  us  watch  the  ascent  of  the  gods  to  their 
positions  on  the  great  car.  They  are  presently 
brought  out  of  the  temple  as  before,  all  covered 
up   and   tightly  corded   round.     Musicians  (!) 

result  in  surreptitious  loss  of  life  beneath  the 
wheels  of  the  great  car,  as  in  the  olden  days, 
when  the  natives  positively  vied  with  one  another 
in  casting  themselves  beneath  the  wheels,  and 
the  car  left  a  hideous  track  of  mangled  corpses 
behind  it.  Moreover,  the  magistrate  has 
to  see  that   the   hauling   ropes   are  sufficiently 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Rev.   T.   R.   Edwards. 

with  large  gongs  and  drums  accompany  the 
idols,  and  make  a  terrific  uproar,  the  crowd 
hailing  their  approach  with  repeated  roars  of 
" Hurri-bol I r  Arrived  at  the  car,  the  gods  are 
hauled  up  in  the  most  unceremonious  manner 
to  the  topmost  chamber  of  the  lofty  vehicle. 
During  this  trying  operation  they  look  like 
nothing  so  much  as  bales  of  goods  swung  aloft, 
instead  of  august  divinities  for  whom,  in  the 
days  gone  by,  thousands  of  fanatics  literally 
laid  down  their  lives. 

When  the  idols  have  been  duly  set  in  their 
"  high  places "  their  coverings  are  withdrawn 
and  their  temporary  arms  fastened  on  ;  then 
they  are  ready  to  be  pulled.  This  operation, 
however,  cannot  take  place  until  the  British 
magistrate  -who  is  present  with  a  large  body  of 
police — signifies  his  assent.  But,  you  will  ask, 
what  are  the  magistrate  and  his  police  doing 
here  ?  Well,  it  is  his  duty  to  see  that  excess  of 
fanaticism  on  the  part  of  the  spectators  does  not 

strung  ;  and  behind  him  stands  an  officer 
carrying  a  gun,  the  firing  of  which  is  under- 
stood by  all  to  mean  that  the  pulling  must 
instantly  cease.  These  officials  may  be  observed 
on  the  right  of  the  photo.  I  have  been  describing. 
Should  the  car  threaten  to  go  in  a  wrong  direc- 
tion, or  any  accident  occur  by  which  life  is 
endangered,  off  goes  the  gun,  and  the  car  at 
once  comes  to  a  standstill.  Thus  it  is  that  no 
victims  are  nowadays  claimed  by  Juggernath. 
I  myself  have  witnessed  the  great  procession 
for  many  years,  but  have  never  seen  or  heard  of 
a  single  fatality. 

On  one  occasion,  however,  the  famous  idol 
all  but  claimed  a  sacrifice— and  that  a  far  more 
important  victim  than  a  mere  Hindu.  It  was, 
indeed,  no  less  a  personage  than  the  magistrate 
himself !  There  had  been  a  great  deal  of  rain, 
and  the  ground  was  slippery  from  the  trampling 
of  countless  feet.  Just  as  the  signal  was  given 
to  pull  the  car,  the  magistrate  slipped  and  fell 

fill-:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

in  front  of  the  huge  erection.      The  gun 
tantly  fired,  but  it  was  too  late  :  the  car 

already  in    motion,  and  with   such   "  way  " 

as   not   brought  to  a   standstill  until 

it  had   passed  completely  over  the  unfortunate 

ate    form  !      A    thrill    of    horror 

h   the   multitude,  and   there  was  a 

beneath   the   wheels.     Everyi 

pected    to   see    the    British    Raj 

ath  :  but.  wonderful  to  relate,  he 

led  OUl  n    the  wheels  without   even  a 

brui<e.      He  had   fallen   in  such  a  way  that  the 

i  cumbrous  wheels  only  just  grazed  his  side. 

had    he    been    injured   it   would   no   doubt 

have     injured     British     pi  in     a     curious 

Without    doubt   the   natives    would    have 

pointed  to  the  incident  as  an  indisputable  proof 

of  Juggernath's  irresistible  power.      "  See,"  they 

would  have  said,  "  even  the  highest  official  of 

the  tun  eminent  is  helpless  before  our  god  !  " 

As    a    proof  of  this,    I    may    mention    that, 
another   year,   the    number   of   Hindus    at    the 
so  small,  and  the  car  so  heavy,  that 
jernath  simply  could  not  be  drawn.     The 
great  car  stuck  in  the  mud,  and  no  efforts  could 
move  it.     "  There  you  are,"  declared  the  admir- 
populace,  "  when  Juggernath  makes  up  his 
mind  that  he  will  not  move,  it  is  impossible  to 
make  him  bucL  You  see,  their  own  lack  of 

power  actually  brought  fresh  honour  to  their 
god.  The  sequel,  however,  put  a  different  com- 
plexion on  things — but  this  the  devotees  care- 

fully overlooked.  When  all  else  failed,  an 
English  jack-screw  soon  compelled  Juggernath 
to  change  his  mind  ! 

Let  us  now  get  as  near  as  we  can  to  the  car 
to  watch  the  actual  pulling.  The  god  is  quite 
ready  for  his  annual  trip,  and  his  priests  and 
attendants  have  clambered  on  to  the  car,  as  may 
be  seen  in  the  photograph.  The  huge  ropes 
are  then  made  fast  to  the  front,  while  hundreds 
of  men  rush  forward  to  "  haul  on,"  considering 
themselves  highly  privileged  if  they  get  a  place. 

At  length  a  weird  gong  sounds,  and  a  vener- 
able Brahmin  standing  on  the  front  of  the  car 
gives  the  signal.  The  ropes  tighten,  the  car 
creaks  and  groans  and  quivers  and  shakes. 
Then,  amid  rolling  thunders  of  applause,  it 
lumbers  on  its  way,  much  as  we  see  it  in  the 
accompanying  photo.  This,  by  the  way,  gives 
a  really  magnificent  idea  of  the  actual  pulling  of 
the  Juggernath  car.  Here,  again,  on  the  right, 
we  see  the  magistrate  and  his  officials  watching 
over  the  lives  of  the  people.  All  along  the 
chosen  route  the  people  hail  the  car  by  waving 
their  hands  and  shouting  their  loudest.  It  is 
indeed  an  extraordinary  spectacle,  and  one 
well  worth  going  all  the  way  to  India  to  see. 

When  the  car  has  arrived  at  its  destination 
the  idols  are  taken  down  and  carried  into  the 
temple  of  another  god.  Here  they  stay  until 
the  priests  are  ready  for  the  return  journey  to 
their  own  temple ;  and  this  is  conducted  with 
the  same  great  ceremony. 


From  a  Photo,  by  Bourne  &  Shepherd. 

I  I  S    WAV. 



YOU   LIKE.       PRICES    FROM    4O.    TO    IS." 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Rev.    T.  R.  Edwards. 

During  the  ten  or  twelve  days  occupied  by  this 
festival  a  great  fair  or  mela  is  held ;  and  it  is  not 
too  much  to  say  that  miles  of  temporary  shops 
are  erected,  whilst  primitive  merry-go-rounds  and 
queer  side-shows  provide  amusements  for  all 
tastes.      I  .et  us  pass  along  the  line  of  shops  and 

anything  there  may  be  of  interest.  Why,  what 
have  we  here?     The  very  first  booth  we  inspect 
is  a  god-shop  !     This  sounds  fantastic  and  extra- 
ordinary, but  here  we 
are   at  an  emporium, 
where    gods   are   sold 
to    fanatical   devotees 
at  prices  ranging  from 
4d.  to  is. — "  prices  to 
suit    all    pockets "- — 
in  fact,  our    booth 
contains    rows    upon 
rows     of     outlandish 
images  for  sale.     You 

,  every  Hindu 
householder  has  his 
own  domestic  god, 
and  he  has  here  quite 
a  large  number  to 
choose  from.  The 
images,  you  will  ob- 
serve, are  quaint 
rather  than  beautiful. 
By  the  way,  it  is  esti- 
mated that  the  number 
of  divinities  wor- 
shipped in  India  is 
something  like  330 
millions  ! 

We  next  come  to  the  most  curious 
sight  in  the  whole  mela.  This 
is  the  "  living  goddess,"  repre- 
sented in  our  last  photograph. 
Judging  from  the  plate  of  voluntary 
offerings  on  her  left  hand  she  finds 
the  role  a  very  paying  one.  The 
woman  is,  in  fact,  got  up  to  repre- 
sent accurately  the  far-famed  and 
mighty  goddess  Doorga.  She  has 
ten  arms  (eight  of  them  "  pro- 
perties "),  and  by  her  side  are 
placed  her  sons,  Ganesh  and  Kartik. 
The  latter  is  on  his  mother's  left, 
and  rides  a  peacock  ;  whilst  the 
former    is    provided    with     an     ele- 

tphant's  head.  Uoorga's  face,  neck, 
and  arms  are  painted  a  brilliant 
yellow.  If  the  truth  must  be 
told,  this  heavenly  tableau  vivant 
business  is  but  the  ingenious  device 
of  an  Indian  beggar  or  female 
fakir  for  extracting  alms  from 
numerous    spectators    at    the    Juggernath 


But,  you  will  ask,  has  she  anything  to  give  in 
return  for  the  offerings?  Why,  yes,  of  course. 
She  pours  forth  all  kinds  of  blessings  upon  the 
heads  of  her  benefactors,  who  fondly  imagine 
that  good  wishes  of  this  kind  are  as  efficacious 
as  if  they  proceeded  from  the  real  goddess  her- 
self.    And,  of  course,  they  are. 

A    LI\  INI  .    1  .'  ■  I  >  I  IE 

A  I 

HE    Wl 

s — \\  H>>    IS    ALSO    A    BEG 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Rev.  T.  R.  Edwards. 


The    terrible   Adventure    of   Emil   Habl. 

\\\     1       11.     ElSl  NMANN,    OF    VIENNA. 

of    country,    we     must    all    yield    our   tribute  of    unqualified     admiration     to    the    young 

compositor.    Emil     Habl.    whose    all     but    incredible    feat     of     endurance     and     pluck    was 

mi  of    the  Austrian    capital.     That  a  man  with    a  leg  fractured  so  badly  that    the 

protruded   through   the  skin   should  set  it    himself,  and   then   descend  the  precipitous 

mountain  in   three  days  and    three  nights,  is  surely  the  greatest  climbing  feat  on  record. 

•'  the  mountain-giants  o(  the  Austrian 
Alps,  two  in  particular  may  be  con- 
red    the    favourites    of   Vienna 

-  namely,    the   Schneebi  rg 
and    the   Rax.       The  popularity  of 
quite   natural.      Firstly,  they 
ty,  at  the  wry  gates  of  Vienna  :  for 
in  little  more  than   an  hour  one  reaches  Payer- 
h  on  the   Southern    Railway,  the  point  of  de- 
parture for  the  ascent  of  both  mountains.  Then 
the  panorama   from   the  top  of  each  is  surpris- 
I  he 
v  e  r  y 
rich  :     and    last, 
but     not      kast, 
are  s( 
rent    ascents 
from    which     to 
choose.     Among 
promenades,  well 
laid   out    and 
rising  in  serpen- 
>o  gradually 
as  to  enable  even 
ladies  to  ascend 
with  ease.  There 
are,     however, 
other  routes  lead- 
ing up  the  face  of 
bar  pitous 

which  can 



free  from 

altogether ;  and  the  consequence  is  that  the 
Rax  is  now  more  visited  by  regular  mountaineers 
than  ever.  There  are  dozens  of  different  routes 
up  to  the  plateau  forming  its  summit,  and  they 
afford  magnificent  and  extensive  views. 

The  tracks  leading  from  the  Hoellenthal  up 
the  steep,  rocky  walls  on  the  north  side  of  the 
mountain  afford  particularly  grand  views  of  the 
rocks,  and  are  the  favourite  paths  of  venture- 
some tourists.  But  the  route  from  Payerbach 
— the   tourists'   station  par  excellence— is   both 

:henau,  the  fashionable  v 
From  a  Photo,  by]  ox 

the  cog- 
way  up  the  Schneeberg  was  opened, 
ind   for    the    first    time    the    shrill   whistle   of 
was    heard   just    below  the   summit, 
has     gained     many    new    friends, 
leather  boots,    umbrella  in  one 
i  novel  in  the  other,  lounge  about  the 
mit,  which  they  never  reached  by  their  own 
rtions.     But  also  it   has   lost    many  an  old 
friend,  who  was  wont,  knapsack  on  back  and 
alpenstock  in  hand,  toilfully  to  gain  the  wind- 
wooed  top.     The  railway  has  driven  him  away 


which  the  accident  happened.  [R.  Lechner,  Vienna. 

charming  and  interesting.  The  wanderer  first 
passes  through  a  beautiful  valley,  with  the 
majestic  Rax  in  the  background,  and  soon 
reaches  the  fashionable  summer  resort  of 
Reichenau.  Then  he  enters  the  narrow, 
picturesque  Hoellenthal,  through  which  rushes 
the  River  Schwarzau.  The  entire  district  indeed 
is  one  of  the  most  beautiful  in  all  Lower  Austria. 
In  places,  precipitous  rocks  of  over  2,000ft.  so 
shut  in  the  valley  as  to  leave  only  bare  room 
for  the  river  and  the  road. 



naturally  it  is 
the  headquarters 
of  many  tourists 
who  contem- 
plate excursions 
up  one  or  both 
of  these  beauti- 
ful mountains. 

All  the  routes 
from  the    Hoel- 
lenthal   lead  up 
steep    rocks, 
and  are,  without 
exception,   ex- 
tremely difficult 
— suitable,    in 
fact,      only     for 
climbers.    But 
particularly  diffi- 
cult is  the  path 
from     Kaiser- 
brunn     through 
the     Wolfsthal ; 
so   that   quite  a 
con  sider  able 
number  of  more  or  less  serious  accidents  have 
taken  place  there  within  the  last  few  years.     On 
account  of  the  dangers  and  difficulties  of  this 
route,  there  is  a  rule  that  it  should  be  attempted 
only   by  j\     /at  tourists   together;  so  that    they 
may  help  one  another  in  case  of  need. 


Front  a   Photo,  by  R.  Lcchner,   Vienna. 

Not  long  after  the  tourist  comes  to  the  little 
village   of  Kaiserbrunn,   where   the   valley   is   a 
little  broader  ;    it  receives   its   name  of  Kaiser- 
brunn  (Emperor's   Spring)   from   that    plentiful 
Alpine  spring  which,  with  some  other  sources, 
supplies  Vienna  with  its  "  Hochquellenwasser," 
a  water  of  such 
excellent    purity 
as  no  other  city 
can  boast  of.     It 
was     discovered 
by  the  Emperor 
Charles   VI. 
when  out    hunt- 
ing  in  the  year 

At  Kaiser- 
brunn the  valley 
divides  into  two 
narrower  ones, 
the  right  one, 
called  the 
ben,  leading  to 
the  Schneeberg  ; 
whilst  the  one 
on  the  left— the 
Wolfs  t  hal— 
takes  the  direc- 
tion of  the  Rax. 
As  Kaiserbrunn 
lies  at  the  part- 

_     ,  •  "at  kaiserbrunn  the  valley  divides  into  two  narrower  o 

ing  Ot    the   ways,  From  a  Photo,  by}  this  place  that  the  injured  man  made.) 

(it  was  for 
[R.  Lechner,  I  'ienna. 

1111.    WIDE    WORLD     MAGAZINE 

rva         of  this  wise   rule  almost 

an  his  life  this  summer.     He  fell 

and  he  ow 


on   the 


aim  human 


ssible  Tor 


from    the 

it    into  the 

neighbourhood  of 

I  dread- 

and  three  awful  nights 

i    that   memorable  d( 

ent  which  can  easily  be 

in    two  hours  by  anyone 

able   to  walk.      It    may    almost 

certainly  be  said   that  the  case 

ithout    a    parallel    in    the 

annals  of  Alpine  accidents. 

The    unfortunate  young   man 

n,  a  compositor  in 

shaped      rocks,      is      seen      to      the      west     of 
Wiener    Neustadt 

"I  intended  to  do  a  different 

mountain    in     the    Semmering 

day,   making   only 

ascents — 

of  course,    the 

Not  only  am 






front  a  Photo. 

is  Emil  Habl, 

the  office  of  a 

rspaper,    the     Xatc    Freie    Presse. 


hoi  id  ay 
to   see    him 
hospital    in 


Habl    is    an    experi- 
enced   mountaineer, 
and      intended 
spending   his  week's 
in     t  li  e 
I    went 
in     the 
v  h  e  r  e     (at     the 
moment   of    writing) 
he  is  lying,   and,  in 
the    opinion    of    the 
doctors,   he  will   not 
be  able  to  leave  the 
institution     for     an- 
other   six     or     eight 
He     is     a 
sympathetic      young 
fellow,    very     intelli- 
.    and    he    told 
of  his    Rax   tour 
in     the    following 
rds  : — 

"On  Sunday, 
June  nth,  I  left 
Vienna  by  the  first 
train  in  the  morn- 
ing, furnished  with 
a  complete  moun- 
taineer's kit  ;  and 
same  day  I 
made  the  ascent  of 
the  Hohe  Wand, 
which,  with  its 


'LI-SI  HAL — THE    ROl    II      i    ■     ,il      l. AX    WHICH 

From  a  Photo,  by  A.  Holder,  Vienna. 

the  most 
that   is   to  say, 
most    difficult. 

I  passionately  fond  of  moun- 
taineering (since  my  boyhood 
I  have  spent  every  holiday  in 
the  mountains),  but  I  am  also 
an  ardent  botanist  and  collector 
of  simples.  Just  at  this  season, 
then,  I  hoped  to  bring  home 
from  my  excursion  a  large 
assortment  of  rare  plants  where- 
with to  enrich  my  herbarium. 
On  the  Monday  I  ascended 
the  Schneeberg  in  lovely 
weather,  and  descended 
the  Krummbachthal.  I  reached  the 
Hotel  Kaiserbrunn  in  the  evening,  and  spent 
the    night    there.      On   Tuesday,    June    13th, 

I  got  up  very  early, 
strapped  my  knap- 
sack on  my  back, 
took  my 
tin  and  my 
stock,  and  started 
off  alone,  intending 
to  ascend  the  Rax 
by  way  of  the  Wolf- 
sthal.  I  must  admit 
that  when  I  hap- 
pened to  mention 
my  project  at  the 
hotel  I  was  earnestly 
warned  against  un- 
dertaking such  a 
difficult  ascent 
alone  ;  but  I  would 
not  give  up  the  plan 
I  had  formed.  I 
had  no  fear,  for  had 
1  not  already  climbed 
this  very  mountain 
dozens  of  times  in 
the  company  of 
friends,  and  had  I 
not  accomplished 
the  route  through 
the  Wolfsthal  it- 
self twice  without 
much  difficulty  ?  I 
had,  in  fact,  always 
been  successful 
on  my  many 



"Accordingly  at  6  a.m.  I  left  Kaiserbrunn 
in  excellent  spirits.  At  first  I  had  no  difficulty 
whatever ;  there  was  a  capitally-kept  path, 
which  is  often  made  use  of  by  summer 
visitors  from  Kaiserbrunn.  After  half  an 
hour  I  found  the  ascent  becoming  steeper, 
and  then  soon  the  real  mountain  track  began. 
It  is  indicated  by  means  of  stripes  of  green 
paint  on  trees  and  rocks ;  but  in  places  the 
rain  has,  unfortunately,  washed  away  the 
colour,  so  that  the  right  path  may  be  easily 
overlooked.  The  scenery  is  most  interest- 
ing. The  shapes  of  the  rocks  are  extremely 
bizarre,  among  them  being  many  curiously- 
formed  towers  and  wild  battlements,  such  as 
elsewhere  are  only  to  be  found  in  the 
Dolomites.  I  made  rapid  progress,  and 
hoped  to  reach  the  summit  before  noon. 

"But,  all  at  once,  the  track  became  very 
difficult,  so  that  it  cost  me  the  greatest 
trouble  to  advance  at  all.  I  climbed  on  and 
on  as  best  I  could,  after  a  while  finding  it  a 
little  better,  and  I  was  soon  congratulating 
myself  on  having  got  over  the  worst. 

"But  all  too  soon  fresh  difficulties  appeared, 
which  were  far  worse  than  the  former  ones. 
On  the  two  previous  occasions  when  I  had 
gone  that   way   I    had    met   with    no    such 
terrific  obstacles  as    these.      Had  I    strayed 
from  the  right  path?   I  wondered.     I  looked 
for  the  green  stripes,  but  could  not  see  any. 
Still  I   climbed   on.      Suddenly,   however,    I 
found    myself    confronted    by    two    gigantic 
and  almost  perpendicular  rocks,  which  I  had 
never  seen  before,  and  which  so  completely 
barred  the  way  that  the  only  thing   was   to 
ascend  one  or  other  of  them.      Then   I  was 
altogether  convinced   that  I  had  missed  the 
path    and    gone    astray.      The  best    thing, 
of  course,    would    have    been    to    return    to 
the    marked    path ;    but,    unfortunately,    I    did 
not  do  so.     The  way  of  the  true  mountaineer 
is  to  delight   in  difficulties.      On  one  of   the 
two  precipitous  rocks  I  presently  perceived,  at 
a  considerable  distance  apart,  iron  clamps  such 
as   the    hunters    in    the  high    Alps    insert    to 
hang    ladders    on.         Accordingly,     I    argued, 
there  evidently  must  be  a  so-called  hunter's  path 
leading  up  the  face  of  that  rock,   from  which 
the  ladders  had   been    taken  away  to  prevent 
tourists   from  going  that   way.     Feeling  utterly 
disinclined  to  go  back,  I  boldly  resolved  to  scale 
the    sheer    face    of    the    precipice    despite    the 
absence  of   ladders.     I  was  partly  induced  to 
come  to  this  resolution  by  the  assumption   that 
at  the  top  of  the  rock  there  must  be  a  path 
which   I    could    use.     Before    I   had   ascended 
many    feet,    however,    I    lost    my    footing   and 
slipped  back  a  bit,  but  without  hurting  myself. 

Vol.  iv.— 5. 

IIII-.    IS     v    PHOTOGRAPH    Of      I  III-:    VERY    PRECIPICE    FROM    WHICH 
YOUNG    HABL    FEL1  . 

Prom  a   Photo,  by  A.   Holder,    Vienna. 

I  then  made  a  second  attempt,  and  really  got 
up  some  30ft.  to  40ft.,  when  to  my  dismay 
and  disgust  I  found  all  further  progress  abso- 
lutely impossible.  I  at  once  decided  to  make 
the  best  of  matters — to  submit  to  the  inevit- 
able and  return. 

"  But  scarcely  had  I  got  down  two  steps 
when  a  stone  under  my  foot  slipped  out, 
causing  me  to  stumble  heavily.  My  heart 
leaped  with  instinctive  terror.  I  lost  my 
balance,  and  despite  my  efforts  to  steady  my- 
self with  my  alpenstock,  I  went  crashing  help- 
lessly right  down  the  rock,  and  there  remained 
in  a  state  of  unconsciousness.  That  must  have 
been  towards  half -past  seven  in  the  morning. 

"  How  long  I  remained  unconscious  it  is  im- 
possible for  me  to  say,  for  on  coming  to  again  I 
did  not  at  once  look  at  my  watch  ;  I  think,  how- 
ever, that  it  must  have  been  a  long  time.     The 


a  .1  terrible  pain   in  my 

.    and  left  side  ;    I    was  also 

from    several    wounds.      At 

ring  the  fearful  fall  1  had 

I  thankful  1   had   not   been  killed  out 

I  up  1  discovered  to  my 

t  1  had  broken  my  right  shin-bone. 

rhe  break  was 

i\v    the  knee,  and  at   the 

I    .      ..  wry   bad  fraciure. 

ill  an  'open  '  fracture 

ted  through  the  skin. 

"\\  my   might   1  shouted  for   help,  but 

the  echo  of  my  own 
mded    like    somebody    mock- 
In  such  a  lonely  spot,  I  reflected  dis- 
:'■'!    hear  me?    Tourists  seldom 
■lie  Wolfsthal  :  yet  perchance  some 
jsing   that    way  and  would 
my  more   than   dreadful    need.     So 
led  out  again  and  again,   until  at  length   I 
terribly  h  I    did   not,    however, 

1    could    no    longer    utter  a    sound. 
a    far  away  in   the  valley  the   barking  of  a 
ir,  but   no   human  voice.      I 
-    ..  that  the  only  help  I  should  get  was 
Ip,  and   that   my   situation   was   an  abso- 
js    one,    and    desperate    at    that, 
p   melancholy  overcame   me.      I   should   be 
_ht,  if  I  could  not  succeed  in  getting 
a    the    mountain.       But    of    all    the    many 
ntures  and  accidents  of  mountaineers  that 
ad  read  of,  I  could  not  remember  a  case  in 
ch   a   man   with  a   broken    leg  had  accom- 
t  of  a  mountain  !     And  yet  I 
was   absolutely   convinced    that   this   seemingly 
impossible   feat  alone   could    save    me    from   a 
•ath.      Even  leaving  out  of  account 
3ther  not  inconsiderable  injuries,   how  was 
ch  a  thing  within  a  human  creature's  capacity 
The    slightest    movement    in- 
tny,  until   it   became   altogether 
Again   and    again    I   uttered   loud 
help,     but    none    came  :     no    man 
Meanwhile    the     sky    had     clouded 
id   it    began    to   rain    in    torrents,  which 
2  probability  of  anybody's  coming  that 
more    remote    than    before.      Unless    I 
bly    to     die    a    long  drawn-out, 
tth   from   hunger  and  thirst,  I  knew 
/  must   save    myself.      I    decided    not    to    lose 
loment     in     fruitless     brooding,    and 
waiting,  and  shouting,  but  to  act  at  on 

1  that  first   of  all   I   must  set  my 

and    bandage     it    in     some    rough 

of  the  agony  it  caused  me,  I 

rolled   over   and    over    the    ground    in    different 

directions   like   a   bale   of   goods     a    few  yards 

here  and  a  few  yards  there— until  I  had  collected 

a  sufficient  quantity  of  fallen  branches,  bits  of 
fir  and  moss  ;  this  strange  collecting  process 
took  me  some  hours.  The  next  thing  was  to 
off  the  sleeves  o(  my  shirt  and  such  other 
parts  of  my  underwear  as  I  could  spare.  On 
my  mountain  excursions  1  always  took  with  me  a 
box  containing  iodoform  gauze  and  cambric  ; 
and  now  these  things  were  more  than  welcome. 
Then  by  my  side  I  laid  some  string  1  fortunately 
had  in  my  pocket,  as  well  as  my  hat-line  and 
my  scarf,  with  which  to  fasten  the  bandage. 

"At  last,  then,  I  was  ready  to  begin  the  opera- 
tion. But,  good  heavens,  what  agony !  My 
deadliest  enemy  1  would  not  wish  such  excruciat- 
ing  pains  as  I  suffered  when  setting  the  poor 
splintered  bone — which,  be  it  remembered,  was 
not  broken  straight  across.  The  dreadful 
splinters,  indeed,  dug  deep  into  my  flesh.  Not 
regarding  the  pain  (although  nearly  fainting 
therewith)  I  exerted  my  whole  force,  and  at  last 
succeeded  in  getting  the  bone  into  what,  as  far 
as  I  could  judge,  was  its  right  position.  Then  I 
wound  the  iodoform  gauze  round  it,  and  over 
that  I  put  the  cambric,  the  bits  of  underclothing, 
and  a  layer  of  moss.  Next  in  the  queer  opera- 
tion came  my  alpenstock  and  some  boughs  in 
place  of  splints ;  and  finally  I  tied  the  whole 
together  with  the  string,  my  hat-line,  and  neck- 
tie. Of  course,  it  did  not  all  go  so  straight- 
forwardly as  I  have  described.  More  than  once 
the  improvised  splints  slipped,  because  I  could 
not  hold  everything  with  one  hand.  But  at  last 
I  did  succeed  in  making  as  good  a  job  of  the 
setting  as  circumstances  permitted.  Without 
the  leg  being  set,  I  should  never  have  got  down 
the  mountain  at  all,  of  this  I  am  fully  convinced. 
Of  course,  even  then  I  could  not  use  my  injured 
leg,  but  at  least  I  could  move  more  freely  and 
with  less  pain. 

"  Meanwhile  the  evening  had  come  on,  but  it 
being  still  partly  light,  I  resolved  to  begin  at 
once  the  perilous  and  frightfully  painful  descent. 
I  did  not  hesitate  to  do  this,  because  I  wanted 
to  be  quite  sure  that  in  my  disabled  condition 
I  should  be  able  to  get  down  the  rocks,  the  ascent 
of  which  with  perfectly  sound  limbs  had  caused 
me  such  extraordinary  difficulty.  I  found  to  my 
great  joy  that  I  did  make  progress— although 
with  extreme  slowness.  Just  as  it  grew  quite 
dark  I  reached  a  place  where  it  was  absolutely 
necessary  for  me  to  descend  a  very  steep  and 
sheer  declivity  some  15ft.  high.  For  a  long 
time  I  considered  how  best  to  acomplish  it.  In 
the  smooth  face  of  the  rock  I  sought  long  and 
carefully  for  resting-places  for  my  sound  leg 
and  my  hands  ;  and  having  found  these,  and 
also  proved  every  hold,  I  gently  let  myself  down. 
When  I  had  nearly  reached  the  bottom,  I  put 
my  left  foot  in  a  wrong  place,  and  an   incautious 



IN    THE    FACE   OF    THE    ROCK    I    SOUGHT    RESTING-PLACES    FOR    MY    SOUND    LEG    AND    -MY    HANDS. 

Fiom  a  Sketch  specially  made  in  I  'ienna. 

movement  of  my  right  leg  shifted  the  bandage, 
so  that  I  was  again  obliged  to  arrange  it.  I 
succeeded  in  this  only  just  before  it  became 
totally  dark.  Of  the  exquisite  agony  I  then 
suffered  I  would  rather  not  speak.  Doctors 
may  realize  it,  and  perhaps  also  people  who 
have  suffered  a  broken  limb. 

"When  I  had  recovered  somewhat  I  thought  it 
time  to  take  a  trifle  to  eat  and  a  little  wine,  for  I 
had  forgotten  all  about  my  refreshments  since 
my  early  start,  owing,  of  course,  to  the  excite- 
ment and  pain.  Now,  however,  a  dull,  gnawing 
in  my  stomach  most  distinctly  indicated  Nature's 
1.  So  I  felt  for  the  provisions  I  had  brought 
with  me,  but,  alas  ! — another  misfortune — they 
were  gone.  Evidently  they  had  slipped  out  of 
my  knapsack  when  I  took  out  the  bandages — ■ 
that  is,  on  the  spot  where  I  lay  at  the  foot  of 
the  rock  after  my  dreadful  fall.  That  spot — 
despite  my  long  hours  of  agony  and  exertion  — 
could  not  have  been  more  than  about  two  or 
three  hundred  paces  from  where  I  then  was. 
Yet  I  saw  most  plainly  that  it  would  be  madness 
to  try  and  get  back  there,  so  I  contented  myself 
with  eating  the  strawberry  leaves  I  found  at  my 
side,  hoping  they  would  at  least  diminish  the 
now  painful  cravings  of  hunger. 

"  The  rain  now  became  heavier,  and  soon 
wetted  me  to  the  skin.      But  I  sat  quite  still, 

being  convinced  that  to 
proceed  in  the  dark  would 
be  suicidal  folly.  I  could 
not  sleep  because  of  the 
cold,  hunger,  pain,  excite- 
ment, and  the  hardness  of 
my  bed.  I  caught  the 
rain  in  my  hat  and  wetted 
my  parched  lips  with  it. 
Never  before  had  I  drunk 
rain  water,  but  now  I  found 
it  like  nectar. 

'•  Slowly      that      fearful 
night  dragged   on,  and   at 
length  it  began  to  dawn  in 
the  east.     One  more  hour, 
and  it  was  light  enough  for 
me  to  continue  my  tortur- 
ing descent.    I  slipped  and 
slid   along,    writhing    with 
pain  such  as  it  is  difficult 
even     to     conceive.       My 
broken   leg   had  always  to 
lie  on  the   other  one,   for 
when       I      touched       the 
ground  with  it  I  screamed 
with   the  agony.      As    the 
rocks  were  very  sharp,  and 
I  had  to  clutch  them  tightly 
to  prevent  myself  from  fall- 
ing, my  fingers  ere  long  were  so  badly  cut  and 
bleeding  that  I  had  to  bind  them  up  with  bits  of 
my  shirt.     Every  moment  I   was  forced  to  rest, 
and  very  often  a  feeling  of  utter  despair  over- 
came   me,  and  I  felt  inclined  to  give   up    the 
awful    task    and    perish    quietly    where    I    was. 
But    then    the    remembrance    of    my    beloved 
parents  at  home  lent  me  fresh  strength.     I   ate 
some  more  strawberry  leaves,  as  well  as  the  very 
few  wild  strawberries  I  came  across,  some  rib- 
wort,   and  sorrel.     I    was    terribly    thirsty,    but 
could  find  hardly   any  water,   as  the   rain    had 
ceased    in    the  morning.       The    tiny    quantity 
preserved  in  a  hole  in  the  rock,  or  the  hollow 
of  a    tree,   barely    sufficed  to  moisten  my   lips. 
At  last  the  second   night   came   on,  and  it    was 
even    more   hopeless,    more  painful,   and    more 
sleepless  than  the  first.      The  distance    I  had 
traversed     by    this    time    was    very    small,    but 
then  the  ground  had  been  very  difficult,  and  I 
might  reasonably  hope  that  it  would  be  less  so 
the  next  day. 

"  On  Thursday  morning  I  felt  so  tired  and 
feeble  that  I  was  hardly  able  to  advance  a  yard  ; 
and  again  I  was  strongly  tempted  to  lie  down 
and  await  the  end.  The  sharp  rocks  had  cut 
me  so  I  could  no  longer  slide  along  in  a  sitting 
posture,  but  was  forced  to  lie  flat  on  my  back 
and  push  myself    along.     The  result  was  that 


had  long  been  in   mere 

vious   days    1 

certain  extent 

but    my  thirst    was    most 

dry  1  could  not 

to   lick   up  the 

5   and  leaves   morning 

I    i  ame    to    two 
I     ■  once  used  to  improve 

:  n  my  leg,  and  then   my  progress 

1         -■■UK's    1    had  to  pass 
lothes  sti 

lock  in  the  afternoon  1  was 
1    that  nie    impossible    I 

id  an 
awful  that 

I  -hake 

'■  I  i  :  two  hours 
I  did   not    move. 
Then     I     heard 
h  u  m  an 
and  instantly  for- 

trem  t  up. 

Collecting  all  my 

d  for 

help,    then    anxi- 

listened,  but 

i  v  e  d     n  o 

•     I  I 

had  revived, 
I    mov( 
till    it  grew  quite 
dark.       The    de- 
:  1 1    was    no 
•     -[), 
and  I  reckoned  that  the  chief  difficulties  must 
alreai  and  that  I  was  not  more 

five  to  thirty  minutes  from  Kaiser 
brut.       01  I  mean  not  farther  for  one  who 

.   and   not  for  me  in   my  deplorable 

ursday  night  I  at  last  got  some  sleep, 

which  greatly  refreshed   me.     In   the  morning 

in   pained   me   so   frightfully  that   I 

v  the  bandage,  for  which  purpose  I 

fragments  of  my  shirt.      Having 

:ngth   from   my   sleep,    I   advai 

more  but  still    suffered   wofully  from 

oming    to    a  hut,  I    crawled   in 

and  found  a  f  of  water  and  a  bit  of 

salt.     The  water   I  ly  drank,  and  I  ate  a 

morsel   of  salt,   both   of  which   refreshed   me  a 

little.     At    last    I    saw  some  houses,  but  once 


again  grew  faint.  I  called  feebly  for  help,  and 
was  beyond  measure  delighted  to  receive  an 
answer.  It  was  a  servant  girl  from  the  Hotel 
Kaiserbrunn  who  heard  me  ;  and  as  it  was  then 
just  about  half  past  nine  in  the  morning,  exactly 
three  days  and  three  nights  had  elapsed  since  I 
had  left  that  same  place.  Help  was  soon  at 
hand,  and  carefully  and  gently  they  carried  me 


From  a  Sketch  specially  made  in  I  'ienna. 

to  the  hotel,  where  every  kindness  was  shown 
me.  Despite  my  pain,  I  felt  proud  when  the 
doctor  said  that  the  bandaging  had  been  done 
most  skilfully,  and  he  could  hardly  believe 
that  I  myself  had  accomplished  it  alone 
in  those  circumstances.  In  the  evening  I  was 
transported  to  the  hospital  here  in  Vienna,  and 
the  doctors  assure  me  that  in  some  six  weeks  I 
shall  be  restored  again. 

"  Anyhow,  I  do  not  think  that  my  accident, 
terrible  as  it  is,  has  cured  me  of  my  love  of 
mountaineering.  But  certainly  the  remembrance 
of  those  three  terrible  days  and  nights  will  deter 
me  from  again  undertaking  difficult  climbs  by 
myself.  l!ut  as  my  parents  would  never  know 
a  minute's  peace  were  I  in  the  mountains  again 
— perhaps,  after  all,  I  had  better  give  up 
mountaineering  altogether." 

What  a   Breton    "Pardon'    is  Like. 

By  Kathleen  Schlesinger. 

A    striking   example  of  the  old-world   picturesqueness,    simplicity,    and   piety    prevailing   in    Brittany, 

the   land   of  mediaeval    religious    festivals   and    queer  customs.     Illustrated    by   a    series    of    snap-shot 

photographs  by  M.  Charles  Geniaux,  32,  Rue  Louis-le-Grand,  Paris. 

N  Brittany  religion  is  the  rein  by 
which  the  people  are  led.  The 
best  way  of  realizing  this  is,  perhaps, 
to  attend  one  of  the  Breton  Pardons, 
or  festivals  of  the  patron   saints  of 

the   villages.     We    shall    then    merely    feel    as 

though  Time  had    stepped  back  two   or  three 

centuries  and  landed   us   again  in   the   Middle 

Ages.       The   Pardon    of   St.    Jean-du-Doigt    is 

one    of   the  most  popular   in 

all     Brittany,     and      attracts 

:<  sound"    pilgrims  from  afar, 

as    well     as    the     halt,     the 

maimed,    and    the     suffering 

from      the      neighbouring 


If   we    follow    the     worthy 

farmer  and   his  wife  who  are 

just    setting   out    from    Plou- 

gasnou  to  the   village  of  St. 

Jean,  we  shall  be  sure  not  to 

miss  any  point  of  interest. 
The  village  owes  its  name 

to  the  holy  relic  contained  in 

its    sanctuary — the    forefinger 

with     which     St.     John     the 

Baptist  pointed  out  Christ  as 

the   Lamb   of  God.     This   is 

how  the   relic  found  its    way 

to     Brittany  —  so     'tis     said. 

When     the     Emperor    Julian 

commanded  the  relics  of  the 

saint  to    be    burned,   a  mira- 
culous rain   fell   and  put  out 

the    lire;    and    the    finger    in 

question   was    treasured  care- 
fully by    Philip,   Patriarch    of 

Jerusalem.      Some    centuries 

afterwards    a   young   Norman 

maid,   Thecla,    obtained  pos- 
session    of    the    finger,     and 

carried  it   back  to  her  home 

in  Normandy,  where  a  chapel 

was    built  for    its  reception. 
In    the    sixteenth    century 

archer  of  Plougasnou,    in    the 

Norman    nobleman,     fired     by    the     accounts 

of     the    miracles     performed     by    the      Holy 

Finger,  was  inconsolable  because   he  could   not 

carry   it    back   to  Brittany  with    him.     On    his 

return  journey,  however,   the  young  peasant  felt 

strangely  elated,  and  wonderful   things  came  to 


SET   OUT   FOR   THE    "  PARDON  "   AT   ST.    JEAX. 

From  a  Photo,  by  M.  Charles  Geniaux. 

a   young   Breton 
service  of  some 

pass  on  the  way.  The  trees  bowed  low  before 
him,  and  the  bushes  murmured  a  welcom 
he  passed.  As  he  walked  through  a  village  in 
Normandy  the  bells  began  to  ring  on  their  own 
account,  whereupon  he  was  thrown  into  prison 
on  suspicion  of  being  a  sorcerer. 

In    the   morning  when    he   awoke   he  found 

himself   lying,    not    on    the    dank    floor    of    his 

dungeon,  but  on  the  grass  by  a  fountain  just  on 

the     outskirts    of    his     native 


He  entered  the  Chapel  of 
St.  Meriadec  to  return  thanks 
for  his  delivery,  and  imme- 
diately the  bells  began  to  peal. 
The  candles  on  the  altar  also 
were  lit  by  an  invisible  hand, 
and  those  who  had  accom- 
panied him,  on  hearing  his 
strange  tale,  saw  the  finger 
of  the  saint  emerge  from  the 
archer's  arm  and  place  itself 
on  the  altar.  In  a  short  time 
the  miracles  and  pilgrimages 
had  become  so  numerous 
that  a  new  church,  that  of 
St.  Jean,  was  built  beside  the 
chapel  ;    it   was    finished    in 

Ever  since  then  the  festival 
has  been  kept,  and  every 
23rd  of  June  has  seen  a  huge 
crowd  of  pilgrims  on  their 
way  to  St.  Jean.  Now  you 
know  why  they  go,  and  also 
why  we  found  ourselves  one 
bright  morning  on  the  out- 
skirts of  St.  Jean.  Suddenly 
our  olfactory  nerves  became 
agreeably  tickled,  and  a 
vision  of  new  cakes,  light, 
crisp,  and  golden  brown, 
was  conjured  up  before  our 
eyes.  Immediately  we  felt  conscious  of  pangs 
of  hunger  —  the  result  of  our  long  walk 
through  the  scented  lanes  and  of  the  whiffs  of 
brine-laden  air  which  blew  straight  off  the  sea. 
Without  suspecting  it,  we  had  come  upon  the 
very  village  we  sought  nestling  in  a  wooded 
hollow,  and  the  tall,  slender  spire  of  the  church 
appeared  through  the  trees  like  a  finger— the 
finger  of  the  saint,  pointing  to  Heaven. 


dexterous  movement  of  the  wide 
sort  of  spatula  she  held  like  a  magic 
wand,  the  woman  made  the  cake 
perform  its  perilous  somersault  with- 
out breaking  or  falling  into  the 
ashes,  which  would  probably  have 
been  its  fate  under  a  less  experienced 

Through  the  curling  light  blue 
smoke  we  could  distinguish  an  old 
woman  and  her  pretty  daughter 
enjoying  a  little  snack  before  vespers. 
Taking  a  plate  from  the  chest, 
covered  invitingly  with  a  clean  white 
cloth,  we  too  squatted  down  in  the 
shade  of  the  cart  to  enjoy  the  cakes. 


.E   THE    Bl 

ill  A. 

We  took  a  sharp  turn  to 
the  right,  and  there  under 
the  lee  of  a  half-ruined 
cottage  we  espied  an  im- 
promptu kitchen  on  a  little 
plot  of  grass.  The  cook, 
a  fre>h-looking  woman,  in 
now  -  white  cap  and 
spotless,  pale  blue  cotton 
blouse,  knelt  on  the 
ground  surrounded  by  her 
paraphernalia.  Over  a 
wood  fire  stood  the  flat 
pan  in  which  the  delicate 
cakes  were  Irvine:.     With  a 


From  a  Photo,  by]  worshippers."  [M.  Charles  Geniaux. 



From  a  Photo,  by  M.  Charles  Geniaux. 

We  were  not  alone,  however,  for 
the  little  fellow  who  stands  wist- 
fully watching  the  proceedings 
required  little  pressing  to  induce 
him  to  join  us. 

How  long  we  might  have 
lingered  in  that  peaceful  spot  I 
don't  know,  had  not  the  warning 
bell  called  us  to  vespers.  Through 
the  old  sculptured  and  carved 
way  we  p  issed  with  the  crowd 
of  white-capped  worshippers  into 
the  peaceful  churchyard,  where 
our  eyes  at  once  turned  to  the  left 
to  seek  the  miraculous  fountain 
the  scene  of  so  many  marvellous 
cures.     Entering    into   a    friendly 

WHAT    A    BRETON    "PARDON'-    iS    LIKE. 


back  to  its  own  Breton  sanctuary  at  St.  Jean. 
What  is  more,  the  sacrilegious  robbers  were 
immediately  struck  blind;  and  in  order  to 
recover  their  sight  they  were  forced  to  make 
a  pilgrimage  to  St.  Jean  to  implore  the  for- 
giveness of  the  saint.  Thus  runs  the  legend 
told  by  the  Bretons. 

We  found  the  fountain  no  longer  solitary. 
Two  women,  having  laid  down  their  um- 
brellas   on    the    side"    of   the  trough,    were 

bathing  their 

the    healing    waters 

.    TON    WOMEN    BATHINc; 



:   N'TAIN. 

From  a  Photo,  by  M.  Charles 


chat  with  the  old 
farmer  and  his  wife, 
we  learnt  at  last  why 
the  waters  of  the 
fountain  were  more 
especially  potent  in 
healing  any  malady 
of  die  eyes  and  in  curing 
blindness  generally. 

In     the    reign     of    our 
Henry   VII.  some  British 
troops  landing  at  Primel, 
the    next    little    harbour, 
invaded  St.  Jean,  and  car- 
ried off  the  precious  relic. 
As  soon  as  they  touched  English 
soil,  messengers    were  sent  post- 
haste to  announce  to  the  clergvthe 
treasure   they   had  brought   with 
them.     A  sudden  exultation  filled 
the  breasts  of  these  good  men  at 
the    news,   and   with   hymns  and 
chants  a  great  procession, 


->.  -  „  «* 


eyes  in 
a  third  was  holding  a  little  portable 
barrel,  with  a  handle  to  it,  under  the  spout, 
in  order  to  fill  bowls,  mugs,  and  cups,  which 
were  later  to  be  sold  to  the  pilgrims  in  the 

procession.  We 
were  so  absorbed  in 
this  novel  scene  that 
we  heard,  as  in  a 
dream  and  without 
heeding,  a  sing-song 
murmur  behind  us. 
An  unceremonious 
dig,  however,  recalled 
us  abruptly  from  the 
land  of  dreams,  and 
we  turned  round 
sharply  to  see  a  grim, 
sour-faced  cripple 
holding  out  his  tin 

"  Now,   then,  give 

WERE    MIT    HID] 


From  a  Photo,  by 

M.  Charles  Geniaux. 

swelling  its  ranks  with 
noblemen  and  distin- 
guished persons  of  all 
degrees,  went  on  its 
triumphant  way  to  the 
palace  to  present  the  relic 
to  the  King. 

The  reliquary  was 
opened  with  due  cere- 
mony and  becoming 
solemnity,  but,  to  the 
horror  and  dismay  of  all 
the  high  dignitaries,  the 
Holy  Finger  was  no 
longer  there  :  it  had  fled 

;THE    BLIND    MEN    OF   ST.    JEAX,    FATHER    AND 


AT   THE    '  PARDON.'  ' 

From  a  Photo,  by  M.  Charles  Geniaux. 

something,  do  !  "    he 
cried,     imperatively  ; 
and  being  afraid   of 
the    evil    eye  —  for 
when    you    are  in   Brittany  you   must 
do  as  the  Bretons  do,  and  also  try  to 
feel  as  they  do,   if   you  would  under- 
stand them— we  dropped  a  little  silver 
coin  into  his  tin  mug. 

The    churchyard    was   quite    full   of 
beggars ;  they  sat  on  the  gravestones, 
and    on   the   steps  of   the 
porch.     They    hobbled 
across  the  grass,  exhibiting 
repulsive     deformities     in 
order  to  excite  the  pity  and 
charity  of  the  visitors.    All 
were  not  hideous  in  their 
misery,    however  —  the 
family     here    shown,     for 
instance.     The  little,  toddling,  rosy- 
cheeked  creature  standing   between 
its    mother    and    grandmother  was 
positively    happy — radiantly    happy. 
It  had  no  cares  for  the  morrow  ;   it 
only  knew  that  for  the  first  time  in 
its   life   it  possessed  a  pocket  into 


I    ALL    IN    WHITE,    WITH    LACK   CAPS 

oto.     v  M.  Charles  Geniaux. 



its   fat    littie 

which    it  had   tucked    its    hand, 
untold  riches  so  recently   laid   in 
palm  by  a  passer-by. 

ip  was  even  beautiful  in  its  noble 
[t  was  the  blind  men  of  St.  Jean,  father 
and  son,  two  of  the  best-known  figures  at  the 
Pardon.  They  always  affect  the  same  spot  and 
attitude  ;  in  fact,  one  might  from  a  distance 
take  them  for  a  group  of  statuary.  The  father, 
who  sat  on  a  high  stone,  with  his  sightless  eyes 
upturned   to  Heaven,  had  a  noble  face  ;    on  a 

r  plane  sat  the  son  between  his  father's  knees. 
Inside    the    church    the    scene    was    a   very 
animated    one. 
The  crowd   was 
pressing  towards 

low  S( 
dividing  the 
faithful  from  the 
priests,  who  pre- 
sented to  each 
kneeling  devotee 
in  turn  the  holy 
relic  to  1. 
The  metallic 
ring  of  coins 
dropping    into  a 

den  r 
drew  our 
attention  to  the 
nature  of  the 
screen  ;  tlv 
rail,  which  was 
hollow,  was 
pierced  all  along 
with   little    slots 

From  a  Photo.  by]  TO  PASS. 

for  the  reception  of  the 
offerings  of  the  pilgrims 
and  the  faithful  generally. 
To  the  left  of  the  nave 
was  the  basin  of  holy  water, 
ever  running,  into  which 
the  Holy  Finger  had  been 
dipped.  There  the  pilgrims 
bathed  their  faces,  or  let 
the  life-giving  water  run  on 
any  part  of  their  body  that 
chanced  to  be  suffering. 

Just  then  a  fanfare  and 
the  roll  of  drums  were 
heard ;  it  was  the  proces- 
sion from  P 1  o  u  g  a  s  n  o  u 
coming  to  join  that  of  St. 
Jean,  and  we  hurried  out 
to  see  it  arrive.  First  came 
the  beadle  in  flaming 
scarlet,  his  cheeks  puffed 
out  with  importance  as 
with  his  staff  he  cleared 
the  way  for  the  bearer  of  the  cross.  A  bevy  of 
young  girls  dressed  all  in  white,  with  lace  caps, 
long  white  veils,  and  pale  blue  sashes,  surrounded 
the  silver  statue  of  the  Virgin,  which  was  borne 
on  a  stand  on  the  shoulders  of  some  eight  or 
ten  maidens. 

The  statue  was  half-concealed  under  a  canopy 
of  ribbons  and  flowers.  White,  blue,  silver,  and 
gold  banners,  gorgeously  embroidered  and 
painted,  waved  around  it  ;  and  on  its  passage 
the  men  bared  their  heads  and  the  women 
bowed  low.  Pilgrims  and  penitents  dressed  in 
black  followed.     More  beating  of  drums,  and 

this  time  it  was 
the  mayor  and 
corporation,  to- 
gether with  the 
National  Guard 
of  St.  Jean, 
which  came  forth 
to  meet  the  pro- 
cession from 
Plougasnou  and 
conduct  it  to  the 

Vespers  over, 
the  crowd  of 
worsh  ippers, 
hurrying  out 
across  the 
churchyard  and 
through  the 
gateway,  over- 
flowed into  the 
street  beyond, 
and    took   up   a 


[AI.  Charles  Geniaux. 

WHAT    A    BRETON    "PARDON"    IS    LIKE. 


From  a  Photo.  by  .!/.   Charles  Geniaux. 

position  on  the  road  along  which  the   massed 
processions    were    to    pass.       They    were    not 
one    whit     too     soon,     though,    for    the    great 
procession     was     now     leaving     the     church, 
headed  by  the  banner  of  St.  Jean,    ornamented 
with    a    graphic    painting    of    the    Baptism    in 
the  Jordan.     Next   came  the   cross   hung  with 
little  silver  bells,  which  tinkled   musically  as  the 
procession  passed.      Round  it  were  grouped  the 
heavy    banners    lined   with   ermine,   as   well    as 
the    oriflammes,   and 
the    silver    statue    of 
the   Virgin,    with     its 
accompanying    white- 
robed     maidens.       A 
band    of    little    boys 
guarding  the  statue  of 
the    Infant    Christ 
came    next,    followed 
by  the   large  cross  of  silver-gilt  repousse 
work,  with  hanging  ribbons  embroidered 
with  rich  silks  and  gold  thread.    Pilgrims 
closed  in  behind  the  priests,  and  finally 
came  the  grandest  and  most   important 
part   of   the    pageant  —  the    priests,   in 
gorgeous  vestments    of  richest    damask, 
stiff  with  embroideries  of  silver  and  gold 
thread,    precious    stones,    and    priceless 
old  lace.     They  were  the  bearers  of  the 
relics.     First  came  a  silver  bust  contain- 
ing  a   relic  of  St.  Jean  ;    then    a   silver 
urn   containing  a  bone  of  St.  Meriadec, 
the  patron  saint  of  the  valley  before  the 
miracle  of  the  arrival  of  the  Holy  Finger; 
and  finally  came  that  most  precious  of 

Vol.  iv.-6. 

all  relics,  the  Finger 
itself,  in  itscrystalcasket 
incrusted  with  gold. 
This  brought  up  the 
rear,  and  has  been  re- 
corded by  the  camera. 
Pilgrims  innumerable, 
and  all  the  miraclous 
(as  the  Bretons  call 
those  cured  during  the 
year  by  kissing  the  relic 
or  bathing  in  the  waters) 
who  had  come  to  return 
thanks,  walked  barefoot 
after  the  relics.  Seme 
of  the  men  were  in  their 
shirt-sleeves,  candle  in 
hand.  There  were  also 
numbers  of  children  of 
all  ages  among  the 
miraclous  ;  the  tiniest 
in  their  mothers'  arms, 
with  caps  of  cloth  of 
gold  trimmed  with  bright 
ribbons.  Other  children  were  in  the  costume 
assigned  by  painters  to  the  infant  St.  John, 
holding  a  cross  in  one  hand  and  leading  a 
white  lamb  by  a  blue  ribbon  with  the  other. 

The  procession  wound  its  way  up  the  hill  to 
the  fountain,  near  which,  centuries  ago,  the 
young  Breton  was  supposed  to  have  found 
himself  when  he  awoke  after  his  translation 
during  sleep  from  the  Norman  prison.  Here  a 
kind  of  pyre  or  bonfire  had  been   erected,   of 

BANNER    OK    ST.    JEAN. 


From  a  Photo,  by  M.  Charles  Geniaux. 




*i«      i^-;^^ 

**  <**if  fi V *-- 


4^?      if           I                                                                                  <^^fc         jff^^"           . 


!      n      :      lil 
A    CROSS." 


\M,  Charles  Geniaux. 

g    rse  and  broom,  surmounted  by  a  cross 
n   in   the  photograph  at  the 
ick  to  the  left.     Woe  to  the  man  of  St.  Jean 
who  failed  to  bring  his  little  fagot  to  make  up 
the  bonfire  ;  lie   would  be   certain   to   burn  his 
hand   badly  during  the  year.     A  cable  fixed  to 
the    stake  was    outlined    against 
the  blue  sky  ;  and,  following  the 
der   line    with    our   eyes,    in 
n    with   the    hundreds    of 
.  we  found  that  it  led  to 
one  of  the  turrets  of  the  church. 
.  what  was  the  meaning  of 
An    atmosphere    of   pro- 
found   mystery   and    suppressed 
itement   pervaded    the    spot. 
lewithered-looking  old  women 
-were  it   not    too   unkind,    one 

,'itdub  them  witches  — hov< 
within  the  precincts  of  the  foun- 
tain.    As  ached  the  top 
of  the   hill,  a  kind  of  box  was 
running  swiftly  along  the  cable 
from  the  church  .  and  as 
:t   reached    the    pile    of   wood 
•  as     a     discharge     of 
nd    a     beating    of 
drum        -     idenly,  with  a  hiss 
and  a  fizz,  a  red  flame  shot  up, 
of    flowers 
:ily;    then    other    flames, 
pt    up 
cally to  the  music  of  the  crack- 
ling, hissing  blaze.     Although 


From  a 

the  pastime  is  indulged  in 
freely  in  other  villages, 
this  is  the  only  dance 
allowed  at  this  Pardon  out 
of  respect  to  the  saint — 
with  whose  martyrdom,  it 
must  be  remembered,  the 
dancing  Herodias  was  but 
too  intimately  connected. 
A  bright-looking  woman 
said  :  "Isn't  it  wonderful  to 
see  that  box  set  light  to 
St.  Jean's  fire?  They  call 
it  fireworks  now,  but  it 
wasn't  always  like  that. 
.My  old  grannie  used  to 
tell  us,  as  we  sat  spinning 
during  the  long  winter 
evenings,  that  when  she 
was  young  the  fire  was  not 
lighted  till  dusk,  and  then 
a  dazzling  angel,  with  a 
crown  of  fire  and  stars  in 
his  hands,  flew  down  from 
the  church  tower  to  set  light  to  the  wood,  and 
then  flew  back  again,  disappearing  in  the 

Some  hymns  were  sung,  and  then  the  pro- 
cession returned  to  the  church  ;  the  pilgrims 
and  the  crowd,  having  paid  due  regard  to  all  the 
the  religious  observances  of  the 
festival,  now  proceeded  to  enjoy 
themselves  with  a  light  heart, 
but  first,  every  man,  woman,  and 
child  secured  a  little  charred 
ember  to  put  under  the  bed,  to 
keep  off  thunderbolts  and  similar 
misfortunes  during  the  year. 

The  Pardon  is  a  great  day  for 
betrothals ;     and    young    lovers 
wandered    about    the     hills     in 
double    couples,  as  etiquette  re- 
quires   at    St.    Jean.       Entering 
a    wayside   inn, 
they   ask  for   a 
private  room  or 
arbour,      where 
they  sit  for  hours 
sipping     black 
currant    syrup 
(cassis)  ox  coffee, 
while  the  court- 
ship      proceeds 
by  regular    and 
well  -  defined 
steps,   of  which 
the  offer  of  the 
sweet    drink    is 


Photo,  by  M.  Charles  Geniaux.  the   first. 

Our   Wreck  in   the  Dead  Sea. 

By  the  Rev.  W.  Hastings  Kelk,  B.A. 
(Late  English  Chaplain  in  the  Lebanon,  Haifa,  and  Jerusalem). 

Mr.  Kelk  relates   in  graphic  style    an  adventure    that  befell   him  and  a   party  of  American  gentlemen 
in  a  rotten  boat    on  the    dreary  Dead  Sea.     The  narrative  is  illustrated  by  snap-shots  taken    by   the 

author  himself  under  very  trying  circumstances. 

SUPPOSE  there  is 
hardly  any  part  of 
the  world  where 
Nature  has  ex- 
hibited more  eccen- 
tricity and  fantastic   conception 

than    in    the    construction     of 

that     strip     of     Syria      called 

the   Ghor,    culminating    in 

the  "abomination  of  desola- 
tion," the  Dead  Sea.  I  re- 
member,   when    a   small   child. 

being  told   that   this  great  salt 

lake    obtained     its    lugubrious 

name    from    the    fact    that  not 

only   could   no  fish   live  in   its 

waters,  but  that  any  bird  at- 
tempting to  fly  over  its  surface 

fell  down  dead,   suffocated,  no 

doubt,    by    the    noxious  fumes 

that    rose   from    the    steaming 

cauldron.     That,  of  course,  was 

an   exaggeration,    but  not   very 

All  along  the  dreary  shores  of  the  Dead  Sea, 

except    for   an    occasional    oasis,    there    is    an 

absence    of    life  of   any    description  :     and,    (if 

course,   no  fish  could  live  in  its  intensely  briny 

waters  more  than 

a     few    minutes. 

The  timber,   too, 

brought  down  by 

the  Jordan  is   in 

keeping     wit  h 

the     appalling 

surroundings,  for 

it  is  quickly  strip- 
ped   of   its    bark 

and   cast    up    on 

the  beach,  white 

and    gaunt,     and 

looking     for     all 

the     world     like 

the     bleaching 

bones   of  a   lost 


But    yet    the 

Dead  Sea  is  not 

without  a  charm 

of  its  own.     See 

it,    if    you    can, 

from   the  Mount 

I  HE    REV.    W.    II  KELK    IS   WELL 


From  a  Photo,  by  H.  Graham  Glen,  Leeds. 


"all  along  the  dkeary  shores  there  is  an  absence  of  life^"1-"  any^ 
From  a  Photo.  by\  description." 

of  Olives,  or  the  Frank  Moun- 
tain— a  stretch  of  living  blue 
between  the  yellow  lulls,  as 
if  the  cloudless  sky  had  lost 
its  way  and  settled  on  the 
earth  to  rest;  or,  nearer  still, 
from  En-Gedi,  where  the  hill 
slopes  sheer  from  the  water's 
edge.  The  whole  sea  lies  at 
your  feet,  still  reflecting  on 
its  bosom  the  dazzling  sky, 
but  here  and  there  of  darker 
hue,  where  gusts  of  wind 
break  its  surface  and  withal 
its  calm.  And  most  curious 
are  the  paths  of  light  that 
zig-zag  to  the  deep  shade  of 
the  Moab  hills,  or  are  lost  in 
the  shallows  at  the  southern 

I,  like  most  tourists  in  Syria, 
had  made  the  orthodox  three 
days'  trip — had  floated  on  its  buoyant  waters, 
and  had  washed  off  the  salt  afterwards  in  the 
River  Jordan.  But  I  longed  to  explore  the 
weird  sea  thoroughly  ;  not  that  I  expected  to 
make    any   great    geographical   discoveries,    but 

more  from  a 
spirit  of  adven- 
ture than  any- 
thing else. 

At  last  the  op- 
portunity came, 
and  our  party, 
composed  of 
three  Americans 
and  myself,  with 
an  Arab  servant, 
found  ourselves 
encamped  on  the 
banks  of  the 
Jordan.  We  had 
sent  word  before- 
hand to  the 
Father  Superior 
of  the  Convent 
of  Mar  Juhanna 
(which  belongs 
to  the  Orthodox 
Greek  Church) 
that    we    should 

[the  Author. 


I  111'.     WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZ1XK. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

:.  This  he  had  promised  to  have 
ready  for  us.  When  we  called  on  him  on  our  way 
down,  however,  he  tried  to  persuade  us  that  we 
should  be  much  safer  in  his  steamer,  but  a  trial 
trip  up  the  river  convinced  us  that  our  original 
plan  was  better.  This  "  Vabour  "  or  steamer  of 
the  Father's  was  the  delight  of  his  life,  He 
had  spent,  according  to  his  own  account,  vast 
sums  of  money  on  it,  and  hoped  to  repay  him- 

with   interest   by   taking   tourists   for   short 
trips    up    the  river  at   the 
rate  of  £.^   a  head  ! 
widespread     has     become 
what   may  be  termed    the 

ok  :"  instinct. 
These  trips  promised  to 
>hort,  for  the  boat 
made  hardly  any  headway 
ream,  and, 
indeed,  in  the  full  current 
actually  .round.     At 

such  moments  v.e  realized 
the  dignity  of  a  "  capi- 
ta^ position,  and 
envied  the  fluency  and 
of  his  Italian. 
Once,  when  we  all  hap- 
•<:  in  the  bows 
at  the  we 
heard  a   peculiar  whirring 


the  stern.       We  then 
;    that    our    w< 
in    the    bows    had    ra 
the   stern    so   much     that 

the  screw  was  wasting  its 
energy  in  the  air.  It  was, 
indeed,  a  wonderful  steamer. 
But,  unfortunately  for  us, 
the  boat  we  had  hired — a 
sea -tub  from  Jaffa  —  did 
not  quite  come  up  to  the 
expectations  we  had  been 
led  to  form  of  her.  The 
Father  Superior  assured  us, 
nevertheless,  she  had  been 
put  into  thorough  repair. 
But  our  arrival  on  the  scene 
must  have  been  a  day  or 
two  too  soon,  for  we  found 
the  convent  carpenter 
knocking  out  the  rotten 
planks  with  an  axe.  Before 
very  long  that  boat  pre- 
sented the  appearance  of  a 
five  barred  gate.  Then  the 
carpenter  retired  for  lunch 
and  a  siesta,  and  we  had 
to  hold  a  council  of  war.  Our  Arab's  sug- 
gestion, that  the  carpenter's  energy  might  be 
stimulated  by  a  promise  of  ten  francs  if  the 
boat  were  ready  for  use  early  next  morning, 
not  only  showed  a  knowledge  of  Eastern 
character,  but  also  acted  like  a  charm. 

The  approach  to  the  Jordan  from  Jericho 
greatly  increases  the  appreciation  of  its  beauty. 
After  a  hot  ride  through  a  dreary  waste,  where 
nothing  meets  the  eye  but  a  succession  of  low 

VERV    LONG    THAT    BOA  I     1M:I-.M..'.  TED    THE    AIM-EAR ANCE    OE    A    FIVE-BARRED 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

OUR    WRECK    IN    THE    DEAD    SEA. 


sand-hills,  torn  into  fantastic  shapes  by  wind 
and  rain,  or,  perhaps,  the  restless  action  of  a 
bygone  sea,  it  is  peculiarly  pleasant  suddenly 
to  come  upon  running  water  and  luxuriant 

During  the  time  the  boat  was  being  patched 
up  we  employed  ourselves  in  various  ways. 
Some  of  the  party  tried  their  hands  at  fishing, 
but  with  indifferent  success.  Others  crossed 
the  river  in  a  punt,  in  the  hope  of  getting  a  shot 
at  a  pig  on  the  eastern  bank.  There  were  signs 
of  boar  in  plenty,  and  other  game ;  but  the 
dense  undergrowth  kept  them  out  of  sight. 
Where  the  country  was  more  open,  however,  a 
few  partridges  and  sand-grouse  were  put  up,  as 
well  as  an  early  quail.  On  our  way  back,  as  it 
was  dusk,  we  startled  a  couple  of  francolin,  but 
they  were  lost  in  die  brushwood.  Fortunately, 
we  had  no  difficulty  in  getting  firewood,  and  the 
enthusiasm  of  some  of  the  convent  servants 
was  such,  that  our  camp  fire  must  have  startled 
the  BedawJn  for  miles  around. 

The  next  morning  our  friend  the  carpenter 
declared  the  boat  fit  for  use.  We  were  a  little 
dubious  though  when  we  found  the  water 
flowing  in  as  fast  as  a  boy  could  bale  it  out. 
However,  we  decided  to  start,  hoping  the  new 
wood  would  swell  and  so  stop  the  leak.  We 
had  to  stow  most  of  our  stuff  on  the  seats  and  in 
the  bows,  to  keep  it  dry  ;  and  this  naturally 
made  the  boat  top-heavy  and  difficult  to  manage. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author, 

Until  near  the  point  where  it  debouches  into 
the  Dead  Sea,  the  Jordan  flows  between  high 
banks,  and  especially  on  the  eastern  side  the 
bank  is  precipitous  and  overhanging.  Just  before 
the  sea  is  reached,  however,  the  river  widens  out 
into  lagoons.  Here,  among  the  reeds,  water- 
fowl in  immense  quantities  find  a  home.  So 
close  are  these  reeds  together  that  all  attempts 
to  force  our  boat  through  them  proved  useless, 
but  with  a  duck  punt  fair  sport  might  easily  be 

So  far  our  course  had  been  an  easy  one. 
Being  occupied  principally  with  baling  out  the 
boat  and  keeping  her  in  the  middle  of  the 
stream,  we  had  been  content  to  drift  along, 
admiring  the  scenery  and  taking  occasional 
shots  at  a  passing  duck  or  swan.  And  drifting 
down  the  Jordan,  even  at  its  southern  end, 
means  making  fair  progress,  for  the  river  falls 
6icft.  in  its  last  sixty-five  miles,  and  about 
3,000ft.  in  all  from  its  source  137  miles  away. 
The  rapidity  of  its  flow  is,  however,  somewhat 
lessened  by  its  tortuous  course.  Though  the 
distance  between  its  source  and  the  Dead  Sea 
is  only  137  miles  in  a  straight  line,  in  reality 
it  is  three  times  as  far. 

When  we  shot  into  the  Dead  Sea,  startling  a 
number  of  pelicans  by  the  suddenness  of  our 
appearance,  we  found  a  change  of  tactics 
necessary.  Such  was  the  force  of  the  stream 
that  we  were   carried  well   out   to  sea   before  we 

realized  that  we  had  ex- 
changed fresh  water  for 
salt.  Out  came  the 
flattened  poles  that  served 
for  oars  ;  and  after  a  great 
expenditure  of  labour  we 
again  approached  the 
northern  shore  of  the  sea. 
Having  in  mind  accounts 
of  adventurous  explorers 
kept  for  days  tossing  about 
the  sea  by  adverse  winds, 
and  suffering  agonies  of 
thirst  and  heat,  we  had 
determined  not  to  wander 
too  far  from  land. 

An  hour  or  so  of  pull- 
ins;  began  to  tell  on  us. 
The  heat  was  now  intense, 
as  was  to  be  expected  at 
such  a  depth  below  sea- 
level  ;  and  the  extreme 
buoyancy  of  the  extra- 
ordinarily briny  water 
made  rowing  all  the  more 
difficult.  After  a  time  we 
found    towing    an    easier 


mode     of     progress,    one 

rill.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

remaining   in    the    I  steer.      But 

time   the    Pilgrims'    bathing-shed    was 

-  evident  that,  with  our  present 

sploring   the   sea   must   be 

i  up.       The   wretched   thing    was  leaking 

vy  for  i 

farther     down 

the  -      towing   we 

w    would    be    im- 

I  le.      1 1  ere  we 


miles   away   from   any 

human    habitation. 

The    boat    we    might 

but  not 

__  _        Just  as 


I  fate  we  heard 

: — 

'•  I  'is    way.     ladies  ! 

Here    de    Head    Sea. 

Here  de  Bilgrim 


From  a  Photo.  by\  human   habitation."  [the  Author. 

bath.  Vater  ver  booful. 

Drink  leetle,  now.   Yer  salt — eh?  Ha!  ha!  ha!" 

.,  all  in  the  true  dragoman  style.     Then 

the  owner  of  the  voice  drew  his  revolver,  shut 

his  eyes,  and  fired  two  or  three  shots  into  the 

His  party  was  much  impressed.   How  could 

it  be  otherwise? 

W  e,  on  our 
part,  hailed  his 
appearance      with 

He  took 
charge  of  a  letter 
from     us     to     the 

r  of  Mar 
Juhanna,  asking 
for  the  steamer  to 
nt  after  us 
a  t  c  n  c  e  .  W  e 
should  be  found 
anywhere  bet  v. 

d  and    Ras 

kah.  'I 'he 
tourists  proceeded 
in  the  direction  of 
the  Jordan,  and 
we  once  more 
•:  up  the  tow- 
ing-line.     Our 

find    fresh    wal 

a    drop    had    we    seen    since    we    left   the 
an,    and  the    little    we    had    brought    with 
us   was   all    but   expended.      How    eagerly    we 
scanned  each  pool  and  even  ventured 

to  t  me  in  the  little  wadys  we  crossed — 

only,  however,  to  find  more  concentrated  bitter- 


From  a  Photo,  by]  ov  the  sea.  [the  Author. 

ness.  We  knew  there  was  water  at  Ain  Feshkah, 
but  the  sun  was  last  setting,  and  Ras  el  Feshkah 
appeared  to  be  as  far  off  as  ever.  After  a  time, 
our  Arab  ..spied  camels  browsing  far  inland, 
and  hv  dint  of  walking  about  a  mile  and  shout- 
ing over  the  remainder 
of  the  distance,  he 
put  himself  in  com- 
munication with  a 
camel-herd.  Presently 
he  came  back  with 
the  consoling  informa- 
tion that  the  sea  had 
encroached  so  much 
of  late  years  that  he 
doubted  whether  we 
should  be  able  to  find 
the  spring  at  all.  How- 
ever, we  toiled  on, 
and  eventually  found 
a  dirty  pool — brackish, 
but  not  quite  so  salt 
as  the  Dead  Sea. 
As  far  as  we  could 
judge  by  the  map,  we  were  now  some  miles 
beyond  Ain  Feshkah.  It  was  almost  dark,  so 
we  had  no  option  but  to  camp  for  the  night. 
A  host  of  mosquitoes  and  gnats  quickly  drove 
us  from  the  vicinity  of  the  pool,  but  higher  up 

we  found  a  fair 
camping  -  ground, 
sheltered  from  the 
wind  by  a  dense 

A  fire  was  soon 
m  a  d  e  ,  water 
brought  from  the 
pool,  and  the  pro- 
visions spread  on 
cry  was 
for  tea.  After  a 
long  day  spent 
under  an  Eastern 
sun,  when  the 
h  e  a  t  has  p  e  n  e- 
trated  to  the  very 
bones,  and  appar- 
ently dried  every 
particle  of  mois- 
ture out  of  the 
system  :  when  the 
lips  are  cracked 
and  the  throat  feels  like  a  lime-kiln,  then  isexperi- 
enced  a  thirst  such  as  seldom,  if  ever,  comes  to  a 
man  in  England.  To  satisfy  it  there  is  nothing 
equal  to  tea.  But,  alas  !  we  were  doomed  to  a 
hideous  disappointment.  First  one  of  us  took 
a  sip,  and  then  silently  put  down  his  cup  :  then 

the  ground 

OUR    WRECK    IN    THE    DEAD    SEA. 


From  a  Photo.  by\ 



[the  Author. 

another  tried  it,  and  looked  reproachfully  round 
on  the  rest.  Easily  the  Arab  ejaculated, 
"Kabreet"  (sulphur),  and  spat  the  stuff  out 
violently.  That  was  the  greatest  disappoint- 
ment we  had  had.  The  failure  of  the  boat  was 
nothing  to  it. 

Later  on,  we  found  water  not  quite  so 
sulphurous,  but  yet  far  too  painfully  reminiscent 
of  Harrogate  to  be  pleasing  to  healthy  men. 

We  had  some  difficulty  in  getting  a  fire  to 
burn.  There  was  no  lack  of  timber  on  the  sea- 
shore, but  it  was  too  permeated  with  salt  to  be 
of  much  use  as  fuel.  We  found  a  shrub  growing 
not  far  off  with  little  green  prickles  that  served 
for  leaves,  and  its  wood  was  so  rotten  that  it 
proved  quite  easy  to  break  a  whole  bush  up 
into  firewood  even  without  the  use  of  an  axe. 
But  this  gave  out  much  more  smoke 
than  flame,  and  left  an  evil-smelling 
ash  behind.  Truly  we  were  having  a 
grand  object  lesson  in  the  "abomin- 
ation of  desolation." 

Next  morning  we  were  up  betimes, 
on  the  look-out  for  the  steamer. 
We  rigged  up  an  oar  as  a  flag-staff, 
and  raised  a  good  smoke-signal  from 
the  fire,  such  as  would  have  done 
credit  to  a  camp  of  Australian 
blacks.  During  the  night  we  had 
heard  heavy  breakers  beatimr  on 
the  shore,  but  now  the  sea  was  as 
calm  as  a  duck-pond.  I  managed 
to  bag  a  brace  of  partridges  for 
breakfast,  but  they  proved  to  be  as 
dry  and  salt  as  is  everything  near 
the  Dead  Sea.  About  ten  o'clock 
our  Arab,  who  had  been  filling  the 
water-skin  at  a  new  spring  he  had 
discovered,  came  with  the  news  that 
the  steamer  was  in  sight.  We  all 
rushed  to    the    flag-staff,  and   could 

just  make  out  a  tiny  column  of  smoke  in  the 
direction  of   the  Jordan.       In  a  short  time  a 
mast  appeared  on  the  horizon.     We  calculated 
that  it  could  not  reach  Ain  Feshkah  until  well 
on  into  the  afternoon,  so  it  would  not  be  worth 
while  moving  our  camp  that  day;  but  we  hoped 
to  be  able  to  get  on  to  En-Gedi  the  next  day. 
The   steamer  came  steadily    on,    hugging    the 
shore  all  the  time.    When  almost  within  hailing 
distance    it    disappeared    behind    a    headland. 
We  all  thought  it  was  taking  a  very  long  time  to 
round  the  point,  when,  to  our  horror,  we  saw  it 
gaily  steaming  back  again   towards  the  Jordan. 
We   fired  guns  and  revolvers  ;  we   piled  more 
wood  on  the  fire  ;  we  waved  the  flag  furiously  ; 
but  with  no  effect.   The  men  on  board,  evidently 
despairing  of  ever  finding  us,  had  turned  tail. 
What  was  now  to  be  done  ?  It  was  impossible 
to  go  on   any  farther  with  that  boat,  and  it  was 
equally  impossible  to  get  back   to  the  convent 
in  her.     The  wisest  plan  appeared  to  be  to  tow 
her  to  the  northern  shore  again,  in  the  hopes  of 
coming  across  a  party  of  tourists.     We  had  one 
water-skin    with     us,    sufficient    for    twenty-four 
hours,  and  if  we  were  not  rescued  in  that  time, 
we  should,  of  course,  be  obliged  to  abandon  all 
our  belongings  and  make  for  the  nearest  habita- 
tion.    Our  Arab  refused   point-blank  to  take  a 
message  for  us,  either  to  the  convent  or  to  the 
hotel  at  Jericho.      He  said  he  could  not  walk  so 
far,  and  even  if  he  could,  with  so  many  tribes  of 
evil  reputation  on  the  plain,  it  would  not  be  safe. 
So  we  began  again  to  bale  out  the  boat.     She 
was  lying  well  up  on  the  beach,  so  it  did  not  take 
us  long  to  empty  her.    It  was  much  harder  work 


From  a  Photo,  by}  decided  to  "  GO  to  Jericho."  [the  Author. 



launching  her.  but  at  last  we  accomplished  that 
too.  But  when  we  came  down  from  the  tent 
with  the  first  instalment  ot~  luggage,  we  found 
her  already  nearly  half  full  of  water.  Yes,  we 
thought  o(  "them  that  go  down  to  the  sea  in 
ships,"  and  a  lot  o\  other  strictly  Biblical 
ciations.     \  ■.  they  were  now  brought 

home  to  us  in  a  peculiarly  forcible  manner.  So 
the  baling  began  again.  But  it  was  no  use. 
In  a  few  minutes  we  found  the  water  was 
.  and  in  a  quarter  of  an  hour  only 
the  ts  of    the    villainous   craft    remained 

the  surface.  W  e  waited  for  them  to 
ppear.  but  the  extreme  saltness  of  the 
water  kept  the  boat  floating  Hush  with  the 
surface  of  the  sea.  It  was  an  interesting  illus- 
tration o(  the  buoyancy  o(  the  Head  Sea,  but  it 
fail  licit  any  exclamations  of  admiration 

rather  the  reverse. 
What  we  said  now  was,  "  Go  to  Jericho  " ;   it 
-  the  only  thing  to  be  done,  really.     Our  only 
hope,  in  fact,  lay  in  being  able  to  find  our  way 

Jericho  across 
the  plain.    One  of 
the    party    volun- 
red  to  stay  with 
the  native  to  look 
after    the    tent. 
We  did  not  start 
until  3  p.m.,  thus 
g  the  heat 
of  the   day.     We 
k  n e w    that    t  h e 
range  of  hills  ter- 
minating  in    Ras 
el    Feshkah    runs 
nearly  north 
and     south,    and 
that    gave     us    a 
of  the 
direction     of 
ho.        About 
sunset    we  struck 
a    deep    ravine, 
which    we    con- 
cluded   must    be 
the     valley     that 
descended  from   Neby  Mousa.     Dropping  into 
this  ravine,  we  suddenly  found  ourselves  in  the 
midst  of  a  Bedawin  encampment.      It  was  too 
to  a\oid  it,  for  already  the  dogs  were  bark- 
and    naked    children    running    out   to   see 
what  was  the  matter.     Though  inwardly  cursing 
ourselves  for  our  carelessness,  we  put  on  a  bold 
face,  and  asked  the  first  man  we  met  the  way  to 
Jericho.       He    wanted    to    know    from   whence 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

we  had  come.  We  pointed  vaguely  in  the 
direction  of  the  Dead  Sea.  What  had  we 
been  doing  there  ?  Oh,  walking  round  the 
Bahr-el-Lut,  but  we  intended  to  sleep  that  night 
in  Jericho.  He  ejaculated,  "  Ma-sha-allah," 
and  then  showed  us  the  way  out  of  the  ravine. 
We  breathed  more  freely  when  we  had  put  a 
mile  between  ourselves  and  the  Bedawin,  for  in 
that  plain  they  bear  anything  but  an  enviable 

What  a  weary  walk  that  was  !  We  were  hot, 
tired,  dusty,  and,  above  all  things,  thirsty. 
Perhaps  also  "crusty."  We  were  not  certain 
that  we  were  going  in  the  right  direction  even 
now.  We  never  knew  when  a  bush  might  dis- 
gorge a  number  of  yelling,  thievish  Arabs.  Just 
as  we  were  debating  whether  it  would  not  be 
better  to  wait  until  daylight,  we  heard  the 
sound  of  running  water.  In  a  moment  we 
were  lying  prone,  lapping  up  the  delicious  fluid, 
in  a  way  that  recalled  the  story  of  Gideon  and 
his    men.     Then    we    recognised    one    of    the 

Jericho  irrigation 
canals.  That  and 
the  water  gave  us 
sufficient  energy 
to  break  through 
several  zarebas  of 
thorns  that  sur- 
round Jericho, 
and  then  came 
the  hotel ! 

The  next  day 
we  set  out  on 
donkeys  for  the 
steamer',  and 
eventually  found 
it  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Jordan. 
The  "  capitano  " 
said  he  had  gone 
down  the  coast  as 
far  as  he  dare, 
and  as  he  had 
not  found  us,  he 
concluded  we 
were  all  drowned. 
It  was  just  what  he  would  conclude.  We 
were  soon  under  way,  and  by  night-fall  at 
our  old  camping-ground.  But  further  explora- 
tion of  the  sea  was  impossible.  The  short  run 
from  the  Jordan  to  Ras  el  Feshkah  had  nearly 
exhausted  the  fuel,  and  there  was  none  to  be 
obtained  nearer  than  En-Gedi.  The  following 
morning  we  returned  reluctantly  to  the  north 
shore,  towing  our  water-logged  boat  behind  us. 

Among  the  Hairy  A  in  us  of  Yezo. 

By  Archibald  Gowan  Campbell. 

A  traveller  relates  his  experiences  in  Yezo,  the  North   Island  of  Japan  and  the  home  of  the  Ainus 

a  mysterious  and  interesting  people.     Mr.  Campbell's  photographs   (which  are  strictly  copyright)  will, 
we  are  sure,  be  pronounced  both  impressive   and  picturesque. 

EZO,  the  northern  island  of  Japan, 
lies  away  from  the  ordinary  routes 
of  travel,  and  contains  the  remnants 
of  one  of  the  oldest  and  most  in- 
teresting races  left  on  the  earth.    My 

visit  to  the  land  of  the  Ainus  was  made  during 

the  summer  of  '98,  for  the  double  purpose  of 

studying  the  aborigines 

and  salmon  -  fishing   in 

the  rivers.     The  photo- 
graphs     accompanying 

this  article  are  my  own 


Two    or    three   ac- 
counts    of    the    Ainus 

have  been  published  in 

this    country,     but    the 

writers      have      usually 

sacrificed   all    pretence 

to  accuracy  in  catering 

for    the    public  craving 

for    picturesque    "  local 

colour."     I  believe  the 

only  man  possessing  a 

really    intimate     know- 
ledge   of   the    customs, 

character,  and  language 

of    the    aborigines    of 

Vezo    to    be    the    Rev. 

John  Batchelor,  a  gen- 
tleman   who    has    lived 

for  years   in    their   huts 

and  has  devoted  a  great 

part  of  his  life  to  their 

spiritual    and     material 

advancement.       His 

labours    have    included 

the  establishment  of  a 

church    and    school    at 

the   large   Ainu    village 

of   Piratori    and    of  an 

hospital    close    to     his 

own  residence  at  Sapporo.      He  has  also  written 

a   valuable  and   most   interesting   work   on   the 

Ainus   of  Japan,   and    has  translated   the   New 

Testament  into  their  language. 

The  total  Ainu  population  in  Yezo  has  been 

diminishing    for    a    great     many    years.       Mr. 

Batchelor  tells  me  that  it  is  now  about  stationary 

in  the  district  under  his  own  immediate  super- 

Vol.  iv.— 7. 

THE   AUTHOR,    MR.    A.    G.    CAMPBELL,    WHO    WENT    A-WHEEI.ING 

From  <?]  among  the  hairy  ainus.  [Photo 

vision,  but  that  the  decrease  continues  in  the 
central  and  northern  parts.  Being  an  utterly 
unprogressive  race  and  a  hindrance  in  the  vray 
of  the  go-ahead  Japanese  settlers,  their  rights 
are  not  much  respected  by  the  Imperial  Govern- 
ment. Their  present  numbers  in  Yezo  probably 
do   not   exceed    17,000,    which   is  actually   less 

than  the  yearly  immigra- 
tion of  Japs  into  that 
island  ;  and  this  esti- 
mate of  population  no 
doubt  includes  many 
who  are  not  of  pure 
Ainu  blood. 

There  are  a  few  scat- 
tered settlements  along 
the  greater  part  of  the 
sea-board  of  Yezo,  but 
the  coast  Ainus  asso- 
ciate so  much  with 
Japanese  fishermen  that 
they  cannot  be  regarded 
as  typical.  The  villages 
on  the  upper  branches 
of  the  Saru,  Tokachi, 
and  adjacent  rivers, 
however,  are  more  in- 
accessible, and  their 
inhabitants  conse- 
quently more  represen- 
tative. The  route  to 
the  latter  district  lies  in 
the  first  instance  over  an 
immense  plain,  covered 
in  summer  with  lovely 
wild  flowers. 

The  first  photo,  repro- 
duced on  the  top  of  the 
next  page  shows  our 
caravan  entering  one  of 
the  desolate  little  fish- 
ing villages  among  the 
sand-hills  separating  this  plain  from  the  rollers 
of  the  Pacific  Ocean.  The  figure  leading  on 
the  right  of  the  picture  is  Major  C.  -  —  in 
whose  company  I  did  part  of  my  travels  in 
Yezo.  Next  to  him  is  an  Ainu  groom  ;  then 
come  our  two  Japanese  servants,  with  another 
Ainu  bringing  up  the  rear.  According  to  the 
invariable  custom  in  Yezo  and  many  other  parts 


through  forests 


Front  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 

.  the  foals  are  here  seen  acccompany- 

_  :heir  mothers.     The  sand-hills  in  the  back- 

nd    arc    carpeted    with    dwarf   rose-bushes 

:h,  towards  the   end   of  June,   burst    into  a 

perfect  blaze  of  crimson  flowers.     These  roses 

have  an  extremely  sweet  scent,  but,  unfortunately, 

it  is  overpowered  by  the  terrible  odour  of  decay- 

fish,  which  makes  a  journey  along  this  coast 

not  altogether  a  pleasant  experience. 

I  my  first  trip  to  the 
Ainu  country    I    rode  a 
.   the  luggage  fol- 
i     horseback; 
but  tl  broke  down 

on    the    return    journey, 
and  the  machine  had  to 
loaded  on  to  one  of 
The  animal 
boh  re  that  opera- 

tion was  half  complet 
however,  and  disappeared 
in  a  thick  fog,  with  the 
r  his 
tail,  and  my  cher- 

in  all  <  •  ; 

hunt-  n,  and  most 

of  the  thin_ 
in  a  n 

The   next  photograph 
its     the     second 
of     the     journey 

of  oak,  with  the 
ragged  under- 
growth for 
which  Yezo  is 
of  which  more 
anon.  The  fore- 
most figure  is 
the  Ainu  woman 
who  acted  as 
our  guide,  and 
she  is  sitting 
cross-legged  on 
a  pile  of  lug- 
gage which  the 
unhappy  pony 
has  to  carry  in 
addition  to  the 
rider.  In  the 
background  to 
the  right  of  this 
is  my  Japanese 
servant.  Never 
having  been  on 
a  horse  before,  he  was  in  chronic  difficulties  with 
his  steed,  and  on  more  than  one  occasion  got 
lost  in  the  forest  by  lagging  behind  ;  so  the 
Major,  who  stands  about  6ft.  2in.  in  his  stock- 
ings and  has  a  most  stentorian  voice,  used  to  go 
to  the  rear  of  the  cavalcade  and  periodically 
shout  at  him,  an  expedient  which  only  made 
hJm  roll  off  on  to  his  head  in  sheer  terror.  We 
next   thought  of  tying   him   on   as   part  of  the 



From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.   A.  G.   Campbell. 




From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.   A.  G.  Campbell. 

luggage,  but  by  dint  of  careful  management  and 
frequent  stoppages  to  hoist  him  back  on  the 
pony  after  a  fall,  we  succeeded  in  getting  to  the 
end  of  our  journey  without  resorting  to  such 
drastic  measures. 

My  third  photograph  shows  the  arrival  of  the 
caravan  at  the  large  Ainu  village  of  Piratori. 
Penri,  the  old  chief,  is  on 
the  extreme  left,  and  in  the 
centre  is  m\  bicycle,  held 
by  a  stalwart  Ainu  and  his 
little  son,  who  looks  as 
though  he  thought  he  had 
accomplished  a  feat  in 
merely  touching  the  weird 
thing.  The  building  on 
the  right  is  the  inn  which 
has  recently  been  estab- 
lished here.  It  is  in 
Japanese  style,  but  is  kept 
by  an  Ainu,  and  the  tra- 
veller is  waited  on  by  Ainu 
servant  girls.  Europeans 
travelling  in  the  interior  of 
Japan  must  not  depend  on 
the  food  of  the  country, 
which  consists  mainly  of 
rice  and  raw  fish;  and 
even  these  are  often  not  to 
be  had  in  the  remoter 
districts.  So  we  lived 
chiefly  on  the  tinned  pro- 

visions we  carried  with  us.  There  are  a  good 
many  Japanese  in  Piratori,  which  accounts  for 
the  fact  that  the  clothes  of  some  of  the  Ainus  in 
this  photograph  are  made  in  semi-Japanese  style. 
We  next  have  to  consider  a  group  of  Ainu 
women,  one  of  whom  is  grinding  millet,  while 
another  is  nursing  a  baby.     The  young  woman 


From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 



standing  up  in  the  centre  much  appreciated  the 
joke  of  being  photographed,  and  was  greatly 
delighted   by  the  subsequent  presentation  of  a 

copy  of  her  portrait.  The  women  are  all 
tattooed  round  the  mouth  with  the  dark  blue 
pattern  i  ling  a  moustache,  which  will  be 

noticed   in    the    pi  phs.       Their    forearms 

and    the    backs    of    their    hands    are     similarly 

ted,     the     process    being    commenced    in 
nth  by  a  slight  incision  on  the  upper 

which   :^  gradually  extended  in  subsequent 

the  whole  operation  being  completed  by 

the  time  they  have  reached  the  age  of  eighteen. 

M  v  favourite 

"he  n  eh  man."' 

Pikanchari,    is 


noe    in    the 

■  Mil pa  n  ying 
p  h  -a  p  h . 

which    also   con- 
:  the  beauty 
of    the     river 
nery    in     this 

■n.     I  [ere  we 

one  of  the 
boats  u-ed  by  the 
Ainus  for  net- 
fishing  in  the 
rivers  :  and  t: 
are  remarkably 
skilful  in  poling 
t  h  e  m  up  the 
swil  'reams. 

It    was  from   this 

a  iut '  that  I 
did  a  good  d 
of  my  own  fishing 
— and  I  had  m< 
than  one  ducking 
when  trying  to 
throw  a  fly  from 
such  an  unstable 
platform.  Netting 
and  \    sal- 

mon in  the  rivi 
and  a  little  cultivation  in  the  imm  vicinity 

A  their  villages,  form  the  only  resources  now 
left  to  the  Ainus.  J  hese  interesting  people 
used  formerly  to  hunt  deer  and  bear  in  the 
forests,  but  when  the  advantages  of  civilization 
dawned  upon  Japai  om  a  few  years 

ago,  it  pre  in  its  anxiety  to  prove   itself 

thoroughly  up-to-date — to  establish  large  deer- 
canning  factories  in  Yezo,  and  to  organize 
wholesale  massacres  of  the  game,  with  the  result 
that  in  a  very  short  time  scarcely  an  animal  was 
left.      After  having  thus  successfully  disposed  of 

IT    WAS    KROM  DID    MY    OWN    MSHIMi. 

From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 

the  "goose  that  laid  the  golden  eggs,"  the 
*  lovernment  is  now  attempting  to  bring  it  back 
to  life  by  the  enactment  of  stringent  game-laws 
rating  for  a  period  of  years;  but  in  most 
districts  the  plan  has  not  yielded  encouraging 
results  there  being  no  deer  left  to  breed  from. 
At  the  present  time  most  of  the  young  men  from 
the  mountain  villages  go  down  to  the  coast  in 
the  summer  to  take  service  with  the  Japanese 

The  Ainus  have  practically  no  manufactures 
or  industries.  They  occasionally  make  a  primi- 
tive  cloth    from    the  bark  of  a  tree,  and  do  a 

little  rough  carv- 
ing ;  but  this  is 
chiefly  for  home 
use,  and  a  con- 
siderable part 
even  of  their  own 
clothing  and 
utensils  is  now  of 
Japanese  origin. 
Physically  they 
are  infinitely 
superior  to  their 
conquerors,  the 
men  being  often 
splendid  speci- 
mens — ■  b  i  g  - 
chested  and  mus- 
cular, with  black 
beards  which 
attain  their  full 
length  at  a  com- 
paratively early 
age  and  give  them 
a  most  imposing 
appearance,  to- 
gether with  an  air 
of  wisdom  which 
is  usually  quite 

I  have  heard  it 
suggested  that  the 
Ainus  represent 
the  residue  of 
" the  lost  ten 
tribes  of  Israel "  ;  and  certainly  many  of  them 
approach  very  nearly  to  our  ideal  of  the  patriarchs 
of  the  Old  Testament.  But  I  don't  know  that 
thi  above  supposition  rests  on  any  evidence  more 
convincing  than  that  no  satisfactory  explanation 
has  been  offered  as  to  their  origin,  and  that  in 
neither  language,  customs,  nor  appearance  do 
they  approximate  to  any  known  race.  The  very 
fact  that  the  Ainus  have  a  distinct  bias  for 
veracity,  and  will  frequently  tell  the  truth  to 
their  own  disadvantage,  seems  to  divide  them  in 
no  uncertain  way  from  all  the  Asiatic  nations ; 




From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 

but  it  will  also,  I  am  afraid,  almost  invalidate 
their  claim  to  be  considered  as  the  lost  remnant 
of  the  "chosen  people." 

The  Ainu  voice  is  both  characteristic  and 
peculiar.  It  is  remarkably  soft,  low,  and 
musical  in  ordinary  conversation,  with  a  rising 
inflection  at  the  end  of  each 
sentence.  The  main  feature 
of  the  men's  salutation  con- 
sists in  rubbing  the  palms  of 
the  hands  together  and  then 
stroking  the  beard  ;  and  that 
of  the  women,  in  covering  the 
mouth  with  one  hand  and 
looking  down.  Both  sexes 
seem  entirely  devoid  of  that 
insatiable  curiosity  which 
characterizes  the  Japanese. 
Even  in  villages  where  a 
European  has  never  previouslv 
been  seen,  the  inhabitants  will 
return  immediately,  after  a 
quiet  but  affable  greeting  of 
the  visitor,  to  their  ordinary 

A  typical  example  of  the 
difference  between  the  two 
races  is  afforded  by  their  re- 
si  >rctive  attitudes  towards  a 
bicycle.  An  Ainu  will  merely 
stroke  the  bright  metal  parts 
with  an  expression  of  mild 
and    contemplative    interest ; 

while  a  Jap,  after  climb- 
ing all  round  it,  and  trying 
to  get  inside  the  works, 
will  invariably  start  ring- 
ing the  bell  and  rotating 
the  pedals.  The  accom- 
panying photo,  shows  a 
quaint  old  Ainu  woman 
examining  my  sturdy 
little  front-driving  safety. 
At  least,  she  was  doing 
so  a  second  or  two  before 
I  photographed  her. 

The  seventh  snap-shot 
shows  a  halt  for  lunch 
on  the  banks  of  the  river. 
Pikanchari  is  boiling  the 
kettle  over  a  wood  fire, 
while  steaks  of  salmon 
are  grilling  on  a  row  of 
sticks  close  by.  In  the 
foreground,  on  the  right, 
are  some  of  the  fish  I 
caught  that  morning. 
These  are  the  small 
Japanese  salmon,  or 
'■  masu,"  which  are  almost  indistinguishable 
from  the  European  species,  but  do  not  usually 
exceed  iolb.  in  weight. 

The  climate  of  Yezo  is  peculiar,  the  winters 
being  long  and  severe,  and  the  country  under 
snow  for  fully  half  the  year.     July  and  August, 


F>om  a  Copyright   Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 


THE     WIDE    WORLD     MAC.  A/1  NE. 

however,  are  often    intensely  hot,  and.  owing   to 

the  humidity  of  the  air.  the  climate  is  then  m 

trying    than    would     be     expected    from     the 

temperature.       During    this     period    swarms  of 

s,  mosquil  flies  make  life 

almost  unbearable  in  certain  districts-   especially 

n   added  to  the  perennial    infliction  of  the 

more  domestic  pests  which  have  to  be  endured 

anyone  living  among  the  Ainu- 

e  remote  mountain  village  which  1  visited 

twice  was  remarkable  for   the  extraordinary  size 

and    fei  I    its   fleas.       These  insects  attain 

ble  dimensions  in   all  the  Ainu    settle- 

menl  here  they  were  almost  like  rabbits  ! 

r  leaving  the  Ainu  country  it  was  some  time 

I    could  thoroughly  clear  my  luggage  of 

these  awful  visitors  :  and   1   was  always  able   to 

specimen  hailing  from  that  particular 

villag        I  >wing  to  persistent  intermarriage  the 

Ainu    inhabitants  of  each    settlement  come    to 

mble  one  another  closely,  and  to  be  readily 

ble  from  those  of  some  other  district 

perhaps    not    more    than    ten    or    twenty    miles 

nt  :    and  it  is  possible  that  a  similar  cause 

may  operate  among  the  insect:  population  !     At 

least,  I  offer  that  as  a  suggestion  to  any  inquiring 
naturalist  who  cares  to  go  deeply  into  a  subject 
which  at  the  time  had  a  peculiar  interest  for  me. 

The  northern  island  is  separated  from  the 
rest  of  Japan  by  a  narrow  but  exceedingly  deep 
channel,  forming  a  natural  division  known  as 
the  "Blakiston  Line";  the  fauna  and  flora  to 
the  south  partaking  essentially  of  an  Asiatic 
character,  while  to  the  north  they  are  of  a 
markedly  European  or  North  American  type. 

The  forests  of  Vezo  are  remarkable  for  the 
enormous  weeds  which  spring  up  during  the 
short  summer.  There  are  docku  and  burdocks, 
ragweeds,  and  similar  plants,  very  like  what  we 
in  Europe,  but  all  attaining  a  perfectly 
gigantic  size.  This  is  no  doubt  due  to  the 
great  heat  and  moisture  acting  on  a  flora  of 
Western  origin  in  a  volcanic  soil,  the  resulting 
growth  being  probably  unequalled  in  any 
country  in  the  world.  I  was  compelled  to 
leave  the  country  before  many  of  the  plants 
had  attained  their  full  height  ;  but  the  photo, 
here  reproduced  will  convey  an  accurate  idea 
of  their  remarkable  character.  It  represents 
a  group    of    Ainus    from    a    mountain    village, 

»  A  FEW  WEEI  ;  !:.        |  i  I      KED       BY  THE  AUTHOR  IN  AINU  FOREST! 

From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 



hold  in 


respectable  size  instead 
of  luxuriant  weeds  of  only 
a  few  weeks'1  growth  ! 

Kgain,  in  the  next  snap- 
shot a  girl  (about  four- 
teen years  old)  and  a 
baby  boy  are  squatting 
under  the  shade  of  a 
monstrous  dock  -  leaf. 
Many  of  the  Ainus  are 
distinctly  handsome,  but 
I  think  these  were  about 
the  ugliest  creatures  I 
ever  saw. 

The  next  photo,  is  a 
view  of  the  mountain 
village  I  have  already 
spoken  of  as  possessing 
a  surprising 

dwelling,   while   the    one 

in    the    distance    with    a 

dark  roof  belongs  to  the 

chief,     and    formed    the 

head-quarters    of    Major 

C-  and    myself    on 

g  a  l'<j\\  typical  weeds  of  various  species         several   fishing  excursions.     The  thatched  huts 

I  have  just  "  plucked  "  in  the  forest  close         on  the  left  are  built  on  piles  and  merely  used  as 

Truly,    they    appear    to    be    trees    of    a         store-houses,  though,  owing  to  their  "outlandish" 

"brand"  of 
The  house  on  the 
is    a    typical    Ainu 

/  SHI       .  r-KIMi    UNDKK    AN    ENOKMO 

From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 

From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by]        typical  MOUI 



appearance,    they   are   often    made  to  figure  as 
•■  Ainu  habitations"  in  travellers'  story-books. 

I  am  sorry  to  have   to  cast   doubts  on  one  of 

the  most  cherished   fables  relating  to  the  people 

— namely,    that    their  skins  are  invariably  and 

completely  covered  with  a  thick  hairy  coat   like 

a  bear  !      Exceptional  instances,  no  doubt,  exist 

which  lend  some  colour  to  the  legend,  only  1 

have  n<  n  one  myself  in  the  least  like  the 

tures  in   the  story-books;    nor  have   I   ever 

met  anyone  who  has.    On  the  other  hand,  there 

plenty  of  Ainus,  of  undoubtedly  pure- descent, 

who  are  no  more  hairy  than  ordinary  Europeans. 

They  have  very   fine   brown  eyes  and  generally 

well-formed  .  their  whole  appearance  sug- 

_    -  tuthern     Europe    rather    than    Asia. 

Their  mouths  are  large,  with  somewhat  heavy, 

loose  underlips  ;    but  their  teeth  are  good,  and 

their  smiles  most  attractive. 

The   children,    by    the    way,    are   jolly    little 
.  and  singularly  European  in  their  ways. 
A  most  curious  point  about  the  people  generally 
at  their  intelligence,  limited   though   it  may 
be,  seems  to  be 
of  the  same  kind 
as  our  own,  and 
not  of  an  Asiatic 
order.       For  in- 
stance, an   Ainu 
readily    under- 
stands European 
while     a 
Jap  invariably 

"hem  up 
down,  and,  other 
things  being 
equal,  it  is  far 
r  to  make 
a  novel  re<. 
intelligible  to  an 
Ainu  than  I 
Japanese.  The 
latter  will  jump 
at  once  at  your 
meaning,  but  he 
u  'ill 'a /uun  sjumf 
however,  is 
partly  owing  to 
the  fact  that  he 
considers  him- 
self so  much 
cleverer  than 
you  are,  that  he 
will  have  made  up  his  mind  as  to  the  purport 
of  your  babbling  long  before  you  have  got  to 
the  point  :  and  no  power  on  earth  will  drive  the 
first  assumption  out  of  his  head. 

The  Ainu  religion  is  the  same  in  all  districts, 

and  consists  in  a  vague  worship  of  spirits,  which 
are  propitiated  by  offerings  of  white  wands, 
called  "  Inao,"  curiously  whittled  in  one  or 
more  places  into  mere  bunches  of  narrow  shav- 
ings. Cenerous  libations  of  an  intoxicating  spirit 
called  "  sake "  are,  unfortunately,  essential  to 
the  performance  of  their  native  religious  rites ; 
and  the  consequent  deeply-rooted  drinking 
habits  of  the  men  have  formed  one  of  the  chief 
difficulties  in  dealing  with  them.  During  a  time 
of  festival  the  proportion  of  drunkards  to  be 
seen  in  the  Ainu  villages  is  very  large,  and  a 
perfect  pandemonium  prevails  nearly  equal  to 
that  existing  in  one  of  our  own  great  cities  on  a 
Saturday  night  ! 

Every  religious  celebration,  in  fact,  partakes  of 
the  nature  of  a  series  of  drunken  orgies.  The 
"  Dear  Feast "  is  the  most  important  of  these, 
but  as  I  have  never  assisted  at  one  myself,  I 
will  not  attempt  to  describe  it.  The  bears  which 
are  being  brought  up  for  the  purpose  may  fre- 
quently be  seen  in  the  Ainu  villages.  They  are 
caught  young,  and  kept  for  several  years  before 



From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 

being  sacrificed.  A  young  bear-cub  will  be 
noticed  in  the  foreground  of  the  photo,  given 
above,  which  represents  a  group  I  encountered 
on  the  road  to  one  of  the  mountain  villages. 
One  of  the  girls  is  trying  to  get  the  little  beast 



to  feed,  while  their  dog  is  seriously  considering 
whether  discretion  is  not,  after  all,  the  better 
part  of  valour. 

A  breed  of  big,  long-haired,  yellow  dogs  was  a 
feature  of  the  Ainu  villages  some  fifteen  years 
ago,  but  a  mysterious  epidemic  broke  out 
among  them,  and  now  there  is  not  a  single 
specimen  remaining.  The  dog  in  the  photo- 
graph is  one  of  the  parti-coloured  mongrels 
which  are  so  common  all  over  Japan.  The 
short  bow  which  the  man  (on  the  right)  is 
carrying  in  his  hand  is  intended  for  poisoned 
arrows.  The  use  of  the  latter  is  now  for- 
bidden by  the  Japanese  Government,  but  I 
don't  think  the  prohibition  is  much  respected  in 
the  remoter  districts.  I  was  once  assured  by  an 
Ainu  sportsman,  in  one  of  the  more  "civilized" 
villages,  that  a  gun  was  a  most  unsafe  weapon 
with  which  to  pursue  a 
dangerous  animal  like  a 
bear,  as  "  it  was  abso- 
lutely necessary  to  place 
your  bullet  in  a  vital 
spot,  whereas  a  creature 
wounded  in  any  part  of 
the  body  by  a  poisoned 
arrow  would  be  sure  to 
die  in  a  few  minutes." 
There  really  seems  to  be 
something  in  his  conten- 
tion, and  I  am  seriously 
thinking  of  taking  to  a 
bow  and  arrow  myself 
when  I  next  go  out  after 
dangerous  game  !  The 
poison,  by  the  way,  is 
manufactured  from  the 
root  of  a  kind  of  aconite 
made  into  a  paste,  a 
big     lump    of    which    is 

applied  to  a  hollow  in  the  side  of  the  bamboo 

My  last  photograph  is  a  portrait  of  Penri,  the 
patriarchal  chief  of  the  large  village  of  Piratori. 
A  general  view  of  this  place  appears  at  the  top 
of  the  third  page  of  this  article.  In  the  back- 
ground of  Penri's  picture  you  may  observe  the 
construction  of  those  peculiar  thatched  huts, 
built  on  piles  and  used  as  store-houses,  which  I 
mentioned  when  describing  the  mountain  village. 
Needless  to  say,  the  old  chief's  memory  easily 
goes  back  to  the  day  when  Western  civilization 
was  as  remote  as  Mars  from  the  Ainu  people. 

The  Ainus,  it  may  be  mentioned,  are  fearfully 
and  wonderfully  dirty,  the  men  seldom  taking 
off  their  clothes,  and  the  women  never!  A 
story  is  told  of  an  Ainu  servant  girl  whose 
employers  insisted  on  her  having  a  bath.     She 

was  a  long  time  in  re- 
appearing, and,  on  their 
going  to  see  how  things 
were  progressing,  the 
girl  was  discovered  im- 
mersed up  to  the  chin 
with  all  her  clothes  on ! 
But  in  spite  of  their  dirt 
and  apathy  there  is 
something  very  atti active 
about  the  soft  speech 
and  gentle  ways  of  these 
aborigines ;  and  the  few 
Europeans  who  have 
lived  among  them  have 
ever  after  retained  a 
kindly  feeling  for  a  race 
which  is  rapidly  passing 
away,  and  which  in  a  few 
generations  will  have 
vanished  from  the  face 
of  the  earth. 


From  a  Copyright  Photo,  by  Mr.  A.  G.  Campbell. 



Father  Long  and  His  "  Sacred  Nugget.* 

■■  (i 

l'.W'S  of   the  finding  of  an  excep 
tionally  rich  slug  o(  gold,  weighing 

nearly  ioolb..  by  sonic  prospectors 

near     kanowna,     has     just      been 

received    from     Father     Long,    of 

na.     The  reverend  gentleman,  however, 

i>  unable  at  present  to  divulge  the  names  of  the 

tinders,   or   the  locality  where  it  was  ohtained, 

owing  to  his  being  pledged  to  secrecy."     Such 

B\  John   Marshall  of   Kalgoorlie,  W.A.     (Late    I1<>n.  Secretary  of  the  Western 


The  alleged  find  of  the  "Sacred  Nugget"  sent  a  thrill  of  excitement  through  Western  Australia; 
stirred  up  the  people  in  the  other  Australian  Colonies,  and  induced  hundreds  of  miners— some  of 
them    from    South    African  goldfields     to  come  to    a    Colony    where,  it    was    alleged,    gold    had    been 

found    by  the   hundredweight. 

most  searching  investigations  on  the  part  of 
the  police  and  Mines  Departments,  no  definite 
information  respecting  it  could  be  obtained. 

Just  about  the  time  the  nugget  was  supposed 
to  have  been  found,  mining  matters  were  getting 
very  quiet  at  Kanowna.  Several  of  the  latest 
"  rushes  "  had  turned  out  "  duffers,"  and  the 
healthy  spirit  of  enterprise  which  had  prevailed 
was  beginning  to  grow  feeble.     But  the  news  of 

the  great  "  slug "  put 
fresh  life  and  energy  into 
the  people,  especially  in 
the  immediate  neighbour- 
hood of  Kanowna,  and 
prospecting  was  vigor- 
ously carried  on  for  miles 
around  the  town.  As  the 
weeks  passed  by,  public 
excitement,  instead  of 
abating,  actually  in- 
creased ;  and  hundreds 
arrived  by  every  boat  from 
the  Eastern  Colonies, 
drawn,  of  course,  by  the 
reported  find  of  the 
monster  nugget.  At  last 
the  excitement  rose  to 
such  a  feverish  pitch  that 
the  authorities  were  fear- 
ful of  a  disturbance 
taking  place,  and  Father 
Long  was  pressed  to  dis- 
close where  the  alleged 
nugget  had  been  found. 
After  a  time  he  publicly 
stated  that  on  Thursday, 
the  nth  of  August,  at 
two  o'clock,  he  would 
reveal  the  locality  where 
the  mysterious  nugget  had  been  found. 

That  was  enough.  From  a  very  early  hour 
on  the  morning  of  that  eventful  day  vast  crowds 
of  excited  men  gathered  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
hotel  where  the  explanation  was  to  be  given, 
eagerly  discussing  whether  the  whole  affair 
would  turn  out  a  hoax  or  not.  Many  of  them 
had  not  forgotten  the  "  McCann  Rush  "  and  its 

HOM    WE    SEE    HER]  A    CAMEL 

m  a  I'hote.  by  II'.  Roy  Millar,  Kalgoorlie. 

was  the  startling  statement  which  appeared  in 
the  goldfields'  newspapers  one  morning  about 
the  middle  of  July,  1898.  This  news  threw 
the  thousands  of  diggers  into  a  state  of  intense 
excitement,  which  it  is  difficult  for  those  who 
have  not  lived  on  a  goldfield  to  realize.  The 
locality  in  which  the  alleged  nugget  was  found 
was   kept  a  profound  secret ;   and  despite  the 



outcome — the  many  thousands  of  pounds  it  had 
cost,  the  many  men  who  had  been  ruined  by 
it,  and  the  all  but  disastrous  results  from  the 
mob's  vengeance.*  The  men  reasoned  thus : 
All  efforts  to  "  draw  "  the  reverend  gentleman 
respecting  either  the  locality  where  the  nugget  was 
found  or  the  names  of  the  finders,  or  the  alleged 
finders,  had  so  far  been  futile.  And  yet  no 
reasonable  excuse  for  all  this  secrecy  could  be 
given,  unless  the  finders  had  been  guilty  of 
larceny  or  murder,  or  both.  The  sceptical — 
and  there  were  many  such — were  of  the  opinion 
that  no  nugget  had  ever  been  found,  but  that 
the  whole  affair  was  either  the  result  of  a 
practical  joke,  a  deliberate  hoax,  or  the  off- 
spring of  an  over-heated  imagination,  to  which 
authority  had  been  given  on  account  of  the 
position  and  sacred  calling  of  the  gentleman 
who  reported  it.  There  were  a  great  many 
present  who  thought  there  was  likely  to 
be  a  big  row ;  and,  really,  after  my  former 
experiences,  this  appeared  to  be  the  most  likely 
ending  to  the  whole  extraordinary  matter.  By 
one  o'clock  there  were  over  4,000  persons  in 
the  street — at  least  1,000  of  whom  were  provided 
with  means  of  locomotion  to  proceed  instantly 
to  the  locality  where  the  alleged  slug  had  been 
found.  There  were  buggies  galore,  from  the 
stylish  turn-out  with  dashing  horses  right  down 
to  the  sorry  "crock"  with  only  three  sound  legs. 
Oil  the  edge  of  the  crowd  there  were  large 
numbers  of  vehicles  with  parties  of  men  having 
the  necessary  appliances  to  "  peg  out."  All,  in 
short,  were  as  ready  as  possible  for  the  mad 
rush  which,  it  was  expected,  would  take  place. 
Never  had  such  an  array  of  bicycles  been 
seen  on  the  field  before.  At  ten  minutes  to 
two  another  large  contingent,  numbering  at 
least  2,000  persons,  arrived  from  Kalgoorlie. 
Extraordinary  precautions  had  been  taken  by 
the  police  to  prevent  any  but  representatives  of 
the  Press  and  a  very  few  others  from  getting 
into  the  balcony.  However,  I  managed  to  get 
there  as  a  reporter.  As  I  looked  down  upon 
that  great  sea  of  earnest  faces,  comprising  some 
of  the  oldest  and  most  resolute  men  on  the  face 
of  the  earth,  and  saw  written  there  eager  ex- 
pectancy and  intense  excitement,  I  trembled 
inwardly.  This  vast  crowd,  calm  and  self- 
contained  and  orderly  as  it  then  appeared, 
needed,  I  felt  sure,  but  a  mere  spark  to  rouse  it 
into  devilish  fury.  I  knew  that  if  the  men  were 
persuaded  that  they  were  being  fooled  by  a 
madcap  orator  they  would  tear  him  limb  from 

Punctually,  however,  as  the  clock  struck  two 

*  Mr.  Marshall  tells  the  whole  story  of  this  extraordinary  hoax  in 
last  month's  issue.  The  narrative  is  copiously  illustrated  with 
photographs. — Ed. 

111!'.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

Father  Long  stepped   into  the   balcony  of  the 

hot  He   approached    the   railing,    and   the 

rd,  which  had  been  densely  packed  before, 

now    squeezed   together   into   the    smallest 

A    considerable    amount    of 

cheering  .  I   I  ather  1  ong's  appearance,  and 

1  waiting  till  order  was  restored,  pale, 

..  and   trembling,   his  rather   mobile  and 

wing  the  excitement  under 

which   he   laboured.      He    began   by  addressing 

the  •  Men  o(  Kanowna  and  adjoining 

fields,"  and  he  remarked  that   "  he  was  placed 

in    a    most    unenviable    and    disadvantageous 

ntinuing,    he    spoke    for    a   time 

they  had  spread.  The  speaker  next  apologized 
for  not  having  properly  estimated  the  height 
which  the  gold  fever  had  reached,  and,  inferenti- 
ally,  the  dramatic  effect  his  statement  must  have 
on  the  people. 

"And  now,"  he  proceeded,  "I  will  tell  you 
where  /  think  the  gold  has  been  found,  and  the 
truth  about  the  great  nugget  as  it  at  present 
exists.  I  cannot  tell  you  the  names  of  the  men 
who  found  it,  because  I  have  not  their  per- 
mission. The  nugget,  however,  is  in  existence 
at  present  unsullied  and  almost  untouched.  It 
is  not  in  this  town,  but  is,  perhaps,  in  one  of 
the  other  towns,  and   may  be   brought   back   to 


i.    FROM    THE   DIGGERS 



in     a    ratlr  quent    vein,     the    matter 

also    being  irrelevant   to   the   important    subject 

m   hand.      He  then  asked  all  the    people    to 

promise     that    after    he    made    his    statement 

no  further  questions  would    be   asked    of  him 

ecting    the    "Golden    Sickle    Nugget,"    or 

as  it  had  been  termed.    Further, 

he  asked  all  who  would   promise  this  to  hold  up 

their  hands.     Of  course,  up  went  unnumbered 

thousands  of  hands  —those,  in  fact,  of  every  man 

sent.     This  scratch  vote  having   been   taken 

the  reverend  gentleman   proceeded  to  blame  the 

newspapers  for  the  grossly  exaggerated  reports 

Kanowna."       Then     slowly,    impressively,    and 
deliberately  he  said  :    "  I'm.  NUGGET  has  BEEN 

FOUND    A    QUARTER    OF    A    MILK    ON     THIS     SIDE 
OF     THE     NEAREST     LAKE    ON     THE     Kl'RNALFI 

•AD."  Scarcely  had  the  last  words  left  the 
speaker's  mouth  than  a  great  roar  was 
heard.  The  vast  mass  of  men,  who  had 
been  densely  packed  together  as  a  living 
wall,  suddenly  broke,  scattered,  and  then  fled 
as  if  a  thousand  demons  had  been  let  loose 
on  them  and  they  were  fleeing  from  impending 
destruction  all,  however,  shaping  their  course 
towards  the  common  sroal.       Tin's   was  the  end 



of  Larkin  Street,  round  the  corner  of  which  the 
Kurnalpi  road  lay.  I  had  seen  many  exciting 
incidents  on  other  Australian  and  American 
goldfields,  but,  surely,  never  since  the  yellow 
devil,  Gold,  became  the  medium  of  exchange 
did  such  a  mad,  headlong  rush  take  place  on 
the  strength  of  such  a  vague,  indefinite,  and 
unsatisfactory  statement  as  that  made  by  Father 
Long  to  the  multitude  on  that  occasion.  To  the 
more  thoughtful  it  seemed  an  insult  to  the  intel- 
ligence— such  an  impotent  and  incredible  story. 
Meanwhile  the  race  to  the  spot  indicated  was 
of  the  wildest,  most  dare-devil,  and  break-neck 
character.  All  raced  as  if  their  very  lives 
depended  upon  their  pegging  out  a  claim  near 
to  the  magic  spot  indicated  by  Father  Long. 
To  those  who  watched  the  maddened  crowd 
from  the  balcony  it  seemed  as  if  the  pace  must 
inevitably  result  in  some  person  being  killed,  or, 
at  least,  maimed.  So  many  different  persons 
on  bicycles  were  breaking  down  on  the  road — 
their  wheels  being  ridden  over  by  buggies,  and 
sometimes  the  riders  themselves  jumped  upon 
by  persons  on  horseback — that  it  seemed  a 
thousand  chances  to  one  that  fatalities  would 
ensue.  Many  injuries  were  received  owing  to  the 
breakdown  of  bicycles,  the  colliding  of  traps, 
and  the  spilling  of  horsemen  ;  but,  happily,  no 

very  serious  accident  took  place.  It  must  be 
remembered,  however,  that  nearly  everyone  in 
the  rush  was  a  picked  man — the  very  cream  of 
the  diggers— men,  that  is,  whose  nerves  and 
skill  had  been  tried  on  many  a  rough  journey. 

After  the  crowd  had  stampeded,  Father  Long 
essayed  to  finish  his  statement,  which  had  been 
interrupted  in  such  a  dramatic  fashion,  and 
quiet  having  been  restored,  he  finished  speaking 
in  a  distinct  and  impressive  tone  of  voice  by 
saying,  "  The  slug  was  found  not  far  from  the 
road,  at  a  depth  of  five  or  six  feet,  and  its 
weight  was  betwen  951b.  and  ioolb."  He  then 
retired  from  the  front  of  the  balcony,  amidst 
the  thunderous  plaudits  of  the  assembled 
diggers,  many  of  whom,  in  the  face  of  what 
looked  a  definite  statement  regarding  the  locality 
where  the  alleged  nugget  was  found,  appeared 
to  be  perfectly  satisfied.  A  cordial  vote  of 
thanks  was  proposed  to  the  reverend  gentleman 
for  his  statement,  and  then  carried — amidst 
some  ominous  mutterings,  however,  from  a 
numerically  small,  but  by  no  means  unim- 
portant, section  of  the  diggers. 

Meanwhile  the  excited  crowd  was  racing 
helter-skelter  towards  the  spot  indicated  by 
Father  Long,  a  distance  of  about  six  miles  from 
Kanowna.     They  were  the  motliest  crew  on  the 

•  1  - -  r< 

-    r 





From  n\  SEEN — EVEN   IN   AUSTRALIA." 



till.    W1PK    WORLD    MAOA/INL. 

maddest   "  rush  "  that   was  ever  seen,  even  in 

Australia.  I'ho  first  to  reach  the  spot  was  ono 
the  alluvial  diggers,  mounted  on  a  magnifi 
cent  horse.  He  started  to  "peg  out "  a  mining 
claim  the  instant  he  dismounted.  Hundreds 
»on  on  the  ground,  and  the 
work    oi  ]  out    was  rained    on   with   tre- 

mendous energy.       Tin-  mode  of  taking  posses 

n  of  a  mining  "claim  "  is  (according  to  the 
rmula)  by  "  fixing  in  the  ground  firmly  at 
angle  thereof  (or  as  nearly  as  prac- 
ticable thereto)  a  post  not  less  than  ain.  in  dia- 
meter, projecting  above  the  surface  not  less  than 
3ft  and  set  in  the  angles  of  an  '1.'  trench, 
the  arms  of  which  shall  not  be  less  than  3ft.  in 
length  and  6in.  deep  ;  and  the  trench  shall  be 
cut  in  the  direction  oi  the  boundary  lines." 

It  will  be  easily  seen  that  a  considerable 
amount  of  work  was  entailed  in  performing 
this  strictly-defined  operation.  However,  in 
little  over  an  hour  after  the  driving  of  the  first 
■  eral  hundred  mining  claims  had  been 
formally  taken  possession  of;  and  what  had 
riously  been  a  deserted  waste  of  sand  was 
now  transformed  into  a  perfect  forest  of  pegs 
and  a  network  of  trenches. 

Immediately  after  this  took  place  the  race- 
back  to  town  began,  each  man  excitedly  trying 
to  outpace  his  fellows.  But  the  road  was  more 
suitable  for  the  horsemen,  and  they  were  the 
first  to  return,  their  poor  beasts  lathered  with 
t.  with  flanks  bleeding  and  presenting  a 
"  tu  appearance  generally.      More 

than  one  valuable  horse  died  from  the  fearful 
strain,  having  been  literally  ridden  to  death  in 
the  fierce  race.  For  hours  after  the  return  of 
the  first  party  hapless  bicyclists  could  be  seen 
_  rig  back  into  the  township  with  broken 
-mashed  forks,  twisted  handle-bars,  and 
punctured  tyres.  Also  drivers  leading  their 
helpless  horses,  with  the  drivers'  mates  pushing 
on  the  vehicles  behind,  for  a  few  days  work 
was  carried  on  with  feverish  activity,  but  from 
the  first  the  knowing  ones  had  seen  that  the 
chances  of  obtaining  alluvial  gold  from  the 
neighbourhood  of  the  alleged  find  were  not 
particularly  rosy. 

But  when  a   week   had  passed  away  without 
the  smallest  degree   of  success   the  diggers,   to 

use  their  own  expressive  phraseology,  "slung 
it,"  and  a  few  days  after  not  a  single  digger 
could  be  seen  at  work.  It  was  many  weeks, 
however,  before  the  excitement  calmed  down, 
and  in  the  meantime  a  very  bitter  feeling  arose 
against  the  originators  of  the  rush.  It  was 
freely  rumoured  that  threats  of  personal  violence 
had  been  offered  to  those  who  were  considered 

One  incident  may  be  given  as  indicating  the 
feeling  then  prevailing.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Jenkins, 
a  Wesleyan  minister  stationed  in  the  Kalgoorlie 
circuit,  who  was  rather  young  and  not  unlike 
bather  Long,  was  sitting  in  a  railway  carriage  at 
Kanowna,  waiting  to  go  to  Kalgoorlie,  when  a 
big,  burly  Irishman  leapt  into  the  compartment, 
and  seizing  the  minister  by  the  throat,  rudely 
demanded  if  he  were  Father  Long.  Mr.  Jenkins, 
after  some  considerable  difficulty,  satisfied  the 
rather  impulsive  digger  that  he  was  the  Wesleyan 
minister,  and  then,  in  the  strongest  possible 
terms,  the  irate  miner  indicated  that  it  was  just 
as  well  it  was  so.  Father  Long  continued  for 
some  months  to  reside  in  Kanowna,  but  no 
further  information  respecting  the  alleged 
"Sacred  Nugget"  was  ever  tendered  by  him. 
It  is  still  a  moot  point  as  to  how  this  extra- 
ordinary report  was  first  spread.  Some  asserted 
it  was  a  "  put-up  job  "  by  the  Kanowna  publicans 
to  bring  grist  to  their  mills.  Others,  again,  were 
of  the  opinion  that  a  -practical  joke  had  been 
played  on  Mr.  Long;  whilst  a  much  larger 
number  believed,  and  still  believe,  that  the 
story  was  the  offspring  of  a  too  exuberant 
imagination — told,  however,  with  no  evil  intent, 
and  in  total  ignorance  of  the  tremendous 
influence  it  would  exercise  on  the  popular 
imagination  of  the  hardy,  daring  diggers  of 
Western  Australia. 

But,  whatever  be  the  explanation,  the  criminal 
folly  of  rousing  the  hopes  and  exciting  the  minds 
of  the  diggers  by  startling  tales  of  bogus  gold 
finds  was  at  least  brought  home  to  all  interested 
with  a  dramatic  force  they  are  never  likely  to 

(We  learn  from  Mr.  Marshall  that  soon  after 
this  extraordinary  incident  Father  Long  died  in 
hospital  of  typhoid  fever,  at  the  early  age  of 

How    a    "Portage  "  is    Worked. 

By  Edward  J.  Stillmax. 

A    practical    definition    by  means  of   personal    narrative    and    photographs    of  a    familiar    term  in  the 

vocabulary  of  the  Canadian  pioneer. 

FTEN  in  reading  newspapers,  more 
particularly  in  the  case  of  news  from 
British  North  America,  one  meets 
with  the  word  "  portage."  The  term 
has  been  explained  over  and  over 
again,  but  still  people  have  not  a  clear  idea  as  to 
what  a  portage  is.  There  are  even  places  called 
by  the  name,  such  as  Rat  Portage,  in  Canada. 
The  description  and  set  of  three  photographs 
which  are  reproduced  in  this  little  article  will  do 
more  to  explain  this  interesting  operation  than 
whole  pages  of  the  newspapers. 

Mr.  Randle  F.  Holme,  of  51,  Great  Marl- 
borough Street,  W.,  visited  Brazil  in  1885  on  a 
pleasure  trip,  accompanied  by  his  brother.  They 
went   far  into   the    little  known   interior   of   the 

5th,  1887.  After  waiting  six  days  in  St.  John's, 
they  caught  the  second  mail  of  the  year  running 
up  the  Labrador  coast,  which  happened  to  be  a 
small  coasting  steamer  named  the  Plover. 
"This  vessel,"  he  says,  "landed  us  at  Battle 
Harbour,  in  the  south-east  comer  of  Labrador, 
on  July  24th.  Here  we  changed  into  the 
mail  steamer,  the  Lady  Glover,  and  reached 
Rigolet,  in  Hamilton  Inlet,  on  July  27th. 
Next,  we  started  to  sail  up  the  inlet  in  a  small 
schooner  belonging  to  the  Hudson  Bay  Com- 
pany. A  sail  of  two  clays  brought  us  to 
the  post  at  North-West  River,  at  the  head  of 
the  inlet. 

'"This  post  we  found  in  charge  of  Mr.  Walter 
West  :  and  a  number  of  families,  mostly  half- 

THE     FALLS,    WHERE    THE    ''PORTAGE"    WAS    MAM 

From  a  Plinth,  by  Mr.  Bandit  F.  Holme. 

province  of  San  Paulo,  and  this  expedition  led 
Mr  Randle  Holme  to  turn  his  attention  to  serious 
exploration  when  the  next  opportunity  pre- 
sented itself.  Consideration  revealed  the  fact 
that  the  nearest  point  of  the  American  continent 
to  Great  Britain,  namely  Labrador,  was,  curiously 
enough,  probably  the  least  known,  and  he  de- 
cided to  investigate  the  interior  of  that  country. 
Accordingly  Mr.  Randle  Holme  sailed  with  a 
friend  for  Newfoundland  from  England  on  July 

breed  Eskimos,  engaged  in  salmon  fishing,  seal 
hunting,  and  trapping,  lived  scattered  about  the 
head  of  the  bay. 

"  We  afterwards  obtained  the  services  and  the 
boat  of  John  Montague,  a  settler  at  North-West 
River,  who  had  emigrated  from  Orkney  thirteen 
years  previously.  John  was  a  fine,  strong  man 
of  twenty-eight  years  of  age;  and  well  acquainted 
with  the  country."  After  a  general  inspection 
of  the  country  round  the  bay,  Mr.  Randle  Holme 


Till-     WIDE    WORLD     MAO.AZINE. 

decided  to  ascend  the  (".rami   River,  and  this  he 

did,  accompanied  by  two  men,  his  friend,  mean 

while,  returning  to  England.      He  says  :  "  Being 

anxi  make   an    extended    exploration    of 

the     Grand      River,     which     is     by     far     the 

the   rivers    which    flow    into  the    bay, 

I    (  Montague,    ami    also   obtained    the 

-     oi     a      man     named      I'lett,     another 

.  )<  v    emigrant.       On    August    24th    we    left 

River,   and    started   up   the  (irand 

River  itself.      We   met  three  families  of  Indians 

near  the  river's  mouth,  but  saw  no  other  human 

gs   until   we  reached  the  same  place  on  our 

way  hack  a  month  later.     The  ascent  was  made 

an  ordinary  fisherman's  dinghy.      The  river 

current    was   extremely  swift,   so    that    the   boat 

had   to    be   towed  from   the  hank  nearly  all    the 

way  up  the  river,    with  the   exception   of   a    few 

•    where  it  was  found  pos- 

row  or  sail.     The  night  

24th  was  spent  in  an 
empty  log  hut  at  High  Point, 
on  the  south  side  o[  the  (Irand 
River.  Next  day.  at  noon,  we 
bed  the  first  falls,  which  I 
spent    a    few    hours    in    photo- 

phing."  ■' 

The  first  photo,  we  reproduce 

shows   this   spot  in    .Mr.  Randle 

-  journey.  Obviously  it  is 

impossible  for  a  boat  to  live  in 

such   water  as   this.     The  great 

falls  at  this  place  consist  of  two 

steps,  the  double  fall  being  70ft. 

The     roar    of     the     water     was 

almost   deafening,   and    even    in 

our     reproduction    a    cloud    of 

spray  and    spume   may  be  seen 

rising  from    the  seething  waters. 

is  the  spot  where  it  is 

make   a     porta^ 

A    1  consists    in    hauling 

the    boat    out  of    the  river  and 

1  along  the  shore,    past   the 

falls  or  .  until    it    can     be 

launched  again  in  smooth  water. 

The  wh<  August  26th,'' 

continue^    Mr.    Randle    Holme, 

"  was  occupied  in  portaging  the 

boat  and   our  stores  to  the  head 

of  the  falls.    The  preceding  night 

we    had    arrived    on    the    ri 

bank  of  the  stream,  opposite  the 

-    hill    you    see.       Early   next 

morning  we  crossed   to  the  left 

side,  where   the  Indian   ] 

'  1  was.  This  path  was  nothing 
more  or  less  than  a  narrow  track 
through   the  forest.       Moreover, 

the  ascent  over  the  hill  was  very  steep. 
Altogether,  I  may  tell  you  that  the  portage  path 
consisted,  first,  of  a  steep  ascent  of  210ft.,  up 
which  the  boat  had  to  be  hauled  by  means  of 
block  and  tackle.  Next  came  about  half  a 
mile  of  level  track  through  the  woods ;  and 
lastly,  a  steep  descent  of  140ft.  Our  boat  was 
dragged  out  of  the  water  and  then  hoisted  up 
the  bank.  The  block  and  tackle  were  attached 
to  trees,  and  we  kept  on  constantly  shifting  our 
gear  higher  and  higher  up  the  path." 

The  second  photo,  shows  us  the  portage 
actually  taking  place.  Here  we  see  Montague 
and  Flett  dragging  the  boat  through  the 
forest  over  the  hill,  and  so  down  to  the  river 
again  to  the  smooth  water.  You  can  judge  for 
yourselves  of  the  difficulty  of  this  business,  since, 
rvm  after  the  boat  had  been  relaunched  past 

From  a  Photo,  by  Mr.  Handle  F.  Holme. 



the  falls,  there  still  remained  all  the  stores  for 
the  entire  party  to  be  transported  little  by  little 
by  the  explorer  himself  and  his  men. 

"  A  canoe,"  says  Mr.  Randle  Holme,  "  would, 
of  course,  have  been  more  suitable  for  work  of  this 
kind ;  but  as  my  crew  consisted  of  white  men, 
who  were  less  accustomed  to  canoes,  I  had 
been  compelled  to  take  a  boat.  There  were 
advantages,  however,  because  we  were  frequently 
able  to  sail.  Moreover,  a  boat  is  not  so  de- 
pendent upon  the  weather  as  a  canoe  on  a  large 
river  like  this.'' 

The  portage  of  the  boat  and  the  transport 
of  the  stores  was  a  hard  day's  work  for  the  three 
men.  Mr.  Randle  Holme  had  hoped  to  reach  the 
Grand  Falls  of  Labrador,  mentioned  with  awe  by 
the  Indians  and  settlers  on  the  coast.  It 
turned  out,  however,  that  the  distance  of  the 
falls  from  the  coast  was  much  greater  than  had 
been  supposed  ;  and,  as  the  country  traversed 
afforded  very  little  sport,  the  provisions  of  the 
party    ran   short,   and    they   were  compelled    to 

turn  back  before  reaching  the  grand  falls.  Since 
Mr.  Randle  Holme's  journey,  more  attention 
has  been  turned  to  this  country,  and  these  falls 
have  since  been  reached  and  Mr.  Randle 
Holme's  estimate  of  their  magnitude  confirmed, 
it  being  estimated  that  the  volume  of  water 
passing  down  them  averages  about  50,000 
cubic  feet  per  second,  this  vast  body  of 
water  falling  about  300ft.  in  one  clear  leap 
at  the  main  fall.  There  are  numerous  smaller 
leaps,  and  altogether  the  river  falls  760ft.  in 
twelve  miles. 

The  third  photograph  reproduced  shows  Mr. 
Randle  Holme's  two  men  having  "  a  little  blow  " 
before  launching  their  boat  on  the  other  side  of 
the  hill  past  the  falls.  It  was,  as  one  may  imagine, 
a  trying  business  to  drag  the  boat  through  the 
timber-encumbered  path  in  the  woods.  How- 
ever, as  seen  in  this  third  photo.,  all  they 
have  now  to  do  is  merely  to  shove  their  boat 
down  into  the  smooth  water  and  then  push 
on    up    stream. 

[HE        PORTAGE      '.     LAU.N'CHIN'G    AGAIN     IN     CLE 

From  a  Photo,  by  Mr.  Randle  h\  Holme. 

,rol.  iv.— 9. 

Short   Stones. 

I.  —  Buried  Alive  in  an  Avalanche. 

By  Mrs.  Emma  Brewer. 

How  this  lady  and   her  girl   friend     the    latter  suddenly   recalled  from    the   Tyrol   to  the  bedside  of  a 
ng  mother    journeyed  from  Innsbruck  towards  Constance  ;  and  how  the  mail-coach  in  which  they 
:d  was  overwhelmed  and  buried  by  an  avalanche  of  snow,  caused   by  the  hot  sun. 

winter  months  and  was  piled  mountains 
high.  Added  to  this,  the  warmth  of  the 
sun  had  lately  been  so  intense  that  it  was 
gradually  undermining  the  snow,  and  great 
anxiety  was  felt  in  the  scattered  villages 
lest  avalanches  should  prove  more  dis- 
astrous than  usual.  But  we  explained  to 
our  host  the  urgency  of  the  case,  and  he 
kindly  went  with  us  to  various  places  in 
the  town  trying  to  obtain  for  us  the 
means  of  travelling  ;  but  it  was  in  vain. 
No  vehicle  would  be  leaving  Innsbruck  for 
Bludenz  or  Constance  for  several  days, 
except  the  mail-coach,  which  was  bound 
to  make  an  effort,  however  great  the  diffi- 
culty, and  our  landlord  went  on  to  say  that 
he  was  quite  sure  the  guard  would  not  care 
to  increase  his  responsibility  by  under- 
taking the  charge  of  a  couple  of  women. 
but  it  was  our  only  chance,  and  we  spared 
neither  persuasion  nor  money  to  secure  the 
inside    of    the    cumbersome     old    vehicle 

MRS.    E.    BRE 


From  a  Photo,  by  Lock  6°  Whitfield,  Regent  Street. 

IEFORE    the    Vor-Arlberg    Railway    was 
thought  of,  we— myself  and  a  girl  friend, 
that  is— found  ourselves  in  the  early  part 
of   May,    1880,  in  Innsbruck,  on  our  way 
south  ;  and  as  we  were  leaving  the  hotel 
a  stroll  through  the  interesting  old  city,  a  telegram 
was  put  into  my  hand   sufficiently  startling  :   "  Come 
home  at  once  without  a  moment's  delay ;   Mrs.  C.  is 
dyit  Now,  Mrs.   C.   was  the   mother  of  my  com- 

panion, who  was  an  only  child. 

We  went  to  the  landlord  for  advice  as  to  getting 
on  to  Constance  :  he  looked  grave,  and  said  it 
would  be  difficult  to  obtain  a  carriage  and  horses 
just  at  this  particular  time.  The  risk  would  be 
so  great,  not  only  for  the  horses  but  also  for 
travellers,    as   snow   had     fallen    heavily    during    the 


From  a  Photo,  by  Am    Fassatw. 



HERE     WE     HAVE   A   GENERAL     VIEW     OF   THE     BEAUTIFUL     TOWN    OF     INNSBRUCK,     WHERE    THE     LADIES    WERE     WHEN     THE 

Front  a  Photo.  by\  telegram  came.  {Wiirthel &>  Sohn,  Salzburg. 

known  as  the  Royal  Mail.  It  would  not  start 
until  eight  o'clock  in  the  evening,  and  it  was 
now  only  mid-day.  Naturally  the  hours  inter- 
vening seemed  to  us,  in  our  impatience,  like 

Long  before  the  time  for  starting  we  found 
ourselves  at  the  "post,"  ready  to  take  our  seats 
the  moment  the  horses  were  put  to  ;  and  without 
knowing  that  our  powers  of  observation  were 
active,  we  both  noticed  the  simplicity  of  the 
arrangements  for  connecting  the  horses  with  the 
coach.  The  traces  were  simply  pieces  of  rope 
attached  to  the  collar  ;  while  the  other  ends 
were  supplied  with  rings,  which  went  over  an 
iron  hook  on  either  side  of  the  carriage.  At 
last,  with  much  cracking  of  the  whip  and  much 
excitement,  we  began  our  night  journey,  and 
found  ourselves  in  the  morning  at  Landeck, 
where  good  hot  coffee  and  little  loaves  of  new 
bread  were  ready  for  us.  After  breakfast  and 
a  wash  we  felt  quite  elated  that  no  misadventure 
had  marked  the  first  stage  of  the  journey.  In 
the  Ess-Saal  we  found  two  Sisters  of  Mercy  and 
a  school  inspector,  all  desirous  of  becoming 
passengers  by  the  mail.  I  did  not  see  the  ladies 
again,  but  the  inspector  took  his  seat  beside  the 
driver  and  we  retained  ours  unmolested. 

What  struck  us  as  remarkable  was  that  three 
bodies  of  men  with  pickaxes  and  coils  of  rope 
now  appeared  as  our  body-guard.  One  lot 
preceded  us ;  one  kept  near  us  ;  and  the  third 
followed  some  distance  behind.  Still,  our  night's 
journey  having  been  free  from  mishap,  we  were 
in  comparatively  good  spirits;  and  any  fears  we 
might  have  had  had  disappeared  altogether.  It 
was  a  curious  outlook  as  the  day  advanced  : 
the  sky  was  a  perfect  blue,  the  sun  very  hot  and 
brilliant,  whilst  everything  else  that  the  eye 
rested  on  was  of  a  dazzling — even  painful — 

As  the  coach  moved  slowly  and  carefully 
along  the  snow-covered  way  we  noticed  that  we 
were  on  a  very  narrow  road — such  as  one  fre- 
quently sees  in  Norway  and  Switzerland — cut  as 
it  were  on  the  outer  edge  of  a  rock  or  moun- 
tain, the  latter  frowning  high  above  us  on  one 
side,  whilst  on  the  other  was  a  sheer  fall  of 
some  hundred  feet  down  to  the  valley  below, 
which  was  dotted  about  with  little  villages.  The 
slope,  however,  although  deep  and  sheer,  had 
trees  growing  here  and  there  in  clumps,  which 
made  it  appear  less  dangerous. 

After  an  hour  or  two  of  cautious  driving  the 
coach  stopped,  and  the  guard  came  to  the  door 

mi:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

saying,  in  German,  "Lac;:-.  1  do  not  wish  to 
u,  but  we  are  just  now  in  a  good 
deal  of  e  r,  which  you  will  increase  very 
siderably  unless  you  exercise  great  self- 
contn  I.  No  matter  what  happens,  you  must 
keep  your    -  ats,    and    1    beg  of  you    to  make 

x  Photo.  by\ 


crash  ;  and  in  a  moment  we  were  buried  in 
a  vast  mass  of  snow.  One  of  the  immense 
piles  from  the  mountain  above  had  crashed 
down  upon  us,  carrying  everything  with  it.  At 
the  same  moment  we  felt  a  violent  jerk  of  the 
coach,    and    heard    a    kind    of    sound    which 

expressed  terror ; 
but,  happily,  our 
vehicle  did  not 
turn  over,  as  it 
seemed  likely  to 
do  for  a  minute 
or  so.  There  we 
sat  —  for  how 
long  I  know  not 
—scarcely  able 
to  breathe,  the 
snow  pressing 
heavily  against 
the  windows, 
and  utterly 
blocking  out 
light  and  air,  so 
that  breathing 
was  a  painful 
effort.  And  now 
came  a  curious 
sensation.  It  was 
an  utter  suspen- 
sion of  thought, 
and  of    every 

\_Alois  Beer. 

no  quick  movement  to  the  right  or  left,  for  a 
sudden  jerk  would  send  us  all  into  the  valley, 
as  the  road  is  very  narrow  and  without  fence  of 
any  kind.  Again,  on  no  account  must  you 
open  a  window,  even  if  you  feel  suffocating, 
until  I  give  you  permission.  You  will  have 
to  put  up  with  my  company  for  a  short 
time  :  I  will  make  myself  as  little  obtrusive  as 
possible,  but  I  must  be  here  to  see  that  every 
precaution  is  taken,  both  for  your  own  safety  as 
well  as  that  of  a  very  valuable  post-bag  which 
we  are  carrying.  God  helping  us,  we  may  be  in 
time  to  avoid  the  danger;  but  our  men,  who 
know  the  district  well,  are  terribly  anxious,  as 
the  snow  is  showing  strong  signs  of  collapse." 

He  took  his  place  opposite,  and  we  knew  by 
the  expression  of  intense  anxiety  on  his  face 
that  he  had  not  exaggerated  the  situation. 
Although  we  were  in  deadly  fear  we  did  not 
show  it,  but  sat,  to  all  appearance,  quite  calm, 
neither  of  us  speaking  a  word  nor  moving  a 
limb,  and  waiting  with  every  nerve  strained  for 
we  knew  not  what.  We  had  not  long  to  wait 
for  the  expected  catastrophe.  Suddenly  a  low, 
booming  sound,  like  that  of  a  cannon  on  a 
battle-field  or  a  tremendous  peal  of  thunder. 
broke  on    our  ears,   swelling    into  a  deafening 

mental  and 
physical  faculty.  I  had  a  husband  and 
child  at  home  whom  I  dearly  loved,  yet 
I  did  not  even  think  of  them  !  I  had  impor- 
tant work  unfinished  ;  yet  no  thought  of 
it  intruded !  I  felt  that  only  a  few  minutes 
probably  stood  between  me  and  death, 
yet  no  fear  of  it  troubled  me.  It  was  as 
though  already  the  thinking,  suffering  part  of 
me  was  dead,  and  nothing  more  could  affect 
me.  I  simply  thought  of  nothing  and  nobody. 
I  have  heard  that  when  suddenly  brought 
face  to  face  with  death,  the  whole  of 
one's  past  life  comes  back  in  a  single  picture, 
showing  opportunities  lost,  and  placing  before 
the  mind's  eye  such  a  record  of  what  might 
have  been  as  to  be  perfectly  maddening.  But 
it  was  not  so  with  me;  I  might  never  have 
lived  at  all  for  anything  I  experienced  to  the 
contrary  ;  and  oddly  enough,  though  I  believe 
thoroughly  in  the  efficacy  of  prayer,  I  never 
offered  up  the  smallest  petition — not  even  a 
fervent  "  God  help  us  !  " 

True,  in  a  sort  of  unconscious  way  I  became 
aware  that  the  guard  was  sobbing  out  a  prayer 
for  his  wife  and  children  ;  but  it  had  not  the 
slightest  effect  on  me. 

We  might  have  been  buried  days  and  nights 



for  all  I  knew,  for  I  kept  no  count  of  time.  In 
reality,  I  believe  it  was  but  a  couple  of  hours 
between  the  fall  of  the  avalanche  and  the  first 
moment  of  hope,  which  came  in  the  form  of 
men  striking  with  pickaxes.  The  sound  seemed 
to  come  from  a  long  distance — almost,  as  it 
were,  from  another  world. 

The  guard,  roused  by  the  noise,  said, 
earnestly,  "Ach  Gott  !  I  thank  Thee."  And 
then,  speaking  to  us,  he  said,  "  Ladies,  help  is 
near  ! " 

Gradually  the  sound  of  the  digging  and  the 
voices  of  the  men  grew  nearer,  till  at  length  one 
window  was  open — the  one  overlooking  the 
valley  ;  and  the  life-giving  air  stole  softly  in  upon 
us.  Even  now,  however,  we  were  told  not  to 
move  ;  not  that  we  had  any  inclination  to  do  so, 
for  we  were  in  a  dazed,  half-conscious  condition. 
When  at  length  we  used  our  eyes,  it  was  to  note 
that  the  valley  did  not-  seem  so  deep,  and  that 
the  villages  with  their  church  spires  had  dis- 
appeared ;  the  meaning  of  it  was  not  far  to  seek. 

We  were  both  good  German  scholars,  and 
knew  several  of  the  dialects,  so  that  we  were 
able  to  learn  a  good  deal  of  what  had  happened 
by  listening  to  the  men's  talk.  The  school 
inspector  in  his  terror  had  lost  all  self-control, 
and  forgetful  of  the  warnings  given  him,  threw 
himself  off  the  seat  and  leaped  into  space, 
thereby  endangering  the  safety  of  all.  He 
mercifully  fell  into  one  of  the  clumps  of  trees 
some  distance  down  the  slope,  and  so  escaped 
without  very  much  damage  to  himself,  except 
shock  to  the  sys- 
tem and  bruises. 
The  poor  hors> 
however,  fared 
infinitely  worse. 
The  weight  of 
the  snow  lifted 
the  rings  from 
the  hooks  on  the 
carriage,  and  at 
the  same  time 
carried  the  poor 
brutes  down  with 
it  into  the  valley 
— never  again  to 
do  a  day's  work. 
We  remembered 
the  simplicity  of 
their  harness. 

The  difficul- 
ties still  before 
us  were  very 
serious.  We 
could  neither  go 
backward  nor 
forward,      and 

there  was  danger  of  more  avalanches  falling. 
The  next  posting  village  was  still  far  ahead,  and 
there  was  no  chance  of  our  advancing  a  step 
until  the  brave  body  of  men  could  cut  a  way 
through  or  make  a  clearance,  and  even  then 
time  would  be  required  to  bring  back  horses. 

The  men,  however,  lost  no  time,  and  set 
cheerfully  to  work.  We  heard  the  sound  of 
their  tools  and  talk  till  gradually  it  was  lost  in 
the  ever-increasing  distance  between  us. 

As  we  lay  bacu  ;n  the  old  coach  alone  (for 
the  guard  had  gon.'  outside  the  moment  he 
thought  us  safe)  I  think  we  must  have  slept  a 
little  ;  anyhow,  it  was  hours  before  we  heard  the 
sounds  of  the  horses,  and  began  to  move  slowly 
and  cautiously  on  our  way  once  more.  Great 
was  the  excitement  when  at  last,  towards  the 
end  of  the  day,  we  arrived  at  the  little  posting 
village.  And  then  it  was  as  though  they  were 
receiving  us  from  the  grave.  I  shall  never 
forget  the  kindness  of  those  villagers.  They 
had  good  hot  soup  and  coffee  and  boiled  beef 
on  the  table,  and  seemed  as  though  they  could 
not  do  enough  for  us — the  dear,  kind  Tyroleans  ! 
They  had  heard  from  the  workmen  and  the 
guard  that  we  had  been  quiet  and  calm  during 
the  hours  of  danger,  and  their  answer  was, 
"  Ach  !  yes  ;  but  they  are  English  !  " 

I  need  not  say  how  gladly  we  offered  fees  to 
our  late  bodyguard,  and  the  guard  of  the  mail, 
for  their  services  in  securing  our  safety. 

When  we  started  on  our  next  stage,  which 
was  to  Bludenz,  many  of  the  people  brought  us 


From   a  Photo,  by  Alois  Beer. 

nii;  wide  world  magazine. 

bunches  of  wild  flowers,  and  wished  us  "  God 

d."     The  school  inspector,  who  was  bound 

for  Constance,  where  he  had  to  inspect  schools 

rtain  date,  took  his  place  again  by  the 

side    of    the    driver,    and  was  sent   on  his  way 

with  many  definit  of   disapprobation  at 

what  the  villagers  thought  his  want  of  courage. 

:    man.    I   pitied   him. 

As  we  approached   Bludenz    we    found    that 

the  rapidity  with  which    the    sun    had    iru 

the  snow   had  deluged  the  country  round,  and 

how  we  should  n  towards    England    was 

i  mystery.     We  heard  that  never  in  the  memory 

nan  had   Lake  Constance  been  so  disturbed 

and    furious.        Extraordinary  masses  of   water 

poured  into  it  with  violence  and  volume  such 

as  threatened  destruction  to  the  country  round. 

The  history  of   our    avalanche    with    all    its 

particulars  soon  became  known  in  the  place  — 

to  our  great  regret,   lor  we  could  not  get   peace 

anywhere.      At  length  we  sought  a  hill   behind 

the  homely  hotel  as  being  the  only  dry  and  safe 

place  for  a  walk  ;  but  even  here  we  were  followed 

and  asked  ever  so  many  questions,   such,   for 

example,  as  : — 

"  What  did  you  think  of  when  you  felt  you 
would  have  to  die  ? " 

"  Nothing." 

"  Didn't  you  say  '  Our  Father'?" 

"  No." 

"  Weren't  you  frightened?" 

"  No." 

But  at  length  I  turned  and  faced  the  people 
—  I  could  bear  the  strain  no  longer  —  and 
said  : — 

"  I  know  you  all  mean  to  be  very  kind,  and  we 
are  very  grateful  to  you  ;  but  you  would  help 
us  very  much  more  if  you  would  let  us  take  a 
walk  quite  alone,  for  we  are  still  half-dazed  and 
very  tired,  and  want  a  little  quiet  to  think 
everything  over." 

And  with  the  utmost  good  temper  they  wished 
us  "  Good-bye  "  and  "  God's  blessing,"  and 
turned  back  to  their  homes,  leaving  us  free  to 
breathe,  and  think,  and  be  thankful.  We  left 
by  the  earliest  train  to  Constance,  which  we 
reached  safely,  and  on  to  Basle  and  Calais  with- 
out pause.  Then  home  to  London  just  in  time 
for  mother  and  daughter  to  take  leave  of  each 

II.—  The    Strangest    Revenge    in    the    World. 

By  the  Rev.  Wm.  Arthur  Cornaby, 

Editor  of  the  " Hwni  fao,"  at  Hanyang,  China  ;    author  of  ".4  String  of  Chinese  Peach-Stones." 

This    gentleman,   himself  a   great   authority  upon    the  Chinese,  sends   us    an    extraordinary  account  of 
"  revenge  by  proxy,"  or  rather  by  dummy,  together  with   a   quaint   photograph  of  the  figure  used  by 

the  woman  whose  chickens  were  stolen. 

It  is  not  often  that  a  writer  is  forced  to  use 
a  Gaelic  expression  in  his  narrative  for  the 
want  of  a  corresponding  term  current  in  any 
more  familiar  tongue,  but  such  is  the  case 
in  the  present  instance.  The  practice  referred 
to  under  the  name  of  "  Ciurf  Creadh  "  is  that 
of  making  an  effigy  of  some  hated  personage,  and 
then  maltreating  that  effigy  in  the  hope  that  the 
original  will  suffer  in  like  manner.  Traces  of 
this  custom  might  be  found  in  every  land 
beneath  the  sun,  but  in  China  the  custom  itself 
has  lasted  into  modern  days.  Vet  it  has  not 
fallen  to  the  lot  of  every  resident,  nor  indeed 
every  old  resident,  to  watch  the  whole  process, 
and  to  gain  a  photograph  of  the  effigy  itself. 
Perhaps  this  is  the  first  time  that  such  an 
extraordinary  snap-shot  has  been  secured. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Philistines 
who  had  ventured  to  take  possession  of  the  Ark 
sought  relief  from  their  plagues  by  making  golden 
images  of  the  tumours  which  distressed  them. 
And  in  later  days,  the  native  doctors  among  the 
North  American  Indians  have  been  known  to 
fashion  a  representation  of  their  patient's  disease, 
carry  it  to  the  woods,  and  there  bury  it. 

Again,  in  ancient  Greece,  those  who  cherished 
animosity  towards  another  seem  generally  to 
have  contented  themselves  by  taking  a  tablet  of 
lead,  scratching  terrific  curses  upon  it  with  a 
pin-point,  and  then  exposing  the  result  in  the 
temple  of  the  infernal  deities. 

Among  Continental  sailors,  the  practice  of 
making  a  dummy  to  represent  Judas  Iscariot, 
and  then  hanging  it  on  the  yard-arm,  is  a 
frequent  method  of  celebrating  Good  Friday ; 
and  in  Mexico  figures  of  Judas,  clothed  in 
modern  coat  and  trousers,  with  a  tall  hat  on  his 
head,  and  fireworks  in  place  of  internal  organs, 
are  sold  in  the  streets,  to  be  exploded  on  the 
Saturday  of  Passion  Week.*  And  who  among 
our  readers  has  not  helped  to  make  an  effigy  ol 
Guy  Fawkes,  or  chant  the  ditty, 

A  j  jlly  good  fire  to  roast  him — 

quite  unconscious  of  the  fact  that  they  were 
taking  part  in  an  interesting  survival  of  ancient 
practices  of  the   Ciurp  Creadh  order  ? 

In  the    Highlands   of  Scotland,    indeed,  we 

*  A  photograph  showing  the  whole  of  th's  was  reproduced  in  tbe 
"  Odds  and  Ends  "  section  of  our  July  number. 



find  the  practice  in  more  than  mere  "  survival  " 
a  decade  or  two  back.  A  writer  in  the  Lancet 
(23rd  June,  1872)  says  that  "  nearly  half-a-dozen 
instances  have  been  met  with  in  this  district  in 
which  women  have  fashioned  clay  images  repre- 
senting the  person  to  whom  they  desired  ill, 
and  have  then  subjected  the  work  of  their  hands 
to  slow  destruction.  Sometimes  an  old  sword- 
blade  was  thrust  into  the 
side  of  the  image,  which 
was  then  placed  in  running 
water.  In  most  cases  the 
image  had  been  stuck  over 
with  pins.  And  in  one  case 
the  victim  complained  during 
his  illness,  which  was  fatal, 
that  he  had  pains  as  if  all 
the  pins  in  Dingwall  were 
stuck  into  him." 

I  am  able  here  to  repro- 
duce a  photo,  of  one  of 
these  identical  clay  "  re- 
venge by  proxy  "  figures 
from  the  Scottish  Highlands, 
and  I  think  all  will  agree 
that  this,  taken  in  conjunc- 
tion with  the  Chinese  dummy 
mentioned  and  illustrated 
later  on,  forms  a  striking 
instance  of  the  universality 
of  certain  quaint  customs. 

But  let  us  come  to  very 
recent  events,  and  describe 
the  circumstances  under 
which  the  photograph  on  the 
next  page  was  secured.  Just  over  our  garden 
wall  there  is  a  yard  common  to  a  number  of 
small  Chinese  houses.  The  inhabitants  are  as 
friendly  as  they  can  well  be  with  the  foreigner, 
but  not  altogether  so  among  themselves.  It 
is  rare  for  a  week  to  pass  without  a  great  deal 
of  elocution  of  an  exceedingly  violent  nature, 
directed  against  other  occupants  of  the  little 
row  of  houses,  or  against  persons  unknown. 
For  garments  and  chickens  seem  to  be  always 

These  elocutionary  performances  often  last  a 
whole  day,  and  give  an  interesting,  if  sad, 
illustration  of  the  facility  with  which  Oriental 
folks — who  may  be  of  an  uneducated  order — 
lapse  into  rhythmic  utterances,  and  also  into 
that  impassioned  metrical  declamation  which  is 
at  the  root  of  all  ancient  poetry.  In  fact,  it 
would  do  all  higher  critics  of  ancient  Hebrew 
odes  a  world  of  good  to  reside  for  a  few  years 
in  the  interior  of  China,  where  they  would  find 
in  every  Chinese  woman  a  possible  poetess,  and 
in  many  a  poetess  in  action— though  the  poems 
would  be  those  of  wailing  despair,  as  at  a  death 




in  the  house,  or  of  vociferous  hatred,  when  0 

neighbour  has  done  an  injury. 

One    night,    then,    the    now    familiar    strains 

began.       Another     chicken    had    disappeared. 

The  declamation  lasted  far  on  into   the  night, 

and  commenced  before  dawn  next  morning, 
looking  from  the  upper  veranda,  a  straw 
y  was  seen  to  have  been  fixed  upon  some 
palings.  The  head  was  of 
cotton-wool,  and  round  the 
body  was  a  piece  of  white 
paper  which  had  been  stained 
with  blood.  Beside  the  effigy, 
in  solitary  anguish,  only 
relieved  by  the  presence  of 
a  meditative  youngster  and 
three  chickens,  leaned  the 
vocalist  herself,  with  her 
head  tied  up  in  a  black  rag. 
which  is  the  Chinese  equiva- 
lent to  our  nautical  "  inverted 
flag  "  —a  signal  of  distress. 

In  one  hand  the  woman 
grasped  a  kitchen  chopper, 
and  in  the  other  the  corru- 
gated board  for  counting  out 
"  cash,"  which,  however,  also 
serves  the  purpose,  when 
reversed,  of  a  chopping  board 
for  greens  and  the  like.  Now, 
this  board  was  half-chopped 
away,  for  her  extemporized 
poem  was  being  punctuated 
with  vicious  blows  from  the 

lend    itself   to 
of  its  milder 

Her   poem    does   not   readily 

translation,  but  this  is  the  style 

strains  : — 

Chicken-stealing  rascal  ; 

Chicken-stealing  robber  ; 

You  have  stolen  one  ; 

You  have  stolen  many. 

Know,  then,  that  they  are  inedible  ; 

Know,  too,  that  they  are  'jr,isonous  ! 

There  is  judgment  for  the  sinner  ; 

There  are  curses  for  the  thief. 

You  will  be  devoured  as  you  devour  ; 

Your  wife  will  be  plagued  in  her  time  of  need  ; 

Your  offspring  will  be  monsters  ; 

Demon  dogs  will  bring  forth  demon  dogs  ; 

They  will  die  untimely  deaths  ; 

They  will  die  at  the  headsman's  hands. 

Thus  had  she  continued,  with  a  wonderful 
variety  of  verbiage,  for  perhaps  three  hours  in 
all,  apparently  lifted  out  of  herself  by  hands  not 
angelic.  All  at  once  she  stopped,  and  seeing  a 
neighbour  emerge,  said,  quite  cheerfully:  "I 
have  incense  and  candles  in  the  house.  I'll  do 
it."  And  she  turned  and  went  to  get  the 
materials  to  do  the  deed. 

From  behind  a   half-closed  Venetian  shutter 


every    detail    could    be    minutely    noted.      The 
an  produced  .1  small  bundle  of  straw,  three 
if  incense,  and   a    smouldering    spill  of 
straw    was   done  up   into   a  little 
if,  divided  in   the   middle,   ami  thrust   fork- 
i   the    top   board   o\    a    rough    fence. 
\    tf     the    incense- 
sticks     were     stuck 
into  the   straw,  and 
lit   from    the    paper 
spill.       Then     pro- 
ducing    a     needle, 
supp   "   d    the 
.    dummy   with 
hand,  and  dug 
die  in  with 
the  other  in  several 
plat  es,     saj  ing,    as 
did  so  :    ""  A-  I 
k   this    in    here, 
and  here,  and  h 
may    the    thief    be 
pierced  in  like  man- 
ner.   As  I  am  doing 
you   (addressing 
the    dummy),    may 
it   lie  done  to  him 
or  her."  Then,  quite 
coaxingly  :   "  You"ll 
have  it  done,  won't 
you  ?      And  if  you 
do  it,  1*11  burn  quite 
a    lot    of    incense, 
and     will     worship 
you  as  a  god.    D'ye 
hear?"     And  then 
she  went  in. 

A  strange  mental 
muddle  this,  surely  ! 
The  dummy  repre- 
sented   her    enemy 

the  thief,  and  she  accordingly  stuck  pins  into 
it  and  maltreated  it ;  and  then  she  tried  to 
coax  it,  as  though  it  did  not  represent  her 
enemy.  She  promised  if  things  went  well  to 
-hip  it  as  a  deity  who  had  power  over 
her  enemy  !  Will  some  metaphysician  and 
hologist  kindly  elucidate  the  matter,  and 
unravel  the  tangle  ? 

Being  unable  to  do  so  myself,  I  thought  the 
next  best  thing  would  be  to  secure  a  photograph 
of  this  rarely-seen  curio,  the  dummy  itself. 
Everything  was  in  readiness,  a  native  attendant 
was  called,  and  we  sallied  out  round  the  bit  of 

THIS      IS     THE     REMARKABLE     PHOTO.     WHICH     THE     AUTHOR    TOOK     IN 



street  into  the  yard.  In  reply  to  the  inevitable 
questions,  I  told  the  neighbours  that  here  was  a 
\\  .  stern  as  well  as  a  Chinese  antiquity,  and,  if 
no  one  objected,  I  should  like  to  get  a  rapid 
picture  of  it.  There  was  no  opposition  what- 
ever.     Everyone  tried  to  help. 

The  photo,  taken, 
the  woman  emerged, 
looking  poorly 
enough  after  her 
night  of  wakeful- 
ness and  excite- 

"  I'm  sorry  your 
chicken  has  gone," 
I  said.  "So  many 
have  disappeared 
lately,  have  they 
not  ?  I  do  not 
happen  to  have  the 
price  of  a  chicken 
on  my  person,  but 
this  hundred  cash 
(threepence)  will 
buy  an  egg  or  two, 
at  any  rate." 

The  woman  took 
it,  and  was  profuse 
in  her  thanks. 

Then  on  return- 
ing, the  following 
dialogue  was  heard 
from  the  veranda  : — 
"  He's  spoilt  your 

"  Not    so  ;    he's 

done  a  good  deed." 

"I'm     not     so 


"Yes,   he  has,   I 
say.      And    the 
matter  ought  to  be  taken  as  settled  now." 

"To  be  sure,"  chimed  in  another  old  dame, 
"  these  images  do  frightful  harm.  And  only  a 
chicken  lost.  Would  you  kill  a  whole  family 
for  the  sake  of  a  chicken  ?  " 

■  And  he  gave  you  a  hundred  cash  !  "  urged 
a  fourth  dame. 

"  Settled  !  Settled  !  Take  the  thing  down," 
cried  the  neighbours  in  chorus. 

It  was  done  ;  and  the  half-wild  dogs  seized 
and  worried  the  quaint  effigy  until  but  a  few 
loose  straws  strewed  the  common  rubbish 



III. — Chased    by  a  Mad   Buffalo. 

By  Mrs.  E.   M.  Stewart. 
A    lady's   thrilling   adventure    on    the   high    road   near   Darjeeling. 

During  my  twenty-five  years'  sojourn  in 
India  I  have  had  many  exciting  adventures, 
but  the  one  I  am  about  to  relate  is,  I  am  sure, 
one  of  the  most  thrilling  and  dangerous  of 
them  all. 

I  was  on  my  way  from  Darjeeling,  that 
delightful  hill  station  in  the  mighty  Himalaya 
Mountains,  where  I  had  been  staying  with  a 
married  sister,  to  my  home  in  Kasauli,  another 
hill  station  not  far  from  Simla. 

Captain    and    Mrs.    B (whose   names   I 

must  withhold  for  reasons  sufficiently  obvious 
when  my  story  has  been  read)  were  acting  as 
my  chaperons.    Captain 

B and  myself  were 

riding  on  small  hill 
ponies,  and  preceding 
us    a    few     yards     was 

Mrs.  1! in  a  dhoolie 

carried  by  eight  natives. 
We  were  jogging  along 
at  a  slow  pace,  admiring 
the  magnificent  scenery 
around  us  and  revel- 
ling in  the  beautiful 
warm  sunshine  and 
bracing  air  which  one 
only  obtains  in  the 

W  e  had  left  Darjee- 
ling about  three  miles 
behind  us,  and  the 
road  was  winding  round 
the  hills  with  the  moun- 
tain sides  rising  up  like 
a  cliff  on  our  right-hand 
side,  and  the  khud  or 
precipice  falling  on  our 
left  almost  vertically  to 
the  ravine  below. 

Suddenly,  as  we 
rounded  a  bend  in  the 

road,  we  saw  about  one  hundred  yards  ahead  of 
us,  and  rapidly  advancing  towards  us,  a  magnifi- 
cent black  buffalo  of  enormous  size.  We  at  once 
saw,  by  his  wild  and  savage  appearance,  and  by 
the  ropes  hanging  from  a  collar  round  his  throat, 
that  we  had  to  deal  with  a  dangerous  customer. 
The  coolies,  taking  in  the  situation  at  a  glance, 
dropped  the  dhoolie  in  the  middle  of  the 
road,  and  jumped  the  low  wall  bordering  it. 
Then,  taking  up  a  position  of  safety  down  the 
khud,    they  prepared    to   follow  the  course  of 

events  from  their  point  of  vantage. 
Vol   iv.— 10. 


From  a  Photo,  by  E.  Dcbenham  &■=  Co.,  Weymouth. 

Captain  B -,  leaving  me  to  look  after  my- 
self, jumped  off  his  pony,  sprang  into  his  wife's 
dhoolie,  and  drew  the  curtains,  now  and  then 
peeping  out  to  watch  the  course  of  events  and 
to  give  me  advice  :  his  pony,  with  a  snort  of 
terror,  turned  and  bolted  back  to  Darjeeling. 

My  own  pony  stood  trembling  with  fear,  and 
I  remained  sitting  on  its  back  equally  frightened 
and  powerless  to  help  myself.  I  heard  the 
shouts  of  the  natives  beseeching  me  to  jump  off 
the  pony  and  join  them  down  the  khud,  but  it 
is  not  an  easy  thing  for  a  lady  to  dismount  un- 
aided with  any  rapidity,  and  I  saw  that  the  bull 

would  be  upon  me 
before  I  could  have 
time  to  escape  from  it 
if  I  attempted  to  dis- 

The  buffalo  now 
noticed  myself  and  my 
pony,  and  dashing  past 
the  dhoolie  with  its 
terror  -  stricken  occu- 
pants,  which  it  evi- 
dently did  not  notice, 
it  charged  straight  at 
me  with  a  fearful  bel- 
low. I  can  see  it  now 
— its  head  lowered,  the 
long  horns  directed 
straight  at  my  pony's 
flanks,  its  bloodshot, 
glaring  eyeballs,  its 
distended  nostrils,  its 
heaving  flanks  and 
powerful  limbs  and 
body,  and  its  tail  erect 
and  stiff,  as  it  comes 
thundering  towards  me. 
I  now  realized,  as  the 
buffalo  came  within  a 
few  feet  of  me,  that 
unless  I  at  once  stirred  myself  I  must  inevitably 
be  killed.  So,  with  a  superhuman  effort,  I  did 
my  best  to  be  cool,  and  frantically  thrashing  my 
pony  with  my  whip  I  wheeled  him  round  to  one 
side,  and  the  buffalo  flashed  past  so  close  that  I 
could  have  touched  him  with  my  whip.  Then, 
foiled  in  his  attempt,  and  now  worked  up  into 
an  insane  pitch  of  fury,  the  brute  wheeled  round 
to  make  a  second  charge  upon  me,  but  by  this 
time  I  .had  collected  my  scattered  senses,  and, 
riding  up  to  the  wall,  slid  off  the  saddle  into 
the  arms  of  the  natives  down  the   khud.     The 


lill-:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

alo  by  this  time    was  again  almost   within 

h  oi  the  pony,  who  thereupon,  relieved  of 

my  weight,  at  once  bolted  down   the  road  back 

to  Darj  with  the  buffalo  inclose  pursuit, 

and  the   last  of  them  I   saw  as   they  rounded  a 

The  following  day  my  natives  brought  back 
mj  saddle  and  bridle,  which  they  had  found  on 
the  pony,  who  was  lying  gored  to  death  in  the 
middle  of  the  road  about  a  mile  and  a  half  from 
Darjeeling.     The  buffalo  was  recaptured  shortly 


bend  in  the  road  was  the  pony  galloping  for  its 
life  and  the  enormous  buffalo  close  at  its  heels. 
After  waiting  a  short  time  to  see  if  our  late 
enemy  returned  we  climbed  back  to  the  road 
again,  and  the  gallant  captain  also  crawled  from 
his  place  of  refuge. 

We  now  had  a  deliberation  as  to  what  was  to 
be  done,  and  finally  decided  to  continue  our 
journey  to  the  nearest  Dak  bungalow,  which 
only  a  short  distance  farther  on.  Here  we 
ed  for  a  whole  day,  as  we  were  feeling  very 
much  unnerved,  and,  besides,  the  ponies  with 
our  saddles  and  bridles  had  to  be  found.  We 
now  learned  that  the  buffalo  was  mad,  and  was 
held  sacred  by  the  Bhotans,  who  had  kept  it 
chained  up  for  years  in  one  of  their  temples, 
from  which  he  had  broken  loose  on  the  morning 
of  his  encounter  with  me. 

afterwards  by  the  Bhotans,  who  tied  it  up 
again  in  their  temple,  but  when  I  told  my 
brother-in-law,  who  was  Station  Staff  Officer  at 
Darjeeling,  of  my  narrow  escape,  he  brought  the 
matter  to  the  notice  of  the  authorities,  who  con- 
sidered that  it  was  highly  unsafe  for  the  public  to 
be  subject,  at  any  moment,  to  the  risk  of  losing 
their  lives  by  this  ferocious  creature.  The  buffalo 
was,  therefore,  ordered  to  be  shot.  A  small 
party  of  soldiers  was  dispatched  from  Darjeeling 
for  that  purpose,  and  in  spite  of  the  protestations 
of  the  Bhotans  the  animal  was  killed.  Thus 
ended  an  adventure  which  was  fraught  with 
so  much  peril  to  myself.  My  saddle,  which  had 
been  ripped  open  and  cut  in  many  places  by 
the  buffalo's  horns,  was  repaired  and  preserved 
by  me  as  a  memento  of  the  adventure,  and  used 
on  many  another  memorable  occasion. 

One  Thousand  Miles  on  Mule-Back. 

By  Mabel  Penniman,  M.A. 

This  lady,  who  is  the  wife  of  a  well-known  South  American  official,  here  concludes  the  narrative 

ot   her   extraordinary  journey    through    some    of    the   wildest    and    most    remote    parts    of    Bolivia 

and  Argentina.     Illustrated  with  rare  photographs  of  places  and  people. 

N  account  of  the  rugged  nature  and 
the  isolated  position  of  Bolivia,  the 
Republic  is  as  yet  without  the  most 
civilized  means  of  transportation 
facilities.  The  freight  is  carried 
by  mules,  donkeys,  and  llamas.  Mules  and 
donkeys  are  imported  from  the  Argentine  Re- 
public. A  strong  mule  must  carry  from  4001b. 
to  5oolb.  during  a  journey  of  from  eight  to  ten 
days.  Donkeys  carry  from  2colb  to  2501b. 
The  animals  are  loaded  in  the  early  morning, 
and  must  travel  at  a  good  pace  until  sundown 
without  any  food,  only  stopping  once,  perhaps, 
for  a  drink  in  crossing  a  stream.  When  relieved 
of  their  loads,  they  are  often  compelled  to 
forage  for  themselves  in  a  country  where  the 
night  air  is  bleak,  and  the  grass  scanty  and 
poor.  At  the  end  of  a  journey  (generally  a 
week)  the  poor  animals  are  a  mass  of  sores, 
and  are  then  turned  loose  to  rest,  while  others 
take  their  place  until  they  in  turn  are  unfit  for 

But  the  quaint  llama  is  the  freight  carrier,  for 
less  important  articles,  over  the  wide,  in- 
hospitable plains  of  the 
Andes.  It  is  most  graceful 
in  appearance,  but  very  timid, 
and  will  carry  8olb.  for  several 
days  without  food.  If,  how- 
ever, the  load  consists  of  but 
a  few  pounds  more  (the  old 
story  of  the  "  last  straw "),  the 
animal  absolutely  refuses  to 
rise.  In  colour  some  are  snowy 
white,  others  seal  brown,  black, 
or  spotted.  By  the  Bolivian 
law  one  woman  must  accom- 
pany the  Indian  with  each  drove 
of  fifty  llamas.  The  photo- 
graph represents  a  drove  of 
llamas  coming  to  La  Paz, 
bringing  in  brown  bags  llama 
manure,  which  is  used  for  fuel. 
Our  ten  days'  stay  in  Cocha- 
bamba  was  made  so  pleasant  by 
the  few  foreigners  living  there 
that  we  entirely  forgot  all  the 
discomforts    we    had    endured 

on  the  journey.  We  left  the  city  for  Sucre, 
the  capital  of  Bolivia,  in  charge  of  one  of 
the  best-recommended  cirrieros,  or  guides.  We 
made  the  journey  entirely  on  mule-back,  with 
the  exception  of  the  first  fifty  miles  —  which 
we  did  on  the  top  of  a  Concord  stage-coach 
through  the  valley  of  Cliza,  which  is  the 
granary  of  Bolivia.  We  were  seven  days 
making  the  journey  of  250  miles,  but  were 
constantly  ascending  or  descending  steep 
mountain  passes.  Sometimes  we  would  be 
an  hour  climbing  up  a  mountain,  and  as 
long  going  down  the  other  side.  The  narrow 
trails,  full  of  loose  stones,  made  the  journey 
more  dangerous  for  me  on  a  side-saddle,  so 
for  safety,  and  comfort  also,  I  used  a  gentle- 
man's saddle  provided  with  a  horn.  I  wore 
"  bloomers,"  and  a  short  black  skirt  which  in 
no  way  interfered  with  my  riding  astride.  I 
rode  in  this  position  in  the  open  country,  but 
when  Hearing  a  town  I  always  used  the  horn  of 
the  saddle.  My  mule  had  become  so  accus- 
tomed to  my  riding  astride,  that  on  passing 
the    last    hamlet    before     reaching    Sucre    she 

From  <l\  COMING    INTO    LA    PAZ.  [Photo. 



absolutely    refused    to    move    when    1   changed 
tion,    notwithstanding    a    vigorous    use   of 
the   spurs.        In    a    moment    I    had  a    group  of 
curious   folks  around    me,   but   they  offered    no 
molestation,     nor     did     they     make    any     rude 
remarks.      On    this    route    there  were  few  post- 
houses,  and  we  were  compelled   to  accept   the 
titality  of  many  a  Bolivian  host. 
We  arrived    in  Sucre  simultaneously  with  the 
transmission  of  the  Government  from  President 
Mariano    Baptiste   to  Senor    Don   Severo    Fer- 
nandez Alonso,  which  was  accomplished  in  the 
51  orderly  and  quiet  manner,  notwithstanding 
lutions  which  were  published   in 
European  papers.     To  the  wearied  traveller,  the 
first  vie"         S  icre,  the  capital  of  the   Republic, 
.arming   in    the  extreme,  although  there  are 
no  chimneys  and   no  signs   to  indicate   in    the- 
nce that  the  city    contains    nearly   25,000 
inhabitants.        It    was    founded    in     1538     by 
.:'.■  -  Pizarro  under  the  name  of  La  Plata, 
and  the  location  was  chosen  on  account  of  the 
salubrity   of  the  climate,   it  being  a  sanitarium 
for    the    over-taxed    workers    of    the    "  silvery  " 

Our  photograph  shows  the  principal  plaza  or 
re,  "  25  de  Mayo,"' at  the  moment  when  the 
annual  procession  of  the  patron  saint  of  Sucre, 
.    is    emerging    from    the    Cathedral. 
The  building  adjoining  is  the  old  Government 
Palace,   now   torn  down   to    make    room    for  a 
more    stately    building   still  in   process   of  con- 
struction.     More  recently  the    plaza    has    been 
transformed  into  a  most  beautiful  garden,  studded 
with  rare  trees,  palms,  shrubs,  and  flowers. 
The    photograph     of     Nuestra     Sefiora    de 


From  a  Photo. 

Guadalupe  was  taken  from  the  original  figure  in 
the  Cathedral.     It  is  scarcely  necessary  to  state 

that  the  image  is 

From  a]  THE   CATHEDRAL. 


much  venerated 
by  the  inhabitants 
of  Sucre.  It  is  a 
great  honour,  and 
entails  the  expen- 
diture of  quite  a 
sum  of  money,  to 
be  one  of  the 
twelve  bearers 
who  carry  the 
image  in  the  pro- 
cession. Many 
legacies,  repre- 
senting large 
sums,  are  annually 
left  to  this  pre- 
cious image.  It 
is  stated,  on  ex- 
cellent authority, 
that  the  dress  and 
ornaments  con- 
cilia      tain    diamonds, 



El. A    UK    SAN    AUGUSTIN, 


From  a  Photo. 

pearls,  rubies,  and  emeralds  whose  priceless 
value  is  in  great  contrast  to  the  almost  im- 
poverished condition  of  the  country. 

The  next  photograph  of  Sucre  represents  the 
Pla/.uela  de  San  Augustin,  where  the  annual 
mule  and  donkey  fair  is  being  held.  The  white 
edifice  on  the 
side  of  the  moun- 
tain is  the  famous 
Convent  of  La 
Recoleta,  where 
many  revolu- 
tions have  been 
fought,  and  with- 
in whose  walls 
many  a  leader 
has  found  refuge 
from  the  fury  of 
an  enraged  mob. 
Sucre  is  noted 
throughout  the 
Republic  for  the 
many  families  of 
culture  who  live 
there.  Some  of 
them  have  tra- 
velled exten- 
sively, and  very 
many  have  lived 
for  several  years 
in    Europe    to 


From  a  Photo. 

educate  their  children. 
The  houses  are  very  large, 
having  four  and  five  courts, 
and  they  are  filled  with 
magnificent  furniture  and 
works  of  art  from  Paris. 

The  photograph  of  the 
cemetery  shows  the  curious 
way  in  which  the  dead  are 
disposed  of  in  the  country. 
The  cemeteries  are  owned 
by  the  Church,  and  to  it 
is  left  the  manner  of  inter- 
ment of  the  people.  The 
bodies  of  the  better  classes 
are  deposited  in  niches 
made  of  mud.  For  the 
Cholo  and  his  family,  how- 
ever (artisans  and  working 
people),  and  also  for  the 
Indian,  a  grave  after  the 
usual  manner  is  provided, 
but  for  only  seven  years, 
after  which  time  the  remains 
are  exhumed  or  put  with 
others  into  a  common 
urave.  The  coffins  of  the 
better  classes  are  generally 
zinc-lined,  and  provided  in  many  cases  with  a 
thick  piece  of  glass  in  the  corner  just  above  the 
face.  The  niches  are  filled  with  flowers  and 
lighted  candles  at  each  anniversary  of  the  death 
of  the  departed,  or  All  Saints'  Day  and  any 
religious    holiday.       Public    functionaries,    war 

veterans,  or  other 
noted  persons 
are  honoured 
with  a  pompous 
funeral, as  well  as 
music,  and  often 
long  and  tire- 
some orations. 

Severo  Fer- 
nandez Alonso, 
the  Constitu- 
tional President 
of  the  Bolivian 
Republic,  who 
resided  in  Sucre, 
was  born  August 
15th,  1848.  His 
Excellency  is  of 
medium  height, 
rather  slender, 
and  his  personal 
appearance  is 
youthful,  whilst 
his  address  is 
very  pleasing. 


[VIA  — 
A    I  PY. 

From  a  Photo,  by  F.  Palmtro. 

-  nee  the  year  1880,  in  which  President 
Alonso  began  his  political  life,  his  career  has 
>f  uninterrupted  triumph.  In  three 
different  Governments  he  has  been  intrusted 
with  the  responsible  portfolio  of  Assistant 
f  State.  He  has  been  Congressman, 
Senator,  Minister  of  War,  and  Vice-President ; 
to-day  he  is  Supreme  Chief. 

After  a  residence  of  many  months  in  Sucre 
tarted  for  London  -  i 
Potosi,  Tupiza,  Jujuy,  and 
Buenos  Ayres.  Our  road 
when  first  leaving  the 
capital  city  led  through  a 
beautiful  valley,  where 
some  of  the  wealthy  Boli- 
vians have  really  stately 
mansions.  In  the  after- 
noon of  the  first  day 

-:ed  the  Cachamayo 
River,  a  considerable  tri- 
butary of  the  Pilcomayo, 
whose  waters  empty  into 
the  Paraguay  near  Ascun- 
cion.  Our  caravan  con- 
sisted of  six  freisht  mules 

(one  carrying  two  pet  parrots)  and  three  saddle 

Our  guide,  a  veteran  in  the  business,  first 
crossed  the  stream  alone  to  ascertain  the  depth 
of  the  water.  The  current  was  so  strong,  how- 
ever, and  the  opposite  bank  so  steep,  that  it 
was  a  hard  pull  for  his  mule  to  reach  the  top 
in  safety.  He  returned  immediately,  and  with 
the  assistance  of  the  peon  (Indian  servant),  who 
walked  the  whole  distance,  the  freight  mules 
were  driven  into  the  roaring  waters,  whilst  the 
guide  followed  with  the  peon  on  the  back  of  a 
mule.  My  place  was  next,  and  my  husband 
brought  up  the  rear.  The  river  was  more  than 
1  ooyds.  wide  and  carried  more  than  3ft. 
of  water,  as  was  shown  by  the  legs  of  the  mules. 
rhe  water  was  almost  thick  with  mud,  but 
evidently  the  bed  was  composed  of  boulders  of 
all  shapes  and  sizes,  making  it  extremely 
hazardous  to  ford.  The  sensation  produced  by 
the  noise  and  swiftness  of  the  water  it  is 
impossible  to  describe.  At  one  time,  when  my 
eves  followed  the  current,  I  felt  as  though  the 
earth  were  moving  away  from  under  me,  but 
this  we  soon  learned  to  remedy  by  looking  up- 
stream. Slowly  but  surely  the  mules  kept  their 
pace,  and  nearer  and  nearer  drew  the  opposite 
shore,  when  suddenly  the  last  freight  mule 
carrying  the  heaviest  load  (3501b.)  stumbled 
and  nearly  fell.  A  yell  from  the  guide,  how- 
ever, brought  her  to  her  feet  again,  and  soon  we 
were  all  safely  ashore.  That  same  afternoon  we 
passed  the  Pilcomayo,  a  most  powerful  river, 
having  many  branches  in  one  bed,  seven  of 
which  we  crossed  in  less  than  an  hour.  When 
we  reached  the  first  post-house,  at  nine  o'clock 
at  night,  we  had  a  good  forty  miles  to  our 
credit  for  the  day.  I  was  very  hungry,  but  so 
tired  that  I  sought  our  comfortable  bed  at  once. 

A  ride  of  two  days  more,  constantly  up  and 
up,  but  with  no  rivers  to  cross,  brought  us  to 
Potosi,  14,378ft.   above  sea-level.     The  city  of 


From  a  Photo. 



From  a] 


Potosi  was  founded  in  1545  by  Don  Juan  de 
Villarroll  and  Don  Diego  Centano,  because  of 
the  enormous  treasures  of  silver  discovered  in  a 
most  extraordinary  manner  by  an  Indian  named 
Guanaco.  This  Indian,  pressed  into  the  service 
of  the  Spaniards,  had  charge  of  a  troop  of 
llamas  loaded  with  provisions.  The  road  led 
him  over  the  hill  of  Potosi,  where  the  city  is 
now  situated,  and  necessity  compelled  him  to 
camp  over-night  15,000ft.  above  sea-level. 

In  the  morning  he  noticed  a  lump  of  unmis- 
takable greyish  metal  on  the  spot  where  his 
camp  fire  had  been  burning  throughout  the 
piercing  cold  night.  He  confided  his  secret 
to  one  of  his 
countr  y  m  e  n  , 
who,  under  the 
influence  of 
drink,  gave  it 
away  to  Don  Juan 
de  Villarroll,  a 
Spanish  captain. 
Guanaco  was 
ordered,  under 
pain  of  the  sever- 
est punishment, 
to  divulge  the 
sacred  spot,  but 
he  stubbornly 
refused  ;  and  it 
was  only  after 
months  of  in- 
human torture, 
by  which  his 
body  was  nearly 
torn  in  pieces, 
that  he  would 
point  out  the 
place  toVillarroll, 

who  had  carried 
him  there  more 
dead  than  alive. 
A  tradition,  faith- 
fully preserved  by 
Guanaco's  people, 
says  that  at  the 
moment  when  he 
had  pointed  out 
the  spot  his  spirit 
fled  amidst  fear- 
some sounds  like 
the  roar  of  thunder 
and  the  discharge 
of  heavy  artillery. 
The  climate  of 
Potosi  is  bleak 
and  raw  in  the 
extreme.  Pneu- 
monia is  the  only 
disease  known,  but  it  is  nearly  always  fatal. 

Our  first  stopping-place  after  Potosi  was  Puna, 
where  we  put  up  in  a  so-called  hotel,  kept  by  an 
Italian.  Our  room  had  to  be  cleaned  out  after 
our  arrival,  the  proprietor  apologizing  for  the 
filth,  and  saying  he  had  only  been  in  the  place 
a  year  and  a  half,  and  had  not  yet  had  time  to 
get  it  cleaned  !  From  Potosi  to  Tupiza  is  nearly 
300  miles,  which  we  made  in  six  days  ;  it  was 
rather  a  monotonous  journey,  as  each  day  was 
much  like  the  preceding  one.  When  we  arrived 
in  the  last-named  place  our  mules  had  entirely 
given  out,  and  we  were  compelled  to  look  for  a 
newguide,  whom  we  were  fortunate  enough  to  find. 


From  a] 




Till:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

With  a  t":  t    o(   mules    we    started    on 

d  Sunday  morning  for  Jujuy,  about  300 
miles  away,  and  crossed  the  Argentine  frontier 
at  La  Quiaca,  where  thanks  to  the  Argentine 
Minister  resident  in  Sucre  we  were  dispatched 
through  thi  I  stom  House  without  having 
unload.      I         country    had    the    same    dreary 

nly  relieved    by  the  white 

I   horolque,  which  we  could 

irly  a  hundred  miles  to  our  right.     We 

r  and  higher  each  day  until 

i  i  Agua,  where   we    crossed 

:r  vi~  the  And 

next  photograph   represents  part  of  the 

•five-mile  journey  which  we  travelled 

upiza  and    Humaguaca.     When   we 

from  a  high  mountain   upon  the  country 

The  next  day  we  met  an  Indian  who  had  killed 
i  condor  measuring  12ft.  between  the  tips  of  its 


Every  step  of  the  way  now  our  road  descended 
until  we  reached  Jujuy,  3,450ft.  above  seadevel, 
where  we  said  farewell  to  our  mules  and  took 
the  train  to  Buenos  Ayres,  which  we  reached  in 
three  days,  from  there  we  had  an  uneventful 
voyage  to  Hamburg,  and  in  a  few  days  crossed 
to  England. 

It  may  be  interesting  to  know  that  in  our 
travel  of  more  than  1,000  miles  through  Bolivia 
we  received  nothing  but  the  very  kindest  atten- 
tion and  consideration  from  all  with  whom  we 
came  in  contact.  We  travelled  by  day  and  by 
night  through  a  country  entirely  unknown  to  the 
outer   world.     We    met    many    people    whose 

rHE   Ij:  IV-HVE    MILE  JOURNEY— NOT   A    DROP   OF    WATER,    NO    ULADE   OF    GRASS,    AND    NO    LIVING    THING. 

From  a  /'hoto. 

in  which  we  were  told  not  a  drop  of 
water,  no  lilac  ss,  and  no  living  thing — 

not  even  a  fly — was  to  be  encountered,  a  feeling 
of  desolation  crept  over  us  that  may  better  be 
imagined  than  described. 

In  order  to  reach  the  next  post-house  in  good 
time,  we  started  by  candle-light,  and  suffered 
intensely  from  the  cold,  as  the  sun  did  not  get 
over  the  mountains  to  us  until  nearly  nine, 
travelled  in  the  dry  river-bed,  and  in  the  after- 
noon a  fearful  wind  filled  the  air  with  sand, 
compelling  us  to  'over  our  faces  with  shawls 
and  trust  to  the  mules  to  keep  in  the  right  track. 

language  we  could  not  understand  ;  and  were 
compelled  to  sleep  in  some  of  the  most  peculiar 
and  remote  places.  We  were  without  arms  or 
any  other  means  of  protection,  and  I  can  only 
repeat  that  we  were  never  molested  by  man  or 
beast.  Wre  felt  safer  regarding  our  chattels  and 
bodies  than  in  many  more  civilized  portions 
of  the  globe.  Moreover,  no  serious  illness 
befell  us,  nor  were  we  ever  troubled  by 
mosquitoes  or  any  other  pest,  save  on  one 
occasion  when  the  vinchucas  were  about ;  and 
a  candle  burning  all  night  will  drive  even 
these  away. 

Adrift    in    the    Arctic    Sea. 

By  Captain  T.  F.  Gellatly. 

The  terrible  narrative  of  what  befell  the  crew  of  the  whaler  "  Chieftain,"  of  Dundee.     How  the  boats- 
missed  the  ship  ;  the  awful  days  and  nights  of  blind  wanderings  hither  and  thither   in  the  icy  ocean  ;, 

and  the  final  rescue  and  explanations. 

N  the  7th  of  March,  1884,  I  sailed 
in  command  of  the  whaler  Chieftain, 
from  Dundee,  with  a  crew  of 
twenty  -  six  hands.  A  stowaway 
turned  up    later, 

making    twenty-seven.      The 

Chieftain   was    a   "  plum- 
pudding "  whaler.       That 

means,  that  we  were  to  cap- 
ture all  the  fish  and  animals 

yielding  profitable  blubber  or 

skins   that  we   could.      And 

my  orders  were  to  bring  back 

a  full  ship  at  all  costs.     We 

reached  the  ice  in  ten  days, 

sent  the  crow's-nest  aloft,  and 

hung  the  boats  in  the  davits 

all   ready    for    sealing.      No 

time  is  wasted   on   board   a 


Following  the  edge  of  the 

ice   to    the    north,    we    saw 

several  of  the  steam  whalers 

cruising  about  like  ourselves, 

endeavouring     to     find     the 

young  seals.      The   Chieftain 

was  a  barquentine,and  we  de- 
pended entirely  on  her  sails.    Only  three  or  four 

of  the   best    steamers  were  able  to    penetrate 

the   ice   far  enough  to  get   among   the   young 

seals.      The    more    unfortunate    of    the    other 

ships,  after  getting  so  far  in,  got  stuck  fast  in 

the    pack     for 

longer  or  shorter 

periods.     The 

Chieftain    also 

got   fast    in    the 

ice    on    two    or 

three    occasions, 

but    luckily   not 

for    long  ;     and 

when    I    saw    it 

was   useless    try- 
ing to  get  to  the 

young    seals,     I 

contented  myself 

with     cruising 

about   the    edge 

of  the  pack  and 

among  the  drift- 
Vol    iv.— 11. 

the  weather 
settled,  and, 
fine    as    we 


From  a  Photo,  by 

If?       *m 





ing  floes,  picking  up  a  few  bladder-nosed  and 

yearling  seals  whenever  possible. 

About  the  end  of  April  we  rigged  out  the- 

boats  for  whaling  and  cruised  south-west  along; 
the  pack  ice  to  Jan  Mayen. 
Island  ;  thence  we  went 
southwards  into  open  water 
in  search  of  bottle  -  nosed 
whales.  The  weather  early 
in  May  was  very  stormy,  andi 
few  fish  were  seen.  We  only- 
succeeded  in  harpooning, 
three  bottle-nosed  whales  in. 
about  as  many  weeks,  andi 
one  of  these  we  lost  through 
the  harpoon  withdrawing. 
Early  in  June 
became  more 
soon  grew  as 
could  wish. 

On  Monday  afternoon,  at 
about  four  o'clock,  a  school, 
of  bottle-nosed  whales  were 
seen  cleaving  the  smooth- 
surface  of  the  water  with 
their  glossy  backs,  and  churn- 
ing the  sea  into  foam  in  the- 

O  m 

distance  as  they  came  swimming  in  the  direc- 
tion of  the  ship.  In  less  than  two  minutes 
our  four  boats  were  in  the  water,  myself  in  the 
bow  of  one  of  them,  and  pulling  in  the  direction 
of   the  whales.      When  within   1  ooyds.  of   the 

fish  we  ceased 
rowing ;  and  as 
soon  as  we  were 
within  range,  I 
"fastened"  with 
the  gun  harpoon 
a  fine  white- 
headed  old  bull. 
The  third  mate 
immediately  af- 
terwards fastened 

As  it  takes  two- 
boats  to  manage- 
a  whale,  the 
second  mate 
came  to  my 
assistance  ;     the 

l   \l  KKIEXCE. 

Vandyke,  Liverpool. 


a  Photo. 

1111     WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 


fourth  harpooner  going  to  the  assistance  of  the 
third  mate.  When  my  fish  appeared  on  the  sur- 
face he  made  off  to  the  south-east,  and  some  time 
elapsed  before  the  second  mate  got  near  enough 
to  fasten  a  second  harpoon.  The  weather  in 
the  meantime  became  foggy,  and  a  light  breeze 
rippled  the  sea.  Our  ship  was  soon  lost  to 
view,  the  great  fish  we  had  struck  running  us  to 
windward  away  from  her. 
The  second  mate  made 

ral  ineffectual  at- 
tempts to  get  alongside 
the  whale,  which  was 
steadily  increasing  our 
distance  from  the  ship. 
Seeing  the  futility  of  his 
effo  Id  the  second 

mate  to  slack  away  astern. 
My  harpoon  was  in  a 
better    position — well 

ird  in  the  fish  :  and 
after  a  lot  of  struggling 
and  hard  work  with  the 
lance,  we  had  the  satis- 
faction of  seeing  the  hi 
bottle-nose  turn  over  on 
his  back  quite  dead. 

By  this  time  we  had 
not  seen  the  ship  for 
hours,  but  had,  by  the 
boat's  compass,  noted  the 

direction  taken 
by  our  whale. 
We  now  con- 
cluded that  the 
C  hie/tain  bore 
Therefore,  fas- 
tening our  tow- 
line  to  the  tail 
of  our  prize,  we 
started  off  in 
that  direction. 
After  pulling  for 
a  considerable 
time  we  came 
upon  the  other 
boats,  both  fast 
to  their  whale, 
which  they  al- 
leged was  so  wild 
that  they  could 
not  get  near  to 
kill  it.  The  third 
mate  said  he  had 
seen  the  ship 
with  her  sails 
all  set  about  an 
hour  previously, 
not  agree  with 
the   vessel   was 

bearing  north-east.  This  did 
my  bearings  —  unless,  indeed, 
sailing  about  in  the  fog,  which  was  against  all 
whaling  rules.  As  a  fact,  the  standing  rule  is 
that,  when  all  the  boats  cannot  be  seen,  the  ship 
is  to  be  kept  absolutely  stationary — if  possible. 
The  boats'  crews  can  then  keep  the  bearing 
of  the  ship,  and  run  no   risk  of  going  astray. 





Sending  the  second  mate  with  his  boat  to 
assist  in  killing  the  other  whale,  I  continued 
towing  my  fish  to  the  north-east,  and  eventually 
found  the  Chieftain^  which  had  nearly  passed 
to  windward  of  us,  sailing  in  the  fog.  When  I 
got  the  monster  alongside  and  went  on  board 
I  pointed  out  to  the  fishing  master,  whom  I 
had  left  in  charge,  the  grave  danger  of  losing 
the  boats,  through  his  shifting  the  ship  in  that 
way  ;  and  I  gave  strict  orders  that  in  future  she 
was  to  be  kept  hove  to  under  as  little  canvas  as 
possible  until  all  the  boats  were  plainly  visible. 

It  was  about  three  o'clock  on  Tuesday  morn- 
ing when  I  reached  the  ship.  After  a  change  of 
clothing  and  a  good  meal,  I  became  anxious 
about  the  other  boats'  crews.  I  feared  they  might 
still  believe  the  ship  bore  north-east,  and  so 
pull  in  that  direction.  We  had  a  boiler  and 
steam  winch  on  board  for  flensing  whales  and 
hoisting  boats,  and  there  was  a  steam  whistle 
attached  to  the  boiler. 

Leaving  orders  to  blow  the  whistle  at  frequent 
intervals,  and  fire  a  gun  occasionally,  I  manned 
my  own  boat ;  and  then  taking  some  food  for 
the  absent  boats'  crews,  I  went  in  search  of 
them,  taking  my  watch  with  me  to  enable  me 
more  accurately  to  judge  my  distance.  After 
about  two  hours'  pulling  I  found  the  three 
boats  still  attached  to  the  whale,  which  seemed 
actually  to  be  as  lively  and  wild  as  ever  !  These 
creatures  often  display  extraordinary  vitality. 
When  the  men  had  refreshed  themselves  with 
the  food  I  brought  them,  I  told  them  to  give 
the  whale  plenty  of  line  so  as  to  fatigue  him 
more,  whilst  I  attacked  him  at  close  quarters. 
For  about  four  hours  I  kept  struggling  with  the 
gigantic  fish  ;  and  it  was  only  after  firing  another 
three  gun-harpoons  into  him,  and  repeated 
lancing,  that  I  at  last  succeeded  in  reaching  his 
vitals — so  furious  were  his  struggles. 

It  was  nearly  noon  on  Tuesday  when  I  killed 
that  whale.  When  fastening  the  tow-line  to  his 
enormous  tail  the  fog  lifted  and  we  saw  the  ship, 
bearing  north  by  east,  and  distant  about  six 
miles.  The  clearance  of  the  atmosphere  was 
only  temporary,  however.  In  a  quarter  of  an 
hour  the  fog  again  enveloped  us  as  densely  as 
before.  However,  we  had  now  got  the  bearing 
of  the  ship,  and  thankfully  pulled  in  her  direc- 
tion. The  wind  was  light  and  right  astern  of 
the  boats. 

After  pulling  for  four  hours  I  considered  we 
must  be  somewhere  near  our  vessel.  Leaving 
two  boats  fast  to  the  dead  whale,  I  sent  the 
second  mate  off  to  the  east  to  pull,  as  nearly  as 
he  could  guess,  one  mile,  whilst  1,  with  my  boat, 
proceeded  the  same  distance  westward,  to  try 
and  see  or  hear  something  of  our  floating  home 
and   head-quarters.     We   also   arranged   to  fire 

harpoon  guns  and  blow  fog-horns  at  intervals  as 
signals.  Neither  of  us  was  successful,  however, 
and,  returning  to  the  other  boats,  we  again  towed 
the  whale  another  stage  in  a  different  direction 
and  repeated  all  our  manoeuvres  as  before,  but 
again  without  success. 

All  the  men  were  now  much  exhausted.  The 
wind  had  increased  to  a  strong  breeze,  and  a 
nasty  sea  had  risen.  The  air  was  dark,  with  a 
raw,  damp,  penetrating  fog,  which  seemed  to 
increase  the  bitterness  of  the  cold.  While  lving 
on  their  oars  to  listen,  several  of  the  men 
declared  they  heard  the  steam-whistle  to  lee- 
ward. I  also  believed  I  heard  it,  so  I  sent  the 
second  mate  off  to  see  if  he  could  verify  the 

As  the  "  second  "  did  not  return,  and  think- 
ing the  ship  might  be  drifting  as  fast  as  we 
towed,  I  tied  my  handkerchief  flag-wise  to  a 
lance-handle,  stuck  the  lance  in  the  whale,  and 
then  fastening  an  empty  water-beaker  to  the 
tow-line,  we  cast  off,  and  pulled  in  the  direction 
whence  we  seemed  to  hear  the  sound  of  the 
ship's  whistle.  But,  alas  !  In  vain  we  pulled 
about  backwards  and  forwards,  following 
imaginary  sounds,  until  at  length  we  fancied 
despairingly  that  we  heard  whistles  in  every 
direction.  Nor  did  we  again  see  the  second 
mate's  boat — though  we  repeatedly  heard  the 
sound  of  the  fog-horn,  and,  answering  it, 
followed  up  the  sound. 

The  wind  now  increased  to  a  gale,  and  the 
sea  was  breaking  furiously.  I  rigged  a  deep-sea 
anchor  and,  with  the  other  two  boats  fast 
astern,  we  rode  to  the  gale  and  fiercely-lashing 
sea.  Our  position  was  critical  in  the  extreme. 
It  took  the  men  all  their  time  to  bale  the  water 
out  of  the  boats  ;  and  all  our  provisions  and 
water  were  exhausted.  We  were  continually 
drenched  with  driving  spray,  and  the  cold  was 

Tuesday  night,  Wednesday,  and  Wednesday 
night  were  spent  in  the  most  utter  wretchedness. 
Ah  !  how  easy  it  is  to  write  down  the  mere 
names  of  those  dreadful  days.  None  but  God 
and  the  sufferers  themselves,  however,  know 
what  interminable  hours  of  anguish  they  con- 
tained. Though  we  kept  a  sharp  and  eager 
look-out,  nothing  was  seen  but  the  driving  scud 
and  the  foam-flecked,  raging  sea.  The  gale 
moderated  a  little  on  Thursday  morning,  and 
we  took  to  the  oars,  pulling  north-west  to  the 
ice  (distant  about  thirty  miles),  and  reaching 
the  edge  just  as  the  gale  again  broke  forth 
with  renewed  violence.  Wretchedness— utter, 
despairing,"  deathly  wretchedness  was  the  pre- 
dominant feeling  amongst  us. 

This  fresh  burst  of  wind,  however,  cleared  the 
atmosphere,  and  though  at  first  we  refused  to 


1'Hi:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

believe  our  eyes,  we  suddenly  beheld  a  vessel 

under  clos>  I   canvas,  about   two  miles  to 

idward.     Oh.  j  We  would  now  be  saved, 

thought     Rushing  to  the  summit  of  a  high 

ce,    we    unfurled   our    flags    and 

superhuman  effort,  I  kept  myself  afloat  till 
my  nun  seized  me  and  assisted  me  back  into 
the    boat.       The    very    marrow    in     my    bones 

seemed     fro/en. 
other    boats    back, 

UNO   TO   THE    SUMMIT   OF    A    HIGH    HUMMOCK-    OF    !CE,  WE    UNFURLED   OUR    FLAGS 

■stood  watching  for  an  answering  signal  from  the 
ship.  Alas  ! — vain  hopes.  They  did  not  see 
.nd  almost  immediately  a  dense  dark  pall  of 
fog  enveloped  sea  and  ice.  That  glimpse  of 
■salvation  merely  mocked  us :  and  the  sensa- 
tions of  men  under  such  circumstances  are 
not  to  be  described.  We  were  powerless  to 
pull  in  such  a  sea,  and  my  heart  bled  when 
I  saw  the  looks  of  dismay  and  despair  on 
the  faces  of  the  poor  fellows  around  me.  The 
gale  raged  furiously  once  more,  and  our  boats 
were  in  constant  jeopardy  of  being  smashed  by 
the  grinding  ice. 

After  making  a  pitiful  repast  of  frozen  snow, 
I  endeavoured  to  pull  to  windward  to  a  safer 
position.  No  sooner  had  I  left  shelter,  however, 
than  a  heavy  sea  struck  the  broad  blade  of  my 
ring  oar,  and  I  was  precipitated  backwards 
into  the  seething,  icy  waters.     With  an  almost 

I  immediately  waved  the 
and  again  sought  shelter 
under  the  lee  of  the  high 
hummock  of  ice.  Stripping 
off  my  clothes,  I  wrung 
them  out  as  quickly  as  I 
could,  my  teeth  rattling  and 
whirring  the  while  like  an 
electric  bell.  After  getting 
them  on  again,  I  walked 
about  on  the  ice,  beating 
my  body  with  my  arms  to 
keep  up  the  circulation. 

During  Thursday  night  the 
wind  shifted  to  north-east ; 
the  cold  was  intense,  and  it 
was  all  one  or  two  of  my 
men  and  I  could  do  to  keep 
the  others  from  going  to 
sleep,  which  meant  the  utter 
extinction  of  vitality.  Some 
of  the  poor  fellows  only 
wished  to  be  allowed  to  lie 
down  and  die,  so  paralyzing 
was  the  cold. 

Early  on  Friday  morning 
I  called  the  men  together, 
and  told  them  that  to  remain 
inert  any  longer  meant  death 
— probably  to  all  of  us.  The 
wind  was  fair ;  south-west 
was  the  course  to  Iceland, 
and,  at  least,  we  stood  a 
chance  of  either  falling  in 
with  a  whaler  or  reaching 
the  land.  But  how  far  was 
it  to  Iceland  ?  I  was  asked  ; 
and  I  replied,  evasively,  that  it  was  ninety 
miles  or  more — knowing  full  well  that  it  was 
at  least  two  hundred.  My  line  cover  was  a 
piece  of  canvas  4ft.  long,  4ft.  wide  at  one  end, 
and  2ft.  at  the  other.  This  I  fastened  to  the 
ramrod  of  my  harpoon  gun,  and  with  two 
boat-hooks  lashed  together  for  a  mast,  I  rigged 
it  as  a  sail.  The  other  boats  were  similarly 
rigged,  and  after  taking  in  a  supply  of  frozen 
snow  and  ice  we  started  on  our  despairing 
voyage.  The  boats  were  constantly  in  danger 
of  being  stove  in  by  the  floating  pieces  of  sharp 
ice  that  strewed  the  sea  for  some  distance  from 
the  pack. 

When  nearly  clear  of  this  danger,  the  im- 
provised little  sail  of  the  boat  ahead  of  me  was 
suddenly  lowered ;  and  when  I  came  up  with 
her,  the  harpooner  told  me  that  the  boat-steerer 
had  just  been  lost  overboard.      The  poor  fellow 



had  been  "  kicked  "  by  the  steering  oar  into  the 
sea,  just  as  I  had  been  previously,  and  no  one 
in  the  boat  had  seen  the  sad  occurrence,  so 
dazed  were  they  all.  The  harpooner  was  in 
despair.  I  endeavoured  to  tow  his  boat,  but 
soon  had  to  let  go,  as  both  boats  were  in  danger 
of  swamping.  I  encouraged  him,  however,  to 
set  his  sail  and  steer  the  boat  himself,  and  we 
again  proceeded  on  our  way. 

Bad  enough  would  our  plight  have  been  had 
the  sea  been  comparatively  smooth.  But  now 
it  was  blowing  a  furious  gale  from  the  north- 
east, and  the  sea  was  lashed  into  white,  driving 
spray,  and  huge,  seething,  foam  tipped  billows. 
My  whole  attention  was  occupied  in  steering 
the  boat  right  before  the  wind  and  sea.  In  the 
afternoon  we  had  so  out-distanced  the  other 
boats  that  we  lost  sight  of  them.  All  Friday, 
Friday  night,  Saturday,  and  Saturday  night  we 
kept  on,  every  breaking  sea  threatening  to 
engulf  us.  I  think  each  man  had  abandoned 
hope,  though  possibly  he  would  not  have  cared 
to  have  said  so  aloud. 

On    Sunday    morning    we    saw    a 
small  vessel  lying  hove-to.     She  was 
a   little  on  one  side  of  our   track, 
but  we  dared  not  change  our  course 
and  finally,  in  spite  of  all  our  efforts 
to    attract    attention,    we 
crossed   her   stern   about 
a    mile    distant    without 
being  seen.   In  a  cramped 
position  I  had  been  steer- 
ing the  boat   ever   since 
left  the  ice  ;    and  I 
thought     my     last 
was    at     hand.      I 
almost    continually 
my   men    changing 
in  the   boat,  and 
her  out  so  as   to 

were  renewed.     I  felt  almost  as  strong  as  ever, 
and  steered,  if  possible,  straighter  than  before. 

It  was  seven  o'clock  on  Sunday  evening 
when  we  reached  the  west  side  of  Langanaes, 
on  the  rocky  coast  of  Iceland.  A  man  and  two 
boys  on  the  rocks  directed  us  to  a  tiny  cove, 
where  we  beached  the  boat  ;  and  we  were  then 
with  great  difficulty  and  danger  rescued  from 
the  heavy  breakers  by  the  Icelander  and  his 
two  sons.  Not  a  man  among  us  could  walk.  Our 
rescuers  carried  us  to  their  house  on  their  backs, 
where  they  vied  with  each  other  in  showering 
kindnesses  upon  us.  By  the  aid  of  a  pencil 
and  an  old  Danish  almanac  I  was  enabled,  in  a 
rough  way,  to  give  the  peasants  an  account  of 
our  past  exposure  and  sufferings.  And,  indeed, 
we  were  in  a  sad  condition — our  hands,  and 
feet  especially,  were  black,  and  swollen  almost 
to  bursting.  I  think  I  may  say  I  was  the  worst. 
Getting  two  tubs  of  ice  brought  into  the  house, 
we  placed  our  hands  and  feet  in  them  for 
upwards   of  an   hour   to   try   and    relieve    the 




keep  their  blood  in  cir- 
culation. And  all  that 
time  I  know  they  thought 
me  the  most  cruel  devil 
afloat.  I  wonder  they 
obeyed  orders  at  all. 

The  gale  still  raged 
with  unabated  fury,  and 
the  great  seas  broke  with 
long,  leaping,  tumbling, 
roaring,  towering  vio- 
lence. I  was  nearly 
giving  way  to  despair, 
when  our  dazed,  apa- 
thetic, weary  eyes  were 
greeted  with  the  sight  of 
a  snow-capped  mountain 
right  ahead.     Our  hopes 




ng  pains  of  slowly  returning  circulation. 
The  wife  and  daughter  o(  our  host  gave  us  some 
gruel  made  with  milk,  and  they  put  us  in  their 
own  beds,  which  were  built  like  ships'  bunks, 
and  consisted  of  a  feather  bed  to  lie  on  and 
another  wring. 

was   built   of   wood 
and  1    three   rooms-  a    dwelling-room,    a 

s  byre,  and  a  --tore  room.  Outside  the 
building  the  angles  were  filled  in  with  earth, 
which  was  covered  with  turf,  the  roof  also 
being  similarly  coven  The  whole  dwelling 

d    the    appearance    of    a    grass  -  grown 
mound,   which,  with  the 
chimney  smoking  in  the 
centr  daminia- 

ture  active  volcano.     1  or 
three  eived 

the  :      attention 

from  this  kind  family. 
During  this  time,  al- 
though my  sufferings 
.  I  was  con- 
stantly thinking  of  the 
nder  of  my  men, 
and  wondering  what 
could  have  been  their 

Wednesday  after- 
noon a  Norwegian  fishing 
smack  came  in  and  an- 
chored for  shelter  a  short 
distance  from  the  shore. 
Our  Icelandic  host  and 
my  sailmaker,  who  had 
somewhat  recovered,  put 
off  to  her  and  told  the 
captain  our  story.  He 
immediately  came  on 
shore  and  offered  to 
convey  myself  and  my 
men  to  Siedysford,  a  port 
in  the  east  of  Iceland. 
I  gladly  accepted  the 
captain's  offer,  and  bid- 
ding good-bye  to  the 
kind  Icelanders  we  were 
taken  on  board  the 
smack,  which  was  soon 
got  under  way.  Both 
captain    and    crew   were 

edingly  kind  to  us  ;   and  after  a  five  days' 

age  they  saw  us  safely  lodged  in  a  sort  of 
inn  at   Siedysford,   when   they  again  proce< 

a  to  follow  their  occupation  of  cod-fishing. 
There  was  no  British  Consul  at  Siedysford,  and 
we  were  under  the  care  of  the  Sydlnsond,  or 
local  governor,  who  personally  saw  that  we  were 
well  cared  for.      Here  we  were   attended   to  by 

!  H,    'INK   UK     !  HE    I  HIRD    MATE 


Photo,  by  /■'.  JV.  Gil/ us.  Brought?  Ferry. 

a  doctor,  who  dressed  our  feet  with  oil  and  lint. 
Arrived  at  length  at  Granthon  by  way  of  the 
Faroe  Islands,  the  agent  of  the  Shipwrecked 
Mariners'  Society  sent  us  on  to  Dundee,  where 
news  of  our  arrival  had  preceded  us.  For  a 
long  time  I  was  unable  to  walk  properly,  and 
many  months  elapsed  before  my  feet  were  quite 
well  again.  News  of  the  remainder  of  the  crew 
came  to  hand  very  disjointedly.  I  will  relate 
the  accounts  given  me  by  the  survivors  them- 
selves  when  they  returned  to  Dundee.  Soon 
after  I  parted  from  the  other  two  boats,  one  of 
the  third  mate's  crew,  James  Mcintosh,  changed 

into  the  fourth  har- 
pooner's  boat  to  assist 
him  in  steering.  The 
boats  then  separated, 
and  were  lost  to  view  of 
each  other. 

The  third  mate's  boat 
reached  Iceland  the  day 
after  my  arrival  there, 
and  some  forty  miles 
farther  west  on  the  coast. 
The  men  were  in  a  most 
pitiful  condition  when 
they  landed.  One  poor 
fellow  succumbed  to  his 
sufferings  just  as  the  kind 
Icelanders  put  him  to 
bed.  Fortunately  there 
was  a  doctor  at  hand, 
and  the  other  three  men's 
feet  were  only  saved  by 
the  partial  amputation  of 
their  frost-bitten  heels 
and  toes.  As  soon  as 
they  had  sufficiently  re- 
covered, and  a  home- 
ward-bound steamer  was 
available,  they  also  were 
sent  home. 

When  James  Mcintosh 
got  on  board  the  third 
boat,  he  took  the  steering 
oar  and  kept  the  boat 
before  the  wind  and  sea, 
making  a  south-west 
course.  They  were  get- 
ting along  as  well  as 
could  be  expected,  when, 
on  the  second  day,  one  man  picked  up  the  com- 
pass and  tried  to  drink  out  of  it.  The  poor, 
crazed  fellow,  finding  no  water  in  it,  threw  the 
compass  into  the  sea  before  anyone  could  stop 
him,  and  then  lay  down  in  the  bottom  of  the 
boat  ;  he  expired  soon  afterwards.  While  wind 
and  sea  kept  in  the  same  direction,  the  loss  of 
the  compass  did  not  so  much  matter  ;  but  when 



the  wind  moderated  and  changed,  Mcintosh  did 
not  know  in  what  direction  to  steer,  and  so  the 
boat  was  allowed  to  drift.  Soon  after  they 
committed  the  body  of  their  dead  shipmate  to 
the  deep  another  man  died.  His  body  also 
was  consigned  to  the  sea.  And  then  the  three 
survivors  sat  looking  at  each  other,  wondering 
whose  turn  it  would  be  next. 

Another  day  and  night  passed  without  relief, 
and  yet  another  of  their  number  was  added  to 
the  list  of  dead.  After  putting  the  third  body 
overboard,  James  Mcintosh  and  the  harpooner 
were  the  only  survivors.  These  two  unfortunate 
men  took  up  crouching  positions  one  at  each 
end  of  the  boat,  and  watched  each  other's  every 
motion  with  half-demented  terror. 

Time  passed  thus  in  fear  and  despair  until 
Tuesday,  when  the  poor  harpooner  died  in  rigid 
agony  in  the  bottom  of  the  boat,  and  Mcintosh 
was  left  in  ghastly  loneliness.  Horrible  thoughts 
passed  through  the  famishing  man's  mind  as  he 
sat  for  a  time  looking  at  his  dead  and  disfigured 
shipmate.  There  was  nothing  in  sight  from 
the  boat  but  cold  sea  and  bitter  sky.  His 
better  nature  asserting  itself,  however,  Mcintosh 
crawled  forward  and  with  a  strenuous  effort 
heaved  the  body  of  his  last  shipmate  into  the 
dark,  deep  sea.  The  wretched  man  presently 
got  into  such  a  dazed  condition  that  he  scarcely 
knew  how  the  hours  passed.  In  a  gleam  of  con- 
sciousness he  raised  himself  above  the  gunwale, 


and  seeing  a  small  ship  some  distance  off,  he 
waved  his  cap  and  feebly  shouted,  "Help!  Help!" 
The  vessel  was  an  Icelandic  shark-fisher.    The 
crew  took  Mcintosh  and  his  boat  on  board  and 
then  sailed  to  Aykeraera,  a  port  in  the  north  of 
Iceland.      Here    he    was    attended    to    by    the 
surgeon  of  a  Danish  man-of-war.     Mortification 
had  so  far  set  in  that  the  poor  fellow's  legs  had 
to  be  amputated  a  little  below  the  knees.     The 
operation  was  very  successful,  however,  and  about 
two  months  later  Mcintosh  was  brought  home. 
The  second   mate,   it  appeared,   after  vainly 
trying  to   find   the  ship,  hove   the   boat  to,  and 
drifted  about   until   Saturday,  when  he  and  his 
men  were  picked  up  by  a  Norwegian    whaler, 
and  later  on  transferred  to  their  own  vessel,  the 
Chieftain.     The   officer   left   in   charge   of  the 
latter,  by  the   way,  saw  the   boats  when  the   fog 
lifted,  and  proceeded  to   make  all  sail  on   the 
ship,  not  noticing  that  while  doing  so  the  boats 
were  again  lost  to  view.     After  the  sails  were 
set    he    went    up   into    the    crow's-nest    and 
remained  for  some  time  looking  out,  thinking 
and   hoping   that   the   fog   would   again    clear. 
Meanwhile  the  breeze  was  moderate  and   the 
ship  slipping  quietly  through  the  water.     After 
sailing  for  some  time  on  the  starboard  tack,  the 
mate  reduced  sail,   and  hove  the  ship  to,  not 
realizing  that   he  had    materially   changed    the 
bearing  of  the  boats.     Thus  it   was  that,   when 
we  pulled  close  to  where  the  ship  was  when  we 
caught  that  glimpse  of  her,  she  was  then 
some  three  miles  east  of  our  position. 

During  the  gales  that  followed  the 
Chieftain  was  kept  reaching  about  in 
search  of  us.  The  mate  saw  several 
whalers.  The  master  of  one  of  them 
stated  he  had  the  second  mate's  crew 
and  boat  on  board.  Another  Nor- 
wegian whaler  had  found  our  abandoned 
whale,  and  the  captain  returned  the 
fishing  gear.  When  all  hopes  died  out 
of  finding  the  missing  boats  and  men, 
the  mate  bore  up  for  home,  and  the 
Chieftain  eventually  reached  Dundee 
with  only  six  tons  of  oil — a  truly 
disastrous  voyage. 

Most  of  the  crew  had  little  or  nothing 
to    take   when    discharged.      Yet,    not- 
withstanding   the    calamitous    voyage, 
most   of  the   men   wished  to  sail  with 
me  again,  and    publicly  thanked 
me     in     the     Dundee     shipping 
office  for  what  little  I  had  been 
able  to  do  for  them.     Those  who 
had  been  of  service  to  us  in  our 
distress   were    recompensed,   and 
suitably  rewarded  by  the  Board 
of  Trade. 

Open* Air    Festival    Plays    in    Switzerland. 

Bv    I.    Oscar   GySI,   OF   BERNE. 

A  short  article,  illustrated  with  extremely   striking  photographs,    showing    how  the  brave  little   Swiss 
nation  loves  to  celebrate  the  memory  of  those  victories  which  won  for  it  its  independence. 

3  a  nation  the  Swiss  appear  to  have 
a    peculiar    genius    for    organizing 

n-air  historical  pageants  and 
festival  plays. 
The  Suabian  War  began  on  the  6th 
February,  14m).  On  the  one  side  were  the 
German  Emperor  Maximilian  I.  and  the 
Suabian  league  of  knights  and  towns,  and  on 
the  other  the  different  sections  of  the  Swiss 
ion,  with  its  allies.  In  this  war 
victory  rested  almost  entirely  with  the  Swiss, 
although  they  had  to  defend  a  long  frontier. 

On  the  20th  of  February,  1499,  the  Swiss 
defeated  their  enemies  at  Hard,  near  Lake  Con- 
stance :  on  the  22nd  of  March  at  Bruderholz,  in 
and  on  the  22nd  of  May  on 
the  Calven,  not  very  far  from  Meran,  in  the 
Tyrol.  The  brunt  of  this  battle  was  sustained 
by  the  men  of  Grisons,  and  they  have,  there- 
fore, a  very  good  right  to  celebrate  the  400th 
anniversary  of  this  glorious  victory. 

When  they  returned  to  their  homes,  after  the 
usual  three  days'  stay  on  the  battlefield,  their 
young  men  acted  the  battle  over  again  in  the 
Jrant  belonging  to  the  Episcopal  Palace  at 
Coire  ;  and  the  great  spectacular  display  which 
took  plate  in  the  early  part  of  last  summer  was 
the  re-acting  of  those  warlike  scenes  on  that 
very  spot.  The  scene  depicted  in  the  accom- 
panying photo,  shows  a  great  grassy  slope 
crowned  by  the  dark  pine  forests  of  the  Mitten- 
g,  and  of  the  Piz  Okel.  From  this  spot  the 
eye  commands  on  the  one  side  the  view  towards 
the  (irisons-Oberland,  and  on  the  other  the 
historic  fortifications  of  Luziensteig,  and  the 
mountains  of  the  Prattigau,  which  form  the 
frontier  line  towards  Austria. 

The  vast  stage  (such  a  one  as  has  never  been 
seen  before)  represents  the  land  of  the  Grisons, 
with  its  rocks,  ruined  castles,  and  dark  forests. 
Only  the  background  is  painted  stage  scenery, 
and  behind  it  Nature  completes  the  picture,  as 
the  peak  of  Calanda  rises  far  above  it.  Over 
the  huge  central  stage  will  pass  the  armies, 
with  their  mounted  knights  and  squires  and 
men-at-arms;  also  the  procession  of  the  Lands- 
gemeinde  (the  people  assembled  as  a  Parlia- 
ment) :  the  strings  of  pack-mules  and  many 
travelling  merchants  with  their  attendant 
minstrels  and  mule-drivers. 

The  chorus  of  800  voices  contains  300 
children,  who  have  practised  the  ancient  tunes 
for  months  past.  The  costumes  of  all  the 
actors  in  this  great  national  play  accord  strictly 
with  those  worn   in  the  fifteenth   century,  and 

these  give  reality  to  the  scenes  acted  before  us. 
The  natives  of  Grisons  come  on  foot  from 
remote  mountain  valleys,  and  many  have  two 
days  to  walk  to  get  to  Coire.  Others  living  in 
foreign  lands  hasten  home  to  be  present  at  the 
national  celebrations. 

The  town  of  Coire,  with  its  10,000  inhabi- 
tants, has  put  on  holiday  attire.  Every  house, 
big  and  little,  in  every  street  or  narrow  lane  is 
most  tastefully  decorated  from  top  to  bottom 
with  green  wreaths,  entwined  amid  brightly- 
coloured  cloths.  Each  dwelling  seems  to  be 
prettier  than  its  neighbour,  and  yet  they  all  look 
as  if  their  owners  had  excellent  taste  in  colour 
and  arrangement.  Triumphal  arches  there  are 
at  every  crossing,  and  splendid  green  wreaths 
hang  from  side  to  side.  All  the  inscriptions 
breathe  the  truculent  spirit  of  those  mediaeval 
days  when  the  battle  on  the  Calven  was  fought. 

On  the  27th  May  last  the  final  rehearsal  took 
place  at  Coire,  to  which  the  school  children  of 
the  whole  Canton  were  invited.  Every  seat  and 
every  inch  of  standing  room  was  occupied.  One 
school  came  from  far-off  Poschiavo,  and  had  to 
cross  two  high  mountain  chains  on  the  way.  It 
took  them  two  whole  days  to  reach  Coire.  On 
the  28th  May  we  were  roused  at  6  a.m.  by 
a  musical  "reveille."  At  8.30  a.m.  special 
services  were  held  for  the  Protestants  (who 
are  the  majority  here)  at  St.  Martin's 
Church  ;  and  for  the  Catholics  at  the  Hofkirche, 
the  church  in  the  Bishop's  Court.  Then 
came  a  procession  through  the  town  headed 
by  a  German  regimental  band  —  the  famous 
"  Constanzer  Regiments  Musik."  In  the 
"  festhutte,"  a  timber  and  rainproof  canvas 
erection,  a  public  banquet  was  held,  at  which 
over  2,500  people  attended.  During  this  the 
regimental  band  played,  at  intervals,  most  lovely 
music  ;  and  after  a  speech  by  some  local 
dignitary,  with  an  almost  inaudible  voice,  the 
President  of  Switzerland,  who  together  with  the 
Home  Secretary  and  the  Minister  of  Justice  had 
come  to  Coire  to  be  present  on  this  important 
day,  arose,  and  made  a  patriotic,  yet  statesman- 
like, speech. 

At  2.30  p.m.  the  great  national  play  com- 
menced in  the  open  air,  and  was  given  four 
times  (each  performance  lasted  four  hours), 
before  a  vast  concourse  of  spectators,  numbering 
over  40,000  people,  of  whom  nearly  5,000  were 
seated — the  rest  standing  behind,  and  on  the 
road  overlooking  the  stage.  Many,  however, 
not  included  in  this  estimate,  looked  on  from 
points  of  vantage   in    the    pine   forest    above. 



Unfortunately  the  weather  was  far  from  perfect. 
A  slight  drizzle  came  on  at  intervals,  and  a  steady 
shower  towards  the  end  ;  yet  for  three  full  hours 
this  great  audience  remained  spell-bound  by  the 
splendid  spectacle.  No  umbrellas  were  allowed 
to  be  opened.  From  scenes  of  peace,  with  the 
welcome  offered  by  a  large  concourse  of  peasants 
to  a  caravan  of  pack-horses  coming  from  Italy 
with  their  sturdy  attendants,  the  play  proceeded 
to  alarms  of  war,  and  then  to  scenes  of  camp 
life  and  of  real  battle. 

The  deliberations  of  a  conference  between 
the  Bishop  of  Coire  and  the  delegates  from 
different  valleys  ends  in  turmoil  on  the  arrival 
of  messengers  bringing  bad  tidings  of  excesses 
committed  by  the  Austrian  soldiery.  The 
arrival  of  a  body  of  friends  from  Uri  is  the  next 
scene  ;  and  when  these  leave  to  help  the  Swiss 
Confederates  farther  north  against  a  body  of 
German  enemies  in  the  valley  of  the  Rhine  near 
Ragatz,  a  troop  of  distressed  country-folk,  with 
women  and  children  from  the  south,  arrives  with 
tales  of  woe  about  burnt  villages  and  desecrated 
homesteads.  The  fighting  men  are  summoned 
from  every  valley,  and,  on   meeting,  engage  in 

martial  games  until  Benedict  Fontana,  their 
leader,  calls  upon  them  to  take  the  oath  to  fight 
for  victory  and  not  desist  till  death. 

The  battle  on  the  Calven  affords  opportunity 
for  splendid  scenic  effects — first  with  a  camp  of 
Austrian  soldiers,  with  its  carousings  and  brawls, 
and  then  the  alarm  caused  by  news  that  the 
men  of  Grisons  had  fallen  on  the  army  which 
thought  itself  so  secure  in  strong  fortifications  on 
the  Calven.  The  fight  comes  nearer,  and  the 
Austrians  on  the  stage  are  driven  back,  their 
cavalry  galloping  off  in  furious  flight  in  front  of 
the  stage  on  the  greensward.  This  scene  was 
most  effective.  Then  follow  the  wailings  of  the 
wounded,  and  later  on  the  rejoicings  over  the 
victory,  troubled  by  the  presence  of  newly-made 
widows,  and  by  the  bringing  in  of  sorely-stricken 

The  last  act  is  of  an  allegorical  character, 
beginning  with  a  very  fine  scene  of  gnomes,  who 
rejoice  over  the  help  they  have  given  the  men 
of  Grisons  in  the  battle  ;  going  on  with  scenes 
connected  with  the  Napoleonic  wars  as  they 
affected  the  Grisons,  and  ending  with  rejoicings 
over  Grisons'  happy   union  with   the   Helvetian 

From  a  Photo,  by]  GRISONS  TAKING  the  OATH  TO  CONQUER  or  DIE.)  \.La>l  i^ang,  ^oire. 

Vol.  iv — 12. 



Republic  In  those  last  scenes  there  were  some- 
times over  1,000  actors  on  tfte  stage,  and  on  the 
rocks  and  mountains  connected  with  it.  The  gay 
and  brilliant  costumes;  the  men  in  armour:  the 
strange  weapons  including  crossbows,  halberds. 
led  battle-axes,  spiked  clubs,  broad - 
and  spears— veritably  carried  the  spec- 
tators k  many  hundreds  of  years.  The 
scenery  was  a  work  o(  art,  and  quite  in  keeping 
with  the  surrounding  snow-capped  mountains, 
which  looked  down  upon  the  audience.  Too 
much  praise  cannot  be  given  to  the  1,400  men 
and    women,    boys    and    girls,   who    for   several 

to  do    honour    to    their   confederate    and   chief 

In  the  background  of  the  photograph,  sur- 
rounded by  natural  scenery  of  extreme  beauty, 
lies  the  open-air  stage  built  in  imitation  of  a 
mediaeval  keep,  with  small  watch-towers  on  each 
side  :  while  reaching  right  to  the  foreground  is 
the  vast  amphitheatre  whose  crowded  seats  are 
arranged  in  four  rows  of  twelve  blocks  each,  with 
standing  room  at  the  back  for  the  late  comers. 
Between  the  stage  and  the  auditorium  is  the 
orchestra,  accommodating  over  a  hundred  instru- 
mentalists besides  the  chorus.     The  chief  events 

5TS   CAME    FROM    AM.    PARTS   TO   SEE    THIS   GREAT    OPEN-AIR    I'LAY    IN    BERNE. 

From  a  Photo,  by  Professor  Dr.  Badertscher. 


months   worked  together  to  produce  this  great 
national  play. 

If  Coire  can  produce  so  magnificent  a  festival 
play,  what  can  the  Swiss  capital  do  ?  You 
shall  see.  A  photograph  of  the  great  Berne 
festival  play  of  1891  is  next  reproduced  :  it 
was  taken  by  Professor  Dr.  Badertscher,  of 
Berne.  This  photograph  shows  an  audience 
of  over  10,000  persons  witnessing  a  grand 
spectacular  drama  at  Berne,  in  1891,  on  the 
occasion  of  the  celebration  of  the  700th  anni- 
versary of  the  foundation  of  the  city.  Patriotic 
visitors  assembled  from  all  parts  of  Switzerland 

in  the  history  of  the  ancient  and  picturesque  city 
are  recorded  in  the  scenes  of  the  drama,  duly 
interspersed  with  incidental  music  and  song. 
This  particular  scene  represents  the  sad  day  in 
1798  when,  after  a  brave  resistance,  the  valiant 
band  of  Confederates  were  obliged  to  accept 
Fiance's  ultimatum,  and  with  it  a  new  Con- 
stitution. The  Swiss  always  do  these  open-air 
pageants  well,  but  this  one  was  conceived  on  a 
specially  gigantic  scale,  and  was  so  generally 
remarkable,  that  foreign  tourists  from  all  parts  of 
Switzerland  flocked  into  the  quaint  capital 
of  "  Europe's  Playground." 

Lost  in    Vesuvius. 

By  Dr.  Z.  E.  Birasky,  of  Essec,  Sclavonic. 

Wherein  is  related  how  Professor  Blondel,  disregarding  the  warnings  of  the  guides,  persisted  in  going 
round  the  crater  and  walking  on  some  partly  cooled  lava.  The  unfortunate  savant  fell  through  the  thin 
crust  and  was  destroyed  in  the  fiery  sea.     One  photo,  shows  the  guides  actually  pointing  out  the  terrible 

danger  to  the  Professor. 

Y  dear  friend  Pro- 
fessor Blondel 
and  I  found  our- 
selves one  wet 
night  in  a  cafe  at 
Zurich  :  it  was  in  April,  1897. 
Our  conversation  soon  turned 
upon  the  adventures  each  of 
us  had  had.  Professor  Blon- 
del was  a  meteorologist,  and 
in  pursuit  of  his  researches 
he  had  travelled  a  great  deal. 
It  was  some  years  since  last 
we  met,  and  now  my  friend 
related  to  me  how  he  had 
visited  Central  Africa,  India, 
and  other  regions  in  pursuit 
of  his  professional  studies. 

In  the  course  of  the  even- 
ing the  Professor  said  he  was 
compelled,  for  the  purpose  of 
making   some  meteorological 
examinations,  to  ascend  Moun 
it  was  incumbent   upon   him 
approaching      season,      he 
would  have  to  be  in  Naples 
at  the   beginning  of   May- 
He  remarked  how  pleased 
he   would    be   if  I    would 
accompany  him  on  this  ex- 
pedition, saying  how  much 
it  would  add  to  his  enjoy- 
ment to  have  a  companion. 
I  returned  no  definite  reply. 
However,       M.       Blondel, 
whom    I     was    continually 
seeing   after   that   evening, 
kept    pressing  me    for   my 
decision   on  the  suggested 
journey,    and    having    ob- 
tained a  fortnight's  leave,  I 
went  to   the   Professor   on 
the  25th  of  April  and  told 
him  I  was  ready  to  accom- 
pany him. 

Accordingly,  two  days 
after  this  interview,  we  took 
the  train  and  crossed  the 
beautiful  mountains  of 
Switzerland  into  Italy,  and, 
breaking  our  journey  for  a 

THE     AUTHOR,    DR.    /..    E.     BIRASKY,    WHO    WAS 
WITH      PROFESSOR      BLONDE!.    WHEN      III-      WAS 
From  a]  DESTROYED.  [Ph 

t  Vesuvius,  and  as 
to  do  this  in  the 

BLONDEL,       WHo        MET      A      FEARFBI 

From  a]  Vesuvius. 

rest  at  Genoa,  we  arrived  at 
the  gay  city  of  Naples  four 
days  after  leaving  Zurich. 
This  was  my  first  visit  to  the 
beautiful  city.  We  engaged 
apartments  at  the  Pension 
Suisse,  just  near  the  Bay, 
from  whence  we  could  see 
the  famous  volcano  and  also 
the  smoke  from  its  crater,  as 
from  the  funnel  of  a  steamer 
in  the  distance. 

After  a  few  days'  sight- 
seeing we  decided  to  pro- 
ceed with  our  ascent  of 
Vesuvius ;  so  one  morning 
Professor  Blondel  went  to 
see  one  of  his  friends,  and 
on  his  return  told  me  that  at 
one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon 
we  would  leave  by  boat  from 
the  quay  near  our  hotel.  Ac- 
cordingly, we  started,  having  left  word  that  we 
should,  in   all   probability,  return  to  dinner,  but 

in  any  case  we  desired  our 
host  to  have  something 
ready  for  us,  as  on  our  re- 
turn we  should  be  very  tired 
and  hungry.  We  arrived 
at  our  destination  after  an 
hour's  row,  the  distance 
being  about  four  miles ; 
and  on  landing  we  were 
at  once  solicited  by  many 
guides  desiring  to  be  en- 
gaged. Selecting  three  of 
them,  we  walked  towards 
Resina,  one  of  the  small 
towns  nearest  to  the  shore. 
The  view  of  the  volcano 
from  here,  as  compared 
with  that  from  our  hotel, 
was  altogether  different. 
The  whole  side  of  the 
mountain  was  covered  with 
vineyards  and  gardens,  in 
which  the  choicest  of  fruits 
are  grown.  From  this 
point  we  could  see  on  the 
summit  the  lavas  of  the 
various    flows    during    the 

DEATH       IN 




From  a  Photo,  by  Dr.  Z.  E.   Birasky. 

past  thirty  years.  It  is  difficult  to  convey  the 
scene  to  the  minds  of  those  who  have  not  seen 
a  volcano.  A  good  comparison  is  to  suppose 
that  a  sea  of  boiling  pitch  has  been  violently 
agitated  by  a  storm,  and  then  suddenly  cooled 
—so  quickly,  however,  as  to  retain  when  solidi- 
fied all  the  roughness  and 
irregularity  which  the  surface 
had  when  liquid.  The  clouds 
and  smoke  around  the  gloomy 
summit  give  an  appearance  not 
unlike  the  steam  arising  from 
boiling  water. 

From  Resina  there  is  a  rail- 
way which  goes  to  the  top  of 
the  mountain,  but  our  desire 
unore    especially  that   of  Pro- 

sor  Blondel,  who  wanted 
to  see  Vesuvius  as  closely  as 
possible,  to  explore  every 
point,  and  take  notes  of  his 
observations)  was  to  proceed 
on  foot.  As  we  slowly  made 
the  ascent  to  the  top,  the  view 
that  presented  itself  was  in 
most  striking  contrast  to  that 
which  gladdened  our  eyes  on 
the  commencement  of  our 
journey.  In  the  place  of 
beautiful  gardens,  in  which 
orange,     lemon,    almond,     fig 

trees,  and  vines  grew  to  per- 
fection, and  in  which  roses 
and  camellias  bloomed  in 
profusion,  we  now  found 
ourselves  making  our  way 
through  a  black,  sterile,  and 
forbidding  waste,  utterly  de- 
void of  vegetation,  and 
covered  only  with  huge  folds, 
waves,  and  unshapely  masses 
of  rough  lava. 

However,  by -and -by  we 
reached  the  crocelle,  on  the 
summit  of  which  stands  the 
hermitage  of  San  Salvatore. 
As  is  the  custom  of  all  travel- 
lers making  the  ascent  on 
foot,  we  had  a  rest  here,  and 
partook  of  refreshments. 
Here  also  is  found  a  well  of 
good  water.  The  streams  of 
lava  which  have  at  various 
times  descended  the  moun- 
tain near  the  crocelle  have 
flowed  on  either  side  of  this 
ridge,  and  so  its  summit  had 
hitherto  afforded  a  safe  site 
for  a  habitation  ;  whilst  all 
around  has  been  from  time  to  time  covered  with 
a  perfect  sea  of  liquid  fire.  Attached  to  the 
hermitage  there  is  a  sanctuary  containing  an 
altar  and  the  shrine  of  the  saint  whose  remains 
lie  beneath. 

We- remained  here  for  an  hour,  as  Professor 

TFIEKE    IS    A    RAILWAY   TO    THE    TOP,  HIT    OUK    DESIKE    V. 

From  a  Photo,  by  Dr.  Z.  E.  Birasky. 

EED   ON    FOOT. 



Blondel  wished  to  make  some  investigations. 
I  should  explain  that  on  account  of  the  com- 
manding position  of  this  ridge,  and  its  com- 
parative immunity  from  danger,  it  has  an 
observatory,    built   by   the   King  of  Naples,  for 

'  AN    OBSERVA1  O 

Front  a  Photo,  by] 



the  purpose  of  facilitating  the  study  and  obser- 
vation at  close  quarters  of  volcanic  and  earth- 
quake phenomena.  In  this  observatory  there 
is  a  collection  of  the  minerals  found  around 
Vesuvius,  and  this  museum  is  shown  to  visitors 
by  an  intelligent  and  obliging  custodian. 

After  this  stay  we  commenced  the  ascent  of 
the  cone  itself.  This  is  the  most  difficult  and 
laborious  part  of  the  whole  climb— the  looseness 
of  the  rough,  angular  lava  masses,  and  the 
consequent  uncertainty  of  footholds  causing 
great  fatigue.  With  the  assistance  and  encour- 
agement of  the  guides,  however,  coupled  with 
constant  exertion  on  our  own  part,  we  were  at 
length  enabled  to  reach  the  terrace  at  the 
summit.  We  were  greatly  excited  by  the 
proximity  of  the  mouth  of  the  volcano  and  the 
deeply  interesting  phenomena  we  were  about  to 
witness.  So,  naturally,  in  spite  of  the  warnings 
of  the  guides,  Professor  Blondel  pressed  on  to 
make  the  ascent  of  the  new  cone,  and  gain  the 
very  edge  of  the  crater. 

From  this  crater  arose  columns  of  vapour 
charged    with    sulphurous    fumes.      Stones  and 

cinders  of  most  irregular  and  various  sizes  were 
also  discharged  with  loud  subterranean  noises 
almost  every  minute.  These  stones  and  cinders 
rise  to  a  great  height  almost  perpendicularly  ; 
and  if  there  is  not  much  wind,  the  greater 
number  of  them  fall  back 
again  into  the  crater.  As 
the  vapour  emerges  from  the 
sides  of  the  pit  it  deposits 
sulphur  and  various  salts, 
these  covering  the  surround- 
ing surface  with  variously 
and  beautifully  coloured  in- 

Notwithstanding  the  oft- 
repeated  warnings  of  the 
guides,  I  followed  Professor 
Blondel  up  the  new  cone, 
and  gained  with  difficulty 
the  edge  of  the  crater  ;  then 
together  we  peered  into  the 
terrible  interior  of  the  vol- 
cano. I  shall  never  forget 
the  sight — words  utterly  fail 
me  to  describe  adequately 
the  strange  and  awful  scene 
that  presented  itself  to  my 
view.  Rolling  clouds  of 
dense  white  fumes  were 
seen  covering  the  bottom 
and  almost  hiding  from 
sight  the  sides  ;  while,  from 
the  more  distant  part  of  the 
fiery  and  mysterious  abyss, 
the  cinders  and  stones 
before-mentioned  were  discharged  with  thunder- 
ous roars.  No  flames  were  to  be  seen,  but  on 
looking  down  the  fumes  were  found  to  be 
illuminated  as  if  by  a  colossal  fire  beneath. 

On  the  opposite  side  of  the  crater  the  lava 
was  in  a  liquid  state,  and  vapour  was  rising 
from  its  glowing  surface.  The  Professor,  after 
examining  closely  and  with  great  interest 
everything  around  us,  wanted  me  to  accompany 
him  close  to  the  liquid  lava,  but  I  firmly  declined 
to  do  so,  for  to  me  the  sight  of  it  was  awful 
enough  without  closer  inspection.  Heedless  of 
the  counsel  of  the  guides,  who  strenuously 
advised  him  not  to  go — pointing  out  that  the 
lava  was  in  a  molten  state,  and  that  he  might 
slip  and  fall  into  it— Professor  Blondel  per- 
sistently determined  to  proceed,  and  actually 
started  off.  At  the  last  moment  one  of  the 
guides  caught  hold  of  him  and  passionately  urged 
him  not  to  attempt  so  foolhardy  an  adventure, 
adding  that  he  and  his  fellow-guides,  as  natives 
of  the  district,  knew  the  frightful  danger  which 
was  before  him,  and  felt  sure  he  would  perish 
in    the    attempt.       And   yet,   in    spite   of  these 

[Dr.  Z.  E.  Birasky. 






From  a  Photo,  by  Dr.  Z.  E.  Birasky. 

entreaties  and  my  protests,  Blondel  positively 
declined  to  abandon  the  attempt,  and  would 
not  be  dissuaded. 

•'  He  is  going  to  certain  death,"  said  the 
guide  who  had  addressed  himself  to  me.  "  I 
would  stake  all  I  possess  that  this  unfortunate 
r  will  never  return  alive.  Such  a  crazy 
adventure  I  have  never  heard  of  in  all  my 
mountaineering  experience.  My  companions," 
he  added,  "  join  me  in  repudiating  any  re- 
sponsibility for  what  your  friend  is  doing."  As 
for  me,  I  was  in  a  perfect  agony  of  terror  and 
helplessness.  Professor  Blondel  was  still  pro- 
ceeding, so  I  shouted  out  to  him  imploring  him 
to  return  and  not  risk  his  life  in  such  a  mad 
attempt.  I  now  felt  certain  the  lava  was  too 
liquid  on  that  side  to  support  his  weight.  To 
my  cries,  however,  he  never  responded,  but 
-sed  forward  eagerly. 

I  cannot  well  describe  how  I  fei1  at  this  time. 
Nothing  that  I  could  do  would  stop  the  doomed 
man.  And  such  a  hideous  death  ....  crash- 
ing through  the  treacherous  crust,  not  into  icy 
water,  but  into  living  fire  ! 

Anxiously  I  followed  M.  Blondel's  every  step 
through  my  glass  until  he  had  reached  the  very 
edge  of  the  crater.  By  this  time  he  appeared 
to  be  extremely  fatigued,  and  was  advancing 
slowly  along  the  edge,  until  at  last  he  approached 
the  smooth,  recently-formed  lava,  in  which  I 
felt  sure  he  would  sink,  the  surface  being  too 
soft  to  bear  him.     Still  keeping  my  eyes  fixed 

upon  him  fascinated,  I  thought  I  should  lose 
my  reason.  I  wanted  desperately  to  call  out 
again  to  urge  him  to  come  back,  but  I  was 
quite  unable  to  do  so.  My  throat  was 
parched  and  contracted  from  the  agony  of 
that  awful  scene.  I  could  only  murmur  that 
poor  Blondel  was  lost — lost !  As  I  stood 
there  helplessly,  with  all  my  limbs  trembling 
in  deadly  fear,  you  may  judge  of  the  ghastly 
shock  I  sustained  when  I  saw  the  unfortu- 
nate man  sink  slowly  into  the  fiery  lava,  from 
which  there  was  no  possible  escape.  He 
uttered  no  sound  that  I  could  hear.  I  can, 
as  I  write  this,  see  him  as  it  were  again 
before  me,  as  he  clasped  his  hands  in  horror 
and  despair,  and  made  desperate  efforts  to 
extricate  himself.  He  appeared  to  call  for 
assistance  to  help  him  out  of  the  great 
expanse  of  liquid  fire — but,  alas  ! — all  was  in 
vain.  He  gradually  sank  beneath  its  dread 
surface,  and  was  swallowed  up  like  a  stone 
that  is  thrown  into  deep  water. 

This  heart-rending  scene,  which  lasted 
only  a  few  minutes,  seemed  positively  to 
paralyze  my  faculties.  I  did  not  know 
what  to  do  for  some  time.  All  my  senses 
seemed  to  leave  me,  and  I  could  not  move 
from  the  spot  whence  I  had  witnessed  my 
dear  friend  sinking  into  the  sea  of  fire.  My 
thoughts  ran  on  what  he  must  have  suffered  in 
those  last  moments,  and  how  the  unfortunate 
man  should  have  turned  back  as  he  found  the 
vapours  grow  more  suffocating  and  the  lava 
more  treacherously  soft. 

I  see  again  before  me  that  joyful  and 
courageous  Blondel  who  had  yielded  up  his  life 
in  scientific  pursuits.  For,  of  course,  he  would 
never  have  gone  to  the  other  side  of  the  crater 
but  for  his  determination  to  make  some 
meteorological  examinations — to  carry  out  his 
original  plans  upon  which  he  had  started.  He 
had  set  his  mind  on  solving  some  problem,  and 
no  risk  was  great  enough  to  deter  him.  Poor 
Blondel  ! 

After  this  terrible  disaster,  and  as  soon  as  I 
had  recovered  myself  a  little,  I  hastened  to 
make  the  descent  of  Vesuvius,  leaving  for  ever 
in  its  bottomless  pit  the  remains  of  my  poor 
friend.  Then,  taking  at  the  foot  of  the  mom. tain 
the  road  leading  to  Naples,  I  made  my  way  to 
the  hotel  with  all  possible  speed,  and  there 
found  awaiting  me  the  refreshments  ordered  by 
my  late  companion.  I  was,  of  course,  too 
distracted  to  eat,  and  hastened  to  telegraph  to 
the  family  of  the  late  Professor  what  had 
befallen  him.  Returning  to  the  hotel,  I  packed 
my  luggage  and  returned  home  by  the  midnight 

Some  Stanley  Relics,  and  Why  They  are  Prized. 

By  J.  Reed  Wade. 

The    renowned    Central    African    Explorer    here    permits    his    private    relics    to   be    photographed    and 

described  for  the  first  time.      There    is    something  interesting   about    each    of   these    historical   trifles, 

and  Mr.  Stanley  himself  tells  us  what  it  is  in  each  case.     Photos,  by  the  writer. 

jT  is  now  nearly  thirty  years  ago  that 
.Mr.  H.  M.  Stanley  (now  Sir  Henry 
M.  Stanley),  then  practically  un- 
known, was  told  by  Mr.  Gordon 
Bennett  to  find  David  Livingstone. 
The  story  of  his  expedition  into  the  heart  of 
Africa  in  search  of  the  Doctor,  and  its  success 
and  his  subsequent  expeditions — these  things 
are  too  well  known  to  most  of  our  readers  to 
need  re-telling  here. 

The  relics  of  these  expeditions — necessarily 
numerous  and  of  great  interest — now  rest  in  glass 
cases  in  Mr.  Stanley's  museum,  and  it  is  owing 
to  his  kindness  and  courtesy  that  we  have  been 
enabled  to  reproduce,  for  the  first  time,  these 
priceless  treasures  around  which  so  many 
memories,  both  pleasant  and  terrible,  are 

Perhaps  the  object  Mr.  Stanley  prizes  most  of 
all  in  the  collection  is  the  Consular  cap  which 
belonged  to  Dr.  Livingstone.  This  cap  forms 
the  subject  of  our  first  illustration.  There  it  is, 
just  as  Livingstone  wore  it  at  Ujiji  (save  for  the 
label,  pasted  on  for  exhibition  purposes)  when 
his  faithful  attendant,  Susi,  told  him  that  a  white 
man  was  approaching.      This  indeed  is  the  very 

cap  he  raised  in  response  to  Mr.  Stanley's  well- 
known  salutation,  "Dr.  Livingstone,  I  presume?" 
In  colour  it  is  of  a  bluish  tint,  and  is  lined  with 
silk  ;  the  faded  gold  lace  band,  symbolizing  his 
office,  can  just  be  discerned  in  the  photograph. 
In  order  to  preserve  this  relic  as  long  as  possible 
the  cap  is  kept  plentifully  besprinkled  with  moth 
powder.  In  spite  of  all  efforts,  however,  it  will 
be  observed  that  at  the  back  of  the  cap  some 

sacrilegious  moths  have  already  made  more  than 
one  disastrous  meal. 

Hardly  less  interesting  is  the  flag  next  repro- 
duced.    This  Egyptian  flag  was  carried  at  the 

%     "& 


head  of  the  expedition  for  the  relief  of  Emin 
Pasha,  by  special  permission  of  the  late  Nubar 
Pasha,  the  then  Prime  Minister;  the  object  of 
the  expedition  being  the  rescue  of  Egyptians. 
The  natives  of  the  country  through  which  the 
expedition  was  to  pass,  recognising  this  flag  as 
a  symbol  of  authority,  feared  to  molest  them  ; 
but  had  they  carried  any  other  ensign  they 
would  probably  have  met  with  hostility. 

It  will  be  noticed  from  the  photo,  that,  save 
for  the  edge,  the  flag  is  intact  and  unmutilated  by 
spear  or  bullet,  although  it  has  travelled  many 
thousands  of  miles  through  all  sorts  of  country 
— this  in  itself  proving  the  protection  the 
banner  afforded  the  expedition.  Its  edge  is 
simply  frayed  by  continual  flapping  in  the  wind. 
It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  Air.  Stanley  cut  out 
the  stars  and  crescent  himself,  and  stitched 
them  on-  to  a  piece  of  red  cloth — surely  an 
admirable  piece  of  work  for  a  member  of  the 
sterner  sex,  whom  few  would  suspect  of  dexterity 



with  the  needle     Indeed,  Mr.  Stanley  became 
quite  adept   in  the  use  o(  needle  and  thread— 
a  fact  which  is  fully  established  by  cur  next 


The  cap  shown  here  was  actually  made  by  the 

MR.    SI 







intrepid    explorer    himself   when    in    the   Great 
Forest  of  Africa.     He  found  that  the    helmet 
which  he  had  worn  up  to  that  time,  and  which 
was  in  too  dilapidated  a  condition  to  be  used 
any  longer,  impeded 
his    taking   a    quick      F — : — 
aim  at  any  animal  or      i - 
bird    which    passed 
his  track.    As  soon  as 
he  raised  his  arm  to 
fire,  the  peak  at  the 
back  of  the  helmet, 
made  for  protecting 
the   neck    from    the 
heat     of     the 
would      come 
contact      with 
ing  the  helmet  over   his   eyes   just    as   he    was 
about  to  take  aim,  and  frequently  causing  him 
to    miss    his    mark.       He,   therefore,  made    the 
sun  cap  reproduced,  which,  of  course,  has  no 
back  peak.       The  cap  is  composed  of  a   piece 
of  tent   cloth,   and   is  lined  with  beaten- 
out  fibre  from  the  calabash,  forming  an 
excellent  shield  from  the  sun's  rays  ;  the 
visor,  of  course,  being  taken  from  another 
old  cap. 

A  bulldog  revolver  and  two  knives 
were  the  weapons  Mr.  Stanley  carried 
personally,  his  rifle  and  elephant  gun 
being  borne  by  native  porters.  The 
revolver,  which  we  reproduce  next,  has 
an  interesting  history.  When  fired,  the 
recoil  from  this  weapon  was  so  great  that, 
at  a  greater  distance  than  thirty  yards,  it 
was  found  impossible  to  aim  accurately. 
This  was  a  great  drawback,  and  Mr. 
Stanley,  therefore,  set  to  work  to  steady  the 
revolver  in  someway.      That  "necessity 

is  the  mother  of  invention"  he  had  many  oppor- 
tunities of  proving,  notably  in  this  instance. 
Detaching  a  portion  of  his  mahogany  boat,  the 
Alice  Mary — part  of  section  3,  as  will  be  seen 
from  the  photograph — he  shaped  it  like  a  gun- 
stock,  and  screwed  the  piece  on  to  the  handle  of 
the  revolver,  converting  that  troublesome  little 
weapon  into  what  looks  like  a  small  rifle  ;  a 
very  simple  but  effective  device  for  surmounting 
his  difficulty.  With  this  butt-end  arrangement 
Mr.  Stanley  found  he  could  bring  anything 
down  at  a  distance  of  eighty  yards,  which,  of 
course,  was  a  great  improvement  upon  thirty 
yards  without  the  appendage.  Strapped  to  his 
shoulder  and  hanging  at  his  side,  the  revolver 
became  a  very  useful  weapon,  leaving  his  right 
hand  free  to  make  use  of  his  staff.  The  con- 
ception of  fastening  a  butt-end  on  to  a  revolver 
is  an  old  idea  now ;  it  was  not  so,  however, 
when  Mr.  Stanley  used  the  device  in  the  Great 
Forest.  The  idea  was,  in  fact,  entirely  his  own  ; 
he  knew  he  had  to  steady  his  revolver  some- 
how, and  after  careful    thought  he  succeeded, 

as  We   have   shown. 
~---i  The     great     ex- 

plorer's two  knives 
form  the  subject  of 
our  next  picture. 
The  larger  of  the 
two  was  carried  fas- 
tened to  his  belt, 
and  was  used  for 
cutting  a  passage 
through  the  under- 
growth of  the  forest, 
or  for  lopping  off  the 
offending  bough  of 
a  tree ;  the  smaller  one — presented  to  him, 
by  the  way,  by  a  Queen's  Messenger — was 
used  as  a  kind  of  handy  knife  for  anything 
and  everything  which  might  need  cutting  or 

LARGER    OV    THES2    TWO    KNIVES    MK.    MAN 




The  cartridge  next  reproduced  is  a  specimen 
of  the  missile  used  for  penetrating  the  hide  of 
elephants.  The  half-crown  which  is  photo- 
graphed by  its  side  will  give  the  reader  a  fair 
idea  of  its  size.  The  leaden  bullet  weighs 
about  three  ounces,  yet  Mr.  Stanley  relates 
how  on  one  occasion  he  hit  an  elephant  three 
times  in  succession  with  similar  projectiles,  and 
then  failed    to   secure  his   quarry  ;    the   animal 




meat    pnnci- 

into   the   dense    bush,    probably  only 
to  die  there  from  loss  of  blood. 

The  expedition  was  kept  in 
pally  by  what  fell  to  these  shots. 
The  elephant  rifle,  or  "little  can- 
non," as  it  was  termed  by  the 
natives,  and  with  which  these 
terrible  bullets  were  fired,  was,  of 
course,  very  heavy,  and  it  was  no 
easy  task  to  fire  it  accurately.  Mr. 
Stanley,  however,  got  so  used  to  it, 
that  during  one  month  he  secured 
fifty-seven  blue  and  water  buck  by 
its  aid,  not  to  mention  smaller 
animals.  One  of  the  missiles 
shown  was  sufficient  to  kill  any- 
thing from  a  buffalo  downwards  ; 
elephants  sometimes  requiring  a 
second  shot. 

the    expedition, 

ever    thought    of 

a    day's    hunting 

medicines ;    indeed,    he  would 

of    leaving    his    rifle     behind. 

tired  after  a   hard  day"s   work,    what 

easier    than   to    catch   a   chill   whilst 

Whilst  with 
no  white  man 
going  out  for 
little  stock  of 
as  soon  think 
Hot  and 
could    be 




without     his 

The  bottles  could  be  refilled,  of  couise,  when 
empty,  each  phial  holding  about  twenty  to  thirty 
tabloids.  The  little  tablet  shown  is  presumably 
for  writing  down  prescriptions  or  notes. 

The  water-bottle  depicted  above  always  hung 
at  Mr.  Stanley's  side.  As  will  be  seen  from  the 
photograph,  it  has  been  covered 
with  a  piece  of  cloth— not  by 
Mr.  Stanley  himself  this  time,  but 
by  his  native  boy  Saleh.  This 
was  done  to  keep  the  heat  of  the 
sun  from  evaporating  the  water. 
In  spite  of  this,  however,  Mr. 
Stanley  has  many  a  time  gone  to 
it  in  order  to  slake  his  thirst, 
only  to  find  the  bottle  empty  ! 

Not   only  water  did  they  lack 
on  occasion,  but  food  also.  Daring 
the    march    through    the    Great 
Forest    they    absolutely   ran    out 
of  all  food,  subsisting  on  berries 
and    wood-beans — in    fact,    any- 
thing  eatable  which   they  could 
find.     Hence  the  interest  attach- 
next    illustration,    which    shows    a 
wood-bean,  the  half-crown   piece  being  photo- 
graphed  by   its   side  in  order  that    the    reader 

INE-CHEST  Willi. I 
F   A   CARD-CAsP. 

ing    to   our 

resting?  And  then  fever  would  probably  ensue, 
as  it  does  in  nearly  every  case,  whether  the 
trouble  be  sunstroke,  dysentery,  or  chill  ;  and  the 
hunter,  unable  to  crawl  home  in  such  a  condi- 
tion, would  in  all  probability  die  in  the  forest. 
Provided  with  medicine,  however,  he  would  be 
able  to  allay  or  perchance  prevent  the  fever. 
Our  next  illustration  shows  Mr.  Stanley's  little 
pocket  medicine-chest.  It  is  about  the  size  of 
an  ordinary  card-case,  the  medicines  being  made 
up  in  doses  in  the  form  of  tabloids,  a  large 
number  of  which  were  taken   by  the  expedition. 

Vol.  iv    -13 


OUT    OF     FOOD,    AND     HAD    TO    LIVE    ON    WOOD-BEANS    LIKE    THIS. 


may  compare  their  relative  sizes, 
name  is  the  "  makweme,"  and  it  grows  in  pods, 
four  ans  in  each  pod.  o\  about  loin.  long, 
an  is  very  plentiful  in  the  forest,  and, 
being  an  inch  thick,  is  fairly  substantial.  It 
has  ^  i.   dove  coloured    skin,   which   when 

scraped  away     a  hint,  by  the  way,  given  them 
v   woman   whom    they   happened  to 
the   bean    may   be  mashed,  bruised, 
or    boiled    whole.       On    account    of   its    tough, 
iery  nature,   however,    the  bruising   method 
usually  adopted.      When  these  beans,  which 
wen  ist   satisfying,   were   not  forthcoming, 

Mr.  Stanley  and  his  men  had  to  fall  back  upon 
such  various  kinds  of  berries  as  they  could  find. 
.  when  nothing  of  even  tins  sort  was  to  be 
procured  they  had  to  consume  white  ants,  slugs, 
era!-,  tortoises,  and  roast  field  rats— an  experi- 
ence surely  terrible  enough  to  turn  any  man's 
hair  white  in  the  course  of  three  years. 

Hut  to  turn  to  a  more  pleasant  subject.     Our 
next  illustration  is  a  photograph  of  the  compass 


Its    native 


IT    IS    As    TRUE    NOW    AS    EVER    IT    WAS. 

The  little  box  of  safety  matches  next  repro- 
duced has  had  an  eventful  career.  It  was  left 
at  Yambuya  with  the  reserve  stock  of  provisions, 
etc.,  whilst  the  expedition  journeyed  farther 
down  the  river,  and  was  subsequently  sent  on 
with  other  things  by  canoe.  In  its  course  the 
canoe  filled  several  times  with  water,  only  reach- 
ing the  expedition  after  some  months.  The  next 
adventure  undergone  by  the  matches  was  to 
be  upset  in  the  Great  Forest,  and  being  valuable 
they  were,  of  course,  scrupulously  picked  up  and 
replaced,  and  when  needed  were  found  to  strike 
quite  properly.  After  the  return  of  the  expedi- 
tion the  remaining  matches,  together  with  the 
box  (which  is  of  the  kind  sold  in  London  streets 
at  six  boxes  for  a  penny),  were  duly  installed 
amongst  the  Stanley  relics  as  champion  long- 
distance travellers — at  anv  rate,  as  far  as  a  box 
and  matches  are  concerned. 

Our  next  picture  shows  the  three  whistles  with 
which  Mr.  Stanley  called  his  followers  together. 
The  whistle  to  the  left  was  given  to  the  explorer 
by  a  friend,  an  officer,  and  has  engraved  upon  it 
the  words,  "Oh,  blow  such  kind  of  walking." 
This  mysterious  inscription,  the  existence  of 
which  Mr.  Stanley  was  not  even  aware  until  it 
was  pointed   out   to   him  after  his  return,   is  a 

which  guided  the  expedition  through  the  (beat 
st  of  Central  Africa.  Mr.  Stanley  always 
carried  this  instrument  fastened  round  his  neck. 
Without  it  he  says  it  would  have  been  impossible 
•netrate  the  forest.  Like  a  ship  in  mid- 
n  without  a  compass  nay,  worse,  tor  the 
ship  usually  has  the  stars  by  which  to  guide  her 
course — the  expedition  would  infallibly  have 
been  lost.  It  would  have  taken  a  circular  route, 
always  returning  to  the  place  from  whence  it 
started.  Lvery  tree  is  alike;  there  is  nothing 
which  could  in  any  way  serve  as  a  guide,  the  trees 
themselves  turning  the  most  brilliant  sunlight 
almost  to  twilight.  This  compass  certainly  was 
an  important  factor  in  the  materiel  of  the 
expedition.  At  one  time  it  was  japanned,  but 
every  vestige  of  the  enamel  has  now  disappeared 
through  constant  wear.  The  compass  itself, 
however,  remains  as  true  as  ever  it  was. 

;  HER.       I  HE    MIDDLE   ONE 




IHE    EXPLORERS    BOOTS  AS    llll-.VW 

curiously  appropriate  one  in  view  of  the  immense 
amount  of  tedious  walking  Mr.  Stanley  accom- 

The  police  whistle  in  the  centre,  presented 
to  him  by  Miss  Tennant  (now  his  wife),  was 
only  used  on  special  occasions.  If,  for  instance, 
news  had  come  to 
Mr.  Stanley  which 
he  wished  to  com- 
municate with  all 
possible  speed  to 
his  followers  he 
would  blow  this  par- 
ticular whistle ;  and 
so  accustomed  did 
the  natives  get  to 
its  sound,  that  they 
could  tell  exactly  in 
what  sort  of  mood 
their  leader  was 
when  he  gave  the 
signal !  If  blown 
impatiently  they 
knew  that  the 
sooner  they  an- 
swered    by    their 

presence  the  better  it  would  be  for  them  ; 
whereas,  if  an  ordinary  blow  were  given,  they 
took  their  own  time  and  strolled  leisurely 
towards  the  appointed  meeting-place. 

The  next  illustration  is,  indeed,  an  interesting 
one.  It  shows  the  last  pair  of  boots  Mr.  Stanley 
wore  on  his  expe- 
dition, together 
with  their  con- 
dition when  he 
reached  civiliza- 
tion. Six  pairs 
were  taken,  each 
made  specially 
strong  in  order 
the  better  to  re- 
sist the  tremen- 
dous wear  and 
tear.  And  the 
expedition  lasted 
over  three  years, 
one  pair  of  boots 
wearing     out    in 

about  nine  months  when  travelling  over  ordinary 
paths.  This  pair,  however,  did  not  last  anything 
like  that  time.  They  had  to  be  used  whilst  Mr. 
Stanley  was  travelling  from  Stanley  Falls  to  the 
coast.  By  far  the  greater  part  of  this  journey 
had  to  be  made  over  rocky  ground,    by  leaping 

from  boulder  to 
boulder  and  scram- 
bling over  sharp 
rocks  —  which,  as 
will  be  clearly  seen 
from  the  photo.,  is 
a  bad  thing  for 
boots.  The  sole  is 
completely  gone 
from  the  farther 
boot,  and  in  the  near 
one  it  is  fastened  to 
the  boot  with  pieces 
of  trade  wire  ;  the 
patch  covering  a 
rent  in  its  side  being 
made  out  of  a  por- 
tion of  sail-cloth 
taken  from  the  in- 
flatable pontoon 
which  was  used  during  the  expedition. 

Our  concluding  illustration  is  interesting  inas- 
much as  it  shows  what  strides  civilization  has 
made  of  late  years  in  Africa.  This  little  book, 
presented  to  Mr.  Stanley  by  a  missionary,  was 
printed  at  Lukolela.  in  Central  Africa,  entirely 

by  the  natives, 
and  in  the  lan- 
of  the 
The  mis- 
sionary wished  to 
show  Mr.  Stanley 
that  the  people 
with  whom  he 
once  fought  were 
already  giving  up 
their  evil  ways 
for  more  peaceful 
pursuits.  It  cer- 
tainly is  an  ad- 
mirable piece  of 
native  work. 

I'll    SAIL-CLOTH    AM)     1  RADE     tt  IRE. 





THE    FKIN'TED    BOOK    PRESENTED   TO    MR.    SlA.NLliY    BY 

A    Doctor  in    the    Wilds. 

\\\  Col.   F.  T.   Pollok. 

Colonel    Pollok's    missionary    host    first    relates    some    hunting    adventures,    and    then    tells    how    a 

desperately-wounded   Masai  warrior  was  brought  to  him  to  be  cured.     And  if  the  missionary   medico 

failed  to  effect  a  cure,  the  whole  mission  station  was  to  be  wiped  out  ! 

IN  one  o\  my  wanderings  in  East 
Africa,  about  two  days'  journey 
inland  from  Mombasa,  I  found 
myself  on  the  top  of  a  range  of 
hills.  Hert  was  a  mission-bouse, 
in  which  a  lay  missionary  resided  with  bis  wife 
and  family.  Me  very  kindly  allowed  me  and 
my  follower-  to  sleep  in  a  portion  of  the  bouse 

too  —  three  of  them  in  the  heart  of  the  town  of 
Mombasa  !  He  wouldn't  shoot  one  there  now  ! 
We  used  to  sit  outside  and  chat  of  an  evening, 
and  as  I  was  new  to  that  part  of  Africa,  and 
also  an  ardent  sportsman,  I  never  tired  of  asking 
my  host  questions,  which  he  was  ever  ready  to 

"  You  were  at  Mpwapwa,  were  you  not  ? "  I 

From  a] 

Tilt    AUTHOR    IN    EAST    AE-'KICA — COLONEL    POLLOK    IS    RECLINING    ON    THE    I    I 


set  apart  for  the  daily  services,  but  we  had  to 
clear  out  each  day  at  6  a.m.,  at  which  hour 
service  was  carried  on  by  the  incumbent  in  a 
native  dialect,  which  neither  I  nor  my  comrades 
understood.  However,  as  we  left  at  daylight 
;am  the  jungle  in  search  of  game,  and  did 
not  return  until  the  evening,  that  entailed  no 
inconvenience  on  us. 

I  found  the  pastor  a  gentleman  and  a  man  of 
culture — an  M.D.  of  Edinburgh  and  London — 
who,  out  of  pure  philanthropy,  had  volunteered 
his  services  as  lay  brother  to  the  East  African 
M  ^ion.  He  was  a  powerful,  determined-look- 
ing man,  a  great  athlete,  and  a  first-rate  shot.  He 
was  very  fond  of  natural  history,  and  possessed 
many  specimens  of  rare  birds  and  some  very 
small  antelope.     He  had  shot  a  good  many  lions, 

inquired.  "  I  am  told  there  is  good  sport  to  be 
had  there." 

"  Yes,"  replied  my  host.  "  A  friend  of  mine 
was  tossed  by  a  buffalo,  there ;  and,  if  you  like 
to  hear  the  details,  I'll  relate  them  as  nearly  in 
his  own  words  as  I  can." 

"  Pray  do  so,"  I  replied. 

Accordingly,  my  host,  lighting  a  fresh  cheroot, 
commenced:  "About  six  months  after  my 
adventure  with  the  lions  in  Mombasa,  I  was 
ordered  off"  to  Mpwapwa  (which  was  then  one 
of  our  principal  stations  in  this  part  of  Africa — ■ 
that  was  before  it  was  bonded  over  to  Germany), 
where  there  was  a  good  deal  of  sickness  just 
then.  Although  I  hurried  over  the  ground,  as 
I  was  anxious  to  get  to  my  destination,  I  had 
'1    snort   en  route.      And   I    had   one    rather 

A    DOCTOR    IN    THE    WILDS. 


narrow  escape.  I  had  knocked  down  an  oryx, 
and,  on  going  up  to  cut  its  throat,  the  antelope 
sprang  up  suddenly  and  prodded  at  me  with  his 
long,  sharp  horns.  So  sudden  was  his  attack, 
that  he  managed  to  knock  the  rifle  out  of  my 
hand,  and  one  horn  actually  went  through  my 
waistcoat  sideways,  grazing  the  flesh.  I  seized 
him  by  both  horns,  however,  and  then  we  had  a 
tussle,  I  can  tell  you.  Fortunately,  I  was 
tolerably  strong  in  the  arms,  for  I  was  given  to 
athletics  and  boating  in  my  college  days,  and  do 
a  little  gymnastics  even  now,  whenever  I  get  the 
chance.  I  was  in  prime  condition  and  hard  as 
nails  on  this  occasion.  The  poor  brute,  though 
as  big  as  a  pony,  was  severely  wounded,  and 
had  lost  much  blood,  or  the  encounter  might 
have  ended  very  differently.  After  a  tough 
struggle — which  lasted,  I  should  say,  for  nearly 
five  minutes — I  succeeded  in  throwing  him  over 
on  his  side.     Then,  kneeling  down,   I  got  one 

round  Mpwapwa  is  a  high  table-land.  It  is  a 
lovely  country,  with  every  diversity  of  forest  and 
prairie.  Our  hunting  -  ground  was  from  two 
to  three  miles  off.  It  was  about  4  p.m.  when 
our  friend  started.  Our  dinner  hour  was 
seven.  As  he  did  not  return,  we  waited  till 
eight,  and  then,  fearing  some  accident  had 
happened,  we  went  in  the  direction  he  had 
indicated.  Taking  with  us  some  boys  with 
torches,  we  searched  for  ever  two  hours,  every 
now  and  then  firing  off  0uns,  but  we  got  no 
reply  of  any   sort ;  and  it   was  nearly  midnight 

before  we  came  across  poor  B ,  more  dead 

than  alive.  He  was  in  a  truly  shocking  condition, 
and  unable  to  articulate.  We  made  a  stretcher 
and  carried  him  home,  where  for  three  weeks  he 
hovered  between  life  and  death.  At  last,  thanks 
to'a  good  constitution,  sober  habits,  and  an  all- 
powerful  Providence,  he  began  to  mend  ;  but  it 
was  nearly  six  weeks  before  he  was  able  to  relate 

",  *» 

c  v 


knee  on  to  his  head,  and  having  my  right  arm 
free,  I  soon  put  him  out  of  his  misery  with  my 
shikar  knife. 

"  I  had  been  at  Mpwapwa  about  two  months, 
and  some  of  us  generally  went  out  daily  to  get 
game    for   the  larder ;    we   seldom   came    back 

empty-handed.       One    day    B took    his 

smooth-bore,  saying  he  had  heard  guinea-fowl 
calling  in  a  nullah  not  far  off,  and  that  he  would 
try  and   secure  a  brace   or  two.     The  country 

what  had  happened.  I  may  say  here  that  we 
knew  from  the  marks  on  his  body,  and  an  ex- 
amination of  the  ground  next  day,  that  he  had 
been  mauled  by  a  buffalo. 

"  I  could  not  leave  my  patient,  but  two  of  our 
party  took  up  the  trail  and,  after  following  the 
brute  a  long  way,  came  up  with  him.  He  proved 
to  be  a  solitary  bull.  They  came  upon  him 
suddenly,  and  after  a  stubborn  fight  killed  him. 
They   brought  home  the  head  as  a  present  for 


THE    \\'11>I<;    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

B .     It   is  one    o\   the  finest   1   have  ever 

n,  the  hums  at  the  broadest  part  measuring 
5 1  in.  and  very  thick.  Our  injured  friend  gave 
the  following  account  of  his  adventure  : — 

"  •  After  leaving  you,'  he  said.  '  I  took  a  broad 
path  to  the  north-west,  and  followed  it  for  about 
two  miles.  1  had  seen  only  a  small  antelope  or 
two,  for  there  is  seldom  anything  bigger  so  near 
the  station.  I  had  ball  cartridges  in  my  pocket. 
my  gun  was  loaded  with  No.  4  shot  only. 
The  nullah  I  told  you  of  was  then  about  half  a 
mile  oil.  and  1  was  walking  quietly  along  the 
narrow  pathway,  skirted  with  longish  grass,  when 
I  heard  footsteps  behind  me.  and  had  only 
partially  turned  round, when,  without  the  slightest 
warning,  1  was  tossed  high  into  the  air  and 
flung  to  a  considerable  dis- 
tan  There      were     no 

preliminaries  (exciting  or 
otherwise)  such  as  one 
reads  about.  Of  course  I 
was  much  shaken,  but  no 
bones    were     broken,     nor 

-  I  wounded.  Had  I 
lain  quiet,  I  have  no  doubt 
I  should  have  escaped 
further  injury  :   but.  in  the 

itement  of  the  moment, 
I  jumped  up  to  recover 
my  gun — only,  however,  to 
find  a  fiend  in  the  shape 
of  a  buffalo  of  the  largest 
size  down  upon  me  again. 
This  time  the  monster 
severely  wounded  me,  and 
threw  me  with  great  vio- 
lence. Following  me  up 
closely,  he  thrust  his  huge 
horns  forward,  and  rolled 
me  backwards  and  for- 
wards, mauling  me  dread- 
fully. I  did  not  lose  con- 
sciousness, but  remained 
as  quiet  as  I  could,  feign- 
ing death.  I  was  afraid 
he  would  kneel  on  me  and 
knead  me  to  a  jelly  :  in- 
deed, twice  he  essayed  to 
do  so,  but  seemed  to 
change  his  mind  each  time. 

It  was  dreadful  to  feci  the  hot  breath  from  his 
nostrils,  and  see  his  diabolical  eyes  glaring  at 
me  only  a  few  inches  off. 

" '  Having  rolled  me  about,  the  buffalo  presently 
stood  still  and  eyed  me  suspiciously.  He  then 
walked  off  a  few  paces  and  paused.  Whether  I 
unwittingly  moved  a  limb,  I  know  not,  but  that 
fearful  brute  rushed  back  again  and  tossed  me 
as  though  I  had  been  a  rag  doll.     Never  can  I 

hope  to  describe  the  stunning  thrust  of  the 
powerful  horn,  the  giddy  sensation  of  flying 
through  the  air,  and  the  final  crash  as  my  poor 
maimed  body  struck  the  earth.  This  time  I 
lost  consciousness,  and  knew  nothing  more  until 
I  found  myself  here  in  bed.'  " 

"What  a  perfectly  miraculous  escape!"  I 
exclaimed,  as  the  doctor  concluded  the  story  of 
his  friend. 

"  Yes,"  he  replied  ;  "  but  after  I  married,  and 
my  wife  and  I  went  to  live  at  a  solitary  station 
of  the  mission,  I  think  we  had  an  even  narrower 
escape  from  those  mighty  warriors,  the  Masai. 
The  people  of  the  surrounding  country  were  all 
communicants.  We  had  built  a  large  chapel, 
and  it  was  daily  well  attended.    The  inhabitants 


mt  - 

C   K 



had  few  cattle,  and  there  was  nothing  to  attract 
the  Masai  to  that  district.  Besides,  we  were 
far  away  from  any  of  their  usual  haunts.  Y'et 
one  morning  these  dreaded  warriors  rushed  into 
the  villages,  killing  men,  women,  and  children 
in  the  most  appalling  manner.  The  few  who 
escaped  the  first  rush  fled  to  us  for  protection, 
but  were  followed  very  quickly  by  the  relentless 
savages.     Our  first  child  was  then  but  a  month 

A    DOCTOR    IN    THE    WILDS. 




old,  and  my  wife  barely  convalescent.  Imagine 
my  horror  and  despair  when  I  found  we  were 
completely  in  the  power  of  these  dreadful  savages, 
who  had  never  been  known  to  spare  a  soul.  I 
had  my  battery  at  hand,  and  although  I  did  not 
value  so  much  my  own  life,  I  was  determined 
to  defend  my  family  to  the  utmost  of  my  power. 
At  the  same  time,  I  knew  that  unless  a  Higher 
Power  intervened,  we  wTere  as  good  as  dead  ; 
for  what  could  one  man  do  against  a  horde  of 
bloodthirsty  Masai  ?  I  had  but  little  time  to 
think,  however.  I  fastened  the  doors  of  an 
inner  room  as  well  as  I  could  upon  my  wife 
and  child,  and  then,  with  my  guns  lying  on 
the  floor  close  to  my  feet  and  covered  over 
with  a  mat,  I  sat  with  a  small  table  in  front 
of  me  in  the  veranda,  which  was  raised 
about  a  foot  and  a  half  off  the  ground. 
Had  we  had  secure  fastenings  to  our  doors 
and  windows,  I  should  have  barricaded  the 
house  and  fought  it  out ;  but 
the  more  simple  Africans,  we 
had  acquired  a  sense  of  security, 
and  our  frail  doors  and  windows 
had  neither  shutters,  bolts,  nor 
bars.  Indeed,  there  was  no  need 
for  them,  living  as  we  did,  and 
trusting  our  people.  In  the 
ordinary  way  there  was  much 
greater  danger  to  be  apprehended 

than  from  men 

A  few  minutes 
after  the  first  attack,  a  crowd  of 
fugitives  came  running  up  the 
hill-path  which  led  to  our  house, 
closely  followed  by  the  Masai.* 
It  is  impossible  to  describe  with 
accuracy  the  savage  appearance 
of  these  blood-stained  monsters. 
Hideously  ugly  naturally,  they 
adorn  their  persons  with  every 
device  that  can  make  them  look 
still  more  repulsive.  The  extra- 
ordinary fringe  of  feathers  that 
envelops  their  ugly  countenances  ; 
the  loose  monkey  skin,  which, 
fastened  by  a  string  of  beads 
round  the  throat,  lies  across  the 
back,  swaying  to  and  fro  with 
every  movement  of  the  body ; 
their  huge  naked  limbs,  the 
great  spear  and  shield,  and  the 
short  sword  carried  at  the  waist 

in  a  leather  belt,  with  a  formidable  knob- 
kerry  ;  and  the  bits  of  feathery  skin  tied  below 
the  knee  which  fly  out  as  they  trot  along — all 
these  render  the  Masai  the  most  terrifying  of 
human  beings. 

"  Two  or  three  of  the  poor  villagers  were 
speared  and  killed  in  front  of  where  I  sat,  and 
my  blood  boiled  at  my  own  impotence.  But 
for  my  wife  and  child  I  would  have  shot  d^own 
some  of  the  savages  where  they  stood,  regard- 
less of  the  consequences  to  myself.  As  it  was, 
I  was  obliged  to  sit  still,  quivering  with  rage  and 
horror,  my  revolver  grasped  tightly  in  my  hand 
and  resting  on  my  knees  just  under  the  ledge  of 
the  table.  Suddenly  one  of  the  chiefs,  a  giant 
in  stature,  with  blood  dripping  from  the  blade 
of  his  spear,  sprang  into  the  veranda,  and 
with  upraised  weapon  stood  glaring  at  me, 
not  a  yard  off.  We  were  both,  I  believe, 
within  an  ace  of  death.  Had  he  moved  forward 
but   an    inch    I    should    have    shot    him    dead, 

from  wild  beasts 
in  that  region. 

*  This  strongly  recalls  the  scene  preceding 
the  massacre  of  the  missionaries— Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Houghton— by  the  Masai,  as  related  in 
our  May  number  by  Mr.  Walter  Bone,  now 
residing  in  Sydney.  Mr.  Bone  afterwards 
visited  the  Masai  country  to  inquire  into  the 
dreadful  affair. 


STOOD   CLARIM,    AT   ME,    NUT   A   YARD   OFF." 



and  been  myself  instantly  speared  by  his 
numerous  followers.  Controlling  my  feelings, 
how  aking   in    one   of  the   native 

dialects,  1  said,  '  Well,  chief,  what  is  the 
matter?  Sit  down  and  tell  me  what  brings  you 
here,    where    there    are    no    cattle    and    only    a 

mleSS  people.'  He  appeared  to  understand 
what  I  said,  but  spoke  so  rapidly  in  return  that 
I  could  not  follow  him.  Lowering  his  spear. 
lie  again  addressed  me,  this  time  more  slowly, 
and  1  made   out   a    part  o\    what   he  said.      We 

I,  it  appeared,  a  girl  in  the  mission  who  had 
formerly  been  a  slave  among  the  Masai,  and 
-  ':ie  chief  asked  for  her,  I  called  out  to  my 
to  >end  her  to  me  at  once.  In  the  mean- 
while the  slaughter  had  ceased,  and  the  warriors 
now  assembled  in  great  numbers  in  front  of 
the  house,  and  even  in  the  veranda  itself. 

•  The  poor  girl  presently  came  out,  trembling 

but  did  not  care  about  the  latter,  as  he  could  not 
understand  it.  'If  you  are  a  great  medicine 
man,'  said  he,  'attend  without  delay  to  one  of 
our  principal  men,  who  has  been  severely  injured 
I iv  a  buffalo.  If  you  can  cure  him,  we  will  go 
away  and  never  again  molest  this  part  of  the 
country,  nor  allow  anyone  else  to  do  so.' 

"  '  Where  is  he  ?  '  I  inquired  ;  '  send  for  the 
sick  man.'  So  saying  I  called  out  to  my  wife, 
telling  her  that  she  need  not  be  afraid,  but 
might  show  herself  and  the  baby.  I  also  told 
her  to  collect  our  servants  and  get  a  room 
ready  for  the  expected  patient.  I  then  quietly 
pocketed  the  revolver,  removed  the  guns  and 
rifles  from  beneath  the  mat,  and  got  together 
my  medical  instruments  and  appliances. 

"  About  a  quarter  of  an  hour  later  a  warrior  was 
carried  in,  in  a  sort  of  native  blanket,  and  I  laid 
him  down  on   the  camp-cot   and  examined   him 


all  over,  and  no  doubt  thinking  he'-  last  hour 
had  come.  However,  on  seeing  me  sitting 
n  quietly  and  unharmed,  she  became  a  little 
more  tranquil,  and  proceeded  at  my  request 
to  interpret  the  interview.  The  chief  then 
demanded  what  I  was  doing  there.  I  told  him 
I  was  a  medicine  man,  who  administered  not 
only  to  the  body  but  also  to  the  soul.  He  said 
he  could  appreciate  my  usefulness  in  the  former, 

most  carefully.  I  found  a  compound  fracture  of 
the  thigh  ;  several  ribs  and  a  collar-bone  broken, 
and  the  body  generally  not  only  punctured  in 
several  places,  but  practically  one  vast  bruise.  A 
worse  case  I  never  sawr,  and  as  the  wounds 
were  several  days  old,  I  was  afraid  gangrene 
had,  or  would  very  soon,  set  in.  I  thought  that 
in  order  to  save  the  life  of  my  savage  patient  I 
should   have  to  amputate   the  broken   leg  close 

A    DOCTOR    IN   THE    WILDS. 


to  the  hip ;  but  when  I  suggested  this,  the 
patient  and  his  comrades  grew  furious,  and 
promptly  denounced  me  as  an  impostor.  '  What 
use,'  they  asked,  '  would  a  warrior  be  with  only 
one  leg,  even  supposing  he  survived  the 
disastrous  operation  ? ' 

"  The  savages  now  became  very  threatening  in 
their  language  and  manner,  when  my  suggestions 
were  interpreted.  May  the  sympathies  of  the 
respectable  London  family  practitioner  be  with 
me  ! — for  surely  a  doctor  never  had  so  amazing 
a  '  kill  or  cure '  case,  so  there  was  nothing  for 
it  but  to  do  the  very  best  I  could  for  the 
desperately  wounded  man,  and  then  trust  to 
Providence.  I  desired  all  the  Masai  but  two  to 
retire,  and  before  they  went  they  promised  a 
truly  embarrassing  truce.  No  man,  woman,  or 
child  among  our  people  was  to  be  injured  while 
the  ivounded  chief  lived  !  If  I  couldn't  save  him, 
however,  we  would  all  be  wiped  out.  That  was 
exactly  the  situation.  In  the  meantime  they 
appropriated  the  few  cattle  the  villagers  had,  and 
feasted  on  them.  My  milch  cow  they  spared, 
as  we  told  them  it  was  required  for  the  baby. 
Turning  to  the  patient  on  whom  so  much 
depended,  I  reduced  the  fracture,  bound  the 
man  up  secundum  artet/i,  washed  his  sores  with 
diluted  carbolic  acid,  and  did  all  I  possibly 
could.  Then,  giving  him  a  mild  opiate,  I 
enjoined  the  greatest  quietness  and  left  Nature  to 
do  the  rest.  Now,  although  these  Masai  live  on  a 
meat  diet  exclusively,  they  are  abstemious  in 
every  other  respect,  and  taking,  as  they  do,  an 
immense  deal  of  exercise,  they  are  naturally 
healthy  and  hardy.  In  a  week  my  patient  was 
decidedly  better,  and  if  the  improvement  went 
on,  I  hoped  to  save  not  only  his  life  but  his 
limbs  also.  But  it  was  an  anxious  time,  as  you 
may  suppose.  My  wife  attended  on  the  savage 
assiduously,  and  fed  him  like  a  child.  At  first 
he  objected  to  any  diet  but  that  to  which  he  had 
been  accustomed — that  is  to  say,  great  pieces  of 
half-cooked  beef.  But  beef  was  scarce  with  us. 
We  seldom  tasted  it,  and  lived  mostly  on  dried 
amelope  meat,  which  I  either  shot  or  purchased 
from  the  village  shikarees.      We  fortunately  had 

just  at  this  time  a  large  stock  of  meat,  as  I  had 
lately  been  unusually  lucky  in  bagging  a  lot  of 
deer  and  two  buffaloes.  Out  of  this  store  we 
made  the  strongest  extract  we  could,  and  per- 
suaded the  sick  man  to  take  it.  His  progress 
was  rapid  and  splendid.  After  ten  days  or  a 
fortnight  the  greater  part  of  his  tribe,  finding 
him  doing  so  well,  left  our  country — to  my  un- 
speakable relief— promising  that  we  should  not 
be  molested  again. 

"  In  a  month  all  but  two  had  left ;  one  was  a 
brother  of  the  chief  who  had  threatened  me  on 
the  day  of  the  raid,  and  the  other  some  relation 
of  the  wounded  man.  At  the  end  of  another 
month  even  these  two  left,  asking  when  I  thought 
the  invalid  would  be  able  to  get  about  again. 
I  told  them  in  about  six  weeks  or  two  months 
more,  and  they  promised  to  return  then.  They 
had  noticed  my  fondness  for  natural  history 
specimens,  whether  dead  or  alive,  and  when 
they  did  come  back  they  actually  brought  with 
them  (carried  by  people  whom  they  had  forced 
to  act  as  porters)  quite  a  small  menagerie  of 
birds  and  beasts,  and  also  a  lot  of  horns.  Some 
of  these  I  have  been  able  to  send  home  by  men 
of  the  mission  going  back  to  England  for  a 
change  of  climate,  but  I  have  several  rare  birds, 
especially  two  live  eagles,  which  I  think  are  new 
to  science,  and  which  I  greatly  prize.  It  is, 
however,  very  difficult  to  get  them  food,  as  they 
will  touch  nothing  but  fresh  raw  meat,  which  is 
not  always  obtainable." 

I  told  the  good  doctor  I  should  be  going 
home  shortly  and  would,  with  pleasure,  take 
charge  of  anything  for  him. 

"  But  what  became  of  the  wounded  man," 
I  asked  ;  "  and  did  the  Masai  keep  their 
promise  ?  " 

"  The  chief  got  quite  well,"  was  the  reply  ;  "  he 
had  a  slight  limp,  but  it  was  scarcely  perceptible, 
and  so  grateful  was  he  for  my  treatment  and  the 
care  bestowed  upon  him  by  my  wife,  that  he 
presented  her  with  the  full-dress  costume  worn 
by  a  Masai  chief  of  the  highest  rank,  together 
with  all  his  implements  of  war.  You  can  see 
the  whole  'harness  '  hanging  over  there." 


iv.-  14. 

Odds  and  Ends, 

The  photographs  reproduced  in  this  section  are  selected  as  representing  the  highest  standard  of  interest 
and  remarkableness.     They  are  the  pick  of  thousands  received  from  all  parts  of  the  earth. 

V    THE    DEI 
LL    WAS 

IRE—  SK1K  1'S    11'    F<  il 
From  a  Photo. 



From  a] 


THRUSTS.  [Photo. 

1 RST  of  all  this  month  we  have 
two  photographs,  taken  at  Assouan, 
Egypt  (First  Cataract  of  the  Nile), 
of  a  horse  in  a  Dervish  cavalry 
protector.  This  curious  armour  was 
only  worn  by  Dervish  cavalry  whilst  engaged 
in  inter -tribal  warfare.  The  rider  himself 
wore  a  very  thick  quilted  and  coloured  cotton 
garment,  reaching  from  the  shoulders  to  the  feet, 
open  in  the  middle,  front,  and  back,  to  enable 
him  to  mount  and  dismount  with  facility.  Over 
this  the  Dervish  wore  a  chain-mail  shirt  reaching 
to  his  hips  in  order  to  arrest  pointed  spears. 
Arm-pieces  and  a  shield,  together  with  a  helmet, 


V    36,000-ISARREL   TANK    OF   CRUDE   OIL 
From  a  Photo,  by  A.   .)/.   Ketchum, 

completed  his  military  outfit.  The  photographs 
show  the  rider's  horse  protected  by  a  large  and 
curiously-made  garment  of  the  same  heavily- 
quilted  cotton,  the  thickness  being  nearly  ^in. 
— quite  enough  to  render  a  cut  from  a  sword  or 
a  blow  from  a  hroad  spear  quite  harmless.  The 
head  and  breast-  of  the  horse,  by  the  way,  are 
also  covered  with  metal  armour.  A  fantastic 
design  of  red  and  white  squares  has  been 
adopted  in  the  armour  shown  in  our  photos. — 
a  design  at  once  distinctive  and  pleasing  to  the 
eye.  Loops  are  provided  to  enable  the  skirts  to  be 
drawn  up  and  let  down  respectively  when  gallop- 
ing and  going  into  action.  This  rare  specimen 
is  now  in  an  English  collection. 

What  have  we  got  here  ?    Is  it 
an  earthquake,  a  tornado  coming 
up,    or    what  ?     Whenever    any- 
thing extraordinary  is  happening, 
from  one  end  of  the  States  to  the 
other,  you  may  be  sure  someone 
is   there   with   his   camera ;    and 
someone  was   certainly  "  there  " 
on   this  occasion.     The   fact  is, 
the  photo,  shows  the  burning  of  a 
36,000-barrel  tank  of  crude  oil, 
situated    about 
5}4  miles  to  the 
south  -  west      of 
Findlay    City, 
Ohio.     This  tre- 
mendous fire  was 
caused   by  light- 
ning striking  the 
tank.     Fifteen 
hours  after  it  was 


Findlay,   Ohio.  Struck,  Mr.  A.  M. 



Ketchum,  the  photographer  of  Findlay,  was  on 
the  spot  with  business  in  his  eye  and  a  few 
plates  in  his  camera.  The  tank  seen  to  the 
right  of  the  vast  smoke-cloud  is  25ft.  high,  and 
of  equal  capacity  to  the  one  that  is  burning. 

What  are   these — bathing  machines  ?     No — 
listen.     The  Chinese — the  better  class,   that  is 

from  the  central  area,  and  exposed  to  the  ob- 
servation of  the  soldiers  who  guard  the  place, 
and  watch  that  no  one  has  the  least  intercourse 
with  the  imprisoned  students.  Confinement  in 
this  cramped  position,  where  it  is  impossible  to 
lie  down,  is  exceedingly  irksome,  and  is  said  to 
have   caused   the  death   of  manv   old   students 


From  a  Photo. 

— are  perpetually  passing  examinations  in  the 
hope  of  being  appointed  to  some  fat  Civil 
Service  post  which  will  enable  them  to  acquire 
riches.  And  our  photo,  shows  the  Canton 
Examination  Hall,  or  Koong  Yum,  as  it  is 
called.  It  contains  7,500  cells,  each  measuring 
four  feet  by  three,  and  high  enough  to  stand 
up  in.  The  furniture  consists  of  two  boards, 
one  for  sitting  on  and  the  other  contrived  to 
serve  both  as  writing-desk  and  eating- table. 
The  cells  are  arranged  round  a  number  of 
open   courts,   receiving   all    their   light    and  air 

who  were  unfit  to  undergo  the  fatigue,  but  who 
still  enter  the  arena  in  the  hope  of  at  length 
succeeding.  The  characters  on  the  cells  indicate 
the  particular  place  for  each  student. 

The  curious  photo,  showing  hundreds  of 
graves  will  give  you  some  idea  of  the  "  prospect " 
round  about  Tientsin,  in  China.  In  the  distance 
you  will  see  men  at  work  on  them  ;  and  right 
on  the  horizon  the  walls  of  the  city  itself  are 
visible.  Every  year,  at  a  stated  time,  these 
graves  are  put  in  order  by  guilds,  which  exist 
for  this  very  purpose  ;  and  the  men  in  the  photo. 


are  p.eing  cared  for.  \riwm. 

[•111.    WIDE    WORLD     MAGAZINE. 

tration,  often  grow- 
to  a  height  of  6ft. 
or  8ft.,  or  even 
As  a  bull's  excel- 
n  lence  for   Spanish 

.J^m&tki     sporting   purposes 
depends    on    the 
fierceness    of    his 
temper,   it    is   ob- 
vious that  he  can 
only  be  brought  in 
to  the  towns  from 
his    pastures    with 
all  manner  of  pre- 
cautions.      The 
small  hours  of  the 
morning  are  gene- 
rally chosen  for  the 
purpose,  when  few 
people    are    likely 
to  be  about.     Our 
photograph    represents    the   departure   of   some 
fierce  Andalusian  bulls  from  the  pastures  between 
Cordoba   and  Seville.     The  herd  may  be  dis- 
cerned grazing   in  the  background.     A  regular 
track    has    been    fenced  in  all  the  way   to   the 
outskirts  of  the  town,  and  along  this   a   body- 
guard of  horsemen,  armed  with   stout   lances, 
accompanies  the  bulls  which  have  been  chosen 
for    the    next    corrida,    or    bull-fight,  one   lead- 
ing the  way  and   the    others    bringing  up  the 
rear.     It  would  be  a  very  dangerous  operation 
but  for  the  excellent  training  of  the  cabeslros  or 
decoy  bulls — long-horned   and  specially  sturdy 
animals,  two  of  whom    may   be  noted   flanking 


From  a  Photo,  by  Lorenzo  Becerril. 

are  engaged  in  this  work.  On  each  grave  you 
will  observe  a  dab  of  white.  This  is  "joss 
gin  "  :  and  the  patch  is  equivalent  to  a  prayer 
for  the  departed.  It  is  also  a  sign  that  the 
departed's  grave  has  been  looked  after. 

Pulque,  the  national  drink  of  the  Mexicans,  is 
manufactured  from  the  milky  sap  of  the  maguey 
plant,  or  cactus,  which  covers  acres  upon  acres 
of  ground  in  the  vicinity  of  all  the  cities  and 
towns.     In    the    accompanying    photograph   we 
see   a    Mexican   drawing   off  the   sap  from   the 
central  leaf  bulb   into   a   pig-skin,   which,  when 
full,  will  be   strapped   upon    the   back   of   the 
patient  burro  in  waiting.     The  pulque  is  sold  in 
the  market  exactly 
as   obtained    from 
the  plant,  and  has 
then  the  taste  and 
appearance      of 
corn-juice.    In  the 
fermented  state, 
some    two    days 
old,  the  pulque  is 
slightly    intoxicat- 
ing,   and    in    this 
condition  is  drunk 
in  enormous  quan- 
tities by  all  class 
but    especially   by 
the  poorer  people. 
There    is    a    third 
variety   known    as 
meschal,  which  is 
a  powerful  intoxi- 
cant.   The  pulque 
plants,  as  mav  be 

fOttn   fi-/-.rr.  n,„;ilnc  THIS   IS   H0W   THE   FIERCE   FIGHTING    HULLS   OF    SOUTHERN    SPAIN    ARE   COAXED   FROM   THE   PASTURES   TO 

seen  irom  Our  lliUS-         From  a]  the  arena.  [I'hoto. 

>#«&3»«iW.>  -  MJgF**' 



each  fighting  bull.  The  cabestros  are  the  most 
fortunate  of  all  the  bulls  in  Spain,  for  their  lives 
are  spared  and  their  great  intelligence  earns  for 
them  the  best  of  treatment.  They  will  keep  the 
fiercest  fighting  bull  in  order  and  lead  him  any- 
where they  may  be  directed.  At  the  end  of  the 
run  to  town,  they  have  to  lure  him  into  one  of 
the  cages  similar  to  those  we  see  outside  the 
track.  This  is  always  a  very  ticklish  job,  and 
requires  infinite  patience.  Once  inside  the  cage, 
however,  the  fiery  bull  is  put  on  to  a  cart  and 
driven  into  the  ring,  where  he  remains  in  the 
corral  or  stables  until  the  hour  of  the  per- 

The  perils  and  difficulties  of  the  winter  mail 
service  in  Prince  Edward  Island,  off  New 
Brunswick,  may  be  realized  on  glancing  at  the 
accompanying    photo.     In    the    early   days    the 

during  the  rigours  of  the  winter.  Her  engines 
are  of  such  great  power  as  to  force  her  through 
ice  of  almost  incredible  thickness,  and  her 
prowess  herein  has  to  be  seen  to  be  understood. 
A  long  continuance  of  north  wind  or  a  heavy 
blow  from  that  quarter  drives  the  ice  from  the 
Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence  into  the  Strait  of  North- 
umberland, where,  mingling  with  the  ice  already 
formed  there,  it  becomes  so  closely  packed  as 
to  defy  even  the  engines  of  the  Stanley.  On 
more  than  one  occasion,  indeed,  she  has  been 
caught  and  imprisoned  for  more  than  a  wTeek. 
Hence,  when  the  Stanley  fails,  another  service 
has  to  be  resorted  to.  This  is  prosecuted  by 
means  of  ice-boats  which  cross  between  Cape 
Travers  on  the  New  Brunswick  coast  and 
Cape  Tormentine  on  Prince  Edward  Island. 
These  boats  are  yawls  about  14ft.  long,  built  of 


/•>-.  m  a  Photo.  by\ 

ICE    IN    THE    Wi 

I  '.' ,     ["HE    STEEL-SHI  >[> 


[G.  Lewis. 

mails  were  conveyed  to  Prince  Edward  Island 
by  sailing  vessels  in  summer,  and  in  winter  by 
couriers  and  ice-boats  of  a  very  primitive  type. 
In  1832  the  first  steamship  was  run  between  the 
island  and  the  mainland,  and  for  ten  years  she 
did  good  service.  Many  winter-service  boats 
came  after,  and  serious  and  numerous  were  the 
mishaps  and  adventures  experienced.  But  all 
these  vessels  were  more  or  less  unsatisfactory. 
The  advent  of  the  Stanley,  however,  made  so 
great  a  difference  in  the  winter  mail  service  that 
to-day  she  stands  forth  as  the  most  conspicuously 
successful  of  all  the  experiments  that  have  been 
made  in  years  gone  by.  Yet  even  so  fine  and 
powerful  a  boat  as  the  Stanley  cannot  be 
depended    on    to    make    a    continuous    service 

cedar,  and  placed  on  runners  of  steel.  For 
many  years  these  boats  formed  the  only  link 
between  the  island  and  the  outside  world  during 
the  winter  months.  When  the  passage  across 
has  to  be  made,  the  distance  is,  of  course, 
greatly  increased  by  reason  of  the  constant  flow 
of  the  ice,  the  rapidity  of  which,  again,  depends 
on  the  rate  of  the  tidal  current  and  the  velocity 
of  the  wind.  The  boats  are  fitted  with 
hauling  ropes,  having  stout  leather  belts 
at  their  ends,  at  a  distance  apart  of  from 
two  to  three  feet.  These  belts  are  thrown 
across  the  shoulders  of  men,  who  walk  alongside 
and  pull  the  boats — a  proceeding  in  which  the 
male  passengers  are  also  glad  to  have  a  share,  in 
order  to  preserve  their  animal  heat.     The  time 

1   lO 

I  in:   wide   world   magazine. 



This  American 
suggestion  of  our 
own  Gog  and 
Magog  was  made 
in  honour  of  the 
Union  by  the 
Phoenix  Lumber 
Co.,  of  Housten, 
Texas.  The  figure 
stands  12ft.  high, 
and  is  entirely 
made  of  wood  — 
even  the  axe  being 
of  the  same  mate- 
rial. The  man 
seen  bearine  the 
mallet    and   chisel 

transit  depends  on  the  condition  of  the  ice 
and  weather  —  though,   under  ordinary  circum- 
stances,  it  occupies   from  four  to  eight   hours. 
There  are   those   who  profess  to  enjoy  the  ice- 
boat trip,  and  the  novelty  of  the  journey ;  but 
it  is  seldom   made  without  more  or  less  peril ; 
and,  on  more   than  one   occasion,   it  has  even 
been    attended    with    downright    calamity    and 
horror.     But  was  ever  such  extraordinary  boat- 
ing known  as  that  depicted  in  our  photograph  ? 
The  next  photograph  reproduced  depicts  an 
Indian  canoe  race  in  the  Gorge,  Victoria,  B.C., 
on     the    occasion    of    the    Queen's    Birthday. 
Naturally  Victoria  is  always  en  fete  on  such 
occasions,  and    makes    herculean    efforts   to 
live  up    to    its    name   and    provide    for  the 
entertainment  of  the  many  provincial  visitors 
—not  to  mention  the  good  friends  south  of 
"the  line."     Prominent  among  the  outdoor 
sports  are  the  bicycle  races  at  the  fine  Oak 
Bay   track   and   the   regatta   in    the  Gorge. 
At  this   latter  a  huge  attendance  is  always 
secured.       The   programme    contains    com-      t 
petitions    for   all    types    of    craft,    from    the 
native  "dug-out"  to  the  naval  pinnace.     To 
new-comers,   however,  the  piece  de  resistance 
is  undoubtedly  the  Si  wash  canoe  race,  which      I 
is    shown    in    our    illustration.       The    boats 
measure  fully  18ft.   in  length,   and  are  made 
from  a  solid  block  of  cedar  or  fir,  hollowed 
out  by  adze  and  fire.     Each  craft  is  manned 

leven  paddlers,  the  hindmost  acting  as 
steersman.  Indescribable  excitement  prevails 
during  the  race,  both  among  the  crews  and 
their  tribal  supporters  on  shore.    The  winners 

ve  a  perfect  ovation  on  passing  the 
mark,  and  everybody — including  even  the 
losers— is  in  the  best  of  good  humour. 

^  Here  we  see  "  Cypress  Bill,"  of  Dallas, 
Texas— a  striking  and  interesting  trophy  of 
the   lumber    trade    in    the    Western    States. 

is    the  carver  and  designer  of  "  Cypress  Bill," 
while  the  man  with  the  saw  put  it  together. 

At  the  top  of  the  next  page  is  shown  a 
remarkable  photograph,  for  which  we  are 
indebted  to  that  distinguished  administrator, 
the  Right  Hon.  Lord  Stanniore,  G.C.M.G.  It 
represents  the  trial  at  Bari,  in  South  Italy,  of  the 
Secret  Society  of  Malavita.  This  was  a  society 
that  existed  throughout  the  whole  of  the  South 
of  Italy,  and  its  members  seemed  to  live  as  bad 
a  life  as  it  was  possible  for  them  to  lead.  They 
did  not  go  in  for  very  much  open  brigandage, 
but  relied  principally  upon  blackmailing,  assassi- 



•  t 


-1 "  "-  •'T--' 



IS   A    I.I'M 

iKR-TRADE    TROl'HY   OF    I).\l.l.\ 
ARE    SEEN    AT    WORK    ON    HIM. 





nation,  and  secret  murder.  Their  exploits,  how- 
ever, became  altogether  unbearable,  and  the 
authorities  took  steps  to  capture  the  band. 
They  succeeded  in  making  prisoners  of  no  fewer 
than  170  of  them.  These  were  removed  to  Bari, 
and  during  their  trial  were  specially  confined  in  a 
couple  of  huge  cages  like  the  one  in  the  photo. 
A  significant  fact  about  these  men  was  their 
extreme  youth,  for  there  were  only  two  of  them 
over  thirty  years  of  age.  The  trial  lasted  three 
weeks,  and  throughout  the  whole  of  the  pro- 
ceedings the  men  maintained  a  most  defiant 
demeanour.  The  cages  in  which 
they  were  imprisoned  were  always 
guarded  by  gendarmes  armed  with 
rifles.  While  the  trial  was  going  on 
at  Bari  the  great  feast  of  St.  Nicholas, 
the  patron  saint  of  the  town,  and  of 
that  part  of  the  country  generally, 
was  celebrated  there.  Pilgrimages 
were  made  from  all  parts  of  the 
country  to  the  shrine  of  St.  Nicholas 
at  Bari,  and  one  day  a  very  striking 
incident  was  witnessed.  The  pri- 
soners were  always  marched  to  the 
court  manacled  to  a  long  chain,  and 
as  they  walked  along  on  this  par- 
ticular day,  they  presented  a  most 
revolting  appearance,  shrieking  out 
all  sorts  of  blasphemous  cries  and 
hurling  vengeance  upon  their  captors 
and  accusers.     They  bore  a  striking 

resemblance  to  a 
huge  centipede  ; 
and  as  one  stood 
watching  them 
pass  through  one 
of  the  squares 
singingtheir  revo- 
lutionary songs, 
from  the  opposite 
side  of  the  square 
approached  an- 
other procession 
of  pious  pilgrims 
singing  litanies 
and  waving 
palms.  The  con- 
trast was  most 
remarkable.  The 
result  of  the  trial 
was  that  most  of 
the  men  were 
committed  to 
prison  for  vary- 
ing terms  of 
penal  servitude. 
One  man  who 
had  committed 
twenty-eight  murders  got  fourteen  years,  which 
was  the  highest  sentence  inflicted. 

Ouida's  charming  novel  of  peasant  life, 
"  Signa,"  has  made  the  little  Tuscan  village 
bearing  that  name  known  to  all  the  world.  It 
is  situated  about  ten  miles  from  Florence,  and 
is  easily  reached  by  tram.  The  people  of  the 
neighbourhood  are  all  engaged  in  the  manu- 
facture of  straw  hats,  one  of  the  staple  industries 
of  Tuscany  ;  and  our  photograph  shows  a  pile 
of  this  head-gear  in  its  preliminary  stage,  drying 
in  the  sun.     The  curious  cone-like  objects  seen 



a  Photo. 

!  1 


on  the  ground,  having  all 
the  appearance  oi  an  array 
of  beehives,  constitute  the 

straw  hat  as  it  leaves  the 
hand  of  the  local  plaiter. 
In  this  state  they  arc  sent 
away  to  England  and  < 
where  to  be  pressed  into 
the  Fashionable  shapes  one 
-     -  in  shop  windows. 

When  the  noble  sav; 
becomes  a  convert  to  the 
civilizing  influences  of 
Christianity,  his  fervour  is 
uently  positively  hys- 
terical in  its  intensity. 
N  i  sacrifice  is  too  great 
for  him  to  make,  and  he 
will    go    to    almost    any 

_;hs  to  prove  his  devo- 
tion to  the  new  faith. 
Unfortunately,  however, 
his  enthusiasm  is  often 
very  fleeting,  and  it  re- 
quires strenuous  efforts 
on  the  part  of  the  patient 
missionaries  to  keep  him 
from  sliding  back  into  the 
old  bad  ways.  Here  we 
see  a  Solomon  Islander 
whose  admiration  for  the 
missionary  has  led  him  to 
obtain  —  probably  felo- 
niously— an  ancient  dress-coat,  a  "  pot "  hat 
that  has  seen  better  days,  an  imposing-looking 
Testament,  and  last,   but   not  least,  a  dropsical 


umbrella  of  the  type  be- 
loved of  Mrs.  Gamp. 
Thus  equipped,  the  devout 
savage  fondly  imagines 
that  he  is  imbued  with  the 
same  beneficent  powers 
as  the  good  missionary, 
whose  outer  garb  he  has 
copied  to  the  best  of  his 
limited  ability. 

And  lastly  we  see  a  road 
in  one  of  the  Western  Caro- 
line group,  in  the  Pacific. 
There  is  nothing  very 
remarkable  about  the 
thoroughfare  except  the 
symmetrical  border  of  big 
stones.  These  are  coin  of 
the  realm  in  this  benighted 
island,  and  the  two  lines 
of  boulders  represent  — 
literally  —  quite  a  large 
fortune.  Surely  there  was 
never  a  more  cumbrous 
medium  of  exchange  ! 
When  the  native  desires 
to  buy  anything,  from  a 
bow  and  arrow  to  a  wife, 
he  sticks  a  long  pole 
through  the  hole  in 
one  of  his  stones,  and 
staggers  off  to  market 
with  it.  It  is  easy  to 
imagine  that  the  completion  of  a  transaction  of 
any  magnitude  would  necessitate  the  transfer 
of  a  veritable  quarry  in  miniature. 



From  a  Photo,  by] 


op  these   stones  on  a  pole.  [/.  Paine,  Sydney. 

ALLAN   CALLED   OUT,   '  THIS   IS   MY   DAY  ;    HAVE   NO   FEAR— AN V   OF   YOU. 

I    AM    A    MAN.'" 

(See  page  119.) 

The  Wide  World  Magazine. 

Vol.  IV. 

DECEMBER,      1899. 

No.  20. 

We  wish  to  draw  the  attention  of  our  readers  to  a  novel  "Contents=Map"  which  is  repro= 
duced  at  the  back  of  the  frontispiece.  It  shows  at  a  glance  the  locality  of  each  article  and 
narrative,  and  will  henceforth  be  published  every  month  as  a  kind  of  supplementary  "Wide 
World  "  Contents.     We  hope  it  will  prove  both  interesting  and  instructive  to  young  and  old. 

In  the  Khalifa's 

dutches ; 

or,  My  Twelve  Years'  Captivity  in 
in  Omdurman.* 

By  Charles  Neufeld. 


EPORTS  now  reached  us  that  the 
Beit  el  Mai  was  in  sore  straits,  and 
that  the  Khalifa  had  already  ex- 
pressed his  intention  of  reinstating 
Wad  Adlan  if  matters  did  not  im- 
prove. Then  it  was  that  Adlan  unbosomed  him- 
self to  me — practically  unreservedly.  Gradually, 
but  surely,  he  gave  me  to  understand  that  if  ever 
he  was  reinstated  he  would  do  all  in  his  power  to 
secure  my  release  ;  and  he  so  often  told  me  not 
to  attempt  flight  if  I  were  released,  that  I  saw 
clearly  he  meant  to  assist  me.  As  the  Beit  el 
Mai  went  from  bad  to  worse  Adlan's  spirits 
rose,  and  he  appealed  to  me  to  advise  him  what 
to  do  in  the  event  of  his  being  reinstated.  He 
saw  that  for  a  time,  at  least,  he  should  have  to 
abandon  his  old  policy,  and  he  did  not  know  in 
what  direction  he  might  have  to  turn  to  revive 
the  fahen  fortunes  of  the  State  Treasury  and 
Granary.  Trading  had  been  permitted  to  a 
certain  extent,  so  I  suggested  its  extension,  but 
Adlan  would  not  at  first  hear  of  this. 

Abdullahi's  purpose,  he  said,  was  to 
keep  the  Soudan  as  much  a  terra 
incognita  as  possible,  and  the  further 
opening  up  of  trade  routes  would 
defeat  this  object.  My  next  suggestion  was  that 
the  Beit  el  Mai  should  hand  over  to  merchants 
gum,  ivory,  feathers,  etc.,  at  a  fixed  rate,  to  be 
bartered  against  specified  articles  required  at 
Omdurman,  which,  being  received  into  the  Beit 
el  Mai  to  be  distributed  from  there,  would  allow 
of  its  making  double  profits  on  the  transactions. 
At  first  he  scouted  the  idea,  for  there  was  not  a 
single  man  whom  he  could  trust ;  and  if  he  gave 
merchants  any  goods  and  they  did  not  return 
with  the  proceeds  of  their  barter,  he  himself 
would  be  held  responsible.  It  was  then  that  I 
suggested  he  should  only  advance  goods  to  people 

Vol.  iv.— 15.  *  Copyright,  1899,  by  the  International  News 




who  had  families  in  Omdurman,  which  would 
insure  their  returning.  Adlan  then  jumped  at  the 
idea  of  trading,  and  said  that  as  soon  as  his 
release  came — for  he  felt  sure  he  would  be 
released — he  would  ask  the  Khalifa  to  release 
me  also,  so  that  I  might  assist  him  in  the  work. 
Poor  Adlan — "man  proposes,"  etc.  The  first 
essential,  he  told  me,  was  to  abandon  my 
present  attitude  towards  Mahdieh,  and  offer  to 
become  a  Moslem,  or  at  least  a  make-believe. 
I  agreed  to  do  so,  and  Adlan  reported  to  the 
Saier,  who,  in  turn,  reported  to  the  Kadi,  that  I 
was  willing  to  embrace  the  faith. 

"What!"  said    the   Kadi,   "Abdallah 
Modern  :a-  Nofal  a   Moslem  ?      No,  his  hearty  is 

the  old  black  one ;  he  is  not  with 
us.  He  is  deceiving  ;  his  brain  (head)  is  still 
strong.  He  is  a  deceiver,  I  say  ;  tell  him  so 
from  me."  The  Kadi  had  not  forgotten  my 
old  discussions  with  him  in  the  presence  of 
others,  when  he  perhaps  had  the  worst  of  it, 
and,  therefore,  he  could  not  forgive  me.  Fail- 
ing my  "  conversion,"  he  knew  that  I  should 
have  to  suffer  the  tortures  of  the  Saier,  and  he 
intended  that  I  should  suffer  them  too.  Soon 
after  this,  Adlan  was  released  and  reinstated  in 
his  old  post ;  but  he  sent  word  that  I  must  be 
patient,  as  he  could  not  speak  to  the  Khalifa 
about  me  until  he  had  got  back  fully  into 
favour,  and  felt  himself  as  "strong  "  as  ever. 

I  should  have  mentioned  before  that,  on  the 
Khalifa  asking  for  designs  for  the  proposed 
tomb  of  the  Mahdi,  Kadi  Hanafi  and  others 
suggested  I  should  prepare  drawings  in  the 
hope  they  would  be  accepted.  In  that  event, 
I  should  have  to  be  released  to  see  to  their 
execution.  Remembering  the  old  Tombs  of 
the  Caliphs  at  Cairo,  I  had  little  difficulty  in 
drawing  a  rough  sketch  of  one,  and  this  I  had 

Company,  in  the  United  States  of  America. 


111  i:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

iKE    A    CLAY    MODEL,    AND    SPENT 
IN    MAKING    ONE    ABOUT   TWO    FEET    UK,  11." 

IE    Till   I   l 

submitted    to    Abdullah   as    being    an    entirely 

original   design — a   little  thing  of  my  own.     I 

was   then   told    by  the    Saier    to    make   a    clay 

model,  and   spent  some  three  weeks  in  making 

one  about   2ft.   high.      Hundreds   came   to   see 

it,   but  one  day  it  was  knocked   to  pieces  by  a 

umed  fanatic,  who  objected  to  a  "dog  of 

an  unbeliever"  designing  the  tomb  of  the  holy 


But    from    what    I    learned    later,    it 

thDeeMih'drs  %vas   on'y   kicked    to    pieces   after   it 
Tomb.     )ia(i  foeen  copied^      Adlan,  knowing  of 

this  incident,  next  sent  me  word 
to  prepare  designs  for  the  mural  decora- 
tions of  the  interior,  and  I  spent  some  weeks 
over  these.  When  they  were  finished  I  sent 
them  direct  to  the  Khalifa,  who  in  turn  sent 
for  Adlan,  and  told  him  to  make  inquiries  as 
to  how  long  the  transfer  of  the  designs  to  the 
walls  would  take,  and  also  how  much  the  work 
would  cost.  I  gave  an  estimate  of  sixty  days 
for  the  completion  of  the  work.  Adlan,  on  his 
part,  said  the  cost  would  be  nil,  as  he  had  the 
paint  in  the  Beit  el  Mai. 

While  these  designs  were  being  sketched  out 
I  made  preparations  for  flight  as  soon  after  my 
expected  release  as  possible ;  and  having  paper 
and  ink  in  comparative  abundance,  I  was 
enabled  to  write  letters  surreptitiously.  On 
October  12th,  1888,  I  sent  my  servant  to  a 
Greek  captive,  asking  him  to  write  me  a  letter 

in  Greek  to  my  old  friend,  Mankarious  Effendi, 
station-master  at  Assouan.  The  original  letter 
is  before  me,  anil  the  following  is  a  literal 
translation  : — 

Mr.  Neufeld  has  asked  me  to  write  this  letter  because 
Ik-  could  nut  write  it  himself.  You  cannot  know  what  a 
difficult  position  he  is  in.  Since  he  came  here  he  has 
been  taken  twice  to  the  gallows,  but 
was  not  hanged,  and  is  still  in  chains, 
and  subject  to  their  mercy.  He  wants 
you  to  take  over  his  business,  and  to  act 
forthwith  as  his  agent.  He  borrowed 
from  the  bearer  a  hundred  medjedie 
dollars,  which  please  refund  to  him,  and 
give  him  something  for  his  trouble,  also 
try  and  send  him  back  with  two  hundred 
pounds,  for  which  he  might  buy  his 
liberty.  This  letter  is  to  be  kept  secret, 
as  there  are  people  who  carry  all  news 
here,  and  if  the  authorities  got  to 
know  anything  about  it  Mr.  Neufeld's 
condition  would  grow  from  bad  to 

(Signed)         Niroghopoi.o. 

I  had  heard  from  people 

^iphjfp.*  wno    nad  come  to  Om- 

durman  of  strange  doings 

in   connection  with  my   business, 

and   in   order   that   my   manager 

should  understand  that  the  letter 

was  authentic,   I    also   signed   it, 

also   using   our   cipher  for    payment  of  ^200 

— jt.r.r. 

While  in  a  fever  of  excitement  and  anxiety 
over  the  dispatch  of  these  messengers,  Adlan 
sent  me  a  secret  messenger  to  say  that  Sulieman 
Haroun,  of  the  Ababdeh  tribe,  who  was  then 
living  at  Omdurman,  was  sending  his  son, 
Mohammad  Ali,  to  Cairo.  Divining  that  Adlan 
wished  me  to  communicate  with  Sulieman,  I 
sent  out  word  that  I  wished  to  see  him.  In  a 
few  days'  time  he  gained  admittance  to  the 
prison,  and  I  at  once  set  to  business,  and  asked 
him  if  he  would  undertake  the  arrangements  for 
my  escape.  This  he  agreed  to  do,  but  only  on 
condition  that  I  succeeded  in  getting  outside 
the  prison  walls  myself.  So  that  he  should  have 
some  confidence  that  I  would  assist  also,  I 
asked  him  to  call  and  see  Adlan,  and  I  believe 
it  was  Adlan  who  advanced  to  Sulieman  the 
two  hundred  dollars  he  brought  me,  and  for 
which  I  gave  a  receipt  for  ^100.  I  gave  him  a 
letter  for  his  son  to  deliver  to  my  manager  at 
Assouan,  inclosing  a  receipt  for  ^100,  and  an 
order  for  payment  of  a  further  ^200.  On 
receiving  the  money  he  was  to  buy  goods, 
arrange  for  relays  of  camels  on  his  return 
journey,  and  to  bring  the  goods  to  the  Beit  el 
Mai,  where  Adlan  assured  him  he  would  find 
me.  Mohammad  Ali  was  to  leave  immediately, 
and  return  to  Omdurman  at  the  earliest  pos- 
sible moment. 










Within   a    few 

Arrange*     days  of  the  dlS- 

ments-  patch  of  this 
m  esse  n  ger, 
Moussa  Daoud  el 
Kanaga,  also  of  the 
Ababdeh  tribe  and  an 
old  acquaintance  of 
mine,  came  to  see  me, 
and  I  enlisted  his 
services.  Also  I  told 
him  of  the  other  arrange- 
ments I  had  made,  and 
asked  if  he  would  go 
partners  with  Moham- 
mad Ali  in  effecting  my 
escape.  To  Kanaga  I 
gave  a  letter  telling  my 
manager  that  I  had 
drawn  against  him  a 
draft  for  ^200,  which 
I  instructed  him  to 
honour.  But,  in  case  of 
accidents,  I  instructed 
Kanaga  to  see  Man- 
karious  Effendi  at  As- 
souan, and,  failing  to 
find  him,  he  was  to 
make  his  way  to  Cairo, 
and  hand  the  letter  to 
the  German  Consul. 
Kanaga  left  Omdurman 
about  December  30th, 

After  my  remarks 
anent  the  reliable  unreli- 
ability of  everyone  in  the 
Soudan,  the  deceptions 
practised  one  against 
the  other,  and  the 
absolute  necessity  for 
secrecy,  it  will  naturally 
be  wondered  how  it  was 
I  came  to  intrust  my 
secret  to  so  many — if 
secret  it  could  be  called, 
when  so  many  knew  of 
it.  The  explanation  is 
simple.  I  knew  the 
people    I    had    to    deal 

with,  and  perhaps  you  have  noticed  the  seem- 
ingly insignificant  fact  that  I  borrowed  money 
from  each  of  the  men  I  employed !  Later  in  my 
narrative  I  will  explain  these  peculiar  transac- 

While  these  different  messengers  are  on  their 
journeys — being  "  held  up  "  at  one  place,  per- 
haps, and  at  others   pretending  that   they  were 







T    £    '      R 








Saier's  Chief  Wife's  Hut. 
Harem  Apartments. 

Harem  Kitchen. 
Saier's  Store-room. 

Saier's  Bedroom. 
H     Harem  Entree. 
1      Guest  Room. 

rs  Children's  School- 
ic     Jailor's  ( luard-room. 
l     Bint  Umm  Hagar. 


gola  for  trade  —  I  will 
relate  what  was  happen- 
ing in  Omdurman. 

News  filtered 
"  victory-  through  that 
Faith1™,  the  "faithful'"' 
had  won  a 
great  victory  over  the 
English  at  Suakin  ;  but 
as  the  Saier  filled  with 
prisoners  who  were  pre- 
sent at  the  fight,  they 
gave  vastly  different  ver- 
sions from  that  ordained 
as  "  official "  by  Ab- 
dullahi.  Hence  their 
imprisonment ;  and  in 
this  way  we  learned  the 
truth.  The  "faithful" 
had  received  a  severe 
defeat.  Soon  after  this 
the  army  sent  against 
Abyssinia  won  its  great 
victory  over  the  forces 
led  by  King  John,  and 
the  fortunes  of  the  Beit 
el  Mai  took  a  turn  for 
the  better  from  the  pro- 
ceeds of  the  sale  of 
slaves  and  the  loot 
brought  in.  Adlan  was 
coming  into  favour 
again,  but  Abdullahi 
was  at  this  time  too 
much  occupied  in  goad- 
ing Nejoumi  to  attack 
Egypt  to  give  any  atten- 
tion to  such  relatively 
minor  matters  as  the 
decoration  of  the 
Mahdi's  tomb  or  the 
extension  of  trade.  He 
was  still  less  inclined 
to  give  any  attention  to 
such  matters  when  the 
news  arrived  — ■  and  it 
arrived  very  soon — that 
Nejoumi's  army  had 
been  almost  annihilated 
at  Toski.  My  evil  star 
was  certainly  in  the  ascendant,  and  was 
mounting  higher  and  higher.  It  was  at  this 
time  that  the  poor,  weak-witted  Joseppi  received 
a  flogging  for  his  vocal  exercises,  and,  having  a 
severe  fit  of  mental  aberration  in  consequence, 
he  went  off  to  Idris  es  Saier  and  told  him  that 
he  knew  I  was  a  great  military  general,  and  that 
I    was    maturing    plans    for    the    overthrow    of 

M  Umm    Hagar,    or    Stoni 


N  Straw  Huts. 

o  Hut. 

p  Shelter,  or  "  Rekooba  " 

i)  Straw  Hut,  or  "  Tukol." 

r  Well. 

s  Chain  Post. 

T  Trees. 

U  Cell  of  Khalifa  Sherif. 

v  Jailor's  Guard-room. 

w  Saier's  Brother's  House. 

x  Female  Prisoners'  Huts. 

gradually  working  their  way  to   Berber  or  Don-         Abdullahi.     I  do  not  for  a  moment  believe  the 


foi   he 

\h  \m    had 
i     Omdurman 
in    the 
time    for 
dently    be- 
Mj        s     tomb 
/it    would   have 
after  the  return 
I    relays 
g  that  the  scheme  had 
ssary    that    I 
lie  time  before 
lUgh  for  my 
di  _   my  movements. 
ut  in  anxiously  to  inquire. 
from  the  Khalil  And 

s  r   took   back   my  reply, 
But  ni)  query  referred  more 
At  last   the  joyful 
!  he  work  was  to  be  done  ;  and  two 
Saier,  and  conducted  me  to 
I  hen    I  discovered  that  my 
een  faithfully  copied,   with  the 

Front  a  Photo. 

ption  that  the  builders  had  shaped  the  dome 
Adlan  came  to  me  there,  and  congra- 
tulated me  on  this  being  my  last  day  in  makkiehs, 
or  chains.  Telling  me  to  remain  at  the  tomb  until 

.turn,  he  went  off  to  the  Khalifa  to  receive 
his  order  for  my  transfer  to  the  Beit  el  Mai,  and 

at  the  verj  moment  he  was  receivingit  the  depu 
tation  o(  the  Muslimanieh  put  in  its  appearance 
to  report  the  disappearance  of  Joseppi.  How 
1  evei  lived  through  such  crushing  disappoint- 
ments 1  do  not  know.  I  was  hurried  back  to 
11.  and  an  extra  chain  fitted  to  me.  How 
1  cursed  Joseppi  :  but  I  did  not  know  then 
that  the  poor  fellow  had  been  murdered.  It 
was  not  long  after  this  when,  to  my  amazement, 
1  saw  Adlan  himself  brought  into  the  prison, 
heavily  weighted  with  chains.  He  was  taken  to 
a  but  some  distance  from  all  the  others,  the 
prisoners  being  forbidden  to  approach  or  speak 
to  him.  During  the  night,  on  pretence  of  going 
to  the  place  of  ablution,  I  shuffled  towards  his 
hut,  and  when  a  few  yards  distant  I  lay  on  the 
ground  and  wriggled  close  up,  stretching  my 
chains  to  prevent  their  rattling  and  attracting 
the  notice  of  the  guards. 

Asking    in    a    whisper,     "What    has 
"ha^Me°g  happened?"   he  replied,  in  a  startled 
voice,  "  Ims/iee,  imshee"-—  go  away,  go 
away.     "  Do  not  speak  to  me,"  he  muttered.    "A 
big  dog  has  me  by  the  leg  this  time  ;  go  away,  or 
he  will  get  your  leg."     I   tried  again  to  learn 
what  was  the  matter,  but  Adlan's  entreaties  for 
me  to  go  away  were  so  earnest 
that  I  wriggled  off,  and  gained 
my    hut    without    being    dis- 
covered.      Soon       afterwards 
Adlan's  slave  boy,  when  walk- 
ing past  my  hut,   said,   "  Do 
not    speak    to  my    master :  if 
you    do    you    will    hear    the 
ombeyeh."     The  whole  night 
through  the  boy  passed  back- 
wards  and   forwards   between 
Adlan's    but    and    his    house 
outside  the  prison.     Asked  as 
to  what  be  was  doing,  he  gave 
the   same  reply   each   time    I 
put    a     question     to     him  — 
"  Burning    papers  ;     do    not 
speak  to  my  master."     I  had 
learned    from  Adlan    that    he 
had  been    in    communication 
with    "  friends,"    and    under- 
standing from  him  that,  in  the 
event  of  my  ever  returning  to 
Egypt,  I  was  to  be  his  "  friend 
at    court  "    with    the  Govern- 
ment, I  suspected  that  he  was 
destroying  all  evidences  which 
might  be  used  against  himself  and  others.    That 
the  Khalifa  himself  had  received  word  of  some 
correspondence  is  evident  from  the  rage  he  ex- 
hibited when  Adlan's  house  was  searched  and  no 
incriminating  documents  found.     Indeed,  Idris 
es   Saier  nearly  lost   his   head  over  the  matter, 




for  the  Khalifa  accused  him  of  having  assisted 
Adlan  in  disposing  of  the  papers  in  some  way. 

But  the  very  worst  was  to  come.     On 
Ylt'toVcomlthe  morning  of  the  third  or  fourth  day 

of  Adlan's  imprisonment  we  saw  him 
being  led  out  of  his  hut  bound, 
and  taken  to  the  anvil  to  have 
his  chains  struck  off.  We  all 
knew  what  this  meant — an  execu- 
tion ;  but  most  of  us  believed  that 
the  Khalifa  was  only  doing  this 
to  frighten  Adlan,  and  impress 
him  with  this  evidence  of  his 
power.  We  were 
not  allowed  to 
approach  him, 
but  Adlan 
called  out, 
"This  is  my 
day  ;  have  no 
fear — any  of 
you.  I  am  a 
man.  I  shall  say 
and  do  nothing 
a  man  need  be 
ashamed  of. 
F  arewell." 
While  extra 
chains  were 
being  fitted  to 
my  ankles,  the 
deep  -  booming 
ombeyehs  were 
announcing  the 
death  of  Adlan. 
The  mourning 
for  his  death 
was  general; 
but  few  if  any 
knew  the  rea- 
sons w  h  i  c  h 
actuated  the 
K  hali  fa  i  n 
ordering  his 
Maybe  the  fugi- 
tive  Khalifa 
himself  only 
knows ;  but  it 
is  possible  I  can  throw  a  little  light  on  the 
matter.  To  coin  a  word,  Adlan  had  been 
"  ( lordonized."  About  the  time  of  the  anniver- 
sary of  Cordon's  death,  Adlan  met  with  his,  and 
that  while  waiting  for  that  help  which  it  will  be 
seen  started  "  too  late." 

In  reply  to  the  charges  of  refusing  to 
R  Escapf  ?°  escape  from  the  Soudan,  I  have  brought 

together    the    links    of    the    chain    of 
evidence  in  my  favour  up  to  the  present  period  of 

NOT    SI'EAK    TO    .ME.'  " 

my  narrative.  Other  evidences  will  be  forth- 
coming in  connection  with  incidents  to  be  treated 
of  later.  Certain  letters  I  possess  are  ample 
proof  that  from  October,  1888,  until  April,  1890, 
my  guides  and  myself  were  doing  all  in  our  power 

to  effect  my 
escape ;  and 
while  we  were 
thus  occupied 
others  were 
busy  with  wed- 
ding festivities 
and  dispersing 
the  goods  and 
properties  of 
the  helpless 
prisoner  some 
thousands  of 
miles  distant. 
And  while  my 
guide —  when 
not  occupied  in 
running  from 
pillar  to  post — 
is  kicking  his 
heels  in  the 
corridors  of  the 
War  Office,  the 
Department  on 
March  10th, 
1890,  are  writ- 
ing to  my  wife 
as  follows  : — 

M  o  h  a  m  m  a  d 
F.ffendi  Rafai,  late 
4th  Battalion,  5th 
Regiment,  w  ho 
left  Khartoum  three  months  ago,  stales 
that  he  knew  Neufeld  very  well,  and 
saw  him  at  Omdurman  only  a  few  days 
before  he  left.  Neufeld  had  been  under 
surveillance  until  about  five  months  prior 
to  this,  but  was  now  free.  His  release 
was  owing  to  one  of  the  Emirs  repre- 
senting to  Abdullah  Khalifa  the  great 
service  Neufeld  had  rendered  in  enabling 
arms  and  ammunition  to  be  taken  from 
ihe  Kabbabish  at  the  time  he  was  cap- 
tured. He  now  was  employed  as  one 
of  the  Khalifa's  mulazimeen,  and  received 
a  small  salary  ;  the  Khalifa  gave  him 
two  wives,  and  treats  him  well.  Neufeld  has  very  little 
to  complain  of  except  want  of  funds,  which  renders  living 
difficult  ;  good  food  being  very  dear.  He  is  frequently 
staying  with  Ibrahim  Bey  Fauzy,  who  has  opened  a  small 
coffee-shop.  It  is  untrue  that  the  Khalifa  ever  threatened 
Neufeld's  life  ;  he  was  only  threatened  with  imprisonment 
unless  he  turned  Mussulman.  Informant  does  not  think 
it  possible  that  Neufeld  can  receive  any  letters,  etc. ,  from 
outside.  Neufeld  does  not  occupy  himself  in  business  in 
any  way."  He  has  never  heard  Neufeld  express  any  wish 
to  go  away,  but  does  not  think  he  would  be  able  to  do 
so  even  if  he  wished  it,  as  everyone  knows  him. 


Till:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

In  S         nlvr.    iSSS.  it  had   been  re 
r.\    .s  •  having  made 

I    had     bi 

(  hndurman 

ik   thai  nglish    lady 

d  this  unnecessary 

I  nightlj  .  hourly 

in  the   hell  I 

my  wife  and    child    from 

thrown    into   through    such 


from  the  foregoing, 



le    return 
of     my     i; 

_      to     myself 

the  my  friends 

g to  insure 

success  (though  they 


i]  :    d),     reports 

.  circulated 

I     r  to 

and   my  wife 

in   consequent 

pient  of  num- 
in     some 
h   pious    ; 


turn  the  heart  of  your 

ing     the     ho()e    that 
the  ties  which  bound 
her  to  me  would  soon 
I     by     my 
g    my    des 
ie  hands  of  the  Khalif  utioner.  Those 

:       I  thank:  One  who  knew  the 
rd  those    prayers.      Those    who    con- 
demned me  I  do  not  blame,  nor  do  I  feel  any 
resentment  against  them  ;  they  merely  believed 
what  was  communicated  to  the  Press. 

The  disappearance  of  Joseppi,  followed  by 
the  death  of  Adlan,  threw  me  into  a  state  of 
almost  abject  despair ;  there  appeared  to  be  no 
hope  of  my  ever  being  released  from  the  fright- 
ful Saier  Prison,  and  after  the  replies  given  by 
Abdullahi  to  Wad  Adlan  and  the  Muslimanieh 

I  A] 
i  HE    WAR   OFFICE   OF 

From  a  Photo. 

when  they  interceded  for  me,  my  friends  outside 
evidently  abandoned  all  hope  also.  But  I  was 
soon  to  have  an  interesting  fellow  prisoner  whose 
deceptions  ou  Abdullahi  and  others  were  in- 
directly to  lead  to  my  release.  It  will  take 
main  generations  of  Gordon  College  teachers 
to  uproot  the  firm  belief  of  the  Soudanese  in 
"  jinns  "  (spirits,  sprites,  and  fairies),  and  also  in 
the  supernatural  powers  claimed  to  be  possessed 
by  certain  communities  and  individuals.  Cen- 
turies of  most  transparent  deceptions  have  not 
shaken  the  belief  of  these  people,  so  it  was  no 

wonder  the  Mahdi 
found  many  imitators 
in  the  miracle-work- 
ing line,  and  also  that 
these  people  found 
thousands  of  be- 


Gunpowder  ctrnncrp  is 
from  Sand.   Strange        as 

it  may  ap- 
pear, the  more  these 
charlatans  failed  in 
their  endeavours  to 
produce  powder  from 
sand,  lead  from  dust, 
and  precious  metals 
from  the  baser  ones, 
the  more  credence 
was  given  to  the  next 
professing  alchemist 
who  came  along.  For 
example,  a  man 
named  Shwybo,  of 
the  Fellati  country 
(near  Lake  Chad), 
had  driven  a  good 
trade  in  Omdurman 
by  inducing  people 
to  give  him  large 
copper  coins  to  be 
converted  into  silver 
dollars  ;  he  had  even 
offered  his  services 
to  Wad  Adlan,  but 
as  the  Beit  el  Mai 
had  already  been  mulcted  in  some  thousands 
of  dollars  by  people  like  him,  Adlan  refused 
to  entertain  any  of  his  propositions.  On  the 
death  of  Adlan,  however,  Shwybo  offered  his 
services  to  the  Khalifa  and  the  Beit  el  Mai. 
The  Kadi  was  first  instructed  to  inquire  into  his 
pretensions.  Now,  Shwybo  professed  to  have 
power  over  the  jinns  who  converted  copper 
into  silver  ;  and  in  due  time  a  number  of  his 
dupes  presented  themselves  to  the  Kadi, 
and  complained  that  Shwybo's  jinns  had  not 
only    not   converted    the   coins   given    them   to 

D,  «)!'■  FREQ1   ENTLY    LEARNT    1  VEN 
I  HE    DEATH  i         HUSBAND. 

by  Reiser,  Assouan. 


I  ?T 

work  upon,  but  had  actually  stolen  the  coins 
into  the  bargain.  Shwybo  pleaded  that  the 
action  of  the  jinns  was  in  consequence  of  a 
want  of  faith  on  the  part  of  the  complainants, 
and  also  to  their  curiosity  in  trying  to  see  the 
jinns  at  work.  The  jinns,  as  anyone  ought  to 
know,  would  never  work  in  the  presence  of 
strangers ;  no  one  but  the  magician  himself 
might  remain  in  the  place  where  the  converting 
of  the  metals  was  in  progress. 

Shwybo  succeeded  in   imposing  on 

Experiments  the  Khalifa's  Government.    He  was 

commence.    given  about  a  hundred  dollars'  worth 

of    copper    coins,    besides    incense, 

drugs,     spices,     etc.,     to    a    further    value     of 

nearly  two  hundred    dollars,  which    were    taken 

prisoners  were  invited  to  go  and  see  the  coins 
buried  in  the  ground  -  -  the  jinns  having 
been  first  propitiated.  A  quarter  of  an  hour's 
incantation  was  given,  Shwybo  speaking  a  lan- 
guage which  must  have  been  as  unintelligible  to 
himself  and  his  jinns  as  it  certainly  was  to  us. 
A  similar  incantation  had  to  be  given  each  day 
until  noon  on  the  following  Friday,  as  it  was  at 
this  hour  each  week  that  the  jinns  finished  off 
any  work  they  had  in  hand. 

Accordingly  on  the   Friday,  at  noon, 

MiTacie    we  were  asked  to  go  to  Shwybo's  hut ; 

performed.  an(j  on  ^e  earth  being  removed,  sure 

enough,  the  copper  coins  had  dis- 
appeared, and  silver  dollars  had  replaced  /hem  ! 
The    next    Friday,    however,    only   part    of   the 

RICKERV    OF    SHWYBO—     SURE    ENOUGH    THE    COPPER    COINS    HAD    1)1 


from  the  Beit  el  Mai,  and  charged  to  the 
account  of  the  Kadi.  The  incense,  drugs,  and 
spices  were  to  propitiate  the  angry  jinns  ,-  but 
to  insure  their  not  being  disturbed  at  work,  the 
Kadi  drily  remarked  that  Shwybo  had  better 
carry  out  his  experiments  in  the  Saier,  where 
Idris,  the  head  gaoler,  would  personally  see 
he  was  not  interfered  with.  He  was  given 
a  hut  apart  from  the  rest,  where  he  set  to 
at  once  with  his  incantations  and  incense- 
burning.  Idris  and  a  number  of  the 
Vol.  iv— 16. 

coins  had  been  converted,  when  Shwybo  remem- 
bered that  the  jinns  had  not  been  fed,  and 
must  now  be  hungry.  They  had  delicate  tastes. 
Asseeda  they  would  not  eat,  so  they  were 
liberally  supplied  with  roast  chickens,  pigeons, 
white  bread,  milk,  eggs,  and  other  comestibles, 
that  made  the  mouths  of  us  poor,  tortured 
prisoners  fairly  water.  We  were  not  permitted 
to  see  the  jinns  eat,  but  we  were  allowed  to  see 
the  clean-picked  bones  and  empty  egg  shells  !— 
surely    the    next    best    thing  !     Yes,    it  was    an 

im:   \vii>k  world   magazine. 

-  imething    went 

m  the  following  Friday  it  was 

•  ins    h;ui    been 

Unb<  an  to  whisper  that 

ad  run   through   hiu  stork  of  dollars. 

Iced  me  my 
Shw  5  bo  wished 
ther   try.      1    replied    that    little 
untry  would  not  be  deceived 
further,   that  if  the 
id   his  money  on  food,  he 
ime  for  the  starving  women  and 
on  supposed  jinns. 
Whether  my  reply  or  the    conviction 
shwybo   that  he  had  been  duped  angered  him 
rfotlne.    I  cannot  say,  but  Shwybo  received  a 
gging.      Not    a    civ   escaped 
ver.      IK-  even    laughed   at   the 
trike  harder.    The  flogging 
nfidentially  told  Idris  that  although 
rking  jinns  had  flown  off,   and   that 
no    fault   of  his.    yet    his  gold-working 
had    come     to     his    succpur,    and    had 
posed  their  bodies    between    his    and    the 
sh.       Hence  his  fortitude.       Idris,   as    I   have 
•inted    out,    was    the    very    incarna- 
ion  of  superstition   and   credulity,   and   it  was 
only  necessary  for  Shwybo  to  mention  that  his 
iful  gold  jinns  could  convert  lead  into  gold  to 
Meeting  dollars  from  the 
prisoners  on  the  "  \'<  bbi  Khiddr" 
int  :  and  with  these  our  head 
gaoler  set  up  a  special  laboratory 
•  in  the   house  of  Wad 
gaolers— and  a 
puted    son     of    Idris.      Shwybo 
now  provided  with  a  number 
mall    crucibles  :    two    sets    of 
.  with  a  couple 
of  si  to    work   them  :    a 

.    and  a  number 
-  and   powders 
el   .Mai   pharmacy. 
Id  to  keep  an  eye  on 
the  raaj         i  and  see  that  he  did 
not  purloin  any  of  the  gold   when 
it  appeared.     When  the  first  lot  of 
lead  Shwybo    drew 

attention  to  its  reddish 
colour,  proving  that  the  conver- 
sion was  taking  place  ;  then  Farag 
retired  while  Shwybo  utt. 
another  incantation.  On  his  being 
called  in  again,  and  the  cover 
removed  from  the  crucible,  a  bright 
yellow  mass  was  seen,  from  which 
strong  fumes  arose.  Farag  was  told 
to  cover  up  the  crucible  quickly, 
which  he  did,  and  left  the  room  with 

The  Kadi 
has  His 

Shwybo  to  allow  of  the  jinns  completing  their 
work  and  cooling  the  metal.  Farag  then  went  off 
to  Idris  and  the  Kadi,  telling  them  that  the  con- 
version  of  the  lead  into  gold  had  actually  taken 
place — that  he  had  seen  the  gold  with  his  own 
I  j    s 

The  Kadi  was  dubious,  but  as  Idris 
was  only  employing  Shwybo  on  this 
work,  he  declined  to  come  into  the 
prison  to  see  the  gold  turned  out. 
When  it  was  believed  that  the  work  was  com- 
plete Idris,  Farag,  and  Shwybo  proceeded  to 
the  laboratory,  when,  lo  !  and  behold,  the  crucibles 
were  found  empty  1  Shwybo  thereupon  accused 
Farag  of  having  stolen  the  block  of  gold,  and  a 
tremendous  row  ensued.  The  prison  and  the 
prisoners  were  searched,  and  the  gold  not  being 
found,  Farag  was  flogged  to  make  him  disclose 
its  hiding-place.  Shwybo  heroically  essayed  a 
second  attempt,  but  as  Idris  insisted  upon 
remaining  in  the  laboratory  from  beginning  to 
end,  the  jinns  refused  to  work,  and  then 
Shwybo  himself  was  severely  flogged.  One 
would  have  thought  that,  after  this,  people 
would  see  that  Shwybo  was  duping  them,  but 
he  continued  successfuly  to  collect  money  for 
"  conversion  "  from  the  prisoners,  and  now  and 
again  was  even  able  to  give  to  an  earlier  dupe  one 
or  two  dollars  he  had  received  from  a  later  one. 

MASS    WAS    SEEN." 



Complaints   were    made    against   him, 

imPosntor-s  though,     and     he    received    repeated 

End.      floggings  to  make  him  discontinue  his 

frauds,  finally  dying  in  the  prison  as   a   result  of 

his  injuries. 

It  was  while  Shwybo  was  working  away  at  his 
alchemistic  frauds  that  Hassan  Zecki,  an  old 
Egyptian  doctor,  and  then  in  charge  of  the 
medical  stores  of  the  Beit  el  Mai,  came  into  the 
Saier  in  connection  with  the  drugs  being  pur- 
chased on  Shwybo's  account.  Zecki  had  known 
me  by  name  for  some  time,  for  I  had  in  my 
practice  as  "  medicine  man  "  frequently  sent  him 
notes  for  the  medicine  I  required,  and  not  know- 
ing the  Arabic  terms,  I  used  the  Latin  names  for 
such  drugs  as  I  was  acquainted  with.  From  this 
Zecki  must  have  come  to  the  conclusion  that  I  was 
a  qualified  chemist,  and  as  at  that  time  his  assis- 
tant, Said-abd-el-Wohatt,  was,  and  had  been  for 
some  time,  trying  to  extract  saltpetre  in  Khartoum 
and  the  neighbourhood,  Zecki  questioned  me 
as  to  its  production  in  Europe.  I  had  to  admit, 
however,  that  I  had  only  seen  the  crystals  ob- 
tained in  the  laboratory  when  at  the  University, 
and  had  no  experience  of  their  production  on  a 
commercial  scale.  I  told  Zecki  what  little  I  knew 
of  testing  the  crystals,  and  you  may  imagine  my 
surprise  when  three  days  later  I  was  summoned 
before  Yacoub,  the  Khalifa's  brother  (who  was 
killed  in  the  Battle  of  Omdurman),  to  explain  the 
manufacture  of  saltpetre.  The  new  Amin  Beit 
el  Mai — El  Nar  El  Gerafawi — came  to  the  Saier 
after  sunset,  and  conducted  me  to  Yacoub's  house. 
One  thinks  rapidly  under  such  cir- 
SubX°eed  cumstances,  and  by  the  time  we 
Yacoub.  ,-eac|le(j  Yacoub's  house  I  had  my 
tale  thought  out.  I  saw  that  if  I  de- 
clared that  I  could  not  do  the  work  I  should 
not  be  believed,  and  would  be  flogged  and  have 
extra  irons  placed  on  me  for  "obstinacy.''  On 
the  other  hand,  to  lead  them  on  to  believe  that  I 
could  manufacture  saltpetre  meant  my  release 
from  prison.  Well,  after  a  long  discussion  with 
>ub,  it  was  arranged  that  I  was  to  construct 
three  large  tanks,  about  6ft.  long  and  4ft.  high, 
in  which  impregnated  earth  was  to  be  mixed 
with  water,  and  the  solution  drawn  off  and 
allowed  to  evaporate.  Believing  that  I  should 
be  set  to  make  these  tanks  or  reservoirs,  I 
suggested,  them,  as  their  construction  would 
necessitate  the  removal  of  my  chains.  .  And 
sure  enough,  the  following  morning  I  was  called 
to  the  anvil,  where  the  rings  holding  the  heavy 
iron  bar  were  cut  and  forced  open,  and  the 
heavy  ankle-chain  I  was  wearing  replaced  by  a 
piece  of  light  awning  chain  taken  from  one  of 
Gordon's  steamers.  I  was  thankful  even  for 
this  relief,  as  it  removed  a  dead  weight  of  151b. 
to  2olb.  of  iron  from  my  feet. 

Under  an  armed  escort  I  was  taken 
Ihemie.  down    to    the    Nile,    where    I     found 

awaiting  me  the  Emirs  Yacoub  ; 
Ahmed  Fedeel — who  was  lately  causing  trouble 
on  the  Blue  Nile ;  Mohammad  Hamad'na 
Allah  — Zobheir  Pasha's  old  Wakeel  ;  and  a 
party  of  thirty  to  forty  workmen  with  materials 
for  the  tanks.  Whenever  Abdullahi  gave  an 
order  immediate  execution  of  it  followed. 

I  had  existed  in  the  vile-smelling  Saier  for 
nearly  four  years,  and  you  can  imagine  how 
I  enjoyed  the  two  hours  on  the  river  reaching 
Halfeyeh.  On  arrival  at  this  place  we  were  met 
by  El  Fiki  Amin,  a  Fellati  then  in  charge  of  the 
works.  He  did  not  disguise  his  displeasure  at 
my  being  taken  there,  as  he  evidently  con- 
sidered it  a  slight  upon  himself.  He  was  ex- 
tracting the  saltpetre  from  mounds,  mixing  the 
earth  and  water  in  pierced  jars  lined  with  fine 
matting,  then  allowing  the  solution  to  filter 
through,  and  finally  boiling  it  down  to  obtain 
the  crystals.  His  appliances  were  very  primitive, 
but  he  was  producing  a  very  good  quality  of 
saltpetre  in  "  needles."  Yacoub  now  ordered 
me  to  search  the  ground  for  any  deposits, 
and,  coming  to  a  dark,  damp  patch,  I  tasted 
the  earth,  and,  believing  saltpetre  to  be  present, 
I  mixed  some  of  the  earth  with  water,  pouring 
off  the  solution  into  a  small  coffee-pot  and 
setting  it  to  boil.  More  solution  was  added 
as  the  water  boiled  away,  and  at  the  end  of  two 
hours  I  had  a  small  deposit  of  a  thin,  syrupy 
consistency.  Touring  this  upon  a  burnt  brick, 
the  moisture  was  absorbed,  leaving  the  crystals 
behind  ;  and  these  on  being  placed  on  hot 
charcoal  burned  away. 

I  next  took  some  of  the  earth,  dried 
•■Expiri-  it,  and  rubbing  it  fine,  allowed  it  to 
ments."    fajj   jn   a  tnjn   stream  on  to  the  fire  ; 

the  "  sissing  "  and  occasional  coloured 
sparks  convinced  all  present  that  a  valuable 
deposit  of  saltpetre  had  been  discovered,  and 
Hamad'na  Allah  was  sent  to  Omdurman  to 
inform  the  Khalifa  of  this  important  find. 
During  his  absence  the  Fellati  told  Yacoub 
that  the  burning  of  the  crystals  was  no 
proof  that  they  were  saltpetre.  I  was,  there- 
fore, ordered  to  produce  a  quantity  to  be 
submitted  to  Zecki  and  the  Greek  Perdikaki,  the 
Khalifa's  gunpowder  manufacturer.  Hassan 
Zecki  himself  came  to  Halfeyeh  to  examine  the 
crystals  and  declared  them  good.  Perdikaki  sent 
a  Greek  employed  with  him,  but  this  man,  not 
being  able  to  give  an  opinion,  he  took  the 
crystals  to  Perdikaki,  his  master,  who  sent  me  a 
message  to  the  effect  that  they  were  useless,  but 
that  rather  than  I  should  be  sent  back  to  prison 
he  would  say  they  were  good  on  condition  I 
tried  to  produce  further  quantities  in  "  needles," 

nil.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

i  ill    u  II  II    \\  A  I  E  R. 

me  it'  I   thought  I  could  not  find 
deposits  elsewhere. 

I  innocently  suggested 

A  New 

looking     farther    north, 

It  was  really  a  serious  situa- 

lly  my  life  depi  on    finding 

ibout  which  I  knew  little, 

nd  manufacturing  iff  when  I  had  found 

i    I    felt    terribly  incompetent  to  do. 

lUrcefulness   were    needed,  surely 

-  the  ti:.  H       in  Zecki   present- 

rt   to  the   Khalifa,  and  telling  him 

iould  have  some  large  pans  sent  out  to 

a  nuiii  big  copper  boilers, 

and  an  officer's  camp   bath.      1  h<    latter  must 

have    been    taken    from    Khartoum     or     Hicks 

army.      The  Fellati  in  charge  grew  very 

sullen    on  s    all    these-    preparations,    and 

mb,  knowing  that  the   Khalifa   was   entirely 

dependent  upon   the  Fellatis — the   only   people 

who  seemed  to  understand  the  extraction  of  the 

saltpetre — rather  than   offend   the    man,    asked 

but  this  would  not  do. 
He  wanted  a  place  close  to  Om- 
durman  -  where  I  could  be 
watched.  I  then  suggested  Khar- 
toum, but  the  Khalifa  would  not 
at  first  hear  of  my  transfer  there. 
What  probably  decided  him  was 
that,  when  I  had  been  two  weeks 
at  Halfeyeh,  Hasseena  came  to 
tell  me  that  Makkieh,  her  child, 
was  dead,  and  the  Khalifa  hear- 
ing of  the  loss,  and  believing 
that  there  was  now  nothing  to 
hold  me  in  the  Soudan,  agreed 
to  the  transfer  to  Khartoum,  as 
a  better  watch  could  be  kept 
upon  me  there.  I  was  not  sorry 
to  leave  Halfeyeh,  for  although 
the  place  offered  every  facility  for 
escape,  I  saw  that  I  had  a 
jealous  and  bitter  enemy  in  the 
head  Fellati,  who  was  then  spying 
on  my  every  movement.  It  was 
certain  that  he  would  frustrate 
any  plans  I  might  make  for  flight, 
and  suspicion  would  have  been 
aroused  immediately  if  any  of 
the  guides  came  to  me  there. 
Hamad'na  Allah  was  made 
director  of  the  Khartoum  salt- 
petre works  !  Abdel  Wohatt  was 
his  second,  and  I  was  to  work 
under  the  orders  of  Wohatt. 

On    arrival    at     Khar- 
NThreef's  toum,  in  January,  1891, 

Guardians.  J     was      alSQ     placed     ill 

charge  of  Khaleel  Has- 
sanein,  the  director  of  the  Arsenal,  and  all  three 
had  to  answer  for  me  with  their  lives.  Wohatt 
was  given  the  chapel  of  the  Mission  as  a  house 
to  live  in  ;  I  was  given  one  of  the  priests'  rooms 
opposite  the  arches.  Windows,  doors,  every 
scrap  of  wood,  metal,  and  ornaments  had  all 
been  taken  from  the  place  ;  it  was  almost  a 
complete  ruin,  but  the  garden  had  been  kept  in 
excellent  condition,  its  produce  —  dates,  figs, 
oranges,  limes,  and  vegetables — being  sold 
on  account  of  the  Beit  el  Mai.  Wohatt,  when 
arranging  his  sleeping  quarters,  found  the  very 
substantial  altar  in  his  way,  and  made  two  or 
three  ineffectual  attempts  to  pull  it  down ; 
failing  this,  however,  he  utilized  it  as  a  resting- 
place  for  household  rubbish,  and  here  cocks 
crowed  and  hens  hatched  out  their  broods  ! 
When  we  came  to  construct  saturation  tanks 



it  was  proposed  to  take  the  material  from  the 
walls  of  the  Mission  ;  but  I  told  Hamad'na 
Allah  and  Wohatt  that  as  we  had  to  live  in  the 
place  it  would  be  far  better  to  repair  than  further 
demolish,  so  the  necessary  materials  were 
brought  from  outside  by  the  fifty  to  sixty  slaves 
sent  over  to  assist  us  in  making  the  tanks  and 
carrying  the  earth  from  the  mounds.  While  the 
construction  of  the  tanks  proceeded  we  had  to 
extract  saltpetre  in  the  boilers,  etc.,  sent  to  us  at 
Halfeyeh,  and  which  had  been  brought  with  us. 
We  produced  maybe  four  to  five  pounds  per 
diem  on  an  average  during  a  period  of  six 
months  —the  time  we  were  occupied  in  building 
the  tanks. 

Perdikaki  made  some  gunpowder  with 
GaFa°uI?l.rour  first  consignment;  but  it  was  a 
sorry  failure.  The  good  fellow,  how- 
ever, mixed  it  with  some  powder  from  the  old 
Government  stock,  and  sent  us  another  warning. 
My  immediate  chief,  Abdel  Wohatt,  was  the 
son-in-law  of  Ali  Khaater.  the  director  of  the 
Omdurman  Arsenal,  and  to  whom  our  saltpetre 
went  in  the  first  instance  ;  and  Perdikaki  telling 
him  of  the  had  quality  of  our  produce,  Khaater, 
fearing  for  his  son-in-law,  mixed  our  next  consign- 
ment with  an  equal  quantity  of  saltpetre  from 
the  old  Government  stock  in  his  stores,  and  thus 
it  passed  muster,  although  Perdikaki  complained 
again  that  it  was  only  half  purified.  However, 
the  powder  made  with  it  would  explode,  though 
it  did  leave  about  25  per  cent,  of  ash.  The 
Fellati,  hearing  of  the  success,  came  to  Khar- 
toum to  examine  our  product,  for  the  secret  of 
producing  pure  crystals  was  believed  to  be  in 
the  hands  of  the  Fellati  only — and,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  in  the  Soudan,  it  is.  Again  he  declared 
the  crystals  were  useless  for  the  purposes  they 
were  intended  for  ;  but  as  Abdel  Wohatt  had 
been  a  dispenser  in  the  Egyptian  Army,  and  as 
such  was  supposed  to  be  a  chemist,  and  I,  as  a 
medicine  man,  being  similarly  credited,  we  won 
the  day.  Fellati  appealed  to  Perdikaki,  but  got 
no  satisfaction  in  that  quarter. 

Honest,  loyal  Perdikaki  !  He  was  not 
pe?d?kak°f  long  to  be  troubled  with  the  rival  salt- 
petre makers,  for  on  the  sixth  anni- 
versary of  Gordon's  death  some  tins  of  powder 
in  his  factory  exploded,  killing  him  and  those 
working  with  him. 

Some  time  about  June  or  July,  1891,  our 
tanks  were  finished,  and  in  about  two  months' 
time  we  produced  between  5cwt.  or  6cwt.  of 
crystals,  and  then  stopped  work  on  account  of 
the  rains.  These  crystals  were — as  usual — 
mixed  with  an  equal  quantity  of  good  crystals 
from  the  stores,  and  then  sent  to  the  powder 
factory.  It  must  not  be  imagined  that  at  this 
time  the  Khalifa  was  actually  short  of  powder 

or  ingredients  for  its  manufacture.  In  fact, 
there  were,  unknown  to  others  in  the  town,  very 
large  stocks  indeed,  which  Abdullah  was  keep- 
ing as  a  reserve ;  but  he  wished  to  add  to  that 
reserve  as  much  as  possible,  and  expend  only 
such  powder  and  ammunition  as  was  then  and 
there  produced. 

On  the  death  of  Perdikaki,  Hassan  Hosna, 
a  Circassian,  and,  I  believe,  formerly  an  officer 
in  the  old  army ;  also  Abdes  Semmeer,  formerly 
in  the  ordnance  section  of  the  old  army  at 
Kassala,  were  placed  in  charge  of  the  powder 
factory.  When  our  mixed  product  was  used  for 
the  manufacture  of  gunpowder  queer  things 

After  a  few  cartridges  made  from  such 
ca?t"fdges.  powder  had  been  fired,  the  barrel  of 
the  rifle  was  found  coated  with  thick 
white  fouling  ;  then  a  serious  inquiry  was  held. 
The  rifles  were  brought  to  us  at  Khartoum,  but, 
pointing  loftily  to  the  cleaning  rods,  I  asked 
what  these  were  intended  for.  On  being  told 
for  cleaning  the  barrel,  I  asked  sarcastically 
whether  it  was  not  far  better  to  have  a  powder 
which  left  a  white  ash  that  might  be  seen  than 
a  powder  which  left  a  black  ash  that  could  not 
be  seen.  Hut,  for  once,  my  argument  was  of 
no  use.  Wohatt  replied  that  perhaps  we  were 
working  on  bad  beds,  and  suggested  our  being 
transferred  somewhere  else.  Nothing  was  done 
at  the  time,  however,  and  we  worked  on  for 
some  more  months ;  but  as  large  quantities  of 
saltpetre  came  in  from  Darfur.  and  later,  con- 
siderable quantities  of  good  manufactured 
powder  arrived  from  Upper  Egypt  and  by  the 
Suakin  route,  Khaater  was  able  to  store  away 
our  saltpetre,  and  supply  the  factory  with  pow- 
der and  saltpetre  from  these  new  sources.  The 
Upper  Egypt  and  Suakin  supplies  were  supposed 
to  have  been  put  to  the  reserve,  so  that  when 
cartridges  exploded  in  the  breeches  of  the  rifles, 
and  destroyed  the  eyesight  of  a  number  of 
soldiers,  our  saltpetre  came  in  for  the  blame 
again  —  this  time  quite  unjustly,  of  course. 
Another  inquiry  was  held,  when  we  were  told 
that  the  bullet  did  not  leave  the  rifle,  and  that 
the  breech-blocks  blew  open. 

This,  we  argued,  could  not  be  the  fault 
07XFRifil  of  the  powder,  but  of  the  rifle.  What- 
ever the  Khalifa's  opinion  might  have 
been,  he  sent  off  Wohatt  to  Alti,  on  the  Blue 
Nile,  where,  with  a  number  of  Fellatis  working 
under  him,  he  was  able  to  send  considerable 
quantities  of  "  needle  "  saltpetre  to  Omdurman, 
while  I  continued  at  the  Khartoum  works  to 
turn  out  as  poor  a  quality  of  saltpetre  as  before. 
Abdel  Wohatt  is  in  Cairo  now,  and  tells  me  our 
precious  production — about  two  tons  of  salt- 
petre— is   still    lying  unused  in    the   stores   at 

rin:   wide   woRin   magazine. 

I  N  I  1  \ c,    ']  i  >     ['HE 
.  ■•..   D    WHAT     IHKSE    WERE    INTENDED    IOR. 



still    alive, 


and  would 

and    Ali 


:   at   the  !    that     I     "  manufactured 

for  the  Khalifa  to  shoot  English  soldiers 

-particularly  when  I  forbade  the  use  of 

in   the    saturation    tanks,    and    this 

addition,  they  knew  later,  was   the  Fellati  secret 

for  the  purification  of  the  saltpetre. 

W  .    at   the     Mission  -  house    in 

Khartoum,  Father   Ohrwalder  came  on  three  or 

e    me,    the   last    occasion 

-      I    believe,    about    a    month     before    his 

ould  sit  together  talking  of  old 

times  and  commiserate  each  other  on  our  hard 


fiuardedly — very  guardedly  —we  would 

HESPcaSpe'     v'-'n   breathe  a  hope  that,  in  someway 

and  by  some  means,  our  release  would 

come  ;  but  I   have  no  recollection   that  we  ever 

confided  to  each  other  any  plans 
for  escape.  Father  Ohrwalder  knew 
1  had  had  letters  written  by  some 
Greeks,  but  I  do  not  think  he  knew 
of  any  of  my  plans.  That  we  did 
not  openly  discuss  such  plans  now 
appears  to  me  strange — and  yet  it 
is  not  strange.  Where  all  led  for 
years  a  life  of  falsehood,  in  which 
deception  of  self  had  no  less  a  part 
than  the  deception  of  others — sus- 
picious of  everyone  around  us,  and 
trusting  no  one — what  wonder  that 
deceit  became  a  kind  of  second 
nature,  and  that  truth,  honour,  and 
morality  ■ —  that  is  to  say,  morality 
as  preached  iii  Europe  —  should 
have  retired  to  vanishing  point ! 
When  I  heard  of  Father  Ohrwalder's 
escape,  the  conclusion  I  at  once 
jumped  to  was  that  my  guides, 
seeing  the  impossibility  of  effecting 
my  escape  from  Khartoum,  had  come 
to  some  arrangement  with  him. 
How  fervently  I  cursed  them  all  ! 
But  I  did  not  pray  for  their  recap- 
ture. Even  had  I  done  so,  it  would 
have  been  useless. 

There  was  nothing,  pro- 
N™°e^ity.  vided  you  had  money  with 
which  to  purchase  camels 
and  arrange  a  couple  of  relays  in 
the  desert,  to  prevent  everyone  who 
wished  escaping  from  Omdurman. 
Your  guides  had  only  to  lead  you 
away  from  any  settlements  ;  no  pur- 
suers could  overtake  you  once  you 
reached  your  first  relay,  fast  a$  their 
camels  might  go,  and  you  would 
travel  at  twice  the  speed  the  news  of 
your  flight  could — besides  having  some  hours' 
start  of  it.  In  the  event  of  your  coming  across 
any  straggler  in  the  desert,  a  few  dollars  would 
silence  his  tongue ;  for  the  dollar  is  not  more 
"almighty"  in  America  than  it  was  in  the 
Soudan.  And  supposing  the  dollars  did  not 
appeal  to  him,  and  your  bullet  missed  its  mark, 
the  chances  were  a  thousand  to  one  against  his 
picking  up  your  pursuers  on  the  route  you  had 
come,  for  they  would  make  for  the  settlements 
near  the  river,  and  waste  their  time  in  useless 
inquiries,  while  you  were  fast  covering  the  dis- 
tance between  you  and  safety. 

As  if  my  troubles  were  not  all-sufficient  in 
themselves,  Hasseena,  my  Abyssinian  servant, 
in  addition  to  the  begging  and  other  undesirable 
proclivities  she  had  developed  since  the  death 
of  her  child  Makkieh,  now  added  that  of 
thieving.     She  naturally  devoted  her  talents  in 



this  direction  to  my  friends,  knowing  that  they 
would  not,  on  my  account,  prosecute  her. 
Numberless  complaints  came  to  me,  and  many  a 
recommendation  was  made  to  get  rid  of  her, 
but  as  she  had  been  sent  to  me  by  the  Khalifa 
I  could  not  send  her  away  without  his  sanction. 
The   question   also   arose  as  to  what 

Hc1ttsna  excuse  I  might  offer  for  divorcing  her. 

Trouble.   por  to  gjve  ^g  reai  reasons  might  end 

in  her  being  stoned,  mutilated,  or 
imprisoned,  and  this  I  naturally  shrank  from. 
I  must  admit,  too,  that,  bad  as  she  was  then,  I 
did  not  like  the  idea  of  throwing  her  over. 
Being  in  receipt  of  ten  dollars  a  month,  I  sent 
word  to  my  friends  that  I  would  save  what  I 
could  to  repay  their  losses,  and  do  my  best  to 
break  Hasseena  out  of  her  bad  habits.  My 
friends  warned  me  that  if  I  were  not  careful  I 
should  find  myself 
before  the  Kadi  as 
Hasseena's  partner  in 
crime ;  and  the  Kadi 
—  being  no  friend  of 
mine  —  would  certainly 
order  me  into  prison 
again,  which  would 
mean  an  end  to  all 
chances  of  escape.  In 
the  end,  however,  Has- 
seena had  to  go. 
Xahoum  Abbajee,  my 
greatest  friend,  gave  a 
feast  at  his  house  to 
celebrate  the  marriage 
of  his  son  Voussef. 
Hasseena  was  one  of 
the  invited  guests.  It 
was  a  great  opportunity- 
She  stole  all  the  spoons 
and  cutlery  before  the 
feast  commenced,  and 
also  a  number  of 
articles  of  dress  be- 
longing  to  other 
ts,  all  of  which 
property  she  sold  in  the 
bazaar.  Xahoum  could 
overlook  her  stealing  his  property,  but  to  steal 
the  property  of  guests  under  his  roof  was 
carrying  matters  too  far.  He  sent  word  to  me 
that  I  must  get  rid  of  her,  and  that  at.  once. 
Calling  Hasseena  to  Khartoum,  I  was  com- 
pelled to  quarrel  with  her  in  such  a  way  as  to 
attract  the  attention  of  Hamad'na  Allah  ;  and 
on  his  asking  me  the  reason  for  our  constant 
squabbles,   I   told  him  that   Hasseena   was  not 

acting  as  she  should  by  me,  and  begged  his 
intervention  in  obtaining  through  the  Emir 
Yacoub  the  Khalifa's  permission  to  divorce  her. 

Abdullahi   was   "  gracious."     He  per- 
Smvo?lef  mitted  the  divorce,  and  sent  word  that 

he  would  select  another  wife  for  me. 
This,  however,  was  just  what  I  did  not  want. 
Always  expecting  the  return  of  my  guides,  my 
not  having  a  woman  in  the  place  lent  pro- 
bability to  my  having  a  whole  night's  start  of 
my  pursuers,  for  my  absence  might  not  be  dis- 
covered until  sunrise  the  following  morning,  at 
which  time  we  went  to  work.  And  some  hours 
further  would  then  be  lost — and  gained — by 
Hamad'na  Allah  and  others  making  a  thorough 
search  for  me  before  daring  to  tell  the  Khalifa 
that  I  was  missing. 

Returning   my  thanks   to  Abdullahi,  I  asked 


to  be  left  in  single  blessedness  for  a  time,  but  to 
this  he  replied  that  "  his  heart  was  heavy  at  the 
loss  of  my  child.  No  man,"  he  said,  "  might  be 
happy  without  children,  and  he  wished  me  to 
be  happy.  He  also  wished  me  to  have  all  the 
comforts  of  life,  which  did  not  exist  where 
woman  was  not.  If  I  did  not  take  another  wife 
he  would  believe  I  was  not  content  with  my  life 
in  the  Soudan  under  his  protection." 

(To  be  continued.) 

The   "Holy   Blood**   Procession    at   Bruges. 

\\\    Mrs.   I.ii.v   Bridgman. 

nt    that  has  been  kept   up  for   more  than  five  centuries   in    the  old- 
R  jotted  down  as  the  great  procession  passed  Mrs.  Bridgman's 

ind  illustrated  by  photographs  never  before  taken. 

M>\    in 

these  days  km 

through     personal 

.  hearsay  — 

\  irthern  Venice  o\~  the 

\.  n    as    such    by 

t  and  thesplen- 

le  Counts  o(  Flanders, 

the  I  ><  Burgundy. 

enturies  have  elap 

.  I  !ount  o\  Flanders,  as  a 

rious  deeds  performed  in 

ived    from    Baldwin    III., 

■ni.     and     the     Patriarch     of 

rtion    of    the    precious    relic 

in  the   Church  of  the    Holy  City 

and  virtue  called  forth 

had  sprung  therefrom  ;  his  descendants  even- 
tually handing  their  precious  heirloom  over  to  the 
safeguard  of  Mother  Church. 

Relying,  therefore,  firstly  on  the  enormous 
probability  of  anything  connected  with  the 
Saviour  during  His  earthly  life  being  devoutly 
sought  for  and  treasured  by  the  early  Christians 
alter  their  Master's  death;  secondly,  on  the 
decided  conviction  given  in  endless  historical 
documents  by  those  great  in  learning  and 
wisdom  of  the  Eastern  Church  ;  and  lastly,  on 
the  assertions  of  the  historians  of  the  Holy  Land, 
the  Church  considers  it  a  fact,  based  on  solid 
and  well-founded  grounds,  that  the  relic  it  pays 
such  intense  and  devout  veneration  to  in  the 
May  of  each    succeeding   year  in   the   ancient 


IN    WHICH    HE 


all  the  :  religious  enthusiasm  and  ardour 

:ig      the     followers    of     Peter     the 

:nit  in  the  eleventh,  twelfth,  and  thirteenth 
centuries.  And  what  wonder,  when  the  world- 
famed  relic  was  no  less  than  some  of  the  blood 
of  Chri 

Tradition  shows  that  it  was  through  Joseph  of 
Arimathea  that  the  Church  obtained  this  relic. 
He  it  was  who  took  the  body  of  Christ  down 
from  the  cross,  and  who,  after  reverently  bathing 

-acred  wounds,  preserved  the  blood  which 

capital  of  Western  Flanders  is  actually  and  in- 
contestably  the  Blood  of  our  Lord. 

Thierry  d'Alsace  brought  it  to  Bruges  in 
1148  with  all  die  pomp  and  circumstance  be- 
fitting so  precious  a  gift.  He  placed  it  for  a 
while  in  the  private  chapel  attached  to  his 
Palace  on  the  Bourg  ;  I  give  a  photograph  of 
the  Palace,  which  is  remarkable  for  the  elegance 
and  delicacy  of  its  architecture.  It  is  now  used 
as  the  Town  Hall.  In  the  right-hand  corner  of 
this  photo,   you   see  the  Chapel  of   St.   Basil, 



where  the  relic  was  eventually  placed,  and 
where  it  is  to  be  seen  to  this  day,  at  any  time, 
for  the  modest  sum  of  fifty  centimes.  The  lower 
part  of  this  chapel  dates  from  1150.  The  Holy 
Blood  was  kept  there  for  close  on  four  centuries. 
In  1 531-1533  the  upper  chapel,  part  of  which  is 
said  to  have  existed  in  1482,  was  finished,  and 
the  relic  placed  in  it. 

Whenever  their  sacred  charge  was  in  serious 
danger  of  falling  into  irreverent  hands,  the 
guardians  thereof — known  as  the  Guild  of  the 
Holy  Blood — rose  in  a  body  to  withstand  any 
and  every  attack  made  upon  it. 

In  1578  a  band  of  iconoclasts  from  Ghent 
made  a  forcible  entry  into  Bruges,  and  began  a 
systematic  course  of  sacking  and  pillaging  every 
church  and  chapel  in  the  place.  The  relic  was 
only  saved  by  the  vigilance  of  a 
Spanish  member  of  the  Guild, 
one  Don  Juan  Perez  de  Mal- 
venda,  who,  seeing  the  danger  it 
was  in,  carried  it  off  in  the  folds 
of  his  cloak  to  his  own  house, 
and  hid  it  in  a  place  of  safety 
until  the  storm  was  past. 

Once  again,  in  1 792,  when  the 
French  Revolution  was  at  its 
height,  and  the  French  them- 
selves in  Bruges,  did  the  good 
citizens  shake  in  their  shoes  for 
the  safety  of  their  beloved 
treasure.  The  chaplain  of  St. 
Basil  conveyed  it,  first  to  the 
Episcopal  Palace,  and  then  to  a 
certain  Richard  Godefroit's  resi- 
dence, where  it  was  blocked  up 
in  a  cavity  of  the  wall  until  the 
following  year. 

Again  in  1795,  when  the  san- 
guinary law  of  suspects  was  pro- 
mulgated, and  terror  reigned  pre- 
dominant in  every  heart,  the  vial 
containing  the  Holy  Blood  was 
packed  into  a  strong  box  and  sent  with  others 
holding  Church  treasures  into  Holland  for  a  time. 
Later  in  the  same  year,  however,  the  relic  was 
brought  back.  From  1795  to  18 19  it  was  carried 
from  one  hiding-place  to  another  in  Bruges  itself, 
when,  all  danger  over,  it  was  finally  restored 
once  more  to  public  veneration,  although  not  to 
its  ancient  resting-place.  In  their  senseless  fury 
ngainst  everything  relating  even  to  the  very  word 
"  religion,"  the  Revolutionists  had  practically 
demolished  the  Chapel  of  St.  Basil,  leaving 
merely  the  outer  walls  standing.  In  1819  its 
restoration  was  begun,  and  in  1824,  the  lower 
part  being  finished,  Bruges  placed  her  precious 
relic  once  more  within  its  walls. 

Every  Fridav    morning  throughout   the   year 

V  I.  iv.— 17. 


BLOOD      HAS      BEEN 


Front   a 

the  relic  is  exposed  to  the  veneration  of  the 
faithful  from  the  first  morning  mass  until  after 
the  last,  which  is  said  at  eleven  o'clock. 

The  next  photo,  represents  the  reliquary  in 
which  is  preserved  the  Holy  Blood,  faint  traces 
of  which  can  be  discerned  through  the  cylinder. 
Most  of  the  precious  stones  studding  it  were 
presented  by  the  Archduke  Albert  and  the 
Archduchess  Isabel  of  Burgundy,  in  the  begin- 
ning of  the  seventeenth  century.  In  order  that 
it  shall  run  no  risk  of  falling,  when  removed 
from  the  "  chasse  "  in  which  it  lies  all  through 
the  year,  the  priest  first  fastens  a  long  silver 
chain  to  both  ends  of  the  reliquary,  and  then 
puts  the  chain  round  his  neck,  before  taking  his 
seat  at  the  improvised  altar  in  the  chapel.  To 
this  altar,  every  Friday,  those  who  desire  to  kiss 
the  relic  stream  one  after  the 
other,  the  priest  holding  the  re- 
liquary in  one  hand  ;  and  as  each 
person  passes  on  after  performing 
his  or  her  act  of  veneration,  he 
wipes  the  relic  with  the  hand- 
kerchief which  he  holds  in  the 

Many  are  the  miracles  vouched 
for  by  faith  in  the  authenticity  of 
this  sacred  relic !  I  can  quote 
but  one — produced,  however,  by 
a  totally  different  cause  from  that 
of  faith. 

The  miracle  is  authenticated  by 
a  "  bull  "  issued  by  Pope  Clement 
V.,  in  which  he  assures  the  faith- 
ful of  the  fact  that  the  Holy  Blood 
liquefied  about  six  o'clock  every 
Friday  evening  throughout  the 
year,  until  1309-1310,  when  this 
wonder  ceased  owing  to  the  act 
of  some  disbelieving  ruffian 
amongst  the  pious  crowd  flock- 
ing up  to  kiss  the  sacred  relic. 
One  Friday  morning  this  sacri- 
legious man,  when  it  came  to  his  turn,  dared  to 
mutter  horrible  blasphemies  against  the  Holy 
Blood  and  the  death  of  the  Saviour,  as  he 
stooped  over  the  reliquary.  The  instant  petri- 
faction of  the  blessed  relic  was  a  clear  witness 
of  the  wrath  of  God  at  this  abominable 

Only  on  one  occasion  since  that  date  has  the 
precious  blood  been  known  to  liquefy.  That 
was  when,  having  replaced  the  outer  cylinder  of 
the  relic  by  one  of  purer  crystal,  the  chief 
magistrates  prayed  the  Bishop  of  Ancona  to 
perform  the  ceremony  of  translation.  He  was 
in  the  act  of  doing  so,  when  the  Holy  Blood, 
up  till  then  a  compact  and  congealed  mass, 
suddenly  changed  colour,  became  a  brilliant  red, 

which   111..    holy 
venerated    for 




wly  detached  themselves 
the  whole. 
.  now  for  .1  descri|  '  the   Pi 

I       5    woke  between  five 

the  mornii  he  8th  (the 

5  plat       n   the   Monday 

,i  large  school  of  ,uir's 

h  my   window,    praying  aloud  as 

the  line  of  march  the  procession 

I  hours  later.   From  that  hour  onwards 

the:  am  of  pilgrims  along 

and  rank,  all  telling 
5,  and  the  majority  of  the  men   bare- 
head  What  with  these    pious  folk,    sight- 
rs    on  foot  and  in    carriages,  and  bicyclists 
without  end.  the  cobbled  and  often  moss-grown 
I   -    are  well-nigh    impassable  on 

stands  in  which  is  not  crammed  with  expectant 

from  my  point  of  vantage  I  can  see  a  fair 
portion  of  the  great  market-place,  with  its  quaint 
houses  and  old-world  air.  My  next  photo. 
shows  the  belfry,  or  "  Halles,"  on  the  top  of 
which,  in  honour  of  the  day's  festivity,  has  been 
placed  a  large  fir-tree,  from  which  floats  the  red, 
yellow,  and  black  national  flag  of  Belgium. 
The  fine  old  building,  which  dates  from  the 
thirteenth  century,  towers  solemnly  above 
all  the  worldly  frivolity  of  the  sweet  booths, 
••  Montagues  Russes,''  shows,  and  what-not  of 
the  yearly  fair,  which  takes  place  every  May 
and  almost  fills  the  Place.  The  "  Halles  " 
contains  one  of  the  finest  "carillons,"  or  chimes 
of  bells,  in   all    Europe. 

I  If  If  I 

I  i 




jj  a 

From  a] 



this  day  :  and  as  I  gaze  down  on  the  multitude, 
from  the  friend's  window  at  which  I  am  com- 
fortably installed  about  the  time  the  procession 
is  supposed  to  come  by,  I  breathe  a  silent 
prayer  of  thanksgiving  that  it  has  not  fallen  to 

lot  to  have  to  join  the  crowd  below.  The 
world,  as  personified  by  the  Brugeois  them- 
selves, and  by  those  who  have  flocked  within 
their  gates  for  the  occasion,  is  on  the  tip- 
toe  of  expectation.       Flags    are    waving    from 

v  house;  bells  are  tolling  (chief  of  which 
is  the  great  bell  in  the  belfry  known  as  the 
"Bourdon1';;  and  there  is  not  a  window  on 
cither   side   of    the    street    my    friend's    house 

As  I  stand  at  my  window,  meditating  on  the 
splendour,  now  long  decayed,  of  the  Bruges  of 
olden  days,  there  comes  a  sudden  break  in  the 
crowd,  surging  out  beyond  the  street  I  am  in,  at 
the  opposite  end  of  the  market  square  ;  and  I 
hear  a  sound  as  of  martial  music  in  the 
distance.  Every  head  is  craned  in  the  direction 
from  whence  it  comes,  and  every  soul  in  the 
living  mass  below  me  is  all  agog. 

The  holy  relic,  having  been  conveyed  by 
the  clergy  from  its  chapel  to  the  Cathedral, 
and  High  Mass  having  been  said  by  the  Bishop, 
the  procession  has  formed,  has  already  made  the 
round  of  several  streets,  and  is  now  close  upon  us. 



MRS.    BRIDG1* 

r    GLIMPSE   OF   THE 

From  a  Photo. 


!  I 1 

Following  the  example  of  my  neighbours,  I, 
too,  crane  my  head  out  of  the  window  and, 
looking  up  towards  the  market  -  place,  see  the 
red -plumed  brass  helmets  and  gold -braided 
uniforms  of  the  Lancers,  as  they  make  a  broad 
way  through  the  immense  crowds,  which  fall 
back  on  either  side  to  avoid  the  horses' 
hoofs.  The  next  photo,  depicts  but  faintly 
the  effect,  picturesque  and  striking  to  a 
degree,  which  the  entire  cortege  produced  as 
it  wound  in  and  out  through  the  huge  con- 
course massed  in  the  spacious  Grand  Pla 

The  Lancers' pennons 
wave  gaily  and  their 
band  plays  inspiriting 
strains.  The  whole 
atmosphere  is  full  of 
commotion  and  music. 
As  the  head  of  the  pro- 
cession draws  nearer,  I 
perceive  that  a  priest 
on  foot,  in  surplice  and 
biretta  and  rosary  in 
hand,  leads  the  way, 
now  and  then  turning 
to  address  a  word  and 
a  smile  to  the  foremost 
of  the  Belgian  "  Tom- 
mies "  behind  him. 

Reeds  and  rushes  are 
scattered  freely  by  the 
residents  in  the  houses 
on  either  side  of  the 
street,  in  front  of  the 
cavalcade.  Then  come 
in  quick  succession  (for 
the  sky  looks  threaten- 

ing) one  group  after  another,  represent- 
ing the  various  parishes  of  this  Cathedral 
town.  They  are  typical  of  the  lives  of 
their  different  patron  saints,  and  one 
and  all  are  remarkable  for  the  beauty 
of  grouping  and  colouring  of  dresses. 

Three  .Mary  Magdalens  pass  by  — 
one  depicting  her  as  she  was  before 
her  conversion,  and  the  other  after; 
whilst  the  third  shows  her  leading  a  life 
of  penitential  mortification  in  Provence, 
surrounded  by  angels.  I  behold  also 
a  brilliantly  attired  St.  Margaret,  robed 
in  red  plush  and  ermine  mantle,  tread- 
ing the  earth  once  more,  venerated  as 
a  martyr  to  her  faith. 

Our  next  photo,  shows  a  recumbent 
figure  of  Christ  in  the  Sepulchre, 
surrounded  by  Crusaders  in  full  war- 
paint and  Knights  of  the  Order  of  St. 
Sepulchre.  One  of  the  Church's  most 
powerful  and  noble  patronesses  follows 
hard  in  their  footsteps — one  of  our  own  Kings' 
daughters,  Walburga,  canonized  on  her  death. 
And  yet  another  personification  of  her  passes 
by  directly  after,  robed  as  Abbess  of  Eichstadt, 
in  the  midst  of  her  nuns. 

Lxigencies  of  space  forbid  my  entering  as 
fully  as  I  could  wish  into  details  of  this  lengthy 
and  very  interesting  pageant.  I  will,  however, 
touch  lightly  on  some  of  its  chief  features. 

Behind  the  band  of  the  Garde  Civi(/ue,  which 
is  led  by  the  tambour-major — a  huge  man  in 
dark  uniform  and  enormous  bear-skin — stream 



From   a   Photo. 



MOW      v  VII  "■        A        Dl  II   OLE       LINE 

From  a  Photo. 

more    queens,     martyrs,    hermits, 

saints,  and  virgins,  all  representa- 

of    the    Church    at    various 

„es  of  her  existence,  interspersed 
bv  statues  of  the  .Madonna,  her 
Mother.  St.  Anne  of  the  Sacred 
Heart,  St.  Joseph,  and  countless 
otht.  Banners    there   are,    too, 

gorgeous  in  their  splendour  of 
embroidered  velvets  and  embellish- 
ment of  precious  stones  ;  angels 
both  great  and  small,  with  hair 
elaborately  curled,  white  dresses 
stiffly  starched,  white  wings  already 
sprouting  from  their  shoulders,  and 
bearing  before  their  sweet  persons 
Latin  and  Flemish  mottoes,  or 
baskets  and  bunches  of  flowers. 

The  town  band  goes  by ;  and 
now  comes  into  view  a  double 
line  of  white-surpliced  priests  in 
birettas,  students  from  the  Bruges 
seminary,  a  choir  of  fresh  boy- 
voices  singing  a  hymn  of  praise  to 
that  which  is  close  behind  them  : 
whilst  more  boys  and  a  <! 
tonsured  priests  swing  costly  cen- 
wafting  clouds  of  perfume  up 
to  my  quaint  window.  The  next 
thing  I  see  through  these  delicious 
clouds  is  that  to  which  all  the 
honour  and  glory  of  this  magnifi- 
cent procession  is  due — the  Blessed 
Blood  itself  contained  in  an  ex- 
quisite "chasse"  (casket),  borne  by 
two  priests  on  their  shoulders.  It 
is  a  perfect  chef  cTcpuvre  of  the 
goldsmith's  art,  and  the  work  of  a 
master    goldsmith,    Jean    Crabbe, 

who  finished  it  in  16-16,  when  it  was  presented  to 
the  township  o[~  Bruges  by  the  Archduke  Albert 
and  Archduchess  Isabel  of  Burgundy. 

The  reader  will  see  by  the  photo,  here  given 
of  it  that  it  is  a  hexagonal  coffer,  composed 
entirely  of  silver-gilt,  richly  engraved  and  covered 
with  enamelled  shields,  precious  stones,  pearls, 
and  cameos  of  great  antiquity.  The  four 
statuettes  above  the  "  chasse  "  represent  Christ 
rising  from  the  tomb,  the  Blessed  Virgin,  St. 
Basil,  and  St.  Donatius.  All  four  figures  are  of 
massive  gold.  The  relic  is  always  placed  in 
this  magnificent  "  chasse  "  when  carried  proces- 
sionally  through  the  town ;  and  on  the  day  of 
the  annual  procession  alone  is  the  gorgeously 

From  a]  CONTAINING   THE   HOLY   BLOOD.  [Photo. 



jewelled  crown  which  forms  the  subject  of  our 
next  illustration  placed  just  above  the  "  chasse  " 
and  beneath  the  flat  roof  supporting  the  statu- 
ettes. This  is  the  crown  of  Mary  of  Burgundy, 
left  by  her  to  the  Chapel  of  the  Holy  Blood. 


From  a]  the  streets.  [Photo. 

Armed  gendarmes  guard  the  blessed  relic  on 
either  side,  and  after  it  follows  the   Bishop  of 
Bruges.     He  distributes  blessings  all  along  the 
line  of  route  as  he  goes,  surrounded  by  revered 
canons  of  the  Church  and  the  highest  in  rank 
among  the  town  officials.     A   body  of  Lancers 
brings  this  imposing  religious  cortege  to  an   end, 
and   all    that    is   left 
for  me  to  note,  as  I 
still  gaze  down  below, 
is    the    huge    con- 
course   pressing    on- 
ward in  the  wake  of 
the    procession  —  all 
hurrying  to  reach  the 
Bourg,      where      the 
Benediction  is  to  be 
given,  and  all  in  the 
best     of      humours, 
notwithstanding    the 
heavy  drops  of   rain 
which    are    now    be- 
ginning to  fall. 

By  the  way,  I  was 
told  by  one  of  my 
own  countrywomen 
(at  procession  time 
the  English  Colony 
musters  in  full  force, 
on  balconies,  at  win- 
dows, and  in  streets) 
that  it  had  rarely 
been  known  to  rain 
on    the    day  of    the 

■>  THE   HALT    IN    THE    PLACE    DU 

procession,  and   that        Froma]  blending 

when  it  did,  the  Brugeois  considered  it  in  the 
light  of  a  bad  omen  for  the  prosperity  of 
their  town. 

Presently  I  join  them  on  their  way  to  the 
square  where  stands  the  Hotel  de  Ville.  This 
square  is  called  the  "Bourg."  Under  the  trees 
stands  a  statue  of  Jean  van  Eyck,  and  in  the 
buildings  surrounding  the  "  Bourg  "  you  see  a 
curious  diversity  in  the  style  of  the  architecture. 

I  arrive  in  time  to  find  the  Benediction 
about  to  be  bestowed.  A  more  picturesque 
sight  I  rarely,  if  ever,  saw.  The  next  photo- 
graph gives  a  view  of  it — although,  to  see 
it  to  its  greatest  advantage,  one  must 
be  actually  present  to  appreciate  the  artistic 
grouping  and  blending  of  every  colour  in  the 
rainbow.  I  stand  in  the  midst  of  pilgrim 
fathers  with  their  staves,  and  of  the  Apostles 
surrounding  a  man  personifying  our  Lord.  Near 
me  stands  a  tiny  St.  John  the  Baptist  in  flesh- 
coloured  tights,  a  sheep-skin  his  only  covering. 

Farther  on  are  grouped  girls  and  boys  in  the 
costumes  of  every  nationality  on  earth — all  bear- 
ing testimony  to  the  widespread  power  of  Mother 
Church  ;  and  close  at  hand  is  a  group  of  young 
girls,  veiled  in  white  and  wearing  many-coloured 
robes,  each  bearing  a  cushion  on  which  are 
placed  the  various  symbols  of  the  Crucifixion, 
viz.,  a  sponge,  a  hammer,  dice,  nails,  and  so  on. 
A  statued  group  of  Christ  after  the  descent  from 
the  Cross ;  Our  Lord  lying  in  His  Mother's  lap ; 

OF   EVERY   COLOUR    IN    THE   RAINBOW."  [Photo. 


and  .1  ontaining  a   fragment 

the    Holy  *  both    resting  on    stalwart 

st  behind  me. 

■  lifferent  groups,  and 

:ns  help  to  make  a  wonderful 

stand  massed  together  in  the 

old   "F  which  has   seen   the    same    sight 

e\  er  since  the  year 

n    this    remarkable    procession    was 

to  which  Emperors  and   Kings,  with 

Archdukes,  and  tin-  great 

many  kinds  have  paid  the   tribute  of  their 

tting    the    present    Pope, 

:i  he  v.  Nuncio  at    Brussels  in 

usly  coloured  altar,  erected  in  front  of  the 
old  Hotel  tie  Ville  for  the  occasion.  Then 
tomes  an  almost  complete  silence  among  the 
tremendous  crowd  around  me,  as  Monseigneur, 
surrounded  by  lesser  dignitaries  of  the 
Church,  turns  and  raises  the  holy  relic 
itself  in  blessing  above  the  kneeling  multi- 
,  all  of  whom  cross  themselves  devoutly. 
A  roar  of  sound  succeeds  the  silence  !  The 
Church  groups  disperse,  the  bands  play  them- 
selves  off  the  "  Bourg,"  each  to  a  different  air ; 
the  besandalled  and  brown-bearded  Carmelite 
monks  who  have  taken  part  in  the  morning's 
proceedings  stream  by  me  in  their  coarse  brown 



From  a  Photo. 

1844  (a  fact  the  devout  Brugeois  love  to  dwell 
on).  A  wonderfully  fine  sight,  indeed,  recalling 
visions  of  the  days  of  long  ago. 

The  last  photo,  shows  the  final  act  in  what 
has  been  a  long  and  tiring  morning  for  most  of 
those  taking  part  in  the  procession.  It  is  no 
small  matter  walking  over  the  uneven  cobbles 
of  Bruges,  under  the  weight  of  heavy  statues 
and  huge  banners. 

The    Lancer  band  fills  the   air   with    music, 
until  the  Bishop  mounts  the  steps  of  the  gor- 

robes,  one  of  them  bearing  aloft  a  painted 
wooden  cross,  on  which  are  displayed  the  signs 
symbolical  of  the  Crucifixion  ;  the  crowds  hurry 
off  to  seek  shelter  from  the  now  fast-falling  rain, 
and  the  great  ceremony  is  over. 

It  only  remains  for  me  to  add  that  it  is 
greatly  owing  to  the  courtesy  of  Monseigneur 
Bethune,  Canon  of  the  Bruges  Cathedral, 
that  I  have  succeeded  in  obtaining  so  many 
details  concerning .  the  history  of  Bruges'  most 
sacred    relic. 

In    the    Jaws   of   a   Lion. 

By  Captain  J.  H.  Vanderzee  (late  Indian   Staff  Corps). 

A  late  officer  of  H.  M.  Indian  Army  relates  his  own  personal  experience  of  the  above,  and  describes 
what  the  sensations  are  really  like.  Poor  Captain  Vanderzee !  His  story  has  a  sad  sequel, 
for  he  was  destined   never   to    return    in    search    of    that    lion's    "  relations."      His   gallant   voice    is   a 

voice    from    the    dead. 

EADERS  of  The  Wide  World  will 
hardly  yet  have  forgotten,  even  in 
these  days  of  short  memories,  Mr. 
Brockman's  experience  with  a  lion 
in  Central  Africa,*  which  is  probably 

without  parallel  in  the  records  of  any  country, 

and  furnishes  one  more  proof  of  the  truth  of  Dr. 

Livingstone's  statement,   made  many  years  ago, 

that  under  circumstances  somewhat  similar  (in  a 

lesser    degree)     to 

those  narrated,  he  felt         

no    pain   whatever 

whilst    being   gnawed 

by    the    "king     of 

beasts."      Now  to  my 

own  adventure. 

Although      I     had 

devoted   most  of  my 

leave   and   leisure   to 

the     pursuit    of    big 

game  in  various  parts 

of  India  for  more  than 

five  years  previously, 

it  was   not   till    1895 

that    I    was    able    to 

carry    out     a     long- 
planned     project     to 

essay  my  fortunes  (as 

a    hunter)    in    new 


The   scene   of   the 

adventure     which      I 

am    about    to   relate 

is    that    portion    of 

Portuguese      East 

Africa  lying    between 

the  Zambesi  and  the 

Pungwe  Rivers. 

On      1 6th     August 

of    the    above     year 

I    left   camp   on    the 

River      Urima     at 

about  8  a.m.,  accom- 
panied by  five  Kaffir 

"boys."      One   of     these 




FOR   THE    "  WIDE   WORLD." 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Artistic  Photographic  Co.,  Oxford  Street. 

carried    my   double 
Express    rifle,    together  with   twenty  cart 

After  walking  over  the  short  grass  for  about 
an  hour  or  more,  several  shots  in  rapid  succes- 
sion were  heard  about  a  mile  away  to  the  left, 
the  direction  in  which  my  companion  (a  Dane, 
named  Jansen)  had  proceeded  on  leaving  camp 
that  morning.  Thinking  from  the  number  and 
frequency  of  the  shots  that  Jansen  had  fallen 
in  with  a  big  herd  of  buffalo,  I  did  not  pay  any 
particular  attention  to  this,  but  proceeded  on  my 

way.  Soon  afterwards, 
the  Kaffirs  who  were 
following  behind  stop- 
ped, and  catching  the 
word  "pondoro"(lion) 
I  also  stopped,  and 
turned  round  to  see 
what  had  attracted 
their  attention.  About 
half  a  mile  away  to 
the  left  (from  whence 
had  come  the  sound  of 
firing)  four  yellowish 
objects,  looking  at 
that  distance  very  like 
big  mastiffs,  were 
visible;  these  were  four 
lions,  or  rather  two 
lions  and  two  lion- 
esses, which,  after 
being  disturbed  by 
Jansen,  were  making 
their  way  to  the  near- 
est patch  of  long  reeds. 
The  ground  for  nearly 
a  mile  on  all  sides  was 
quite  devoid  of 
shelter,  being  covered 
with  short,  green  grass 
about  six  or  eight 
inches  in  length. 

When    I    first    saw 
them,   the   lions  were 
shambling  along  at  a 
good    pace    in    single 
file,   and   they  appeared   to  be  heading  towards 
some  high  grass  nearly  a  mile  away  to  my  left  rear. 

ridges,  most  of  which  were   loaded  with    solid         This  being  my  first  introduction  to  these  animals, 

against    buffalo.       I         it    may    easily  be    imagined    that    I    was    most 

reluctant  to  lose  the  chance  of  improving  their 
acquaintance,  but  to  do  so  meant  at  least  half  a 
mile's. hard  running  before  I  could  hope  to  get 
near  enough  to  shoot,  supposing  the  animals 
maintained  their  present  course  and  pace. 

hardened  bullets  for  use  against  buffalo.  I 
myself  carried  a  sporting  Lee-Metford  magazine 
rifle,  with  a  supply  of  cartridges  ;  the  remaining 
four  "  boys  "  were  taken  to  bring  in  heads  and 
meat  for  camp. 

'See  issue  fur  June,  1898. 

11  li;    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

always  been  a  bit  of  a  runner,  and 
hav  '1  many  races  at  various  distances 

in  my  rim        S     telling  four  out  of   my  five 

I    remain  where  they  were,  and  taking 

strapping    Makalolo 

pina),  w       ■     '■'  at  a  good  pace 

ting  I   rms  in  front  of  us. 

My   costume   consisted   of  a   flannel  shirt,   a 

aki  knickers  cut  short  like   running 

nd    moccasins    of   sambhur 

My    companion    was    in   a   stat 

r  a  loin  cloth,  so  we  were  in  nice 

:or  travellini 

r  running  hard  for 

ie     700yds.    or     so, 

more  than   350yds. 

divided      us    from    the 


regards  the 


rearmost  lion.  As  we  gradually  closed  up  with 
),  the  leader  of  the  four,  a  superb  brute 
with  a  good  mane,  put  on  the  pace  a  bit,  and 
was  followed  at  an  interval  of  some  yards  by 
the  second  (a  lioness),  hut  the  other  two  slowed 
n  perceptibly  and  growled  once  or  tw 

g  by  this  time  rather  pumped  I  essayed 
or    three  shots   with  my  "303,    but  as   the 
muzzle  was  describing  circles  in  the  air  at  the 
time,  these  were  without  result. 

Another  but  shorter  run  this  time  brought  us 
to  within  about  200yds.  of  the  pair  in  the  rear, 
whilst  the  other  two  were  now  quite  a  consider- 

able distance  ahead.  Having  by  this  time  got 
my  wind  a  bit,  I  was  fairly  steady,  and  my 
second  shot  brought  the  male  to  a  standstill, 
w  minded  somewhere,  but  where  exactly  it  was 
then  impossible  to  say;  however,  he  pulled  up 
and  lay  down  in  the  short  grass.  Another  shot 
at  the  lioness  also  proved  effective,  wounding 
her  somewhere  in  the  body,  for  she,  too, 
dropped.  The  remaining  pair  of  lions  con- 
tinued their  course,  and  eventually  disappeared. 
Exchanging  the  -303  for  my  double  -577,  I 
now  proceeded  slowly  to  reduce  the  distance 
between  myself  and  the  wounded 
lions,  followed  at  about  ten 
yards'  distance  by  the  Makalolo, 
carrying  the  "303, 
which  still  had 
the  empty  shell 
from  my  last  shot 
remaining  in  the 
chamber,  with 
three  or  four  cart- 
ridges in  the 

besides  the  two 
cartridges  in  the 
rifle,  1  had  two 
spare  ones  loose 
in  the  breast- 
pocket of  my 
shirt.  All  four 
were  loaded  with 
a  hardened  lead 
sol  i  d  bullet, 
weighing  520 

Slowly  and 
cautiously  we 
advanced  until 
not  more  than  a 
full  1  ooyds.  re- 
mained. At  this 
point  the  lion 
which  had  first 
been  wounded 
stood  up  facing  me;  I  also  stopped  and  waited 
developments.  In  this  way  we  remained  gazing 
at  each  other  for  perhaps  half  a  minute,  though 
it  seemed  longer.  The  lion  seemed  to  be 
deliberating  what  to  do,  but  stood  motionless 
except  for  an  ominous  twitching  of  the  tail, 
which  moved  slowly  from  side  to  side. 

Judging  from  my  previous  experience  with 
the  cats  (tiger  and  panther)  and  other  animals 
in  India,  and  after  a  careful  study  of  what 
recognised  authorities  have  written  on  the 
subject,  I  had  come  to  accept  it  as  an  axiom 
that,  as   a   general   rule,    animals,    wounded    or 

IN    THE    JAWS    OF    A    LION. 


unwounded,  do  not  charge  from  a  distance  of 
more  than  50yds.  or  so.  And,  provided  the 
firer  stands   firm   and   holds    his    rifle    straight, 

there  is  little  danger  of  the  animal  making  good 

whilst  charging, 

his  charge,  for,  if  not  disabled 
it  will  usually  swerve  off  at  the  last  moment. 
Hence  in  the  present  instance  I  thought  it 
unlikely  that  the  lion  now  facing  me  would 
charge  so  long  as  a  distance  of  rather  over  than 
under  1  ooyds.  separated  us.  Or,  if  it  should  do 
so,  I  thought  that  a  shot  in  the  head  or  chest 
would  in  all  probability  disable  it,  or  at  all 
events  turn  the  brute  from  its  course. 

Animals,  however,  differ  much  individually. 
The  absence  of  cover  and  the  fact  of  its  having 
been  hustled  and  driven  off  its  prey  by  Jansen 
probably  had  something  to  do  with  it ;  at  all 
events,  after  the  tail  had  twitched  round  for  the 
third  time,  up  it  went  in  the  air,  and  the  lion 
came  rushing  towards  me — not  in  bounds,  how- 
ever, for  that  was  impossible,  as  will  be  seen 
presently,  but  simply  with  a  low  rush,  belly  and 
head  nearly  touching  the  ground.  Waiting,  in 
order  to  make  the  more  sure  of  my  aim,  until  it 
had  reduced  the  distance  between  us  by  about 
one-half,  and  then  aiming  just  below  its  mouth, 
I  fired,  and  saw  at  once,  from  the  way  it  swerved 
suddenly,  that  the  bullet  had  gone  home.  But 
the  lion  came  again  without  any  perceptible 
pause,  and  it  could  not  have  been  more  than 
15yds.  or  20yds.  away  when  it  received  the  con- 


V   I.  iv.— 18. 

tents  of  my  second  barrel.  The  smoke 
prevented  my  seeing  the  immediate  effect  of  this, 
but  the  next  thing  I  knew  was  being  grabbed 
from  the  left  about  half-way  down  the  left  thigh 
and  thrown  to  the  ground.  As  I  fell,  the  rifle 
dropped  from  my  hand  and  lay  a  little  way  to 
my  right  rear. 

The  lion  was  evidently  nearly  done  for,  as  it 
made  no  attempt  to  use  its  claws,  but  lay  with 
its  body  clear  of  me  whilst  holding  my  thigh  in 
its  jaws.  As  I  fell,  it  shifted  its  grip  higher  up, 
seizing  me  just  below  the  left  groin  and  driving 
all  four  canine  teeth  deep  into  the  flesh.  On 
my  moving,  it  again  changed  its  grip,  this  time 
to  a  place  a  few  inches  above  the  right  knee,  its 
head  and  neck  resting  across  my  legs. 

Whilst  this  was  going  on  I  was  not  conscious 
of  any  pain  whatever,  but  remember  wondering 
in  a  vague  kind  of  way  when  the  brute  was 
going  to  stop  gnawing  my  legs. 

In  the  meanwhile  Dinakopina  was  hovering 
round  behind  me,  endeavouring  to  load  the  "303, 
but  being  unacquainted  with  the  mechanism  he 
did  not  at  first  succeed  ;  so,  thinking  that  he 
would  find  the  "577  easier  to  manipulate,  I  took 
out  the  two  spare  cartridges  from  my  shirt 
pocket,  and  from  my  position,  half  sitting  and 
half  lying  down,  threw  them  over  my  head,  at 
the  same  time  telling  him  to  load — of  course, 
all  these  things  occupied  very  little  time  in 
the  doing,  probably  not  more  than  twenty 
or  thirty  seconds. 

After  the  lion  had  got  hold  of 
me  by  the  right  leg  I  instinctively 
tried  to  push  his  head  away  from 
me  with  my  right  hand,  the  result 
being  that  the  brute  dropped  my 
leg  and  grabbed  hold  of  my  wrist 
with  its  mouth,  one  upper  fang 
entering  deep  in  just  where  the 
radius  bone  of  the  forearm 
terminates.  Another  fang  (a  lower 
one)  penetrated  in  front  of  the 
end  of  the  ulna  bone. 

It  was  just  at  this  moment 
that  my  native  companion  man- 
aged to  work  the  Lee-Metford 
rifle,  and  fired.  Whether  from  the 
effects  of  this  or  succumbing  to 
his  previous  wounds,  I  know  not ; 
but  the  lion  immediately  after- 
wards released  its  hold  of  me  and 
its  head  dropped.  Hastily  scram- 
bling to  my  feet  I  took  the  -303, 
loaded,  and  fired  it  into  the 
animal's  head  just  to  make  sure, 
lest  he  should  revive  again.  On 
investigating  the  damage  on 
both  sides   it    appeared  that   the 

mi;   wide   world   magazine. 

j  had  broken  a 
ah  near  the  fetlock,  while 
in    the   chest    a    few    inches 

■ry.       The    only    Other 

d   by  my  las:   shot 

;',.    1  1 <  Metford.      \      trace  o\ 

■  iund,  but  this  may 

hidden    by   the    hair  of   the 

.    with   a 

.   mane. 

My  n  in  all— s 

in  th  ur  in  the  right  thigh,  and  two 

fhe  •  2  i  law-scratch 

if  the  left  wrist,  but  this  was 

51    down    my    appearance    was 

rath.  !     th  h  ^  were  completely 

th  blood  in  thick,  semi-liquid  gouts. 

he  thighs  looked  as  though  an  auger  had 

being    carried   to  camp  on  the  shoulders  of  two 
men,  I  was  able  to  direct  operations.     With  the 
help   of  a    bottle   of  carbolic   acid   and    so 
lint,  the  wounds  were   thoroughly  cleansed  and 

Next  day  a  messenger  was  sent  on  to  apprise 
the  doctor  in  medical  charge  of  the  Beira 
railway  employes,  asking  him  to  come  to 
Fontesvilla,  the  then  terminus.  At  first,  an 
attempt  was  made  to  carry  me  overland  on  a 
stretcher,  but  owing  to  the  narrowness  of  the 
path  and  other  reasons,  this  had  to  be  abandoned. 
The  only  alternative  was  to  go  down  in  a  dug- 
out canoe  by  river.  At  first  we  tried  travelling 
at  night  as  well  as  by  day,  but  this  was  found  to 
be  impracticable,  and  the  risk  of  a  capsize  too 
great  owing  to  the  number  of  hippos  in  the 
river,  not  to  mention  the  crocodiles,  which  are 
very  numerous  in  these  parts. 


been  at  work  boring  holes  all  over  them— every 

hole  being  big  enough   to  admit  the  forefinger, 

and  from  an  inch  and  a  half  to  two  inches  deep. 

•ie  place  a  strip  of  flesh  about  three  inches 

:id  a  half  inches  wide  had  been 

taken   bodily   out.       My   right  wrist  was   badly 

-hed  and   quite   u  this  day  I  am 

u°2  and  how  I  managed  to  work 

-.3  and   fire  a  shot,  using  the 

hand  throughout. 

care  was  to  stop  the  hemorrhage  as 
far  as  possible.  I  _■  •  Dinakopina  to  tear  his  loin 
cloth  into  strips   and  made   bandages  of  them. 

t  him  off  to  bring  up  the  other  "b 
with  the  water-bottle.     A  message  was  also 
to  Jansen    at  the   same   time.     Beyond    being 
rather  weak  and  a  bit  dazed,  I  did  not  feel  very 
much   the    worse   for  my  adventure,  and  after 

On  the  fourth  day — that  is  to  say,  on  the  19th 
August — I  was  landed  at  Fontesvilla  and  handed 
over  to  the  doctor.  After  a  week's  treatment, 
during  which  time  I  was  a  sort  of  side-show  for 
the  residents,  not  one  of  whom  in  all  probability 
even  knew  my  name,  I  was  advised  to  get  down 
to  Durban,  in  Natal,  as  soon  as  possible,  in 
order  to  get  the  nursing  and  dieting  which  my 
case  demanded. 

After  being  carried  on  board  the  river  steamer 
at  Fontesvilla  we  started  down  stream  for 
beira,  but  stuck  fast  in  the  mud  before  we  had 
gone  more  than  a  few  miles.  This  delayed  us 
for  several  days,  and  eventually  we  continued 
our  journey  in  a  sailing-boat. 

On  arrival  at  the  mouth  of  the  Pungwe 
opposite  Beira  I  was  just  in  time  to  catch  a 
German    steamer,    southward    bound.     Having 

IN    THE     TAWS    OF    A    LION. 


been  put  on  board,  the  German  doctor,  with  a 
view,  I  believe,  of  reducing  inflammation,  slung 
my  hand  to  the  roof  of  my  cabin,  which  had 
the  effect  of  increasing  the  swelling  of  the  fore- 
arm to  an  alarming  extent.  By  this  time  the 
circulation  in  the  right  hand  had  nearly  stopped, 
and,  apart  from  the  constant  pain,  my  right  arm 
appeared  to  be  in  a  bad  way. 

For  the  next  five  weeks  I  was  never  free  from 
pain,  and  my  right  arm  at  one  time  looked  as 
though  it  would  have  to  come  off.  At  length 
the  pain  and  swelling  subsided,  and  the  out- 
look generally  began  to  improve.  On  the  9th 
of  October  I  left  Durban  by  one  of  the  Union 
boats,  and,  after  a  very  pleasant  voyage,  arrived 
at  Southampton  a  very  different  being  from 
what  I  had  been  a  month  before,  but  with  a 
bad  stiff  wrist  as  a  memento. 

Luckily  for  me,  one  of  the  first  surgeons  of 
the  day  interested  himself  in  my  case  ;  but 
many  months  passed,  and  many  a  half-hour  of 
torture  had  to  be  endured  before  I  even  par- 
tially recovered  the  use  of  my  right  hand  and 
arm,  and  it  was  not  really  until  some  time  after 
my  return  to  India,  towards  the  end  of  1896, 
that  they  altogether  ceased  from  troubling,  and 
became  for  all  practical  purposes  sound  and  fit 
for  use.  At  present,  I  am  looking  forward  to 
the  time  now,  I  hope,  not  far  distant,  when  I 
shall  be  able  to  return  to  the  scene  of  my  mishap 
and  exact  full  toll  for  the  past  from  the  author 
thereof,  or  rather  from  his  relations  and  kindred. 

Strange  that  this  gallant  officer  should  come 
almost  unscathed  through  the  terrible  adventure 
related  here,  only  to  meet  with  a  tragic  death  by 
drowning.  The  following  appeared  under  the 
heading  of  "  Naval  and  Military  "  in  the  daily 
papers  of  Monday,  February  20th  :  "The  death 
is  announced  of  Captain  John  H.  Vanderzee, 
Indian  Staff  Corps.  Drowned  in  Burma.  Aged 

We  communicated  at  once  with  his  father, 
Major-General  F.  H.  Vanderzee,  I.S.C.,  of  Bath, 
only  to  learn  with  sincere  regret  that  the  sad 
news  was  true.  General  Vanderzee  kindly  sent 
us  the  following  letter,  which  tells  the  whole 
story  of  his  gallant  son's  death  : — 

"Myitkyina,  Upper  Burma. 

"Sunday,  February  26th,  1899. 

"Dear  Sir, — It  is  with  sincere  regret  I  write 
to  give  you  details  of  the  death  of  your  son, 
Captain  J.  H.  Vanderzee,  of  the  battalion 
under  my  command,  of  which  you  will  have 
heard  by  cable  before  the  receipt  of  this.  He 
was  in  command  of  our  most  advanced  post— 
N'Sentaru  on  the  N'Maikha  River,  and  at  the 
time  was  the  only  Englishman  there.  He  took 
out  the  detachment  there  in  November  last,  and 

by  his  energy  and  hard  work  established  them 
in  a  fort  in  an  incredibly  short  time.  I  visited 
the  post  in  December,  and  last  saw  him  on  the 
22nd  of  that  month. 

"On  Sunday,  February  12th,  while  boating 
on  the  N'Maikha,  the  sad  accident  occurred 
which  cost  him  his  life.  Communication  was 
only  kept  up  with  N'Sentaru  by  means  of  the 
heliograph,  and  it  just  happened  that  the  12th 
and  13th  of  February  were  dull,  rainy  days,  when 
signalling  was  impossible.  Hence  the  news  did 
not  reach  Myitkyina  till  the  14th  of  February. 
I  was  on  tour  at  a  place  called  Hopin,  seventy- 
one  miles  away  on  the  opposite  side  of 
Myitkyina,  when  I  heard  the  news ;  and  as 
N'Sentaru  is  fifty-six  miles  north-east  of 
Myitkyina,  I  was  only  able  to  reach  the  spot  in 
the  afternoon  of  17th  February. 

"  Your  son  had  just  received  a  boat  he  had 
ordered  from  Calcutta  (one  of  Osgood's  portable 
folding-boats,  described  in  the  inclosed  cata- 
logue, which  I  took  from  amongst  his  papers) ; 
and  he  had  been  out  in  it  on  the  river  two  or 
three  times  only,  just  opposite  the  fort,  where 
the  water  is  still  and  quiet.  From  all  accounts 
the  boat  gave  satisfaction.  On  the  12th  of  Feb- 
ruary, at  about  midday,  he,  with  his  Sepoy  boat- 
man, Jangbir  Rai,  and  his  Kachin  servant,  Mah 
Tu,  embarked  apparently  with  a  view  of  going 
some  considerable  distance  up  stream  surveying, 
as  poor  Vanderzee  took  some  surveying  instru- 
ments with  him.  When  only  a  few  hundred 
yards  up  stream,  however,  and  only  just  out  of 
sight  of  the  fort,  they  came  to  some  bad  water, 
where  the  river,  in  running  round  a  point,  was 
disturbed,  and  the  current  very  strong.  Sepoy 
Jangbir  Rai  was  in  the  bow  of  the  boat  paddling 
(face  towards  the  bow)  ;  the  Kachin,  Mah  Tu, 
was  in  the  middle  paddling,  and  your  son  in  the 

stern  steering. 

"  As  the  boat  first  felt  the  strength  of  the 
current  running  round  the  point,  Jangbir  Rai 
called  out  that  he  did  not  think  they  would  be 
able  to  make  headway,  and  suggested  their 
landing  and  pulling  the  boat  past  the  point 
with  a  rope.  He  received  no  reply  to  this,  and 
suddenly,  without  a  moment's  notice,  the  boat's 
head  was  knocked  aside  by  the  strength  of  the 
water,  which,  catching  it  broadside  on,  over- 
turned it  and  precipitated  all  three  into  the 
turbulent  river. 

"The  N'Maikha  is  a  large  river,  several 
hundreds  of  yards  across  during  the  rains  ;  but 
at  the  place  where  the  accident  occurred  it  is 
only  about  a  hundred  yards  wide  at  the  present 
season.  Vanderzee  was  an  excellent  swimmer, 
I  belieye  ;  Jangbir  Rai  could  also  swim  ;  but 
the  Kachin,  a  big,  powerful  man,  dreaded  the 
water — like  all  hillmen — and  could  not  swim  a 


r   Rai   saved   himself   by 

me  two  hundred  yards 

•i   the  opp  to  the  fort. 

alarm  by  shouting.     A  sentry 

him,   and  the  native  officers 

:     the  river  with  logs, 

not  think  it  probable  they  ever  will.  The 
river  is  very  deep  and  full  of  huge  rocks,  worn 
into  all  sorts  of  fantastic  shapes  and  holes  by  the 
water.  The  bodies  are  no  doubt  caught  in  the 
rocks  below,  and  will  never  be  recovered.  The 
river  at  the  scene  of  the  accident,  and  for  miles 


ropes,  etc.,  to  try  and  render  a>>istance.  Sepoy 
Jangbir  Rai  was  much  exhausted  and  terrified, 
and  can  give  no  details  as  to  what  occurred  to 
the  oth< 

landing  and 

turning  to  look  at 

the  river  he  saw  either  poor  Yanderzee  or  the 
hin — he  cannot  be  certain  which — rise  to 
the  surface  and  then  sink  again.    The  men  were 
:ided  all  along  the  river  bank,  but  not  a  sign 
of   •  ;.       A   glimpse   of   the   over- 

turned  boat  was  caught   by   one  of  the   men 
x>ut  a  thousand  yards  below  the  scene  of  the 
t,  and  every  endeavour  was  made  to  get 
•i   the  hope  that  Yanderzee  might  be  hold- 
on  to  it ;  but  without  success,  and  the  boat 
washed   away   and    not    recovered.       That 
your  son.  a  good  swimmer,  and  only  lightlv  clad 
in  tennis   shoes,  knickerbockers,  and  stockings, 
did  not  d  in   saving  himself,  or,  at  li 

w;  '•  r   for    the    space   of   ten 
mir,  >zn  he  might  have  been  saved  by 

the  S  on  the  banks,  can,  it  appears  to  me, 

be  explained  in  one  way  only  :  namely,  that  he 
did  his  best  to  help  his  wretched  servant,  whom 
he  knew  could  not  swim,  and  that  the  man 
held  on  to  him  in  his  terror,  and  so  drowned 
them  both.  I  regret  to  have  to  inform  you 
that,  in  spite  of  every  endeavour,  no  trace 
of    the    bodies   has   been    found  ;    and    I   do 

down-stream,  has  been  carefully  watched  and 
patrolled  for  over  a  fortnight,  and  rewards  for  the 
recovery  of  the  remains  have  been  offered  to  the 
tribes  living  about  the  banks;  but  without  success. 

"  I  hope  you  will  permit  me,  though  a 
stranger,  to  offer  you  my  sincere  sympathy  in 
your  great  loss.  Your  son  thus  suddenly  cut 
off  in  the  prime  of  life  is  a  great  loss  to  Her 
Majesty's  Service.  He  was  a  most  active, 
vigorous,  energetic,  and  capable  officer — just  the 
man  required  for  the  wild  frontier  life  we  have 
to  endure.  He  had  been  living  this  lonely  life 
for  about  two  years,  during  which  he  had 
made  himself  acquainted  with  the  Kachin 
language  ;  had  given  much  useful  information 
to  the  authorities  on  the  various  villages  and 
routes  in  the  hills  ;  and  several  of  his  maps  and 
route  reports  have  been  printed.  As  we  are 
military  officers  in  civil  employ  the  duties  of 
winding  up  your  son's  affairs  devolve  on  the 
Deputy-Commissioner  for  Myitkyina  District — 
Captain  E.  C  Townsend — to  whom  I  am 
handing  over  all  your  son's  kit,  among  which 
are  some  very  valuable  sporting  guns,  rifles,  and 
scientific  instruments. 

"  Believe  me,  yours  faithfully, 

"A.  W.  W.  Taylor,  Captain, 
"  ist  Burma  Gurkha  Rifles. 

"  Battalion  Commandant,  Myitkyina." 

The  Ice  Harvest  of  Iowa. 

By   W.    E.    Barlow,    M.A.,    of   Iowa   City. 

Farming  extraordinary.     The  fields  of  ice  are  ploughed,  and  a  highly  remunerative  harvest  gathered  in 
by  the  "  farmer."     With  a  complete  set  of  snap-shots  illustrating  the  different  phases  of  the  industry. 


IFTEEN  degrees  below  zero  !  Forty- 
seven  degrees  of  frost  !     I  can  see 
my    English    readers    shivering    in 
anticipation  ;  but  I  hasten  to  assure 
them   that  they  have  felt  the  cold 
more  keenly  in  England,  on  some  wet 
winter   day,    with    the  cruel  east  wind 
searching  and  wounding,  than  I  did  on 
that  glorious  December  day  on  the  Iowa 
River.     Indeed,  as  I  stood  on  the  boat- 
house  slip,  a  little  out  of  breath  from 
my   brisk  walk   from  town,    the    blood 
tingled  through  my  veins,  and  I  felt  a 
warm  glow  of- animal  life.     The  exhila- 
ration produced  by  the  dry,  clear  cold 
of  an  Iowa  mid-winter  must  be  experi- 
enced in  order  to  be  understood. 

Below  me,  as  far  up  the  river  as  I 
could  see,  the  thick  ice  was  dotted 
everywhere  with  men  and  horses,  hard 
ru  work.  It  was  the  beginning  of  the 
'  ice  harvest " — that  short  season  of 
'■  hustle  "  and  excitement,  during  which 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  tons  of  ice 
are  cut  and  stored  in  huge  wooden  ice-houses, 
for  use  in  the  scorching  heat  of  the  following 

The  scene  was  a  magnificent  one.  To  the 
left,  near  the  dam.  where  the  ice-cutting  had  not 
yet  commenced,  crowds  of  skaters  glided  and 
circled.  Behind  them,  in  the  distance,  the 
towers  and  spires  of  the  churches  and  Univer- 
sity buildings  rose  against  the  brilliant  blue  of 

the  sky.  Directly  beneath  me  snow-plough  and 
ice-plough  passed  and  re-passed ;  whilst  ringing 
blows  of  crowbars  and  a  ceaseless  "  whish- 
whishing  "  of  innumerable  ice-saws  came  from 
far  and  near.     To  the  right,  where  a  cross-road 





I.  —  THIS    Is   THE    ICE-PLOUGH    BY    MEANS    OF    WHICH    THE    ICE    SURI' 

From  a  I'hoto.}  divided  into  SQUARES.  [by  the 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

from  the  river  joined  the   main  road,  a  close 
procession  of   heavily-laden  sleds  struggled  up 
the  bank,  hurrying  and  crashing  along  as  though 
the    horses   themselves   understood    how   valu- 
able the  minutes  were.     Almost  over  my  head 
great  blocks  of  ice  glided,  rattling  away  along  a 
wooden   chute  ;   and  above  everything — gleam- 
ing on  the  blades  of  the  skates  ;  on  the  sparkling 
snow-crystals ;  on  the  open  squares  of  rippling 
blue   water   which    grew   in    size   each 
minute  ;  reflected   in   a  hundred  shim- 
mering colours   from    the   sides   of  the 
great  blocks  of  transparent,  bluish  ice, 
shone   the    sun — a    regular,    mid-winter 
Iowa  sun,  warm  and  glorious. 

I  had  dropped  from  the  platform,  and 
walked  up  the  river.  Here  the  snow 
had  already  been  partly  ploughed  and 
swept  away,  and  I  was  in  time  to  get  a 
couple  of  photographs  of  the  ice-plough 
in  operation.  By  means  of  this  machine 
the  surface  of  the  ice  is  divided  into 
squares  about  3ft.  in  each  direction. 
First  a  line  is  ploughed  along  one  side 
of  the  area  to  be  cut;  then  the  two  teeth 
of  the  guiding  bar,  seen  in  the  first 
Author        photo.,  are  fitted  into  this  groove,  and 



1  \      rHE  DIS 



allel    line — just  the  width  of  the 
a     from  the  first — is  marked  out.    Two  sets 
such  lines,  at  right  angles,  are  ploughed  over 
whole  field.     These  grooves  may 
n  in  the  first  photo.,  in  which 
also  the  cutting  teeth  of  the    plough 
-     iwn.     Photo.  Xo.   2  shows  the 
dually  in  motion. 

lares  are  marked  out, 
me:  horizontal  saws,   somewhat 

the  saw  of  the  ice-plough, 
go  over  the  lines  and  saw  to  the  di 

ral  inches.     One  of  these  hori- 
zontal saws  may  be  seen  in  the  distance 
in    phot'      \    .    3.      Then   comes   the 
_  ■  • .   which  is  carried  on  by 

large,  coarse-toothed  saws,  4ft.  or  5ft. 
in  length.  Photos.  Xos.  3  and  4  show 
these  well.  The  figure  in  the  fore- 
ground in  Xo.  4  is  that  of  a  typical 
ice-sawyer.     He  is  a  Bohemian,  and— 


if  one  may  judge  from  his  appearance 
in  his  shirtsleeves  —  a  warm-blooded 
one.  Most  of  the  photographs  which 
illustrate  this  article  were  taken  when 
the  temperature  was  about  i2deg.  or 
i5deg.  below  zero,  out  of  the  sun.  In 
spite  of  such  a  temperature,  however, 
it  is  possible  for  a  man  scantily-dressed 
to  keep  up  a  glow  by  continuous  exer- 
cise, and  the  ice-men  get  it.  Then,  too, 
in  the  sun  it  is  often  positively  hot. 

When  the  blocks  are  sawn  nearly 
through,  men  with  crowbars,  as  shown 
in  Xo.  5.  follow  on  along  the  edge  of 
the  ice  and  split  off  the  rows  of  blocks, 
guiding  them  along  the  edge  of  the 
water  towards  a  trough  cut  in  one 
corner  of  the  open  piece.  Photo. 
No.  6  shows  these  composite  cakes, 
up    of   from    three    to    six    blocks    each. 

In   the  left  foreground   a  boat-hook  is  hauling 
in  a  double  cake. 



-  •** 

From  a  J'hotoA 

1  \     SAWN    THROUGH   THEY   AKE    SPLIT   OFF    BY 

the  crowbar-max.  \by  the  Author. 


a  I'lioto.   by  the  Author. 

First  comes  the  workman  with  the 
horizontal  saw.  Xext  comes  the  man 
with  the  vertical  saw.  On  his  heels 
follows  the  bearer  of  the  crowbar.  The 
work  goes  from  right  to  left.  Other 
men  with,  boat-hooks  and  crowbars 
h  and  divide  the  rows  into  blocks, 
which  are  guided,  four  at  a  time,  into 
the  trough.  Here  they  are  seized,  as 
shown  in  photo.  Xo.  7,  by  a  grappling- 
hook  attached  to  a  stout  rope,  which 
passes  over  a  pulley  above  and  is  then 
made  fast  to  the  harness  of  a  horse. 
When  the  blocks  are  thus  seized  a 
signal  is  given,  the  horse  is  started, 
and  the  blocks  are  guided  up  a  pair  el 
rails  on  to  the  stage,  whence  they  are 



immediately  loaded  upon  sleds  and  wag- 
gons and  hurried  town  wards. 

When,  as  is  often  the  case,  the  ice- 
house is  built  near  the  river,  the  blocks 
are  hauled  from  the  trough  directly  up 
on  to  a  long  chute,  the  man  with  the 
grappling-iron  following  up  and  holding 
the  blocks  in  position  on  the  rails. 
Photographs  8  and  9  show  such  a  chute. 
When  the  little  procession  reaches  the 
summit  of  the  incline  - —  which  may  be 
seen  in  No.  8 — the  horse  is  stopped,  and 
the  blocks  glide  away  down  a  slight 
descent  into  the  ice-house,  where  men 
are  waiting  to  receive  and  store  them. 
This  particular  chute  crosses  the  river 
road.  On  the  extreme  right  of  the  photo- 
graph a  part  of  the  team  of  horses  used 
for  the  hauling   may  be  seen,   the  cable 


^   »'  J"     + 


•  r 


From  a  Photo.}  TROUGH.  [by  the  Author. 

being  led,  by  means  of  a  series  of  pulleys, 
down  one  of  the  chute  supports  and  out 
into  the  road. 

Accidents  happen  occasionally  on 
these  long  chutes :  for  example,  when 
the  tackle  slips  and  the  string  of  ice- 
blocks  gets  loose  and  slides  back  clown 
the  rails.  Then  the  man  with  the  grap- 
pling-iron has  the  alternative  of  getting 
out  of  the  way — if  he  can — or  of  being 
seriously  injured.  A  broken  leg,  or  a 
pair  of  crushed  ankles,  is  a  small 
matter  when  such  an  accident  occurs. 
Photograph  No.  10  shows  a  teamster 
hauling  ice  to  the  warehouses  in  town. 
In  the  rush  of  the  ice  harvest  almost 
everything  which  may  be  drawn  by 
horses,  either  on  wheels  or  on  runners, 
is  used  for  transport. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

Some  of  the  waggons  run  on  wheels,  but 
this  is  a  sled  mounted  upon  two  pairs  of 
runners.  As  long  as  the  ground  is  frozen 
hard  the  sleds  run  merrily  and  smoothly  along, 
whilst  the  waggon-wheels  slip  in  every  direc- 
tion ;  hut,  towards  the  end  of  the  harvest,  it 
sometimes  happens — partly  in  consequence  of 
the  sudden  changes  of  weather  common  in  Iowa, 
and  partly  because  the  cutting  is  postponed  until 
the  last  minute,  in  order  to  take  advantage  of 
every  inch  of  ice  possible — that  a  sudden  thaw 
softens  the  roads.  Then  the  tables  are  turned, 
and  one  may  see  the  sleds  tugging  along  stolidly 
through  slush  and  mud,  whilst  the  wheeled 
waggon  rolls  on  its  way  cheerfully. 

And  now  a  word  as  to  the  magnitude  of  this 
enterprise.     From  the  field  which  I  first  visited, 



From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 


and  on   which   four   dealers   were  cutting,  about 
Soo  lor.  •  were  hauled  to  town  in  one  day  ; 

and  between  400  and  500  men  were  engaged  in 
hauling,  and  storing.  A  few  miles  up 
the  river  the  Chicago,  Rock  Island,  and  Pacific 
Railroad  has  special  tracks  running  into  the 
Hot/,  ice-fields.  Here,  when  the  hard  cold 
comes,  making  ice  several  feet  in  thickness, 
nearly  a  thousand  men  work  day  and  night, 
under  electric  light,  filling  the  warehouses  and 
loading  the  long  trains  of  cars.  These  trains 
carry  the  ice  to  every  part  of  the  great  Mississippi 
Valley,  the  railroad  companies  of  the  West  and 
South  being  Mr.  Hotz's  best  customers.  I  was 
unable  to  ascertain  the  weight  of  ice  cut  at 
this  field  during  the  season,  but  I  learned 
that  Mr.  Hotz  often  paid  the  railroad  com- 
pany as  much  as  2,ooodols.  daily  for  freight. 

And  the  object  of  all  this  hard  work  ? 
Well,  if  this  is  a  land  of  cold  winters  it  is 
also  a  land  of  hot  summers — of  very  hot 
summers — of  summers  so  hot,  in  fact,  that 
it  is  almost  impossible  to  preserve  food  and 
drink  without  some  artificial  means  of  keep- 
ing them  cool.  And  so  almost  every  house- 
lolder  has  a  valued  refrigerator,  or  ice-chest, 
lined  with  cork  or  charcoal,  or  with  sawdust, 
and  coated  with  hardwood  and  zinc,  in  which 
to  keep  cool  and  sweet  to-morrow's  eggs  and 
butter,  and  milk  and  meat.  Covered  ice- 
waggons  lumber  through  the  streets  in  the 
early  mornings  of  the  summer  days,  and 
Scent  or  iocent  blocks  are  rapidly  distri- 
buted, ides  this  host  of  small  con- 
sumers, there  are  the  great  breweries,  the 
butchers,  the  milkmen,  the  restaurant-keepers, 
the  pork  and  beef  packing- house  men  — 
everybody,  in  short,  who  has  to   do,  directly 

or  indirectly,  with  food.  The  railroad 
companies,  who  transport  tremendous 
quantities  of  perishable  food-stuffs  in 
specially-constructed  "  refrigerator  cars," 
are  probably  the  largest  consumers. 

Hardly  a  picnic  party  leaves  the 
dusty,  sizzling  heat  of  Iowa  city's 
streets,  hurrying  for  the  rippling  waters 
of  the  Iowa  River  and  the  refreshing 
shade  of  her  wooded  bluffs,  without 
the  all-important  blanket-covered  cube 
of  ice.  Could  anything,  indeed,  more 
disgusting  than  tepid  lemonade  be 
placed  before  a  perspiring  pleasure- 
party  on  a  Midsummer  day  ? 

There  are   many  beautiful  things  to 

be   seen,    and   many  interesting  things 

to  be  done,  on  the  rivers  and   bluffs  of 

Iowa  in   mid-winter ;    but    perhaps    the 

most  fascinating  of  them  all  is  to  become,  for 

a  while,  part  and  parcel  of  the  excitement  and 

bustle  of  the  ice  harvest. 

The  panting,  tugging  horses,  surrounded  by 
rolling  halos  of  their  own  congealing  breath, 
and  with  their  heads  and  trappings  crusted  with 
hoar-frost ;  the  ice-laden  sleds ;  the  teamsters 
with  their  icicle-decorated  beards ;  the  busy 
river ;  the  shouts  and  the  laughter ;  the  hurry 
and  excitement  ;  and,  everywhere,  the  gleam  of 
ice  and  snow  in  the  radiant  sun,  combine  to 
make  a  picture,  and  to  inspire  a  sensation,  never 
to  be  forgotten.  One  leaves  the  ice-fields  with 
a  four-fold  impression — ice,  sun,  work,  life. 

-HAULING   ICE   TO   THE    WAREHOl    5ES    IN 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

My   Treacherous  Dragoman. 

By  Z.  E.  Birasky. 

A  Hungarian  gentleman,  who  is  at  once  a  doctor,  a  trader,  and    a    traveller,    relates  how  he  was 
all  but  murdered  by  his  dragoman   in    the    interior    of   Persia    for    the    sake  of  a  valuable  chrono 
meter.     With  actual  photographs  of  the  caravansary  in  which  the  incident  happened,  the  dragoman 

himself,  and  the  police  who  arrested  him. 


RAVERSING  Persia  without  a 
friend  or  any  knowledge  of  the 
language  of  the  Shah  is  a  difficult 
enterprise.  The  journey  was  both 
wearisome  and  monotonous,  and  I 
really  think  that  had  it  been  a  little  more 
extended  I  should  have  lost  my  powers  of 
speech,  having  always  to  make  myself  under- 
stood by  gestures. 

When  I  left  Bokhara  for  Teheran  with  a 
small  camel  caravan  I 
made  a  great  mistake  in 
disregarding  the  advice 
of  my  friends,  who  sug- 
gested that  I  should  take 
with  me  an  interpreter, 
who  would  act  both  as 
servant  and  dragoman. 
As  it  was,  however,  I 
had  a  very  unpleasant 
journey  to  the  Persian 
capital,  thanks  to  the 
muleteers  whom  I  had 
aged  at  the  former 
town.  On  many  occa- 
sions they  did  as  they 
thought  best,  and  at 
every  station  they  wanted 
to  stay  for  a  day  or  two. 
Before  I  reached  Teheran 
I  was  utterly  disgusted 
with  their  conduct,  and 
resolved  when  I  arrived 
there  to  engage  imme- 
diately a  dragoman  for 
the  rest  of  the  journey. 

The    heat   during    my 
expedition   was  intense  ; 

to  one  unaccustomed  to  the  climate,  indeed,  it 
is  often  fatal.  The  sky  was  perfectly  clear,  and 
the  unmitigated  rays  of  the  tropical  sun  poured 
down  upon  our  unprotected  heads  with  terrific 
force,  for  there  was  neither  friendly  rock  nor 
shady  tree  to  shelter  us.  The  effect  of  this 
upon  me  was  very  enervating,  and  several  times 
I  thought  I  should  have  fainted  through  sheer 

At  length  we  arrived  at  Teheran,  where  I 
remained  a  considerable  time  in  order  to 
recuperate  my  strength  after  such  a  tedious 
journey.     And,  of  course,  I  was  very  pleased  to 

Vol.  iv.— 19. 

I.e.     I.i     1111     COVETOUSNESS    OF    His    DRAGOMAN. 
/■'roi/i  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

dispense  with  the  muleteers  who  had  so  meanly 
taken  advantage  of  me  on  account  of  my  being 
a  stranger  and  ignorant  of  their  language. 

Having  a  letter  of  introduction  to  a  certain 
European  in  the  city,  Mr.  Galy  by  name,  I 
called  upon  him  and  requested  him  to  recom- 
mend me  an  honest  and  able  interpreter  who 
would  accompany  me  to  the  Persian  Gulf.  My 
friend  was  able  to  assist  me  in  this  respect,  and 
took  me  to  a   Khan  (chief)  with  whom  he  was 

acquainted.  The  Khan 
engaged  for  me  a  young 
fellow  of  about  twenty- 
five  years,  conversant 
with  English  and  French, 
and,  in  fact,  exactly  the 
person  I  wanted.  His 
name  was  Alinoor,  and 
he  seemed  to  be  a  really 
kind-hearted  and  honest 
fellow ;  whilst  we  were 
in  Teheran  he  was  very 
courteous  and  respectful 
to  me.  (I  am  glad  to 
be  able  to  give  at  the 
top  of  the  next  page  a 
photograph  of  this  inter- 
esting person.)  Alinoor 
conducted  me  about  the 
town,  and  showed  me  all 
the  famous  buildings  in 
the  Persian  capital. 

On  the  day  of  our 
departure  from  Teheran 
Alinoor  prepared  our 
baggage  and  engaged 
the  muleteers,  and  I  was 
highly  delighted  by  the 
way  in  which  he  carried  out  these  arrangements. 
He  looked  very  imposing  in  his  Caucasian  suit, 
with  a  long,' shining  sabre  at  his  side,  and  well 
able  to  command  the  obedience  of  the  mule- 

I  particularly  noticed,  in  the  early  stage  of 
my  journey,  that  Alinoor  had  a  special  regard 
for  my  chronometer,  which  I  always  carried  on 
account  of  its  good  record  as  a  time-keeper. 
He  more  than  once  asked  me  how  I  managed 
to  obtain  such  a  splendid  watch,  and  remarked 
how  fortunate  he  would  consider  himself  if  I 
could  obtain  one  like  it  for  him.    These  remarks 

lHi;    WIDE    WORLD     MAGAZINE. 

ler  the  outcome  of  any  bad 

lently  they  did   not 

the  time.     On  the 

-  nd  him  a  similar 

gland    should  he  fulfil  my 

:;;.     1    have  studied  the 

utions,  but  was  unfor- 

tu;  inted    with    that   of    the 

He  happens  to  be  a  very 

nd  has  been  known  to 

r   faithfully  for  years,  and 

or   no    reason   at  all  to  turn 

not   until  my  arrival   at   Ispahan 

iad  anj  -   m  to  suspect  Alinoor. 

irtments  at  the  beautiful 

and   |  caravansary  shown   in   the 

mpanying  photograph.      My  room  was 

on   the  first  and   the  easement  over 

1  the  courtyard  where  my  guide  slept. 

I    determined    to    remain    here    for    a    few 

I     had    become    somewhat 

wearied   with    my   journey.      I  also   wanted  to 

the  striking  landscape  of  the  surrounding 

countrv.     The  broad  River  Zeinderud  wends  its 

way  through   the  centre   of  the   city,   its  banks 

crowded  with  shady  fruit  trees. 

after  my  arrival  at    Ispahan  Alinoor 
advised   me  to  visit   the   lovely  gardens  of  the 
re  the  finest  in  all  Persia.     Accord- 
ingly, in  the  afternoon  my  guide  conducted  me 
to  one  of  these  gorgeous  resorts  situated  on  the 
river   bank,    but   rather  isolated   from   the  rest, 
entering    this    garden,  its   magnificence    so 
ed  my  admiration    that   I   was  held    spell- 
bound.    Tropical    fruit    trees    abounded   every- 
where, and   !!(■  grew   in    indescribable   pro- 
n.     Whilst  I  was  musing  on  the  beauty  of 
scenery,    I    was    suddenly   startled    by    the 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 






a  Photo.\  attack  i  .  \by  the  Author. 

report  of  a  rifle, 
which  was  dis- 
charged twice  in 
rapid  succession, 
apparently  from 
the  other  side  of 
the  river.  We  at 
once  ran  to  the 
gate  of  the  garden 
to  see  what  had 
happened,  and  Ali- 
noor, who  was  well 
acquainted  with 
these  parts,  quickly 
understood  what 
was  the  matter. 
We  saw  a  man 
swimming  in  the 
water  towards  us, 
whilst  a  Persian 
soldier  was  con- 
tinually firing  at 
him  from  the  opposite  bank.  The  soldier 
seemed  to  be  firing  without  any  sort  of  aim,  and 
several  of  the  bullets  came  dangerously  near  to 
us.  My  guide  explained  to  me  that  the  swimmer 
was  a  fugitive  from  justice — probably  a  thief; 
and  he  had  been  followed  by  the  soldier,  who 
intended  to  arrest  him. 

Finally  my  dragoman,  drawing  his  sabre,  with 
a  sinister  smile,  declared  he  intended  to  seize 
the  poor  wretch  when  he  landed.  The  soldier 
presently  observing  Alinoor's  intention  ceased 
firing,  whereupon  my  eccentric  guide  suddenly 
became  like  a  madman.  Wildly  brandishing 
his  sword  he  rushed  down  to  the  edge  of  the 
river  and  called  upon  the  fellow  to  surrender  or 
he  would  kill  him.  The  look  of  abject  despair 
which   came  over  the  poor  man's  face  was  really 

terrible  to  witness  on  find- 
ing that,  after  he  had  strug- 
gled so  bravely  through  the 
swift-flowing  water,  followed 
by  the  shots  of  his  pursuer, 
he  was  only  to  fall  a  victim 
to  another  and  more  dan- 
gerous enemy  on  the 
opposite  side. 

The  dragoman's  conduct 
so  greatly  perplexed  me 
that  I  could  scarcely  believe 
him  to  be  the  same  man. 
He  had  entirely  changed 
from  a  kindly  disposed 
fellow  to  a  ferocious  brute, 
and  I  trembled  for  the 
safety  of  the  hapless  crimi- 
nal. I  reflected,  too,  that 
if   he    could   become    thus 




suddenly  transformed  over  an  affair  that  did  not 
concern  him,  he  might  also  turn  upon  me  when 
I  least  expected  it.  I  became  decidedly  uneasy, 
and  my  confidence  in  the  man  was  so  shaken 
that  I  longed  to  escape  from  him  altogether, 
indispensable  though  he  was.  Directly  the 
supposed  thief  landed  he  sank  to  the  ground 
from  sheer  exhaustion,  whereupon  my  valiant 
dragoman  promptly  tied  his  hands  behind  him, 
and  then  awaited  the  arrival  of  the  soldier,  who 
crossed  the  river  in  a  boat. 

I  would  have  resented  Alinoor's  interfering  in 
this  poor  man's  capture,  but  feared  that  he 
would  vent  his  rage  upon  me  in  some  awkward 
manner.  I  could  see  by  the  wild  look  in  his 
eyes  that  he  was  now  scarcely  responsible  for  his 
actions.  After  surrendering  the  thief  to  the 
soldier,  however,  he  explained  (when  he  had 
sufficiently  recovered)  that  the  "thief"  had 
stolen  a  single  piece  of  firewood  from  his  neigh- 
bour. It  was  to  me  incredible  that  such  a 
trifling  offence  could  have  been  the  cause  of  so 
tremendous  a  commotion,  but  so  it  was.  When 
we  were  alone  I  reproved  my  dragoman  for  the 
part  he  had  taken  in  this  unpleasant  adventure, 
but  he  replied  that  he  was  obliged  to  uphold 
the  cause  of  justice,  though  it  jarred  against  his 
better  feelings.  Alinoor's  next  association  with 
justice  must  have  jarred  against  him  far  more 

The  same  evening,  as  we  prepared  our  effects 
for  the  journey  to  Yzed  the  following  morning, 
I  noticed  with  much  astonishment  that  Alinoor 
had  not  in  the  least  recovered  from  his  excite- 
ment, and  was  still  both  furious  and  eccentric. 

When  we  bade  each  other  "  Messak  Allah 
Kher,"  or  good-night,  and  retired  to  rest,  I 
carefully  closed  the  door  and  bolted  it  on  the 
inside.  I  also  closed  the  window,  which,  how- 
ever, owing  to  its  dilapidated  condition,  could 
not  be  very  securely  fastened. 

Nervous  and  agitated  with  the  tragic  events 
of  the  day,  and  also  dwelling  upon  Alinoor's 
surprising  conduct  of  the  last  few  hours,  it  was 
with  a  feeling  of  positive  apprehension  that  I 
lit  my  candle  and  prepared  for  bed.  Terrible 
thoughts  invaded  my  mind  which,  combined 
with  the  stillness  of  the  night,  drove  all  sleep 
from  me.  I  felt  every  moment  that  something 
dreadful  was  about  to  happen.  At  last,  vexed 
at  what  I  told  myself  were  perfectly  idiotic 
forebodings,  I  tried  the  expedient  of  sleeping 
without  a  light.  Gathering  together  the  little 
courage  I  had  left,  I  sprang  from  the  bed  and 
extinguished  the  candle. 

When  I  was  but  half  asleep  I  was  suddenly 
startled  by  a  peculiar  noise  at  the  door,  and  in  a 
pel  feet  paroxysm  of  terror  I  leaped  from  the 
couch.     "Who  is  there?"   I  cried;    but  after 

waiting  awhile  and  receiving  no  answer,  I  con- 
cluded I  must  have  been  dreaming,  and  hoped 
that  nobody  had  heard  the  noise  I  made.  After 
this  fright  I  again  lay  down,  but  sleep  was  im- 
possible— I  was  at  a  loss  to  know  what  was  the 
matter  with  me.  Tossing  about  for  a  long  time, 
I  worked  myself  up  into  a  perfect  frenzy.  I 
laughed  aloud  to  buoy  up  my  spirits,  but  my 
mirth  sounded  so  strangely  harsh  that  I  shud- 
dered and  buried  my  head  beneath  the  clothes. 
Presently,  I  could  stand  this  no  longer,  and 
jumping  from  my  couch  I  seized  my  brandy 
flask  and  drank  at  a  draught  a  quantity  of 
the  fiery  liquid,  in  order  to  stimulate  my  now 
shattered  nerves,  and  if  possible  obtain  a  little 
strength  for  the  next  day's  journey.  This  dose 
certainly  had  the  desired  effect,  and  I  felt  a 
pleasant  drowsiness  creeping  over  me.  Before 
lying  down  again,  however,  I  took  out  my  watch 
and,  placing  it  on  the  table,  was  surprised  to  find 
how  quickly  the  time  had  passed  :  it  was  already 
one  o'clock. 

I  must  have  been  asleep  for  some  consider- 
able time  when  I  was  rudely  awakened  by  a 
sharp  blow  accompanied  by  severe  pain  on  my 
left  arm  near  the  shoulder.  This  time  I  knew 
I  was  not  dreaming,  for  as  I  turned  in  the  bed 
I  felt  the  blood  streaming  from  my  shoulder 
and  my  clothes  sticking  to  me.  And  even  as  I 
turned  another  and  still  more  terrible  blow  was 
delivered.  All  this  happened  in  so  short  a  time 
that,  when  I  jumped  from  the  bed  to  ascertain 
the  cause  of  this  murderous  assault,  I  was  so 
bewildered  that  I  entirely  forgot  my  suspicions 
of  Alinoor  and  the  dread  I  had  had  of  an  attack 
from  him.  Whilst  I  was  groping  about  for  the 
matches  in  a  dazed  condition,  I  suddenly  con- 
fronted a  weird  figure  enveloped  from  head  to 
foot  in  a  mantle  not  unlike  a  monk's  cowl.  I 
attempted  to  cry  out  for  assistance,  but  before  I 
could  do  so  I  received  a  third  cruel  stab  upon 
my  wounded  shoulder.  My  senses  were  rapidly 
leaving  me,  and  as  I  collapsed  on  the  ground  I 
dimly  saw  my  would-be  assassin  escaping  by  the 

On  regaining  consciousness  I  was  so  weak 
from  loss  of  blood  that  I  had  not  the  strength 
to  summon  aid,  and  was  fearful  lest  at  any 
moment  my  nocturnal  visitor  should  return  and 
finish  his  terrible  work,  in  which  case  I  should 
be  utterly  helpless.  The  blood  was  now  flowing 
freely  from  my  wounds  and  my  clothes  were 
saturated.  As  a  medical  man  I  knew  that 
something  must  be  done  quickly,  otherwise  I 
should  bleed  to  death.  With  great  difficulty 
and  excruciating  pain  I  succeeded  in  lighting 
the  candle,  and  it  was  then  I  noticed  that  my 
chronometer  was  missing.  It  now  dawned 
upon  me  who  my  assassin   was,   and  it  caused 

Till:    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

le  mental  anguish   to  think  that 

1    had  ti  whom   1    had 

nld  murder  me  for  the 

•  ion  were  also  aroused, 
the  time  endowed   with   new 
i  nded    the   stairs 

the   proprietor,   who.  after 
ime  from  his  room  in   a   towering 
.  from  his  rest  at  so 
1  now  realized  my  awkward 
How  was  1.  knowing  not  a  word 
plain    to   this   man    what   had 
However,     by    showing     him     my 
il    wounds,    and    with    a    few    expressive 
-.  1    mi  to   explain   to   him    that  1 

stabbed.       He   ran    to   awaken    my 
an,  but  found  his  room  empty— thereby 
spicions  of  Alinoor's  villainy. 


.    which    he 
immediate!;  re- 

turn >rtly   after- 

mpanied  by 
a   weird-looking    indi- 
By  this  time 
had  dawned,  and 
the   precise   nature   of 
my  wounds.    The  first 
-     'ii    my  left 
arm  near  the  shoulder, 
-   ping 
about  an  inch 
>nd  was 
on  •  ne  arm  but 

-    the    hand,    and 
nature  :    there    was 
ry   bad   con 

ily   caused    by   the    blow    which 

:  me  senseless  to  the  floor.      Had   it 

not  been   for  the  travelling  coat  (which   I    had 

d  of  my  night-gown,  in  consequence 

:  early  rising),  the  knife— judging 

on  in  which  1  g<  ■rally  lie     would 

undoubtedly  ha\e  pierced  my  body. 

rything  the    supposed    "doctor"   did    to 

top    the    bleeding    proved    unavailing,    and    I 

could  see  by  the  way  he  went  about  his   work 

that   hi  gical    knowledge   was    of  a    most 

elementary  character.     As  I  am  a  doctor  myself, 

THE  i    s    DRAGOMAN. 

From  a   Photo,   by  the  Author 

however,  1  thought  it  best  after  such  poor 
'•  treatment  "  to  do  what  I  could  for  myself,  and 
putting  my  arm  into  cold  water  I  soon  succeeded 
in  stopping  the  flow  of  blood. 

later  in  the  day  I  went  to  see  the  police  of 
Ispahan,  and  happily  found  an  officer  there  who 
could  speak  English.  To  him  I  explained 
everything  ;  he  assured  me  that  they  would  do 
all  in  their  power  to  effect  the  arrest  of  Alinoor. 
I  returned  to  the  caravansary,  and  that  same 
day  was  seized  with  a  terrible  fever,  the  result 
of  the  shock  and  loss  of  blood.  Next  day  an 
officer  came  and  told  me  he  had  captured  my 
murderous  servant  just  at  the  moment  he  was 
about  to  start  back  to  Teheran  with  a  caravan. 

The  examination  at  the  trial  of  Alinoor 
revealed  the  following  facts:  On  the  night  before 
our  proposed  departure  from  Ispahan  the  villain 
had  decided  to  kill  me,   steal  my  watch,   and 

return  with  it  to  Tehe- 
ran. He  admitted 
trying  to  open  the 
door  when  I  cried 
out  "Who  is  there?" 
and  having  failed  in 
this  he  returned  to  the 
courtyard  and,  climb- 
ing the  wall,  entered 
my  room  by  the 
window.  At  this  time 
I  was  somewhat  over- 
come by  the  brandy  I 
had  taken  to  induce 
sleep,  and  did  not 
awaken  until  I  had 
received  the  first 
blow.  Alinoor  in- 
tended to  finish  me, 
but  thinking  he  had 
killed  me  when  I 
fainted  after  the  third 
blow,  he  escaped, 
taking  the  coveted  watcn  with  him. 

I  was  astonished  to  hear  before  I  left  Ispahan 
that  the  Persian  Government  had  sentenced 
Alinoor  to  have  his  left  hand  cut  off  for 
attempted  theft,  and  to  undergo  three  years' 
penal  servitude  for  attempted  murder.  The 
watch  was  returned  to  me  in  good  condition, 
and  I  hurried  to  the  Persian  Gulf  for  proper 
treatment.  On  arriving  at  my  destination  I 
was  fortunate  enough  to  find  a  European 
surgeon,  who  dressed  my  wounds,  and  under 
whose  skilful  care  I  speedily  recovered. 

"Brusher"  Mills,    the  Snake=Catcher. 

By  Mrs.  Delves  Brought*  in. 

A    lady   penetrates    into   the  wilds    of    the  New  Forest  to   tell  us  all  about   a  real  English  Wild  Alan 
of  the   Woods,    and   his    curious    calling   of    Snake-Hunter.      With   a    complete    set    of   photographs 

specially   taken    by   her    for   this    article. 


N  that  part  of  the  New  Forest  lying 
between  Brockenhurst  and  Lynd- 
hurst,  some  distance  from  the  high 
road,  and  almost  hidden  by  under- 
growth and  giant  beech,  is  the  home 

of   the  snake-catcher,    Mr.    Henry    Mills,   com- 
monly known  as  "Brusher."     The  origin  of  this 

appellation   is   a  dark  mystery  :  he   is   ignorant 

himself    of    how    he 

came     by     it,     which 

is  the  less   surprising 

when  we  hear  he  has 

been   so   named   ever 

since  he  was  four  years 


"  Harry,  Brusher — 

no  matter  what    they 

call  me,  so  long  as  I 

gets   my  dinner,"  are 

his     laconic     words ; 

and,  like  many  a  man 

before    him,   "to   get 

his     dinner"     is     the 

whole     aspiration    of 

his  life. 

His     home     is     a 

charcoal-burner's  hut, 

constructed    of  •  tree 

branches  covered  with 

sods    and    bracken  — 

here    he    lives    i n 

solitary  grandeur  ;  his 

furniture    (if    such    it 

may    be   called)   con- 
sisting  of  a    bed    of 

dried    ferns,    an    old 

tobacco  tin   made  to 

hang  over  the  fire  by 

means  of  a  piece  of 

wire    inserted    in    the 

sides,    and    a    spoon 

of   home  manufacture.       He  is    contented  with 

his    lot,    which    is    more   than   can   be    said   of 

others  richer  in  this  world's  goods. 

I '.rusher    is  an  hospitable   person,  and   a   tea 

party   is    no    uncommon    occurrence  with  him. 

His  guests,  we  must  acknowledge,  are  generally 

"his  home  is  a  chakcoai.-eurner's  hut  of  branches  covered 
From  a]  with  sods  and  bracken." 

self-invited,  but  none  the  less  welcome.  From 
the  inner  recesses  of  his  "  house  "  he  produces 
his  tobacco  tin,  black  from  age  and  use,  and 
in  this  he  brews  the  tea,  boiling  it  over  the  wood 
fire  he  has  lighted  inside.  The  smoke  streams 
out  through  the  doorway  and  also  up  through  a 
hole  in  the  roof.  Cream  is  an  unknown  quantity, 
but  sugar  he  is  able  to  supply.     Then  comes  the 

spoon  with  which  to 
stir  the  decoction. 
This  spoon  is  of 
strange  shape,  and  is 
about  oin.  long  with 
a  crook  at  one  end, 
and  so  polished  and 
darkened  from  years 
of  hard  work  that  it 
resembles  ebony.  The 
guests  must  be  con- 
tent to  drink  from 
the  same  vessel,  for 
Brusher's  store  of 
tobacco  tins  is  limited. 
Tea  is  not  the  only 
beverage  he  has  to 
offer,  however.  From 
some  secret  corner  in 
the  thatch  he  un- 
earths a  bottle  of 
whisky,  which  he  tells 
us  "  the  doctor  has 
ordered  "  for  his  deli- 
cate chest,  and  no 
doubt  it  is  a  very 
efficacious  cure  for  a 
diversity  of  ailments. 
He  seems  quite 
affronted  if  from  shy- 
ness or  reluctance  of 
any  other  kind  his 
hospitality  is  refused. 
In  this  little  hut  of  his  he  lives  summer  and 
winter,  or  rather  sleeps,  for  at  daybreak  he  is 
out  and  away,  walking  for  miles  about  the 
country,  catching  snakes,  cutting  walking-sticks, 
attending  fairs,  humbugging  tourists,  and 
generally  picking  up  an  odd  shilling  or  two  as 


11 1 1      WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 


KAK    HE    I--    Ol    I     AM)    AWAY     —HERE    XVI 

ll'I'EI)    FOR    THE    DAYS    HUNT. 

From  a  Photo. 

he   can   in  an    honest   way.     At   night   he 
returns  to  his  ferny  bed  ami  his  dinner — not  a 
very  elahorate  one,  but  consisting  of  bread  and 
cheese.      I !  r  e  a  k  f  a  s  t 
to      be      his 
:rite  meal,  and   a 
smile    lights     up     his 
usually  rather   solemn 
features   as   he  recalls 
voury     delights 
while   describing    how 
"  I  lights 
:   rasher 
of  ticks     a 

>ked     wire 
i   it,  and  c< 

Hi  usher 

ho:;  the  shad' 

_  fall,  and  then 
to  tramp  all 
through  the  night 
_aining  his 
humble  dwelling  ;  but, 
be  it  moonlight  or 
dark,  he  never  1 
his  way.  so  accus- 
tomed is  he  to  every 
turn  and  twist  of  the 

Front  a 



foresl  :  nor  does  he  ever  seem  tired,  although 
he  canies  about  him  a  heterogeneous  collec- 
tion of  goods  and  chattels.  In  a  tin  with  a  per- 
forated top  ,ni'  some  adders,  both  dead  and 
alive  :  vrhilst  slung  round  him  is  an  old  water- 
proof coat,  worn  and  stiff.  He  has  hung  over 
one  shoulder  a  sack  of  snakes,  and  over  the 
other  a  second  bag  filled  with  odds  and  ends- 
such  as  scissors  for  cutting  open  the  adders 
and  removing  their  fat.  This  weird  sub- 
stance he  eventually  melts  down  and  makes 
into  an  ointment,  bottles  of  which  he  keeps 
ready  for  sale  to  anyone  who  wishes  for  a 
perfect  cure  for  bruises,  sprains,  or  adder's 
bite.  In  the  mysterious  odds  and  ends  bag 
Brusher  also  carries  a  knife,  some  bits  of 
string,  a  perfect  medley  of  other  strange 
things,  whose  use  only  Brusher  is  cognizant 
of.  Stuck  through  the  button-hole  of  his  coat 
rests  the  flat  -  pointed  scissors  with  which  he 
secures  the  adders  by  their  necks ;  and  in  his 
hand  is  his  staff  of  office — a  rough  stick  forked 
at  one  end,  and  used  both  as  a  walking-stick 
and  for  snake -catching.  Even  when  amongst 
the  undergrowth  or  half  hidden  in  moss  and 
leaves  his  experienced  eye  detects  his  snaky 
prey,  which  he  is  able  to  pin  to  the  ground  by 
means  of  the  forked  end  before  the  snake  or 
adder  has  realized  its  danger.  In  the  case  of 
the  former  he  grasps  it  fearlessly  with  his  bare 
hand,  and  untying  the  mouth  of  his  sack  drops 
it  in  to  join  the  wriggling  company  already  there. 

But  with  the  adders 
he  has,  of  course,  to 
act  more  cautiously. 
Then  the  flat-pointed 
scissors  comes  into 
play,  and  clasping  the 
*  neck    of    the     reptile 

between  its  two  points 
he  holds  it  while  he 
removes  the  perforated 
top  of  the  tin  slung 
about  him.  Then 
putting  the  adder  in 
he  shuts  the  lid  tightly- 
down,  for  it  does  not 
pay  to  be  careless 
with  such  live  cargo. 

This  roving,  inde- 
pendent life  is  the 
one  that  best  suits 
our  wild  man  of  the 
woods.  In  his  own 
way  he  works  hard, 
but  hard  work  in  the 
accepted  sense  of  the 
word  he  will  have 
none   of.     One  bitter 


FAT.  [I 'ho  to. 


i  -,  i 


From  a  | 


FOKKED    STICK.  [1'ftoto. 

winter,  when  snow  lay  two  feet  deep  around 
his  hut,  and  snakes  had  long  ago  retired  to 
their  holes  and  tree  crannies,  there  to  await 
the  kindly  warmth  of  spring — and  therefore 
Brusher  found  it  hard  to  light  his 
fire  01  gain  enough  money  to  buy 
bread  and  cheese — he  was  charitably 
offered  work  in  the  shape  of  stone- 
breaking.  One  morning  of  this 
sufficed  him. 

Again  was  he  invited  to  earn  some 
money  by  the  sweat  of  his  brow. 
Haymaking  time  had  come,  labourers 
were  scarce,  the  weather  doubtful, 
and  a  good  crop  of  standing  grass 
might  be  spoilt  for  the  want  of  hands 
to  save  it.  Brusher  was  asked  to 
help  :  of  course  he  was  ready  and 
willing,  being  a  most  obliging  person, 
but  when  dinner  -  time  arrived  he 
preferred  playing  practical  jokes  to 
eating  and  resting,  and  as  these  took 
the  form  of  letting  loose  amongst 
his  fellow-labourers  the  snakes  and 
adders  he  always  carries  about  him, 
they  objected  strongly,  and  declared 
that   nothing   would   induce    them   to 

stay  in  his  company.  Brusher  thus  gained  his 
purpose,  which  was  to  relinquish  his  uncongenial 

Fear  is  unknown  to  this  strange  being.  No 
terrors,  either  supernatural  or  real,  disturb  his 
nightly  rest ;  he  sleeps  soundly  and  peacefully 
on  his  bed  of  ferns  in  his  sod-covered  hut,  whose 
door  of  branches  is  his  only  protection  against 
intruders.  There,  in  the  depths  of  the  forest, 
far  removed  from  other  habitation,  he  feels  as 
secure — perhaps  more  so — as  a  king  in  his  palace. 

One  year,  not  long  since,  when  England  was 
visited  by  that  terrible  scourge,  influenza,  and 
many  a  home  was  made  desolate,  Brusher  fell  a 
prey  to  the  disease.  Alone  and  unaided  he- 
battled  with  his  deadly  foe.  No  comforts,  no 
remedies,  were  at  hand  to  help  him,  and,  in  all 
probability,  his  snake-catching  days  would  then 
and  there  have  come  to  an  end  for  ever  had  not 
some  passer-by  happened  to  find  him  in  his  sore 
distress.  He  was  taken  to  the  "  workhouse  " 
(or  "  House  of  Industry  "  as  it  is  now  called), 
where  he  was  cared  for,  and  nursed  into  con- 
valescence ;  but  he  retains  no  kindly  feelings  of 
thankfulness  for  this  act  of  charity.  The  enforced 
rules,  the  regular  hours,  were  all  antagonistic  to 
the  roving  nature  of  the  man,  and  what  seems 
strangest  of  all,  considering  the  simplicity  and 
meagreness  of  his  daily  meals,  the  food  was 
not  up  to  his  standard  of  excellence. 

Brusher  declares  he  is  fifty-eight  years  old, 
but  he  does  not  look  that  age,  and  is  as  active 
as  many  a  man  ten  years  younger.  For  the 
past  eighteen  years  he  has  fo.lowed  the  pro- 
fession of  snake-catcher,  and  seems  now  quite 
at  home  with  these  loathsome  reptiles,  handling 


Trom  a\ 


THEM     AIM    1ST    LOVINGLY."  [Photo. 

mi;    W11H.    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

nderly  and  lovingly.      I'h.    grass 
etimes  found  over  6ft.  in 
quite  harmless,  and  his  only  object 
them  is  to  make  a  little  money.      At 
xcellent  market  lor  them, 
.  who  then  lived  at  Bolder 
New    I  orest,  paying  him  a  shilling 
lake  he  caught  ;    but  at  the  present 
nds  principally  on  the  chance  fancy 
vist    who     may    like    to    carry    off  a 
this  wild  and  picturesque  region, 
be  seen  surrounded  by  trippers 
the  arrival  of  the 
h     from    Bourne- 
mouth     exhibiting 
handfuls  of  his  sna 

In    his        _    teen 

-    .:t    the    snake- 
S  •  ade  he  has 
d     29,023 
besides  198  of 
nailer  and    much 
r     species     which 
he  calls    "  levers  "  (a 
.1  name,  no  doubt, 
is    not    to    be 
found    in    encyclo- 
lias),    and     3,834 
add'.:-.     These  latter 
•.tifullv  marked, 
rtainly  the 
-t  attractive  to  look 
at  :   but  their  venom- 
I       -her 
himself,      accustomed 
as    he    is   to    handle 
tures,     has 
not  escaped  dangerous 
illness  caused  through 
adder-bite.      On    one- 
occasion     he     had 
caught   an   adder    by 
the  tail  carelessly,  and 
was  proceeding  to  pass  his  hand  up  to  grip  it 
the  neck  as  usual,  when  it  curled  its  head 
round  and  fastened  its  fangs  in  his  finger.     The 
onlookers  were  filled  with  pity,  and  cries  of  "Poor 
fell  ood   heavens!    he's    bitten;  what 

will  he  do?"  reached  his  ears.  But  his  nerves, 
or  want  of  nerves,  stood  him  in  good  stead. 
"Cure  it  in  two  minutes,"  was  all  he  said. 
Throwing  the  reptile  from  him,  he  hastily  got 
his  knife  out  of  the  sack,  and  cutting  a  deep 
incision  in  his  finger  where  the  wound  was,  he 
let  the  blood  flow  freely. 

"  Poison  go  out  with  the  blood,"  he  explained 
to  the  still  awestruck  and  gaping  crowd. 

HE    ADDE1 

I-'rom  a\ 

His  next  proceeding  was  to  search  in  a  sack 
for  a  bottle  of  his  magical  decoction,  made  out 
of  the  oily  fat  of  the  adder,  and,  pouring  some 
of  the  contents  over  the  cut,  he  rubbed  it 
well  in. 

"  Worth  five  guineas  if  the  bottle  was  full," 
was  his  short  comment  as  he  shouldered  his 
sacks  and  walked  off,  leaving  the  onlookers, 
who  had  been  prepared  for  a  speedy  and  tragic 
death,  proportionately  disappointed. 

Brusher's  presence  of  mind  and  quick  action 
no   doubt  saved    him   from  any  ill-effects  that 

might  have  attended 
the  bite ;  but  others, 
either  ignorant  of  a 
remedy  or  neglectful 
of  applying  it,  have 
paid  a  severe  penalty. 
Brusher  tells  of  one 
poor  little  girl,  who, 
with  her  brothers,  had 
come  from  Bourne- 
mouth to  spend  a 
long  and  happy  holi- 
day, and  as  they  were 
playing  in  the  forest, 
enjoying  the  delights 
of  rambling  about  be- 
neath the  leafy  trees, 
picking  flowers  here 
and  chasing  butter- 
flies there,  a  moving, 
glinting  object  on  the 
ground  attracted  the 
attention  of  one  of  the 
boys.  To  his  shame  as 
an  English  boy  be  it 
spoken,  fear  forbade 
his  touching  the 
reptile,  so  he  bribed 
his  little  sister  by  the 
promise  of  two 
pennies  to  take  it  up 
and  put  it  in  his 

The  prospect  of  such  untold  wealth  and  the 
sweeties  it  would  bring  overcame  any  dislike  for 
the  task.  The  little  one  stooped,  picked  up 
the  adder,  and  fumblingly  tried  to  put  the 
wriggling  thing  into  her  brother's  pocket.  Alas  ! 
it  fastened  its  poisonous  fangs  in  her  plump 
little  arm  and  inflicted  a  deadly  bite.  There 
was  no  one  to  advise,  no  one  to  help,  and  by 
the  time  the  terrified  children  reached  home  the 
poison  had  taken  a  firm  hold.  Her  forearm 
had  to  be  amputated,  then  her  arm,  but  all  in 
vain,  and  her  young  life  was  sacrificed  to  the 
foolish  ignorance  of  her  brother. 

Brusher  formerly  got  a  shilling  each  for  snakes 







From  a  Photo. 

which  he  sent  to  the  Zoo,  where  they  made  a 
feast  for  the  King  Cobra,  but  on  one  occasion 
he  had  a  particularly  good  find  of  adders,  catch- 
ing seventy-six  in  a  single  week.  These  he 
dispatched  in  great  glee  to  London,  and 
promptly  received  his  seventy-six  shillings  for 
them.  But,  with  a  merry  twinkle  in  his  eyes, 
he  tells  us,  "  They'd  have  no  more  of  that  sort, 
for  they  said  '  they  bite  ! '  "  and  he  laughed  over 
the  recollection  of  his  duplicity  in  having  sub- 
stituted the  venomous  adders  for  the  harmless 
grass  snakes. 

Brusher's  wild  life  in  the  forest  has  given  him 
plenty  of  opportunity  to  observe  the  habits  of 
his  favourite  reptiles,  and  he  has  availed  himself 
of  it.  He  knows  that  both  snakes  and  adders 
are  enemies  to  game,  sucking  pheasants'  eggs  and 
swallowing  young  birds.  Their  skin  and  mouths 
are  so  elastic  that  bodies  of  even  larger  diameter 
than  their  own  find  easy  passage  down  their 
throats  ;  frogs  and  toads  are  favourite  dainties  ; 
they  go  alive  into  the  snake's  stomach,  as  into  a 
living  grave,    there    to  be    slowly    digested — so 

Vol.  iv.— 20. 

slowly,  in  fact,  that  frogs  have  been  known  to 
live  and  cry  for  some  time  after  being  swallowed. 
A  feast  of  this  sort  will  sustain  the  snake  for  a 
considerable  period.  Brusher  has  proved  the 
fasting  capabilities  of  both  snakes  and  adders 
by  keeping  them  for  two  months  at  a  stretch  in 
his  tin  can  without  a  particle  of  food,  and  at  the 
end  of  that  time  they  seemed  as  lively  as  at  the 
beginning  of  their  imprisonment. 

He  also  relates  a  peculiarity  connected  with 
the  adder,  which  he  declares  to  be  a  fact  from 
his  own  observation.  After  the  female  has 
produced  her  young,  and  when  they  are  in  her 
company,  should  anything  cause  her  alarm  she 
promptly  swallows  her  little  ones,  and  then 
when  the  danger  is  over  they  return  the  way 
they  went,  alive  and  unharmed. 

Brusher  says  :  "  I  counted  as  many  as  twenty 
tiny  fellows  go  in  at  the  female  adder's  mouth, 
and  twenty  come  out,  and  the  last  to  disappear 
was  the  first  back  again  on  the  grass."  His 
theory  is  that  the  adder  has  little  pouches  in  her 
interior,  each  of  which  can  hold  a  young  adder. 
There  they  are  snugly  housed  till  all  fear  of  harm 
is  over. 

Charles  Knight,  in  his  "  Cyclopaedia  of 
Natural  History,"  alludes  to  this  peculiarity  of 
the  adder  or  viper  as   a  "  notion  "  handed  down 

"brusher"  gives  a  practical  lecture  on  adders. 
From  a  Photo. 


id,  and  adds  that   "  there 

i   against   it,"   but  he 

l  anyone  who  could  state  thai  he 

n  the  young  enter  or  issue  from 

We  are  more  lucky  than  he,  for 

mphatic  and  clear  as  to  what 

.thin  his  own  observation  during  the 

he  has   -pent  alone,  hermit-fashion, 

in  th 

\   w  Forest,  with  its  miles  of  greenwood 

•rland,   is  a  happy  hunting  ground   for 

and  in  many  of  its  glades  their  curious 

ons  may  he  seen — primitive  erections  of 

ipparently  covered  with  rags,  which  can 

•  dignified  by  the  name  of  tents,  but  in 

which   I  dwell  and  flourish.     The 

»y  children  and   Brusher  do  not  agree  :    why, 

them  at  his  opponents,  when  tears  and  terror  are 
the  result,  followed  by  a  hurried  stampi 
leaving  Brusher  complete  master  of  the  situation. 
The  snake  catching  trade  in  the  New  Forest 
is  by  no  means  so  lucrative  as  it  used  to  be, 
the  numbers  of  these  reptiles  having  greatly 
diminished  of  late  years — whether  from  Brusher's 
unflagging  energy  in  their  capture  or  from  other 
causes  it  is  difficult  to  say.  But  our  hermit 
complains  bitterly  of  the  present  scarcity  of 
snakes.  The  market  also  does  not  appear  to 
be  so  good  as  formerly  ;  so  our  friend's  outlook 
is  not  a  hopeful  one.  Eighteen  years  of  hard 
work,  carrying  no  pension  and  with  very  pre- 
carious pay,  might  well  affect  the  spirits  of  even 
the  most  sanguine.  But  in  Brusher's  case  it  is 
not  so  :  he  is  still  cheerful  on  the  whole,  fond  of 

From  a] 

'the  gipsy  children  know  it's  Mi  use  jeering  at  the  snake-catcher. 


difficult  to  imagine,  as  there  is  space  enough 
and  to  spare  in  that  wild  region.  Perhaps  they 
are  jealous  that  there  should  be  anyone,  not  of 
their  own  kind,  who  still  lives  much  the  same 
wild,  forest  life. 

nge,  unkempt  beings,  whose  clothes, 
ar  always  to  be  made  several  sizes  too  large 

"hern,  and  whose  hair  remains  ignorant  of 
the  brush  as  their  faces  and  hands  are  of  water, 

i  without  the  accompaniment  of  soap ;  these 
black,  keen-eyed  little  creatures,  I  say,  often 
surround  Brusher  at  a  safe  distance,  jeering  at 
him  and  putting  out  their  tongues  to  show  their 
contempt  for  the  snake-catcher;  but  Brusher 
knows  he  can  retaliate  and  scatter  his  foes  with 
no  great  difficulty.  Slowly  untying  his  sack,  he 
has  but  to  hold  out  a  snake  or  two  and  flourish 

a  joke,  especially  one  of  a  practical  nature,  and 
his  eyes  twinkle  and  his  face  puckers  comically 
as  he  smiles  at  the  recollection  of  his  success 
over  the  timid,  by  means  of  his  snaky  prey, 
while  he  holds  up  a  reptile  in  his  hand  to  act 
the  part. 

Brusher  Mills  is  a  character  that  is  not  often 
met  with  :  clever  in  his  own  way  ;  uneducated, 
with  an  inexhaustible  fund  of  conversation 
which  is  not  always  intelligible,  owing  to  a 
defective  power  of  speech  ;  fond  of  company, 
and  yet  preferring  his  lonely  home  in  the  depths 
of  the  forest,  with  wild  creatures  as  his  only 
companions,  to  the  more  attractive  comforts  of 
civilization  ;  he  thus  exhibits  a  strange  mixture 
of  geniality  and  shyness,  of  the  hermit  and  the 
merry  good  fellow. 

Saved  by  "Jack  "  in   the   Blizzard. 

By  Egerton  R.  Young,  of  Toronto. 

The  well-known  missionary  describes  the  risks  and  sufferings  encountered  in  one  of  these  unique 
storms  of  the  Canadian  North-West,  and  tells  us  how  his  own  life  and  that  of  his  Indian  comrade 
were  saved  by  the   marvellous  sagacity  of  a  trained   St.    Bernard    sleigh-dog,    who    is    seen    with    his 

master  in  the  photograph. 

S  onwards  sweeps  with  irresistible 
fury  the  cyclone  in  the  tropics,  so 
marches,  with  ungovernable  power, 
the  blizzard  in  the  far  north  land. 
Despotic     and     unconquerable    are 

these  storms,   and,    while  they  last,  all   Nature 

yields  submission 

to    their     rule. 

They    seem     to 

flourish    most   on 

the  great  treeless 

plains  and  on  the 

vast   frozen   lakes 

which,   like   great 

i  n 1  a n  d     seas, 

abound     far     up 

in  the  high  lati- 
tudes of  North- 
ern America. 

Throughout     the 

day    they    have 

darkened,  as  well 

as     through     the 

gloom    of    night, 

they     seem     to 

shriek     out    their 

rage    and     anger, 

because,    in   spite 

of  all  their   over 

whelming    power, 

the    victims    of 

their  fury   are    so 


Blizzards     may 

occur    when    the 

sky    is    cloudless, 

and     may    begin 

in     the     brilliant 

sunshine,     which, 

of     course,     they 

quickly    dim.     A 

true    blizzard     is 

not  a  downfall  of 

snow  from  the  heavens,  but  an  uplift  of  the  vast, 

dry,  feathery    quantities  on    the   ground.     The 

three   essentials   for  a    first-class    blizzard   are  : 

first,  a    previous    heavy   snowfall    of   light,    dry 

snow  ;  second,  a  fierce,  terrible  wind  ;  and  third, 

a  vast,  unbroken  waste  place  in  which,  without 

any  obstruction  of  mountain,  hill,  or  forest,  the 

Storm  can  hold  its  high  carnival. 

as  England  and  Scotland  combined 


From  a  Photo,  by]  owes  his  life.  [Rosevear, -Toronto. 

These  three  conditions  met  one  bitterly  cold 
day  in  January,  when  my  duties  as  a  missionary 
called  me  to  make  one  of  my  long  trips  with 
my  dog-trains  on  my  mission-field  in  the  Hudson 
Bay  Territories.     My  allotted  field  was  as  large 

Over  it  I 
travelled  in  sum- 
mer in  a  birch 
canoe  and  in 
winter  with  dogs. 
I  generally  took 
with  me  a  trusted 
Indian  guide ;  but 
to  keep  down 
expense,  and  in 
response  to 
Church  authori- 
ties, I  only  had 
as  my  companion 
on  this  trip  an 
Indian  lad  of 
about  sixteen 
years  of  age.  We 
each  drove  a 
splendid  train  of 
four  dogs.  Our 
sleds  were  in 
shape  like  the 
toboggans  of 
Quebec.  They 
were  iSin.  wide 
and  i  oft.  long. 
Our  dogs  were 
harnessed  to 
these  sleds  in 
tandem  style.  As 
on  this  journey  of 
several  hundred 
miles  we  would 
not  for  days  to- 
gether see  a  house 
or  wigwam,  we 
carried  on  our 
sleds  our  provisions,  kettles,  blankets,  fur  robes, 
axes,  guns,  and  other  things  necessary  to  winter 
travelling  in  such  a  land. 

We  slept  each  night  in  a  camp  made  in  the 
snow  which  we  dug  out,  using  our  snowshoes  as 
substitutes  for  shovels.  The  temperature  ranged 
from  forty  to  sixty  degrees  below  zero — which  to 
English  people  is   simply  inconceivable.      One 

1111      WIDE     WORLD     MAO  A/1  XL 

red  my,  and  in 

lition  drew  my  hand  oul  of 

hold  of  something, 

rously,  and  in   my 

i  1  in  it  was  the  end  of 

my   surprise,   when  the 

length  fully  awoke  me,  and   I 

all  off  my  own  n< 
:    'ail  ! 
Indian   lad.   and   I  had  started  to 
Indian     bands    who    lived    on    the 
s  of  I  ake  Winnipeg.     They 
^,  hut  many  of  thorn  were  still 
and  I  was  anxious  to  do  them  good. 

ider  of  my  train  a  white  Esquimaux 

The  other  three  dogs  were 

-  and  one  Newfoundland.     The 

the  train  was   Jack,  the  hero  of  my 

He  was  a  black  St.  Bernard,  a  gift  from 

-niford,   of    Hamilton.      He    was    the 

g  1         r  owned  or  saw.     He  stood  33m. 

.   r,  and  his  hardworking  weight 

lb.  many  years  he  was  the  undis- 

of  my  pack,  which  numbered  from 

to     twenty- five     trained     dogs.        His 

r    in     harness     I     never    knew.      Other 

ere  the  shelter  of  a  friendly  bluff  or  balsam 
forest  could  be  reached,  we  could  depend  upon 
Jack  to  get  us  there.  No  whip  ever  fell  across  his 
sable  back  or  brought  blood  from  his  silky  ears. 
Ih  was  as  gentle  and  intelligent  as  he  was  strong. 
At  our  mission-house  he  was  as  a  house 
servant.  He  kept  the  kitchen  wood-box  full, 
bringing  in  the  great  sticks  in  his  mouth  from 
the  wood-pile  in  the  yard.  Two  or  three  lessons 
enabled  him  to  open  any  door,  furnished  with 
the  common  thumb  latch,  from  either  side.  He 
was  the  finest  dog  I  ever  shot  over,  when  hunt- 
ing wild  geese,  ducks,  or  smaller  birds. 

Alec's  train  consisted  of  four  well-trained 
St.  Bernards.  One  morning  on  this  memorable 
trip  we  had  left  our  camp  in  the  woods,  and, 
directing  our  course  towards  the  north,  had 
hoped  that  ere  that  wintry  day  ended  we  would 
have  been  sixty  or  seventy  miles  farther  on  our 
journey.  We  pushed  out  from  our  camp  on  to 
the  frozen  surface  of  Lake  Winnipeg,  keeping 
the  distant  headlands  well  in  view  for  our 
guidance.  So  well  trained  were  our  dogs  that 
all  we  had  to  do  was  to  point  out  to  them  the 
next  high  landmark,  many  miles  ahead,  and  for 
it  they  would  go  as  straight  as  a  surveyor's  line. 

.UND    IT,    AS    WE    COULD   JUMP   OFF    OUR    DOG-SLEDS   AND   RUN.1 

dogs,  good  and  true,  on  some  of  my  fearful 
trips,  often  of  many  days,  would  sometimes  lose 
heart  and  require  to  be  urged  on  by  voice  or 
whip,  but  Jack's  courage  never  faltered.  We 
could  depend  upon  him  to  infuse  new  life  into 
5  weary  comrades,  and  in  emergencies  to  take 
the  greater  part  of  the  work  himself.  When  we 
were  caught  in  a  storm,  and  had  to  toil  for  miles 

( )n  and  on  we  thus  travelled  for  some  hou'rs. 
The  cold  was  intense,  but  as  we  were  clothed 
in  moose-skin  and  furs,  we  did  not  much  mind 
it,  as  we  could  easily. jump  off  our  dog-sleds 
and  run,  until  we  felt' the  glow  and  warmth 
which  such  exercise  will  give.  Especially  was 
it  so  now,  as  the  running  was  heavy  on  account 
of  the  snowfall  of  the  previous  night.     After  a 

SAVED    BY    "JACK"    IN    THE    BLIZZARD. 


while  we  noticed  that  the  strong  wind,  which 
had  now  become  very  fierce,  was  rilling  the  air 
with  fine,  dry  snow,  thus  making  the  travelling 
very  difficult  and  unpleasant,  as  well  as  quite 
bewildering.  Soon  it  increased  to  a  gale,  and 
it  was  not  long  before  we  found  ourselves  in  a 
real  north-west  blizzard,  on  stormy  Lake  Winni- 
peg, many  miles  from  shore. 

Our  wisest  and  most  prudent  course  would 
have  been,  at  the  commencement  of  the  storm, 
to  have  turned  sharply  to  the  east  and  found 
the  shelter  of  the  forest  on  the  shore  ;  but  the 
bay  we  were  crossing  was  a  very  deep  one,  and 
the  headland  before  us,  when  last  seen,  was 
much  nearer,  so  we  thought  it  best  to  run  the 
risk  and  push  on,  and  find  refuge  in  the  dense 
woods  in  front. 

The  blizzard  had  now  filled  the  air  with 
blinding  snow.  As  a  precaution  against  our 
sleds  being  separated  in  the  storm,  I  fastened 
what  we  call  the  tail-rope  of  my  sled  to  the 
collar  of  the  leader  dog  in  Alec's  train.  About 
the  greatest  danger  encountered  in  travelling  in 
a  blizzard  arises  from  the  fact  that  often  in  these 
storms  the  wind  veers  so  rapidly,  and  yet  so 
unconsciously  to  the  traveller,  that  he  turns 
from  the  direction  in  which  he  imagined  he  was 
going  and  wanders  on  in  a  most  erratic  manner. 
Then,  in  addition  to  this  veering  around,  the 
fickle  wind  often  blows  in  such  whirling  eddies 
that  it  makes  it  almost  impossible  to  tell  from 
what  point  of  the  compass  it  really  is  coming. 
Stung  by  the  icy  particles,  which  seem  at  times 
to  burn  into  his  face  like  hot  sand,  the  un- 
fortunate traveller  in  his  agony  turns  his  back  to 
it,  only  to  find,  however,  that  the  storm  has 
turned  about  as  quickly  as  himself. 

It  is  because  of  this  fickle  changing  of  the 
wind  in  a  blizzard  that  so  many  people,  caught 
in  them  on  the  prairies,  have  been  lost. 

After  Alec  and  I  had  dashed  on  through  the 
bitter  gale  until  we  thought  we  ought  to  have 
reached  the  land,  and  yet  not  the  slightest  sign 
of  it  appeared,  we  began  to  realize  that  the 
terrible  blizzard  had  been  playing  one  of  its 
tricks  upon  us,  and  that  we  had  wandered  far 
from  our  course  and  were  out  somewhere  on  the 
great  lake. 

We  stopped  our  dogs,  and  there,  amidst  the 
roar  of  the  tempest,  as  Alec's  train  came  up 
alongside,  we  shouted  out  our  fears  to  each 
other  that  we  were  lost.  We  were  completely 
bewildered.  The  direction  that  I  thought  was 
east  Alec  declared  was  south.  Perplexed  and 
somewhat  alarmed,  I  said  : — 
;  Alec,  I  am  afraid  we  are  lost." 

;'Yes,   Missionary,"    replied    Alec,    "we    are 
surely  lost." 

As  we  had  now   been   travelling   since  some 

hours  before  daylight,  and  it  was  fully  midday, 
and  we  had  had  a  good  deal  of  vigorous  running 
in  the  early  part  of  the  day,  we  were  both  very 
hungry.  We  opened  our  provision  bag,  and 
taking  out  some  frozen  food  and  dried  pemmi- 
can  (pounded  buffalo  meat),  we  did  our  best, 
under  the  circumstances,  to  satisfy  our  good 
appetites.  We  missed  very  much  the  warm 
cups  of  tea  we  would  have  had  if  only  we  had 
been  able  to  reach  the  point  for  which  we  had 
been  looking,  and  there  had  been  fortunate 
enough  to  have  found  some  dry  wood  with 
which  to  kindle  a  fire. 

After  our  hasty  meal  and  a  brief  discussion, 
in  which  it  was  evident  that  we  were  bewildered 
and  knew  not  which  way  to  go,  we  decided  to 
leave  the  whole  matter  to  our  dogs,  permitting 
them  to  take  their  own  course,  and  go  in  what- 
ever direction  they  chose.  To  many  this  may 
seem  running  a  great  risk,  but  the  fact  was,  I 
had  a  great  deal  of  confidence  in  my  dogs.  In 
winters  past  I  had  seen  displays  of  sagacity  and 
intelligence  which,  under  certain  circumstances, 
had  even  eclipsed  the  marvellous  ability  and 
acumen  of  the  cleverest  Indian  guides. 

To  Jack,  the  noblest  of  them  all,  I  looked  in 
this  emergency  to  lead  us  out  of  our  difficulty. 
So  ere  we  started  I  did  what  was  not  generally 
allowed.  I  opened  my  pemmican  bag,  and 
with  an  axe  cut  off  some  bits  of  the  frozen 
dried  meat  ;  I  gave  a  portion  to  each  of  the  dogs 
of  the  two  trains.  Jack,  as  usual,  had  crowded 
close  up  to  me  while  we  had  been  lunching,  and 
with  him  I  had  a  talk.  I  said  something  like 
this  : — 

"Jack,  my  noble  fellow,  do  you  know  that  we 
are  lost,  and  that  it  is  very  doubtful  whether  \V2 
shall  ever  see  the  mission-house  again  ?  The 
prospect  is,  old  dog,  that  the  snow  will  soon  be 
our  winding-sheet,  and  that  loving  eyes  will  look 
out  in  vain  for  our  return.  The  chances  are 
against  your  ever  having  the  opportunity  of 
stretching  yourself  out  on  the  wolf-rug,  before 
the  study  fire,  with  the  children  gambolling  over 
you  ;  or  taking,  as  in  the  past,  your  well-earned 
rest  after  the  toils  of  a  laborious  trip.  Arouse 
yourself,  old  dog,  for  in  your  intelligence  and 
perseverance  we  are  going  to  trust  to  lead  us  to 
a  place  of  safety." 

Alec  lost  heart,  and  chided  me  for  not  having 
brought  along  an  experienced  old  guide.  He 
said  he  would  never  see  his  mother  again,  and 
that  I  would  never  more  see  my  wife  and  little 
ones.  I  tried  to  cheer  him,  and  then  helped  to 
wrap  him  up  in  a  great  rabbit-skin  robe.  Then 
I  securely  lashed  him  on  to  his  dog-sled,  so 
that  if  he  should  become  unconscious  in  the 
terrible  cold  he  could  not  fall  off.  Straighten- 
ing out  the  trains,  I  wrapped  a  fur  robe  about 

1111.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

i\ ;« If  on  my  own  dog  sled,  as 

1   shouted,  "  Marche  " 

the  dogs.   Koona, 

at   me  in  a  bewildered 

I  HAT    WE    ANT.    I.OST;    AKI)    IT    IS    DOUBTFUL 
HE    MISSION-HI  i  I  N  ?" 

raging  for  his  prey.  Not  for  a  moment  did 
fack  seem  to  hesitate  as  to  the  route.  Gal- 
lantly was  he  aided  by  the  two  splendid  dogs 
behind  him.  They  seemed  to  catch  his  con- 
fident spirit,  and  so  aided 
him  that  the  weight  upon 
him  was  not  very  great. 

The  cold  was  so  intense 
that  I  had  very  grave 
fears  that  we  should  freeze 
to  death.  Alec  and  I 
were  both  so  tied  on  our 
sleds  that  we  could  not 
get  off  and  run.  Indeed, 
the  snow  was  so  blind- 
ing and  so  dense  that  it 
would  have  been  a  fearful 
risk  to  have  attempted  to 
leave  the  sleds.  Often 
we  could  not  see  five 
yards  in  any  direction. 
So  we  were  obliged  to 
remain  where  we  were 
and  run  the  risk  of  there 
perishing  with  the  cold. 
Occasionally,  when  there 
was  a  lull  in  the  roaring 
gale,  I  would  shout  to 
Alec,  to  rouse  him  and 
keep  him  from  going  to 
sleep,  as,  in  all  proba- 
.  hility,  if  he  had  done  so, 
there  would  have  been 
no  awakening. 

On  and  on  wTe  thus 
travelled  through  that 
terrible  blizzard.  Jack 
never  faltered.  Some- 
times    I     would    cheerily 

;ort  of  way  and,  as  clearly  as  a  dog  could  speak, 
:  — 
'•  Which  way,  master,  is  it  ?   'Chaw  '  or  '  yee  '?" 
r  left). 
id  not  know  myself,  and  the  Esquimaux 
tood  there  so  irresolute  in  the  blinding  gale,  I 
shouted  out  :  — 

on,  Jack,  whichever  way  you  like.  Do 
the  hi  can,   for  I  don't   know  anything 

about  it."' 

Koona  still  hesitated,  Jack,  with  all  the 
confidence  imaginable,  dashed  off  in  a  certain 
direction,  and  Koona,  with  slackened  traces, 
ran  n,  g    ing  him  all   the  honour  and 

ibility  of  leadership.  For  hours  the 
dog  pt  bravely  to  their  work.  The  terrible 
blizzard   howled  around   us    like   a    wild    beast 

call  to  him,  and  back 
through  the  appalling 
storm  would  come  his 
welcome  bark.  It  makes  me  shiver  still  to 
think  how  relentless  and  bitter  were  those 
continuous  blasts,  which,  like  great  guns,  seemed 
to  assail  us  from  every  quarter.  After  a  while 
the  light  of  the  short  day  faded  away,  and  we 
wi  re  enshrouded  in  darkness. 

Still  the  storm  swept  on  and  around  us.  It 
seemed  so  much  more  dreadful  now  than  it 
was  when  we  could  occasionally  see  our 
dogs  and  get  a  glimpse  of  each  other's  sleds. 
There  was,  however,  no  use  in  giving  way  to 
despondency.  Better  keep  up  our  courage 
and  hope  for  the  best.  We  could  only  rejoice 
that  our  noble  dogs  kept  up  their  rapid 
travelling;  and  surely,  I  thought,  if  they  can 
continue  that  gait,  after  a  while  we  shall 
certainly  reach  somewhere.      So  all  there  was 

SAVED    BY    "JACK"    IN    THE    BLIZZARD. 


to   do   was  to   shout  occasionally   to   Alec  and 
to  the  dogs. 

About  three  hours  after  dark  the  dogs 
quickened  their  pace  into  a  sharp  gallop,  and 
showed  by  their  excitement  that  they  had 
detected  some  evidence  of  safety  or  nearness 
to  the  shore,  of  which,  however,  we  knew 
nothing.  About  eight  o'clock  they  ran  us  up 
on  a  pile  of  ice,  the  accumulations  of  the 
freezings  of  a  water-hole,  cut  out  each  day 
afresh  by  a  company  of  Indians,  who  there 
obtained  their  needed  supply  of  water.  Here 
the  dogs  did  not  linger,  but  turning  sharply 
to  the  right,  on  the  trail  of  these  Indians, 
dashed  along  for  a  couple  of  hundred  yards 
more,  and  then  dragged  us  up  a  steep  bank 
into  the  forest.  In  a  few  minutes  more  we 
found  ourselves  in  the  midst  of  an  Indian 
village  of  wigwams. 

Aroused  by  the  jing- 
ling of  our  dog  -  bells 
and  the  furious  bark- 
ings of  their  own  dogs, 
the  natives  came  rushing 
out,  and  were  amazed 
at  our  arrival  at  such 
an  hour.  They  rejoiced 
with  us  at  our  marvel- 
lous escape.  They  gave 
us  a  cordial  welcome, 
almost  carrying  us,  half- 
frozen  as  we  were,  into 
their  warmest  wigwam. 
They  adopted  the  best 
methods  possible  for 
our  recovery  from  the 
numerous  frost-bites 
from  which  we  suffered, 
so  that  after  a  few  days' 
rest,  the  storm  having 
passed  away,  we  were 
able  to  resume  our 
journey,  thankful  that 
we  had  had  such  a 
marvellous  escape  from 
that  terrible  blizzard, 
which  was  the  wildest 
and  fiercest  of  that 
whole  year.  Days  after, 
when      we      reached     a 

Hudson  Bay  Company's  trading  post,  where 
a  daily  record  is  kept  of  the  temperature, 
we  found  that  the  least  cold  it  had  been 
during  the  full  blast  of  that  storm  was  48deg. 
below  zero. 

Months  passed  away,  with  their  usual  varied 
experiences,  in  that  northern  field  of  toil.     In 

June,  the  ice  having  all  melted  from  lake 
and  river,  the  packet,  witli  its  welcome  budget 
of  letters  and  papers,  arrived.  Only  twice  a 
year  did  we  hear  from  the  outside  world.  Once 
in  winter  by  dog-train,  and  now  in  summer 
by  the  fur-traders'  boat.  When  we  turned 
out  on  the  floor  our  bundles  of  letters,  we 
were  saddened  by  seeing  some  of  them 
with  mourning  borders,  telling  us  of  death 
among  friends.  On  opening  one  of  these  black- 
edged  missives  we  were  grieved  to  read  of  the 
death  of  the  Rev.  George  McDougall,  a  minister 
on  the  great  Saskatchewan  Plains.  He  had  gone 
out  with  horses  on  a  journey,  and  never  came 
back  alive.  When  the  storm  arose  he  was 
only  eight  miles  from  his  camp,  but  he  never 
reached  it.  His  horses  failed  him  and  drifted 
away  with  the  storm   from  the  place  of  safety. 

IN    A    FEW    MINUTES    MORE   WE 

Many  days  after  his  dead,  frozen  body  was  found 
far  out  on  the  plains.  When  we  saw  the  date  of 
his  death,  and  compared  it  with  my  journal,  we 
found  that  it  was  in  the  very  same  blizzard  in 
which  he  perished  that  my  dogs  had  run  me 
through  the  blinding  gale  for  many  hours  to  a 
final  haven  of  safety. 

II  v     Visit    to    the    Island    of    the    Dead. 

r>\    M.   Dinorben  Griffith. 

iand  '•  monarchy  "  in  Cardigan 
te  property  of  a  member  of  the 

HI",    travel    epidemic    has     raged    so 

f  late  years  that  it  is  difficult 

imagine  there  can    be  an  unex- 

ok  in  the  whole  of  Europe, 

me  spot  untraversed  by  the  foot 

ubiquil  Vet,    within    the 

t  Britain,  there  exists  a  small 

ient,  his        ,   mti  of  unique  interest, 

%nita  to  a  large  majority. 

rly  as  the   fifth  century  this   island  was 

a  pi  :tle  kingdom,  with  a  noble  abbey 

lintly    brotherhood,    who,    according    to 

n   and  existing  documents,   were  granted 

1   the  privilege   of   dying    according    to 

Bay,  which    in  olden  times  was  one  huge   cemetery, 
aristocracy,  but  has  a  crowned  King  of  its  own. 

an  island  three  leagues  from  the  mainland,  at 
the  northern  extremity  of  Cardigan  Bay;  but  the 
latter  part  of  the  journey  will  not  be  found  easy 
to  accomplish.  Reaching  the  little,  out-of-the- 
world  village  of  Aberdaron,  the  island  may  be 
i  in  the  distance.  On  two  occasions  I 
reached  Aberdaron,  but  failed  to  get  to  the 
island,  for  the  passage,  although  only  four  miles 
n  ross,  is  dangerous,  and  often  impossible,  by 
reason  of  adverse  winds  and  a  tide  that  runs  at 
the  rate  of  seven  miles  an  hour.  But  I  com- 
forted myself  by  walking  along  the  shore,  where, 
under  my  feet,  lay  the  skeletons  of  many  who 
had    failed   to   reach  the  sacred   isle,  and  had 


tL.»v*  ■  * 






•     _..     „...     v.-,     I»^     „.. 


:  i    VILLAGE    OF    ABER1  I 
P/lOtO.  by]  THE    DISTANCE." 


MAY    BE    SEEN    IN 

[Milton,  Pwllheli. 

It  was  also  the   Mecca  of  religious 
!.  and,  finally,   it  became  an   Island   of 
1  id. 

:r    little    kingdom    is    a    sea-girt    rock,    to 

which,   for  centur:  _e  and   shallop 

5  in   place  of   living   emigrants, 

and  every  turn   of  the  spade  gave  evidence  of 

mortality.     To-day  the  island  is  a  tiny  Arcadic 

.1,  where  the  monarch  and  nis  subjects 

in  true  patriarchal  simplicity.     To  them  the 

presents  fish  of  many  kinds  ;  while  the  thin 

soil  covering  the  grave-tunnelled  rocks  yields  an 

abundant   harvest   of  unrivalled  wheat,   barley, 

and  potatoes. 

The    truth  of  these   strange-sounding   state- 
ments may  be  proved  by  a  journey  to  Bardsey, 

been  reverently  buried,  their  faces  towards  the 
wished-for  goal.  The  sacredness  of  Bardsey, 
by  the  way,  and  the  difficulties  of  the  journey 
may  be  estimated  from  the  old  saying :  "  Twice 
to  Bardsey,  once  to  Rome,  or  never  to  Heaven." 
After  many  delays  we  secured  a  passage  in  a 
fishing  boat  for  a  sovereign,  which  is  the  lowest 
fare  across  the  sound  to  Ynys  Enlli,  or  Isle  of 
the  Current,  as  it  is  termed  by  the  natives. 
Every  moment  the  boat  seemed  destined  to  be 
sucked  under  by  the  hungry  current ;  and  as  we 
dodged  the  flying  spray  and  cowered  under  our 
mackintoshes,  we  wondered  if  the  reason  that 
more  dead  than  living  had  gone  to  Bardsey  was 
totally  unconnected  with  the  discomfort  of  the 

MY    VISIT    TO    THE    ISLAND    OF    THE    DEAD. 


From  our  port  of  departure  Bardsey  looked 
like  a  barren  rock  tapering  into  a  narrow  head- 
land at  the  southern  end.  But  on  near  approach 
the  rock  develops  into  a  fairly  lofty  mountain, 
bristling  seaward  with  overhanging  crags,  under 
the  shadow  of  which  our  smack  passed,  before 

through  Chester,  Holywell,  St.  Asaph,  Bangor, 
and  Carnarvon,  right  on  to  Aberdaron.  Every 
seven  or  eight  miles  were  wells  or  fountains,  in 
the  centre  of  a  square  composed  of  stone  seats; 
these  were  stages  or  resting-places,  on  reaching 
which  the   fatigued   and  footsore  monks,   after 


From  a  Photo,  by  Milton,  Pwllheli. 

reaching  a  peaceful,  sandy  creek,  sheltered  by 
low  rocks  and  forming  a  safe  harbour  for  vessels 
of  not  more  than  forty  tons. 

Here  we  disembarked,  with  the  aid  of  some 
of  the  islanders,  headed  by  their  present 
"  monarch,"  King  John  Williams  the  Second, 
under  whose  guidance  we  proceeded  to  explore 
the  island.  Bardsey's  present  is  peculiar,  and, 
in  some  particulars,  unique  ;  but  the  little 
island's  past  is  so  weird,  not  to  say  sensational, 
that  the  present  is  tame  by  comparison. 

The  whole  island  is  a  graveyard,  tunnelled 
everywhere  into  shallow  trenches  a  little  more 
than  2ft.  deep,  and  about  the  same  in  width.  In 
these  the  uncoffined  bodies  were  laid  in  lines, 
head  to  feet,  the  top  of  the  trenches  being 
covered  with  rough  slabs  of  stone,  over  which 
earth  was  laid.  The  King  informed  us  that 
many  of  these  rude  tombs  had  been  laid  bare 
when  the  foundations  of  the  new  farmsteads, 
built  by  Lord  Newborough,  were  being  dug. 
"  I  have  seen  barrows  full  of  bones  taken  up," 
he  added  ;  "  and  we  buried  them  up  there," 
pointing  to  the  old  monastery. 

Strangely  enough,  all  the  skeletons  found  have 
been  those  of  aged  people,  which  seems  to 
verify  the  quaint  old  record  of  the  "  dying  by 
seniority."  Every  day  and  all  day  long,  in 
ancient  times,  processions  of  monks,  bearing 
the    dead,    slowly    traversed  the   old  high  road 

Vol.  iv.— 21. 

reverently  laying  down  their  burden,  rested  and 
bathed  their  weary  feet.  Several  of  these  wells 
are  still  to  be  seen. 

Every  monk  engaged  in  this  solemn  office 
could  demand  free  lodging  and  food  at  any 
wayside  house  on  the  route.  As  a  rule,  the 
usual  arrangement  was  that  one  set  of  friars 
carried  the  body  one  stage,  and  were  then 
relieved  by  others.  Returning,  they  would 
probably  only  have  time  for  refreshment  and  a 
brief  rest  before  starting  again  on  the  same 
funereal  errand. 

Relays  of  funeral  processions  were  daily 
arriving  at  Aberdaron,  where,  if  the  weather 
was  unpropitious  for  crossing  to  Bardsey,  the 
dead  were  deposited  in  St.  Mary's  Chapel,  to 
wait  for  a  fair  wind  and  tide.  Often,  during 
the  late  autumn  and  winter,  communication 
between  the  island  and  the  mainland  is  impos- 
sible for  weeks  together.  When  this  was  the 
case,  the  bodies  were  buried  in  the  churchyard 
by  the  sea,  with  their  faces  towards  the  sacred 
isle,  and  the  moaning  of  the  waves  as  their  only 

As  may  be  seen  to-day,  the  little  island  is  a 
peaceful  resting-place,  guarded  by  precipitous 
rocks  rising  out  of  the  sea.  The  headlands  are 
covered. with  gorse  and  heather,  swaying  softly 
to  and  fro  in  the  westerly  breeze;  while  birds 
sing  of  the  ecstasy  of  life,  far  above  those  who 

I  111.    \\  [DE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

n  id  sorrows  for  ev<  r.    It 

autiful  when  the  sea  arises  in 

shoreward  in  mountainous 

the  rooks  to  engulf  them  in 

im.     A  '  whirl  the  scream 




hts     arc 

ght      back     to     the 

when    the    King 

3    our 

f     white 
d     by     the 
1  .    ( ;.   Wynn,    the 

the  Isle, 
in  memory  of  his  father, 
the  late  Lord  New- 
borough,  whose  wish  it 
was  that  twelve  months 
after  his  death  his  re- 
mains should  be  finally 
deposited  in  Tardsey. 
The  island  entirely  be- 
longed to  him,  and  he 
took  a  deep  interest  in 
it  The  erection  of  this 
monument,  which  weighs 
over  thirty  tons,  was  only 
accomplished  with  great 

The  Bardsey  of  to- 
day is  as  unique  as  it  was  in  the  past. 
It  has  only  seventy -two  inhabitants  —  thirty- 
men  and  thirty-six  females.  They  are 
ruled  by  a  "  King.''  who  is  crowned  on  his 
election,  and  who,  like  his  subjects,  earns  his 
bread  by  the 
sweat  of  his  brow. 
The;  nt 

Ruler  succeeded 
his  father.  King 
John  Williams 
the  lirst,  who 
was  unfortunately 
drowned  whilst 
alone  to  the 

With  great 
difficulty  we  in- 
duced his  present 
Majesty  to  sit  for 
his  portrail 
was  the  first  and 
only  one  ever 
taken    of   hirn. 

He  permitted  the  crown  to  be  placed  on  his 
head  for  the  occasion,  but  no  persuasion — even 
on  the  part  of  his  wife — could  make  him  put 
on  his  regal  Sunday  suit. 

The  crown  is  of  home  manufacture,  and  is 
neither  very  valuable  nor 
very  beautiful,  and  the 
King,  with  a  sigh  of  in- 
a  tense    relief,    as    soon  as 

the  sitting  was  over,  ex- 
changed his  cumbrous 
emblem  of  sovereignty 
for  an  old  hat. 

The  natives,  although 
a  little  suspicious  of 
strangers,  are,  when  their 
confidence  is  won,  very 
kind  and  hospitable.  A 
few  words  of  Welsh  insure 
a  ready  welcome.  Un- 
fortunately, the  old  cot- 
tages have  nearly  all  been 
replaced  by  substantial 
farmsteads,'~very  comfort- 
ably arranged,  but  not 
half  so  picturesque  or 
interesting  to  strangers  as 
the  quaint  old  cottage 
still  standing,  of  which 
exterior  and  interior  views 

are  given. 


From  a  Photo,  by  Milton,  Pwlllicli. 


From  a  Plioto.  by  Milton,  Pwllheli. 

The  owner  was  an  old 
widow.  Her  face,  bronzed 
and  wrinkled  like  a  winter 
apple,  was  set  off  by  the  snowy  frills  of  her  cap, 
which  was  surmounted  by  a  soft  felt  hat.  Asked 
why  she  had  discarded  the  traditional  tall  hat 
of  her  nation,  the  old  dame  hastened  to  assure 
us  they  were  "  old-fashioned  now." 

There  is 
neither  public- 
house,  inn,  nor 
prison  on  the 
island  ;  and  rates 
and  taxes  are  un- 
known. The 
people  lead 
healthy,  peaceful 
lives,     knowing 

nothing  of  the 
outside  world,  or 
of  poverty,  or  of 
riches.  There 
have  been  only 
fourteen  deaths 
during  the  last 
twenty  -  five 
years  ! 



MY    VISIT    TO    THE    ISLAND    OF    THE    DEAD. 


island  cannot  boast  of  a  single  tree,  the 
land  is  very  fertile ;  and  the  barley  and  oats 
of  Bardsey  always  find  a  ready  market,  and 
are  better  known  than  the  island  itself.  The 
sea  also  yields  a  plenteous  harvest  of  fish — such 
as    lobsters,    crabs,    roach,    cod,    gurnets,    and 

is  delightfully  invigorating,  and  water  is  their 
only  beverage — the  best  I  ever  tasted,  and  as 
clear  as  crystal. 

Curiously  enough,  until  the  year  1798  no 
sparrow  had  ever  been  known  to  breed  on  the 
island  ;  three  nests  were,  however,   built  in  that 

THIS    IS    WHAT    THE    INTERIOR   OF    THE    KINGS    "   I'ALACE 

From  a  Photo,  by  Milton,  Pwllheli. 

mackerel.  Several  seals  have  also  been  caught ; 
one,  a  very  large  one,  was  recently  captured  in 
the  Seal  Cave,  which  lies  at  the  south-east  of 
the  island.  The  inhabitants,  many  years  ago 
(the  King  informed  us),  used  to  make  a  living 
by  the  dangerous  work  of  collecting  the  eggs  of 
sea-fowl,  but  this  is  now  forbidden,  on  account 
of  its  danger. 

We  looked  up  at  the  rocks,  where,  we  were 
told,  the  men  were  let  down  by  chains,  in  order 
to  reach  the  crevices  and  precipices  where  the 
eggs  were  most  plentiful,  and  really  one  felt 
glad  that  such  hair-raising  exploits  are  no  longer 

Among  these  rocks  the  tiny  sheep  of  Bardsey 
browse  contentedly,  perched  on  ledges  that 
make  them  look  as  if  suspended  in  the  air. 
Dogs  are  cleverly  trained  to  catch  them,  but, 
once  on  the  rocks,  they  are  safe  from  pursuit, 
for  they  will  even  jump  into  the  sea  to  avoid 

The  inhabitants  own  about  sixty  head  of 
cattle,  besides  horses,  pigs,  and  poultry.  So 
that  altogether  their  lot  (except  for  the  loneli- 
ness of  their  lives)  is  a  very  enviable  one.  They 
pay  merely  nominal  rents.    The  air  they  breathe 

year,  and  the  cheeky  little  birds  have  now 
become  quite  a  colony. 

A  new  church  has  recently  been  built,  and 
the  old  one  converted  into  a  school-house.  The 
minister  is  also  schoolmaster,  most  of  his  pupils 
beinu  his  own  children  ;  for  he  boasts  of  a 
larger  family  than  the  whole  of  the  islanders  put 
together  ! 

On  the  headland  at  the  south  end  of  the 
island  is  a  lighthouse  108ft.  high,  belonging  to 
the  Trinity  Board.  It  is  provided  with  a 
revolving  light  and  a  fog-horn.  Three  light- 
house-keepers and  their  families  live  there. 
Mr.  Jenkins,  the  principal  of  the  lighthouse, 
was  recently  killed  by  falling  120ft.  over  the 

The  Hon.  F.  G.  Wynn,  the  Lord  of  the  Isle, 
frequently  spends  several  days  among  the 
people,  shooting  and  fishing.  For  our  own 
part  we  were  loath  to  leave  the  island,  both  the 
place  and  people  being  so  interesting.  But, 
being  warned  of  a  coming  storm,  which  might 
keep  us  prisoners  in  Bardsey  for  a  week  or  two, 
we  hurriedly  bade  our  hospitable  entertainers 
farewell ;  no  less  a  personage  than  the  King 
offering  to  row  us  back  ! 

With  a  Mad  Mate  in  Paraguay. 

By  Charles  F.  Hughes. 

story  of    a    maniacal  assault  in  mid-stream.      Left    alone    in    the    great    primeval  flooded  forests. 
!ng  and  swimming  through  the  undergrowth,  and  the  final  rescue  by  Paraguayan  Indians. 

i]  WENT  through  the  following  terrible 
adventure   in   Paraguay    during    the 
months  of  October  and  November, 
>.  having  gone  to  South  America 
shooting  and   adventure   gener- 
n  going  down  the  little-known 
for     about     seven 
and     with 
ion     of 
one    small   vill 
called  Villa  Maria, 
and     1.  a 

solitary    rancho, 
had  seen   no  - 
of    human    habita- 
tion.      Once  we 
met     a     party     of 
Indians    hunting, 
and     we     stopped 
in    their    camp 
for    the    night, 
treated     us 
:  hospitably, 

and  .     both 

of    which    the y 
had  in  ;  :  and 

us  to  sleep  with 
the  music  of  their 
nat:  uments. 

I:  w  -  in  a  15ft. 
canoe  that  we 
travi  We 

had   a   small    tent, 
and  it    was 

to     find 
dry   land    we   always   stuck    the   tent    up   and 
slept  in  it ;  otherwise  we  had  to  sleep   in   the 
can  as  only  3ft.   wide,   what  with 

the  mosquitoes  and  the  heat,  you  may  be  sure 
our  sleep  was  never  of  the  soundest.  I  had  for 
some  days  noticed  my  companion  becoming 
rather  sullen.     He  was  a  middle-aged  man,  and 

THIS    IS   THE   AUTHOR,    MR.    CHAS.    F.    HUGHES,    WHO   SUFFERED   SO 
H    THROUGH    HIS    ".MAD    MATE." 

From  a    Photo,   by   Lafayette,   Dublin. 

one  who  could  not  put  up  with  much  discomfort. 
Now,  we  had  a  lot  of  discomfort  to  put  up 
with  daily,  far  more  than  we  ever  bargained  for 
when  starting.  Some  days  we  had  to  live  on 
roots  alone,  finding  nothing  to  shoot,  and  a 
tropical  sun  was  for  ever  blazing  down  on  us. 

Indeed,  the  sun 
was  at  times  so 
unbearable,  that  1 
was  forced  to  jump 
into  the  river  and 
swim  alongside  the 
canoe.  My  com- 
panion, who  could 
not  swim,  had  to 
content  himself 
with  bathing  his 
head.  We  also 
suffered  greatly 
from  thirst  during 
the  day,  and  had 
nothing  to  drink 
but  hot  river  water. 
One  morning  I 
had  shot  a  couple 
of  monkeys,  and, 
having  skinned 
them,  was  about 
to  put  their  skins 
to  dry  on  a  stick, 
when  Benyon,  my 
compaflero,  who 
had  been  particu- 
larly morose  for  a 
long  time,  told  me 
to  leave  them  in 
the  bottom  of 
the  canoe.  I  did 
not  care  to  do  so, 
as  I  wanted  the  skins,  which  were  good  ones, 
and  would  have  gone  bad  if  not  dried  at  once. 

However,  Benyon  insisted  on  my  putting  the 
skins  down,  and  I  jokingly  told  him  he  was 
going  mad.  Next  moment,  without  a  word  of 
warning,  he  started  up  with  one  of  the  oars  and 
brought  it  down  with  all  his  might  on  my  head. 

WITH    A    MAD    MATE    IN    PARAGUAY. 


The  oar  broke  in  two,  and  thanks  only  to  the 
stout  helmet  I  had  on,  my  brains  were  not 
scattered.  For  a  few  moments  I  was  stunned, 
and  in  the  meantime,  the  oar  being  broken,  my 
mad  mate  caught  up  my  Winchester  rifle  which 
was  beside  me,  and  went  for  me  with  the  butt 
end.  I  jumped  up  also,  saved  my  head,  and 
caught  one  end 
of  the  rifle. 
Silently  we  strug- 
gled for  mastery, 
the  frail  canoe 
being  in  danger 
of  going  over 
every  moment. 
There  were  mur- 
der and  mad- 
ness in  my  an- 
tagonist's eyes. 
I  had  no  time 
to  realize  what 
had  happened, 
however.  He 
seemed  to  have 
entirely  lost  his 
senses,  and  not 
to  care  what  hap- 
pened—  whether 
we  A*ent  into  the 
river,  where  he 
would  have 
been  promptly 
drowned,  or 
whether  I  killed 
him,  which  I 
could  easily  have 
done,  as  I  had 
both  revolver 
and  knife  in  my 
belt.  On  the 
other  hand,  he 
had  no  arms  of 
any  kind. 

I  must  here 
explain  that  this  man,  Edgar  Benyon,  whom 
I  had  met  some  months  previously  in  a 
colony,  and  whom  I  had  asked  to  come  with 
me  down  the  river  as  I  wanted  to  do  some 
shooting,  came  only  to  oblige  me,  and  up 
till  now  I  had  found  him  the  best  of  friends. 
He  would  take  upon  himself  all  the  hard  work, 
and  I  got  to  like  him  very  much.  What  came 
over  him  I  cannot  tell.  His  brain,  I  think, 
must  have  become  affected  by  the  blazing 

I  could  not  bring  myself  to  shoot  him,  so  I 
thought  that  if  I  let  myself  into  the  water  and 
he  saw  me  there,  he  would,  after  a  minute  or 
two,   come  to  his  senses  again.     Over  I  went 


accordingly,  but  I  still  clung  to  the  rifle.  He 
shouted  to  me  to  let  it  go,  but  I  would  not,  as 
I  guessed  that  he  would  either  have  shot  me  or 
dashed  my  brains  out  with  the  weapon.  At 
length,  finding  himself  unable  to  wrest  the  rifle 
from  me,  he  let  it  go,  and  immediately  snatched 
up  a  large  stick  we  had  for  hammering  down 

tent-pegs.  With 
this  the  man 
tried  to  brain  me 
as  I  swam,  and 
whenever  I  came 
within  his  reach 
he  dealt  a  tre- 
mendous blow  at 

After  a  few 
minutes  I  had 
to  let  the  rifle 
go,  and  I  dare- 
say it  will  never 
be  found  again, 
as  the  river  was 
about  30ft.  deep 
at  that  place.  I 
shouted  to  the 
maniac  that  I 
should  drown  if 
he  did  not  let 
me  in,  I  being 
now  hard  set, 
swimming  with 
breeches  and 
shirt  on.  I  told 
him  that  I  had 
been  only  jesting 
when  I  said  he 
was  going  mad ; 
but  all  my  plead- 
ing was  in  vain. 
I  besought  him 
again  and  again, 
but  he  only 
cursed  and  raved, 
and  told  me  I  might  drown.  He  next  took  up 
a  paddle  and  began  to  propel  the  canoe  swiftly 
forward,  leaving  me  to  my  fate.  I  never  saw 
him  or  the  canoe  again. 

Here  was  I,  then,  swimming  for  dear  life  in 
the  middle  of  a  large  and  swiftly-flowing  river. 
After  a  severe  struggle  I  reached  the  bank 
utterly  exhausted,  and  bleeding  from  the  first 
stunning  blow  my  crazy  mate  had  given  me. 

I  must  here  tell  you  that  we  were  travelling 
after  very  heavy  rains,  and  the  country  along 
each  side  of  the  river  was  flooded  to  such  an 
extent  that  the  banks  were  only  discernible  in 
very  few  places.  We  had  found  that  the  river 
wound  its  way  almost  the  entire  journey  through 



a    v  impenetrable    forest, 

it   and  leaving   its 

rippoi  orru,   which 

has  more  bends  in  it 

:   travelled  on,  doubl- 

few  hundred  yards.      When 

■     iok  us  all  our  time  to 

.  ■   ed  through   the  forest, 

irrent  would  oft(  n   be  taking 

a     ni!  a 

t  a 



h  a  v  i  n  g 


I     v 

ng  as  near 
to  the  river  as 
!  .and 

thinking    that 

on  might 
have  recovered 
his  wits  and  be 
waiting    for    me 

:  down.  If 
not,  I  thought 
that  by  some 
good  chan<  ! 
might  strike  on 
some  hut  or 
camp.  I 
never  less  than 
my  waist  deep 
in  the  whirling 
flood,  and  every 
now  and  then 
the  water  would 

oo  deep  for 
wading,  coming 
gradually  u; 
my  mouth  and 
compelling  me 
to  swim.  The 
forest,  how 
was  generally 
too  thick  for 
swimming,  being 

vines  and  thorny 
plants.  What 
clothes  I  had  on  I  found  a  serious  encum- 
brance, and  I  had  at  length  to  throw  them  off  and 
proceed  almost  naked,  with  the  exception  of  my 
belt,  in  which  I  had  my  knife  and  revolver.  I 
also  had  in  my  possession  fifty  paper  dollars,  and 
these  I  carried  in  my  mouth  when  swimming. 
But  after  some  time  I  had  more  swimming  than 
walking  to  do,  and  I  began  to  feei  as  if  money 


.    VINES   AND   THORNY    i'l.A 

would    be   no   further   use   to  me,   so    I   let  the 
dollars  drift. 

(  )ii  1  went  all  day  with  no  food  of  an)  kind  to 
i  at,  forcing  and  cutting  my  way  through  water 
and  forest,  vines  and  all  manner  of  thorny 
plant-,  which  twined  themselves  around  me, 
tripping  me  up  and  tearing  me  in  a  pitiable 
manner.  Sometimes  1  would  climb  up  one  of 
the  enormous    forest  trees   to  try   and   spy   cut 

some  dry  land, 
but  naught  could 
I  see  but  an 
appalling  pros- 
pect of  forest 
and  water. 
Night  came  on 
presently,  and  I 
could  go  no 
farther,  so  I 
waded  back  to 
a  bit  of  fairly 
dry  ground  I 
had  passed  some 
time  before.  I 
then  got  bits  of 
branches  and 
leaves  off  the 
trees  to  try  and 
cover  myself.  I 
lay  down,  but 
not  to  sleep,  for 
what  with  the 
which  I  could 
take  off  my 
body  in  hand- 
fuls,  and  later 
on  the  cold  and 
general  wretch- 
edness, sleep 
was  impossible. 

During  the 
night  I  heard 
crocodiles  floun- 
dering about  in 
the  water,  and  I 
thought  if  one 
of  these  ghastly 
reptiles  would 
only  come  my 
way  and  tear 
me  to  pieces,  it  would  be  at  least  better  than 
having  to  die  of  slow  starvation.  To  add  to 
my  miseries  a  strong  wind  rose  during  the 
night  on  the  river,  and  I  felt  so  cold  that  I 
had  to  get  up  and  carry  my  covering  of  leaves 
into  a  hollow  which  was  soaking  wet,  but  yet 
sheltered  from  the  biting  wind. 

As  I  walked  I  came  upon  a  bunch  of  pampas 

WITH    A    MAD    MATE    IN    PARAGUAY. 


grass,  which  I  wondered  how  I  could  have 
missed  ;  and  taking  my  knife  I  went  out  to  cut 
the  prize,  which  would  certainly  have  been  a 
great  addition  to  my  covering.  To  my  horror, 
however,  just  as  I  seized  hold  of  it  I  found  it 
contained  a  nest  of  large  black  ants,  each  about 
an  inch  long.  Some  of  these  terrible  insects 
attacked  me  at  once  and  gave  me  some  fear- 
ful bites. 

With  the  dawn  I  rose,  aching,  bleeding,  and 
wretched,  and  found  it  hard  to  move  a  step, 
my  feet  being  full  of  thorns,  and  the  wounds 
on  my  body  having  stiffened  with  the  cold. 
On  I  had  to  go,  however,  through  the  gloomy 
flooded  forest,  stumbling  on  despairingly  through 
the  cold,  black  waters.  So  thick  was  the  forest, 
indeed,  that  not  a  gleam  of  sun  could  enter,  so 
that  I  had  to  stagger  half  blindly  forward, 
perished  with  the  cold,  shivering  violently,  and 
with  my  teeth  chattering.  1  did  not  get  warm 
all  that  dreadful  day,  and  I  thought  several 
times  that  fatal  cramps  would  overtake  me. 

I  saw  some  vultures  in  a  tree  over  my  head, 
and  tried  to  bring  one  down  with  my  revolver, 
thinking  I  might  in  this  way  obtain  a  meal 
(fancy  anyone  eating  a  vulture  !)  But  the  cart- 
ridges were  wet  and  useless,  so  having  enough 
to  do  to  carry  myself  I  left  the  revolver  in  a 
tree.  As  the  unspeakably  dreary  afternoon 
wore  on  I  began  to  give  up  all  hope  of  being 
saved.  I  found  the  water  getting  deeper  and 
deeper,  and  when  I  was  not  actually  swimming, 
with  half-hearted,  spasmodic  strokes,  I  was  up  to 
my  chin  in  the  black,  never-ending  flood. 

At  length  I  came  to  a  wide  river  running  into 
the  Tippocorru.  I  realized  at  once  that  if  I  had 
attempted  to  cross  this  vast  stream  I  should 
have  been  swept  away  to  certain  death,  being 
now  utterly  spent.  To  get  over  the  river  in 
front,  then,  was  impossible,  and  yet,  unless  I 
crossed  it,  I  could  go  no  farther.  To  go  back, 
even  if  I  could  reach  the  spot  from  which  I  had 
started,  would  have  been  useless,  so  what  to  do 
I  knew  not.  I  make  an  appeal  for  pity,  for 
surely  no  man  was  ever  in  so  deplorable  a 

Suddenly  I  saw  an  old  tree  with  a  beam  of 
sun  striking  on  it,  and  over  to  that  tree  I  swam 
as  fast  as  I  could.  I  even  climbed  up  a  little 
way.  The  heat  of  the  sun  was  so  grateful,  that 
I  was  not  in  the  tree  a  minute  before  I  fell 
asleep,  and,  of  course,  the  moment  I  lost  con- 
sciousness I  tumbled  off  like  a  log  into  the 
water.  I  climbed  into  the  tree  again,  and  the 
same  result  ensued.  It  was  only  a  single  limb, 
so  that  when  I  fell  asleep  I  had  no  secure  hold. 
I  repeated  this  operation  several  times,  and 
derived  a  little  benefit  from  the  heat  of  the  sun. 
Whilst  in   the  tree  I  considered   the   situation, 

and  saw  that  my  chances  of  being  saved  were  of 
the  smallest,  so  I  said  a  few  prayers  and  wished 
I  might  die  at  once  ;  but  the  worst  of  it  was  I 
knew  I  had  a  very  lingering  deaUi  before  me. 
Still,  I  did  not  care  much  as  I  felt  myself  grow- 
ing unconscious  with  despair,  pain,  and  fatigue. 

I  then  thought  of  my  mother  and  everyone 
at  home,  and  reflected  with  a  kind  of  dull 
bitterness  that  they  would  never  know  what  had 
become  of  me,  as  my  bones  would  never  be 
found  in  such  a  weird,  out-of-the-way  place.  I 
doubted,  indeed,  whether  they  would  even  know 
whether  I  was  dead  or  alive.  At  length,  solely 
for  the  sake  of  those  at  home,  I  screwed  up  my 
remaining  courage,  and  determined  to  make  one 
last  effort.  Down  I  got  into  the  water,  in  which 
there  were  a  number  of  old  logs  floating  around. 
I  promptly  swam  here  and  there,  and  collected 
three  or  four,  which  I  tied  together  at  one  end 
with  my  belt  and  some  trailing  vines.  I  had 
tried  this  plan  of  making  a  raft  earlier  in  the 
da)r,  but  the  thing  had  gone  asunder  when  I 
placed  it  in  the  river,  with  the  result  that  I  had 
been  nearly  drowned,  and  only  just  saved  my- 
self by  grasping  at  a  thorny  shrub,  whose  top 
appeared  above  the  water. 

However,  this  second  raft  turned  out  some- 
thing of  a  success.  I  used  my  belt  as  the  prin- 
cipal means  for  fastening  the  logs  together,  as 
the  vines  were  not  to  be  depended  upon. 
In  making  my  crazy  craft  I  dropped  my  knife, 
and  as  the  water  was  too  deep  for  me  to  find 
it,  the  last  of  my  earthly  belongings  disappeared 
for  ever.  I  got  the  raft  into  the  river  all  right, 
though,  and  up  I  got  on  to  it  straddle-wise. 
Down  it  sank,  however,  and  I  just  managed  to 
keep  my  head  and  shoulders  out  of  the  water. 
I  had  hard  work  to  balance  myself  on  that  raft. 
Sometimes  I  would  go  altogether  underneath  it, 
but  usually  managed  to  regain  my  position.  I 
thought  every  minute  it  would  go  asunder,  as  it 
was  only  tied  at  the  top  end.  One  log  would 
go  erratically  in  one  direction,  while  another 
would  begin  to  float  off  the  other  way.  If  it 
had  gone  asunder  I  was  done  for,  as  I  was 
floating  with  the  current  down  the  centre  of  the 
great  river,  and  was  too  utterly  worn  out  to 
have  reached  either  bank.  And  yet  on  I  went 
in  comparative  safety. 

Some  vultures  circled  round  my  head,  think- 
ing, I  suppose,  I  was  dead,  or  soon  would  be. 
I  had  to  shout  at  the  dreadful  creatures  to  keep 
them  at  a  respectful  distance.  I  went  along 
like  this  for  a  league  or  so,  having  a  wonderful 
escape  from  the  crocodiles  with  which  the  river 
is  infested  ;  and  in  the  end  I  came  to  some 
high  ground,  where  I  heard  some  cattle  lowing. 
Then,-  indeed,  I  felt  hope  arise  once  again 
within   me,   as  I   knew  that    where  there    were 


wners   not  very  far 

.   with    my  hands  as   near  as  I 

•ik,  and  at  last,  casting   my  frail 

..-bed  the   land   and  went  in   the 

•     l      ard  the  cattle.     Still  1  had 

rim   through  the  long,  wiry  pam- 

p   of   which   appeared    above 

:    the    water.      It     would     get    in 

make  them  understand  my  condition.  They 
brought  me  a  "  poncho,"  or  native  cloak,  and  gave 
me  plenty  of  meat.  They  even  got  grease  and 
rubbed  it  all  over  my  wounds  ;  and  1  may  say 
that  from  my  head  to  my  toes  I  do  not  believe 
I  had  a  sound  inch  of  skin  on  my  body.  It 
was  about  a  fortnight  before  I  got  all  the  thorns 
out  of  my  feet. 


'  >es  and  fingers   and  caused  m  t 
acu:  g  to  the  bone. 

on  the  treeless  land  presented 

a  great  contrast  after  the  flooded  forest  and  the 

where  the  tropical  sun  had  full 

.t  first  like  e  itoavery  hot  bath. 

r  jour:.  about   two    miles  I   came 

upon  a  camp  of  natives,  just  as  night  was  falling. 

My  appearance  at  the  camp,  half  dazed,  bruised 

and  bl  and  perfectly  naked,   caused  no 

sm;  .  more  especially  as  they  spoke 

only    Guaranee     and     understood     very    little 

More  by  signs  than  speech  I  tried  to 

If  I  had  not  by  good  luck  come  to  this  camp 
I  should  have  had  to  go  thirty  miles  to  the  next, 
where  two  Englishmen  named  Fairbairn  lived. 
I  afterwards  went  to  the  camp  of  these  men,  and 
they  treated  me  very  kindly.  I  stopped  with  the 
natives  for  three  weeks,  and  then  went  down  the 
river  with  the  hunters. 

The  Paraguayan  natives  are,  I  think,  the  most 
hospitable  people  in  the  world,  and  many 
civilized  nations  might  take  a  lesson  from  them. 
I  never  heard  anything  of  my  mad  mate  Benyon, 
nor  of  the  canoe ;  but  as  long  as  I  escaped 
safely  myself  I  am  thankful. 

Our  Adventures  in   Unknown    Uganda. 

By  Lieutenant  R.  Bright,  Rifle  Brigade. 

A  narrative  of  the  travels  of  the  important  Government  expedition  under  Colonel    Macdonald   in   the 

very  heart  of  the  African  Continent.     With  a    complete    set    of  snap-shot   photographs,    taken  by   the 

author,  illustrating  many  phases  and  incidents  of  life  en  route.     Practically  it  is  to  Colonel  Macdonald 

that  the  British  Empire  owes  the  possession  of  the  vast  territory  commonly  known  as  Uganda. 


From  a  Photo. 

FTER  leaving  the  Uganda  Railway, 
of  which,  in  1897,  only  seventy 
miles  had  been  constructed,  the 
Macdonald  Expedition  was  divided 
into  three  columns.  The  first,  con- 
sisting entirely  of  porters,  was  under  the  com- 
mand of  Colonel  Macdonald  himself,  while  the 
other  two  columns  were  made  up  of  waggons 
drawn  by  bullocks,  and  their  attendants.  The 
road  made  by  Captain  Sclater  was  followed. 

For  the  first  four  days  there  was  practically  no 
water,  the  road  leading  through  the  Taru  Desert. 
All  the  porters,  however,  were  provided  with 
water-bottles,  and  a  water-waggon  accompanied 
the  caravan  for  the 
first  two  marches ; 
while,  to  make  assur- 
ance doubly  secure, 
as  many  mussocks 
full  of  water  as 
possible  were  car- 
ried in  the  waggons. 
In  spite  of  these 
precautions,  how- 
ever, my  boy  came 
to  me  one  night, 
and  plaintively  de- 
clared he  had  had 
no  water  to  drink 
for  two  days  ;  I  gave 
him  all  I  could  spare. 
It  proved  to  be, 

Vol.  iv.— 22. 



From  a  Photo,  by  Werner  <5r>  Son,  Dublin. 

literally,  a  "  stirrup-cup,"  for,  having  obtained  a 
supply  of  the  precious  fluid,  the  young  rascal 
promptly  deserted  and  returned  to  Mombasa. 

The  first  water  we  came  to  was  the  River 
Tsavo,  which  it  took  the  expedition  many  hours 
to  cross.     Fortunately,  the  water  did  not  come 

r  -- 

From  a] 

THE    UGANDA    RAILWAY.  [Photo. 

II 1 1 :    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 


the  monsoon,  and  no  doubt 
verely  tried  by  the  hard  marches 
and  scarcity  of  water,  had  wan- 
dered  some  distance  from  the 
camp  in  search  of  rest  and  quiet. 
Presently  he  lay  down  in  a  shady 
pot  for  a  peaceful  "  forty  winks," 
little  dreaming  that  he  was  being 
stalked  by  our  sportsman  col- 
league. At  any  rate,  he  was 
rudely  awakened  from  his  slumbers 
by  an  express  bullet  behind  the 
shoulder,  and,  on  looking  round 
to  ascertain  the  cause  of  this  un- 

M.UCHIS    FROM    MILE    zgo   TO    Till 

-     f  the   waggons,  so  that  the 

loads   did   not    require   to   be  unpacked   and 

-for  which  we  were   devoutly 

nkful.  The  photo,  reproduced  below  shows 
one  of  our  "gharris,"  or  Bombay  country  carts, 
crossing  the  river,  assisted  by  Sikhs  and  Swa- 
hilis.      1  its  were  specially  brought  from 

India  for  the  use  of  the  expedition,  and  proved 
-   rvio  able.     They  are  light  andean 
be  man-handled. 

Mention  of  the  Rn   i  Tsavo  reminds  me  of 
a  rather  comical  incident.     The  country  near 
r  had  the  reputation  for  affording  good 
shooting,  but  so  far  very  Little  game  had  been 
seer.     I  if  our  party,  getting  impatient,  went 

out  one    mi uning  vowing    that   he  would    not 

irn    until    he    had   killed  something.     The 
manner  in  which  he  fulfilled  his  vow  was  deci- 
dedly   curious.       A    poor    water    buffalo,    after 
hav:    .  ie  from  India  through  the  worst   of 

.    THE    RIVER 

From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.   Bright. 


From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.  Bright. 

kind  treatment,  he  received  another  ball  in  the 
neck  which  finished  him.  He  never  drew  a  cart 
again.  Our  porters,  who  subsequently 
ate  him,  were  no  doubt  perfectly  well 
satisfied,  but  I  do  not  think  that  the 
sportsman  was  altogether  proud  of  his 
"  bag." 

We  followed  the  cart  road  for  some 
400  miles,  through  somewhat  unin- 
teresting country.  The  nature  of  this 
"  road  "  may  be  best  judged  by  an 
examination  of  the  above  photograph, 
which  shows  one  of  our  bullock- 
waggons  crossing  one  of  the  swamps 
which  intersect  the  track.  The  cart 
was  loaded  with  three  sections  of  our 
steel  boat,  securely  fastened  in  a  sub- 
stantial crate.  This  craft  was  a  whale- 
boat,  intended  to  be  placed  on  Lake 
Rudolf  to  keep  up  communication 
between  the  north  and  south  ends  of 
the  lake.  It  was  25ft.  long,  and  was 
carried  the  whole  way  from  the  coast 
in  ten  separate  sections.  For  the 
first  400  miles  it  was  packed  in  crates 




THE   CARA\  .-. 

From  a  Photo. 

on  the  waggons,  as  seen  in  our  photo. ;  but 
beyond  that  point  its  parts  were  shouldered  by 
the  Swahili  porters,  each  section  being  slung 
on  bamboos  and  carried  by  two  men,  who 
generally  carried  the  pole-ends  on  their  heads. 
The  boat,  however,  owing  to  the  outbreak  of 
the  Soudanese  mutiny,  never  reached  its  desti- 
nation, but  was  left 
■on  Lake  Victoria  for 
the  use  of  the 
Uganda  Administra- 

At  Ngara  Nyuki, 
our  next  halting- 
place  (sometimes 
called  Equator 
Camp,  because  it  is 
almost  exactly  on 
the  Line),  we  were 
joined  by  the  Uganda 
Rifles,  who  were  to 
form  the  main  part 
of  the  escort.  The 
Soudanese  on  join- 
ing were  very  dis- 
contented ;  they  had 
just  come  through  an 
arduous     campaign, 

and  had  an  aversion  to  starting  off  on  an  expe- 
dition the  very  destination  of  which  they  did 
not  know.  And  they  had  another  very  real 
grievance.  The  particular  three  companies 
to  which  they  belonged  generally  had  to  do 
most  of  the  fighting  in  the  Protectorate,  whilst 
the  other  detachments  of  the  regiment  remained 
in  garrison  in  peace  and  plenty.  How,  finally, 
they  deserted  the  expedition  and  marched  to 
Lubwa's  is  now  a  matter  of  history,  as  is  the 
subsequent  battle  on  the  high  ground  overl 
ing  the  Victoria  Nyanza.  Here  the  pursuing 
Colonel  Macdonald,  with  a  small  force  consist- 
ing of  nine  Europeans,  seventeen  Sikhs,  and 
340  partially-trained  Swahilis,  was  attacked  by 
the  mutineers.  He  beat  them  off,  and  drove 
them  back  in  disorder  to  Lubwa's  Fort,  which 
they  had  seized  the  night  before.  By  this  signal 
victory  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  British 
prestige  was  saved  and  the  L'ganda  Piotectorate 
preserved  to  the  Empire. 

Fighting  continued  round  Lubwa's  until  the 
beginning  of  1898,  and  during  the  whole  of  this 
period  the  exploring  work  of  the  expedition  was 
at  a  standstill.  The  indefatigable  Macdonald 
was  here,  there,  and  everywhere  —  fighting, 
pacifying,  and  avenging  ;  until  at  last,  during 
his  absence,  the  mutineers— the  primary  cause 
of  all  the  trouble — escaped  in  a  dhow  across  a 
bay  of  the  Victoria  Nyanza.  They  were,  how- 
ever,   pursued    and    defeated.       Mwanga,    the 

rebellious  ex-King  of  Uganda,*  having  been 
signally  smashed  about  the  same  time,  the 
expedition  was  at  liberty  to  resume  its  long- 
delayed  journey  towards  the  unknown  north. 

The  caravan  marched  in  single  file,  as  the 
next  snap-shot  shows  ;  and,  as  long  as  they  kept 
well  together,  the  men  were  allowed  to  march 

pretty  much  as  they 
pleased.  In  front  of 
the  long,  straggling 
column  went  the 
advance  guard,  com- 
posed of  Sikhs  and 
native  soldiers, 
accompanied  by  an 
officer.  Then  came 
the  porters,  as  we  see 
them  in  the  photo., 
nearly  all  armed  with 
Martini-Henry  rifles 
and  sword-bayonets. 
Each  company  of 
porters  had  a  drum- 
mer, and  these 
"  instrumentalists  " 
marched  together  in 
the  fore-front  of  the 
caravan.  I  was  lucky 
enough  to  obtain  a  very  characteristic  snap-shot 
of  two  "of  these  curious  musicians,  and  it  is  here 
reproduced.     The  bundles  on  their  heads  are 

'  In  The  Wide  World  for  May,  i3g8,  under  the  title  of  "The 
Strangest  Monarch  in  the  World."  will  be  found  a  complete  history 
of  King  Mwanga  and  his  little  eccentricities.  It  is  written  by  one 
who  knew  1  im,  and  i--  copiously  illustrated  with  photoerai  hs. 

CHID    I\    SINGLE    FILE. 

by  Lieut.  Bright. 

"EACH    COMPANY   OF   PORTERS    HAD     A     DRUMMER   ....    THE 

From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.  Bright. 



by  Lieut.  Bright. 

theii  -    igs,  usually  consisting  of 

the  weirdest   possible  assortment  of  odds   and 

ends.     Their  water-gourds  are  strapped  outside, 

and    th  ping- mats   and    food   are   made 

a    roll    and    tied    round    with    a    piece    of 

string.     All  the  porter's  worldly  belongings,  be 

ver    so    cumbrous    and    unwieldy,     go 

into    this    bundle    on    his    head.     Even    if   he 

poss  live  fowl — the  acme  of  his  ambition 

-he  ties  a  piece   of  string   round  its  leg  and 

it   to   his  load.     These   drummers  have 

nt     "bjats"    for    different    occasions — a 

graph-code,    in    fact ;    so    that    the 

porters  in  thJr  rear  know  when  camp  is   near, 

or  when  there  is  a  river  to  be  crossed,  or  a  halt 

for  rest  is  about  to  be  called. 

For  several  days  the  column   marched   along 

the  western  shore  of  Lake  Baringo,  a  snap-shot 

of    which — probably    the   first   ever    taken — is 

Lake  Baringo  is  a  fresh-water  lake, 

some  forty  miles  in   extent,    belonging   to    the 

ain    of    Central    African    lakes.      It    is 

tuated  four   hundred   miles   in   the   interior — 

the  eastward  from  the  Uganda 

id.      The  inhabitants  of  the  lake  shores  are 

the    Wa-Njemps,    a    peaceful    and 

industrious  tribe,  who  have  a  few  canoes  on  the 

r  fishing  purposi 

■  rocodiles  in    Lake   Baringo, 

men    indulged    to    the    full    in    bathing,   a 

luxury  of   which    they    were   very   fond  :  and  a 

couple  of  more  or   less   merry  bathers   may  be 

;en  disporting  themselves  on   the  right   in  the 

photo,  und'  •  leration.     There  were  a  few 

opotami  in  the   lake,    and   lions  abounded 

round  the  flat,  marshy  shores. 

One  night  a  posted  to  look  after  the 

cattle  was  struck  down  from  behind  by  a  lion 
and  seriously  mauled,  but  the  brute  was  driven 
off  before   any  harm  was  done.     The  man,  in 

spite  of  his  terrible  wound  (he  was  badly  scalped 
by  the  brute's  claws),  recovered  rapidly,  and 
was  soon  able  to  go  about  his  duties  once  more. 
A  little  while  after,  whilst  in  charge  of  a  small 
party  who  were  carrying  letters,  this  same  man 
had  another  thrilling  lion  adventure.  The 
whole  party  were  attacked  in  their  little  camp 
by  a  troop  of  lions,  and  only  succeeded  in 
driving  them  off  after  the  expenditure  of  some 
three  Jiundred  rounds  of  ammunition,  which  was 
proved  by  an  examination  of  their  pouches ! 
The  deadly  aim  of  the  men  and  the  fierceness 
of  the  fight  will  at  once  be  apparent  when  I  add 
that  no  damage  was  done  on  either  side  ! 

But  this  was  by  no  means  the  last  of  our 
rencontres  with  lions,  which  seem  to  fairly 
swarm  round  the  lake.  A  party  of  five  porters 
deserted  soon  after  passing  Lake  Baringo, 
intending  to  make  their  way  back  to  the  coast. 
But  Nemesis  was  on  the  track  of  these  sinners. 
Whilst  sleeping  under  a  tree  they  were 
suddenly  surprised  by  lions,  and  had  barely  time 
to  climb  up  into  the  branches  before  the  hungry 
brutes  were  upon  them.  Then,  and  not  till 
then,  did  the  unfortunate  men  realize  that  in. 
their  excitement  they  had  left  their  rifles — their 
only  means  of  salvation — at  the  foot  of  the  tree. 
Apparently  fully  understanding  the  helpless  con- 
dition of  their  victims,  the  lions  waited  patiently 
until,  one  by  one — worn  out  with  hunger  and 
exhaustion — the  poor  fellows  dropped  down  on 
to  the  ground,  only  to  be  instantly  torn  to  pieces 
and  devoured  before  the  eyes  of  their  horrified 


From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.  Bright. 



companions.  Only  one  man  survived  to  tell 
the  dreadful  tale,  and  he  rejoined  one  of  the 
columns  of  the  expedition  some  months  later. 

Wherever  possible,  guides  were  procured  from 
the  natives  ;  and  the  next  photo,  shows  a  group 
composed  of  three  guides  and  the  same  number 
of  Masai  warriors. 
These  particular 
guides  came  from 
Njemps,  a  large  vil- 
lage to  the  south  of 
Lake  Baringo  ;  and 
before  they  started 
from  their  homes 
they  led  us  to  be- 
lieve that  they  knew 
every  inch  of  the 
way.  This  proved  to 
be  very  far  from  the 
case,  however ;  but 
they  did  succeed, 
notwithstanding  the 
thick  bush,  in  pilot- 
ing us  as  far  as  the 
next  native  settle- 
ment, where  fresh 
guides  were  pro- 

The  victualling  of 
the  expedition  was, 
of  course,  a  vitally 
important     matter  ; 

and  for  this  purpose  we  had  to  take  along  with  us 
large  herds  of  cattle,  to  say  nothing  of  immense 
stores  of  flour,  and  sometimes  water.  We  engaged 
a  number  of  Masai  to  look  after  the  cattle,  and 
during  the  whole  time — in  spite  of  the  manifold 
difficulties  of  the  route,  and  the  fact  that  some- 
times they  had  as  many  as  400  head  to  drive — 
they  never  lost  a  single  beast.  On  the  way  back 
we  paid  each  man  off  at  his  own  village,  giving 
him  two  cows  as  a  reward  for  his  fidelity. 
These  Masai  are  a  warrior  race,  and  replenish 
their  herds  of  cattle  by  the  delightfully  simple,  if 
somewhat  questionable,  method  of  raiding  their 
weaker  neighbours. 

As  a  rule,  we  bought  flour  from  the  natives  in 
exchange  for  beads,  cowries,  cloth,  or  wire.  A 
one-pound  tobacco  tin  was  used  as  the  standard 
measure,  and  this,  piled  high  with  flour,  was  a 
porter's  ration  for  two  days.  As  is  the  universal 
custom  in  East  Africa,  the  higher  a  man's  rank 
the  more  food  he  is  supposed  to  require  ;  there- 
fore the  headmen  received  double  as  much  food 
as  a  porter.  The  giving  out  of  the  rations 
was  called  "  Posho,"  and  the  ceremony  is 
well  illustrated  in  the  photograph  reproduced 
above,  which  shows  the  headman  filling  the 


From  a  Photo. 

Sometimes  as  much  as  ten  days'  food  is  given 
out  at  a  time,  and  this  is  carried  by  the  man 
himself;  it  is  for  him  to  see  that  it  lasts  the 
right  number  of  days.  At  first  the  men  were 
inclined  to  eat  up  their  ten  days'  food  in  half 
the   time,   hoping   that   when   it  was   exhausted 

they  would  be  given 
more.  This  caused 
considerable  incon- 
venience and  suffer- 
ing in  the  early  days 
of  the  expedition. 
But,  later  on,  when 
they  got  to  under- 
stand the  difficulty 
of  carrying  more 
food  than  was  abso- 
lutely required,  they 
did  their  best  to 
make  their  rations 
last  over  the  allotted 

Elephants  were 
very  numerous  in 
some  parts  of  the 
country,  and  in  the 
next  illustration  we 
see  a  native  carrying 
a  large  piece  of  ele- 
phant meat.  Swa- 
hilis,  although  as  a 
rule  not  very  deli- 
cate feeders,  will  rather  starve  than  eat  either 
elephant  or  donkey  meat.  The  natives,  how- 
ever, did  not  share  this  aversion,  and  when- 
ever an  elephant  was  shot  they  would  assemble 
rapidly  and   attack  the  carcass  with  their  spears 

HE    RATIONS    IN    A    ILI1.    TOBACCO    TIN. 

by  Lieut.  Bright. 


From  a  Photo,  by]  elephant  meat.  [Lieut.  Bright. 


and  eal 
Si  mie  would 

it  quite 

em  to  ha\ 


ncidents   which    came 

tion  :     A    number    oi 

driven  along,  when 

it  o( 

\\  thout  the  s  1  i u.  1 1 :  n  a 

.mt  made  straight  For  one  of  the 

.   him   bodily  into   the 

stroying  the   bales  of 

h    he    was   laden.       The    poor 

don'-.  ime  evening     probably  from 

:(.!  in  the  tossing  process. 


of   my    brother 

king  an 

elephant,     his     riding- 

ng  led 

hind   him.      Suddi  nly, 

in  t':  ting  way 

donkeys  have,  the 

brute    began    to    bray, 

and  the  elephant,  hear- 

rged  down 

upon  poor  Neddy.  The 

man  leading  the  donkey 

nptly   dropped   his 

rifle  and  fled,  while  the 

donkey    also    made 

tracks,  faster  than 

he  had  don  re  in 

his  life,   hotly  pursued 

phant.      By 

a    clever    double,    the 

donkey  eluded  the  big 

which  then  re- 

-  and  came  across  the  discarded 
phant  picked  up,  and,  waving 
triumph,  i  red  in  the  bush.     Neither 

phant  nor  rifle  was  ever  seen  again. 

'    graph    reproduced     has     a 
pathetic  int  When   one   of  the   columns 

of  the  expedition  reached  the  north  shore   ol 
jdolf,  the  natives  who  live  on  the  banks 
1  »mo  were  found   to   be   in  great 
distress.     They  had  been  raided  a  few  months 
bef  -  bands     of     Abyssinian    horsemen, 

ming  down  both  sides  of  the  river,  had 
destroyed  all  their  crops,  burnt  their  granaries, 
and  driven  away  their  flo<k-  and  herds. 
Dead  bodi-  lying  unheeded  in  the  almost 

deserted  villages.  These  people,  some  repre- 
sentatives of  whom  are  shown  in  our  illustration, 
were  in  a  starving  condition,  and  were,  besides, 
suffering   from    smallpox.      When   asked   what 


From  a  Photo.  by\  GUIDE." 

they  had  to  eat,  the  poor  creatures  pointed  first 
to  their  stomachs,  round  which  thongs  of 
re  tightly  bound  to  stave  off  the  pangs 
o\  hunger,  and  then  to  the  river^signifying 
thereby  that  they  subsisted  on  what  fish  they 
could  catch.  On  the  left  of  this  famine-stricken 
group  is  our  guide  This  man  was  rather  a 
character  in  his  way.  He  was  very  fond  of 
snuff,  and  even  pinches  of  Cayenne  pepper, 
surreptitiously  administered,  did  not  appear  to 
upset  his  equanimity.  His  nasal  organ  was 
indeed  quite  useful  to  him,  for  even  when  given 
a  little  tobacco  he  preferred  to  smoke  with  the 
mouthpiece  oi'  the  pipe  up  his  nose! 

Providentially  only  one  case  of  smallpox 
occurred  in  the  caravan  :  so  we  were  spared  the 
awful  suffering  and  wholesale  decimation  which 

would  inevitably  have 
occurred  had  this  dread 
disease  once  taken  hold 
on  our  men. 

There  being  no  food 
to  be  had  in  this  part 
of  the  country,  the  ex- 
pedition had  now  to 
beat  a  hasty  retreat. 
We  managed  to  get  a 
small  supply  from  the 
inhabitants  of  the 
north-west  shore  of  the 
lake,  and  this  was  just 
sufficient  to  enable  the 
caravan  to  continue  on 
the  return  journey  for 
some  thirty  days.  On 
the  very  day  when  the 
last  of  the  food  had 
been  consumed,-  and 
things  were  beginning 
to  look  desperate,  we 
fell  in  witli  Lieutenant  Hanbury  Tracy's  column, 
much  to  our  delight.  Major  Austin  had,  for- 
tunately, foreseen  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  food 
for  the  return  journey,  and  a  column  had  been 
sent  back  to  Mount  Elgon  some  two  or  three 
months  previously,  to  bring  up  fresh  supplies 
for  the  Rudolf  column. 

News  was  here  heard  of  Colonel  Macdonald, 
who  had  had  an  adventurous  journey  into  the 
Nile  Basin.  Lie  had  reached  Tarrangole,  the 
capital  of  the  Sultanate  of  Latuka,  where  he 
had  been  cordially  received  by  the  natives.  The 
Sultan  of  Latuka  was  an  eminently  diplomatic 
gentleman,  who  aspired  to  be  on  good  terms 
with  everybody.  He  possessed  an  old  Egyptian 
flag,  but  when  "  political  considerations "  re- 
quired it,  he  exhibited  a  Dervish  standard,  and 
clothed  his  minions  in  the  patched  "jibbas"  of 
Mahdism.      The  next  white  man  who  visits  this 

-"  ON    THE    LEFT    IS 

[Lieut.  B 


"the  NATIVES  OF   KETOSH   inhabit  the  country 
From  a  Photo,  by]  of  .mount  elgon.' 

1  HE     S"UTH-\VEST 

[Lieut.  Bright. 

Soudanese  corporal,  who  was  struck  in  the 
neck,  died  shortly  afterwards  from  the  effects 
of  the  poisoned  shaft. 

The  natives  of  Ketosh  inhabit  the  country 
to  the  south-west  of  Mount  Elgon.  Thev 
are  a  warlike  race,  and  caused  considerable 
trouble  to  bring  into  subjection. 

Some  years  ago  a  small  party  of  men 
belonging  to  the  Government  station  at 
Mumia's  were  murdered  by  these  people, 
and  a  punitive  expedition  was  sent  against 
them.  On  the  storming  party  entering  the 
village,  the  huts  were  found  to  be  separated 
from  each  other  by  fences  of  brushwood. 

Our  next  photograph  shows  a  Ketosh 
village  forge,  where  spear-heads,  hoes,  and 
pipe-stems  are  manufactured.  The  apparatus 
is  wonderfully  simple  and  withal  efficient. 
Two  mud-pipes,  converging  into  one  close  to 
the  furnace,  serve  to  conduct  the  draught, 
and  these  are  covered  with  goat-skin,  into 
which  a  stick  is  fixed.  A  native  sits  at  the 
end,  and  moves  each  skin  backwards  and 
forwards    alternately,    thus    making    a  very 

accommodating  monarch  will  find  that  his 
collection  of  international  emblems  has  been 
increased  by  the  addition  of  a  brand-new  Union 
Jack,  which  will  doubtless  be  displayed  in  the 
stranger's  honour. 

There  are  a  large  number  of  caves  in  the 
lower  slopes  of  Mount  Elgon,  and  these  are 
inhabited  by  the  natives,  who  drive  in  their  cattle 
every  night  for  safety,  the  entrances  being  strongly 
stockaded.  Several  of  these  natural  fortresses 
had  to  be  stormed  in  order  to  punish  the  in- 
habitants for  outrages  committed  on  members  of 
the  expedition.  On  the  alarm  being  given,  by 
means  of  horns,  the  flocks  would  be  driven  into 
the  caves  and  a  heavy  discharge  of  arrows  kept 
up  from  the  darkness  of  the  interior.  Several 
of  our  men  were  wounded  whilst  engaged  in 
cutting   down  the    defensive  stockade,    and   a 


From  a  Photo,  by] 

[Lieut.  Bright. 



From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.  Bright. 

good,  if  primitive,  bellows.  The  forge  is  roofed 
with  grass  to  protect  the  workers  from  the  sun. 

I  have  said  elsewhere  that,  wherever  possible, 
we  bought  our  flour  from  the  villagers,  and  the 
above  photo,  shows  a  supply  of  this  precious 
commodity  all  ready  to  be  carried  away.  A 
string  of  white  beads,  large  enough  to  go  over 
the  head,  was  taken  in  exchange  for  about  a 
pound  of  ground  millet.  The  people  here  go 
almost  entirely  nude. 

On  the  occasion  of  a  marriage  great  rejoicing 
takes  place  among  the  villagers,  the  men  and 
women,'  in  separate  parties,  dancing  round  the 
village  wall.      Here  we  see  the  men  clapping 


their  feet  on  the  ground, 

They  wear 

und   tli  st      Men   in   pairs 

irward,  lifting  their 

their  heads  back,  and 

into  their  sides,      Pre- 

.     gain,  their  places  bring 

warrioi         S   metimes  these  men 

3    a    paii  -    horns, 

the   hair.      These  horns, 

iting  out  of  the  men's 

them  a  decidedly  diabolical  appear- 

om    the    surrounding    villages 

me   in  with    supplies   to   the   town, 

stablished   our   market  ;    and 

.    IjANCE  in  the  ketosh  country. 
From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.   Bright. 

after  selling  their  wares  and  emptying  their 
.;ets  of  flour,  they  would  sit  down  under 
the  trees  for  a  friendly  chat  with  their 
neighbours.  I  noticed  on  some  of  these 
people  ivory  armlets  that  had  grown  into 
the  flesh,  having  been  put  on  when  the 
wearers  were  very  young. 

Most  of  the  flour  bought  here  was  made 

from  bananas.     The  fruit  is  gathered  while 

_   :en,  peeled,  and  then  split  down  the 

The  slices  are  placed  in  the  sun, 

hen    thoroughly    dry,    are    pounded 

ur  with  a  smooth  stone  on  a  rock. 

Banana  flour  has  rather  a  bitter   taste,  and 

unpalatable    to    Europeans.       It 

was  eaten  by  the  officers  in  small  round 

\  cakes  as  an  indifferent  substitute  for 


spent  Christmas  Day  at  Mumia's. 
In  the  fort  it  was,  of  course,  observed  as  a 
holiday,  and  many  of  the  native  women 
:ame  in  and  danced.  They  were  dressed 
in  pretty  coloured  pieces  of  cloth,  which  are 
here  bartered  by  the  Government  for  food. 
The  dance  lasted  many  hours,  and  was  not 
exhilarating.  The  leader  of  the  dance 
carried  an  umbrella,  and  the  ceremony  was 


U     H    CAMP   O.N     ["HE    SHORES    OP    REMOTE    LAKE    NAIVASHA. 

From  a  Photo,  by  Lieut.  Bright. 

conducted  on  "  follow-my-leader  "  lines.  The 
dance  continued  many  hours,  and  as  the  fair 
ladies  became  hot  they  cooled  themselves  by  the 
simple  expedient  of  removing  a  garment  or  two. 

On  the  journey  back  to  the  coast  a  halt  of 
several  days  was  made  on  the  shores  of  Lake 
Naivasha.  This  lake  is  of  volcanic  origin,  and 
contains  an  island  in  the  shape  of  a  crescent 
moon,  which  is  undoubtedly  an  old  crater.  A 
few  prisoners  are  seen  in  the  photo.,  engaged  in 
cleaning  up  the  camp  at  this  remote  spot. 

Another  snap-shot  shows  a  magnificent  pair 
of  tusks  bagged  by  Captain  Ferguson.  They 
weigh  ioSlb.  and  nolb.  respectively.  It  speaks 
highly  for  the  honesty  of  the  natives  that,  several 
days  after  Ferguson  had  mortally  wounded  the 
elephant,  they  found  it  and  immediately  sent 
messengers  to  tell  him  where  the  grand  beast 
had  died.     Four  men  carried  each  tusk  slung 

"a  magnificent  pair  of  tusks,  bagged  by  captain  ferguson" 
From  a  Photo,  by]  (total  weight,  2i8lb.).  [Lieut.  Bright. 






[  kdi.v 

SOME    OF    THE       INCORRIGIBI.ES       OF     THE     EXPEDITI1 

From  a   Photo,   by   Lieut.    Fright. 

on  a  pole.  On  the  right  of  the  photo,  we 
see  Colonel  Macdonald  himself;  and  on  the 
left  is  Captain  Ferguson,  who  shot  the  elephant. 
The  man  in  the  centre  is  a  Somali  headman 
named  Ali.  He  was  with  Count  Teleki's  expe- 
dition which  discovered  Lakes  Rudolf  and 
Stephanie.  He  was  never  tired  of  talking  of 
the  hardships  of  that  expedition,  when  for 
nine  days  the  men  were  without  food. 
They  managed,  however,  to  subsist  on 
nuts  and  the  roots  of  trees. 

The  above  photo,  shows  some  of  the  "  in- 
corrigibles  "  of  the  expedition  —  men  who 
were  repeatedly  convicted  of  stealing  food 
from  their  comrades.  As  a  punishment, 
they  were  fastened  together  in  the  way 
shown  in  the  photo.  An  iron  collar  is 
worn  round  the  neck,  and  through  a  loop 
in  this  a  chain  is  passed,  fastened  at  the 
end  by  a  padlock.  The  prisoners  are  com- 
pelled to  carry  a  load  in  the  usual  way,  but 
are  guarded  by  a  few  soldiers.  If  this  were 
not  done  they  might  seize  their  opportunity 
and  smash  the  padlock.  So  salutary  an 
effect,  however,  does  this  punishment 
have,  that  escaped  prisoners  have  been 
known  to  bring  their  irons  back  and 
deposit  them  by  stealth  in  the  camp, 
lest  at  some  future  time  they  should  be 
recaptured  and  accused  of  having  stolen 
their  fetters  ! 

The  accompanying  group  of  officers  was 

taken  by  Mr.  Stanley  Tomkins,  on  the  ss. 
Canara,  during  the  voyage  from  Mombasa 
to  Aden.  Ten  officers  started  with  the  expe- 
dition in  1897.  A  great  loss  was  suffered  in 
the  death  of  Lieutenant  N.  A.  Macdonald, 
14th  Sikhs,  who  was  killed  in  one  of  the  fights 
against  the  mutineers  at  Lubwa's.  His  com- 
pany of  only  partially  trained  Swahilis  was 
attacked  in  thick  grass,  and  while 
rallying  his  men,  he  was  shot  dead. 
R.  Kirkpatrick,  D.S.O.,  Leinstcr 
Regiment,  had  seen  much  of  the  fighting  in 
Uganda  ;  he  afterwards  fell  a  victim  to  the 
treachery  of  a  native  tribe.  With  an  escort  of 
nine  men,  he  had  left  his  camp  to  climb  a  hill 
a  few  miles  distant,  as  he  was  anxious  to  get  a 
good  view  of  the  surrounding  country.  The 
natives  appeared  to  be  very  friendly,  and  were 
walking  with  the  small  party.  Suddenly  they 
attacked  Captain  Kirkpatrick  and  his  men  with 
pears,  and  only  two  of  the  party  succeeded  in 
escaping  and  reaching  camp.  The  loss  of 
these  two  comrades,  who  were  both  deservedly 
popular,  was  most  keenly  felt. 

Major  Woodward,  who  was  suffering  from  a 
sunstroke,  had  been  invalided  home  a  year 
before,  and  Lieutenant  Osborne  had  been 
severely  wounded  in  the  knee  at  the  Battle  of 
Kabagambi,  and  had  also  returned  to  England. 
He  was  much  missed  by  the  remainder  of  the 
officers.  Captain  Pereira,  Coldstream  Guards, 
who  belonged  to  the  Uganda  Rifles,  remained 
at   Mumia's. 

The  author,  Lieut.  R.  Bright.        Capt.  Macloughlin,  D.S.O.        Major  Austin,  R.E. 

Capt.  Ferguson,  D.S.O. 

Col.  Macclonaltl. 

Lieut,  the  Hon.  A. 
Hanbury  Tracy. 


From  a  Photo,  by  Mr.  Stanley  Tomkins. 

Vol.  iv.— 23. 

\moiiir  Kurdish  Brigands  in   Armenia. 

\)\     Al  I  \  VNDl  R    J.    SvOBODA. 

chant  was  journeying  through  Turkish  Armenia  from  Samsoun  to  Kharput 
icked  by  Kurdish  brigands,  who  demanded  a  ransom.     The  narrative 
hat   travel    is  like  in   this   wild    region,  and    it  is  illustrated  with    actual 
raphs  taken  by  M.  Svoboda  himself. 

11. W 

lie    foil 
lered    my   nar- 
id     most     thrilling 

Armenia  on  busi 
he  journey,  know- 
Id    have   an    opportunity  of 

i    the 


in    the 
11    humani- 
1  in  th( 

en,     1 
r     time,     I 
the   turbulent 
first  port  of 
i.     I  arrived  in 
that   town   very    much 
fa  t  i  _         .    and    v. 
ther  i    of    a 

r,   I  was  greatly 
ho  cam 
their,    n 
.  invaluable 

.  it    to 
_  h  e  r 
_  htful 

my    pi 
route,     which 

the  high  and  all   but    inaccessible 

I        tral   Armenia.       This    region, 

I,      was      inhabited      by     tribes      of 

[thirsty     Kurds,     whose     sole 

lay   in   the  robbing  and 

varied    by    periodical 

of  Christian  Armenia. 

i  the  point  of  changing  my  mind,  and 

proceeding  by  some  other  road,  when  I  formed 
a  resolution  that  1  would  not  allow  myself  to  be 
discouraged,  but  would  proceed  at  all  costs.  I 
therefore  concluded  a  contract  with  the  bravest 
and  most  courageous  guide  I  could  find — 
Kalousse  by  name.  He  had  already  made  the 
journey  to  Kharput  many  times,  and  was  well 
acquainted   with    its   discomforts   and    hazards. 

Many    times,     by    the 


had     he 

MR.  I,    Ullo    HAS    TRAVERSED    NEARLY    EVERY    RF.(.I' 

■  </o.)  HE  east.  \by  the  Author 

attacked,  and  even 
severely  wounded  by 
the  Kurds,  who  had 
on  two  or  three  occa- 
sions left  him  for 

From  Samsoun  to 
Diarbekir  the  traveller 
is  carried  in  a  primi- 
tive kind  of  springless 
wooden  cart,  with  two 
wheels  ;  it  is  called  a 
karossa.  As  a  rule,  an 
Armenian  karossa  is 
in  a  ruinous  condition, 
and  the  iron  -  work 
almost  completely 
eaten  away  with  rust. 
In  the  interior  of  the 
vehicle  two  men  may 
contrive  to  stow  them- 
selves away. 

On  the  evening  of 
February  23rd  last  I 
decided  to  leave  Sam- 
soun next  morning. 
Two  native  Armenian 
merchants  were  to 
travel  with  me ;  they 
were  going  to  Diar- 
bekir in  another 
karossa.  That  night, 
however,  when  I  was 
about  to  retire  to  rest,  I  was  surprised  to 
see  my  worthy  guide,  Kalousse,  enter  my 
room,  looking  very  grave.  He  told  me  that 
some  travellers  had  just  arrived  in  the  town 
with  the  unpleasant  news  that  they  had  been 
attacked  on  the  road  to  Kharput,  about  three 
days  away  from  Samsoun,  and  right  on  our 



Their  assailants  were  a  band  of  mountain 
Kurds  nearly  200  strong.  The  result  of  the 
affray  was,  that  one  gendarme  was  killed  and 
two  others  very  seriously  wounded.  The  three 
gendarmes,  by  the  way,  had  been  ordered  by  the 
Governor  of  Diarbekir  to  escort  the  travellers; 
but  that  their  presence  had  no  deterrent  effect 
upon  the  Kurds  will  be  evident  from  the  fact 
that  the  travellers  aforesaid  were  robbed  of 
everything  they  possessed,  except  the  bare  cloth- 
ing they  stood  upright  in. 

This,  of  course,  was  not  cheerful  news  ;  but, 
strangely  enough,  instead  of 
altering  my  decision,  it  had  the 
effect  of  confirming  me  in  my 
resolve  to  push  on  at  all  risks. 
At  ten  o'clock  the  same  evening, 
therefore,  I  and  Kalousse  paid 
a  visit  to  the  principal  khan, 
or  hotel,  in  order  to  interview 
the  travellers  who  had  been 

These  Armenian  merchants 
received  me  very  courteously, 
and  confirmed  the  story  told 
by  my  guide.  On  leaving  them 
I  made  my  way  to  the  local 
Kaimakan,  or  Governor,  and 
requested  him  to  send  some 
soldiers  with  me  in  order  to 
insure  my  security  in  the  wild 
regions  through  which  I  had  to 

The  reader  may  well  imagine 
my  sensations  as  I  set  out  on 
this  remarkable  journey  across 
Turkish  Armenia — paiticularly 
if  he  bears  in  mind  the  appa 
narratives     of    eye  -  witnesses 


.Ml;.    SVOBODA    HIKED    IN    SAMSOUN. 

From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

ling  and  ghastly 
icerning  the 
fiendish  cruelties  of  the  Kurds  during  the  great 
Armenian  massacres. 

Early  next  day  I  called  my  guide  and  told 
him  all  I  had  gathered.  He  said  he  intended 
to  keep  to  his  agreement  with  me,  but  it  would 
be  better  not  to  let  the  news  leak  out  among 
the  rest  of  the  men,  lest  they  should  refuse  to 
go  with  us.  I  warned  Kalousse  to  keep  his 
own  counsel,  and  told  him  we  should  certainly 
start  within  half  an  hour.  I  then  went  once 
more  to  the  Kaimakan,  and  asked  him  how 
many  soldiers  he  could  spare  me  as  escort. 
He  was  very  kind  indeed,  and  told  off  an 
unimposing  force  of  three  gendarmes  to  go  with 
me  to  Kharput.  He  also  informed  me  that  on 
arriving  at  the  last-named  town  other  soldiers 
would  be  placed  at  my  disposal,  and  so  on  until 
I  reached  Diarbekir.  These  arrangements  com- 
pleted, I  and  my  party — eleven  souls  in  all- 
left  Samsoun,  and  took  the  road  which  brought 

us   to  Amassia,    the  same   night  :  this   was  the 
first  stage  of  our  journey. 

We  were  now  fairly  on  the  road,  our  caravan 
consisting,  as  I  have  said,  of  eight  persons  only, 
besides  the  three  gendarmes.  The  "  carriage  " 
turned  out  to  be  a  frightful  affair,  into  which  my 
large  quantity  of  baggage,  myself,  and  Kalousse 
were  packed  in  a  manner  not  agreeable  to 
myself.  Inside  the  crazy  vehicle  I  scattered 
straw  several  inches  thick,  so  as  to  obviate  the 
ill-effects  of  the  severe  jars  and  jolts,  and  I  laid 
my  head  at  night  on  the  softest  package  I  could 
find.  Never  in  all  my  experi- 
ence of  Oriental  travelling  have 
I  known  such  frightful  going. 
The  road  zig-zagged  through  a 
terribly  wild  country,  ascending 
and  descending  high  mountains 
-  now  lumbering  through  a 
gloomy  gorge,  and  then  perched 
upon  the  very  verge  of  a  dizzy 
precipice.  The  horses  were  for 
ever  slipping  and  falling;  and 
after  only  a  i'cw  hours  on  the 
way  I  became  horribly  sick, 
and  my  head  ached  as  though 
it  would  burst.  After  a  time  I 
was  obliged  to  get  down  and 
walk,  leaving  Kalousse  in  my 
place ;  he  was  more  or  less 
accustomed  to  this  kind  of 
thing.  After  two  hours  of  walk- 
ing over  large  stones  and  small 
boulders,  however,  I  felt  both 
tired  and  hungry,  and  ordered 
a  halt  for  breakfast.  Then  it 
was  that  I  noticed  some  liquid 
from  my  cases  and  packages.  I 
hastened  to  open  some  of  these,  and  found  to 
my  rage  and  disgust  that  about  two  dozen  of 
bottled  beer  and  soda-water  had  been  smashed 
by  the  tremendous  jolting,  and  had  distributed 
their  contents  over  a  large  quantity  of  valuable 
merchandise,  to  say  nothing  about  my  supply  of 
photographic  dry  plates.  And  this,  thought  I, 
at  the  very  commencement  of  our  journey  ! 

On  arriving  at  Amassia  we  found  the  village 
to  be  a  small  Armenian  hamlet,  and  were  com- 
pelled to  resort  to  a  small  khan,  which  was  the 
most  uninviting-looking  place  one  could  pos- 
sibly imagine.  It  was  built  of  wood  and  was 
very  old — just  like  a  quaint  little  toy,  in  fact. 
Certainly  it  was  cheap,  for  the  entire  charge  for 
the  whole  caravan  only  came  to  about  sixpence 
for  the  night .' 

Soon  I  discovered  that  everyone  knew  the 
story  of  the  murdering  of  the  one  gendarme 
and  the  wounding  of  the  others  ;  and  of  course 
my  muleteers  also  got  to  know  of  the  occurrence, 

nir.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

I    much   reluctance  to  advance. 

with   me,  however,  com- 

.  them   to  push  on,  which  they  did  in   a 

kind  o(  way.     Every  day 

1  w  me  martyrdom  of  jolting 

no   decent    road    being 

•  >n  the  25th,  at  five  o'clock 

truck   the   high 

led  by  beautiful  hills. 

u  journeying  along  here  many 

mi:  n    1    suddenly   saw  the   driver    in 

.  burly  fellow  —  tern   his 

and   speak   to   him  in 

.  with   every  manifestation 

The    man    actually    com 

0  me,  and  at   length,  finding 

id    his    signs,   he    stopped 

lived    into    certain    internal   recesses, 



.\  ■ 



From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

in  immense  revolver.  He  then 
jumped  down,  spoke  excitedly  to  the  other 
men,  and  made  frantic  signs  towards  me. 

Up  to  this  moment  I  had  not  asked  Kalousse 
lat  was  the  matter  with   the  driver,  but   I  con- 
that    he    had  gone  mad,  and  wanted  to 
mok  and  shoot  the  lot  of  us.      Kalousse 
hims  disinclined  to  tell  me  what  was 

the  matter,  and  so,  not  knowing  what  to  think, 
ny  rifle  and  revolver,  loaded  both  of 
.  and  then  jumped  to  the  ground  to  inves- 
tor myself. 

however,  stopped  me  and  told  me 

50  on  any  farther.      He  said   we  were  in 

:  danger— the  driver   was   not   mad   at  all, 

iad  red  that  we  had  been  pursue.  1 

by  a  tribe  of  wild  and  fanatical 

had  followed  us  from  stage  to  stage, 

in   the  valleys  and  waiting  a 

portunity   at    night    to    rob    and 

•  us.    This  was  not  at  all  cheerful 

particularly  as  our  whole  caravan  only 

No  village  or  civilized 

1  sight,  and  there  appeared  to 

r  us  from  the  clutches  of  thi  se 

murderous  Kurdish  brigands.  Taking  my  glass, 
I  looked  in  every  direction,  and  suddenly 
discovered  a  large'  black  spot  in  the  distance. 
1  told  the  principal  gendarme  about  this,  and  he 
said,  grimly,  "Those  are  the  people  into  whose 
hands  we  shall  fall  to-day." 

Kalousse  here  gave  a  cheering  manifestation 
of  his  fidelity,  declaring  that  he  would  give  his 
life  for  me,  if  necessary.  I  should  not  like  to 
tell  you  my  private  opinion  of  this  manifestation. 
However,  our  three  soldiers  turned  their  horses 
towards  the  mysterious  enemy  and  galloped 
away  as  fast  as  they  could.  I  may  say  I  awaited 
their  return  in  a  state  of  considerable  suspense 
and  anxiety.  In  the  meantime,  Kalousse  ex- 
plained to  me  that,  situated  as  we  were  in  the 
very  heart  of  the  Kurdish  mountains,  escape 
was  out  of  the  question,  and  the  only  thing  left 
was  to  put  a  bold  front  upon 
the  situation  and  trust  to 

As  he  was  speaking,  I  was 
following  with  my  telescope 
the  soldiers  who  had  gone 
to  visit  the  Kurdish  leader. 
Judge  of  my  amazement 
when  I  saw  far  down  on  the 
plain  that  the  brigands  had 
apparently  run  helter-skelter 
before  the  three  soldiers  who 
had  gone  to  meet  them. 
Presently  both  gendarmes 
and  Kurds  disappeared  from 
view,  and  then  I  waited  for 
about  two  .hours,  wondering  what  it  could  all 
mean.  At  length,  a  little  before  sunset,  the 
three  gendarmes  returned,  and  told  me  that  we 
were  in  very  great  danger  indeed,  as  the  band 
we  had  seen  consisted  of  a  whole  tribe  of 
Kurds,  who  had  pursued  us  insidiously  from 
early  morning,  with  the  intention  of  attacking 
us  at  night. 

When,  however,  they  saw  we  had  no  fear  of 
them  they  thought  it  best  to  disappear. 
Presently  I  noticed  that  our  three  soldiers  had 
brought  back  a  prisoner  whose  horse  had  failed 
him.  This  picturesque  ruffian  appeared  to  be 
in  a  deplorable  state  of  terror,  and  kept  begging 
of  the  soldiers  to  let  him  loose  and  not  kill  him, 
as  he  said  he  had  been  pressed  into  the  service 
of  the  brigand  chief.  We  gathered  from  the 
man  all  the  information  possible,  and  then  let 
him  go.  As  he  rode  slowly  away  he  assured  us 
earnestly  that  we  were  in  the  greatest  possible 
danger,  as  the  Kurds  were  mustering  in  great 
numbers.  By  this  time  I  was  wondering 
whether  we  should  ever  get  out  of  those 
accursed  mountains  alive. 

Almost  every  moment  we  expected  an  attack, 





and  the  reader  may  well 
imagine  for  himself  what  our 
feelings  were  all  through  the 
long  night.  Fortunately,  how- 
ever, we  arrived  at  Sivas  in 
safety,  and  left  that  town  again 
on  the  27th  for  Kharput. 
Everything  went  well  until  we 
were  about  five  hours  from 
Kharput  itself,  when  we  were 
encamped  between  two  rugged 
ranges  of  high  mountains  on 
smooth,  sandy  ground,  We 
chose  this  on  account  of  the 
showers  of  rain  which  had 
been  falling,  and  which  ren- 
dered progress  through  the 
villages  all  but  impossible. 

At  five  o'clock  in  the  even- 
ng,  when  I  was  lying  quietly 
my  iron  bedstead  in  the 
tent,  thinking  of  the  exciting 
alarms  of  the  past  few  days,  I 
heard  a  tremendous  yell,  and, 
jumping  from  my  bed,  was 
confronted  by  Kalousse,  who  appeared  to  be  in 
the  last  extremity  of  terror.  He  was  jabbering 
in  some  language  I  could  not  understand,  but 
I  gathered  that  something  frightful  had  hap 
pened  to  us.  I  questioned  him  sternly,  and, 
when  he  grew  a  little  more  composed,  he  cried, 
"  We  are  lost  !  We  are  lost  !  For  God's  sake, 
get  your  rifle  1  " 

I  could  make  neither  head  nor  tale  of  his 
story,  but  just  as  I  was  cross-examining  him 
in  much  perplexity,  two  shots  rang  out  sharply 
just  outside  my  tent.  Knowing  that  some- 
thing serious  was  amiss  I  rushed  for  my  rifle 
and  revolver,  but  to  my  dismay  and  horror 
found  that  they  had  been  unloaded  and  the 
cartridges  placed  in  some  inaccessible  package. 
However,  I  made  my  way  outside  with  my 
weapon,  and  then  saw,  to  my  indescribable 
amazement,  crowds 
of  strange,  barbaric 
figures  clothed  in 
camel  -  hair  tunics, 
and  all  in  a  state 
of  great  excitement. 
They  were,  I  knew, 
the  fierce  and  mur- 
derous Kurds. 
Positively  I  knew 
not  what  to  do.  In 
my  hands  I  had 
not  a  single  avail- 
able weapon,  and 
even  if  I  had,  it 
would    have     been 



From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

of  little  use,  for  there  must 
have  been  several  hundreds  of 
these  brigands  around  my 

Turning,  I  saw  two  stalwart 
Kurds  seize  my  guide  Kalousse 
by  the  back  of  the  neck  and 
then  tie  his  hands  and  feet. 
This  done,  they  dragged  him 
out  of  the  tent  by  his  hair. 
The  next  thing  I  knew  was, 
that  two  other  brigands  were 
approaching  me,  no  doubt 
with  the  intention  of  serving 
me  in  like  manner.  The  first 
man  I  pushed  away  with  all 
the  strength  I  could  muster, 
but  he  growled  and  pulled  out 
his  pistol  threateningly.  His 
si^ns  were  unmistakable,  so  I 
submitted.  Whilst  he  was 
tying  my  hands  and  feet  I 
looked  at  Kalousse,  and  saw 
that  they  wgre  dragging  the 
unfortunate  fellow  along  the 
sand  by  his  hair.  Presently  they  pulled  him 
on  to  his  knees  and  began  to  lash  him  about 
the  body  with  a  long  and  curious  whip.  And 
I,  myself,  by  the  way,  came  in  for  a  pretty 
considerable  scourging,  souvenirs  of  which  I 
carry  at  the  moment  of  writing.  I  was,  indeed, 
most  savagely  whipped-  and  beaten,  until  I 
nearly  fainted.  I  knew,  however,  that  it  would 
be  all  but  fatal  for  me  to  beg  for  mercy. 

Whilst  all  this  was  going  on  the  rest  of  the 
brigands  had  removed  all  my  trunks,  boxes,  and 
packages  in  the  tent.  Then  came  a  heart- 
breaking onslaught  upon  my  baggage.  Every- 
thing was  broken  and  torn  open,  and,  almost 
worst  of  all,  my  photographic  plates  were 
smashed  to  pieces,  as  being  of  no  use.  When 
everything  had  been  thoroughly  overhauled  and 
no   money   found,   about    fifteen   of   the    Kurds 

came  and  t  o  1  d 
Kalousse  that,  if 
his  master  would 
hand  t h em  over 
r,ooo  beshlik,  we 
would  be  allowed 
to  proceed  to  Khar- 
put unmolested.  If, 
however,  the  money 
were  not  forthcom- 
ing, everyone  in  the 
caravan  would  have 
his  throat  cut,  after 
which  the  bodies 
would  be  thrown 
into  the  river. 


.    1    will    not  that    when 

1    did    not 

or  dreaming  ;  nor 

mulate  any  scheme 

1     will 
my  eves  in  a  kind 
on  my  youth  ami 
mine  in  that 
land.  '1  Kalo 

that  1   only  had  , 
liked  they  might  take 
vith   all  ni'  ts.      I'he 

.  that  it  was  useless  to 
ihey  must  haw  what  they 
\  I    that,  perhaps  on  seeing  the 

free,  and  thereupon  1 

II   them   I  would  give 

1   if  only  they  would  cut 

nd  my  hands.    This  they  did, 

if  the  money  were   promptly 

ing   1   ■■•>  mid  escape  with  my  life,  but  if 

,  I  s        d  b   cut  to  piec 

md   myself  free    1    hitched  round 

my    belt,    in    ti  ch    of  which    were    some 

if  credit  upon    Kharput    merchants  and 

all  the  money   I   ;  d     / .20  Turkish.      I 

handed  the  money  to  the  foremost  brigand,  and 

on   counting    it,   he   hurled    the 

-  tying  that  they  must  have 

dred — times   more   than    that   if  we 

ling  with  our  lives.     Then, 

rently  thinking  that  extreme  measures  were 

ss  ry,  two  of  the  brigands  went  some  paces 

away  and.  kneeling  down,  actually  levelled  their 

;  at   Kalousse  and   myself.     Then, 

hide  (oked  at  the  ominous  muzzle  of 

.  which  the  brigand  pointed  straight 

at   me,    I   realized    that    my   last    moment    had 

It  was  awful— horrible  -thus   to  die   in   this 

ile  manner.      Breathing  a  hasty  prayer,  I 
d  why  the  man's  finger  lingered  so  long 
Poor    Kalousse,   I  remember, 
like  a   1  The 

•mplexion  was 
vish  green. 
now  when   I   rem 

quivering    lips 
.    the    v  ,od- 

have  coura.  1.  to  my 

amazement,  a  chai  med 

iv  unfortun 

in   fact, 
to    his    Let,    and    wrenching 
himself    free    with    a 



run  like  a  deer  ;  but  he  had  not  gone  many 
yards   before   a    shot    rang   out,   and    my  poor 

Kalousse  collapsed  like  a  sack  of  potatoes, 
badly  shot  through  the  calf  of  his  left  leg.  I 
certainly  believed  that  they  would  lire  again 
and  kill  him      and  me.       They  did  not,  however. 

( )n  the  contrary,  it  seemed  as  though  they 
were  alarmed  at  what  they  had  already  done. 
They  asked  Kalousse  what  arrangements  I 
could  make  for  sending  them  the  necessary 
ransom.  They  added,  probably  by  way  of 
bravado,  that  they  had  no  fear  of  any  Govern- 
ment, and  they  would,  if  necessary,  pursue  us 
from  one  place  to  another,  until  I  disgorged 
the  necessary  sum.  I  could  not,  for  the  life  of 
me.  understand  why  our  lives  had  been  spared 
up  to  this  time,  and  also  those  of  the  gendarmes 
who  were,  of  course,  in  the  same  plight  as  our- 
selves.  I'he  rest  of  my  party  busied  themselves 
in  collecting  the  sovereigns  which  the  brigand 
had  thrown  away,  and  these  they  were  at  once 
requested  to  hand  over  to  our  captors,  who  also 
took  our  rifles  and  revolvers.  Then,  forming 
into  two  parallel  columns,  they  marched  along 
with  my  caravan  between  like  a  flock  of  helpless 

Presently  the  chief  of  the  gendarmes  informed 
me  that  he  considered  we  were  free.  "  Free  " 
was  good  ;  here  was  I  in  the  wilds  of  the 
mountains  of  Kurdistan,  robbed  of  everything 
I  posNessed,  and  not  knowing  how  I  was  to  get 
to  my  destination  alive. 

Finally,  I  decided  to  beard  the  lion  in  his 
den  and  go  and  interview  the  chief  of  all  the 
Kurdish  robbers,  who,  I  learned,  had  a  village 
not  far  away.  I  determined  boldly  to  ask  him 
to  give  us  a  safe  conduct  away  from  his  desperate 
and  murderous  people,  as  we  were  simply 
traders  and  travellers,  and  really  had  no  money 
to  give  away.  Amusing  to  relate,  we  were 
received  in  a  most  courteous  and  delightful 
manner  by  the  Kurdish  chieftain  in  his  mud 
hut,  and  when  we  told  him  of  all  that  had 
happened  to  us,  he  grew  quite  excited — partieu- 

-   ;-*^T^  V^^^iV^PTt' 

HERE   WE    SEE   THE   VII. 

From  a  Photo,  by] 


FOR  protection.  [the  Author. 



larly  when  he  saw  my  poor  wounded  guide 
Kalousse.  The  chief  immediately  sent  about 
a  dozen  of  his  trusty  men  to  bring  in  the 
brigands    who    had    attacked     us.       Why,     we 

Finally,  when  we  left  the  chief,  it  was  with  the 
escort  of  a  dozen  of  his  own  men,  who  had 
instructions  to  see  us  safely  to  Diarbekir,  so  that 
no  one  should  interfere  with   us.     I   must   say 


From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

actually  stayed  a  day  or  two  with  the  chief, 
enjoying  his  most  delightful  hospitality.  He 
insisted  that  the  money  taken  from  me  should 
be  tefunded,  and  that  night  I  slept  in  his  own 

Next  day  the  brigands  flocked  round  me  in  a 
most  embarrassing  manner,  the  scene  being  so 
picturesque  that  it  was  difficult  to  believe  one 
was  not  standing  on  the  stage  during  the  run  of 
some  romantic  drama.  I  even  obtained  per- 
mission to  photograph  the  Kurdish  chieftain's 
harem  (which  photo- 
graph is  here  repro- 
duced), but  I  don't  for 
a  moment  believe  he 
imagined  I  was  taking 
a  picture  of  the 
women.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  he  was  under 
the  impression  that 
the  "  one-eyed  box  " 
would  have  a  life- 
giving  effect  upon  the 
ladies.  For  himself, 
he  said,  it  did  not 
matter;  he  was 
healthy  enough.  I 
did  not  care  to  press 
him  further. 

that  the  idea  of  hobnobbing  with  a  robber 
chieftain,  whose  men  had  been  within  an  ace  of 
wiping  us  all  out ;  photographing  his  ladies,  too  ; 
enjoying  his  hospitality,  and  finally  being  safe- 
guarded by  his  men,  greatly  appealed  to  my 
sense  of  humour — afterwards — that  is,  I  am 
quite  certain,  however,  that  had  we  not  gone  to 
interview  the  chief  in  this  way,  we  must  inevit- 
ably have  been  killed.  Never — never  can  I 
forget  those  moments  when  I  was  looking  down 
the  rifle-barrel  of  that  Kurdish  brigand. 





From  a  Photo,  by  the  Author. 

The    Hermits    of    the    Sierra    Morena. 

B\    Herbert  Vivian. 

Monks  we    know    all    about,    but    hermits    are    still    mysterious    and    mediaeval.  The    following   is   a 

mmunity     of    hermits    inhabiting    the    wilderness    of  Cordoba,    in    Spain. 

th  photographs    and    described    by  a  gentleman  who  paid    them    a  visit,    provided    with 
a  special   permit  from    the  Bishop  of  Cordoba. 

us  have  by  this  time  a  very 

;  of  the  life  of  a  monk  or 

a   nun   in   any    Catholic  conventual 

tblishment  which  may  be  named. 

much   has    been    written    on   the 
in  the  form  both  o\  "heavy  "and perish- 
.  that  anyone  of  average  education 
njure  up  a   fairly  accurate  picture  of  their 
work  and  prayer  in  all  its  mono- 
3  sii       ii  ity.      But    the   mere  mention  of  a 
Jiermit    still     si  all    sorts    of    mysterious 

-  :   men  living  the  lives  of  outcasts  in 
almost  inaccessible  caws,  prodigies  of  privation  ; 
skulls  for  cups,    rats  and   serpents  tor  sole  corn- 
par  :.    all    the   romance  of  religion, 
n  was  observed  in  the  Middle  Ages. 
For   everything    really    mediaeval    and    least 
impaired  by  the  lapse  of  centuries  we  must  go 
Spain,  where  nothing  changes  except  (lovern- 
ments  and  a  few  other  details  which  really  do 
not  matter.     So  to  Spain   I   went  in   search  of 
hermits,   and    was   fortunate   enough   to   find   a 
goodly  number  of  them   scattered  about   upon 
-     rra  .Morena,  a  league  or  so  to  the  north 
of  Cordoba,  the  ancient  and  glorious  capital  of 
the  Moorish  Empire  in  Spain.      If  they  do  not 
quite  come  up  to  the  expectations  conjured  up 
by  the  hermits  of  legend  and  art,  my  hermits 
are,  at  any  rate,  deeply  interesting  in  themselves, 
and   afford   us   a   vivid   picture   of  the  life  and 
of    the    average    hermit     three    or    four 
hundred  years  ago. 

Hermits,  known  as  "Sons  of  the  Wilderness," 
ave  occupied  this   mountain  since   beyond  the 
lory  of  history.      The  first  definite  record  of 
in    the    year     1309,    when    a    band   of 
tillian  soldiers   deserted   the  army  of   Ferdi- 
nand   IV.     and     took    to    the    hermit's    life— 
olved,"  as  an    old  chronicler   puts  it,   "to 
2  war   henceforward  on    behalf  of  the  King- 
1    of  Ibaven/'      The    original    hermits    are 
thought  to   have  come  from    Egypt,   or  at  any 
ate  to  have  adapted  their  mode  of  life    from 
that  of  famous  Egyptian  hermits. 

Though  the  hermits  we  are  about  to  consider 

-arto  Cordoba,  they  can  boast  of  a  full 

re  of  seclusion.     To   begin  with,  we  may 

m  without  a  special  permit  from  the 

this  is  not  very  readily  granted.      I 

iaye  '  nt   myself  at  his  palace   punctually 

a    certain    hour    and    explain,     in    broken 

Spanish,  to    his    chaplains    the    reason    of    my 

request — what  my  motive  is,  what  the  result  of 
my  visit  will  be,  etc.  They  are  very  courteous, 
but  inclined  to  be  a  little  suspicious.  Am  I  "a 
North  American  "  ?  Heaven  forbid  !  (I  have  a 
purpose  to  serve.)  They  smile  graciously.  Am 
I  a  Catholic  ?  Of  course — though  I  do  not 
enter  into  vexed  questions  of  Roman  and 
Anglican,  which  they  would  not  understand. 
At  last  they  are  satisfied,  and  I  am  furnished 
with  a  document  addressed  to  "  the  Chief 
Brother  of  the  Hermits,"  and  setting  forth  that 
"  we  grant  our  license  to  Mr.  Herbert  Vivian 
and  any  other  persons  who  may  accompany  him 
to  visit  the  desert  and  chapel  of  Our  Lady  of 
Belen,  provided  the  established  rules  are  ob- 
served. But  no  permission  is  given  to  pass  the 
night  in  the  desert ;  and  this  license  is  only 
available  for  three  days  from  the  date  of  issue. 
*  The  Bishop  of  Cordoba." 

Ladies  used  not  to  be  allowed  in  "  the 
desert,"  and  even  nowadays  they  are  only 
accorded  permission  if  accompanied  by  male 
relatives.  So  the  solitary  modern  globe-trotting 
girl  is  hereby  warned  off. 

Then  come  difficulties  of  access.  The  hermit- 
ages are  only  a  league  away,  but  the  road  is 
infamous,  and  the  cabmen  of  Cordoba  declare 
with  one  consent  that  the  thing  can  only  be  done 
with  three  horses  and  for  a  payment  of  seven 
dollars.  However,  I  have  been  long  enough 
among  Spaniards  and  Orientals  to  know  how  to 
drive  a  bargain  ;  and  eventually,  after  waiting 
almost  the  full  tether  of  my  permit  for  the 
weather  to  clear,  I  set  out  with  only  two  horses, 
and  for  a  conscientious  price.  But  the  road 
proves  as  impossible  as  even  the  cabmen 
had  pictured.  Never  have  I  traversed  such 
roads— no,  not  even  in  Bulgaria.  The  result 
is  that  I  have  to  walk  the  greater  part  of 
the  way.  Still,  when  I  come  to  "the  desert,"  I 
feel  that  I  have  been  amply  repaid  for  all  my 
toil  and  worry. 

It  is  not  at  all  a  "  desert  "  as  we  understand 
the  word.  Indeed,  the  sole  thing  the  place  has 
in  common  with  a  desert  is  its  loneliness.  We 
make  our  way  up  the  slopes  of  a  well-wooded 
mountain,  amid  orchards  of  olives,  Moorish 
rose-gardens,  palms,  aloes,  chestnuts,  cactuses, 
and  all  kinds  of  tropical  plants.  Every  now 
and  then  great  tufts  of  geranium  lend  a  fragrance 
to  the  air.  Surely  the  "desert"  has  fulfilled  the 
Scriptural  prophecy  and  "  blossomed  as  the  rose." 






Cordoba^^-    de   ^/^odx/^A-c- de  18  %f 

Qonccdcmoo  wa\m>Kkx  tic&wcia  a.   ^J)/r-  fa, >'rf"-j  ^~ 






O  <W/ 


)<xza  que- 

incite  cldcoicztc  u  capi^faSe  SfCueafaa  Seno^a3e  eBelen, 
o£>oert>du8oo'e  las  xeglao  cc>ta6/feci3a:>,  din  poSe-i.  pecttoc- 
tax  en  ti  desie-zto,  n  sin  auc  valqa  cota  lic&ncia  pasaSos 
eo  3ia?  8e  ?w  fecna. 

>J<  £1  Obispo  de  Cordoba, 


durante  la  Cuaresma  ni  en  dias  festivos. 





From  Cordoba  itself,  and  from  the  shaky 
railway  by  the  Guadalquivir,  the  scudding 
tourist  may  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  hermitages — 
a  number  of  glistening,  whitewashed  cottages, 
nestling  among  the  dark  woods  of  the  mountain. 
But  the  guides  will  have  told  them  that  there 
is  nothing  to  see  but  the  view,  and  they  will 
have  grudged  an  after- 
noon deducted  from 
their  treadmill  of 
churches  and  galleries. 
These  recluses  and 
their  simple  lives  do 
not  appeal  to  the  slaves 
of  the  red-bound  guide- 

But  I  grow  excited  at 
the  prospect  of  an  inter- 
view with  a  latter-day 
Simon  Stylites,  and  my 
spirits  rise  as  the  air 
grows  rarer  and  more 
exhilarating,  and  at  last 
the  details  of  the  "  head 
brother's"  hermitage  are 
distinctly  visible. 

Adjoining  it  are  the 
chapel  and  refectory. 
The  dwellings  of  the 
other  hermits  are  scat- 

Vol  iv.— 24. 

tered  about  the  hill-side  at  sufficient  distances 
apart  to  secure  the  privacy  which  is  the  anchorite's 
ideal.  When  at  last  I  arrive  I  find  a  simplicity 
and  modesty  which  exceed  all  my  anticipa- 
tions. Head  hermitage,  chapel,  and  refectory 
all  together  only  make  up  the  humblest  little 
whitewashed  cottage,  with  a  red-tiled  roof  and  a 

small  belfry  surmounted 
by  a  cross.  In  the  rude 
yard  outside  over  a 
score  of  beggars  (never 
to  be  avoided  in  Spain) 
are  crouching  in  groups 
over     the    coarse     but 


From  a]  little  whitewashed  cottage."     (beggars  awaiting  food.)  [Photo. 


which    the    hermits    never    refuse 

urg      their    needs.       I  lie 

all  who  care  to  come 

of   the   place,   and 

-   me  of  the  beggars 

dition   o(  raggedness  and 

se  in  the   beautiful   phi 

.need    has   little  more    than  a 

j    and    it    does    not   suffice  to 

from   the  sharp  air.     The 

minutes,  however,  they  emerge  in  procession, 
most  of  them  with  their  hands  raised  upon 
their  breasts  in  an  attitude  of  devotion,  as  if  they 
were  still  reciting  their  grace  after  meat.  Among 
the  group  is  a  young  man  from  Cordoba, 
who  has  been  privileged  to  share  their  frugal 
fare.  In  spite  of  their  austerities,  the  hermits 
all  look  the  picture  of  cheerfulness.  The  head 
brother  has  a  particularly  kind  expression,  and, 
alter   examining  the   Bishop's  permit,    which   1 




countenances  of  these  beggars  wear  that  expres- 
sion of  mingled  wistfulness,  gratitude,  and 
dignity  which  is  the  characteristic  of  mendi- 
cants all  over  Spain.  The  soup  is  brought  out 
in  a  large  earthenware  tureen  of  mediaeval 
shape,  glistening  with  cleanliness,  and  tilted  out 
into  a  bowl,  from  which  it  is  eaten  with  three 
large  wooden  spoons,  which  are  handed  round 
in  turn.  A  couple  of  young  hermits  are  surveying 
the  with   benevolent  smiles,   which   have 

endeared  them  throughout  the  whole  country- 

le  of  these  young  hermits  comes   forward 

me  me,  and  explains  that  the  rest  of 

'ill  in  the  refectory.      In  a  few 

hand  to  him,  he  makes  me  an  amiable  speech, 
every  word  of  which  he  evidently  means.  He 
then  bids  the  young  hermit  accompany  and 
show  me  everything. 

hirst  I  am  taken  the  round  of  the  various 
hermitages  and  told  something  of  the  life  there. 
At  present  there  are  seventeen  hermits  and  one 
novice  in  "  the  desert."  They  maintain  rigorous 
silence,  and  are  completely  isolated  from  each 
other  during  the  greater  part  of  the  day,  only 
meeting  for  the  daily  mass  and  the  pious  reading 
which  follows  it,  and  for  their  mid-day  meal  in 
the  refectory.  Breakfast  and  supper  are  pre- 
pared and  eaten  by  the  hermits  each  alone  in 
his  little  cell,  where  he   has    a   simple  kind  of 



From  a] 

5GE    IN     PROCESS]        ,    MOST    OF    THEM    WITH    THEIR    Hf 



kitchen.  Most  of  the  day  and  night  is  spent  in 
meditation  and  prayer,  very  little  time  being 
accorded  for  sleep  ;  five  hours  out  of  the 
twenty- four,  however,  must  be  devoted  to 
manual  labour,  generally  digging  and 
various  forms  of  gardening.  One  advan- 
tage the  hermits  have  over  monks  is 
that  they  are  very  little  bound  by  rules, 
but  are  free  to  choose  their  own  times 
for  most  of  their  occupations,  the  regular 
hours  of  prayer  alone  excepted.  The 
habit  is  for  ihe  head  brother,  as  he 
goes  through  his  own  devotions  in  the 
chief  hermitage,  to  sound  the  bell  in  his 
little  belfry.  Every  cell  is  provided  with 
a  belfry  and  bell  of  its  own,  which  each 
hermit  must  sound  when  he  hears  that  of 
the  head  brothei.  In  this  way  they 
make  sure  of  observing  the  hours  of 
prayer  simultaneously.  To 
sound  his  bell  is  held  to  be 
remission  of  duty,  and  entails 

The  next  photograph  represents  the 
outside  of  one  of  the  cells.  It  is 
certainly  very  picturesque  with  its  stately 
cypresses  and  great  hedges  of  prickly 
pear.  My  guide  is  standing  on  the 
pathway  which  leads  to  the  mountain, 
and  the  owner  of  the  cell  is  just  return- 
ing with  a  pitcher  of  water  which  he 
has  been  fetching  from  the  well  some 
distance  off.  Above  the  little  window, 
which  is  closed  by  a  thick  wooden 
shutter,  we  see  in  a  niche  the  skull  of  a 
previous  tenant.  It  wears  an  expression 
of  deep  calm,  and  seems  to  smile  as  it 
reminds  us  of  the  shortness  of  life.  In- 
side the  cell  we  find  little  more  than  bare 

head    brother    is 
hermitage    is  only 

walls.  All  the  furniture 
there  is  consists  of  a  hard 
mattress,  where  the  hermit 
passes  his  few  hours  of 
sleep;  a  praying-stool  with 
a  heavy,  antiquated  book 
of  hours,  printed  in  the  six- 
teenth century  ;  a  large 
rude  crucifix  ;  a  couple  of 
pitchers,  and  the  few  things 
required  for  the  simple 
cookery.  I  can  scarcelv 
restrain  my  amazement  at 
the  cheerfulness  which  sub- 
sists in  so  terribly  depress- 
ing a  dwelling. 

Most  of  the  other  cells  are 

identical  with  this  one,  and 

need    not     be    particularly 

described.       That    of    the 

not    more    luxurious.      His 

larger  because   it  comprises 

a  severe 




Front  a  J 

A    NICHE    IS    THE    SKULL    OF    A    PREVIOUS    TENANT. 


till      WIDE    WORLD     MAGAZINE. 

is  only  one  at  present,  the  hermits  take  it  in 
turns  to  stay  with  him  and  fit  him  for  adopt- 
ing their  mode  of  life.  The  novitiate  lasts  six 
months,  which  is  found  quite  sufficient  to  deter 
any  who  may  have  no  real  vocation  for  the  life. 

Besides  their  regular  devotions,  the  hermits 
constantly  repair  for  prayer  to  various  parts 
of  the  "  desert  "  which  may  be  hallowed  by 
sacred  associations.  For  example,  the  graves 
of  deceased  hermits  are  favourite  resorts,  but 
the  most  popular  place  is  a  large,  whitewashed 
pillar,  surmounted  by  a  wooden  cross.  Here, 
tradition  says,  a  hermit  was  once  upon  a  time 
martyred  by  the  Moors.  Though  the  hermits 
may  not  speak  when  they  meet  in  this  way, 
except  for  reasons  of  charity  or  necessity,  they 
doubtless  feel  it  a  relief  from  their  solitude  to 
meet  other  human  beings.  My  guide  would 
not  allow  this,  saying  that  if  that  were  the 
object  of  their  coming  to  the  place  of  prayer 
it  would  be  a  sin  which  they  would  have  to 
confess  and  do  penance  for. 

Confession,  by  the  way,  is  frequent,  but 
generally  quite  voluntary.  Any  hermit  may 
give  absolution,  but  most  of  the  community 
prefer  to  come  with  their  sins  to  the  kindly 
old  head  brother,  whose  sympathy  and  com- 
mon sense  may   always   be  relied   upon. 


From   a   Photo. 

the  chapel  and  refectory 
under  the  same  roof.  In  the 
chapel  is  a  large  and  some- 
what imaginative  picture  of 
the  t,"  as   it  appeared 

in  bygone  days.    Though  the 

spective  is  not  what  it 
might  be,  we  can  see  that 
the  hermitages  are  still  much 
what  they  were  in  the  Middle 
The  gardens  seem  to 
have    improved,    but    there 

"he  same  predilection  for 

me  to  the 
house  of  the  novices,  which 
is  some  distance  apart  from 
the  other  hermitages.  When 
there  are  several,  the  novices 
live  all  together,  but  as  there 

Frotll  a]  THRONE    OF    THE    EISHOPS    0 

rED  in   ii 



NT    SI 




Farther    up    the    hill    we    come     upon    an 
elaborate  stone  seat,  or  throne,  which  was  made 
bv  the  hermits    for    the   use   of  the  Bishop  of 
Cordoba  whenever    he    deigns    to    visit     them. 
It  is  often  utilized  as  a  confessional  ;  and  the 
next      very     artistic      photograph     reproduced 
depicts  one  of  the  hermits   in  the  act   of  pro- 
nouncing    absolution.       Assuredly     no     more 
fitting  place  could   have    been  chosen    for    the 
solemnization   of  a  holy  rite.       Here  we  enjoy, 
in    all    its    magnificence,    the    view    which    the 
tourists     come     out     for     to     see.        In     front 
of   us  are  the  majestic    Guadalquivir   and    the 
spires  of  Cordoba,  while    in    the    distance    are 
the  blue  peaks  of  the  mountains  of  Cabra  and 
Granada,  with  the  peak  of  Alcaudete   standing 
forth  to  the  south-east.     Among   the   hills  are 
dainty  white  pleasure-houses  and  ruined  castles, 
one   of   which   is   pointed   out  as   the   summer 
residence  of  the  Moorish  Sovereign,  Abderrah- 
man  I.     With  the  world  so  fair  to  look  upon,  it 
becomes  more  incredible  than  ever  that  all  these 
men  should  abandon  it  voluntarily  and  remain 
contented    in    the 
seclusion     of     their 
lonely  "wilderness." 
But  they  certainly 
seem  to  deserve  the 
title  of  "Sons  of  the 
Wilderness,"      by 
which    they    have 
been   known   to   the 
outer    world    for    so 
many      centuries. 
They  appear  to  revel 
in     the    barest    and 
loneliest    corners   of 
their  domain,  and  to 
find  supreme  happi- 
ness    in     cherishing 
the  most  gloomy  and 
morbid     thoughts. 
Xotice    the    beatific 
expression  of  the  fine 
old    fellow     in      the 
next    photograph   as 
he     digs     his     own 
grave.       Like    an 
animal  about  to  die, 
he  has  chosen  for  his 

last  resting-place  a  spot  as  far  away  as  possible 
from  the  habitations  of  the  living.  With  a  huge 
pick  he  has  cleared  away  the  brambles 
and  made  some  progress  with  his  digging. 
He  has  paused  in  his  work  to  say  a  prayer, 
and  is  reflecting  upon  that  blissful  state 
where  the  wicked  cease  from  troubling  and  the 
weary  are  at  rest.  He  came  to  the  hermitage 
in  the  hope  of  forgetting  all  the  sadness  of  his 
former  life,  but  he  has  long  ago  realized  that 
there  can  be  no  complete  forgetfulness  on  this 
side  of  the  grave,  and  for  death  accordingly  he 

I  saw  many  other  weird  scenes  such  as  go 
most  largely  to  make  up  the  life  of  the  "  Sons 
of  the  Wilderness."  In  one  spot  I  beheld 
a  fervent  hermit,  clad  in  his  uniform  of  a 
scapulary  and  cowl  of  grey  cloth,  holding  a  rosary 
and  praying  in  most  absolute  solitude  before  a 
skull  set  upon  a  rock.  Presently  he  heaves  a 
deep  sigh  of  penitential  devotion  and  prostrates 
himself  upon  his  face  before  the  grisly  emblem, 
clasping  his  hands  in  an  agony  of  self-abase- 
ment, and  remaining 
motionless  for  end- 
less minutes  amid 
the  deathless  silence 
of  Xature.  The 
scene  carries  us 
back  into  the  Dark 
Ages,  and  I  know 
not  which  is  grim- 
mest— the  mocking 
expression  of  the 
skull  or  the  derisive 
gaiety  of  the  palms 
and  rose  bushes  in 
the  background. 

Dies  irce,  dies  ilia. 
Solvet      soeculuin      in 

A  bell  tinkles  in 
the  distance,  and 
the  rapt  hermit  rises 
slowly  from  his 
knees,  with  a  strange, 
far-away  joy  lighting 
up  his  rugged  face. 
And  I  return  to 

ONE    OK    THE    HFRMITS    DIGGING    HIS   OWN    GRAVE. —     HE   HAS 
From  It]  PAUSED    IN'    HIS    WORK    TO    SAY   A    FRAYER."  [Photo. 

Our   Mysterious    Panther. 

Bv    Lieut.   11.  C.  Sandford  (isi    P.I.)- 

•ant  of   the  havoc  wrought    by    an    enorm 

way   in  which   the 

-   '.  !  i  \ '.   !   I.".  ).     WHO 


From  a  Photo,  by  F.  Bromkead,  Clifton. 

Hl.X  I  was  marching  through  the 
Shan  Hills  in  Eastern  Burma,  en 
route  to  join  my  regiment  at  Fort 
Stedman,  I  met 
an  officer  of  the 

ous  leopard  in   Eastern  Burma,  and  the  remarkable 
brute  met  his  death. 

the  manner  of  [nippies,  used  to  object,  in  a 
lamentable  voice,  to  such  treatment;  so  it 
generally  ended  in  my  patience  being  exhausted, 
and  in  letting  him  loose  to  wander  at  his  will 
in  my  room  and  veranda.  Alas  !  poor  puppy  ! 
Ills  habit  of  nocturnal  exploration  proved  his 
bane.  1  was  awakened  one  night  by  a  piercing 
yell,  and,  leaping  from  bed  and  rushing  to  the 
veranda,  was  just  in  time  to  see  him  disappearing 
in  the  bright  moonlight,  an  enormous  panther 
having  seized  him  from  my  very  doorway. 

Soon  afterwards  I  was  stationed  on  detached 
duty  at  a  small  post  not  far  from  the  Siamese 
frontier.  My  bungalow,  raised,  like  all  Burmese 
houses,  some  6ft.  from  the  ground,  on  wooden 
piles,  stood  in  a  fenced  compound,  but  the  pine 
forests  of  the  hills  ran  right  up  to  the  palisade. 
One  moonlight  night  I  was  awakened  by 
the  whining  of  my  two  dogs  ;  and,  after  vainly 
trying  to  quiet  them,  I  opened  the  door  and 
let  them  out.  The  only  result  was  that,  just 
as  I  got  back  into  my  warm  bed,  they  began  a 
diabolical  duet  in  the  veranda.  In  vain  I 
cursed  and  wished  all  dogs  to  the  dickens. 

Suddenly  there  was  a  thud  and  a  snarling 
roar,  and  then  arose  the  cry  of  a  dog  in  mortal 

lie  Works,  who  invited 
me,  with  true  Indian  hospi- 
tality, to  stay  at  his  bungalow. 
-  my  two  terriers  and  a 
puppy  with  me,  he  warned 
me  to  be  careful  to  tie  them 
up  under  my  bed  at  night — 
lerwise,"  he  added,  "they 
will   be  bagged  by  a  panther 

-ure   as   fal  But  I  was 

young  and  foolish,  and  showed 
by  my  incredulous  smile  that 
I  thought  he  was   merely  try- 
take  a  rise  ;!  out  of  me. 
'Veil,"     said      he,     "you 

dn't  believe  me,  but  only 
a  month  ago  a  panther 
jumped  in  through  the 
window  in  broad  daylight, 
while  I  was  having  my 
and  took  a  greyhound  of 
mine  from  my  et." 

'   "   ild       rdly  doubt  him 

-  this,  so  I    took  the 
caution    to  tie    my   two    d 
under    my  ,, 

The    puppy,     however,    after 

IN    MIS 


I     ILED    ONI     01      MY    HAPLESS    DOGS,    WHILE    THE    OTHER    HAD 

-l  IZEI  i     I  Id;    BRI    I  E    BY    '!  UK    HIND    II  ' 



fear  and  agony,  mingled  with  growls  and  the 
same  horrible  snarling.  I  leapt  from  bed,  and 
seizing  my  gun,  which  I  had  loaded  with  two 
No.  8  cartridges  (the  only  ones  I  possessed), 
I  rushed  out.  My  heart  seemed  to  stand  still  at 
the  appalling  sight  before  me.  Near  the  back  of 
the  centre  room,  which,  open  at  both  ends,  ran 
right  through  my  house,  half  in  shadow  and 
half  revealed  in  the  bright  moonlight,  was 
an  immense  panther.  In  his  mouth  struggled 
one  of  my  hapless  dogs,  while  the  other,  with 
the  almost  incredible  pluck  of  his  breed,  had 
seized  the  furious  brute  by  the  hind  leg,  and  was 
growling  as  fiercely  over  it  as  if  fighting  for  a 
bone.  The  panther  did  not  want  to  drop  his 
prey,  and  made  frantic  efforts  to  turn  round  and 
seize  his  brave  little  foe  ;  but  the  terrier  was  too 
quick  for  him.  I  was  only  a  few  feet  away 
when  I  fired.  With  a  roar  of  baffled  fury  and 
fright  the  panther  dropped   his  prey,   shook   off 

dozen  Sikh  Sepoys,  armed  with  Snider  rifles,  sat 
under  my  veranda  behind  a  hurdle,  whilst  I 
kept  watch  from  the  window  above,  intending 
to  come  down  and  join  them  later,  when  I  had 
finished  my  pipe  and  an  engrossing  book. 
There  was  a  bright  light  burning  in  my  room,, 
and  it  was  pitch  dark  outside,  the  moon  not  yet 
having  risen.  My  friend  the  panther,  however,, 
upset  my  calculations  by  making  a  sudden  and 
silent  onslaught  on  the  goat  before  I  had  had 
time  to  go  down  and  take  up  my  position  with 
the  men.  The  cry  of  the  stricken  animal  was 
drowned  in  the  roar  of  a  volley,  but,  when  we 
rushed  out,  we  found  the  goat  torn  by  the 
panther  and  riddled  with  bullets,  but  nothing 

I  left  the  carcass  lying  there,  and  took  up  a 
position  with  the  men.  Within  a  quarter  of 
an  hour  the  beast  returned  and  dragged  the 
body  of  the  goat  to  the  end  of  the  rope.  It 
was  very  dark,  but  I  could 
lave  sworn  my  gun  was  aimed 
dead  on  the  brute  when,  at 
my  word,  another  volley  was 
poured  forth.  But,  again, 
nothing  resulted,  not  even  a 
trace  of  blood. 

For    the    next    two    weeks 
hardly    a     night    passed    but 

I    COULD    HAVE   SWORN'    MY   GUN 

the  little  terrier,  leapt 
from  the  veranda, 
and  was  gone,  his 
plucky  antagonist 
pursuing  him  to  the 
very  edge  of  the 
jungle.  My  other 
poor  dog  lay  moan- 
ing in  a  pool  of 
blood,  but,  thanks 
to    the    care    of   the 

native  hospital  assistant,  he  eventually  recovered, 
though  his  head  and  neck  swelled  to  twice  their 
normal  size,  poisoned  by  the  fangs  and  claws  of 
the  fierce  brute. 

I  need  hardly  add  that  I  had  missed,  or  at 
most  barely  touched  the  panther,  although  I 
was  so  close  to  him  when  I  fired. 

Next  day  I  procured  a  goat  and  tied  it  up  at 
dusk  a  few  feet  in  front  of  my  house.     Half-a- 

WAS    AIMED   DEAD    ON    THE    TRUTH    WHEN,    AT    MV    WORD,    ANOTHER 

this  uncanny  beast  levied  toll  on  us.  Once  it 
sprang  into  a  Burman's  house  at  night ;  and, 
while  he  and  his  family  lay  quaking  with  fear, 
slew  and  greedily  lapped  the  blood  of  one  of 
his  goats.  My  orderly  tumbled  into  my  room 
to  wake  me,  but  I  was  again  too  late  to  catch 
even  a  glimpse  of  the  mysterious  animal. 
Another  time,  while  I  was  sitting  at  dinner,  it 
leapt  on   to   my  veranda,  and   snatched  away  a 

rill.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

h  I  hail  tied   there,  prepara- 
bait   thr   same    night. 
bed  impartially  the 
.1  the  villagers  of  their 
.  who  were  all  Sikhs,   declared 
ame  to  me  one  day, 
last   exploit,  when 
'.    which  was   to   them,   as 
animal.       They    brought    with 
S  ians,  who  asked  my   leave  to  tr) 
This    i         sted   of  shutting  up 
.1   k  of  stout   logs,  placed 

of  my  palisade,  through  which  the 
■  had  now  broken  a  regular  thoroughfare. 
lire  converged  on  the 
ge,  wei     supported  on  props  ; 
and  string   of  which   passed   behind 

the  k'hile  the  bow  itself  was  stretched  just 

re   the  by  a    thread    secured    about 

in  front  of  the  muzzle,  was  placed  on  each 
rifle.      It   looked   as   if  nothing  could  escape   it. 
I    sat  in  my  veranda,  one  after  the  other 
the  three  rifles 
ploded.  and  I  rushed 
out  to  find  the  rifles 
and    the    kid 
I  verily  believe 
the  panther  had  fired 
them  by  touching  the 
threads  with  his  paw. 
Think  of    the  cool 
pluck    of    an    animal 
•which  could  walk  un- 
dismayed   through 
i    a    deadly    fusil- 
lade, relentless  of  his 
cruel  purpose  !     And 
he  died  at  last.    A 
days     later     the 
i   officer.  .Mr.  Stir- 
real  name — 
1  known  in  the 
i     States— as     he 
•would  not,  I  feel  sun;, 
ioath    to  i  orrobo- 
ry  word  of  my 
ordinary  tale.  We 
sitting    at    dinner    in    his     house,    when 
suddenly    a    frantic    noise     arose,    and,    as    wi- 
ng   from    our    seats,    his     Burmese    servant 
ushed    into   the    room    and    made  straight  for 
3     rifle.       No    need     to    ask     what 
matter.     Stirling  seized  the  rifle  and  I  a 
ife,  and  we  dashed  out  to  find  our  enemy 
i    in    a    stable,    having    killed   a    foal 

which,  with  its  mother,  occupied  it.  The  stable 
was  closed  by  a  brushwood  palisade,  through  the 
cornci-  of  which  the  panther  had  forced  its  way. 
Vainly  we  peered  through  the  brushwood;  we 
could  see  nothing  in  the  thick  darkness. 

.Meanwhile  a  ring  of  servants  with  flaming 
in  kept  the  tierce  beast  in,  while  my  dogs 
barked  with  hysterical  fury  at  the  narrow  open- 
ing. At  last,  mad  with  rage  and  fright,  the 
panther  rushed  half  out,  but  stopped,  appalled 
at  the  circle  of  flame  before  him.  A  hush  fell, 
the  men  ceased  their  wild  cries,  and  nothing 
was  heard  but  the  crackling  of  the  torches  and 
the  terrified  whimpering  of  the  dogs,  while  clear 
in  the  torch-light,  thrown  back  on  his  belly 
as  if  to  spring,  his  ears  laid  back  and  teeth 
glistening  as  he  snarled,  the  fierce  animal  met 
his  doom,  game  and  savage  to  the  last. 
Stirling  walked  steadily  up  to  within  about 
3ft.  of  the  panther  and,  after  a  tense  pause 
which  seemed  to  last  for  ages,  shot  him 
through   the  heart.      He  fell  without   a  groan, 


ANIMAL    MET   His    DOOM." 

and  the  joyous  crowd  pressed  round  us 
scoffing  at  the  dead  body  of  their  dreaded 
enemy.  His  measurements  were  on  the  largest 
scale  -  7ft.  ?.'m.  in  length  and  2ft.  2in.  high  at 
the  shoulder. 

Thus,  after  many  days,  was  I  deprived  of  the 
honour  of  killing  the  brute  that  had  given  me 
so  much  trouble. 

What    the  Sealers    Endured   on    the   Ice. 

By  Arthur  P.  Silver,  of  Halifax,  N.S. 

A  vivid  glimpse  of  an  interesting  industry,  completely  illustrated  with  snap-shots,  taken  under 
circumstances  of  great  discomfort  by  Officer  J.  A.  Farquhar,  of  the  sealer  "Newfoundland." 
Narrative    and    photos,    taken    together   convey    a   remarkable    idea   of  the   perils   encountered    by   the 

seal-hunters  of  Newfoundland. 

of  vessels  which  had  struck  the  herd 
at  different  points.  It  is  estimated 
that  in  this  herd  there  must  have 
been  over  two  milium  seals — a  mass  of 
mammalian  life  analogous  to  the  old- 
time  buffalo  herds  of  the  rolling  prairie. 

There  are  three  such  wonderful 
herds  known  by  hunters  to  form 
each  winter  on  the  ice  of  the  Straits 
of  Belleisle,  and  also  three  other 
great  herds  off  the  east  coast  of  New- 

The  "  harps,"  so  called  from  their 
markings,  which  bear  a  resemblance 
to  an  ancient  Welsh  harp,  school  by 
themselves.  The  "  hoods  "  are  a 
larger  variety,  so  called  from  their 
being  furnished  with  a  bladder- 
shaped  bag  which  they  can  inflate 
at  pleasure  for  the  protection  of 
their  skulls  ;  and  the  hoods  also 
keep  in  separate  communities.  It 
is  the  instinct  of  breeding  which 
draws  together  these  vast  hosts  of 
si  als  from    many  a   remote    inlet   and 


Front  a  Photo,  by  J.  A.  Farquhar. 

T     is    difficult     to    conceive    a 

human  occupation  more  deeply 

steeped  in  excitement  and  peril 

than     hunting     the    Greenland 

seal  on  the  vast  ice-fields  off  the 
coasts  of  Newfoundland  and  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Gulf  of  St.  Lawrence. 

By  midwinter  the  vast  white  field  of 
glistening  ice  has  generally  extended  its 
borders  to  a  distance  of  at  least  150  miles 
off  the  shores. 

Hither  arrive  towards  spring  marvellous 
herds  of  mammalian  life  in  the  shape  of 
immense  "  schools  "  of  seal,  the  "  harp  "  and 
"  hood  "  varieties  predominating. 

These  schools  of  seal  are  sometimes- 
sighted  extended  in  a  straggling  line  along 
the  surface  of  the  field  ice  for  a  distance  of 
upwards  of  thirty  miles,  running  in  a  general 
direction  from  north  to  south.  Their  mass 
has  a  width  varying  from  a  quarter  to  one- 
half  of  a  mile.  One  school  is  known  to 
have  reached  for  a  length  of  sixty  miles. 
Its   extent   was  ascertained   by   the    reports 




THESE   ARE   THE   OFFICERS   OF   THE     U'.i'VK    SEALER.        THEY   ARE 

From  a  Photo,  by  J .  A.  Farquhar. 


,    A   M-.Al.l  i  ii     TAKEN. 

From  a  Photo,  by  J.  A.  Farquhar. 

>rd  of  the  Arctic  Zone.  From  their 
collected  multitude  a  roar  goes  forth  that  rends 
the  air  for  many  miles,  and  may  be  compared, 
when  heard  at  a  distance,  to  the  hum  of  a  vast 

Towards  the  end  of  February  the  whelps  are 
born,  and  these  mingle  their  plaintive,  baby-like 
winnings  with  the  hoarse  roar  of  the  adults. 
Most  welcome  are  these  distant  murmurs  to 
the  ears  of  the  hardy  adventurers  who  fight  their 
perilous  way  among  the  besetting  icebergs  of 
these  Northern    seas  ;    for    it    means   for    them 

and  the 
favours  of  for- 
tune, wrung  from 
a  stem  and  i 
lentless  environ- 

Although  the 
hunting  of  the 
enland  seal 
is  inseparable 
from  almost  in- 
dible  hard- 
ships, and  beset 
with  danger  to 
human  life  in 
most  appalling 
forms,  it  never- 
theless attra* 
large  numbers  of 
men    from    the 

■    w- 

And  yet  not  a 
season    passes 


From  a  Photo,  by  J.   A.  Farquhar. 

without  claiming  its  victims  :  sometimes, 
indeed,  the  stern  Northern  seas  demand 
a  veritable  hecatomb,  as  in  the  terrible  case 
of  the  sealer  Greenland.  Treacherous  ice- 
floes part  in  some  sudden  storm,  or  yawning 
chasms  open  and  close  mysteriously,  with- 
out warning,  separating  the  adventurous 
toilers  of  the  sea  from  safety,  and  con- 
demning them  to  a  frightful  and  lingering 
death  from  starvation  and  exposure.  Yet 
the  excitements  of  a  successful  hunt  are  so 
fascinating,  and  its  rewards  so  considerable, 
that  for  a  Newfoundland  fisherman  to  be 
rejected  by  the  "skipper"  of  a  sealer  is 
regarded  by  the  men  as  the  extremity  of 

Briefly,  "sealing,"  or  "going  on  the  ice," 
is  the  great  annual  event  in  the  Colony 
of  Newfoundland,  overshadowing  every 
other  local  interest.  Whole  fortunes  are 
sometimes  made  in  a  brief  voyage  of  six 
weeks ;  while  frequently  the  seals  are 
missed  by  the  vessels  becoming  imprisoned  in 
the  ice,  or  crushed  and  made  to  founder  by 
the  "packing"  of  ice  sheets  piling  up  in  drifts 
from  the  effect  of  violent  storms.  Hence  an 
inevitable  element  of  gambling  enters  into  the 
pursuit,  and  it  is  therefore  not  surprising  that  in 
every  office,  in  every  "  saloon  "  or  public  bar, 
in  every  inn,  almost  in  every  dwelling  house, 
pools  are  made  up  and  enormous  bets 
occasionally  made  on  the  first  steamer  home 
with  a  load  ;  the  biggest  take  ;  the  first 
vessel  to  sight  the  schools  ;  and  so  on. 

There  is  estab- 
lished for  a  dis- 
tance of  four 
hundred  miles 
northward  of  the 
port  of  St.  John's 
a  s  y  s  t  e  m  o  f 
signal  stations 
and  "weather 
bureaus,"  which 
report  violent 
storms,  the 
strength  or 
velocity  of  cur- 
rents, and  the 
direction  of  the 
prevailing  winds 
—  all  of  which 
have  to  be  taken 
into  considera- 
tion by  the  seal- 
ing skippers  in 
guessing  the 
whereabouts  of 
the    herds.      For 



the  icefloes  are  like  floating  islands,  and  are 
scattered  by  storms  and  tides  in  most  unlooked- 
for  directions. 

However,  it  is  not  the  purpose  of  this  paper 
fully  to  describe  the  extremely  interesting  annual 
seal  hunt,  chiefly  undertaken  by  a  fleet  of  some 
twenty  steamers  from  Newfoundland,  but  rather 
to  relate  the  thrilling  story  of  a  Newfoundlander 
as  communicated  by  him  to  the  author.  This 
particular  seal-hunter  assuredly  came  through 
an  experience  under  which  the  majority  of 
civilized  men  would  certainly  have  succumbed. 
But  Newfoundland's  hardy  race  of  men  are 
accustomed  to  "  near  things." 

I  was  one  of  a  crew  of  two  hundred — this 
sealer  told  the  present  writer  —  shipped  in 
Harbour  Grace  for 
a  voyage  in  the 
sealer  Greenland. 
Our  vessel  was  un- 
fortunate from  the 
very  start,  for  in 
blasting  our  way 
out  of  port  among 
ice  of  extraordi- 
nary thickness,  a 
dynamite  cartridge 
exploded  prema- 
turely, killing  two 
of  our  number  and 
inflicting  consider- 
able injury  on  the 
bows  of  our  ship 
—  the  ill-fated 

However,     we 


well  out  of 
port  in  the  middle 
of  a  perfect  winter 
night.  The  whole 
village  population 
turned  out  with 
torches  and 
cheered  us  as  we 
steamed  out  into  clear  water, 
northern  constellations  blazed 
winter     sky,     while     the     fitful 


From  a  Photo,  by  J.  A.  Farquhar. 

The    bright 

in     the    dark 

glare    of    the 

'Aurora,"  or  Northern  Lights  (sometimes  called 

by  us  "  the  dance  of  spirits,"  or  "  the  dance  of 

the  dead  "),  illumined  the  northern  sky. 

Yet  we  knew  that  the  unusual  splendour  of 
these  lights  presaged  a  violent  storm — which, 
sure  enough,  burst  suddenly  upon  us  the  very 
next  day.  Never  before  did  I  experience  such 
a  stinging  from  the  hail  and  sleet,  driven,  as  they 
were,  by  a  gale  which  howled  frightfully  through 
our  rigging,  like  the  raging  of  a  troop  of  lost 
spirits.  The  thermometer  showed  twelve 
degrees  below  zero,  and  our  decks  became  iced 

up  so  that  it  was  dangerous  to  release  one's 
grasp  of  the  life-lines.  Through  intervals  of 
lull  in  the  terrific  storm  we  saw  huge  icebergs 
and  "growlers"  (smaller  bergs)  lifting  their 
cold,  jagged  summits  to  the  skies  ;  and  we 
inwardly  prayed  that  none  might  strike  our  good 
ship,  for  if  this  happened  it  meant  an  infallible 
descent  to  the  bottom  of  the  sea. 

Terrible  storms  came  on  successively,  with 
slight  intermission.  At  last  we  got  embedded 
in  a  vast  field  of  ice,  at  first  easily  piercing 
it,  but  soon  finding  it  of  such  formidable 
thickness  as  almost  to  prevent  progress 
altogether.  Occasionally  we  came  upon  great 
lanes  of  clear  water,  and  sometimes  open 
spaces  exactly  like  vast   inland    lakes. 

One  night  we 
were  all  delighted 
at  the  well-known 
roar  of  the  distant 
seals,  which 
sounded  like  the 
subdued  noise  of 
some  f  a  r  -  a  w  a  y 
cataract.  We  could 
tell  that  this  pro- 
ceeded from  a  vast 
herd,  and  our 
spirits  immediately 
rose  in  anticipa- 
tion of  a  successful 
voyage.  Vet  we 
knew  that  seals 
always  choose  the 
ice  where  the 
thickness  is  only 
moderate  —  about 
I2in.  or  there- 
abouts —  so  that 
they  may  be  able 
to  perforate  it  with 
their  heads  and 
flippers,  each 
animal  having  its 
own  hole  for  ingress  and  egress,  which  it 
infallibly  returns  to  among  thousands  exactly 
like  it.  Therefore  the  seals  select  the  outer 
edge  of  the  ice-fields,  from  which  we  were  just 
then  a  long  way  distant.  Here,  then,  were 
we,  imprisoned  and  chafing  with  impatience 
for  the  fun  to  begin,  separated  from  our 
valuable  quarry  by  some  score  of  miles. 

"  Full  steam  ahead  "  ordered  our  skipper, 
and  we  crashed  through  the  formidable  ice  till 
every  timber  in  the  ship  trembled  and  her 
whole  hull  was  convulsed.  Only  her  excep- 
tional strength  of  construction  preserved  her 
iron  frame  from  splitting  as  she  drove  against 
the  ice. 


ushed  towards  our  find,  tearing 

with  the  iron  ploughshare  o(  our  prow. 

g  gained  only  a  few  miles  we  were  at 

to  a  standstill  against  perfectly 

I  an  ominous  haze  in  the 

h  we  knew  portended  a  snow-storm. 

2  was  the  excitement  and 

rhich  that  distant  roar  oi   the  herd 

scinating   spell   upon    our    spirits 

ling  all  danger,  we  leaped  out  upon 


Front  a  Photo,  by  J.  A.  Farguhar. 

irmed  with  guns  and  clubs,  and  intend- 
•rthwith  to  spread  destruction  among  our 

gave    heed    to    the   portentous  sky 

vhen  we  reached  the  herd  and  the  killing  com- 

;nced.      It    is    not  a  nice    business.      Huge 

s  of  "  pelts  "  were  soon  surmounted  with  our 

protecting  flag,  and  still  we  proceeded   in   our 

vork  of  slaughter  down  the  ranks  of  the  great 

army  of  seals. 

Thirty  of  us  were  at  the  extreme  end  of  the 

chool,    all    working    away   at    our    mission    of 

ruction,  and  far  too  absorbed  to  notice  that 

awning    fissure    had    glided    silently    open 

.tween    us   and   our   companions.      We   were 

•   on   a  floating  island  of   ice   perhaps    two 

miles  in  circumference— and  around  us  was  the 

dark  Arctic  sea  flecked  with  innumerable  masses 

n  at  length  the  alarm   was  given    by  one 
■   number,  a  gap  of  no   less   than   twenty- 
intervened  between  us  and  the  main   floe, 
thout  hesitation  five  of  our   number  at  once 
into   the   icy   water,   and  of  these  two 
the  opposite  edge  of  the  ice-field,  and 
'    --    1    into    safety   by    their   comrade. 
The  other  three,  however,  sank  like  lead,  being 

perhaps  poor  swimmers,  or  else  they  were  over- 
powered by  the  cold. 

Then  the  horror  of  our  situation  dawned 
upon  us.  To  all  appearance  we  were  a  handful 
of  doomed  men  helplessly  adrift  on  an  ice-floe 
in  that  terrible  Arctic  sea.  We  laid  aside  our 
weapons,  and  looked  up  into  the  wintry  sky 
with  a  dazed,  despairing  gaze  which  betrayed 
the  hopelessness  of  our  condition. 

To  add  to  the  terror  of  our  position  there 
suddenly  appeared  two 
huge  Polar  bears,  who 
had  doubtless  been 
attracted  by  the  scent  of 
blood,  and  were  now  fast 
approaching  us.  It  was 
astonishing  indeed  to  see 
their  utter  fearlessness  of 
man.  Without  molesting 
us,  however,  they  turned 
to  the  red  carcasses  of  the 
seals  from  which  we  had 
stripped  the  pelt  ;  and 
having  gorged  themselves 
to  their  hearts'  content, 
the  big,  ungainly  beasts 
shambled  slowly  away 
and  took  to  the  water 
once  more. 

Along  the  edge  of  the 
ice  we  also  saw  the 
dreadful  forms  of  huge 
sharks,  which  in  some  instances  almost  leaped 
up  on  the  ice  in  their  frantic  efforts  to  get  at 
the  raw  seal  meat,  which  they  had  evidently 
scented  from  afar. 

Still  further  to  crown  the  awful  misery  of  our 
position,  making  it  truly  appalling,  and  cutting 
us  off  effectually  from  all  hope   of  rescue,  there 


From  a  Photo,  by.  J.  A .  Farguhar. 



His   SHOWS    HOW   THE   SEALERS   TOW    T 
From  a  Photo. 


suddenly  burst  over  us  a  cruel,  blinding  snow- 
storm, darkening  the  air  and  seeming  to  bring 
on  us  in  a  moment  the  terrifying  gloom  of  night. 
And  suddenly,  with  incredible  rapidity,  dark 
masses  of  clouds  piled  themselves  in  the  eastern 
sky,  and  out  from  their  ranks  there  burst  a 
tempest  of  awful 
fury.  The  sea 
now  became 
churned  into  an 
angry,  seething 
which  caused 
our  floating 
island  of  ice  to 
heave  up  and 
down  in  a  sick- 
ening manner. 
The  temperature 
fell  lower  and 
lower,  until  the 
savage  cold  went 
through  and 
through  our  seal- 
skin   clothing, 

cutting  like  a  knife.  The  salt  spray,  freezing 
as  it  fell  far  from  the  edge  of  the  ice-field, 
encased  all  whom  it  reached  with  a 
of  ice  like  a  coat  of  glistening  armour. 

Soon  we  could  scarcely  see  each  other,  and 
so  suddenly  had  our  fate  overtaken  us  that  we 
positively  could  not  realize  tha*.  we  were 
the  same  beings  who,  barely  an  hour 
before,  had  walked  the  decks  of  our 
cozy  ship,  singing  snatches  of  sailors' 
songs  and  whistling  merry  tunes  in 
anticipation  of  a  large  and  speedy  haul. 

What  was  to  be  done?  Absolutely 
nothing,  apparently,  save  to  face  our 
hopeless  misery  and  die,  perhaps  even 
inch  by  inch,  as  became  brave  men, 
without  a  murmur  of  complaint,  sharing 
the  fate  which  at  various  times  had 
befallen  so  many  of  our  countrymen 
before  us. 

Same  of  our  poor  fellows  had,  by 
this  time,  stretched  themselves  at  full 
length  on  the  ice,  beaten  upon  by  the 
pitiless  sleet  ;  and  soon  we  knew  by 
the  rigid  stiffness  of  many  familiar 
forms  that  the  cold  and  exposure  had 
completed  their  deadly  work. 

After  making  this  horrible  discovery 
a  group  of  some  eight  or  nine  of  us 
made  for  the  only  shelter  which  was 
in  evidence — a  few  thick  "pans,"  or 
cakes  of  ice,  which  had  "  rafted " 
together  and  formed  a  heap.  This 
made  a  kind  of  rude    buttress  against 

the  storm.  Here,  then,  we  gathered — a  truly 
forlorn  group  of  survivors.  Near  to  us,  when  our 
work  had  so  suddenly  become  interrupted,  was  a 
group  of  still  living  seals,  mortally  wounded,  but 
yet  retaining  some  of  the  warmth  of  life. 

I  was   the   first  man  to  hit  upon  a  somewhat 

gruesome,  but 
vitally  neces- 
sary, expedient, 
which,  fortu- 
nately, was  the 
means  of  saving 
the  lives  of  some 
of  us  ;  while  the 
rest  of  the  band 
of  hunters  died 
a  slow,  cruel 
death  from  frost- 
bite and  the 
deadly,  incon- 
ceivable cold. 

Taking  my 
sharp  knife,  I 
ripped  open 
the  body  of  a 
large  "  hood "  seal,  and,  placing  hands  and 
feet  alternately  in  the  warm  carcass,  kept 
off  the  deadly  advances  of  numbness.  The 
others  followed  my  example.  I  also  managed, 
by  the  aid  of  some  shreds  of  linen  from  our 
under-garments  and  strips  of  "  blubber,"  or  cleai 

HE    PELTS,  OR    SKINS,  BACK    TO    THEIR    SHU'. 

by  J.  A.  Farquhar. 

From  a  Photo,  by-  J.  A.  Farquhar. 

rill.    WIDE     WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

lamp,  which  prod; 
ne.     1  lowever,  the  b 
tinguished    it.    until    at 
or  yi  >urself. 
themselves  wearily  out 
:s  :  while 
and    bairns    around    the  hearth, 
my  longing  view.     And  various 
my    past    life   went    by  like 
dd,   familiar  drama.     One 
lly    kept     recurrin  in     and 

curio..  stency.       It    was    the 

;ir    boats    were    over 
i    terrific   storm   far   from    land. 

med  on  our  boat  that  there 

her  beim  jed  down  by  inches 

-  i    we    were    compelled    to    throw 

dead   body  of  my  own    brother, 

•  had  dropped  from  cold  and  exhaustion,  in 

ler    to    lighten    the   craft   lest  all   should    be 

:.     The   splash   of   the  body  kept  con- 

tly  haunting  my  ears.     (  her  and  over  again 

v  the  white,  sightless  eyes  of  the  dead,  and 

I,   mute  faces  of  our  crew,  rowing  hard 

their   lives 

-:  the  tide. 


.  it  that  ensued 

I     would    gladly 

from     my 

mem  <»ry     if      I 

u  1  d .      How 

•med  ! 

nturies    ap- 

red    to    have 

over    my 

head    before 



cold  and  steely  grey.     I   had  suffered  tortures 

during  those  hours  which  made  me   regret  that 

life  still  remained  to  me — made  me  regret  that  I 

were   not  as   impervious   to    cold   as   the   rigid, 

ncased  forms  that  lay  stretched  about  me. 

However,    morning    broke    on    a   clear    day. 

storm   had  passed,  and  Nature  seemed  to 

smile  amends.     The  captain  of  a  sealer  never 

abandons  a  lost  man  while  the  ghost  of  a  chance 

remains  of  saving  him.      This  is  the  rule  of  the 

sealing  fleet,  and  is  as  immutable  as  the  laws  of 

the  Medes  and  Persians. 

Looking  around  I  saw  that  the  only  survivors 
of  that  terrible  night  were  myself  and  the  six 
comrades  near  me.  The  others  were  stark  and 
stiff  in  death.  Nor  had  we  survivors  escaped 
scatheless  :  we  bore  marks  that  would  last  us  to 
the  grave. 

With  scarce  animation  enough  left  to  rejoice 
thereat  we  descried  the  white  boats  being 
dragged  by  our  crew  along  the  ice  to  our  rescue. 
At  length  stalwart  but  tender  arms  lifted  us 
from  our  deadly  couch,  and,  more  or  less  dread- 
fully frost-bitten,  one  by  one  we  were  rescued 
from  the  very  jaws  of  death  and  taken  into 
warmth  and  shelter.      Had  the  storm  continued  a 

few  hours  longer 
not  one  single 
soul  could  by  any 
possibility  have 
remained  alive. 
In  the  case  of 
three  of  the  sur- 
vivors amputa- 
tion was  neces- 
sary of  fingers 
and  toes,  and 
in  two  instances 
the  right  arm  had 
to  be  sacrificed. 


From  a  Photo,  by  J.  A.  Farquhar. 

The   Lovers   of  Susee,    the    Ute. 

By  P.  V.  Mighels. 

Susee,  the  Indian  belle,   smiled  on  two    lovers.      One  of  these   killed    the    other    and    became    an 
outlaw.      How  he  was  tracked.      How  he    treated    his   pursuers,  and  what  was   his   ultimate  fate. 

With  a  complete  set  of  photographs. 

OR  love  of  a  woman — and  such  a 
woman  !  Murder,  feud,  and  the 
blood  of  four  mighty  braves  is  the 
tale  of  a  modest,  industrious  matron 
who  now  weaves  her  baskets  and 
waxes  fat  in  far-away  Carson  City,  the  capital 
of  the  State  of  Nevada. 

She  and  her  lovers  were  North  American 
Indians — fierce  Pah  Utes,  of  a  tribe  quelled  to- 
day and  living  on 
reservations  in 
Nevada.  Mrs. 
Squaw  now  excites 
no  turmoil  of 
love,  and  her  hot- 
blooded  Romeos 
follow  the  trail  in 
the  land  of  Happy 
Hunting.  Had 
they  foreseen  the 
alterations  which 
were  scheduled 
to  occur  in  the 
maiden's  appear- 
ance, would  they 
still  have  waged 
their  war?  The 
question  is 
"open  '' ;  it  is  also 
quite  beside  t  he- 

Something  more 
than  eleven  years 
ago  Susee,  the  Pah 
Ute  maiden,  was 
a  plump,  copper- 
hued,  bright-eyed 
creature,  beautiful 
in  the  way  of  In- 
dian belles.  She 
was  the  centre  of 
a  whole  system  of  attraction  among  the  smart 
young  bucks  of  the  nation.  She  resided  in  a 
"wikiup"  planted  in  the  sage-brush,  outside  the 
corporate  limits  of  Carson  City.  The  patriar- 
chess  of  the  tribe  has  been  through  all  the 
stages  of  amazingly  attractive  babyhood,  plump 
young-womanhood,  fat  complacency,  and  final 
shrinkage,  which  seem  to  furnish  the  personal 
biography  of  nearly  all  these  hard-labouring 
females.  The  home  is  a  typical  "  castle  "  of 
this  degenerate  but  picturesque  people. 


FAT    IN    CARSON    CITY." 

From  a    Photo,    by  Dunham  &»   Cartland.       Copyrighted  by  H.   Cohn, 
Carsoti  City,  Nevada. 

Susee,  photographed  recently  with  the  baskets 
of  her  craft,  committed  the  indiscretion  of 
smiling  on  two  of  the  braves  at  once.  But 
she  was  then  in  the  heyday  of  her  buxom 
charms.  The  trouble  began  immediately  after 
one  of  the  yearly  "  fandangoes."  This  dance 
is  the  relic  of  a  ceremony  in  preparation  for 
war.  It  is  practised  to-day  as  a  sort  of  religious 
function,  more  than  as  an  excitement  prepara- 
tory to  taking  to  the 
war-path.  Never- 
theless, in  partici- 
pating in  it  the 
braves  still  adorn 
themselves  with 
red  and  white 
paints,  doffingtheir 
civilized  clothing 
and  donning  the 
habiliments  of  the 

Perhaps  because 
the  dance  serves  to 
reveal  the  other- 
wise concealed 
magnificence  of 
the  young  chiefs 
its  period  has  be- 
come a  time  of 
wooing  in  the  land 
of  brush.  How- 
beit,  hot  love  and 
savage  jealousies 
spring  rife  at  the 
function.  Now, 
Susee's  admirers 
were  Mudge  and 
Jonny  Shay,  by 
name.  The  attrac- 
tiveness of  each 
must  plead  its  own 
cause,  through  the  means  afforded  by  a  white 
man's  camera,  portraits  of  both  bucks  being 
here  reproduced. 

For  reasons  best  known  to  herself,  Susee 
manifested  a  slight  preference  for  Jonny  Shay 
"  after  the  ball  was  over."  Developments 
might  have  taken  any  form  at  this  critical 
juncture  had  not  Fate  intervened.  One  of 
Mudge's  ponies  went  astray,  and  Mudge  went 
forth  to  hunt  it  up.  Jonny  Shay  improved  his 
opportunities  with  a  result  entirely  satisfactory 

THE     WIDE     WORLD     MAC.  A/INK. 

to   himself— and    to   Susee.       Ordinarily    Indian 
a  particularly  virulent  descrjp- 
M  .  Ig  .  however,  was  a  passionate  b 
grieved  at  being  thus  I 

after  these  incidents, 

,  was  making  a  bronze  statue  of  him- 

ttire,  in  front  of  a  shop  in  the 

:    Carson.      Mudge    entered    the 

:i  a  wiry  broncho  :  across  his 

lent  d  a  Winchester  rifle.     The  citizens 

•    no   herd   to  either   Indian,   for 

they  wei  >med  to  such  sights.      Riding 

surely  d  iwn  the  stn 
Mile.  I     keenly 

about  at  the  usual  haunts 
of  his  kind.  By  way  of 
vari  Shay    presently 

the  walk 
into  the  street  when 
Mudge  was  near  at  hand. 
Without  a  moment's 
warning,  and  halting  his 
horse  when  fifty  yards 
away.  Mudge  abruptly 
raised  his  rifle  and  shot 
his  rival  in  the  back. 

The  bullet  went  clean 
through  Shay's  heart — 
the  man  fell  forward 
id.  Men  came  run- 
ning from  a  score  of 
buildings,  alarmed  by 
the  startling  report  of  the 
rifle.  They  beheld  the 
Pah  Ute,  Mudge,  gallop- 
ing wildly  away,  his  rifle 
held  high  in  defiance, 
his  face  fierce  to  see.  A 
thin  stream  of  blood 
crawled  in  the  sand  near 
the  prostrate  man,  and 
glistened    in     the     sun. 

Other  Indians  and  several  whites  had  actually 
seen  the  murder  committed.  Excitement  ran 
high,  but  in  the  natural  confusion  not  a  man 
was  mounted  before  an  hour  to  ride  in  pursuit 
of  the  revengeful  savage. 

When  at  length  the  sheriff,  with  his  posse 
and  set  of  Indian  trailers,  got  out  on  the  track 
Mudge,  they  were  led  to  the  hills,  where  the 
assassin  had  the  advantage.  They  were  soon 
baffled,  the  crafty  Indian  having  employed  all 
the  arts  of  his  cunning  kind  to  throw  them  off 
the  scent.  His  knowledge  of  trailing  made  this 
mparatively  easy. 

friends  and  relations  of  the  dead  Shay  buried 
the  body.  They  also  held  a  council  of 
vengeance,  and  declared  a  vendetta.     In  a  few 

days  the  search  developed  the  fact  that  the 
whites,  in  the  lead  of  the  sheriff,  were  likely  to 
be  long  at  the  task  of  flushing  their  man. 
Although  they  scoured  the  country  thoroughly, 
not  a  sign  did  anyone  get  of  Mudge.  After  a 
week  of  vain  searching  the  sheriff  grew  weary 
of  the  game.  He  gave  the  task  over  to  the 
outraged  Pah  Ute  relations  of  the  victim. 
Susee,  in  the  meantime,  did  nothing.  Natur- 
ally, she  felt  flattered.  Also  there  were  still 
many  young  braves,  and  Mudge  might  yet 
accomplish  wonders. 




From  a  Photo. 

persistency  the  Indian 
trailers  remained  in  the 

About  ten  days  after 
the  deed  of  blood  had 
been  committed,  a  young 
white  man  was  out  in  the 
brush,  hunting  rabbits. 
He  had  climbed  a  hill- 
side and  was  approach- 
ing a  clump  of  granite 
boulders,  when  suddenly, 
on  rounding  a  great  rock, 
he  found  himself  face  to 
face  with  the  mysterious 
Mudge,  and  looking 
down  the  muzzle  of  the 
outlaw's  deadly  rifle. 

"  Put  down  your  gun," 
said  Mudge.  "  I  wants 
talk  with  you." 

The  young  man  put 
down  his  shot-gun  with 
alacrity,  and  told  the 
Indian  all  he  knew  about 
the  search  of  the  sheriff 
and  the  other  Pah  Utes 
—  relatives  of  Susee's 
dead  lover.  Mudge 
asked  a  number  of  ques- 
tions, watching  his  visitor 
At  length  he  said  : — 
"  Oh,  I  been  watch  that  sheriffs  nearly  every 
day.  He's  can't  find  nobody.  Him  heap  fool. 
Somes  time  Fse  got  my  gun  "  (pointing)  "  rights 
at  him.  If  he's  comes  too  close  where  I'ms 
hiding,  he's  never  gits  away.  Two,  three  times 
I'ms  pretty  near  kills  him.  He's  better  let 
Injun  alone.  I's  don't  wants  kills  him,  but  he's 
better  look  out." 

The  rabbit-hunter  gave  Mudge  a  piece  of 
tobacco  and  left  him  in  the  rocks. 

A  few  days  after  this  event  three  Pah  Utes 
were  trailing  the  fugitive  up  a  canon.  They 
were  relations  of  Shay,  bent  on  revenge.  The 
gorge  was  narrow,  filled  with  rock  and  some- 
what grown   up  to   manzanita.     Mudge   was  in 

narrowly  all  the  while. 

THE    LOVERS    OF    SUSEE,    THE    UTE. 


the  brush.  Without  the  slight- 
est warning  his  rifle  cracked, 
and  a  man  reeled  headlong, 
shot  through  the  head.  Realiz- 
ing that  they  had  been  am- 
bushed, the  remaining  two 
turned  about  and  ran  for  their 
lives.  Again  the  repeater  made 
the  echoes  rattle  in  the  canon, 
and  again  an  arm  thrown 
quickly  up  preceded  the  fall  of 
a  human  being.  This  second 
man  was  shot  through  the 
body;  he  writhed  for  a 
moment  only  on  the  earth. 
The  third  Indian  reached  the 
protection  of  a  boulder,  then 
ran  swiftly  around  a  bend, 
and  so  escaped  the  dread 
Pah  Ute  lover. 

Down  from  the  mountains 
ran  the  one  safe  Indian,  never 
pausing  till  he  reached  ( 'arson. 
The  sheriff  and  force,  who 
came  at  length  upon  the  scene 
of  action,  found  the  two 
bodies  lying  in  the  hot  sun- 
light, one  with  his  fist  gripped 
full  of  gravel,  the  other  in  a 
pose  of  utter  limpness.  The  Indian  who  had 
been  with  the  two  now  discovered  the  bush 
behind  which  Mudge  had  knelt.  The  empty 
cartridge  shells  were  lying  in  the  sand. 

On  the,  fresh  trail  several  Indians  started 
without  delay.  The  sheriff  recommenced  his 
efforts  to  rout  out  the  implacable  Mudge,  now 
become  a  serious  menace  to  public  peace. 
As  hefore,  however,  the  wily  savage  eluded 
all.  But  an  old  man,  a  warrior  of  times  past, 
aroused  himself.  He  was  the  father  of  one  of 
the  last  victims.  He  departed  from  his  wikiup, 
alone,  and  at  night,  armed  only  with  a  long, 
keen  knife.  He  had  wearied  of  justice  which 
sacrificed  innocent  men  for  no  result ;  he  would 
wait  no  longer,  he  said,  for  the  white  man's  law. 

Necessity  finally  drove  the  murderer  down  to 
the  valley.  He  availed  himself  of  temporary 
refuge  in  the  deserted  camp  of  a  friend,  while 
the  Indian  hounds  searched  in  the  mountains. 

But  the  old  warrior  haunted  the  dim,  un- 
certain trail  day  and  night.  If  he  slept  at- all,  it 
was  in  his  enemy's  tracks.  He  ate  nothing ; 
he  saw  no  one;  he  simply  dogged  the  doomed 
Indian's  footsteps.  A  snake  could  have  been 
no  more  silent  or  subtle  than  he,  when  at  last 
he  had  run  his  prey  to  cover. 

It  was  still  early  night  when  he  came  upon 

l-'rom  a]      HE  WAS  KILLED  BY  MUDGE.       {Photo. 

the  wigwam  where  the  unsus- 
pecting Mudge  lay  in  the 
brush.  The  avenger  then 
stretched  himself  full  length 
on  the  ground  for  hours. 
He  heard  the  rustle  of  a 
breeze  in  the  b r u s h ,  a n d 
shook  his  head  ;  he  heard  the 
stirring  of  a  prowling  creature, 
and  knew  it  was  not  his  man. 
Vet  when  the  murderer  finally 
slept,  the  old  man  raised  him- 
self alertly,  nodded  recognition 
of  a  sound,  and  began  to  creep 
and  creep,  his  knife  now  held 
between  his  strong -teeth. 

The  wretched  campoodie  or 
wigwam  loomed  like  a  pyramid 
before  him,  its  entrance  darker 
than  the  darkness  of  the  brush. 
Mudge  stirred  within  ;  the 
avenger  halted.  Again  the 
breathing  steadied.  Stealthily, 
and  silently  as  a  shadow,  the 
old  Nemesis  crawled  forward 
on  his  stomach,  snake -like. 
He  was  well  inside  the  camp. 
By  the  very  warmth  of  the 
doomed  man's  body  he  deter- 
mined where  feet,  legs,  and  trunk  were  disposed, 
and  so  avoided  the  extremities  and  brought 
himself  near  the  tired  body.  Then  he  sat 
up,  as  still  and  as  noiseless  as  death,  and 
twined  his  bony  talons  about  the  handle  of 
his  knife.  The  striking  hand  was  raised 
deliberately,  and  down  shot  the  cold,  sharp 
steel  into  its  hot  sheath  of  flesh  and  blood. 
The  old  man  grunted  when  the  hilt  met  its 
barrier  of  ribs  and  skin.  A  gurgle  escaped 
from  Mudge's  lips.  He  could  make  no  cry. 
He  moved  only  in  sudden  muscular  contractions, 
like  a  mortally-wounded  serpent. 

Leaving  the  steel  embedded,  the  avenged 
father  glided  out  into  the  untainted  air.  Then 
he  walked  away  in  the  sage-brush. 

When  the  information  came  that  Mudge  was 
no  more  the  white  man's  justice  nodded 
approval.  And  Susee  married  another  eligible 
brave  of  the  tribe.  She  now  weaves  her  baskets 
and  remains  complacent.  And  that  she  has 
waxed  fat  you  can  see  for  yourself.  The  notion 
of  men  fighting  and  killing  one  another  for  her 
"smile"  appears  too  absurd  to  us.  But  the 
whole  narrative  is  an  interesting  glimpse  of  a 
picturesque  phase  of  native  life,  and  shows  that 
love  is  a  great  power  in  every  land  and  among 
every  race  and  class. 

Vol.  iv.  —  26. 

\    Missionary   on    the    Upper   Congo. 

1>,  ,  3  John   Dodds,  of  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society. 

I   of  photographs  eloquent   of  the  noble  and  unselfish   life   led  by  missionaries  who 
:  th-ir  lives  among  the  cannibals  of  the  Upper  Congo.     Duties  and  pleasures,  sports  and  customs 
trials  and  sorrows     all  are  depicted  and  described  by  a  sympathetic  pen. 

lat(  ■    attention    has 

ally  directed  towards  the 

itral  Africa.     It  is 

■   r  of  a  century  since 

Mr.    H.    M.   Stanley   made   his   first 

own  the  Congo  River  in  a 

is  handful  of  Zanzibari   servants. 

2   on  that  opening-up  of  the  country  to 

ii)  .  gi  nts  of  trade  have  proceeded 

thither,  and  during  recent  years  have  stationed 

the!  at    various    places   o\    advantage   on 

hanks    of   the    Haut    Congo.     There    they 

snd  in  large  quantities  ivory  and  rubber 

and  palm-oil,  besides  fertile  soil  suitable  for  the 

cultivation   of   coffee,   tobacco,    rice,   and   other 

valu  ps. 

Twenty  \  _o    there    was    not    a    single 

aer  on  the  1,000  miles   of  navigable    water- 
between   Stanley   Falls  and   Stanley   Pool, 
there    are    over    fifty    steamers    carrying 
lies   up   stream   and    returning    laden    with 
native  products  for  the  European  markets. 

But  Christians  were  not   behind   the  traders 
g  :   they  were,  if  not  quite    first,  at  least 
contemporary  in  their  design  to  enter  the  newly- 
door  into  the  very  heart  of  the   Dark 
tinent.    The  English  and  American  Baptists 
have  now   several  stations   on   both   the  Lower 
1        _      region   and   the   Upper    River   districts. 
They  have  found   there  a  great   mass  of  human 
beings — human  in    spite  of  many  inhuman  cus- 
toms—  who  need   not   only  that   traders   should 
rid  take  from  them  the  rich  products  of  the 
country,    but   also  that    missionaries   should  go 
and   give    them    the    higher   and    imperishable 
riches   of    education    ;   id     Christianity,     which 
alone  are  able  to  civilize  and  elevate  the  teem- 
ristian    missionaries    have    been     on    the 
now    more    than    twenty    years    on    the 
don,     and    about     twelve    years    on 
the    Upper  River.      The  accompanying  photo- 
i  on  thi  ingo  by  one  of  the 

:>tist  missionaries  may  help  to  give 
of  Tin;  Wide  World  Magazine  some 
idea   of    th  ery  and  the   class  of   peo 

among  whom  these  devoted  men  are  working. 

These  views  were  taken  at  Upoto  and  Mon- 
s.inbe,  towns  in  the  wild  and  remote  district 
of  Bangala,  on  the  Upper  Congo.  These  photo- 
graphs will  doubtless  also  afford  our  readers  an 
interesting  glimpse  of  the  people  among  whom 
some  of  our  missionaries  work,  where,  it  need 
hardly  be  said,  the  camera  is  a  vara  avis 

The  first  photograph  represents  the  mis- 
sionaries sitting  at  "  palaver  judging."  The 
scene  is  on  the  mission  station  at  Upoto. 
Thither,  about  noon,  the  chiefs  of  the  surround- 
ing towns  or  villages  have  come  in  a  body,  that 
they  may  pour  their  grievances  into  the  ears 
of  the  sympathetic  missionaries.  The  Congo 
native  prefers  to  go  with  his  troubles  to  the 
missionary  rather  than  to  the  State  officials  at 
the  various  courts  on  the  river  banks.  They  do 
so  for  reasons  of  economy  of  time  and  money. 
Of  time,  because  the  distance  is  often  several 
hours'  journey  ;  and  of  money — because  in  cer- 
tain parts  of  the  Congo  a  fee  is  demanded  before 
the  officials  will  even  give  audience  to  their  case. 
Consequently  they  make  a  practice  of  bringing 
their  minor  troubles  to  the  missionary  for  advice. 
He,  of  course  recognising  the  lawful  rights  of 
the  State,  does  not  attempt  to  abrogate  their 
place.  The  missionaries  only  advise,  they  do 
not  authorize. 

Palaver  hearing  takes  up  much  of  the  time  of 
the  missionary.  Day  after  day  the  natives  go  to 
him  seeking  his  advice  and  help  in  whatever 
disputes  they  may  have  on  hand.  They  are  not 
compelled  to  abide  by  the  advice  given  ;  still, 
they  do  not  often  despise  or  ignore  it.  We  find 
that  in  almost  every  case  "the  ancient  troubler, 
woman,"  is  at  the  bottom  of  the  mischief.  It 
may  be  the  trouble  is  that  someone  has  stolen 
a  wife  or  a  slave  from  a  man  on  account  of  a 
standing  debt,  or  that  a  woman  has  volun- 
tarily run  away  from  her  husband  to  some  other 
man.  Listening  to  these  disputes  is  very  weary- 
ing, for  the  Congo  man — a  born  litigant — will 
never  come  to  the  point  at  issue  when  giving 
his  defence  or  version  of  the  case.  He  prefers 
to  go  back  to  the  origin  of  things  and  to  recount 
for  you  the  "  how  and  the  why  "  of  the  whole 




From  a\ 

i    \  1  1.1  fE  COME  TO  '  HKIK 


RS    OF 


affair.  You  listen  as  patiently  as  you  can  while 
he  tells  you  how  his  great-grandfather  and  the 
great-grandfather  of  his  accuser  had  made  some 
agreement  or  other.  You  begin  to  smile  with 
the  hope  that  you  will  soon  be  nearingthe  point 
of  the  controversy — when,  lo  !  there  comes  a 
junction,  and  the  defendant  goes  off  the  line 
and  you  are  left  in  a  maze  denser  than  before. 
A  curious  case  came  before  my  own  personal 
observation  a  short  time  ago.  Two  men 
desiring  to  purchase  a  freeborn  woman  between 
them,  each  gave  one  woman  slave  as  price  for 
her.  The  woman  gave  satisfaction  to  her  new 
owners  for  some  time,  but  in  the  course  of  a 
few  months  they  wanted  to  part  with  their 
bargain.  The  woman  was  re-sold  and  two  other 
women  slaves  were  obtained  in  exchange. 

The  difficulty  now  was  how  they  should 
divide  the  returns,  as  one  of  the  two  men  was 
greedy.  He  wanted  as  his  share  not  only  one 
slave,  but  also  that  a  share  of  the  other  woman 
should  come  to  him.  He  could  not  have  the 
other  woman  in  his  town,  so  he  arranged  that 
his  relatives  who  lived  in  the  town  of  his  partner 
should  be  recipients  of  part  of  the  earnings  of 
the  second  slave.  Against  this  the  other  man 
protested.  He  said  that  as  he  had  given  one 
woman  originally,  he  was  clearly  entitled  to  a 
woman  in  return.  The  matter  was  therefore 
referred   to   the   chiefs   of  the   district,   who   for 

several  days  discussed  the  problem.  Their 
decision  was  not  agreeable  to  the  greedy 
man,  hence  they  took  the  matter  to  the 
missionaries.  They,  after  securing  a  promise 
from  the  natives  to  submit  to  their  decision, 
consented  to  judge  the  case.  After  much 
patient  hearing  of  ancient  history  and  repeated 
questions,  the  truth  was  at  last  unravelled  from 
its  tangled  mesh,  and  the  verdict  given  definitely 
against  the  greedy  one.  Thus  missionaries  need 
even  the  wisdom  and  insight  of  a  Solomon  in 
their  work,  which  is  often  interesting,  romantic 
(in  the  popular  sense  of  the  term),  and  occa- 
sionally thrilling,  even  in  these  prosaic  days. 

Our  next  photo,  shows  one  of  the  cruel 
customs  of  the  Congo  people.  It  is  a  woman 
cutting  the  tribal  marks  of  the  natives  of  Upoto. 
Each  tribe  on  the  Congo  has  its  own  peculiar 
design  of  tribal-marking.  The  Bangala  has 
his  Likwala  (comb  of  cock),  which,  pro- 
truding from  his  forehead,  gives  him  his 
fierce  and  cruel  expression.  The  Bapoto 
disfigure  their  faces  even  more  than  others.  The 
horrible  custom  is  begun  when  the  infant  is  but 
a  few  days  old.  The  mother  first  takes  a  sharp 
instrument  of  iron  (as  may  be  seen  in  the 
picture),  and  makes  several  preliminary  incisions 
on  the  face  and  forehead  of  her  child.  These 
snicks  are  repeated  year  by  year,  the  number 
and  depth  of  the  cuts  being   increased  at  each 

THK    WIDE    WOK  1. 1)    MAGAZINE. 


I  ARKS   OK    THE    NATIVFS   OF    I'PllTO. 


operation.  In  the  photograph  you  see  a  young 
man  seated  and  submitting  to  the  operation  by 
his  wife.  His  face  is  in  reality  covered  with 
blood,  yet  were  you  to  ask  him  if  there  was 
much  pain,  he  would  most  probably  tell  you 
no,  on  just  the  same  principle,  I  suppose, 
as  the  dandy  who  will  not  admit  that  his  shoe 
pinches  or  that  his  collar  is  too  high  and  stiff, 
for  the  natives  of  the  Congo  endure  this  ordeal 
_*ly  in  order  that  they  may  win  the  admiration 
of  the  opposite  -  \.  <  )ne  day  some  of  the  lads 
ked  why  their  faces  were  cut.  They 
said,  "It  does   not  disfigure  us:    we   don't   like 

having   it  done,    but  unless   we  do   we    should 
never  get  a  wife." 

Our  third  photograph  represents  the  popular 
game  on  the  Upper  Congo.  It  is  a  wrestling 
match.  The  opponents  are  representative  men 
of  different  villages.  Crowds  of  supporters 
always  attend  to  witness  the  event.  The 
wrestlers  in  this  case  are  men  of  the  Bapoto 
district.  They  do  not  seize  each  other  by  the 
waist  as  do  the  people  nearer  Stanley  Falls, 
but  stand  upright  and  watch  their  opportunity 
to  so  seize  their  opponent  by  the  arms  as  to 
throw    him  down.       When   this   feat  is  accom- 

From  a] 



tunc;  match  taking  placf 




lighter    alongside, 
incident    shows    how    gre 

a  very  few  years,  yet  he  is  carrying  a  model 
of  the  ss.  Goodwill  which  he  himself  has 
made  out  of  the  stem  of  a  banana  tree.  The 
lad  had  occasionally  seen  the  steamer  pass  up 
and  down  the  river.  In  quiet  hours  he, 
from  memory,  carved  and  constructed  this 
rough  model  of  the  mission  boat.  It  will  be 
seen  that   he  has   also    attached    a    canoe  as 

Undoubtedly  this  little 
an  interest  the 
natives  take  in  mission  work  and  its  concomi- 
tants. The  beautiful  dress  he  is  wearing  is 
simply  a  fathom  of  ordinary  trading  cloth 
wound  around  his  person. 

In  the  next  photograph  we  have  depicted 
a  group  of  Congo  workmen  enjoying  their 
Christinas  feast.  The  missionary  in  the 
picture  is  the  Rev.  W.  L.  Forfeitt,  who 
directed  the  men  in  the  erecting  of  the 
schools  and  houses — for  a  Congo  missionary, 
besides  being  called  upon  to  act  as  judge, 
must  often  be  an  architect  also.  The  feast 
is  very  primitive  to  us,  perhaps,  unappetiz- 
ing ;  but  to  the  Congo  native  a  veritable 
The  food,  consisting  of  goat's 
flesh,  monkey,  and  fish,  is  cooked  by  the 
men  themselves  in  native  earthenware  pots 
such  as  you  see  in  the  picture.  Seasonings 
such  as  salt,  chili  peppers,  and  palm-oil  are 
generously  added  to  give  piquancy.  The 
things  like  plugs  of  tobacco  you  see  on  the 
right  are  the  bread  eaten  by  the  Congolese. 
This   bread   is   made   from   the   manioc  root, 

NANA    1  REE. 
From  a  Photo. 

plished  the  referee 
throws  a  quantity  of 
white  earth  in  the 
victor's  face,  and  then 
his  supporters  form  a 
procession  and  carry 
him  shoulder  -  high 
through  the  village. 
This  famous  pastime 
develops  the  eyes  and 
muscles  of  the  natives, 
and  is  encouraged  and 
fostered  by  the  mis- 

In  our  next  illustra- 
tion we  have  proof  of 
the  latent  powers  of 
the  Congolese.  The 
boy  in  the  photo,  has 
been  on  the  mission 
station  at  Upoto   only 

Ft  Olll   a  ] 


OF   GOATS    FI.ESH,    MO 

IK1  V, 


1111.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

,    I  in  w.  eral  days  in  order 

Afterwards  it  is  boiled 


up  in  plantain  leaves  and 

anged  for  a  piece 

t  long.     Sugar-cane  is 

nng  the 

the  menu.      I  h<    man 

in  t  feathers  considers 

tylish  person,  and  he 
inn   by  putting  on 

me  the  sports.      In  the  two 
iphs    \\  the    natives  at 

Such  a  village  is  for  the  most  part  composed  of 
low  huts  made  of  bamboos  and  palm -ribs,  a  roof- 
thatch  of  palm  leaves,  and  a  doorway  about  2ft. 
square  through  which  the  people  climb  when  r<  1  ir 
ing  or  seeking  shelter  from  the  rain.  The  houses 
are  usually  huddled  together  forming  three  sides 
of  a  square.  On  the  open  space  in  front  ol 
their  houses  the  various  dances  and  palavers  are 
held.  On  the  beach,  where  you  see  the  men 
tugging,  a  market  is  held  every  day  during  tin 
cail\  hours  of  the  morning-.  Many  women 
from  inland  villages  bring  there  the  different 
products  of  their  farms,  such  as  plantains, 
manioc   bread,  and  also   palm-oil  and  nuts.       It 

-WAR.    ENTERED    INTO    Willi    SUCH    SPIRIT 

From  a  Photo. 

•I  HAT   SEVERAL    TIMES    Till-     mil      H   <s    BROKEN. 

their  On  the  occasion  shown,  there  was 

an  additional  inter  n  to  the  sports  by  the 

f    the     workmen    employed    on    the 
Good;  'ill. 

1   the  tug-o'-war,    entered   into 

-SO  much  so.  in  fact,  that  several 

was    broken,    to   the   unbounded 

onlookers  who  saw  the  con- 

n  und.      It  is  so  easy 

to  laugh  at  the  discomfiture  of  others. 

ph   also  gives  a  fair   idea    of   a 
native  river  .  illage   on  the   Congo. 

is  an  interesting  sight  to  watch  these  women 
bartering  firewood,  bananas,  and  other  produce 
lor  the  fish  of  the  riverine  people.  Many  are 
tlie  noises  which  reach  your  ears,  as  each 
endeavours  to  cet  the  better  of  the  bargain. 
Unless  you  knew  better,  you  would  think  that 
the  women  were  very  angry  ami  about  to  fight. 
but,  no;  it  is  only  their  way  of  doing  such 
business.  It  would  not  be  right  if  a  riverine 
woman  were  to  accept  the  price  of  a  bush 
woman  without  the  strongest  possible  verbal 



In  our  next  photograph  we  have  a  view  of  the 
great  Congo  River.  At  this  part  the  river  is  said 
to  be  about  ten  miles  wide.  After  the  feast  and 
the  tug-of-war,  there  was  a  swimming  match  at 
the  mission  station  I  am  describing.  All 
Congolese  are  expert  swimmers,  and  as  a  rule 
they  seem  fond  of  the  water.     Notwithstanding 

was  not  accepted,  however.  The  friends  of 
the  injured  party  made  extravagant  demands 
for  compensation — two  slaves  and  2,000  brass 
rods ;  and  the  accused  had  to  raise  this  fine 
somehow  or  else  forfeit  his  life. 

We  now  descend  the  Congo  to  another  station 
of   the  mission  at  Monsembe,  in   the  Bansrala 


From  a  Photo. 

that  there  are  numerous  crocodiles  in  the  river 
at  times,  the  villagers  fearlessly  enter  the  water 
and  enjoy  floundering  about  just  like  small  boys 
in  a  London  swimming-bath.  The  reason  of 
their  fearlessness  lies  in  their  belief  that  no 
crocodile  will  molest  them  unless  it  has 
been  instructed  to  do  so  by  a  person  of  evil 
intent!  The  Bapoto  hold  that  every  crocodile 
has  an  owner  who  is  able  to  communicate  his 
mind  to  the  reptile,  no  matter  at  what  distance 
they  may  be  separated  from  each  other.  All 
that  the  owner  has  to  do  is  to  go  down  to  the 
beach  and  whisper  the  name  of  his  special 
crocodile,  and  immediately  it  will  appear  to 
receive  its  instructions,  after  which  it  departs  to 
obey  them  as  speedily  as  possible.  A  woman 
was  one  day  washing  her  manioc,  preparatory 
to  making  bread,  at  the  river-side,  when  sud- 
denly a  huge  crocodile  swam  to  her,  and,  seizing 
her  by  the  arms,  bore  her  off  to  the  river.  Soon 
there  was  a  stir  in  her  town,  the  husband  raving 
and  shouting  to  learn  whose  reptile  it  was  that 
had  seized  his  wife.  The  witch-doctor  was  in- 
terrogated to  find  out  the  owner's  name.  He 
investigated  the  matter,  and  in  course  of  time 
affected  to  have  discovered  the  culprit.  The 
said  culprit,  of  course,  indignantly  denied  the 
charge,  saying  that  as  he  had  already  had  two  sons 
killed  by  crocodiles,  and  had  by  way  of  revenge 
hunted  and  slain  six  of  these  dreadful  monsters, 
surely  they  could  not  hold  him  guilty  of  har- 
bouring another    such    creature.      His   defence 

district.  Here  the  land  lies  low.  During  the 
past  two  years  the  country  for  miles  around  has 
been  flooded  owing  to  an  abnormal  rise  of  the 
river.  The  photo,  at  the  top  of  next  page,  taken 
from  the  deck  of  the  mission  ss.  Goodwill,  is 
one  of  the  mission-houses.  There  is  a  fine 
row  of  red  acacia  trees  in  front  of  the  station, 
which  only  eight  years  ago  were  planted  as 
seeds— surely  an  instance  of  amazing  fertility. 
Now  we  have  annually  a  gorgeous  mass  of 
carmine  to  strike  a  contrast  to  the  universal 
green.  Last  year  the  river  rose  some  16ft.,  and 
we  were  compelled  to  use  the  boat  in  order  to 
go  from  house  to  house  and  from  house  to 
school.  In  the  illustration  you  may  see  a 
missionary  leaving  the  house  for  the  steamer. 
This  may  be  considered  an  interesting  glimpse 
of  one  of  the  difficulties  under  which  the 
missionary  labours.  These  floods  cause  much 
anxiety  among  the  missionaries  and  natives. 
Nearly  all  the  vegetables  are  destroyed.  To 
buy  food  then  means  for  the  natives  a  journey 
of  at  least  seventy  miles,  and,  of  course, 
increased  prices  :  whilst  the  European  has  to 
return  to  tinned  vegetables  —  a'  disagreeable 
alternative — or  be  satisfied  with  bread. 

These  floods  continue  about  four  weeks. 
When  vou  consider  the  size  of  the  river  (from 
Stanley  Falls  to  Stanley  Pool,  a  distance  of 
1,000  miles  in  length  and  with  an  average 
breadth  of  over  seven  miles),  a  rise  of  1 6ft. 
obviously  means  a  tremendous  increase  in  the 

nil.    WIDE     WORLD     MAGAZINE. 

iNARY    IN    A   CONGO    FLOOD 


From  a  Photo. 

lOUSE    TO    HOUSE. 

volume   of  wal  Happily,    when    the    flood 

subsides    the    ground    is    speedily    dried    again 
by  the  exi  essive  heat 
of  the  sun. 

The    next   photo- 
ih  we  have  to  con- 
r  is    that  of  Ban- 
women  preparing 
food    for    their 
and     masters. 
The     women     having 
returned    from     tl 
work,     in    the    fields, 
where  they  have  been 
planting    manioc;   and 
mai/  y\n  to  make 

ly  their  evening 
!.  Manioc  is  their 
staple  food.  This 
they  boil  and  then 
mash  in  a  mortar  with 
a   p  s   you 

the   woman   doing    in 
the     middle     of    the 
»n  the  right   of 
graph.       In 
iowl      ti- 
me spinach,  which 

they   rub    fine    and     boil    with    palm-oil    and 
peppers,    etc.     A  bit  of  smoke-dried  fish,   well 


From  a  l'hoto. 



cooked,  is  added  to  the  table  on  the  floor. 
The  family  usually  squat  on  the  ground  round 
the  three  dishes  of  food,  from  which  they  help 
themselves  with  their  fingers  till  the  food  is 
exhausted.  The  photo,  also  gives  us  a  good 
idea  of  the  native  costume  of  the  Bangala 
women — viz.,  a  dress  made  of  grass.  However, 
the  cloth  of  the  trader  is  fast  becoming  more 
common,   and    it   is  to   be    hoped   that  soon  a 

African  lily.  There  is  an  extraordinary  wealth 
of  these  lovely  flowers  on  the  Congo.  I  think 
this  is  the  bloom  known  in  England  as  the 
Eucharis  lily,  or  rather  another  species  we  have 
on  the  Congo,  which  is  perfectly  white.  The 
flowers  in  the  photo,  are  white,  with  a  chocolate 
stripe  in  the  centre  of  the  petal.  They  have  a 
faint,  delicious  scent.  Oftentimes  one  comes 
across  them  in  the  forests  and  marsh  lands — a 


From  <?]  MISSIONARY.  [Photo. 

more  abundant  covering  will  be  worn  by  the 
women  of  the  Congo. 

Our  knives  and  forks  are  cumbersome  to  them, 
yet  they  are  amused  to  see  us  taking  our  meals. 
One  day  we  invited  a  native  chief  to  dine  with 
us  on  condition  that  he  should  use  a  knife  and 
fork  like  ourselves.  He  came,  and  sitting  him- 
self down  in  front  of  a  good  plate  of  Congo 
fowls'  legs  and  wings  (Congo  fowls  are  nothing 
else)  he  began  his  task.  After  some  hard  but 
vain  struggling  to  get  the  flesh  off  the  bone  of 
one  wing  with  the  knife  and  fork,  we  took  com- 
passion on  him  (and  ourselves)  and  gave  him 
permission  to  use  his  own  method.  In  a  very 
short  time  the  whole  plate  was  cleared,  and 
almost  the  bones  as  well. 

Our  last  photograph  is  that  of  the  beautiful 

beautiful  and  inspiring  contrast  to  their  sombre 

The  Congolese  cannot  appreciate  our  love  of 
flowers.  They  take  no  interest  in  such  things. 
Thus,  when  they  see  us  stop  to  admire  a  flower 
they  are  struck  with  amazement,  and  doubtless 
do  consider  us  foolish.  The  lilies  seen  in  the 
photo,  are  growing  on  the  grave  of  the  dear 
child  of  a  missionary  there — a  pathetic  emblem 
of  the  pure  soul  taken  from  the  midst  of  the 
dark  surroundings  of  life  among  the  repulsive 
cannibals  of  the  great  Congo. 

Such,  then,  are  some  of  the  scenes  on  the 
Upper  Congo,  and  such  are  the  people  among 
whom  our  missionaries  are  nobly  endeavouring 
to  spread  some  of  the  Light  which  we  in  our 
favoured  land  rejoice  in,  and  but  too  often  neglect. 

Vol.  iv.— 27. 

Trapped  by  a    Maniac. 

\\\    Mrs.   Emma   Brewer. 

Brc  how  she   attended  a  curious  social  function  at  a  lunatic  asylum,  and  was 

m  with  a  dangerous  patient  whom  she  had  unwittingly  offended. 

,i  i'~  HAT  ]  to  relate  1  appened 

Mvit  V    m    l'U'    ^ear    kS"U'    NV'UM1   a 

iTiViH    lew   p  iet    to    celebrate    the 

g  of  a  new  wing  belonging  to 

on  r  county  lunatic  asylums. 

the  invited  guests,   but  being  an 

in  attendant  was  ordered  to  take  me 

n  in   the   new  wing  where  the  visitors 


;   dis- 



tired    by    the 

iched  the  top 

■  lirs. 

e  that  the 

ivas\  eryisolab 

a  curious    sensation 

n    of    me, 

which    I    could    not 

iunt,  and  which  I  felt 

a  little  ridiculous. 

I  was  sorry  to  find  on 

_    the    room    that 


finished     tea,     and    w 

about  to  go  down  to  the 

main  building  to  join  the 

and  patients  ; 

had  a  strange  dislike 


_     left    alone     up 
far  from  help  if 
lOuld  need  it. 
It  was  at  this  moment 
that  the  matron,  whom  I 
knew  quite  well,  can 
to  me,  asking  if  I  would 
■  her  leaving  m 

little    behind 

with      her      preparations 

ne     or     two 

Strang  ■  idents   whii 

had  occurred  during  the 

ist    two  days,    and    which    she   would    explain 

later    on.       Of  course    I  d    her    not    for 

one   moment  to  think  of  me,  as   I  would   take 

off  my   bonnet,  get  a  cup  of  tea,  and  join  the 

t  at  ■  -       thanked  me,  and   pointing  to 

cone  other  person    in  the  room   said:   "My 

1  will  look  after  you." 

I  tur  the  lady  mentioned  ;  there 

indeed  nothing  in  her  appearance  to  account 

for  the  very  uncomfortable  impression  she  made 

-    e    had   a   good    figure,   dark  hair, 

From  a  Photo.  Irp  Lock  £\~  Whitfield,  Regent  Street 

dreamy  eyes  with  long  lashes,  and  her  dress  of 
black  silk  was  well  made,  relieved  by  narrow 
white  lace  collar  and  cuffs  ;  her  age  may  have 
i,  perhaps,  thirty. 
She  seemed  to  know  that  I  was  regarding  her 
with  earnestness,  and,  without  raising  her  eyes, 
said,  "  May  I  offer  you  tea  or  coffee?" 

To  which  I  replied,  "Tea,  if  you  please;  but 
won't  you  sit  down  ?  1 
don't  like  to  see  you 

As  she  took  no  notice 
of  my  suggestion  and  con- 
tinued to  stand,  I  did  the 
same  ;  and  while  drinking 
my  tea  the  silence  became 
so  oppressive  that  I  broke 
it  by  saying,  "  The  matron 
said  that  you  were  a  friend 
of  hers.  I  suppose  you 
are  on  a  visit  to  her,  as  I 
do  not  remember  your 

"  Yes,"  she  replied,  "  I 
am  a  governess,  and  am 
spending  my  holidays 

"Well,"  I  remarked, 
"  I  do  not  think  it  is 
quite  the  place  I  should 
select  for  a  holiday." 

"  Perhaps  not,"  was 
her  answer;  "  but  beggars 
cannot  be  choosers." 

I  don't  know  what  pos- 
sessed me  to  go  on  talking 
to  her,  but  I  did. 

"  Surely,"  I  said,  "  it 
must  be  frightfully  de- 
pressing to  be  with  these 
poor  creatures,  and  watch 
them  hour  by  hour,  with 
no  power  to  help  them  !  " 
To  which  she  answered,  with  a  near  approach 
to  a  sneer,  "  I  don't  think  the  '  poor  creatures ' 

emphasizing  the  words — "  would  thank  you 
for  your  pity  ;  but  let  me  take  your  bonnet 
and  cloak — you  will  be  glad  to  join  the  com- 

So  far  so  good  ;  nothing  had  happened  as  yet. 
Still,  as  I  made  my  way  downstairs  I  said  to 
myself,  "  There  is  something  very  strange 
about  that  friend  of  the  matron's  ;  but  surely, 
had  she  not  been  reliable,   I  should   not  have 

l     >\    RAGl      AND     iELF-POSSESSION  SAVED 


21  I 

been  left  alone  with  her,  and  quite  in  her 
power.  Really,  I  don't  think  I  can  be  quite 

I  soon  found  myself  in  the  well-lighted 
hall,  where  patients  and  visitors  were  talking 
or  dancing  with  each  other  to  the  sound  of 
bright  and  good  music  ;  so  for  the  next  hour 
or  two  I  forgot  the  uncomfortable  feeling 
which  had  taken  possession  of  me  while  in 
the  new  wing,  and  was  amused  for  the  time 
at  the  grotesque  dresses  of  some  of  the 
patients,  who  had  been  allowed  to  make  up 
or  suggest  their  own  costumes  for  the  occa- 
sion. And  I  must  say  that  some  of  them 
were  very  ingenious. 

The  two  or  three  gentlemen  with  whom  I 
had  come  were  obliged  to  leave  early  for 
the  House  of  Commons,  and  I  was  returning 
with  them.  We  had  not  much  time  to 
catch  the  train,  especially  as  we  had  to  walk 
through  the  extensive  grounds  to  get  to  the 
station  ;  so,  while  the  men  put  on  their  over- 
coats and  drank  a  cup  of  hot  coffee,  1  ran 
upstairs  into  the  new  wing  for  my  bonnet 
and  wraps.  Oddly  enough,  I  had  by  this 
time  forgotten  the  strange  fear  which  had 
possessed  me  an  hour  or  two  before. 

Seeing  no  one,  and  not  knowing  my 
way,  I  called  loudly  for  someone  to  help 
me;  this  I  did  two  or  three  times  without 
getting  any  answer ;  but  at  length  the 
matron's  friend  came  forward  in  a  leisurely 
manner  from  out  of  the  darkness,  asking 
in  a  slow,  drowsy  sort  of  tone,  "  What 
is  it,  madam?3  Can  I  do  anything  for  you?" 
'Yes,  please;  I  want  my  bonnet  and  wraps," 
I  replied. 

She  opened  the  door  of  what  proved  to  be  a 
bedroom,  with  one  small,  iron-grated  window, 
which  faced  a  brick  wall.  This  room  contained 
a  small  bed,  a  chair,  and  a  table,  with  a  looking- 
glass  and  wash-stand  for  one  person.  All  this  I 
took  in  at  a  glance. 

Having  opened  the  door  and  placed  the 
candle  on  the  table,  my  companion  suddenly 
whisked  back,  shut  the  door  with  a  loud  bang, 
locked  it,  and  put  the  key  in  her  pocket.  Then 
placing  her  back  to  the  door,  and  with  her  arms 
crossed,  she  looked  at  me  with  an  expression 
I  shall  never  forget— it  was  so  fiendish.  Her 
eyes,  no  longer  dreamy,  were  full  of  hate  and 
malignant  passion.  For  a  moment  the  sudden- 
ness of  it  all  quite  paralyzed  me. 

She  positively  hissed  out  her  words  :  "  Now 
pity  yourself,  for  /  am  one  of  the  poor  creatures 
you  spoke  of  at  tea  this  afternoon.  Pity  your- 
self, I  say,  for  you  are  in  my  power,  and  Pll 
have  no  mercy  on  you.  Not  a  sound  can  be 
heard,  however  loudly  you  call." 

.  ES,     M 

l.NCER    DREAMY,    WERE    II   II     <>l      HATE    AM) 

This  speech  gave  me  time  to  get  my  breath 
and  to  summon  my  courage;  for  I  knew 
that  to  show  a  particle  of  fear  would  be  dis- 
astrous. I  had  never  been  a  coward  at  any 
period  of  my  life,  and  was  quite  aware  that 
courage  and  self-possession  alone  could  get  me 
out  of  this  dangerous  dilemma. 

Looking  at  the  woman,  and  gazing  straight 
into  her  eyes,  I  said,  "I  am  sorry,  indeed,  that 
you  should  be  one  of  the  patients  here, 
and  sorry  too  if  I  hurt  your  feelings  to-day  ;  but 
really  I  have  no  time  to  explain.  My  husband 
and  two  or  three  gentlemen  are  at  the  bottom  of 
the  staircase  waiting  for  me." 

With  an  awful  expression  the  woman  intimated 
that  they  would  have  to  wait  a  long  time  for  me. 
With  apparent  coolness,  and  keeping  her  always 
in  view,  I  put  on  my  clothes,  and  peeped  in  the 
glass  to  see  if  I  looked  "all  right,"  as  the  phrase 
goes  ;  then  walked  over  to  the  woman  and  said, 
calmly,  "  Give  me  the  key." 

She  laughed  in  a  way  that  curdled  one's 
blood.  ■  Again  I  demanded  in  a  quiet,  cool 
manner,  "  Give  me  the  key  ;  it  is  quite  useless 
your  trying   to  keep  me  here.     I  am  not  a  bit 

2  i 


\  ou  cannot  hurt  me,   but   you 
ii     that's  certain." 
1    themselves    leisurely, 
wards  her  pocket. 
nick  :      1    said,    "  you  will  have  the  men 
lent,  and   1  shall   not   be  able  to 

;  the  key  out     it  was  rather 

her  arm.  she  flung  it 

with  an  awful  imprecation.      Had  it 

uld  probably  have 

-      HER    ARM,    SHE    I  LUNG    THE    KEY   AT 
Willi    AN    AWFUL    IMPRECATION." 

ifigured   for  life,   but  by   watching  her 
every  movement   I  evaded  the  blow,   and   the 
fell  heavily  to  the  floor. 
We  both    stood    motionless    for    a    moment. 
Then  I  said.  "  Tick   up  the  key."     This  I   had 
at    in    the    calmest,    most    commanding 
manner  I  could  assume.     She  stooped  with  the 
utmost  reluctance  and  obeyed  me.     "  Now,"  I 
said,  "unlock  the  door."     This  also  was  accom- 
plished, with  a  curse,  and  I,  with  beating  heart 
and  almost  at  the  end  of  my   strength,    walked 
tly  through  the  door  and  along  the  corridor 
until  I  came  to  the  long  stone  staircase,   down 
which  I  literally  flew. 

I  found  the  gentlemen   a  little  impatient  at 

_     kept    waiting,    and    without  a   moment's 

dela  rted  off  through  the  darkness  to  the 

where  we  arrived  just  in   time   to   catch 

town.     Not  until  I  was  seated  in 

the  carriage  did  I  lose  self  control,  and  fell  back 
fainting.  When  1  recovered  I  felt  ashamed  of 
this  weakness. 

Naturally  my  friends  wanted  an  explanation 
of  tins  extraordinary  occurrence.  I  gave  an 
account  of  what  had  happened  as  well  as  I 
could,  and  they  were  all  intensely  angry  at  the 
want  of  care  and  forethought  displayed  by  the 
matron.  The  first  thing  they  did  on  reaching 
town  was  to  telegraph  to  the  doctor  of  the 
asylum  to  look  after  the  young 
woman  Sweetman,  and  see 
that  she  did  no  harm  to  her- 
self or  anyone  else. 

The  matter  was  thoroughly 
looked  into  on  the  following 
day.  A  committee  was  called, 
and  the  matron  severely  cen- 
sured. It  seems  that  she 
had  had  a  series  of  disasters 
during  the  previous  forty-eight 
hours.  Among  the  patients 
was  a  fust -rate  cook,  whose 
condition  was  only  dangerous 
at  stated  times,  and  of  which 
the  matron  was  forewarned 
by  certain  symptoms.  Her 
malady  was  suicidal  mania. 
She  was  extremely  well  at  this 
particular  time,  and  gladly 
undertook  to  help  in  the 
kitchen.  Unfortunately,  dur- 
ing the  absence  of  the  matron 
on  business,  one  of  her  attacks 
came  on,  and  everything  in- 
trusted to  her  was  ruined  :  the  chickens,  the 
hams,  the  pastry — all  were  reduced  to  mere 
cinders.  At  the  same  time  a  patient,  who  was 
invaluable  when  well,  both  in  organizing  and 
looking  after  the  workers,  was  suddenly  taken 
seriously  ill,  became  quite  unmanageable,  and 
was  with  the  greatest  difficulty  prevented  from 
taking  her  own  life. 

Naturally  the  places  of  these  women  had  to 
be  supplied  by  the  staff,  and  there  was  no  one 
to  help  with  the  tea  ;  so  the  matron  employed 
this  lady,  a  well-educated  girl,  who  had 
benefited  so  much  by  being  in  the  asylum 
that  she  was  about  to  leave.  The  only 
way  to  account  for  her  behaviour  was  that  she 
had  become  greatly  excited  by  the  circumstances 
of  the  last  couple  of  days.  Poor  thing  !  she 
became  gradually  worse,  and  whenever  I  asked 
after  her  she  was  still  an  inmate  of  the  asylum. 

John    Mills    and    His    "Golden    Hole." 

By  John    Marshall,    of    Kalgoorlie   (late    Hon.  Secretary    of    the   West    Australian 

Gold-Diggers'  Association  >. 

The  following  true  and  interesting  account  of  the  discovery  of  the  "  Londonderry  Golden  Hole"  was 

told  to  the  writer  by  the  discoverer,  John  Mills,    shortly  after  the  sensational    find  was    made  public. 

The  narrative  illustrates    in  a  sensational  manner  the  startling  uncertainty  of  gold-mining  luck. 


Wr  -ssrafer 



From  a  Photo,  by  II'.  Roy  Millar. 

OWHERE  does  the  wheel  of 
fortune  revolve  more  quickly, 
"  bringing    chances    and    changes," 

ups  and  downs,  than  on  the  world's 
great  goldfields.  And  among  the 
many  striking  instances  I  have  seen  of  the  truth 
of  this  fact,  during  my  long  residence  on 
American  and  Australian  goldfields,  none  is 
more  remarkable  than  the  story  of  the  party 
who  found  and  sold  the  "  Londonderry,"  and 
the  subsequent  decline  of  this  once  world- 
renowned  mining  property. 

In  the  early  part  of  1894  the  mining  industry 
on  the  Coolgardie  goldfields  was  very  sick. 
Since  the  dis- 
covery of  "  Bay- 
ley's  Reward 
Mine"  no  im- 
portant find  had 
been  made  ;  and 
it  appeared  as  if 
there  was  going 
to  be  a  severe 
set  back  to  the 
whole  gold  field. 
The  people  were 
beginning  to  lose 
faith  in  its  future. 
Land  values,  too, 
were  falling  ; 
there  was  a  severe 
drought  prevail- 
ing, and  every- 
thing looked 
blue.  But  when 
things  were  at 
their  worst  the 
startling    news        From™ 

was  announced 
that  a  wonder- 
fully rich  dis- 
covery had  been 
made  about 
twelve  miles 
south  of  Cool- 
gardie, which 
roused  feverish 
enthusiasm,  gave 
new  life  to  the 
mining  industry, 
raised  the  price 
of  land  values 
in  Coolgardie 
by  100  per  cent.,  and  brought  thousands  over 
from  the  other  Colonies  to  try  their  luck  on  the 
goldfields  of  Western  Australia.  The  story  of 
the  men  who  found  the  "  Londonderry  "  is  one 
of  the  most  astonishing  on  record.  They  were  a 
party  of  six,  who  set  out  on  a  prospecting  tour 
from  Coolgardie  in  the  early  months  of  '94. 
They  were  not  well  provided  with  money  to 
purchase  an  outfit  ;  and,  indeed,  the  buying  of  a 
horse  and  dray  and  enough  provisions  to  last 
them  for  a  few  months  almost  completely  ex- 
hausted their  store  of  wealth.  For  some  time 
they  prospected  south  of  Coolgardie,  near 
Widgiemooltha,  but  without  success. 




THE    WIDE    W0R1  D    MAGAZINE. 

A  ..t!i  tramping,  and  mis 

n  account  of  their 

ig    back    to 

.    up  the  sponge 

jes.     The 

the    party   had   scattered, 

■•  mi   his  own  '"   for   the 

making  north  towards  ( !ool- 

.    a    young    Irishman 

11   Mills,   a    native   of   Londonderry, 

r  from  New  South  Wales, 

.  tired   with  his  weary  tramp  and 

iwn   to  have  a  smoke  and 

run;  5,  wishing  himself  hack 

r's    station    in   sunny    New 

-.   and  out  of  the  country  of  "sin, 

The  huge  reef  which   he 

i  many  places,  without  seeing  a  single 

»   Id,  lay  at  his  feet.    Sitting  thinking,  in 

a  h.  iv.  listless  state,  he  almost  unconsci 

d  his  heel    against   the  huge,   mn» 

tcrop  at  his  foot,  and   carelessly  look- 

nly  caught  the  glint  of  some 

:i    the    rock.      Lazily    raising 

toked  to  see  what  the  bright  speck 

I  found  to  his  intense  astonishment  and 

of  stone   full   of  gold. 

veral  pieces  of  the  cap  of  the  reef,  he 

his  amazement    that   it  zvas  literally 

ther  with  :^<>hi  ! 

spirits,  which  but  a  moment  before  had 

i  down  to  zero,   now  rose  to   boiling  pitch, 

and    he   felt   inclined   to    throw  up  his  hat   and 

shout  out  "  Eureka  !    Eureka  !  "     After  having 

_  •  number  of  specimens  he  walked 

■  amp,   inwardly   exulting,   though 

G        TUCKI  ,    FOR   1  HE 

Iroma  Photo.  l>y  II'.  Roy  Millar. 

trying  to  maintain  the  appearance  of  dejection. 
His  mates  were  all  gathered  together,  and  were 
l>v  no  means  in  a  pleasant  mood.  Hard  living 
and  hard  luck  were  breaking  their  tempers,  and 
the  conversation  was  tar  from  cheerful.  Some 
of  them  had  wives  and  families  in  other  Colonies 
who  were  waiting  and  longing  for  good  news 
from  their  bread  winners. 

After  supper  was  over  Mills  said,  "I  have 
something  to  show  you,  mates.  Wait  a  minute 
till  I  go  and  get  it.''  So  saying  he  left  the 
cam]),  and  returned  in  a  few  minutes  with  his 
hands  full  of  stones.  "What  do  you  think  of 
them  ?  "  he  yelled,  as  he  dumped  the  lot  down 
on  the  gunny  sack  which  did  duty  as  a  table- 
cloth. As  his  mates  picked  them  up  and 
looked  at  them,  they  found  that  the  pieces 
of  quartz  were  literally  held  together  with 
gold.  And  when  they  received  Mills's  assur- 
ance that  there  appeared  to  be  an  unlimited 
quantity  of  the  same  incredibly  rich  quart/, 
the  delight  of  the  members  of  the  party  knew 
no  bounds. 

They  pressed  Mills  to  lead  them  to  the 
treasure-spot  that  night,  but  he  pointed  out  the 
futility  of  such  a  proceeding,  as  he  would  be 
unable  to  find  his  way  back  in  the  dark.  There 
was  but  little  sleep  in  the  camp  that  night  ;  and 
long  before  daylight  the  old  horse  was  hitched 
up  and  the  party  were  ready  to  start,  moving 
away  with  the  first  peep  of  day.  After  some 
difficulty  the  exact  spot  was  located,  and  on 
reaching  the  place  where  Mills  had  obtained  the 
specimens  the  night  before  they  found  that  half 
the  truth  had  not  been  told,  for,  as  they  broke 
off  pieces  of  quartz  and  with  hammer,  wedge, 
and    pick    delved    down,    the    quartz    became 

richer  and  richer. 
After  the  first 
wild  excess  of 
joy  at  finding 
such  a  treasure 
had  passed  away 
the  party  settled 
down  to  hard 
work,  and  for 
weeks  toiled  like 
galley  -  slaves, 
night  and  day., 
calcining  the 
stone  in  an  open 
furnace,  and  then 
dollying  it  by 
the  rudest  and 
most  primitive 
methods —  meth- 
ods which  en- 
tailed the  hardest 
of  hard  work. 

I    N    II-  IL1  . 



At  first  the  novelty  of  the  work  and  the 
extraordinary  richness  of  the  stone  kept  them 
from  wearying  :  but  after  a  while,  when  the 
novelty  had  worn  off,  the  dollying  of  the  stone 
became  a  terrible  task.  John  Mills  himself 
assured  me  that  after  a  time  the  sight  of  gold 
grew  positively  hateful  to  him,  so  monotonous 
and  hard  was  the  toil  associated  with  its  extrac- 
tion. How  arduous  their  labours  were  may  be 
inferred  from  the  fact  that  in  a  few  weeks  they 
dollied  out  about  8,ooooz.  of  gold,  valued  at 
^32,000— and  that  with  the  rudest  appliances. 

So  far  they  had  not  applied  for  a  lease  of  the 
precious  ground, 
and  their  only 
fear  was  that  any 
day  a  prospect- 
ing party  might 
drop  across  them, 
and  probably  peg 
out  the  place  they 
were  working. 
On  the  other 
hand,  if  they  did 
apply  for  a  lease 
of  the  ground, 
some  of  the  men 
whose  business  it 
was  to  watch  ap- 
plications when 
they  were  posted 
up  outside  the 
Warden's  Court 
(as  was  required 
by  law),  and  to 
find  out  where 
fresh  discoveries 
were  made,  might 
make  inquiries 
and     find    where 

they  were  -which  was  the  last  thing  they  desired. 
At  last  their  fears  of  discovery  prevailed,  and 
after  a  solemn  council  had  been  held  it  was 
determined  that  Mills  and  Huxley  should  go 
into  Coolgardie  and  get  Mr.  W.  H.  Lindsay,  a 
mining  agent  there,  to  apply  for  a  lease  of 
twenty-four  acres.  No  hint  whatever  was  to  be 
given  of  the  richness  of  the  property,  and  the 
two  selected  for  this  duty  were  well  tutored  in 
the  tale  of  woe  and  distress  which  they  were  to 
pitch  to  the  mining  agent,  with  all  the  artless 
eloquence  they  could  command. 

Accordingly,  Mills  and  Huxley  marched  into 
Lindsay's  office  one  forenoon  and  told  him  a 
pitiful  tale  of  the  wants  and  privations  they  had 
gone  through,  and  how  they  had  come  on  a 
likely  place,  where  the  reef  was  narrow  and  the 
stone  might  yield  half  an  ounce  to  the  ton — 
probably  a  little  more.       The  main  reasons  why 

they  were  willing  to  stay  and  give  the  place  a 
trial  were,  firstly,  that  the  horse  they  had  was 
nearly  knocked  out ;  the  feed  was  fairly  plentiful, 
and  water  not  far  away.  Also  they  were  tired 
of  knocking  about  the  country.  They  had 
therefore  agreed  to  take  up  a  gold  mining  lease 
of  twenty-four  acres,  but  being  extremely  poor 
men,  and  having  spent  nearly  every  shilling  they 
had  in  prospecting,  they  hoped  the  agent  would 
make  the  fees  as  light  as  possible. 

But  there  was  a  curious  air  of  intense  eager- 
ness about  the  men — an  evident  overpowering 
desire  to  take  up  the  ground,  and  a  tremendous 

From  a  Photo,  by 


\U~.  Roy  Millar. 

anxiety  that  no  informality  should  be  made  in 
the  application.  There  was  also  such  a  parade 
of  their  poverty — a  matter  about  which  the 
genuine  miner,  be  he  never  so  poor,  is  extremely 
reticent  — that  the  agent  thought  there  must  be 
something  behind  it  all.  So  he  mentally 
resolved,  whilst  applying  for  the  lease  now 
known  as  the  "  Londonderry  "  -  to  make  a 
search  and  see  whether  this  party  of  hard-up 
miners  could  really  be  found— if  for  nothing 
else  than  to  congratulate  them  upon  having 
determined  to  battle  further  with  fortune  in  spite 
of  their  poverty. 

A  few  days  after  this,  Lindsay  set  out  to  find 
the  "Londonderry."  He  searched  all  day,  but 
was  unable  to  locate  the  place,  and  that  night 
had  to  sleep  out  without  blankets.  As  the  night 
was  intensely  cold,  he  cursed  his  curiosity  for 
leading    him    out    on    such   an  errand.     Next 

I  111.    WIDE    WORl.H    MAGAZINE. 

j.    however,    he    was    lucky    enough    to 

Almost  the  first  thing  he 

open  air  furnace  for  calcining 

en    on    too    many    mining 
•low  what  that  meant. 

horn  the  whole  members  were 

extremely  sorry  to  see 

help    showing    how   vexed 

In  answ.r  to  his  inquiries,  they  told 

small  leader  which  re- 

n  a  little  gold  ;  and  then  they  tried 

him.  ndsay  was  far  too  shrewd 

isily  bluffed  ;  and  after  he 

ent.  oi  the   truth   out   of 

1  him  to  secrecy.     Then,  bit 

•  uth  leaped  out,  and  the  agent 

what    a    magnificent    property    they 

.  and  that  thei  eight  thousand  ounces 

i n .' 
but  such  an  extraordinary  find  could  not  long 
i  In    of  the   party,  an   old   man, 

tions.  Ere  the  day  closed,  however,  we  were 
fortunate  enough  to  make  the  acquaintance  of 
John  Mills  himself,  who  was  far  and  away  the 
be>t  and  most  generous  of  the  party.  He 
showed  us  some  magnificent  specimens,  the  like 
of  which  had  not  been  seen  since  the  early  days 
when  Bayley  discovered  the  great  Reward 

1  shall  never  forget  the  excitement  which 
thrilled  the  whole  community,  nor  the  feelings 
of  renewed  hope  which  were  experienced  by  all 
when  it  was  authoritatively  stated  that  gold 
valued  at  between  ^30,000  and  ,£40,000  had 
been  lodged  in  the  bank  for  safe  keeping.  The 
following  day  (Monday)  some  magnificent 
specimens  were  exhibited  at  the  bank  which 
fairly  astonished  the  diggers. 

The  desire  to  purchase  this  phenomenally 
rich  property  became  an  object  of  supreme 
importance  to  the  representatives  of  speculative 
svndicates  already  on  the  field.     There   was  a 


From  a  Photo,  by   /J'.   Roy  Millar. 

and  rather  infirm,  took  sick,  and  went  into 
Coolgardie,  where,  as  a  relief  from  the  strain  to 
which  his  mind  had  been  so  long  subjected,  and 
to  give  vent  to  his  overpowering  sense  of  joy, 
_  A  wildly  drunk,  flashed  his  gold  about  the 
town,  and  made  a  clean  breast  of  it  all.  When 
the  news  was  confirmed,  the  excitement  in  town 
became  perfectly  franti<  .  and  the  whole  popula- 
tion rushed  to  great  "Londonderry 
Golden  Hole/'  A  little  later  the  country  along 
supposed  line  of  reef  was  pegged  out  for 

The  following  day  we  went  out  and  searched 

round  the  "  Golden   Hole"  to  find  if  possible 

.    but  were    unable    to    see    the 

"est  trace  of  gold.     It  was  hard,  indeed,  to 

:alize  that  such  a  wonderful  amount  of  gold  had 

obtained  from  the  small  hole  shown  to  us, 

with  such  an  apparent  lack  of  favourable  indica- 

good  deal  of  competition  to  secure  this  rich 
prize,  but  negotiations  were  successfully  con- 
ducted by  Lord  Fingall,  who  was  resident  on 
the  field,  and  ultimately  purchased  the  property 
for,  I  believe,  ,£100,000.  It  was  subsequently 
floated  in  London  and  Paris  for  -£750,000. 
When  negotiations  for  the  sale  were  finally 
arranged,  the  "  Golden  Hole  "  was  covered  over 
with  a  strong  plate  and  then  sealed.  Thus  it 
lay  for  many  months,  unopened,  the  subject  oi 
many  a  wonderful  story  in  the  newspapers 
throughout  the  world. 

The  re-opening  of  the  "  Golden  Hole  "  took 
place  some  considerable  time  after  the  company 
formed  to  work  it  had  been  floated,  and  every- 
thing arranged  with  much  pomp  and  circum- 
stance. It  was  thought  possible  that  if  the 
golden  treasure  which  had  been  so  freely  taken 
out  from  a  shallow  depth  continued  to  go  down, 



it  might  even  lead  to  the  depreciation  of  gold 
values  ! 

The  eyes  of  the  whole  world  were  on  John 
Mills's  "Golden  Hole,"  and  mining  men  were 
quite  prepared  to  see  gold  sent  away  from 
it  by  the  ton.  But  after  a  few  days'  work 
in  the  Londonderry  —  then  considered  to  be 
one  of  the  greatest  treasure  stores  in  the 
world — it  was  found,  to  the  utter  amazement 
and  dismay  of  all  concerned,  that  the  kernel 
had  been  taken  and  only  the  worthless  shell 
left.  People  looked  at  each  other  in  blank 
astonishment  when  the  news  was  made  public. 
It  was  darkly  hinted  by  those  in  authority 
at  home  that  the  "Golden  Hole"  had  been 
tapped  and  its  treasures  spirited  away.  Surely, 
they  said,  it  could  not  be  possible  that  the  won- 
derfully rich  mine,  which  had  turned  out  so  many 
thousand  ounces  of  gold  from  a  small  hole — 
which  had  caused  the  mining  world  to  ring  with 
its  fame  and  to  look  forward  with  eager  hope  to 
the  payment  of  enormous  dividends,  could  have 
"  petered  out !  " 

Alas  !  it  was  only  too  true.  The  "  Golden 
Wonder  of  the  World  "  was  a  wonder  no  longer  ; 
its  matchless  riches  had  been  exhausted,  and 
one  of  the  biggest 
mining  com- 
panies had  been 
floated  on  what 
was  little  better 
than  a  burst 
bubble.  When 
the  exact  posi- 
tion of  affairs 
became  known, 
and  the  full  truth 
realized,  such  a 
storm  of  indig- 
nation, vilifica- 
tion, and  abuse 
was  let  loose 
upon  the  heads 
of  the  vendors, 
promoters,  min- 
ing experts,  and 

everyone  connected  with    the    flotation   as  has 
rarely  been  equalled. 

The  effect  of  this  blow  upon  the  entire  district 
was  disastrous  in  the  extreme.  Hundreds  of 
claims  that  had  been  taken  up  and  worked  on 

the  strength  of  the  great  Londonderry  find  were 
abandoned,  and  that  after  hundreds — in  some 
instances  thousands — of  pounds  had  been  spent 
upon  them.  Public  confidence  in  the  per- 
manence of  the  goldfields  was  rudely  checked,  at 
least  for  a  time;  "  Golden  Holes  "  were  looked 
upon  askance,  and  the  mining  industry  severely 
crippled.  The  failure  of  the  Londonderry  to 
come  up  to  the  high  expectations  raised  had 
an  immense  effect  upon  the  Coolgardie  gold- 
fields.  It  is  safe  to  say  that  every  ounce  of 
gold  afterwards  taken  out  of  the  Londonderry 
district  cost  ^20.  The  original  holders  got  out 
of  the  Colony  with  their  gains,  enriched  as  they 
had  been  "  beyond  the  dreams  of  avarice  " 
ordinary  avarice,  that  is. 

Although  a  considerable  time  has  elapsed  and 
the  high  hopes  respecting  the  Londonderry 
have  not,  to  any  considerable  extent,  been 
realized,  yet  it  is  confidently  predicted  by  those 
who  ought  to  know  that  there  may  yet  be  a   big 

/  rotn 

a  Photo,  by   II'.   Roy  Millar. 

future  before  it  as  a  dividend  payer,  and  that 
the  disappointments  which  have  been  experi- 
enced in  the  past  may  be,  to  some  extent. 
counterbalanced  by  the  success  to  be  achieved 
in  the  future. 

Vol.  iv.—  23. 

Odds    nnd   finds. 

,,t    ihe    phi  produced    in    this    section    represent    the    very  cream  of    all    that 

ip-shotter"     and     traveller    in    countries     both     near    and    far.    Special 
the     wonderful     full-page     photograph     of    a    "  snaky  "     country     given    on 
beneath   each    will    enable   you  to   find  the  locality  on    the    novel    contents- 
map  at   the   back  o\   the   frontispiece. 


HEIR    i  A  I   I  IK    BY    RINDERPES'I      I  1 1 IC   CONVICTS    HAD   TO 


HE  first  photograph  reproduce i  this 

month  conveys  a  more  vivid  idea  of 

'   rrible     ravages    made    by  the 

grue    of    rinderpest    among    the 

ih     African    cattle    than     whole 

mere    description.       The     district    of 

Idutywa,  in    which  the  photograph  was   taken, 

situated    in    the    Transkeian    Territories    of 

South  Africa,  and  is  thirty-six  miles  in  length  and 

it  twenty  in  breadth.  Within  the  short 

:'  about  six  months  the  residents 

jst  over   25,000   head  of  cattle.     In  a 

'.  many  instances  the  natives  had  to 

ly  their  ploughs  and  revert  to  the 

old  method  of  hoeing  their  fields.     The 

photograph  shows  a  gang  of  prison 

pulling  a  cartload  of  stones  to  repair  the 

Having   lost  all   their  oxen  the 

..    '1  to  use  the  prisoners 

f  burden." 

Our  next  pi  depict  some 

of  the  victims  of  a  caste  riot,  but  a 

be  witnessed  often   enough 

ither  at  Benares — that  abode 

ities — or   at    Puri,    in 

the  hope  of  seeing   Jug- 

_       ;  .■  r :  r  j  _  >    together    large 

numbers  of    pilgrims.     Some  of    these, 

either  from  a  wish    to  please  the  gods 

or  in  fulfilment  of  private  vows,  make  the 

journey    to    the    temple  —  or    more  fre- 

quently round  it 
—  in  the  recum- 
b  e  n t  posture 
s  h  o  w  n  in  t  h  e 
photo.,  rolling 
over  and  over 
on  the  unsympa- 
thetic, not  to  say 
nobbly,  road. 
Some  of  the 
devotees  will 
actually  roll  ft  r 
miles  in  this  man- 
ner ;  while  female 
enthusiasts  — 
unable  to  imitate 
their  male  -  folk 
exactly  —  journey 
along  by  lying 
down  at  full 
length  on  the 
ground,  making  a 
mark  where  their  forehead  touched,  and  then  rising 
to  lie  down  again  with  the  toes  touching  the  last 
mark.  They  continue  this  deliberate  and  weari- 
some process  until  the  temple  is  reached.  Readers 
of  a  sporting  turn  of  mind  will  no  doubt  engage 
in  lively  speculation  as  to  whether  a  man,  with  his 
queer  rollings,  or  a  woman,  with  her  "  self-mea- 
surement "  mode  of  locomotion,  would  be  most 
likely  to  arriveat  the  temple  first  from  a  given  point. 


'  SOME   OF   THE    DEVOTEES    Will.    ACTUALLY    ROLL    FOR    MILES    IN 

From  a]  this  manner."  [Photo. 



round  and  round  the  in- 
closure,  and  sand  is  thrown 
on  his  legs  and  body  at 
judicious  intervals  until 
he  yields  to  the  tempta- 
tion and  is  presently  roll- 
ing hilariously  with  his 
fellows.  It  has  been  found 
that  this  novel  bath  cleans 
the  horses  beautifully,  dry- 
ing up  the  moisture  and 
imparting  a  glossy  appear- 
ance to  their  coats. 
Curiously  enough,  how- 
ever,    only    Arab     steeds 


From  a  Photo. 

The  above  photograph  is  extremely 
interesting,  showing  as  it  does  the 
Arab  horses  of  the  21st  Lancers  having 
their  sand  bath.  At  Abbassayeh 
Barracks,  where  the  heroes  of  Omdur- 
man  are  (or  were)  quartered,  there  is 
a  large  space  adjoining  the  stables 
filled  in  with  clean  desert  sand.  This 
is  the  "  bath  "  ;  and  after  an  arduous 
field  day,  or  drill,  the  horses  are 
unsaddled  and  allowed  to  roll  as  they 
please  in  the  soft,  warm  sand.  They 
enjoy  themselves  immensely  whilst 
doing  this,  and  as  a  rule  require  no 
inducement  to  lie  down.  Should  a 
horse  prove  indifferent  to  the  pleasures 
of  this  curious  bath,  however,  he  is  led 

From  a)  THE   EFFIGIES   OF   JUDAS.  [/'/into. 

4.  —  IN    THE    PYRENEES 

From  a] 




appear  to  take  kindly  to  the  sand 

The  accompanying  photo,  depicts  not 
a  cage  for  wild  animals,  but  a  curious 
kind  of  sledge  bearing  a  large  crate 
for  carrying  dead  leaves.  This  curious 
vehicle  was  photographed  in  the 
environs  of  Pau  (Basses  Pyrenees),  and 
is  believed  to  be  unique  in  that  part  oi 
the  South  of  France.  The  leaves  are 
used  for  manure,  and  the  curious  sledge 
is  usually  drawn  by  cows  or  oxen. 

The  photograph  shown  above  illus- 
trates a  somewhat  remarkable  scene 
lately  witnessed  at  Easter  time  in  the 
town  of  Tetuan,  Morocco.  Upon 
suddenly  turning  a  corner  from  whence 
great  noise  proceeded,  a  large  crowd  of 
men  and  boys  was  encountered — chiefly 
Spaniards,  but  with  a  fair  sprinkling  of 
Moors  as  well.    Several  men  in  a  highly 





excited  state,  accompanied  by  shouts  and 
groans  from  the  spectators,  were  firing  off 
their  muzzle -loading  guns  into  two  head- 
less effigies  of  Judas  Iscariot,  which  were 
being  dragged  along  on  the  ground  by 
boys,  and  were  composed  of  straw  clothed 
with  European  dress.  It  transpired  that  this 
is  a  common  Easter  custom  of  the  Spanish 
Roman  Catholics  in  Tetuan.  The  effigies  are 
first  hanged  on  a  tree  and  then  cut  down  at  the 
neck,  and  ignominiously  dragged  through  the 
principal  streets  of  the  town  to  be  fired  upon  at 
intervals,  until  nothing  remains  but  a  smoulder- 
ing mass  of  rags  and  straw.  The  effigies  are 
then  cast  into  some  side 
street  and  there  left. 
The  photograph  was  taken 
at  the  moment  of  firing, 
and  it  will  be  observed 
that  the  use  of  smokeless 
powder  is  unknown  in 

Readers  of  The  Wide 
World  are  accustomed 
to  extraordinary  photo- 
graphs, and  the  one  re- 
produced as  a  full-page 
illustration  well  merits 
that  description.  Run 
your  eye  over  it,  and  you 
get  a  positive  sense  of 
creepy  movement  ;  you 
also  think  that  the  photo- 
grapher must  have  been 
a  very  plucky  fellow. 
'"  ( me  million  snakes  to 
the  mile"  sounds  alarm- 
ing enough  in  all  con- 
science, but  that  it  is 
not  a  fiction  is  shown 
photo.        It 

towards  the  inhabitants.  All  sorts  of  esti- 
mates have  been  made  as  to  the  number  ol 
reptiles  in  this  district,  the  lowest  being  the 
truly  colossal  figure  above-mentioned.  You 
should  show  this  photo,  with  its  descriptive  text 
to  your  friends  as  a  typical  Wide  World 

The  curious  mud-volcanoes  of  which  one  is 
seen  in  the  remarkable  accompanying  snap-shot 
are  situated  at  Minbu,  in  Upper  Burma.  They 
are  in  constant  eruption,  throwing  up  from  their 
miniature  craters  masses  of  greasy-looking  mud, 
which  when  flowing  down  the  sun-baked  slopes, 
as  we  see  it  in  our  photo.,   have  very  much  the 


A    WEIRD    MUD    VOLCANO    IN    UPPER    Bl    RMA. — VISITORS    IGNITE     Mil-:    GASES   WITH    MAM   Ml     - 

Frotn  a  Photo. 

by  this  remarkable 
shows  a  section  of  only  a  few 
feet  of  land  below  Kalmath  ball,  in  Oregon. 
For  over  a  mile  along  both  banks  of 
the  stream  the  snakes  swarm  in  countless 
wriggling  hosts,  just  as  you  see  them  in  the 
illustration.  Fortunately  they  are  water-snakes, 
and  quite  harmless.  Indeed,  so  little  do 
they  trouble  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  of 
Kalmath  that  no  attempt  has  ever  been  made 
to  exterminate  them.  More  remarkable  still, 
although  the  place  is  literally  alive  with  snake's, 
they  are  positive  benefactors  to  the  inhabitants, 
as  we  will  show.  Twenty  miles  south  of 
Kalmath  deadly  rattlesnakes  are  almost  as 
numerous  as  water-snakes  at  the  Falls  ;  but 
curiously  enough,  so  great  is  the  enmity  exist- 
ing 1  iet  ween  the  two  species  that  the  water- 
snakes  kill  off  the  "rattlers"  in  great  numbers, 
thus    acting    the    part    of    positive    protectors 

appearance  of  lava.  A  curious  gurgling  sound 
is  audible  as  the  liquid  mud  reaches  the  top  of 
the  crater,  where  it  bursts  in  a  big  brown 
bubble.  A  pretty  effect  can  be  seen  at  night  by 
throwing  a  lighted  match  into  the  crater  just  as 
the  bubble  heaves  upwards.  The  gas  inside 
takes  fire  and  burns  brilliantly  until  the  rush  of 
vapour  has  subsided.  The  mud,  by  the  way, 
is  nothing  but  a  mixture  of  shale,  clay,  and 
water;  while  the  gas  which  provides  the  ejecting 
force  consists  of  carburetted  hydrogen  and 
probably  the  vapour  of  petroleum. 

The  two  next  photos,  are  an  amusing  instance 
of  the  readiness  and  intelligence  with  which  the 
British  tourist  abroad  uses  his  hand-camera. 
The  gentleman  who  sends  them  in  writes  as 
follows:  "While  spending  a  few  weeks  in  a 
small  French  village  last  spring,  I  was  much 
amused  one  Sunday  afternoon  in  watching 
the     efforts    of    two     gendarmes     to    remove 

Illi;    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

troll v  drawn   by  boys,  with  four  gendarmes 
.is  an  escort." 

It  is  an  extraordinary  kind  of  savage  oracle 
or  newspaper  which  is  depicted  in  the  next 
photo.  Here  we  see  a  number  of  shells  and 
stones  placed  on  the  ground  in  a  clearing. 
The  locality  is  the  remote  wilds  of  New 
Guinea.  To  this  place  come  every  morning 
such  natives  as  want  to  read  the  omens.  It 
a  bird  flies  on  to  one  of  the  stones,  or  if  a 
lizard  emerges  from  one  of  the  shells,  it  is 
supposed  to  portend  certain  things.  Each 
stone  represents  a  house  in  the  village.  If 
a  stone  is  found  to  be  disturbed  in  some 
way.  a  calamity  to  the  house  it  represents  is 
supposed  to  be  inevitable.  If  a  man  is 
taken  ill  in  the  village,  his  relatives  go  and 
consult  the  oracle.  Perhaps  a  small  lizard 
will  fix  the  blame  on  some  perfectly  inno- 
cent person  by  creeping  out  of  his  shell,  and 
then  the  sick  man's  relatives  repair  without 

VPE.  [Phi  - 

a  drunken  peasant  to  the  lockup.      Failing 
in    this,    they   put    him    temporarily    in    a 
kind  of  stable  or  hen-house,  while  they  went 
k    reinforcements.       Meanwhile     the 
ner  broke  some  bars  above  the  double 
doors  with    his  sabot,   reaching   the  ground 
safely  with  the   assistance  of  some  sympa- 
thetic bystanders,  as  is  admirably  shown  in 
the  first   snapshot.      His  triumph,   however, 
was  short-lived,    for   he  was   speedily  recap- 
tured :  and.  in  the  second  photo.,  we  see  his 
minious  removal    to   the   lock-up  on    a 

From  a] 


BY  GENDARMES.  [Photo. 

IO. — THIS    IS    HOW    THE    NEW   GUINEA    FOLK    CON- 
]■'>  om  a  Photo. 

delay  to  the  house  of  the  suspected 
person,  and  ask  him  why  he  has 
made  So-and-so  ill  !  The  person  so 
accosted  d$es  not  deny  it,  for  two 
reasons.  Firstly,  his  interviewers 
would  not  believe  him,  and  secondly, 
he  is  only  too  proud  to  be  credited 
with  such  powers.  He  is  then  beg- 
ged to  throw  his  magic,  or  witch, 
stone  into  the  sea.  In  the  photo- 
graph three  savages  are  seen  con- 
sulting the  oracle.  But  not  only  do 
they  come  here  in  matters  of  life  and 
death  and  war,  but  they  will  even 
come  to  read  the  omens  in  regard  to 
the  weather  and  items  of  local  in- 
terest. So  that,  in  point  of  fact, 
this  may  be  said  to  lie  a  Papuan 



11.-   pari   01    rm    sun   rbs  of  si  ity  sliding  down  1 

Fiow  a]  r    7%\K.    PER    DAY.) 

One's  first  impression  on  looking  at  the  next 
photo,  is  that  it  must  have  been  taken  from  a 
balloon  or  else  that  something  was  wrong  with 
the  artist's  camera.  Nothing  of  the  sort,  how- 
ever. It  only  illustrates  the  effect  of  a  land- 
slide (not  of  the  political  variety)  in  the  United 
States.  It  is,  in  fact,  a  portion  of  the  suburbs 
of  Seattle,  Wash..  "  on  its  way  from  Rainier 
Heights  to  Lake  Washington.'1  These  are  but 
a  few  out  of  fifty  or  sixty  structures,  all  of  which 
are  similarly  "on  the  move,"  their  average  rate 
of  travel  being  about  2 '-in.  per  day.  A 
section,  nearly  as  large  as  the  City  of  London, 
of  this  very 
"  progressive  " 
suburb  has  been 
"  moving  to  the 
front"'  of  the 
lake  shore  for 
nearly  three  years 
past.  A  large 
saw-mill  on  the 
shore  of  the  lake 
is  being  steadily 
pushed  out  and 
submerged  in  its 
waters  ;  while 
s  e  ve  r  a  1  v  e  r  y 
handsome  resi- 
dences and  a 
large  church  are 
on  the  verge  of 
destruction  on 

above ;  portions  of  their 
gardens  and  such  odd 
trifles  as  coach-houses  and 
other  out-buildings  have 
already  broken  away  and 
become  part  of  the  chaotic 
jumble  below.  The  pro- 
cess is  so  gradual,  how- 
ever, that  no  one  seems 
seriously  to  trouble  until  it 
becomes  no  longer  possible 
to  hold  the  furniture  in 
position.  While  most  of 
the  buildings  have  become 
utter  wrecks  and  collapsed, 
there  are  several  which 
have  moved  considerable 
distances  without  their 
occupants  abandoning 
them,  and  these  are  still 
occupied.  Needless  to  say, 
some  very  novel  legal 
™  — ^moMmi     questions  have  arisen  and 

O    LAKE    WASHING  I'  IN  •  ., 

[Photo.        are   occupying   the  courts 
in     connection    with 
this    extraordinary   occurrence. 

You  may  not  be  aware  that  there  is  a  happy 
island  off  the  coast  of  County  Donegal,  Ireland, 
called  Tory  Island.  It  is  three  miles  long  and 
has  a  population  of  something  under  four 
hundred.  We  say  "happy  island"  advisedly, 
because  the  inhabitants  pay  no  rent.  In  1878 
tluv  had  a  dispute  with  the  agent  of  the  property, 
and  refused  to  pay  their  rents.  Possibly  the 
poor  agent  realized  the  utter  impossibility  of 
collecting  the  money  without  the  aid  of  a 
gunboat  :  at  any  rate,  the  islanders  were  left 
unmolested,  and  now  we   are  informed  that   by 



•AY  no  RENT.       \A lex  A yton,  Londonderry. 



POT    THEV    KNOW    n     is    A    HINT    TO    DEI-ART.  [P/w/o. 

natural  process  of  time   they   have  become  the 

I,  or  at  least  the  prescriptive,  owners   of  the 

Landlordism    in    the     wilder    parts   of 

Ireland  evidently  has  its  drawbacks.    The  photo. 

i  a  very  good  idea  of    West  Street,    Tory 

id— the  Strand,  as  it  were,  of  this  free  and 

independent    island,    whose    inhabitants    know 

little  and  care  less  about  the  doings  of  the  great 

world  without. 

The  old   Norwegian  custom  of  bruragrauten, 
the  bride's  mush,'"'  is  very  curious.      It   is 
rved  at  Hardanger,  and  is  nothing  more  or 
s  than  the  last  course  served  at  the  wedding 
banquet.    It  is  made  of  either  rice  or  wheat  flour, 
in  a  big  kettle  and  then  carried  to  the 
it-house  to  be  served.     Directly  the  "mush  " 
has     been     eaten 
the  know 

it   is  time   t 
part.    It  is,  in  fact, 
a    concrete    hint. 
Our  ph  iws 

the  kettle  being 
carried  in  state-  to 
the  house, 

followed    by    the 
ks,     who     are 
armed  with  capa- 
ius   dishes  and 

Our  next  pi 
s  taken  in  the 
missionary     com- 
pound   at    Hi 
kan,  a  city  of  about 

20,000     inhabitants,     lying 
some    forty   miles   north   of 
Hankow,  the  capital  of  Cen- 
tral China.    Exclusive  of  the 
missionaries,    no    other  for- 
eigners are  to  be  found  there. 
The  school  seen  here  is  an 
"  I  Hish,"  or  free  school—  a 
very  meritorious  institution 
in   the  eyes  of  the  Chinese, 
who  have  a  proverb  to  the 
effect     that    "  children     un- 
taught, like  gems  unwrought, 
are  of  no  use."     They  have 
also  a   refreshing    fondness 
for     the     fascinating    word 
"  gratis."   This  being  a  boys' 
school,  there  should  be  no 
girls   in   it  ;    but   sometimes 
an  exception  is  made,  and  a 
group  of  girls  may  be  seen 
on  the  left-hand  side  of  the 
picture.     The   children   are 
from  six  to  twelve  years  of 
age,  and  say  their  lessons  aloud  in  unison,  making 
a  perfect  Bedlam  for  the  time  being.    The  work  is 
largely  repetition  in  these  early  years,  there  being 
very  little  attempt  made  to  develop  the  reasoning 
powers.     The  teacher  has  a  rather  hard  time  of 
it,  as  witness  the  wrinkles  in  his  forehead.     The 
photo,  provides  an  amusing  study  in  expressions. 

14.  — .  HOOL    IN    CENTRAL    CHINA. 


From  a   Photo. 





























(see  pace  238.) 

Vol.  IV. 

The  Wide  World  Magazine. 

JANUARY,   1900. 

No.  21 

In  the  Khalifa's  Clutches;    or,  My  Twelve  Years'  Captivity  in 

Chains  in  Omdurman.* 

By  Charles  Neufeld. 

IT  was  a  long  rigmarole  of  a  message 

Sa'Newg  he   sent,   and   it   wound  up  by  saying 

wife.      tnat  as  j  na(j   Deen  \\\  for  two  months, 

he  must  send  a  wife  to  attend  to  me, 
and  had  selected  for  the  purpose  a  daughter 
of  Abd  el  Latif  Terran.  This  was  making 
matters  worse  than  ever,  for  this  girl,  although 
brought  up  in  the  Soudan,  and  speaking  only 
Arabic,  was  a  French  subject,  being  the 
grand-daughter  of  Dr.  Terran,  an  old  employe 
of  the  Government.  She  was  only  nominally 
Mohammedan,  and  lived  in  the  "  Christian 
quarter."  When  marriages  took  place  in  this 
quarter  the  Mohammedan  form  of  marriage 
was  gone  through,  and  then  Father  Ohrwalder 
performed  the  Christian  religious  ceremony 
surreptitiously  later  in  the  day.  I  spoke 
to  him  about  the  Khalifa's  intention,  and  as 
he  knew  I  was  already  married,  he  advised 
me  to  try  and  get  out  of  the  proposed 
marriage  by  some  means  or  another,  as  it 
would  be  considered  binding.  After  casting 
about  for  excuses  which  I  thought  might 
appeal  to  the  Khalifa,  I  asked  Hamad'na 
Allah  to  inform  him  that  I  thanked  him  for 
his  selection  of  a  wife,  but  as  she  was  of 
European  descent,  had  been  brought  up  in 
a  rich  family  where  the  ladies  are  waited 
upon  and  never  do  any  work,  she  would  be 
no  use  to  me,  as  I  required  someone  to  nurse 
me  and  do  the  cooking  and  housework,  and  go 
to  the  bazaar  to  buy  food — all  of  which  this 
lady  had  had  servants  to  do  for  her. 

I   therefore  begged  to   be   allowed 
Neufeid    to    select    a    wife    of    the    country. 
^elcus°ed.e  The  latter  part  of  my  message  evi- 
dently   pleased    the    Khalifa.       It 
appeared    to    him    an    earnest   that    I    was 
"  content,"  but  again  he  undertook  the  selec- 
tion  of  the  woman.     When  Abdullahi  told 
a  woman  she  was  to  be  the  wife  of  anyone 
she  no  more  dared  refuse  to  consent  than  the 
man    she   was   allotted   to    dared    refuse   to 
receive  her.     Fearing  that  the  Khalifa  might 
send  me  someone  from  his  own   harem,   I 
asked  Nahoum  and  other  friends  to  find  me 
a  wife  in  a  great  hurry.     My  object  was  to 
her  into  the  place  before  Abdullahi  sent 

his  unwelcome  "  present,"  who,  on  arrival,  I 
might  send  back  on  the  plea  that  I  was  already 
married  and  could  not  support  two  wives. 
Nahoum  promptly  found  me  a  wife,  and  sent 
me  the  following  history  of  her. 

Uram  es  Shole  (the  mother  of  Shole — Shole 
being  the  name  she  had  given  her  first  child) 
was  an  Abyssinian  brought  up  from  childhood 

REQUIRED    SOMEONE     TO     NURSE     ME     AND     DO     THE    COOKING   AND 
From  a  Photo. 



Copyright,  1899,  by  the  International  News  Company,  in  the  United  States  of  America. 

nil-:    WIDE    WORLD    MAOA/INE. 

Greek   family   settled   in    Khartoum.     On 

ling  womanhood   she  was    married  to  one 

if   the    family.      On    the   fall    of 

:ni     her     husband,    with     seven     male 

relatives,  was  butchered  in  the  house  in  which 

•   had  taken  refuge.     I' mm  es  Shole  herself, 

with  her  three  children,  was  taken  as  "  property  " 

to  the  Beit  el  Mai.  where  she  was  handed  over 

mcubine  to  the  Emir  of  the  Gawaamah 

tril  ; 

Refusing   this   man's  embraces,  he  in 
Tw,fee*w   revenge  tortured  her  children  to  death, 
History.    Up0n   which    I" mm    es    Shole   escaped 
■     ulurman,   and    through   Abd  el 
ler,  the  uncle  of  the  Mahdi,  had  her  case 
Mohammad  Ahmed,  who,  after 
tails,  gave  her  a  written  docu- 
ment declaring  that,  as  she  had  been  married  to 
and    borne   children   to   a   free   man,   she  was  a 
woman,  and  to  make  certain  that  she  might 
never  be  claimed  as  a  slave,  the   document  also 

that  everyone  in  the  "  Christian  quarter  "  should 
married.  Umm  es  Shole  married  an  old 
and  decrepit  Jew,  whom  she  nursed  until  he 
died  two  years  later.  Returning  to  a  woman 
relative  of  her  husband's,  she  supported  the  old 
woman  and  herself  by  cooking,  preparing  food 
for  feasts,   sewing,  and  general  housework. 

This,  then,  was  the  wife  my  friends  had 
selected  for  me,  and  I  accepted  her  thank- 
fully—  but  there  was  a  hitch. 

When    she   was    approached    on    the 
Deciftiaedsf  subject,   she  positively  declined  to  be 

married  again,  and  it  was  only  upon 
her  being  told  that  I  was  ill,  and  might  die,  that 
she  consented  to  the  marriage.  You  see,  the 
lady  was  not  flattering.  I  had  to  appoint  a 
"  wakeel  "  (proxy,  in  this  instance)  to  represent 
me  at  the  marriage  and  the  festivities ;  Nahoum 
prepared  the  feast  at  his  house,  the  bride  pre- 
paring the  food  and  attending  to  the  guests. 
At  the  conclusion  of  a  few  days'  ceremonies  and 


was    ateekh  (freed)    by    the 

lared  that    she 
Mahdi  himself. 

When  the  Khalifa  Abdullahi  succeeded  the 
Mahdi  he  ordered  every  woman  without  a 
husband,  and  every  girl  of  a  marriageable  age, 
to  be  married  at  once.      He  was  most  particular 

feastings,  Umm  es  Shole  was  escorted  to  Khar- 
toum —a  married  woman,  and  introduced  for 
the  first  time  to  her  husband.  She  set  to  at 
once  with  her  household  duties  and  attendance 
upon  me,  and  during  a  long  and  weary  five 
months  nursed  me  back  to  life. 



As  can  well  be  believed,  Hasseena  resented 
no  less  bitterly  my  projected  marriage  with 
Umm  es  Shole,  or  anyone  else,  than  she  re- 
sented her  own  divorce.  And  this,  in  truth, 
she  resented  very  bitterly  indeed,  for,  passing 
as  the  wife  of  a  European  and  a  presumed 
"  General "  to  boot,  gave  her  a  certain  social 
status  in  Omdurman,  which  she  took  advantage 
of  when  visiting  in  the  various  ways  pointed 

Hasseena  argued  that  I  was  bound  to  keep 
her  for  at  least  two  years,  so  that  if  the  Khalifa 
sent  on  his  "  present,"  I  should  have  two  house- 
holds to  support  on  ten  dollars  a  month.  When 
making  my  plans  for  escape  Hasseena  was 
always  included.  She  was  to  have  got  away  on 
the  same  dromedary  as  myself.  When  my  guides 
returned,  I  now  reflected  ruefully,  they  would 
find  me  with  two  wives,  and  having  made 
arrangements  for  one  only,  they  might  demur  at 
taking  the  two.  Indeed,  the  probabilities  were 
they  would  abandon  the  thing  altogether,  fearing 
that  one  or  other  of  the  women  might  betray 
them,  which  would  mean  instant  execution  for 
them  and  imprisonment  for  me.  And  if  I  con- 
tinued to  keep  Hasseena,  she  might  steal  from 
some  stranger,  as  the  houses  of  my  friends  were 
now  closed  to  her,  and  then  I  should  be  sent 
hack  to  the  Saier.  Then,  again,  if  I  sent  her 
away,  she,  knowing  my  guides  and  all  my 
arrangements,  would  be  the  first  to  meet  them 
on  arrival  in  Omdurman,  and  would  insist  upon 
coming  away  with  me  under  threats  of  disclos- 
ing the  plot. 

It  was  a   most  awkward  fix  for  me  to 
Awk"wlrd  be  placed  in,  but  after  considering  the 

Fix#  whole  matter  most  carefully,  I  decided 
upon  sending  Hasseena  off,  and  trust- 
ing to  luck  for  the  rest.  I  had  hoped  she  might 
get  married  to  someone  in  Omdurman,  and 
then  I  should  not  have  been  afraid  of  her.  But 
she  returned  in  February,  1892,  some  months 
after  my  marriage  with  Umm  es  Shole. 

Hasseena,  doubtless,  had  for  me  the  Soudan 
equivalent  for  what  we  understand  as  affection. 
She  had  saved  my  life  when  we  were  first 
captured  ;  she  had  nursed  me,  as  only  a  woman 
can,  through  my  first  attack  of  typhus  fever,  and 
had  kept  me  from  starvation  during  the  famine. 
And  while  I  could  not  forget  all  this,  I  could 
not  forget  also  that  she  had  become  a  source  of 
great  danger  to  me  ;  and  although  my  treatment 
of  her  in  sending  her  away  when  I  did  might  to 
some  appear  harsh  in  the  face  of  what  she  had 
done  for  me,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  self- 
preservation  is  no  less  a  law  of  Nature  in  the 
Soudan  than  it  is  elsewhere.  I  supported 
Hasseena  for  nearly  two  years,  when  her  second 
child  died.     She   then   left  Khartoum,  where  I 

was  still  a  chained  prisoner  at  large,  and  went 
utterly  to  the  bad. 

I  heard  of  her  from  time  to  time,  and, 

KnownSof  on  my  release  in  September  last,  hear- 

Hasseena.  ing  she  was  at  Berber,  I  delayed  there 

until  I  had  provided  for  her  elsewhere 

—  only   to  receive  a  telegram  a  few  weeks   later 

saying  that,  hankering  for  the  life  she   had  led 

for  a  few  years  back,  she  had  run  off  to  return 

to  it. 

When  Father  Ohrwalder  escaped,  bringing 
with  him  the  two  sisters  and  a  negress,  Man- 
karious  immediately  set  about  finding  some 
reliable  messenger  willing  to  undertake  the 
journey  to  Omdurman  with  a  view  of  ascertain- 
ing if  my  escape  were  at  all  possible.  He 
argued  that  if  Father  Orhwalder  could  escape 
with  three  women  as  an  encumbrance  to  his 
flight,  there  was  nothing — provided  I  was  at 
liberty — to  prevent  my  escaping  also.  But 
those  who  knew  the  Soudan — and  it  was  only 
such  he  might  employ — argued  that  if  the 
remainder  of  the  captives  were  not  already 
killed,  they  would  be  found  chained  in  the 
prison  awaiting  their  execution. 

Months  slipped  away  before  Man- 
sa"o™r.  karious  could  find  anyone  to  under- 
take the  journey,  and  then  an  old  but 
wiry  desert  Arab,  El  Haj  Ahmad  Abou 
Hawanein,  came  to  terms  with  him.  Hawanein 
was  given  two  camels,  some  money,  and  a 
quantity  of  goods  to  sell  and  barter  on  his  way 

Some  time  in  June  or  July,  1894,  Abou  Kees, 
a  man  employed  in  the  Mission  gardens,  came 
to  me  while  I  was  working  at  the  mounds  of 
Khartoum,  and  whispered  that  a  man  who  had 
news  for  me  was  hiding  in  the  gardens,  and  that 
I  was  to  try  and  effect  a  meeting  with  him. 
The  man  was  Hawanein.  Always  suspicious 
of  traps  laid  for  me  by  the  Khalifa,  I  asked 
the  man  what  he  wanted.  He  replied  that 
he  had  come  from  friends  to  help  me.  He 
had  brought  no  letters,  but,  by  questioning  him, 
my  suspicions  disappeared,  and  I  was  soon  deep 
in  the  discussion  of  plans  for  my  escape.  The 
camels  he  had  brought  with  him,  he  said,  were 
not  up  to  the  work  of  a  rapid  flight,  and  he 
suggested  he  should  return  to  Assouan,  procure 
two  good  trotting  camels,  and  also  the  couple 
of  revolvers  I  asked  for,  as  it  was  more  than 
likely  I  should  have  to  use  them  in  getting  clear 
of  Khartoum. 

Soon  after  Hawanein's  departure  the  guide 
Abdallah,  who  brought  away  Rossignoli,  put 
in  his  appearance.  Ahmed  Wad  el  Feki, 
employed  in  Marquet's  old  garden,  one  day 
asked  that  I  might  be  allowed  to  call  and 
see  a   sick  man  at    his    house.      On    reaching 


introduced  me  to  a  young  man, 

illah,  who,    after   a    few  words,   asked  me 

i  him  the  following  day,  when  he  would 


1   met  my  "  patient  "  again,  when  he 

iBta££uaf  handed  me  a  bit  of  paper,  on  which 

"p**Un**"  faint   marks   were  discernible;    th< 

lie    said,    would    come    out    clear    on 
the    paper ;    and,    cauterization    being 
the   favourite 
remedies  in   the  Sou- 
me   live   char- 
without   exciting   any 
suspicion.    The  words 
which    appeared 
ved   that   the   man 
no   spy,    hut  had 
really  come  from   the 
ptian  War  Offi< 

we     had 
time    to  drop   into   a 
ission     of     plans 
men    employed 
in     the     place    came 
near,  and   we   had  to 
adjourn  until  the  fol- 
lowing   day,    when    I 
again  to  meet  my 
"patient."      On    this 
asion  we  were  left 
undisturbed,  and  fully 
ussed  and  settled 
upon  our  plans.     To 
escape     along    the 
tern   hank  of   the 
Nile    was    not    to    be 
thought  of;  this  would 
necessitate    our    pass- 
ing   Omdurman,    and 
to     pass     that     town 
unobserved   was   very 
improbable.       Abdul- 
lah,   having    left    his 
camels    and    rifle    at 

was  to  return   there  for  them,  and  then 
>ack  up  the  eastern  bank  of   the  Nile, 
long  which  we  were  to  travel  when  I  escaped. 

During    his    absence   I    was    to    send 

p*yl  vis'i ts. L' ' n m  es  Shole  on  weekly  visits  to  her 

friends  at   Halfeyeh ;    as  she  was  to 

pe  with  us,  this  arrangement  was  made   for 

a   twofold   purpose.      First,  her  visits  would  not 

ite  suspicion  at  the   critical   moment,  as  the 

pie  both  at  Halfeyeh   and   Khartoum   would 

become  accustomed  to  them  ;  she  was  also 

to  bring  me  the  promised  revolver  concealed   in 

her   clothes,   and    then    return    to    Halfeyeh    for 

another  visit.       She  and  Abdallah  would  keep  a 


watch  on  the  hanks  of  the  Blue  Nile  for  me 
and  assist  me  in  landing.  My  escape  would 
have  to  be  effected  in  my  chains,  and  these,  of 
course,  would  prevent  my  using  my  legs  in 
swimming.  I  was  to  trust  for  support  to  the 
pieces  of  light  wood  on  the  banks,  which 
children  and  men  utilized  for  holding  them  up 
when  disporting  themselves  in  the  Nile,  and  also 
to  the  current  and  whatever  help  I  might  get 

with  my  hands  for 
landing  on  the  oppo- 
site shore.  Abdallah 
went  off,  but  never 
came  back.  I  kept 
to  our  agreement  for 
months,  for  the  plan 
formed  with  Abdallah 
was  similar  to  that 
arranged  with  Hawa- 
nein  ;  and  besides 
this,  Abdallah,  in  the 
event  of  his  not  being 
able  to  find  revolvers 
at  Berber,  was  to 
continue  his  journey 
to  the  first  military 
post,  there  obtain 
them,  and  exchange 
his  camels  for  fast- 
trotting  ones,  as  those 
he  had  left  at  Berber 
were  of  a  poor  race. 
In  order  to  prove  to 
any  officer  he  met 
that  he  was  really 
employed  to  effect  my 
escape,  I  gave  him 
two  letters  couched 
in  such  words  that, 
should  they  fall  into 
the  hands  of  the 
Khalifa  or  any  of  the 
Emirs,  their  contents 
would  be  a  sort  of 
puzzle  to  them. 
Each  day  during  those  months  I 
Lo0News!Dr  looked  forward  eagerly  to  a  sign  from 
any  one  of  the  people  intrusted  with 
my  escape. 

For  various  reasons  I  considered  it  advisable 
to  interview  Abdallah  after  my  release,  and  did 
so,  but  to  make  certain  of  his  explanations,  I 
also  arranged  that  others  should  question  him 
on  the  subject  of  Rossignoli's  flight  and  his 
reasons  for  not  keeping  his  engagement  with 
me.     This  is  what  he  says. 

(  >n  leaving  Cairo  he  was  given  a  sort  of 
double  mission.  He  was  promised  three 
hundred  pounds  if  he  brought  me  away  safely, 



A  Tragi- 

and  a  hundred  pounds  if  he  brought  away  any 
of  the  other  captives.  Seeing  the  difficulties  to 
be  encountered  in  effecting  my  escape,  and 
appreciating  the  risks  unless  we  had  revolvers 
and  swift  camels,  he  decided  upon  "  working 
out  the  other  plan,"  as  he  expresses  it — viz.,  the 
escape  of  Rossignoli,  as  "  he  was  at  liberty  and 
could  go  anywhere  he  pleased,"  while  I  was 
shackled  and  constantly  under  the  eyes  of  my 
guards.  Instead  of  returning  for  the  camels, 
Abdallah  arranged  for  Rossignoli  to  escape  on 
a  donkey  as  far  as  Berber. 

When  some  distance  from  Omdurman, 
Rossignoli  got  off  his  donkey,  squatted 
spectacle.  on  tj-,e  ground,  and  refused  to  budge, 
saying  he  was  tired.  When  Abdallah 
tried  to  persuade  him  to  continue  the  journey, 
Rossignoli  refused  ; 
he  said  Abdallah 
was  only  leading 
him  to  his  death, 
and  demanded  to 
be  taken  back  to 
Omdurman.  For  a 
few  moments  Ab- 
dallah admits  he 
was  startled  and 
frightened.  To  go 
back  to  Omdurman 
was  madness  and 
suicide  for  him  ;  to 
leave  Rossignoli 
squatting  in  the 
desert  made  Cairo 
almost  as  dangerous 
for  him  as  Omdur- 
man, for  who  would 
believe  his  tale 
there  ?  He  felt  sure 
he  would  be  accused 
of  having  deserted 
the  man,  and  there 
was  also  the  chance 
of  Rossignoli  being 
discovered  by  any 
pursuers,  when  a  hue 
and  cry  would  be 
set  up  for  Abdallah. 
One  cannot  help  but 
admire  Abdallah's 
solving  of  the  diffi- 
culty.    There  was  a 

tree  growing  close  by  ;  he  selected  from  it  a 
good  thick  branch,  and  with  this  flogged 
Rossignoli  either  into  his  right  senses  or 
into  obedience  of  orders.  Then  placing 
him  on  the  camel  behind  him,  he  made  his 
way  to  Berber.  Here  Rossignoli,  instead  of 
keeping  in  hiding,  wandered   into  the  town,  was 

recognised  by  some  people,  and,  when  spoken 
to,  told  them  that  Abdallah  was  leading  him  to 
Egypt,  whereas  he  himself  preferred  to  return 
to  Omdurman.  Fortunately  native  cupidity 
saved  Abdallah;  he  "backsheeshed"  the  people 
into  a  few  hours  of  silence.  With  great  difficulty 
he  got  his  charge  clear  of  the  town,  and  with 
still  greater  difficulty  hammered  and  bullied 
him  into  Egypt  and  safety.  This  is  Abdallah's 
own  tale. 

He  assures  me,  and  I  believe  him, 
fo^Nlifeid.  ^at  it  was  his  intention,  as  soon  as 
he  had  handed  over  Rossignoli  safe, 
to  have  asked  for  the  revolvers  and  started  back 
to  try  and  effect  my  escape — though  risky  he 
knew  it  to  be  ;  but,  Rossignoli  having  betrayed 
his    name    in    Berber,  he  knew  well    that    the 

Khalifa  would  have 
men  waiting  for  him 
from  Omdurman  to 
the  frontier,  and  he 
showed  the  same 
sound  sense  in  flog- 
ging Rossignoli  that 
he  showed  in  set- 
tling down  with  his 
well-earned  hundred 
pounds  rather  than 
attempting  to  make 
it  into  four  hundred 
by  passing  the 

Rossignoli's  ab- 
sence was  not 
noticed  for  a  little 
time,  and  that  fortu- 
nately enough,  for  a 
donkey  leaves  much 
better  tracks  to 
follow  than  a  camel. 
The  Khalifa  was  not 
particularly  angry 
about  the  affair, 
although  he  im- 
prisoned for  a  day 
Mr.  Cocorombo,  the 
husband  of  Sister 
Gngolini,  the  former 
superioress  of  Father 
Ohrwalder's  Mis- 
sion ;  and  also  Ros- 
signoli's lay  com- 
panion, Beppo.  The  latter,  after  Slatin's  escape, 
became  my  fellow-prisoner  in  the  Saier. 

One  would  be  inclined  to  believe  that 
either  myself  or  some  dramatist  had  pur- 
posely invented  the  series  of  accidents  which 
cropped  up  to  frustrate  my  various  plans  for 



Excitement  U„~  ,-1 
overSlatinsIIL  a  u 

On    February    28th.    1895,   without   a 

Thinde'r-  w  warning.     I    was    SO    heavily 

boU       loaded  with  chains  that  1  was  unable 

to  move,  and   placed  under  a   double 

rd  in  the   hous  S  !  [amadan,  the 

rnor   o(   Khartoum.     At    firsl    I 

d  that  either  Abdallah  or  Hawanein  had 

I  and  imprisoned,  and  had  finally 

that  our  plots  had  been  divulged 

fore  it  was  with  no  little 

that   1   heard  the  questions  put  to  me 

_  the  escape  o(  Slatin.     1  denied  all 

i    any  arrangement 

d  with  it.     I  pointed  out  that  1  had  not 

oken  to,  or  heard  of  Slatin  directly  for 

tolers   and    guards    could 

I    w;  -  from  no  sense  of  justice  to  me,  but 

that  he  had  not  neglected  his  duty  in 

ping  a  strict  watch  upon  me,  that  Hamadan 

k  my  part  in  the  inquiry.     I  might  have  been 

again   released    had   not   Hawanein    put    in    his 

appearance  a  lew  days  after  the  escape  of  Slatin 

Slatin's  absence  from  his  usual 

had  not  been   reported  to  the  Khalifa  until 

three  days  after  his  escape  :   he  was  supposed  to 

be  ill. 

'  >n  the  third  day,  Hajji  Zobheir,  the 
of  the 
Escape.  Khalifa's  body- 
guard, sent  to 
his  house  to  inquire 
about  him.  Not  being 
satisfied  with  the  reply 
he  received,  he  informed 
the  Khalifa,  who  ordered 
an  immediate  search.  A 
letter  from  Slatin  to  the 
Khalifa  was  found  stick- 
ing in  the  muzzle  of  a 
rifle,  and  was  taken  to 
Abdullahi.  After  the 
usual  string  of  compli- 
ments and  blessings,  the 
r  continues  :  — 

ten  years  I  have  sat 
at  your  gate  ;  your  goodness 
and  grace  to  me  have  been 
great,  but  all  men  have  a  love 

family  and  country.  I 
have  gone  to  see  both';  but 
in  g< ■:■  g  I  -ill  hold  to  the 
true  religion.      I    shall  never 

ay  your  bread  and  salt — 
even  should  I  die.  I  was 
wrong  to  leave  without  your 
permission.  Everyone,  my- 
included,  acknowledges 
your  great  power  and  in- 
fluence. Forgive  me  ;  your 
are    mine.       I    shall 

r  betray  you,  whether  I 
reach  my  destination   or  die      F™Jf  V"A'  IBEAH,W  ™H 

upon  the  road.      Forgive  me  ;    I  am  your  kinsman  and  of 
your  religion  ;    extend  to  me  your  clemency.* 

Abdullahi,  on  first  realizing  that  Slatin 

KhaMfhaeand nad   actually   escaped,  and   had   had 

siatm.     aDout  tnree  ,jayS'  start  0f  any  pursuers 

he  might  send  after  him,  was  furious. 
Losing  his  temper  completely,  he  anathematized 
him  in  the  presence  of  the  assembled  emirs, 
kadis,  and  bodyguard.  He  reminded  them  that 
Slatin  had  been  received  with  honours  when 
first  tendering  his  submission,  as  he  had  openly 
professed  the  Mohammedan  faith  and  been 
circumcised  while  he  was  still  the  "  Turk " 
Governor-General  of  Darfur.  He  reminded 
them  also  how  he  had  been  allowed  to  bring 
into  the  camp  his  household,  bodyguard,  and 
servants,  and  had  been  attached  to  the  Mahdi's 
personal  suite,  of  which  he,  Abdullahi,  was  chief. 
Also  how,  with  Zoghal,  his  former  subordinate, 
he  had  been  intrusted  with  the  subjugation 
of  Said  Guma,  who  had  refused  to  surrender  El 
Fasher  when  ordered  to  do  so.  How  he  had 
treated  Slatin  as  his  son  and  his  confidant, 
never  taking  any  step  without  his  advice  and 
guidance.  But,  suddenly  pulling  himself  up, 
seeing  the  mistake  he  had  made  in  showing  how- 
much  he  had  been  dependent  on  the  fugitive,  the 

Khalifa  broke  off  short 
to  say  what  he  would  do 
to  Slatin  if  he  ever  laid 
hands  on  him,  and 
promised  a  similar  pun- 
ishment to  anyone  else 
who  returned  him  in- 
gratitude for  his  favours. 
Reading  out  aloud 
Slatin's  letter  to  him,  he 
calmed  down  on  reach- 
ing the  protestations  of 
loyalty,  and  ordered  the 
letter  to  be  read  in  the 
mosque  and  the  different 
quarters  of  Omdurman. 
After  the  public 
Di,sfp?n,eng  reading  of  the 
pripertyl  letter,  the  Kha- 
lifa sent  for  the 
officials   of    the    Beit   el 

*This  letter  was  found  on  the 
fall  of  Omdurman,  and  came  into 
the  hands  of  people  who,  probahly 
on  the  grounds  of  its  content> 
differing  from  those  given  by  Slatin 
after  his  escape,  published  it  in 
such  a  manner  as  to  lead  people  to 
believe  that  the  protestations  t 
loyalty  it  contained  were  sincere. 
In  my  opinion  the  letter  should  be 
looked  upon  as  a  clever  composi- 
tion to  humbug  Abdullahi.  so  that, 
in  the  event  of  Slatin  being  re- 
taken, the  protestations  of  loyalty 
would  .Tl  least  save  him  from  the 
hands  of  the  Khalifa's  mutilator  or 

A    FAL'ZI 


.Ol  IKED    LIKE   IN  THE 




Mai  and  ordered  them  to  take  possession  of 
Slatin's  house,  wives,  servants,  slaves,  land,  and 
cattle ;  at  the  same  time  giving  them  strict  in- 
structions, in  the  presence  of  all,  that  the  house- 
hold were  to  be  treated  gently,  as  being  the 
property  of  a  true  Muslim.  Slatin's  Darfurian 
wife,  Hassanieh,  whom  he  had  married  when 
Governor  -  General 
of  Darfur,  was 
claimed  from  the 
Beit  el  Mai  by 
Dood  (Sultan) 
Benga  as  of  a 
Royal  family,  and 
was  by  him  mar- 
ried to  another  of 
the  Darfurian  Royal 
family.  Desta,  his 
Abyssinian  wife, 
was  reduced  to  the 
position  of  a  com- 
mon slave. 

It  was  while  the 
Khalifa  was  await- 
ing the  return  of 
the  scouts  sent  out 
to  recapture  Slatin 
that  Hawanein  put 
in  his  appearance 
at  Omdurman.  He 
was  at  once  seized, 
accused  of  assisting 
in  the  escape  of 
Slatin,  and  also  of 
having  returned  to 
effect  mine.  Plead- 
ing ignorance  of 
myself  and  Slatin, 
he  was  not  be- 
lieved, but  was  first 
sent  into  the  Saier, 
and  then,  refusing 
to  confess,  taken 
out  and  publicly 
flogged  ;  even  this, 
however,  did  not 
Khalifa,  not  being 

INTO    A    SENSE    OF    MANHOOD.' 

extort  a  confession.  The 
satisfied,  ordered  yet  another 
flogging,  but  the  Ihsharas  interceded  for  Hawa- 
nein, and  succeeded  in  obtaining  his  release.  As 
my  would-be  deliverer  passed  through  the  portals 
of  the  Saier  I  passed  in — March  26th,  1895. 
Hawanein  lost  no  time  in  returning  to  Assouan, 
where  the  relation  of  his  experiences — with  his 
torn  back  and  unhealed  wounds  to  bear  him 
out — put  an  end  finally  to  all  attempts  in  that 
quarter  to  assist  me  in  any  way  whatever. 

It  might  be  as  well  that   I   should  not 
saieVonce  attempt    to  describe  my   mental    con- 
More.     ditjon  on  finding  myself  once  more  in 

the  ghastly  Saier  prison.  I  have  a  faint  idea 
of  what  my  state  must  have  been.  Despair 
cannot  describe  it — insanity  at  blasted  hopes 
might.  Yes,  I  must  have  been  insane  ;  but 
I  was  mentally  sound — if  such  a  contradic- 
tion of  terms  be  permissible.  I  remember  that 
for  days  I  shuffled  about,  refusing  to  look  at  or 

speak  to  anyone. 
Perhaps  what 
brought  me  round 
was  that,  in  my 
perambulations,  I 
came  near  the  Saier 
anvil  and  heard  a 
man  crying.  It 
was  Ibrahim  Pasha 
Fauzi,  Gordon's 
old  favourite,  who 
was  being  shackled. 
My  expostulations 
on  his  acting  as  a 
child,  and  bullying 
him  into  a  sense 
of  manhood,  again 
prevented  that 
slender  thread 
between  reason 
and  insanity  from 
snapping.  It  must 
in  some  way  have 
calmed  and  com- 
forted me  to  be 
brought  to  the 
knowledge  that 
others  were  suffer- 
ing as  much  as  I 
was,  and  like  a 
child  requiring  care 
and  attention  itself, 
giving  all  its  affec- 
tion and  sympathy 
to  a  limbless  doll, 
so  must  I  have 
given  my  sympathy 
to  Fauzi,  and  in 
so  doing  took  a  step  back  from  the  abyss  of 
insanity  which  I  was  certainly  walking  over  the 
edge  of. 

When  Said  Abd  el  Wohatt  was  transferred 
from  the  Khartoum  to  the  Alti  saltpetre  works, 
his  father-in-law,  Ali  Khaater,  the  storekeeper  of 
the  Omdurman  arsenal,  considered  he  was  no 
longer  obliged  to  risk  his  neck  by  mixing  the 
Khartoum  product  with  the  Fellati's,  or  sub- 
stituting for  it  the  good  saltpetre  in  stock.  A 
consignment  of  mine  was  consequently  sent 
direct  to-  the  powder  factory,  and  was  used  in 
making  what  Abd  es  Semmieh  and  Hosny,  the 
directors,  believed  would  be  a  good  and  powerful 


The   result,   while   being  eminently 

myself,  was  just  the  reverse  for 

■Me  for  making  the  stuff. 

V  |     being    certain    where    the    fault 

"«*  .   they  mixed   this   powder 

i  a  quantity  o(  really  good  powder 

.    the     Fellati's    product,    but    only 

in  spoiling  the  whole  bulk.     When 

my  nsignment  was  sent  in  they  carried 

me   experiments,  and,  discovering  where 

fault  lay,  sent  me  an  intimation  that  if  our 

not  turn  out  saltpetre  equal  in  quality 

rmerly  supplied   by  us,  I  should  be 

irted   to    the    Khalifa.       Nahoum    Abbajee, 

ring  o\  the  affair,  came  to  me  in  a  state  of 

tement,  and  pointed  out  the  danger  I  was 



I    WAS    RUNNING    INTO." 

running  into ;  and  as  he  was  then  trying  to 
think  out  an  invention  for  coining  money,  he 
suggested  that  he  should  apply  to  the  Khalifa 
for  my  services  in  assisting  him.  This  request 
Abdullahi  was  only  too  glad  at  the  time  to 
accede  to ;  saltpetre  was  coming  in  in  large 
quantities,  and  he  was  in  great  trouble  about 
his  monetary  system. 

Khalifa,   he   was   entitled   to   one-fifth  of 

all  loot,  property,  taxes,  and  goods  coming  in 
to  the  Beit  el  Mai;  and  as  all  property  of 
whatever  description  was  considered  to  belong 
primarily  to  this  administration,  it  followed 
that  Abdullahi  was  entitled  to  one-fifth  of 
the  property  in  the  Soudan.  But  as  he  him- 
self had  not  much  use  for  hides,  skins,  gum, 
ivory,  and  such  like,  he  took  his  proportion 
in  coin — after  putting  his  own  valuation  upon 
his  share. 

As  the  money  the  Khalifa  took  from 
omdurmkn.tlie  Beit  el  Mai  was  hoarded  and  never 
came  into  circulation  again,  a  kind  of 
specie  famine  presently  set  in.  Attempts  had 
been  made  in  the  early  days  of  Abdullahi's  rule 
to  produce  a  dollar  with  a  fair  modicum  of 
silver  in  its  composition  ;  but  Nur 
el  Garfawi,  Adlan's  successor  at 
the  Beit  el  Mai,  came  to  the  con- 
clusion evidently  that  a  coin  was 
but  a  mere  token,  and  that,  there- 
fore, it  was  immaterial  what  it  was 
made  of,  provided  it  carried  some 
impression  upon  it.  The  quantity 
of  silver  in  his  dollars  grew  less 
and  less,  and  even  then  was  only 
represented  by  a  light  plating, 
which  wore  off  in  a  few  weeks' 
time.  When  people  grumbled,  he 
unblushingly  issued  copper  dollars, 
pure  and  simple.  All  dollars  were 
issued  from  the  Beit  el  Mai  as 
being  of  value  equivalent  to  the 
silver  dollar,  and  when  the  baser 
sort  were  refused,  the  Khalifa 
decreed  that  all  future  offenders 
should  be  punished  by  the  confis- 
cation of  their  property  and  the 
loss  of  a  hand  and  foot.  The 
merchants,  though,  were  equal  to 
the  occasion.  When  an  intending 
purchaser  inquired  about  the  price 
of  an  article,  the  vendor  asked  him 
in  what  coinage  he  intended  to 
pay  ;  and  the  merchant  then  knew 
what  price  to  ask. 

As  the  silver  dollars 
gradually  disappeared, 
the  few  remaining  ones 
went  up  enormously  in 
value,  until  in  the  end  they  were  valued  at  fifty 
to  sixty  of  the  Beit  el  Mai  coins— so  that  an 
article  which  could  be  bought  for  one  silver 
dollar  could  not  be  purchased  under  fifty  to 
sixty  copper  dollars.  And,  although  a  rate  of 
i  xchange  was  forbidden,  the  Beit  el  Mai  took 
advantage  of  the  state  of  affairs  by  buying  in  the 
copper  dollars,  melting  them  up,  recasting  them, 
and  then  striking  from  a  different  die.     These 






coins  would  be  again  issued  at  the  value  of  a  silver 
dollar,  and  the  remaining  copper  dollars  in  the 
town  put  out  of  circulation  by  the  Beit  el  Mai 
refusing  to  receive  them.  To  make  matters 
worse,  the  die-cutters  cut  dies  for  themselves 
and  their  friends ;  and  it  was  well  worth  the 
while  of  the  false  (?)  coiners  to  make  a  dollar  of 
better  metal  than  the  Beit  el  Mai  did,  for  these 
were  accepted  at  a  premium.  The  false  coinage 
business  flourished,  until  Elias  el  Kurdi,  one  of 
the  best  of  the  die  cutters,  was  permanently 
incapacitated  by  losing  his  right  hand  and  left 
foot ;  and  this  punishment — for  a  time  at  least 
— acted  as  a  deterrent  to  others,  leaving  the 
Beit  el  Mai  the  entire  monopoly  of  coinage. 

Sovereigns  might  at  any  time  be 
DTraade.of  bought  for  a  dollar,  for  their  possessors 
were  glad  to  get  rid  of  them.  Being 
found  in  possession  of  a  gold  coin  denoted 
wealth,  and  many  people  attempting  to  change 
a  gold  piece  returned  home  to  find  their  hut  in 
the  hands  of  the  Beit  el  Mai  officials,  who  would 
be  searching  for  the  remainder  of  the  presumed 
"gold  hoard,"  and,  failing  to  find  one,  they 
would  confiscate  the  goods  and  chattels  of  the 
indiscreet  person.  The  trade  with  the  Egyptian 
frontier,  Suakin  and  Abyssinia,  was  carried  on 
through  the  medium  of  barter  and  the  Mustrian 
(Maria  Theresa)  trade  dollar. 

It  was  while  the  peculiar  currency  question 
was  at  its  height  that  Abbajee  came  forward 
with  his  scheme  for  a  coining  press  ;    and,  in 

under  Roversi,  in  the  department  for  the  re- 
pression of  the  slave  trade.  Although  ten  years 
had  elapsed  since  the  fall  of  Khartoum,  the 
arsenal  must  have  been  in  as  perfect  working 
order  as  when  Gordon  made  it  into  a  model 
Woolwich  workshop.  Power  was  obtained  from 
a  traction-engine,  which  drove  lathes,  a  rolling- 
mill,  drills,  etc.  ;  while  punches,  iron  scissors, 
and  smaller   machinery  were  worked  by  hand. 

In  the  shops  proper  were  three  engines 
w™k'lhops.and    boilers    complete,    ready    to    be 

fitted  into  Nile  steamers ;  and  dupli- 
cates and  triplicates  of  all  parts  of  the  machinery 
then  in  use  were  also  ready  in  case  of  accidents. 
Smelting,  casting,  moulding,  and  modelling  were 
all  carried  on  in  the  place.  The  store-room 
was  filled  with  every  imaginable  tool  and  article 
required  for  the  smithy,  carpenters'  shops,  and 
the  boats.  All  the  metal  of  the  Soudan  had 
been  collected  here.  There  were  parts  of  cotton 
presses  and  sugar  mills  ;  bars  of  steel  and  iron  : 
ingots  of  brass  and  copper ;  iron,  copper,  and 
brass  plates  ;  and  the  heavier  class  of  tools  and 
implements.  I  was  assured  by  Osta  Abdallah, 
a  rivetter  in  the  shops  in  Gordon's  time,  that 
there  was  enough  material  in  the  place  to  build 
three  more  boats  and  keep  the  whole  fleet 
going  for  many  years.  He  did  not  exaggerate, 
either.  All  other  administrations  were  supplied 
by  the  Khartoum  arsenal  with  whatever  they 
required  in  the  way  of  tools,  furniture,  iron 
and    other  metal  work,    cartridge  presses,   and 


From  a] 


order  that  I  might  assist  him,  I  was  transferred 
to  the  Khartoum  arsenal.  I  was  obliged  to 
give  up  my  quarters  in  the  Mission  buildings, 
and  live  with  the  bodyguard  of  thirty  Baggaras 
in  the  house  of  Hamadan,  the  Mahdist  <  '.overnor 
of  Khartoum.  The  arsenal  was  presided  over 
by    Khaleel    Hassanein,    at    one    time   a   clerk 

steel  blocks  for  coinage  ;   and  very  efficiently 
indeed  was  the  work  turned  out. 

The  little  time  I  spent  in  the  arsenal 
Hoiwadeey  was>  °f  course,  fully  occupied  with  the 


men     were 


Coinage    question.      Two 

kept  constantly  engaged  casting  square 
blocks   for  the  Omdurman  mint.     These 


shed  and  cut   in   Omdurman, 

lerally  in  use  at  the 
»sibly    two    hundred    men    wen 
in    the    melting   of    the    copper  and 
t  into  moulds  the  size  and  thickness  ol 
rhe  discs  were  next  passed  on  to 
ve  them  the  impression.     This 
iy   placing  the  disc  on  the  lower 
and    then    hammering    the    upper    block 
n  ::.      The  impressions  produced  were  in  the 
r  :    the   coins    spread    and    split, 
onstantly  splitting  and 
breaking.      After  we 
had  studied  the  pro- 
■  ■( :ss,    and    Abbajee 
had     explained     his 
ideas   of  a  press,    I 
suggested  we  should 
commence     opera- 
tions with  the  punch- 


on  the 




rimented  until  we  had  succeeded  in  smash- 
ing dies  and  spoiling  sheets  of  copper — and  in 
the  end  smashing  the  machine  itself;  when 
Abbajee.  as  chief  of  the  operations,  was  roundly 
Being  of  an  excitable  temperament,  he 
wanted  me  to  take  part  of  the  blame,  but  I  only 
laughed  at  him.     Then  it  was  that  I  learned  he 

had  just  reason  to  be  angry  ;  he  had  gone  surety 
for  me  with  the  Khalifa,  and  as  I  was  expecting 
Hawanein  and  Abdallah  every  day,  I  kept  the 
quarrel  going  until  Abbajee  left  the  work  in  dis- 
gust. You  see,  I  wished  him  to  be  out  of  the 
way  when  I  escaped.  His  return  to  Omdurman, 
leaving  me  in  complete  charge  of  the  invention, 
put  an  end  to  his  surety  for  me.  I  might  have 
saved  myself  this  trouble,  and  the  temporary 
misunderstanding  with  my  old  friend,  for,  before 
I  had  time  to  settle  upon  an  idea  for  a  coining 
press,  Slatin  effected  his  sensational  escape,  and 
I  was  taken  back  to  the  Saier. 

I    have    been    frequently   asked    what 
estimate    should    be    put    upon    the 
Khalifa's  buried  treasure.    Really,  it  is 
next  to  impossible  to  say;  one  thing 
only  is  certain  :  All  good  gold  and  silver  jewel- 
lery  and    coins    have    altogether    disappeared 
during    the     last     fifteen     years  —  though,     of 
course,  thousands  of  individuals  may  have  their 
hoards  here  and  there.     Some  idea 
of  what  the  Khalifa's   treasure  may 
amount   to   might   be  gleaned   from 
an  examination  of  the  Beit  el  Mai 
books,  for  these  were  well  kept.  The 
real   question   is :    Where   is  Abdul- 
lahi's  wealth  ?     But  this  is  a  matter 
which  people  need  not  trouble  them- 
selves    about.        It     was    generally 
believed   in    Omdurman    that   those 
who  actually  buried  the  money  were 
soon  afterwards  buried  themselves — 
"  Dead  men  tell  no  tales."     I  doubt 
myself  if   the   Khalifa's   hoards   will 
ever    be     found  —  officially.        The 
fortunate  discoverers  are  hardly  likely 
to   exhibit  any  particular  anxiety  to 
ask  their  friends  or  the  Government 
to  share  in  their  good  fortune.     Per- 
haps a  small  amount  may  be  found, 
but  it  will  be  a  very  small  one.    The 
few  millions  the  Khalifa  has  buried 
in  various  places  will,  no  doubt,  be 
discovered  some  day,  and  we  shall 
hear  about  it — but  a  long  time  after 
the  fact. 

It  was  some  days  after  my  return 
to  the  Saier  before  I  learned  that  I 
had  been  imprisoned  against  the 
wish  of  the  Khalifa  and  Yacoub; 
but  Hamadan  and  Khaleel  Has- 
sanein,  fearing  that  I  might  escape,  declined  to  be 
responsible  lor  me  any  longer,  arguing  that 
Slatin's  escape  had  been  effected  through  Govern- 
ment agents, and  that  mine  would  certainly  follow. 
Therefore,  in  deference  to  the  wishes  of  Hassa- 
nein  more  than  those  of  Hamadan,  the  Khalifa 
ordered  my  return  to  the  Saier.     But  it  is  very 


probable  that  he  sent  Idris  es  Saier  instructions 
how  to  treat  me  ;  so  that,  taking  it  all  in  all,  my 
lite  was  not  rendered  so  unendurable  as  it  had 
been  on  my  first  entry  into  the  prison. 

Added  to  Abdullahi's  kindly  interest  (?) 
"interest.'^  m  me>  Idris  himself  had  become  a  sort 

of  reformed  character ;  he  had  tasted 
the  sweets  of  imprisonment  himself,  and  also  the 
lash  he  had  been  so  generous  with.  He  had 
even  experienced  what  it  was  to  be  robbed  on 
the  Nebbi  Khiddr  account ;  the  tables  had,  in 
fact,  been  completely  turned  on  him,  and  he  had 
learned  a  lesson.  When  Adlan  was  executed 
and  his  house  searched  for  incriminating  papers 
without  result,  Idris  es  Saier  was  accused  by  the 
Khalifa  of  having  assisted  Adlan  in  disposing  of 
the  documents  he  was  in  search  of.  Idris  was 
then  imprisoned  in  his  own  house  and  flogged 
into  the  bargain.  He  was  in  dis- 
favour for  some  time,  and  this  gave 
the  released  Baggara  prisoners  an 
opportunity  of  getting  even  with 
him.  They  explained  the  cruel  Nebbi 
Khiddr  extortion  to  Abdullahi,  who 
ordered  Idris  to  repay  all  the  moneys 
he  had  collected  on  this  account.  He 
was  deprived  of  all  he  had,  but 
right  up  to  the  end  any  former  Bag- 
gara prisoner  in  want  of  a  dollar 
knew  where  to  find  one.  He  would, 
in  fact,  present  himself  to  Idris,  and 
ask  for  a  further  contribution  towards 
a  settlement  of  his  claim. 

These  importunities  actually 
Gloie"Bl|s.drove     Idris     into     begging 

from  the  prisoners.  As  Idris 
never  knew  when  the  next  call  would 
be  made  upon  him,  he  found  it 
politic  to  be  as  kind  and  considerate 
to  the  prisoners  as  possible,  and  he 
relaxed  discipline  to  the  utmost.  This 
state  of  affairs,  added  to  the  presumed 
instructions  of  the  Khalifa  regarding 
myself,  must  have  accounted  for  Idris 
assembling  the  gaolers,  and  telling 
them  in  my  presence  that  I  was  only 
brought  into  the  Saier  to  prevent  any 
Government  people  carrying  me  off 
to  Egypt ;  also  that  if  any  one  of  them 
begged  money  from  me  or  ill-treated  me  in  any 
way,  he  would  be  imprisoned,  flogged,  and 
deprived  of  his  post.  Umm  es  Shole  and  her 
child  were  to  be  allowed  to  come  into  the 
prison  at  any  hour  they  chose — but,  and  this 
spoiled  all,  I  was  never  to  be  allowed  to  sleep 
out  in  the  open,  and  must  pass  my  nights  in  the 
Umm  Hagar.  I  have  already  described  a  night 
in  this  ghastly  "  Black  Hole  "  ;  but  it  may  not 
be  out  of  place  to  try  and  give  a  slight  descrip- 


tion  of  the  first  night   Ibrahim    Pasha    Fauzi 
one  of  Gordon's  favourite  officers — spent  in  that 
inferno,  especially  as  he  wishes  me  to  do  so. 

When  taken  to  the  anvil,  as  I  have 
already  remarked,  Fauzi  broke  down 
completely,  and  was  carried  off  in  a 
swoon  to  the  Umm  Hagar,  where  he 
was  placed  sitting  with  his  back  in  the  angle  of 
the  wall  farthest  from  the  door,  and  there  left, 
as  I  was,  to  "  come  round."  When  the  first 
batch  of  prisoners  was  driven  in  at  sunset  there 
was  room  for  all  to  lie  down  on  the  foul  and 
saturated  ground.  But  when  the  second  batch 
was  driven  in  about  an  hour  and  half 
later,  those  lying  down  had  to  sit  up  with 
the  new-comers  ;  and  poor  Fauzi's  out- 
stretched legs  gave  a  dry  and  comfortable  seat 
to  four  big  Soudanese.     I  was  driven  in  with  the 


third  batch  after  the  night  prayers,  and  then 
all  in  the  Umm  Hagar  had  to  stand  up  or  be 
trampled  upon.  Now  Fauzi,  still  suffering  from 
the  effects  of  the  shell  wound  he  received  in 
one  of  the  sorties  from  Khartoum,  with  four 
people  sitting  or  standing  on  him,  and  being 
heavily  chained  as  well,  was  unable  to  rise  to 
his  feet.  I.  could  hear  him  from  my  place  near 
the  door  feebly  expostulating  with  the  people 
who  were  standing   upon  him.     I   thought  that 

[Ill;    WIDE     WORLD     MAGAZINE. 

rampled  to  death,   and  in 

I  .  ommenced  to  fight  my 

11.  striking  friend  ami  foe  indis- 

harder  as    I   received 


A  m   in  pro-! 

E*^**nl-.  the    few  yards  1  had  to  travel,  as 

Main  in  the  darkness  who 

they  had  received,  and  all  struck 

My  friends  told 

that  1  was  a  "shaitan  "  (devil)— 

id   they  showered  other  dubious 

pon  me.      But  I  reached  Fauzi. 

g   the  uproar,   had  opened 

binary,   they  commenced 

•   the   heads  of  all  they  could  reach 

3  and  whips.     While   the   uproar 

height,    ami    the   prisoners    swaying 

side   to  side,    I    recognised    the    voices 

>ne   or  two  near    Fauzi    who    were    under 

to    me    for    occasional    little    kind- 

in     the     way     of    food  :     and    enlisting 

rvices    on    most  extravagant  promises, 

tackled    the    people    standing    on    Fauzi's 

.    pushed    them    away,    and    then    made    a 

of  barricade    round  him   with  our  bodies. 

In  clearing  the   space  we  must  have  struck  each 

r   as   often   as    we   struck   others  whom   we 

wished   to   get   out   of  the  way,  and  Fauzi,  the 

unfortunate,    half   asphyxiated,    could    not    tell 

whether  an  attempt  was  being  made  to  murder 

or  rescue  him.      When  we  did  at  last  get  him 

we  had  to  use  a  bit  of  old  rag  as  a  sort  of 

punkah  in  order  to  bring  him  round ;    then  he 

babbled.     About  midnight  the  doors  of  the  cell 

were  thrown  open  again,  and  about  twenty  men, 

each  wearing  a  shayba,  thrust   into  the    place. 

Practically   there   was    no   room   for  them,    but 

had  to  be  driven  in  by  some  means. 

i  make  space  for  them   the  gaolers 
a*ftUtapot!"r'-'^>rt.  d  to  a  favourite  device — throw- 
ing into  the  cell  handfuls  of  blazing 
straw  and  grass,  at  the  same  lime  laying  about 
the  bare  heads  and  shoulders  of  the  prisoners 
with    their   huge   whips.     The    scene    must    tie 
imagined.     Fauzi,  seeing  the  fire  falling  on  the 
heads   of  the   prisoners,   believed    that    he   had 
really  been  sent  to  hell ;   he  even  communed 
with     himself    in    a   dazed    sort    of   way   as    to 
er   he  was  in  hell  or  not.      He  appeared 
:dl    to   memory  all   that   he  had   ever  read 
of  the  place  of  torment,  and  tried  to  compare 
the  picture  his  brain  had  formed  of  it  from  the 
descriptions   with   what    he   was   now   actually 
experiencing,  and  he  came  to  the   conclusion 
that  he  could  not  be  in  hell,  as  hell  could  not  be 
so  bad.     At  this  stage  I  was  able  to  get  him   to 
take  notice  of  me,  and  we  discussed  hell  and 
orments   until  sunrise.     But  nothing  could 

even   now  shake   Fauzi's  opinion  that  hell  could 

bad  as  such  a  night  in  the  Umm  Hag 
and  the  worst  lie  can  wish  his  deadliest  enemy 
is  to  pass  such  a  night.  To  Youssef  Mansour 
he  wishes  an  eternity  of  them.  This  Mansour 
was  formerly  an  officer  in  the  Egyptian  Army, 
who  had  surrendered  with  the  garrison  at  El 

He  afterwards  became  the  favourite  of 
aTpens1on.  the  Mahdi,  the  commander  of  his 
artillery,  and  commanded  it  at  the  great 
and  final  Battle  of  Onidurman.  It  was  on  the 
representations  of  Mansour  that  the  Christian 
captives  were  circumcised,  and  Fauzi  placed  in 
the  Saier — as  he  (Fauzi)  was  known  to  be  loyal 
to  the  Government,  and  Mansour  was  afraid 
that  if  the  Government  troops  advanced  Fauzi 
would  seize  an  opportunity  of  joining  them. 
And,  as  I  write,  I  hear  that  Mansour  is  coming 
to  Cairo  to  claim  his  back  pay  and  pension 
from  the  Egyptian  Government ! 

Among  others  who  spent  that  memorable 
night  in  the  Saier  were  Ahmed  and  Bakheit 
Egail ;  Sadik  Osman  ;  Abou  el  Besherand  others 
from  Berber,  who  were  arrested  for  assisting  in 
the  escape  of  Slatin.  They  were  later  trans- 
ported to  the  convict  station  at  Gebel  Ragaf  on 
the  evidence  of  the  guide  Zecki,  who  conducted 
Slatin  from  Omdurman  to  Berber.  Zecki  had 
been  arrested  with  them  on  suspicion  of  com- 
plicity in  the  escape,  and  had  confessed  that  he 
had  been  engaged  by  Egail  and  others  to  bring 
away  from  Omdurman  a  man  with  "  cat's  eyes  " 
— but  did  not  know  who  the  man  was. 

Close  to  the  common  cell  was  a  kind  of  off- 
shoot of  it — a  smaller  chamber  named  "  Bint 
Umm  Hagar"(the  daughter  of  Umm  Hagar), 
which  took  the  place  of  the  condemned  cell  in 
Europe.  On  my  return  to  prison  I  learned 
that  my  old  enemy,  Kadi  Ahmed,  had  been 
confined  there  for  a  year;  the  ostensible  reason 
for  his  imprisonment  was  that  he  had  been  in 
league  with  the  false  coiners,  and  had  made 
large  amounts  of  money.  But  the  real  reason 
was  that  the  Khalifa  was  angry  with  him  on 
account  of  the  death  of  Zecki  Tummal,  who 
had  conducted  the  Abyssinian  campaign  when 
King  John  was  killed. 

Kadi  Ahmed  had  been  induced  by 
ju^tiJl!  Vacoub  to  sentence  Zecki  to  imprison- 
ment and  starvation  ;  so  when  Ahmed's 
turn  came,  the  Khalifa  said,  "  Let  him  receive 
the  same  punishment  as  Zecki."  He  was  placed 
in  the  Bint  Umm  Hagar,  and  after  about  ten 
months  the  doorway  was  built  nf  and  there 
Ahmed  was  left,  with  his  ablution  bottle  of 
water  only,  for  forty-three  days  according  to 
one  tale,  and  fifty  days  according  to  another. 
When,  for  days,  no  sounds  had  been  heard  from 



his  living  tomb,  he  was  presumed  to  be  dead; 
but  on  the  doorway  being  opened  up,  to  the 
astonishment — not  to  say  superstitious  fear — of 
all,  he  was  still  alive,  but  unconscious.  And  the 
once  big,   fat  Kadi  had  wasted  to  a  skeleton. 

"IMF.    ON'CK    BIG,    FAT    KADI    HAD    WASTED    TO    A   SKI  (lIR 


Abdullahi  must  have  received  a  fright  too,  for 
he  ordered  Ahmed  to  be  tenderly  nursed  and 
given  small  doses  of  nourishing  food  every 
twenty-four  hours,  until  the  stomach  was  able  to 
retain  food  given  oftener.  In  spite  of  all  care 
and  attention,  however,  the  Kadi  died  on  or 
about  May  3rd,  1895.  He  was  regretted  by  no 
one  but  the  Khalifa,  in  whose  hands  he  had 
been  a  willing  tool,  dispensing  justice  (?)  as  his 
master  dictated  it — only  to  die  the  lingering 
death  in  the  end  to  which  he  had  condemned 
so  many  at  his  imperious  master's  nod. 

Kadi  Ahmed's  place  in  the  "  Bint  "  was  soon 
taken  by  his  successor — -Kadi  Hussein  Wad 
Zarah.  His  offence  was  that  of  refusing  to 
sentence  people  unjustly  when  ordered  to  do  so 
by  the  Khalifa  and  Yacoub. 

When  first  walled  up  in  his  tomb,  he 
WAiiYe.up  was  given  through  a  small  aperture  left 
for  the  purpose  a  little  food  and  water 
every  four  or  five  days,  but  towards  the  end  of 
July,  1895,  the  doorway  was  built  up  entirely, 
and  Zarah,  not  being  the  big  stout  man  that 
Ahmed  was,  starved,  or  rather  parched,  to  death 
in  about  twenty-two  or  twenty-three  days.  It  is 
hot  in  the  Soudan  in  July. 

During  the  first  weeks  of  my  imprisonment, 
Umm  es  Shole  had  little  difficulty  in  begging  a 
small    quantity    of    grain,    and    borrowing    an 


occasional  dollar  to  keep  us  in  food  ;  but  soon 
people  became  afraid  of  assisting  us  any  further, 
and  we  were  bordering  upon  semi-starvation, 
when,  in  the  month  of  September,  an  Abyssinian 
woman  came  into  the  prison  to  see  me  under 
pretence  of  requiring  medical  treat- 
ment. She  handed  me  a  small  packet, 
which  she  said  contained  letters  from 
my  friends.  They  had  been  given  to 
her  by  a  man  outside,  who  had  said  that 
he  also  had  money  for  me,  and  wished 
to  know  whom  he  should  pay  it  to. 

Three  days  elapsed  before  I 
o?  Letters,  found  an  opportunity  of  open- 
ing   the    packet   unobserved, 
and,   as  with  all  letters  received  and 
written    then,    I    had    to   wait   until   I 
found  myself  alone  in  the  pestilential 
atmosphere  of  an  annexe  to  the  place 
of  ablution.     The  packet  contained  a 
letter  from  my  sister,  posted  in   1891  ; 
another  from  Father  Ohrwalder,  and  a 
note  from  Major  Wingate.     They  were 
all   to   the   same  import — to  keep   up 
hope,  as  attempts  were  to  be  made  to 
assist   me.     Nearly  two  months   must 
have  slipped  away  before  I  succeeded 
in  getting  my  replies  written.     I  sent 
these  to  the  guide,  Onoor  Issa,  who 
promised  he  would  return  for  me  in  a 
few  months'  time.    Father  Ohrwalder  has  handed 
me  the  letter  I  sent  to  him.     The  following  is 
in  brief  its  contents  : — 

I  have  received  your  letter  inclosing  that  of  my  sister 
written  four  years  ago,  and  the  note  from  Wingate. 
Before  everything  else,  let  me  thank  you  for  the 
endeavours  you  are  making  to  assist  me.  Your  letter 
was  delayed  in  reaching  me  owing  to  the  imprisonment 
of  the  guide,  followed  by  the  watch  kept  upon  us  after 
Slatin's  escape,  and  my  transfer  to  the  Saier,  from  which 
I  hope  to  be  released  soon.  There  is  great  need  of  coins 
here  ;  up  to  the  present,  no  one  has  been  able  to  produce 
a  silver-resembling  dollar. 

If  I  could  produce  such  a  coin  it  would  lead 
a  Letter  tl)  my  release  from  prison,  and  lend  proba- 
Neufeid.    bility  to  my  chances  of  escape.     Could  you 

send  me  instructions  for  the  simple  mixing  of 
any  soft  metals  to  produce  a  silvery  appearance,  and  send 
me  some  ingredients  ?  I  should  like  also  an  instrument 
to  imitate  the  milling  of  coins  ;  the  dies  can  be  cut  here. 
I  should  be  glad  of  any  tools  or  instruments  which  you 
think  cannot  be  had  here.  If  I  am  not  released  by  the 
time  these  arrive,  1  feel  sure  that  I  shall  be  released 
through  their  agency.  Please  send  the  inclosed  notes  to 
their  respective  destinations,  and  when  the  answers  arrive, 
send  them  on  with  the  things  I  ask  for.  Can  you  give 
me  any  news  as  to  how  my  business  is  progressing  at 
Assouan,  and  the  transactions  of  my  manager  ?  Our 
common  friends  here  are  in  a  sad  way.  Slatin  will  have 
told  you  all  about  the  forced  circumcisions  ;  and  now  all 
the  Christians  have  been  ordered  to  marry  three  or  four 
wives,  and  are  engaged  with  marriage  ceremonies. 
Beppo  and  I  are  in  prison  together  in  chains  ;  other 
prisoners  are  Ibrahim  P'auzi,  and  Ibrahim  Hamza,  of 
Berber,  who  was  arrested  after  Slatin's  escape  ;    Ahmed 

llll.    WIDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 

en  trans- 

tions.     Your 

:h  him    J  which  have  been 

I    1    inclose    lii>  receipt    for  them. 

;    I   incl  Wingate.      I 

but  I  under- 


not   let  the    newspaper 

o'ThV  5  you  know,  if  they 

Prr***"  le  my  head.     Perhaps,  if 

get  them  I  mething 

i  help  in.  :    "We   hear  that,  after  the 

\  scape  :  he 

Mahdieh  with  the  saltpetre; 

Vbdallah,  who  is  now 

1.1  is  in  the  .  and 

in    death  close   at   hand  :    the 

believe  I  lation  of  Slatin." 

In   the  same   letter  I  ask  for  details  of  any 
sums  which  may  have  been  sent  up  to  me,  and 
r   a  quantity 
s,  ami 
no  fewer 
than     2,500    aphro- 
disiac   pills,     which 
Idri-  S   ier    had 

f(  >r.  These 
would  have  given 
me,  as  they  had 
given   many    others. 

rtain  free 
throughout  the  Sou- 
dan. They  were  re- 
quired strong— as  I 
wrote  to  Father  Ohr- 
wa  1  d  er  —  s  t  r  o  ng 
enough  to  have 
•_  on  Idris  him- 

oor  Issa  went 
oft"  with  my  replies, 
undertaking  to  re- 
turn in  a  few  months, 
after  having  made 
arrang  ents  be- 
:i  Berber  and 
Cairo  for  my  escape. 
During  his  absence 
I  was  to  scheme  for 
any   excuse    to    get 

out  of  prison  :  escape  from  there  was  impossible. 
Onoor — or  the  translators  of  his  accounts — are 
mistaken  in  saying  he  actually  met  me  in  prison. 
.  all  negotiations  were  carried  on 
through  the  Abyssinian  woman  he  employed  to 
come  into  the  prison  for  "  medical  attendance," 
and  Umm  es  Shole.  Sometimes  days  and  days 
elapsed  between  the  visits,  in  all  covering 
maybe  two  months. 

There  were  times  or  mental  tension  in 
■rTmeTfn  the  Saier  of  Omdurman.  To  me  ill  luck 
the  saier.  an(j   g00(j   \uck   appeared  to  be  ever 

IS    A    I'ORTRAIT   '>!•'  ONOOR    ISSA,  THE   GUIDE    WHO    KEPT   GOING    BACK- 
kDS    AND    FORWARDS,    TRYING    TO    I  R.    NEUFELD's    RELEASE. 

striving  for  ascendency  during  my  long  cap- 
tivitv.  Good  lurk  gained  in  the  end — the 
same  good  link  which  had  accompanied -the 
Sirdar  throughout  his  daring  campaign  to  con- 
quer, not  only  Abdullah,  but  the  Soudan,  and 
which,  God  grant,  may  ever  accompany  him  in 
future  campaigns  ;  but  the  cup-and-ball-catch- 
and-miss  strain  was  to  me  terrible.  My  one 
prayer  was  that  the  end — any  end — might  come. 
Liberty,  of  course,  I  always  hoped  for;  but 
I  often  discovered  myself  speculating  as  to 
whether  it  was  true  or  not  that  those  suddenly 
decapitated  by  a  single  blow  experienced  some 
seconds  of  really  intellectual  consciousness.  I 
used  to  wonder  to  myself  whether,  when 
my  head  was  rolled  into  the  dust  by  the 
Khalifa's    executioner,     there    would    be    time 

to  give  one  last  look 
of  defiance  ;  and  yet, 
when  one  comes  to 
think  of  it,  there  was 
nothing  very  strange 
in  such  contempla- 
tion. What  soldier 
or  sailor  has  not 
often  in  his  quiet 
moments  tried  to 
picture  his  own 
death  —  defiant  to 
the  last  as  he  goes 
down  before  a  more 
powerful  enemy? 

And,  after 
Re™**.'  all,  thous- 
ands and 
thousands  of  men 
and  women  in  civi- 
lized countries  are 
enduring  a  worse 
captivity  and  im- 
prisonment than 
ever  I  or  any  one 
else  did  in  the  Sou- 
dan ;  but  they  are 
unfortunate  in  this 
— that   no   one  has 

thrown  a  halo  of 
romance  over  their  sufferings.  My  lot  was  a 
hard  —a  very  hard— one,  I  must  admit ;  but  the 
lot  of  some  other  captives  was  such  that 
thousands  in  Europe  would  have  actually 
coveted,  and  gained  by  the  exchange. 

ion  after  the  departure  of  my  messenger, 
Onoor  Issa,  I  was  saved  any  further  trouble  in 
the  way  of  scheming  for  excuses  to  get  out  of 
the  Saier.  Awwad  el  Mardi,  the  successor  of 
Nur  el  Gerafawi  as  the  Amin  Beit  el  Mai  on  the 
appointment  of  the  latter  as  director  of  the 
Khalifa's  ordnance  stores,  had  been  approached 



by  Nahoum  Abbajee  and  others  on  the  subject 
of  the  extraction  of  gold  and  silver  from  certain 
stones  which  had  been  discovered  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood. Awvvad  sent  Nahoum  to  see  me 
about  the  erection  of  a  crushing-mill  or  furnaces. 
My  interview  with  Nahoum  was  a 
intlrvri™w.  stormy  one  ;  it  commenced  by  his  up- 
braiding me  for  the  pranks  I  had 
played  in  smashing  the  arsenal  punching- 
machine  when  we  were  associated  in  the 
establishment  of  a  mint.  The  more  I  laughed 
the  angrier  Nahoum  became  ;  he  is  deaf,  and  like 
many  deaf  people,  invariably  speaks  in  ar 
undertone,  which  is  as  distressing  to  the 
hearer  as  is  the  necessity  of  bawling  back  his 
replies.  It  is  next  to  impossible  to  hold  a 
conversation  with  a  deaf  person  without  the 
natural  result  of  raising  the  voice  exhibiting 
itself  in  the  features.  The  annoyance  is  there 
plain  enough,  and  when  the  face  flushes  with 
the  unwonted  exertion,  your  deaf  friend  thinks 
you  are  getting  angry,  and  follows  suit.  This  is 
precisely  what  Abbajee  did.  He  showed  me 
his  specimens,  and 
I  bawled  into  his 
ear,  "Mica  —  not 
gold.  Not  silver 
— mica";  and  he 
yelled  back,"  Cold 
—  silver  —  gold  !  " 
The  noisy  discus- 
sion, accompanied 
as  it  was  with 
frantic  gesticula- 
tions, attracted 
other  prisoners 
round  us,  and  Na- 
houm went  off  in 
high  dudgeon. 
When  he  had  gone 
a  few  of  my  friends 
asked  why  I  did 
not  offer  to  assist 
him,  and  even  if 
the  thing  was  a 
failure,  the  y 
thought  I  was 
clever  enough    to 

find  something  else  to  do.  Said  they,  "  Promise 
anything,  provided  it  gets  you  out  of  the 


Reasons     ,vl-.,7.1, 
for  Delay.    "  lllCIl 

should  occupy  months 

there    were    excellent    reasons, 

I   might   not   confide  to  them. 

any    work     I    undertook    to   do 

and,  if  necessary,  years 

in  completion.  To  offer  to  assist  Nahoum  in 
extracting  gold  and  silver  from  such  stones  meant 
that  two  or  three  weeks  at  the  outside  would 
evidence  our  failure,  and  then  it  would  be  the 
Saier  again  for  me.  Whether  any  work  I  under- 
took to  do  for  the  Khalifa  was  to  end  in  success 
or  failure  was  immaterial  to  me  ;  but  what  was 
very  material  was  that  the  result — whatever  it 
was  to  be — should  not  be  attained  for  months, 
as  by  the  time  my  guides  returned  the  conditions 
surrounding  my  escape  might  have  so  changed 
as  to  necessitate  an  entire  change  in  plans  and 
programme.  They  might  even  entail  the  guides' 
return  to  Cairo  or  the  frontier,  and  this  journey 
occupied  months.  However,  the  advice  to 
accept  Nahoum's  proposals,  and  trust  to  luck 

to  discovering 
some  other  excuse 
for  remaining 
out  of  the  Saier 
when  failure  could 
no  longer  be  con- 
cealed, appealed  to 
me ;  and,  in  reply 
to  my  offer  ol 
assistance,  a  mes- 
senger came  from 
the  Khalifa  order- 
ing the  Saier  to 
hand  me  over  to 
the  director  of  the 
Beit  el  Mai.  Other 
instructions  were 
that  the  bars  and 
heavy  chains  were 
to  be  taken  off  my 
feet  and  legs,  and 
I  was  to  be  secured 
by  a  single  pair  of 
anklets  connected 
with  a  light  chain. 

'  MICA — NOT   GOLD.'  " 

{To  be  con tinned.) 

Vol.  iv.— 30. 

L  Underground    Fires   at    Broken    Hill. 

\\\    Ras   i>i    S.    Macntsskn. 

sident  in  the  famous  "Silver  Town"  of  New  South  Wales  sends  a  thrilling  account  of   the  vast 
subterranean    fires    that     have    blazed    fiercely    for    years    in    the    fabulously     rich     Proprietary    Mine, 
of   remarkably    impressive    photographs,  showing  how    these    weird    conflagrations   were 
fought   by    means  of  water,  steam,  sand,  and  carbonic   acid   gas. 

IRES  that  have  laid  in  ashes 
immense  areas  of  valuable  property  ; 
hies  that  have  destroyed  villages  and 
towns,  and  even  large  portions  of 
cities,  are  so  common  nowadays 
that  they  are  dismissed  with  mere  daily  Press 
mention.  A  fire  that  hums  for  years  is,  however, 
still  a  novelty.  In  Australia  two  such  fires  blaze 
in  the  one  mine,  and  that  the  greatest  silver-lead 


From  a  Photo. 

mine  of  the  world.  Mine  fires,  unfortunately,  are 
not  rare — not  much  rarer  than  fires  in  busy 
centres  of  population  ;  but  the  great  majority  of 
them  are  extinguished  in  the  course  of  a  few  days 
or,  at  most,  weeks.  Usually  a  sea  of  water  is 
pumped  down  on  the  fired  area,  and  the  con- 
flagration swamped  out  ;  then  the  water  is  re- 
pumped  to  the  surface,  and  after  a  few  days' 
muddy,  uncomfortable  work,  the  men  are 
to  resume    their   ordinary    labours.     But 

the  occurrence  of  an  underground  fire  that 
cannot  be  conquered  is  fortunately  uncommon. 
Any  fire  that  occurs  below  the  surface  of  the 
earth,  where  thousands  of  men  imperil  their 
lives  in  their  daily  work,  is  an  event  that  calls 
for  sympathy — sympathy  for  the  poor  miners, 
and  sympathy  for  the  unlucky  company  owning 
the  property.  For  the  mine  is  then  thrown  out 
of  work  and  men  cast  into  the  ranks  of  the 
unemployed.  The  company  is 
saddled  with  a  dead  asset; 
and  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances affluence  on  the  part 
of  both  masters  and  men  is 
apt  to  give  way  to  dire  poverty. 
Too  often,  also,  a  fire  of  such 
a  serious  nature  is  attended 
by  loss  of  life. 

Two  gigantic  fires  of  the 
extraordinary  character  indi- 
cated here  occurred  in  the 
world-famous  Broken  Hill  Pro- 
prietary Silver  and  Lead  Mine, 
at  Broken  Hill,  in  New  South 
Wales.  Broken  Hill  is  a 
strange  town,  that  has  risen 
within  the  last  fifteen  years  in 
the  centre  of  the  Australian 
desert,  in  the  midst  of 
red  sand  and  barren  ridges, 
on  what  was  once  part  of 
a  large  sheep  station. 
Fifteen  years  ago  there  was 
no  Broken  Hill,  only  a 
paddock  of  Mount  Gipps 
Station,  where  scrub  and  salt  bush  vainly  strove 
to  flourish,  and  wallabies,  emus,  and  wild  turkeys 
wandered  unmolested.  To-day  the  town  has  a 
population  of  28,000  souls.  It  is  connected  by 
railway  with  Adelaide  ;  is  supplied  with  most  of 
the  adjuncts  of  civilization — though  some  of 
them  are  costly  luxuries  ;  and  by  reason  of  the 
magnitude  of  its  exports  and  imports  it  is 
second  in  importance  in  New  South  Wales  only 
to  Sydney,  the  capital  city. 



Yet  within  three-quarters  of  a  mile  of  the 
centre  of  this  astonishing  town  there  still  burns 
a  fire  that  broke  out  on  July  21st,  1895.  About 
a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  it — maybe  less — there 
burns  another,  which  first  caused  alarm  on 
September  12th,  1897.  The  Broken  Hill 
Proprietary  Mine  proper  consists  of  three 
blocks  held  under  mineral  lease,  each  about 
forty  acres  in  extent.  From  May,  1885,  until 
May,  1898,  these  blocks  produced  352,780 
tons  of  lead  ;  93,648,83702.  of  silver,  and 
35,288oz.  of  gold.  And  they  distributed  to  the 
shareholders  in  dividends  ,£6,616,000,  and  in 
bonuses  and  "  pup  "  shares  ,£2,408,000.  These 
are  figures  to  juggle  with.  The  blocks  com- 
prising the  mine  are  numbered  11,  12,  and  13. 

The  first  fire  in  the  mine  broke  out  in  Block 
11  somewhere  between  the  100ft.  and  300ft. 
levels.  Only  a  few  days  previously  a  deplorable 
disaster  in  the  South  mine,  in  which  nine  men 
lost  their  lives,  had  plunged  the  town  into 
mourning.  Between  seven  and  eight  o'clock  on 
the  evening  of  July  21st,  1895,  the  alarm  of  fire 
was  given.  The  alarm  signalled  was  for  "along 
the  line  of  lode."  What  such  an  outbreak 
meant  few  of  the  citizens  knew  from  actual  ex- 
perience. Miners  and  others  hurried  to  the 
mine,  to  see  nothing  but  a  thin  smoke  whirling 
upwards     from     the     Drew,      McGregor,    and 


From  a  Plwto. 

Weatherly  shafts,  and  also  from  one  of  the 
open  cuts.  The  manager  of  the  mine  and  his 
officers  sped  below,  to  find  the  drives  filled 
with  a  druse,  stupefying  mist,  which  rapidly 
affected  their  senses  and  caused  a  hasty  retreat. 
An  endeavour  was  made  to  locate  the  seat  of 

the  fire,  but  the  thing  was  impossible.  Men 
attempted  to  enter  the  fumes,  onl\  to  stumble 
back  choking  and  gasping.  Quickly  the  fumes 
and  smoke  thickened.  The  fire  brigade  arrived, 
and  adopted  the  usual  methods  of  fighting  a 
fire.  Hose  was  sent  below  and  water  pumped 
in  the  direction  of  the  flames — or  where  the 
flames  were  supposed  to  be.  Then  they  could 
not  be  seen.  Very  soon  it  was  realized  that  the 
enemy  was  no  ordinary  one,  and  would  require 
a  particular  form  of  attack.  What  was  the 
form  ?  No  one  knew  for  certain.  Had  any- 
one been  able  definitely  to  locate  the  trouble  a 
decided  scheme  might  have  been  adopted.  But 
no  one  was.  Theory  was  all  very  well,  but  the 
result  of  experience  was  what  was  wanted,  and 
that  was  lacking.  Meanwhile  the  fire  spread. 
Stopes,  cross-cuts,  drives — all  became  ablaze. 
The  huge  timbers  of  the  mine  (Oregon  pine 
chiefly — a  very  resinous  wood)  smouldered  and 
fired  and  generated  poisonous  gases.  "Pyrolig- 
neous  gases"  these  have  since  been  called,  their 
chief  property  being  best  represented  by  the 
chemical  formula  C02.  You  all  know  what  that 
means — "after-damp.''  It  became  more  and 
more  dangerous  to  go  into  the  smoke,  and  men 
had  to  confine  their  operations  chiefly  to  the 
edges,  where  the  fumes  were  weakest.  Towards 
midnight,    the   signal   was  given  by  whistle  for 

'•  rescue  men  "  ;  and  for 
the  first  time  the  ordinary 
citizen  understood  that 
something  serious  was 
amiss.  The  response  to  the 
call  was  generous,  and  with 
increased  assistance  more 
work  was  accomplished. 

The  flames  had  been 
seen  at  the  bottom  of 
Harry's  Open  Cut,  and 
huge  volumes  of  smoke 
ascended.  From  the 
shafts,  too,  the  smoke 
increased.  More  hose  was 
laid,  more  water  poured 
below,  down  shaft  and 
open  cut  alike.  Under 
the  orders  of  the  manage- 
ment all  energies  were 
then  directed  towards  im- 
prisoning the  fire,  to  pre- 
vent its  extending ;  and 
throughout  that  fateful 
night  large  bodies  of  sweating  men  laboured 
bravely  erecting  barricades,  fighting  to  stay 
their      livelihood      being      entirely     swallowed 


What  was  done  that  night  will  ever 
live  in  the  memories  of  many.  Lives  were 
endangered  every  moment ;  hardy  miners  were 

Mil      wmi.    world    MAGAZINE. 

From  a  Photo. 

utterly  prostrated.  Sheer  fatigue  knocked  over 
nearly  as  many  as  the  gases.  Yet  all  worked  on, 
with  what  result  no  one  knew,  for  the  smoke 
•  denser  and  denser.  It  crept  through  the 
ices  of  the  harricades,  rushed  along  the 
unprotected  drives,  and  thickened  in  the  cut, 
until  the  workers,  casting  about  for  a  simile, 
thought  of  themselves  as 
working  in  the  bowels  of 
a  live  volcano.  All  this 
time  the  heat  was  intense, 
and  was  ever  increasing. 

In  the  morning  a  more 

.  t  plan  of  campaign 
was  adopt..].  It  was 
proved  impossible  to  get 
at  the  seat  of  the  fire 
in  the  underground  work- 
ings. Therefore,  the  only 
thing  to  do  was  to  tackle 
it  from  above.  The  blaze 
was  directly  underneath 
the  bottom  of  what  was 
known  as  Harry's  Open 
Cut,  one  of  a  series  of 
huge  quarries — this  one 
was  then  75ft.  deep  — 
where  the  ore  was  dug 
out  in  the  manner  of  quarrying  ordinary 
building  stone.  Many  lengths  of  fire-hose 
laid  into  the  cut,  and  tons  of  water 
thrown  in,  in  the  hope  that  this  would  percolate 
through  the  earth  on  to  the  blazing  timbers. 
Thus  an  endeavour  was  made  to  flood  part  of 
the  mine.  Work  elsewhere  on  the  property  was 
stopped,  to  allow  a  full  supply  of  men    to    be 

kept  on  the  great  task. 
N  et  the  fire  gained.  And 
it  was  not  for  a  couple  of 
days  that  the  magnitude 
of  the  outbreak  was 
thoroughly  understood. 

The  news  of  the  fire 
was  telegraphed  all  over 
Australia,  and  soon  from 
Melbourne  and  Adelaide 
rushed  special  trains  con- 
veying the  directors  of  the 
company  and  the  best  fire 
experts  of  the  great  cities. 
The  latter  arrived,  and 
saw,  and  advised  —  and 
admitted  themselves 
beaten.  To  check  a  con- 
flagration that  threatened 
to  destroy  a  whole  city 
would  have  been  child's 
play  compared  with  what 
confronted  them.  Huge 
charges  of  "fracteur"  were  exploded  at  the 
bottom  of  the  cut,  with  the  idea  of  dislodging 
masses  of  the  earth  into  the  burning  area, 
so  as  to  smother  the  fire.  But  the  blasts 
only  made  huge  gaps  in  the  ground,  from  which 
additional  sickening  fumes  arose.  More  water 
was   poured    below,    through    these    openings. 

From  a] 

AM.    THAI 

ON    THE    Sl'KEACE. 


Tons  of  sand  were  also  washed  down.  Steam 
and  carbonic  acid  gas  were  tried,  but,  like  a 
dragon  of  fable,  the  fire  area  ate  and  drank  all 
that  was  given  it — and  still  burned.  For  full  a 
fortnight  operations  for  extinguishing  the  fire 
were  carried  on  night  and  day  ;  then  fears  began 
to  be  entertained  for  the  safety  of  other  parts  of 
the   mine.      Would  the  mine    stand  the    strain 



HBr^  £S 

pr-.-*             ^ 

"      1    ' 

^k  1  -•■ 


Froma]       extinguish  the  fires,     steam  and  sand  were  also  tried.        [Photo. 

of  the  immense  volume  of  water  sent  into  it  ? 
This  was  a  question  anxiously  asked.  The 
management  was  afraid,  so  active  fighting  was 
eased  and  chief  attention  turned  to  pumping 
out  the  water  that  lay  in  the  lower  levels 
several  feet  deep,  and  to  blocking  in  the 
fire  so  completely  that  it  could  not  pos- 
sibly spread.  This  was  accomplished,  the  fire 
caged,  and  work  in  the  rest  of  the  mine  gradu- 
ally resumed.  But  the 
area  blocked  off  was  a 
large  one.  The  remain- 
der of  the  blocks  was  not 
extensive  enough  to  find 
work  for  all  the  nun 
previously  employed; 
neither  could  all  the  sur- 
face mills  be  kept  running 
with  the  output  from  the 
safe  section.  So  of  the 
2,900  men  on  the  pay  list, 
1,260  had  to  be  dis- 

The  Block  1 1  fire,  truly, 
was  a  sad  occurrence  for 
many.  No  one  was  killed 
in  it — nor,  strange  to  say, 
more  than  temporarily 
affected  by  working  in  the 
gaseous  fumes  ;  but  of  the 
1,260  men  thrown  out  of 
work,  very  many  for  a 
long  time  could  not  find 
employment  elsewhere.  Not  very  long  before, 
an  historical  strike  had  terminated,  and  the 
workers  were  just  beginning  again  to  "feel  their 
feet."  The  fire  threw  them  back,  and  much 
suffering  followed. 

No  attempt  has  yet  been  made  to  take  away 
the  blockings.  The  lire  is  still  active,  and  a 
current  of  air  let  in  would  only  revive  it.     Often 

from  the  bottom  of  the  big  cut 
steam  and  smoke  rise.  On  very 
muggy  days  the  smell  of  the  burn- 
ing timbers  and  ores  spreads  over 
the  town.  Frequently  the  men 
employed  in  the  cut  (which  has 
been  considerably  deepened  since 
1895)  find  the  ironstone  on  which 
they  may  be  working  so  hot  that 
it  has  to  be  continually  doused 
with  water  to  allow  necessary 
operations  to  proceed. 

The  other  great  fire  that  has  dis- 
turbed the  regular  working  of  the 
Proprietary  Mine  was  discovered 
between  six  and  seven  o'clock  on 
the  morning  of  Sunday, 
September  12th,  1897.  Two 
watchmen,  Carroll  and  Bolitho  by  name, 
going  their  rounds,  were  amazed  on  entering 
Darling's  200ft.  level  (Block  12)  to  find  that  a 
stiff  blaze  was  roaring  there,  and  had  apparently 
been  roaring  for  some  time.  Block  12  adjoins 
Block  1 1,  and  the  site  of  the  fire  was  only 
about  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  that  of  its  pre- 
decessor. The  alarm  was  soon  given.  First 
the  fire-whistles  were  sounded.      Immediately 

From  a] 

I.IKE    A    DRAGON    OF    FA1ILE,    THE    FIRE   ATE    AND    DRANK    ALL   THAT   WAS   GIVEN    IT. 



afterwards  the  whistles  for  the  "rescue  men" 
were  heard.  The  Proprietary  alarm  was  taken 
up  by  the  other  mines,  and  in  a  few  minutes 
pandemonium  reigned.  Everyone  enjoying  a 
late  Sunday  snooze  was  awakened.  Experience 
teacheth  ;  and  profiting  by  the  lesson  of 
Block  11,  a  scheme  of  attack  was  soon 
formulated.        Unfortunately      the      fire       had 


!  V    Till;    FIRE    HAD   OBTAINED    A    STRONG    FOOTING    EKE    IT   WAS    DISCOVERED. 
Front  a  Photo. 

lined  a  strong  footing  ere  it  was  discovered, 
How  it  started  will  always  remain  a  mystery 
The  mine  had  been  emptied  of  men  at 
midnight,  and  no  one  but  the  watch- 
men should  have  gone  below  after  that. 
However,  the  fire  arose  in  some 
worked -out  stopes  ;  and  probably 
.Messrs.  Carroll  and  Bolitho  thought 
that  from  there  least  of  all  was  danger 
to  be  expected. 

Two  of  the  first  men  to  descend  to 
burning  region  were  General 
Manager  Stewart  and  Mine  Manager 
Horwood.  One  descended  Dickenson's 
and  the  other  Darling's  shaft.  Both 
had  to  return  to  the  surface  very 
quickly,  however,  for  the  gases  bred  by 
the  blazing  timbers  were  overpowering. 
Within  an  hour  the  iooft,  200ft.,  and 
300ft.  levels  were  all  thickly  crowded 
with   sn  But   the   lessons  taught 

over  two  years  before  were  stern  ones  ; 
and  no  matter  how  great  the  danger, 
prompt  action  had  to  be  taken.  No 
dilly-dallying  was  permissible.  The 
danger  was  acute  none  denied  that  ; 
therefore,  the  management  called  for 
volunteers  to  go  below,  and  no  one 
but  a  volunteer  was  allowed  to  risk  his 
life.  No  on-.-  was  ordered  to  descend, 
yet  the  result  was  splendid  unanimity 
in  everything  that  was  done  ;  and  the 
firemen,  both  those  of  the  town  and 
thos--  of  the  mine,  were  promptly  on 
hand.  The  officers  were  allotted 
various  tasks  in  the   sections,  and  the        /.,.„','„' 

where    they 
did  not  ask  the 

aim  of  all  was,  first  to  con- 
line  the  fire,  and  then  to 
extinguish  it.  The  first 
only  proved  possible. 
Again  was  an  open  cut 
(Baxter  and  Saddler's 
this  time)  of  immense 
value  in  tackling  the 
troubled  area.  The  heart 
of  the  fire  was  directly 
under  the  cut,  and 
several  worked-out  shafts 
were  available  for  dis- 
tributing the  water. 
Water  and  sand  and  steam 
were  brought  into  play. 
All  surface  machinery 
was  stopped,  so  that 
every  available  drop  of 
water  could  be  utilized. 
General  Manager  Stewart 
and  his  officers  led  the 
attack  below  ground,  and 
themselves  could  not  go  they 
men  to  venture. 


a\  BELOW    GROUND."  [P/wlO. 



The  writer  has  seen  bravery  in  various  shapes 

on  the  battlefield,  in  a  railway  smash,  in  a 

shipwreck — and  yet  he  asserts  that  heroism 
greater  than  that  shown  by  the  workers  at 
Block  12  fire  could  not  be.  Death  from 
burning,  or  suffocation,  or  falling  ore  stared 
every  man  who  went  below  in  the  face. 
There  was  no  wind  above  ground,  so  the 
smoke  and  fumes  hung  about  the  workings 
heavy  and  foul.  Into  these  gases  the  men  had 
to  penetrate,  carrying  with  them  lengths  of 
piping  or  hose,  or  bags  of  sand  and  mullock. 
Part  of  the  fire  could  at  times  be  seen.  An 
attack  would  be  made  on  the  point  for  a 
moment,  and  then  the  holder  of  the  hose  would 
have  to  run  far  back  for  a  mouthful  of  com- 
paratively fresh  air.  More  time  was  spent  in 
inhaling  air  than  in  actual  work.  To  remain  in 
some  spots  more  than  a  minute  was  to  court 
death.  But  bit  by  bit  the  work  proceeded. 
Hundreds  of  thousands  of  gallons  of  water  were 
thrown  on  and  around  the  conflagration  from 
every  side.  The  untouched  portions  were  made 
safe.     But  at  a  cost — a  frightful  cost ! 

Three  men  lost  their  lives  in  the  fire,  from 
suffocation.  "Nearly  ioo  others  were  for  a  time 
lingering  on  the  borderland  'tween  life  and  death 
— some  for  half  an  hour,  others  for  several  hours. 
As  they  laboured,  men  dropped  down  like  logs, 
stupefied  and  senseless,  and  had  to  be  dragged 
out  of  danger  by  their  gasping  comrades.  Some 
recovered  in  a  minute  or  two  on  reaching  a 
clear  drive.  Many  had  to  be  helped  to  the 
surface,  where  four  doctors  were  on  continual 
duty  for  two  whole  days  and  nights.  A  tem- 
porary hospital  was  erected  of  canvas  and 
Hessian  to  contain  about  eighteen  patients. 
This  soon  proved  much  too  small,  however, 
and    its    size    was    doubled.      Saddening  and 


heartrending    it    was    to    see    strong,     brawny 
miners    brought    to    the    surface    in    the    arms 
of     comrades     and     chums.        Some    looked 
already  like  dead  men ;  others,  just  what  they 
were — men    in    a    bad    faint    or    fit.       Others 
arrived  from   below  literally  "  drunk  "  with  the 
fumes,   and  in  their  delirium  eager  to  fight  all 
and  sundry  ;  or   babbling  hysterically   of  green 
meadows     and     running     brooks.       Managers, 
bosses,    miners,  all    were    alike    affected.      A 
number    had,    after  a    prolonged    stay    in    the 
hospital,  to  be  sent  home  disabled.     But  many, 
in  half  an  hour's  time,  were  ready  and  anxious 
to   go    below  again.      Those   who   had   mates 
underground  would  not  remain  idle  while  they 
were    in  danger.      Time  and   again   the   same 
men  were  overpowered  by  the  terrible  "C02" 
and  hospitalled,  until  the  medical  men  earned 
much    abuse     by    absolutely     forbidding     any 
"  fumed  "     man    to    return    to    anything    but 
surface  work.     Yet  a  few  did  venture    below, 
in    the    face    of    this    prohibition.      All    griev- 
ances    against    the    company    were    forgotten. 
"  We  must  save  the  mine,"  was  the  motto  of 
each  ;    and   well    they    acted   up    to    it.      All 
were   fighting   for   their   daily   bread,    but  that 
alone  did  not  inspire  them.     Rescues,  deserving 
of  the  V.C.  or  Albert  Medal,  were  accomplished, 
but  the  heroes'  only  reward  will  be  in  historical 
recollection  and  in  the  small  gratuity  presented 
by  the  company — and  quickly   "melted."     So 
effective  was  the  work  accomplished  that  within 
three  days  the  fire  was  virtually  hemmed  in  and 
under  control ;  then  the  blocking-up  was  more 
leisurely  and  thoroughly  carried  out. 

For  a  couple  of  months  afterwards  the  fumes 
in  the  mine  were  so  powerful  that  the  men  were 
at  times  dazed  and  overcome.  For  over  a  week 
a  doctor  was  always  on  the  mine  and  was 
seldom  idle.  Nearly  twelve  months 
afterwards  a  party  of  men  clearing 
out  an  old  shaft  near  the  fire  area 
had  a  narrow  escape  from  death, 
and  were  rescued  only  at  great  risk. 
Block  12  fire — like  Block  n  — 
still  burns  away  merrily  in  a  limited 
section,  fed  by  its  own  fumes,  the 
gases  in  the  ore,  and  the  charcoaled 
timber.  When  it  will  be  a  thing  of 
the  past  is  beyond  human  ken. 
Sad  to  say,  both  these  tremendous 
and  apparently  perpetual  subter- 
ranean fires  are  originally  believed 
to  have  been  the  work  of  incen- 
diaries. There  are  man)'  indications 
in  that  direction,  but  although  sus- 
picion, especially  in  the  later  case, 
rested  on  certain  men,  evidence  of 
guilt  could  never  be  produced. 

H  WAS    ERECTED    A  I 

DUTY.  \Photo. 

Cyclist     v.     Tiger       For    Dear    Life. 

]\\     DR.    /.    E.    BlRASKY,    OF    ESSEC,    SCLAVONIA. 

A  curious  meeting— An  excursion     M.  Gilbert  sees 
jer     Desperate  attempt  to  escape — A  long  and 

111.  w  1896  found  me  in  the 

Himalayas,  partly  on   pleasure  bent 
and  partly  on  a  mission  oi'  scientific 
My   work  done  in  those 
ions,  1  proceeded  to  Nagpoor  via 
Allahabad.     I  took  to  in  a 

.v   owned   by  some   clean   natives;  and 

a  bicycle  and  borrows  it — A  lonely  ride-  -Sighted  by 
thrilling  chase — And   how  finally  the  cyclist  escaped. 

gone  during  his  long  and  eventful  walk.  In  China 
he  had  been  nearly  killed  by  the  mob,  having 
sustained  several  severe  wounds  in  the  back. 

The  day  of  our  strange  meeting  being  none 
other  than  December  25th,  we  agreed  to  spend 
Christmas  Day  together,  and  arranged  a  little 
trip  into  the  country,  ordering  a  palanquin  for 
this  purpose.  The  bungalow  shikari  was 
instructed  forthwith  ;  our  outfit  including  a 
small  tent,  with  some  coolies  to  carry  our 
baggage.  We  started  off  as  early  as  possible  in 
the  morning,  and  went  in  an  easterly  direction 
from  Nagpoor  to  Raepur.  I  determined  to  push 
farther  on,  and  eventually  encamped  near  a 
small  village  called  Aring.  We  soon  learned 
that  formerly  tigers  were  very  frequently  seen  in 
this  locality. 

THIS    IS    DR.    BlRASKY,  WHO   TEI.LS   US   ABOUT    HIS 


From  a  Photo. 

the  morning  after  my  arrival  was  aroused  by 
hearing  a  commotion  in  the  courtyard  below. 
I  gathered  that  someone  speaking  French  was 
trying  to  make  himself  understood  by  the 
natives.  Marvelling  that  a  European  should 
find  his  way  to  this  place  so  soon  after  me,  I 
hurried  down  and  went  towards  the  excited 
gentleman.  At  first  he  paid  no  attention  to 
me,  probably  thinking  I  was  one  of  the  natives ; 
but  his  amazement  when  I  accosted  him  with 
jour,  Monsieur"  was  quite  comical. 
I  found  that  the  new  arrival  was  M.  Henri 
<",i]bert,  a  man  of  about  forty,  very  energetic 
and  intelligent.  He  told  me  that  he  was  on  a 
walking  tour  round  the  world  with  a  view  to 
achieving  a  record,  which  should  bring  him 
fame  and  money.  He  had  started  from  Paris 
on  his  self-allotted  task  in  1893,  and  undertook 
to  return  to  France  in  time  for  the  exhibition  of 
1900.  At  the  time  of  our  meeting,  M.  (lilbert 
was  on  his  way  from  the  Chinese  frontier  to 
Bombay.  I  was  extremely  interested  in  his 
account  of  the  many  adventures  he  had  under- 

:.!.    HENRI    GILBERT    Is    A    BRAVE   AND    Rl  K    III; 


From    a    Photo,    by    C.    L.     Thci'enct. 

CYCLIST    v.    TIGER  — FOR    DEAR    LIFE. 


The  scenery  round  about  was  exceptionally 
beautiful,  and  my  companion  and  I  were  enjoy- 
ing a  very  delightful  day.  About  noon  we  went 
out  for  a  little  stroll,  and  on  our  way  back  to  the 
tent  were  astonished  to  see  on  the  veranda  of  a 
bungalow  a  first-rate  safety  bicycle  of  a  well- 
known  American  make.     Now,  we  could    not 

An  hour  or  so  later  Gilbert  said  he  was 
ready  to  start  off  on  his  ride.  Feeling  really 
afraid  that  something  would  happen  to  him,  I 
suggested  that  I  should  accompany  him,  each 
of  us  taking  turns  to  ride.  But  he  laughed  at 
this  suggestion,  and  so  lying  down  to  rest  I 
wished   him  good  luck  on  his  little  trip.       Off 

believe  that  these  natives  were 

so  far  advanced  in  civilization 

as  to  indulge  in  bicycle  rides  ; 

but  while  I  was  debating  the 

thing  in  my  own  mind,  Gilbert 

said  he  was  anxious   to   know 

whether  any   Europeans    were 

staying  in  these  parts.     I  went 

slowly    on    towards    the    tent, 

however,  leaving  him  to  make 

inquiries.      In  about   half  an 

hour    my    friend    came    back, 

and    said  that  an   English  party  had  arrived  in 

Aring  from   Nagpoor;  he  added  that  the  owner 

of  the  bicycle  had  given   him  permission  to  go 

for  an  hour  or  two's  ride. 

I  confess  I  felt  a  little  astonished.  I  asked 
M.  Gilbert  what  he  wanted  the  loan  of  the 
bicycle  for,  and  where  he  thought  he  could  go 
in  this  outlandish  district,  where  it  was  more 
than  possible  ferocious  animals  were  roaming  at 
large.  He  declined  to  pay  any  heed  to  my 
warning,  however,  declaring  that  he  was  exceed- 
ingly anxious  to  go  for  a  cycle  ride,  it  being  over 
two  years  since  he  had  mounted  a  machine.  I 
did  not  press  my  objections  further,  not  wishing 
to  interfere  with  his  enjoyment.  After  lunch 
we  inquired  of  our  coolies  whether  tigers  and 
leopards  were  numerous  in  the  district,  and  we 
got  the  satisfactory  answer  that  they  were  not. 
And  yet,  we  were  told,  not  a  year  passed  without 
the  larger  carnivora  committing  depredations  in 
one  village  or  another.  Our  informants  warned 
us  particularly  to  avoid  a  certain  nullah  or 
water-course  close  by. 


WE    WERE    ASTONISHED    TO    SEE   ON    THE    VERANDA    OF    A    BUM. ALOW    A 

he  went  in  the  direction  of  the  bungalow  to 
procure  the  coveted  bicycle,  calling  out  as  he 
disappeared  that  he  would  be  back  in  an  hour. 
Soon  after  his  departure  I  noticed  with  a  feeling 
of  uneasiness  that  he  had  left  his  revolver  on  a 
chair  in  the  tent. 

I  fell  off  to  sleep  after  my  friend  had  gone, 
and  on  waking  found  that  it  was  past  five 
o'clock — nearly  four  hours  since  he  had  started. 
I  inquired  of  the  coolies  if  they  had  seen  him 
return;  but  they  knew  nothing  about  him.  I 
grew  uneasy,  and  straightway  went  up  to  the 
bungalow  ;  but  he  had  not  returned  there  either. 
The  young  gentleman  who  owned  the  bicycle 
told  me  that  M.  Gilbert  had  taken  it  away  about 
one  o'clock,  since  which  time  nothing  had  been 
seen  of  him.  I  was  now  really  at  my  wits'  end 
to  know  what  step  to  take,  not  knowing  in  what 
direction  he  had  gone.  Hastily  returning  to  our 
tent,  I  sent  the  coolies  out  in  all  directions  to 
search  for  the  missing  man.  After  an  absence 
of  about  two  hours  they  returned,  saying  that 
they  could  find  no  traces  of  him  or  the  bicycle. 


and   his  continued  absence  thoroughly 

unnerved  m<  .  1  was  in  a  perfect  fever  of  excite- 

:it.      I  ncluded    that    he   had    been 

me  wild   animal   or  else  had  lost 

himself  in  the  jungle.     At  last,   inactivity  being 

intol  <•  of  our  escort  and  went 

ration.      The  darkness 

I   had   now  commenced   to  fall,  with  a 

;n  in  which  it  was  quite   impossible  to  dis- 

It    was,    I    should  explain, 

■    at  I  should  lose  no  time  in  return- 

I  wanted  to  proceed  on  my 

.  that  nig 

A:  bout  a  mile  through  the  jungle 

I  appeared  before  us,   and  simul- 

I  although  not  very  distinctly — 

a    moving    body    advancing    towards    me.      My 

anxi  ame  more  and  more  intense,  because 

uld   not  determine  whether  the  object  was 

my  missing  friend  or  some  ferocious  animal.     I 

thought  the  best  course  was  to  call  out  as  loudly 

»le.      Accordingly,  I  and  my  companion 

shouted  vigorously,  and  the  next  moment  I  was 

immensely  relieved  to  hear  in  reply  the  voice  of 

my  missing  friend  Gilbert — though  it  alarmed 

me  not  a  little  to  notice  how  feeble  it  sounded. 

A  few  minutes  later  M.  Gilbert  was  alongside 
us  on  the  bicycle.  He  was  in  quite  a  deplor- 
able condition  when  I  touched  him — cold  as 
aid  quite  unable  to  articulate.  I  urged  him 
;ake  some  reply  to  my  questions,  but  with- 
out success.  He  appeared  quite  demented  and 
in  a  state  of  collapse.  I  lifted  him  off  the 
machine  and  led  him  to  our  tent,  with  the 
assistance  of  the  coolie  who  had  accompanied 
me.  Here  I  gave  him  some  ether,  which  I 
always  take  with  me  upon  my  travels.  Mean- 
while the  young  Englishman  who  lent  M. 
Gilbert  the  bicycle  had  come  over  to  our  tent, 
and  shortly  afterwards  our  friend  was  sufficiently 
recovered  to  give  us  a  coherent  account  of  his 
terrible  adventure,  which  substantially  is  as 
follows  :  — 

■"  I  left  you  about  one  o'clock  in  high  glee, 
the  machine  running  beautifully.  As  I  glided 
along  the  jungle  paths  the  excitement  of  cycling 
under  such  conditions  raised  my  spirits  to  quite 
a  frantic  pitch.  After  going  some  little  dis- 
tance, I  suddenly  found  myself  in  a  delightful 
open  glade,  which  was  one  mass  of  verdure  and 
flowers.  Here  I  dismounted  from  the  machine, 
and,  placing  it  against  a  bush,  selected  a  nice 
spot  on  which  to  rest.  Then,  taking  off  my 
hat,  I  sat  down  and  had  some  refreshment. 
■  I  speak  of  was  surrounded  on 
all  •  thick  jungle.     As  tin-  afternoon  sun 

now    streaming    down    upon     my    face,     1 
i  If   under   the    shade    of   a    wild 
banana  tree.     Straight  in  front  of  me  there  was 

a  small  watercourse,  in  which  some  pools  of 
rain-water  still  remained.  As  I  sat  there  con- 
templating the  beautiful  scenes  on  every  hand 
1  was  gradually  overcome  with  sleep,  and  stretch- 
ing myself  out  at  full  length,  I  prepared  for  a 
little  nap.  Suddenly  I  heard  a  curious  sound  in 
the  bed  of  the  watercourse,  as  though  some 
animal  were  moving." 

At  this  part  of  M.  Gilbert's  narrative,  the 
coolies,  who  also  were  listening  in  the  tent  with 
us,  cried  out,  "  The  nullah  !  the  nullah  !  where 
the  tigers  drink  water." 

"  Yes,"  continued  Gilbert,  "  the  nullah. 
When  the  dry,  crackling  sound  reached  my  ears, 
I  lifted  my  head  drowsily  and  looked  towards 
the  spot.  Evidently  some  large  animal  was 
making  its  way  out  of  the  jungle,  and  presently 
it  came  into  sight  at  the  water's  brink.  1  can 
assure  you  that  my  heart  almost  ceased  to  beat, 
and  a  dull,  heavy,  paralyzing  pain  appeared  to 
seize  the  whole  of  my  body  when  my  gaze  rested 
upon  the  fierce  and  wicked  head  and  long,  lithe, 
striped  body  of  an  immense  tiger — I  should 
judge  that  he  was  about  thirty  yards  from  me. 

"  Whether  he  detected  my  presence  I  cannot 
say,  but  he  remained  motionless  for  some  time, 
his  majestic  head  raised,  and  his  great  eyes 
glistening  like  phosphorescent  balls.  I  think 
that  had  he  come  towards  me  at  that  moment 
I  could  not  have  offered  the  slightest  resistance, 
being  quite  unable  to  move.  Growing  a  little 
more  collected  as  the  moments  sped  by,  how- 
ever, I  attempted  to  nestle  in  under  the  shade 
of  the  bush  in  order  to  hide  myself — never,  of 
course,  taking  my  eyes  from  the  huge  beast 
before  me.  It  seemed  absolutely  impossible 
for  me  to  think  of  escaping  by  means  of  the 
bicycle,  for  it  was  at  least  twenty  yards  from 
me  ;  and  how  could  I  possibly  reach  it  and 
make  my  way  to  the  high  road  without  attracting 
the  notice  of  the  terrible  animal,  who  in  two  or 
three  bounds  would  be  upon  me  ? 

"  My  mind  was  torn  with  agony  as  to  whether 
I  ought  or  ought  not  to  make  a  dash  for  the 
bicycle  and  life.  I  knew  that,  once  astride  the 
machine  in  safety,  I  could  outdistance  the  tiger. 
Then  another  thought  occurred  to  me  —  I 
fancied  that,  if  I  remained  perfectly  still,  the 
tiger  would  drink  and  then  go  away  into  the 
jungle  again.  At  one  time  I  wondered  if  he 
could  hear  the  thumping  of  my  heart-beats ; 
and  my  mouth  was  so  parched  and  my  tongue 
so  stiff  that  1  was  in  mortal  dread  lest  I  should 
make  some  incautious  sound.  And  I  was 
entirely  unarmed.  To  add  to  my  terror,  I 
imagined  that  the  tiger  had  not  been  satisfied 
with  the  result  of  his  previous  night's  prowl,  and 
so  had  come  down  to  the  water  in  the  hope  ol 
waylaying  additional  prey. 




"  Presently  I  saw  him  drop  his  beautiful  head 
and  begin  to  lap  the  water.  As  he  raised  his 
head  again,  I  knew  that  one  single  false  move- 
ment on  my  part  must  inevitably  attract  his 
notice.  Following  every  movement  of  the  huge 
monster  with  terrible  anxiety,  I  was  at  length 
relieved  to  see  him  apparently  about  to  return 
into  the  jungle  whence  he  had  come ;  but,  alas  ! 
some  little  bird  moved  in  the  bushes  around 
me,  and  the  effect  was  instantaneous.  The 
tiger  stopped  suddenly  and  wheeled  round  like 
lightning,  his  great  eyes  fixed  intently  on  the 
very  spot  where  I  lay.  He  paused  for  a  moment, 
and  then,  to  my  indescribable  horror,  com- 
menced to  creep  slowly  in  my  direction.  As 
the  dreadful  creature  advanced,  I  saw  him  care- 
fully inspecting  every  branch  and  leaf  in  his 
way,  now  and  then  stopping  altogether  and 
squatting  like  a  gigantic  cat.  Probably  he  had 
by  this  time  scented  me.  At  any  rate,  after 
another  short  pause,  he  continued  to  advance 
upon  my  hiding-place  in  the  same  cautious 

"  Presently  he  got  so  close  that  I  was  only 
able  to  distinguish  his  movements  by  the  crackl- 
ing of  the  leaves  and  twigs  as  he  crept  along. 
The  agony  which  I  now  endured  grew  quite 
intolerable.  Not  only  was  my  heart  beating  as 
if  it  would  burst,  but  my  b'rain  felt  as  though  it 
were  on  fire.  I  now  felt  that  my  case  was  quite 
hopeli  ss.  -  Nothing,'  I  said  to  myself  despair- 
ingly, 'can  save  me  from  a  dreadful  death.'    And 

yet  -so  quickly  does  the  brain  work  in  such 
cases — only  a  mere  fraction  of  time  .  after  these 
despairing  thoughts,  I  conceived  the  desperate 
idea  of  making  a  dash  for  the  bicycle  !  I 
noticed  that  the  creeping  tiger  was  at  this 
moment  only  about  fifteen  yards  from  me. 

"  Leaping  to  my  feet,  I  fairly  hurled  myself 
in  the  direction  of  the  bicycle.  I  threw  myself 
upon  it,  and  with  the  impetus  so  gained  began 
to  glide  swiftly  along  — ■  even  before  my  feet 
touched  the  pedals — literally  racing  the  tiger 
for  dear  life.  The  very  instant  I  got  fairly 
under  way  I  heard  the  huge  beast  make  his 
first  leap  in  my  direction.  Notwithstanding  the 
dreadful  emotion  which  I  suffered  in  that  awful 
moment,  my  control  over  the  machine  was 
complete  and  my  movements  sure.  At  one 
time  it  seemed  to  me  as  though  I  were  travelling 
as  fast  as  the  very  wind  itself;  and  as  the 
moments  sped  by  and  I  found  myself  still 
intact,  a  little  confidence  was  restored  to  me, 
and  I  plodded  on  with  growing  hope.  The 
pace  was  quite  terrific  for  a  time.  Needless  to 
say,  I  was  driving  the  bicycle  frantically  and 

"  Suddenly  thefrightful  thoughtoccurred  to  me 
—  What  if  some  part  of  the  mechanism  gives  way? 
I  did  not,  however,  relax  my  efforts,  thinking 
that  if  I  succeeded  in  putting  fifty  yards  between 
myself  and  my  dreadful  pursuer,  he  would  have 
little  chance  of  overtaking  me.  In  order  to 
show  the  imminent  peril  I  was  in,   I  may  say 

rill     w  IDE    WORLD    MAGAZINE. 


that  the  fourth  leap  of  the  tiger  brought  him  to 

within  about  six  yards  of  my   back  wheel,  and 

although    i  as    fast   as  a   first-class 

travel,  a  sixth  leap  almost   brought 

:  the  monster  within  striking  distance 

But      still       1 

'..  d       away 


;rt       nearly 

and  my 
•sing  like 
"  As    1 

little,    my    exer- 
w  e  r  e 
mbled,      I 
knowing  well  that 
any  slacken: 

.  or  an  extra 
leap  or  two  on 
the  part  of  my 
terrible  foe, 
would  put  an  end 

the  race  and  my  life  almost  simulta- 
neously. Having  gained  a  "little,  I  glanced 
round,  and  saw  that  the  tiger  was  still 
coming  on,  and  at  a  great  pace. 

"Just  at  this  moment  I  saw  in  front  of 
me    another    straight    road    opening  before 
me.     You  may  judge  of  my  terror,  however, 
when  I  tell  you  that  as  soon  as  I  had  turned 
into  this  new  road  I  beheld,  lying  right  across  my 
path,  a  huge  tree  that  had  fallen  through  decay. 
I    charged    the    obstacle    headlong,    and,    just 
before  crashing  into  it,  I  leapt  from  the  machine 
and   scrambled   over  recklessly,   feeling  certain 
that    th  was   gaining.     It    goes    without 

saying  that  I  literally  threw  myself  into  the 
saddle  again  with  frantic  energy,  and  pedalled 
away  from  the  inexorable  monster.  I  heard 
the  tiger  leap  over  the  fallen  tree,  and,  sick  at 
1  ili/ed  that  if  the  chase  lasted  much 
longer  I  should  have  to  give  up. 

reatly  to  my   relief,   however,  a  short  dis- 
tance in  front  on  my  left  I  saw  yet  another  road, 
and  a  ray  of  hope   came  to  me  as  I  noticed  a 
descent      Driving   the    bicycle    with   all 
I  •  titer,  d  upon  the   descent  like 
an  arrow,  and  a  minuli  o  later   put  fifty  or 

sixty  yai  i  my  pursuer  and   myself.      1 

was  pretty  well  done  for,  however — so  much  so, 
that  at  one  time  I  felt  I  must  fall  out  of  the 

"  A  little  farther  along  I  looked  round,  and 
the  tiger  was  nowhere  to  be  seen  ;  evidently  he 
had  given  up  the  chase.  And  yet  I  was  by 
no  means  filled  with  the  joy  which  you  might 
imagine,  the  fact  being   that   I   was   too  utterly 


exhausted  to  harbour  any  decided  emotion. 
Then  another  fearful  thought  struck  me. 
Evidently  I  had  lost  my  way  altogether,  and  I 
reflected  helplessly  upon  my  condition  in  the 
event  of  my  being  benighted,  situated  as  I  then 
was,  in  that  tiger-infested  wilderness. 

"  But  luckily,  just  when  I  had  almost  given 
up  all  hope  of  seeing  you  again,  a  Hindu 
woman  appeared  on  the  road  before  me,  and  in 
answer  to  my  inquiries  indicated  the  road  to 
Aring.  Following  her  directions  for  about  two 
hours,  I  suddenly  beheld  you  in  front  of  me, 
thus  ending  my  exciting  ride  for  life." 

While  M.  Gilbert  was  recounting  this  terrible 
experience  I  was  much  pained  to  notice  the 
various  acute  emotions  depicted  on  his  face. 
At  one  time  it  grew  quite  yellow,  and  every  limb 
of  his  body  trembled  as  though  he  were  smitten 
with  ague.  When  he  had  quite  recovered,  M. 
( rilbert  assured  me  that  he  owed  his  life  entirely 
to  the  splendid  machine  he  rode  that  day. 
What  a  fine  advertisement  it  would  make  ! 

Mrs.  Martin's  Cure  for  Caterpillars. 

By  N.  Lawrence  Perry. 

You  may  remember  the  "  Laffan  "  telegram  about  the  farmers  in  the  Catskills  blowing  horns  and 

things   under   the    trees   to   bring   down   the  destructive    caterpillars.     Well,   here    is   the    first    full 

descriptive  article  on   this    extraordinary  subject,    illustrated    by  snap-shot    photos,    taken    by   our 

own   Special  Commissioner,  and  proving  once  and  for  all  the  absolute  truth  of  the   telegram. 


HE  first  day  of  June  last  was  a 
typical  American  summer  day. 
Ashton,  in  Greene  County,  New- 
York,  presented  a  typical  American 
farming  scene.  Above  the  hamlet 
towered  the  hemlock  -  covered  sides  of  the 
majestic  Catskill  Mountains.  Below  and  around 
it  the  valley  was  resplendent  with  the  picturesque 
profusion  of  fruit  and  maple  orchards  and  corn 
and  meadow  land.  In  fields  adjacent  to  the 
snow-white  wooden  farm  buildings  groups  of 
toiling  men  and  grazing  cattle  completed  the 
pastoral  picture.  Mrs.  Arthur  Martin,  emerging 
from  her  home  to  wind  the  conch-shell  horn 
that  would  summon  the  tillers  to  their  noonday 
meal,  paused  on  the  threshold  to  survey,  not 
the  landscape,  but  the  progress  of  a  terrible 
blight  that  had  already  rendered  the  foliage 
sickly  and  scanty  and  threatened  its  speedy  ruin. 

THE    I, i      i  he    HOUSE    WEJE    SLOWLY,     BUT    SURELY,    SUCCU 

SUGAR    MAPLE    IN    THE  CENTRE  HAS  BEEN  KILLED  11Y  THE    C  A  1  I  1,1 

From  a  Photo. 

The  trees  about  the  house  and  those  in 
the  orchards  beyond  were  slowly,  but  surely, 
succumbing  to  the  voracious  leaf-eating  siege  of 
thousands  of  green  worms  or  tree-caterpillars. 
Trees  which,  but  yesterday,  were  gorgeous  in 
their  summer  green,  now  stood  naked  to  the 
boughs.  Farmers  anxiously,  almost  constantly, 
watched  the  destruction  of  their  carefully- 
nurtured  crops  of  sugar  maple  and  fruits,  and 
sighed  over  their  own  maddening  impotence. 
Only  three  years  previously  the  plague  had 
descended  upon  them,  and  all  the  remedies 
which  a  brilliant  army  of  American  scientists 
could  suggest  were  tried  in  turn,  but  to  no 
avail.  The  next  year,  and  again  the  next,  came 
the  worms  with  the  same  result — the  practical 
destruction  of  the  tree  crops  of  that  vast  and 
fertile  region. 

So  Mrs.  Martin,  coming  out  of  her  home  to 
wind  the  dinner-horn,  looked  up  into 
the  trees  and  sighed.  Then,  pointing 
the  dinner-horn  upward  and  outward 
she  blew  a  long,  piercing  blast. 
Then  an  amazing  thing  happened, 
which  before  many  hours  was  to  be 
flashed  all  over  the  world  by  the 
always  accurate  and  enterprising 
Laffan  News  Agency.  Before  the 
roaring  echoes  of  Mrs.  Martin's  horn 
had  ceased,  the  ground  at  her  feet 
was  thick  with  big  caterpillars,  lying 
motionless  and  apparently  dead. 
They  had  fallen  from  the  tree  above 
her.  Astounded  beyond  the  power 
of  words  to  describe,  Mrs.  Martin 
sounded  the  horn  again,  and  once 
more  hundreds  of  green  caterpillars 
fairly  rained  from  the  tree.  Mr. 
Martin  and  his  men,  plodding  home- 
ward from  the  field,  stopped  dum- 
founded  at  the  worm-covered  grass, 
and  listened  wonderingly  to  the 
housewife's  tale.  Experiments  with 
other  trees  had  the  same  surprising 
result.  The  afternoon  was  devoted 
entirely  to  similar  tests  throughout 
the   farm.      Armed    with    a    motley 

MBING     — THE 







WENDED    ITS    WAV    FROM    TREE    TO   TREE." 

From  a  Photo. 

collection  of  horns  and  drums,  the  procession 
wended  its  more  or  less  musical  way  from  tree 
to  tree.  Inevitably  each  yielded  up  its  hosts  of 
ructive  caterpillars  into  bed-sheets  spread 
below  :  and  sheetful  after  sheetful  was  consigned 
to  the  bonfire.  In  three  hours  the  farm  was 
declared  rid  of  the  thousands  of  insects  that  had 
seemed  so  hopelessly  entrenched  there  only 
that  morning. 

these  same  scientists  -or  some  of 
them  at  least  are  studying  the 
phenomenon  with  interest,  for  in- 
vestigation has  shown  it  to  be  true. 
Professor  Slingerland,  the  official 
entomologist  of  New  York  State, 
has  been  made  aware  of  the  marvel ; 
and  it  is  not  unlikely  that  the  sub- 
ject will  soon  engage  the  solemn 
attention  of  that  mighty  bureau  of 
dignified  investigators,  pamphlets, 
and  red  tape — the  Department  of 
Agriculture  at  Washington.  The 
writer,  at  the  especial  instance  of 
The  Wide  World  Magazine, 
journeyed  from  New  York  to  the 
Catskills;  and  an  exhaustive  canvass 
of  the  stricken  region — a  vast  area, 
including  not  only  Ashton,  but 
other  large  villages  such  as  Hen- 
dersonville  and  Windham  —  con- 
vinced him  of  the  implicit  faith 
the  local  farming  folk  place  in 
their  remedy.  From  clergymen  to 
dram  -  sellers,  through  the  whole 
gamut  of  the  country  population, 
there  came  in  the  simple  words  of 
unvarnished  truth  the  unvarying  testimony  of  a 
discovery,  confounding,  by  the  very  simplicity 
of  its  utility,  the  involved  pedantic  dogmas  of 
the  wise. 

The  most  rational  theory  advanced  in  expla- 
nation of  this  wonderful  and  hitherto  unheard-of 
efficacy  of  music  to  rout  the  tree  pests  is  that 
the  insects  are  shocked  into  insensibility  by  the 

The  news  of  the  discovery  spread  like 
wildfire.  Other  Catskill  communities  applied 
the  experiment  and  rejoiced.  Musical  in- 
struments commanded  a  premium,  and  many 
of  the  people  impressed  into  playing  them 
could  hardly  hum  a  tune.  Real  music-loving 
and  sensitive  folks  generally  had  a  ghastly 
time.  A  country  correspondent  telegraphed 
the  news  to  the  New  York  newspapers. 
rk  it  spread  throughout  the 
United  States,  and  finally  to  England, 
'ting  the  risibilities  of  a  vast  but  in- 
credulous reading  public.  Americans 
detected  in  the  story  the  fine  Italian  hand 
of  the  newspaper  writer  or  "  Press  agent " 
employed  to  advertise  a  summer  resort, 
whilst  Britishers  suspected  either  a  Yankee 
lie  or  a  woful  evidence  of  Yankee  gullibility  ; 
and,  finally,  scientists  of  both  lands  sniffed 
at  the  "  yarn  "  as  too  simple  to  be  interest- 
ing and  too  foolish  to  warrant  denial. 

But  now,  only  a  few  months  from  the 
day  of  Mrs.    Martin's  unwitting  experiment, 

*-y  * 


*•    -4* 

4^-  r*l 

\u    -3?          £  >^ 

,  c 

*t  ■.'  •  ....  - 





From  a  I'lioto. 



air  vibrations  produced  by  the  horns  and  drums. 
The  accompanying  illustrations,  reproduced  from 
photographs  specially  taken  in  various  sections 
of  the  stricken  region  and  at  random,  show  the 
method  employed  so  effectively  to  redeem  the 
trees,  and  the  extent  to  which  branches  were 
denuded  before  Mrs.  Martin's  horn  delivered